WorldWideScience

Sample records for experimental physics characteristics

  1. Experimental study of admixture on soil's physical and mechanical characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Zihong; Li, Tangyong; Yu, Dongke; Tang, Hua; Zhang, Yang; Li, Zhaochen; He, Dan

    2017-08-01

    Earth building is a traditional architectural form. With respect to environment protection, low cost, convenient advantages, its practical value is recognizing carefully. Due to poor mechanical properties and durability of earth, the development of earth building has been prevented. This experiment selects two kinds of soil. Sawdust and straw serve as admixture. More than 300 specimens have been performed to verify the effects of various factors on soil's physical and mechanical characteristics. Some useful characteristics are acquired by the experiment, such as soil's optimal moisture content, maximum dry density, optimal length of straw and contraction ratio. Testing the influence of admixture on soil's strength and deformation, this experiment shows that mixing straw and sawdust reduce soil's compressive and tensile strength. However, it may reduce soil's contraction ratio. Considering the influence of admixture on soil's contraction and strength, when soil 1 mixes with 0.1% sawdust, its contraction ratio decreases obviously and strength decreases slightly. It is a good choice according to the experiments.

  2. THE INFLUENCE OF EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAM OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION ON MORPHOLOGICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MALE PUPILS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevenka Zrnzević

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The research purpose was to determine the effects of the experimental program of physical education on morphological characteristics of male pupils from the first-grade of primary school. The experimental program was carried out on the sample of 50 male pupils of the primary schools in Leposavic and Zvecan, age of 7 years ± 6 months. Morphological characteristics were estimated according to 13 variables (body height, total arm length, leg length, biacromial diameter, biiliocristal diameter, wrist width, chest circum ference, upper arm circum ference, upper leg circum ference, triceps skin fold, subscapular skin fold, abdomen skin fold and body mass. The results of the research were processed through standard procedures and basic descriptive parameters were calculated, and variations were determined using multi-variable analysis of variance (MAN′s and uni-variable analysis of variance (AN′s. Multivariable analysis of variance showed a significant statistic difference in morphological characteristics showed at initial and final measuring. On the basis of the results and discussion, it can be concluded that the experimental program has statistically significant effects on the changes of some morphological characteristics.

  3. Methods of experimental physics

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Dudley

    1962-01-01

    Methods of Experimental Physics, Volume 3: Molecular Physics focuses on molecular theory, spectroscopy, resonance, molecular beams, and electric and thermodynamic properties. The manuscript first considers the origins of molecular theory, molecular physics, and molecular spectroscopy, as well as microwave spectroscopy, electronic spectra, and Raman effect. The text then ponders on diffraction methods of molecular structure determination and resonance studies. Topics include techniques of electron, neutron, and x-ray diffraction and nuclear magnetic, nuclear quadropole, and electron spin reson

  4. Experimental high energy physics

    CERN Document Server

    De Paula, L

    2004-01-01

    A summary of the contributions on experimental high energy physics to the XXIV Brazilian National Meeting on Particle and Fields is presented. There were 5 invited talks and 32 submitted contributions. The active Brazilian groups are involved in several interesting projects but suffer from the lack of funding and interaction with Brazilian theorists.

  5. Experimental status of physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In a short period of time, we will have a large amount of results from -factories including ones on CP violation. In this talk, we briefly review the current experimental status of -physics. After a quick description of -facilities, we divide this vast field into two categories: (1) weak interaction and QCD, (2) unitarity triangle and ...

  6. Experimental music for experimental physics

    CERN Multimedia

    Rosaria Marraffino

    2014-01-01

    Using the sonification technique, physicist and composer Domenico Vicinanza paid homage to CERN at its 60th anniversary ceremony. After months of hard work, he turned the CERN Convention and LHC data into music.   Click here to download the full score of the "LHChamber music". Every birthday deserves gifts and CERN’s 60th anniversary was no exception. Two gifts were very special, thanks to the hard work of Domenico Vicinanza, a physicist and composer. He created two experimental pieces by applying the sonification technique to the CERN Convention and to data recorded by the four LHC detectors during Run 1. “This technique allows us to ‘hear’ data using an algorithm that translates numbers or letters into notes. It keeps the same information enclosed in a graph or a document, but has a more aesthetic exposition,” explains Domenico Vicinanza. “The result is meant to be a metaphor for scientific cooperation, in which d...

  7. Experimental Neutrino Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkes, Richard Jeffrey [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2017-11-15

    The University of Washington (UW) HEP neutrino group performed experimental research on the physics of neutrinos, using the capabilities offered by the T2K Experiment and the Super-Kamiokande Neutrino Observatory. The UW group included senior investigator R. J. Wilkes, two PhD students, four MS degree students, and a research engineer, all of whom are members of the international scientific collaborations for T2K and Super-Kamiokande. During the period of support, within T2K we pursued new precision studies sensitive to new physics, going beyond the limits of current measurements of the fundamental neutrino oscillation parameters (mass differences and mixing angles). We began efforts to measure (or significantly determine the absence of) 1 the CP-violating phase parameter δCP and determine the neutrino mass hierarchy. Using the Super-Kamiokande (SK) detector we pursued newly increased precision in measurement of neutrino oscillation parameters with atmospheric neutrinos, and extended the current reach in searches for proton decay, in addition to running the most sensitive supernova watch instrument [Scholberg 2012], performing other astrophysical neutrino studies, and analyzing beam-induced events from T2K. Overall, the research addressed central questions in the field of particle physics. It included the training of graduate students (both PhD and professional MS degree students), and postdoctoral researchers. Undergraduate students also participated as laboratory assistants.

  8. Experimental Particle Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenfeld, Carl [Univ of South Carolina; Mishra, Sanjib R. [Univ of South Carolina; Petti, Roberto [Univ of South Carolina; Purohit, Milind V. [Univ of South Carolina

    2014-08-31

    The high energy physics group at the University of South Carolina, under the leadership of Profs. S.R. Mishra, R. Petti, M.V. Purohit, J.R. Wilson (co-PI's), and C. Rosenfeld (PI), engaged in studies in "Experimental Particle Physics." The group collaborated with similar groups at other universities and at national laboratories to conduct experimental studies of elementary particle properties. We utilized the particle accelerators at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) in Illinois, the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) in California, and the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Switzerland. Mishra, Rosenfeld, and Petti worked predominantly on neutrino experiments. Experiments conducted in the last fifteen years that used cosmic rays and the core of the sun as a source of neutrinos showed conclusively that, contrary to the former conventional wisdom, the "flavor" of a neutrino is not immutable. A neutrino of flavor "e," "mu," or "tau," as determined from its provenance, may swap its identity with one of the other flavors -- in our jargon, they "oscillate." The oscillation phenomenon is extraordinarily difficult to study because neutrino interactions with our instruments are exceedingly rare -- they travel through the earth mostly unimpeded -- and because they must travel great distances before a substantial proportion have made the identity swap. Three of the experiments that we worked on, MINOS, NOvA, and LBNE utilize a beam of neutrinos from an accelerator at Fermilab to determine the parameters governing the oscillation. Two other experiments that we worked on, NOMAD and MIPP, provide measurements supportive of the oscillation experiments. Good measurements of the neutrino oscillation parameters may constitute a "low energy window" on related phenomena that are otherwise unobservable because they would occur only at energies way above the reach of conceivable accelerators. Purohit and Wilson participated in the Ba

  9. Infants DPOAEs Physical Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Parviz Kamali

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Survery and comparison between the physical characteristics of Distortion-Product Otoacoustic Emissions of 1-59 day-old normal-hearing newborns refered to TUMS, Rehabilitation School , Audiology department , 2002 Method & Material : This analytical-descriptive study was conducted on the ears of 102 easy method selected newborns. The tests included: otoscopy , BOA, Immittance audiometry , DPOAEs, and ABR if necessary. The amplitude and frequency of 2f1-f2 emissions of DPOAEs evoked by two pure tones (L1=65 dBSPL , L2=50 dBSPL and f2/f1=1.2 were also calculated. Results: 1-All normal hearing newborns have normal DPOAEs. No significant difference was observed in test-retest. 2- The amplitude of the DPOAEs to the right ear is significantly greater than the amplitude of the left ear (P<00.05. 3- No significant difference was observed between newborn’s DPOAEs in terms of their gender. Conclusion: DPOAEs could be measured quickly and noninvasively and are excellent tools for the screening of newborn hearing loss. The results are valid only within the Context of this research.

  10. Physical characteristics and attenuation of foam earplugs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, C.R.; Broughton, R.M.; Wilmoth, J.N.; Borton, T.E.; Mozo, B.T.

    1982-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was twofold: (1) to determine the physical characteristics of five types of foam earplugs; and (2) to relate their physical characteristics to attenuation of noise. The results indicate that: (1) all commercial polymer foam earplugs have similar physical properties, (2) frequency is the single most important variable in determining attenuation of commercial foam earplugs, (3) all earplugs evaluated provided essentially the same attenuation at frequencies >500 Hz. One non-commercial earplug provided significantly more attenuation at 125 Hz than the other earplugs. This non-commercial experimental plug has significantly different physical and chemical properties. No other consistent effects of physical properties on attenuation were found.

  11. Theoretical and Experimental Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nelson, Ann E. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Ellis, Stephen D. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Karch, Andreas [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Rosenberg, Leslie [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Sharpe, Stephene R. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Wilkes, R. Jeffrey [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States); Yaffe, Laurence G. [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2015-04-07

    We report on progress towards finding axion dark matter, neutrino oscillation parameters, Use of the gravity/gauge correspondence to to calculations in strongly coupled systems, use of jet substructure to search for new physics, use of lattice QCD to compute weak matrix elements, constraints on dark matter interactions from neutron stars, exotic Higgs searches, and new dark matter models.

  12. Photodegradation of polymers physical characteristics and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rabek, Jan F

    1996-01-01

    In this book on physical characteristics and practical aspects of polymer photodegradation Rabek emphasizes the experimental work on the subject. The most important feature of the book is the physical interpretation of polymer degradation, e.g. mechanism of UV/light absorption, formation of excited states, energy transfer mechanism, kinetics, dependence on physical properties of macromolecules and polymer matrices, formation of mechanical defects, practics during environmental ageing. He includes also some aspects of polymer photodegradation in environmental and space condition.

  13. Experimental Mathematics and Mathematical Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.; Broadhurst, David; Zudilin, Wadim

    2009-06-26

    One of the most effective techniques of experimental mathematics is to compute mathematical entities such as integrals, series or limits to high precision, then attempt to recognize the resulting numerical values. Recently these techniques have been applied with great success to problems in mathematical physics. Notable among these applications are the identification of some key multi-dimensional integrals that arise in Ising theory, quantum field theory and in magnetic spin theory.

  14. Theoretical and Experimental Beam Plasma Physics (TEBPP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, B.

    1986-01-01

    The theoretical and experimental beam plasma physics (TEBPP) consists of a package of five instruments to measure electric and magnetic fields, plasma density and temperature, neutral density, photometric emissions, and energetic particle spectra during firings of the particle injector (SEPAC) electron beam. The package is developed on a maneuverable boom (or RMS) and is used to measure beam characteristics and induced perturbations field ( 10 m) and mid field ( 10 m to 100 m) along the electron beam. The TEBPP package will be designed to investigate induced oscillations and induced electromagnetic mode waves, neutral and ion density and temperature effects, and beam characteristics as a function of axial distance.

  15. Science Academies' Refresher Course in Experimental Physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    2016-02-20

    University teachers having at least a Master's degree in Physics are eligible to apply. ... Motivated students of M.Sc./Ph.D. Physics who have a keen interest in. Experimental Physics and in teaching physics, may also apply. Prof.

  16. Physical versus Virtual Manipulative Experimentation in Physics Learning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharia, Zacharias C.; Olympiou, Georgios

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether physical or virtual manipulative experimentation can differentiate physics learning. There were four experimental conditions, namely Physical Manipulative Experimentation (PME), Virtual Manipulative Experimentation (VME), and two sequential combinations of PME and VME, as well as a control condition…

  17. Experimental characteristics of vortex heaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piralishvili, Sh. A.; Novikov, N. N.

    The performance of a Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube is investigated experimentally for the case where the tube operates as a heater, with the mass of the heated gas remaining constant. The results obtained indicate that energy separation zones with sufficiently high (50 percent) relative heating effects can be achieved for a gas flow ratio of unity. A nomogram is presented for calculating the relative and absolute heating effects as a function of the tube geometry.

  18. Physical therapy and manual physical therapy: Differences in patient characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ravensberg, C. D. Dorine; Oostendorp, R.A.B.; van Berkel, Lonneke M.; Scholten-Peeters, G.G.M.; Pool, J.J.M.; Swinkels, Raymond A. H. M.; Huijbregts, Peter A.

    2005-01-01

    This study compared socio-demographic characteristics, health problem characteristics, and primary process data between database samples of patients referred to physical therapy (PT) versus a sample of patients referred to manual physical therapy (MPT) in the Netherlands. Statistical analysis

  19. Physical Therapy and Manual Physical Therapy: Differences in Patient Characteristics.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ravensberg, C. D. Dorine; Oostendorp, Rob A B; van Berkel, Lonneke M.; Scholten-Peeters, Gwendolijne G M; Pool, Jan J.M.; Swinkels, Raymond A. H. M.; Huijbregts, Peter A.

    2005-01-01

    This study compared socio-demographic characteristics, health problem characteristics, and primary process data between database samples of patients referred to physical therapy (PT) versus a sample of patients referred to manual physical therapy (MPT) in the Netherlands. Statistical analysis

  20. Physical Therapy and Manual Physical Therapy: Differences in Patient Characteristics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ravensberg, C. D. Dorine; Oostendorp, Rob A B; van Berkel, Lonneke M.; Scholten-Peeters, Gwendolijne G. M.; Pool, Jan J.M.; Swinkels, Raymond A. H. M.; Huijbregts, Peter A.

    2005-01-01

    This study compared socio-demographic characteristics, health problem characteristics, and primary process data between database samples of patients referred to physical therapy (PT) versus a sample of patients referred to manual physical therapy (MPT) in the Netherlands. Statistical analysis

  1. On the metaphysics of experimental physics

    CERN Document Server

    Rogers, K

    2005-01-01

    This provocative and critical work addresses the question of why scientific realists and positivists consider experimental physics to be a natural and empirical science. Taking insights from contemporary science studies, continental philosophy, and the history of physics, this book describes and analyses the metaphysical presuppositions that underwrite the technological use of experimental apparatus and instruments to explore, model, and understand nature. By revealing this metaphysical foundation, the author questions whether experimental physics is a natural and empirical science at all.

  2. Science Academies' Refresher Course in Experimental Physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Academy of Sciences to cater to the BSc and MSc levels. All experiments verify physical laws and principles and ... teaching at UG/PG level. College/University teachers having at least a Master's ... Motivated students of MSc/PhD Physics who have a keen interest in Experimental Physics and in teaching physics, may also ...

  3. Influence of different emulsifiers on characteristics of eggless cake containing soy milk: Modeling of physical and sensory properties by mixture experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmati, Nazanin Fatemeh; Mazaheri Tehrani, Mostafa

    2014-09-01

    Emulsifiers of different structures and functionalities are important ingredients usually used in baking cakes with satisfactory properties. In this study, three emulsifiers including distilled glycerol mono stearate (DGMS), lecithin and sorbitan mono stearate (SMS) were used to bake seven eggless cakes containing soy milk and optimization was performed by using mixture experimental design to produce an eggless cake sample with optimized properties. Physical properties of cake batters (viscosity, specific gravity and stability), cake quality parameters (moisture loss, density, specific volume, volume index, contour, symmetry, color and texture) and sensory attributes of eggless cakes were analyzed to investigate functional potential of the emulsifiers and results were compared with those of control cake containing egg. Almost in all cases emulsifiers, compared to the control cake, changed properties of eggless cakes significantly. Regarding models of different response variables (except for some properties) and their high R(2) (99.51-100), it could be concluded that models obtained by mixture design were significantly fitted for the studied responses.

  4. Science Academies' Refresher Course in Experimental Physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    include Refresher Courses for getting API scores. Applications are invited from teachers with experience in teaching undergraduate and postgradu- ate courses in Engineering and Physics. Motivated research scholars, students of BSc and MSc. Physics courses with keen interest in Experimental Physics may also apply.

  5. Experimental Neutrino Physics: Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lane, Charles E.; Maricic, Jelena

    2012-09-05

    Experimental studies of neutrino properties, with particular emphasis on neutrino oscillation, mass and mixing parameters. This research was pursued by means of underground detectors for reactor anti-neutrinos, measuring the flux and energy spectra of the neutrinos. More recent investigations have been aimed and developing detector technologies for a long-baseline neutrino experiment (LBNE) using a neutrino beam from Fermilab.

  6. Experimental Physical Sciences Vitae 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kippen, Karen Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Del Mauro, Diana [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Patterson, Eileen Frances [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Fronzak, Hannah Kristina [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Cruz, James Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kramer, Robert W. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Martin, Genevieve [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Robinson, Richard Cecil [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Trujillo, Carlos Genaro [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Valdez, Sandra M. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-01-18

    Frequently our most basic research experiments stimulate solutions for some of the most intractable national security problems, such as nuclear weapons stewardship, homeland security, intelligence and information analysis, and nuclear and alternative energy. This publication highlights our talented and creative staff who deliver solutions to these complex scientific and technological challenges by conducting cutting-edge multidisciplinary physical science research.

  7. Experimental identification of piezo actuator characteristic

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ľ. Miková

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with piezoelectric material, which can be used as actuator for conversion of electrical energy to mechanical work. Test equipment has been developed for experimental testing of the piezoactuators. Piezoactivity of this actuator has non-linear characteristic. This type of actuator is used for in-pipe mechanism design.

  8. Experimental High Energy Physics Research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hohlmann, Marcus [Florida Inst. of Technology, Melbourne, FL (United States). Dept. of Physics and Space Sciences

    2016-01-13

    This final report summarizes activities of the Florida Tech High Energy Physics group supported by DOE under grant #DE-SC0008024 during the period June 2012 – March 2015. We focused on one of the main HEP research thrusts at the Energy Frontier by participating in the CMS experiment. We were exploiting the tremendous physics opportunities at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and prepared for physics at its planned extension, the High-Luminosity LHC. The effort comprised a physics component with analysis of data from the first LHC run and contributions to the CMS Phase-2 upgrades in the muon endcap system (EMU) for the High-Luminosity LHC. The emphasis of our hardware work was the development of large-area Gas Electron Multipliers (GEMs) for the CMS forward muon upgrade. We built a production and testing site for such detectors at Florida Tech to complement future chamber production at CERN. The first full-scale CMS GE1/1 chamber prototype ever built outside of CERN was constructed at Florida Tech in summer 2013. We conducted two beam tests with GEM prototype chambers at CERN in 2012 and at FNAL in 2013 and reported the results at conferences and in publications. Principal Investigator Hohlmann served as chair of the collaboration board of the CMS GEM collaboration and as co-coordinator of the GEM detector working group. He edited and authored sections of the detector chapter of the Technical Design Report (TDR) for the GEM muon upgrade, which was approved by the LHCC and the CERN Research Board in 2015. During the course of the TDR approval process, the GEM project was also established as an official subsystem of the muon system by the CMS muon institution board. On the physics side, graduate student Kalakhety performed a Z' search in the dimuon channel with the 2011 and 2012 CMS datasets that utilized 20.6 fb⁻¹ of p-p collisions at √s = 8 TeV. For the dimuon channel alone, the 95% CL lower limits obtained on the mass of a Z' resonance are 2770 Ge

  9. Deep Learning for Experimental Physics

    OpenAIRE

    Sadowski, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Experimental physicists explore the fundamental nature of the universe by probing the properties of subatomic particles using specialized detectors. These detectors generate vast quantities of data that must undergo multiple stages of processing, such as dimensionality-reduction and feature extraction, before statistical analysis and interpretation. The processing steps are typically designed by physicists, using expert knowledge and intuition. However, this approach is human-limited and cos...

  10. [Experimental nuclear physics]. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-04-01

    This is the final report of the Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the University of Washington on work supported in part by US Department of Energy contract DE-AC06-81ER40048. It contains chapters on giant dipole resonances in excited nuclei, nucleus-nucleus reactions, astrophysics, polarization in nuclear reactions, fundamental symmetries and interactions, accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), ultra-relativistic heavy ions, medium energy reactions, work by external users, instrumentation, accelerators and ion sources, and computer systems. An appendix lists Laboratory personnel, a Ph. D. degree granted in the 1990-1991 academic year, and publications. Refs., 41 figs., 7 tabs.

  11. [Experimental and theoretical high energy physics program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finley, J.; Gaidos, J.A.; Loeffler, F.J.; McIlwain, R.L.; Miller, D.H.; Palfrey, T.R.; Shibata, E.I.; Shipsey, I.P.

    1993-04-01

    Experimental and theoretical high-energy physics research at Purdue is summarized in a number of reports. Subjects treated include the following: the CLEO experiment for the study of heavy flavor physics; gas microstrip detectors; particle astrophysics; affine Kac{endash}Moody algebra; nonperturbative mass bounds on scalar and fermion systems due to triviality and vacuum stability constraints; resonance neutrino oscillations; e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} collisions at CERN; {bar p}{endash}p collisions at FNAL; accelerator physics at Fermilab; development work for the SDC detector at SSC; TOPAZ; D-zero physics; physics beyond the standard model; and the Collider Detector at Fermilab. (RWR)

  12. Science Academies' Refresher Course in Experimental Physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-12-18

    Dec 18, 2017 ... A Refresher Course in Experimental Physics will be held at the Department of Physics, Panjab. University, Chandigarh held from 18 December 2017 to 2 January 2018 for the benefit of faculty involved in teaching undergraduate and postgraduate courses. The Course aims to familiarize the teachers with a ...

  13. Students' Epistemologies about Experimental Physics: Validating the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey for Experimental Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Bethany R.; Lewandowski, H. J.

    2016-01-01

    Student learning in instructional physics labs represents a growing area of research that includes investigations of students' beliefs and expectations about the nature of experimental physics. To directly probe students' epistemologies about experimental physics and support broader lab transformation efforts at the University of Colorado Boulder…

  14. Experimental techniques in nuclear and particle physics

    CERN Document Server

    Tavernier, Stefaan

    2009-01-01

    The book is based on a course in nuclear and particle physics that the author has taught over many years to physics students, students in nuclear engineering and students in biomedical engineering. It provides the basic understanding that any student or researcher using such instruments and techniques should have about the subject. After an introduction to the structure of matter at the subatomic scale, it covers the experimental aspects of nuclear and particle physics. Ideally complementing a theoretically-oriented textbook on nuclear physics and/or particle physics, it introduces the reader to the different techniques used in nuclear and particle physics to accelerate particles and to measurement techniques (detectors) in nuclear and particle physics. The main subjects treated are: interactions of subatomic particles in matter; particle accelerators; basics of different types of detectors; and nuclear electronics. The book will be of interest to undergraduates, graduates and researchers in both particle and...

  15. XXXV Refresher Course in Experimental Physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A variety of teaching methods like lectures, discussion and laboratory work shall facilitate the learning process. The Course will help the participants to gain and sharpen their skills on experimental physics and help in fulfilling their role as better researchers and teachers. Teachers and Students who wish to participate in the ...

  16. Science Academies' Refresher Course in Experimental Physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 22; Issue 10. Science Academies' Refresher Course in Experimental Physics. Information and Announcements Volume 22 Issue 10 October 2017 pp 976-976. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  17. Science Academies Refresher Course in Experimental Physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 22; Issue 3. Science Academies Refresher Course in Experimental Physics. Information and Announcements Volume 22 Issue 3 March 2017 pp 330-330. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  18. Science Academies' Refresher Course in Experimental Physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 22; Issue 2. Science Academies' Refresher Course in Experimental Physics. Information and Announcements Volume 22 Issue 2 February 2017 pp 188-188. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  19. Science Academies' Refresher Course in Experimental Physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 19; Issue 1. Science Academies' Refresher Course in Experimental Physics. Information and Announcements Volume 19 Issue 1 January 2014 pp 97-97. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  20. Science Academies' Refresher Course in Experimental Physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 22; Issue 10. Science Academies' Refresher Course in Experimental Physics. Information and Announcements Volume 22 Issue 10 October 2017 pp 974-974. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  1. Science Academies' Refresher Course in Experimental Physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 8. Science Academies' Refresher Course in Experimental Physics. Information and Announcements Volume 20 Issue 8 August 2015 pp 755-755. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  2. Science Academies Refresher Course in Experimental Physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-08-25

    Aug 25, 2017 ... A Refresher Course in Experimental Physics will be held in Christ Church College, Kanpur, from 10th to. 25th August 2017 for the benefit of faculty involved in teaching undergraduate and postgraduate courses. Participants in this course will gain hands on experience with about twenty five experiments, ...

  3. Experimental studies of herbicide drift characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Renne, D.S.; Wolf, M.A.

    1976-05-20

    A knowledge of the drift characteristics of herbicides and pesticides released from ground and aerial rigs is important in forestry and agricultural applications so that methods for minimizing damage to downwind systems sensitive to these chamicals can be developed. A field experiment was undertaken on the Hanford Reservation in eastern Washington State during 1975 to study techniques for maximizing herbicide applications from a spray airplane on the intended area and minimizing drift. Several early morning experiments comparing drift characteristics of a fixed with a test application for various nozzle systems and herbicide concentrations were made. The results of these experiments have shown that the initial drift and drift deposit components varied by only a factor of two or so, depending on the production of smaller droplets, as various techniques were used to put the herbicides down from the aircraft. Meteorological conditions become increasingly important at greater downwind distances from the source. Furthermore, drift reduction was most effective under conditions of high relative humidities and cool temperatures. At large distances from the source, ground level drift was higher on stable than on unstable days. Comments on methods for improving the experimental design, and applications of studies such as these to forestry will be made.

  4. Importance of soil physical characteristics for petroleum ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Public PCs

    effective applying of hydrocarbons phytoremediation depends mainly on the soil and plant types and conditions and microbial ... for phytoremediation should have proper physical, chemical and biological characteristics to let the plant grow well and .... plant uptake and adsorption by soil particles or organic matter. Almost.

  5. Physical Growth Characteristics And Cognitive Performance Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assesses the effect of the physical growth characteristics on cognitive performance of preschool school children in Owerri Municipality aged 2-5 years. A cross-sectional study was conducted on sample of 369 preschool children from 3 Nursery/kindergarten schools. All the subjects were measured for weight and ...

  6. Physical characteristics as determinants of adolescents' moral ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was designed to investigate the physical characteristics as determinants of adolescent moral behaviour in Ekiti State secondary schools. Two research hypotheses were formulated. The research design used was the descriptive of the survey type. The population for this study was made up of all adolescents in ...

  7. Chemical composition and physical characteristics of cowpea ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Unknown

    The main aim of this research was to determine the effect of variety on physical and chemical characteristics of straws of long season cowpeas and also to determine if haulms of varieties that retain greenness longer will have a better nutritional value than those that dry early. Materials and Methods. Sixteen forages used in ...

  8. Some Physical Characteristics of Microcrystalline Cellulose ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: The microcrystalline cellulose is an important ingredient in pharmaceutical, food, cosmetic and other industries. This study aimed at evaluating the physical characteristics of microcrystalline cellulose (CP-MCC), obtained from the raw cotton of Cochlospermum planchonii. Methods: CP-MCC was obtained from the ...

  9. New biometric modalities using internal physical characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortenson, Juliana (Brooks)

    2010-04-01

    Biometrics is described as the science of identifying people based on physical characteristics such as their fingerprints, facial features, hand geometry, iris patterns, palm prints, or speech recognition. Notably, all of these physical characteristics are visible or detectable from the exterior of the body. These external characteristics can be lifted, photographed, copied or recorded for unauthorized access to a biometric system. Individual humans are unique internally, however, just as they are unique externally. New biometric modalities have been developed which identify people based on their unique internal characteristics. For example, "BoneprintsTM" use acoustic fields to scan the unique bone density pattern of a thumb pressed on a small acoustic sensor. Thanks to advances in piezoelectric materials the acoustic sensor can be placed in virtually any device such as a steering wheel, door handle, or keyboard. Similarly, "Imp-PrintsTM" measure the electrical impedance patterns of a hand to identify or verify a person's identity. Small impedance sensors can be easily embedded in devices such as smart cards, handles, or wall mounts. These internal biometric modalities rely on physical characteristics which are not visible or photographable, providing an added level of security. In addition, both the acoustic and impedance methods can be combined with physiologic measurements such as acoustic Doppler or impedance plethysmography, respectively. Added verification that the biometric pattern came from a living person can be obtained. These new biometric modalities have the potential to allay user concerns over protection of privacy, while providing a higher level of security.*

  10. Molecular Physics: Theoretical Principles and Experimental Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Demtröder, Wolfgang

    2005-11-01

    The richly illustrated book comprehensively explains the important principles of diatomic and polyatomic molecules and their spectra in two separate, distinct parts. The first part concentrates on the theoretical aspects of molecular physics, such as the vibration, rotation, electronic states, potential curves, and spectra of molecules. The different methods of approximation for the calculation of electronic wave functions and their energy are also covered. The introduction of basics terms used in group theory and their meaning in molecular physics enables an elegant description of polyatomic molecules and their symmetries. Molecular spectra and the dynamic processes involved in their excited states are given its own chapter. The theoretical part then concludes with a discussion of the field of Van der Waals molecules and clusters. The second part is devoted entirely to experimental techniques, such as laser, Fourier, NMR, and ESR spectroscopies, used in the fields of physics, chemistry, biology, and material science. Time-resolved measurements and the influence of chemical reactions by coherent controls are also treated. A list of general textbooks and specialized literature is provided for further reading. With specific examples, definitions, and notes integrated within the text to aid understanding, this is suitable for undergraduates and graduates in physics and chemistry with a knowledge of atomic physics and familiar with the basics of quantum mechanics.

  11. Students' epistemologies about experimental physics: Validating the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey for Experimental Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Wilcox, Bethany R

    2015-01-01

    Student learning in instructional physics labs represents a growing area of research that includes investigations of students' beliefs and expectations about the nature of experimental physics. To directly probe students' epistemologies about experimental physics and support broader lab transformation efforts at the University of Colorado Boulder (CU) and elsewhere, we developed the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey for Experimental Physics (E-CLASS). Previous work with this assessment has included establishing the accuracy and clarity of the instrument through student interviews and preliminary testing. Several years of data collection at multiple institutions has resulted in a growing national data set of student responses. Here, we report on results of the analysis of these data to investigate the statistical validity and reliability of the E-CLASS as a measure of students' epistemologies for a broad student population. We find that the E-CLASS demonstrates an acceptable level of both validi...

  12. Selected problems in experimental intermediate energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayes, B.W.; Hungerford, E.V.; Pinsky, L.S.

    1990-09-01

    The objectives of this research program are to: investigate forefront problems in experimental intermediate energy physics; educate students in this field of research; and, develop the instrumentation necessary to undertake this experimental program. Generally, the research is designed to search for physical processes which cannot be explained by conventional models of elementary interactions. This includes the use of nuclear targets where the nucleus provides a many body environment of strongly perturbation of a known interaction by this environment. Unfortunately, such effects may be masked by the complexity of the many body problem and may be difficult to observe. Therefore, experiments must be carefully chosen and analyzed for deviations from the more conventional models. There were three major thrusts of the program; strange particle physics, where a strange quark is embedded in the nuclear medium; muon electro-weak decay, which involves a search for a violation of the standard model of the electro-weak interaction; and measurement of the spin dependent structure function of the neutron.

  13. Physical characteristics of extruded cassava starch

    OpenAIRE

    Magali LEONEL; Freitas,Taila Santos de; Mischan,Martha Maria

    2009-01-01

    Considering the importance of cassava starch for Brazilian industries, the current work aimed at evaluating the effects of extrusion parameters on the physical characteristics, mainly viscosity properties of extruded cassava starch. A factorial central composite design (2³) with three independent variables and the response surface methodology were used to evaluate the results of expansion index, specific volume, water absorption index, water solubility index, color and paste properties, accor...

  14. Physical and chemical characteristics of fibrous peat

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutejo, Yulindasari; Saggaff, Anis; Rahayu, Wiwik; Hanafiah

    2017-11-01

    Banyuasin is one of the regency in South Sumatera which has an area of 200.000 Ha of peat land. Peat soil are characterized by high compressibility parameters and low initial shear strength. Block sampling method was used to obtain undisturbed sample. The results of this paper describe the characteristics of peat soil from physical and chemical testing. The physical and chemical characteristics of peat include water content (ω), specific gravity (Gs), Acidity (pH), unit weight (γ), and ignition loss tests. SEM and EDS test was done to determine the differences in fiber content and to analyze chemical elements of the specimen. The average results ω, Gs, and pH are 263.538 %, 1.847, and 3.353. Peat is classified in H4 (by Von Post). The results of organic content (OC), ash content (AC), and fiber content (FC) are found 78.693 %, 21.310 %, and 73.703 %. From the results of physical and chemical tests, the peat in Banyuasin is classified as fibrous peat. All the results of the characteristics and classification of fibrous peat compared with published data were close.

  15. The physical characteristics of the surface of the satellites and rings of giant planets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidmachenko, A. P.; Morozhenko, O. V.

    2017-10-01

    The book gives the main results of the study of the optical characteristics of the field diffusely reflected radiation and physical characteristics of the surface of the satellites of giant planets and their rings. The publication is intended for teachers of higher educational institutions, students - graduate students and professionals who specialize in experimental physics and astrophysics and solar system surfaces.

  16. 19 CFR 351.411 - Differences in physical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Differences in physical characteristics. 351.411....411 Differences in physical characteristics. (a) Introduction. In comparing United States sales with... have the same physical characteristics as the merchandise sold in the foreign market, and that the...

  17. Physical characteristics of cinnamon oil microcapsule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermanto, R. F.; Khasanah, L. U.; Kawiji; Atmaka, W.; Manuhara, G. J.; Utami, R.

    2016-02-01

    Cinnamon (Cinnamomum burmanii) oil products can be obtained from the bark by steam distillation. Essential oils are susceptible to high temperatures, oxidation, UV light, and humidity. Microencapsulation may change essential oils into powder, protect the sensitive core material and reduce the amount of flavor which lost during storage. In the microencapsulation, one of the important factors is the type of coating agent. The objective of this work was to characterize the cinnamon oil microcapsule. Ratio variations of coating agent maltodextrin and gum arabic were (1:0); (0:1); (1:1); (2:3). Physical characteristics such as water content, solubility, bulk density, surface oil, and microencapsulation efficiency of samples were investigated. Results showed that the ratio variations of the coating agent significantly affected the water content, bulk density, surface oil and microencapsulation efficiency but significantly affected the water solubility. Characteristics of selected microcapsule were 6.13% water content; 96.33% solubility; 0.46 g/cm3 bulk density; 2.68% surface oil; 70.68% microencapsulation efficiency and microstructures were rather good.

  18. Physical Characteristics Underpinning Repetitive Lunging in Fencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Anthony N; Marshall, Geoff; Phillips, James; Noto, Angelo; Buttigieg, Conor; Chavda, Shyam; Downing, William; Atlay, Nathan; Dimitriou, Lygeri; Kilduff, Laim

    2016-11-01

    Turner, AN, Marshall, G, Phillips, J, Noto, A, Buttigieg, C, Chavda, S, Downing, W, Atlay, N, Dimitriou, L, and Kilduff, L. Physical characteristics underpinning repetitive lunging in fencing. J Strength Cond Res 30(11): 3134-3139, 2016-Given the repetitive demand to execute lunging and changes in direction within fencing, the ability to sustain these at maximal capacity is fundamental to performance. The aim of this study was threefold. First, to provide normative values for this variable referred to as repeat lunge ability (RLA) and second to identify the physical characteristics that underpin it. Third, was to establish if a cause and effect relationship existed by training the associated characteristics. Assessment of lower-body power, reactive strength, speed, change of direction speed (CODS), and a sport-specific RLA were conducted on senior and junior elite male fencers (n = 36). Fencers were on average (±SD) 18.9 ± 3.2 years of age, 174.35 ± 10.42 cm tall, 70.67 ± 7.35 kg in mass, and 8.5 ± 4.2 years fencing experience. The RLA test had average work times of 16.03 ± 1.40 seconds and demonstrated "large" to "very large" associations with all tested variables, but in particular CODS (r = 0.70) and standing broad jump (SBJ; r = -0.68). Through linear regression analysis, these also provided a 2-predictor model accounting for 61% of the common variance associated with RLA. A cause and effect relationship with SBJ and CODS was confirmed by the training group, where RLA performance in these fencers improved from 15.80 ± 1.07 to 14.90 ± 0.86 seconds, with the magnitude of change reported as "moderate" (effect size (ES) = 0.93). Concurrent improvements were also noted in both SBJ (216.86 ± 17.15 vs. 221.71 ± 17.59 cm) and CODS (4.44 ± 0.29 vs. 4.31 ± 0.09 seconds) and while differences were only significant in SBJ, magnitudes of change were classed as "small" (ES = 0.28) and "moderate" (ES = 0.61), respectively. In conclusion, to improve RLA strength

  19. Experimental studies in non-equilibrium physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cressman, John Robert, Jr.

    This work is a collection of three experiments aimed at studying different facets of non-equilibrium dynamics. Chapter I concerns strongly compressible turbulence, which turns out to be very different from incompressible turbulence. The focus is on the dispersion of contaminants in such a flow. This type of turbulence can be studied, at very low mach number, by measuring the velocity fields of particles that float on a turbulently stirred body of water. It turns out that in the absence of incompressibility, the turbulence causes particles to cluster rather than to disperse. The implications of the observations are far reaching and include the transport of pollutants on the oceans surface, phytoplankton growth, as well as industrial applications. Chapter II deals with the effects of polymer additives on drag reduction and turbulent suppression, a well-known phenomenon that is not yet understood. In an attempt to simplify the problem, the effects of a polymer additive were investigated in a vortex street formed in a flowing soap film. Measurements suggest that an increase in elongational viscosity is responsible for a substantial reduction in periodic velocity fluctuations. This study also helps to illuminate the mechanism responsible for vortex separation in the wake of a bluff body. Chapter III describes an experiment designed to test a theoretical approach aimed at generalizing the classical fluctuation dissipation theorem (FDT). This theorem applies to systems driven only slightly away from thermal equilibrium, whereas ours, a liquid crystal under-going electroconvection, is so strongly driven, that the FDT does not apply. Both theory and experiment focus on the flux in global power fluctuations. Physical limitations did not permit a direct test of the theory, however it was possible to establish several interesting characteristics of the system: the source of the fluctuations is the transient defect structures that are generated when the system is driven hard

  20. ScienceAcademies' Refresher Course in Experimental Physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    levels. All experiments verify physical laws and principles and yield reasonably accurate results. The Course is particularly aimed at teachers teaching at UG/PG level. College/University teachers ... Motivated students of MSc/PhD Physics who have a keen interest in Experimental Physics and in teaching physics, may also ...

  1. Basic physics and imaging characteristics of ultrasound.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kossoff, G

    2000-02-01

    The imaging characteristics of diagnostic ultrasound (US) are determined by the ultrasonic properties of tissue. The velocity of propagation of US and the attenuation are the 2 most important parameters. These determine the frequency with which the tissues may be imaged, which in turn sets a fundamental limit on the axial and the lateral resolution. Ultrasonic imaging equipment is designed on the premise that the ultrasonic energy propagates through tissue in a straight line and that the ultrasonic beam is very narrow. In fact, the ultrasonic energy propagates through tissue as a beam of finite dimensions set by the physical dimensions of the transducer, the way it is constructed, and the way it is energized. Also, the velocity of propagation in different tissues varies and this can lead to deviation of the ultrasonic beam from the assumed direction of propagation. This breakdown in assumptions leads to the creation of artifacts that must be appreciated in the interpretation of ultrasonic images. For this reason skilled interpreters of ultrasonic images follow 3 golden rules: never make an interpretation on a single image; just because a feature is displayed do not consider that it is necessarily real; and just because a feature is not displayed do not consider that it is necessarily not there.

  2. Students' views about the nature of experimental physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Bethany R.; Lewandowski, H. J.

    2017-12-01

    The physics community explores and explains the physical world through a blend of theoretical and experimental studies. The future of physics as a discipline depends on training of students in both the theoretical and experimental aspects of the field. However, while student learning within lecture courses has been the subject of extensive research, lab courses remain relatively under-studied. In particular, there is little, if any, data available that address the effectiveness of physics lab courses at encouraging students to recognize the nature and importance of experimental physics within the discipline as a whole. To address this gap, we present the first large-scale, national study (Ninstitutions=75 and Nstudents=7167 ) of undergraduate physics lab courses through analysis of students' responses to a research-validated assessment designed to investigate students' beliefs about the nature of experimental physics. We find that students often enter and leave physics lab courses with ideas about experimental physics as practiced in their courses that are inconsistent with the views of practicing experimental physicists, and this trend holds at both the introductory and upper-division levels. Despite this inconsistency, we find that both introductory and upper-division students are able to accurately predict the expertlike response even in cases where their views about experimentation in their lab courses disagree. These finding have implications for the recruitment, retention, and adequate preparation of students in physics.

  3. Physics of Stratocumulus Top (POST: turbulence characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. Jen-La Plante

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Turbulence observed during the Physics of Stratocumulus Top (POST research campaign is analyzed. Using in-flight measurements of dynamic and thermodynamic variables at the interface between the stratocumulus cloud top and free troposphere, the cloud top region is classified into sublayers, and the thicknesses of these sublayers are estimated. The data are used to calculate turbulence characteristics, including the bulk Richardson number, mean-square velocity fluctuations, turbulence kinetic energy (TKE, TKE dissipation rate, and Corrsin, Ozmidov and Kolmogorov scales. A comparison of these properties among different sublayers indicates that the entrainment interfacial layer consists of two significantly different sublayers: the turbulent inversion sublayer (TISL and the moist, yet hydrostatically stable, cloud top mixing sublayer (CTMSL. Both sublayers are marginally turbulent, i.e., the bulk Richardson number across the layers is critical. This means that turbulence is produced by shear and damped by buoyancy such that the sublayer thicknesses adapt to temperature and wind variations across them. Turbulence in both sublayers is anisotropic, with Corrsin and Ozmidov scales as small as  ∼  0.3 and  ∼  3 m in the TISL and CTMSL, respectively. These values are  ∼  60 and  ∼  15 times smaller than typical layer depths, indicating flattened large eddies and suggesting no direct mixing of cloud top and free-tropospheric air. Also, small scales of turbulence are different in sublayers as indicated by the corresponding values of Kolmogorov scales and buoyant and shear Reynolds numbers.

  4. Physical, chemical and microbiological characteristics of lafun ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2009-07-20

    Jul 20, 2009 ... Lafun is an African traditional fermented food product prepared from cassava. Whereas Nigerian lafun has been studied, characteristics of Beninese lafun are still unknown. This research was carried out to identify the characteristics of two types of lafun, Chigan lafun and ordinary lafun produced in Benin.

  5. Relativistic heavy-ion physics: Experimental overview

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The field of relativistic heavy-ion physics is reviewed with emphasis on new results and highlights from the first run of the relativistic heavy-ion collider at BNL and the 15 year research programme at the super proton synchrotron (SPS) at CERN and the AGS at BNL.

  6. Fiftieth Refresher Course in Experimental Physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Physics courses. Interested applicants must send their detailed bio-data including name, gender, date of birth, educational qualifications, office address, mobile telephone number, e-mail address, a statement as to why they would like to attend the course and its usefulness to their career, and (in the case of faculty) teaching ...

  7. Experimental analysis of injection characteristics using biodiesel fuel

    OpenAIRE

    Kegl, Breda; Hribernik, Aleš

    2012-01-01

    This paper deals with injection characteristics using different fuels at different fuel temperatures. The fuels under consideration are neat biodiesel from rapeseed oil and some blends with diesel as well as neat mineral diesel D2. The fuel and fuel temperature influences are investigated experimentally in the mechanically controlled diesel fuel injection M system. At first, attention is focused on the injection characteristics, especially on fuelling, mean injection rate, mean injection pres...

  8. Theoretical and Experimental Studies in Accelerator Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenzweig, James [Univ. of California, Los Angeles, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    2017-03-08

    This report describes research supported by the US Dept. of Energy Office of High Energy Physics (OHEP), performed by the UCLA Particle Beam Physics Laboratory (PBPL). The UCLA PBPL has, over the last two decades-plus, played a critical role in the development of advanced accelerators, fundamental beam physics, and new applications enabled by these thrusts, such as new types of accelerator-based light sources. As the PBPL mission is broad it is natural that it has been grown within the context of the accelerator science and technology stewardship of the OHEP. Indeed, steady OHEP support for the program has always been central to the success of the PBPL; it has provided stability, and above all has set the over-arching themes for our research directions, which have producing over 500 publications (>120 in high level journals). While other agency support has grown notably in recent years, permitting more vigorous pursuit of the program, it is transient by comparison. Beyond permitting program growth in a time of flat OHEP budgets, the influence of other agency missions is found in push to adapt advanced accelerator methods to applications, in light of the success the field has had in proof-of-principle experiments supported first by the DoE OHEP. This three-pronged PBPL program — advanced accelerators, fundamental beam physics and technology, and revolutionary applications — has produced a generation of students that have had a profound affect on the US accelerator physics community. PBPL graduates, numbering 28 in total, form a significant population group in the accelerator community, playing key roles as university faculty, scientific leaders in national labs (two have been named Panofsky Fellows at SLAC), and vigorous proponents of industrial application of accelerators. Indeed, the development of advanced RF, optical and magnet technology at the PBPL has led directly to the spin-off company, RadiaBeam Technologies, now a leading industrial accelerator firm

  9. [Experimental nuclear physics]. Annual report 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-04-01

    This is the April 1989 annual report of the Nuclear Physics Labortaory of the University of Washington. It contains chapters on astrophysics, giant resonances, heavy ion induced reactions, fundamental symmetries, polarization in nuclear reactions, medium energy reactions, accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), research by outside users, Van de Graaff and ion sources, computer systems, instrumentation, and the Laboratory`s booster linac work. An appendix lists Laboratory personnel, Ph.D. degrees granted in the 1988-1989 academic year, and publications. Refs., 23 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. [Experimental nuclear physics]. Annual report 1988

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1988-05-01

    This is the May 1988 annual report of the Nuclear Physics Laboratory of the University of Washington. It contains chapters on astrophysics, giant resonances, heavy ion induced reactions, fundamental symmetries, polarization in nuclear reactions, medium energy reactions, accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS), research by outside users, Van de Graaff and ion sources, the Laboratory`s booster linac project work, instrumentation, and computer systems. An appendix lists Laboratory personnel, Ph.D. degrees granted in the 1987-88 academic year, and publications. Refs., 27 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Research in experimental High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Avery, P.; Yelton, J. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1996-12-01

    UF Task B has been funded continuously by the DoE since 1986. Formerly it included work on the D0 experiment at Fermilab which is no longer a part of the UF program. With the addition of Prof. Guenakh Mitselmakher, Dr. Jacobo Konigsberg and one more Assistant Professor to the faculty, the group now has a new Task to incorporate their work at Fermilab and Cern. They intend Task B to continue to cover the major research of Paul Avery and John Yelton, which is presently directed towards the CLEO detector with some effort going to B physics at Fermilab.

  12. Experimental study of the characteristics of a novel mesh suture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dumanian, G A; Tulaimat, A; Dumanian, Z P

    2015-09-01

    The failure of sutures to maintain tissue in apposition is well characterized in hernia repairs. A mesh suture designed to facilitate tissue integration into and around the filaments may improve tissue hold and decrease suture pull-through. In vitro, the sutures were compared for resistance to pull-through in ballistics gel. In vivo, closure of midline laparotomy incisions was done with both sutures in 11 female pigs. Tissue segments were subsequently subjected to mechanical and histological testing. The mesh suture had tensile characteristics nearly identical to those of 0-polypropylene suture. Mesh suture demonstrated greater resistance to pull-through than standard suture (mean(s.d.) 4.27(0.42) versus 2.23(0.48) N; P suture (320(57) versus 160(56) N; P suture. Histological examination at 8 and 90 days showed complete tissue integration of the mesh suture. The novel mesh suture structure increased the strength of early wound healing in an experimental model. Surgical relevance Traditional sutures have the significant drawback of cutting and pulling through tissues in high-tension closures. A new mesh suture design with a flexible macroporous outer wall and a hollow core allows the tissues to grow into the suture, improving early wound strength and decreasing suture pull-through. This technology may dramatically increase the reliability of high-tension closures, thereby preventing incisional hernia after laparotomy. As suture pull-through is a problem relevant to all surgical disciplines, numerous additional indications are envisioned with mesh suture formulations of different physical properties and materials. © 2015 The Authors. BJS published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of BJS Society Ltd.

  13. Anthropometric and physical fitness characteristics of female ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    These included 24 university-level, 17 provincial-level, and 14 national team players. Anthropometric data included age, stature, body mass, sum of seven skinfolds and percentage body fat. The fitness characteristics included flexibility, strength, explosive power, muscular endurance, agility, speed and aerobic endurance.

  14. Physical, chemical and organoleptic characteristics of smoked ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Axioo

    2012-10-05

    Oct 5, 2012 ... (2006) reported that fenol and carbonyl compounds play an important role in taste of smoked fish, such as guaiacol and syringol as phenolic com- ounds gave a specific organoleptic characteristic. This components combined with different smoking technique also directly affected the organoleptic properties ...

  15. Effect of Biochar on Soil Physical Characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Zhencai; Møldrup, Per; Vendelboe, Anders Lindblad

    Biochar addition to agricultural soil has been reported to reduce climate gas emission, as well as improve soil fertility and crop productivity. Little, however, is known about biochar effects on soil structural characteristics. This study investigates if biochar-application changes soil structural...

  16. Heavy ions at the LHC: Physics perspectives and experimental ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Ultrarelativistic heavy ion physics is entering the new era of collider experiments with the start-up of RHIC at BNL and construction for detectors at LHC well under way. At this crossroads, the article will give a summary of the experimental program and our current view of heavy ion physics at the LHC, concentrating ...

  17. Science Academies' 93rd Refresher Course in Experimental Physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-09-30

    Sep 30, 2017 ... A Refresher Course in Experimental Physics will be held at the Department of Physics, Indian. Institute of Technology Patna, Bihta, India from November 07–22, 2017 for the benefit of faculty involved in teaching undergraduate and postgraduate courses. Participants in this course will gain hands-on ...

  18. Science Academies' Refresher Course in Experimental Physics 20 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Indian National Science Academy, New Delhi. The National Academy of Sciences, India, Allahabad. In collaboration with Department of Physics G.B. Pant University for Agriculture and Technology, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand. A Refresher Course in Experimental Physics will be held at G.B.P.U.A & T, Pantnagar, Uttarakhand, ...

  19. Science Academies' Refresher Course on Experimental Physics 13 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-09-28

    Sep 28, 2017 ... A Refresher Course in Experimental Physics will be held at Post-Graduate and Research Department of Physics,. Bishop Moore College, Mavelikara, Kerala, , from 1328 September, 2017 for the benefit of faculty involved in teaching undergraduate and postgraduate courses. Participants in this course will ...

  20. Science Academies' 82nd Refresher Course on Experimental Physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    A Refresher Course in Experimental Physics will be held at Department of Physics, Kakatiya University, Warangal from 6 to 21 December 2016 for the benefit of faculty involved in teaching undergraduate and postgraduate courses. The Course aims to familiarize the participants to gain hands on experience with set of new ...

  1. Science Academies' 83rd Refresher Course on Experimental Physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    undergraduate and postgraduate courses in Physics. Participants in this course will gain hands on experience with about 25 experiments designed by Professor R. Srinivasan, the Course Director, Indian Academy of Sciences. Professor R. Srinivasan has conducted such Refresher course in Experimental Physics in more ...

  2. Heavy Ions at the LHC Physics Perspectives and Experimental Program

    CERN Document Server

    Schükraft, Jürgen

    2002-01-01

    Ultrarelativistic heavy ion physics is entering the new era of collider experiments with the start-up of RHIC at BNL and construction for detectors at HC well under way. At this crossroads, the article will give a summary of the experimental program and our current view of heavy ion physics at the LHC, concentrating in particular on physics topics that are different or unique compared to current facilities.

  3. Semiconductor power devices physics, characteristics, reliability

    CERN Document Server

    Lutz, Josef; Scheuermann, Uwe; De Doncker, Rik

    2011-01-01

    Semiconductor power devices are the heart of power electronics. They determine the performance of power converters and allow topologies with high efficiency. Semiconductor properties, pn-junctions and the physical phenomena for understanding power devices are discussed in depth. Working principles of state-of-the-art power diodes, thyristors, MOSFETs and IGBTs are explained in detail, as well as key aspects of semiconductor device production technology. In practice, not only the semiconductor, but also the thermal and mechanical properties of packaging and interconnection technologies are esse

  4. Work Characteristics Associated with Physical Functioning in Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Aimee J; De Roos, Anneclaire J; Cannuscio, Carolyn; Robinson, Lucy; Mossey, Jana; Weitlauf, Julie; Garcia, Lorena; Wallace, Robert; Michael, Yvonne

    2017-04-15

    Women make up almost half of the labor force with older women becoming a growing segment of the population. Work characteristics influence physical functioning and women are at particular risk for physical limitations. However, little research has explored the effects of work characteristics on women's physical functioning. U.S. women between the ages of 50 and 79 were enrolled in the Women's Health Initiative Observational Study between 1993 and 1998. Women provided job titles and years worked at their three longest-held jobs (n = 79,147). Jobs were linked to characteristics in the Occupational Information Network. Three categories of job characteristics related to substantive complexity, physical demand, and social collaboration emerged. The association between job characteristics and physical limitations in later life, measured using a SF-36 Physical Functioning score critical thinking were associated with better physical functioning. Employers should explore opportunities to reduce strain from physically demanding jobs and incorporate substantively complex tasks into women's work to improve long-term health.

  5. Experimental study on heat transfer characteristics of ice slurry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kumano, Hiroyuki; Hirata, Tetsuo [Department of Mechanical Systems Engineering, Shinshu University, 4-17-1, Wakasato, Nagano-shi, Nagano 380-8553 (Japan); Shouji, Ryouta [Chubu Plant Service Co., Ltd., 11-22, Gohommatsu-cho, Atsuta-ku, Nagoya, Aichi 456-8516 (Japan); Shirakawa, Michito [Toyota Motor Corp., 1 Toyota-cho, Toyota, Aichi 471-8571 (Japan)

    2010-12-15

    Heat transfer characteristics of ice slurry were investigated experimentally. The Reynolds number, diameter of the tubes and ice packing factor (IPF) were varied as experimental parameters. For laminar flow, it was found that the ratio of the Nusselt numbers increased with the IPF, and an approximation equation of the Nusselt number could be derived using the apparent Reynolds number, IPF and the ratio of the average diameter of the ice particles to the diameter of the test tube. For turbulent flow, the ratio of the Nusselt numbers was 1 for each condition in the case of a low IPF. However, the ratio of the Nusselt numbers increased with the IPF in the high-IPF region. Moreover, the apparent Reynolds number, which can be derived by treating the ice slurry as a pseudoplastic fluid, can be used to determine the condition under which variation in the heat transfer characteristics of ice slurry in turbulent flow occurs. (author)

  6. Pervious concrete physical characteristics and effectiveness in stormwater pollution reduction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this research was to investigate the physical/chemical and water flow characteristics of various previous concrete : mixes made of different concrete materials and their effectiveness in attenuating water pollution. Four pervious con...

  7. Experimental Physical Sciences Vistas: MaRIE (draft)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shlachter, Jack [Los Alamos National Laboratory

    2010-09-08

    To achieve breakthrough scientific discoveries in the 21st century, a convergence and integration of world-leading experimental facilities and capabilities with theory, modeling, and simulation is necessary. In this issue of Experimental Physical Sciences Vistas, I am excited to present our plans for Los Alamos National Laboratory's future flagship experimental facility, MaRIE (Matter-Radiation Interactions in Extremes). MaRIE is a facility that will provide transformational understanding of matter in extreme conditions required to reduce or resolve key weapons performance uncertainties, develop the materials needed for advanced energy systems, and transform our ability to create materials by design. Our unique role in materials science starting with the Manhattan Project has positioned us well to develop a contemporary materials strategy pushing the frontiers of controlled functionality - the design and tailoring of a material for the unique demands of a specific application. Controlled functionality requires improvement in understanding of the structure and properties of materials in order to synthesize and process materials with unique characteristics. In the nuclear weapons program today, improving data and models to increase confidence in the stockpile can take years from concept to new knowledge. Our goal with MaRIE is to accelerate this process by enhancing predictive capability - the ability to compute a priori the observables of an experiment or test and pertinent confidence intervals using verified and validated simulation tools. It is a science-based approach that includes the use of advanced experimental tools, theoretical models, and multi-physics codes, simultaneously dealing with multiple aspects of physical operation of a system that are needed to develop an increasingly mature predictive capability. This same approach is needed to accelerate improvements to other systems such as nuclear reactors. MaRIE will be valuable to many national

  8. EXPERIMENTAL ANALYSIS OF THE CHARACTERISTIC PERFORMANCE OF STANDALONE PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM

    OpenAIRE

    Birendra Kishore; Anirban Nandy*; O. P. Pandey

    2016-01-01

    This paper demonstrates an insight solar PV Stand Alone system which is a practical model with a halogen light source. At different situations the performance of solar PV cells are analyzed. The system produces power with depending on the change in halogen light intensity & temperature. A theoretical & experimental analysis of the PV cell can be achieved. In this paper the I-V & P-V characteristic of the solar photovoltaic cells with changes in temperature and isolation have been ...

  9. The Nevada railroad system: Physical, operational, and accident characteristics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1991-09-01

    This report provides a description of the operational and physical characteristics of the Nevada railroad system. To understand the dynamics of the rail system, one must consider the system`s physical characteristics, routing, uses, interactions with other systems, and unique operational characteristics, if any. This report is presented in two parts. The first part is a narrative description of all mainlines and major branchlines of the Nevada railroad system. Each Nevada rail route is described, including the route`s physical characteristics, traffic type and volume, track conditions, and history. The second part of this study provides a more detailed analysis of Nevada railroad accident characteristics than was presented in the Preliminary Nevada Transportation Accident Characterization Study (DOE, 1990).

  10. Impact of instructional approach on students' epistemologies about experimental physics

    CERN Document Server

    Wilcox, Bethany R

    2016-01-01

    Student learning in undergraduate physics laboratory courses has garnered increased attention within the PER community. Considerable work has been done to develop curricular materials and pedagogical techniques designed to enhance student learning within laboratory learning environments. Examples of these transformation efforts include the Investigative Science Learning Environment (ISLE), Modeling Instruction, and integrated lab/lecture environments (e.g., studio physics). In addition to improving students' understanding of the physics content, lab courses often have an implicit or explicit goal of increasing students' understanding and appreciation of the nature of experimental physics. We examine students' responses to a laboratory-focused epistemological assessment -- the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey for Experimental Physics (E-CLASS) -- to explore whether courses using transformed curricula or pedagogy show more expert-like student epistemologies relative to courses using traditional ...

  11. Quantifying physical characteristics of wildland fuels using the fuel characteristic classification system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cynthia L. Riccardi; Susan J. Prichard; David V. Sandberg; Roger D. Ottmar

    2007-01-01

    Wildland fuel characteristics are used in many applications of operational fire predictions and to understand fire effects and behaviour. Even so, there is a shortage of information on basic fuel properties and the physical characteristics of wildland fuels. The Fuel Characteristic Classification System (FCCS) builds and catalogues fuelbed descriptions based on...

  12. Nuclear Physics Division, Institute of Experimental Physics, Warsaw University annual report 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szeflinski, Z.; Kirejczyk, M.; Popkiewicz, M. [eds.

    1998-08-01

    In the presented report the research activities of Nuclear Physics Division (NPD) of the Institute of Experimental Physics (Warsaw University) in year 1997 are described. The report is divided into three parts: Reaction Mechanisms and Nuclear Structure, Experimental Methods and Instrumentation and the third one contain the lists of personnel, seminars held at the Nuclear Physics Division and published papers. A summary of the (NPD) activities are briefly presented in ``Preface`` written by NDP director prof. K. Siwek-Wilczynska

  13. Nuclear Physics Division, Institute of Experimental Physics, Warsaw University Annual Report 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szeflinski, Z.; Popkiewicz, M. [eds.

    1997-12-31

    In the presented report the research activities of Nuclear Physics Division (NPD) of the Institute of Experimental Physics (Warsaw University) in year 1996 are described. The report is divided into three parts: Reaction mechanisms and nuclear structure; Experimental methods and instrumentation and the third part contains the list of personnel, seminars held at the Nuclear Physics Division and published papers. A summary of the (NPD) activities are briefly presented in ``Preface`` by NPD director prof. Ch. Droste.

  14. Nuclear Physics Division - Inst. of Experimental Physics - Warsaw University - Annual Report 1998

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirejczyk, M.; Szeflinski, Z. [eds.

    1999-08-01

    In the presented report the research activities of Nuclear Physics Division (NPD) of the Warsaw University Institute of Experimental Physics in year of 1998 are described. The report is divided into three parts: Reaction Mechanisms and Nuclear Structure, Experimental Methods and Instrumentation and the third one contains the lists of personnel, seminars held at the Nuclear Physics Division and list of published papers. A summary of the (NPD) activities are briefly presented in ``Preface`` written by NDP director prof. K. Siwek-Wilczynska

  15. Assortative marriage for physical characteristics in newlyweds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennock-Roman, M

    1984-06-01

    The objective of this study was to estimate the degree of spouse resemblance in the first 6 months of marriage and to compare these estimates with those of previous studies on long-standing marriages. The participants, 215 couples, were selected from the marriage licenses issued in two counties within the San Francisco Bay Area. They attended one of several group sessions in which questionnaires were filled out and forearm length measurements were taken. Only the results for the couples of European ancestry (N = 164) are presented here since the other subsamples were too small to analyze separately. The husband-wife correlations for body size were found to be essentially equal to those in long-standing marriages. Thus, it appears that physical resemblance in couples is the result of initial assortment rather than convergence arising from long cohabitation. A significant residual husband-wife correlation for weight was found after statistically partialing out height. It may be that assortative marriage for food habits and attractiveness produces spouse resemblance in weight, independently of height. Alternatively, convergence in eating habits may occur during courtship and the early months of marriage which may increase the resemblance in weight. There was very little homogamy for eye color independently of race, and no evidence of assortative marriage for handedness.

  16. Physical characteristics of welding arc ignition process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shi, Linan; Song, Yonglun; Xiao, Tianjiao; Ran, Guowei

    2012-07-01

    The existing research of welding arc mainly focuses on the stable combustion state and the research on the mechanism of welding arc ignition process is quite lack. The tungsten inert gas(TIG) touch arc ignition process is observed via a high speed camera and the high time resolution spectral diagnosis system. The changing phenomenon of main ionized element provided the electrons in the arc ignition is found. The metallic element is the main contributor to provide the electrons at the beginning of the discharging, and then the excitated shielding gas element replaces the function of the metallic element. The electron density during the period of the arc ignition is calculated by the Stark-broadened lines of Hα. Through the discussion with the repeatability in relaxation phenomenon, the statistical regularity in the arc ignition process is analyzed. The similar rules as above are observed through the comparison with the laser-assisted arc ignition experiments and the metal inert gas(MIG) arc ignition experiments. This research is helpful to further understanding on the generation mechanism of welding arc ignition and also has a certain academic and practical significance on enriching the welding physical theoretical foundation and improving the precise monitoring on automatic arc welding process.

  17. Selected physical characteristics of medical students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dr. Lajos Ángyán

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to measure selected anthropometrical characteris-tics, motor abilities and cardiorespiratory functions of medical students. Eighty-seven students were involved in this investigation. The students were categorized into five groups: (1 recreational, doing sport activities irregularly, (2 basketball and (3 handball players, having training at least two times per week, as well as men (4 and women (5 students entering medical school. In all groups the mean body mass index and waist-to-hip ratio were at the upper level of the normal range, while body fat percentage was similar to standards for sedentary subjects. Better motor per-formances were obtained from the basketball and handball players than from the other groups. Static strength for the sample was somewhat above the normal sedentary level. The resting blood pressure and heart rate for most subjects were in the normal. Cardiovascular risk factors were found in six students. Their systolic blood pressure was above 140 mm Hg. There were no sub-jects identified with low blood pressure. The heart rate was elevated for three students from the recreational group, and in the women. Bradycardia did not occur. The vital capacity and the ability to hold one’s breath was at the upper level of the normal range. The present results emphasis the need to improve the students` prevention oriented life style through participation in exercising.

  18. Effects of regular aerobic exercise on physical characteristics, body ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of regular aerobic exercise on physical characteristics, body image satisfaction and self-efficacy of middle-aged women. ... South African Journal for Research in Sport, Physical Education and Recreation ... An exercise group and a control group consisted of 25 and 20 middle-aged women respectively. The exercise ...

  19. Actual and preferred personality characteristics of physical educators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saša Cecić Erpič

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available The Five-Factor Model of personality, which includes dimensions energy, agreeableness, conscientiousness, emotional stability, and openness, gained a growing acceptance by personality researchers. In the present study the actual personality characteristics of physical educators and the personality profile of an ideal (according to subjective evaluations of experts physical educator were investigated. The aim of the study was to examine differences between profiles of actual and preferred personality characteristics and to present differences in personality characteristics between male and female physical educators of different ages. The study included 76 (40 male, 36 female 24 to 58 year-old physical educators (mean age 39.7 years. 34 experts from the field of sport, physical education, and kinesiology evaluated the preferred personality structure of an ideal physical educator. The Big Five Observer (BFO was used to assess actual and preferred personality structures. These results show that the actual personality profile of physical educators is described with all five moderately high dimensions, which is relatively congruent with the social type from Holland's typology, characteristic of educators. In comparison with participants, an ideal physical educator should have equally expressed agreeableness, while other four dimensions should be highly expressed. Gender differences in energy and agreeableness (women have higher results in both dimensions were found significant. No significant age differences in the personality structure were obtained by a cross-sectional comparison.

  20. ERP differences between processing of physical characteristics and personality attributes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Limited data from behavioral and brain-imaging studies indicate that personality traits and physical characteristics are processed differently by the brain. Additionally, electrophysiological results of studies comparing the processing of positive and negative words have produced mixed results. It is therefore not clear how physical and personality attributes with emotional valence (i.e., positive and negative valence) are processed. Thus, this study aimed to examine the neural activity associated with words describing personality traits and physical characteristics with positive or negative emotional valence using Event Related Potentials (ERPs). Methods A sample of 15 healthy adults (7 men, 8 women) participated in a computerized word categorization task. Participants were asked to categorize visual word stimuli as physical characteristics or personality traits, while ERPs were recorded synchronously. Results Behavioral reaction times to negative physical stimuli were shorter compared to negative personality words, however reaction times did not significantly differ for positive stimuli. Electrophysiological results showed that personality stimuli elicited larger P2 and LPC (Late Positive Component) amplitudes compared to physical stimuli, regardless of negative or positive valence. Moreover, negative as compared with positive stimuli elicited larger P2 and LPC amplitudes. Conclusion Personality and physical stimuli were processed differently regardless of positive or negative valence. These findings suggest that personality traits and physical characteristics are differentially classified and are associated with different motivational significance. PMID:22967478

  1. Seasonal variability in aerosol optical and physical characteristics ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Investigations of aerosol optical and physical characteristics using the application of Ångström formula and second order polynomial fit were ... general, Ångström Power Law is applicable to the entire wavelength spectrum, only if the ...... Winter aerosol and trace gas characteristics over a high- altitude station in the Western ...

  2. Physical, chemical, and water absorption characteristics of tropical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Significant differences were observed among hybrids for all the parameters investigated but none of the hybrids excelled in all quality characteristics. Hybrid 8644-31 had relatively high test ... of producers, processors, and consumers. Key Words: Chemical characteristics, hybrid maize, physical properties, West Africa

  3. [Experimental study of optical characteristics of homogeneous highly-dispersive biological medium].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danilov, A A; Dolgushin, S A; Masloboev, Iu P; Selishchev, S V; Tereshchenko, S A

    2007-01-01

    Specific features of the process of short laser pulse propagation through a highly-dispersive biological medium are considered. Two models are used for the theoretical description of propagation of optical radiation through a highly-dispersive medium: diffusion approximation and non-stationary axial model. Physical characteristics of the dispersive medium are determined in both models. The obtained theoretical dependences are found to be in qualitative agreement with the results of experimental study.

  4. Experimental test results study future of physical profile of the aviation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orlenko N. A.

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available He results of studies of the effectiveness of the proposed work program for the training of professional-applied physical training future pilots. Based on the analysis of the data determined by the level of physical fitness, and also revealed the dynamics of the motor characteristics of future pilots. The got results were compared in the control group of students of 1-2 courses of speciality "Aeronavigation" (40 men and to the experimental group of 1-2 of speciality "Exploitation of aircrafts" (40 men. The norms of certifying were analysed for competition physical preparation during all period of education. Conducted experiment gave an opportunity to define the level of general physical preparedness of future pilots. It is proved that in the future pilots of physical fitness are a wide range of knowledge in physical education and professional-applied physical training, which makes the learning process more effective.

  5. Theoretical and experimental supersonic lateral-directional stability characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamb, M.; Sawyer, W. C.; Thomas, J. L.

    1981-01-01

    A program has been initiated at NASA Langley Research Center to assess several methods for estimation of lateral-directional stability. As a basis for comparison, experimental data are presented for a simple wing-body vertical tail configuration. The methods for estimating the characteristics include a second-order shock expansion and panel method (MISLIFT), a slender body and 'first-order' panel method (APAS), and a 'higher-order' panel method for linearized supersonic flow (PAN AIR). The results show that PAN AIR provides accurate estimates of these characteristics at moderate angles of attack for complete configurations with either single or twin vertical tails. APAS provides estimates for complete configurations at zero angle of attack. However, MISLIFT only provides estimates for the simplest body-vertical tail configurations at zero angle of attack.

  6. Experimental Study on Thrust Characteristics of Airspace Laser Propulsion Engine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ageichik, A. A.; Egorov, M. S.; Rezunkov, Y. A.; Safronov, A. L.; Stepanov, V. V.

    2004-03-01

    In the paper a specially designed airspace laser propulsion engine is examined at the non-conventional laser beam input into the engine nozzle. The experiments are carried out by using of the laboratory stand and pulsed CO2 laser. In the experiments, geometrical parameters of the engine and laser pulse characteristics are varied. The technique of the experiments allowed measuring of momentum coupling coefficient Cm with accuracy of +/-10%. The coupling coefficient Cm was experimentally measured and compared with Cm determined theoretically. The dependences of the coupling coefficient on the laser pulse characteristics and geometrical parameters of the engine are also obtained. In the paper the analysis of the flight model of the airspace laser propulsion engine is considered too.

  7. Experimental aerodynamic characteristics of vehicles traveling in tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurtz, D. W.; Dayman, B., Jr.

    1975-01-01

    A simplified theoretical model for a vehicle traveling through an unvented tube under equilibrium incompressible conditions was used to guide the test program, reduce the data, and determine the self-consistency of the results. The results were then used to establish values for the arbitrary coefficients in the theoretical model. Substantial progress was made in understanding the aerodynamic characteristics of vehicles traveling in tubes as exemplified by the good agreement of the theoretical model predictions with the experimental data throughout the Reynolds number range (three orders of magnitude, up to that for an actual full-scale system) and the many geometric variables tested.

  8. Experimental Physical Sciences Vistas Performance through Science Winter 2017

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kippen, Karen Elizabeth [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Cruz, James Michael [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hockaday, Mary Yvonne P. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Lacerda, Alex Hugo [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Wilburn, Wesley Scott [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Batha, Steven H. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bronkhorst, Curt Allan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Brown, Eric [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Carnes, Jay Russell [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Del Mauro, Diana [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); DeYoung, Anemarie [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Freibert, Franz Joseph [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Fronzak, Hannah Kristina [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Gray, III, George Thompson [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Hooks, Daniel Edwin [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Martineau, Rick Lorne [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Martz, Joseph Christopher [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Migliori, Albert [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Poling, Charles C. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Prestridge, Katherine Philomena [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Schraad, Mark William [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Stevens, Michael Francis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); White, Morgan Curtis [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-02-23

    This issue of Experimental Physical Sciences Vistas focuses on the integrated science that plays a critical role in Los Alamos National Laboratory’s support of the nation’s nuclear deterrent. I hope you will enjoy reading about these accomplishments, opportunities, and challenges.

  9. Science Academies' 93rd Refresher Course in Experimental Physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 22; Issue 9. Science Academies' 93rd Refresher Course in Experimental Physics. Information and Announcements Volume 22 Issue 9 September 2017 pp 901-901. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  10. Science Academies' Refresher Course in Experimental Physics 10 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-05-25

    May 25, 2017 ... A Refresher Course in Experimental Physics will be held at Goa University, Goa from 10 to 25 May 2017 for the benefit of faculty involved in teaching ... experiments are in (a) mechanics, (b) heat, (c) electricity both DC and AC, (d) magnetism, (e) relaxation,. (f) phase sensitive detection technique, and (g) ...

  11. Emotional Arousal of Beginning Physics Teachers during Extended Experimental Investigations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritchie, Stephen M.; Tobin, Kenneth; Sandhu, Maryam; Sandhu, Satwant; Henderson, Senka; Roth, Wolff-Michael

    2013-01-01

    Teachers often have difficulty implementing inquiry-based activities, leading to the arousal of negative emotions. In this multicase study of beginning physics teachers in Australia, we were interested in the extent to which their expectations were realized and how their classroom experiences while implementing extended experimental investigations…

  12. Science Academies' 92nd Refresher Course in Experimental Physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-11-21

    Nov 21, 2017 ... A Refresher Course in Experimental Physics will be held at Goa University, Goa from. 6 to 21 November 2017 for the benefit of faculty involved in teaching undergraduate and postgraduate courses. Participants in this course will gain hands-on experience with about twenty five out of forty experiments, with ...

  13. Science Academies' XLVII Refresher Course in Experimental Physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 18; Issue 2. Science Academies' XLVII Refresher Course in Experimental Physics. Information and Announcements Volume 18 Issue 2 February 2013 pp 194-194. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  14. Science Academies' 91st Refresher Course in Experimental Physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 22; Issue 7. Science Academies' 91st Refresher Course in Experimental Physics. Information and Announcements Volume 22 Issue 7 July 2017 pp 716-716. Fulltext. Click here to view fulltext PDF. Permanent link:

  15. Indexed compilation of experimental high energy physics literature. [Synopsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horne, C.P.; Yost, G.P.; Rittenberg, A.

    1978-09-01

    An indexed compilation of approximately 12,000 experimental high energy physics documents is presented. A synopsis of each document is presented, and the documenta are indexed according to beam/target/momentum, reaction/momentum, final-state-particle, particle/particle-property, accelerator/detector, and (for a limited set of the documents) experiment. No data are given.

  16. Science Academies' Refresher Course in Experimental Physics 9 ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    A Refresher Course in Experimental Physics will be held at Bahra University, Waknaghat, HP, from 9th to. 24th May 2017 for the benefit of faculty involved in teaching undergraduate and postgraduate courses. Par- ticipants in this course will gain hands on experience with about twenty five experiments, with a low cost kit.

  17. The legacy of the experimental hadron physics programme at COSY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkin, C. [UCL, Physics and Astronomy Department, London (United Kingdom)

    2017-06-15

    The experimental hadronic physics programme at the COoler SYnchrotron of the Forschungszentrum Juelich terminated at the end of 2014. After describing the accelerator and the associated facilities, a review is presented of the major achievements in the field realized over the twenty years of intense research activity. (orig.)

  18. Evaluation of physical and chemical characteristics of xanthan gums

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire Tondo Vendruscolo

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available This work aimed at evaluating the physical and chemical characteristics of the xanthan produced by Xanthomonas arboricola pv pruni strain 115, and at comparing it with two xanthans obtained from commercial sources – Kelzan e Roeper. The analyzed xanthans showed specified patterns mentioned in the literature, except for low pyruvic acid content in the xanthan produced by strain 115, low monovalent salt content in the Roeper sample and high divalent salt content in both commercial samples. The low pyruvic acid content in the xanthan produced by X. arboricola pv pruni 115 did not affect the aqueous solution viscosity. Thus, the xanthan produced by strain 115 show physical and chemical characteristics that allow its use by the petroleum industry, as well as, in food, pharmaceutical and cosmetics products. Xanthomonas arboricola pv pruni. Xanthan. Physical and chemical characteristics.

  19. Experimental review of hypernuclear physics: recent achievements and future perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feliciello, A; Nagae, T

    2015-09-01

    Since the shutdown of several old proton synchrotrons, which played a fundamental role in the second generation experiments in hypernuclear physics performed in Europe, USA and Japan, some new experimental setups aiming to achieve sub-MeV energy resolution have been operating for a long time. Over the last decade the hypernuclear physics community has been committed to carrying out several third generation experiments by exploiting the potential offered by new accelerators, such as a continuous electron beam machine and a ϕ-factory. Large data samples were collected on specific items thanks to dedicated facilities and experimental apparatuses. The attention was mainly focused on both high-resolution spectroscopy and the decay mode study of single Λ-hypernuclei. Nowadays this phase is over but, until recently, important and, to some extent, unexpected results were achieved. An updated review of selected experimental results is presented, as well as a survey of perspectives for future studies.

  20. Determination of physical characteristics of root vegetables with puncture test

    OpenAIRE

    Bajkin, Anđelko; Ponjičan, Ondrej; Radomirović, Dragi; Babić, Mirko; Radojčin, Milivoj

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this research was to analyze the physical characteristics of root vegetables: carrot, parsley, parsnip and celery. These root vegetables are sold fresh on the market which is why it is important to specify its shape, structure and root texture. Carrot, parsley and parsnip were grown in ridge cultivation and celery was grown on the flat ground. The yields of root and leaf, as well as the dry matter were measured. Root physical characteristics were tested by the puncture test. The pu...

  1. IRRADIATION EFFECTS ON THE PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF SEWAGE SLUDGE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, M-J.; Lee, J-K.; Yoo, D-H.; Ho, K.

    2004-10-05

    The radiation effects on the physical characteristic of the sewage sludge were studied in order to obtain information which will be used for study on the enhancement of the sludge's dewaterability. Water contents, capillary suction time, zeta potential, irradiation dose, sludge acidity, total solid concentration, sludge particle size and microbiology before and after irradiation were investigated. Irradiation gave an effect on physical characteristics sludge. Water content in sludge cake could be reduced by irradiation at the dose of 10kGy.

  2. Experimental And Theoretical High Energy Physics Research At UCLA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cousins, Robert D. [University of California Los Angeles

    2013-07-22

    This is the final report of the UCLA High Energy Physics DOE Grant No. DE-FG02- 91ER40662. This report covers the last grant project period, namely the three years beginning January 15, 2010, plus extensions through April 30, 2013. The report describes the broad range of our experimental research spanning direct dark matter detection searches using both liquid xenon (XENON) and liquid argon (DARKSIDE); present (ICARUS) and R&D for future (LBNE) neutrino physics; ultra-high-energy neutrino and cosmic ray detection (ANITA); and the highest-energy accelerator-based physics with the CMS experiment and CERN’s Large Hadron Collider. For our theory group, the report describes frontier activities including particle astrophysics and cosmology; neutrino physics; LHC interaction cross section calculations now feasible due to breakthroughs in theoretical techniques; and advances in the formal theory of supergravity.

  3. Effects of some physical and chemical characteristics of soil on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Effects of some physical and chemical characteristics of soil on productivity and yield of cowpea ( Vigna unguiculata L. Walp. ) ... Productivity parameters (dry weight aerial parts, roots dry weight, abortion seeds rate, number of flowering per plant, flowering rate) and yield components (number of seeds per pod, number of pod ...

  4. Oak Ridge Reservation. Physical Characteristics and National Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parr, Patricia Dreyer [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Joan, F. Hughes [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2006-10-09

    The topology, geology, hydrology, vegetation, and wildlife of the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) provide a complex and intricate array of resources that directly impact land stewardship and use decisions. The purpose of this document is to consolidate general information regarding the natural resources and physical characteristics of the ORR.

  5. The effects of selected anatomical characteristics on physical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of selected anatomical characteristics on physical properties of Ethiopian Highland Bamboo Arundinaria Alpina K. Schum. (Poaceae) ... In early maturing bamboo, fibers are relatively small in wall thickness. The results of statistical analyses revealed that bamboo portion has significant effects on all variables.

  6. Physical and optical characteristics of atmospheric aerosols during ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Physical and optical characteristics of atmospheric aerosols during ICARB at Manora Peak, Nainital: A sparsely inhabited, high-altitude location in the Himalayas ... Total aerosol number concentration and BC mass concentration showed diurnal variation with a midnight and early morning minimum and a late afternoon ...

  7. Physical Characteristics of Camel Muscle Compared with Three ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The experiment was conducted to examine the physical characteristics of Camel muscle compared with (Gudali, Keteku and White Fulani) cattle. Semimenbranosus muscles used were collected immediately after slaughter, trimmed off all surface fat, connective tissue and chilled for 24hours at 4°c. The meats used were ...

  8. The Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Atakpo River, Niger ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The physical and chemical characteristics of Atakpo River, Niger Delta, Nigeria were investigated for six months from March to August 2011. Three designated stations were chosen along the river course corresponding to areas where various human activities are carried out. Water samples were collected monthly from the ...

  9. Relating consumer perceptions of pork quality to physical product characteristics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredahl, Lone; Grunert, Klaus G.; Fertin, Claus

    are related to a number of physical product characteristics commonly used to assess objective pork quality. 3. 200 German consumers are interviewed using real samples of pork chops, alongside with technical measurements of the meat quality. 4. Results show that consumers use colour, fat marbling, share of fat...

  10. Variations in Physical Characteristics and Oil Content of Jatropha ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oil from Jatropha curcas is useful for medicinal and veterinary and industrial purposes, as insecticide, soap making oil and biodiesel. This experiment was conducted to determine the variation in physical characteristics, oil content and some nutrient compositions of J. curcas seeds from five agro-ecological zones in Nigeria.

  11. An Experimental and Theoretical High Energy Physics Program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shipsey, Ian

    2012-07-31

    The Purdue High Energy Physics Group conducts research in experimental and theoretical elementary particle physics and experimental high energy astrophysics. Our goals, which we share with high energy physics colleagues around the world, are to understand at the most fundamental level the nature of matter, energy, space and time, and in order to explain the birth, evolution and fate of the Universe. The experiments in which we are currently involved are: CDF, CLEO-c, CMS, LSST, and VERITAS. We have been instrumental in establishing two major in-house facilities: The Purdue Particle Physics Microstructure Detector Facility (P3MD) in 1995 and the CMS Tier-2 center in 2005. The research efforts of the theory group span phenomenological and theoretical aspects of the Standard Model as well as many of its possible extensions. Recent work includes phenomenological consequences of supersymmetric models, string theory and applications of gauge/gravity duality, the cosmological implications of massive gravitons, and the physics of extra dimensions.

  12. Experimental Evaluation of Characteristics of SR Motor Made of Permendur

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasegawa, Yu; Nakamura, Kenji; Ichinokura, Osamu

    A switched reluctance (SR) motor has a doubly salient pole structure. The performance of the SR motor strongly depends on the magnetic properties of the core material since it consists only of an iron core and copper windings. This study experimentally evaluates the performance of an SR motor made of permendur (Fe-49%Co alloy), which has very high saturation flux density and low core loss. Two types of SR motors that have the same dimensions but different core materials are used: one motor is made of the conventional non-oriented Si steel, and the other is made of permendur. Comparison of the characteristics of the two motors shows that the performance of the permendur SR motor surpasses that of the conventional one in terms of output power and efficiency.

  13. Interaction Between Physical Environment, Social Environment, and Child Characteristics in Determining Physical Activity at Child Care

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gubbels, J.S.; Kremers, S.P.J.; Kann, D.H.H. van; Stafleu, A.; Candel, M.J.J.M.; Dagnelie, P.C.; Thijs, C.; Vries, N.K.de

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the association between the child-care environment and physical activity of 2- and 3-year-olds. Based on an ecological view of environmental influences on health behavior, we hypothesized that the social and physical environment, as well as child characteristics (age and

  14. Experimental Assessment of Tensile Failure Characteristic for Advanced Composite Laminates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Myoung Keon [Agency for Defense Development, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong Won; Yoon, Dong Hyun; Kim, Jae Hoon [Chungnam Nat’l Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-10-15

    In recent years, major airplane manufacturers have been using the laminate failure theory to estimate the strain of composite structures for airplanes. The laminate failure theory uses the failure strain of the laminate to analyze composite structures. This paper describes a procedure for the experimental assessment of laminate tensile failure characteristics. Regression analysis was used as the experimental assessment method. The regression analysis was performed with the response variable being the laminate failure strain and with the regressor variables being two-ply orientation (0° and ±45°) variables. The composite material in this study is a carbon/epoxy unidirectional (UD) tape that was cured as a pre-preg at 177°C(350°F). A total of 149 tension tests were conducted on specimens from 14 distinct laminates that were laid up at standard angle layers (0°, 45°, -45°, and 90°). The ASTM-D-3039 standard was used as the test method.

  15. Salience of physical appearance characteristics among young women in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rongmuang, Daravan; Corte, Colleen; McCreary, Linda L; Park, Chang G; Miller, Arlene; Gallo, Agatha

    2011-09-01

    Our aim in the present study was to identify key components of physical appearance among young Thai women. Free listings, focus groups and pile sorting were used. One-hundred twenty young women generated 78 unique physical appearance characteristics. Ninety-four nursing students validated these characteristics in focus groups and then sorted them into piles that reflected separate domains of physical appearance and labeled them. Salience analysis revealed that facial appearance (e.g., bright facial skin, high nose bridge, big eyes) was the most important domain, followed by body weight and shape, skin color and texture, hair (color, texture, length), and 'other' physical appearance (e.g., slender neck, slim fingers). This is the first study to identify aspects of physical appearance that are most salient to young Thai women and that may differ from women in other cultural contexts. These findings could be used to develop culturally grounded measures of physical appearance in Thai women. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Respecifying lab ethnography an ethnomethodological study of experimental physics

    CERN Document Server

    Sormani, Philippe

    2014-01-01

    Respecifying Lab Ethnography delivers the first ethnomethodological study of current experimental physics in action, describing the disciplinary orientation of lab work and exploring the discipline in its social order, formal stringency and skilful performance - in situ and in vivo. In bringing together two major strands of ethnomethodological inquiry, reflexive ethnography and video analysis, which have hitherto existed in parallel, Respecifying Lab Ethnography introduces a practice-based video analysis. In doing so, the book recasts conventional distinctions to shed fresh light on methodolog

  17. Investigations in Experimental and Theoretical High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Krennrich, Frank [Iowa State University

    2013-07-29

    We report on the work done under DOE grant DE-FG02-01ER41155. The experimental tasks have ongoing efforts at CERN (ATLAS), the Whipple observatory (VERITAS) and R&D work on dual readout calorimetry and neutrino-less double beta decay. The theoretical task emphasizes the weak interaction and in particular CP violation and neutrino physics. The detailed descriptions of the final report on each project are given under the appropriate task section of this report.

  18. Defining Dynamic Characteristics of Multilink Pendulum System with Comparison of the Calculated and Experimental Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. A. Gribkov

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available We consider the multilink pendulum system consisting of six physical pendulums. A pendulum (carrier has inertia parameters, which significantly exceed the remaining (carried ones placed on the carrier. In addition to the system under analysis, in particular, the paper presents a design scheme for a two-stage liquid fuel rocket using pendulums as the analogues of fluctuating fuel. Pendulum models also find application to solve problems of stabilization of space tether systems. The objective of the study is to determine dynamic characteristics of the said sixmembered pendulum system, as well as to identify specific dynamic properties inherent in objects of this kind. Dynamic characteristics of the system are determined by calculations. A physical model of the pendulum allowed us to compare the calculated and experimental results. To conduct the frequency tests of the pendulum model three pilot units have been created. The first two units turned out to be inappropriate for fulfilling the experimental tasks for various reasons. The third unit enabled us to obtain desirable experimental results. The "calculation–experiment” discrepancy on the natural frequencies of the pendulum model for the majority of frequencies was less than 5%. We analyzed the dynamic features of multilink pendulum systems "carried by the carrier unit links". The analysis results are applicable to the above-noted object classes of rocket and space technology.

  19. Characteristics of joint physical custody families in Flanders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    An Katrien Sodermans

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND Research conducted in the 1990s showed that children who live alternately with their mother and father after divorce (joint physical custody have closer relationships with both parents and better emotional outcomes. In 1995 and 2006, joint legal custody and joint physical custody became the default judicial recommendations in Belgium. These defaults served to increase the incidence of joint custody arrangements. However, parents with joint physical custody arrangements who divorced before 2006 may have had higher socio-economic standing and lower conflict relationships than couples that divorced afterwards. Thus earlier research on the impact of joint physical custody arrangements on child outcomes may be too optimistic when considering children of recently divorced parents. OBJECTIVE This study examines the characteristics of four different physical custody arrangements (sole mother, sole father, joint physical, and flexible custody in Flanders, Belgium, and whether these characteristics have changed over time. The legal changes in 1995 and 2006 are used to distinguish three divorce cohorts. METHODS We use data on 2,207 couples that legally divorced between 1971 and 2010 from the Divorce in Flanders project, a large-scale representative multi-actor survey. Multinomial logistic regression models provide estimates of the likelihoods of different physical custody arrangements. RESULTS The incidence of sole mother custody has decreased over the last decades and children increasingly alternate between the households of the mother and the father after divorce. The incidence of sole father custody has remained low. Higher educated parents are more likely to have joint physical custody arrangements than parents from lower social classes. Also, within couples, relative educational levels are important because the higher educated spouse is more likely to have physical custody of the child. We also find that the associations between socio

  20. Nuclear Physics Division Institute of Experimental Physics Warsaw University annual report 1994

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osuch, S. [ed.

    1995-12-31

    In the presented Annual Report the activities of the Nuclear Physics Division of the Institute of Experimental Physics of the Warsaw University in 1994 are described. The report consist of three sections: (i) Reaction Mechanism and Nuclear Structure (12 articles); (ii) Experimental Methods and Instrumentation (2 articles); (iii) Other Research (1 article). Additionally the list of seminars held at the NPD, personnel list and list of published papers is also given. In the first, leading article of the report written by head of NPD prof. Ch. Droste the general description of the Department activity is presented.

  1. Physics of mind: Experimental confirmations of theoretical predictions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoeller, Félix; Perlovsky, Leonid; Arseniev, Dmitry

    2018-02-02

    What is common among Newtonian mechanics, statistical physics, thermodynamics, quantum physics, the theory of relativity, astrophysics and the theory of superstrings? All these areas of physics have in common a methodology, which is discussed in the first few lines of the review. Is a physics of the mind possible? Is it possible to describe how a mind adapts in real time to changes in the physical world through a theory based on a few basic laws? From perception and elementary cognition to emotions and abstract ideas allowing high-level cognition and executive functioning, at nearly all levels of study, the mind shows variability and uncertainties. Is it possible to turn psychology and neuroscience into so-called "hard" sciences? This review discusses several established first principles for the description of mind and their mathematical formulations. A mathematical model of mind is derived from these principles. This model includes mechanisms of instincts, emotions, behavior, cognition, concepts, language, intuitions, and imagination. We clarify fundamental notions such as the opposition between the conscious and the unconscious, the knowledge instinct and aesthetic emotions, as well as humans' universal abilities for symbols and meaning. In particular, the review discusses in length evolutionary and cognitive functions of aesthetic emotions and musical emotions. Several theoretical predictions are derived from the model, some of which have been experimentally confirmed. These empirical results are summarized and we introduce new theoretical developments. Several unsolved theoretical problems are proposed, as well as new experimental challenges for future research. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  2. Qualitative investigation of students' views about experimental physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Dehui; Zwickl, Benjamin M.; Wilcox, Bethany R.; Lewandowski, H. J.

    2017-12-01

    This study examines students' reasoning surrounding seemingly contradictory Likert-scale responses within five items in the Colorado Learning Attitudes About Science Survey for Experimental Physics (E-CLASS). We administered the E-CLASS with embedded open-ended prompts, which asked students to provide explanations after making a Likert-scale selection. The quantitative scores on those items showed that our sample of the 216 students enrolled in first year and beyond first year physics courses demonstrated the same trends as previous national data. A qualitative analysis of students' open-ended responses was used to examine common reasoning patterns related to particular Likert-scale responses. When explaining responses to items regarding the role of experiments in confirming known results and also contributing to the growth of scientific knowledge, a common reasoning pattern suggested that confirming known results in a classroom experiment can help with understanding concepts. Thus, physics experiments contribute to students' personal scientific knowledge growth, while also confirming widely known results. Many students agreed that having correct formatting and making well-reasoned conclusions are the main goal for communicating experimental results. Students who focused on sections and formatting emphasized how it enables clear and efficient communication. However, very few students discussed the link between well-reasoned conclusions and effective scientific communication. Lastly, many students argued it was possible to complete experiments without understanding equations and physics concepts. The most common justification was that they could simply follow instructions to finish the lab without understanding. The findings suggest several implications for teaching physics laboratory courses, for example, incorporating some lab activities with outcomes that are unknown to the students might have a significant impact on students' understanding of experiments as an

  3. The Physical Characteristic of Dental Film : Characteristic Curve, MTF and Comparison with Ortho Type Film

    OpenAIRE

    石塚, 真澄; 大石, 幹雄; 佐々木, 正臣; Masumi, ISHIDUKA; Mikio, Ohishi; Masaomi, SASAKI; 東北大学歯学部付属病院放射線室; 東北大学医療技術短期大学部診療放射線技術学科; 県立こども病院; Department of Radiology, Tohoku University Dental Hospital; Department of Radiological Technology, College of Medical Sciences, Tohoku University; Miyagi Children's Hospital

    2003-01-01

    This study is to make clear the physical characteristics of conventional dental films that was not had many reports. The characteristic curves of the dental film were measured by the distance method that is the basic method for general x-ray film. Before measurement, the scatterings about characteristic of dental film were confirmed to be as the same as general x-ray film. Then we evaluated the two kinds of dental film's sensitivity and Modulation Transfer Function (MTF) values that were meas...

  4. Characteristics of School Campuses and Physical Activity Among Youth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cradock, Angie L.; Melly, Steven J.; Allen, Joseph G.; Morris, Jeffrey S.; Gortmaker, Steven L.

    2009-01-01

    Background Previous research suggests that school characteristics may influence physical activity. However, few studies have examined associations between school building and campus characteristics and objective measures of physical activity among middle school students. Methods Students from ten middle schools (n=248, 42% female, mean age 13.7 years) wore TriTrac-R3D accelerometers in 1997 recording measures of minute-by-minute physical movements during the school day that were then averaged over 15-minute intervals (n=16,619) and log-transformed. School characteristics, including school campus area, play area, and building area (per student) were assessed retrospectively in 2004–2005 using land-use parcel data, site visits, ortho-photos, architectural plans, and site maps. In 2006, linear mixed models using SAS PROC MIXED were fit to examine associations between school environmental variables and physical activity, controlling for potentially confounding variables. Results Area per enrolled student ranged from 8.8 to 143.7 m2 for school campuses, from 12.1 to 24.7 m2 for buildings, and from 0.4 to 58.9 m2 for play areas. Play area comprised from 3% to 62% of total campus area across schools. In separate regression models, school campus area per student (β=0.2244, p<0.0001); building area per student (β=2.1302, p<0.02); and play area per student (β=0.347, p<0.0001) were each directly associated with log-TriTrac-R3D vector magnitude. Given the range of area density measures in this sample of schools, this translates into an approximate 20% to 30% increase in average vector magnitude, or walking 2 extra miles over the course of a week. Conclusions Larger school campuses, school buildings, and play areas (per enrolled student) are associated with higher levels of physical activity in middle school students. PMID:17673097

  5. Experimental investigation on the pressure characteristics of cavity closure region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yadong; Yuan, Xulong; Zhang, Yuwen

    2012-12-01

    The most complicated component in cavitating flow and pressure distribution is the flow in the cavity closure line. The cavitating flow and pressure distribution provide critical aspects of flow field details in the region. The integral of pressure results of the hydrodynamic forces, indicate domination in the design of a supercavitating vehicle. An experiment was performed in a water tunnel to investigate the pressure characteristics of the cavity closure region. Ventilation methods were employed to generate artificial cavity, and the ventilation rate was adjusted accordingly to obtain the desired cavity length. An array of pressure transducers was laid down the cavity closure line to capture pressure distribution in this region. The experimental results show that there is a pressure peak in the cavity closure region, and the rise rate of pressure in space tends to be higher in the upwind side when the flow is non-axisymmetric. The transient pressure variations during the cavity formation procedure were also present. The method of measurement in this paper can be referenced by engineers. The result helps to study the flow pattern of cavity closure region, and it can also be used to analyze the formation of supercavitating vehicle hydrodynamics.

  6. Characteristics of older adult physical activity program users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosenberg, Dori E; Grothaus, Lou; Arterburn, David

    2014-07-01

    Physical activity levels are low among older adults. Many Medicare members have access to low-cost programs including Silver Sneakers (SS) and EnhanceFitness (EF) at no additional cost, however, utilization of these programs is low. We aimed to compare characteristics of people using SS and EF to nonusers of these programs to better understand the characteristics of these 2 populations and to guide future physical activity promotion program design. Cross-sectional. We used 2010 and 2011 electronic health records including demographic, health condition, Charlson comorbidity score, healthcare cost and utilization, and SS and EF program utilization data from 37,492 Medicare members from a large integrated health care system. Models were fit using logistic and negative binomial regression adjusting for age, gender, race, ethnicity, BMI category, and primary care clinic location. Compared with nonusers (N = 30,733; 82%), SS users (N = 6200; 16.5%) were younger and less likely to be male, obese, or have diabetes or cardiovascular disease; they also had lower Charlson scores and fewer hospital admissions than nonusers. EF users (N = 721; 2%) were older, were less likely to be male, had lower Charlson scores, and had fewer hospital admissions compared to nonusers. Low-cost, evidence-based physical activity programs are vastly underused by Medicare members. Our data suggest that targeting more chronically ill and obese older adults for physical activity programs might help improve the reach of existing evidence-based programs.

  7. CONDITIONS OF PHYSICAL MODELING AERODYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF AIRCRAFT WITH CHASSIS HOVERCRAFT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu. Yu. Merzlikin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The features of the physical modeling in the experimental determination of aerodynamics-cal tubes (WT of low-velocity steady and unsteady aerodynamic characteristics at takeoff and landing of aircraft (LA with the chassis air-cushion (ball screw and in studies to determine the stability of equilibrium regimes of movement and shock-absorbing properties of ball screws. Are conscdered the requirements for the experimental facilities, model aircraft with ball screws and re-test of the latest zhimam on the free stream velocity, flow and pressure blowers VР, the frequencies and amplitudes of the oscillations are formulated.

  8. Experimental physics with polarized protons, neutrons and deuterons

    CERN Document Server

    Lehar, František; Wilkin, Colin

    2015-01-01

    The monograph gives a comprehensive overview of the diverse aspects of the experimental study of polarization phenomena in nucleon-nucleon and nucleon-deuteron collisions. The special nature of this volume is that it is based on the original physics results and knowledge gained by one of the authors (F. Lehar), who was a respected researcher in the field for nearly fifty years. The results of these experiments provide valuable information on the spin dependence of the forces acting between nucleons in atomic nuclei, of which all matter is ultimately composed. The fundamental importance of the results means that the subject will remain topical for years to come. The book is designed for teachers and students of natural sciences, espe - cially those with interests in nuclear and particle physics, as well as for ex - perimental physicists who are investigating polarization phenomena using accelerators of charged particles. The writing of the book was initiated by F. Lehar who was the driving force beh...

  9. A guide to experimental particle physics literature, 1991-1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ezhela, V.V.; Filimonov, B.B.; Lugovsky, S.B. [Inst. for High Energy Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1996-10-01

    We present an indexed guide to experimental particle physics literature for the years 1991 - 1996. Approximately 4200 papers are indexed by (1) Beam/Target/Momentum (2) Reaction/Momentum/Data-Descriptor (including the final state) (3) Particle/Decay (4) Accelerator/Experiment/Detector. All indices are cross-referenced to the paper`s title and references in the ID/Reference/Title index. The information presented in this guide is also publicly available on a regularly-updated DATAGUIDE database from the World Wide Web.

  10. Experimental High Energy Physics Brandeis University Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blocker, Craig A. [Brandeis Univ., Waltham, MA (United States). Dept. of Physics; Bensinger, James [Brandeis Univ., Waltham, MA (United States); Sciolla, Gabriella [Brandeis Univ., Waltham, MA (United States); Wellenstein, Hermann [Brandeis Univ., Waltham, MA (United States)

    2013-07-26

    During the past three years, the Brandeis experimental particle physics group was comprised of four faculty (Bensinger, Blocker, Sciolla, and Wellenstein), one research scientist, one post doc, and ten graduate students. The group focused on the ATLAS experiment at LHC. In 2011, the LHC delivered 5/fb-1 of pp colliding beam data at a center-of-mass energy of 7 TeV. In 2012, the center-of-mass energy was increased to 8 TeV, and 20/fb-1 were delivered. The Brandeis group focused on two aspects of the ATLAS experiment $-$ the muon detection system and physics analysis. Since data taking began at the LHC in 2009, our group actively worked on ATLAS physics analysis, with an emphasis on exploiting the new energy regime of the LHC to search for indications of physics beyond the Standard Model. The topics investigated were Z' → ll, Higgs → ZZ* -. 4l, lepton flavor violation, muon compositeness, left-right symmetric theories, and a search for Higgs → ee. The Brandeis group has for many years been a leader in the endcap muon system, making important contributions to every aspect of its design and production. During the past three years, the group continued to work on commissioning the muon detector and alignment system, development of alignment software, and installation of remaining chambers.

  11. Children with Physical Disabilities at School and Home: Physical Activity and Contextual Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Ru Li; Cindy Hui-Ping Sit; Jane Jie Yu; Raymond Kim-Wai Sum; Stephen Heung-Sang Wong; Kenneth Chik-Chi Cheng; McKenzie, Thomas L.

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to assess the physical activity (PA) of children with physical disabilities (PD) in school and home settings and to simultaneously examine selected contextual characteristics in relation to PA in those settings. Children with PD (N = 35; Mean age = 15.67 ± 4.30 years; 26 boys) were systematically observed using BEACHES (Behaviors of Eating and Activity for Children’s Health: Evaluation System) at school (before school, recess, lunch break, after class) and at hom...

  12. Interaction between physical environment, social environment, and child characteristics in determining physical activity at child care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gubbels, Jessica S; Kremers, Stef P J; van Kann, Dave H H; Stafleu, Annette; Candel, Math J J M; Dagnelie, Pieter C; Thijs, Carel; de Vries, Nanne K

    2011-01-01

    To investigate the association between the child-care environment and physical activity of 2- and 3-year-olds. Based on an ecological view of environmental influences on health behavior, we hypothesized that the social and physical environment, as well as child characteristics (age and gender), would show independent and interactive effects on children's physical activity intensity. Observations of physical activity intensity were performed among children (N = 175) at 9 Dutch child-care centers. Aspects of the child-care environment were assessed using the validated Environment and Policy Assessment and Observation (EPAO) Instrument. Multilevel linear regression analyses examined the association of environment and child characteristics with children's activity intensity. Moderation was tested by including interaction terms in the analyses, with subsequent post hoc analyses for significant interaction terms. Observed child physical activity intensity, measured with the Observational System for Recording Physical Activity in Children-Preschool Version. A large proportion of the observed activities were classified as sedentary, while far fewer observations were classified as moderate or vigorous. Activity opportunities in the physical environment (assessed using EPAO) and prompts by staff and peers were significantly and positively related to physical activity intensity, while group size was negatively related to activity intensity. The influence of the physical environment was moderated by social environment (peer group size), while the social environment in turn interacted with child characteristics (age and gender) in determining activity intensity. Our findings are in line with the ecological perspective regarding environmental influences on behavior, and stress the importance of incorporating the child-care environment in efforts to prevent childhood overweight and obesity. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2010 APA, all rights reserved).

  13. Robert Dicke and the Naissance of Experimental Gravity Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Peebles, P J E

    2016-01-01

    The experimental study of gravity became much more active in the late 1950s, a change pronounced enough be termed the naissance of empirical gravity physics. A review of the developments since 1915, and up to the transition to what might be termed a normal and accepted part of physical science in the late 1960s, shows the importance of advances in technologies, here as in all branches of science. The role of contingency is illustrated by Robert Dicke's decision to change directions in mid-career, to lead a research group dedicated to the experimental study of gravity. One sees the power of nonempirical evidence, which led some in the 1950s to feel that general relativity theory is so logically sound as to be scarcely worth the testing, while Dicke and others argued that a poorly tested theory is only that, and that other nonempirical arguments, based on Mach's Principle and Dirac's Large Numbers, suggested it was worth looking for a better theory of gravity. I conclude by offering lessons from this history, s...

  14. Literature in Focus: Statistical Methods in Experimental Physics

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    Frederick James was a high-energy physicist who became the CERN "expert" on statistics and is now well-known around the world, in part for this famous text. The first edition of Statistical Methods in Experimental Physics was originally co-written with four other authors and was published in 1971 by North Holland (now an imprint of Elsevier). It became such an important text that demand for it has continued for more than 30 years. Fred has updated it and it was released in a second edition by World Scientific in 2006. It is still a top seller and there is no exaggeration in calling it «the» reference on the subject. A full review of the title appeared in the October CERN Courier.Come and meet the author to hear more about how this book has flourished during its 35-year lifetime. Frederick James Statistical Methods in Experimental Physics Monday, 26th of November, 4 p.m. Council Chamber (Bldg. 503-1-001) The author will be introduced...

  15. Evaluating experimental molecular physics studies of radiation damage in DNA*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Śmiałek, Małgorzata A.

    2016-11-01

    The field of Atomic and Molecular Physics (AMP) is a mature field exploring the spectroscopy, excitation, ionisation of atoms and molecules in all three phases. Understanding of the spectroscopy and collisional dynamics of AMP has been fundamental to the development and application of quantum mechanics and is applied across a broad range of disparate disciplines including atmospheric sciences, astrochemistry, combustion and environmental science, and in central to core technologies such as semiconductor fabrications, nanotechnology and plasma processing. In recent years the molecular physics also started significantly contributing to the area of the radiation damage at molecular level and thus cancer therapy improvement through both experimental and theoretical advances, developing new damage measurement and analysis techniques. It is therefore worth to summarise and highlight the most prominent findings from the AMP community that contribute towards better understanding of the fundamental processes in biologically-relevant systems as well as to comment on the experimental challenges that were met for more complex investigation targets. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Low-Energy Interactions related to Atmospheric and Extreme Conditions", edited by S. Ptasinska, M. Smialek-Telega, A. Milosavljevic, B. Sivaraman.

  16. MOTIVATION AND PERFORMANCE IN PHYSICAL EDUCATION: AN EXPERIMENTAL TEST

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juan A. Moreno

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to analyse, experimentally, the relationships between motivation and performance in a lateral movement test in physical education. The study group consisted of 363 students (227 boys and 136 girls, aged between 12 and 16, who were randomly divided into three groups: an experimental group in which an incremental ability belief was induced, another experimental group in which an entity ability belief was induced, and a control group where there was no intervention. Measurements were made of situational intrinsic motivation, perceived competence in executing the task and performance. The results revealed that the incremental group reported higher scores on the situational intrinsic motivation scale. The entity group demonstrated better performance in the first test attempt than the incremental group but, in the second attempt, the performance was similar in the different groups. Perhaps the initial differences in performance disappeared because the incremental group counted on improving in the second attempt. These results are discussed in relation to the intensity with which the teacher conveys information relating to incremental ability belief of the pupil to increase intrinsic motivation and performance

  17. Theoretical and Experimental Studies of Elementary Particle Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Harold G [Indiana University; Kostelecky, V Alan [Indiana University; Musser, James A [Indiana University

    2013-07-29

    The elementary particle physics research program at Indiana University spans a broad range of the most interesting topics in this fundamental field, including important contributions to each of the frontiers identified in the recent report of HEPAP's Particle Physics Prioritization Panel: the Energy Frontier, the Intensity Frontier, and the Cosmic Frontier. Experimentally, we contribute to knowledge at the Energy Frontier through our work on the D0 and ATLAS collaborations. We work at the Intensity Frontier on the MINOS and NOvA experiments and participate in R&D for LBNE. We are also very active on the theoretical side of each of these areas with internationally recognized efforts in phenomenology both in and beyond the Standard Model and in lattice QCD. Finally, although not part of this grant, members of the Indiana University particle physics group have strong involvement in several astrophysics projects at the Cosmic Frontier. Our research efforts are divided into three task areas. The Task A group works on D0 and ATLAS; Task B is our theory group; and Task C contains our MINOS, NOvA, and LBNE (LArTPC) research. Each task includes contributions from faculty, senior scientists, postdocs, graduate and undergraduate students, engineers, technicians, and administrative personnel. This work was supported by DOE Grant DE-FG02-91ER40661. In the following, we describe progress made in the research of each task during the final period of the grant, from November 1, 2009 to April 30, 2013.

  18. Physical Characteristics of Foam Glass Modified with Zirconium Dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semukhin, B. S.; Kazmina, O. V.; Volkova, A. Yu.; Suslyayev, V. I.

    2017-04-01

    The paper examines physical properties of foam glass material modified with 0.3 mass% nano-sized zirconium dioxide. It presents experimental data on the foam glass structure on micro- and meso-levels. The authors make a conclusion about influence and mutual subordination of structural levels in the glass materials. The presence of nanocrystallites (25 nm) located in the amorphous matrix in an ordered fashion and the pore packing that is correct from the symmetry standpoint provide for the enhanced strength of the porous structure. Findings show that the introduction of nano-sized zirconium dioxide leads to the emergence of a hierarchical and mutually subordinate system. The paper concludes that small additions of zirconium oxide have a positive effect on physical and mechanical properties of foam glass material.

  19. INDIVIDUAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE STUDENTS ENROLLED IN DIFFERENT TYPES OF MOTOR ACTIVITY OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. M. Revenko

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to examine intensity of motor and intellectual abilities and motivation for physical activity of students engaged in physical education in different sports groups.Methodology and research methods. Motor abilities of the students were assessed by measuring: hand, strength endurance, speed-power abilities, speed ability and general stamina. Assessment of general intelligence (GI was carried out by R. Amthauer’s test in the adaptation of L. A. Yasjukova. Formal-dynamic characteristics of the individuality (FDCI were studied using the technique of FDCI feedback form proposed by V. M. Rusalov. Assessment of motivation to implement motor activity was performed using the author's questionnaire. The method of statistical information processing has allowed the author to reveal correlation communications between motor abilities and GI of first-year students.Results. Significant differences in the manifestation of the individual students’ characteristics choosing practicing in different types of physical activity are experimentally established. In particular, students who chose table tennis, are inferior to the students who went in for wrestling in the manifestation of certain (power, motor skills, motivation for physical activity, but at the same time show relatively higher rates of certain intellectual abilities.Formal-dynamic traits of individuality are peculiar to students involved in table tennis, reflecting lower psychomotor activity (integrated indicator PDI - Psychomotor Development Index, in comparison with students who prefer fighting. The material presented provides a basis to argue that sports-oriented approach has some potential in the aspect of increase of efficiency of students’ physical education, distinguished by individual characteristics of age specific development.Scientific novelty. Scientific findings on distinct differences in motivation to physical activity, manifestation of motor and mental

  20. A cyber-physical approach to experimental fluid mechanics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackowski, Andrew Williams

    This Thesis documents the design, implementation, and use of a novel type of experimental apparatus, termed Cyber-Physical Fluid Dynamics (CPFD). Unlike traditional fluid mechanics experiments, CPFD is a general-purpose technique that allows one to impose arbitrary forces on an object submerged in a fluid. By combining fluid mechanics with robotics, we can perform experiments that would otherwise be incredibly difficult or time-consuming. More generally, CPFD allows a high degree of automation and control of the experimental process, allowing for much more efficient use of experimental facilities. Examples of CPFD's capabilites include imposing a gravitational force in the horizontal direction (allowing a test object to "fall" sideways in a water channel), simulating nonlinear springs for a vibrating fluid-structure system, or allowing a self-propelled body to move forward under its own force. Because experimental parameters (including forces and even the mass of the test object) are defined in software, one can define entire ensembles of experiments to run autonomously. CPFD additionally integrates related systems such as water channel speed control, LDV flow speed measurements, and PIV flowfield measurements. The end result is a general-purpose experimental system that opens the door to a vast array of fluid-structure interaction problems. We begin by describing the design and implementation of CPFD, the heart of which is a high-performance force-feedback control system. Precise measurement of time-varying forces (including removing effects of the test object's inertia) is more critical here than in typical robotic force-feedback applications. CPFD is based on an integration of ideas from control theory, fluid dynamics, computer science, electrical engineering, and solid mechanics. We also describe experiments using the CPFD experimental apparatus to study vortex-induced vibration (VIV) and oscillating-airfoil propulsion. We show how CPFD can be used to simulate

  1. 4D Visualization of Experimental Procedures in Rock Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanorio, T.; di Bonito, C.

    2010-12-01

    Engaging students in laboratory classes in geophysics is becoming more and more difficult. This is primarily because of an ever-widening gap between the less appealing aspects that characterize these courses (e.g., lengthiness of the experimental operations, high student/instrument ratio, limited time associated with lack of previous hands-on experiences, and logistical and safety concerns) and the life style of the 21st century generations (i.e., extensive practice to high-tech tools, high-speed communications and computing, 3D graphics and HD videos). To bridge the gap and enhance the teaching strategy of laboratory courses in geophysics, we have created simulator-training tools for use in preparation for the actual experimental phase. We are using a modeling, animation, and rendering package to create (a) 3D models that accurately reproduce actual scenarios and instruments used for the measurement of rock physics properties and (b) 4D interactive animations that simulate hands-on demonstrations of the experimental procedures. We present here a prototype describing step-by-step the experimental protocol and the principles behind the measurement of rock porosity. The tool reproduces an actual helium porosimeter and makes use of interactive animations, guided text, and a narrative voice guiding the audience through the different phases of the experimental process. Our strategy is to make the most of new technologies while preserving the accuracy of classical laboratory methods and practices. These simulations are not intended to replace traditional lab work; rather they provide students with the opportunity for review and repetition. The primary goal is thus to help students familiarize themselves during their earlier curricula with lab methodologies, thus minimizing apparent hesitation and frustration in later classes. This may also increase the level of interest and involvement of undergraduate students and, in turn, enhance their keenness to pursue their

  2. Variability of characteristics in new experimental hybrids of early ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In order to get a better insight in the variability among the tested hybrids, we have analyzed them for 14 characteristics by the principal component analysis (PCA) method. ... Cabbage characteristics that constitute the first principal component are in fact the main objectives in programs of breeding early maturing cabbage.

  3. Simulation and Experimental Investigation of Structural Dynamic Frequency Characteristics Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bing Li

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In general, mechanical equipment such as cars, airplanes, and machine tools all operate with constant frequency characteristics. These constant working characteristics should be controlled if the dynamic performance of the equipment demands improvement or the dynamic characteristics is intended to change with different working conditions. Active control is a stable and beneficial method for this, but current active control methods mainly focus on vibration control for reducing the vibration amplitudes in the time domain or frequency domain. In this paper, a new method of dynamic frequency characteristics active control (DFCAC is presented for a flat plate, which can not only accomplish vibration control but also arbitrarily change the dynamic characteristics of the equipment. The proposed DFCAC algorithm is based on a neural network including two parts of the identification implement and the controller. The effectiveness of the DFCAC method is verified by several simulation and experiments, which provide desirable results.

  4. Theoretical and experimental physical methods of neutron-capture therapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borisov, G. I.

    2011-09-01

    This review is based to a substantial degree on our priority developments and research at the IR-8 reactor of the Russian Research Centre Kurchatov Institute. New theoretical and experimental methods of neutron-capture therapy are developed and applied in practice; these are: A general analytical and semi-empiric theory of neutron-capture therapy (NCT) based on classical neutron physics and its main sections (elementary theories of moderation, diffuse, reflection, and absorption of neutrons) rather than on methods of mathematical simulation. The theory is, first of all, intended for practical application by physicists, engineers, biologists, and physicians. This theory can be mastered by anyone with a higher education of almost any kind and minimal experience in operating a personal computer.

  5. Experimental AMO physics in undergraduate optics and lasers courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoyt, Chad

    2017-04-01

    This talk will describe experimental AMO research projects in undergraduate Lasers and Optics courses at Bethel University. The courses, which include a comprehensive lecture portion, are built on open-ended projects that have a novel aspect. Classes begin with four weeks of small student groups rotating between several standard laser and optics laboratory exercises. These may include, for example, alignment and characterization of a helium neon laser and measurements with a Michelson interferometer or a scanning Fabry-Pérot optical cavity. During the following seven weeks of the course, student groups (2-4 people) choose and pursue research questions in the lab. Their work culminates in a group manuscript and a twenty-minute presentation to the class. Projects in the spring, 2016 Optics course included experiments with ultracold lithium atoms in a magneto-optical trap, a prototype, portable, mode-locked erbium fiber laser, a home-built fiber laser frequency comb, double-slit imaging with single photons, and digital holographic tweezers (led by Nathan Lindquist). Projects in the spring, 2015 Lasers course included ultrafast optics with a mode-locked erbium fiber laser, quantum optics, surface plasmon lasers (led by Nathan Lindquist) and a low-cost, near-infrared spectrometer. Several of these projects are related to larger scale, funded research in the physics department. The format and experience in Lasers and Optics is representative of other upper-level courses at Bethel, including Fluid Mechanics and Computer Methods. A physics education research group from the University of Colorado evaluated the spring, 2015 Lasers and 2016 Optics courses. They focused on student experimental attitudes and measurements of student project ownership.

  6. Experimental study of physical parameters significant in fullerene synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. NENADOVIC

    2003-07-01

    Full Text Available In this work, the effect of physical parameters on the yield of fullerene, synthesized in a hollow cathode plasma reactor is investigated. The experimental investigations done previously have shown that the fullerene yield depended on tehcnical parameters - the current intensity, inert gas pressure, type of gas and interelectrode gap. The aim of this work was to show that the fullerene yield depends on physical parameters - carbon concentration, carbon flow rate from the interelectrode gap, axial temperature and temperature gradient between the arc channel and the chamber walls as well. It was found that fullerene synthesis occurs in an inert heat bath with dimensions determined by the temperature gradient. The lower temperature limit is around 2000 K and the value of the upper limit is the value of the axis temperature which depends on the discharge conditions. The synthesis of fullerenes is more effective if the carbon concentration in the heat bath is large and the carbon flow rate from that zone to colder parts of chamber is small.

  7. THE DEVELOPMENT OF STUDENT'S MOTIVATIONAL DIMENSIONS UNDER THE PHYSICAL EDUCATION EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAMME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Hasanbegović

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This study shows the development of some motivational dimensions of secondary school students when they are treated by the experimental way of teaching. The study was conducted on a sample of 240 pupils of The Secondary School Banovici, out of which 124 males and 116 females. The pupils were divided into two groups. The first group consisted of 120 pupils divided into four sections, out of which 73 males and 47 females. This is the control group. The second group also consisted of 120 pupils divided into four sections, out of which 51 male and 69 females. This group was subjected to the experimental way of teaching and thus represents the experimental group. Results show the changes in pupils’ motivational characteristics under the influence of innovative educational content that are reflected through their activities and final attitudes on the physical education value. The discriminate analysis revealed the statistically important differences between pupils that are treated by the experimental program compared to students treated by traditional program in terms of motivation in physical education classes (PE classes. However, the study, in some way, solves the problem of inactivity and pupils’ lack of interest for the PE classes, i.e. it suggests the pupils’ possible development of motivation for work using the appropriate educational contents.

  8. THE DEVELOPMENT OF STUDENTS’ MOTIVATIONAL DIMENSIONS UNDER THE PHYSICAL EDUCATION EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAMME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Said Hasanbegović

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available This study shows the development of some motivational dimensions of secondary school students when they are treated by the experimental way of teaching. The study was conducted on a sample of 240 pupils of The Secondary School Banovici, out of which 124 males and 116 females. The pupils were divided into two groups. The first group consisted of 120 pupils divided into four sections, out of which 73 males and 47 females. This is the control group. The second group also consisted of 120 pupils divided into four sections, out of which 51 male and 69 females. This group was subjected to the experimental way of teaching and thus represents the experimental group. Results show the changes in pupils’ motivational characteristics under the influence of innovative educational content that are reflected through their activities and final attitudes on the physical education value. The discriminate analysis revealed the statistically important differences between pupils that are treated by the experimental program compared to students treated by traditional program in terms of motivation in physical education classes (PE classes. However, the study, in some way, solves the problem of inactivity and pupils’ lack of interest for the PE classes, i.e. it suggests the pupils’ possible development of motivation for work using the appropriate educational contents.

  9. Variability of characteristics in new experimental hybrids of early ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-03

    Oct 3, 2011 ... make them recognizable on the market. Key words: Cabbage, head weight, principal component analysis, useful portion. INTRODUCTION. Several experimental early cabbage hybrids have been developed at Institute of Field and Vegetable Crops, Novi. Sad, in recent years. The objective was to develop.

  10. Children with Physical Disabilities at School and Home: Physical Activity and Contextual Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ru Li

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to assess the physical activity (PA of children with physical disabilities (PD in school and home settings and to simultaneously examine selected contextual characteristics in relation to PA in those settings. Children with PD (N = 35; Mean age = 15.67 ± 4.30 years; 26 boys were systematically observed using BEACHES (Behaviors of Eating and Activity for Children’s Health: Evaluation System at school (before school, recess, lunch break, after class and at home (before dinner during four normal school days. The children spent most of their time in all five settings being physically inactive, but had slightly more PA during recess and lunch break periods. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that selected contextual characteristics explained 18.9–56.0% (p < 0.01 of the variance predicting moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA after controlling for demographic variables. Prompts to be active were positively associated with MVPA at school and the presence of fathers and fathers being motivators at home. This study highlights how little PA that children with PD receive and identifies the importance of the provision of prompts for PA at both school and home with this special population.

  11. Physiological and physical characteristics of elite dragon boat paddlers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ho, Sarah R; Smith, Richard M; Chapman, Philip G; Sinclair, Peter J; Funato, Kazuo

    2013-01-01

    The objectives of this study were to profile the physiological and physical characteristics of elite dragon boat paddlers, to identify characteristics that predict race performance and to quantify the metabolic energy contributions to simulated 200-m and 500-m dragon boat racing. Eleven, national level, male, Japanese dragon boat paddlers completed a battery of tests on a paddling ergometer including an incremental maximal aerobic capacity test, a 2-minute maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (MAOD) test, and simulated 200-m and 500-m races. A physiological and physical profile of subjects was compiled. Results showed that 200-m race performance correlated with flexed arm girth and excess postexercise oxygen consumption (EPOC) measured in the 30 minutes after the MAOD test, whereas 500-m race performance correlated with body fat percentage, relaxed and flexed arm girth, MAOD, EPOC, and peak power during the MAOD test. Stepwise multiple regression revealed that flexed arm girth was the most powerful predictor of 200-m and 500-m race performance, followed by EPOC with the combination of these 2 factors able to explain 74% and 68% of the variance in 200-m and 500-m race performance, respectively. Aerobic energy contributions for 200-m (50 seconds) and 500-m (1 minute 50 seconds) races were (mean (95% confidence intervals)) 52.1% (range, 47.4-56.8%) and 67.5% (range, 60.1-77.8%), respectively. In conclusion, coaches should develop training programs targeted at developing upper-body musculature and increasing anaerobic capacity because these factors are the strongest predictors of 200-m and 500-m race performance. Given the substantial aerobic energy contributions even for a 200-m race event, coaches should aim to increase the maximal aerobic capacity of the paddler in preparation for both 200-m and 500-m events.

  12. Structural Characteristics and Physical Properties of Tectonically Deformed Coals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yiwen Ju

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Different mechanisms of deformation could make different influence on inner structure and physical properties of tectonically deformed coal (TDC reservoirs. This paper discusses the relationship between macromolecular structure and physical properties of the Huaibei-Huainan coal mine areas in southern North China. The macromolecular structure and pore characteristics are systematically investigated by using techniques such as X-ray diffraction (XRD, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM, electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR, and low-temperature nitrogen adsorption method. The results suggest that under the directional stress, basic structural units (BSU arrangement is closer, and the orientation becomes stronger from brittle deformed coal to ductile deformed coal. Structural deformation directly influences the macromolecular structure of coal, which results in changes of pore structure. The nanoscale pores of the cataclastic coal structure caused by the brittle deformation are mainly mesopores, and the proportion of mesopores volume in ductile deformed coal diminishes rapidly. So the exploration and development potential of coalbed gas are good in reservoirs such as schistose structure coal, mortar structure coal and cataclastic structure coal. It also holds promise for a certain degree of brittle deformation and wrinkle structure coal of low ductile deformation or later superimposed by brittle deformation.

  13. Physical Characteristics of Selected Over-the-Counter Medications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Achi, Antoine; Shipp, Shawnte

    2005-01-01

    The physical characteristics of over-the-counter medications may be useful to the compounding pharmacist in preparing dosage forms by serving as physical limits for the basis of choice of vehicles and supporting ingredients for formulations. In this study, three bottles of 16 different products were tested for their specific gravity, pH, suface tension and rheological properties. All products tested were heavier than water, with the exception of the lotions. The pH value varied greatly among the products, and the lotions were neutral to slightly acidic; the other preparations were acidic with the exception of Dulcolax and Maalox, which showed a basic pH. Aqueous solutions had a surface tension very close in value to water; all other products that were tested exhibited lower surface tension than water. The viscosity of the products varied greatly; lotions and suspensions demonstrated shear-thinning properties of either plastic or pseudoplastic type; and all solutions had low viscosity similar to that of water, except for Children's Dimetapp and Vicks Nyquil, which showed a somewhat higher viscosity than water.

  14. Ignition characteristics of 2-methyltetrahydrofuran: An experimental and kinetic study

    KAUST Repository

    Tripathi, Rupali

    2016-10-15

    The present paper elucidates oxidation behavior of 2-methyltetrahydrofuran (2-MTHF), a novel second-generation biofuel. New experimental data sets for 2-MTHF including ignition delay time measurements in two different combustion reactors, i.e. rapid compression machine and high-pressure shock tube, are presented. Measurements for 2-MTHF/oxidizer/diluent mixtures were performed in the temperature range of . 639-1413 K, at pressures of 10, 20, and 40 bar, and at three different equivalence ratios of 0.5, 1.0, and 2.0. A detailed chemical kinetic model describing both low-and high-temperature chemistry of 2-MTHF was developed and validated against new ignition delay measurements and already existing flame species profiles and ignition delay measurements. The mechanism provides satisfactory agreement with the experimental data. For identifying key reactions at various combustion conditions and to attain a better understanding of the combustion behavior, reaction path and sensitivity analyses were performed.

  15. Experimental facility for analysis of biomass combustion characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miljković Biljana M.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present article is to present an experimental facility which was designed and built at the Faculty of Technical Sciences in order to study the combustion of different sorts of biomass and municipal solid waste. Despite its apparent simplicity, direct combustion is a complex process from a technological point of view. Conventional combustion equipment is not designed for burning agricultural residues. Devices for agricultural waste combustion are still in the development phase, which means that adequate design solution is presently not available at the world market. In order to construct a boiler and achieve optimal combustion conditions, it is necessary to develop a mathematical model for biomass combustion. Experimental facility can be used for the collection of data necessary for detailed modelling of real grate combustor of solid biomass fuels. Due to the complexity of the grate combustion process, its mathematical models and simulation software tools must be developed and verified using experimental data. This work highlights the properties required for the laboratory facility designed for the examination of biomass combustion and discusses design and operational issues.

  16. Nuclear Physics Division, Institute of Experimental Physics, Warsaw University annual report 1995

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osuch, S. [ed.

    1996-12-31

    In the presented Annual Report the activities of Nuclear Physics Division (NPD) of Warsaw University in 1995 are described. The report consists of three sections: (i) Reaction Mechanism and Nuclear Structure (11 articles); (ii) Instrumentation and Experimental Methods (9 articles); (iii) Other Research (1 article). Additionally the list of seminars held at the NPD, personnel list and list of published papers are also given. The first, leading article in the report written by head of NPD prof. Ch. Droste the general description of the Department activity is presented.

  17. Experimental Investigation of SBLI to Unravel Inlet Unstart Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Funderburk, Morgan; Narayanaswamy, Venkateswaran

    2016-11-01

    The phenomenon of shock boundary layer interaction (SBLI) driven inlet unstart persists as one of the most significant problems facing supersonic ramjet/scramjet engines. In order to determine how the characteristics of the SBLI units specific to rectangular inlets evolve during an unstart event, an experimental investigation is made using surface streakline methods and pitot/wall pressure measurements in the vicinity of the floor and corner SBLI induced by a compression ramp in a rectangular channel. Mean and unsteady measurements were taken at a variety of shock strengths to simulate the evolution of the combustion-induced back pressure ratio during unstart. The freestream Mach number was also varied. Statistical correlation methods were used to determine the degree of interaction between the floor and corner SBLI with different flowfield locations for the various test conditions. Finally, comparison to a two-dimensional compression ramp SBLI was made to determine any modification caused by the introduction of the corner SBLI. Results indicate that the floor and corner SBLI transition from distinct units to members of a global separated flow with increasing back pressure, and that considerable modification of the floor SBLI by the corner flow occurs. AFOSR Grant FA9550-15-1-0296.

  18. Children with Physical Disabilities at School and Home: Physical Activity and Contextual Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ru; Sit, Cindy Hui-Ping; Yu, Jane Jie; Sum, Raymond Kim-Wai; Wong, Stephen Heung-Sang; Cheng, Kenneth Chik-Chi; McKenzie, Thomas L

    2017-06-25

    The purpose of this study was to assess the physical activity (PA) of children with physical disabilities (PD) in school and home settings and to simultaneously examine selected contextual characteristics in relation to PA in those settings. Children with PD (N = 35; Mean age = 15.67 ± 4.30 years; 26 boys) were systematically observed using BEACHES (Behaviors of Eating and Activity for Children's Health: Evaluation System) at school (before school, recess, lunch break, after class) and at home (before dinner) during four normal school days. The children spent most of their time in all five settings being physically inactive, but had slightly more PA during recess and lunch break periods. Hierarchical multiple regression revealed that selected contextual characteristics explained 18.9-56.0% (p school and the presence of fathers and fathers being motivators at home. This study highlights how little PA that children with PD receive and identifies the importance of the provision of prompts for PA at both school and home with this special population.

  19. Developing Skills versus Reinforcing Concepts in Physics Labs: Insight from a Survey of Students' Beliefs about Experimental Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Bethany R.; Lewandowski, H. J.

    2017-01-01

    Physics laboratory courses have been generally acknowledged as an important component of the undergraduate curriculum, particularly with respect to developing students' interest in, and understanding of, experimental physics. There are a number of possible learning goals for these courses including reinforcing physics concepts, developing…

  20. Experimental investigation on the combustion characteristics of aluminum in air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yunchao; Xia, Zhixun; Huang, Liya; Yan, Xiaoting

    2016-12-01

    With the aim of revealing the detailed process of aluminum combustion in air, this paper reports an experimental study on the combustion of aluminum droplets. In this work, the aluminum wires were exposed and heated by a CO2 laser to produce aluminum droplets, and then these droplets were ignited and burnt in air. The changing processes of aluminum wires, droplets and flames were directly recorded by a high-speed camera, which was equipped with a high magnification zoom lens. Meanwhile, the spectrum distribution of the flame was also registered by an optical spectrometer. Besides, burning residuals were collected and analyzed by the methods of Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy Dispersive Spectrometer (EDS). Experimental results show that, during combustion, the aluminum droplet is covered by a spherical vapor-phase flame, and the diameter of this flame is about 1.4 times of the droplet diameter, statistically. In the later stages of combustion, the molten aluminum and condensed oxide products can react to generate gaseous Al and Al2O spontaneously. Little holes are found on the surface of residuals, which are the transport channels of gaseous products, namely the gaseous Al and Al2O. The combustion residuals are consisted by lots of aluminum oxide particles with diameters less than 1 μm.

  1. Oak Ridge Reservation Physical Characteristics and Natural Resources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parr, P.D.; Hughes, J.F.

    2006-09-19

    The topography, geology, hydrology, vegetation, and wildlife of the Oak Ridge Reservation (ORR) provide a complex and intricate array of resources that directly impact land stewardship and use decisions (Fig. 1). The purpose of this document is to consolidate general information regarding the natural resources and physical characteristics of the ORR. The ORR, encompassing 33,114 acres (13,401 ha) of federally owned land and three Department of Energy (DOE) installations, is located in Roane and Anderson Counties in east Tennessee, mostly within the corporate limits of the city of Oak Ridge and southwest of the population center of Oak Ridge. The ORR is bordered on the north and east by the population center of the city of Oak Ridge and on the south and west by the Clinch River/Melton Hill Lake impoundment. All areas of the ORR are relatively pristine when compared with the surrounding region, especially in the Valley and Ridge Physiographic Province (Fig. 2). From the air, the ORR is clearly a large and nearly continuous island of forest within a landscape that is fragmented by urban development and agriculture. Satellite imagery from 2006 was used to develop a land-use/land-cover cover map of the ORR and surrounding lands (Fig. 3). Following the acquisition of the land comprising the ORR in the early 1940s, much of the Reservation served as a buffer for the three primary facilities: the X-10 nuclear research facility (now known as the Oak Ridge National Laboratory [ORNL]), the first uranium enrichment facility or Y-12 (now known as the Y-12 National Security Complex [Y-12 Complex]), and a gaseous diffusion enrichment facility (now known as the East Tennessee Technology Park [ETTP]). Over the past 60 years, this relatively undisturbed area has evolved into a rich and diverse eastern deciduous forest ecosystem of streams and reservoirs, hardwood forests, and extensive upland mixed forests. The combination of a large land area with complex physical characteristics

  2. The Relationship between Physical Therapist Assistant Faculty Characteristics and Program Outcomes on the National Physical Therapy Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Novak, Malorie Kosht

    2009-01-01

    Background. There is a paucity of published literature regarding the correlation between faculty characteristics and outcomes on the National Physical Therapy Examination for Physical Therapist Assistants (NPTE-PTA). Purpose. To determine if there was a relationship between faculty characteristics in PTA educational programs and program outcomes…

  3. Physical and thermal characteristics of dairy cattle manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutitarnnontr, Pakorn; Hu, Enzhu; Tuller, Markus; Jones, Scott B

    2014-11-01

    Greenhouse and regulated gas emissions from animal waste are naturally mediated by moisture content and temperature. As with soils, emissions from manure could be readily estimated given the physical, hydraulic, and thermal properties are described by models and microbes and nutrients are not limiting factors. The objectives of this study were to measure and model physical, hydraulic, and thermal properties of dairy manure to support advanced modeling of gas and water fluxes in addition to solute, colloid, and heat transport. A series of soil science measurement techniques were applied to determine a set of fundamental properties of as-excreted dairy cattle manure. Relationships between manure dielectric permittivity and volumetric water content (θ) were obtained using time-domain reflectometry and capacitance-based dielectric measurements. The measured water retention characteristic for cattle manure was similar to organic peat soil. The unsaturated hydraulic conductivity function of dairy manure was inferred from inverse numerical fitting of laboratory manure evaporation results. The thermal properties of dairy manure, including thermal conductivity, thermal diffusivity, and bulk volumetric heat capacity, were also determined using three penta-needle heat pulse probes. The accuracy of the heat capacity measurements was determined from a comparison of theoretical θ, estimated from the measured thermal properties with that determined by the capacitance-based dielectric measurement. These data represent a novel and unique contribution for advancing prediction and modeling capabilities of gas emissions from cattle manure, although the uncertainties associated with the complexities of shrinkage, surface crust formation, and cracking must also be considered. Copyright © by the American Society of Agronomy, Crop Science Society of America, and Soil Science Society of America, Inc.

  4. Experimental Research on Creep Characteristics of Nansha Soft Soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingzi Luo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A series of tests were performed to investigate the creep characteristics of soil in interactive marine and terrestrial deposit of Pearl River Delta. The secondary consolidation test results show that the influence of consolidation pressure on coefficient of secondary consolidation is conditional, which is decided by the consolidation state. The ratio of coefficient of secondary consolidation and coefficient of compressibility Ca/Cc is almost a constant, and the value is 0.03. In the shear-box test, the direct sheer creep failure of soil is mainly controlled by shear stress rather than the accumulation of shear strain. The triaxial creep features are closely associated with the drainage conditions, and consolidation can weaken the effect of creep. When the soft soil has triaxial creep damage, the strain rate will increase sharply.

  5. Experimental evidence links volcanic particle characteristics to pyroclastic flow hazard

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dellino, Pierfrancesco; Büttner, Ralf; Dioguardi, Fabio; Doronzo, Domenico M.; La Volpe, Luigi; Mele, Daniela; Sonder, Ingo; Sulpizio, Roberto; Zimanowski, Bernd

    2010-06-01

    Pyroclastic flows represent the most hazardous events of explosive volcanism, one striking example being the famous historical eruption of Vesuvius that destroyed Pompeii (AD 79). Much of our knowledge of the mechanics of pyroclastic flows comes from theoretical models and numerical simulations. Valuable data are also stored in the geological record of past eruptions, including the particles contained in pyroclastic deposits, but the deposit characteristics are rarely used for quantifying the destructive potential of pyroclastic flows. By means of experiments, we validate a model that is based on data from pyroclastic deposits. The model allows the reconstruction of the current's fluid-dynamic behaviour. Model results are consistent with measured values of dynamic pressure in the experiments, and allow the quantification of the damage potential of pyroclastic flows.

  6. Experimental Research on Creep Characteristics of Nansha Soft Soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Qingzi; Chen, Xiaoping

    2014-01-01

    A series of tests were performed to investigate the creep characteristics of soil in interactive marine and terrestrial deposit of Pearl River Delta. The secondary consolidation test results show that the influence of consolidation pressure on coefficient of secondary consolidation is conditional, which is decided by the consolidation state. The ratio of coefficient of secondary consolidation and coefficient of compressibility C a/C c is almost a constant, and the value is 0.03. In the shear-box test, the direct sheer creep failure of soil is mainly controlled by shear stress rather than the accumulation of shear strain. The triaxial creep features are closely associated with the drainage conditions, and consolidation can weaken the effect of creep. When the soft soil has triaxial creep damage, the strain rate will increase sharply. PMID:24526925

  7. Physical characteristics of cometary dust from dynamical studies - A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sekanina, Z.

    1980-01-01

    Progress made in the determination of the physical characteristics of cometary dust particles from studies of dust tail dynamics is reviewed. Applications of the combined dynamical photometric approach of Finson and Probstein (1968) to studies of cometary tails exhibiting continuous light intensity variations are discussed, with attention given to determinations of the particle-size-related distribution function of the solar radiation pressure exerted on the particles, the contribution of comets to the interplanetary dust, calculations of dust ejection rates and a Monte Carlo approach to the analysis of dust tails. Investigations of dust streamers and striae, which are believed to be related to comet outbursts entailing brief but sharp enhancements of dust production, are then reviewed, with particular attention given to observations of Comet West 1976 VI. Finally, the question of cometary particle type is addressed, and it is pointed out that the presence of submicron absorbing particles in the striae of Comet West is not incompatible with the presence of micron-size dielectric particles in the inner coma.

  8. Microbiological and physical-chemical characteristics of fermented milk beverages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E.H.P. Andrade

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate some microbiological and physical-chemical characteristics of fermented milk beverages collected at the main supermarkets in Belo Horizonte (MG. 40 samples of the products corresponding to five distinct brands were collected. They were submitted to the following analyses: Most Probable Number (MPN of total (30ºC and thermal tolerant coliforms (45ºC, Salmonella spp., coagulase positive Staphylococcus, molds and yeasts, lactic acid bacteria, pH, titratable acidity and contents of moisture, total solids, protein and fat. The analyses were carried out during the last week of shelf life. The microbiological quality of the samples was good and the counts of lactic bacteria were above the minimum established by the official legislation. Streptococcus and Lactobacillus were isolated and identified from the products and Lactobacillus delbrueckii was molecularly identified in three samples. The mean values for the contents of fat and protein, titratable acidity, pH, moisture and total solids ranged from 1.24 to 1.98%; 1.88 to 2.22%; 0.54 to 0.66%; 3.91 to 4.16; 81.18 to 83.25% and 16.75 to 18.82%, respectively. All samples had protein content in agreement with the official legislation.

  9. Sensing Characteristics of an Experimental CT Tactile Sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sawamoto, Yasuhiro; Ohka, Masahiro; Zhu, Ning

    The CT (Computed tomography) method is very effective for making thinner optical waveguide-type tactile sensors. In a previous paper, the authors established the architecture of a CT tactile sensor and evaluated its principle using a series of computer simulations. As a result, the LU decomposition method showed better noise robustness compared to the ART method. On the basis of the simulations, we develop an experimental CT tactile sensor comprised of infrared diodes, phototransistors, an acrylic plate and a black rubber sheet. In the present study, the LU decomposition method is employed and we determine the validity of the algorithm by examining use of a loading machine produced for the CT tactile sensor. In a series of experiments, it is found that absorption of light intensity increases monotonically with increase of applied force and that the present reconstruction method can be applied to not only simply but also multiply connected contact domains. The estimated position of the pressure centroid possesses a rather large error of 4.9 mm, which is 10.8% of a segment of the sensing area.

  10. Experimental studies on the effects of bolt parameters on the bearing characteristics of reinforced rock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Liang; Zhang, Yidong; Ji, Ming; Zhang, Kai; Zhang, Minglei

    2016-01-01

    Roadways supported by bolts contain support structures that are built into the rock surrounding the roadway, referred to as reinforced rocks in this paper. Using physical model simulation, the paper investigates the bearing characteristics of the reinforced rock under different bolt parameters with incrementally increased load. The experimental results show that the stress at the measurement point inside the structure varies with the kinetic pressure. The stress increases slowly as the load is initially applied, displays accelerated growth in the middle of the loading application, and decreases or remains constant in the later stage of the loading application. The change in displacement of the surrounding rock exhibits the following characteristics: a slow increase when the load is first applied, accelerated growth in the middle stage, and violent growth in the later stage. There is a good correlation between the change in the measured stress and the change in the surrounding rock displacement. Increasing the density of the bolt support and the length and diameter of the bolt improves the load-bearing performance of the reinforced rock, including its strength, internal peak stress, and residual stress. Bolting improves the internal structure of the surrounding rocks, and the deterioration of the surrounding rock decreases with the distance between the bolt supports.

  11. Experimental Study on Diesel Spray Characteristics and Autoignition Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Özgür Oğuz Taşkiran

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of this study is to get the temporal and spatial spray evolution under diesel-like conditions and to investigate autoignition process of sprays which are injected from different nozzle geometries. A constant volume combustion chamber was manufactured and heated internally up to 825 K at 3.5 MPa for experiments. Macroscopic properties of diesel spray were recorded via a high-speed CCD camera by using shadowgraphy technique, and the images were analyzed by using a digital image processing program. To investigate the influence of nozzle geometry, 4 different types of divergent, straight, straight-rounded, convergent-rounded nozzles, were manufactured and used in both spray evolution and autoignition experiments. The internal geometry of the injector nozzles were obtained by using silicone mold method. The macroscopic properties of the nozzles are presented in the study. Ignition behaviour of different nozzle types was observed in terms of ignition delay time and ignition location. A commercial Diesel fuel, n-heptane, and a mixture of hexadecane-heptamethylnonane (CN65—cetane number 65 were used as fuels at ignition experiments. The similar macroscopic properties of different nozzles were searched for observing ignition time and ignition location differences. Though spray and ignition characteristics revealed very similar results, the dissimilarities are presented in the study.

  12. Experimental study of acoustical characteristics of honeycomb sandwich structures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Portia Renee

    Loss factor measurements were performed on sandwich panels to determine the effects of different skin and core materials on the acoustical properties. Results revealed inserting a viscoelastic material in the core's mid-plane resulted in the highest loss factor. Panels constructed with carbon-fiber skins exhibited larger loss factors than glass-fiber skins. Panels designed to achieve subsonic wave speed did not show a significant increase in loss factor above the coincidence frequency. The para-aramid core had a larger loss factor value than the meta-aramid core. Acoustic absorption coefficients were measured for honeycomb sandwiches designed to incorporate multiple sound-absorbing devices, including Helmholtz resonators and porous absorbers. The structures consisted of conventional honeycomb cores filled with closed-cell polyurethane foams of various densities and covered with perforated composite facesheets. Honeycomb cores filled with higher density foam resulted in higher absorption coefficients over the frequency range of 50 -- 1250 Hz. However, this trend was not observed at frequencies greater than 1250 Hz, where the honeycomb filled with the highest density foam yielded the lowest absorption coefficient among samples with foam-filled cores. The energy-recycling semi-active vibration suppression method (ERSA) was employed to determine the relationship between vibration suppression and acoustic damping for a honeycomb sandwich panel. Results indicated the ERSA method simultaneously reduced the sound transmitted through the panel and the panel vibration. The largest reduction in sound transmitted through the panel was 14.3% when the vibrations of the panel were reduced by 7.3%. The influence of different design parameters, such as core density, core material, and cell size on wave speeds of honeycomb sandwich structures was experimentally analyzed. Bending and shear wave speeds were measured and related to the transmission loss performance for various material

  13. Experimental Investigation of Aerodynamic Characteristics of a Tracked Ram Air Cushion Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    1978-01-01

    The results of an experimental and theoretical investigation of the longitudinal aerodynamic characteristics of a tracked ram air cushion vehicle are presented. Experiments have been conducted both in a wind tunnel with a model and section of guidewa...

  14. Physical and morphological characteristics of Kankrej bull semen

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharatkumar R. Patel

    Full Text Available Aim: Present investigation was carried out to study the physical characteristics of Kankrej bulls semen by evaluation of various semen parameters from neat semen and at various stages of semen preservation. Materials and Methods: A total of 60 ejaculates, 10 each from 6 mature Kankrej bulls, once in a week for 10 weeks, were collected and analyzed for various semen attributes. Result: The mean values for different seminal attributes were: ejaculate volume 4.84 ± 0.01 ml, pH 6.88 ± 0.01, mass motility 3.72 ± 0.02, sperm concentration 1253.83 ± 14.68 million / ml, individual motility 86.15 ± 0.30 per cent, live sperm count 90.58 ± 0.20 per cent, abnormal sperm count 4.24 ± 0.03 per cent and acrosomal integrity 81.17 ± 0.11 per cent. The colour of the Kankrej bull semen under the investigation was creamy white. Mean values of ejaculate volume, sperm concentration, live sperm count and acrosomal integrity of semen differed significantly (P < 0.05 among the bulls under investigation. The ejaculate volume was positively correlated with mass motility (+ 0.392 and sperm concentration (+ 0.385 and inversely proportional to the mass motility whereas mass motility positively correlated with volume (+0.392, individual sperm motility (+0.329 and live sperm count (+0.527. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the volume, pH, mass motility and sperm concentration of Kankrej bull semen were well comparable with other breeds of Indian cattle, however higher individual motility, live sperm count, acrosomal integrity and lower abnormal sperm count were recorded in the Kankrej bull semen. [Vet World 2013; 6(7.000: 405-408

  15. Recreational road runners: injuries, training, demographics and physical characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joris Pazin

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1980-0037.2008v10n3p277 The purpose of this study was to study recreational road runners in order to identify: their physical characteristics, demographics, running profile (training distance, frequency, duration, and experience and the prevalence of injuries and their association with age, running profile, and other sports practiced. Body mass, height (from which BMI was calculated and waist circumference were also measured. The sample of runners was composed of 115 men who participated in two events organized in Santa Catarina State, Brazil, in 2006: 22nd Maratona de Blumenau and 5th Desafio Praias e Trilhas (Florianópolis. The data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and the chi-square test to identify associations between injury prevalence and other variables (p<.05. The majority of the runners were aged between 18 and 50 years (63.2%, with 36.8% older than 50 years. In terms of educational level 24.3% had attended only elementary school, 35.4% high school, and 40% degree courses. Monthly family income (based on Brazilian minimum wage in Reais - R$ 380.00 varied between R$ 300 and R$ 999 for 23.3% of the runners, between R$ 1000 and R$ 2900 for 45.2%, and above R$ 3000 for 31.3% of them. Seventy two percent of them have been running regularly for more than 6 years, and 57% had received specialist guidance for running; 56.5% run more than 64 km/week. The injury prevalence for one year was 37.7%; BMI and waist circumference were within healthy limits. No associations were found between injury prevalence and other variables studied.

  16. Science Academies' 91st Refresher Course in Experimental Physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2017-07-30

    Jul 30, 2017 ... that UGC regulations include Refresher Courses in API scores for career advancement. Applications are invited from teachers with experience in teaching undergraduate and postgraduate courses in Engineering and Physics. Motivated students of B.Sc. and M.Sc. Physics courses with keen interest in.

  17. Influence of physical restraint on the onset of experimentally induced ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The role of intermittent repeated physical restraint on the onset of diabetes mellitus (DM) was in-vestigated in this study. The study compared the onset of DM in mice dosed with streptozotocin (STZ), a DM-inducing drug, with immediate subsequent exposure to either physical restraint stress or non- exposure to the stress.

  18. Good practice characteristics of diet and physical activity interventions and policies: an umbrella review

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Horodyska, K.; Luszczynska, A.; van den Berg, M.; Hendriksen, M.; Roos, G.; de Bourdeaudhuij, I.; Brug, J.

    2015-01-01

    Background: This umbrella review aimed at eliciting good practice characteristics of interventions and policies aiming at healthy diet, increasing physical activity, and lowering sedentary behaviors. Applying the World Health Organization's framework, we sought for 3 types of characteristics,

  19. Experimental studies of the vibroacoustic characteristics of a large-scale energy pump

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaev, G.P.; Kail, I.I.; Kinski, D.; Koban, I.; Zhileiko, P.G.

    1986-06-01

    The results are given from experimental studies of the vibroacoustic characteristics of a large-scale energy (velocity) pump for the purpose of diagnosing its state under various service operating conditions. Recommendations are given for measuring the statistical characteristics of vibroacoustic pump noise.

  20. Is Physicality an Important Aspect of Learning through Science Experimentation among Kindergarten Students?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharia, Zacharias C.; Loizou, Eleni; Papaevripidou, Marios

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether physicality (actual and active touch of concrete material), as such, is a necessity for science experimentation learning at the kindergarten level. We compared the effects of student experimentation with Physical Manipulatives (PM) and Virtual Manipulatives (VM) on kindergarten students'…

  1. Theoretical and experimental studies in ultraviolet solar physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkinson, W. H.; Reeves, E. M.

    1975-01-01

    The processes and parameters in atomic and molecular physics that are relevant to solar physics are investigated. The areas covered include: (1) measurement of atomic and molecular parameters that contribute to discrete and continous sources of opacity and abundance determinations in the sun; (2) line broadening and scattering phenomena; and (3) development of an ion beam spectroscopic source which is used for the measurement of electron excitation cross sections of transition region and coronal ions.

  2. Experimental and theoretical high energy physics research. [UCLA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchanan, Charles D.; Cline, David B.; Byers, N.; Ferrara, S.; Peccei, R.; Hauser, Jay; Muller, Thomas; Atac, Muzaffer; Slater, William; Cousins, Robert; Arisaka, Katsushi

    1992-01-01

    Progress in the various components of the UCLA High-Energy Physics Research program is summarized, including some representative figures and lists of resulting presentations and published papers. Principal efforts were directed at the following: (I) UCLA hadronization model, PEP4/9 e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} analysis, {bar P} decay; (II) ICARUS and astroparticle physics (physics goals, technical progress on electronics, data acquisition, and detector performance, long baseline neutrino beam from CERN to the Gran Sasso and ICARUS, future ICARUS program, and WIMP experiment with xenon), B physics with hadron beams and colliders, high-energy collider physics, and the {phi} factory project; (III) theoretical high-energy physics; (IV) H dibaryon search, search for K{sub L}{sup 0} {yields} {pi}{sup 0}{gamma}{gamma} and {pi}{sup 0}{nu}{bar {nu}}, and detector design and construction for the FNAL-KTeV project; (V) UCLA participation in the experiment CDF at Fermilab; and (VI) VLPC/scintillating fiber R D.

  3. Effects of Contraction Joints on Vibrational Characteristics of Arch Dams: Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. S. Wang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study experimentally investigates the effects of contraction joints on the vibrational characteristics of high arch dams. Three scale models of the world’s second highest dam, the Xiaowan Arch Dam, are used as experimental specimens identified by zero, one, and two contraction joints. When a scale model vibrates harmonically at a specific frequency, its operating deflection shape is acquired by using a scanning laser vibrometer to scan the side surface of the model. The effects of contraction joints on the vibrational characteristics of arch dams are studied by examining the changes in operating deflection shapes. Experimental results demonstrate that (i contraction joints can significantly affect the vibrational characteristics of arch dams, (ii the operating deflection shape intuitively illustrates the vibrational characteristics of arch dams, and (iii a scanning laser vibrometer has marked advantages over traditional equipment in accurately and efficiently acquiring full-field dynamic responses of a structure.

  4. Experimental physics 4. Nuclear, particle and astrophysics. 5. ed.; Experimentalphysik 4. Kern-, Teilchen- und Astrophysik

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Demtroeder, Wolfgang

    2017-09-01

    The following topics are dealt with: Structure of atomic nuclei, unstable nuclei and radioactivity, experimental techniques in nuclear and high-energy physics, nuclear forces and nuclear models, nuclear reactions, physics of elementary particles, applications of nuclear and high-energy physics, foundations of experimental astronomy and astrophysics, our solar system, birth, life, and death of stars, the development and present structure of the universe. (HSI)

  5. Detectors for Linear Colliders: Physics Requirements and Experimental Conditions (1/4)

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2010-01-01

    How is the anticipated physics program of a future e+e- collider shaping the R&D for new detectors in collider particle physics ? This presentation will review the main physics requirements and experimental conditions comparing to LHC and LEP. In particular, I shall discuss how e+e- experimentation is expected to change moving from LEP-2 up to multi-TeV energies.

  6. Variation in the chemical composition, physical characteristics and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Grain samples were produced at 10 different locations in the Western Cape region of South Africa, on 2.1 m x 6 m experimental plots, over a period of three years. Twenty different cereal grain cultivars were used in the study. A randomised square experimental design with four replicates per sample was used. An area of ...

  7. Physical performance characteristics of South African male and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The physical capacity of emergency care practitioners (ECPs) plays a key role in their ability to carry out rescue and life-saving duties. Irrespective of the emergency scenario males and females are expected to be able to do the same tasks. This study assessed the differences in physical work capacity of male and female ...

  8. Physical characteristics of the sludge in a complete retention membrane bioreactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollice, A; Giordano, C; Laera, G; Saturno, D; Mininni, G

    2007-04-01

    Sludge physical characteristics play an important role in the operation of membrane bioreactors (MBR) due to their influence on filtration and their effects on handling of excess sludge. These systems are designed to maintain high solid concentrations, thus limiting sludge production and the related operational costs of the process. In this study, the sludge from a bench scale MBR operated for about 1 year with complete solid retention was investigated to assess its physical and rheological properties. Concentrations of mixed liquor suspended solids (MLSS) up to 24 gTSSL(-1) affected the diluted sludge volume index (DSVI), the capillary suction time (CST), the specific resistance to filtration (SRF) and the compressibility (s). The MBR sludge displayed similar dewatering properties of conventional waste activated sludge, suggesting that the upgrade of wastewater treatment plants with the MBR technology would not affect the behaviour of the dewatering equipment. The apparent viscosity was expressed as a function of the MLSS and the experimental data were interpreted by comparing different models. Ostwald model was chosen, and two equations for viscosity were proposed. The thixotropy of MBR sludge was also evaluated by measuring the reduced hysteresis area (rHa) and relating this parameter to the characteristics of the sludge. The evaluation of energy consumption for mixing evidenced that, under the tested conditions, the increase of solid concentration from 3 to 30 gTSSL(-1) resulted in a limited increase of energy requirements (25-30%).

  9. Students' Experimental Research Competences in the Study of Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurbanbekov, Bakytzhan A.; Turmambekov, Torebai A.; Baizak, Usen A.; Saidakhmetov, Pulat A.; Abdraimov, Rakhymzhan T.; Bekayeva, Aigerim E.; Orazbayeva, Kuldarkhan O.

    2016-01-01

    The actuality of the investigated problem is caused by the need for students' training at pedagogical high schools to meet the challenges of research activities and the insufficient development of the theoretical, content-technological, scientific and methodological aspects of the formation of their experimental research competencies at the…

  10. Fifty-Eighth Refresher Course in Experimental Physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    teachers in universities and colleges, a few seats will be available for students of III BSc and I MSc physics courses. It has been brought to our attention that teachers in Universities/Colleges who attend Refresher Courses of two-week duration are also entitled to be considered for promotion. Interested applicants must ...

  11. An entrepreneurial physics method and its experimental test

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Robert

    2012-02-01

    As faculty in a master's program for entrepreneurial physics and in an applied physics PhD program, I have advised upwards of 40 master and doctoral theses in industrial physics. I have been closely involved with four robust start-up manufacturing companies focused on physics high-technology and I have spent 30 years collaborating with industrial physicists on research and development. Thus I am in a position to reflect on many articles and advice columns centered on entrepreneurship. What about the goals, strategies, resources, skills, and the 10,000 hours needed to be an entrepreneur? What about business plans, partners, financing, patents, networking, salesmanship and regulatory affairs? What about learning new technology, how to solve problems and, in fact, learning innovation itself? At this point, I have my own method to propose to physicists in academia for incorporating entrepreneurship into their research lives. With this method, we do not start with a major invention or discovery, or even with a search for one. The method is based on the training we have, and the teaching we do (even quantum electrodynamics!), as physicists. It is based on the networking we build by 1) providing courses of continuing education for people working in industry and 2) through our undergraduate as well as graduate students who have gone on to work in industry. In fact, if we were to be limited to two words to describe the method, they are ``former students.'' Data from local and international medical imaging manufacturing industry are presented.

  12. Physical and structural characteristics of Weddell Sea pack ice

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gow, A.J; Ackley, S.F; Buck, K.R; Golden, K.M

    1987-01-01

    Recent studies by CRREL researchers of the dynamics and thermodynamics of sea ice in the Antarctic have included investigations of the physical and structural properties of pack ice in the Weddell Sea...

  13. Recreational road runners: injuries, training, demographics and physical characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisiane Schilling Poeta,

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to study recreational road runners in order to identify: their physical characteristics, demographics, running profile (training distance, frequency, duration, and experience and the prevalence of injuries and their association with age, running profile, and other sports practiced. Body mass, height (from which BMI was calculated and waist circumference were also measured. The sample of runners was composed of 115 men who participated in two events organized in Santa Catarina State, Brazil, in 2006: 22nd Maratona de Blumenau and 5th Desafio Praias e Trilhas (Florianópolis. The data were analyzed with descriptive statistics and the chi-square test to identify associations between injury prevalence and other variables (pResumoO objetivo deste estudo foi: identificar características físicas, demográficas, de treinamento e a prevalência de lesões musculares/osteoarticulares em corredores de rua amadores. Verificar também o grau de associação entre lesões com a idade, freqüência do treinamento diário e semanal, distância percorrida por semana, orientação especializada, prática de outra atividade física e tempo de prática da corrida. Além disso, mediu-se o perímetro da cintura, massa corporal e estatura e, assim, também se determinou o índice de massa corporal (IMC dos corredores. O grupo estudado foi composto por 115 homens, participantes de provas realizadas em Santa Catarina, no ano de 2006: 22ª Maratona de Blumenau e 5º Desafio Praias e Trilhas (Florianópolis. A estatística descritiva e o teste do Qui-quadrado foram utilizados para caracterização do grupo e para verificar a associação da prevalência de lesões com as variáveis estudadas, tendo como referência p<0,05. Os corredores de rua apresentaram as seguintes características: 63,2% com idade entre 18-50 anos e 36,8% acima de 50 anos; 24,3% cursaram ensino fundamental, 35,4% o ensino médio e 40% o superior; a renda familiar de R

  14. Seasonal availability and physical and chemical characteristics of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Jane

    2011-10-12

    Oct 12, 2011 ... Key words: Nutrient composition, milling characteristics, livestock, browse species. INTRODUCTION .... comparable quantity of Panicum maximum or Brachiaria brizantha stem .... Factors affecting forage quality. University of ...

  15. Determination of Operation Characteristics of a Synchronous Generator by Static Experimental Tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ILINA, I.-D.

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the determination of the operation characteristics of a Synchronous Generator (SG using static experimental tests (current and voltage decay tests. Using these tests the magnetization characteristic, the machine parameters (synchronous magnetization inductances and differential magnetization inductances, the no-load characteristic and the external characteristic were determined. The magnetization characteristic, the parameters and the operational characteristics provide important information about the performance of synchronous generator, machine which is currently used in most power plants. Compared to classical experimental methods with moving rotor and numerical methods of field computation that require the knowledge of geometric dimensions and material properties, static experimental methods are distinguished by several advantages: simple implementation for any type of SG, quick results, low power consumption and no effect on the drive system where the machine is integrated. The mathematical model of SG uses dedicated Matlab-Simulink programs and the results obtained by static methods are compared with those obtained by classical methods. Also to better approach the phenomenon of magnetic saturation and a more accurate estimate of the parameters, the magnetization characteristic, synchronous magnetization inductances and differential magnetization inductances are determined versus the total magnetizing current.

  16. Model-Based Optimal Experimental Design for Complex Physical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-03

    optimality aspect of sOED, another major difficulty remains: to numer - ically represent non-Gaussian, continuous random variable posteriors (i.e...construct, as they involve solving a convex optimization problem that can be easily separated into independent sub-problems for each dimension, and requires...OM Knio. “Bayesian Guided Optimal Experimental Design for Reactive Multilayers.” In preparation, 2015. 6. X Huan, “ Numerical Approaches for Sequential

  17. An Experimental High Energy Physics Program: Task D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, V.E.; Carmony, D.D.; Garfinkel, A.F.; Gutay, L.J.

    1992-01-01

    This report discusses: The CDF for {bar p}-p Collisions at FNAL; The L3 Detector for e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} Collisions at CERN; The SCD Detector for pp Collisions at the SSCL (calorimeters); The SDC Detector for pp Collisions at the SSCL (muon detector); The CO experiment for {bar p}-p Collisions at FNAL; and Accelerator Physics at Fermilab.

  18. Early-Life Effects on Adult Physical Activity: Concepts, Relevance, and Experimental Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garland, Theodore; Cadney, Marcell D; Waterland, Robert A

    Locomotion is a defining characteristic of animal life and plays a crucial role in most behaviors. Locomotion involves physical activity, which can have far-reaching effects on physiology and neurobiology, both acutely and chronically. In human populations and in laboratory rodents, higher levels of physical activity are generally associated with positive health outcomes, although excessive exercise can have adverse consequences. Whether and how such relationships occur in wild animals is unknown. Behavioral variation among individuals arises from genetic and environmental factors and their interactions as well as from developmental programming (persistent effects of early-life environment). Although tremendous progress has been made in identifying genetic and environmental influences on individual differences in behavior, early-life effects are not well understood. Early-life effects can in some cases persist across multiple generations following a single exposure and, in principle, may constrain or facilitate the rate of evolution at multiple levels of biological organization. Understanding the mechanisms of such transgenerational effects (e.g., exposure to stress hormones in utero, inherited epigenetic alterations) may prove crucial to explaining unexpected and/or sex-specific responses to selection as well as limits to adaptation. One area receiving increased attention is early-life effects on adult physical activity. Correlational data from epidemiological studies suggest that early-life nutritional stress can (adversely) affect adult human activity levels and associated physiological traits (e.g., body composition, metabolic health). The few existing studies of laboratory rodents demonstrate that both maternal and early-life exercise can affect adult levels of physical activity and related phenotypes. Going forward, rodents offer many opportunities for experimental studies of (multigenerational) early-life effects, including studies that use maternal

  19. Leadership in Physical Therapy: Characteristics of Academics and Managers: A Brief Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desveaux, Laura; Chan, Zach; Brooks, Dina

    2016-01-01

    To explore the characteristics of physical therapy leaders in academic and managerial roles. This quantitative, cross-sectional study used an online questionnaire administered via email to Canadian physical therapists recruited through the Canadian Physiotherapy Association and via additional emails targeted to academic and health care institutions. Individuals who met the inclusion criteria after completion of the questionnaire were asked to complete the Clifton StrengthsFinder, which was used to objectively assess the extent to which participants exhibited personality characteristics. We calculated frequencies for demographic characteristics and the 10 most prominent characteristics for participants in academic and managerial roles. A total of 88 participants completed the questionnaire (52 managers, 36 academics). The most prevalent strengths among both academics and managers were the learner and achiever characteristics. Academics and managers in physical therapy share similar core characteristics, with slight variations in secondary characteristics.

  20. Characteristics of misreporters of dietary intake and physical activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lone Banke; Matthiessen, Jeppe; Biltoft-Jensen, Anja Pia

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To characterise misreporters of energy intake (EI) and energy expenditure (EE). Design: Cross-sectional study, using a validated position and motion instrument, ActiReg (R) as the reference method to study misreporters of El and of EE. El was measured using a dietary record and EE using...... a physical activity questionnaire (PAQ). Misreporters were defined as subjects outside the 95% confidence limits of agreement between El or EE reported/EE measured. Setting: Free-living Danish volunteers. Subjects: One hundred and thirty-eight volunteers aged between 20 and 59 years. Results: Body mass index...... very physically active at work or in leisure time reported a higher EE than measured EE compared with less physically active subjects (P

  1. PETN: Variation in Physical and Chemical Characteristics Related to Aging.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Monroe, D. C. (Dierdre Christina); Laintz, K. E. (Kenneth E.); Kramer, J. F. (John F.); Peterson, P. D. (Paul D.)

    2006-01-01

    Physical and chemical analyses of five PETN (pentaerythritol tetranitrate) batches have been conducted to assist in defining powder acceptance criteria for qualification of newly manufactured powders, as well as for examination of potential changes related to aging and thus changes in performance. Results showed that (1) repeatable Fisher Sub-Sieve Sizer measurements (which relate well to historic performance data) could be obtained with consistent sample setup and measurement techniques; (2) BET nitrogen adsorption estimates of surface area correlate well with Fisher measurements and appear less variable; (3) PharmaVision particle size analyses show promise in discriminating among PETN batches; and (4) SEMs are extremely useful in semi-quantitative discrimination among batches. Physical and chemical data will be related to performance data (to be obtained) to develop quantitative physical and chemical tests useful in predicting performance over time, i.e., as powders age.

  2. Adolescent Physical Fighting in Ghana, Their Demographic and Social Characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel O. Acquah

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Physical fighting is an important behavioral concern of public health importance among adolescents worldwide. The present study examines the patterns and correlates of physical fighting among a school-based population in a low-income country setting. Data on 6235 adolescents aged 11–16 years were derived from the Republic of Ghana contributions to the Global School-based Health Survey. Three thresholds of participation in a physical fight during a 12-month recall period were compared against several independent sociodemographic variables. Bivariate analyses were used to screen for statistically significant associations and multinomial logistic regression was used to examine significant relationships while adjusting for covariates. Within the recall period, 32% of adolescents had reported being involved in two or more physical fights. Those involved in a physical fight during three or more days during the recall period were more likely to have been bullied (relative risk ratios (RRR = 1.86; 99% confidence intervals (CI: 1.38–2.52, have had a troubled experience with alcohol (RRR = 2.202; CI = 1.55–2.64, and miss days of school (RRR = 2.02; CI = 1.39–2.92. When adjusted only for age and sex, having understanding parents was protective (RRR = 0.64; CI = 0.53–0.78 as was having a positive school environment (RRR = 0.73; CI = 0.55–0.97. Our findings suggest that school-based programming which simultaneously targets multiple risk behaviors and conflict resolution may be helpful in interventions to reduce rates of physical fighting.

  3. Studies on physical characteristics of spallation neutron target

    CERN Document Server

    Wan Jun Sheng; Xia Hai Hong; Zhang Li; Zhang Ying

    2002-01-01

    The spallation target of ADS was studied using DCM/CEM program. The simulation of the lead target of 0.6 m length and 0.2 m in diameter bombarded with 0.1 - 1.6 GeV proton beams was carried out. The neutron spectra, neutron fluence distribution over the lead target, energy deposition and neutron production in the lead target were studied. Some former experimental results can be explained very well with the calculated results. The simulation results agree very well with the former theoretical and experimental results

  4. Experimental Studies of Premixed Flame Structure and Propagation Characteristics in Compressible Flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-07-14

    low speed flows have focused on premixed flame kernel interactions with isotropic turbulence in shear-free ducts and fan -stirred chambers.7-8,9,10 In...AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2015-0181 Experimental Studies of Premixed Flame Structure and Propagation Suresh Menon GEORGIA TECH RESEARCH CORPORATION Final Report...Experimental Studies of Premixed Flame Structure and Propagation Characteristics in Compressible Flow Brad Ochs, Dan Fries, Tom Slais and Nathan Grady Co

  5. Experimental Validation of Various Temperature Modells for Semi-Physical Tyre Model Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hackl, Andreas; Scherndl, Christoph; Hirschberg, Wolfgang; Lex, Cornelia

    2017-10-01

    With increasing level of complexity and automation in the area of automotive engineering, the simulation of safety relevant Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) leads to increasing accuracy demands in the description of tyre contact forces. In recent years, with improvement in tyre simulation, the needs for coping with tyre temperatures and the resulting changes in tyre characteristics are rising significantly. Therefore, experimental validation of three different temperature model approaches is carried out, discussed and compared in the scope of this article. To investigate or rather evaluate the range of application of the presented approaches in combination with respect of further implementation in semi-physical tyre models, the main focus lies on the a physical parameterisation. Aside from good modelling accuracy, focus is held on computational time and complexity of the parameterisation process. To evaluate this process and discuss the results, measurements from a Hoosier racing tyre 6.0 / 18.0 10 LCO C2000 from an industrial flat test bench are used. Finally the simulation results are compared with the measurement data.

  6. TEBPP: Theoretical and Experimental study of Beam-Plasma-Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, H. R.; Bernstein, W.; Linson, L. M.; Papadopoulos, K.; Kellogg, P. J.; Szuszczewicz, E. P.; Hallinan, T. J.; Leinbach, H.

    1980-01-01

    The interaction of an electron beam (0 to 10 keV, 0 to 1.5 Amp) with the plasma and neutral atmospheres at 200 to 400 km altitude is studied with emphasis on applications to near Earth and cosmical plasmas. The interaction occurs in four space time regions: (1) near electron gun, beam coming into equilibrium with medium; (2) equilibrium propagation in ionosphere; (3) ahead of beam pulse, temporal and spatial precursors; (4) behind a beam pulse. While region 2 is of the greatest interest, it is essential to study Region 1 because it determines the characteristics of the beam as it enters 2 through 4.

  7. Physical-chemical characteristics and antioxidant potential of seed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Ximenia americana popularly known as wild plum grow wildly in Brazilian semiarid region and its fruit were harvested in two maturity stages and evaluated for quality. The experimental design was completely randomized with three treatments (immature, mature pulp and seeds), and treatment effect was evaluated for pulp ...

  8. Physical Characteristics of Water Used by Haramaya University and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The physical water quality parameters examined were total solids, dissolved solids, suspended solids, turbidity, pH and electrical conductivity. Besides, heating and cooling temperatures at which most of the solids could be extracted were also tested. The results from the wells were compared pair-wise and likewise the ...

  9. Associations between physical activity and characteristics of urban green space

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schipperijn, Jasper; Bentsen, Peter; Troelsen, Jens

    2013-01-01

    The availability of urban green space (UGS) is one of the environmental factors that is frequently linked to increased levels of physical activity (PA). Positive associations with increased levels of PA are reported for the amount of UGS close to home, the distance to the nearest UGS, the size...

  10. Physical characteristics of students to receive ballet training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayse Gul Kabakci

    2017-03-01

    Conclusion: The findings of this study may help to define the parameters of the physical features suitable for classical ballet education. These guidelines can be used to improve insufficient data about this subject in previous literature. [Cukurova Med J 2017; 42(1.000: 55-60

  11. Fabrication and physical characteristics of new glasses from wastes ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The density and the refractive index of the glasses decrease as the CaO and P 2 O 5 contents increase, which was attributed to the increase of [BO 3 ] structural units. On the other hand, the physical parameterssuch as the ultrasonic velocity, the elastic moduli, the optical bandgap and the optical polarizability increased, ...

  12. Some physical characteristics of the Antarctic and western Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RamaRaju, D.V.; Somayajulu, Y.K.

    Based on the data collected during the cruises of R V Gaveshani in Jan-Feb. of 1979 and 1980 around the Andaman Islands, 6 transects are selected, along which the present study on some physical properties of the waters derived from the distributions...

  13. Some physical characteristics of Andaman sea waters during winter

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    RamaRaju, D.V.; Gouveia, A.D.; Murty, C.S.

    Based on the data collected during the cruises of R V Gaveshani in Jan-Feb of 1979 and 1980 around the Andaman Islands, 6 transects are selected, along which the present study on some physical properties of the waters derived from the distributions...

  14. Physical and chemical characteristics of water in selected locations

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ABSTRACT. A study conducted during the period of March/April 2002 aimed at measuring physical and ... nitrite nitrogen (NO2. --N) and Soluble Reactive Silicon (SRSi). Concentrations of NH4+-N, TP and. SRSi were high at bottom waters and the reverse was true for NO2+NO3 ... that nitrogen concentrations in lake water.

  15. Selected Characteristics of Persons in Physical Science: 1978.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palumbo, Thomas J.; And Others

    1980-01-01

    Statistical information, based on the 1978 survey in a series of biennial surveys known as the National Sample of Scientists and Engineers, sponsored by the National Science Foundation and conducted by the Bureau of the Census is presented. Individuals in the field of physical sciences are profiled, including chemists, physicists and astronomers,…

  16. Physical and chemical characteristics of off vine ripened mango ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The need to develop the best off vine mango ripening technique for both consumption and processing was investigated. Some physical and chemical measurements were performed on mature Green Dodo mangoes before and during a 3-day and 6-day ripening period by smoked pit ripening (SPR), ethylene (fruit ...

  17. Effects of blanching and soaking on some physical characteristics of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development ... The study results indicated that blanching and hydration of grass pea seeds improved the sensory characteristics of cooked seeds, significantly reduced the cooking time and increased the weight and texture of the cooked seeds. Application of blanching ...

  18. Physical morphometric characteristics and capacity curves of Abaya ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of the study undertaken in this paper is aimed at investigating the Abaya and Chamo lakes, which are not previously studied in any meaningful detail regarding their water resources capacity. The paper discusses the bathymetry survey undertaken and the resulting morphomoteric characteristics derived as a ...

  19. Evaluation of some physical and motoric characteristics of athletes with down syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilkım Mehmet

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to evaluate some physical and motoric characteristics of Down’s syndrome athletes. The sample of the study consists of 60 athletes (n=30 experimetal group and n=30 control group who are in the Malatya Sessiz Adımlar Sports Club, aged between 13 and 15. Athletes in the experimental group were subjected to a training program to improve the balance and flexibility of 2 hours of 3 days a week for 8 weeks. The athletes, in the control group continued their usual training programs. Before and after the 8-week training program that is applicated for the athletes in the experimental group, the balance and flexibility performances of the athletes in both the experimental and control groups were determined. It was used the flamingo balance test to determine the balance performance of the athletes; was used Sit & Reach test to determine flexibility performance. In favor of the athletes who are in experimental group a statistically significant difference (p0.05 obtained between pre-test and post-test results that is applicated to determine the flexibility performance. It was also found that there was no relationship (p>0.05 between the BMI values of the athletes and their balance and flexibility performances. In the study, it was found that the training program for 8 week training to improve balance and flexibility that was applied to dealing with athleticism 13–15 age group athletes with down syndrome improved the athletes’ balance performance but did not contribute to the their improvement of flexibility performances.

  20. Experimental investigations into the physics of light emitting conjugated polymers

    CERN Document Server

    Whitelegg, S A

    2001-01-01

    chloroprecursor MEH-PPV in-situ of ITO results in a reaction of the polymer with ITO, which significantly shift the emission to high energies. Electroabsorption spectroscopy is used to probe the internal electric fields within operating polymer light emitting devices. When a PPV based LED in an oxygen/water atmosphere, degradation of the device occurs whereby an electric field develops, which opposes the applied electric field. This opposing electric field subsequently decays when the device is turned to its off state. Operating lifetimes and emission efficiencies of polymer light emitting devices are now approaching values suitable for the manufacture and sale of polymer light emitting based products. However, degradation and device performance still continues to be of chief concern and in order for these to be improved the underlying physical processes have to be identified. This thesis aims to identify some of these processes. An investigation in to the optical absorption and emission properties of insolub...

  1. Report on Research in Experimental High Energy Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rusack, Roger W. [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Cushman, Priscilla [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States); Poling, Ronald [Univ. of Minnesota, Minneapolis, MN (United States)

    2016-01-06

    In the past three years the groups supported by the DOE have all made significant progress and posted major successes. The Minnesota CMS group has played leading roles in five data analyses and has had major roles in detector operations, the data management and the detector upgrades that are planned for for the LHC and those that are planned for the high-luminosity LHC. The CDMS-II experiment held the lead in WIMP sensitivity over the last decade, and is still the most sensitive detector in the world in the low WIMP mass region, with a recent 3σ hint of 8 GeV/c2 WIMP candidates in the silicon data. SuperCDMS, with three orders of magnitude better electron recoil background rejection, has been collecting data since October 2011. Since all dark matter experiments require a better understanding of neutron backgrounds to make further advances in sensitivity, Cushman has expanded the Minnesota effort on backgrounds to the national level, where she is leading a coordinated effort in neutron simulations for underground physics. The work of Mandic on 100 mm detectors both for Super-CDMS and beyond has advanced rapidly. Also at the Intensity Frontier, the BESIII experiment has had a successful year of operation largely focused on searches for and studies of new "charmonium-like" states above DD threshold. At least one new state has been observed so far, with hints of others. An intensive effort to understand their nature and gain new insight into the strong interaction continues. BESIII has also produced a large number of other results in charmonium decay and light-hadronic physics.

  2. Developing skills versus reinforcing concepts in physics labs: Insight from a survey of students' beliefs about experimental physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Bethany R.; Lewandowski, H. J.

    2017-06-01

    Physics laboratory courses have been generally acknowledged as an important component of the undergraduate curriculum, particularly with respect to developing students' interest in, and understanding of, experimental physics. There are a number of possible learning goals for these courses including reinforcing physics concepts, developing laboratory skills, and promoting expertlike beliefs about the nature of experimental physics. However, there is little consensus among instructors and researchers interested in the laboratory learning environment as to the relative importance of these various learning goals. Here, we contribute data to this debate through the analysis of students' responses to the laboratory-focused assessment known as the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey for Experimental Physics (E-CLASS). Using a large, national data set of students' responses, we compare students' E-CLASS performance in classes in which the instructor self-reported focusing on developing skills, reinforcing concepts, or both. As the classification of courses was based on instructor self-report, we also provide additional description of these courses with respect to how often students engage in particular activities in the lab. We find that courses that focus specifically on developing lab skills have more expertlike postinstruction E-CLASS responses than courses that focus either on reinforcing physics concepts or on both goals. Within first-year courses, this effect is larger for women. Moreover, these findings hold when controlling for the variance in postinstruction scores that is associated with preinstruction E-CLASS scores, student major, and student gender.

  3. Model characteristics of the structure physical training fighters qualifications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pryimakov O.O.

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Studied the structure of the relationship of physical fitness level fighters with physical disabilities and special performance. It is studied 147 athletes Ukraine qualifications in Greco-Roman and freestyle wrestling, judo. Applied the methods of anthropometry kaliperometrii, teacher testing, testing of a special performance. It is shown that the qualification defines the relationship and the relationship of morphometric and speed-power performance, the level of special performance athletes. With the advanced training of fighters increased level of speed, force readiness, increase the size Spigot neck, hips, chest, shoulders, reduced the percentage of fat component, increases muscular component, the index increased muscle development. Morphometric parameters with the most skilled fighters and cross-linked Spigot size of the body of the speed and power - explosive power, strength and speed-strength endurance, speed.

  4. Health physics radiation-generating devices, characteristics, and hazards

    CERN Document Server

    Bevelacqua, Joseph John

    2016-01-01

    The book bridges the gap between existing health physics textbooks and reference material needed by a practicing health physicist as the 21st century progresses. This material necessarily encompasses emerging radiation-generating technologies, advances in existing technology, and applications of existing technology to new areas. The book is written for advanced undergraduate and graduate science and engineering courses. It is also be a useful reference for scientists and engineers.

  5. The physical characteristics of human proteins in different biological functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tengjiao; Tang, Hailin

    2017-01-01

    The physical properties of gene products are the foundation of their biological functions. In this study, we systematically explored relationships between physical properties and biological functions. The physical properties including origin time, evolution pressure, mRNA and protein stability, molecular weight, hydrophobicity, acidity/alkaline, amino acid compositions, and chromosome location. The biological functions are defined from 4 aspects: biological process, molecular function, cellular component and cell/tissue/organ expression. We found that the proteins associated with basic material and energy metabolism process originated earlier, while the proteins associated with immune, neurological system process etc. originated later. Tissues may have a strong influence on evolution pressure. The proteins associated with energy metabolism are double-stable. Immune and peripheral cell proteins tend to be mRNA stable/protein unstable. There are very few function items with double-unstable of mRNA and protein. The proteins involved in the cell adhesion tend to consist of large proteins with high proportion of small amino acids. The proteins of organic acid transport, neurological system process and amine transport have significantly high hydrophobicity. Interestingly, the proteins involved in olfactory receptor activity tend to have high frequency of aromatic, sulfuric and hydroxyl amino acids.

  6. Experimental particle physics research at Texas Tech University

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akchurin, Nural [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Lee, Sung-Won [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Volobouev, Igor [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States); Wigmans, Richard [Texas Tech Univ., Lubbock, TX (United States)

    2016-06-22

    The high energy physics group at Texas Tech University (TTU) concentrates its research efforts on the Compact Muon Solenoid (CMS) experiment at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) and on generic detector R&D for future applications. Our research programs have been continuously supported by the US Department of Energy for over two decades, and this final report summarizes our achievements during the last grant period from May 1, 2012 to March 31, 2016. After having completed the Run 1 data analyses from the CMS detector, including the discovery of the Higgs boson in July 2012, we concentrated on commissioning the CMS hadron calorimeter (HCAL) for Run 2, performing analyses of Run 2 data, and making initial studies and plans for the second phase of upgrades in CMS. Our research has primarily focused on searches for Beyond Standard Model (BSM) physics via dijets, monophotons, and monojets. We also made significant contributions to the analyses of the semileptonic Higgs decays and Standard Model (SM) measurements in Run 1. Our work on the operations of the CMS detector, especially the performance monitoring of the HCAL in Run 1, was indispensable to the experiment. Our team members, holding leadership positions in HCAL, have played key roles in the R&D, construction, and commissioning of these detectors in the last decade. We also maintained an active program in jet studies that builds on our expertise in calorimetry and algorithm development. In Run 2, we extended some of our analyses at 8 TeV to 13 TeV, and we also started to investigate new territory, e.g., dark matter searches with unexplored signatures. The objective of dual-readout calorimetry R&D was intended to explore (and, if possible, eliminate) the obstacles that prevent calorimetric detection of hadrons and jets with a comparable level of precision as we have grown accustomed to for electrons and photons. The initial prototype detector was successfully tested at the SPS/CERN in 2003-2004 and evolved over the

  7. ANATOMICAL CHARACTERISTICS AND WOOD PHYSICAL- MECHANICAL PROPERTIES OF TWO AFRICAN MAHOGANY SPECIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tâmara Suely Filgueira Amorim França

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the anatomical characteristics and wood physical-mechanical properties of two African mahogany species (Khaya ivorensis and Khaya senegalensis. Five trees of each species with 19-years-old, proceeding from experimental parcels in the areas of the Reserva Natural Vale, located in Sooretama, Espírito Santo State, Brazil. For the anatomical characteristics samples were taken at the position of transition between heartwood and sapwood (peripheral heart. In the evaluation of the specific density were used two opposing wedges from discs gotten in the corresponding region to the diameter the height of the breast (DHB, taken the 1,30 m of the ground, and in positions 0, 25, 50, 75 and 100% of the commercial height of the tree. For shrinkage 20 samples obtained randomly throughout the trunk of each species. The mechanical tests were carried through in removed samples of the central large plank, to the discarded the pith. The species were different how much to the type and frequency of vases and porosity. Rays were predominantly multiseriates, heterocellulars and fibers are libriform. The wood of Khaya ivorensis has low specific density and wood of Khaya senegalensis has medium specific density. The two wood species have normal dimensional stability. In relation the mechanical properties, the Khaya senegalensis wood had the biggest values for all the carried through tests.

  8. Mechanical properties of mortar specimens prepared from experimentally burnt impure limestones: effect of raw material characteristics and burning conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozlovcev, Petr; Triantafyllou, George; Prikryl, Richard; Soultana, Anthansia; Prikrylova, Jirina

    2017-04-01

    Recent study focused on the effect of raw material characteristics of impure carbonate rocks and of their burning conditions on physical / mechanical properties of experimentally burnt natural hydraulic lime / natural cement. Four types of limestone that were historically employed for production of inorganic binders were burnt at 1000, 1100, and/or 1200°C, keeping the peak temperature for 6 hours. Mortar specimens prepared from the experimentally prepared binders were cured in a climatic chamber for 7, 28, 90, and/or 180 days. Then, their mechanical properties (flexural and compressive strengths) were determined. In contrast to our expectations, no direct relationship between increasing content of non-carbonate fraction and burning conditions on improvement of mechanical properties was observed. This fact might be explained by additional effects such as differing microfabrics of the raw material, specifically of spatial distribution of carbonate and non-carbonate mineral phases, which controls formation of new phases during burning below sintering point and therefore influences overall hydraulic character of prepared binders. The study thus shows importance of detailed knowledge not only of chemistry, but also of mineralogy / rock microfabric of raw materials used for burning of inorganic binders below sintering point, and of physical / mechanical properties of experimental mortars for the final evaluation of specific types of limestones suitable for natural hydraulic lime and/or natural cement.

  9. Perceptions of Important Characteristics of Physical Activity Facilities: Implications for Engagement in Walking, Moderate and Vigorous Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katie M. Heinrich

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundAlthough few United States adults meet physical activity recommendations, those that do are more likely to access to physical activity facilities. Additionally, vigorous exercisers may be more likely to utilize a nearby physical activity facility, while light-to-moderate exercisers are less likely to do so. However, it is unclear what characteristics of those facilities are most important as well as how those characteristics are related to activity intensity.PurposeThis study examined relationships between self-reported leisure-time physical activities and the use of and perceived characteristics of physical activity facilities.MethodsData were from a cross-sectional study in a major metropolitan area. Participants (N = 582; ages 18–74, mean age = 45 ± 14.7 years were more likely to be female (69.9%, Caucasian (65.6%, married (51.7%, and have some college education (72.8%. Household surveys queried leisure-time physical activity, regular physical activity facility use, and importance ratings for key facility characteristics.ResultsLeisure-time physical activity recommendations were met by 41.0% of participants and 50.9% regularly used a physical activity facility. Regular facility use was positively associated with meeting walking (p = 0.036, moderate (p < 0.001, and vigorous (p < 0.001 recommendations. Vigorous exercisers were more likely to use a gym/fitness center (p = 0.006 and to place higher importance on facility quality (p = 0.022, variety of physical activity options offered (p = 0.003, and availability of special equipment and resources (p = 0.01. The facility characteristics of low or free cost (p = 0.02 and offering childcare (p = 0.028 were barriers for walking, and being where friends and family like to go were barriers for moderate leisure-time physical activity (p = 0.013.ConclusionFindings offer insights for structuring interventions using the social ecological

  10. Otto Stern (1888-1969): The founding father of experimental atomic physics

    CERN Document Server

    Toennies, J Peter; Friedrich, Bretislav; Lower, Julian C A

    2011-01-01

    We review the work and life of Otto Stern who developed the molecular beam technique and with its aid laid the foundations of experimental atomic physics. Among the key results of his research are: the experimental determination of the Maxwell-Boltzmann distribution of molecular velocities (1920), experimental demonstration of space quantization of angular momentum (1922), diffraction of matter waves comprised of atoms and molecules by crystals (1931) and the determination of the magnetic dipole moments of the proton and deuteron (1933).

  11. Experimental particle physics at the University of Pittsburgh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Engels, E. Jr.; Perera, U.; Shepard, P.F.; Thompson, J.A.

    1992-04-01

    During the past year Task A completed the HELIOS single and pair electron analyses and found no anomalous production or multiplicity dependence. The HELIOS electron-muon pair analysis continued in its search for lepton physics beyond the expected charm yields. Data taking began at the CMD2 detector at Novosibirsk. Measurements of the U. V. reflectivity and photomultiplier tests for the first Cerenkov counter to be used in the E865 experiment at BNL were carried out, along with the development of a general ray-tracing code. The design of the Cerenkov counter for E865 along with development of light mirror fabrication techniques were a major part of the Task A program. The principal efforts of Task B, the Fermilab program, have been the completion of the analysis of the 1987--1988 data with resulting publications, completion of the 1990--1991 data run, and the beginning of the analysis of the 1990--1991 data. In addition, the Task B group is taking a leadership role in developing a proposal to Fermilab for the upgrade of the CDF silicon vertex detector in preparation for the 1995 data run. This proposal is to be presented to the laboratory management in time for the fall Fermilab Program Advisory Committee meeting. Task C has recently submitted results of its fractionally charged particle searches, placing new upper limits on the abundance of naturally-occurring fractionally-charged particles in various materials. This group has recently been approved by the Brookhaven management for an exposure of their p-i-n diodes in a high intensity proton beam. This measurement, along with its subsequent analysis, will complete the program.

  12. Numerical and experimental investigation of the effect of geometry on combustion characteristics of solid-fuel ramjet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Lunkun; Chen, Xiong; Musa, Omer; Yang, Haitao; Zhou, Changsheng

    2017-12-01

    Numerical and experimental investigation on the solid-fuel ramjet was carried out to study the effect of geometry on combustion characteristics. The two-dimensional axisymmetric program developed in the present study adopted finite rate chemistry and second-order moment turbulence-chemistry models, together with k-ω shear stress transport (SST) turbulence model. Experimental data were obtained by burning cylindrical polyethylene using a connected pipe facility. The simulation results show that a fuel-rich zone near the solid fuel surface and an air-rich zone in the core exist in the chamber, and the chemical reactions occur mainly in the interface of this two regions; The physical reasons for the effect of geometry on regression rate is the variation of turbulent viscosity due to the geometry change. Port-to-inlet diameter ratio is the main parameter influencing the turbulent viscosity, and a linear relationship between port-to-inlet diameter and regression rate were obtained. The air mass flow rate and air-fuel ratio are the main influencing factors on ramjet performances. Based on the simulation results, the correlations between geometry and air-fuel ratio were obtained, and the effect of geometry on ramjet performances was analyzed according to the correlation. Three-dimensional regression rate contour obtained experimentally indicates that the regression rate which shows axisymmetric distribution due to the symmetry structure increases sharply, followed by slow decrease in axial direction. The radiation heat transfer in recirculation zone cannot be ignored. Compared with the experimental results, the deviations of calculated average regression rate and characteristic velocity are about 5%. Concerning the effect of geometry on air-fuel ratio, the deviations between experimental and theoretical results are less than 10%.

  13. Microflora and Physical-Chemical Characteristics of Omani Laban

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Guizani

    1999-06-01

    Full Text Available Fifteen samples of Laban made at home in three Omani regions were subjected to physical-chemical and microbiological analysis. Laban had an average titratable acidity, pH, fat, protein and total solids of 1.12%, 3.98, 1.I2%, 2. 11% and 6.29%, respectively. The microbial flora of traditional Omani laban was found to be predominantly mesophilic lactococci. and homofemenentative lactobacili. The mean Lactococci and lactobacilli counts were 1.3 x 10 8 and 2.4 x 10 6/ml respectively. The main microbial types involved in the manufacture of Omani laban were Lactoeoccus lactis ssp lactis. Lacrococcus locus ssp locus biov. Diacetylactis, Lactococcus lactis ssp, Cremoris. and Lactobacillus plantarum. Leuconostoc species were present in low proportion compared to other lactic acid bacteria. All Laban samples contained high yeast numbers and were highly contaminated with coliforms, and fecal coliforms.

  14. Physical and Physiological Characteristics of Judo Athletes: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gema Torres-Luque

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Judo competition is characterized structurally by weight category, which raises the importance of physiological control training in judo. The aim of the present review was to examine scientific papers on the physiological profile of the judokas, maintenance or loss of weight, framing issues, such as anthropometric parameters (body fat percentage, heart rate responses to training and combat, maximal oxygen uptake, hematological, biological and hormones indicators. The values shown in this review should be used as a reference for the evaluation of physical fitness and the effectiveness of training programs. Hence, this information is expected to contribute to the development of optimal training interventions aiming to achieve maximum athletic performance and to maintain the health of judokas.

  15. Experimental and analytical dynamic flow characteristics of an axial-flow fan from an air cushion landing system model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, W. C.; Boghani, A. B.; Leland, T. J. W.

    1977-01-01

    An investigation was conducted to compare the steady-state and dynamic flow characteristics of an axial-flow fan which had been used previously as the air supply fan for some model air cushion landing system studies. Steady-state flow characteristics were determined in the standard manner by using differential orifice pressures for the flow regime from free flow to zero flow. In this same regime, a correlative technique was established so that fan inlet and outlet pressures could be used to measure dynamic flow as created by a rotating damper. Dynamic tests at damper frequencies up to 5 Hz showed very different flow characteristics when compared with steady-state flow, particularly with respect to peak pressures and the pressure-flow relationship at fan stall and unstall. A generalized, rational mathematical fan model was developed based on physical fan parameters and a steady-state flow characteristic. The model showed good correlation with experimental tests at damper frequencies up to 5 Hz.

  16. Results of experimental research of the tribological characteristics of oils from engines and power transmitters of vehicles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sreten R. Perić

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Nowadays, a special attention is focused on the development of modern devices and methods for monitoring condition changes of tribomehanical characteristics in systems. There are different physical and chemical methods and tribology methods for tribomehanical system diagnosis. Experience in technical systems exploitation showed that the most effective failure prognosis is based on particles created as a result of wear. The analysis of oil samples containing particles-products of wear, enables the evaluation of system tribology conditions in different phases of system exploitation. The paper presents the tribological tests in the analysis of oils used for the assessment of its condition. The paper also deals with the results of the experimental research of tribological characteristics of motor and power transmitter oils sampled from engines and power transmitters of the Mercedes O 345, PUCH 300GD and PINZGAUER 710M vehicles in exploitation. The investigations showed that there is a change of tribological characteristics of lubrication oils in the vehicle engine and power transmitters. These changes are in a direct dependence of the state of all elements of the tribomechanical engine and power transmitters system, and they depend on their functional characteristics. The conclusion is based on the realized testing.

  17. Chemical, enzymatic and physical characteristic of cloudy apple juices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirosława Teleszko

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study cloudy juices from six apple cultivars: ‘Alwa’, ‘Fiesta’, ‘Gloster’, ‘Golden Delicious’, ‘Mutsu’ and ‘Pinova’ were characterized in respect of polyphenols content by UPLC, PME (pectin methylesterase activity, color, viscosity, and stability of turbidity. Apple cultivar affected significantly the chemical, enzymatic and physical properties of juices. Total quantitated polyphenols ranged from 686.63 mg l-1 (‘Gloster’ to 988.63 mg l-1 (‘Alwa’, and polymeric proanthocyanidins were a dominant group of these compounds. All of products contained also high content of phenolic acids, mainly chlorogenic. The thermal treatment of juices did not cause a complete inactivation of pectin methylesterase. Taking into account the % of residual enzyme activity, the pasteurization was more efficient in the case of ‘Fiesta’ and ‘Pinova’ juices (13% and 14% of the initial activity, respectively. Examined juices were characterized by low values of a stable turbidity (18.07–37.75%, despite relatively high viscosity (2.40–9.60 mPas.

  18. Experimental measurements and finite element analysis of the coupled vibrational characteristics of piezoelectric shells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yu-Hsi; Ma, Chien-Ching

    2012-04-01

    Piezoelectric plates can provide low-frequency transverse vibrational displacements and high-frequency planar vibrational displacements, which are usually uncoupled. However, piezoelectric shells can induce three-dimensional coupled vibrational displacements over a large frequency range. In this study, three-dimensional coupled vibrational characteristics of piezoelectric shells with free boundary conditions are investigated using three different experimental methods and finite element numerical modeling. For the experimental measurements, amplitude-fluctuation electronic speckle pattern interferometry (AF-ESPI) is used to obtain resonant frequencies and radial, lateral, and angular mode shapes. This optical technique utilizes a real-time, full-field, non-contact optical system that measures both the natural frequency and corresponding vibration mode shape simultaneously. The second experimental technique used, laser Doppler vibrometry (LDV), is a pointwise displacement measurement method that determines the resonant frequencies of the piezoelectric shell. An impedance analyzer is also used to determine the resonant frequencies of the piezoelectric shell. The experimental results of the resonant frequencies and mode shapes for the piezoelectric shell are verified with a numerical finite element model. Excellent agreement between the experimental and numerical results is found for the three-dimensional coupled vibrational characteristics of the piezoelectric shell. It is noted in this study that there is no coupled phenomenon at low frequencies over which radial modes dominate. However, three-dimensional coupled vibrational modes do occur at high resonant frequencies over which lateral or angular modes dominate.

  19. Study of physical chemical characteristics of a shungite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maira Kazankapova

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The physico-chemical characteristics of shungite from the field of Kazakhstan ("Bakyrchik" and Russia ("Zazhegino" was studied by elemental analysis, IR- spectroscopy and electron microscopy. The content of carbon in the schungite field "Zazhegino" is 28,0-31,0 %,  in the field "Bakyrchik" - 15,0-19,0 %, in schungite concentrate  "Bakyrchik" is 40,0 ± 2,0 %.  IR-spectroscopic analysis have been shown that carboxyl groups appear in addition to the concentrate of polycyclic hydrocarbons containing methylene groups. Analysis of electron microscopy have been shown that as a result of enrichment by carbon, shungite can get a more developed surface structure and porosity.

  20. A Student's Perspective on the Intrinsic Characteristics of the Single-Sex Physics Class.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gierl, Mark J.; And Others

    Little is known about the intrinsic characteristics that distinguish single- and mixed-sex classrooms at the secondary level. To address this gap in knowledge, 19 Grade 11 students who were in a mixed-sex Physics 10 (during Grade 10) and a single-sex Physics 20 (during Grade 11) class were asked to compare the two environments. Twenty-four Grade…

  1. Physical characteristics of shrub and conifer fuels for fire behavior models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jonathan R. Gallacher; Thomas H. Fletcher; Victoria Lansinger; Sydney Hansen; Taylor Ellsworth; David R. Weise

    2017-01-01

    The physical properties and dimensions of foliage are necessary inputs for some fire spread models. Currently, almost no data exist on these plant characteristics to fill this need. In this report, we measured the physical properties and dimensions of the foliage from 10 live shrub and conifer fuels throughout a 1-year period. We developed models to predict relative...

  2. The Relationship of Stability Performance and the Physical Growth Characteristics of Preschool Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erbaugh, Sarah J.

    1984-01-01

    This study investigated the relationship between physical growth and performance of three- and four-year-old children (n=4two) on 2 stability or balance tests: the elevated beam and the stabilometer. Physical growth characteristics were concluded to be an integral part of factors influencing young childrens' stability performance. (Author/JMK)

  3. Schoolyard Characteristics, Physical Activity, and Sedentary Behavior: Combining GPS and Accelerometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Kann, Dave H. H.; de Vries, Sanne I.; Schipperijn, Jasper; de Vries, Nanne K.; Jansen, Maria W. J.; Kremers, Stef P. J.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Physical activity (PA) is decreasing among children, while sedentary behavior (SB) is increasing. Schoolyards seem suitable settings to influence children's PA behavior. This study investigated the associations between schoolyard characteristics and moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and SB of children aged 8-11 years at…

  4. Physical activity and health characteristics : a survey among Dutch elderly women and men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hombergh, van den C.E.J.

    1995-01-01

    To study physical activity of elderly people and its relationship with health characteristics, a cross-sectional study was conducted in 1991/1992 in Arnhem, the Netherlands, among 515 women and 497 men, aged 65 to 85 years. Habitual physical activity was assessed with a questionnaire,

  5. Evaluation of Some Physical Fitness Characteristics in 11-13 Years Old

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popovici, Ileana Monica; Popescu, Lucian; Radu, Liliana-Elisabeta

    2017-01-01

    Many studies indicate that a physical fitness characteristic is an important marker for healthy body and healthy mind. The major purpose of this study is to explore the levels of physical fitness of the students between 11 and 13 years of age. The participants of this study are 251 volunteer students including 95 boys and 156 girls between the…

  6. An experimental assessment of physical educators' expectations and attitudes: the importance of student weight and gender.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jamie Lee; Puhl, Rebecca M; Luedicke, Joerg

    2012-09-01

    At school, physical education (PE) teachers and coaches may be key supports for physical activity. Unfortunately, PE teachers may endorse negative stereotypes and attitudes toward overweight youth. These biases may influence the amount of instruction physical educators provide to students and their participation in PE or other physical activity. This study assessed physical educators' (N = 162) ability and performance expectations, attributions, and attitudes toward overweight and non-overweight students. Physical educators endorsed inferior ability expectations for overweight students compared to non-overweight students. Poorer performance expectations were limited to overweight female targets, but when controlling for participant characteristics, this effect became marginally significant for overweight male targets. There was a trend such that participants endorsed more external attributions for the abilities and performance of overweight female students, yet this effect was reduced to marginal significance when controlling for participant characteristics. Participants endorsed more negative attitudes for both overweight males and females compared to non-overweight youth. Findings indicate that physical educators' expectations, attributions, and attitudes regarding students may be negatively influenced by youth body weight, and differ by student gender. The potential effect of physical educators' weight bias on adolescent participation in physical activity and its implications for students' physical health, academic achievement, and social development are discussed. © 2012, American School Health Association.

  7. Mesola red deer: physical characteristics, population dynamics and conservation perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefano Mattioli

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The biometry, demography and genetics of red deer Cervus elaphus of Mesola Wood (NE Italy, are presented and discussed in relation to the conservation of this population. Modest body size, low stature, oversimplified antlers and a low reproductive performance characterise red deer from Mesola Wood. The mitochondrial genome showed a private haplotype, different from other red deer in Italy and central Europe. The uniqueness of this nucleus and its biogeographic importance make a long-term conservation plan particularly urgent. Management measures such as fallow deer reduction, winter feeding and pasture mowing were tested, giving promising results. The physical condition of the animals improved, calf and adult mortality declined, and a few cases of antlers with bez tine or crown were reported in this study after four decades. Riassunto Il Cervo della Mesola: caratteristiche fisiche, dinamica di popolazione e prospettive di conservazione La biometria, la demografia e la genetica del cervo Cervus elaphus del Gran Bosco della Mesola (Italia nord-orientale, vengono presentate e discusse in relazione alla salvaguardia di questa popolazione. Il cervo della Mesola risulta caratterizzato dalle modeste dimensioni corporee, dalla struttura semplificata dei palchi e da un basso rendimento riproduttivo. L'analisi del genoma mitocondriale ha evidenziato un aplotipo privato, diverso da quello degli altri cervi italiani e centroeuropei. L'unicità di questo nucleo e la sua importanza biogeografica rendono particolarmente urgente un piano di conservazione a lungo termine. Sono stati verificati interventi gestionali quali la riduzione numerica dei daini, il foraggiamento invernale e lo sfalcio delle superfici a pascolo, con risultati promettenti. Le condizioni fisiche degli animali sono migliorate, la mortalità tra i piccoli e gli adulti è diminuita, e sono stati registrati alcuni

  8. Child physical activity levels and associations with modifiable characteristics in centre-based childcare.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, A Colin; Finch, Meghan; Wolfenden, Luke; Fitzgerald, Michael; Morgan, Philip J; Jones, Jannah; Freund, Megan; Wiggers, John

    2015-06-01

    To describe children's physical activity levels during childcare and associations with modifiable characteristics. A cross-sectional study of 328 preschool children (43% girls; age 3-5 years) and 145 staff from 20 long day care centres in the Hunter Region of NSW, Australia. Pedometers assessed child physical activity levels. Centre characteristics and staff attitudes and behaviours towards children's physical activity were assessed using surveys, interviews and observational audit. Results were analysed using descriptive statistics and linear regression. Over the measurement period, average step count of children was 15.8 (SD=6.8) steps/minute. Four-year-olds had the highest step counts (16.4, SD=7.1, p=0.03) with no differences by sex. Step counts were significantly higher in centres that had a written physical activity policy (+3.8 steps/minute, p=0.03) and where staff led structured physical activity (+3.7 steps/minute, pactive play (+2.9 steps/minute, p=0.06). Written physical activity policy, structured staff-led physical activity and staff joining in active play were associated with higher levels of physical activity. Childcare physical activity interventions should consider including strategies to encourage written physical activity policies and support structured staff led physical activities. © 2015 Public Health Association of Australia.

  9. Non-Newtonian Flow Characteristics of Heavy Oil in the Bohai Bay Oilfield: Experimental and Simulation Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiankang Xin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, physical experiments and numerical simulations were applied to systematically investigate the non-Newtonian flow characteristics of heavy oil in porous media. Rheological experiments were carried out to determine the rheology of heavy oil. Threshold pressure gradient (TPG measurement experiments performed by a new micro-flow method and flow experiments were conducted to study the effect of viscosity, permeability and mobility on the flow characteristics of heavy oil. An in-house developed novel simulator considering the non-Newtonian flow was designed based on the experimental investigations. The results from the physical experiments indicated that heavy oil was a Bingham fluid with non-Newtonian flow characteristics, and its viscosity-temperature relationship conformed to the Arrhenius equation. Its viscosity decreased with an increase in temperature and a decrease in asphaltene content. The TPG measurement experiments was impacted by the flow rate, and its critical flow rate was 0.003 mL/min. The TPG decreased as the viscosity decreased or the permeability increased and had a power-law relationship with mobility. In addition, the critical viscosity had a range of 42–54 mPa∙s, above which the TPG existed for a given permeability. The validation of the designed simulator was positive and acceptable when compared to the simulation results run in ECLIPSE V2013.1 and Computer Modelling Group (CMG V2012 software as well as when compared to the results obtained during physical experiments. The difference between 0.0005 and 0.0750 MPa/m in the TPG showed a decrease of 11.55% in the oil recovery based on the simulation results, which demonstrated the largely adverse impact the TPG had on heavy oil production.

  10. Experimental investigation of flow and heat transfer characteristics of R-134a in microchannels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hegab, Hisham E.; Bari, Abdullahel; Ameel, Timothy A.

    2001-09-01

    Fluid flow and heat transfer characteristics of single-phase flows in microchannels for refrigerant R-134a were experimentally investigated. Experiments were conducted using rectangular channels micro-milled in aluminum with hydraulic diameters ranging from approximately 112-mm to 210-mm and aspect ratios that varied from 1.0 to 1.5. Using overall temperature, flow rate, and pressure drop measurements, friction factors and convective heat transfer coefficients were experimentally determined for steady flow conditions. Reynolds number, relative roughness, and channel aspect ratio were the parameters examined in predicting friction factor and Nusselt number for the experiments. Experiment results indicated transition from laminar to turbulent flow occurred between a Reynolds number of 2,000-4,000. Friction factor results were consistently lower than values predicted by macroscale correlations. Nusselt number results indicated channel size may suppress turbulent convective heat transfer. Results also indicate that surface roughness may affect heat transfer characteristics in the turbulent regime.

  11. Numerical and experimental study of the characteristic functions of polygon scanners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duma, Virgil-Florin; Nicolov, Mirela

    2009-06-01

    A MathCad analysis of the mathematical functions and parameters of polygonal scanning heads is achieved. The results of a previous, rigorous analytical study we have performed are used. A scanning system for dimensional measurements has been considered. However, most of the results obtained are valid for any application of polygon mirror (PM) scanners. The characteristic functions and parameters of the PM scanner in the dimensional measurements setup, i.e. i.e. scanning function and velocity, characteristic angles and duty cycle are discussed. The analysis is performed with regard to the constructive parameters of the polygonal scanning system. An experimental stall is designed and constructed, and some of the experimental results concerning the scanning function, relevant for the analysis performed are presented.

  12. THEORETICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE DYNAMIC CHARACTERISTICS OF AXIAL BLOOD PUMPS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. P. Itkin

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents a theoretical analysis of the dynamic interaction of the left ventricle assist axial pump and the cardiovascular system. It is shown the axial pumps are working in conditions «left ventricle- aorta» generates a pulsed flow. The slope of the flow-pressure characteristics determine the amplitude of the pulsation. Data are confirmed in the chronic experiments on the biological models with the extracorporeal connection of the pump. The possibility of using this characteristic for the develope of the automatic control systems to ensure adequate operation of the pump in range of the physical activity of a patient ‘s physical activity. 

  13. Influence of morphological characteristics on physical and physiological performances of tunisian elite male handball players.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncef, Cherif; Said, Mohamed; Olfa, Najlaoui; Dagbaji, Gomri

    2012-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the body structure and morphological characteristics of Tunisian elite handball players, and to determine the effect of these variables on functional and physical performance levels. A sample of 42 male handball players (mean age 21.98±3.24 years; training duration 12 years) at international level was submitted to a test battery comprising morphological, physical and physiological assessments. Tests were yo-yo intermittent recovery test, squat jump test, countermovement jump test, vertical-jump test, and Repeated sprint Ability. Measures for assessment of anthropometric characteristics were age, size, weight, body mass index, body fat, fat mass and thin mass. Weight was negatively correlated to the squat jump and the countermovement jump performance. Age, weight, and body composition measures (fat and thin body mass) were additionally negatively related to the maximal oxygen uptake, and to the maximal velocity obtained in the Yo-Yo recovery test. No relationship was found between size, body mass index, body fat and the physical abilities considered. Concerning the effects of physical characteristics on the functional performances, we can note a positive relationship between squat jump, countermovement jump, and the yo-yo recovery test performance. No relationship was found between vertical jump, repeated sprint ability, and the physiological performances. Study results point to the existence of strong correlation between morphological and physical characteristics with functional characteristics. In handball, it is possible to have a reliable estimate of anthropometric measurements, physical and physiological performances.

  14. High energy resolution characteristics on 14MeV neutron spectrometer for fusion experimental reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iguchi, Tetsuo [Tokyo Univ., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan). Nuclear Engineering Research Lab.; Takada, Eiji; Nakazawa, Masaharu

    1996-10-01

    A 14MeV neutron spectrometer suitable for an ITER-like fusion experimental reactor is now under development on the basis of a recoil proton counter telescope principle in oblique scattering geometry. To verify its high energy resolution characteristics, preliminary experiments are made for a prototypical detector system. The comparison results show reasonably good agreement and demonstrate the possibility of energy resolution of 2.5% in full width at half maximum for 14MeV neutron spectrometry. (author)

  15. The influence of travel attitudes, commute mode choice, and perceived neighborhood characteristics on physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morckel, Victoria; Terzano, Kathryn

    2014-01-01

    This study examines the relationships between physical activity, travel attitudes, commute mode choice, and perceived neighborhood characteristics. A recent study found that people who walk or bike during their commute exercise more outside of the commute than do people who commute by mass transit or car. The current study seeks to explain what might account for this relationship, using ANOVA models (Method) conducted on survey data from 3 cities. Perceived neighborhood characteristics and travel attitudes influence participants' reported physical activity levels both during the commute and outside of the commute. While the study does not establish causality, the results provide some support for the notion that policy makers interested in increasing physical activity levels should consider changing not only the physical environment, but also perceived neighborhood characteristics and travel attitudes.

  16. Air Force Physical Fitness: An Assessment of Characteristics and Programs which Affect Individual Physical Fitness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-09-01

    taining physical fitness. Get rid of the greasy, starchy junk foods served in alert dining halls. (679) Why don’ t you award points towards promotion...attention and lack of physical fitness are well recognized. Kraus and Raub (27:10-12) list tension, obesity , musculoskeletal dys- function, and...parallel increase in degenerative diseases such as obesity and CVD. The American Heart Association recognizes seven generally accept- ed risk factors

  17. Physical, policy, and sociocultural characteristics of the primary school environment are positively associated with children's physical activity during class time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Karen; Bremner, Alexandra; Salmon, Jo; Rosenberg, Michael; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2014-03-01

    The objective of this study was to develop a multidomain model to identify key characteristics of the primary school environment associated with children's physical activity (PA) during class-time. Accelerometers were used to calculate time spent in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity during class-time (CMVPA) of 408 sixth-grade children (mean ± SD age 11.1 ± 0.43 years) attending 27 metropolitan primary schools in Perth Western Australia. Child and staff self-report instruments and a school physical environment scan administered by the research team were used to collect data about children and the class and school environments. Hierarchical modeling identified key variables associated with CMVPA. The final multilevel model explained 49% of CMVPA. A physically active physical education (PE) coordinator, fitness sessions incorporated into PE sessions and either a trained PE specialist, classroom teacher or nobody coordinating PE in the school, rather than the deputy principal, were associated with higher CMVPA. The amount of grassed area per student and sporting apparatus on grass were also associated with higher CMVPA. These results highlight the relevance of the school's sociocultural, policy and physical environments in supporting class-based PA. Interventions testing optimization of the school physical, sociocultural and policy environments to support physical activity are warranted.

  18. Experimental Investigation on Deformation Failure Characteristics of Crystalline Marble Under Triaxial Cyclic Loading

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Sheng-Qi; Tian, Wen-Ling; Ranjith, P. G.

    2017-11-01

    The deformation failure characteristics of marble subjected to triaxial cyclic loading are significant when evaluating the stability and safety of deep excavation damage zones. To date, however, there have been notably few triaxial experimental studies on marble under triaxial cyclic loading. Therefore, in this research, a series of triaxial cyclic tests was conducted to analyze the mechanical damage characteristics of a marble. The post-peak deformation of the marble changed gradually from strain softening to strain hardening as the confining pressure increased from 0 to 10 MPa. Under uniaxial compression, marble specimens showed brittle failure characteristics with a number axial splitting tensile cracks; in the range of σ 3 = 2.5-7.5 MPa, the marble specimens assumed single shear fracture characteristics with larger fracture angles of about 65°. However, at σ 3 = 10 MPa, the marble specimens showed no obvious shear fracture surfaces. The triaxial cyclic experimental results indicate that in the range of the tested confining pressures, the triaxial strengths of the marble specimens under cyclic loading were approximately equal to those under monotonic loading. With the increase in cycle number, the elastic strains of the marble specimens all increased at first and later decreased, achieving maximum values, but the plastic strains of the marble specimens increased nonlinearly. To evaluate quantitatively the damage extent of the marble under triaxial cyclic loading, a damage variable is defined according to the irreversible deformation for each cycle. The evolutions of the elastic modulus for the marble were characterized by four stages: material strengthening, material degradation, material failure and structure slippage. Based on the experimental results of the marble specimens under complex cyclic loading, the cohesion of the marble decreased linearly, but the internal friction angles did not depend on the damage extent. To describe the peak strength

  19. Experimental Physics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Harold A.

    2014-05-01

    Preface; Introduction; Part I. Mechanics and Properties of Matter: 1. Space and time; 2. Motion; 3. The laws of motion and matter; 4. Force and motion; 5. Work and study; 6. Mechanics of rigid bodies; 7. Gravitation; 8. Elasticity; 9. The properties of liquids; Part II. Heat: 1. Temperature; 2. The expansion of solid bones with rise of temperature; 3. The expansion of liquids with rise of temperature; 4. The properties of gases; 5. Quantity of heat. Specific heat; 6. Change of state. Solid-liquid; 7. Change of state. Liquid-vapour; 8. Convection and conduction; 9. Heat a form of energy; 10. The conversion of heat into work; 11. The kinetic theory of gases; Part III. Sound: 1. Production and velocity of sound; 2. Wave motion; 3. Wave trains; 4. Musical notes; 5. Reflection, refraction, interference of sound and composition of perpendicular vibrations; 6. Resonance; 7. Vibration of strings; 8. Vibration of air in open and closed spaces; Part IV. Light: 1. Sources of light. Photometry; 2. Reflection and refraction at plane surfaces; 3. Spherical mirrors; 4. Lenses; 5. Dispersion; 6. Colour; 7. Optical instruments; 8. The velocity of light; 9. Interference and diffraction; 10. Polarization and double refraction; 11. Energy of light. Invisible radiations; Index.

  20. Characteristics of benzodiazepine receptors in rats differing in predisposition to experimental alcoholism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burov, Yu.V.; Maiskii, A.I.; Yukhananov, R.Yu.

    1986-02-01

    This paper studies the number and affinity of benzodiazepine receptors for diazepam in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus of rats differently predisposed to the development of experimental alcoholism. Ethanol was injected once intraperitoneally, in a dose of 2.5 g/kg. Control animals received the same volume of physiological saline. Bound and free N-methyl-tritium-diazepam were separated by means of GF/B filters. The characteristics of benzodiazepine receptors are shown in rats differing in predisposition to the development of experimental alcoholism and in rats during voluntary chronic alcoholization. It is shown that weakening of functional acitivity of the GABA-benzodiazepam complex in animals predisposed to the development of experimental alcoholism is one of the neurochemical mechanisms of development of the abstinence syndrome.

  1. Experimental Study on Vibration Reduction Characteristics of Gear Shafts Based on ISFD Installation Position

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaihua Lu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel type of integral squeeze film damper (ISFD is proposed to reduce and isolate vibration excitations of the gear system through bearing to the foundation. Four ISFD designs were tested experimentally with an open first-grade spur gear system. Vibration reduction characteristics were experimentally studied at different speeds for cases where ISFD elastic damping supports were simultaneously installed on the driving and driven shafts, installed on the driven shaft, or only installed on the driving shaft. Experimental results show that the ISFD elastic damping support can effectively reduce shock vibration of the gear system. Additionally, resonant modulation in gear shafts caused by meshing impact was significantly reduced. Different vibration amplitudes of gear shafts with ISFD installed only on driven or driving shafts were compared. Results indicated that vibration reduction is better when ISFD is only installed on the driven shaft than on the driving shaft.

  2. Masculinities and experimental practices in physics: The view from three case studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonsalves, Allison J.; Danielsson, Anna; Pettersson, Helena

    2016-12-01

    [This paper is part of the Focused Collection on Gender in Physics.] This article analyzes masculinity and experimental practices within three different physics communities. This work is premised on the understanding that the discipline of physics is not only dominated by men, but also is laden with masculine connotations on a symbolical level, and that this limited and limiting construction of physics has made it difficult for many women to find a place in the discipline. Consequently, we argue that in order to further the understanding of gender dynamics within physics communities and enrich the current understandings about the lack of women in physics, perspectives from masculinity studies are crucial. The article draws on three different ethnographic case studies dealing with undergraduate students, graduate students, and research scientists.

  3. Experimental investigation of thermal characteristics of synthetic jet generator's diaphragm with piezoelectric actuator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rimasauskiene, Ruta; Rimasauskas, Marius; Mieloszyk, Magdalena; Wandowski, Tomasz; Malinowski, Pawel; Ostachowicz, Wieslaw

    2014-05-01

    An experimental analysis of the thermal characteristics of two different diaphragms of the synthetic jet generator was presented in this paper. It is extremely important to study temperature characteristics of the components with piezoelectric actuators working in various modes. Often piezoelectric actuators are used aiming to obtain maximum displacements that are possible when a piezoelectric actuator operates under maximum excitation voltage and often at the first resonance frequency. The theory suggests that working in such modes extremely increases temperature of the piezoelectric elements and it can reach maximum point. High temperatures might cause deformation or other changes of mechanical properties of the other components. This might influence the life time and operational characteristics of the synthetic jet generator. The main task of this work was to find the best working conditions for the synthetic jet generator. Dynamic characteristics of the diaphragm with piezoelectric material were measured using non-contact measuring equipment laser vibrometer Polytec® PSV 400. Temperatures of the piezoelectric diaphragms working at different resonance frequencies were measured with Fiber Bragg Grating (FBG) sensor. Experimental results of two different piezoelectric diaphragms were presented in this article. The best working conditions for synthetic jet generator were chosen.

  4. APPLICATION OF HIERARCHICAL CLUSTERING ALGORITHM FOR STRUCTURAL CHARACTERISTIC OF MOVING PHYSICAL OBJECTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.I. Babenko

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Approach to the development of management solutions using the cluster analysis can qualitatively improve the management system by moving objects through the adequate response to the impact of the key factors influencing the characteristics of physical objects. The aim is to attempt to solve the problem of identifying key factors and physical signs of moving physical objects needed to make appropriate management decisions by using cluster analysis. The article defines the types of clustering algorithms; the system of information parameters directly or indirectly characterizing the analyzed characteristics is emphasized, hierarchical and non-hierarchical cluster analysis methods are considered. The research finding is the construction of tree diagram using the program STATISTICA 8, which gives the idea of possible clusters’ number combining physical indicators under the dynamic changes of moving objects. The advantage of cluster analysis usage is the use of factors relating to both internal and external environments of the physical properties’ interaction of moving objects.

  5. Response Characteristics and Experimental Study of Underground Magnetic Resonance Sounding Using a Small-Coil Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengwu Qin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Due to its unique sensitivity to hydrogen protons, magnetic resonance sounding (MRS is the only geophysical method that directly detects water and can provide nondestructive information on subsurface aquifer properties. The relationship between the surface MRS signal and the location and characteristics of aquifers using large-coil (typically 50–150 m sensors has been discussed based on forward modelling and experiments. However, few researchers have studied underground MRS using a small-coil sensor. In this paper, a parametric study and a large-scale physical model test were conducted to shed light on the critical response characteristics of underground MRS using a small-coil sensor. The effects of the size and number of turns of the transmitter coil and receiver coil, the geomagnetic declination, the geomagnetic inclination, and the position, thickness, and water content of a water-bearing structure on the performance of the underground MRS were studied based on numerical simulations. Furthermore, we derived the kernel function and underground MRS signal curves for a water-bearing structure model based on the simulations. Finally, a large-scale physical model test on underground MRS using a small-coil sensor was performed using a physical test system for geological prediction of tunnels at Shandong University. The results show that the inversion results of the physical model test were in good agreement with the physical prototype results. Using both numerical modeling and physical model tests, this study showed that underground MRS using a small-coil sensor can be used to predict water-bearing structures in underground engineering.

  6. Response Characteristics and Experimental Study of Underground Magnetic Resonance Sounding Using a Small-Coil Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Shengwu; Ma, Zhongjun; Jiang, Chuandong; Lin, Jun; Xue, Yiguo; Shang, Xinlei; Li, Zhiqiang

    2017-09-15

    Due to its unique sensitivity to hydrogen protons, magnetic resonance sounding (MRS) is the only geophysical method that directly detects water and can provide nondestructive information on subsurface aquifer properties. The relationship between the surface MRS signal and the location and characteristics of aquifers using large-coil (typically 50-150 m) sensors has been discussed based on forward modelling and experiments. However, few researchers have studied underground MRS using a small-coil sensor. In this paper, a parametric study and a large-scale physical model test were conducted to shed light on the critical response characteristics of underground MRS using a small-coil sensor. The effects of the size and number of turns of the transmitter coil and receiver coil, the geomagnetic declination, the geomagnetic inclination, and the position, thickness, and water content of a water-bearing structure on the performance of the underground MRS were studied based on numerical simulations. Furthermore, we derived the kernel function and underground MRS signal curves for a water-bearing structure model based on the simulations. Finally, a large-scale physical model test on underground MRS using a small-coil sensor was performed using a physical test system for geological prediction of tunnels at Shandong University. The results show that the inversion results of the physical model test were in good agreement with the physical prototype results. Using both numerical modeling and physical model tests, this study showed that underground MRS using a small-coil sensor can be used to predict water-bearing structures in underground engineering.

  7. Differential Responses to Food Price Changes by Personal Characteristic: A Systematic Review of Experimental Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mizdrak, Anja; Scarborough, Peter; Waterlander, Wilma E.; Rayner, Mike

    2015-01-01

    Background Fiscal interventions to improve population diet have been recommended for consideration by many organisations including the World Health Organisation and the United Nations and policies such as sugar-sweetened beverage taxes have been implemented at national and sub-national levels. However, concerns have been raised with respect to the differential impact of fiscal interventions on population sub-groups and this remains a barrier to implementation. Objective To examine how personal characteristics (such as socioeconomic status, sex, impulsivity, and income) moderate changes in purchases of targeted foods in response to food and beverage price changes in experimental settings. Design Systematic review Data Sources Online databases (PubMed, EMBASE, Web of Science, EconLit and PsycInfo), reference lists of previous reviews, and additional data from study authors. Study Selection We included randomised controlled trials where food and beverage prices were manipulated and reported differential effects of the intervention on participant sub-groups defined according to personal characteristics. Data Analysis Where possible, we extracted data to enable the calculation of price elasticities for the target foods by personal characteristic. Results 8 studies were included in the review. Across studies, the difference in price elasticity varied from 0.02 to 2.43 between groups within the same study. 11 out of the total of 18 comparisons of own-price elasticity estimates by personal characteristic differed by more than 0.2 between groups. Income related factors were the most commonly considered and there was an indication that own-price elasticity estimates do vary by income but the direction of this effect was not clear. Conclusion Experimental studies provide an opportunity to examine the differential effects of fiscal measures to improve population diets. Patterns in price sensitivity by personal characteristics are complex. General conclusions pertaining to the

  8. Improvement or selection? A longitudinal analysis of students' views about experimental physics in their lab courses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilcox, Bethany R.; Lewandowski, H. J.

    2017-12-01

    Laboratory courses represent a unique and potentially important component of the undergraduate physics curriculum, which can be designed to allow students to authentically engage with the process of experimental physics. Among other possible benefits, participation in these courses throughout the undergraduate physics curriculum presents an opportunity to develop students' understanding of the nature and importance of experimental physics within the discipline as a whole. Here, we present and compare both a longitudinal and pseudolongitudinal analysis of students' responses to a research-based assessment targeting students' views about experimental physics—the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey for Experimental Physics (E-CLASS)—across multiple, required lab courses at a single institution. We find that, while pseudolongitudinal averages showed increases in students' E-CLASS scores in each consecutive course, analysis of longitudinal data indicates that this increase was not driven by a cumulative impact of laboratory instruction. Rather, the increase was driven by a selection effect in which students who persisted into higher-level lab courses already had more expertlike beliefs, attitudes, and expectations than their peers when they started the lower-level courses.

  9. Robert Dicke and the naissance of experimental gravity physics, 1957-1967

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peebles, Phillip James Edwin

    2017-06-01

    The experimental study of gravity became much more active in the late 1950s, a change pronounced enough be termed the birth, or naissance, of experimental gravity physics. I present a review of developments in this subject since 1915, through the broad range of new approaches that commenced in the late 1950s, and up to the transition of experimental gravity physics to what might be termed a normal and accepted part of physical science in the late 1960s. This review shows the importance of advances in technology, here as in all branches of natural science. The role of contingency is illustrated by Robert Dicke's decision in the mid-1950s to change directions in mid-career, to lead a research group dedicated to the experimental study of gravity. The review also shows the power of nonempirical evidence. Some in the 1950s felt that general relativity theory is so logically sound as to be scarcely worth the testing. But Dicke and others argued that a poorly tested theory is only that, and that other nonempirical arguments, based on Mach's Principle and Dirac's Large Numbers hypothesis, suggested it would be worth looking for a better theory of gravity. I conclude by offering lessons from this history, some peculiar to the study of gravity physics during the naissance, some of more general relevance. The central lesson, which is familiar but not always well advertised, is that physical theories can be empirically established, sometimes with surprising results.

  10. [Experimental and theoretical high energy physics program]. [Purdue Univ. , West Lafayette, Indiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finley, J.; Gaidos, J.A.; Loeffler, F.J.; McIlwain, R.L.; Miller, D.H.; Palfrey, T.R.; Shibata, E.I.; Shipsey, I.P.

    1993-04-01

    Experimental and theoretical high-energy physics research at Purdue is summarized in a number of reports. Subjects treated include the following: the CLEO experiment for the study of heavy flavor physics; gas microstrip detectors; particle astrophysics; affine Kac[endash]Moody algebra; nonperturbative mass bounds on scalar and fermion systems due to triviality and vacuum stability constraints; resonance neutrino oscillations; e[sup +]e[sup [minus

  11. A study on the effects of fatigue driving and drunk driving on drivers' physical characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xingjian; Zhao, Xiaohua; Du, Hongji; Rong, Jian

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to analyze the effects of fatigue driving and drunk driving on drivers' physical characteristics; to analyze the differences in drivers' physical characteristics affected by different kinds of fatigue; and to compare the differences in the effects of the 2 driving states, fatigue driving and drunk driving. Twenty-five participants' physical characteristics were collected under 5 controlled situations: normal, tired driving, drowsy driving, drowsiness + tired driving, and drunk driving. In this article, fatigue driving refers to tiredness and drowsiness and includes 3 situations: tired driving, drowsy driving, and drowsiness + tired driving. The drivers' physical characteristics were measured in terms of 9 parameters: systolic blood pressure (SBP), heart rate (HR), eyesight, dynamic visual acuity (DVA), time for dark adaption (TDA), reaction time to sound (RTS), reaction time to light (RTL), deviation of depth perception (DDP), and time deviation of speed anticipation (TDSA). They were analyzed using analysis of variance (ANOVA) with repeated measures. Binary logistical regression analysis was used to explain the relationship between drivers' physical characteristics and the two driving states. Most of the drivers' physical characteristic parameters were found to be significantly different under the influence of different situations. Four indicators are significantly affected by fatigue driving during deep fatigue (in decreasing order of influence): HR, RTL, SBP and RTS. HR and RTL are significant in the logistical regression model of the drowsiness + tired driving situation and normal situations. Six indicators of the drivers' physical characteristics are significantly affected by drunk driving (in decreasing order of influence): SBP, RTL, DDP, eyesight, RTS, and TDSA. SBP and DDP have a significant effect in the logistical regression model of the drunk driving situation and the normal situation. Both fatigue driving and drunk driving

  12. An experimental investigation devoted to determine heat transfer characteristics in a radiant ceiling heating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koca, Aliihsan; Acikgoz, Ozgen; Çebi, Alican; Çetin, Gürsel; Dalkilic, Ahmet Selim; Wongwises, Somchai

    2017-08-01

    Investigations on heated ceiling method can be considered as a new research area in comparison to the common wall heating-cooling and cooled ceiling methods. In this work, heat transfer characteristics of a heated radiant ceiling system was investigated experimentally. There were different configurations for a single room design in order to determine the convective and radiative heat transfer rates. Almost all details on the arrangement of the test chamber, hydraulic circuit and radiant panels, the measurement equipment and experimental method including uncertainty analysis were revealed in detail indicating specific international standards. Total heat transfer amount from the panels were calculated as the sum of radiation to the unheated surfaces, convection to the air, and conduction heat loss from the backside of the panels. Integral expression of the view factors was calculated by means of the numerical evaluations using Matlab code. By means of this experimental chamber, the radiative, convective and total heat-transfer coefficient values along with the heat flux values provided from the ceiling to the unheated surrounding surfaces have been calculated. Moreover, the details of 28 different experimental case study measurements from the experimental chamber including the convective, radiative and total heat flux, and heat output results are given in a Table for other researchers to validate their theoretical models and empirical correlations.

  13. Experimental measurement and numerical analysis on resonant characteristics of piezoelectric disks with partial electrode designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Chih; Ma, Chien-Ching

    2004-08-01

    Three experimental techniques are used in this study to access the influence of the electrode arrangement on the resonant characteristics of piezoceramic disks. These methods, including the amplitude-fluctuation electronic speckle pattern interferometry (AF-ESPI), laser Doppler vibrometer-dynamic signal analyzer (LDV-DSA), and impedance analysis, are based on the measurement of full-field displacement, pointwise displacement, and electric impedance, respectively. In this study, one full electrode design and three nonsymmetrical partial electrode designs of piezoelectric disks are investigated. Because the clear fringe patterns measured by the AF-ESPI method will be shown only at resonant frequencies, both the resonant frequencies and the corresponding vibration mode shapes are successfully obtained at the same time for out-of-plane and in-plane motions. The second experimental method is the impedance analysis, which is used to measure the resonant and antiresonant frequencies. In addition to these experimental methods, LDV-DSA is used to determine the resonant frequencies of the vibration mode with out-of-plane motion. From the experimental results, the dependence of electrode design on the vibration frequencies and mode shapes is addressed. Numerical computations based on the finite element method are presented, and the results are compared with the experimental measurements. The effect of different designs of electrode is more significant in the in-plane modes than that in the out-of-plane modes.

  14. An experimental investigation devoted to determine heat transfer characteristics in a radiant ceiling heating system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koca, Aliihsan; Acikgoz, Ozgen; Çebi, Alican; Çetin, Gürsel; Dalkilic, Ahmet Selim; Wongwises, Somchai

    2018-02-01

    Investigations on heated ceiling method can be considered as a new research area in comparison to the common wall heating-cooling and cooled ceiling methods. In this work, heat transfer characteristics of a heated radiant ceiling system was investigated experimentally. There were different configurations for a single room design in order to determine the convective and radiative heat transfer rates. Almost all details on the arrangement of the test chamber, hydraulic circuit and radiant panels, the measurement equipment and experimental method including uncertainty analysis were revealed in detail indicating specific international standards. Total heat transfer amount from the panels were calculated as the sum of radiation to the unheated surfaces, convection to the air, and conduction heat loss from the backside of the panels. Integral expression of the view factors was calculated by means of the numerical evaluations using Matlab code. By means of this experimental chamber, the radiative, convective and total heat-transfer coefficient values along with the heat flux values provided from the ceiling to the unheated surrounding surfaces have been calculated. Moreover, the details of 28 different experimental case study measurements from the experimental chamber including the convective, radiative and total heat flux, and heat output results are given in a Table for other researchers to validate their theoretical models and empirical correlations.

  15. Neighborhood, family and individual characteristics related to adolescent park-based physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babey, Susan H; Tan, Diane; Wolstein, Joelle; Diamant, Allison L

    2015-07-01

    Local parks are an important community resource that may influence levels of physical activity among youth. However, few population-based studies have investigated park-based physical activity among youth. This study examines sociodemographic, family, and neighborhood characteristics associated with park-based physical activity among adolescents. Data were from the 2007 California Health Interview Survey (CHIS), a population-based survey of California households, and were analyzed in 2012-2013 and 2015. This study examined individual (age, gender, race/ethnicity, and nativity), family (household income, parental education, and nativity), and neighborhood characteristics (urbanicity, perceived park availability, perceived park safety, neighborhood income, and racial composition) associated with engaging in park-based physical activity among adolescents. In California, 71% of adolescents reported being physically active the last time they visited a park. In adjusted multinomial logistic regression analyses, older adolescents and females were less likely to be physically active in parks. Adolescents with a park within walking distance of home and those with a safe park nearby were more likely to be physically active during a park visit. Park availability and perceptions of park safety are important predictors of engaging in park-based physical activity among adolescents. These findings provide information that can help inform interventions intended to increase physical activity among youth. Strategies that increase availability and safety of parks and other recreation spaces may be particularly effective. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. For information: Geneva University - The search for gravitational waves. Physical motivations and experimental perspectives

    CERN Multimedia

    2005-01-01

    UNIVERSITE DE GENEVE ECOLE DE PHYSIQUE Département de physique nucléaire et corspusculaire 24, Quai Ernest-Ansermet - 1211 GENEVE 4 Tél : (022) 379 62 73 Fax: (022) 379 69 92 Wednesday 11 May PARTICLE PHYSICS SEMINAR at 17:00 - Stückelberg Auditorium The search for gravitational waves. Physical motivations and experimental perspectives by Prof. Michele Maggiore / DPT-UniGe I will give an overview of gravitational-wave physics, addressing two main questions: What are the physical motivations for gravitational-wave research, both from the point of view of astrophysics and of high-energy physics. Present status and future perspectives of gravitational-wave experiments. Information: http://dpnc.unige.ch/seminaire/annonce.html Organizer: A. Cervera Villanueva

  17. Experimental Study on Dry Friction Damping Characteristics of the Steam Turbine Blade Material with Nonconforming Contacts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Wu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available An experiment system has been established to study the dry friction damping dynamic characteristics of the steam turbine blade material 1Cr13. The friction dynamic characteristics of the specimens with nonconforming contact surfaces are measured under different parameters. The experiment results are compared with that of the macroslip hysteresis model and the Mindlin microslip friction model in detail. The results show that the experimental result of the tangential contact stiffness is in good agreement with that of the theory result based on the fractal theory and the Hertz contact theory by Jiang et al., 2009. The dimensionless equivalent stiffness and equivalent damping obtained by the macroslip hysteresis model agree well with the experimental results when relative motion is relatively large. However, the results of the macroslip hysteresis model differ a lot from the experimental results when relative motion is relatively small. Compared with the macroslip hysteresis model, the Mindlin microslip friction model can predict the dimensionless equivalent stiffness and equivalent damping accurately during the whole measurement range. The linear regularities of dimensionless equivalent stiffness and equivalent damping are obtained, which decrease the difficulty of building the vibration analysis model of the blade with sufficient accuracy.

  18. Laboratory determination of compost physical parameters for modeling of airflow characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, H K; Richard, T L; Glanville, T D

    2008-01-01

    Physical parameters of 12 co-compost cover materials were experimentally determined and predicted variations in airflow characteristics were evaluated under varying moisture contents. Predicted air-filled porosity showed high correlation with measured air-filled porosity, facilitating development of a reliable model of air-filled porosity that makes it possible to predict the effect of varying moisture content and compost bed height on air-filled porosity and permeability. Predicted air-filled porosity decreased with increasing moisture content and compost depth for all materials. Air-filled porosity of corn stalks, oat straw, soybean straw, leaves, alfalfa hay, wheat straw, silage, wood shavings and sawdust was in the range of 38-99%. Turkey litter, soil compost blend and beef manure showed air-filled porosity values less than 30% near saturation and the bottom of pile. In concert with the findings of other researchers, effective particle size of all materials increased with increasing moisture content from 20% to 80% of water holding capacity (WHC). It increased dramatically near saturation. In general, permeability increased with increasing air-filled porosity and decreasing bulk density, but the relationship between permeability and moisture content is complex. Permeability is dependent on the balance between particle size and air-filled porosity. If the influence of aggregated particle size on the permeability is significant, it will compensate for the effect of reduced air-filled porosity caused by compaction and moisture content. In this case, permeability will increase; in the reverse case, it will decrease. Permeability decreased for corn stalks, oat straw, silage, wood shavings, soybean straw, sawdust, turkey litter and wheat straw with increasing moisture content from 20% WHC to 50% WHC, regardless of the depth of the compost bed. But the permeability increased with increasing moisture level from 50% to 80% WHC at moderate to shallow simulated bed depths

  19. Theoretical and experimental study on the aerodynamic characteristics of a horizontal axis wind turbine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kishinami, K.; Suzuki, J. [Muroran Institute of Technology (Japan); Taniguchi, H. [Hokkai-Gakuen University, Sapporo (Japan); Ibano, H. [Muroran-Techno-Center, Muroran (Japan); Kazunou, T. [Hokudenn-Kogyo Ltd., Sapporo (Japan); Turuhami, M. [Toshiba Software Ltd., Musashi-dai Hutyu (Japan)

    2005-09-01

    The aerodynamic performance characteristics of a horizontal axis wind turbine (HAWT) were investigated theoretically by an analysis involving a combination of momentum, energy and blade element theory by means of the strip element method, and experimentally by the use of a subscale demonstration model. In this study, two approaches involving combination analysis are made use of, namely, the thrust-torque and the thrust-energy methods. Although both approaches yield identical results, the latter is superior for elucidating the relationship of the kinetic energy of the flows on the blades. Scale experiments are performed with three types of wing aerofoil involving different arrangements with the free stream velocity, U{sub {infinity}}=0.8-4.5 m/s, and for the open type of wind tunnel with an outlet duct diameter of 0.88 m. The experimental and theoretical characteristics of the HAWT using the different three types of the HAWT blades are discussed by reference to the power, torque and thrust coefficients, C{sub p}, C{sub T}, C{sub th}, and the tip speed ratio {lambda} from the point of view of variable pitch control and fixed pitch stall control methods for the output regulation. The aeronautical characteristics predicted by means of the present numerical approaches, for large units involving large power generation at high efficiency, are discussed, and it is clear how to obtain optimized design parameters that play a significant role in the overall performance. (author)

  20. Experimental Study of Vibration Isolation Characteristics of a Geometric Anti-Spring Isolator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lixun Yan

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available In order to realize low-frequency vibration isolation, a novel geometric anti-spring isolator consisting of several cantilever blade springs are developed in this paper. The optimal design parameters of the geometric anti-spring isolator for different nonlinear geometric parameters are theoretically obtained. The transmissibility characteristic of the geometric anti-spring isolator is investigated through mathematical simulation. A geometric anti-spring isolator with a nonlinear geometric parameter of 0.92 is designed and its vibration isolation performance and nonlinearity characteristic is experimentally studied. The experiment results show that the designed isolator has good low-frequency vibration isolation performance, of which the initial isolation frequency is less than 3.6 Hz when the load weight is 21 kg. The jump phenomena of the response of the isolator under linear frequency sweep excitation are observed, and this result demonstrates that the geometric anti-spring isolator has a complex nonlinearity characteristics with the increment of excitation amplitude. This research work provides a theoretical and experimental basis for the application of the nonlinear geometric anti-spring low-frequency passive vibration isolation technology in engineering practice.

  1. A guide to experimental elementary particle physics literature, 1985--1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekhin, S.I.; Bazeeva, V.V.; Ezhela, V.V.; Filimonov, B.B.; Lugovsky, S.B.; Nikolaev, A.S.; Petrova, N.L.; Slabospitsky, S.R.; Striganov, S.I.; Stroganov, Y.G.; Shelkovenko, A.N.; Yuschenko, O.P. (Gosudarstvennyj Komitet po Ispol' zovaniyu Atomnoj Ehnergii SSSR, Serpukhov (USSR). Inst. Fiziki Vysokikh Ehnergij); Yost, G.P.; Rittenberg, A.; Armstrong, F.E.; Barnett, R.M.; Simpson, K.H.; Trippe, T.G.; Wagman, G.S.; W

    1990-11-01

    We present an indexed guide to experimental high energy physics literature for the years 1985--1989. No actual data are given, but approximately 3500 papers are indexed by Beam/Target/Momentum, Reaction/Momentum (including the final stare), Final State Particle, and Accelerator/Experiment/ Detector.

  2. Are children participating in a quasi-experimental education outside the classroom intervention more physically active?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneller, Mikkel Bo; Duncan, Scott; Schipperijn, Jasper

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Education outside the classroom (EOtC) is a curriculum-based approach to teaching that has shown positive associations with children's physical activity and academic learning in small-scale case studies. The purpose of this large-scale quasi-experimental study was to determine if chil...

  3. Quantitative physical and handling characteristics of novel antibacterial braided silk suture materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Xiaojie; Hou, Dandan; Tang, Xiaoqi; Wang, Lu

    2015-10-01

    Surgical braided silk sutures have been widely used because these materials exhibit good handling characteristics, ease of use, and ideal knot security. However, surgical silk sutures likely cause surgical site infections because these sutures are composed of natural protein materials with a braided structure. As such, antibacterial silk sutures for clinical wound closure should be developed. Braided silk suture could be treated and modified with antibacterial agent, provided that excellent physical and handling characteristics of this material should maximize maintained. This study aimed to quantitatively investigate the effect of antibacterial treatment with different parameters on physical and handling characteristics of novel antibacterial braided silk sutures. Physical and handling characteristics, including appearance, knot-pull tensile strength, pullout friction resistance, tissue drag friction resistance, and bending stiffness, were evaluated. After physical and handling tests were conducted, images showed morphological characteristics were obtained and evaluated to investigate the relationship between antibacterial treatment and physical and handling properties. Results showed that suture diameter increased and reached the nearest thick size specification; knot-pull tensile strength decreased but remained higher than the standard value by at least 40.73%. Fracture asynchronism during knot-pull tensile strength test suggested that the fineness ratio of shell and core strands may enhance knot-pull tensile strength. Static and dynamic frictions of suture-to-suture friction behavior were slightly affected by antibacterial treatment, and changed to less than 16.07% and 32.77%, respectively. Suture-to-tissue friction and bending stiffness increased by approximately 50%; the bending stiffness of the proposed suture remained efficient compared with that of synthetic sutures. Therefore, good physical and handling characteristics can be maintained by selecting

  4. Physical-chemical characteristics of whitening toothpaste and evaluation of its effects on enamel roughness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgenberg, Sérgio Paulo; Pinto, Shelon Cristina Souza; Farago, Paulo Vitor; Santos, Fábio André; Wambier, Denise Stadler

    2011-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the physical-chemical characteristics of whitening toothpastes and their effect on bovine enamel after application of a bleaching agent (16% carbamide peroxide). Physical-chemical analysis was made considering mass loss by desiccation, ash content and pH of the toothpastes. Thirty bovine dental enamel fragments were prepared for roughness measurements. The samples were subjected to bleaching treatments and simulated brushing: G1. Sorriso Dentes Brancos (Conventional toothpaste), G2. Close-UP Whitening (Whitening toothpaste), and G3. Sensodyne Branqueador (Whitening toothpaste). The average roughness (Ra) was evaluated prior to the bleaching treatment and after brushing. The results revealed differences in the physical-chemical characteristics of the toothpastes (p toothpaste groups and bleaching treatment. Interaction (toothpaste and bleaching treatment) showed significant difference (p whitening toothpastes showed differences in their physical-chemical properties. All toothpastes promoted changes to the enamel surface, probably by the use of a bleaching agent.

  5. Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Maleo Egg in Bogani Nani Wartabone Park

    OpenAIRE

    Saerang, JLP; Manalu, W; Soesanto, IRH; Mardiastuti, A

    2010-01-01

    The objective of this study was to examine the size (weight, length, and width) of Maleo egg in Bogani Nani Wartabone National Park.Physical characteristics that measure are : egg weight, egg shell, egg index , yolk, and albumen. Physical characteristics measured were: egg weight, egg shell thickness, egg index, yolk, and albumen. Two fresh eggs were weighed to the electric ohause balance with 400 g the scale 0.01. Two fresh egg were weighed with an electric balance. Length and width off egg ...

  6. Effects of teaching physical education on the morphological characteristics of male students of younger school

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zrnzević Nevenka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Solving complex tasks in the process of upbringing and education, and influenting on their health, growth and development of the pupils, demands good knowledge of age characteristics, in this case, characteristics of early age children. The purpose of this research is to determine how much is experimental programme, which was conducted during one school year, influenting the morphological characteristics. The applied experimental program was composed of athletics exercises, sports games, exercises on the pieces of equipment and on the floor, rhythmics and dancing exercises and some additional exercises. 13 metrical instruments were used for evaluation of morphological characteristics of male students. Multivariant and univariant analysis of variance for repeated measures (MANOVA and ANOVA - repeated measures were applied for determination of eventual differences between initial and final measuring. The multivariant analysis of covariance (MANCOVA and univariant analysis of covariance (ANCOVA were applied in order to determine the effects of the experimental program. On the basis of the results and discussion, it can be concluded that the experimental program has statistically significant effects on the changes of some morphological characteristics.

  7. Physical-chemical characteristics of whitening toothpaste and evaluation of its effects on enamel roughness

    OpenAIRE

    Sérgio Paulo Hilgenberg; Shelon Cristina Souza Pinto; Paulo Vitor Farago; Fábio André Santos; Denise Stadler Wambier

    2011-01-01

    This in vitro study evaluated the physical-chemical characteristics of whitening toothpastes and their effect on bovine enamel after application of a bleaching agent (16% carbamide peroxide). Physical-chemical analysis was made considering mass loss by desiccation, ash content and pH of the toothpastes. Thirty bovine dental enamel fragments were prepared for roughness measurements. The samples were subjected to bleaching treatments and simulated brushing: G1. Sorriso Dentes Brancos (Conventio...

  8. Characterization of study focus of the Brazilian academic-scientific production about experimentation in Physics Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesendonk, F. S.; Terrazzan, E. A.

    2016-12-01

    In this article, we presented a characterization of the recent academic and scientific literature on experiments in Physics Education in terms of focus and research intentions and results built through these investigations. For this, we used as a source of information 10 national Academic and Scientific Journals available on websites. By consulting these journals, we identified that 147 papers published from 2009 to 2013 had as their main focus the experimental research. We classified the Works in categories established a priori and subcategories established a posteriori. At the end, we found out that few articles deal with this issue (9%). Moreover, in most productions there is a superficial discussion of theoretical studies on the use of experimentation in teaching. This makes the contribution of these productions for the development of conceptual discussions about the potential and limited use of experimentation in Physics Education to be relatively small.

  9. An experimental program for physical education of rugby players at the stage of specialized basic training

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Artur Martyrosyan

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to develop a program of general physical training of rugby players at the stage of specialized basic training and to investigate the dynamics of indicators of general physical preparedness using computer technology. Material & Methods: study involved 60 athletes aged 16-18 years. Results: content of the comprehensive program of general physical training of rugby athletes at the stage of specialized basic training and the results of an experimental verification of its implementation are presented. Conclusion: in the course of the pedagogical experiment, the effectiveness of using the developed experimental program for improving the training process of rugby players of 16-18 years is proved, which is confirmed by the results of the research.

  10. An Experimental Investigation of Bubble Rise Characteristics in a Crystal Suspended Non—Newtonian Fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hassan, N. M. S.; Khan, M. M. K.; Rasul, M. G.; Rackemann, D. W.

    2008-07-01

    An experimental study of the bubble rise characteristics in non-Newtonian fluid with crystal suspension is presented in this paper. The suspension was made of different concentration of xanthan gum solutions with 0.23 mm polystyrene crystal particle. Different percentage of crystal content (by weight) was used to vary rheological properties. The effect of crystal particles and bubble volumes on the bubble rise velocity and bubble trajectory is analysed. The results show that the average bubble velocity increases with the increase in bubble volume for crystal suspended xanthan gum solution. In trajectory analysis, it is seen that the small bubbles experienced less horizontal motion in crystal suspended xanthan gum solution while larger bubbles followed a spiral motion. Experimentally determined data for the drag coefficient at high Reynolds number are compared with the results of other analytical and experimental studies available in the literature. The reported experimental data of drag co-efficient increases in crystal suspended xanthan gum solution for corresponding bubble volume and was found to be consistent with published data.

  11. The relationship with the professional knowledge of the high school physics teacher and the failure of implemantation of experimental activities

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Eduardo Laburú; Marcelo Alves Barros; Bruno Gusmão Kanbach

    2007-01-01

    In this work we investigated particular reasons that take medium physics teachers to use or not experimental activities. Starting from the presupposition that experimental activities in physics are important for teaching, it is essentially looked for to understand the reasons of the “experimental failure”, in the sense of little given importance to that teaching practice, demonstrable by absence of practically widespread of empiric activities in physics schools. We associated the relationship...

  12. Antennas for VHF/UHF personal radio: A theoretical and experimental study of characteristics and performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jørgen Bach; Hansen, Flemming

    1977-01-01

    A theoretical analysis of the characteristics of small personal radio antennas for the 68- to 470-MHz frequency range is given. Representing the human body by a simplified lossy dielectric structure, the influence of the body on the performance of the antenna is investigated in detail...... to efficiency and radiation patterns at 80, 160, and 450 MHz, and it is demonstrated how the physical length of the antenna affects the antenna performance. The design of a very short and compact personal radio antenna is described....

  13. Experimental and Modeling Studies of the Characteristics of Liquid Biofuels for Enhanced Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meeks, E.; Modak, A. U.; Naik, C. V.; Puduppakkam, K. V.; Westbrook, C.; Egolfopoulos, F. N.; Tsotsis, T.; Roby, S. H.

    2009-07-01

    The objectives of this project have been to develop a comprehensive set of fundamental data regarding the combustion behavior of biodiesel fuels and appropriately associated model fuels that may represent biodiesels in automotive engineering simulation. Based on the fundamental study results, an auxiliary objective was to identify differentiating characteristics of molecular fuel components that can be used to explain different fuel behavior and that may ultimately be used in the planning and design of optimal fuel-production processes. The fuels studied in this project were BQ-9000 certified biodiesel fuels that are certified for use in automotive engine applications. Prior to this project, there were no systematic experimental flame data available for such fuels. One of the key goals has been to generate such data, and to use this data in developing and verifying effective kinetic models. The models have then been reduced through automated means to enable multi-dimensional simulation of the combustion characteristics of such fuels in reciprocating engines. Such reliable kinetics models, validated against fundamental data derived from laminar flames using idealized flow models, are key to the development and design of optimal engines, engine operation and fuels. The models provide direct information about the relative contribution of different molecular constituents to the fuel performance and can be used to assess both combustion and emissions characteristics. During this project, we completed a major and thorough validation of a set of biodiesel surrogate components, allowing us to begin to evaluate the fundamental combustion characteristics for B100 fuels.

  14. Experimental research on the electromagnetic radiation (EMR) characteristics of cracked rock.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaoyan; Li, Xuelong; Li, Zhonghui; Cheng, Fuqi; Zhang, Zhibo; Niu, Yue

    2018-03-01

    Coal rock would emit the electromagnetic radiation (EMR) while deformation and fracture, and there exists structural body in the coal rock because of mining and geological structure. In this paper, we conducted an experimental test the EMR characteristics of cracked rock under loading. Results show that crack appears firstly in the prefabricated crack tip then grows stably parallel to the maximum principal stress, and the coal rock buckling failure is caused by the wing crack tension. Besides, the compressive strength significantly decreases because of the precrack, and the compressive strength increases with the crack angle. Intact rock EMR increases with the loading, and the cracked rock EMR shows stage and fluctuant characteristics. The bigger the angle, the more obvious the stage and fluctuant characteristics, that is EMR becomes richer. While the cracked angle is little, EMR is mainly caused by the electric charge rapid separates because of friction sliding. While the cracked angle is big, there is another significant contribution to EMR, which is caused by the electric dipole transient of crack expansion. Through this, we can know more clear about the crack extends route and the corresponding influence on the EMR characteristic and mechanism, which has important theoretical and practical significance to monitor the coal rock dynamical disasters.

  15. THE INFLUENCE OF THE EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAMME OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION CURRICULUM ON SCHOOLGIRLS MOTOR ABILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevenka Zrnzević

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research was to determine the influence of the suggested experimental program of physical education on motor abilities of the experimental group of schoolgirls. The research purpose was also to determine the influence of the current curriculum concerning teaching physical education of motor abilities of the control group of schoolgirls. The experimental program was carried out on the sample of 97 first-grade schoolgirls of the elementary schools in Leposavic and Zvecan, age of 7 years ± 6 months. The applied experimental program was composed of athletics exercises, sports games, exercises on the pieces of equipment and on the floor, rhythmics and dancing exercises and some additional exercises. The control group was taught according to the current curriculum. 12 metrical instruments were used to estimate motor abilities. Multivariant and univariant analyses of variance for repeated measures (MANOVA and ANOVA – repeated measures were applied to determine the differences between the initial and final measuring within the groups. On the basis of the results and discussion, it can be concluded that the experimental program has statistically significant effects on the changes all of the motor abilities. Comparing the two programs, it was concluded that both of them caused the change in motor abilities, but the experimental program had statistically more significant effects.

  16. [Classification study of Coptis chinensis based on quantitative physical property characteristics of appearance and internal quality evaluation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yu-Li; Huang, Qin-Wan; Wang, Jin; Su, Juan; Li, Xiao-Fang

    2012-10-01

    Combining the quantitative physical property characteristics of the appearance with the internal quality evaluation index, its aims to provide experimental basis for the classification and quality evaluation of Coptis chinensis. Fourteen batches of C. chinensis from different areas were respectively measured in size (total length, total width, root length, taproot diameter, branch number, branch length, branch diameter, length of the bridge, weight), color (external color, internal color), content (epiberberine, coptisine, palmatine, berberine). Then the determination data were evaluated by spss principal component analysis and cluster analysis. Three principal components were extracted from the original data. The principal component analysis results showed that the characteristic elements might be the total length, main root length, taproot diameter, branch length, weight, the total color value of the appearance and content of epiberberine and berberine. The results of cluster analysis showed that 14 batches of samples could be clustered reasonably into two groups. In terms of the appearance and quality, there were some differences between in the geo-authentic and non-authentic producing areas of C. chinensis. The method which was combining the quantitative physical property characteristics of the appearance with the internal quality evaluation index, and through the processing of mathematical statistics, could be used for the the classification of C. chinensis.

  17. Characteristic of bioplastic’s physical and mechanical (Study on Tapioca Concentration and Composition Mixture of Plasticizer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bambang Admadi Harsojuwono

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to (1 the effect of the concentration of starch and  ratio mixture of plasticizer to the physical and mechanical characteristics of bioplastics (2 determine the concentration of starch and plasticizer RATIO mixture  that results in physical and mechanical characteristics of bio plastics best. The experiment was conducted using a factorial randomized block design. The first factor is the concentration of tapioca consisting of 3 levels 4%, 5% and 6% (w / w. The second factor is the   mixture plasticizer ratio  of glycerol and sorbitol   consisting of 5 levels ie (100: 0%, (95: 5%, (90:10%, (85:15%, (80:20% b / b. Each combination of treatments classified into 2 time  processing bio plastics, so there are 30 experimental units. Variables observed water content, elongation at break, tensile strength and Young's modulus . The data obtained were analyzed of variant and  test of Duncan's. The results showed that the concentration of tapioca and  mixture plasticizer had no effect on water content but significant effect on the elongation at break, tensile strength and Young's modulus. The concentration of starch 6% with a ratio of mixture of plasticizers glycerol: sorbitol ( 100: 0 produces the best characteristics of bioplastics with water content of 3.98%, elongation at break of 18.75%, the tensile strength of 930 MPa and a Young's modulus of 50 MPa.

  18. The Physical and Technical Characteristics of English Language Teaching Courseware in Malaysia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukundan, Jayakaran; Nimehchisalem, Vahid; Sayadian, Sima

    2012-01-01

    The present paper reports the findings of a study that investigated the physical and technical characteristics of the English language teaching courseware in Malaysia. A randomly selected group of English language teachers in Malaysia (n = 200) were surveyed to evaluate the courseware. SPSS (18.0) was applied to analyze the data. The results…

  19. National Board Certified Physical Educators: Background Characteristics, Subjective Warrants, and Motivations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woods, Amelia Mays; Rhoades, Jesse Lee

    2010-01-01

    This study examined National Board Certified Physical Education Teacher's (NBCPETs) demographic characteristics, recalled subjective warrants for entrance into the profession, and reasons for seeking this advanced certification. An extensive search for approximately 1,200 NBCPETs resulted in contact information for 819 NBCPETs. All were sent a…

  20. Interaction between digestion conditions and sludge physical characteristics and behaviour for anaerobically digested primary sludge

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mahmoud, N.; Zeeman, G.; Gijzen, H.; Lettinga, G.

    2006-01-01

    The interaction between digestion conditions and the sludge physical characteristics and behaviour was investigated for anaerobically digested primary sludge in completely stirred tank reactors (CSTRs). The CSTRs were operated to maintain sludge retention times (SRTs) of 10, 15, 20 and 30 days and

  1. Chemical and physical characteristics of water in estuaries of Texas; October 1978-September 1983

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, J.C.; Grozier, R.U.

    1985-01-01

    The Texas Water Plan (Texas Water Development Board, 1968) proposed development and utilization of water resources in Texas and included a provision for the use and preservation of water in the estuaries of the State. Management of estuarine waters requires knowledge of the hydrodynamics and of the continuing changes in the chemical and physical characteristics of water in the estuaries.

  2. Assessing the physical characteristics of medium density mixed housing in South Africa

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Landman, K

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The new housing plan in South Africa promotes the development of medium density and mixed housing developments. The nature and organisation of the physical characteristics of this type of housing has been identified as one of the key factors...

  3. Effects of Cardio-Pilates Exercise Program on Physical Characteristics of Females

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevimli, Dilek; Sanri, Murat

    2017-01-01

    Aim: This study aims to investigate the effects of four weeks cardio-Pilates exercise program on physical characteristics in females. Material and methods: The total 40 female participants were tested before and after four weeks regular exercise of 3 × 1 hr. sessions/week. Body height and weight, waist and hip circumferences, body fat percent and…

  4. Impact of Policy Environment Characteristics on Physical Activity and Sedentary Behaviors of Children Attending Afterschool Programs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beets, Michael W.; Huberty, Jennifer; Beighle, Aaron; Moore, Justin B.; Webster, Collin; Ajja, Rahma; Weaver, Glenn

    2013-01-01

    State and national organizations recently developed policies focused on increasing physical activity (PA) in afterschool programs (ASPs). These policies emphasize "activity friendly" environment characteristics that, when present, should lead to higher levels of PA and reduce the amount of time children spend sedentary during an ASP.…

  5. Physical and textural characteristics of fermented milk products obtained by kombucha inoculums with herbal teas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malbaša Radomir V.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In this investigation, kombucha fermented milk products were produced from milk with 1.6% milk fat using 10% (v/v kombucha inoculums cultivated on the extracts of peppermint and stinging nettle. The fermentation process was conducted at temperatures of 37, 40 and 43°C. Fermentation was stopped when the pH value of 4.5 was reached. The fermentation process was shortened with an increase of temperature. Physical characteristics of the fermented products were determined by using standard methods of analysis. Textural characteristics were determined by texture profile analysis. The obtained products showed good physical and textural characteristics, typical for the yoghurt-like products. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. III-46009

  6. Experimental and Numerical Study of Hydrodynamic Characteristics of Gullies for Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Der-Chang Lo

    2018-02-01

    Full Text Available The miniaturization of a gully for building drainage system is attempted by installing a streamlined bump in the discharge pipe to maintain the minimum water trap height of 50 mm. The hydrodynamic performances of the air–water flows with or without glass balls through the two types of four-entry gullies with beveled or vertical nozzle flows are experimentally and numerically studied. The images of air–water–solid flow, maximum flow rates, self-purification properties and sustainable water traps subject to static and dynamic loadings are experimentally detected. The predictions of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD unravel the characteristic flow structures to assist the interpretation of experimental results. In this respect, the observed entrained air bubbles and clustered glass balls in each gully correspond favorably to the regions with negative static pressures and weak flow momentums as disclosed by the CFD predictions. The measured ratios between discharged and supplied glass balls are consistently higher for the gully with beveled nozzle flows. The less efficient transportation of glass balls out of the drum for the gully with downward nozzle flow is attributed to the larger pressure gradients with considerable air entrainments. The relaxations of the form and friction drags over the nozzle-tip region and the reductions of air entrainments are essential for upgrading the maximum flow rate and the self-purification performance of a miniaturized gully.

  7. Experimental Research on Heat Transfer Characteristics of CuO Nanofluid in Adiabatic Condition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Guangbin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The laminar convective heat transfer behavior of CuO nanoparticle dispersions in glycol with the average particle sizes (about 70 nm was investigated experimentally in a flow loop with constant heat flux. To enhance heat exchange under high temperature condition and get the more accurate data, we try to improve the traditional experimental apparatus which is used to test nanofluid heat transfer characteristics. In the experiment five different nanoparticle concentrations (0.25%, 0.50%, 0.80%, 1.20%, and 1.50% were investigated in a flow loop with constant heat flux. The experimental results show that the heat transfer coefficient of nanofluid becomes higher than that of pure fluid at the same Reynolds number and increased with the increasing of the mass fraction of CuO nanoparticles. Results also indicate that at very low volume concentrations nanofluid has no major impact on heat transfer parameters and the pressure of nanofluids increased by the mass fraction increase.

  8. Experimental Study on the Flow Characteristics in a Bare Rod Bundle Array

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chang, Seok Kyu; Kim, Bok Deuk; Moon, Sang Ki [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    2006-07-01

    Structure of a rod bundle array in thermal-hydraulic environment is widely used and very important issues in the industrial field. Especially, in nuclear power plant, this structure is essential in the reactor and steam generator. Because of such an industrial importance, there have been many experimental studies on the flow characteristics in a rod bundle array. During two decades from 1970, fundamental studies on the flow mixing in a bare rod bundle have been frequently performed. Rowe et al. measured the axial and some lateral velocities and their turbulence intensities by using 2-D LDV system. They found the existence of the longitudinal macro-scale and the dominant frequency of turbulence in a sub-channel mixing. Neti et al. also performed the LDV measurements for a 3x3 rod array and presented the lateral fluctuations were about 1% magnitudes of the axial flow. Renksizbulut et al. measured the shear stress of the rod surface and estimates the secondary flow in a sub-channel and Vonka also confirmed the secondary flow in his experimental work. In spite of many experimental studies on the flow mixing in a sub-channel geometry on a bare rod bundle, there were no full measurement information in a subchannel. This study attempted to the detailed full measurement of the lateral velocities as well as the axial velocities in a sub-channel geometry on a 5x5 rod bundle.

  9. Innovative experimental particle physics through technological advances: Past, present and future

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheung, Harry W.K.; /Fermilab

    2005-01-01

    This mini-course gives an introduction to the techniques used in experimental particle physics with an emphasis on the impact of technological advances. The basic detector types and particle accelerator facilities will be briefly covered with examples of their use and with comparisons. The mini-course ends with what can be expected in the near future from current technology advances. The mini-course is intended for graduate students and post-docs and as an introduction to experimental techniques for theorists.

  10. Experimental constraints from flavour changing processes and physics beyond the Standard Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gersabeck, M.; Gligorov, V. V.; Serra, N.

    2012-08-01

    Flavour physics has a long tradition of paving the way for direct discoveries of new particles and interactions. Results over the last decade have placed stringent bounds on the parameter space of physics beyond the Standard Model. Early results from the LHC, and its dedicated flavour factory LHCb, have further tightened these constraints and reiterate the ongoing relevance of flavour studies. The experimental status of flavour observables in the charm and beauty sectors is reviewed in measurements of CP violation, neutral meson mixing, and measurements of rare decays.

  11. The experimental physics and industrial control system architecture: past, present, and future

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dalesio, Leo R.; Hill, Jeffrey O.; Kraimer, Martin; Lewis, Stephen; Murray, Douglas; Hunt, Stephan; Watson, William; Clausen, Matthias; Dalesio, John

    1994-12-01

    The Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS), has been used at a number of sites for performing data acquisition, supervisory control, closed-loop control, sequential control, and operational optimization. The EPICS architecture was originally developed by a group with diverse backgrounds in physics and industrial control. The current architecture represents one instance of the "standard model". It provides distributed processing and communication from any local area network (LAN) device to the front end controllers. This paper presents the current architecture, performance envelope, current installations, and planned extensions for requirements not met by the current architecture.

  12. Physical properties, evaporation and combustion characteristics of nanofluid-type fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanvir, Saad

    Nanofluids are liquids with stable suspension of nanoparticles. Limited studies in the past have shown that both energetic and catalytic nanoparticles once mixed with traditional liquid fuels can be advantageous in combustion applications, e.g., increased energy density and shortened ignition delay. Contradictions in existing literature, scarcity of experimental data and lack of understanding on how the added nanoparticles affect the physical properties as well as combustion characteristics of the resulting fuel motivated us to launch a detailed experimental and theoretical investigation. The surface tension of ethanol and n-decane based nanofluid fuels containing suspended nanoparticles were measured using the pendant drop method by solving the Young-Laplace equation. The results show that surface tension increases both with particle concentration (above a critical concentration) and particle size. This is because the Van der Waals forces between particles at the liquid/gas interface increases surface free energy that overcomes any electrostatic repulsion between the particles and increases surface tension. This present work also reports experimental analysis of the latent heat of vaporization ( Hfg) of nanofluids. Results show that the addition of Ag and Fe nanoparticles in water results is a substantial reduction in Hfg. On the contrary Al addition slightly increases Hfg. Similar observations are made for ethanol based nanofluids. Molecular dynamics simulations showed that the strength of bonding between particles and the fluid molecules is the governing factor in the variation of Hfg upon particle addition. The thermal conductivity was measured using KD2-Pro from Decagon Devices based on the transient line heat source method. The rheological properties of the ethanol and ethanol/nanoparticles suspensions are measured using a StresstechRTM rotational rheometer. Both properties increased with increasing particle concentration. Trends are found to be consistent

  13. Experimental study on multiple-pulse performance characteristics of ammonium perchlorate/aluminum powder rocket motor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yue; Hu, Chunbo; Deng, Zhe; Li, Chao; Sun, Haijun; Cai, Yupeng

    2017-04-01

    The performance characteristics of ammonium perchlorate/aluminum powder rocket motor were investigated experimentally based on a powder rocket testing system. Three-pulse experiment with one hour interval and four-pulse experiment with 15 s interval were conducted with a bi-propellant powder feed system. The experiments demonstrate the feasibility of the powder rocket for the multiple-pulse operation and the synchronization of powder feed method. The multiple-pulse performance characteristics were analyzed accordingly. It shows that the motor initiates steadily with the mass flow rate of 2.5 g/s for oxidizer powder fluidization gas and 2.0 g/s for fuel powder fluidization gas. The relative standard deviation was adopted to describe the repeatability characteristics of the pulses. The relative standard deviation of ammonium perchlorate and aluminum pistons velocity is 0.072 and 0.007, and that of oxidizer-fuel mass feed ratio is 0.052. The motor performed well with good repeatability of combustor pressure, start-up response and combustion efficiency during the multiple-pulse tests. Low frequency combustion pressure oscillations,3.6-4.2 Hz with amplitudes up to 18.7% of mean combustor pressure, were encountered. The phenomenon appeared seriously at first pulse, then alleviated at the following pulses. Further analysis of test results showed that increasing chamber pressure could ameliorate the oscillation.

  14. Soccer Player Characteristics in English Lower-League Development Programmes: The Relationships between Relative Age, Maturation, Anthropometry and Physical Fitness

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Lovell, Ric; Towlson, Chris; Parkin, Guy; Portas, Matt; Vaeyens, Roel; Cobley, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    The relative age effect (RAE) and its relationships with maturation, anthropometry, and physical performance characteristics were examined across a representative sample of English youth soccer development programmes...

  15. Solitons: interactions, theoretical and experimental challenges and perspectives (physics research and technology)

    CERN Document Server

    2013-01-01

    In mathematics and physics, a soliton is a self-reinforcing solitary wave (a wave packet or pulse) that maintains its shape while it travels at constant speed. Solitons are caused by a cancellation of non-linear and dispersive effects in the medium. In this book, the authors discuss the interactions and theoretical and experimental challenges of solitons. Topics include soliton motion of electrons and its physical properties in coupled electron-phonon systems and ionic crystals; soliton excitations and its experimental evidence in molecular crystals; shapes and dynamics of semi-discrete solitons in arrayed and stacked waveguiding systems; ion-acoustic super solitons in plasma; diamond-controlled solitons and turbulence in extracellular matrix and lymphatic dynamics; and non-linear waves in strongly interacting relativistic fluids.

  16. An undergraduate course in experimental atomic and molecular physics using an accelerator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, A. C. F.; Magalhães, S. D.; de Castro Faria, N. V.

    2007-08-01

    We describe experiments, performed as a part of a one-semester experimental course, using the NEC 1.7 MV Pelletron electrostatic accelerator, offered to undergraduate students of physics in Rio de Janeiro. Besides the accelerator, the laboratory includes a source of negative ions by cesium sputtering, a Wien filter and a switching magnet. Experiments include principles of PIXE, time-of-flight mass spectrometry and beam attenuation in the accelerator tube.

  17. Progress report of a research program in experimental high energy physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lanou, R.E. Jr.; Cutts, D.

    1990-07-01

    An experimental program in strong and electro-weak interaction physics of elementary particles is being carried out using electronic detection techniques. Experiments have been performed at Brown, Brookhaven, and Fermilab. The work described in this report by the Electronic Detector Group addresses the following: neutrino interactions and intrinsic properties, preparations for experiments ( D--ZERO'') at the FNAL 2 TeV {bar p}p Collider, new detection techniques for neutrino properties.

  18. A guide to experimental elementary particle physics literature, 1988--1992. Revision

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alekhin, S.I.; Ezhela, V.V.; Filimonov, B.B. [Institute for High Energy Physics, Protvino, Moscow Region (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1993-09-01

    We present an indexed guide to the literature experimental particle physics for the years 1988--1992. About 4,000 papers are indexed by Beam/Target/Momentum, Reaction Momentum (including the final state), Final State Particle, and Accelerator/Detector/Experiment. All indices are cross-referenced to the paper`s title and reference in the ID/Reference/Title Index. The information in this guide is also publicly available from a regularly updated computer database.

  19. Performance Characteristics of HYDRA - a Multi-Physics simulation code from Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langer, Steven H. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Karlin, Ian [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States); Marinak, Marty M. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2014-01-09

    HYDRA is used to simulate a variety of experiments carried out at the National Ignition Facility (NIF) [4] and other high energy density physics facilities. HYDRA has packages to simulate radiation transfer, atomic physics, hydrodynamics, laser propagation, and a number of other physics effects. HYDRA has over one million lines of code and includes both MPI and thread-level (OpenMP and pthreads) parallelism. This paper measures the performance characteristics of HYDRA using hardware counters on an IBM BlueGene/Q system. We report key ratios such as bytes/instruction and memory bandwidth for several different physics packages. The total number of bytes read and written per time step is also reported. We show that none of the packages which use significant time are memory bandwidth limited on a Blue Gene/Q. HYDRA currently issues very few SIMD instructions. The pressure on memory bandwidth will increase if high levels of SIMD instructions can be achieved.

  20. THE MORPHOBATHYMETRIC FEATURES OF THE CUCIULAT LAKES (SĂLAJ COUNTY AND THEIR WATERS’ PHYSICAL CHARACTERISTICS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Csaba HORVATH

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available The lake units analyzed in this study are located in the Purcăreţ-Boiu Mare plateau, specifically in the formerly Cuciulat quarry (Salaj County. To the origin of the two lake basins, have contributed mostly anthropogenic factors and to a smaller extent natural ones. The lakes formed next to the quarry are significantly influenced by the spoil bank: this can be seen in the lakes’ form, in their bathymetry and also in some of their physical characteristics. The identification of the lakes’ morphobathymetric features and of the waters’ physical characteristics relied on measurements taken in the summer of 2009 (August 17. In the field, we used a Hannah HI 9828 multiparameter instrument to measure the waters’ physical characteristics and a GPS to pinpoint the measurements’ position. Also for the depth measurements, because they are shallow lakes, besides the GPS, we used a Seechi disk. To capture the best possible spatial variation of the mentioned characteristics, we used interpolation as modeling method.

  1. Focusing characteristics of diamond crystal x-ray monochromators. An experimental and theoretical comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rio, M.S. del; Grübel, G.; Als-Nielsen, J.

    1995-01-01

    Perfect crystals in transmission (Laue) geometry can be used effectively for x-ray monochromators, and moreover, perfect Laue crystals show an interesting focusing effect when the incident beam is white and divergent. This focusing is directly dependent on the incident beam divergence...... and on the diffraction profile width of the crystal. The aim of this work is to study whether this property can be used for focusing a synchrotron x-ray beam, and to obtain quantitatively the dimensions of the resulting monochromatic beam. We have experimentally measured the size of an undulator beam after diffraction...... from a diamond crystal in Lane geometry, and we analyze and explain the results by comparison with ray-tracing simulations. (C) 1995 American Institute of Physics....

  2. Kinematics based physical modelling and experimental analysis of the shoulder joint complex

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diego Almeida-Galárraga

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this work is to develop an experimental physical model of the shoulder joint complex. The aim of this research is to validate the model built and identify the forces on specified positions of this joint. The shoulder musculoskeletal structures have been replicated to evaluate the forces to which muscle fibres are subjected in different equilibrium positions: 60º flexion, 60º abduction and 30º abduction and flexion. The physical model represents, quite accurately, the shoulder complex. It has 12 real degrees of freedom, which allows motions such as abduction, flexion, adduction and extension and to calculate the resultant forces of the represented muscles. The built physical model is versatile and easily manipulated and represents, above all, a model for teaching applications on anatomy and shoulder joint complex biomechanics. Moreover, it is a valid research tool on muscle actions related to abduction, adduction, flexion, extension, internal and external rotation motions or combination among them.

  3. Are children participating in a quasi-experimental education outside the classroom intervention more physically active?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schneller, Mikkel Bo; Duncan, Scott; Schipperijn, Jasper

    2017-01-01

    Background: Education outside the classroom (EOtC) is a curriculum-based approach to teaching that has shown positive associations with children's physical activity and academic learning in small-scale case studies. The purpose of this large-scale quasi-experimental study was to determine...... if children who participate regularly in EOtC spend more time being physically active than children who do not. Methods: In the 2014/2015 study TEACHOUT, classes were recruited in pairs such that each EOtC class had a non-EOtC comparison class at the same school and grade level. Participants in 17 EOt...... to treat' (ITT) approach. The amount of EOtC the participants were exposed to was monitored. Associations between time spent in different physical activity intensities and EOtC group and sex were assessed using generalised linear models adjusted for age. In a second analysis, we modified the sample using...

  4. Haunted thoughts of the careful experimentalist: psychical research and the troubles of experimental physics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noakes, Richard

    2014-12-01

    This paper analyses the relationship between the 'elusive' science of psychical research and experimental physics in the period approximately, 1870-1930. Most studies of the relationship between psychical research and the established sciences have examined the ways in which psychical researchers used theories in the established sciences to give greater plausibility to their interpretations of such puzzling phenomena as telepathy, telekinesis and ectoplasm. A smaller literature has examined the use of laboratory instruments to produce scientific evidence for these phenomena. This paper argues that the cultures of experiment in the established science of physics could matter to psychical research in a different way: it suggests that experience of capricious effects, recalcitrant instruments and other problems of the physical laboratory made British physicists especially sympathetic towards the difficulties of the spiritualistic séance and other sites of psychical enquiry. In the wake of widely-reported claims that the mediums they had investigated had been exposed as frauds, these scientific practitioners were eventually persuaded by the merits of an older argument that human psychic subjects could not be treated like laboratory hardware. However, well into the twentieth century, they maintained that experimental physics had important lessons for psychical researchers. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Epistemology and expectations survey about experimental physics: Development and initial results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin M. Zwickl

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available In response to national calls to better align physics laboratory courses with the way physicists engage in research, we have developed an epistemology and expectations survey to assess how students perceive the nature of physics experiments in the contexts of laboratory courses and the professional research laboratory. The Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey for Experimental Physics (E-CLASS evaluates students’ epistemology at the beginning and end of a semester. Students respond to paired questions about how they personally perceive doing experiments in laboratory courses and how they perceive an experimental physicist might respond regarding their research. Also, at the end of the semester, the E-CLASS assesses a third dimension of laboratory instruction, students’ reflections on their course’s expectations for earning a good grade. By basing survey statements on widely embraced learning goals and common critiques of teaching labs, the E-CLASS serves as an assessment tool for lab courses across the undergraduate curriculum and as a tool for physics education research. We present the development, evidence of validation, and initial formative assessment results from a sample that includes 45 classes at 20 institutions. We also discuss feedback from instructors and reflect on the challenges of large-scale online administration and distribution of results.

  6. Decentralized PID controller for TITO systems using characteristic ratio assignment with an experimental application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hajare, V D; Patre, B M

    2015-11-01

    This paper presents a decentralized PID controller design method for two input two output (TITO) systems with time delay using characteristic ratio assignment (CRA) method. The ability of CRA method to design controller for desired transient response has been explored for TITO systems. The design methodology uses an ideal decoupler to reduce the interaction. Each decoupled subsystem is reduced to first order plus dead time (FOPDT) model to design independent diagonal controllers. Based on specified overshoot and settling time, the controller parameters are computed using CRA method. To verify performance of the proposed controller, two benchmark simulation examples are presented. To demonstrate applicability of the proposed controller, experimentation is performed on real life interacting coupled tank level system. Copyright © 2015 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Experimental Study of Imbibition Characteristics of Silica Sol in Coal-Measure Mudstone Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongjiang Pan

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Coal-measure mudstone is a typical dual-porosity media, and grouting in a matrix system is dominantly controlled by the imbibition effect for silica sol. This paper studies the imbibition effect using mudstone in the Huaibei mining area and silica sol as grouting material as an example. Groutability, driving force, and diffusion difficulty affecting the imbibition effect were tested by a mercury porosimeter, nanoparticle size analyzer, optical contact-angle measuring device, surface tension meter, and rotary viscosity meter. After finely grinding a mudstone sample, a pressureless imbibition process was conducted through nuclear magnetic resonance equipment for 216 h to study colloid spontaneous migration and phase characteristics. Results show that silica sol absorption rate follows a power function and that the spectrograms of T2 are distributed in a triple peak pattern, with a tendency to move to the right of vertex time. The paper lays a theoretical and experimental foundation for field grouting in the coal mine.

  8. An Experimental Study on the Impact Collapse Characteristics of CF/Epoxy Circular Tubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y. N.; Im, K. H.; Park, J. W.; Yang, I. Y.

    2003-03-01

    This study is to investigate the energy absorption characteristics of CF/Epoxy (Carbon-Fiber/Epoxy Resin) circular tubes in static and impact tests. The experimental results varied significantly as a function of interlaminar number, orientation angle of outer and trigger. When a CFRP composite tube is crushed, static/impact energy is consumed by friction between the loading plate and the splayed fronds of the tube, by fracture of the fibers, matrix and their interface, and the response is complex and depends on the interaction among the different mechanisms, such as transverse shearing, laminar bending and local buckling. The collapse mode depended upon orientation angle of outer of CFRP tubes and loading status(static/impact). Typical collapse modes of CFRP tubes are wedge collapse mode, splaying collapse mode and fragmentation collapse mode.

  9. Experimental study on the performance characteristics and emission analysis of a diesel engine using vegetable oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Anup; Ehite, Ekramul Haque; Alam, M. M.

    2016-07-01

    In this research, Vegetable oils derived from Sesame Seed and Rice Bran were used and experimented upon. Using Kerosene as the solvent in varying proportions (30%, 50%, 70% by volume) with the vegetables oils, different blends of Sesame and Rice Bran Oils were produced. The important characteristic properties were found by experimentation and compared with those of Straight Run Diesel. Subsequently, Straight Run Diesel, vegetable oils and their blends were used to run a diesel engine one-by-one and the performance analysis was conducted, followed by an investigation of the exhaust emissions. From the comparative performance analysis, it was found that Rice Bran oil showed better performance as a fuel than Sesame with regards to power production and specific fuel consumption and also resulted in less Carbon Monoxide (CO) emission than Sesame oil blends.

  10. Experimental study for flow characteristics and performance evaluation of butterfly valves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, C. K.; Yoon, J. Y.; Shin, M. S.

    2010-08-01

    The industrial butterfly valves have been applied to transport a large of fluid with various fields of industry. Also, these are mainly used a control of fluid flux to the water and waste-water pipeline. Present, butterfly valves are manufacturing for multiplicity shape of bodies and discs with many producers. However, appropriate performance evaluation was not yet accomplished to compare about these valves through experiments. This study is performed the experiment of flow characteristics and performance of manufactured 400A butterfly valves for the water and waste pipeline, and compared experimental results. We performed experiments that were controlled fixed a differential pressure condition (1 psi) and the range of the flow rate conditions (500 m3/hr ~ 2500 m3/hr), and also opened the disc of valves to a range of angle from 9 degree to 90 degree. We investigated and compared the valve flow coefficient and the valve loss coefficient of results through experiments with each butterfly valve.

  11. Experimental investigation of atomization characteristics of swirling spray by ADN gelled propellant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guan, Hao-Sen; Li, Guo-Xiu; Zhang, Nai-Yuan

    2018-03-01

    Due to the current global energy shortage and increasingly serious environmental issues, green propellants are attracting more attention. In particular, the ammonium dinitramide (ADN)-based monopropellant thruster is gaining world-wide attention as a green, non-polluting and high specific impulse propellant. Gel propellants combine the advantages of liquid and solid propellants, and are becoming popular in the field of spaceflight. In this paper, a swirling atomization experimental study was carried out using an ADN aqueous gel propellant under different injection pressures. A high-speed camera and a Malvern laser particle size analyzer were used to study the spray process. The flow coefficient, cone angle of swirl atomizing spray, breakup length of spray membrane, and droplet size distribution were analyzed. Furthermore, the effects of different injection pressures on the swirling atomization characteristics were studied.

  12. Theoretical and experimental studies on output characteristics of an intracavity KTA OPO.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Fen; Wang, Qingpu; Liu, Zhaojun; Zhang, Xingyu; Wan, Xuebin; Lan, Weixia; Jin, Guofan; Tao, Xutang; Sun, Youxuan

    2012-01-16

    An acousto-optically Q-switched Nd:YVO(4)/KTiOAsO(4) (KTA) intracavity optical parametric oscillator (OPO) is efficiently realized in singly resonated scheme. With an end-pumping diode power of 25.9 W, output signal (1535 nm) power of 3.77 W and idler power (3467 nm) of 1.18 W are obtained at a pulse repetition rate of 50 kHz. A rate-equation model is set up to simulate the output power and time characteristics of both signal and idler waves. And both the numerical and experimental results show that the idler pulse width is shorter than the signal one in a singly resonant OPO.

  13. Morphological Characteristics and Embryological Development of Pineal Gland and Experimental Grafting Procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Turgut

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available The pineal gland is a major neuroendocrine organ both in human and animals and its principal product is melatonin. It has been implicated in a number of physiological functions (circadian rhytms, sleep, reproduction, and immune system. It is notable that transplantation of the pineal gland into different anatomical locations (the third or fourth cerebral ventricle, hypothalamus, cortical cerebral tissue, and anterior chamber of the eye appears to evoke a degree of functional recovery. The present review focuses upon the morphological characteristics and the embryological development of the pineal gland as well as experimental grafting procedures into some structures in pinealectomized animals. It has been demonstrated that pinealocytes survive transplantation into these sites and exhibit ultrastructural features of active secretion. Recent investigations have shown that the transplanted pineal gland in the anterior chamber of the eye is reinnervated by neurons. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2003; 12(1.000: 65-76

  14. Overall Characteristics of 9 kW Class Helium Refrigerator for Experimental Fusion Device

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamada, S [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-Oroshi, Toki, Gifu, 509-5292 (Japan); Moriuchi, S [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-Oroshi, Toki, Gifu, 509-5292 (Japan); Maekawa, R [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-Oroshi, Toki, Gifu, 509-5292 (Japan); Noguchi, M [Mayekawa Mfg. Co., Ltd., 2-13-1 Botan, Koutouku, Tokyo, 135-8482 (Japan); Kuramochi, K [Mayekawa Mfg. Co., Ltd., 2-13-1 Botan, Koutouku, Tokyo, 135-8482 (Japan); Kishi, T [Mayekawa Mfg. Co., Ltd., 2-13-1 Botan, Koutouku, Tokyo, 135-8482 (Japan); Mito, T [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-Oroshi, Toki, Gifu, 509-5292 (Japan)

    2006-06-01

    The cryogenic system for the experimental fusion device, LHD has an equivalent refrigeration capacity of 9.1 kW at 4.4 K, and will refrigerate all sets of superconducting coils, their supporting structures, superconducting bus-lines and current leads. Eight sets of oil injected screw-type compressors with the massflow rate of 1100 g/s are equipped. Massflow rate to coldbox was controlled to 700 g/s, and the other of 400 g/s was bypassed. To minimize the bypass flow and to reduce the power consumption, overall operating characteristics of the helium refrigerator were investigated in this report. A power consumption of 500 kW was decreased by reducing the massflow rate of 200 g/s in the bypass circuit.

  15. Physical activity and body mass index: the contribution of age and workplace characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Candace C; Wagner, Gregory R; Caban-Martinez, Alberto J; Buxton, Orfeu M; Kenwood, Christopher T; Sabbath, Erika L; Hashimoto, Dean M; Hopcia, Karen; Allen, Jennifer; Sorensen, Glorian

    2014-03-01

    The workplace is an important domain for adults, and many effective interventions targeting physical activity and weight reduction have been implemented in the workplace. However, the U.S. workforce is aging, and few studies have examined the relationship of BMI, physical activity, and age as they relate to workplace characteristics. This paper reports on the distribution of physical activity and BMI by age in a population of hospital-based healthcare workers and investigates the relationships among workplace characteristics, physical activity, and BMI. Data from a survey of patient care workers in two large academic hospitals in the Boston area were collected in late 2009 and analyzed in early 2013. In multivariate models, workers reporting greater decision latitude (OR=1.02, 95% CI=1.01, 1.03) and job flexibility (OR=1.05, 95% CI=1.01, 1.10) reported greater physical activity. Overweight and obesity increased with age (pworkplace characteristics. Sleep deficiency (OR=1.56, 95% CI=1.15, 2.12) and workplace harassment (OR=1.62, 95% CI=1.20, 2.18) were also associated with obesity. These findings underscore the persistent impact of the work environment for workers of all ages. Based on these results, programs or policies aimed at improving the work environment, especially decision latitude, job flexibility, and workplace harassment should be included in the design of worksite-based health promotion interventions targeting physical activity or obesity. Copyright © 2014 American Journal of Preventive Medicine. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Repeatability, correlation and path analysis of physical and chemical characteristics of peach fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosana Gonçalves Pires Matias

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to determine the number of measurements necessary to evaluate physical and chemical characteristics of peach fruits, study the relationships between them and their direct and indirect effects on the content of ascorbic acid and total carotenoids. The characteristics skin and pulp color, fruit weight, suture, equatorial and polar diameters, firmness, soluble solids (SS, titratable acidity (TA, SS/TA ratio, ascorbic acid and total carotenoids were evaluated in 39 cultivars of peach and 3 cultivars of nectarine from the orchard of the Universidade Federal de Viçosa. The repeatability coefficient was estimated by ANOVA and CPCOR. Phenotypic correlation coefficients (rf were estimated and, after the multicollinearity diagnostics, they were unfolded to direct and indirect effects of the explanatory variables on the response variable using path analysis. There was agreement on the magnitude of repeatability coefficients obtained by the two methods; however, they varied among the 14 characteristics. The highest correlations were found between FW, SD, ED and PD. Seven fruits are sufficient to evaluate the physical and chemical characteristics of peach with a correlation coefficient of 90%. The characteristics considered in the path diagrams (b* skin, hº skin, b* pulp, hº pulp, ED, PD, FIR, SS, SS/AT and TC are not the main determinants of the ascorbic acid. The yellow hue of the pulp (hº pulp has the potential to be used in indirect selection for total carotenoids.

  17. Robinow syndrome, Cockayne syndrome, and Pfeiffer syndrome: an overview of physical, neurological, and oral characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horbelt, Carlton V

    2010-01-01

    The general population expects dentists to be well-versed in the typical and atypical orofacial characteristics of all potential patients. As a result, dentists must possess a reasonable amount of knowledge concerning the physical and intraoral traits associated with developmental disorders such as those associated with Robinow syndrome, Cockayne syndrome, and Pfeiffer syndrome. None of the physical, neurological, or oral anomalies discussed in this column present insurmountable barriers to providing dental care. Dental techniques and procedures performed on patients with any of these syndromes will be identical or very similar to those done on any other patient.

  18. Numerical and experimental study on the motion characteristics of single bubble in a complex channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Tao; Li, Weizhong; Dong, Bo

    2015-07-01

    This paper is an extended study from previous work. In this study, the focus is paid to the dynamics of bubble rising and deformation in a complex channel, while the previous work is in straight channel. For this purpose, a three-dimensional lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is employed to simulate the dynamics behaviour of a bubble rising in a complex channel consisting of three half-round throats. To validate the numerical method, a visual experiment was carried out by means of a high-speed digital camera and computer image processing technology. The behaviour of the rising bubble through glycerine solution in a complex channel was recorded. Some physical parameters such as rising velocities, trajectory and shapes of the bubble were calculated and processed based on the experimental data. In the same conditions, the trajectory, shapes and rising velocities of the bubble were simulated during its rising process by the proposed LBM. The numerical results are in good agreement with the experimental results. It demonstrates that LBM used in this work is feasible for simulating two-phase flow in such a complex channel.

  19. Experimentally Studied Influence of the Bullet Head Shape on Dispersion Characteristics at Subsonic Airspeeds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Ilukhin

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The article presents description and results of experiments on a ballistic track and subsonic wind tunnel. The subject of study is important an issue such as the assessment of the influence of the bullet head shape on the accuracy of shooting parameters at subsonic muzzle velocity. The article points to the features of examined precision of guided and unguided aircraft, refers to the main disturbing factors. In addition, it outlines the most well known ways to improve the flight precision of unguided munitions. The article presents the geometric parameters of bullets and their scale models used in the experiments. It describes the experimental facilities and the studies themselves. Particular attention is paid to the analysis of experimental air-gun firings. Results for different muzzle velocities of flight are compared. The paper notes an ambiguity in comparison of accuracy and head drag coefficient. The results are clearly aligned with the data purging in the little turbulent subsonic wind tunnel. The article describes in detail the use of the method for visualizing a structure of the flow for the delimitation of attached flow and estimation of stagnation zone. A revealed physical picture has comprehensive theoretical underpinning. The conclusions of the work also give a advices on selecting a bullet to have the best dispersion parameters.

  20. Effect of drying temperatures on physical characteristics of sorghum flour modified with lactic acid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manuhara, G. J.; Amanto, B. S.; Astuti, T. A.

    2017-04-01

    Different drying temperatures produce different starch structure, while the remains of lactic acid in sorghum grain might continue starch modification during drying. The purpose of this study was to determine the effect of drying temperatures (40, 50, 60° C) on physical characteristics of sorghum flour modified with lactic acid. Higher drying temperatures produced sorghum flour, with higher viscosity and swelling power, but lower whiteness and solubility. Modified sorghum flour showed higher value than the unmodified flour at all characteristics. Infrared spectroscopy showed that modification shifted absorption peak from 1,334 cm-1 to 1,373 cm-1, but there was no difference between samples dried at different temperatures.

  1. An exploration on possible correlations among perception and physical characteristics of EMOVO emotional portrayals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo Giovannella

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This article presents the first attempt to investigate the existence of possible quantitative correlations among the physical characteristics of emotional portrayals and the emotions perceived by humans during their listening. Our aim was: a to design and develop a new investigation procedure/protocol; b to obtain information useful to recognition and synthesis of emotions conveyed by the human voice. Our results, obtained on a subset of the emotional portrayals contained in the corpus EMOVO, show that, apart from well known qualitative indications, it is also possible to observe clear quantitative trends for some couples of 'emotionsignal characteristics' as function of the recognition rate of the emotion.

  2. Experimental study on the sound absorption characteristics of continuously graded phononic crystals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    X. H. Zhang

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Novel three-dimensional (3D continuously graded phononic crystals (CGPCs have been designed, and fabricated by 3D printing. Each of the CGPCs is an entity instead of a combination of several other samples, and the porosity distribution of the CGPC along the incident direction is nearly linear. The sound absorption characteristics of CGPCs were experimentally investigated and compared with those of uniform phononic crystals (UPCs and discretely stepped phononic crystals (DSPCs. Experimental results show that CGPCs demonstrate excellent sound absorption performance because of their continuously graded structures. CGPCs have higher sound absorption coefficients in the large frequency range and more sound absorption coefficient peaks in a specific frequency range than UPCs and DSPCs. In particular, the sound absorption coefficients of the CGPC with a porosity of 0.6 and thickness of 30 mm are higher than 0.56 when the frequency is 1350–6300 Hz and are all higher than 0.2 in the studied frequency range (1000–6300 Hz. CGPCs are expected to have potential application in noise control, especially in the broad frequency and low-frequency ranges.

  3. Characteristics of a micro-fin evaporator: Theoretical analysis and experimental verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zheng Hui-Fan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A theoretical analysis and experimental verification on the characteristics of a micro-fin evaporator using R290 and R717 as refrigerants were carried out. The heat capacity and heat transfer coefficient of the micro-fin evaporator were investigated under different water mass flow rate, different refrigerant mass flow rate, and different inner tube diameter of micro-fin evaporator. The simulation results of the heat transfer coefficient are fairly in good agreement with the experimental data. The results show that heat capacity and the heat transfer coefficient of the micro-fin evaporator increase with increasing logarithmic mean temperature difference, the water mass flow rate and the refrigerant mass flow rate. Heat capacity of the micro-fin evaporator for diameter 9.52 mm is higher than that of diameter 7.00 mm with using R290 as refrigerant. Heat capacity of the micro-fin evaporator with using R717 as refrigerant is higher than that of R290 as refrigerant. The results of this study can provide useful guidelines for optimal design and operation of micro-fin evaporator in its present or future applications.

  4. Experimental studies on the flow characteristics in an inclined bend-free OWC device

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Krishnil Ravinesh Ram

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A bend-free rectangular cross-section OWC device was designed and constructed for studying the effect of inclination on the flow characteristics inside the device. The inclination is meant to reduce reflection of waves and induce higher velocities in the turbine section. Experimental measurements were made in a wave channel where the OWC device was tested. An S-type Pitot tube was used to measure dynamic pressure of air in the turbine section at several inclinations. Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV was also done to study the flow of both air and water in the OWC device. In order to focus solely on primary energy capture, no turbine was installed in the OWC device. The dynamic pressure readings were analysed for suction and compression stages. Water volume fluctuations inside the capture chamber were also recorded and compared for different inclinations. The result was an increase in the velocity of air flowing in the capture chamber and hence a rise in the kinetic energy available to the turbine. It was found from experimental studies that as the angle of inclination reduced, the velocity of air in the turbine section increased. The lower angles also caused higher run-up and larger volume of water into the capture chamber.

  5. Experimental results obtained with the simulated cold moderator system. System characteristics and technical issues

    CERN Document Server

    Aso, T; Hino, R; Kaminaga, M; Kinoshita, H; Takahashi, T

    2002-01-01

    The Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute and the High Energy Accelerator Research Organization have been developing a Mega-Watt scale spallation target system. In the system, neutrons generated in a target are sorted out their energy to the proper values in liquid-hydrogen moderators. Then, the liquid-hydrogen is forced to circulate in order to suppress hydrogen temperature increase. In the operation of moderators, it is very important to establish a safety protection system against emergency shutdown of the accelerator or accidents of the cold moderator system. In order to obtain a technical data for design and safety review of the liquid-hydrogen system, we have fabricated an experimental apparatus simulated the cold moderator system using liquid nitrogen (max. 1.5 MPa, mini. 77 K) instead of liquid hydrogen. The experiments on a controllability of the system were carried out to investigate dynamic characteristics of the system. This report presents the experimental results and technical issues for the co...

  6. Experimental Investigation on the Characteristics of Hydrodynamic Stabilities in Francis Hydroturbine Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wen-Tao Su

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an experimental investigation of flow phenomena related to the characteristic frequencies of pressure fluctuation in Francis hydroturbine models. The experiments were carried out on two test rigs with two model runners having hydraulic similarities. Flow field around the guide vanes was measured with a particle image velocimetry (PIV on the first PIV test rig. Flow structures at the inlet region of runner and in draft tube at different operating conditions were visualized on another hydrodynamic test rig. Analyses of dominant frequency of unsteady hydraulic behaviors in the tested hydroturbines were performed. It was observed that the main frequency of flow over the guide vanes and the dominant frequency of channel vortex equal the blade passing frequency; the dominant frequency of flow separation at the suction side of blade inlet equals the vane passing frequency; the vortex rope in the draft tube displays a low-frequency nature. The flow instabilities and fluctuations directly influence the running of hydroturbine, thus these experimental results could provide important evidence for the stability study of a real hydroturbine.

  7. Evaluation of characteristic-to-total spectrum ratio: Comparison between experimental and a semi-empirical model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez Gonzales, A H; Tomal, A; Costa, P R

    2015-06-01

    Primary X-ray spectra were measured in the range of 80-150kV in order to validate a computer program based on a semiempirical model. The ratio between the characteristic and total air Kerma was considered to compare computed results and experimental data. Results show that the experimental spectra have higher first HVL and mean energy than the calculated ones. The ratios between the characteristic and total air Kerma for calculated spectra are in good agreement with experimental results for all filtrations used. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. An experimental investigation into cavitation behaviour and pressure characteristics of alternative blade sections for propellers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emin Korkut

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available During the final quarter of the last century considerable efforts have been spent to reduce the hull pressure fluctuations caused by unsteady propeller cavitation. This has resulted in further changes in propeller design characteristics including increased skew, tip unloading and introduction of “New Blade Sections” (NBS designed on the basis of the so-called Eppler code. An experimental study was carried out to investigate flow characteristics of alternative two-dimensional (2-D blade sections of rectangular planform, one of which was the New Blade Section (NBS developed in Newcastle University and other was based on the well-known National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics (NACA section. The experiments comprised the cavitation observations and the measurements of the local velocity distribution around the blade sections by using a 2-D Laser Doppler Anemometry (LDA system. Analysis of the cavitation tests demonstrated that the two blade sections presented very similar bucket shapes with virtually no width at the bottom but relatively favourable buckets arms at the suction and pressure sides for the NACA section. Similarly, pressure analysis of the sections displayed a slightly larger value for the NBS pressure peak. The comparative overall pressure distributions around the sections suggested that the NBS might be more susceptible to cavitation than the NACA section. This can be closely related to the fundamental shape of the NBS with very fine leading edge. Therefore a further investigation into the modification of the leading edge should be considered to improve the cavitation behaviour of the NBS.

  9. Experimental and numerical analysis of pressure pulses characteristics in a Francis turbine with partial load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yexiang, X; Zhengwei, W; Zongguo, Y; Jin, Z, E-mail: xiaoyex@mail.tsinghua.edu.c [State Key Laboratory of Hydroscience and Engineering and Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University Beijing, 100084 (China)

    2010-08-15

    This study experimentally and numerically investigates the pressure pulses characteristics and unsteady flow behavior in a Francis turbine with partial load. Unsteady wall pressure measurements with partial load condition are performs to investigate thoroughly pressure fields in the spiral case, runner head cover and straight draft tube dynamically. The unsteady Reynolds- averaged Navier-Stokes equations with the k-{omega}based SST turbulence model were used to model the unsteady flow within the entire flow passage of the Francis turbine. The dominate frequency of the predicted pressure pulses at runner inlet agree with the experimental results in the head cover. The influence of the blade passing frequency causes the simulated peak-to-peak amplitudes in the runner inlet to be larger than in the head cover. The measured and predicted pressure pulses at different positions along the runner are comparable. The predicted pressure fluctuations in the draft tube agree well with the experimental results. However the peak-to-peak amplitudes in the spiral case are not as well predicted so the calculation domain and the inlet boundary conditions need to be improved. At the most unstable operating condition, the pulse in the flow passage are due to the rotor-stator interference (RSI) between the runner and the guide vanes, the blade channel vortex in the runner blade passage and the vortex rope in the draft tube. The unsteady flow patterns in the turbine, including the blade channel vortex in the runner and the helical vortex rope in the draft tube, are classified numerically.

  10. Experimental and numerical analysis of pressure pulses characteristics in a Francis turbine with partial load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yexiang, X.; Zhengwei, W.; Zongguo, Y.; Jin, Z.

    2010-08-01

    This study experimentally and numerically investigates the pressure pulses characteristics and unsteady flow behavior in a Francis turbine with partial load. Unsteady wall pressure measurements with partial load condition are performs to investigate thoroughly pressure fields in the spiral case, runner head cover and straight draft tube dynamically. The unsteady Reynolds- averaged Navier-Stokes equations with the k-ωbased SST turbulence model were used to model the unsteady flow within the entire flow passage of the Francis turbine. The dominate frequency of the predicted pressure pulses at runner inlet agree with the experimental results in the head cover. The influence of the blade passing frequency causes the simulated peak-to-peak amplitudes in the runner inlet to be larger than in the head cover. The measured and predicted pressure pulses at different positions along the runner are comparable. The predicted pressure fluctuations in the draft tube agree well with the experimental results. However the peak-to-peak amplitudes in the spiral case are not as well predicted so the calculation domain and the inlet boundary conditions need to be improved. At the most unstable operating condition, the pulse in the flow passage are due to the rotor-stator interference (RSI) between the runner and the guide vanes, the blade channel vortex in the runner blade passage and the vortex rope in the draft tube. The unsteady flow patterns in the turbine, including the blade channel vortex in the runner and the helical vortex rope in the draft tube, are classified numerically.

  11. Measured and perceived environmental characteristics are related to accelerometer defined physical activity in older adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Strath Scott J

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Few studies have investigated both the self-perceived and measured environment with objectively determined physical activity in older adults. Accordingly, the aim of this study was to examine measured and perceived environmental associations with physical activity of older adults residing across different neighborhood types. Methods One-hundred and forty-eight older individuals, mean age 64.3 ± 8.4, were randomly recruited from one of four neighborhoods that were pre-determined as either having high- or low walkable characteristics. Individual residences were geocoded and 200 m network buffers established. Both objective environment audit, and self-perceived environmental measures were collected, in conjunction with accelerometer derived physical activity behavior. Using both perceived and objective environment data, analysis consisted of a macro-level comparison of physical activity levels across neighborhood, and a micro-level analysis of individual environmental predictors of physical activity levels. Results Individuals residing in high-walkable neighborhoods on average engaged in 11 min of moderate to vigorous physical activity per day more than individuals residing in low-walkable neighborhoods. Both measured access to non-residential destinations (b = .11, p p = .031 were significant predictors of time spent in moderate to vigorous physical activity. Other environmental variables significantly predicting components of physical activity behavior included presence of measured neighborhood crime signage (b = .4785, p = .031, measured street safety (b = 26.8, p = .006, and perceived neighborhood satisfaction (b = .5.8, p = .003. Conclusions Older adult residents who live in high-walkable neighborhoods, who have easy and close access to nonresidential destinations, have lower social dysfunction pertinent to crime, and generally perceive the neighborhood to a higher overall satisfaction are likely to engage in higher levels

  12. Sleep characteristics, exercise capacity and physical activity in patients with chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aerenhouts, Dirk; Ickmans, Kelly; Clarys, Peter; Zinzen, Evert; Meersdom, Geert; Lambrecht, Luc; Nijs, Jo

    2015-01-01

    Unrefreshing sleep and lowered physical activity are commonly observed in chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) patients, but how they might influence each other remains unexplored. Therefore, this study simultaneously examined the exercise capacity, sleep characteristics and physical activity in CFS patients. Handgrip strength and cycle exercise capacity were assessed in 42 female CFS patients and 24 inactive control subjects. During four consecutive days and nights, energy expenditure, activity and sleep-wake pattern were objectively registered using a Sensewear Armband. Exercise capacity was significantly lower in CFS patients. In both groups VO2peak correlated with the time subjects were physically active. In CFS patients only, VO2peak correlated negatively with sleeping during the day whilst physical activity level and energy expenditure correlated negatively with sleep latency and lying awake at night. In the present study, CFS patients with higher VO2peak tend to sleep less over day. Occupation in physical activities was negatively associated with sleep latency and lying awake at night. Increased physical activity potentially has beneficial effects on sleep quality in CFS. However, a close monitoring of the effects of increasing physical activity is essential to avoid negative effects on the health status of patients. Female patients with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) have normal sleep latency and sleep efficiency, but sleep more and spent more time in bed as compared to healthy inactive women. Female CFS patients have lower exercise capacity, and a lower physical activity level as compared to healthy inactive women. CFS patients appear to be more sensitive for sleep quality (sleep latency and lying awake at night), which is associated with a low physical activity level.

  13. Physical and Chemical Characteristics of Maleo Egg in Bogani Nani Wartabone Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JLP Saerang

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to examine the size (weight, length, and width of Maleo egg in Bogani Nani Wartabone National Park.Physical characteristics that measure are : egg weight, egg shell, egg index , yolk, and albumen. Physical characteristics measured were: egg weight, egg shell thickness, egg index, yolk, and albumen. Two fresh eggs were weighed to the electric ohause balance with 400 g the scale 0.01. Two fresh egg were weighed with an electric balance. Length and width off egg were measured by used vernier caliper, egg shell thickness by tripod micrometer, yolk color by yolk color fan. Length and width of egg used were measured by Vernier caliper, and egg shell thickness by a tripod micrometer, yolk color by yolk color fan. Physical characteristic have been identified eggs weight, egg width, egg length, egg index, albumen width, albumen length, albumen index, yolk width, yolk length, yolk index, weight albumen, weight yolk, egg shell thickness, and shell weight increased by 223.70 g, 104.00 mm, 56.68 mm, 56.41, 113.8 mm, 86.72 mm, 6.07%, 85.30 mm, 69.90 mm, 31.54%, 47.51 g, 110.80 g, 0.02 inch, 19.55 g, respectively. The result of analysis indicated that maleo eggs have completed amino acids and fatty acids, that is essensial amino acids, non essensial amino acids, saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids. Physical characteristic egg that comprised of egg weight, egg width, egg length, egg index, albumen width, albumen length, albumen index, yolk width, yolk length, yolk index, albumen weight, yolk weight, egg shell thickness, and shell weight were 223.70 g, 104.00 mm, 56.68 mm, 56.41, 113.8 mm, 86.72 mm, 6,07%, 85.30 mm, 69.90 mm, 31.54%, 47.51 g, 110.80 g, 0:02-inch, 19:55 g, respectively. Maleo egg contained complete amino acids and fatty acids, including essential amino acids, non essential amino acids, saturated fatty acids and unsaturated fatty acids. (Animal Production 12(1: 34-38 (2010Key Words: Maleo bird, maleo

  14. PECULIARITIES OF PHYSICAL-CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF FLUXING AGENTS, USED IN TECHNOLOGIES OF ELECTROSLAG REMELTING

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. N. Zherebtsov

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The experimental and literature data on characteristics and functions of fluxing agents and slags, applied for running of stable melting processes in different electroslag technologies, are generalized. The energy connections of cations and anions in slag systems are examined. The formulas of calculation of the slag melts basic capacity depending on chemical composition of fluxing agents are offered. The densities are investigated and melting temperatures of different fluxing agents are given.

  15. Early changes in physical tree characteristics during an oak decline event in the Ozark highlands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin A. Spetich

    2006-01-01

    An oak decline event is severely affecting up to 120 000 ha in the Ozark National Forest of Arkansas. Results of early changes in physical tree characteristics during that event are presented. In the fall and winter of 1999 and 2000, we established research plots on a site that would become a center of severe oak decline. In August 2000, standing trees > 14 cm in...

  16. STUDY REGARDING SOME PHYSICAL - CHEMICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF THE YOGHURT WITH RED BEETROOT JUICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Natalia Prodaniuc

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available The study presents some physical - chemical characteristics of the beetroot juice yoghurt. The following determinations were carried out: the determination of the acidity by titration with sodium hydroxide ( NaOH N/10, the determination of the fat content by the acid-butirometric method and the determination of the dry substance using the drying oven with a 102 °C temperature.

  17. The Study of Physical Characteristics of Granular Organic Fertilizer with Two Adhesives

    OpenAIRE

    Utari, Ni Wayan Arya

    2014-01-01

    Granular organic fertilizer is a fertilizer that is partially or completely derived fromorganicmaterials in the formof dense granules. The objectives of this research were to evaluate the effect of adhesives materials and theircompositions on the physical characteristics of granular organic fertilizer produced. This researchwas conductedat the Bioprocess and Post Harvest Engineering Laboratory and also atPower and Agricultural MachineryLaboratory, Department of Agricultural Engineering, Lampu...

  18. Physical and optical properties of DCJTB dye for OLED display applications: Experimental and theoretical investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kurban, Mustafa; Gündüz, Bayram

    2017-06-01

    In this study, 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-tert-butyl-6-(1,1,7,7-tetramethyljulolidin-4-yl-vinyl)-4H-pyran (DCJTB) was achieved using the experimental and theoretical studies. The electronic, optical and spectroscopic properties of DCJTB molecule were first investigated by performing experimental both solution and thin film techniques and then theoretical calculations. Theoretical results showed that one intense electronic transition is 505.26 nm a quite reasonable and agreement with the measured experimental data 505.00 and 503 nm with solution technique and film technique, respectively. Experimental and simple models were also taken into consideration to calculate the optical refractive index (n) of DCJTB molecule. The structural and electronic properties were next calculated using density functional theory (DFT) with B3LYP/6-311G (d, p) basis set. UV, FT-IR spectra characteristics and the electronic properties, such as frontier orbitals, and band gap energy (Eg) of DCJTB were also recorded time-dependent (TD) DFT approach. The theoretical Eg value were found to be 2.269 eV which is consistent with experimental results obtained from solution technique for THF solvent (2.155 eV) and literature (2.16 eV). The results herein obtained reveal that solution is simple, cost-efficient and safe for optoelectronic applications when compared with film technique.

  19. Claude Bernard and an introduction to the study of experimental medicine: "physical vitalism," dialectic, and epistemology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Normandin, Sebastian

    2007-10-01

    This article explores the profound impact of the thought of Claude Bernard (1813-78) and his philosophy of experimentalism elaborated in his masterwork An Introduction to the Study of Experimental Medicine. I argue that Bernard's far-ranging theoretical impact on medicine and biology marks the end of conventional vitalism and the elusive notion of a "vital force" as a legitimate scientific concept. His understanding of medicine is as epistemologically significant in its time as Newton's contribution was to the physical sciences in the seventeenth century. This essay treats Bernard's philosophical ambitions seriously, exploring his important, even central, role in the mental world of nineteenth-century France. This includes his influence on Henri Bergson (1859-1941) and other late-nineteenth century thinkers. The subtext of Bernard's experimental epistemology is also contrasted with a key idealist philosopher of the period, the German Arthur Schopenhauer (1788-1860), and placed in the context of the larger European philosophical sphere. In contrast to much of mid-nineteenth-century philosophy, Bernard, in creating the framework for experimental medicine, argued for an experimental approach in which a priori assumptions were to be strictly constrained. Bernard's thoughts on the nature of experiment put an end to "systems" in medicine, ironically by replacing all previous medical philosophies with the all-embracing "system" of experiment. And yet, while "vital forces" fade after Bernard, a form of vitalism still flourishes. Even in Bernard's own work, in the struggle with concepts like determinism, complexity, and causality, there is a realization of the unique character of living function in a kind of "physical vitalism."

  20. Preschool and childcare center characteristics associated with children's physical activity during care hours: an observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinkley, Trina; Salmon, Jo; Crawford, David; Okely, Anthony D; Hesketh, Kylie D

    2016-11-11

    Preschools and childcare settings offer opportunities to promote adequate levels of physical activity. Research is needed to identify the key features of these settings to optimize young children's activity. The aims of this study were to determine if differences existed in preschool children's physical activity during care hours compared with outside care hours and to examine a comprehensive range of potential center-based correlates of physical activity for preschool boys and girls. Data are from the Healthy Active Preschool and Primary Years study: 71 childcare centers, 65 preschools and 1002 preschool children. Percent of time in total (light- to vigorous-intensity) physical activity was measured using Actigraph GT1M accelerometers. Center physical environment characteristics, policies and practices were assessed by trained research staff using comprehensive audit tools. Data were collected in 2008/9 and were analyzed separately for boys and girls in Stata using multilevel mixed effects models. Boys and girls were less active during care than outside care hours (51.1 % vs. 52.4 %, p = 0.01; 48.0 % vs. 51.5 %, p preschool children's physical activity were identified. Future research should explore other aspects of centers, such as what children actually do while they are outside, and broader potential influences on children's behaviours including social, cultural and policy contexts within which centers operate.

  1. Evaluation of spacer grid spring characteristics by means of physical tests and numerical simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schettino, Carlos Frederico Mattos, E-mail: carlosschettino@inb.gov.br [Industrias Nucleares do Brasil (INB), Resende, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-11-01

    Among all fuel assemblies' components, the spacer grids play an important structural role during the energy generation process, mainly due for its primary functional requirement, that is, to provide fuel rod support. The present work aims to evaluate the spring characteristics of a specific spacer grid design used in a PWR fuel assembly type 16 x 16. These spring characteristics comprises the load versus deflection capability and its spring rate, which are very important, and also mandatory, to be correctly established in order to preclude spacer grid spring and fuel rod cladding fretting during operation, as well as prevent an excessive fuel rod buckling. This study includes physical tests and numerical simulation. The tests were performed on an adapted load cell mechanical device, using as a specimen a single strap of the spacer grid. Three numerical models were prepared using the Finite Element Method, with the support of the commercial code ANSYS. One model was built to validate the simulation according to the performed physical test, the others were built inserting a gradient of temperature (Beginning Of Life hot condition) and to evaluate the spacer grid spring characteristics in End Of Life condition. The obtained results from physical test and numerical model have shown a good agreement between them, therefore validating the simulation. The obtained results from numerical models make available information regarding the spacer grid design purpose, such as the behavior of the fuel rod cladding support during operation. Therewith, these evaluations could be useful to improve the spacer grid design. (author)

  2. Speech intelligibility prediction of room with curved surfaces by means of its physical characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harun, Mokhtar; Rahman, Tharek Abdul; Ibrahim, Md. Najib; Jaafar, Md. Yunus

    2002-05-01

    In the room, it was found previously that the ear uses the first arriving sound to locate the source, but the early reflections contribute to the intelligibility. Late reflections, on the other hand reduce intelligibility. Therefore, for speech intelligibility a high sound energy fraction is necessary, requiring high early energy and low late energy. Spatial impression which is the subjective effect of early sound reflections that come from the side walls and ceiling, contributes to the sense of envelopment. This paper presents the investigation of speech intelligibility with respect to the physical characteristics of rooms with curved surfaces. The investigated physical characteristics are source-to-listener distance (Lr), listener-to-the farthest wall (Lwmax), listener-to-the closest wall (Lwmin), listener-to-the farthest wall and listener-to-the average distance to walls (Lwave). In addition to objective acoustics measures such as reverberation time (RT60), early decay time (EDT), average sound absorption coefficient (Aave) and clarity (C50), speech intelligibility predictors STI and Alcons were also measured and analyzed. It is the intention of this paper to explore the possibility of predicting speech intelligibility performance of a room with curved surfaces by using its physical characteristics.

  3. Variations in adolescents’ motivational characteristics across gender and physical activity patterns: A latent class analysis approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret Lawler

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neglecting to take account of the underlying context or type of physical activity (PA that underpins overall involvement has resulted in a limited understanding of adolescents’ PA participation. The purpose of the present research was to identify male and female adolescents’ leisure time PA patterns and examine whether psychological processes derived from self-determination theory differ as a function of the pattern of PA undertaken. Methods Nine hundred ninety-five students (61.2% females, 38.8% males; M age = 13.72 years, SD = 1.25 from eight secondary schools in Dublin, Ireland completed a physical activity recall 7 day diary and measures of intrinsic motivation, competence, relatedness, autonomy and autonomy support. Based on the diary five binary indicators of physical activity were derived reflecting recommended levels of MVPA on a minimum of 3 days, at least three sessions of non-organized physical activity (e.g. jog, team sport, individual sport, and organized non-sport physical activity (e.g. dance. Latent class analysis was used to identify subgroups of adolescents that engaged in similar patterns of physical activity. Profiles of physical activity participation were subsequently compared on motivational characteristics using Kruskal-Wallis tests. Results Latent class analysis revealed six distinct classes for girls (Organized Run/Swim & Dance/Gym; Organized Dance; Leisure Active Team Sport; Active Individual Sport; Walk/Run/Outdoor games; Non-Participation and five for boys (Leisure Active Gym; Leisure Active Individual Sport; Active Team Sport; Active Mixed Type; Non-Participation. Significant differences were found between the classes. Girls characterized by participation in team or individual sport, and boys represented by team sport participation demonstrated significantly higher self-determined motivational characteristics relative to other profiles of physical activity. Conclusion This research

  4. Experimental quantum simulations of many-body physics with trapped ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Ch; Porras, Diego; Schaetz, Tobias

    2012-02-01

    Direct experimental access to some of the most intriguing quantum phenomena is not granted due to the lack of precise control of the relevant parameters in their naturally intricate environment. Their simulation on conventional computers is impossible, since quantum behaviour arising with superposition states or entanglement is not efficiently translatable into the classical language. However, one could gain deeper insight into complex quantum dynamics by experimentally simulating the quantum behaviour of interest in another quantum system, where the relevant parameters and interactions can be controlled and robust effects detected sufficiently well. Systems of trapped ions provide unique control of both the internal (electronic) and external (motional) degrees of freedom. The mutual Coulomb interaction between the ions allows for large interaction strengths at comparatively large mutual ion distances enabling individual control and readout. Systems of trapped ions therefore exhibit a prominent system in several physical disciplines, for example, quantum information processing or metrology. Here, we will give an overview of different trapping techniques of ions as well as implementations for coherent manipulation of their quantum states and discuss the related theoretical basics. We then report on the experimental and theoretical progress in simulating quantum many-body physics with trapped ions and present current approaches for scaling up to more ions and more-dimensional systems.

  5. THE INFLUENCE OF THE EXPERIMENTAL PROGRAMME OF PHYSICAL EDUCATION CURRICULUM ON PUPILS FUNCTIONAL ABILITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nevenka Zrnzević

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this research is to determine how much is the specially suggested experimental program of physical education, with increased demands and application of additional exercises, influenting the functional abbilities. The applied experimental program was composed of athletics exercises, sports games, exercises on the pieces of equipment and on the floor, rhythmics and dancing exercises. Six metrical instruments were used for evaluation of functional abbilities of schoolboys and schoolgirls. The experimental program was carried out on the sample of 106 first-grade pupils of the elementary school, age of 7 years ± 6 months. Basic statistic parametars were calculated by processing of data during initial and final measuring. Final data processing included only the examinees that participated at initial and final measurement. Multivariant and univariant analisys of variance for repeated measures (MANOVA and ANOVA – repeated measures were applied for determination of eventual differences between initial and final measuring. Based on retrieved results it could be concluded that specially programed performance of physical education had a significant influence on changing the most functional abbilities of pupils.

  6. "The effect of supervised exercise training on psychological characteristics and physical fitness after myocardial infarction "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    "Boshtam M

    2000-11-01

    Full Text Available Regarding the increasing prevalence of cardiovascular disease (CVD especially myocardial infarction (MI, and the insufficiency of information in the field of physical rehabilitation, this study aimed to investigate the effectiveness of a course of physical rehabilitation on the psychological status and physical characteristics f cardiac patients. In this study, the effect of 8 weeks exercise training, 3 sessions of 45 minutes duration per week, on the physical and psychological function of MI patients was evaluated. Eighty patients who were referred to the rehabilitation unit of Isfahan cardiovascular Research Center were randomly divided into two groups of exercise and non-exercise. The data of pre and post exercise course were analyzed with the SPSS software using the two-sample t-test and multiple liner regression. The comparison of the mean changes of functional capacity. Weight, body mass index (BMI, heart rate, and systolic and diastolic blood pressures between exercise and non-exercise groups after 8 weeks showed significant difference for all studied factors (P<0.05. Also, investigating the psychological characteristics such as depression, anxiety and hostility scores indicated a significant change after exercise training (P<0.05. Personality and behavior showed no significant difference. This study suggests the functional has a significant effect on improving the function capacity and psychological behavior in post MI patients.

  7. Physical-chemical characteristics of whitening toothpaste and evaluation of its effects on enamel roughness

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Paulo Hilgenberg

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available This in vitro study evaluated the physical-chemical characteristics of whitening toothpastes and their effect on bovine enamel after application of a bleaching agent (16% carbamide peroxide. Physical-chemical analysis was made considering mass loss by desiccation, ash content and pH of the toothpastes. Thirty bovine dental enamel fragments were prepared for roughness measurements. The samples were subjected to bleaching treatments and simulated brushing: G1. Sorriso Dentes Brancos (Conventional toothpaste, G2. Close-UP Whitening (Whitening toothpaste, and G3. Sensodyne Branqueador (Whitening toothpaste. The average roughness (Ra was evaluated prior to the bleaching treatment and after brushing. The results revealed differences in the physical-chemical characteristics of the toothpastes (p < 0.0001. The final Ra had higher values (p < 0.05 following the procedures. The mean of the Ra did not show significant differences, considering toothpaste groups and bleaching treatment. Interaction (toothpaste and bleaching treatment showed significant difference (p < 0.0001. The whitening toothpastes showed differences in their physical-chemical properties. All toothpastes promoted changes to the enamel surface, probably by the use of a bleaching agent.

  8. Reported characteristics of participants in physical therapy-related clinical trials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevan, Julia; Haskvitz, Esther M

    2015-06-01

    The inclusion of sociodemographic and anthropometric variables in published clinical trials enables physical therapists to determine the applicability of trial results to patients in their clinics. The aim of this study was to examine the reporting of participant sociodemographic and anthropometric characteristics in published physical therapy-related clinical trials. This was a retrospective review of clinical trials from 2 samples drawn from literature applicable to physical therapy. Two reviewers independently extracted data from a random sample of 152 clinical trials from the Physiotherapy Evidence Database (PEDro) and a purposive sample of 85 clinical trials published in the journal Physical Therapy (PTJ). A database containing the occurrence of sociodemographic (age, sex, race/ethnicity, level of education, marital status) and anthropometric variables (height, weight, body mass index) in each article was created to generate descriptive statistics about both samples. Among the sociodemographic variables, at least 90% of articles reported the sex and age of trial participants. Additional sociodemographic characteristics that were reported in 20% to 26% of articles were participant level of education and participant race/ethnicity. The reporting of anthropometric data differed between the 2 samples, with body mass index being most commonly reported in the PEDro sample (48.0%) and weight being most commonly reported in the PTJ sample (38.8%). Articles reviewed were limited by year of publication (from 2008 to 2012 for PTJ articles and 2010 for clinical trials from PEDro) and to English-language-only literature. The physical therapy literature would benefit from enhanced reporting requirements for both sociodemographic and anthropometric data about participants. © 2015 American Physical Therapy Association.

  9. Experimental study of oscillating plates in viscous fluids: Qualitative and quantitative analysis of the flow physics and hydrodynamic forces

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shrestha, Bishwash; Ahsan, Syed N.; Aureli, Matteo

    2018-01-01

    In this paper, we present a comprehensive experimental study on harmonic oscillations of a submerged rigid plate in a quiescent, incompressible, Newtonian, viscous fluid. The fluid-structure interaction problem is analyzed from both qualitative and quantitative perspectives via a detailed particle image velocimetry (PIV) experimental campaign conducted over a broad range of oscillation frequency and amplitude parameters. Our primary goal is to identify the effect of the oscillation characteristics on the mechanisms of fluid-structure interaction and on the dynamics of vortex shedding and convection and to elucidate the behavior of hydrodynamic forces on the oscillating structure. Towards this goal, we study the flow in terms of qualitative aspects of its pathlines, vortex shedding, and symmetry breaking phenomena and identify distinct hydrodynamic regimes in the vicinity of the oscillating structure. Based on these experimental observations, we produce a novel phase diagram detailing the occurrence of distinct hydrodynamic regimes as a function of relevant governing nondimensional parameters. We further study the hydrodynamic forces associated with each regime using both PIV and direct force measurement via a load cell. Our quantitative results on experimental estimation of hydrodynamic forces show good agreement against predictions from the literature, where numerical and semi-analytical models are available. The findings and observations in this work shed light on the relationship between flow physics, vortex shedding, and convection mechanisms and the hydrodynamic forces acting on a rigid oscillating plate and, as such, have relevance to various engineering applications, including energy harvesting devices, biomimetic robotic system, and micro-mechanical sensors and actuators.

  10. AN APPLICATION OF THE LOGISTIC REGRESSION MODEL IN THE EXPERIMENTAL PHYSICAL CHEMISTRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elpidio Corral-López

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The calculation of intensive properties molar volumes of ethanol-water mixtures by experimental densities and tangent method in the Physical Chemistry Laboratory presents the problem of making manually the molar volume curve versus mole fraction and the trace of the tangent line trace. The advantage of using a statistical model the Logistic Regression on a Texas VOYAGE graphing calculator allowed trace the curve and the tangents in situ, and also evaluate the students work during the experimental session. The error percentage between the molar volumes calculated using literature data and those obtained with statistical method is minimal, which validates the model. It is advantageous use the calculator with this application as a teaching support tool, reducing the evaluation time of 3 weeks to 3 hours.

  11. Physical and Temporal Characteristics of Under 19, Under 21 and Senior Male Beach Volleyball Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandre Medeiros, Rui Marcelino, Isabel Mesquita, José Manuel Palao

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the effects of age groups and players’ role (blocker vs. defender specialist in beach volleyball in relation to physical and temporal variables, considering quality of opposition. 1101 rallies from Under 19 (U19, 933 rallies from Under 21 (U21, and 1480 rallies from senior (senior (Men’s Swatch World Championships, 2010-2011 were observed using video match analysis. Cluster analysis was used to set teams’ competitive levels and establish quality of opposition as “balanced”, “moderate balanced” and “unbalanced” games. The analyzed variables were: temporal (duration of set, total rest time, total work time, duration of rallies, rest time between rallies and physical (number of jumps and number of hits done by defenders and blockers characteristics. A one-way ANOVA, independent samples t-test and multinomial logistic regression were performed to analyze the variables studied. The analysis of temporal and physical characteristics showed differences considering age group, player’s role and quality of opposition. The duration of set, total rest time, and number of jumps done by defenders significantly increased from the U19 to senior category. Multinomial logistic regression showed that in: a balanced games, rest time between rallies was higher in seniors than in U19 or U21; number of jumps done by defenders was higher in seniors than in U19 and U21; b moderate balanced games, number of jumps done by defenders was higher in seniors than in U21 and number of jumps done by blockers was smaller in U19 than U21 or seniors; c unbalanced games, no significant findings were shown. This study suggests differences in players’ performances according to age group and players’ role in different qualities of opposition. The article provides reference values that can be useful to guide training and create scenarios that resemble a competition, taking into account physical and temporal characteristics.

  12. Effects of irradiation on physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ocloo, F.C.K., E-mail: fidelis_ocloo@yahoo.com [Radiation Technology Centre, Biotechnology and Nuclear Agriculture Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. P.O. Box LG 80, Legon (Ghana); Darfour, B.; Ofosu, D.O. [Radiation Technology Centre, Biotechnology and Nuclear Agriculture Research Institute, Ghana Atomic Energy Commission. P.O. Box LG 80, Legon (Ghana); Wilson, D.D. [Department of Zoology, University of Ghana, Legon (Ghana)

    2012-01-15

    Cowpeas (Vigna unguiculata L. Walp) are leguminous seeds widely produced and consumed in most developing countries of sub-Saharan Africa where they are a good source of affordable proteins, minerals and vitamins to the mainly carbohydrate-based diet of sub-Saharan Africa. At storage cowpea may be attacked by insects that cause severe damage to the seeds. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of gamma irradiation on some physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars. Four cowpea cultivars were irradiated with gamma radiation at dose levels of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy. Moisture content, thousand grain weight and bulk densities were determined as well as the amount of water absorbed during soaking and some sensory characteristics were equally determined. All the physical parameters studied were not significantly (p>0.05) affected by the radiation. There was no significant (p>0.05) effect of the radiation on the sensory attributes like flavour, taste, texture, softness and colour of the cowpea seeds. Similarly, the radiation did not affect significantly (p>0.05) the acceptability of the treated cowpea cultivars. - Highlights: > We investigated the effects of gamma irradiation on some physical and sensory characteristics of cowpea seed cultivars. > Four cowpea cultivars were irradiated at dose levels of 0.25, 0.50, 0.75, 1.0 and 1.5 kGy. > Physical parameters were not significantly (p>0.05) affected by the radiation. > Sensory attributes considered were not significantly influenced by the radiation doses used.

  13. Maternal risk factors predicting child physical characteristics and dysmorphology in fetal alcohol syndrome and partial fetal alcohol syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, Philip A; Tabachnick, Barbara G; Gossage, J Phillip; Kalberg, Wendy O; Marais, Anna-Susan; Robinson, Luther K; Manning, Melanie; Buckley, David; Hoyme, H Eugene

    2011-12-01

    Previous research in South Africa revealed very high rates of fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS), of 46-89 per 1000 among young children. Maternal and child data from studies in this community summarize the multiple predictors of FAS and partial fetal alcohol syndrome (PFAS). Sequential regression was employed to examine influences on child physical characteristics and dysmorphology from four categories of maternal traits: physical, demographic, childbearing, and drinking. Then, a structural equation model (SEM) was constructed to predict influences on child physical characteristics. Individual sequential regressions revealed that maternal drinking measures were the most powerful predictors of a child's physical anomalies (R² = .30, p < .001), followed by maternal demographics (R² = .24, p < .001), maternal physical characteristics (R²=.15, p < .001), and childbearing variables (R² = .06, p < .001). The SEM utilized both individual variables and the four composite categories of maternal traits to predict a set of child physical characteristics, including a total dysmorphology score. As predicted, drinking behavior is a relatively strong predictor of child physical characteristics (β = 0.61, p < .001), even when all other maternal risk variables are included; higher levels of drinking predict child physical anomalies. Overall, the SEM model explains 62% of the variance in child physical anomalies. As expected, drinking variables explain the most variance. But this highly controlled estimation of multiple effects also reveals a significant contribution played by maternal demographics and, to a lesser degree, maternal physical and childbearing variables. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Clinical characteristics of patients with cancer referred for outpatient physical therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alappattu, Meryl J; Coronado, Rogelio A; Lee, Derek; Bour, Barbara; George, Steven Z

    2015-04-01

    Cancer rehabilitation is a developing area, with an increasing number of survivors of cancer in the United States. The increase in survivorship occurs alongside impairments arising directly from cancer or from treatment-related side effects. This study described clinical characteristics of patients with cancer referred for outpatient physical therapy and explored patterns in frequency of impairments between type of cancer and mode of cancer treatment. This was a retrospective chart review of patients with cancer referred to a tertiary care physical therapy clinic over a 2-year period. Characteristics such as age, sex, cancer type, mode of treatment, and neuromusculoskeletal impairments were identified. Impairment frequencies were computed based on cancer type and mode of treatment. Data from 418 patients (mean age=57.9 years, SD=14.3; 41.1% female) were examined. Genitourinary cancer (n=169) and breast cancer (n=90) were the most prevalent types of cancer reported in this sample. Impairments in strength (83.6%) and soft tissue (71.3%) were the most common examination findings. Lymphedema was most common in patients with breast cancer, and incontinence was most common in patients with genitourinary cancer. The types of cancer identified in this study may be reflective of this tertiary center and may not generalize to other facilities. Impairment identification during the initial physical therapist evaluation was not performed systematically. These data reinforce that physical therapists should screen for lymphedema in patients with breast cancer and incontinence in urogenital cancers. Strength and soft tissue integrity should be evaluated in most patients with cancer. Assessing pain and fatigue levels is recommended for patients who have had radiation therapy. © 2015 American Physical Therapy Association.

  15. Experimental investigation on flow and scour characteristics around tandem piers in sandy channel with downward seepage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavan, Rutuja; Kumar, Bimlesh

    2017-09-01

    Experimental investigations have been carried out to study morpho-hydraulic characteristics such as scour geometry and turbulent flow properties around tandem piers in alluvial channels. Experiments were carried out in a plane sand bed with two circular piers of same diameter arranged in tandem manner under no seepage, 10% seepage and 20% seepage conditions. Downward seepage minimizes the scour depth around piers and restrains the development of scour depth with time. Strong reversal flow is found near the bed at upstream of piers and near free surface at downstream of piers where velocity and Reynolds shear stress are found to be negative which reduce in magnitude with downward seepage. The flow is more critical within the gap between two piers where velocity is lesser near free surface and gradually increasing towards bed. Quadrant analysis shows that contribution of each event to the total Reynolds shear stress increases with downward seepage. Sedimentation effect prevails within the scour hole whereas outside the scour hole erosive forces become more dominant. Reduced reversal flow at upstream of pier because of downward seepage results in decreasing higher order moments and turbulent kinetic energy. At downstream of piers, secondary currents are dominant due to wake vortices. Strouhal number decreases in case of seepage runs than no seepage condition.

  16. Experimental study on load characteristics in a floating type pendulum wave energy converter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murakami, Tengen; Imai, Yasutaka; Nagata, Shuichi

    2014-10-01

    A floating type pendulum wave energy converter (FPWEC) with a rotary vane pump as the power take-off system was proposed by Watabe et al. in 1998. They showed that this device had high energy conversion efficiency. In the previous research, the authors conducted 2D wave tank tests in regular waves to evaluate the generating efficiency of FPWEC with a power take-off system composed of pulleys, belts and a generator. As a result, the influence of the electrical load on the generating efficiency was shown. Continuously, the load characteristics of FPWEC are pursued experimentally by using the servo motors to change the damping coefficient in this paper. In a later part of this paper, the motions of the model with the servo motors are compared with that of the case with the same power take-off system as the previous research. From the above experiment, it may be concluded that the maximum primary conversion efficiency is achieved as high as 98% at the optimal load.

  17. Experimental Analysis and Evaluation of the Numerical Prediction of Wake Characteristics of Tidal Stream Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuquan Zhang

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available It is important to understand tidal stream turbine performance and flow field, if tidal energy is to advance. The operating condition of a tidal stream turbine with a supporting structure has a significant impact on its performance and wake recovery. The aim of this work is to provide an understanding of turbine submerged depth that governs the downstream wake structure and its recovery to the free-stream velocity profile. An experimentally validated numerical model, based on a computational fluid dynamics (CFD tool, was present to obtain longitudinal, transverse and vertical velocity profiles. Wake characteristics measurements have been carried out in an open channel at Hohai University. The results indicate that varying the turbine proximity to the water surface introduces differential mass flow rate around the rotor that could make the wake persist differently downstream. CFD shows the same predicted wake recovery tendency with the experiments, and an agreement from CFD and experiments is good in the far-wake region. The results presented demonstrate that CFD is a good tool to simulate the performance of tidal turbines particularly in the far-wake region and that the turbine proximity to the water surface has an effect on the wake recovery.

  18. Experimental and Numerical Study of the Aerodynamic Characteristics of an Archimedes Spiral Wind Turbine Blade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyung Chun Kim

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available A new type of horizontal axis wind turbine adopting the Archimedes spiral blade is introduced for urban-use. Based on the angular momentum conservation law, the design formula for the blade was derived using a variety of shape factors. The aerodynamic characteristics and performance of the designed Archimedes wind turbine were examined using computational fluid dynamics (CFD simulations. The CFD simulations showed that the new type of wind turbine produced a power coefficient (Cp of approximately 0.25, which is relatively high compared to other types of urban-usage wind turbines. To validate the CFD results, experimental studies were carried out using a scaled-down model. The instantaneous velocity fields were measured using the two-dimensional particle image velocimetry (PIV method in the near field of the blade. The PIV measurements revealed the presence of dominant vortical structures downstream the hub and near the blade tip. The interaction between the wake flow at the rotor downstream and the induced velocity due to the tip vortices were strongly affected by the wind speed and resulting rotational speed of the blade. The mean velocity profiles were compared with those predicted by the steady state and unsteady state CFD simulations. The unsteady CFD simulation agreed better with those of the PIV experiments than the steady state CFD simulations.

  19. Analysis of pedestal gradient characteristic on the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Teng Fei; Han, Xiao Feng; Zang, Qing; Xiao, Shu Mei; Tian, Bao Gang; Hu, Ai Lan; Zhao, Jun Yu

    2016-05-01

    A pedestal database was built based on type I edge localized mode H-modes in the Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak. The most common functional form hyperbolic tangent function (tanh) method is used to analyze pedestal characteristics. The pedestal gradient scales linearly with its pedestal top and the normalized pedestal pressure gradient α shows a strong correlation with electron collisionality. The connection among pedestal top value, gradient, and width is established with the normalized pedestal pressure gradient. In the core region of the plasma, the nature of the electron temperature stiffness reflects a proportionality between core and pedestal temperature while the increase proportion is lower than that expected in the high temperature region. However, temperature profile stiffness is limited or even disappears at the edge of the plasma, while the gradient length ratio ( ηe ) on the pedestal is important. The range of ηe is from 0.5 to 2, varying with the plasma parameters. The pedestal temperature brings a more significant impact on ηe than pedestal density.

  20. Experimental investigation of the performance characteristics of a counterflow wet cooling tower

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemouari, M. [Department of Process Engineering, Faculty of Technology, University of Bejaia (Algeria); Boumaza, M. [Department of Chemical Engineering, College of Engineering, King Saud University(Saudi Arabia)

    2010-10-15

    An experimental investigation of the performance characteristics of a counter flow wet cooling tower represented by the heat rejected by the tower and its thermal effectiveness is presented in this paper. The tower is filled with a 'VGA.' (Vertical Grid Apparatus) type packing which is 0.42 m high and contains four (04) galvanized sheets having a zigzag form, between which are disposed three (03) metallic vertical grids in parallel with a cross-sectional test area of 0.15 m - 0.148 m. The investigation is concerned mainly on the effect of the air, water flow rates and the inlet water temperatures on the thermal effectiveness of the cooling tower as well as the heat rejected by this tower from water to be cooled to the air stream discharged into the atmosphere. The two operating regimes which were observed during the air/water contact inside the tower, a Pellicular Regime (PR) and a Bubble and Dispersion Regime (BDR) appear to be important, as The BDR regime enables to cool larger amount of water flow rates, while the Pellicular regime results with higher thermal effectiveness. (authors)

  1. Experimental investigation on noise radiation characteristics of pulse detonation engine–driven ejector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xi-qiao Huang

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The noise radiation characteristics of multi-cycle pulse detonation engine with and without ejector were investigated under different operating frequencies utilizing gasoline as fuel and air as oxidizer. The straight cylindrical ejector with convergent inlet geometry was coaxially installed at different axial locations relative to the exit of the detonation tube. In all the experiments, the equivalence ratios of gasoline–air mixture and the fill fraction were 1.2 and 1.0, respectively. The experimental results implied that the addition of ejector could drastically change the far-field acoustic performance of pulse detonation engine exit and the peak sound pressure level of noise radiation was a strong function of the ejector axial position. But the peak sound pressure level was not sensitive to the operating frequencies which varied from 10 to 25 Hz. The pulse sound pressure level, however, increased with the increase in operating frequencies. The far-field jet-noise measurements of the pulse detonation engine-ejector system also showed that ejector could decrease the peak sound pressure level of pulse detonation engine. The maximum reduction was approximately 8.5 dB. For the current pulse detonation engine test conditions, an optimum ejector position was found to be a downstream axial placement of x/DPDE  = 0.5.

  2. Experimental Research on Hysteretic Characteristics of Steel Plates Artificially Corroded by Neutral Salt Spray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-hua Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the hysteretic characteristics of the steel plates artificially corroded by neutral salt spray. Salt spray was applied to accelerate the corrosion on the steel plates; specimens of varying degrees of corrosion were obtained in this manner. And each specimen was subject to cyclic loading test to get the hysteretic curve. Then the experimental results were extensively discussed, focusing on strength and ductility, hysteretic energy, the skeleton curve, and unloading and loading curve. After that, the hysteretic constitutive model of corroded steel was established based on the first time loading criterion, unloading criterion, cycle skeleton criterion, and reloading curve criterion. The result of the experiment showed that, with the increase of the degree of corrosion, the mechanical properties and seismic energy dissipation performance of seismic energy of the steel decreased; the deterioration of ductility got aggravated. On the other hand, the skeleton curve and the Ramberg-Osgood model were well matched, and the coefficient of circular enhancement showed a decreasing trend; the variation of cyclic hardening exponent did not have an obvious pattern. Meanwhile, the hysteretic constitutive model of corroded steel and the results of the experiment were well matched.

  3. Experimental Study on Reaction Characteristics of PTFE/Ti/W Energetic Materials under Explosive Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Li

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Metal/fluoropolymer composites represent a new category of energetic structural materials that release energy through exothermic chemical reactions initiated under shock loading conditions. This paper describes an experiment designed to study the reaction characteristics of energetic materials with low porosity under explosive loading. Three PTFE (polytetrafluoroethylene/Ti/W mixtures with different W contents are processed through pressing and sintering. An inert PTFE/W mixture without reactive Ti particles is also prepared to serve as a reference. Shock-induced chemical reactions are recorded by high-speed video through a narrow observation window. Related shock parameters are calculated based on experimental data, and differences in energy release are discussed. The results show that the reaction propagation of PTFE/Ti/W energetic materials with low porosity under explosive loading is not self-sustained. As propagation distance increases, the energy release gradually decreases. In addition, reaction failure distance in PTFE/Ti/W composites is inversely proportional to the W content. Porosity increased the failure distance due to higher shock temperature.

  4. Experimental investigation of flow characteristics around four square-cylinder arrays at subcritical Reynolds numbers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingyue Liu

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The Deep Draft Semi-Submersible (DDS concepts are known for their favourable vertical motion performance. However, the DDS may experience critical Vortex-Induced Motion (VIM stemming from the fluctuating forces on the columns. In order to investigate the current-induced excitation forces of VIM, an experimental study of flow characteristics around four square-section cylinders in a square configuration is presented. A number of column spacing ratios and array attack angles were considered to investigate the parametric influences. The results comprise flow patterns, drag and lift forces, as well as Strouhal numbers. It is shown that both the drag and lift forces acting on the cylinders are slightly different between the various L/D values, and the fluctuating forces peak at L/D = 4.14. The lift force of downstream cylinders reaches its maximum at around α = 15°. Furthermore, the flow around circular- section-cylinder arrays is also discussed in comparison with that of square cylinders.

  5. Use of chemical and physical characteristics to investigate trends in biochar feedstocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mukome, Fungai N D; Zhang, Xiaoming; Silva, Lucas C R; Six, Johan; Parikh, Sanjai J

    2013-03-06

    Studies have shown that pyrolysis method and temperature are the key factors influencing biochar chemical and physical properties; however, information on the nature of biochar feedstocks is more accessible to consumers, making feedstock a better measure for selecting biochars. This study characterizes physical and chemical properties of commercially available biochars and investigates trends in biochar properties related to feedstock material to develop guidelines for biochar use. Twelve biochars were analyzed for physical and chemical properties. Compiled data from this study and from the literature (n = 85) were used to investigate trends in biochar characteristics related to feedstock. Analysis of compiled data reveals that despite clear differences in biochar properties from feedstocks of algae, grass, manure, nutshells, pomace, and wood (hard- and softwoods), characteristic generalizations can be made. Feedstock was a better predictor of biochar ash content and C/N ratio, but surface area was also temperature dependent for wood-derived biochar. Significant differences in ash content (grass and manure > wood) and C/N ratio (softwoods > grass and manure) enabled the first presentation of guidelines for biochar use based on feedstock material.

  6. Physical Characteristics of Cocoa Butter and Palm Stearin Mixture in Milk Chocolate System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misnawi Jati

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Chocolate products for consumption in tropical areas frequently become soft and tend to bloom due to melting and migration of fat contained, the product becomes dully and less interesting. Fat fraction determines chocolate texture, appearance and its handling. Objective of this research is to study the characteristic of mixed fat of cocoa butter, milk fat and stearin; in which the latest was added into a chocolate formula expected to increase its physical characteristic. Response Surface Methodology design was used for the study at stearin concentration of 10–60 g kg-1 and lecithin of 1–7 g kg-1. Parameters of the study were fat melting point, chocolate hardness and preference on chocolate texture and overall acceptance. Result of the study showed that the stearin concentration significantly altered chocolate physical characteristic, where the lecithin concentration did not influence. The presence of stearin in milk chocolate system showed fat eutectic phenomenon. Substitution of cocoa butter with stearin up to concentration of 35 g kg-1 in the formulation showed a clear eutectic; however, at higher concentrations the phenomenon was compensated by the increase in stearin crystal seed which raised melting point and hardness. This result also clearly indicated that cocoa butter substitution with palm stearin to obtain resistant chocolate should be designed in a range of 43–60 g kg-1 in its formulation, equal to 15–18% from cocoa butter added.Key words : chocolate, cocoa butter, stearin, eutectic, solidifier, emulsifier, melting point, texture.

  7. Physical characteristics, chemical composition and water contamination potential from Canadian wildfire ash

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santin, Cristina; Doerr, Stefan; Arcenegui, Vicky; Otero, Xose Luis

    2017-04-01

    Wildland fires leave a powdery residue on the ground: wildfire ash, which consists of mineral materials and charred organic components. Its quantities and characteristics depend mainly on the total amount and type of fuel burnt and the fire characteristics. Up to several tens of tons of ash per hectare have been quantified in different post-fire environments. As a new material present after a wildland fire, ash can have profound effects on ecosystems. It affects biogeochemical cycles, including the carbon cycle, stimulates microbial activity and helps the recovery of vegetation. Ash incorporated into the soil increases soil pH and nutrient pools temporarily and changes soil physical properties such as albedo, soil texture and hydraulic properties. Ash also modifies soil and landscape-scale hydrological behaviour. Its high porosity makes it very effective at absorbing rainfall, but it can also contribute to catastrophic debris flows when ash is mobilised by large storm events. Its 'fragile' nature makes ash very susceptible to wind and water erosion, facilitating its transfer to the hydrological system. Runoff containing ash from burnt areas carries soluble nutrients and pollutants, which can have detrimental impacts on aquatic ecosystems and the supply of potable water. In this presentation we will report for the first time on the physical characteristics, chemical composition and associated water pollution risk from ash produced in four typical Canadian boreal forest fires: two high-intensity fires in jack pine stands, and one high-intensity and one smouldering fire in black spruce stands.

  8. School and individual-level characteristics are associated with children's moderate to vigorous-intensity physical activity during school recess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, Karen; Bremner, Alexandra; Salmon, Jo; Rosenberg, Michael; Giles-Corti, Billie

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to identify school environmental characteristics associated with moderate to vigorous physical activity during school recess, including morning and lunch breaks. Accelerometry data, child-level characteristics and school physical activity, policy and socio-cultural data were collected from 408 sixth grade children (mean age 11 years) attending 27 metropolitan primary schools in Perth, Western Australia. Hierarchical modelling identified key characteristics associated with children's recess moderate to vigorous physical activity (RMVPA). Nearly 40% of variability in children's RMVPA was explained by school environment and individual characteristics identified in this study. Children's higher daily RMVPA was associated with newer schools, schools with a higher number of grassed surfaces per child and fewer shaded grassed surfaces, and the physical education coordinator meeting Australian physical activity guidelines. Characteristics of the school physical and social environments are strongly correlated with children's MPVA during recess. The school environment is an ideal target for maximising children's physical activity during recess. Future research could examine the impact of modifying these environmental characteristics on children's school physical activity. © 2012 The Authors. ANZJPH © 2012 Public Health Association of Australia.

  9. The effects of physical exercise on nonmotor symptoms and on neuroimmune RAGE network in experimental parkinsonism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viana, Sofia D; Pita, Inês R; Lemos, Cristina; Rial, Daniel; Couceiro, Patrícia; Rodrigues-Santos, Paulo; Caramelo, Francisco; Carvalho, Félix; Ali, Syed F; Prediger, Rui D; Fontes Ribeiro, Carlos A; Pereira, Frederico C

    2017-07-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) prodromal stages comprise neuropsychiatric perturbations that critically compromise a patient's quality of life. These nonmotor symptoms (NMS) are associated with exacerbated innate immunity, a hallmark of overt PD. Physical exercise (PE) has the potential to improve neuropsychiatric deficits and to modulate immune network including receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and Toll-like receptors (TLRs) in distinct pathological settings. Accordingly, the present study aimed to test the hypothesis that PE 1 ) alleviates PD NMS and 2 ) modulates neuroimmune RAGE network in experimental PD. Adult Wistar rats subjected to long-term mild treadmill were administered intranasally with 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine (MPTP) and probed for PD NMS before the onset of motor abnormalities. Twelve days after MPTP, neuroimmune RAGE network transcriptomics (real-time quantitative PCR) was analyzed in frontal cortex, hippocampus, and striatum. Untrained MPTP animals displayed habit-learning and motivational deficits without gross motor impairments (cued version of water-maze, splash, and open-field tests, respectively). A suppression of RAGE and neuroimmune-related genes was observed in frontal cortex on chemical and physical stressors (untrained MPTP: RAGE, TLR5 and -7, and p22 NADPH oxidase; saline-trained animals: RAGE, TLR1 and -5 to -11, TNF-α, IL-1β, and p22 NADPH oxidase), suggesting the recruitment of compensatory mechanisms to restrain innate inflammation. Notably, trained MPTP animals displayed normal cognitive/motivational performances. Additionally, these animals showed normal RAGE expression and neuroprotective PD-related DJ-1 gene upregulation in frontal cortex when compared with untrained MPTP animals. These findings corroborate PE efficacy in improving PD NMS and newly identify RAGE network as a neural substrate for exercise intervention. Additional research is warranted to unveil functional consequences of PE

  10. Neighbourhood built environment characteristics associated with different types of physical activity in Canadian adults

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gavin R. McCormack

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of this study was to estimate the associations between neighbourhood built environment characteristics and transportation walking (TW, recreational walking (RW, and moderate-intensity (MPA and vigorous-intensity physical activity (VPA in adults independent of sociodemographic characteristics and residential self-selection (i.e. the reasons related to physical activity associated with a person’s choice of neighbourhood. Methods: In 2007 and 2008, 4423 Calgary adults completed land-based telephone interviews capturing physical activity, sociodemographic characteristics and reasons for residential self-selection. Using spatial data, we estimated population density, proportion of green space, path/cycleway length, business density, bus stop density, city-managed tree density, sidewalk length, park type mix and recreational destination mix within a 1.6 km street network distance from the participants’ geolocated residential postal code. Generalized linear models estimated the associations between neighbourhood built environment characteristics and weekly neighbourhood-based physical activity participation (≥ 10 minutes/week; odds ratios [ORs] and, among those who reported participation, duration of activity (unstandardized beta coefficients [B]. Results: The sample included more women (59.7% than men (40.3% and the mean (standard deviation age was 47.1 (15.6 years. TW participation was associated with intersection (OR = 1.11; 95% CI: 1.03 to 1.20 and business (OR = 1.52; 1.29 to 1.78 density, and sidewalk length (OR = 1.19; 1.09 to 1.29, while TW minutes was associated with business (B = 19.24 minutes/week; 11.28 to 27.20 and tree (B = 6.51; 2.29 to 10.72 minutes/week density, and recreational destination mix (B = −8.88 minutes/week; −12.49 to −5.28. RW participation was associated with path/cycleway length (OR = 1.17; 1.05 to 1.31. MPA participation was associated with recreational destination mix (OR = 1.09; 1

  11. Neighbourhood built environment characteristics associated with different types of physical activity in Canadian adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCormack, Gavin R

    2017-06-01

    The aim of this study was to estimate the associations between neighbourhood built environment characteristics and transportation walking (TW), recreational walking (RW), and moderate-intensity (MPA) and vigorous-intensity physical activity (VPA) in adults independent of sociodemographic characteristics and residential self-selection (i.e. the reasons related to physical activity associated with a person's choice of neighbourhood). In 2007 and 2008, 4423 Calgary adults completed land-based telephone interviews capturing physical activity, sociodemographic characteristics and reasons for residential self-selection. Using spatial data, we estimated population density, proportion of green space, path/cycleway length, business density, bus stop density, city-managed tree density, sidewalk length, park type mix and recreational destination mix within a 1.6 km street network distance from the participants' geolocated residential postal code. Generalized linear models estimated the associations between neighbourhood built environment characteristics and weekly neighbourhood-based physical activity participation (≥ 10 minutes/week; odds ratios [ORs]) and, among those who reported participation, duration of activity (unstandardized beta coefficients [B]). The sample included more women (59.7%) than men (40.3%) and the mean (standard deviation) age was 47.1 (15.6) years. TW participation was associated with intersection (OR = 1.11; 95% CI: 1.03 to 1.20) and business (OR = 1.52; 1.29 to 1.78) density, and sidewalk length (OR = 1.19; 1.09 to 1.29), while TW minutes was associated with business (B = 19.24 minutes/week; 11.28 to 27.20) and tree (B = 6.51; 2.29 to 10.72 minutes/week) density, and recreational destination mix (B = -8.88 minutes/ week; -12.49 to -5.28). RW participation was associated with path/cycleway length (OR = 1.17; 1.05 to 1.31). MPA participation was associated with recreational destination mix (OR = 1.09; 1.01 to 1.17) and sidewalk length (OR = 1.10; 1

  12. Conservation of Semarang chinatown traditional settlement as physical characteristics of chinatown district

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prabowo, Bintang Noor; Widiastuti, Ratih; Bramiana, C. N.

    2017-12-01

    Historical environment must be conserved due to their contribution toward cultural, social, economic and aesthetic values. They transfer the emotion, thought and backgrounds of social live to modern societies. As one of oldest settlements, Semarang Chinatown gives great influence toward Semarang City and has endless historical values. Old Chinese settlement is very thick with Chinese culture. It becomes the primary source of physical characteristics in this historical environment. However, physical and visual problems come along with the rapid economic growth in Semarang Chinatown. The old buildings that still remains in Semarang Chinatown are in deficient condition and losing their shapes. Moreover, modernization and economic growth influence the change building facade. Several old buildings were replaced with new buildings that tend not to adopt Chinese Architecture style. Consequently, it changes the value of the buildings and the value of the historical environment.

  13. Physical and chemical characteristics of cheese bread, using fermented broken rice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andressa CORADO

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Development of new food products, taking as raw material the subproducts obtained during industrial process become an economic and nutritious alternative, since these are usually discarded, caning be a significant nutritional source good. This research aimed to develop cheese bread using fermented broken rice instead of sour starch in four different concentrations (0%, 25%, 50%, 75% and 100%. After the development of formulations, was performed physics and chemicals characterization of products obtained, performing analysis of: proximate composition, dietary fiber, acidity, pH, ºBrix, total soluble sugars, reducing and sucrose. The increased formulations didn’t present significant differences, highlighting the average values of protein 7%, dietary fiber 9% and ash 1.9%. Broken rice, after fermentation process, becomes a profitable alternative instead of the sour starch on cheese breads, saving all the physical and chemical characteristics and being inexpensive.

  14. Study on CO2 gasification reactivity and physical characteristics of biomass, petroleum coke and coal chars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huo, Wei; Zhou, Zhijie; Chen, Xueli; Dai, Zhenghua; Yu, Guangsuo

    2014-05-01

    Gasification reactivities of six different carbonaceous material chars with CO2 were determined by a Thermogravimetric Analyzer (TGA). Gasification reactivities of biomass chars are higher than those of coke and coal chars. In addition, physical structures and chemical components of these chars were systematically tested. It is found that the crystalline structure is an important factor to evaluate gasification reactivities of different chars and the crystalline structures of biomass chars are less order than those of coke and coal chars. Moreover, initial gasification rates of these chars were measured at high temperatures and with relatively large particle sizes. The method of calculating the effectiveness factor η was used to quantify the effect of pore diffusion on gasification. The results show that differences in pore diffusion effects among gasification with various chars are prominent and can be attributed to different intrinsic gasification reactivities and physical characteristics of different chars. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Physical and functional characteristics of extrudates prepared from fenugreek and oats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sajad Ahmad Wani

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the effect of fenugreek seed powder (FSP and oat flour (OF on the physical and functional properties of extruded snack product such as bulk density (BD, hardness (HD, lateral expansion (LE, water absorption index (WAI and water solubility index (WSI using response surface methodology. All the properties were found to be significantly (p < 0.05 affected by proportion of FSP and OF. Results indicated that with the increase in the FSP content, an increase in the values of BD, HD, WAI and WSI was noticed, whereas negative effect of FSP on LE was observed. Results showed negative effect of OF on HD and WSI and an increased effect on BD, LE and WAI of the extruded product. Numerical optimization results showed that a mixture of 2% FSP and 6% OF had higher preference levels for parameters of physical and functional characteristics and could be extruded to produce acceptable quality extrudates.

  16. Quantitative evaluation of microstructural changes and their relations with some physical characteristics of food during drying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sansiribhan, Sansanee; Devahastin, Sakamon; Soponronnarit, Somchart

    2010-09-01

    Drying is known to affect various quality attributes of a food product, especially its physical properties. However, changes of physical properties or characteristics are generally due to changes of the product microstructure. Nevertheless, not much quantitative information, as opposed to abundant qualitative information, is available to describe in detail relationships between microstructural and physical changes of food undergoing drying. The present study, thus, aimed at studying quantitative relationships between microstructural and selected physical changes of a test material, that is, carrot, undergoing hot air drying at 60 and 80 °C. The microstructural changes were represented quantitatively in terms of the normalized changes of the fractal dimension (ΔFD/FD(0)) of microstructural images of the samples as well as the normalized changes of the sample average cell diameter (ΔD/D(0)), while the physical changes of interest were shrinkage and hardness. The results showed that during an earlier period of drying ΔFD/FD(0) as well as ΔD/D(0) tended to increase with decreasing moisture content; deformation of the microstructures (represented either in terms of ΔFD/FD(0) or ΔD/D(0)) led to increased shrinkage and hardness. On the other hand, deformation of the microstructures existed, while the moisture content did not change much during the final stage of drying. The relationships between ΔFD/FD(0) and both physical changes were quite well established; ΔD/D(0)were also found to correlate well with the physical changes. Either ΔFD/FD(0) or ΔD/D(0)could thus be used as a tool to monitor the apparent physical changes (shrinkage and hardness) of a sample during drying. Either the normalized changes of the fractal dimension of microstructural images of a sample or the normalized changes of the sample average cell diameter can be a useful tool in monitoring the drying process by 1st assessing the product volumetric shrinkage, which can be assessed easily on

  17. Anthropometric profile and physical performance characteristic of the Brazilian amputee football (soccer team

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mário A. M. Simim

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Amputee football is a variation of conventional soccer in which athletes with lower limb amputation and one athelete with upper limb amputation (the goalkeeper participate. The objective of this study was to investigate the anthropometric and physical characteristics of amputee football athletes and to verify differences between heart rate peak (HRpeak and equations for predicting maximum heart rate (HRmax. Twelve amputee soccer players from the Brazilian team participated in this study. The body mass, height and body composition were measured. The physical tests used were: the 20 m running test, the T-square test and the Yo Yo intermitent recovery test - level 1 (YYIRT1. The percentage of fat was significantly different between midfielders and defenders. No significant differences were found between positions in the physical tests. The HRpeak was significantly lower than all of HRmax prediction equations tested. We conclude that the indicators of physical performance did not differ significantly between the different tactics roles of players, and that, after intermittent maximum effort, the cardiac response was lower when compared with the investigated HRmax prediction equations.

  18. Variation in chemical composition and physical characteristics of cereal grains from different genotypes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodehutscord, Markus; Rückert, Christine; Maurer, Hans Peter

    2016-01-01

    Genotypes of cereal grains, including winter barley (n = 21), maize (n = 27), oats (n = 14), winter rye (n = 22), winter triticale (n = 21) and winter wheat (n = 29), were assayed for their chemical composition and physical characteristics as part of the collaborative research project referred....... The mean lysine concentration of protein was the highest in oats (4.2 g/16 g N) and the lowest in wheat (2.7 g/16 g N). Significant differences were also detected in the concentrations of macro elements as well as iron, manganese, zinc and copper. Concentrations of arsenic, cadmium and lead were below......, barley and maize, and it was not detectable in oats. Substantial differences were seen in the thousand seed weight, test weight, falling number and extract viscoelasticity characteristics. The study is a comprehensive overview of the composition of different cereal grain genotypes when grown on the same...

  19. Soil physical characteristics after EDTA washing and amendment with inorganic and organic additives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zupanc, Vesna; Kastelec, Damijana; Lestan, Domen; Grcman, Helena

    2014-03-01

    Soil washing has been established as suitable remediation technology, with most research focused on metal removing efficiency and toxic effect on plants, less on the influence on soil physical characteristics, which was the focus of this study. In soil column experiment highly contaminated soil and soil washed with EDTA, mixed with additives (gypsum, hydrogel, manure, peat) were tested. White clover was used as a soil cover. Yield, metal concentration in soil and plant, aggregate fractionation and stability, saturated hydraulic conductivity and soil water retention of the soil were measured. Soil washing decreased metal concentration in soil and plants, but yield of white clover on remediated soil was significantly lower compared to the original soil. Significant differences in water retention characteristics, aggregate fractionation and stability between original and remediated soil have been determined. Gypsum, hydrogel and peat increased plant available water, manure and peat increased yield on remediated soil. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. The Particle Physics Playground website: tutorials and activities using real experimental data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellis, Matthew; CMS Collaboration

    2016-03-01

    The CERN Open Data Portal provides access to data from the LHC experiments to anyone with the time and inclination to learn the analysis procedures. The CMS experiment has made a significant amount of data availible in basically the same format the collaboration itself uses, along with software tools and a virtual enviroment in which to run those tools. These same data have also been mined for educational exercises that range from very simple .csv files that can be analyzed in a spreadsheet to more sophisticated formats that use ROOT, a dominant software package in experimental particle physics but not used as much in the general computing community. This talk will present the Particle Physics Playground website (http://particle-physics-playground.github.io/), a project that uses data from the CMS experiment, as well as the older CLEO experiment, in tutorials and exercises aimed at high school and undergraduate students and other science enthusiasts. The data are stored as text files and the users are provided with starter Python/Jupyter notebook programs and accessor functions which can be modified to perform fairly high-level analyses. The status of the project, success stories, and future plans for the website will be presented. This work was supported in part by NSF Grant PHY-1307562.

  1. Collaborative Research: Experimental and Theoretical Study of the Plasma Physics of Antihydrogen Generation and Trapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robicheaux, Francis

    2013-03-29

    Ever since Dirac predicted the existence of antimatter in 1928, it has excited our collective imagination. Seventy-four years later, two collaborations at CERN, ATHENA and ATRAP, created the first slow antihydrogen. This was a stunning achievement, but the most important antimatter experiments require trapped, not just slow, antihydrogen. The velocity, magnetic moment, and internal energy and state of the antihydrogen depend strongly on how it is formed. To trap antihydrogen, physicists face two broad challenges: (1) Understanding the behavior of the positron and antiprotons plasmas from which the antihydrogen is synthesized; and (2) Understanding the atomic processes by which positrons and antiprotons recombine. Recombination lies on the boundary between atomic and plasma physics, and cannot be studied properly without employing tools from both fields. The proposed collaborative research campaign will address both of these challenges. The collaboration members have unique experience in the relevant fields of experimental and theoretical non-neutral plasma physics, numerical modeling, nonlinear dynamics and atomic physics. This expertise is not found elsewhere amongst antihydrogen researchers. The collaboration members have strong ties already, and seek to formalize them with this proposal. Three of the four PIs are members of the ALPHA collaboration, an international collaboration formed by most of the principal members of the ATHENA collaboration.

  2. Surveying students' epistemologies about experimental physics: When is gender a factor?

    CERN Document Server

    Wilcox, Bethany R

    2016-01-01

    The existence of a gender performance gap has been repeatedly demonstrated in scores on conceptual and attitudinal assessments. This gap is often present in students' preinstruction scores and persists in their postinstruction scores. However, one area in which the gender gap has not been extensively explored is undergraduate laboratory courses. For example, one of the few laboratory focused research-based assessments, the Colorado Learning Attitudes about Science Survey for Experimental Physics (E-CLASS), has not been tested for the existence of a gender gap in students' scores. Here, we utilize a national data set of responses to the E-CLASS to determine if they demonstrate a significant gender gap. We also investigate how this gap varies along multiple student and course demographic slices, including course level (first-year vs.\\ beyond-first-year) and major (physics vs.\\ non-physics). We observe a gender gap in pre- and postinstruction scores in the aggregate data; however, for some subpopulations (e.g., ...

  3. Physical and Physiological Characteristics of Elite Male Handball Players from Teams with a Different Ranking

    OpenAIRE

    Nikolaidis, Pantelis T.; Ingebrigtsen, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine possible discriminant physical and physiological characteristics between elite male handball players from elite teams with different league rankings. Players from three teams (A, B and C), which competed in the first league of the Greek championship during the season 2011?2012 participated in the study. Team A finished first, B came second and C came eighth out of eleven clubs. Teams A and B also participated in European Cups, and team A won the European C...

  4. Visible and characteristic new physics effects on the total and partial Z widths

    Science.gov (United States)

    Renard, F. M.; Verzegnassi, C.

    1989-07-01

    We show that a class of models predicting a new vector boson Z‧ of extended gauge E 6 origin has the rather characteristic property of being able to produce visible and negative shifts, with respect to the MSM predictions, both in the total width and in the leptonic width of the Z. This feature is not shared by other models of extended gauge symmetry. We also show that a certain combination of hadronic and leptonic widths is “blind” with respect to the considered Z-Z‧ mixing could, therefore, be used to reveal in an unbiased way different signals of new physics.

  5. Physical and chemical characteristics of lakes across heterogeneous landscapes in arctic and subarctic Alaska

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, A. S.; O'Donnell, J. A.; Schmidt, J. H.; Kristenson, H. J.; Swanson, D. K.

    2017-04-01

    Lakes are an important component of high-latitude regions, providing habitat for fish and wildlife and playing a critical role in biogeochemical and global carbon cycles. High-latitude lakes are sensitive to climate change, in part due to their development within permafrost soils. Considerable heterogeneity exists across arctic and subarctic landscapes, yet little is known about how this landscape variability influences chemical and physical attributes of lakes. We investigated the physical and chemical limnology of 617 lakes in Alaska's boreal forest and boreal-arctic transition zone. We categorized lakes into 10 basin types based on parent material, topography, genesis, and permafrost characteristics. Physical parameters varied across lake basin types, with the deepest lakes occurring in ice-poor glacial deposits and ice-rich terrain, while the shallowest lakes were observed in floodplain deposits and coastal lowlands. Dissolved inorganic nitrogen (N) and phosphorous (P) concentrations were generally low across all landscapes, whereas total N and P were highest in lakes underlain by ice-rich Pleistocene loess. Total N and P concentrations were significantly correlated with chlorophyll a, indicating a possible colimitation of primary productivity in these systems. Base cation concentrations helped elucidate lake basin hydrology and the relative influence of shallow versus deep groundwater inputs to surface water. Using these results, we developed a simple conceptual model for each lake and landscape type based on differences in physical and chemical parameters. Overall, we expect that the vulnerability of lake ecosystems to climate change will vary across lake basin types and will be mediated by spatial patterns in permafrost characteristics and subsurface hydrology.

  6. Behavioral, psychological, and physical characteristics of female athletes with subclinical eating disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beals, K A; Manore, M M

    2000-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to delineate and further define the behavioral, psychological, and physical characteristics of female athletes with subclinical eating disorders. Subjects consisted of 24 athletes with subclinical eating disorders (SCED) and 24 control athletes. Group classification was determined by scores on the Eating Disorder Inventory (EDI), the Body Shape Questionnaire (BSQ), and a symptom checklist for eating disorders (EDI-SC). Characteristics representative of the female athletes with subclinical eating disorders were derived from an extensive health and dieting history questionnaire and an in-depth interview (the Eating Disorder Examination). Energy intake and expenditure (kcal/d) were estimated using 7-day weighed food records and activity logs. The characteristics most common in the female athletes with subclinical eating disorders included: (a) preoccupation with food, energy intake, and body weight; (b) distorted body image and body weight dissatisfaction; (c) undue influence of body weight on self-evaluation; (d) intense fear of gaining weight even though at or slightly below ( approximately 5%) normal weight; (e) attempts to lose weight using one or more pathogenic weight control methods; (g) food intake governed by self-hatred upon breaking a rule; (h) absence of medical disorder to explain energy restriction, weight loss, or maintenance of low body weight; and (i) menstrual dysfunction. Awareness of these characteristics may aid in more timely identification and treatment of female athletes with disordered eating patterns and, perhaps, prevent the development of more serious, clinical eating disorders.

  7. Determination of physical characteristics, chemical composition and digestion coefficients of treated lemon pulp with Saccharomyces cerevisiae in goat diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dadvar, P; Dayani, O; Mehdipour, M; Morovat, M

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of processing of lemon pulp with Saccharomyces cerevisiae on physical properties, chemical composition, digestion coefficients and blood parameters. Eight adult male Raeini goats were used in a 28-day period. The experimental design was a completely randomised design with two treatments and four replicates. The first 21 days were for adaptation, and the last 7 days were for collecting samples. The animals were housed in individual metabolic cages equipped with a urine-faeces separator and were fed with diet containing alfalfa hay (60%) and lemon pulp (40%) at the maintenance level. Collected data were subjected to analysis of completely randomised design. With diet containing processed lemon pulp, functional specific gravity, bulk density, soluble dry matter, percentage of crude protein, neutral detergent fibre (NDF), acid detergent fibre and crude ash were significantly increased and water-holding capacity, insoluble dry matter, insoluble ash percentage of dry matter, organic matter, crude fat, non-fibrous carbohydrates and nitrogen-free extract were significantly decreased (p cerevisiae improved the physical characteristics and increased the percentage of crude protein and the digestion coefficients of protein and NDF. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  8. Effect of the use of Lens culinaris flour as an extender in the physical characteristics and acceptability of a sausage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José David Torres González

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this research was to use Lens culinaris flour, verdina variety, as a meat extender, and to analyze its effect on the physical characteristics and acceptability of a sausage. Methodology: The flour was obtained and its qualitative characteristics, its oil absorption index (OAI and its water holding capacity (WHC were analyzed. The sausage was prepared, it was added 5% of flour to it; then, the bromatological, microbiological, textural, and sensory parameters per triplicate of the finished product were evaluated. Statistical Analysis: An experimental design was used completely at random, making three replicates of the formulation, and analysis of variances was performed to find statistical differences. Results: The protein content of the flour was 35.89 % while the fiber was 11.82%. The water holding capacity and the lipid index absorption were 3.87 mL water/ g sample, and 2.01 ml of oil/g sample. The final product showed that microbial counts were within the provisions of the Colombian Technical Standards. Flour positively influenced the acceptability of sausages and was favorable in all texture parameters, which were similar to those obtained in commercial sausages. Conclusions: L. culinaris flour represents a non-meat alternative raw material in the manufacture of products with interesting protein values. These results may encourage the use of Lentil flour with verdina variety of food products consumers.

  9. Is anybody doing it? An experimental study of the effect of normative messages on intention to do physical activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study explores whether messages about the physical activity levels of the majority (i.e., normative messages) affect young adults' intention to engage in regular physical activity. An experimental survey among 16- to 24-year-olds in Bulgaria, Croatia, and Romania (n=1200) was conducted in March ...

  10. Experimental analysis of turbulence characteristics and flow conveyance effects in a vegetated channel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Termini, D.

    2009-04-01

    Natural rivers are characterized by a strong hydraulic and geomorphic complexity. Many studies conducted in this field (Malthus and Mumby, 2003; Muhar, 1996) show that the accurate estimation both of the river morphological changes and of local hydraulic characteristics of flow (i.e. the local flow velocities and water depths) is necessary for the restoration and protection of biodiversity. Vegetation is a key factor to analyze the interrelated system of flow, sediment transport, and morphodynamic in rivers (Tsujimoto, 1999; Maione et al., 2000). On one hand, some kind of species of vegetation affect the habitat conditions, being crucial to the maintenance of biodiversity (Larkum et al, 2004); on the other hand, effects of vegetation on flow velocity are significant and are of crucial importance for stabilizing sediments and reducing erosion along the channel. In particular, it has been generally agreed that vegetation increases flow resistance and modifies sediment transport and deposition (Tsujimoto et al., 1996; Yen 2002). The analysis of the hydrodynamic conditions in vegetated channels is complex because vegetation is flexible in varying degrees and it oscillates in the flow changing position. Furthermore, because of temporal changing of roughness due to natural vegetative growth, the response of vegetation to the flow can change in time. In this paper the flow over real flexible vegetation is experimentally studied. A 2D-ADV (Acoustic Doppler Velocimeter) is used to measure the local flow velocities, for different vegetation concentrations and varying the discharge and the flume slope. The influence of both vegetation concentration and depth/vegetation height ratio on the measured velocity profiles is analyzed. The comparison between the velocity distribution and the turbulence intensity distribution is also presented. The spectral analysis is operated in order to verify the formation of turbulence structures inside the vegetated layer and the flow conveyance

  11. Experimental investigation of drying characteristics of cornelian cherry fruits ( Cornus mas L.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgen, Filiz

    2015-03-01

    Major target of present paper is to investigate the drying kinetics of cornelian cherry fruits ( Cornus mas L.) in a convective dryer, by varying the temperature and the velocity of drying air. Freshly harvested fruits are dried at drying air temperature of 35, 45 and 55 °C. The considered drying air velocities are V air = 1 and 1.5 m/s for each temperature. The required drying time is determined by taking into consideration the moisture ratio measurements. When the moisture ratio reaches up to 10 % at the selected drying air temperature, then the time is determined ( t = 40-67 h). The moisture ratio, fruit temperature and energy requirement are presented as the functions of drying time. The lowest drying time (40 h) is obtained when the air temperature is 55 °C and air velocity is 1.5 m/s. The highest drying time (67 h) is found under the conditions of 35 °C temperature and 1 m/s velocity. Both the drying air temperature and the air velocity significantly affect the required energy for drying system. The minimum amount of required energy is found as 51.12 kWh, at 55 °C and 1 m/s, whilst the maximum energy requirement is 106.7 kWh, at 35 °C and 1.5 m/s. It is also found that, air temperature significantly influences the total drying time. Moreover, the energy consumption is decreasing with increasing air temperature. The effects of three parameters (air temperature, air velocity and drying time) on drying characteristics have also been analysed by means of analysis of variance method to show the effecting levels. The experimental results have a good agreement with the predicted ones.

  12. Experimental Aerodynamic Characteristics of an Oblique Wing for the F-8 OWRA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kennelly, Robert A., Jr.; Carmichael, Ralph L.; Smith, Stephen C.; Strong, James M.; Kroo, Ilan M.

    1999-01-01

    An experimental investigation was conducted during June-July 1987 in the NASA Ames 11-Foot Transonic Wind Tunnel to study the aerodynamic performance and stability and control characteristics of a 0.087-scale model of an F-8 airplane fitted with an oblique wing. This effort was part of the Oblique Wing Research Aircraft (OWRA) program performed in conjunction with Rockwell International. The Ames-designed, aspect ratio 10.47, tapered wing used specially designed supercritical airfoils with 0.14 thickness/chord ratio at the root and 0.12 at the 85% span location. The wing was tested at two different mounting heights above the fuselage. Performance and longitudinal stability data were obtained at sweep angles of 0deg, 30deg, 45deg, 60deg, and 65deg at Mach numbers ranging from 0.30 to 1.40. Reynolds number varied from 3.1 x 10(exp 6)to 5.2 x 10(exp 6), based on the reference chord length. Angle of attack was varied from -5deg to 18deg. The performance of this wing is compared with that of another oblique wing, designed by Rockwell International, which was tested as part of the same development program. Lateral-directional stability data were obtained for a limited combination of sweep angles and Mach numbers. Sideslip angle was varied from -5deg to +5deg. Landing flap performance was studied, as were the effects of cruise flap deflections to achieve roll trim and tailor wing camber for various flight conditions. Roll-control authority of the flaps and ailerons was measured. A novel, deflected wing tip was evaluated for roll-control authority at high sweep angles.

  13. Influence of personal characteristics of pupils and students on the effectiveness of the relationship to the specific physical activities

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Andrey Bliznevsky; Mikhail Kudryavtsev; Vladimir Kuzmin; Igor Tolstopyatov; Olena Ionova; Tetiana Yermakova

    2016-01-01

      theoretical and experimental justification of a technology of influence of personal features of pupils and students from judo sports clubs on efficiency of their attitude to specific physical activities...

  14. Effect of Experimental Technology of Control in Physical Education of Students of Special Medical Groups with Respiratory Diseases on their Morphofunctional State

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    В. М. Корягін

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The research objective is to analyze the dynamics of the parameters of the morphfunctional state of students of special medical groups with respiratory diseases under the influence of the experimental technology of control in physical education of students of these groups. Materials and Methods: pedagogical experiment, pedagogical testing: methods of recording of morphfunctional state parameters, functional tests and medical-biological tests, mathematical methods of digital data processing. Results. The paper presents the results of the experimental technology control tried and tested in physical education of the students of special medical groups with respiratory diseases. The foundation for the special analysis of the effectiveness of the effect the designed technology had on the morphfunctional state of the students of special medical groups with respiratory diseases is assessment of the monitoring results for its parameters during the period of implementation of the designed technology. The analysis of the data obtained confirms the statistic-significant changes (p < 0.05 by all the indicators under study in the students of experimental groups. Conclusions. The comparative characteristics of the functional indicators of the respiratory system of the students from the selection under study showed that the experimental groups had significantly better results than the reference groups (p < 0.05. This confirms the effective influence of the designed technology on the morphfunctional state of the students of the experimental groups.

  15. Sexual Activity and Physical Tenderness in Older Adults: Cross-Sectional Prevalence and Associated Characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freak-Poli, Rosanne; Kirkman, Maggie; De Castro Lima, Gustavo; Direk, Nese; Franco, Oscar H; Tiemeier, Henning

    2017-07-01

    Despite a common misconception, older adults engage in sexual behavior. However, there is limited sexual behavior research in older adults, which is often restricted to small samples, to cohorts recruiting adults from 45 years old, and to questions regarding only sexual intercourse. To assess the cross-sectional prevalence of and characteristics associated with sexual activity and physical tenderness in community-dwelling older adults. From the Rotterdam Study, sexual activity and physical tenderness were assessed in 2,374 dementia-free, community-dwelling men and women at least 65 years old from 2009 through 2012 in the Netherlands. Analyses were stratified by sex and partner status. Sexual activity and physical tenderness (eg, fondling or kissing) in the last 6 months. Potential associated characteristics included measurements of demographics, socioeconomic position, health behavior, and health status. The vast majority of partnered participants (men, n = 858; women, n = 724) had experienced physical tenderness in the previous 6 months (83.7% of men and 82.9% of women) and nearly half had engaged in sexual activity (49.5% and 40.4% respectively). Very few unpartnered women (n = 675) had engaged in sexual activity (1.3%) or physical tenderness (5.2%), whereas prevalence rates were slightly higher for unpartnered men (n = 117; 13.7% or 17.1%). Engaging in sexual behavior was generally associated with younger age, greater social support, healthier behaviors, and better physical and psychological health. Findings show that older adults engage in sexual activity. It is important not to assume that an older person is not interested in sexual pleasure or that an older person is unhappy with not having a sexual partner. Offering an opportunity for open discussion of sexuality and medical assistance without imposing is a difficult balance. We encourage health care professionals to proactively address sexuality and extend knowledge about safe sex and sexual function

  16. Large hydrocarbon fuel pool fires: Physical characteristics and thermal emission variations with height

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raj, Phani K. [Technology and Management Systems Inc., 102 Drake Road, Burlington, MA 01803 (United States)]. E-mail: tmsinc1981@verizon.net

    2007-02-09

    In a recent paper [P.K. Raj, Large LNG fire thermal radiation-modeling issues and hazard criteria revisited, Process Safety Progr., 24 (3) (2005)] it was shown that large, turbulent fires on hydrocarbon liquid pools display several characteristics including, pulsating burning, production of smoke, and reduced thermal radiation, with increasing size. In this paper, a semi-empirical mathematical model is proposed which considers several of these important fire characteristics. Also included in this paper are the experimental results for the variation of the fire radiance from bottom to top of the fire (and their statistical distribution) from the largest land spill LNG pool fire test conducted to date. The purpose of the model described in this paper is to predict the variation of thermal radiation output along the fire plume and to estimate the overall thermal emission from the fire as a function its size taking into consideration the smoke effects. The model utilizes experimentally measured data for different parameters and uses correlations developed from laboratory and field tests with different fuels. The fire dynamics and combustion of the fuel are modeled using known entrainment and combustion efficiency parameter values. The mean emissive power data from field tests are compared with model predictions. Model results for the average emissive powers of large, hypothetical LNG fires are indicated.

  17. Physical characteristics, mineral analysis and antioxidant properties of some apricot varieties grown in North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.M. Wani

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Eleven apricot varieties (Chinese, Rival, Tilton, Cuminis Haley, Harcot, Margulam, Narmu, Khante, Halman, Badam Chuli, and Cuban were studied for their mineral analysis, physical characteristics, and antioxidant properties. The physical characteristics varied significantly (p ≤ 0.05 among the apricot varieties. Cuban and Harcot showed a comparatively larger fruit size. However, Cuminis Haley and Harcot showed the highest edible bulk. Nine minerals (Zn, Ca, Cu, Fe, Mg, Na, Mn, P, and K were analyzed and were found to vary significantly (p ≤ 0.05 among the apricot varieties. Mn, Cu, and Zn elements were present in micro amounts, while K, Mg, Ca, P, and Fe levels were present in macro amounts. Halman and Margulam showed significantly (p ≤ 0.05 higher amount of the minerals. All the varieties showed lower amounts of Cu as compared to the recommended daily intake, ranging from 0–0.82 ppm. All the varieties proved to be rich sources of polyphenols, with significant (p ≤ 0.05 varietal difference. Khante and Halman showed the significantly (p ≤ 0.05 highest methanolic 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH• radical scavenging activity.

  18. Fatal child maltreatment: characteristics of deaths from physical abuse versus neglect.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damashek, Amy; Nelson, Melanie McDiarmid; Bonner, Barbara L

    2013-10-01

    This study examined victim, family, and alleged perpetrator characteristics associated with fatal child maltreatment (FCM) in 685 cases identified by child welfare services in the state of Oklahoma over a 21-year period. Analyses also examined differences in child, family, and alleged perpetrator characteristics of deaths from abuse versus neglect. Case information was drawn from child welfare investigation records for all FCM cases identified by the state Department of Human Services. Fatal neglect accounted for the majority (51%) of deaths. Children were primarily younger than age 5, and parents were most frequently the alleged perpetrators. Moreover, most victims had not been the subject of a child welfare report prior to their death. A greater number of children in the home and previous family involvement with child welfare increased children's likelihood of dying from neglect, rather than physical abuse. In addition, alleged perpetrators of neglect were more likely to be female and biologically related to the victim. These results indicate that there are unique family risk factors for death from neglect (versus physical abuse) that may be important to consider when selecting or developing prevention efforts. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Physical characteristics of potato flour from 'Ibituaçú' cv. under different extrusion parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raema Fortes Vicente Cardoso

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: This study aimed to evaluate potato flour from 'Ibituaçú' cultivar as raw material for extrudates. Potato flour was processed in a single-screw extruder following central composite rotational design for three factors, being considered as independent parameters: temperature in the third zone, humidity and screw speed. The products obtained were characterized by expansion index (EI, specific volume (SV, water solubility index (WSI, water absorption index (WAI, hardness (H, color (L*, a* and b*. Results showed an effect of the independent parameters on the extruded physical characteristics. The parameters varied from: 3.22 to 5.47 (EI; 2.08 to 11.23 mL g-1 (SV, 32.88 to 63.72% (WSI, 4.02 to 8.97 g gel g-1 (WAI, 7.54 to 29.85 kgf (H, 53.89 to 68.72 (L*, 5.59 to 6.92 (a*, 16.6 to 22.6 (b*. It was concluded that expanded products with desired physical characteristics are obtained at high temperature; low humidity and intermediate screw speed.

  20. Physical characteristics of some wheat genotypes cultivated in Lake District of Turkey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hülya GÜL

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available This study was carried out to determine the physical characteristics of wheat genotypes cultivated in lakes district of Turkey. The genotypes were collected from the center of Isparta and Burdur province, districts and selected five different villages in this district at harvest in 2011. Totaly 19 genotypes named as; Hard Wheat, Red Kazmalı Wheat, Lavanta, Red Wheat, Burgaz, Osmaniye and Yunak (Landraces, Kızıltan-91, İzmir 85, Bezostoya, Ankara 98, Sönmez 2001, Çeşit-1252, Hatay 86, Mirzabey, Kunduru-1149, Gerek-79, Gediz-75 and Cumhuriyet-75 (Wheat registered cultivars were collected from these districts. Physical characteristics of the wheat samples brought to laboratory were analyzed as completely randomized design with three replications. Foreign matters of wheats were determined according to TS 2974 standards. 4 genotypes were found at second degree, 5 genotypes were at third degree and remaining 10 genotypes were found out of these rating. Highest thousand kernel weight and hectoliter weight were determined on Mirzabey and Sönmez 2001 respectively in bread wheat varieties while highest thousand kernel weight and hectoliter weight were determeined on Kunduru 1149 and Burgaz respectively in durum wheat varieties.

  1. A Simple and Effective Physical Characteristic Profiling Method for Methamphetamine Tablet Seized in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tao; Hua, Zhendong; Meng, Xin; Liu, Cuimei

    2017-06-23

    Methamphetamine (MA) tablet production confers chemical and physical properties. This study developed a simple and effective physical characteristic profiling method for MA tablets with capital letter "WY" logos, which realized the discrimination between linked and unlinked seizures. Seventeen signature distances extracted from the "WY" logo were explored as factors for multivariate analysis and demonstrated to be effective to represent the features of tablets in the drug intelligence perspective. Receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve was used to evaluate efficiency of different pretreatments and distance/correlation metrics, while "Standardization + Euclidean" and "Logarithm + Euclidean" algorithms outperformed the rest. Finally, hierarchical cluster analysis (HCA) was applied to the data set of 200 MA tablet seizures randomly selected from cases all around China in 2015, and 76% of them were classified into a group named after "WY-001." Moreover, the "WY-001" tablets occupied 51-80% tablet seizures from 2011 to 2015 in China, indicating the existence of a huge clandestine factory incessantly manufacturing MA tablets. © 2017 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  2. Irreversible Aspects of Continuum Mechanics and Transfer of Physical Characteristics in Moving Fluids : Symposia

    CERN Document Server

    Sedov, L

    1968-01-01

    At its meeting on April 23, 1965 in Paris the Bureau of IUTAM decided to have a Symposium on the Irreversible Aspects of Continaum Mechanics held in June 1966 in Vienna. In addition, a Symposium on the Transfer of Physical Characteristics in Moving Fluids which, orig­ inally, had been scheduled to take place in Stockholm was rescheduled to be held in Vienna immediately following the Symposium on the Irre­ versible Aspects of Continuum Mechanics. It was felt that the subjects of the two symposia were so closely related that participants should be given an opportunity to attend both. Both decisions were unanimously approved by the members of the General Assembly of IUTAM. Prof. H. PARKUS, Vienna, was appointed Chairman of the Symposium on the Irreversible Aspects, and Prof. L. I. SEDOV, Moscow, was appointed Chairman of the Symposium on the Transfer of Physical Characteristics, with Prof. P ARKUS being re­ sponsible for the local organization of both symposia. In accordance with the policy set forth by IUTAM...

  3. Characteristics of 511 patients with temporomandibular disorders referred for physical therapy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Steven L

    2014-10-01

    This study aimed (1) to identify the diagnostic subsets of a patient population with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) referred from dental professionals to a physical therapist (PT) in an outpatient physical therapy practice and (2) to use the characteristics of this TMD population to assist clinical decision making in the management of TMD. This was an institutional review board-approved, retrospective study of 511 patients referred to a PT. The PT followed the diagnostic guidelines of axis I of the Research Diagnostic Criteria for Temporomandibular Disorders (RDC/TMD). All 8 diagnostic subsets of the RDC/TMD were diagnosed among the 511 patients. Concurrent diagnostic subsets, cervical spine involvement, and oral appliance use were described. PTs in an outpatient practice should be proficient in the use of the RDC/TMD. Characteristics identified with this patient population suggest that dentists should involve the services of PTs early in the management of patients with TMD and cervical symptoms. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Retorting conditions affect palatability and physical characteristics of canned cat food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hagen-Plantinga, Esther A; Orlanes, Denmark F; Bosch, Guido; Hendriks, Wouter H; van der Poel, Antonius F B

    2017-01-01

    The effects of different temperature and time conditions during retorting of canned cat food on physicochemical characteristics and palatability were examined. For this purpose, lacquer cans containing an unprocessed loaf-type commercial cat food were heated in a pressurised retorting system at three specified temperature-time profiles (113°C/232 min, 120°C/103 min and 127°C/60 min) to equal a similar lethality (F0 value = 30). Physicochemical properties (viscosity, texture, particle size, pH) were determined, and a 10 d three-bowl palatability test was performed with ten European shorthair cats. Retorting at 113°C/232 min resulted in differences in all the physical parameters examined ( particle size). Significant pH differences were observed (6·53, 6·63 and 6·66 for T113/232, 120 and 127°C, respectively). Preference ratios were 0·38, 0·31 and 0·31 for T113/232, 120 and 127°C, respectively (P = 0·067). It can be concluded that different retorting temperature-time profiles with equal F0 value significantly affect physical characteristics and tended to affect palatability of moist cat food.

  5. Effect of harvest at different times of day on the physical and chemical characteristics of vegetable-type soybean

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Santana, Andréia Cristina; Carrão-Panizzi, Mercedes Concórdia; Mandarino, José Marcos Gontijo; Leite, Rodrigo Santos; Silva, Josemeyre Bonifácio da; Ida, Elza Iouko

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of harvest at different times of day on the chemical and physical characteristics of vegetable-type soybean BRS 267 cultivar, harvested at the R6 stage (seed development...

  6. Physical and Physiological Characteristics of Elite Male Handball Players from Teams with a Different Ranking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaidis, Pantelis T.; Ingebrigtsen, Jørgen

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine possible discriminant physical and physiological characteristics between elite male handball players from elite teams with different league rankings. Players from three teams (A, B and C), which competed in the first league of the Greek championship during the season 2011–2012 participated in the study. Team A finished first, B came second and C came eighth out of eleven clubs. Teams A and B also participated in European Cups, and team A won the European Challenge Cup. The players (n=44) were examined for anthropometric characteristics and performed a series of physical fitness tests. Players from teams A and B were taller (6.2 cm (0.7;11.7), mean difference (95% CI) and 9.2 cm (4.0;14.5), respectively), and had a higher amount of fat free mass (6.4 kg (1.1;11.8) and 5.4 kg (0.2;10.5)) compared to those of team C. Players from team A performed better than players from team C in the squat jump (5.5 cm (1.0;10.0)), the countermovement jump without (5.5 cm (0.4;10.6)) and with arm-swing (6.0 cm (0.7;11.3)) and in the 30 s Bosco test (5.7 W·kg−1 (1.2;10.2)). Also, players from team A outperformed team B in mean power during the Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT, 0.5 W·kg−1(0;0.9)) and in the Bosco test (7.8 W·kg−1 (3.4;12.2)). Overall, players from the best ranked team performed better than the lowest ranked team on WAnT, vertical jumps and the Bosco test. Stepwise discriminant analysis showed that stature and mean power during the Bosco test were the most important characteristics in TH players, accounting for 54.6% of the variance in team ranking. These findings indicate the contribution of particular physical fitness components (stature, fat free mass and anaerobic power) to excellence in TH. In addition, the use of the Bosco test as an assessment tool in talent identification and physical fitness monitoring in this sport is further recommended. PMID:24235989

  7. Experimental approach to interaction physics challenges of the shock ignition scheme using short pulse lasers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goyon, C; Depierreux, S; Yahia, V; Loisel, G; Baccou, C; Courvoisier, C; Borisenko, N G; Orekhov, A; Rosmej, O; Labaune, C

    2013-12-06

    An experimental program was designed to study the most important issues of laser-plasma interaction physics in the context of the shock ignition scheme. In the new experiments presented in this Letter, a combination of kilojoule and short laser pulses was used to study the laser-plasma coupling at high laser intensities for a large range of electron densities and plasma profiles. We find that the backscatter is dominated by stimulated Brillouin scattering with stimulated Raman scattering staying at a limited level. This is in agreement with past experiments using long pulses but laser intensities limited to 2×10(15)  W/cm2, or short pulses with intensities up to 5×10(16)  W/cm2 as well as with 2D particle-in-cell simulations.

  8. Numerical investigation and experimental validation of physically based advanced GTN model for DP steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fansi, Joseph, E-mail: jfansi@doct.ulg.ac.be [University of Liège, Departement ArGEnCo, Division MS2F, Chemin des Chevreuils 1, Liège 4000 (Belgium); Arts et Métiers ParisTech, LEM3, UMR CNRS 7239, 4 rue A. Fresnel, 57078 Metz cedex 03 (France); ArcelorMittal R and D Global Maizières S.A., voie Romaine, Maizières-Lès-Metz 57238 (France); Balan, Tudor [Arts et Métiers ParisTech, LEM3, UMR CNRS 7239, 4 rue A. Fresnel, 57078 Metz cedex 03 (France); Lemoine, Xavier [Arts et Métiers ParisTech, LEM3, UMR CNRS 7239, 4 rue A. Fresnel, 57078 Metz cedex 03 (France); ArcelorMittal R and D Global Maizières S.A., voie Romaine, Maizières-Lès-Metz 57238 (France); Maire, Eric; Landron, Caroline [INSA de Lyon, MATEIS CNRS UMR5510, 7 Avenue Jean Capelle, Villeurbanne 69621 (France); Bouaziz, Olivier [ArcelorMittal R and D Global Maizières S.A., voie Romaine, Maizières-Lès-Metz 57238 (France); Ecole des Mines de Paris, Centre des Matériaux, CNRS UMR 7633, BP 87, Evry Cedex 91003 (France); Ben Bettaieb, Mohamed [Ensicaen, 6 Boulevard du Maréchal Juin, 14050 CAEN Cedex 4 (France); Marie Habraken, Anne [University of Liège, Departement ArGEnCo, Division MS2F, Chemin des Chevreuils 1, Liège 4000 (Belgium)

    2013-05-01

    This numerical investigation of an advanced Gurson–Tvergaard–Needleman (GTN) model is an extension of the original work of Ben Bettaiebet al. (2011 [18]). The model has been implemented as a user-defined material model subroutine (VUMAT) in the Abaqus/explicit FE code. The current damage model extends the previous version by integrating the three damage mechanisms: nucleation, growth and coalescence of voids. Physically based void nucleation and growth laws are considered, including an effect of the kinematic hardening. These new contributions are based and validated on experimental results provided by high-resolution X-ray absorption tomography measurements. The current damage model is applied to predict the damage evolution and the stress state in a tensile notched specimen experiment.

  9. The relationship with the professional knowledge of the high school physics teacher and the failure of implemantation of experimental activities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Eduardo Laburú

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available In this work we investigated particular reasons that take medium physics teachers to use or not experimental activities. Starting from the presupposition that experimental activities in physics are important for teaching, it is essentially looked for to understand the reasons of the “experimental failure”, in the sense of little given importance to that teaching practice, demonstrable by absence of practically widespread of empiric activities in physics schools. We associated the relationship professional knowledge physics teacher's with that little instructional practice. Based in a reading of the ideas of Charlot, we directed an argument line that seeks to reinterpret the inadequacy of the explanation found in the lack or absence of something that is commonly disseminated in the literature in scientific education.

  10. The operation and efficacy of cryosurgical, nitrous oxide-driven cryoprobe. I. Cryoprobe physical characteristics: their effects on cell cryodestruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Homasson, J P; Thiery, J P; Angebault, M; Ovtracht, L; Maiwand, O

    1994-06-01

    For specification of the requirements for efficient cell cryodestruction in tumors, we tested a N2O-driven cryoprobe on experimental models. The cryoprobe was a 3-mm-diameter type for operation via fiber optic bronchoscopes in respiratory medicine. The freezing process, namely the "ice-ball" formation around the cryoprobe tip, was monitored with an impedancemeter. Physical characteristics and formation kinetics of the ice-ball formation (volume, diameter, freezing rate) were studied under defined experimental conditions in various biological liquids, including saline, serum, whole blood, and tumor cell suspensions (rat ascitic hepatoma), either plain or supplemented with gelling agents to approximate solid tumor consistency. Cell destruction (i.e., cryotoxicity to cells) within the ice ball produced in rat ascitic hepatoma was assessed in two ways: the cells, collected after ice-ball thawing, were (1) seeded and cultured according to methods currently in use, or (2) injected into a rat to check for possible development of ascites. Both tests showed that cryotoxicity correlated with freezing rate within the ice ball, cell mortality was total next to the cryoprobe tip (i.e., site of highest freezing rate), while it was absent within the ice-ball periphery. In the area in between, mortality varied gradually. Together our experimental results show that cryotoxicity to cells may be improved by increasing the freezing rate (e.g., by brief precooling of the cryoprobe). Furthermore, for tumor cryosurgery, since cell mortality is maximal next to the cryoprobe, we point out that higher efficacy might be achieved by several overlapping short freezing spots in tumoral tissue, instead of one single prolonged freeze.

  11. The Physical Characteristics by Sex and Age for Custody Assistants from a Law Enforcement Agency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lockie, Robert G; Orr, Robin M; Stierli, Michael; Cesario, Karly A; Moreno, Matthew R; Bloodgood, Ashley M; Dulla, Joseph M; Dawes, J Jay

    2018-01-17

    Custody assistants (CAs) are a position within a law enforcement agency who are responsible for assisting officers with maintaining security in correctional facilities. Unlike other positions, CAs may not be required to complete physical testing prior to being hired. This lack of testing could influence the characteristics of CAs who attend academy training. Therefore, retrospective analysis of performance test data for 108 officers (69 males, 39 females) was conducted. The tests included: grip strength for both hands; number of push-ups and sit-ups in 60 seconds; 201 m (220 yard) and 2.4 km runs; and maximal aerobic capacity (V˙O2max) estimated from the 2.4 km run. Data were stratified by sex and age (≤24 years, 25-29 years, 30-34 years, ≥35 years). Independent samples t-tests (p < 0.05) calculated differences between males and females. To compare age groups, a one-way ANOVA with Bonferroni post hoc was utilized (p < 0.05). Males scored significantly higher than females in hand grip, push-ups, and sit-ups, were faster over the 201 m and 2.4 km runs, and had a higher V˙O2max (p ≤ 0.001-0.024). There were no significant differences in performance tests across the age groups for either males or females. To better tolerate the rigors of physical training, female CAs should attempt to improve their fitness prior to academy as they often need to complete the same tasks as the males. Age did not appear to influence the physical characteristics of CAs, although all CAs should attempt to develop the fitness qualities needed for their occupation.

  12. Surface soil factors and soil characteristics in geo-physical milieu of Kebbi State Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleiman Usman

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Soil erodibility (K factor is the most important tool for estimation the erosion. The aim of this study Soil factors and surface soil characteristics are important components of agricultural environment. They support surface and subsurface soils to perform many functions to agriculture and economic human developments. Understanding these factors would aid to the recognition of the values that our soil and land offered to humanity. It is therefore, aim of this study to visualise and examine the soil factors and surface soil characteristics in Kebbi State Nigeria. An Integrated Surface Soil Approach (ISSA was used in the classification and description of soil environment in the study region. The factors constituted in the ISSA are important components of soil science that theories and practice(s noted to provide ideas on how soil environment functioned. The results indicate that the surface soil environments around Arewa, Argungu, Augie, Birnin Kebbi and Dandi are physically familiar with the following surface soil characteristics: bad-lands, blown-out-lands, cirque-lands, fertile-lands, gullied-lands, miscellaneous and rock-outcrops.The major soil factors observed hat played an important role in surface soil manipulations and soil formation are alluvial, colluvial, fluvial and lacustrine; ant, earthworms and termite; and various forms of surface relief supported by temperature, rainfall, relative humidity and wind. Overall, the surface soil environment of the region was describe according to their physical appearance into fadama clay soils, fadama clay-loam soils, dryland sandy soils, dryland sandy-loam soils, dryland stony soils and organic-mineral soils.

  13. Physical and geotechnical properties of cement-treated clayey soil using silica nanoparticles: An experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghasabkolaei, N.; Janalizadeh, A.; Jahanshahi, M.; Roshan, N.; Ghasemi, Seiyed E.

    2016-05-01

    This study investigates the use of nanosilica to improve geotechnical characteristics of cement-treated clayey soil from the coastal area of the eastern Caspian Sea in the Golestan province, Iran. Atterberg limits, unconfined compressive strength, and California bearing ratio (CBR) tests were performed to investigate the soil plastic and strength parameters. The specimens were prepared by mixing soil with 9% cement and various contents of nanosilica. An ultrasonic bath device was used to disperse nanosilica in water. The addition of nanosilica enhanced the strength parameters of the clayey soil. Moreover, a nanosilica percentage of 1.5% by weight of cement improved the compressive strength of the cement-treated clay up to 38%, at age of 28 days. A scanning electron microscope (SEM) and an atomic force microscope (AFM) were used to evaluate specimen morphology. SEM and AFM results confirm the experimental ones. Therefore, nanosilica can be employed for soil improvement in geotechnical engineering.

  14. Physical Characteristics of Small Space Objects at High Orbits Based on Optical Methods

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    Afaf M. Abd El-Hameed

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Optical observation is one of the most common techniques used for characterizing the physical properties of unknown objects and debris in space. This research presents measurements and properties of the new object 96019 from ground-based optical methods. Optical observations of this small object were performed using a charge-coupled device (CCD camera and the Santel-500 telescope at the Zvenigorod Observatory. The orbital elements and physical properties of this object, such as areato- mass ratio, have been determined. The results show that this small object has a low area-to-mass ratio, between 0.009 and 0.12 m2/kg. The light curve of object 96019 is given: Over the time intervals, variations in brightness are analyzed and the maximum brightness was found to be 12.4 magnitudes. The observational results show that, this object brightens by about three magnitudes over a time span of three minutes. Based on these observations, the characteristics and physical properties of this object are discussed.

  15. Physical activity practice´s characteristics of students of Faculty of Education (University of Seville

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    Carolina Castañeda Vázquez

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this research is to know about students´ physical activity from Faculty of Education of University of Seville, and its characteristics.The sample (N=409 is constituted for students from the different degrees of this Faculty (±4.8%; 95%CI. A specific questionnaire, built to that effect, was used to obtain dates. This instrument was validated by different experts on this area of studies, and statistic tests was done to check its reliability (Alpha Cronbach: .78 using SPSS V.15. The main results showed that 62.19% of students do physical activity regularly. Students prefer recreational activities or exercise aimed at being fit or watching health instead competitive games. Activities done by students inside University are very similar to activities done out of this. They also do exercise during all academic year, preferably along the all week or from Monday to Friday, and especially in the afternoon. This group usually practice with friends, classmates or workmates, but lonely too, and they prefer public areas and public or private sport facilities for their sport practice.Key Words: University students, physical activity practice, leisure time.

  16. Identifying the ideal body size and shape characteristics associated with children's physical performance tests in Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bustamante Valdivia, A; Maia, J; Nevill, A

    2015-04-01

    We used allometric models to identify the optimal body size/shape characteristics associated with physical and motor performance tests in Peruvian schoolchildren. The sample consisted of 3624 subjects (1669 boys and 1955 girls) aged 11-17 years from 31 public schools belonging to four cities located in the three natural regions in central Peru. Motor performance included 12-min run, standing long jump, grip strength, curl-ups, shuttle run, and sit and reach. The reciprocal Ponderal index (RPI), a characteristic sometimes referred to as the somatotype "ectomorphy," was found to be the most suitable body shape indicator associated with 12-min run, standing long jump, curl-up, and shuttle run performance. A positive maturation offset parameter was also associated with greater standing long jump, grip strength, shuttle run, and sit-and-reach performances. With the exception of the sit-and-reach flexibility, sex differences are pervasive in all tests favoring boys. Rainforest schoolchildren are best performers in the power and flexibility tests, whereas those from high altitude were superior in the 12-min endurance test even after taking their much lighter body size characteristics into account. This latter finding suggests that living at high altitude in Peru benefits children's endurance performance both before and even after controlling for differences in the confounding variable of body size/shape. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Effects of thermal hydrolysis temperature on physical characteristics of municipal sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Guohong; Guo, Yabing; Tan, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Effects of thermal hydrolysis temperature on the physical properties of municipal sludge was further studied by a series of experiments. There was a decrease in bound water content with an increase in hydrolysis temperature, while there was an increase in pH at temperatures below 120 °C, and a decrease at temperatures exceeding 120 °C. An analysis of settleability, centrifugation and vacuum filtration of the treated sludge indicated that the threshold temperature was 120 °C, which was the same as the temperature for the bound water content and particle size. In addition, raw sludge with a solids content of 100 g/L, exhibited significant non-Newtonian fluid characteristics. At thermal hydrolysis temperatures exceeding 120 °C, non-Newtonian fluid characteristics including liquid and solid characteristics were significantly weakened. The consistency index (k) decreased from 5.90 Pa·s to 0.068 Pa·s, while the flow index (n) increased from 0.31 to 0.74, suggesting that thermal hydrolysis sludge was much closer to Newtonian fluids compared to raw sludge. Modification of bound water content, particle size and viscosity with hydrolysis temperature, revealed the nature of improved dewaterability by thermal hydrolysis. The fractal dimension of the sludge floc increased from 2.74 to 2.90, meaning that the floc became more compact after thermal hydrolysis.

  18. Are children participating in a quasi-experimental education outside the classroom intervention more physically active?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikkel Bo Schneller

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Education outside the classroom (EOtC is a curriculum-based approach to teaching that has shown positive associations with children’s physical activity and academic learning in small-scale case studies. The purpose of this large-scale quasi-experimental study was to determine if children who participate regularly in EOtC spend more time being physically active than children who do not. Methods In the 2014/2015 study TEACHOUT, classes were recruited in pairs such that each EOtC class had a non-EOtC comparison class at the same school and grade level. Participants in 17 EOtC classes and 16 comparison parallel classes across Denmark wore an Axivity AX3 accelerometer taped to the lower back for seven consecutive days. Data from 201 EOtC participants (63.3% girls, age 10.82 ± 1.05, and 160 comparison participants (59.3% girls, age 10.95 ± 1.01 were analysed using an ‘intention to treat’ (ITT approach. The amount of EOtC the participants were exposed to was monitored. Associations between time spent in different physical activity intensities and EOtC group and sex were assessed using generalised linear models adjusted for age. In a second analysis, we modified the sample using a ‘per protocol’ (PP approach, only including EOtC and comparison class pairs where the EOtC class had >150 min and the comparison had <150 min of EOtC during the measured week. Results On average, EOtC participants spent 8.4 (ITT and 9.2 (PP minutes more in moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA per day than comparison participants (p < 0.05. However, EOtC boys spent 18.7 (ITT and 20.8 (PP minutes more in MVPA per day than comparison boys (p < 0.01, while there were no significant between-group differences for girls. Conclusions For boys, EOtC was associated with more daily time being spent moderately and vigorously physically active. No differences were observed for girls. Implementing EOtC into schools’ weekly practice can be

  19. Organizational aspects of an experimental program for physical education with a strengthened course in professional and applied physical training of future electrical engineers in the railway sector

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anzhelika Yefremova

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: to develop an optimized program for physical education with a strengthened course in professional and applied physical training (PAPT for students of railway universities. Material & Methods: analysis and generalization of scientific sources and program-normative documentation on physical education of the higher educational institution of railway transport, survey. Results: the results of the survey of railroad specialists are given. Pilot studies have determined the nature and conditions of professional activity of electrical engineers of railway transport. The experimental program on physical education with the strengthened course of the PAPT of students of railway universities was developed and theoretically justified. Conclusion: structure of the experimental program on physical education with the strengthened course of the PAPT included a theoretical section (8 hours, methodical and practical exercises (6 hours, a practical section (114 hours and a control section (12 hours. The program focuses on improving professionally important physical and psycho-physiological qualities and functions, psychomotor skills and physical performance. The basis of the practical section was the physical exercises from different sections of the current basic curriculum.

  20. Uncovering noisy social signals: Using optimization methods from experimental physics to study social phenomena.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaptein, Maurits; van Emden, Robin; Iannuzzi, Davide

    2017-01-01

    Due to the ubiquitous presence of treatment heterogeneity, measurement error, and contextual confounders, numerous social phenomena are hard to study. Precise control of treatment variables and possible confounders is often key to the success of studies in the social sciences, yet often proves out of the realm of control of the experimenter. To amend this situation we propose a novel approach coined "lock-in feedback" which is based on a method that is routinely used in high-precision physics experiments to extract small signals out of a noisy environment. Here, we adapt the method to noisy social signals in multiple dimensions and evaluate it by studying an inherently noisy topic: the perception of (subjective) beauty. We show that the lock-in feedback approach allows one to select optimal treatment levels despite the presence of considerable noise. Furthermore, through the introduction of an external contextual shock we demonstrate that we can find relationships between noisy variables that were hitherto unknown. We therefore argue that lock-in methods may provide a valuable addition to the social scientist's experimental toolbox and we explicitly discuss a number of future applications.

  1. PHYSICAL AND MICROBIOLOGICALQUALITYOFOPAQUE, SANITIZED, AND CHILLED QUAIL EGGS EXPERIMENTALLY CONTAMINATED WITH Salmonella enteric SER. TYPHIMURIUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Juliana Ribeiro Lacerda

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to verify the physical, chemical and microbiological quality of Japanese quail eggs artificially contaminated with Salmonella enterica ser. Typhimurium. The eggs were sanitized and stored at different temperatures (between 5 and 25 ºC for 27 days. We used 768 eggs with opaque shells, typical pigments of the species, and average weight of 11 g. The experimental design was completely randomized in a 2x2x2 factorial arrangement (contamination x sanitation x cooling with six replications and one egg per experimental unit. The eggs were contaminated by handling with 1.5 x 105 colony forming unit (CFU of Salmonella. Typhimurium / mL and sanitized according to the treatments with a 5 ppm Cl solution. The data were subjected to analysis of variance and t test. Bacterial contamination has damaged the egg weight, Haugh unit, yolk index and albumen, and pH of yolk and albumen, from 18 days of storage. The egg storage time and storage temperature affected the internal quality of quail eggs in all variables. The worst internal quality was observed in eggs stored at 25 ºC. The sanitation and cooling reduced the growth of Salmonella in contaminated eggs. Eggs in opaque shell, when not refrigerated, should be consumed within 18 days after laying. Keywords: opaque shell; quail eggs; Salmonella Typhimurium; sanitization; storage.

  2. Effect of experimental change in children's sleep duration on television viewing and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, C N; Hawley, N; Davey, A; Carskadon, M; Raynor, H; Jelalian, E; Owens, J; Considine, R; Wing, R R

    2017-12-01

    Paediatric observational studies demonstrate associations between sleep, television viewing and potential changes in daytime activity levels. To determine whether experimental changes in sleep lead to changes in children's sedentary and physical activities. Using a within-subject counterbalanced design, 37 children 8-11 years old completed a 3-week study. Children slept their typical amount during a baseline week and were then randomized to increase or decrease mean time in bed by 1.5 h/night for 1 week; the alternate schedule was completed the final week. Children wore actigraphs on their non-dominant wrist and completed 3-d physical activity recalls each week. Children reported watching more television (p < 0.001) and demonstrated lower daytime actigraph-measured activity counts per epoch (p = 0.03) when sleep was decreased (compared with increased). However, total actigraph-measured activity counts accrued throughout the entire waking period were higher when sleep was decreased (and children were awake for longer) than when it was increased (p < 0.001). Short sleep during childhood may lead to increased television viewing and decreased mean activity levels. Although additional time awake may help to counteract negative effects of short sleep, increases in reported sedentary activities could contribute to weight gain over time. © 2016 World Obesity Federation.

  3. Efficacy of Natural Polymer Derivatives on Soil Physical Properties and Erosion on an Experimental Loess Hillslope.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jun'e; Wang, Zhanli; Li, Yuanyuan

    2017-12-22

    Raindrops disperse large soil aggregates into smaller particles, which can clog soil pores, cause soil crusting, reduce rainfall infiltration and increase soil loss. It was found that natural polymer derivatives were effective in improving soil physical properties and decreasing soil erosion on an experimental loess hillslope. This study investigated the effect of new natural polymer derivatives (Jag S and Jag C162) on soil properties, rainfall infiltration and sediment yield at four rates of sprayed polymers (0, 1, 3 and 5 g/m²), three rainfall intensities (1, 1.5 and 2 mm/min) and a slope gradient of 15° with a silt loam soil through simulated rain. The results showed that both Jag S and Jag C162 significantly increased the shear strength and improved the aggregates composition of the soil surface. The water-stable soil aggregates >0.25 mm increased from 9% to 50% with increasing rates of Jag S and Jag C162. Jag S and Jag C162 also effectively increased rainfall infiltration and final infiltration rate, and reduced erosion compared to controls without natural polymer derivatives added. However, higher rates of Jag S produced lower infiltration rates. Although both Jag S and Jag C162 effectively influenced soil physical properties and erosion, the effect of Jag C162 was more significant than that of Jag S.

  4. Physically-Based Interactive Flow Visualization Based on Schlieren and Interferometry Experimental Techniques

    KAUST Repository

    Brownlee, C.

    2011-11-01

    Understanding fluid flow is a difficult problem and of increasing importance as computational fluid dynamics (CFD) produces an abundance of simulation data. Experimental flow analysis has employed techniques such as shadowgraph, interferometry, and schlieren imaging for centuries, which allow empirical observation of inhomogeneous flows. Shadowgraphs provide an intuitive way of looking at small changes in flow dynamics through caustic effects while schlieren cutoffs introduce an intensity gradation for observing large scale directional changes in the flow. Interferometry tracks changes in phase-shift resulting in bands appearing. The combination of these shading effects provides an informative global analysis of overall fluid flow. Computational solutions for these methods have proven too complex until recently due to the fundamental physical interaction of light refracting through the flow field. In this paper, we introduce a novel method to simulate the refraction of light to generate synthetic shadowgraph, schlieren and interferometry images of time-varying scalar fields derived from computational fluid dynamics data. Our method computes physically accurate schlieren and shadowgraph images at interactive rates by utilizing a combination of GPGPU programming, acceleration methods, and data-dependent probabilistic schlieren cutoffs. Applications of our method to multifield data and custom application-dependent color filter creation are explored. Results comparing this method to previous schlieren approximations are finally presented. © 2011 IEEE.

  5. Bio-physically plausible visualization of highly scattering fluorescent neocortical models for in silico experimentation

    KAUST Repository

    Abdellah, Marwan

    2017-02-15

    Background We present a visualization pipeline capable of accurate rendering of highly scattering fluorescent neocortical neuronal models. The pipeline is mainly developed to serve the computational neurobiology community. It allows the scientists to visualize the results of their virtual experiments that are performed in computer simulations, or in silico. The impact of the presented pipeline opens novel avenues for assisting the neuroscientists to build biologically accurate models of the brain. These models result from computer simulations of physical experiments that use fluorescence imaging to understand the structural and functional aspects of the brain. Due to the limited capabilities of the current visualization workflows to handle fluorescent volumetric datasets, we propose a physically-based optical model that can accurately simulate light interaction with fluorescent-tagged scattering media based on the basic principles of geometric optics and Monte Carlo path tracing. We also develop an automated and efficient framework for generating dense fluorescent tissue blocks from a neocortical column model that is composed of approximately 31000 neurons. Results Our pipeline is used to visualize a virtual fluorescent tissue block of 50 μm3 that is reconstructed from the somatosensory cortex of juvenile rat. The fluorescence optical model is qualitatively analyzed and validated against experimental emission spectra of different fluorescent dyes from the Alexa Fluor family. Conclusion We discussed a scientific visualization pipeline for creating images of synthetic neocortical neuronal models that are tagged virtually with fluorescent labels on a physically-plausible basis. The pipeline is applied to analyze and validate simulation data generated from neuroscientific in silico experiments.

  6. Bio-physically plausible visualization of highly scattering fluorescent neocortical models for in silico experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdellah, Marwan; Bilgili, Ahmet; Eilemann, Stefan; Shillcock, Julian; Markram, Henry; Schürmann, Felix

    2017-02-15

    We present a visualization pipeline capable of accurate rendering of highly scattering fluorescent neocortical neuronal models. The pipeline is mainly developed to serve the computational neurobiology community. It allows the scientists to visualize the results of their virtual experiments that are performed in computer simulations, or in silico. The impact of the presented pipeline opens novel avenues for assisting the neuroscientists to build biologically accurate models of the brain. These models result from computer simulations of physical experiments that use fluorescence imaging to understand the structural and functional aspects of the brain. Due to the limited capabilities of the current visualization workflows to handle fluorescent volumetric datasets, we propose a physically-based optical model that can accurately simulate light interaction with fluorescent-tagged scattering media based on the basic principles of geometric optics and Monte Carlo path tracing. We also develop an automated and efficient framework for generating dense fluorescent tissue blocks from a neocortical column model that is composed of approximately 31000 neurons. Our pipeline is used to visualize a virtual fluorescent tissue block of 50 μm3 that is reconstructed from the somatosensory cortex of juvenile rat. The fluorescence optical model is qualitatively analyzed and validated against experimental emission spectra of different fluorescent dyes from the Alexa Fluor family. We discussed a scientific visualization pipeline for creating images of synthetic neocortical neuronal models that are tagged virtually with fluorescent labels on a physically-plausible basis. The pipeline is applied to analyze and validate simulation data generated from neuroscientific in silico experiments.

  7. The Social, Physical and Temporal Characteristics of Primary School Dining Halls and Their Implications for Children's Eating Behaviours

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Sue N.; Murphy, Simon; Tapper, Katy; Moore, Laurence

    2010-01-01

    Purpose: Social, physical and temporal characteristics are known to influence the eating experience and the effectiveness of nutritional policies. As the school meal service features prominently in UK nutritional and health promotion policy, the paper's aim is to investigate the characteristics of the primary school dining context and their…

  8. Physical activity behavior and related characteristics of highly-active 8th grade girls

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taverno Ross, Sharon E.; Dowda, Marsha; Beets, Michael W.; Pate, Russell R.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose While girls are generally less physically active than boys, some girls regularly engage in high levels of physical activity (PA); however, very little is known about these girls and how they differ from those who are less physically active. This study examined the PA behavior and related characteristics of highly-active adolescent girls and compared them with those who are less active. Methods Data from 1,866 8th grade girls from 6 field centers across the U.S. participating in the Trial of Activity for Adolescent Girls (TAAG) were included in the present analysis. Mixed model ANOVAs examined differences in sociodemographic, anthropometric, psychosocial, and physical activity (accelerometry and self-report) variables between high- and low-active girls; effect sizes were calculated for the differences. Results High-active girls were taller, had lower BMIs and body fat, and were less sedentary. High-active girls scored higher on self-efficacy, enjoyment of PA, self-management strategies, outcome-expectancy value, and support from family and friends than low-active girls. Low-active girls participated in more leisure-time and educational sedentary activities than high-active girls. High-active girls participated in more PA classes/lessons outside of school, team sports, and individual sports. They were also more likely to participate in sports in an organized setting in the community or at school than low-active girls. Conclusions Health promotion efforts should focus on decreasing the amount of time girls spend in sedentary activities and replacing that time with organized PA opportunities; such efforts should seek to minimize perceived barriers and increase self-efficacy and support for PA. PMID:23384978

  9. Neighborhood contextual characteristics and leisure-time physical activity: Pró-Saúde Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boclin, Karine de Lima Sírio; Faerstein, Eduardo; Leon, Antônio Carlos Monteiro Ponce de

    2014-04-01

    To estimate the association between neighborhood contextual variables and leisure-time physical activity. Data were analyzed for 2,674 adults from Rio de Janeiro, RJ, Southeastern Brazil, participating in the longitudinal study in 1999. Leisure-time physical activity in the two preceding weeks was assessed dichotomously. Sex, age, income, education and marital status were analyzed as individual variables. Neighborhood contextual characteristics were the social development index, the Theil index and the proportion of the area occupied by parks, squares and gardens, categorized in quintiles. The unadjusted and adjusted odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were estimated using multilevel logistic regression. The prevalence of leisure-time physical activity was higher in residents in neighborhoods with higher indices of social development (between 32.3% and 53.1%) and a greater proportion of parks, squares and gardens (between 35.8% and 53.1%). Regarding the social development index, the adjusted odds ratios for physical activity were 1.22 (95%CI 0.93;1.61), 1.44 (95%CI 1.09;1.89), 1.75 (95%CI 1.31;2.34) and 2.25 (95%CI 1.70;3.00) for residents in neighborhoods in the second, third, fourth and fifth quintiles, respectively, compared with residents in neighborhoods in the first quintile. The odds ratios for the proportion of parks, squares and gardens were 0.90 (95%CI 0.69;1.19), 1.41 (95%CI 1.04;1.90), 1.63 (95%CI 1.24;2.14) and 1.05 (95%CI 0.80;1.38) for residents in neighborhoods in the second, third, fourth and fifth quintiles. After adjusting for the other variables, only the social development index continued to be associated with leisure-time physical activity, with odds ratios of 1.41 (95%CI 1.02;1.95); 1.54 (95%CI 1.12;2.12); 1.65 (95%CI 1.14;2.39) and 2.13 (95%CI 1.40;3.25) for residents in neighborhoods in the second, third, fourth and fifth quintiles. Leisure-time physical activity was more common in residents in neighborhoods with higher social

  10. A novel physical eco-hydrological model concept for preferential flow based on experimental applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackisch, Conrad; van Schaik, Loes; Graeff, Thomas; Zehe, Erwin

    2014-05-01

    Preferential flow through macropores often determines hydrological characteristics - especially regarding runoff generation and fast transport of solutes. Macropore settings may yet be very different in nature and dynamics, depending on their origin. While biogenic structures follow activity cycles (e.g. earth worms) and population conditions (e.g. roots), pedogenic and geogenic structures may depend on water stress (e.g. cracks) or large events (e.g. flushed voids between skeleton and soil pipes) or simply persist (e.g. bedrock interface). On the one hand, such dynamic site characteristics can be observed in seasonal changes in its reaction to precipitation. On the other hand, sprinkling experiments accompanied by tracers or time-lapse 3D Ground-Penetrating-Radar are suitable tools to determine infiltration patterns and macropore configuration. However, model representation of the macropore-matrix system is still problematic, because models either rely on effective parameters (assuming well-mixed state) or on explicit advection strongly simplifying or neglecting interaction with the diffusive flow domain. Motivated by the dynamic nature of macropores, we present a novel model approach for interacting diffusive and advective water, solutes and energy transport in structured soils. It solely relies on scale- and process-aware observables. A representative set of macropores (data from sprinkling experiments) determines the process model scale through 1D advective domains. These are connected to a 2D matrix domain which is defined by pedo-physical retention properties. Water is represented as particles. Diffusive flow is governed by a 2D random walk of these particles while advection may take place in the macropore domain. Macropore-matrix interaction is computed as dissipation of the advective momentum of a particle by its experienced drag from the matrix domain. Through a representation of matrix and macropores as connected diffusive and advective domains for water

  11. Effect of Socio-Demographic and Clinical Characteristics on Physical Activity of Pregnant Women at Referral Hospital in Riyadh, KSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaffi Ahamed Shaik

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of socio demographic and clinical characteristics of pregnant women on their physical activity. Methods: An observational quantitative cross sectional design was carried out in the delivery ward and paediatrics clinic of king Khalid University Hospital, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. The study subjects included all women who had delivered in the last three months, during the study period between 2013- 2014. The sample size was 336. Data collection included socio-demographic variables, pregnancy related variables and the physical activity by using validated pregnancy physical activity questionnaire. Results: The mean (standard deviation total physical activity score of all the study subjects was 197.39(72.1. The physical activity scores are statistically significantly higher in younger women, graduation education level, and among those who were employed. The physical activity scores were statistically significantly higher in women who had normal delivery, did not have any illness and those who had followed the advice to perform physical activity. Conclusion: The levels of physical activity along with their socio demographic and clinical characteristic were assessed among the pregnant women. The study found low pursuance of physical activity during pregnancy. Any kind of illness suffered during pregnancy further reduced the physical activity levels. It was only the young and educated pregnant women who held onto regular physical activity as advised during their pregnancy.

  12. Physics

    CERN Document Server

    Cullen, Katherine

    2005-01-01

    Defined as the scientific study of matter and energy, physics explains how all matter behaves. Separated into modern and classical physics, the study attracts both experimental and theoretical physicists. From the discovery of the process of nuclear fission to an explanation of the nature of light, from the theory of special relativity to advancements made in particle physics, this volume profiles 10 pioneers who overcame tremendous odds to make significant breakthroughs in this heavily studied branch of science. Each chapter contains relevant information on the scientist''s childhood, research, discoveries, and lasting contributions to the field and concludes with a chronology and a list of print and Internet references specific to that individual.

  13. Relationships between objective physical characteristics and the use of weight control methods in adolescence: a mediating role for eating attitudes?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peñas Lledó, E; Sancho, L; Waller, G

    2001-09-01

    This study of non-clinical adolescent males and females examined associations of objectively measured physical characteristics with greater use of methods of weight control and considered whether the relationships between these variables might be explained by a mediating effect of a subjective characteristic--unhealthy eating attitudes. Non-clinical male and female adolescents completed measures of weight control and eating attitudes, and their physical characteristics were measured using a range of standardized anthropometry techniques. Regression analyses were used to test the role of eating attitudes as mediators in the relationship between physical characteristics and the use of weight control methods. The data were compatible with a partial mediator model, where physical characteristics influence eating attitudes, and those where attitudes drive the use of methods to control weight. However, not all of the relationship was explained by this mediator. In addition, there were different patterns of association for men and women, consistent with different patterns of bodily focus between the genders. These findings stress the importance of understanding objective physical characteristics as well as subjective eating attitudes to find out why people use different levels of weight control behaviours. Limitations, further research and potential implications for clinical and preventative programmes are discussed.

  14. Physical characteristics of phycocyanin from spirulina microcapsules using different coating materials with freeze drying method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewi, E. N.; Purnamayati, L.; Kurniasih, R. A.

    2017-02-01

    The aim of this study was to compare the physical characteristics of phycocyanin microcapsules (F) from Spirulina sp. with different coating materials, such as κ-Carrageenan (C) and Na-alginate (A) in combination with maltodextrin (M) by freeze drying method. Microcapsules were prepared in three variations of coating materials i.e. maltodextrin (FM); maltodextrin and Na-alginate (FMA); and maltodextrin and carrageenan (FMC) with concentration of each materials were 10%; 9%:1.0%; and 9%:1% (w/w), respectively. The results showed that FMA with Na-alginate 1.0% produced the highest bulk density and total soluble solid, there were 0,334 g/ml and 9,067%, respectively. Color analysis by chromameter showed that FMC produced the bluest color compared to other samples. The glass transition temperature (Tg) investigated with Differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) in all of the samples.

  15. Geoelectric method applied in correlation between physical characteristics and electrical properties of the soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Marcelino Silva Filho

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the study of the relationship between electrical properties and physical characteristics of the soil. Measures of apparent electrical resistivity of the soil were made for different types of soil, varying moisture content gradually while maintaining a constant compaction, and then varying the compaction and relating it to a constant humidity. Development of a correlation surface is proposed in order to identify granulometry of the soil from moisture and compaction measurements. For the study of spatial variability, two areas were chosen to allow the change of moisture content and compaction in order to verify the measurement capacity of apparent electrical resistivity of the soil as methodology to identify change in soil dynamics. Results obtained show correlations among apparent electrical resistivity of the soil, moisture, soil compaction and clay content.

  16. Physical characteristics and physiological attributes of adolescent volleyball players-a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lidor, Ronnie; Ziv, Gal

    2010-02-01

    The purpose of this article was to review a series of studies (n = 31) on physical characteristics, physiological attributes, and volleyball skills of female and male adolescent volleyball players. Among the main findings were (a) that male national players were taller and heavier than state and novice players, while female national players showed lower body fat values compared with state and novice players, and (b) vertical jump values were higher in starters versus nonstarters. Among the methodological concerns based on the reviewed studies were the lack of information on maturational age and lack of longitudinal studies. It was recommended that a careful selection of physiological tests should be made when assessing the abilities of adolescent volleyball players.

  17. Effect of carbonyl iron particles composition on the physical characteristics of MR grease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mohamad, Norzilawati, E-mail: mnorzilawati@gmail.com; Mazlan, Saiful Amri, E-mail: amri.kl@utm.my [Vehicle System Engineering, Malaysia – Japan International Institute of Technology, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Jalan Sultan Yahya Petra (Jalan Semarak), Kuala Lumpur, 54000 (Malaysia); Ubaidillah, E-mail: ubaidillah@uns.ac.id [Vehicle System Engineering, Malaysia – Japan International Institute of Technology, Universiti Teknologi Malaysia, Jalan Sultan Yahya Petra (Jalan Semarak), Kuala Lumpur, 54000 (Malaysia); Mechanical Engineering Department, Faculty of Engineering, Universitas Sebelas Maret, Jl. Ir. Sutami 36A, Kentingan, Surakarta, 57126, Central Java, Surakarta (Indonesia)

    2016-03-29

    Magnetorheological (MR) grease is an extension of the study of magnetorheological materials. The MR grease can help to reduce the particles sedimentation problem occurred in the MR fluids. Within this study, an effort has been taken to investigate the effect of different weight compositions of carbonyl iron particles on the physical and chemical characteristics of the MR grease under off-state condition (no magnetic field). The MR grease is prepared by mixing carbonyl iron particles having a size range of 1 to 10 µm with commercial NPC Highrex HD-3 grease. Characterizations of MR grease are investigated using Vibrating Sample Magnetometer (VSM), Environmental Scanning Electron Microscopy (ESEM), Differential Scanning Calorimeter (DSC) and rheometer. The dependency of carbonyl iron particles weight towards the magnetic properties of MR grease and other characterizations are investigated.

  18. Intermonsoon Variation of Physical Characteristics and Current Circulation along the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia

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    Mohd Fadzil Mohd Akhir

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Data from eight cruises spanning from 2002 to 2007 are used to investigate the seasonal changes in water characteristics and current circulation in southern South China Sea along the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia. The surveys were made during two intermonsoon periods which are during March/April and September/October. In addition, monthly sea surface temperature from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS is used to provide wider coverage of spatial and temporal for seasonality study. Overall, the area shares different physical properties between the two seasons. During September/October temperature is lower and salinity is higher compared to the data during Mac/April/May. The current along the East Coast of Peninsular Malaysia also shows seasonality, with dominant current flow southward during Mac/April and northward during September/October.

  19. W.K.H. Panofsky Prize in Experimental Particle Physics Talk: 40 Years of Neutrino Physics--A Personal History

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beier, Eugene

    2010-02-01

    In the past forty years neutrino physics has made great advances. Some of the steps and missteps that were taken on the path from the 1960's to the present will be discussed. Particular attention will be given to the development of solar neutrino physics. )

  20. Individual behavioral characteristics of wild-type rats predict susceptibility to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kavelaars, A; Heijnen, CJ; Tennekes, R; Bruggink, JE; Koolhaas, JM

    1999-01-01

    Neuroendocrine-immune interactions are thought to be important in determining susceptibility to autoimmune disease. Animal studies have revealed that differences in susceptibility to experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) are related to:reactivity in the hypothalamo-pituitary-adrenal axis.

  1. Bovine mastitis caused by Listeria monocytogenes: characteristics of natural and experimental infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bourry, A; Poutrel, B; Rocourt, J

    1995-08-01

    Experimental mastitis induced with a single intramammary injection of Listeria monocytogenes was compared with two naturally occurring cases. Four strains of L. monocytogenes, two of serotype 1/2a and two of serotype 4b were used for the experimental infections and two diametrically opposed quarters of four cows were inoculated with 300 cfu. Bacteriological examination and somatic cell counts of quarter foremilk samples were performed weekly for at least 6 months after challenge. All the inoculated quarters developed chronic subclinical mastitis with occasional clinical episodes. The results were similar to those observed in natural listeria mastitis. Four experimentally infected quarters were treated during lactation (gentamicin and cloxacillin) or at "drying-off" (cloxacillin), or at both times. Only one of four quarters was cured after treatment only at "drying-off". All experimental and naturally infected animals were slaughtered and bacteriological examination was performed on liver, spleen and supramammary, iliac and mesenteric lymph nodes. L. monocytogenes strains were isolated from the supramammary lymph nodes of two experimentally and two naturally infected cows and from an iliac lymph node from one of the naturally infected cows. The epidemiological data were supported by serotyping, lysotyping and DNA macro-restriction analysis. The experimental model of listeria mastitis mimics spontaneous cases and should be useful in further studies of listeria mastitis.

  2. Preferred Physical Characteristics of Vaginal Film Microbicides for HIV Prevention in Pittsburgh Women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Maria D; Kramzer, Lindsay F; Hillier, Sharon L; Chang, Judy C; Meyn, Leslie A; Rohan, Lisa C

    2017-05-01

    Unprotected heterosexual intercourse is the leading cause of HIV acquisition in women. Due to the complex nature of correct and consistent condom use by both men and women, developing alternative female-controlled HIV prevention options is a global health priority. Vaginal films containing antiretroviral drugs are a potential delivery system for the prevention of HIV acquisition through sexual contact. In this study, we explored women's preferences regarding physical characteristics of microbicide vaginal films through questionnaires and focus groups. Eighty-four sexually active, ethnically diverse women 18-30 years of age from Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, participated in the study. Women visually and manually examined a variety of vaginal films, as well as three other vaginal products undergoing evaluation for HIV prevention: tablet, ring, and gel. Means and standard deviations or frequencies and 95 % confidence intervals were calculated for questionnaire data. Focus groups were audio-recorded, transcribed verbatim, and coded for content analysis. Women most frequently preferred vaginal films to be smooth and thin (63 %), translucent (48 %), and 2″ × 2″ square size (36 %). Driving these preferences were five major themes: ease and accuracy of use, desire for efficacy, discretion, intravaginal comfort and minimal impact, and minimizing disruption of sexual mood/activities. Women's preferences for various microbicide vaginal film physical attributes represented a balance of multiple values. In general, women desired a comfortable, efficacious, easy to use, and minimally intrusive product.

  3. Physical Education-in-CLIL tasks. Determining tasks characteristics through the analysis of the diaries

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    Josep Coral Mateu

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This article focuses on the characteristics of Physical Education-in-CLIL (PE-in-CLIL tasks. CLIL (Content and Language Integrated Learning is a teaching approach which uses foreign language as a tool to enhance the subject learning process. We connect PE-in-CLIL with key competences and we introduce the CLIL 4Cs framework. We establish the aims of the study, that is; to describe the features of tasks which are most suitable to PE-in-CLIL and identify integrated tasks which appeal most to learners. We use Action-Research and we collect data through diaries. The participants of the study were twenty-six learners of 5th grade of primary school. We described the strategies of rigour and quality applied and we analysed data using a qualitative data analysis software programme (NVivo. In the results, we identify both the tasks that appeal to students and the tasks that are developed successfully. In the conclusions, we provide teaching guidelines to plan successful PE-in-CLIL tasks that appeal to students. At this point, we emphasise tasks that combined both cooperative learning and oracy with motor activity and games. We also declare the necessity of incorporating scaffolding strategies in order to accommodate students’ linguistic needs and facilitate tasks development. Future CLIL research possibilities emerge in the Physical Education field of work.

  4. Influence of female sports dietitians' physical characteristics on athlete perception of effectiveness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovell, Geoff P; Parker, John K; Slater, Gary J

    2013-06-01

    Research in sports-science disciplines such as sport psychology has demonstrated that practitioners' physical characteristics influence clients' perceptions of their effectiveness, potentially mediating the efficacy of subsequent interventions. However, very little research has been directed toward this issue for sports dietitians (SDs), the health professionals whom athletes are likely to engage to assist with manipulation of traits of physique. Therefore, the purpose of this investigation was to determine whether SDs' phenotype, specifically body-mass index (BMI), and type of dress influence potential clients' preference to consult them for dietetic support and if this affects their perceived effectiveness. One hundred volunteers (mean age 18.7 ± 0 .8 years) all participating in regular competitive sport, classified by gender (male, n = 55, or female, n = 45) and competitive standard (elite/subelite, n = 68, or club/recreational, n = 32) viewed slides representing four concurrently presented computer-generated images of the same female SD manipulated to represent different BMIs and dress types. Participants were asked to rank the SDs in order of their preference to work with them and, second, to rate their perceived effectiveness of each of the SDs. Key findings included the observation of a significant BMI main effect F(6, 91) = 387.39, p < .001 (effect size .96), with participants' ranking of preference and rating of perceived effectiveness of female SDs decreasing with increasing BMI. SDs should consider their physical appearance when meeting with athletes, as this may affect their perceived efficacy.

  5. Hair fiber characteristics and methods to evaluate hair physical and mechanical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Valéria Robles Velasco

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available The hair thread is a natural fiber formed by keratin, a protein containing high concentration of sulfur coming from the amino acid cystine. The main physical proprieties of the hair depend mostly on its geometry; the physical and mechanical properties of hair involve characteristics to improve: elasticity, smoothness, volume, shine, and softness due to both the significant adherence of the cuticle scales and the movement control (malleability, as well as the easiness of combing, since they reduce the fibers static electricity. The evaluation of these effects on hair may be carried out by several methods, as: optical and electron microscopy, mechanical resistance measuring, shine evaluation and optical coherence tomography (OCT.O cabelo é uma fibra natural formada por queratina, uma proteína composta por teor elevado de enxofre proveniente da cistina. As propriedades principais do cabelo dependem de sua geometria, estrutura física. Características físicas e mecânicas das fibras capilares envolvem propriedades que melhoram: elasticidade, maciez, volume, maleabilidade, facilidade para o ato de pentear e brilho. A avaliação de tais propriedades do cabelo pode ser obtida por métodos diversos, como: microscopia óptica e eletrônica, mensuração da resistência mecânica, determinação do brilho e tomografia por coerência óptica (OCT.

  6. Physical changes and physiological characteristics of red and green peel during nectarine (cv. Hu018) maturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Su, Mingshen; Chen, Kunsong; Ye, Zhengwen; Zhang, Bo; Guo, Juan; Xu, Changjie; Sun, Chongde; Zhang, Jiukai; Li, Xian; Wu, Aizhong; Xi, Wanpeng

    2012-05-01

    The aim of this study was to determine physical changes in nectarine and distinctive physiological characteristics related to red and green peel under stresses occurring during fruit maturation, information on which is currently not available. Fruit firmness increased from 4 to 6 weeks after blooming (WAB) then decreased from 6 WAB until ripening. Anthocyanins in red and green peel during nectarine maturation were identified by high-performance liquid chromatography as cyanidin 3-glucoside together and, at a much lower level, cyanidin 3-rutinoside. Cyanidins in red and green peel decreased from 4 to 8 WAB then increased from 8 to 12 WAB. Anthocyanin contents were positively correlated with PAL, POD, A*, MDA and O2(·-) values and inversely correlated with L* and B* values. Red and green peel during maturation could be separated by hierarchical cluster analysis of the tested data. This study has provided an overview of red and green peel characteristics during nectarine (cv. Hu018) maturation. Values of A*, anthocyanins, O2(·-), MDA, PAL, PPO and POD in red peel were higher than those in green peel, while values of L*, B* and chroma in red peel were lower than those in green peel throughout fruit maturation. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  7. Chemical and physical characteristics of local lecithin in comparison with some other food emulsifiers

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    El-Shattory, Y.

    1999-08-01

    Full Text Available The chemical and physical characteristics of local lecithin and other food emulsifiers (Emulfuid E, Triodan R 90, Panodan 150 and Glycerol mono stéarate were studied. The characteristics of these emulsifiers studied were solubility, hydrophile-lipophile balance (HLB, stability index (SI, fatty acid composition and infrared spectrum. The results obtained showed that Emulfuid E and local lecithin were mixture of lecithins and phosphatidyl ethanol-amine. In addition, Triodan R 90 was a polyglycerol ester of ricinoleic acid, Panodan 150 was a blend of mono and diglycerides, and G.M.S. was a monoglycerol ester of stearic acid.

    Se estudiaron las características químicas y físicas de lecitina local y otros emulsionantes alimentarios (Emulfuid E, Triodan R 90, Panodan 150 y Monoestearato de glicerol. Las características de estos emulsionantes estudiados fueron solubilidad, balance hidrófilo-lipófilo (HLB, índice de estabilidad (SI, composición en ácidos grasos y espectros de infrarrojo. Los resultados obtenidos mostraron que Emulfuid E y lecitina local fueron mezclas de lecitinas y fosfatidil etanolamina. Por otro lado, Triodan R 90 fue ester poliglicerídico del ácido ricinoleico, Panodan 150 una mezcla de mono y diglicéridos y G.M.S. un éster monoglicerídico del ácido esteárico.

  8. Neighborhood characteristics in relation to diet, physical activity and overweight of Canadian children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veugelers, Paul; Sithole, Fortune; Zhang, Sharon; Muhajarine, Nazeem

    2008-01-01

    Neighborhood infrastructure may provide an important opportunity to prevent overweight among children. In the present study we investigated whether access to shops for modestly priced fresh produce, access to parks and playgrounds, access to recreational facilities and neighborhood safety are related to children's diet, physical and sedentary activities, and body weights. Data were obtained from the Children's Lifestyle and School-performance Study, a survey including 5,471 grade five students and their parents in the province of Nova Scotia, Canada. Students completed the Harvard Food Frequency Questionnaire and had their height and weight measured. Parents completed questions on socio-economic background and how they perceived their neighborhood. We applied multilevel regression methods to relate these neighborhood characteristics with children's fruit and vegetable consumption, dietary fat intake, diet quality, frequency of engaging in sports with and without a coach, screen time, overweight and obesity. Children in neighborhoods with greater perceived access to shops had healthier diets and were less likely to be overweight or obese. Children in neighborhoods with good access to playgrounds, parks and recreational facilities were reportedly more active and were less likely to be overweight or obese, whereas children in safe neighborhoods engaged more in unsupervised sports. The study demonstrated associations between neighborhood characteristics, health behaviors and childhood overweight. This contributes to the knowledge base that is still too narrow to justify informed preventative public health policy. We advocate the evaluation of natural experiments created by new policy that affect neighborhood infrastructures as the optimal opportunity to enlarge this knowledge base.

  9. Racial Disparities in Obesity Prevalence in Mississippi: Role of Socio-Demographic Characteristics and Physical Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mina Qobadi

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Although the etiology of obesity is complex, social disparities are gaining attention for their contribution to obesity. The aim of this study was to estimate prevalence of obesity and to explore the associations between socio-demographic characteristics and obesity by race in Mississippi. Data from the 2014 Mississippi Behavior Risk Factors Surveillance System (BRFSS were used in this study (n = 3794. Descriptive statistics, Chi-square tests and logistic regressions were conducted using SAS Proc. Survey procedures to account for BRFSS’s multistage complex survey design and sample weights. The overall prevalence of self-reported obesity was 37%. Multiple logistic regression model showed gender was the only variable associated with increased risk of obesity among blacks. Black females were more likely to be obese (Adjusted OR [aOR] = 2.0, 95% CI: 1.4–2.7, ref = male after controlling for confounders. Among white adults, obesity was significantly associated with physical activity, gender, age and education levels. Those aged 25–44 years (aOR = 1.7, 95% CI: 1.1–2.6, ref ≥ 64 years, those were physically inactivity (aOR = 1.8, 95% CI: 1.4–2.5, ref = physically active or had high school education (OR = 1.6, 95% CI: 1.2–2.3, ref = college graduate or some college (aOR = 1.5, 95% CI: 1.2–2.3, ref = college graduate were more likely to be obese; females (aOR = 0.8; 95% CI: 0.6–0.9, ref = male and those aged 18–24 years (aOR = 0.50, 95% CI: 0.21–0.9, ref ≥ 64 years were less likely to be obese.

  10. Circadian characteristics of spontaneous physical activity and body temperature in narcoleptic patients

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    Xing XU

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective To assess circadian characteristics of spontaneous physical activity and deep body temperature in narcoleptic patients.  Methods Fourteen narcoleptic patients and 14 healthy age- and sex-matched control subjects were enrolled. Nocturnal polysomnography (PSG was recorded, followed by standard multiple sleep latency test (MSLT. Then all subjects were required to wear the actigraphy (actiwatch at home with continuous monitoring of spontaneous physical activity for 1-2 weeks and complete the daily sleep record. All subjects' deep body temperatures were measured at 20 time points.  Results In comparison with control subjects, PSG data suggested narcoleptic patients had significantly longer time in bed at night (P = 0.008, decreased sleep efficiency (P = 0.001, increased awakenings (P = 0.000, extended wake time after sleep onset (P = 0.000 and sleep onset rapid eye movement period (SOREMP, P = 0.002. MSLT data suggested decreased average sleep latency (P = 0.000 and increased SOREMPs (P = 0.000. Actigraphy data suggested increased nocturnal activity and nocturnal activity per hour (P = 0.000, for all, decreased daytime activity and daytime activity per hour (P = 0.000, for all and increased nocturnal activity per hour/daytime activity per hour (P = 0.000, for all. The deep body temperature in both groups showed significant circadian rhythms. The differences in mesor, amplitude and peak phase of deep body temperature between 2 groups had no statistical significance (P = 0.177, 0.730, 0.488.  Conclusions Narcoleptic patients are characterized by impaired circadian rhythm of sleep-wake and spontaneous physical activity. The limited effects on deep body temperature suggest the relative conservation of thermoregulation in narcolepsy. DOI: 10.3969/j.issn.1672-6731.2016.07.010

  11. Friendship Network Characteristics Are Associated with Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in Early Adolescence.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer Marks

    Full Text Available There is limited understanding of the association between peer social networks and physical activity (PA, sedentary and screen-related behaviors. This study reports on associations between personal network characteristics and these important health behaviors for early adolescents.Participants were 310 students, aged 11-13 years, from fifteen randomly selected Victorian primary schools (43% response rate. PA and sedentary behaviors were collected via accelerometer and self-report questionnaire, and anthropometric measures via trained researchers. Participants nominated up to fifteen friends, and described the frequency of interaction and perceived activity intensity of these friends. Personal network predictors were examined using regression modelling for PA and sedentary/screen behavior.Perceived activity levels of friends, and friendships with very frequent interaction were associated with outside-of-school PA and/or sedentary/screen time. Differences according to sex were also observed in the association between network characteristics and PA and sedentary time. A higher number of friends and greater proportion of same sex friends were associated with boys engaging in more moderate-to-vigorous PA outside of school hours. PA intensity during school-day breaks was positively associated with having a greater proportion of friends who played sports for girls, and a greater proportion of male friends for boys.Friendship network characteristics are associated with PA and sedentary/screen time in late childhood/early adolescence, and these associations differ by sex. The positive influence of very active peers may be a promising avenue to strengthen traditional interventions for the promotion of PA and reduction in screen time.

  12. Friendship Network Characteristics Are Associated with Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in Early Adolescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Jennifer; de la Haye, Kayla; Barnett, Lisa M; Allender, Steven

    2015-01-01

    There is limited understanding of the association between peer social networks and physical activity (PA), sedentary and screen-related behaviors. This study reports on associations between personal network characteristics and these important health behaviors for early adolescents. Participants were 310 students, aged 11-13 years, from fifteen randomly selected Victorian primary schools (43% response rate). PA and sedentary behaviors were collected via accelerometer and self-report questionnaire, and anthropometric measures via trained researchers. Participants nominated up to fifteen friends, and described the frequency of interaction and perceived activity intensity of these friends. Personal network predictors were examined using regression modelling for PA and sedentary/screen behavior. Perceived activity levels of friends, and friendships with very frequent interaction were associated with outside-of-school PA and/or sedentary/screen time. Differences according to sex were also observed in the association between network characteristics and PA and sedentary time. A higher number of friends and greater proportion of same sex friends were associated with boys engaging in more moderate-to-vigorous PA outside of school hours. PA intensity during school-day breaks was positively associated with having a greater proportion of friends who played sports for girls, and a greater proportion of male friends for boys. Friendship network characteristics are associated with PA and sedentary/screen time in late childhood/early adolescence, and these associations differ by sex. The positive influence of very active peers may be a promising avenue to strengthen traditional interventions for the promotion of PA and reduction in screen time.

  13. Friendship Network Characteristics Are Associated with Physical Activity and Sedentary Behavior in Early Adolescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marks, Jennifer; de la Haye, Kayla; Barnett, Lisa M; Allender, Steven

    2015-01-01

    Introduction There is limited understanding of the association between peer social networks and physical activity (PA), sedentary and screen-related behaviors. This study reports on associations between personal network characteristics and these important health behaviors for early adolescents. Methods Participants were 310 students, aged 11–13 years, from fifteen randomly selected Victorian primary schools (43% response rate). PA and sedentary behaviors were collected via accelerometer and self-report questionnaire, and anthropometric measures via trained researchers. Participants nominated up to fifteen friends, and described the frequency of interaction and perceived activity intensity of these friends. Personal network predictors were examined using regression modelling for PA and sedentary/screen behavior. Results Perceived activity levels of friends, and friendships with very frequent interaction were associated with outside-of-school PA and/or sedentary/screen time. Differences according to sex were also observed in the association between network characteristics and PA and sedentary time. A higher number of friends and greater proportion of same sex friends were associated with boys engaging in more moderate-to-vigorous PA outside of school hours. PA intensity during school-day breaks was positively associated with having a greater proportion of friends who played sports for girls, and a greater proportion of male friends for boys. Conclusion Friendship network characteristics are associated with PA and sedentary/screen time in late childhood/early adolescence, and these associations differ by sex. The positive influence of very active peers may be a promising avenue to strengthen traditional interventions for the promotion of PA and reduction in screen time. PMID:26709924

  14. Perceived environment and physical activity: a meta-analysis of selected environmental characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spence John C

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Several narrative reviews have been conducted on the literature examining environmental correlates of physical activity (PA. To date these reviews have been unable to provide definitive summaries of observed associations. This study utilizes meta-analytical techniques to calculate summaries of associations between selected environmental characteristics and PA. Methods Published studies were identified from electronic databases and searches of personal files. Studies were examined to determine the environmental constructs most frequently studied. Included studies (N = 16 examined at least one identified construct and determined associations between perceived environmental constructs and PA using logistic regression. Data were analyzed separately for crude and adjusted ORs using general-variance based fixed effect models. Results No significant associations emerged between environmental characteristics and PA using crude OR. The perceived presence of PA facilities (OR 1.20, 95% 1.06–1.34, sidewalks (OR 1.23, 95% 1.13–1.32, shops and services (OR 1.30, 95% 1.14–1.46 and perceiving traffic not to be a problem (OR 1.22, 95% 1.08–1.37 were positively associated with activity using adjusted ORs. Variance in PA accounted for by significant associations ranged from 4% (heavy traffic not a problem to 7% (presence of shops and services. Conclusion Results of the meta-analysis support the relevance of perceived environmental characteristics for understanding population PA. These results should encourage the use of comprehensive ecological models that incorporate variables beyond basic demographic information.

  15. Bacterial viability and physical properties of antibacterially modified experimental dental resin composites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Rüttermann

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To investigate the antibacterial effect and the effect on the material properties of a novel delivery system with Irgasan as active agent and methacrylated polymerizable Irgasan when added to experimental dental resin composites. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A delivery system based on novel polymeric hollow beads, loaded with Irgasan and methacrylated polymerizable Irgasan as active agents were used to manufacture three commonly formulated experimental resin composites. The non-modified resin was used as standard (ST. Material A contained the delivery system providing 4 % (m/m Irgasan, material B contained 4 % (m/m methacrylated Irgasan and material C 8 % (m/m methacrylated Irgasan. Flexural strength (FS, flexural modulus (FM, water sorption (WS, solubility (SL, surface roughness Ra, polymerization shrinkage, contact angle Θ, total surface free energy γS and its apolar γS (LW, polar γS (AB, Lewis acid γS (+and base γS (- term as well as bacterial viability were determined. Significance was p < 0.05. RESULTS: The materials A to C were not unacceptably influenced by the modifications and achieved the minimum values for FS, WS and SL as requested by EN ISO 4049 and did not differ from ST what was also found for Ra. Only A had lower FM than ST. Θ of A and C was higher and γS (AB of A and B was lower than of ST. Materials A to C had higher γS (+ than ST. The antibacterial effect of materials A to C was significantly increased when compared with ST meaning that significantly less vital cells were found. CONCLUSION: Dental resin composites with small quantities of a novel antibacterially doped delivery system or with an antibacterial monomer provided acceptable physical properties and good antibacterial effectiveness. The sorption material being part of the delivery system can be used as a vehicle for any other active agent.

  16. Effect of nanoclay addition on physical, chemical, optical and biological properties of experimental dental resin composites.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Munhoz, Tais; Fredholm, Yann; Rivory, Pascaline; Balvay, Sandra; Hartmann, Daniel; da Silva, Pedro; Chenal, Jean-Marc

    2017-03-01

    To prepare organically modified montmorillonite (OM MMT) and assess mechanical, physical, chemical and biological effects of its introduction into resin-composites. Natural MMT clay was modified by a methacrylate functionalized quaternary ammonium intercalating agent. Interlayer distance was measured by X-ray diffraction. Dental composites were then prepared with x=0, 1, 2.5, 5 or 7.5wt.% of OM MMT, (75-x) wt.% of silanated barium glass and 25wt.% of methacrylate based matrix). Relative weight loss was measured and the effect of the substitution on mechanical properties was studied by dynamic mechanical analysis and hardness tests. Properties of resin composites were evaluated in terms of water sorption, light transmittance, biological tests and by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Resin based composites with well-dispersed organically modified MMT were successfully prepared. There were no significant weight loss differences shown by TGA within all samples. The DMA analysis showed that the introduction of clays have a beneficial effect in increasing the storage and elastic modulus of composites. Clay presence was shown to interfere with the blue light transmittance, affecting Vickers hardness and water sorption levels. The amount of released monomers measured from extracts was below expected levels for this type of materials and biological tests show satisfactory cell compatibility. This paper reports the successful functionalization of MMT by a methacrylate group and further incorporation in experimental dental composites. Physical and biological results show a potential interest to the application of nanoclays into dental resin composites. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. An Experimental Study on Flow and Heat Transfer Characteristics of Ethanol/Polyalphaolefin Nanoemulsion Flowing Through Circular Minichannels

    OpenAIRE

    Trinh, Vu; Xu, Jiajun

    2017-01-01

    This work experimentally studied the convective flow and heat transfer characteristics of a novel nanostructured heat transfer fluid: ?ethanol/polyalphaolefin nanoemulsion? flowing through 12 circular minichannels of 1-mm diameter each. Ethanol/polyalphaolefin nanoemulsion is a thermodynamically stable system formed by dispersing ethanol into a mixture of ?polyalphaolefin (PAO)? and surfactants. In this study, ethanol/PAO nanoemulsion is used as the working fluid to study the effect of ethano...

  18. Physical Characteristics Underpinning Lunging and Change of Direction Speed in Fencing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Anthony; Bishop, Chris; Chavda, Shyam; Edwards, Mike; Brazier, Jon; Kilduff, Liam P

    2016-08-01

    Turner, A, Bishop, C, Chavda, S, Edwards, M, Brazier, J, Kilduff, LP. Physical characteristics underpinning lunging and change of direction speed in fencing. J Strength Cond Res 30(8): 2235-2241, 2016-Lunge velocity (LV) and change of direction speed (CODS) are considered fundamental to success during fencing competitions; investigating the physical characteristics that underpin these is the aim of this study. Seventy fencers from the British Fencing National Academy took part and on average (±SD) were 16.83 ± 1.72 years of age, 178.13 ± 8.91 cm tall, 68.20 ± 9.64 kg in mass, and had 6.25 ± 2.23 years fencing experience. The relationship between anthropometric characteristics (height, arm span, and adductor flexibility) and measures of lower-body power (bilateral and unilateral countermovement jump height and reactive strength index) were examined in their ability to influence LV and CODS. In testing the former, fencers lunged (over a self-selected distance) to and from a force plate, where front leg impact and rear leg propulsive force were quantified; the lunging distance was divided by time to establish LV. Change of direction speed was measured over 12 m involving shuttles of between 2 and 4 m. Results revealed that LV and CODS averaged at 3.35 m·s and 5.45 seconds, respectively, and in both cases, standing broad jump was the strongest predictor (r = 0.51 and -0.65, respectively) of performance. Rear leg drive and front leg impact force averaged at 14.61 N·kg and 3 times body weight, respectively, with single leg jumps revealing an asymmetry favoring the front leg of 9 ± 8%. In conclusion, fencers should train lower-body power emphasizing horizontal displacement, noting that this seems to offset any advantage one would expect fencers of a taller stature to have. Also, the commonly reported asymmetry between legs is apparent from adolescence and thus also requires some attention.

  19. Design, synthesis and determination of physical and chemical characteristics of glycoconjugates as model for oligosaccharide vaccines against vibrio cholerae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aleksandra Grozdanova

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available Cholera is toxin-mediated enteroinfection, with epidemic character and there are approximately 120000 death cases per year worldwide. Protection against cholera has not been accomplished due to deficiencies in the licensed vaccines. Serum vibriocidal activity mediated by LPS antibodies is the only immune segment correlated with the resistance of cholera. On the basis of literature data (Robbins JB, 1990; Ogawa Y, 1996 we synthesized glucoconjugates, composed of detoxified LPS from Vibrio cholerae and protein carriers. Conjugate vaccines were prepared by binding acetic acid and hydrazine-treated lipopolysaccharide (LPS from Vibrio cholerae O1, serotype Inaba, to cholera toxin B-subunit (CT-B and bovine serum albumin (cBSA. Adipic acid dihydrazide was used for derivatization of oligosaccharides and 1-ethyl-3-(3-dimethylaminopropyl carbodiimide (EDC as conjugating agent. SDS-PAGE, glycoprotein detection and TLC dot-blot were used for physical and chemical analysis of the prepared four types of conjugates. Safe level of endotoxins, measured by LAL assay was detected in all conjugates. The synthesized conjugates can be used for monitoring immunization schemes on experimental animals. It is to be expected that conjugated vaccines are safe and efficient and that will have high immunogenic and T-dependant characteristics with long immune protection against cholera.

  20. The effect of meditation on physical and mental health in junior college students: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ke-Ping; Su, Whei-Ming; Huang, Chen-Kuan

    2009-12-01

    Physical stress and mental stress are increasingly common phenomena in our rapidly changing and stressful modern society. Research has found meditation to produce positive and demonstrable stress reduction effects on brain and immune functions. This study is grounded in traditional Chinese philosophical mores that teach a process summarized by the keynote activities of "calm, still, quiet, consider, and get" and the potential of this process to reduce stress in adolescents. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of meditation on the physical and mental health of junior college students. This research employed a quasi-experimental design. Participants included 242 freshmen from a junior college in Taiwan selected using a convenience sampling technique. Participants were then randomly separated into experimental (n = 119) and control (n = 123) groups. The project duration was 18 weeks, during which the experimental group received 2 hours of meditation treatment per week, for a total of 36 hours. Both groups completed pretest and posttest Life Adaptation Scale forms, which included questionnaires addressing information on physical and mental distress and positive and negative coping strategies. Data were analyzed using analysis of covariance. Findings showed that the effect of the experiment treatment was significant when student physical and mental distress pretest scores were controlled. Physical and mental symptoms in the experimental group were lower than those in the control group. Meditation can help students to adapt to life stressors. This study also provides support for traditional Chinese wisdom, which promotes meditation as one way to improve health.