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Sample records for experimental ph neutralization

  1. Local linear model tree and Neuro-Fuzzy system for modelling and control of an experimental pH neutralization process

    OpenAIRE

    Petchinathan,G.; Valarmathi,K.; Devaraj,D.; Radhakrishnan,T. K.

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes the modelling and control of a pH neutralization process using a Local Linear Model Tree (LOLIMOT) and an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS). The Direct and Inverse model building using LOLIMOT and ANFIS structures is described and compared. The direct and inverse models of the pH system are identified based on experimental data for the LOLIMOT and ANFIS structures. The identified models are implemented in the experimental pH system with IMC structure using a G...

  2. Local linear model tree and Neuro-Fuzzy system for modelling and control of an experimental pH neutralization process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Petchinathan

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper describes the modelling and control of a pH neutralization process using a Local Linear Model Tree (LOLIMOT and an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system (ANFIS. The Direct and Inverse model building using LOLIMOT and ANFIS structures is described and compared. The direct and inverse models of the pH system are identified based on experimental data for the LOLIMOT and ANFIS structures. The identified models are implemented in the experimental pH system with IMC structure using a GUI developed in the MATLAB -SIMULINK platform. The main aim is to illustrate the online modelling and control of the experimental setup. The results of real-time control of an experimental pH process using the Internal Model Control (IMC strategy are also presented.

  3. EIS Behavior of Experimental High-Strength Steel in Near-Neutral pH and Load Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barraza-Fierro, Jesus Israel; Serna-Barquera, Sergio Alonso; Campillo-Illanes, Bernardo Fabian; Castaneda, Homero

    2017-04-01

    Two thermomechanical heat treatments were applied to a high-strength low carbon steel with an experimental chemical composition, and as a result two different microstructures were obtained. Steel A had a ferritic microstructure, and steel B had a bainitic-martensitic one. The corrosion behavior was reviewed at long times in samples without load by means of Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) in a near-neutral pH (NNpH) environment. The results showed that the quantity and adherence of corrosion products on the sample surface at long times are different. Hence, the impedance was higher for steel B. Slow strain rate testing (SSRT) was applied to tempered samples of the two steels at 473 K, 673 K, and 873 K (200 °C, 400 °C, and 600 °C), and the corrosion behavior was acquired using EIS at the same time as the SSRT in NNpH conditions. This is a novel result because the tension samples were not electrically isolated from the rest of the load frame. The impedance for the ferritic steel was higher than the bainitic-martensitic one, while it slightly decreased for both steel over time. Tempering improved the corrosion resistance for steel A, while it was not modified for steel B. The corrosion behavior could be associated with the susceptibility of these steels to stress corrosion cracking. A transmission line model was proposed to show qualitatively the corrosion behavior of a crack in the steel, if there is a potential profile inside the crack. A hypothetical potential profile was acquired as well as different impedance behaviors based on electrochemical variables.

  4. Proteolytische activiteit bij neutrale pH in rundermilt

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Marrink, Jan

    1969-01-01

    Intracellular enzymes, hydrolysing proteins optimally at acid pH values (acid proteases), have been studied in detail by several investigators. The existence of proteolytic activity at neutral pH in animal tissue extracts, on the other hand, has often been mentioned, but with few reports on the

  5. The effect of copper and zinc at neutral and acidic pH on the general ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this study was to determine the effect of sublethal copper and zinc concentrations at a neutral and an acidic pH, on selected haematological parameters as well as on the total osmolality and electrolyte concentrations of Oreochromis mossambicus. In general, at neutral pH copper and zinc caused blood ...

  6. OZONE BLEACHING AT NEUTRAL PH – A NEW CONCEPT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando de Carvalho

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The effect of medium consistency ozone stage pH was evaluated for brown and oxygen delignified eucalyptus kraft pulp samples obtained from VCP - Luiz Antônio pulp mill. These samples were used as such or previously treated with the hot acid stage (A. The main objective of this study was to determine the viability of increasing the ozone stage pH aiming at decreasing bleaching variable costs. The ozone stage was studied in the pH range of 2.5-9.0, taking into account some important variables which affect ozone bleaching: (1 pulp kappa number entering the ozone stage, (2 reactivity of ozone towards lignin versus hexenuronic acids (HexA´s, (3 pulp treatments prior to ozone stage (acid hydrolysis, and (4 pulp treatments after the ozone stage (extraction or a chlorine dioxide stage.  Therefore, the impact of ozone stage pH was investigated in bleaching process such as Z/DEop vs AZ/DEop, Z/DEopD vs AZ/DEopD, Z/E vs AZ/E. The results were interpreted based on ozone stage efficiency and selectivity, and overall bleaching performance measured by the total bleaching chemical consumption required to achieve full brightness, pulp quality and environmental impact. It was concluded that the increase of ozone stage pH from 2.5 to 7.0 has a slightly negative impact on the efficiency and selectivity, measured after Z/DEop sequence, but this effect is not expressive in the end of Z/DEopD bleaching sequence. The increase of ozone stage pH from 2.5 to 7.0 in the sequence Z/DEopD is cost-effective at industrial level because it represents expressive reduction of sulphuric acid and caustic soda demand for pH control in the bleaching plant. These gain areas achieved without any significant changes in pulp quality and effluent load discharge. Nevertheless, the increase of ozone stage pH from 2.5 to 7.0 has a very high negative impact on the efficiency and selectivity for the Z/E and AZ/E processes and it is not recommended in such cases.

  7. Streptococcus oligofermentans Inhibits Streptococcus mutans in Biofilms at Both Neutral pH and Cariogenic Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bao, Xudong; de Soet, Johannes Jacob; Tong, Huichun; Gao, Xuejun; He, Libang; van Loveren, Cor; Deng, Dong Mei

    2015-01-01

    Homeostasis of oral microbiota can be maintained through microbial interactions. Previous studies showed that Streptococcus oligofermentans, a non-mutans streptococci frequently isolated from caries-free subjects, inhibited the cariogenic Streptococcus mutans by the production of hydrogen peroxide (HP). Since pH is a critical factor in caries formation, we aimed to study the influence of pH on the competition between S. oligofermentans and S. mutans in biofilms. To this end, S. mutans and S. oligofermentans were inoculated alone or mixed at 1:1 ratio in buffered biofilm medium in a 96-well active attachment model. The single- and dual-species biofilms were grown under either constantly neutral pH or pH-cycling conditions. The latter includes two cycles of 8 h neutral pH and 16 h pH 5.5, used to mimic cariogenic condition. The 48 h biofilms were analysed for the viable cell counts, lactate and HP production. The last two measurements were carried out after incubating the 48 h biofilms in buffers supplemented with 1% glucose (pH 7.0) for 4 h. The results showed that S. oligofermentans inhibited the growth of S. mutans in dual-species biofilms under both tested pH conditions. The lactic acid production of dual-species biofilms was significantly lower than that of single-species S. mutans biofilms. Moreover, dual-species and single-species S. oligofermentans biofilms grown under pH-cycling conditions (with a 16 h low pH period) produced a significantly higher amount of HP than those grown under constantly neutral pH. In conclusion, S. oligofermentans inhibited S. mutans in biofilms not only under neutral pH, but also under pH-cycling conditions, likely through HP production. S. oligofermentans may be a compelling probiotic candidate against caries.

  8. Sugar-based gemini surfactant with a vesicle-to-micelle transition at acidic pH and a reversible vesicle flocculation near neutral pH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Johnsson, M; Wagenaar, A; Engberts, JBFN

    2003-01-01

    A sugar-based (reduced glucose) gemini surfactant forms vesicles in dilute aqueous solution near neutral pH. At lower pH, there is a vesicle-to-micelle transition within a narrow pH region (pH 6.0-5.6). The vesicles are transformed into large cylindrical micelles that in turn are transformed into

  9. The experimental study of neutralized electron beams for electron cooling

    CERN Document Server

    Bosser, Jacques; MacCaferri, R; Molinari, G; Tranquille, G; Varenne, F; Korotaev, Yu V; Meshkov, I N; Polyakov, V A; Smirnov, A; Syresin, E M

    1996-01-01

    In this report we present the latest experimental results on electron beam neutralization. These experiments have been made at LEAR and on the JINR test bench. The main difficulty in obtaining neutralized beams resides in an instability which is dependent on the electron beam current. A number of methods have been developed in order to overcome this instability and have enabled us to further investigate the possibility of generating intense low energy electron beams for the cooling of Pb ions.

  10. Structural and physical properties of collagen extracted from moon jellyfish under neutral pH conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miki, Ayako; Inaba, Satomi; Baba, Takayuki; Kihira, Koji; Fukada, Harumi; Oda, Masayuki

    2015-01-01

    We extracted collagen from moon jellyfish under neutral pH conditions and analyzed its amino acid composition, secondary structure, and thermal stability. The content of hydroxyproline was 4.3%, which is lower than that of other collagens. Secondary structure analysis using circular dichroism (CD) showed a typical collagen helix. The thermal stability of this collagen at pH 3.0 was lower than those from fish scale and pig skin, which also correlates closely with jellyfish collagen having lower hydroxyproline content. Because the solubility of jellyfish collagen used in this study at neutral pH was quite high, it was possible to analyze its structural and physical properties under physiological conditions. Thermodynamic analysis using CD and differential scanning calorimetry showed that the thermal stability at pH 7.5 was higher than at pH 3.0, possibly due to electrostatic interactions. During the process of unfolding, fibrillation would occur only at neutral pH.

  11. The effect of copper and zinc at neutral and acidic pH on the blood ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It was found that the blood coagulation system of adult O. mossambicus exposed to copper and zinc at neutral and acid pH levels was altered. Deviations from normal coagulation times are either inherent or are due to factors such as liver damage, vascular abnormalities, and mineral and vitamin deficiencies. Exposure to ...

  12. Enhanced Dissolution of Silicate Minerals by Bacteria at Near-Neutral pH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vandevivere, P.; Welch, S. A.; Ullman, W. J.; Kirchman, D. L.

    1994-01-10

    Almost half of 17 bacterial isolates examined in this study stimulated by townite feldspar dissolution at near-neutral pH while in a resting state in buffered glucose. Most of the isolates that stimulated dissolution produced gluconic acid by the partial oxidation of glucose during the experiment.

  13. Enhanced dissolution of silicate minerals by bacteria at near-neutral pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandevivere, P; Welch, S A; Ullman, W J; Kirchman, D L

    1994-05-01

    Previous studies have shown that various microorganisms can enhance the dissolution of silicate minerals at low (8) pH. However, it was not known if they can have an effect at near-neutral pH. Almost half of 17 isolates examined in this study stimulated bytownite dissolution at near-neutral pH while in a resting state in buffered glucose. Most of the isolates found to stimulate dissolution also oxidized glucose to gluconic acid. More detailed analysis with one of these isolates suggested that this partial oxidation was the predominant, if not sole, mechanism of enhanced dissolution. Enhanced dissolution did not require direct contact between the dissolving mineral and the bacteria. Gluconate-promoted dissolution was also observed with other silicate minerals such as albite, quartz, and kaolinite.

  14. Aspergillus protein degradation pathways with different secreted protease sets at neutral and acidic pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sriranganadane, Dev; Waridel, Patrice; Salamin, Karine; Reichard, Utz; Grouzmann, Eric; Neuhaus, Jean-Marc; Quadroni, Manfredo; Monod, Michel

    2010-07-02

    Aspergillus fumigatus grows well at neutral and acidic pH in a medium containing protein as the sole nitrogen source by secreting two different sets of proteases. Neutral pH favors the secretion of neutral and alkaline endoproteases, leucine aminopeptidases (Laps) which are nonspecific monoaminopeptidases, and an X-prolyl dipeptidase (DppIV). Acidic pH environment promotes the secretion of an aspartic endoprotease of pepsin family (Pep1) and tripeptidyl-peptidases of the sedolisin family (SedB and SedD). A novel prolyl peptidase, AfuS28, was found to be secreted in both alkaline and acidic conditions. In previous studies, Laps were shown to degrade peptides from their N-terminus until an X-Pro sequence acts as a stop signal. X-Pro sequences can be then removed by DppIV, which allows Laps access to the following residues. We have shown that at acidic pH Seds degrade large peptides from their N-terminus into tripeptides until Pro in P1 or P'1 position acts as a stop for these exopeptidases. However, X-X-Pro and X-X-X-Pro sequences can be removed by AfuS28 thus allowing Seds further sequential proteolysis. In conclusion, both alkaline and acidic sets of proteases contain exoprotease activity capable of cleaving after proline residues that cannot be removed during sequential digestion by nonspecific exopeptidases.

  15. Final chlorine dioxide stage at near-neutral pH for bleaching eucalypt pulp

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robisnéa A. Ribeiro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that pH is an important parameter for controlling the eucalyptus pulp bleaching when using the final chlorine dioxide stage, since it affects the effectiveness of the process. Recommendations found in the literature for operating are in the 3.5 to 4.0 range. However, in this paper it was shown that final chlorine dioxide has better performance, with significant brightness gain while also preserving pulp quality, when it is operated at near neutral pH. This result can be explained by the generation of sodium bicarbonate in situ upon adding carbon dioxide at this stage.

  16. Charge-Neutral Constant pH Molecular Dynamics Simulations Using a Parsimonious Proton Buffer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Donnini, Serena; Ullmann, R Thomas; Groenhof, Gerrit; Grubmüller, Helmut

    2016-03-08

    In constant pH molecular dynamics simulations, the protonation states of titratable sites can respond to changes of the pH and of their electrostatic environment. Consequently, the number of protons bound to the biomolecule, and therefore the overall charge of the system, fluctuates during the simulation. To avoid artifacts associated with a non-neutral simulation system, we introduce an approach to maintain neutrality of the simulation box in constant pH molecular dynamics simulations, while maintaining an accurate description of all protonation fluctuations. Specifically, we introduce a proton buffer that, like a buffer in experiment, can exchange protons with the biomolecule enabling its charge to fluctuate. To keep the total charge of the system constant, the uptake and release of protons by the buffer are coupled to the titration of the biomolecule with a constraint. We find that, because the fluctuation of the total charge (number of protons) of a typical biomolecule is much smaller than the number of titratable sites of the biomolecule, the number of buffer sites required to maintain overall charge neutrality without compromising the charge fluctuations of the biomolecule, is typically much smaller than the number of titratable sites, implying markedly enhanced simulation and sampling efficiency.

  17. Peroxynitrate is formed rapidly during decomposition of peroxynitrite at neutral pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Deepali; Harish, B; Kissner, Reinhard; Koppenol, Willem H

    2009-08-07

    The decomposition of peroxynitrite near neutral pH leads ultimately to the formation of dioxygen and nitrite via an intermediate with an absorbance maximum at 284 nm. The intermediate oxidises I(-) with a rate constant of (78 +/- 8) x 10 M(-1) s(-1) and decays near pH 7 with a rate constant of (0.58 +/- 0.02) s(-1) at 22 degrees C, but is longer-lived at lower pH. On the basis of experiments performed with a tandem-quenching flow reactor, we tentatively identify this intermediate as peroxynitric acid, formed during the proposed reaction sequence ONOOH + ONOO(-) --> NO(2)(-) + O(2)NOO(-) + H(+) --> 2 NO(2)(-) + O(2). These products are those expected from a peracid. The rate constant for the first reaction is ca. 3 x 10(4) M(-1) s(-1). Part of the dioxygen formed is in the (1)Delta(g) state (S. Miyamoto, G. E. Ronsein, T. C. Corréa, G. R. Martinez, M. H. G. Medeiros and P. Di Mascio, Dalton Trans., 2009, DOI: 10.1039/b905560f). The decay of peroxynitrous acid at concentrations higher than 0.1 mM near neutral pH is best described by the simultaneous process of isomerisation (k = 1.2 s(-1)) and decomposition to peroxynitrate. The rate of formation and the amount of peroxynitrate formed are much larger than can be accounted for by homolysis reactions.

  18. Assessment of iron chelates efficiency for photo-Fenton at neutral pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Luca, Antonella; Dantas, Renato F; Esplugas, Santiago

    2014-09-15

    In this study, homogeneous photo-Fenton like at neutral pH was applied to remove sulfamethoxazole from water. The process was performed using different chelating agents in order to solubilize iron in a neutral water solution. The chelating agents tested were: ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA); nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA); oxalic acid (OA) and tartaric acid (TA). The iron leaching was monitored over reaction time to evaluate the chelates stability and their resistance to HO· and UV-A radiation. Chelates of EDTA and NTA presented more stability than OA and TA, which also confirmed their higher efficiency. Total Organic Carbon (TOC) analyses were also performed to evaluate the contribution in terms of solution contamination related to the use of chelating agents. The better properties of biodegradability in respect of EDTA combined with better efficiency in terms of microcontaminant removal and the smallest TOC contribution indicate that NTA could represent a useful option to perform photo-Fenton processes at neutral pH. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Organic additives enhance Fenton treatment of nitrobenzene at near-neutral pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Gang; Zhou, Lincheng; Gao, Weijie; Li, Yanfeng

    2015-05-01

    Nitrobenzene (NB) is considered a toxic and potential carcinogen. Continuous contamination has resulted in an urgent need for remediation. Fenton reagent provides an advanced oxidation process that is capable of remediating recalcitrant nitroaromatic compounds, such as NB. However, one drawback of Fenton chemistry is that the reaction requires acidic pH to prevent precipitation of iron. Our studies have investigated Fenton conversion of NB at near-neutral pH with several organic additives: β-cyclodextrin (β-CD), hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (HPCD), carboxymethyl-β-cyclodextrin (CMCD), and polyethylene glycol (molecular weight (MW) = 200, 400, and 600) for developing a process for treating NB-contaminated waters. The main factors influencing NB conversion, such as iron concentration, hydroxyl radicals (·OH) scavengers, and kinds or concentration of organic additives, were examined. Meanwhile, the reactive mechanisms and kinetics were investigated for Fenton conversion of NB. The results show that organic additives for Fenton process should be a good alternative for the advanced treatment of NB at near-neutral pH.

  20. Neutralization of red mud with pickling waste liquor using Taguchi's design of experimental methodology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Suchita; Wasewar, Kailas L; Lataye, Dilip H; Mishra, Rajshekhar S; Puttewar, Suresh P; Chaddha, Mukesh J; Mahindiran, P; Mukhopadhyay, Jyoti

    2012-09-01

    'Red mud' or 'bauxite residue', a waste generated from alumina refinery is highly alkaline in nature with a pH of 10.5-12.5. Red mud poses serious environmental problems such as alkali seepage in ground water and alkaline dust generation. One of the options to make red mud less hazardous and environmentally benign is its neutralization with acid or an acidic waste. Hence, in the present study, neutralization of alkaline red mud was carried out using a highly acidic waste (pickling waste liquor). Pickling waste liquor is a mixture of strong acids used for descaling or cleaning the surfaces in steel making industry. The aim of the study was to look into the feasibility of neutralization process of the two wastes using Taguchi's design of experimental methodology. This would make both the wastes less hazardous and safe for disposal. The effect of slurry solids, volume of pickling liquor, stirring time and temperature on the neutralization process were investigated. The analysis of variance (ANOVA) shows that the volume of the pickling liquor is the most significant parameter followed by quantity of red mud with 69.18% and 18.48% contribution each respectively. Under the optimized parameters, pH value of 7 can be achieved by mixing the two wastes. About 25-30% of the total soda from the red mud is being neutralized and alkalinity is getting reduced by 80-85%. Mineralogy and morphology of the neutralized red mud have also been studied. The data presented will be useful in view of environmental concern of red mud disposal.

  1. Changing the electron donor improves azoreductase dye degrading activity at neutral pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Jingxian; Paul, Caroline E; Hollmann, Frank; Tischler, Dirk

    2017-05-01

    The oxygen-insensitive azoreductase AzoRo originating from Rhodococcus opacus 1CP was found to be most active at low pH (ca. 4) and high temperature (ca. 50°C). AzoRo is not an efficient biocatalyst when used at low pH due to stability problems. To overcome this issue, we discovered that AzoRo accepts an alternative electron donor, 1-benzyl-1,4-dihydronicotinamide (BNAH), which allows fast turnover at neutral pH. In order to screen this nicotinamide coenzyme mimic as a source of electrons, AzoRo-catalysed reactions were run under neutral conditions, under which typically slow rates are observed with NADH. For the reduction of 1 azo bond by azoreductases 2mol nicotinamide coenzyme are needed. AzoRo displayed Methyl Red (MR) reduction activities with NADH and NADPH of 5.49±0.14Umg-1 and 4.96±0.25Umg-1, respectively, whereas with BNAH it displayed 17.01±0.74Umg-1 (following BNAH oxidation) and 7.16±0.06Umg-1 (following MR reduction). Binding of BNAH to AzoRo was determined with a Km of 18.75±2.45μM (BNAH oxidation) and 12.45±0.47μM (MR reduction). In order to show applicability of this system an upscaled reaction was performed using 78.6μg of purified AzoRo to convert 2.96μmol of MR (total reaction volume: 40ml) within a 1h reaction. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Electrocatalytic hydrogen evolution under densely buffered neutral pH conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Shinagawa, Tatsuya

    2015-08-18

    Under buffered neutral pH conditions, solute concentrations drastically influence the hydrogen evolution reaction (HER). The iR-free HER performance as a function of solute concentration was found to exhibit a volcano-shaped trend in sodium phosphate solution at pH 5, with the maximum occurring at 2 M. A detailed microkinetic model that includes calculated activity coefficients, solution resistance, and mass-transport parameters accurately describes the measured values, clarifying that the overall HER performance is predominantly governed by mass-transport of slow phosphate ions (weak acid). In the HER at the optimum concentration of approximately 2 M sodium phosphate at pH 5, our theoretical model predicts that the concentration overpotential accounts for more than half of the required overpotential. The substantial concentration overpotential would originate from the electrolyte property, suggesting that the proper electrolyte engineering will result in an improved apparent HER performances. The significance of concentration overpotential shown in the study is critical in the advancement of electrocatalysis, biocatalysis, and photocatalysis.

  3. Conformational intermediate of the amyloidogenic protein beta 2-microglobulin at neutral pH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Heegaard, N H; Sen, J W; Kaarsholm, N C

    2001-01-01

    of organic solvent present. Circular dichroism showed a loss of beta-structures and gain of alpha-helices. Reversal to the native conformation occurred when removing the organics. Affinity capillary electrophoresis experiments showed increased specific interactions of the nonnative beta(2)-microglobulin......Aggregation and fibrillation of beta(2)-microglobulin are hallmarks of dialysis-related amyloidosis. We characterize perturbations of the native conformation of beta(2)-microglobulin that may precede fibril formation. For a beta(2)-microglobulin variant cleaved at lysine 58, we show using capillary...... electrophoresis that two conformers spontaneously exist in aqueous buffers at neutral pH. Upon treatment of wild-type beta(2)-microglobulin with acetonitrile or trifluoroethanol, two conformations were also observed. These conformations were in equilibrium dependent on the sample temperature and the percentage...

  4. Formation of uranium(IV)-silica colloids at near-neutral pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreissig, Isabell; Weiss, Stephan; Hennig, Christoph; Bernhard, Gert; Zänker, Harald

    2011-01-01

    Evidence is provided by photon correlation spectroscopy, ultrafiltration and ultracentrifugation that uranium(IV) can form silicate-containing colloids of a size of ⩽20 nm. A concentration of up to 10 -3 M of colloid-borne U(IV) was observed. The particles are generated in near-neutral to slightly alkaline solutions containing background chemicals of geogenic nature (carbonate, silicate, sodium ions). They remain stable in aqueous suspension over years. Electrostatic repulsion due to a negative zeta potential in the near-neutral to alkaline pH range caused by the silicate stabilizes the U(IV) colloids. The isoelectric point of the nanoparticles is shifted toward lower pH values by the silicate. The mechanism of the colloidal stabilization can be regarded as "sequestration" by silicate, a phenomenon well known from heavy metal ions of high ion potential such as iron(III) or manganese(III,IV), but never reported for uranium(IV) so far. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy showed that U-O-Si bonds, which increasingly replace the U-O-U bonds of the amorphous uranium(IV) oxyhydroxide with increasing silicate concentrations, make up the internal structure of the colloids. The next-neighbor coordination of U(IV) in the U(IV)-silica colloids is comparable with that of coffinite, USiO 4. The assessment of uranium behavior in the aquatic environment should take the possible existence of U(IV)-silica colloids into consideration. Their occurrence might influence uranium migration in anoxic waters.

  5. Mercury and other element exposure in tree swallows nesting at low pH and neutral pH lakes in northern Wisconsin USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Custer, Thomas W.; Custer, Christine M.; Thogmartin, Wayne E.; Dummer, Paul M.; Rossmann, Ronald; Kenow, Kevin P.; Meyer, Michael W.

    2012-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to determine whether tree swallows (Tachycineta bicolor) demonstrate similar responses to lake pH and mercury (Hg) contamination in northern Wisconsin as do common loons (Gavia immer). Similar to common loons, Hg concentrations in the blood of tree swallow nestlings were higher, Hg concentrations in eggs tended to be higher, and egg size tended to be smaller at low (mercury in nestling livers were higher at low pH lakes than neutral pH lakes. Concentrations of cadmium, chromium, mercury, selenium, and zinc were not at toxic levels.

  6. Addressing a Common Misconception: Ammonium Acetate as Neutral pH "Buffer" for Native Electrospray Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konermann, Lars

    2017-09-01

    Native ESI-MS involves the transfer of intact proteins and biomolecular complexes from solution into the gas phase. One potential pitfall is the occurrence of pH-induced changes that can affect the analyte while it is still surrounded by solvent. Most native ESI-MS studies employ neutral aqueous ammonium acetate solutions. It is a widely perpetuated misconception that ammonium acetate buffers the analyte solution at neutral pH. By definition, a buffer consists of a weak acid and its conjugate weak base. The buffering range covers the weak acid pKa ± 1 pH unit. NH4 + and CH3-COO- are not a conjugate acid/base pair, which means that they do not constitute a buffer at pH 7. Dissolution of ammonium acetate salt in water results in pH 7, but this pH is highly labile. Ammonium acetate does provide buffering around pH 4.75 (the pKa of acetic acid) and around pH 9.25 (the pKa of ammonium). This implies that neutral ammonium acetate solutions electrosprayed in positive ion mode will likely undergo acidification down to pH 4.75 ± 1 in the ESI plume. Ammonium acetate nonetheless remains a useful additive for native ESI-MS. It is a volatile electrolyte that can mimic the solvation properties experienced by proteins under physiological conditions. Also, a drop from pH 7 to around pH 4.75 is less dramatic than the acidification that would take place in pure water. It is hoped that the habit of referring to pH 7 solutions as ammonium acetate "buffer" will disappear from the literature. Ammonium acetate "solution" should be used instead. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  7. Zero-valent aluminum for reductive removal of aqueous pollutants over a wide pH range: Performance and mechanism especially at near-neutral pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Shiying; Zheng, Di; Ren, Tengfei; Zhang, Yixuan; Xin, Jia

    2017-10-15

    Zero-valent aluminum (ZVAl) draws much attention due to its strong reducibility. However, under neutral pH conditions, the reduction ability of ZVAl for pollutant removal has still been suspected because of the formed compact surface film of Al-(hydr)oxide. In this study, unmodified ZVAl was employed to reductively remove aqueous pollutants over a wide pH range, and its performance and mechanism, especially at near-neutral pH, were systematically studied for the first time. Results demonstrated that ZVAl had a wide range of pH applicability from 2 to 12, even in neutral environment. Typical nitro compound nitrobenzene (NB), typical azo dye acid orange 7 (AO7), and typical inorganic heavy metal ion Cr(VI) can be effectively removed at initial pH 7. Based on the changes of pH, ORP, DO, Al ions and TOC of the reaction solution, and the determination of reduction products of NB by UV-Vis and GC-MS, we found that NB removal by ZVAl can be primarily attributed to the reduction role. NB was reduced to nitrosobenzene firstly, and to aniline finally. Meanwhile, the adsorption phenomenon existed in this system. Next, the surface reaction mechanism was deeply revealed through the characterization of ZVAl particles before and after reaction by SEM-EDS, TEM, HRTEM, XRD, and XPS. It was found that ZVAl powders with core/shell structure participated in the redox reaction, and that ZVAl core was corroded, generating Al-(hydr)oxide. ZVAl surface oxide film was not directly removed, instead of a rougher one. Finally, the proposed reductive mechanism of aqueous pollutants by ZVAl was speculated from the angle of electronic competition. In water environment, O2, H2O and pollutants, with a clear competitive relationship, can capture electrons released from ZVAl. When pollutant's opportunities for getting electrons are enhanced, efficiently reductive reactions for pollutant removal can take place, even at near-neutral pH. In a word, ZVAl is a promising material to remove aqueous

  8. A neutral pH thermal hydrolysis method for quantification of structured RNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, Stephen C.; Cohen, Daniel T.; Wang, Xin C.; Hammond, Ming C.

    2014-01-01

    Riboswitch aptamers adopt diverse and complex tertiary structural folds that contain both single-stranded and double-stranded regions. We observe that this high degree of secondary structure leads to an appreciable hypochromicity that is not accounted for in the standard method to calculate extinction coefficients using nearest-neighbor effects, which results in a systematic underestimation of RNA concentrations. Here we present a practical method for quantifying riboswitch RNAs using thermal hydrolysis to generate the corresponding pool of mononucleotides, for which precise extinction coefficients have been measured. Thermal hydrolysis can be performed at neutral pH without reaction quenching, avoids the use of nucleases or expensive fluorescent dyes, and does not require generation of calibration curves. The accuracy of this method for determining RNA concentrations has been validated using quantitative 31P-NMR calibrated to an external standard. We expect that this simple procedure will be generally useful for the accurate quantification of any sequence-defined RNA sample, which is often a critical parameter for in vitro binding and kinetic assays. PMID:24860014

  9. New Heterofunctional Supports Based on Glutaraldehyde-Activation: A Tool for Enzyme Immobilization at Neutral pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melo, Ricardo Rodrigues de; Alnoch, Robson Carlos; Vilela, Adriana Ferreira Lopes; Souza, Emanuel Maltempi de; Krieger, Nadia; Ruller, Roberto; Sato, Hélia Harumi; Mateo, Cesar

    2017-06-29

    Immobilization is an exciting alternative to improve the stability of enzymatic processes. However, part of the applied covalent strategies for immobilization uses specific conditions, generally alkaline pH, where some enzymes are not stable. Here, a new generation of heterofunctional supports with application at neutral pH conditions was proposed. New supports were developed with different bifunctional groups (i.e., hydrophobic or carboxylic/metal) capable of adsorbing biocatalysts at different regions (hydrophobic or histidine richest place), together with a glutaraldehyde group that promotes an irreversible immobilization at neutral conditions. To verify these supports, a multi-protein model system ( E. coli extract) and four enzymes ( Candida rugosa lipase, metagenomic lipase, β-galactosidase and β-glucosidase) were used. The immobilization mechanism was tested and indicated that moderate ionic strength should be applied to avoid possible unspecific adsorption. The use of different supports allowed the immobilization of most of the proteins contained in a crude protein extract. In addition, different supports yielded catalysts of the tested enzymes with different catalytic properties. At neutral pH, the new supports were able to adsorb and covalently immobilize the four enzymes tested with different recovered activity values. Notably, the use of these supports proved to be an efficient alternative tool for enzyme immobilization at neutral pH.

  10. Binding and potential-triggered release of L-glutamate with molecularly imprinted polypyrrole in neutral pH solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Chernov, I.; Greb, H.; Janssen-Bienhold, U.; Parisi, J.; Weiler, R.; von Hauff, E.L.

    2014-01-01

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) are interesting for potential-regulated trafficking of molecules. In this study, we investigate the binding properties of l-glutamate (Glu) in molecularly imprinted polypyrrole (MIPPy) in neutral pH solutions. We prepared MIPPy by electrochemically depositing

  11. X-ray and light scattering study of the structure of large protein aggregates at neutral pH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pouzot, M.; Nicolai, T.; Visschers, R.W.; Weijers, M.

    2005-01-01

    The structure of large ovalbumin and ß-lactoglobulin aggregates formed after heat-denaturation at neutral pH was studied using a combination of light and small-angle X-ray scattering. The effect of the electrostatic interactions was investigated by varying the ionic strength. The results were

  12. Characterization of an invertase with pH tolerance and truncation of its N-terminal to shift optimum activity toward neutral pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Liqin; Pang, Hao; Wang, Zilong; Lu, Jian; Wei, Yutuo; Huang, Ribo

    2013-01-01

    Most invertases identified to date have optimal activity at acidic pH, and are intolerant to neutral or alkaline environments. Here, an acid invertase named uninv2 is described. Uninv2 contained 586 amino acids, with a 100 amino acids N-terminal domain, a catalytic domain and a C-terminal domain. With sucrose as the substrate, uninv2 activity was optimal at pH 4.5 and at 45°C. Removal of N-terminal domain of uninv2 has shifted the optimum pH to 6.0 while retaining its optimum temperaure at 45°C. Both uninv2 and the truncated enzyme retained highly stable at neutral pH at 37°C, and they were stable at their optimum pH at 4°C for as long as 30 days. These characteristics make them far superior to invertase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is mostly used as industrial enzyme.

  13. Characterization of an invertase with pH tolerance and truncation of its N-terminal to shift optimum activity toward neutral pH.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liqin Du

    Full Text Available Most invertases identified to date have optimal activity at acidic pH, and are intolerant to neutral or alkaline environments. Here, an acid invertase named uninv2 is described. Uninv2 contained 586 amino acids, with a 100 amino acids N-terminal domain, a catalytic domain and a C-terminal domain. With sucrose as the substrate, uninv2 activity was optimal at pH 4.5 and at 45°C. Removal of N-terminal domain of uninv2 has shifted the optimum pH to 6.0 while retaining its optimum temperaure at 45°C. Both uninv2 and the truncated enzyme retained highly stable at neutral pH at 37°C, and they were stable at their optimum pH at 4°C for as long as 30 days. These characteristics make them far superior to invertase from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, which is mostly used as industrial enzyme.

  14. TNF-α neutralization improves experimental hepatopulmonary syndrome in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Li; Liu, Nan; Zhao, Zhi; Liu, Jiabao; Feng, Yingmei; Jiang, Huiqing; Han, Delan

    2012-07-01

    TNF-α is increased in hepatopulmonary syndrome (HPS). Pentoxifylline (PTX) mitigated experimental HPS through the inhibition of TNF-α. However, PTX has pleiotropic effects besides the inhibition of TNF-α. This study is to neutralize TNF-α with specific monoclonal antibody to TNF-α (TNF-α McAb) to investigate the effect of TNF-α on HPS. Hepatopulmonary syndrome was induced by common bile duct ligation (CBDL); controls were sham operated. The endpoints were 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 weeks after surgery. (99m) Technetium-macroaggregated albumin (Tc-MAA) was to evaluate intrapulmonary arteriovenous shunts; Portal venous pressure, cardiac output and mean blood pressure (MAP) were also measured. Serum was for Alanine transaminase (ALT), endotoxin, TNF-α and nitric oxide (NO) measurements, liver for histology, lung for histology and iNOS, PI3K/Akt expression assay. Portal vein pressure was significantly elevated and MAP decreased in CBDL rats. Tc-MAA was mainly located in lung and very weak in brain in sham group and mainly in brain of CBDL rats. TNF-α McAb significantly decreased the radioactivity in the brain, reduced cardiac output, increased MAP and systemic vascular resistance (SVR) in CBDL animals. Serum ALT, endotoxin, TNF-α and NO were significantly increased. TNF-α McAb significantly decreased these serum indices in CBDL rats. TNF-α McAb significantly alleviated liver damage, decreased alveolar-arterial gradient and inhibited iNOS, PI3K/Akt and p-Akt expression in lung tissue. Furthermore, TNF-α McAb significantly attenuated the inflammatory response in lung. TNF-α McAb improves HPS in cirrhotic rats; this effect is likely mediated through the inhibition of TNF-α PI3K/Akt-NO pathway. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  15. PH-NEUTRAL CONCRETE FOR ATTACHED MICROALGAE AND ENHANCED CARBON DIOXIDE FIXATION - PHASE I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kerry M. Dooley; F. Carl Knopf; Robert P. Gambrell

    1999-05-31

    The novelty/innovation of the proposed work is as follows. Supercritical carbon dioxide (SC-CO {sub 2})-based extrusion and molding technology can be used to produce significantly improved (in terms of strength/unit weight, durability, hardness and chemical resistance) cement-based products. SC-CO{sub 2} can rapidly convert the calcium hydroxide in cured cement to calcium carbonate, which increases the density and unconfined compressive strength in the treated region. In cured concrete, this treated region is typically a several-mm thick layer (generally <{approx}5mm, unless treatment time is excessive). However, we have found that by treating the entire cement matrix with SC-CO{sub 2} as part of the curing process, we can carbonate it rapidly, regardless of the thickness. By ''rapidly'' we mean simultaneous carbonation/curing in < 5 ks even for large cement forms, compared to typical carbonation times of several days or even years at low pressures. Carbonation changes the pH in the treated region from {approx}13 to {approx}8, almost exactly compatible with seawater. Therefore the leaching rates from these cements is reduced. These cement improvements are directed to the development of strong but thin artificial reefs, to which can be attached microalgae used for the enhanced fixation of CO{sub 2}. It is shown below that attached microalgae, as algal beds or reefs, are more efficient for CO{sub 2} fixation by a factor of 20, compared to the open ocean on an area basis. We have performed preliminary tests of the pH-neutral cements of our invention for attachment of microalgae populations. We have found pH-neutral materials which attach microalgae readily. These include silica-enriched (pozzolanic) cements, blast-furnace slags and fly ash, which are also silica-rich. We have already developed technology to simultaneously foam, carbonate and cure the cements; this foaming process further increases cement surface areas for microalgae attachment, in

  16. Anodic Dissolution Behavior of the Crack Tip of X70 Pipeline Steel in Near-Neutral pH Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Zhongyu; Wang, Liwei; Liu, Zhiyong; Du, Cuiwei; Li, Xiaogang; Wang, Xin

    2016-12-01

    In this work, the anodic dissolution behavior of the fresh metal surface at crack tip of X70 steel in near-neutral pH environment was investigated using galvanic corrosion simulation method. The solution environment, strain, strain rate, hydrogen enrichment, and fresh metal surface at the crack tip were considered. Corrosion current of the specimen during fast stretching increased linearly with plastic strain. The increment and increase rate of the corrosion current during plastic deformation stage were dependent on the strain rate. Combining Faraday's law and crack tip strain rate equation, the crack growth rate (CGR) induced by the anodic dissolution of the fresh metal surface was calculated. Results show that CGR caused by anodic dissolution was roughly one order lower than that measured on the compact tensile specimen under cyclic load. This finding indicated that hydrogen embrittlement may play a dominate role in stress corrosion crack propagation of pipeline steels in near-neutral pH environment.

  17. Effect of bleaching agents having a neutral pH on the surface of mineral trioxide aggregate using electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kazia, Nooh; Suvarna, Nithin; Shetty, Harish Kumar; Kumar, Pradeep

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the effect of bleaching agents having a neutral pH on the surface of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) used as a coronal seal material for nonvital bleaching, beneath the bleaching agent, with the help of energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Materials and Methods: Six samples of plastic tubes filled with white MTA (Angelus white) were kept in 100% humidity for 21 days. Each sample was divided into 2 and made into 12 samples. These were then divided into three groups. Group A was exposed to Opalescence Boost 40% hydrogen peroxide (HP) (Ultradent). Group B to Opalescence 10% carbamide peroxide (Ultradent) and Group C (control group) not exposed to any bleaching agent. After recommended period of exposure to bleaching agents according to manufacturers’ instructions, the samples were observed under SEM with an energy dispersive X-ray microanalysis system (JSM-6380 LA). Results: There were no relevant changes in color and no statistically significant surface structure changes of the MTA in both the experimental groups. Conclusion: The present findings suggest that even high concentration HP containing bleaching agents with neutral pH can be used on the surface of MTA without causing structural changes. The superior sealing ability of MTA and the high alkalinity would prevent cervical resorption postbleaching. PMID:27656061

  18. Insight into the SEA amide thioester equilibrium. Application to the synthesis of thioesters at neutral pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pira, S L; El Mahdi, O; Raibaut, L; Drobecq, H; Dheur, J; Boll, E; Melnyk, O

    2016-07-26

    The bis(2-sulfanylethyl)amide (SEA) N,S-acyl shift thioester surrogate has found a variety of useful applications in the field of protein total synthesis. Here we present novel insights into the SEA amide/thioester equilibrium in water which is an essential step in any reaction involving the thioester surrogate properties of the SEA group. We also show that the SEA amide thioester equilibrium can be efficiently displaced at neutral pH for accessing peptide alkylthioesters, i.e. the key components of the native chemical ligation (NCL) reaction.

  19. Effects of solutions treated with oxygen radicals in neutral pH region on inactivation of microorganism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Tsuyoshi; Hashizume, Hiroshi; Ohta, Takayuki; Ishikawa, Kenji; Hori, Masaru; Ito, Masafumi

    2015-09-01

    The inactivation of microorganisms using nonequilbrium atmospheric pressure plasmas has been attracted much attention due to the low temperature processing and high speed treatment. In this study, we have inactivated E. coli suspended in solutions with neutral pH using an atmospheric-pressure oxygen radical source which can selectively supply electrically neutral oxygen radicals. E. coli cells were suspended with deionized distilled water (DDW) (pH = 6.8) or phosphate buffered saline (PBS) (pH = 7.4) or Citrate-Na buffer (pH = 6.5). The treated samples were diluted and spread on nutrient agar (Nutrient Broth). They were cultured at 37° C. The inactivation effects of oxygen radicals on those cells in solutions were evaluated by colony-counting method. O2 diluted by Ar gas were employed as a working gas for the radical source. The total gas flow rate and the gas mixture ratio of O2/(Ar + O2) were set at 5 slm and 0.6%, respectively. The distance between the radical exit and the suspension surface were set at 10 mm. As a result, the D values for DDW(pH = 6.8), PBS(pH = 7.4) and Citrate-Na buffer(pH = 6.5) were estimated to be 1.4 min, 0.9 min and 16.8 min respectively. The inactivation rates in DDW, PBS were significantly different from that in Citrate-Na buffer. This work was partly supported by JSPS KAKENHI Grant Number 26286072 and project for promoting Research Center in Meijo University.

  20. At neutral pH the chronological lifespan of Hansenula polymorpha increases upon enhancing the carbon source concentrations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawałek, Adam; van der Klei, Ida J.

    2014-01-01

    Dietary restriction is generally assumed to increase the lifespan in most eukaryotes, including the simple model organism Saccharomyces cerevisiae. However, recent data questioned whether this phenomenon is indeed true for yeast. We studied the effect of reduction of the carbon source concentration on the chronological lifespan of the yeast Hansenula polymorpha using four different carbon sources. Our data indicate that reduction of the carbon source concentration has a negative (glucose, ethanol, methanol) or positive (glycerol) effect on the chronological lifespan. We show that the actual effect of carbon source concentrations largely depends on extracellular factor(s). We provide evidence that H. polymorpha acidifies the medium and that a low pH of the medium alone is sufficient to significantly decrease the chronological lifespan. However, glucose-grown cells are less sensitive to low pH compared to glycerol-grown cells, explaining why only the reduction of the glycerol-concentration (which leads to less medium acidification) has a positive effect on the chronological lifespan. Instead, the positive effect of enhancing the glucose concentrations is much larger than the negative effect of the medium acidification at these conditions, explaining the increased lifespan with increasing glucose concentrations. Importantly, at neutral pH, the chronological lifespan also decreases with a reduction in glycerol concentrations. We show that for glycerol cultures this effect is related to acidification independent changes in the composition of the spent medium. Altogether, our data indicate that in H. polymorpha at neutral pH the chronological lifespan invariably extends upon increasing the carbon source concentration. PMID:28357243

  1. Soil and plant factors driving the community of soil-borne microorganisms across chronosequences of secondary succession of chalk grasslands with a neutral pH.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kuramae, E.E.; Gamper, H.A.; van Veen, J.A..; Kowalchuk, G.A.

    2011-01-01

    Although soil pH has been shown to be an important factor driving microbial communities, relatively little is known about the other potentially important factors that shape soil-borne microbial community structure. This study examined plant and microbial communities across a series of neutral pH

  2. Effects of Plastic Deformation and Carbon Dioxide on Corrosion of Pipeline Steel in Near-Neutral pH Groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, B. T.; Yu, H.; Luo, J. L.

    2013-05-01

    This paper investigates the effect of plastic deformation on the anodic dissolution behavior of pipeline steel in deaerated groundwater with near-neutral pH. The plastic deformation is introduced via two different ways: cold-rolling and in situ tension. It is observed that the cold-rolling prior to the exposure to corroding environment reduces the corrosion rate but the in situ tension increases corrosion rate slightly. In accord with thermodynamic analysis, the impacts of residual stresses and plastic deformation on active dissolution are very small except a highly non-uniform dislocation structure is formed. A preliminary analysis suggests that the reduced corrosion rate of cold-rolled steel is related to competitive adsorption of CO2 and H+ on the active sites over the surface.

  3. Effect of Stress on Corrosion at Crack Tip on Pipeline Steel in a Near-Neutral pH Solution

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yao; Cheng, Y. Frank

    2016-11-01

    In this work, the local corrosion at crack tip on an API 5L X46 pipeline steel specimens was investigated under various applied loads in a near-neutral pH solution. Electrochemical measurements, including potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, combined with micro-electrochemical technique and surface characterization, were conducted to investigate the effect of stress on local anodic solution of the steel at the crack tip. The stress corrosion cracking of the steel was dominated by an anodic dissolution mechanism, while the effect of hydrogen was negligible. The applied load (stress) increased the corrosion rate at the crack tip, contributing to crack propagation. The deposit of corrosion products at the crack tip could protect somewhat from further corrosion. At sufficiently large applied loads such as 740 N in the work, it was possible to generate separated cathode and anode, further accelerating the crack growth.

  4. An Efficient and Stable Hydrophobic Molecular Cobalt Catalyst for Water Electro-oxidation at Neutral pH

    KAUST Repository

    Chen, Ba-Tian

    2016-06-14

    The synthesis of a library of molecular water oxidation catalysts based on the Co complex of tris(2-benzimidazolylmethyl)amine is described. Hydrophobicity was identified as the key variable in mediating the catalytic competence of the complexes. The change in this parameter correlates with both the conformational mobility of the ligand core and the structural changes in the local solvent environment around the metal site. The optimal Co complex identified is hydrophobic, because of three semifluorinated side chains. It catalyzes water electro-oxidation efficiently at neutral pH, with an overpotential of 390 mV and a turnover frequency (TOF) of 1.83 s-1 in the absence of soluble Co salts. The catalyst can be immobilized through physisorption, and it remains stable in prolonged electrolysis experiments. © 2016 American Chemical Society.

  5. Removal of β-lactam antibiotics from pharmaceutical wastewaters using photo-Fenton process at near-neutral pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giraldo-Aguirre, Ana L; Serna-Galvis, Efraím A; Erazo-Erazo, Edgar D; Silva-Agredo, Javier; Giraldo-Ospina, Héctor; Flórez-Acosta, Oscar A; Torres-Palma, Ricardo A

    2017-02-03

    In this work, the photo-Fenton process at near-neutral pH was applied for the removal of the β-lactam antibiotic oxacillin (OXA) in water using artificial and sunlight. Initially, the main variables of the process (Fe(II), H2O2, and light power) were optimized by a statistical factorial design (23 with center points). The experimental design indicated that 90 μmol L-1 of Fe(II), 10 mmol L-1 of H2O2, and 30 W of power light were the favorable conditions for degradation of OXA at 203 μmol L-1. In the photo-Fenton system, the H2O2 alone, UV-light/H2O2, and Fe(II)/H2O2 subsystems presented a significant participation on antibiotic removal. Moreover, based on the primary organic transformation products, a mechanism of OXA degradation was proposed. Under the favorable operational conditions, both the pollutant and the antimicrobial activity were eliminated after 50 min of process application. Although at 480 min of treatment, only 5% of mineralization was achieved, the level of biodegradability of the solutions increased from 0.08 to 0.98. Interestingly, the presence of pharmaceutical additives (glucose, isopropanol, and oxalic acid) had a moderate interference on the efficiency of the pollutant removal. Additionally, the treatment at pilot scale of the β-lactam antibiotic in a pharmaceutical complex matrix using solar radiation allowed the complete removal of the pollutant and its associated antimicrobial activity in a very short time period (5 min). These results evidenced the applicability of the photo-Fenton process to treat wastewaters from pharmaceutical industry loaded with β-lactam antibiotics at near neutral pH values efficiently.

  6. Study and Optimization of Self-Assembled Polymeric Multilayer Structures with Neutral Red for pH Sensing Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Javier Goicoechea

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The characterization of nanostructured thin films is critical in the design and fabrication of optical sensors. Particularly, this work is a detailed study of the properties of layer-by-layer electrostatic self-assembled multilayer (LbL structures fabricated using poly(allylamine hydrochloride (PAH and Neutral Red (NR as cations, and poly(acrylic acid (PAA as polyanion. These LbL films, due to the colorimetric properties of the NR, are suitable for sensor applications such as pH sensing in the physiological range. In the (PAH+NR/PAA LbL structure, it has been observed a very important influence of the pH of the solutions in the properties of the resultant films. Different techniques such as spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy (AFM are combined to characterize the films, and the results are analyzed showing coherence with previous works. The LbL structure is finally optimized and dramatically improved nanostructured films were fabricated, showing good sensing properties, short response times, and good stability.

  7. Design of Experimental Data Publishing Software for Neutral Beam Injector on EAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Hu, Chundong; Sheng, Peng; Zhao, Yuanzhe; Zhang, Xiaodan; Wu, Deyun

    2015-02-01

    Neutral Beam Injection (NBI) is one of the most effective means for plasma heating. Experimental Data Publishing Software (EDPS) is developed to publish experimental data to get the NBI system under remote monitoring. In this paper, the architecture and implementation of EDPS including the design of the communication module and web page display module are presented. EDPS is developed based on the Browser/Server (B/S) model, and works under the Linux operating system. Using the data source and communication mechanism of the NBI Control System (NBICS), EDPS publishes experimental data on the Internet.

  8. Inactivation of natural enteric bacteria in real municipal wastewater by solar photo-Fenton at neutral pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Gómez, E; Esteban García, B; Ballesteros Martín, M M; Fernández Ibáñez, P; Sánchez Pérez, J A

    2014-10-15

    This study analyses the use of the solar photo-Fenton treatment in compound parabolic collector photo-reactors at neutral pH for the inactivation of wild enteric Escherichia coli and total coliform present in secondary effluents of a municipal wastewater treatment plant (SEWWTP). Control experiments were carried out to find out the individual effects of mechanical stress, pH, reactants concentration, and UVA radiation as well as the combined effects of UVA-Fe and UVA-H2O2. The synergistic germicidal effect of solar-UVA with 50 mg L(-1) of H2O2 led to complete disinfection (up to the detection limit) of total coliforms within 120 min. The disinfection process was accelerated by photo-Fenton, achieving total inactivation in 60 min reducing natural bicarbonate concentration found in the SEWWTP from 250 to 100 mg L(-1) did not give rise to a significant enhancement in bacterial inactivation. Additionally, the effect of hydrogen peroxide and iron dosage was evaluated. The best conditions were 50 mg L(-1) of H2O2 and 20 mg L(-1) of Fe(2+). Due to the variability of the SEWWTP during autumn and winter seasons, the inactivation kinetic constant varied between 0.07 ± 0.04 and 0.17 ± 0.04 min(-1). Moreover, the water treated by solar photo-Fenton fulfilled the microbiological quality requirement for wastewater reuse in irrigation as per the WHO guidelines and in particular for Spanish legislation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Memories affect mood: evidence from covert experimental assignment to positive, neutral, and negative memory recall.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillihan, Seth J; Kessler, Jennifer; Farah, Martha J

    2007-06-01

    Memory recall has been proposed as a common and effective mood regulation strategy. Although several studies have presented results suggesting that recalling valenced memories affects subsequent mood, their designs allow for alternative interpretations of the observed effects. Two such alternatives include the reverse effect (mood effects on memory due to non-experimental assignment to memory recall condition) and demand characteristics of the experiment. We used covert experimental assignment to memory condition, asking subjects (N=314; 56% female) to recall memories that were primarily positive, neutral, or negative. Results showed the expected effect on mood (pmood worst in the negative memory condition, better in the neutral condition, and best in the positive condition. These results suggest that valenced memory recall does indeed exert an effect on mood, and may do so even without the individual's awareness.

  10. Alteration of the phospho- or neutral lipid content and fatty acid composition in Listeria monocytogenes due to acid adaptation mechanisms for hydrochloric, acetic and lactic acids at pH 5.5 or benzoic acid at neutral pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mastronicolis, Sofia K; Berberi, Anita; Diakogiannis, Ioannis; Petrova, Evanthia; Kiaki, Irene; Baltzi, Triantafillia; Xenikakis, Polydoros

    2010-10-01

    This study provides a first approach to observe the effects on Listeria monocytogenes of cellular exposure to acid stress at low or neutral pH, notably how phospho- or neutral lipids are involved in this mechanism, besides the fatty acid profile alteration. A thorough investigation of the composition of polar and neutral lipids from L. monocytogenes grown at pH 5.5 in presence of hydrochloric, acetic and lactic acids, or at neutral pH 7.3 in presence of benzoic acid, is described relative to cells grown in acid-free medium. The results showed that only low pH values enhance the antimicrobial activity of an acid. We suggest that, irrespective of pH, the acid adaptation response will lead to a similar alteration in fatty acid composition [decreasing the ratio of branched chain/saturated straight fatty acids of total lipids], mainly originating from the neutral lipid class of adapted cultures. Acid adaptation in L. monocytogenes was correlated with a decrease in total lipid phosphorus and, with the exception of cells adapted to benzoic acid, this change in the amount of phosphorus reflected a higher content of the neutral lipid class. Upon acetic or benzoic acid stress the lipid phosphorus proportion was analysed in the main phospholipids present: cardiolipin, phosphatidylglycerol, phosphoaminolipid and phosphatidylinositol. Interestingly only benzoic acid had a dramatic effect on the relative quantities of these four phospholipids.

  11. A case study of nondelamination glass dissolution resulting in visible particles: implications for neutral pH formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnaswamy, Gayathri; Hair, Alison; Li, Gary; Thirumangalathu, Renuka; Nashed-Samuel, Yasser; Brych, Lejla; Dharmavaram, Vasumathi; Wen, Zai-Qing; Fujimori, Kiyoshi; Jing, Wendy; Sethuraman, Ananth; Swift, Rob; Ricci, Margaret Speed; Piedmonte, Deirdre Murphy

    2014-04-01

    Visible particles were unexpectedly observed in a neutral-pH placebo formulation stored in glass vials but were not observed in the same formulation composition that contained protein. The particles were identified as silica gel (SiO2 ) and polysorbate 20, suggesting dissolution of the glass vial. Time course studies were performed to assess the effect of variables such as pH, excipients, storage temperature, and duration on particle formation. Data suggest that glass dissolution occurred during the storage in the liquid state, as shown by increased Si levels in solution. Upon freezing, the samples underwent freeze concentration and likely became supersaturated, which resulted in the appearance of visible silica particles upon thawing. The glass degradation described here is unique and differs from the more commonly reported delamination, defined by the presence of reflective, shard-like glass flakes in solution that are often termed lamellae. This case study underscores the importance of an early assessment (during formulation development) of potential incompatibility of the formulation with the primary container. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  12. A Membrane-Free Neutral pH Formate Fuel Cell Enabled by a Selective Nickel Sulfide Oxygen Reduction Catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Bing; Concannon, Nolan M; Milshtein, Jarrod D; Brushett, Fikile R; Surendranath, Yogesh

    2017-06-19

    Polymer electrolyte membranes employed in contemporary fuel cells severely limit device design and restrict catalyst choice, but are essential for preventing short-circuiting reactions at unselective anode and cathode catalysts. Herein, we report that nickel sulfide Ni 3 S 2 is a highly selective catalyst for the oxygen reduction reaction in the presence of 1.0 m formate. We combine this selective cathode with a carbon-supported palladium (Pd/C) anode to establish a membrane-free, room-temperature formate fuel cell that operates under benign neutral pH conditions. Proof-of-concept cells display open circuit voltages of approximately 0.7 V and peak power values greater than 1 mW cm -2 , significantly outperforming the identical device employing an unselective platinum (Pt) cathode. The work establishes the power of selective catalysis to enable versatile membrane-free fuel cells. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Biocompatible molecularly imprinted polymers for the voltage regulated uptake and release of L-glutamate in neutral pH solutions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    von Hauff, E; Fuchs, Kathrin; Hellmann, D Ch; Parisi, J.; Weiler, R.; Burkhardt, C; Kraushaar, U; Guenther, E

    2010-01-01

    A biocompatible device for the voltage dependent uptake and release of the neural transmitter L-glutamate in neutral pH solutions is demonstrated. The device consists of a gold electrode coated with molecularly imprinted, overoxidised polypyrrole (oPPy). It is shown here that oPPy can behave as an

  14. Passive neutralization of acid mine drainage using basic oxygen furnace slag as neutralization material: experimental and modelling

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Zvimba, JN

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available of the organic material in a 115 4 passive system was standard as per literature, its characterization was beyond the scope of the 116 study. 117 118 2.2. Equipment 119 Passive AMD neutralization using a 500 L BOF slag alkalinity producing system as 120... given in Figure 1 was used. The 500 L container was used as a passive AMD neutralization 121 system, with feed AMD introduced as influent while neutralized AMD was collected as 122 effluent. A Toledo Auto-titrator was used for the determination of p...

  15. Photo-Fenton and modified photo-Fenton at neutral pH for the treatment of emerging contaminants in wastewater treatment plant effluents: a comparison.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klamerth, N; Malato, S; Agüera, A; Fernández-Alba, A

    2013-02-01

    This study compares two different solar photo-Fenton processes, conventional photo-Fenton at pH3 and modified photo-Fenton at neutral pH with minimal Fe (5 mg L⁻¹) and minimal initial H₂O₂ (50 mg L⁻¹) concentrations for the degradation of emerging contaminants in Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plants effluents in solar pilot plant. As Fe precipitates at neutral pH, complexing agents which are able to form photoactive species, do not pollute the environment or increase toxicity have to be used to keep the iron in solution. This study was done using real effluents containing over 60 different contaminants, which were monitored during treatment by liquid chromatography coupled to a hybrid quadrupole/linear ion trap mass analyzer (LC-QTRAP-MS/MS) operating in selected reaction monitoring (SRM) mode. Concentrations of the selected contaminants ranged from a few ng L⁻¹ to tens of μg L⁻¹. It was demonstrated in all cases the removal of over 95% of the contaminants. Photo-Fenton at pH3 provided the best treatment time, but has the disadvantage that the water must be previously acidified. The most promising process was photo-Fenton modified with Ethylenediamine-N,N'-disuccinic acid (EDDS), as the pH remained in the neutral range. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Experimental exclusion of neutral resonances in Bhabha scattering at MeV energies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsertos, H.; Kienle, P.; Judge, S. M.; Schreckenbach, K.

    1991-08-01

    Using an active-shadow technique and a monoenergetic e + beam at the high-flux reactor of ILL, we pursued the search for long-lived (> 5 × 10 -13 s) neutral resonances that could be formed in e +e - scattering around an invariant mass of 1.8 MeV/ c2. With a significantly improved experimental sensitivity we found no evidence for such a narrow resonance decaying into e +e - pairs. From our whole investigations, the model-independent stringent lower limits (95% CL) of 5 × 10 -11 s and 1 × 10 -10 s can be set on the lifetime of hypothetical J = 0 and J = 1 resonances, respectively. Our conclusive results rule out theoretical proposals that involve neutral free particles or e +e - bound states in this mass range, as an explanation of the e +e - lines observed at GSI.

  17. First results from solid state neutral particle analyzer on experimental advanced superconducting tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, J. Z.; Zhao, J. L.; Wan, B. N.; Li, J. G. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Zhu, Y. B., E-mail: y.zhu@uci.edu; Heidbrink, W. W. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Full function integrated, compact solid state neutral particle analyzers (ssNPA) based on absolute extreme ultraviolet silicon photodiode have been successfully implemented on the experimental advanced superconducting tokamak to measure energetic particle. The ssNPA system has been operated in advanced current mode with fast temporal and spatial resolution capabilities, with both active and passive charge exchange measurements. It is found that the ssNPA flux signals are increased substantially with neutral beam injection (NBI). The horizontal active array responds to modulated NBI beam promptly, while weaker change is presented on passive array. Compared to near-perpendicular beam, near-tangential beam brings more passive ssNPA flux and a broader profile, while no clear difference is observed on active ssNPA flux and its profile. Significantly enhanced intensities on some ssNPA channels have been observed during ion cyclotron resonant heating.

  18. Low levels of iron enhance UV/H2O2 efficiency at neutral pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulliman, Sydney L; McKay, Garrett; Rosario-Ortiz, Fernando L; Linden, Karl G

    2017-11-21

    While the presence of iron is generally not seen as favorable for UV-based treatment systems due to lamp fouling and decreased UV transmittance, we show that low levels of iron can lead to improvements in the abatement of chemicals in the UV-hydrogen peroxide advanced oxidation process. The oxidation potential of an iron-assisted UV/H2O2 (UV254 + H2O2 + iron) process was evaluated at neutral pH using iron levels below USEPA secondary drinking water standards (H2O2 systems. The effects of iron species (Fe2+ and Fe3+), iron concentration (0-0.3 mg/L), H2O2 concentration (0-10 mg/L) and background water matrix (low-carbon tap (LCT) and well water) on HO production and compound removal were examined. Iron-assisted UV/H2O2 efficiency was most influenced by the target chemical and the water matrix. Added iron to UV/H2O2 was shown to increase the steady-state HO concentration by approximately 25% in all well water scenarios. While CBZ removal was unchanged by iron addition, 0.3 mg/L iron improved NDMA removal rates in both LCT and well water matrices by 15.1% and 4.6% respectively. Furthermore, the combination of UV/Fe without H2O2 was also shown to enhance NDMA removal when compared to UV photolysis alone indicating the presence of degradation pathways other than HO oxidation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Experimental and theoretical evaluation of nanodiamonds as pH triggered drug carriers

    KAUST Repository

    Yan, Jingjing

    2012-01-01

    Nanodiamond (ND) and its derivatives have been widely used for drug, protein and gene delivery. Herein, experimental and theoretical methods have been combined to investigate the effect of pH on the delivery of doxorubicin (DOX) from fluorescein labeled NDs (Fc-NDs). In the endosomal recycling process, the nanoparticle will pass from mildly acidic vesicle to pH ≈ 4.8; thus, it is important to investigate DOX release from NDs at different pH values. Fc-NDs released DOX dramatically under acidic conditions, while an increase in the DOX loading efficiency (up to 6.4 wt%) was observed under basic conditions. Further theoretical calculations suggest that H + weakens the electrostatistic interaction between ND surface carboxyl groups and DOX amino groups, and the interaction energies at pH < 7, pH 7 and pH > 7 are 10.4 kcal mol -1, 25.0 kcal mol -1 and 27.0 kcal mol -1 respectively. Cellular imaging experiments show that Fc-NDs are readily ingested by breast adenocarcinoma (BA) cells and cell viability tests prove that they can be utilized as a safe drug delivery vehicle. Furthermore, pH triggered DOX release has been tested in vitro (pH 7.4 and pH 4.83) in breast adenocarcinoma (BA) cells. © The Royal Society of Chemistry and the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique 2012.

  20. Specific γ-aminobutyric acid decomposition by gabP and gabT under neutral pH in recombinant Corynebacterium glutamicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ni, Yalan; Shi, Feng; Wang, Nannan

    2015-11-01

    Corynebacterium glutamicum that expresses the exogenous L-glutamate decarboxylase (GAD) gene can synthesize γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA). To prevent GABA decomposition in the recombinant C. glutamicum GAD strain, GABA uptake and the GABA shunt pathway were blocked. GABA uptake is catalyzed by GABA permease encoded by gabP. The first reaction of the GABA shunt pathway is catalyzed by the GABA transaminase encoded by gabT. Initially, the effects of pH on GABA decomposition in recombinant C. glutamicum co-expressing two GAD genes (gadB1 and gadB2) were analyzed, demonstrating that GABA could be decomposed under neutral pH. Next, the gabP and gabT were individually deleted, and the GABA production of the related GAD strains was investigated by controlling the pH of the final fermentation stage at a neutral state. During this stage, the GABA concentration of the gabT-deleted GAD strain decreased from 23.9 ± 1.8 to 17.7 ± 0.7 g/l. However, the GABA concentration of the gabP-deleted GAD strain remained at 18.6-19.4 g/l. This study demonstrated that GABA was decomposed under neutral pH and that the deletion of gabP could effectively alleviate GABA decomposition in C. glutamicum.

  1. Ferrioxalate-assisted solar photo-Fenton degradation of a herbicide at pH conditions close to neutrality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Leandro O; Schenone, Agustina V; Alfano, Orlando M

    2017-03-01

    The solar photo-Fenton degradation of the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) in aqueous solution at a natural pH (pH = 5) using ferrioxalate as iron source was investigated. The kinetic model proposed and validated in a previous contribution was used to predict the reactants concentrations during the oxidation process in a non-concentrating pilot-plant solar reactor. The effects of hydrogen peroxide to 2,4-D initial concentration ratios (R), temperature, and radiation levels were studied. Furthermore, the spectral UV/visible and broadband solar radiation fluxes incident on the reactor window were evaluated by the Simple Model for the Atmospheric Radiative Transfer of Sunshine (SMARTS2) code. The complete destruction of 2,4-D and its main intermediate 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) was achieved in all the experimental runs in only 90 and 120 min of reaction, respectively. In agreement with these results, a reduction of toxicity in the system (expressed as % of inhibition of Vibrio fischeri) for longer times to 90 min of reaction was attained. It is important to emphasize the good agreement between kinetic model results and experimental data obtained.

  2. The diatom-inferred pH reconstructions for a naturally neutralized pit lake in south-west Poland using the Mining and the Combined pH training sets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sienkiewicz, Elwira; Gąsiorowski, Michał

    2017-12-15

    Many artificial lakes in various parts of the world were formed as a result of the exploitation of lignite and other mineral deposits. Usually, lakes created after the end of lignite mine activity have extremely acidic or very acidic water, with pHmines, the lakes undergo natural neutralization. However, this process is long-term and depends on many different factors, such as the amount of carbonates, the geological structure of bedrock, hydrology and hydrobiology, climate and the method of lignite exploitation. In some types of anthropogenic lakes (i.e., clay pits), water pH is almost neutral or alkaline due to the adsorption properties of clay minerals. Along the Polish-German border in the Łuk Mużakowa Geopark, over 100 post-mining lakes were formed as a result of lignite and clay exploitation. The Mining pH training set of modern diatom samples and water chemistry was created from 69 lakes to quantify the relationship between the diatom assemblages living in these water bodies and the lakes' chemical composition. Then, this database was applied to the reconstruction of diatom-inferred pH in the sediments of a post-mining lake TR-33. The results of reconstruction was compared to similar analysis based on the Combined pH training set containing more variety of diatom taxa from a higher number of lakes. Although the second dataset was larger and gave a smaller root mean square error, the Mining pH training set has a longer gradient of pH including lakes with extremely acidic water and gives more reliable results. The reconstruction of DI-pH in TR-33 which had very acidic water in the past and currently neutralized from acidification was more precise and reliable using the database sensu stricto, which consists of only the post-mining lakes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Electrolyte Engineering Toward Efficient Hydrogen Production Electrocatalysis with Oxygen-crossover Regulation under Densely Buffered Near-neutral pH Conditions

    KAUST Repository

    Shinagawa, Tatsuya

    2015-12-30

    This study tackles the core issues associated with near-neutral pH water splitting, particularly regarding electrolyte engineering in the electrocatalysis and product cross-over. We demonstrate that solute engineering has a major impact on water splitting electrocatalysis because the diffusion component, often not well integrated into performance descriptions, largely determines the overall performance. The hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) was investigated on Pt, Ni and NiMo catalysts in various concentrations of cations (Li+, K+, Na+) and anions (H2PO4−, HPO42−, PO43− and HCO3−) to describe its performance by quantifying kinetics, diffusion and solution resistance. In fact, the choice of electrolyte in terms of its identity and activity drastically altered the HER rate and oxygen mass-transport flux at near-neutral pH. Electrolyte properties (activity coefficient, kinematic viscosity and diffusion coefficient) accurately described the diffusion contribution, which can be easily isolated when a highly active Pt catalyst was used for the HER. By analyzing these properties, we maximized the HER rate on the Pt by tuning the solute concentration (typically 1.5 – 2.0 M). Moreover, the kinematic viscosity and oxygen solubility in such densely buffered conditions governed the oxygen mass-transport flux in the electrolyte, which in turn tuned the cross-over flux. At near-neutral pH, as high as 90 % selectivity toward the HER was achieved even under an oxygen saturated condition, where only a 40 mV overpotential was needed to achieve 10 mA cm−2 for the HER. This information can be regarded as an important milestone for achieving a highly efficient water splitting system at near-neutral pH.

  4. Experimental Observation of a Current-Driven Instability in a Neutral Electron-Positron Beam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warwick, J; Dzelzainis, T; Dieckmann, M E; Schumaker, W; Doria, D; Romagnani, L; Poder, K; Cole, J M; Alejo, A; Yeung, M; Krushelnick, K; Mangles, S P D; Najmudin, Z; Reville, B; Samarin, G M; Symes, D D; Thomas, A G R; Borghesi, M; Sarri, G

    2017-11-03

    We report on the first experimental observation of a current-driven instability developing in a quasineutral matter-antimatter beam. Strong magnetic fields (≥1  T) are measured, via means of a proton radiography technique, after the propagation of a neutral electron-positron beam through a background electron-ion plasma. The experimentally determined equipartition parameter of ε_{B}≈10^{-3} is typical of values inferred from models of astrophysical gamma-ray bursts, in which the relativistic flows are also expected to be pair dominated. The data, supported by particle-in-cell simulations and simple analytical estimates, indicate that these magnetic fields persist in the background plasma for thousands of inverse plasma frequencies. The existence of such long-lived magnetic fields can be related to analog astrophysical systems, such as those prevalent in lepton-dominated jets.

  5. Preservation of glutamic acid-iron chelate into montmorillonite to efficiently degrade Reactive Blue 19 in a Fenton system under sunlight irradiation at neutral pH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huang, Zhujian [College of Natural Resources and Environment, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China); Wu, Pingxiao, E-mail: pppxwu@scut.edu.cn [School of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Centre, Guangzhou 510006 (China); The Key Lab of Pollution Control and Ecosystem Restoration in Industry Clusters, Ministry of Education, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Gong, Beini; Yang, Shanshan; Li, Hailing [School of Environment and Energy, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou Higher Education Mega Centre, Guangzhou 510006 (China); Zhu, Ziao; Cui, Lihua [College of Natural Resources and Environment, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China)

    2016-05-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • G–Fe chelate molecules were well preserved into montmorillonite. • The product shows an excellent catalytic activity under sunlight at neutral pH value. • G–Fe–Mt is a promising catalyst for advanced oxidation processes. - Abstract: To further enhance the visible light responsive property and the chemical stability of Fe/clay mineral catalysts, glutamic acid-iron chelate intercalated montmorillonite (G–Fe–Mt) was developed. The physiochemical properties of G–Fe–Mt were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV–vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), etc. The results showed that glutamic acid-iron chelates were successfully intercalated into the gallery of montmorillonite and the intercalated glutamic acid-iron chelate molecules were well preserved. The product G–Fe–Mt displayed excellent catalytic performance in heterogeneous photo-Fenton reaction under sunlight irradiation at acidic and neutral pH values. The chelation and the visible light responsiveness of glutamic acid produce a synergistic effect leading to greatly enhanced sunlight-Fenton reaction catalyzed by the heterogeneous G–Fe–Mt under neutral pH. G–Fe–Mt is a promising catalyst for advanced oxidation processes.

  6. Measuring pH variability using an experimental sensor on an underwater glider

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemming, Michael P.; Kaiser, Jan; Heywood, Karen J.; Bakker, Dorothee C. E.; Boutin, Jacqueline; Shitashima, Kiminori; Lee, Gareth; Legge, Oliver; Onken, Reiner

    2017-05-01

    Autonomous underwater gliders offer the capability of measuring oceanic parameters continuously at high resolution in both vertical and horizontal planes, with timescales that can extend to many months. An experimental ion-sensitive field-effect transistor (ISFET) sensor measuring pH on the total scale was attached to a glider during the REP14-MED experiment in June 2014 in the Sardinian Sea in the northwestern Mediterranean. During the deployment, pH was sampled at depths of up to 1000 m along an 80 km transect over a period of 12 days. Water samples were collected from a nearby ship and analysed for dissolved inorganic carbon concentration and total alkalinity to derive the pH for validating the ISFET sensor measurements. The vertical resolution of the pH sensor was good (1 to 2 m), but stability was poor and the sensor drifted in a non-monotonous fashion. In order to remove the sensor drift, a depth-constant time-varying offset was applied throughout the water column for each dive, reducing the spread of the data by approximately two-thirds. Furthermore, the ISFET sensor required temperature- and pressure-based corrections, which were achieved using linear regression. Correcting for this decreased the apparent sensor pH variability by a further 13 to 31 %. Sunlight caused an apparent sensor pH decrease of up to 0.1 in surface waters around local noon, highlighting the importance of shielding the sensor from light in future deployments. The corrected pH from the ISFET sensor is presented along with potential temperature, salinity, potential density anomalies (σθ), and dissolved oxygen concentrations (c(O2)) measured by the glider, providing insights into the physical and biogeochemical variability in the Sardinian Sea. The pH maxima were identified close to the depth of the summer chlorophyll maximum, where high c(O2) values were also found. Longitudinal pH variations at depth (σθ > 28. 8 kg m-3) highlighted the variability of water masses in the Sardinian

  7. pH neutralization of the by-product sludge waste water generated from waste concrete recycling process using the carbon mineralization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Sangwoo; Shin, Hee-young; Bang, Jun Hwan; Ahn, Ji-Whan

    2017-04-01

    About 44 Mt/year of waste concrete is generated in South Korea. More than 95% of this waste concrete is recycled. In the process of regenerating and recycling pulmonary concrete, sludge mixed with fine powder generated during repeated pulverization process and water used for washing the surface and water used for impurity separation occurs. In this way, the solid matter contained in the sludge as a by-product is about 40% of the waste concrete that was input. Due to the cement component embedded in the concrete, the sludge supernatant is very strong alkaline (pH about 12). And it is necessary to neutralization for comply with environmental standards. In this study, carbon mineralization method was applied as a method to neutralize the pH of highly alkaline waste water to under pH 8.5, which is the water quality standard of discharged water. CO2 gas (purity 99%, flow rate 10ml/min.) was injected and reacted with the waste water (Ca concentration about 750mg/L) from which solid matter was removed. As a result of the experiment, the pH converged to about 6.5 within 50 minutes of reaction. The precipitate showed high whiteness. XRD and SEM analysis showed that it was high purity CaCO3. For the application to industry, it is needed further study using lower concentration CO2 gas (about 14%) which generated from power plant.

  8. Beneficial impact of CCL2 and CCL12 neutralization on experimental malignant pleural effusion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonia Marazioti

    Full Text Available Using genetic interventions, we previously determined that C-C motif chemokine ligand 2 (CCL2 promotes malignant pleural effusion (MPE formation in mice. Here we conducted preclinical studies aimed at assessing the specific therapeutic potential of antibody-mediated CCL2 blockade against MPE. For this, murine MPEs or skin tumors were generated in C57BL/6 mice by intrapleural or subcutaneous delivery of lung (LLC or colon (MC38 adenocarcinoma cells. Human lung adenocarcinoma cells (A549 were used to induce MPEs in severe combined immunodeficient mice. Intraperitoneal antibodies neutralizing mouse CCL2 and/or CCL12, a murine CCL2 ortholog, were administered at 10 or 50 mg/kg every three days. We found that high doses of CCL2/12 neutralizing antibody treatment (50 mg/kg were required to limit MPE formation by LLC cells. CCL2 and CCL12 blockade were equally potent inhibitors of MPE development by LLC cells. Combined CCL2 and CCL12 neutralization was also effective against MC38-induced MPE and prolonged the survival of mice in both syngeneic models. Mouse-specific CCL2-blockade limited A549-caused xenogeneic MPE, indicating that host-derived CCL2 also contributes to MPE precipitation in mice. The impact of CCL2/12 antagonism was associated with inhibition of immune and vascular MPE-related phenomena, such as inflammation, new blood vessel assembly and plasma extravasation into the pleural space. We conclude that CCL2 and CCL12 blockade are effective against experimental MPE induced by murine and human adenocarcinoma in mice. These results suggest that CCL2-targeted therapies may hold promise for future use against human MPE.

  9. Neutrality of foreign complex subunits in an experimental model of lateral gene transfer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellner, Alon; Gophna, Uri

    2008-09-01

    Lateral gene transfer (LGT) is a powerful force in microbial evolution. However, the barriers that restrict this evolutionary phenomenon are not fully understood. It has long been observed that genes that encode subunits of complexes exhibit relatively compatible phylogenies, implying mostly vertical evolution. This may be explained by the failure of a new gene product to effectively interact with preexisting protein subunits, making its acquisition neutral--a theory termed the "complexity hypothesis." On the other hand, such genes may reduce the fitness of the host by disturbing the stoichiometric balance between complex subunits, resulting in purifying selection against gene retention. To examine these 2 alternative scenarios, we designed an experimental system that mimics the transfer of genes encoding homologs of essential complex subunits into the model bacterium Escherichia coli. In addition, we overexpressed the native E. coli gene in order to examine the contribution of gene dosage effects. We show that accumulation of native or foreign complex subunits in the cell does not result in loss of fitness, except for a minor fitness reduction observed for a single foreign homolog. Indeed, a series of genetic and biochemical assays failed to detect any interaction between the foreign subunits and the native polypeptides of the complex, implying an inability of such transfer events to generate positive selection for gene retention. We conclude that LGT of complex subunits may be mostly neutral and that forces operating against gene retention appear to be moderate.

  10. Fishbone activity in experimental advanced superconducting tokamak neutral beam injection plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Liqing; Zhang, Jizong; Chen, Kaiyun; Hu, Liqun; Li, Erzhong; Lin, Shiyao; Shi, Tonghui; Duan, Yanmin; Zhu, Yubao

    2015-12-01

    Repetitive fishbones near the trapped ion procession frequency were observed for the first time in the neutral beam injection high confinement plasmas in Experimental Advanced Superconducting Tokamak (EAST) tokamak, and diagnosed using a solid-state neutral particle analyzer based on a compact silicon photodiode together with an upgraded high spatial-temporal-resolution multi-arrays soft X-ray (SX) system. This 1/1 typical internal kink mode propagates in the ion-diamagnetism direction with a rotation speed faster than the bulk plasma in the plasma frame. From the SX measurements, this mode frequency is typical of chirping down and the energetic particle effect related to the twisting mode structure. This ion fishbone was found able to trigger a multiple core sawtooth crashes with edge-2/1 sideband modes, as well as to lead to a transition from fishbone to long lived saturated kink mode to fishbone. Furthermore, using SX tomography, a correlation between mode amplitude and mode frequency was found. Finally, a phenomenological prey-predator model was found to reproduce the fishbone nonlinear process well.

  11. A Fe(II)/citrate/UV/PMS process for carbamazepine degradation at a very low Fe(II)/PMS ratio and neutral pH: The mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ling, Li; Zhang, Dapeng; Fan, Chihhao; Shang, Chii

    2017-11-01

    A novel Fe(II)/citrate/UV/PMS process for degrading a model micropollutant, carbamazepine (CBZ), at a low Fe(II)/PMS ratio and neutral pH has been proposed in this study, and the mechanisms of radical generation in the system was explored. With a UV dose of 302.4 mJ/cm(2), an initial pH of 7, and CBZ, PMS, Fe(II) and citrate at initial concentrations of 10, 100, 12 and 26 μM, respectively, the CBZ degradation efficiency reached 71% in 20 min in the Fe(II)/citrate/UV/PMS process, which was 4.7 times higher than that in either the citrate/UV/PMS or Fe(II)/citrate/PMS process. The enhanced CBZ degradation in the Fe(II)/citrate/UV/PMS process was mainly attributed to the continuous activation of PMS by the UV-catalyzed regenerated Fe(II) from a Fe(III)-citrate complex, [Fe3O(cit)3H3](2-), which not only maintained Fe(III) soluble at neutral pH, but also increased 6.6 and 2.6 times of its molar absorbance and quantum yield as compared to those of ionic Fe(III), respectively. In the Fe(II)/citrate/UV/PMS process, the SO4(•-) produced from the fast reaction between PMS and the initially-added Fe(II) contributed 11% of CBZ degradation. The PMS activation by the UV radiation and regenerated Fe(II) contributed additional 14% and 46% of CBZ removal, respectively. The low iron and citrate doses and the fast radical generation at neutral pH make the Fe(II)/citrate/UV/PMS process suitable for degrading recalcitrant organic compounds in potable water. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Hydroxyl radical involvement in the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide by ferrous and ferric-nitrilotriacetate complexes at neutral pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dao, Yen Hai; De Laat, Joseph

    2011-05-01

    The relative rates of degradation of three hydroxyl radical probe compounds (atrazine, fenuron and parachlorobenzoic acid (pCBA)) by Fe(III)/H(2)O(2) (pH = 2.85), Fe(III)NTA/H(2)O(2) (neutral pH), Fe(II)/O(2), Fe(II)NTA/O(2), Fe(II)/H(2)O(2) and Fe(II)NTA/H(2)O(2) (neutral pH) have been investigated using the competitive kinetic method. Experiments were carried out in batch and in semi-batch reactors, in the dark, at 25 °C. The data showed that the three probe compounds could be degraded by all the systems studied, and in particular by Fe(II)NTA/H(2)O(2) and Fe(III)NTA/H(2)O(2) at neutral pH. The relative rate constants of degradation of the three probe compounds obtained for all the systems tested were identical and equal to 1.45 ± 0.03 and 0.47 ± 0.02 for k(Atrazine)/k(pCBA) and k(Fenuron)/k(pCBA), respectively. These values as well as the decrease of the rates of degradation of the probe compounds upon the addition of hydroxyl radical scavengers (tert-butanol, bicarbonate ions) suggest that the degradation of atrazine, fenuron and pCBA by Fe(II)NTA/O(2), Fe(II)NTA/H(2)O(2) and Fe(III)NTA/H(2)O(2) is initiated by hydroxyl radicals. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Effect of plasticity on stress corrosion cracking rate of X-52 pipeline steel in near-neutral pH environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, X.; Eadie, R.L.; Luo, J.L. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering

    2005-07-01

    Near-neutral stress corrosion cracking (SCC) in pipeline steel occurs through the interaction of adequate stresses, susceptible pipe material and a potent environment. However, there is uncertainty regarding the roles played by key factors such as stress and stress induced plastic deformation. Most SCC failures in Canadian pipelines occur as longitudinal cracking, driven by hoop stress caused by the operating pressure within oil and gas pipelines. Plastic deformation from bending or rolling is typically encountered during the manufacture and assembly of pipeline components. The other situations which cause localized micro-plastic deformation at stress levels below the yield stress of the steel include the surface layer of the pipe wall thickness which can deform before the bulk of the wall thickness, and the cyclic-loading which can cause steels to exhibit micro-plastic strains at nominal stress levels where plastic strains would not be expected. Hydrogen-assisted plasticity can also occur which can delay the arrest of primary creep and increase the susceptibility of SCC. This study focused on longitudinal cracking and the effect of plastic deformation on the susceptibility of X-52 pipeline steel to near-neutral pH SCC. The study revealed that the plastic deformation of material will decrease the resistance to near-neutral pH SCC. 13 refs., 3 tabs., 8 figs.

  14. New Insight into the Hydrogen Evolution Reaction under Buffered Near-Neutral pH Conditions: Enthalpy and Entropy of Activation

    KAUST Repository

    Shinagawa, Tatsuya

    2016-10-06

    Electrochemical conversion of thermodynamically stable chemicals of water and carbon dioxide is regarded as a core technology for achieving sustainability in our society. In both cases, the electrochemical hydrogen evolution reaction (HER) is a key reaction, particularly at near-neutral pH. This study addresses the kinetic aspects of the HER in buffered near-neutral pH conditions using a variety of electrode materials (W, Ni, Pt, Au, and Cu) over a wide temperature range (299–346 K). When the overall performance was summarized with respect to the binding energy of the reaction intermediate species, a classic volcano-shaped relationship was obtained. Interestingly, the temperature sensitivity analysis disclosed that smaller activation energies did not always lead to higher performance in 1.5 mol L–1 K-phosphate solution (pH 5.8). Detailed analysis of the temperature- and potential-dependent parameters revealed that smaller activation energies coincided with smaller values of the pre-exponential factor in the Arrhenius’ equation (associated with the entropy of activation). Due to the trade-off relationship of enthalpy–entropy compensation in the current system, the conventional approach of mixing elements of lower and higher binding energies to the intermediate species failed: even though Ni–Cu showed lower apparent activation energy, its activity toward the HER was between that of Ni and Cu due to the lowered entropy of activation. This study demonstrates the unrevealed fundamental aspects of the HER in buffered near-neutral condition, which contributes to the rational development of efficient energy and material conversion systems.

  15. High power 1 MeV neutral beam system and its application plan for the international tokamak experimental reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemsworth, R.S. [ITER Joint Central Team, Naka, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1997-03-01

    This paper describes the Neutral Beam Injection system which is presently being designed for the International Tokamak Experimental Reactor, ITER, in Europe Japan and Russia, with co-ordination by the Joint Central Team of ITER at Naka, Japan. The proposed system consists of three negative ion based neutral injectors, delivering a total of 50 MW of 1 MeV D{sup 0} to the ITER plasma for a pulse length of >1000 s. Each injectors uses a single caesiated volume arc discharge negative ion source, and a multi-grid, multi-aperture accelerator, to produce about 40 A of 1 MeV D{sup -}. This will be neutralized by collisions with D{sub 2} in a sub-divided gas neutralizer, which has a conversion efficiency of about 60%. The charged fraction of the beam emerging from the neutralizer is dumped in an electrostatic residual ion dump. A water cooled calorimeter can be moved into the beam path to intercept the neutral beam, allowing commissioning of the injector independent of ITER. ITER is scheduled to produce its first plasma at the beginning of 2008, and the planning of the R and D, construction and installation foresees the neutral injection system being available from the start of ITER operations. (author)

  16. Optimizing buffering chemistry to maintain near neutral pH of broiler feed during pre-enrichment for Salmonella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berrang, M E; Cosby, D E; Cox, N A; Cason, J A; Richardson, K E

    2015-12-01

    Salmonella is a human pathogen that can accompany live broilers to the slaughter plant, contaminating fully processed carcasses. Feed is one potential source of Salmonella to growing broilers. Monitoring feed for the presence of Salmonella is part of good agricultural practice. The first step in culturing feed for Salmonella (which may be at low numbers and sub-lethally stressed) is to add it to a pre-enrichment broth which is incubated for 24 h. During the course of pre-enrichment, extraneous bacteria metabolize carbohydrates in some feed and excrete acidic byproducts, causing the pH to drop dramatically. An acidic pre-enrichment pH can injure or kill Salmonella resulting in a failure to detect, even if it is present and available to infect chickens. The objective of this study was to test an array of buffering chemistries to prevent formation of an injurious acidic environment during pre-enrichment of feed in peptone water. Five grams of feed were added to 45 mL of peptone water buffered with carbonate, Tris pH 8, and phosphate buffering ingredients individually and in combination. Feed was subjected to a pre-enrichment at 35°C for 24 h; pH was measured at 0, 18, and 24 h. Standard phosphate buffering ingredients at concentrations up to 4 times the normal formulation were unable to fully prevent acidic conditions. Likewise, carbonate and Tris pH 8 were not fully effective. The combination of phosphate, carbonate, and Tris pH 8 was the most effective buffer tested. It is recommended that a highly buffered pre-enrichment broth be used to examine feed for the presence of Salmonella. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Poultry Science Association 2015. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  17. Measuring pH variability using an experimental sensor on an underwater glider

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. P. Hemming

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Autonomous underwater gliders offer the capability of measuring oceanic parameters continuously at high resolution in both vertical and horizontal planes, with timescales that can extend to many months. An experimental ion-sensitive field-effect transistor (ISFET sensor measuring pH on the total scale was attached to a glider during the REP14-MED experiment in June 2014 in the Sardinian Sea in the northwestern Mediterranean. During the deployment, pH was sampled at depths of up to 1000 m along an 80 km transect over a period of 12 days. Water samples were collected from a nearby ship and analysed for dissolved inorganic carbon concentration and total alkalinity to derive the pH for validating the ISFET sensor measurements. The vertical resolution of the pH sensor was good (1 to 2 m, but stability was poor and the sensor drifted in a non-monotonous fashion. In order to remove the sensor drift, a depth-constant time-varying offset was applied throughout the water column for each dive, reducing the spread of the data by approximately two-thirds. Furthermore, the ISFET sensor required temperature- and pressure-based corrections, which were achieved using linear regression. Correcting for this decreased the apparent sensor pH variability by a further 13 to 31 %. Sunlight caused an apparent sensor pH decrease of up to 0.1 in surface waters around local noon, highlighting the importance of shielding the sensor from light in future deployments. The corrected pH from the ISFET sensor is presented along with potential temperature, salinity, potential density anomalies (σθ, and dissolved oxygen concentrations (c(O2 measured by the glider, providing insights into the physical and biogeochemical variability in the Sardinian Sea. The pH maxima were identified close to the depth of the summer chlorophyll maximum, where high c(O2 values were also found. Longitudinal pH variations at depth (σθ > 28. 8 kg m−3 highlighted the variability of

  18. Heat-induced denaturation and aggregation of ovalbumin at neutral pH described by irreversible first-order kinetics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Weijers, M.; Barneveld, P.A.; Cohen Stuart, M.A.; Visschers, R.W.

    2003-01-01

    The heat-induced denaturation kinetics of two different sources of ovalbumin at pH 7 was studied by chromatography and differential scanning calorimetry. The kinetics was found to be independent of protein concentration and salt concentration, but was strongly dependent on temperature. For highly

  19. Non-two-state thermal denaturation of ferricytochrome c at neutral and slightly acidic pH values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varhač, Rastislav; Sedláková, Dagmar; Stupák, Marek; Sedlák, Erik

    2015-01-01

    Thermal denaturation of ferricytochrome c (cyt c) has been methodically studied by absorbance, fluorescence, circular dichroism spectroscopy, viscosimetry and differential scanning calorimetry in pH range from pH 3.5 to 7.5. Thermal transitions have been monitored by intrinsic local probes of heme region such as absorbance at Soret, 620nm and 695nm bands and circular dichroism signals at 417nm. Global conformational changes were analyzed by circular dichroism signal at 222nm, fluorescence of the single tryptophan, reduced viscosity and differential scanning calorimetry. We show that cyt c thermal denaturation above pH ~5 can be described by an apparent two-step transition in which the heme iron stays in a low-spin state. The thermal denaturations of cyt c below pH ~5 proceed in one step to an unfolded highly compact form with a high-spin state of the heme iron. Cyt c conformational plasticity is discussed in regard to its physiological functions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Partitioning of uranyl between ferrihydrite and humic substances at acidic and circum-neutral pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dublet, Gabrielle; Lezama Pacheco, Juan; Bargar, John R.; Fendorf, Scott; Kumar, Naresh; Lowry, Gregory V.; Brown, Gordon E.

    2017-10-01

    As part of a larger study of the reactivity and mobility of uranyl (U(VI)O22+) cations in subsurface environments containing natural organic matter (NOM) and hydrous ferric oxides, we have examined the effect of reference humic and fulvic substances on the sorption of uranyl on 2-line ferrihydrite (Fh), a common, naturally occurring nano-Fe(III)-hydroxide. Uranyl was reacted with Fh at pH 4.6 and 7.0 in the presence and absence of Elliott Soil Humic Acid (ESHA) (0-835 ppm) or Suwanee River Fulvic Acid (SRFA) (0-955 ppm). No evidence was found for reduction of uranyl by either form of NOM after 24 h of exposure. The following three size fractions were considered in this study: (1) ≥0.2 μm (Fh-NOM aggregates), (2) 0.02-0.2 μm (dispersed Fh nanoparticles and NOM macro-molecules), and (3) NOM concentrations in these three size fractions. Partitioning of uranyl between Fh and NOM was determined in size fraction (1) using X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS). Uranyl sorption on Fh-NOM aggregates was affected by the presence of NOM in different ways depending on pH and type of NOM (ESHA vs. SRFA). The presence of ESHA in the uranyl-Fh-NOM ternary system at pH 4.6 enhanced uranyl uptake more than the presence of SRFA. In contrast, neither form of NOM affected uranyl sorption at pH 7.0 over most of the NOM concentration range examined (0-500 ppm); at the highest NOM concentrations (500-955 ppm) uranyl uptake in the aggregates was slightly inhibited at pH 7.0, which is interpreted as being due to the dispersion of Fh aggregates. XAS at the U LIII-edge was used to characterize molecular-level changes in uranyl complexation as a result of sorption to the Fh-NOM aggregates. In the absence of NOM, uranyl formed dominantly inner-sphere, mononuclear, bidentate sorption complexes on Fh. However, when NOM concentration was increased at pH 4.6, the proportion of uranyl-Fh inner-sphere sorption complexes decreased relative to uranyl-ESHA or uranyl-SRFA complexes, which comprised up

  1. Ecotoxicity evaluation of a WWTP effluent treated by solar photo-Fenton at neutral pH in a raceway pond reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, A M; Rivas, G; Campos-Mañas, M C; Casas López, J L; Agüera, A; Sánchez Pérez, J A

    2017-01-01

    Some pollutants can be resistant to wastewater treatment, hence becoming a risk to aquatic and terrestrial biota even at the very low concentrations (ng L -1 -μg L -1 ) they are commonly found at. Tertiary treatments are used for micropollutant removal but little is known about the ecotoxicity of the treated effluent. In this study, a municipal secondary effluent was treated by a solar photo-Fenton reactor at initial neutral pH in a raceway pond reactor, and ecotoxicity was evaluated before and after micropollutant removal. Thirty-nine micropollutants were identified in the secondary effluent, mainly pharmaceuticals, with a total concentration of ≈80 μg L -1 . After treatment, 99 % microcontaminant degradation was reached. As for ecotoxicity reduction, the assayed organisms showed the following sensitivity levels: Tetrahymena thermophila > Daphnia magna > Lactuca sativa > Spirodela polyrhiza ≈ Vibrio fischeri. The initial effluent showed an inhibitory effect of 40 % for T. thermophila and 20 % for D. magna. After 20 min of photo-Fenton treatment, no toxic effect was observed for T. thermophila and toxicity dropped to 5 % for D. magna. Graphical abstract Ecotoxicity removal by solar photo-Fenton at neutral pH. ᅟ.

  2. Preservation of glutamic acid-iron chelate into montmorillonite to efficiently degrade Reactive Blue 19 in a Fenton system under sunlight irradiation at neutral pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Zhujian; Wu, Pingxiao; Gong, Beini; Yang, Shanshan; Li, Hailing; Zhu, Ziao; Cui, Lihua

    2016-05-01

    To further enhance the visible light responsive property and the chemical stability of Fe/clay mineral catalysts, glutamic acid-iron chelate intercalated montmorillonite (G-Fe-Mt) was developed. The physiochemical properties of G-Fe-Mt were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), UV-vis diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), etc. The results showed that glutamic acid-iron chelates were successfully intercalated into the gallery of montmorillonite and the intercalated glutamic acid-iron chelate molecules were well preserved. The product G-Fe-Mt displayed excellent catalytic performance in heterogeneous photo-Fenton reaction under sunlight irradiation at acidic and neutral pH values. The chelation and the visible light responsiveness of glutamic acid produce a synergistic effect leading to greatly enhanced sunlight-Fenton reaction catalyzed by the heterogeneous G-Fe-Mt under neutral pH. G-Fe-Mt is a promising catalyst for advanced oxidation processes.

  3. Total aerobic destruction of azo contaminants with nanoscale zero-valent copper at neutral pH: promotion effect of in-situ generated carbon center radicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Guohui; Ai, Zhihui; Zhang, Lizhi

    2014-12-01

    In this study, nanoscale zero-valent copper (nZVC) was synthesized with a facile solvothermal method and used for the aerobic removal of azo contaminants at neutral pH for the first time. We found that both Cu(I) and OH generated during the nZVC induced molecular oxygen activation process accounted for the rapid total destruction of azo contaminants in the nZVC/Air system, where nZVC could activate molecular oxygen to produce H2O2, and also release Cu(I) to break the -NN- bond of azo contaminants via the sandmeyer reaction for the generation of carbon center radicals. The in-situ generated carbon center radicals would then react with OH produced by the Cu(I) catalyzed decomposition of H2O2, resulting in the generation of low molecular weight organic acids and their subsequent mineralization. The indispensible role of Cu(I) catalyzed sandmeyer reaction and the promotion effect of in-situ generated carbon center radicals on the rapid total destruction of azo contaminants in the nZVC/Air system were confirmed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis. This study can deepen our understanding on the degradation of organic pollutant with molecular oxygen activated by zero valent metal, and also provide a new method to remove azo contaminants at neutral pH. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Experimental Research on Hysteretic Characteristics of Steel Plates Artificially Corroded by Neutral Salt Spray

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan-hua Xu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims to study the hysteretic characteristics of the steel plates artificially corroded by neutral salt spray. Salt spray was applied to accelerate the corrosion on the steel plates; specimens of varying degrees of corrosion were obtained in this manner. And each specimen was subject to cyclic loading test to get the hysteretic curve. Then the experimental results were extensively discussed, focusing on strength and ductility, hysteretic energy, the skeleton curve, and unloading and loading curve. After that, the hysteretic constitutive model of corroded steel was established based on the first time loading criterion, unloading criterion, cycle skeleton criterion, and reloading curve criterion. The result of the experiment showed that, with the increase of the degree of corrosion, the mechanical properties and seismic energy dissipation performance of seismic energy of the steel decreased; the deterioration of ductility got aggravated. On the other hand, the skeleton curve and the Ramberg-Osgood model were well matched, and the coefficient of circular enhancement showed a decreasing trend; the variation of cyclic hardening exponent did not have an obvious pattern. Meanwhile, the hysteretic constitutive model of corroded steel and the results of the experiment were well matched.

  5. Experimental Model System to Study pH Shift-Induced Aggregation of Monoclonal Antibodies Under Controlled Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oyetayo, Olubukayo-Opeyemi; Kiefer, Hans

    2016-06-01

    To present a convenient screening method for evaluating additive effects on the renaturation of an acid-exposed monoclonal antibody (mAb). The assay involves brief incubation of a mAb at acidic pH and subsequent neutralization in the absence or presence of additive to induce mainly aggregation. An increase in absorbance depicted aggregation. The recorded aggregation data traces were fitted with a nucleation-autocatalytic growth model for the extraction of kinetic parameters. All kinetic data traces were fitted successfully with the selected model and the adjusted R square values were greater than 0.99. Trehalose had strongly stabilizing, proline mildly stabilizing and trimethylamine oxide had destabilizing effects on both the nucleation and growth phase of the reaction. Histidine was strongly stabilizing but was limited by its poor solubility. The results demonstrate the suitability of the experimental mAb aggregation system and the nucleation-autocatalytic growth fit in the screening and quantification of additive effects on the renaturation of an acid-exposed mAb respectively. This will aid the investigation and derivation of quantitative structure-activity relationships of additive effects on mAb solubility.

  6. The Effect of Molecular Crowding on the Stability of Human c-MYC Promoter Sequence I-Motif at Neutral pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwin A. Lewis

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We have previously shown that c-MYC promoter sequences can form stable i-motifs in acidic solution (pH 4.5–5.5. In terms of drug targeting, the question is whether c-MYC promoter sequence i-motifs will exist in the nucleus at neutral pH. In this work, we have investigated the stability of a mutant c-MYC i-motif in solutions containing a molecular crowding agent. The crowded nuclear environment was modeled by the addition of up to 40% w/w polyethylene glycols having molecular weights up to 12,000 g/mol. CD and DSC were used to establish the presence and stability of c-MYC i-motifs in buffer solutions over the pH range 4 to 7. We have shown that the c-MYC i-motif can exist as a stable structure at pH values as high as 6.7 in crowded solutions. Generic dielectric constant effects, e.g., a shift in the pKa of cytosine by more than 2 units (e.g., 4.8 to 7.0, or the formation of non-specific PEG/DNA complexes appear to contribute insignificantly to i-motif stabilization. Molecular crowding, largely an excluded volume effect of added PEG, having a molecular weight in excess of 1,000 g/mol, appears to be responsible for stabilizing the more compact i-motif over the random coil at higher pH values.

  7. Experimental study of the pH influence on the transport mechanisms of phenols in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fiore, Silvia; Zanetti, Maria Chiara; Genon, Giuseppe

    2003-01-01

    The study of the transport mechanisms connected to solid-liquid interactions is fundamental in the determination of the extension of the pollution of a site and in the evaluation of the best remediation process to be applied. The sorption of hydrophobic ionizable organic contaminants from the groundwaters is supervised not only by the physico-chemical properties of soil and pollutants, but also by the groundwaters pH, which deeply influences their solubility in the aqueous media, and consequently their transport mechanisms in the aquifer. In this work an experimental study of the sorption of phenol and 2-nitrophenol on two soils, different in particle-size distribution, CEC and organic carbon content, was realized. The sorption potential of the soils was evaluated by means of a physical, mineralogical and chemical characterization. The experimental data coming from some batch tests, performed at pH values equal to 4, 7 and 10 were fitted by means of linear, Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms models. The soil-contaminants interaction mechanisms that influence the isotherms shapes were then analyzed and discussed, and a comparison between the theoretical and experimental values of the partitioning coefficient KD was performed.

  8. pH dependent photophysical studies of new europium and terbium complexes of tripodal ligand: Experimental and semiempirical approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akbar, Rifat [Department of Chemistry, Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering & Technology, Longowal, Punjab 148106 (India); Baral, Minati [Department of Chemistry, National Institute of Technology Kurukshetra, Haryana 136119 (India); Kanungo, B K, E-mail: b.kanungo@gmail.com [Department of Chemistry, Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering & Technology, Longowal, Punjab 148106 (India)

    2015-11-15

    The photophysical properties of adduct of a novel nonadentate tripodal ligand, 5,5′-(2-(((8-hydroxyquinolin-5-yl)methylamino)methyl)-2-methylpropane-1, 3-diyl)bis(azanediyl)bis(methylene diquinolin-8-ol, (TAME5OX), with Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} metal ions have been probed for photonics applications. The absorption spectroscopy of these complexes show remarkable spectral changes due to characteristic lanthanide transitions, which support the use of TAME5OX as a sensitive optical pH based sensor to detect Ln{sup 3+} metal ions in biological systems. In addition, these complexes have also been shown to exhibit strong green fluorescence allowing simultaneous sensing within the visible region under physiological pH in competitive medium for both Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} ions. The intense fluorescence from these compounds were revealed to intermittently get quenched under acidic as well as basic conditions due to the photoinduced intramolecular electron transfer from excited 8-hydroxyquinoline (8-HQ) moiety to metal ion, just an opposite process. This renders these compounds the OFF–ON–OFF type of pH-dependent fluorescent sensor. The thermodynamic stability and aqueous coordination chemistry of the chelator with the said lanthanide ions have also been probed by potentiometric, UV–visible and fluorescence spectrophotometric method. TAME5OX has been found to form two protonated complexes [Ln(H{sub 5}L)]{sup 5+} and [Ln(H{sub 4}L)]{sup 4+} below pH 2.5 with both metal ions, which consecutively deprotonates through one proton process with rise of pH. The formation constants (log β{sub 11n}) of neutral complexes have been determined to be 33.51 and 32.16 with pLn (pLn=−log[Ln{sup 3+}]) values of 16.14 and 19.48 for Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} ions, respectively, calculated at pH 7.4, indicating TAME5OX is a good lanthanide synthetic chelator. The emission lifetimes of the Eu{sup 3+} and Tb{sup 3+} complexes recorded in D{sub 2}O and H{sub 2}O suggest the presence

  9. Efficacy of sorbates on the control of the growth of Eurotium species in bakery products with near neutral pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marín, S; Abellana, M; Rubinat, M; Sanchis, V; Ramos, A J

    2003-11-01

    The effects of sorbic acid and potassium sorbate on growth of different Eurotium isolates when added to a bakery product analogue were tested under different environmental conditions. Water activity of the products was adjusted to values in the range of 0.75-0.90, and storage temperatures were in the range of 15-30 degrees C. Preservatives were added in concentrations ranging from 0.025% to 0.2%. It was observed that 0.025% and 0.05% concentrations always enhanced the isolates growth, while 0.1% had little preservative effect. Finally, even the highest concentration (0.2%) was not suitable as it only controlled fungal growth under certain water activity and temperature levels. It was concluded that these weak-acid preservatives are not useful when added to bakery products with near to neutral pH.

  10. Genetically Engineered Phage-Templated MnO2 Nanowires: Synthesis and Their Application in Electrochemical Glucose Biosensor Operated at Neutral pH Condition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Lei; Shao, Changxu; Liang, Bo; Liu, Aihua

    2016-06-08

    To conveniently obtain one-dimensional MnO2 nanowires (NWs) with controlled structure and unique properties for electron transfer, the genetically engineered M13 phages were used as templates for precise nucleation and growth of MnO2 crystals in filamentous phage scaffolds, via the spontaneous oxidation of Mn(2+) in alkaline solution. It was found that the morphology of NWs could be tailored by the surface charge of M13 mutants. MnO2 crystals were uniformly distributed on the surface of negatively charged tetraglutamate-fused phage (M13-E4), significantly different from irregular MnO2 agglomeration on the weakly negatively charged wild-type phage and positively charged tetraarginine-fused phage. The as-synthesized M13-E4@MnO2 NWs could catalyze the electro-oxidation of H2O2 at neutral pH. To demonstrate the superiority of the electrocatalytic activity in the solution containing plenty of chloride ions at neutral pH, both glucose oxidase and as-prepared MnO2 NWs were used for fabricating the glucose biosensor. The proposed biosensor showed a wide linear range (5 μM to 2 mM glucose), a low limit of detection of 1.8 μM glucose (S/N = 3), good interassay and intra-assay reproducibility and satisfactory storage stability. Due to the superiorities of synthesis and electrochemical performance, the as-prepared MnO2 NWs are promising for applications in electrocatalysis, electrochemical sensor, and supercapacitor.

  11. Ex situ characterization of metallurgical inclusions in X100 pipeline steel before and after immersion in a neutral pH bicarbonate solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Yingbo; Liu, Jie [Key Laboratory of Advanced Ceramics and Machining Technology (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Deng, Yida [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Han, Xiaopeng [Key Laboratory of Advanced Ceramics and Machining Technology (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Hu, Wenbin [Key Laboratory of Advanced Ceramics and Machining Technology (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Tianjin Key Laboratory of Composite and Functional Materials, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Zhong, Cheng, E-mail: cheng.zhong@tju.edu.cn [Key Laboratory of Advanced Ceramics and Machining Technology (Ministry of Education), School of Materials Science and Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)

    2016-07-15

    The initiation of corrosion pits in pipeline steels plays an important role in the development of stress corrosion cracking. In order to reveal the effect of inclusions on corrosion initiation sites and also to clarify contradictory results from previous literature, we proposed an ex situ characterization method that is allowed to characterize exactly the same inclusion or location of the surface of steel before and after corrosion tests. The time-dependent corrosion behaviour of the inclusions and the surrounding X100 steel matrix at the same area before and after early stage immersion in a near-neutral pH bicarbonate solution was investigated by ex situ scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis and localized electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (LEIS). The sizes of most inclusions in X100 steel are below 3 μm. The results challenge the long-held opinion of previous work that corrosion pit initiations are related with the inclusions. It has been found that most of the inclusions remain stable (intact) during the whole testing time although severe corrosion occurs on the matrix of the steel. The chemical composition of the inclusion greatly affects the chemical stability of the inclusion. SiO{sub 2} inclusions and complex inclusions with a high SiO{sub 2} content remain intact although obvious general corrosion occurs on the steel matrix under the investigated immersion period. Inclusions with little Si, such as Al–Mg–Ca–O enriched inclusions, totally disappear after certain immersion time. During the immersion, the corrosion product tends to deposit at the interstice between the inclusion and steel matrix. - Highlights: • Ex situ characterization of metallurgical inclusions in X100 pipeline steel. • The pipeline steel was immersed in neutral pH bicarbonate solution. • Majority of inclusions remain stable during the whole testing time. • The chemical stability of metallurgical inclusions depends on the SiO{sub 2

  12. Neutral lipids associated with haemozoin mediate efficient and rapid β-haematin formation at physiological pH, temperature and ionic composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambele Melvin A

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The malaria parasite disposes of host-derived ferrihaem (iron(IIIprotoporphyrin IX, Fe(IIIPPIX by conversion to crystalline haemozoin in close association with neutral lipids. Lipids mediate synthetic haemozoin (β-haematin formation very efficiently. However, the effect on reaction rates of concentrations of lipid, Fe(IIIPPIX and physiologically relevant ions and biomolecules are unknown. Methods Lipid emulsions containing Fe(IIIPPIX were prepared in aqueous medium (pH 4.8, 37°C to mediate β-haematin formation. The reaction was quenched at various times and free Fe(IIIPPIX measured colorimetrically as a pyridine complex and the kinetics and yields analysed. Products were also characterized by FTIR, TEM and electron diffraction. Autofluorescence was also used to monitor β-haematin formation by confocal microscopy. Results At fixed Fe(IIIPPIX concentration, β-haematin yields remained constant with decreasing lipid concentration until a cut-off ratio was reached whereupon efficiency decreased dramatically. For the haemozoin-associated neutral lipid blend (NLB and monopalmitoylglycerol (MPG, this occurred below a lipid/Fe(IIIPPIX (L/H ratio of 0.54. Rate constants were found to increase with L/H ratio above the cut-off. At 16 μM MPG, Fe(IIIPPIX concentration could be raised until the L/H ratio reached the same ratio before a sudden decline in yield was observed. MPG-mediated β-haematin formation was relatively insensitive to biologically relevant cations (Na+, K+, Mg2+, Ca2+, or anions (H2PO4−, HCO3−, ATP, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, glutathione. Confocal microscopy demonstrated β-haematin formation occurs in association with the lipid particles. Conclusions Kinetics of β-haematin formation have shown that haemozoin-associated neutral lipids alone are capable of mediating β-haematin formation at adequate rates under physiologically realistic conditions of ion concentrations to account for haemozoin formation.

  13. Neutral lipids associated with haemozoin mediate efficient and rapid β-haematin formation at physiological pH, temperature and ionic composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambele, Melvin A; Egan, Timothy J

    2012-10-08

    The malaria parasite disposes of host-derived ferrihaem (iron(III)protoporphyrin IX, Fe(III)PPIX) by conversion to crystalline haemozoin in close association with neutral lipids. Lipids mediate synthetic haemozoin (β-haematin) formation very efficiently. However, the effect on reaction rates of concentrations of lipid, Fe(III)PPIX and physiologically relevant ions and biomolecules are unknown. Lipid emulsions containing Fe(III)PPIX were prepared in aqueous medium (pH 4.8, 37°C) to mediate β-haematin formation. The reaction was quenched at various times and free Fe(III)PPIX measured colorimetrically as a pyridine complex and the kinetics and yields analysed. Products were also characterized by FTIR, TEM and electron diffraction. Autofluorescence was also used to monitor β-haematin formation by confocal microscopy. At fixed Fe(III)PPIX concentration, β-haematin yields remained constant with decreasing lipid concentration until a cut-off ratio was reached whereupon efficiency decreased dramatically. For the haemozoin-associated neutral lipid blend (NLB) and monopalmitoylglycerol (MPG), this occurred below a lipid/Fe(III)PPIX (L/H) ratio of 0.54. Rate constants were found to increase with L/H ratio above the cut-off. At 16 μM MPG, Fe(III)PPIX concentration could be raised until the L/H ratio reached the same ratio before a sudden decline in yield was observed. MPG-mediated β-haematin formation was relatively insensitive to biologically relevant cations (Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+)), or anions (H(2)PO(4)(-), HCO(3)(-), ATP, 2,3-diphosphoglycerate, glutathione). Confocal microscopy demonstrated β-haematin formation occurs in association with the lipid particles. Kinetics of β-haematin formation have shown that haemozoin-associated neutral lipids alone are capable of mediating β-haematin formation at adequate rates under physiologically realistic conditions of ion concentrations to account for haemozoin formation.

  14. Heat-induced denaturation and aggregation of ovalbumin at neutral pH described by irreversible first-order kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weijers, Mireille; Barneveld, Peter A; Cohen Stuart, Martien A; Visschers, Ronald W

    2003-12-01

    The heat-induced denaturation kinetics of two different sources of ovalbumin at pH 7 was studied by chromatography and differential scanning calorimetry. The kinetics was found to be independent of protein concentration and salt concentration, but was strongly dependent on temperature. For highly pure ovalbumin, the decrease in nondenatured native protein showed first-order dependence. The activation energy obtained with different techniques varied between 430 and 490 kJ*mole(-1). First-order behavior was studied in detail using differential scanning calorimetry. The calorimetric traces were irreversible and highly scan rate-dependent. The shape of the thermograms as well as the scan rate dependence can be explained by assuming that the thermal denaturation takes place according to a simplified kinetic process where N is the native state, D is denatured (or another final state) and k a first-order kinetic constant that changes with temperature, according to the Arrhenius equation. A kinetic model for the temperature-induced denaturation and aggregation of ovalbumin is presented. Commercially obtained ovalbumin was found to contain an intermediate-stable fraction (IS) of about 20% that was unable to form aggregates. The denaturation of this fraction did not satisfy first-order kinetics.

  15. Self-Templating Construction of Hollow Amorphous CoMoS4 Nanotube Array towards Efficient Hydrogen Evolution Electrocatalysis at Neutral pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Weiyi; Ren, Xiang; Hao, Shuai; Liu, Zhiang; Xie, Fengyu; Yao, Yadong; Asiri, Abdullah M; Chen, Liang; Sun, Xuping

    2017-09-18

    Environmentally friendly electrochemical hydrogen production needs the development of earth-abundant catalyst materials for the hydrogen evolution reaction with high activity and durability at neutral pH. In this work, the self-templating construction of a hollow amorphous CoMoS4 nanotube array on carbon cloth (CoMoS4 NTA/CC) is reported, using hydrothermal treatment of a Co(OH)F nanowire array on CC in (NH4 )2 MoS4 solution. When used as a 3D electrode for hydrogen evolution electrocatalysis, the resulting CoMoS4 NTA/CC demonstrates superior catalytic activity and strong long-term electrochemical durability in 1.0 M phosphate buffer solution (pH=7). It shows small onset overpotential of 21 mV and requires low overpotentials of 104 and 179 mV to drive geometrical current densities of 10 and 50 mA cm-2 , respectively. Density functional theory calculations suggest that CoMoS4 has a more favorable hydrogen adsorption free energy than Co(OH)F. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Concurrent neutral endopeptidase and ACE inhibition in experimental heart failure: renal and hormonal effects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Helin, K

    1993-01-01

    Neutral endopeptidase (NEP) inhibitors have been shown to strengthen the effects of endogenous atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP). It has been well documented that angiotensin I-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitors act beneficially in chronic congestive heart failure (CHF). In the present study, renal...

  17. Characterizing reactive oxygen generation and bacterial inactivation by a zerovalent iron-fullerene nano-composite device at neutral pH under UV-A illumination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erdim, Esra [Center for the Environmental Implications of NanoTechnology, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Environmental Engineering Department, Marmara University, Istanbul 34469 (Turkey); Badireddy, Appala Raju [Center for the Environmental Implications of NanoTechnology, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Wiesner, Mark R., E-mail: wiesner@duke.edu [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, Duke University, Durham, NC 27708 (United States)

    2015-02-11

    Highlights: • We synthesized a novel ZVI/nC{sub 60} nano-composite device for multi-ROS generation. • O{sub 2}·{sup −} (UV-A independent) and {sup 1}O{sub 2} (UV-A dependent) are generated at neutral pH. • At low Fe concentration, ZVI/nC{sub 60} device is a better ROS generator than ZVI alone. • C{sub 60} mediates electron transfer from ZVI surface to dissolved O{sub 2} to produce O{sub 2}·{sup −}. • Bacteria are rapidly inactivated by O{sub 2}·{sup −} even at low ZVI/nC{sub 60} ratio. - Abstract: A nano-composite device composed of nano-scale zerovalent iron (ZVI) and C{sub 60} fullerene aggregates (ZVI/nC{sub 60}) was produced via a rapid nucleation method. The device was conceived to deliver reactive oxygen species (ROS) generated by photosensitization and/or electron transfer to targeted contaminants, including waterborne pathogens under neutral pH conditions. Certain variations of the nano-composite were fabricated differing in the amounts of (1) ZVI (0.1 mM and 2 mM) but not nC{sub 60} (2.5 mg-C/L), and (2) nC{sub 60} (0–25 mg-C/L) but not ZVI (0.1 mM). The generation of ROS by the ZVI/nC{sub 60} nano-composites and ZVI nanoparticles was quantified using organic probe compounds. 0.1 mM ZVI/2.5 mg-C/L C{sub 60} generated 3.74-fold higher O{sub 2}·{sup −} concentration and also resulted in an additional 2-log inactivation of Pseudomonas aeruginosa when compared to 0.1 mM ZVI (3-log inactivation). 2 mM ZVI/2.5 mg-C/L nC{sub 60} showed negligible improvement over 2 mM ZVI in terms of O{sub 2}·{sup −} generation or inactivation. Further, incremental amounts of nC{sub 60} in the range of 0–25 mg-C/L in 0.1 mM ZVI/nC{sub 60} led to increased O{sub 2}·{sup −} concentration, independent of UV-A. This study demonstrates that ZVI/nC{sub 60} device delivers (1) enhanced O{sub 2}·{sup −} with nC{sub 60} as a mediator for electron transfer, and (2) {sup 1}O{sub 2} (only under UV-A illumination) at neutral pH conditions.

  18. Microorganisms inactivation in wastewater by solar photo-Fenton at neutral pH; Inactivacion de microorganismos presentes en aguas mediante foto-Feton solar a pH neutro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ortega Gomez, E.

    2015-07-01

    The global fresh water shortage, caused mainly by the drought and the pollution of sources, is one of the main environmental problems currently affecting the human race. Over the last few decades, water quality requirements for use in different activities has obliged us to find alternative solutions which requires a concerted effort at a scientific as well as political, economic and social level. In particular, treated wastewater recycling has come up recently as a source provision for sectors where high water quantities are consumed. In this regard, the main sector to benefit is agriculture, which produces the 60% of global food, according to Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO). As such, treatments that are able to guarantee water microbiological quality, as stated by governing law, are necessary and resolve disadvantages or problems with current treatment, Amongst new technologies available for wastewater regeneration, a noteworthy point is the high level of efficiency in Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs). Furthermore, those that are capable of using sunlight as a radiation source are of special interest, particularly the homogeneous photocatalytic process, solar photo-Fenton. Generally speaking, in Fenton reactions, an oxidant agent (H2O2) reacts with a catalyst (Fe2+) generating hydroxyl radicals, which are high oxidant and non-selective species causing the inactivation of several microorganisms. The presence of UV-A photons in sunlight leads to catalyst regeneration and the production of more hydroxyl radicals. One of the main goals of this research work has been to improve the knowledge about the microorganism inactivation process through solar photo-Fenton at neutral pH, which has been scarcely studied, for application as a tertiary treatment in a wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). With this aim in mind, the bacteria Enterococus faecalis (Gram-positive microorganism) has been used as a fecal pollution indicator since it has not been studied in great

  19. Enhanced As(III) oxidation and removal by combined use of zero valent iron and hydrogen peroxide in aerated waters at neutral pH values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katsoyiannis, Ioannis A; Voegelin, Andreas; Zouboulis, Anastasios I; Hug, Stephan J

    2015-10-30

    The oxidation and removal of As(III) by commercially available micro-scale zero-valent iron (mZVI) was studied in aerated synthetic groundwater with initially 6.7 μM As(III) at neutral pH values. Batch experiments were performed to investigate the influence of ZVI and H2O2 concentrations on As(III) oxidation and removal. Oxidation and removal kinetics was significantly increased by increasing ZVI concentration or by adding H2O2 in micromolar concentrations slightly higher than that of initial As(III). Observed half-lifes for arsenic removal without added H2O2 were 81-17 min at ZVI concentrations of 0.15-2.5 g/L, respectively. X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XAS) confirmed that almost all As(III) was converted to As(V) after 2 h of reaction in the pH range 5-9. Addition of 9.6 μM H2O2 to 0.15 g/L ZVI suspensions diminished half-lifes for arsenic removal from 81 to 32 min and for As(III) oxidation from 77 to 8 min, i.e., by approximately a factor of 10. The increased rate of As(III) oxidation is attributable to enhanced formation of oxidants by the Fenton reaction with higher initial concentrations of H2O2. In practice, results of this study suggest that addition of small amounts (oxidation and removal with ZVI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Removal of pharmaceuticals from MWTP effluent by nanofiltration and solar photo-Fenton using two different iron complexes at neutral pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miralles-Cuevas, S; Oller, I; Pérez, J A Sánchez; Malato, S

    2014-11-01

    In recent years, membrane technologies (nanofiltration (NF)/reverse osmosis (RO)) have received much attention for micropollutant separation from Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant (MWTP) effluents. Practically all micropollutants are retained in the concentrate stream, which must be treated. Advanced Oxidation Processes (AOPs) have been demonstrated to be a good option for the removal of microcontaminants from water systems. However, these processes are expensive, and therefore, are usually combined with other techniques (such as membrane systems) in an attempt at cost reduction. One of the main costs in solar photo-Fenton comes from reagent consumption, mainly hydrogen peroxide and chemicals for pH adjustment. Thus, in this study, solar photo-Fenton was used to treat a real MWTP effluent with low initial iron (less than 0.2 mM) and hydrogen peroxide (less than 2 mM) concentrations. In order to work at neutral pH, iron complexing agents (EDDS and citrate) were used in the two cases studied: direct treatment of the MWTP effluent and treatment of the concentrate stream generated by NF. The degradation of five pharmaceuticals (carbamazepine, flumequine, ibuprofen, ofloxacin and sulfamethoxazole) spiked in the effluent at low initial concentrations (μg L(-1)) was monitored as the main variable in the pilot-plant-scale photo-Fenton experiments. In both effluents, pharmaceuticals were efficiently removed (>90%), requiring low accumulated solar energy (2 kJUV L(-1), key parameter in scaling up the CPC photoreactor) and low iron and hydrogen peroxide concentrations (reagent costs, 0.1 and 1.5 mM, respectively). NF provided a clean effluent, and the concentrate was positively treated by solar photo-Fenton with no significant differences between the direct MWTP effluent and NF concentrate treatments. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. New Experimental limit on Optical Photon Coupling to Neutral, Scalar Bosons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afanaciev, Andrei; Afanasev, Andrei; Afanaciev, Andrei; Afanasev, Andrei; Baker, O.; Beard, Kevin; Biallas, George; Boyce, James; Minarni, Minarni; Ramdon, Roopchan; Michelle D. Shinn; Slocum, P.

    2008-09-01

    We report on the first results of a sensitive search for scalar coupling of photons to a light neutral boson in the mass range of approximately 1.0 milli-electron volts and coupling strength greater than 10$^-6$ GeV$^-1$ using optical photons. This was a photon regeneration experiment using the "light shining through a wall" technique in which laser light was passed through a strong magnetic field upstream of an optical beam dump; regenerated laser light was then searched for downstream of a second magnetic field region optically shielded from the former. Our results show no evidence for scalar coupling in this region of parameter space.

  2. A 3-in-1 perineal care washcloth impregnated with dimethicone 3% versus water and pH neutral soap to prevent and treat incontinence-associated dermatitis: a randomized, controlled clinical trial.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beeckman, D.; Verhaeghe, S.; Defloor, T.; Schoonhoven, L.; Vanderwee, K.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: We compared the effectiveness of a 3-in-1 perineal care washcloth versus standard of care (water and pH neutral soap) to prevent and treat incontinence-associated dermatitis (IAD). The product under study was a soft, premoistened washcloth, including a 3% dimethicone formula, with

  3. Experimental evidence of chemical components in the bonding of helium and neon with neutral molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cappelletti, David; Bartocci, Alessio; Grandinetti, Felice; Falcinelli, Stefano; Belpassi, Leonardo; Tarantelli, Francesco; Pirani, Fernando

    2015-04-13

    The complexes of helium and neon with gaseous neutral molecules are generally perceived to be van der Waals adducts held together by physical (non-covalent) forces, owing to the combination of size (exchange) repulsion with dispersion/induction attraction. Molecular beam experiments confirm that this is the case for He-CF4 , Ne-CF4 adducts, but revealed that the interaction of He and Ne with CCl4 features an appreciable contribution of chemical components that arise from the anisotropy of the electron density of CCl4 that enhances a charge transfer from Ng (Ng=He, Ne). These findings furnish a novel assay of the bonding capabilities of helium and neon, and invite to revisit the neutral complexes of these elements as systems of chemical relevance. The CCl4 -Ng are also peculiar examples of halogen bonds, a group of interactions of major current concern. Finally, this investigation is a prelude to the development of semi-empirical models for force fields aimed to the unified description of static and dynamical properties of systems of comparable or higher complexity. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Regulation of gene expression in roots of the pH-sensitive Vaccinium corymbosum and the pH-tolerant Vaccinium arboreum in response to near neutral pH stress using RNA-Seq.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payá-Milans, Miriam; Nunez, Gerardo H; Olmstead, James W; Rinehart, Timothy A; Staton, Margaret

    2017-08-07

    Blueberries are one of the few horticultural crops adapted to grow in acidic soils. Neutral to basic soil pH is detrimental to all commonly cultivated blueberry species, including Vaccinium corymbosum (VC). In contrast, the wild species V. arboreum (VA) is able to tolerate a wider range of soil pH. To assess the molecular mechanisms involved in near neutral pH stress response, plants from pH-sensitive VC (tetraploid) and pH-tolerant VA (diploid) were grown at near neutral pH 6.5 and at the preferred pH of 4.5. Transcriptome sequencing of root RNA was performed for 4 biological replications per species x pH level interaction, for a total of 16 samples. Reads were mapped to the reference genome from diploid V. corymbosum, transforming ~55% of the reads to gene counts. A quasi-likelihood F test identified differential expression due to pH stress in 337 and 4867 genes in VA and VC, respectively. Both species shared regulation of genes involved in nutrient homeostasis and cell wall metabolism. VA and VC exhibited differential regulation of signaling pathways related to abiotic/biotic stress, cellulose and lignin biosynthesis, and nutrient uptake. The specific responses in VA likely facilitate tolerance to higher soil pH. In contrast, response in VC, despite affecting a greater number of genes, is not effective overcoming the stress induced by pH. Further inspection of those genes with differential expression that are specific in VA may provide insight on the mechanisms towards tolerance.

  5. Experimental Limit on Optical-Photon Coupling to Light Neutral Scalar Bosons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Afanaciev, Andrei; Afanasev, Andrei; Baker, O.; Beard, Kevin; Biallas, George; Boyce, James; Minarni, Minarni; Ramdon, Roopchan; Michelle D. Shinn; Slocum, P.

    2008-09-01

    DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.101.120401
    We report on the first results of a sensitive search for scalar coupling of photons to a light neutral boson in the mass range of approximately 1.0 meV (milli-electron volts) and coupling strength greater than 10^-6 GeV^-1 using optical photons. This was a photon regeneration experiment using the "light shining through a wall" technique in which laser light was passed through a strong magnetic field upstream of an optical beam dump; regenerated laser light was then searched for downstream of a second magnetic field region optically shielded from the former. Our results show no evidence for scalar coupling in this region of parameter space.

  6. Efficient Fusion at Neutral pH by Human Immunodeficiency Virus gp41 Trimers containing the Fusion Peptide and Transmembrane Domain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liang, Shuang; Ratnayake, Punsisi; Keinath, Craig; Jia, Lihui; Wolfe, Robert; Ranaweera, Ahinsa; Weliky, David P

    2018-01-18

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is membrane-enveloped and an initial infection step is joining/fusion of viral and cell membranes. This step is catalyzed by gp41 which is a single-pass integral viral membrane protein. The protein contains a ~170-residue ectodomain located outside the virus that is important for fusion, and includes the fusion peptide (FP), N-helix, loop, C-helix, and viral membrane-proximal external region (MPER). The virion initially has non-covalent complexes between three gp41 ectodomains and three gp120 proteins. A gp120 contains ~500-residues and functions to identify target T-cells and macrophages via binding to specific protein receptors of the target cell membrane. Gp120 moves away from the gp41 ectodomain, and the ectodomain is thought to bind to the target cell membrane and mediate membrane fusion. The secondary and tertiary structures of the ectodomain are different in the initial complex with gp120 and the final state without gp120. There isn't yet imaging of gp41 during fusion, so the temporal relationship between the gp41 and membrane structures isn't known. The present study describes biophysical and functional characterization of large gp41 constructs that include the ectodomain and transmembrane domain (TM). Significant fusion is observed of both neutral and anionic vesicles at neutral pH which reflects the expected conditions of HIV/cell fusion. Fusion is enhanced by the FP, which in HIV/cell fusion likely contacts the host membrane, and the MPER and TM, which respectively interfacially contact and traverse the HIV membrane. Initial contact with vesicles is made by protein trimers which are in a native oligomeric state that reflects the initial complex with gp120, and also is commonly observed for the ectodomain without gp120. Circular dichroism data support helical structure for the N-helix, C-helix, and MPER, and non-helical structure for the FP and loop. Distributions of monomer, trimer, and hexamer states are observed by

  7. Upgrade and experimental results of radio frequency ion source for neutral beam injector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Yahong, E-mail: xieyh@ipp.ac.cn [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Hu, Chundong [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Jiang, Caichao [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Graduate school, University of Science and Technology of China, Hefei 230026 (China); Gu, Yuming; Xu, Yongjian; Chen, Shiyong; Liang, Lizhen; Liu, Zhimin; Xie, Yuanlai [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • The RF ion source was developed in ASIPP for the first time. • The gas control was employed for the initial plasma production successfully. • The RF power was controlled for the stable plasma generation with high power. • Long pulse operation was tested and analyzed with 400 s. - Abstract: A radio frequency (RF) ion source was designed and developed for neutral beam injector in Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences (ASIPP). Recently, the RF ion source was upgraded with new RF power generator (50 kW with frequency of 1 MHz), a new matching unit and the faraday shield with water cooling. Two new methods were used for the ion source tests on the test bed. The high pressure was used for the ignition of plasma and change to low pressure of 0.3 Pa to maintain the plasma. The RF plasma can be generated without the start filament successfully. In order to avoid the plasma oscillation with high power, the RF power was set to increase with two stages without change the matching unit. High power of 46 kW with pulse length of 22 s was achieved on the test bed and the plasma duration can be extended too.

  8. The Roles of Streptozotocin Neurotoxicity and Neutral Endopeptidase in Murine Experimental Diabetic Neuropathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric Davidson

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We demonstrated that inhibition of neutral endopeptidase (NEP, a protease that degrades vaso- and neuroactive peptides, improves vascular and neural function in diabetic animal models. In this study we explored the role of NEP in neuropathy related to either insulin-deficient diabetes or diet-induced obesity using NEP deficient (−/− mice. Initial studies showed that streptozotocin, in the absence of subsequent hyperglycemia, did not induce nerve conduction slowing or paw thermal hypoalgesia. Glucose disposal was impaired in both C57Bl/6 and NEP −/− mice fed a high fat diet. Thermal hypoalgesia and nerve conduction slowing were present in both streptozotocin-diabetic and high fat fed C57Bl/6 mice but not in NEP −/− mice exposed to either streptozotocin-induced diabetes or a high fat diet. These studies suggest that streptozotocin does not induce neurotoxicity in mice and that NEP plays a role in regulating nerve function in insulin-deficient diabetes and diet-induced obesity.

  9. The effect of operating lights on laminar flow: an experimental study using neutrally buoyant helium bubbles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Refaie, R; Rushton, P; McGovern, P; Thompson, D; Serrano-Pedraza, I; Rankin, K S; Reed, M

    2017-08-01

    The interaction between surgical lighting and laminar airflow is poorly understood. We undertook an experiment to identify any effect contemporary surgical lights have on laminar flow and recommend practical strategies to limit any negative effects. Neutrally buoyant bubbles were introduced into the surgical field of a simulated setup for a routine total knee arthroplasty in a laminar flow theatre. Patterns of airflow were observed and the number of bubbles remaining above the surgical field over time identified. Five different lighting configurations were assessed. Data were analysed using simple linear regression after logarithmic transformation. In the absence of surgical lights, laminar airflow was observed, bubbles were cleared rapidly and did not accumulate. If lights were placed above the surgical field laminar airflow was abolished and bubbles rose from the surgical field to the lights then circulated back to the surgical field. The value of the decay parameter (slope) of the two setups differed significantly; no light (b = -1.589) versus one light (b = -0.1273, p < 0.001). Two lights touching (b = -0.1191) above the surgical field had a similar effect to that of a single light (p = 0. 2719). Two lights positioned by arms outstretched had a similar effect (b = -0.1204) to two lights touching (p = 0.998) and one light (p = 0.444). When lights were separated widely (160 cm), laminar airflow was observed but the rate of clearance of the bubbles remained slower (b = -1.1165) than with no lights present (p = 0.004). Surgical lights have a significantly negative effect on laminar airflow. Lights should be positioned as far away as practicable from the surgical field to limit this effect. Cite this article: Bone Joint J 2017;99-B:1061-6. ©2017 The British Editorial Society of Bone & Joint Surgery.

  10. Neutral currents

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2069482

    1986-01-01

    The present status of weak neutral currents is reviewed. F.mphasis is put on the comparison of recent experimental results with earlier ones, and with predictions of gauge models of the SU(Z) ® U(l) type. The coupling constants governing the weak neutral current interaction are given, and their quantitative agreement with the Salam-Weinberg model is critically examined. 1. INrRODUCT ION 25 The last year has been a period of consolidation for neutral current physics. Important new results and improvements of old results have been reported, but our picture of the neutral current interaction did not change compared to that of one year ago 1 • 2). Hence the emphasis of this review is put on recent experimental results, and on a critical discussion of the precision of those experiments which yield the most stringent constraints on model parameters. The processes which can occur via the weak neutral current interaction are depicted in the "Sakurai tetragon" 3) which is shown in Fig. 1. It is an analogue to the P...

  11. Photo-Fenton degradation of the herbicide 2,4-D in aqueous medium at pH conditions close to neutrality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conte, Leandro O; Schenone, Agustina V; Alfano, Orlando M

    2016-04-01

    A theoretical and experimental study of the photo-Fenton degradation of the herbicide 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) in water is presented. A kinetic model derived from a reaction sequence is proposed using the ferrioxalate complex as iron source for conditions of pH = 5. The kinetic model was employed to predict the concentrations of 2,4-D, 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP), hydrogen peroxide (HP) and oxalate (Ox) in a flat plate laboratory reactor irradiated with a solar simulator. Two types of incident irradiation levels were tested by different combinations of attenuation filters. The effects of the oxalate/Fe(+3) molar ratio (Ox/Fe), the reaction temperature (T) and the 2,4-D/HP molar ratio (R) on the photo-Fenton process were also investigated. For low radiation level and operating conditions of R = 50 and T = 50 °C, a 2,4-D conversion of 95.6% was obtained after 180 min. Moreover, the 2,4-D conversion was almost 100% in only 120 min when the system was operated under the same operating conditions and high radiation level. From the proposed model and the experimental data, the corresponding kinetic parameters were estimated applying a nonlinear regression method. A good agreement between the kinetic model and experimental data, for a wide range of simulated solar operating conditions, was observed. For 2,4-D, 2,4-DCP, HP and Ox concentrations, the calculated RMSE were 1.21 × 10(-2), 5.45 × 10(-3), 2.86 × 10(-1) and 2.65 × 10(-2) mM, respectively. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Systematic and Experimental Uncertainties in the Search for Neutral MSSM Higgs Bosons Decaying to Two Tau Leptons

    CERN Document Server

    Hauswald, Lorenz

    For every physics measurement it is essential to precisely know its uncertainty. At the search for neutral MSSM Higgs bosons the decay channel to two tau leptons plays a major role. For this channel the influence of the uncertainty of Monte Carlo generator parameters on the acceptance of the analyses is studied in this thesis. The corresponding uncertainties are found to be in the range of $0$ to $30\\,\\%$. Physics with tau leptons is exceptionally challenging, because they can decay into hadrons, which, at the Large Hadron Collider, are hardly distinguishable from the overwhelming QCD background. Sophisticated multivariate algorithms aim to identify them correctly. The impact of experimental uncertainties on the outcome of the identification algortihms is subject of the second part of the thesis. The uncertainties obtained are below $7\\,\\%$.

  13. Controlled release of volatile secondary and tertiary alcohols by neighboring group participation: stepwise cyclization and re-opening of 2,2'-bis(carbamoyl)dibenzoates at neutral pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trachsel, Alain; Govoni, Alexandra; de Saint Laumer, Jean-Yves; Frérot, Eric; Herrmann, Andreas

    2008-12-01

    Bioactive, volatile, secondary and tertiary fragrance alcohols are efficiently released by intramolecular neighboring-group-assisted hydrolysis of 2,2'-bis(carbamoyl)dibenzoates at neutral pH. The stepwise cyclization of 2,2'-[(methylimino)bis(propane-3,1-diylcarbamoyl)]dibenzoates is followed by the re-opening of the intermediately formed diphthalimide and proceeds in an overall four-step consecutive reaction sequence. Kinetic rate constants for all four reaction steps could be determined pairwise by reversed-phase HPLC. At neutral pH, secondary alcohols were released by one order of magnitude faster than the tertiary alcohols, and the rate constants for the re-opening of the diphthalimides were found to be in the same order of magnitude as the release of the tertiary alcohols. Dynamic headspace analysis on a dry cotton surface finally confirmed the efficient release of tertiary alcohols under mild reaction conditions generally encountered for applications in functional perfumery.

  14. Alkalinity and pH effects on nitrification in a membrane aerated bioreactor: an experimental and model analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanahan, John W; Semmens, Michael J

    2015-05-01

    A nitrifying biofilm was grown in a laboratory-scale membrane aerated bioreactor (MABR) to calibrate and test a one-dimensional biofilm model incorporating chemical equilibria to calculate local pH values. A previously developed model (Shanahan and Semmens, 2004) based upon AQUASIM was modified to incorporate the impact of local pH changes within the biofilm on the kinetics of nitrification. Shielded microelectrodes were used to measure the concentration profiles of dissolved oxygen, ammonium, nitrate, and pH within the biofilm and the overlying boundary layer under actual operating conditions. Operating conditions were varied to assess the impact of bicarbonate loading (alkalinity), ammonium loading, and intra-membrane oxygen partial pressure on biofilm performance. Nitrification performance improved with increased ammonium and bicarbonate loadings over the range of operating conditions tested, but declined when the intra-membrane oxygen partial pressure was increased. Minor discrepancies between the measured and predicted concentration profiles within the biofilm were attributed to changes in biofilm density and vertical heterogeneities in biofilm structure not accounted for by the model. Nevertheless, predicted concentration profiles within the biofilm agreed well with experimental results over the range of conditions studied and highlight the fact that pH changes in the biofilm are significant especially in low alkalinity waters. The influent pH and buffer capacity of a wastewater may therefore have a significant impact on the performance of a membrane-aerated bioreactor with respect to nitrification, and nitrogen removal. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Experimental phylogeny of neutrally evolving DNA sequences generated by a bifurcate series of nested polymerase chain reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanson, Gerdine F O; Kawashita, Silvia Y; Brunstein, Adriana; Briones, Marcelo R S

    2002-02-01

    A known phylogeny was generated using a four-step serial bifurcate PCR method. The ancestor sequence (SSU rDNA) evolved in vitro for 280 nested PCR cycles, and the resulting 15 ancestor and 16 terminal sequences (2,238 bp each) were determined. Parsimony, distance, and maximum likelihood analysis of the terminal sequences reconstructed the topology of the real phylogeny and branch lengths accurately. Divergence dates and ancestor sequences were estimated with very small error, particularly at the base of the phylogeny, mostly due to insertion and deletion changes. The substitution patterns along the known phylogeny are not described by reversible models, and accordingly, the probability substitution matrix, based on the observed substitutions from ancestor to terminal nodes along the known phylogeny, was calculated. This approach is an extension of previous studies using bacteriophage serial propagation, because here mutations were allowed to occur neutrally rather than by addition of a mutagenic agent, which produced biased mutational changes. These results provide for the first time biochemical experimental support for phylogenies, divergence date estimates, and an irreversible substitution model based on neutrally evolving DNA sequences. The substitution preferences observed here (A to G and T to C) are consistent with the high G+C content of the Thermus aquaticus genome. This suggests, at least in part, that the method here described, which explores the high Taq DNA polymerase error rate, simulates the evolution of a DNA segment in a thermophilic organism. These organisms include the bacterial rod T. aquaticus and several Archaea, and thus, the method and data set described here may well contribute new insights about the genome evolution of these organisms.

  16. Mycorrhizal response to experimental pH and P manipulation in acidic hardwood forests.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurel A Kluber

    Full Text Available Many temperate forests of the Northeastern United States and Europe have received significant anthropogenic acid and nitrogen (N deposition over the last century. Although temperate hardwood forests are generally thought to be N-limited, anthropogenic deposition increases the possibility of phosphorus (P limiting productivity in these forest ecosystems. Moreover, inorganic P availability is largely controlled by soil pH and biogeochemical theory suggests that forests with acidic soils (i.e., <pH 5 are particularly vulnerable to P limitation. Results from previous studies in these systems are mixed with evidence both for and against P limitation. We hypothesized that shifts in mycorrhizal colonization and community structure help temperate forest ecosystems overcome an underlying P limitation by accessing mineral and organic P sources that are otherwise unavailable for direct plant uptake. We examined arbuscular mycorrhizal (AM and ectomycorrhizal (EcM communities and soil microbial activity in an ecosystem-level experiment where soil pH and P availability were manipulated in mixed deciduous forests across eastern Ohio, USA. One year after treatment initiation, AM root biomass was positively correlated with the most available P pool, resin P, while AM colonization was negatively correlated. In total, 15,876 EcM root tips were identified and assigned to 26 genera and 219 operational taxonomic units (97% similarity. Ectomycorrhizal richness and root tip abundance were negatively correlated with the moderately available P pools, while the relative percent of tips colonized by Ascomycetes was positively correlated with soil pH. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed regional, but not treatment, differences in AM communities, while EcM communities had both treatment and regional differences. Our findings highlight the complex interactions between mycorrhizae and the soil environment and further underscore the fact that mycorrhizal communities do

  17. Experimental study of the pH, ionic strength, and reversibility behavior of bacteria-mineral adsorption

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yee, Nathan; Fein, Jeremy B.; Daughney, Christopher J.

    2000-02-01

    In this study, we investigate the adsorption of Bacillus subtilis onto the surfaces of two minerals, corundum and quartz, as a function of time, pH, ionic strength, and bacteria:mineral mass ratio. Experimental results indicate that the adsorption of bacteria onto a mineral surface is a completely reversible process with equilibrium being reached in less than 1 h. Our data also indicate that B. subtilis displays a higher affinity for corundum surfaces than for quartz surfaces, and that the extent of bacteria adsorption onto corundum increases with decreasing pH, with increasing bacteria:mineral mass ratio, and with decreasing ionic strength. The adsorption behavior is governed by the chemical speciation of the bacterial and mineral surfaces. We describe the experimental results with a chemical equilibrium model. The model accounts for hydrophobic and electrostatic interactions that occur between the bacteria and mineral surfaces, and can account for the effects of solution chemistry as well as surface speciation on the extent of adsorption. These results are the first to integrate the effects of pH, ionic strength, and bacteria:mineral ratio in a quantitative model. Such an approach enables bacteria-mineral adsorption reactions to be incorporated into more standard water-rock speciation models, providing a better understanding of mass transport in both natural and bio-engineered bacteria-bearing geochemical systems.

  18. Experimental Evidence of Large Amplitude pH Mediated Autonomous Chemomechanical Oscillation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Yang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Large amplitude autonomous chemomechanical oscillations were observed in a coupled system consisting of a porous pH-responsive hydrogel and a bromate-sulfite-manganese (II pH oscillatory reaction. The porous structure effectively improves the chemomechanical response speed, and the negative feedback species of the bulk oscillation Mn2+ takes part in the coupling by forming complex and physical crosslinks with the responsive group in the gel. It strengthens the porous gel by forming additional networks, which may contribute to sustaining the long-lasting chemomechanical oscillation. Additionally, the interaction between Mn2+ and the hydrogel alters the period of the oscillatory reaction due to its binding competition with H+, the positive feedback species.

  19. Enhanced Al and Zn removal from coal-mine drainage during rapid oxidation and precipitation of Fe oxides at near-neutral pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burrows, Jill E.; Cravotta, Charles A.; Peters, Stephen C.

    2017-01-01

    Net-alkaline, anoxic coal-mine drainage containing ∼20 mg/L FeII and ∼0.05 mg/L Al and Zn was subjected to parallel batch experiments: control, aeration (Aer 1 12.6 mL/s; Aer 2 16.8 mL/s; Aer 3 25.0 mL/s), and hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) to test the hypothesis that aeration increases pH, FeII oxidation, hydrous FeIII oxide (HFO) formation, and trace-metal removal through adsorption and coprecipitation with HFO. During 5.5-hr field experiments, pH increased from 6.4 to 6.7, 7.1, 7.6, and 8.1 for the control, Aer 1, Aer 2, and Aer 3, respectively, but decreased to 6.3 for the H2O2 treatment. Aeration accelerated removal of dissolved CO2, Fe, Al, and Zn. In Aer 3, dissolved Al was completely removed within 1 h, but increased to ∼20% of the initial concentration after 2.5 h when pH exceeded 7.5. H2O2 promoted rapid removal of all dissolved Fe and Al, and 13% of dissolved Zn.Kinetic modeling with PHREEQC simulated effects of aeration on pH, CO2, Fe, Zn, and Al. Aeration enhanced Zn adsorption by increasing pH and HFO formation while decreasing aqueous CO2 available to form ZnCO30 and Zn(CO3)22− at high pH. Al concentrations were inconsistent with solubility control by Al minerals or Al-containing HFO, but could be simulated by adsorption on HFO at pH oxidation with pH adjustment to ∼7.5 could be effective for treating high-Fe and moderate-Zn concentrations, whereas chemical oxidation without pH adjustment may be effective for treating high-Fe and moderate-Al concentrations.

  20. Cationic and Neutral Cp*M(NO)(κ2-Ph2PCH2CH2PPh2) Complexes of Molybdenum and Tungsten: Lewis-Acid-Induced Intramolecular C-H Activation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handford, Rex C; Wakeham, Russell J; Patrick, Brian O; Legzdins, Peter

    2017-03-20

    Treatment of CH2Cl2 solutions of Cp*M(NO)Cl2 (Cp* = η5-C5(CH3)5; M = Mo, W) first with 2 equiv of AgSbF6 in the presence of PhCN and then with 1 equiv of Ph2PCH2CH2PPh2 affords the yellow-orange salts [Cp*M(NO)(PhCN)(κ2-Ph2PCH2CH2PPh2)](SbF6)2 in good yields (M = Mo, W). Reduction of [Cp*M(NO)(PhCN)(κ2-Ph2PCH2CH2PPh2)](SbF6)2 with 2 equiv of Cp2Co in C6H6 at 80 °C produces the corresponding 18e neutral compounds, Cp*M(NO)(κ2-Ph2PCH2CH2PPh2) which have been isolated as analytically pure orange-red solids. The addition of 1 equiv of the Lewis acid, Sc(OTf)3, to solutions of Cp*M(NO)(κ2-Ph2PCH2CH2PPh2) at room temperature results in the immediate formation of thermally stable Cp*M(NO→Sc(OTf)3)(H)(κ3-(C6H4)PhPCH2CH2PPh2) complexes in which one of the phenyl substituents of the Ph2PCH2CH2PPh2 ligands has undergone intramolecular orthometalation. In a similar manner, addition of BF3 produces the analogous Cp*M(NO→BF3)(H)(κ3-(C6H4)PhPCH2CH2PPh2) complexes. In contrast, B(C6F5)3 forms the 1:1 Lewis acid-base adducts, Cp*M(NO→B(C6F5)3)(κ2-Ph2PCH2CH2PPh2) in CH2Cl2 at room temperature. Upon warming to 80 °C, Cp*Mo(NO→B(C6F5)3)(κ2-Ph2PCH2CH2PPh2) converts cleanly to the orthometalated product Cp*Mo(NO→B(C6F5)3)(H)(κ3-(C6H4)PhPCH2CH2PPh2), but Cp*W(NO→B(C6F5)3)(κ2-Ph2PCH2CH2PPh2) generates a mixture of products whose identities remain to be ascertained. Attempts to extend this chemistry to include related Ph2PCH2PPh2 compounds have had only limited success. All new complexes have been characterized by conventional spectroscopic and analytical methods, and the solid-state molecular structures of most of them have been established by single-crystal X-ray crystallographic analyses.

  1. Irrigation water acidification to neutralize alkalinity for nursery crop production: Substrate pH, electrical conductivity, and nutrient concentrations; and plant nutrition and growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liming agents (LA) in irrigation water, typically associated with carbonates and bicarbonates of calcium (Ca) and magnesium (Mg), contribute to water alkalinity. Repeated application of LA to container crops can cause media-solution pH to rise overtime, that uncorrected, can lead to a nutrient avail...

  2. Irrigation water acidification to neutralize alkalinity for nursery crop production: Substrate pH, electrical conductivity, nutrient concentrations, and plant nutrition and growth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liming agents in irrigation water, typically associated with carbonates and bicarbonates of calcium and magnesium, contribute to water alkalinity. Repeated application of LA to container crops can cause media-solution pH to rise overtime, that uncorrected, can lead to a nutrient availability imbalan...

  3. Mg Isotope Fractionation during Uptake by a Rock-Inhabiting, Model Microcolonial Fungus Knufia petricola at Acidic and Neutral pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pokharel, Rasesh; Gerrits, Ruben; Schuessler, Jan A; Floor, Geerke H; Gorbushina, Anna A; von Blanckenburg, Friedhelm

    2017-09-05

    The model rock-inhabiting microcolonial fungus Knufia petricola fractionates stable Mg isotopes in a time- and pH-dependent manner. During growth, the increase of 26Mg/24Mg in the fungal cells relative to the growth media amounted to 0.65 ± 0.14‰ at pH 6 and 1.11 ± 0.35‰ at pH 3. We suggest a constant equilibrium fractionation factor during incorporation of Mg into ribosomes and ATP as a cause of enrichment of 26Mg in the cells. We suggest too that the proton gradient across the cell wall and cytoplasmic membrane controls Mg2+ transport into the fungal cell. As the strength of this gradient is a function of extracellular solution pH, the pH-dependence on Mg isotope fractionation is thus due to differences in fungal cell mass fluxes. Through a mass balance model we show that Mg uptake into the fungal cell is not associated with a unique Mg isotope fractionation factor. This Mg isotope fractionation dependence on pH might also be observed in any organism with cells that follow similar Mg uptake and metabolic pathways and serves to reveal Mg cycling in ecosystems.

  4. Nanostructured nickel (II) phthalocyanine-MWCNTs as viable nanocomposite platform for electrocatalytic detection of asulam pesticide at neutral pH conditions

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Siswana, MP

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available for the sensitive electrocatalytic detection of asulam pesticide at phosphate-buffered solution (pH 7.0 conditions). Comparative electron transfer dynamics, using ferrocyanide/ferricyanide as outer sphere redox probe, were examined and interpreted using the Davies...

  5. Chemical bath deposition of ZnO nanowires at near-neutral pH conditions without hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA): understanding the role of HMTA in ZnO nanowire growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McPeak, Kevin M; Le, Thinh P; Britton, Nathan G; Nickolov, Zhorro S; Elabd, Yossef A; Baxter, Jason B

    2011-04-05

    Chemical bath deposition (CBD) is an inexpensive and reproducible method for depositing ZnO nanowire arrays over large areas. The aqueous Zn(NO(3))(2)-hexamethylenetetramine (HMTA) chemistry is one of the most common CBD chemistries for ZnO nanowire synthesis, but some details of the reaction mechanism are still not well-understood. Here, we report the use of in situ attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR-FTIR) spectroscopy to study HMTA adsorption from aqueous solutions onto ZnO nanoparticle films and show that HMTA does not adsorb on ZnO. This result refutes earlier claims that the anisotropic morphology arises from HMTA adsorbing onto and capping the ZnO {10 1 0} faces. We conclude that the role of HMTA in the CBD of ZnO nanowires is only to control the saturation index of ZnO. Furthermore, we demonstrate the first deposition of ZnO nanowire arrays at 90 °C and near-neutral pH conditions without HMTA. Nanowires were grown using the pH buffer 2-(N-morpholino)ethanesulfonic acid (MES) and continuous titratation with KOH to maintain the same pH conditions where growth with HMTA occurs. This semi-batch synthetic method opens many new opportunities to tailor the ZnO morphology and properties by independently controlling temperature and pH.

  6. Ni-based electrocatalyst for water oxidation developed In-situ in a HCO3 -/CO2 system at near-neutral pH

    KAUST Repository

    Joya, Khurram Saleem

    2014-03-10

    Electrochemically generated NiOx nanoworms from a neutral bicarbonate system split water into dioxygen and protons with tremendous efficiency and stability. The NiOx electrocatalyst follows a pH-potential dependence, revealing a PCET (proton coupled electron transfer) mechanism of one electron and one proton oxidation. It does not require proton abstracting phosphate or borate buffers for electrogeneration and catalysis, and shows promising activity for anodic oxidation of water in phosphate, borate, and carbonate buffers. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Analysis of peptides and protein digests by reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry using neutral pH elution conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Yuanzhong; Boysen, Reinhard I; Chowdhury, Jamil; Alam, Asif; Hearn, Milton T W

    2015-05-04

    In this study, the advantages of carrying out the analysis of peptides and tryptic digests of proteins under gradient elution conditions at pH 6.5 by reversed-phase liquid chromatography (RP-HPLC) and in-line electrospray ionisation mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) are documented. For these RP separations, a double endcapped, bidentate anchored n-octadecyl wide pore silica adsorbent was employed in a capillary column format. Compared to the corresponding analysis of the same peptides and protein tryptic digests using low pH elution conditions for their RP-HPLC separation, this alternative approach provides improved selectivity and more efficient separation of these analytes, thus allowing a more sensitive identification of proteins at different abundance levels, i.e. more tryptic peptides from the same protein could be confidently identified, enabling higher sequence coverage of the protein to be obtained. This approach was further evaluated with very complex tryptic digests derived from a human plasma protein sample using an online two-dimensional (2D) strong cation-exchange (SCX)-RP-HPLC-ESI-MS/MS system. Again, at pH 6.5, with mobile phases of different compositions, improved chromatographic selectivities were obtained, concomitant with more sensitive on-line electrospray ionisation tandem mass spectrometric (ESI-MS/MS) analysis. As a consequence, more plasma proteins could be confidently identified, highlighting the potential of these RP-HPLC methods with elution at pH 6.5 to extend further the scope of proteomic investigations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Experimental study of the atmospheric neutrino backgrounds for proton decay to positron and neutral pion searches in water Cherenkov detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Mine, S; Andringa, S; Aoki, S; Argyriades, J; Asakura, K; Ashie, R; Berghaus, F; Berns, H; Bhang, H; Blondel, A; Borghi, S; Bouchez, J; Burguet-Castell, J; Casper, D; Catala, J; Cavata, C; Cervera-Villanueva, Anselmo; Chen, S M; Cho, K O; Choi, J H; Dore, U; Espinal, X; Fechner, M; Fernández, E; Fujii, Y; Fukuda, Y; Gomez-Cadenas, J; Gran, R; Hara, T; Hasegawa, M; Hasegawa, T; Hayato, Y; Helmer, R L; Hiraide, K; Hosaka, J; Ichikawa, A K; Iinuma, M; Ikeda, A; Ishida, T; Ishihara, K; Ishii, T; Ishitsuka, M; Itow, Y; Iwashita, T; Jang, H I; Jeon, E J; Jeong, I S; Joo, K K; Jover, G; Jung, C K; Kajita, T; Kameda, J; Kaneyuki, K; Kato, I; Kearns, E; Kim, C O; Khabibullin, M; Khotjantsev, A; Kielczewska, D; Kim, J Y; Kim, S B; Kitching, P; Kobayashi, K; Kobayashi, T; Konaka, A; Koshio, Y; Kropp, W; Kudenko, Yu; Kuno, Y; Kurimoto, Y; Kutter, T; Learned, J; Likhoded, S; Lim, I T; Loverre, P F; Ludovici, L; Maesaka, H; Mallet, J; Mariani, C; Matsuno, S; Matveev, V; McConnel, K; McGrew, C; Mikheyev, S; Minamino, A; Mineev, O; Mitsuda, C; Miura, M; Moriguchi, Y; Moriyama, S; Nakadaira, T; Nakahata, M; Nakamura, K; Nakano, I; Nakaya, T; Nakayama, S; Namba, T; Nambu, R; Nawang, S; Nishikawa, K; Nitta, K; Nova, F; Novella, P; Obayashi, Y; Okada, A; Okumura, K; Oser, S M; Oyama, Y; Pac, M Y; Pierre, F; Rodríguez, A; Saji, C; Sakuda, M; Sánchez, F; Scholberg, K; Schroeter, R; Sekiguchi, M; Shiozawa, M; Shiraishi, K; Sitjes, G; Smy, M; Sobel, H; Sorel, M; Stone, J; Sulak, L; Suzuki, A; Suzuki, Y; Tada, M; Takahashi, T; Takenaga, Y; Takeuchi, Y; Taki, K; Takubo, Y; Tamura, N; Tanaka, M; Terri, R; T'Jampens, S; Tornero-Lopez, A; Totsuka, Y; Vagins, M; Whitehead, L; Walter, C W; Wang, W; Wilkes, R J; Yamada, S; Yamada, Y; Yamamoto, S; Yanagisawa, C; Yershov, N; Yokoyama, H; Yokoyama, M; Yoo, J; Yoshida, M; Zalipska, J

    2008-01-01

    The atmospheric neutrino background for proton decay to positron and neutral pion in ring imaging water Cherenkov detectors is studied with an artificial accelerator neutrino beam for the first time. In total, about 314,000 neutrino events corresponding to about 10 megaton-years of atmospheric neutrino interactions were collected by a 1,000 ton water Cherenkov detector (KT). The KT charged-current single neutral pion production data are well reproduced by simulation programs of neutrino and secondary hadronic interactions used in the Super-Kamiokande (SK) proton decay search. The obtained proton to positron and neutral pion background rate by the KT data for SK from the atmospheric neutrinos whose energies are below 3 GeV is about two per megaton-year. This result is also relevant to possible future, megaton-scale water Cherenkov detectors.

  9. Neutralization and attenuation of metal species in acid mine drainage and mine leachates using magnesite: a batch experimental approach

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Masindi, Vhahangwele

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available International Mine Water Association Conference – An Interdisciplinary Response to Mine Water Challenges, China University of Mining and Technogy, China, China, 18-22 August 2014 Neutralization and Attenuation of Metal Species in Acid Mine Drainage and Mine...

  10. Aggregation behaviors of PEO-PPO-ph-PPO-PEO and PPO-PEO-ph-PEO-PPO at an air/water interface: experimental study and molecular dynamics simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Houjian; Xu, Guiying; Liu, Teng; Xu, Long; Zhai, Xueru; Zhang, Jian; Lv, Xin

    2012-09-25

    The block polyethers PEO-PPO-ph-PPO-PEO (BPE) and PPO-PEO-ph-PEO-PPO (BEP) are synthesized by anionic polymerization using bisphenol A as initiator. Compared with Pluronic P123, the aggregation behaviors of BPE and BEP at an air/water interface are investigated by the surface tension and dilational viscoelasticity. The molecular construction can influence the efficiency and effectiveness of block polyethers in decreasing surface tension. BPE has the most efficient ability to decrease surface tension of water among the three block polyethers. The maximum surface excess concentration (Γ(max)) of BPE is larger than that of BEP or P123. Moreover, the dilational modulus of BPE is almost the same as that of P123, but much larger than that of BEP. The molecular dynamics simulation provides the conformational variations of block polyethers at the air/water interface.

  11. Hematite photoanode co-functionalized with self-assembling melanin and C-phycocyanin for solar water splitting at neutral pH

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrantz, Krisztina; Wyss, Pradeep P.; Ihssen, Julian; Toth, Rita; Bora, Debajeet K.; Vitol, Elina A.; Rozhkova, Elena A.; Pieles, Uwe; Thöny-Meyer, Linda; Braun, Artur

    2017-04-01

    tNature provides functional units which can be integrated in inorganic solar cell materials, such as lightharvesting antenna proteins and photosynthetic molecular machineries, and thus help in advancing artifi-cial photosynthesis. Their integration needs to address mechanical adhesion, light capture, charge transferand corrosion resistance. We showed recently how enzymatic polymerization of melanin can immobi-lize the cyanobacterial light harvesting protein C-phycocyanin on the surface of hematite, a prospectivemetal oxide photoanode for solar hydrogen production by water splitting in photoelectrochemical cells.After the optimization of the functionalization procedure, in this work we show reproducible hydrogenproduction, measured parallel to the photocurrent on this bio-hybrid electrode in benign neutral pHphosphate. Over 90% increase compared to the photocurrent of the pristine hematite could be achieved.The hydrogen evolution was monitored during the photoelectrochemical measurement in an improvedphotoelectrochemical cell. The C-phycocyanin-melanin coating on the hematite was shown to exhibit acomb-like fractal pattern. Raman spectroscopy supported the presence of the protein on the hematiteanode surface. The stability of the protein coating is demonstrated during the 2 h GC measurement andthe 24 h operando current density measurement

  12. Rationale and design of the balANZ trial: A randomised controlled trial of low GDP, neutral pH versus standard peritoneal dialysis solution for the preservation of residual renal function

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarke Margaret

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The main hypothesis of this study is that neutral pH, low glucose degradation product (GDP peritoneal dialysis (PD fluid better preserves residual renal function in PD patients over time compared with conventional dialysate. Methods/Design Inclusion criteria are adult PD patients (CAPD or APD aged 18-81 years whose first dialysis was within 90 days prior to or following enrolment and who have a residual GFR ≥ 5 ml/min/1.73 m2, a urine output ≥ 400 ml/day and an ability to understand the nature and requirements of this trial. Pregnant or lactating patients or individuals with an active infection at the time of enrolment, a contra-indication to PD or participation in any other clinical trial where an intervention is designed to moderate rate of change of residual renal function are excluded. Patients will be randomized 1:1 to receive either neutral pH, low GDP dialysis solution (Balance® or conventional dialysis solution (Stay.safe® for a period of 2 years. During this 2 year study period, urinary urea and clearance measurements will be performed at 0, 3, 6, 9, 12, 18 and 24 months. The primary outcome measure will be the slope of residual renal function decline, adjusted for centre and presence of diabetic nephropathy. Secondary outcome measures will include time from initiation of peritoneal dialysis to anuria, peritoneal small solute clearance, peritoneal transport status, peritoneal ultrafiltration, technique survival, patient survival, peritonitis rates and adverse events. A total of 185 patients has been recruited into the trial. Discussion This investigator-initiated study has been designed to provide evidence to help nephrologists determine the optimal dialysis solution for preserving residual renal function in PD patients. Trial Registration Australian New Zealand Clinical Trials Registry Number: ACTRN12606000044527

  13. Selective natural induction of laccases in Pleurotus sajor-caju, suitable for application at a biofuel cell cathode at neutral pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fokina, Oleksandra; Eipper, Jens; Kerzenmacher, Sven; Fischer, Reinhard

    2016-10-01

    Laccases are multicopper oxidoreductases with broad substrate specificity and are applied in biofuel cells at the cathode to improve its oxygen reduction performance. However, the production of laccases by e.g. fungi is often accompanied by the need of synthetic growth supplements for increased enzyme production. In this study we present a strategy for the white-rot fungus Pleurotus sajor-caju for natural laccase activity induction using lignocellulose substrates and culture supernatant of Aspergillus nidulans. P. sajor-caju laccases were secreted into the supernatant, which was directly used at a carbon-nanotube buckypaper cathode in a biofuel cell. Maximal current densities of -148±3μAcm(-2) and -102±9μAcm(-2) at 400mV were achieved at pH 5 and 7, respectively. Variations in cathode performance were observed with culture supernatants produced under different conditions due to the induction of specific laccases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. CHARACTERIZATION OF THE VAGINAL MICROBIOTA OF EWES AND COWS REVEALS A UNIQUE MICROBIOTA WITH LOW LEVELS OF LACTOBACILLI AND NEAR-NEUTRAL PH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeffrey D Swartz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Although a number of common reproductive disorders in livestock involve bacterial infection, very little is known about their normal vaginal microbiota. Therefore, we sought to determine the species composition of sheep and cattle vaginal microbiota. Twenty Rambouillet ewes and twenty crossbred cows varying in age and reproductive status were sampled by ectocervicovaginal lavage. We amplified and sequenced the V3-V4 region of the 16S ribosomal RNA contents yielding a total of 907,667 high-quality reads. Good's Coverage estimates indicated that we obtained data on 98 +/- 0.01 % of the total microbial genera present in each sample. Cow and ewe vaginal microbiota displayed few differences. Cow microbiota exhibited greater (P ≤ 0.05 α-diversity compared to the ewe microbiota. Both livestock species differed (P ≤ 0.05 from all previously reported vaginal communities. While bacteria were numerically dominant, Archaea were detected in 95% of cow and ewe samples, mainly of the order Desulfurococcales. Both ewes and cows were predominately colonized by the bacterial phyla Bacteroidetes, Fusobacteria, and Proteobacteria. The most abundant genera were Aggregatibacter spp., and Streptobacillus spp. Lactobacillus ssp. were detected in 80% of ewe and 90% of cow samples, but only at very low abundances. Bacteria previously described from culture-based studies as common to the cow and ewe vaginal tract, except for Escherichia, were variably present, and only in low abundance. Ewe and cow pH differed (P ≤ 0.05, with means (+/- standard deviation of 6.7 +/- 0.38 and 7.3 +/- 0.63, respectively. In conclusion, 16S rRNA sequencing of cow and ewe vaginal ectocervicovaginal lavages showed that cow and ewe vaginal microbiota differ from culture-led results, revealing a microbiota distinct from previously described vaginal ecosystems.

  15. Effective degradation of rhodamine B by electro-Fenton process, using ferromagnetic nanoparticles loaded on modified graphite felt electrode as reusable catalyst: in neutral pH condition and without external aeration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Jiangnan; Zhao, Jixiang; Olajuyin, Ayobami Matthew; Sharshar, Moustafa Mohamed; Mu, Tingzhen; Yang, Maohua; Xing, Jianmin

    2016-08-01

    Polytetrafluoroethylene/ferromagnetic nanoparticle/carbon black (PTFE/MNP/CB)-modified graphite felt (GF) was successfully applied as cathode for the mineralization of rhodamine B (RhB) in electro-Fenton (EF) process. The modified cathode showed high decolorization efficiency for RhB solution even in neutral pH condition and without external aeration, achieving nearly complete decolorization and 89.52 % total organic carbon (TOC) removal after 270-min oxidation with the MNP load 1.2 g at 50 A/m(2). Moreover, the operational parameters (current density, MNP load, initial pH, and airflow rate) were optimized. After that, adsorption isotherm was also conducted to compare the absorption quantity of CB and carbon nanotube (CNT). Then, the surface morphologies of MNPs were characterized by transmission electron microscope (TEM), energy-dispersive X-ray detector (EDX), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR); and the modified cathode was characterized by SEM and contact angle. Finally, the stability and reusability of modified cathode were tested. Result uncovered that the PTFE/MNP/CB-modified cathode has the potential for industrial application and the solution after treatment was easily biodegradable.

  16. Characterization of hierarchical α-MoO3 plates toward resistive heating synthesis: electrochemical activity of α-MoO3/Pt modified electrode toward methanol oxidation at neutral pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Filippo, Emanuela; Baldassarre, Francesca; Tepore, Marco; Guascito, Maria Rachele; Chirizzi, Daniela; Tepore, Antonio

    2017-05-01

    The growth of MoO3 hierarchical plates was obtained by direct resistive heating of molybdenum foils at ambient pressure in the absence of any catalysts and templates. Plates synthesized after 60 min resistive heating typically grow in an single-crystalline orthorhombic structure that develop preferentially in the [001] direction, and are characterized by high resolution transmission electron microscopy, selected area diffraction pattern and Raman-scattering measurements. They are about 100-200 nm in thickness and a few tens of micrometers in length. As heating time proceeds to 80 min, plates of α-MoO3 form a branched structure. A more attentive look shows that primary plates formed at until 60 min could serve as substrates for the subsequent growth of secondary belts. Moreover, a full electrochemical characterization of α-MoO3 plates on platinum electrodes was done by cyclic voltammetric experiments, at pH 7 in phosphate buffer, to probe the activity of the proposed composite material as anode to methanol electro-oxidation. Reported results indicate that Pt MoO3 modified electrodes are appropriate to develop new an amperometric non-enzymatic sensor for methanol as well as to make anodes suitable to be used in direct methanol fuel cells working at neutral pH.

  17. Efficacy of Neutral pH Electrolyzed Water in Reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium DT 104 on Fresh Produce Items using an Automated Washer at Simulated Food Service Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Afari, George K; Hung, Yen-Con; King, Christopher H

    2015-08-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the efficacy of neutral pH electrolyzed (NEO) water (155 mg/L free chlorine, pH 7.5) in reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Salmonella Typhimurium DT 104 on romaine lettuce, iceberg lettuce, and tomatoes washed in an automated produce washer for different times and washing speeds. Tomatoes and lettuce leaves were spot inoculated with 100 μL of a 5 strain cocktail mixture of either pathogen and washed with 10 or 8 L of NEO water, respectively. Washing lettuce for 30 min at 65 rpm led to the greatest reductions, with 4.2 and 5.9 log CFU/g reductions achieved for E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium respectively on romaine, whereas iceberg lettuce reductions were 3.2 and 4.6 log CFU/g for E. coli O157:H7 and S. Typhimurium respectively. Washing tomatoes for 10 min at 65 rpm achieved reductions greater than 8 and 6 log CFU/tomato on S. Typhimurium and E. coli O157:H7 respectively. All pathogens were completely inactivated in NEO water wash solutions. No detrimental effects on the visual quality of the produce studied were observed under all treatment conditions. Results show the adoption of this washing procedure in food service operations could be useful in ensuring produce safety. © 2015 Institute of Food Technologists®

  18. Sono-incorporation of CuO nanoparticles on the surface and into the mesoporous hexatitanate layers: Enhanced Fenton-like activity in degradation of orange-G at its neutral pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sehati, S.; Entezari, M. H.

    2017-03-01

    In this work, for the first time, CuO/Ti6O13 mesoporous nanocomposite was synthesized by direct intercalation of CuO nanoparticles into hexatitanate layers in the presence of ultrasound. In fact mesoporous potassium hexatitanate with high pore size (44.94 nm) was used as a support. CuO nanoparticles were grown into the titanate pores which caused formation of ultra small CuO with uniform size and high surface area. In fact, titanate is considered as a substrate for better dispersion and nucleation of the CuO nanoparticles which prevented the agglomeration and overgrowth of guest molecules. The prepared sample was characterized by XRD, FE-SEM, TEM, UV-vis spectra, N2 adsorption-desorption, Raman spectra and FT-IR techniques. The product was used as a heterogeneous Fenton-like catalyst for the degradation of Orang G (OG). The effect of important parameters, including pH, H2O2 addition rate and catalyst loading on the decolorization of OG were investigated. Based on the results, CuO/Ti6O13 catalyst exhibited high catalytic activity for OG degradation in aqueous solution at neutral pH of the dye. Moreover, breaking of H2O2 during the catalytic reaction was monitored by spectroscopic method. The results confirmed the decomposition of H2O2 to produce rad OH which is the main active species for the degradation of OG.

  19. Cinética do escurecimeno não-enzimático com soluções modelo de açúcares e aminoácidos em pH neutro e ácido = Kinetic of non-enzimatic browning with model solutions of sugar and aminoacids in neutral and acid pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vandré Barbosa Brião

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A cor dos alimentos é um importante atributo para a escolha do consumidor. O escurecimento é desejável em alguns alimentos pela cor e pelo aroma produzidos (como nos casos do pão e carne assada, mas, é indesejável em outros (como no tratamento térmico de leite. A reação de Maillard é influenciada pela natureza dos açúcares e aminoácidos envolvidos, bem como pelo pH e temperatura do processo. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o escurecimento de soluções modelo contendo açúcares e aminoácidos pela reação de Maillard em pH neutro e ácido, obtendo as taxas de reação e avaliando a cinética dela. Doistipos de açúcares (glicose e lactose foram misturados com dois tipos de aminoácidos (glicina ou glutamato de sódio em pH 7,0 e pH 5,1. As soluções (2 mol L-1 foram aquecidas em água fervente (97ºC, e a absorbância medida (420 nm em intervalos de tempo. A glicose apresentou maior taxa de reação que a lactose, enquanto que entre os aminoácidos a glicina reagiu com intensidade semelhante ao glutamato. A redução do pH do meio retarda a reação, e o escurecimento demonstrou menor taxa de reação em pH ácido.The color of food is an important attribute for consumer choice. Browning is desirable in some foods due to the color and flavor itproduces (such as in bread and roasted meat, but is undesirable for others (such as heattreated milk. The Maillard reaction is influenced by the nature of the sugars and amino acids involved, as well as the pH and temperature of the process. The aim of this work was to evaluate the browning of model solutions containing sugars and amino acids due to the Maillard reaction in neutral and acid pH, and to calculate the reaction rate and the kinetics of the reaction. Two types of sugars (glucose or lactose were mixed with amino acids(glycine or sodium glutamate in pH 7.0 or pH 5.1. The solutions (2 mol L-1 were heated in boiling water (97ºC, and the absorbance was measured (420 nm at time

  20. Experimental Design Considerations in Measuring pH for the Wendy Schmidt Ocean Health XPRIZE Competition to Improve pH-sensing Technologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okazaki, R. R.; Sutton, A.; Feely, R. A.; Dickson, A. G.; Alin, S. R.; Sabine, C. L.; Bunje, P. M. E.; Virmani, J. I.

    2016-02-01

    Ocean acidification is having widespread and varying effects on marine ecosystems. However, understanding these effects requires scientists to distinguish anthropogenic pH changes from natural variability, which in turn requires high-quality measurements over increased spatiotemporal scales. Glass pH electrodes are currently the most widespread pH-sensing technology used for seawater pH measurements; however, they tend to measure inconsistently as a consequence of a variety of random and systematic effects that are inherent in such measurements. Such effects introduce errors of unknown magnitude. Despite the recognized need for improved pH sensors for seawater pH measurement, spectrophotometric and ion-selective field-effect transistor approaches have become more prevalent only in the last 25 years but are cost-prohibitive for many potential users. The Wendy Schmidt Ocean Health XPRIZE competition addressed this technology gap by incentivizing research into improving the performance and affordability of pH sensors. The accuracy, precision, and stability of competitors' sensors were evaluated in a series of laboratory and field experiments. We describe the experimental design of these evaluations as well as measures taken to understand spatiotemporal variability in the test tank pH values and to reduce uncertainties in the measurement of pH. The chief concerns were controlling temperature, ensuring homogenous pH across the testing area, and establishing appropriate quality control procedures. This competition provides a template for future sensor evaluations by demonstrating how multiple sensors can be evaluated simultaneously in laboratory, coastal, and deep sea applications.

  1. The effect of pH, temperature and plaque thickness on the hydrolysis of monofluorophosphate in experimental dental plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearce, E I F; Dibdin, G H

    2003-01-01

    Monofluorophosphate (MFP), an anti-caries agent commonly used in toothpaste, is known to be degraded to fluoride and orthophosphate by bacterial phosphatases in dental plaque. We have examined the effect of pH, temperature, plaque thickness and some ions on this process. Both natural plaque and artificial microcosm plaque incubated with purified MFP at pH 4-10 showed an optimum pH of approximately 8 for hydrolysis. Diffusion and concomitant hydrolysis were examined in an apparatus in which artificial plaque was held between rigid membranes separating two chambers. When MFP diffused through a plaque of 0.51-mm thickness over 4 h it was almost completely hydrolysed at pH 8, but hydrolysis on diffusion decreased as the pH deviated from 8. MFP in toothpaste extract showed a similar pH susceptibility to hydrolysis, according to the inherent pH of the toothpaste. Hydrolysis of MFP in the toothpaste was reduced by no more than 10% when compared with a matched-pH control, suggesting that other toothpaste ingredients had no major influence on hydrolysis. Transport was slower and hydrolysis at pH 6 more complete the thicker the plaque, but hydrolysis was not significantly slower at 23 degrees C than at 37 degrees C. The addition of various potential activating or inhibiting ions at 0.1 and 1.0 mmol/l had small and non-significant effects on hydrolysis. The results suggest that MFP toothpaste should be formulated and used to maximise enzymic hydrolysis of this complex anion, and that plaque pH control is probably the most important factor. Copyright 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

  2. Visible-light photo-Fenton oxidation of phenol with rGO-α-FeOOH supported on Al-doped mesoporous silica (MCM-41) at neutral pH: Performance and optimization of the catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Liang, Mingxing; Fang, Jiasheng; Fu, Jun; Chen, Xiaochun

    2017-09-01

    In this study, α-FeOOH on reduced graphene oxide (rGO-α-FeOOH) supported on an Al-doped MCM-41 catalyst (RFAM) was optimized for the visible-light photo-Fenton oxidation of phenol at neutral pH. The stability of the catalysts, effect of bubbling aeration, and degradation intermediates were investigated. Results indicated that RFAM with a large Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) area and mesoporous structure displayed excellent catalytic activity for the visible-light-driven (VLD) photo-Fenton process. Phenol degradation was well described by a pseudo-first-order reaction kinetics model. Raman analysis demonstrated that an rGO-α-FeOOH (RF) composite is formed during the ferrous-ion-induced self-assembly process. Al-MCM-41 could uniformly disperse RF nanosheets and promote the mobility and diffusion of matter. The activity of the main catalyst α-FeOOH was enhanced after the incorporation of rGO nanosheets. The α-FeOOH crystal in RFAM showed catalytic activity superior to those of Fe3O4 and Fe2O3. The RFAM catalyst, with an optimal GO-Fe(2+)mass ratio of 2.33, exhibited a larger BET area, pore size, and pore volume, and thus exhibited high performance and energy utilization efficiency in the VLD photo-Fenton reaction with remarkable stability. Bubbling N2 inhibited catalytic performance, while bubbling O2 or air only slightly accelerated the phenol degradation. Visible light played an important role in accelerating the formation of reactive oxygen species (·OH) for the highly efficient phenol degradation. Analysis of degradation intermediates indicated a high phenol mineralization level and the formation of low-molecular-weight organic acids. This work would be helpful in providing an insight into a new type of catalyst assembly and a possible route to a promising heterogeneous catalyst applicable in the visible light photo-Fenton process for effective wastewater remediation at neutral pH. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Does local immersion in thermo-neutral bath influence surface EMG measurements? Results of an experimental trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalpakcioglu, Banu; Candir, Fatma; Bernateck, Michael; Gutenbrunner, Christoph; Fischer, Michael J

    2009-12-01

    This study investigated the effect of water immersion on surface electromyography (EMG) signals recorded from the brachioradial muscle of 11 healthy subjects, both in a dry environment and a thermo-neutral forearm bath (36 degrees C). EMG measurements were registered in a sitting position, using waterproof electrodes under 3 conditions: relaxed muscle, maximum voluntary isometric contraction (MVC, 1s, grip test) and 70% of the MVC (5 s). In relaxed muscle, mean EMG values were significantly higher under immersion compared to the dry conditions (dry: 5.4+/-3.6 microV; water: 19.5+/-14.9 microV; p=0.014). In maximum voluntary isometric contraction, there was a significant difference, though not in the same direction (dry: 145.9+/-58.9 microV; water: 73.2+/-35.0 microV; p=0.003). Under 70% MVC, there was no difference between wet and dry conditions (dry: 102.4+/-75.0 microV; water: 100.4+/-65.3 microV; p=0.951). Results suggest that dry and underwater conditions influence EMG readings; however, the results are inconsistent. These findings indicate additional influences on resting muscle activity, as well as MVC. Further measurements with other muscle groups and different types of immersion are needed to clarify conflicting observations.

  4. An Experimental study of neutral and charged particle fluctuations in Pb Pb collisions at 158-A-GeV

    CERN Document Server

    Sood, G

    2002-01-01

    Relativistic quantum field theory treats the vacuum as a medium, with bulk properties characterized by long-range order parameters. This has led to suggestions that regions of disoriented chiral condensate might be formed in high energy colli sion processes. In particular, the approximate chiral symmetry of QCD could lead to regions of vacuum which have chiral order parameters disoriented to directions which have non-zero isospin, i.e. disoriented chiral condensate. The prime accessible signature of DCC is the ratio of neutral to charged pions in a certain range of phase space which should exhibit non-statistical fluctuations. The WA98 experiment has been used to measure the charged and photon multiplicities in the central region of Pb+Pb collisions at the CERN SPS. PMD which has the ability to count photons is positioned at 21.5m from the target, covering the pseudorapidity range 2.9 region as compared to mixed events (I and II) and V+G events. To test the authenticity of the filtered events, these events a...

  5. Remediation of grey forest soils heavily polluted with heavy metals by means of their leaching at acidic pH followed by the soil reclamation by means of neutralization and bacterial manure addition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Georgiev, Plamen; Groudev, Stoyan; Spasova, Irena; Nicolova, Marina

    2014-05-01

    Some grey forest soils in Western Bulgaria are heavily polluted with heavy metals (copper, lead, and zinc), arsenic, and uranium due to the infiltration of acid mine drainage generated at the abandoned uranium mine Curilo. This paper presents some results from a study about soil remediation based on the contaminants leaching from the topsoil by means of irrigation with solutions containing sulphuric acid or its in situ generation by means of sulphur-oxidizing chemolithotrophic bacteria in or without the presence of finely cut straw. These methods were tested in large scale zero suction lysimeters. The approaches based on S° and finely cut straw addition was the most efficient amongst the tested methods and for seven months of soil remediation the concentration of all soil contaminants were decreased below the relevant Maximum Admissible Concentration (MAC). Neutralization of the soil acidity was applied as a next stage of soil reclamation by adding CaCO3 and cow manure. As a result, soil pH increased from strongly acidic (2.36) to slightly acidic (6.15) which allowed subsequent addition of humic acids and bacterial manure to the topsoil. The soil habitat changed in this way facilitated the growth of microorganisms which restored the biogeochemical cycles of nitrogen and carbon to the levels typical for non-polluted grey forest soil.

  6. A combined experimental study of vivianite and As (V) reactivity in the pH range 2-11

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thinnappan, V. [School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences and Williamson Research Centre for Molecular Environmental Science, University of Manchester, Oxford Road Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); School of Mechanical, Aerospace and Civil Engineering, University of Manchester, Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Merrifield, C.M. [School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences and Williamson Research Centre for Molecular Environmental Science, University of Manchester, Oxford Road Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Islam, F.S. [School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences and Williamson Research Centre for Molecular Environmental Science, University of Manchester, Oxford Road Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Department of Land Resource Science, University of Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Polya, D.A.; Wincott, P. [School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences and Williamson Research Centre for Molecular Environmental Science, University of Manchester, Oxford Road Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom); Wogelius, R.A. [School of Earth, Atmospheric and Environmental Sciences and Williamson Research Centre for Molecular Environmental Science, University of Manchester, Oxford Road Manchester M13 9PL (United Kingdom)], E-mail: Roy.Wogelius@manchester.ac.uk

    2008-11-15

    Four different sets of experiments were completed in order to constrain vivianite [Fe{sub 3}(PO{sub 4}){sub 2} . 8H{sub 2}O] reactivity under conditions pertinent to As(V)-bearing groundwater systems. Firstly, titration experiments were undertaken in the pH range 4-9 to determine the zero point of charge (ZPC) of vivianite; showing that the ZPC lies at a pH of approximately 5.3. Secondly, the steady state dissolution rates of vivianite far from equilibrium were measured in aqueous solutions in the pH range 2-10 at 18.5 {sup d}eg. C ({+-}3 deg. C) using a fluidized bed reactor. The rate of vivianite dissolution, R, is given by (1)R(moless{sup -1}cm{sup -2})=1.18x10{sup -10}a{sub H+}{sup 0.77}+1x10{sup -15}+6.92x10{sup -24}a{sub H+}{sup -1} The dissolution rate exhibits an exponential increase with increase in the activity of the H{sup +} ion (a{sub H+}) in solution at 2 < pH < 5, is apparently pH independent at 5 < pH < 8, and increases with increasing pH at pH > 8. Thirdly, the sorption of arsenate [As(V)] onto natural well-crystallized vivianite in the pH range 3-11 under static flow conditions was determined. 25-40% of As(V) from a starting concentration (C{sub 0}) of 100 {mu}M was adsorbed onto vivianite. Static adsorption experiments were also completed at two lower As(V) concentrations (C{sub 0} = 10 and 1 {mu}M). Sorption was determined to be only weakly dependent on pH. Fourthly, the final part of this study investigated the sorption of As(V) onto vivianite at pH 9 under dynamic flow conditions. An input solution of 4 mM As(V) was applied to water saturated columns, followed by leaching with deionised water (DIW). Breakthrough curves show that the retention and exchangeability of As within the column is enhanced with vivianite present, consistent with solid phase analysis of unreacted and reacted solid materials. A simple calculation based on a model shallow Bengal sediment having about 0.2 wt% of vivianite and total initial dissolved As concentrations of

  7. Simulating the experimental detectability of axisymmetric Bernstein modes in a finite-length non-neutral plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hart, Grant; Peterson, Bryan; Spencer, Ross; Clingo, Mitchell

    2017-10-01

    We use a 2-D PIC code to model high-frequency axisymmetric oscillations in a finite-length pure-ion plasma. These modes are not detectable in the surface charge on the walls of infinite-length plasmas because of axisymmetry and lack of z-dependence. This is not true in a finite-length plasma, because the perturbed density has to have nodes a short distance beyond the ends of the plasma. This gives the modes a cos (kz z) or sin (kz z) dependence, with a kz such that an integral number (approximately) of half-wavelengths fit into the plasma. This z-dependence makes the mode detectable in the surface charge on the walls. There are two effects that contribute to the size of the signal induced on the wall. For the bulk of the plasma the change in the total charge underneath a section of the wall is proportional to the density perturbation δn, and is due to ∇ . v . The other contributor is the movement of the end of the plasma column due to the vz of the mode. This is proportional to vz ∂n0 / ∂z and is therefore confined to the ends of the plasma. The relative size of these effects depends on the aspect ratio of the plasma. We will quantify what size of density perturbation is necessary to produce experimentally measurable signals.

  8. Effect of Equilibrated pH and Indigenous Spoilage Microorganisms on the Inhibition of Proteolytic Clostridium botulinum Toxin Production in Experimental Meals under Temperature Abuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, Max C; Wanless, Brandon J; David, Jairus R D; Lineback, D Scott; Talley, Ryan J; Kottapalli, Bala; Glass, Kathleen A

    2017-08-01

    Clostridium botulinum is a foreseeable biological hazard in prepared refrigerated meals that needs to be addressed in food safety plans. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of product composition and storage temperature on the inhibition of botulinum toxin formation in nine experimental meals (meat, vegetable, or carbohydrate based). Treatments were inoculated with proteolytic C. botulinum, vacuum packaged, cooked at 90°C for 10 min, and assayed for botulinum toxin in samples stored at 25°C for up to 96 h for phase 1, or at 25°C for 12 h and then transferred to 12.5°C for up to 12 and 6 weeks in phases 1 and 2, respectively. For phase 1, none of the treatments (equilibrated pH 5.8) supported toxin production when stored at 25°C for 48 h, but toxin production was observed in all treatments at 72 h. For the remaining experiments with storage at 12.5°C, toxin production was dependent on equilibrated pH, storage time, and growth of indigenous spoilage microorganisms. In phase 1, no gross spoilage and no botulinum toxin was detected for any treatment (pH ≤5.8) stored at 12.5°C for 12 weeks. In phase 2, gross spoilage varied by commodity, with the brussels sprouts meal with pH 6.5 showing the most rapid spoilage within 2 weeks and botulinum toxin detected at 5 and 6 weeks for the control and cultured celery juice treatments, respectively. In contrast, spoilage microbes decreased the pH of a pH 5.9 beef treatment by 1.0 unit, potentially inhibiting C. botulinum through 6 weeks at 12.5°C. None of the other treatments with pH 5.8 or below supported toxin production or spoilage. This study provides validation for preventive controls in refrigerated meals. These include equilibrated product pH and storage temperature and time to inhibit toxin formation by proteolytic C. botulinum, but the impact of indigenous microflora on safety and interpretation of challenge studies is also highlighted.

  9. Compositional design and optimization of dentin adhesive with neutralization capability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Linyong; Ye, Qiang; Ge, Xueping; Spencer, Paulette

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the polymerization behavior, neutralization capability, and mechanical properties of dentin adhesive formulations with the addition of the tertiary amine co-monomer, 2-N-morpholinoethyl methacrylate (MEMA). A co-monomer mixture based on HEMA/BisGMA (45/55, w/w) was used as a control adhesive. Compared with the control formulation, the MEMA-containing adhesive formulations were characterized comprehensively with regard to water miscibility of liquid resin, water sorption and solubility of cured polymer, real-time photopolymerization kinetics, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA), and modulated differential scanning calorimetry (MDSC). The neutralization capacity was characterized by monitoring the pH shift of 1mM lactic acid (LA) solution, in which the adhesive polymers were soaked. With increasing MEMA concentrations, experimental copolymers showed higher water sorption, lower glass transition temperature and lower crosslinking density compared to the control. The pH values of LA solution gradually increased from 3.5 to about 6.0-6.5 after 90 days. With the increase in crosslinking density of the copolymers, the neutralization rate was depressed. The optimal MEMA concentration was between 20 and 40 wt%. As compared to the control, the results indicated that the MEMA-functionalized copolymer showed neutralization capability. The crosslinking density of the copolymer networks influenced the neutralization rate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. African Adders: Partial Characterization of Snake Venoms from Three Bitis Species of Medical Importance and Their Neutralization by Experimental Equine Antivenoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paixão-Cavalcante, Danielle; Kuniyoshi, Alexandre K.; Portaro, Fernanda C. V.; da Silva, Wilmar Dias; Tambourgi, Denise V.

    2015-01-01

    Background An alarming number of fatal accidents involving snakes are annually reported in Africa and most of the victims suffer from permanent local tissue damage and chronic disabilities. Envenomation by snakes belonging to the genus Bitis, Viperidae family, are common in Sub-Saharan Africa. The accidents are severe and the victims often have a poor prognosis due to the lack of effective specific therapies. In this study we have biochemically characterized venoms from three different species of Bitis, i.e., Bitis arietans, Bitis gabonica rhinoceros and Bitis nasicornis, involved in the majority of the human accidents in Africa, and analyzed the in vitro neutralizing ability of two experimental antivenoms. Methodology/Principal Findings The data indicate that all venoms presented phospholipase, hyaluronidase and fibrinogenolytic activities and cleaved efficiently the FRET substrate Abz-RPPGFSPFRQ-EDDnp and angiotensin I, generating angiotensin 1–7. Gelatinolytic activity was only observed in the venoms of B. arietans and B. nasicornis. The treatment of the venoms with protease inhibitors indicated that Bitis venoms possess metallo and serinoproteases enzymes, which may be involved in the different biological activities here evaluated. Experimental antivenoms produced against B. arietans venom or Bitis g. rhinoceros plus B. nasicornis venoms cross-reacted with the venoms from the three species and blocked, in different degrees, all the enzymatic activities in which they were tested. Conclusion These results suggest that the venoms of the three Bitis species, involved in accidents with humans in the Sub-Saharan Africa, contain a mixture of various enzymes that may act in the generation and development of some of the clinical manifestations of the envenomations. We also demonstrated that horse antivenoms produced against B. arietans or B. g. rhinoceros plus B. nasicornis venoms can blocked some of the toxic activities of these venoms. PMID:25643358

  11. African adders: partial characterization of snake venoms from three Bitis species of medical importance and their neutralization by experimental equine antivenoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danielle Paixão-Cavalcante

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available An alarming number of fatal accidents involving snakes are annually reported in Africa and most of the victims suffer from permanent local tissue damage and chronic disabilities. Envenomation by snakes belonging to the genus Bitis, Viperidae family, are common in Sub-Saharan Africa. The accidents are severe and the victims often have a poor prognosis due to the lack of effective specific therapies. In this study we have biochemically characterized venoms from three different species of Bitis, i.e., Bitis arietans, Bitis gabonica rhinoceros and Bitis nasicornis, involved in the majority of the human accidents in Africa, and analyzed the in vitro neutralizing ability of two experimental antivenoms.The data indicate that all venoms presented phospholipase, hyaluronidase and fibrinogenolytic activities and cleaved efficiently the FRET substrate Abz-RPPGFSPFRQ-EDDnp and angiotensin I, generating angiotensin 1-7. Gelatinolytic activity was only observed in the venoms of B. arietans and B. nasicornis. The treatment of the venoms with protease inhibitors indicated that Bitis venoms possess metallo and serinoproteases enzymes, which may be involved in the different biological activities here evaluated. Experimental antivenoms produced against B. arietans venom or Bitis g. rhinoceros plus B. nasicornis venoms cross-reacted with the venoms from the three species and blocked, in different degrees, all the enzymatic activities in which they were tested.These results suggest that the venoms of the three Bitis species, involved in accidents with humans in the Sub-Saharan Africa, contain a mixture of various enzymes that may act in the generation and development of some of the clinical manifestations of the envenomations. We also demonstrated that horse antivenoms produced against B. arietans or B. g. rhinoceros plus B. nasicornis venoms can blocked some of the toxic activities of these venoms.

  12. Emergence of viruses resistant to neutralization by V3-specific antibodies in experimental human immunodeficiency virus type 1 IIIB infection of chimpanzees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nara, P. L.; Smit, L.; Dunlop, N.; Hatch, W.; Merges, M.; Waters, D.; Kelliher, J.; Gallo, R. C.; Fischinger, P. J.; Goudsmit, J.

    1990-01-01

    Emergence in two chimpanzees of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) IIIB variants resistant to neutralization by the preexisting antibody is described. Viruses isolated from the HIV-1 IIIB gp120-vaccinated and -challenged animal were more resistant to neutralization by the chimpanzee's own

  13. Physics design of a 100 keV acceleration grid system for the diagnostic neutral beam for international tokamak experimental reactor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, M J; De Esch, H P L

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the physics design of a 100 keV, 60 A H(-) accelerator for the diagnostic neutral beam (DNB) for international tokamak experimental reactor (ITER). The accelerator is a three grid system comprising of 1280 apertures, grouped in 16 groups with 80 apertures per beam group. Several computer codes have been used to optimize the design which follows the same philosophy as the ITER Design Description Document (DDD) 5.3 and the 1 MeV heating and current drive beam line [R. Hemsworth, H. Decamps, J. Graceffa, B. Schunke, M. Tanaka, M. Dremel, A. Tanga, H. P. L. De Esch, F. Geli, J. Milnes, T. Inoue, D. Marcuzzi, P. Sonato, and P. Zaccaria, Nucl. Fusion 49, 045006 (2009)]. The aperture shapes, intergrid distances, and the extractor voltage have been optimized to minimize the beamlet divergence. To suppress the acceleration of coextracted electrons, permanent magnets have been incorporated in the extraction grid, downstream of the cooling water channels. The electron power loads on the extractor and the grounded grids have been calculated assuming 1 coextracted electron per ion. The beamlet divergence is calculated to be 4 mrad. At present the design for the filter field of the RF based ion sources for ITER is not fixed, therefore a few configurations of the same have been considered. Their effect on the transmission of the electrons and beams through the accelerator has been studied. The OPERA-3D code has been used to estimate the aperture offset steering constant of the grounded grid and the extraction grid, the space charge interaction between the beamlets and the kerb design required to compensate for this interaction. All beamlets in the DNB must be focused to a single point in the duct, 20.665 m from the grounded grid, and the required geometrical aimings and aperture offsets have been calculated.

  14. Determination of the influence of factors (ethanol, pH and a(w) ) on the preservation of cosmetics using experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthele, H; Sella, O; Lavarde, M; Mielcarek, C; Pense-Lheritier, A-M; Pirnay, S

    2014-02-01

    Ethanol, pH and water activity are three well-known parameters that can influence the preservation of cosmetic products. With the new constraints regarding the antimicrobial effectiveness and the restrictive use of preservatives, a D-optimal design was set up to evaluate the influence of these three parameters on the microbiological conservation. To monitor the effectiveness of the different combination of these set parameters, a challenge test in compliance with the International standard ISO 11930: 2012 was implemented. The formulations established in our study could support wide variations of ethanol concentration, pH values and glycerin concentration without noticeable effects on the stability of the products. In the conditions of the study, determining the value of a single parameter, with the tested concentration, could not guarantee microbiological conservation. However, a high concentration of ethanol associated with an extreme pH could inhibit bacteria growth from the first day (D0). Besides, it appears that despite an aw above 0.6 (even 0.8) and without any preservatives incorporated in formulas, it was possible to guarantee the microbiological stability of the cosmetic product when maintaining the right combination of the selected parameters. Following the analysis of the different values obtained during the experimentation, there seems to be a correlation between the aw and the selected parameters aforementioned. An application of this relationship could be to define the aw of cosmetic products by using the formula, thus avoiding the evaluation of this parameter with a measuring device. © 2013 Society of Cosmetic Scientists and the Société Française de Cosmétologie.

  15. Effects of forage neutral detergent fibre and time after feeding on medial and ventral rumen pH and volatile fatty acids concentration in heifers fed highly digestible grass/clover silages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, A. K. S.; Storm, A. C.; Weisbjerg, M. R.

    2017-01-01

    The major microbial fermentation of forages and production of volatile fatty acids (VFA) takes place in the medial part of the rumen, whereas the absorption of VFA occurs through the rumen epithelium, for example the ventral sac. The objective was to study effects of forage neutral detergent fibr...

  16. Are You Neutral About Net Neutrality

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-06-20

    Information Resources Management College National Defense University Are You Neutral About Net Neutrality ? A presentation for Systems & Software...author uses Verizon FiOS for phone, TV, and internet service 3 Agenda Net Neutrality —Through 2 Lenses Who Are the Players & What Are They Saying...Medical Treatment Mini-Case Studies Updates Closing Thoughts 4 Working Definitions of Net Neutrality "Network Neutrality" is the concept that

  17. Study of the virulence and cross-neutralization capability of recent porcine parvovirus field isolates and vaccine viruses in experimentally infected pregnant gilts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeeuw, E J L; Leinecker, N; Herwig, V; Selbitz, H-J; Truyen, U

    2007-02-01

    The pathogenicity of two recent German field isolates of Porcine parvovirus (PPV-27a and PPV-143a) and two vaccine viruses [PPV-NADL-2 and PPV-IDT (MSV)], which are used for the production of inactivated vaccines, was investigated by inoculation of pregnant sows at day 40 of gestation. Post-infection sera of these sows as well as antisera prepared in rabbits by immunization with the four above-mentioned PPV isolates and with the virulent strain PPV-Challenge (Engl.) were tested for their homologous and heterologous neutralization activities. All antisera had high neutralization activity against the vaccine viruses, the PPV-Challenge (Engl.) virus and PPV-143a, but much lower activity against PPV-27a. These results suggest that PPV-27a represents a new antigenic variant or type of PPV and vaccines based on the established vaccine viruses may not be fully protective against this field isolate. PPV-27a has been characterized based on the amino acid sequences of the capsid protein as a member of a new and distinct PPV cluster (Zimmermann et al., 2006). Interestingly, the homologous neutralizing antibody titres of the sera of all three pigs and both rabbits inoculated or immunized with PPV-27a were 100- to 1000-fold lower than the heterologous titres against any of the other viruses. The low homologous neutralizing antibody titres suggest a possible, yet undefined, immune escape mechanism of this PPV isolate.

  18. Evaluation of the neutral comet assay for detection of alpha-particle induced DNA-double-strand-breaks; Evaluation des Comet Assays bei neutralem pH zur Detektion von α-Partikel induzierten DNA-Doppelstrangbruechen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hofbauer, Daniela

    2010-10-20

    Aim of this study was to differentiate DNA-double-strand-breaks from DNA-single-strand-breaks on a single cell level, using the comet assay after α- and γ-irradiation. Americium-241 was used as a alpha-irradiation-source, Caesium-137 was used for γ-irradiation. Because of technical problems with both the neutral and alkaline comet assay after irradiation of gastric cancer cells and human lymphocytes, no definite differentiation of DNA-damage was possible.

  19. Effects of forage neutral detergent fibre and time after feeding on medial and ventral rumen pH and volatile fatty acids concentration in heifers fed highly digestible grass/clover silages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schulze, A.K.S.; Storm, Adam Christian; Weisbjerg, Martin Riis

    2016-01-01

    –82% and fed to four rumen-fistulated Jersey heifers at 90% of ad libitum level in a Latin square design, with half the ration fed at 0800 hours and 1530 hours. Rumen fluid was sampled hourly from 0730 hours to 1530 hours in the medial and ventral rumen, and analysed for pH and concentrations of VFA, L...

  20. Perturbative studies of toroidal momentum transport using neutral beam injection modulation in the Joint European Torus: Experimental results, analysis methodology, and first principles modeling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mantica, P.; Tala, T.; Ferreira, J.S.

    2010-01-01

    Perturbative experiments have been carried out in the Joint European Torus [Fusion Sci. Technol. 53(4) (2008)] in order to identify the diffusive and convective components of toroidal momentum transport. The torque source was modulated either by modulating tangential neutral beam power or by modu......Perturbative experiments have been carried out in the Joint European Torus [Fusion Sci. Technol. 53(4) (2008)] in order to identify the diffusive and convective components of toroidal momentum transport. The torque source was modulated either by modulating tangential neutral beam power...... or by modulating in antiphase tangential and normal beams to produce a torque perturbation in the absence of a power perturbation. The resulting periodic perturbation in the toroidal rotation velocity was modeled using time-dependent transport simulations in order to extract empirical profiles of momentum...

  1. Changes in G+C content of a neutrally evolving gene under a non-reversible dynamics measured by computer simulations based on experimental evolution data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Brunstein

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effects of non-reversibility on compositional base changes and the distribution of branch lengths along a phylogeny, we extended, by means of computer simulations, our previous sequential PCR in vitro evolution experiment. In that study a 18S rRNA gene evolved neutrally for 280 generations and a homogeneous non-stationary model of base substitution based on a non-reversible dynamics was built from the in vitro evolution data to describe the observed pattern of nucleotide substitutions. Here, the process was extended to 840 generations without selection, using the model parameters calculated from the in vitro evolution experiment. We observed that under a non-reversible model the G+C content of the sequences significantly increases when compared to simulations with a reversible model. The values of mean and variance of the branch lengths are reduced under a non-reversible dynamics although they follow a Poisson distribution. We conclude that the major implication of non-reversibility is the overall decrease of branch lengths, although no transition from a stochastic to an ordered process is observed. According to our model the result of this neutral process will be the increase in the G+C content of the descendant sequences with an overall decrease in the frequency of substitutions.

  2. Formation of hexagonal fullerene layers from neutral and negatively charged fullerenes in {(Ph3P)3Au(+)}2(C60(•-))2(C60)·C6H4Cl2 containing gold cations with the C3v symmetry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konarev, Dmitri V; Khasanov, Salavat S; Otsuka, Akihiro; Ishikawa, Manabu; Yamochi, Hideki; Saito, Gunzi; Lyubovskaya, Rimma N

    2014-07-07

    Fullerene salt {(Ph3P)3Au(+)}2(C60(•-))2(C60)·C6H4Cl2 (1) containing (Ph3P)3Au(+) cations with the C3v symmetry has been obtained as single crystals. Hexagonal corrugated fullerene layers formed in 1 alternate with the layers consisting of (Ph3P)3Au(+) and C6H4Cl2 along the c axis. According to IR spectra and peculiarities of the crystal structure, the charge on fullerenes in the layers is evaluated to be -1 for two and close to zero for one C60. These fullerenes have different cationic surroundings, and positively charged gold atoms approach closer to C60(•-). Charged and neutral fullerenes are closely packed within hexagonal layers with an interfullerene center-to-center distance of 10.02 Å and multiple short van der Waals C···C contacts. The distances between C60(•-) are essentially longer with an interfullerene center-to-center distance of 10.37 Å due to corrugation of the layers, and no van der Waals contacts are formed in this case. As a result, each C60(•-) has only three negatively charged fullerene neighbors with rather long interfullerene distances providing only weak antiferromagnetic interaction of spins in the fullerene layers with a Weiss temperature of -5 K.

  3. Traps for neutral radioactive atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Sprouse, G D; Grossman, J S; Orozco, L A; Pearson, M R

    2002-01-01

    We describe several methods for efficiently injecting a small number of radioactive atoms into a laser trap. The characteristics of laser traps that make them desirable for physics experiments are discussed and several different experimental directions are described. We describe recent experiments with the alkali element Fr and point to future directions of the neutral atom trapping program.

  4. Type-2 fuzzy model based controller design for neutralization processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumbasar, Tufan; Eksin, Ibrahim; Guzelkaya, Mujde; Yesil, Engin

    2012-03-01

    In this study, an inverse controller based on a type-2 fuzzy model control design strategy is introduced and this main controller is embedded within an internal model control structure. Then, the overall proposed control structure is implemented in a pH neutralization experimental setup. The inverse fuzzy control signal generation is handled as an optimization problem and solved at each sampling time in an online manner. Although, inverse fuzzy model controllers may produce perfect control in perfect model match case and/or non-existence of disturbances, this open loop control would not be sufficient in the case of modeling mismatches or disturbances. Therefore, an internal model control structure is proposed to compensate these errors in order to overcome this deficiency where the basic controller is an inverse type-2 fuzzy model. This feature improves the closed-loop performance to disturbance rejection as shown through the real-time control of the pH neutralization process. Experimental results demonstrate the superiority of the inverse type-2 fuzzy model controller structure compared to the inverse type-1 fuzzy model controller and conventional control structures. Copyright © 2011 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Vaccine-induced virus-neutralizing antibodies and cytotoxic T cells do not protect macaques from experimental infection with simian immunodeficiency virus SIVmac32H (J5).

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    E.G.J. Hulskotte (Ellen); A.M. Geretti (Anna Maria); C.H.J. Siebelink (Kees); G. van Amerongen (Geert); M.P. Cranage (Martin); E. Rud; S.G. Norley (Stephen); P. de Vries (Petra); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    1995-01-01

    textabstractTo gain further insight into the ability of subunit vaccines to protect monkeys from experimental infection with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV), two groups of cynomolgus macaques were immunized with either recombinant SIVmac32H-derived envelope glycoproteins (Env) incorporated into

  6. Aqueous extract of yellow maca (Lepidium meyenii) improves sperm count in experimental animals but response depends on hypocotyl size, pH and routes of administration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Salazar, L; Gonzales, G F

    2017-11-21

    Lepidium meyenii, a Peruvian plant growing over 4000 m.a.s.l., has effects on nutrition and fertility. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the sperm count in 105 male mice receiving boiled aqueous extract of yellow maca hypocotyls from different sizes, under different pH conditions and using two different routes of administration. Five mice per group were treated daily for 3 days with vehicle (oral and intraperitoneal) or maca aqueous extracts (5 mg/0.5 ml/day) belonging to the first, second, third and fourth categories, according to their hypocotyl size. On day four, sperm count was evaluated at testis, epididymis and vas deferens. Sperm count was higher in mice receiving maca from the larger sizes (first and second categories). Reduction in maca extract pH increased sperm count, whereas an increase in the pH resulted in a reduction in sperm count. The effect of pH reduction is observed only in maca from the first and second categories. Aqueous extract of maca was effective only after oral administration. In conclusion, the larger size of hypocotyls presented the best biological effect, and the low pH in the extract and the transformation after gastrointestinal passage are both important for its biological action. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  7. Implications of ocean acidification in the Pacific Arctic: Experimental responses of three Arctic bivalves to decreased pH and food availability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goethel, Christina L.; Grebmeier, Jacqueline M.; Cooper, Lee W.; Miller, Thomas J.

    2017-10-01

    Recent sea ice retreat and seawater warming in the Pacific Arctic are physical changes that are impacting arctic biological communities. Recently, ocean acidification from increases in anthropogenic CO2 has been identified as an additional stressor, particularly to calcifying organisms like bivalves. These bivalves are common prey items for benthivorous predators such as Pacific walruses (Odobenus rosmarus divergens), bearded seals (Erignathus barbatus), and diving seaducks, such as Spectacled Eiders (Somateria fischeri). We investigated the effects of decreased pH and food availability on growth (% change in length and wet weight and allometric growth characterizations) and oxygen consumption (mg/L/hour) of three common Arctic bivalves, Macoma calcarea, Astarte montagui, and Astarte borealis. Two sets of experiments were run for seven and eleven weeks, exposing the bivalves to control (8.05 ± 0.02 and 8.19 ± 0.003, respectively) and acidified (7.76 ± 0.01 and 7.86 ± 0.01, respectively) pH treatments. Length, weight, and oxygen consumption were not significantly different among the varying treatments after the seven-week exposure and only one significant effect of decreased pH and one significant effect of decreased food availability were observed after the end of the eleven-week exposure. Specifically, shells of A. borealis displayed a decrease in length in response to decreased pH and M. calcarea showed a decrease in length in response to limited food. The negative effects of pH observed in the experiments on growth and oxygen consumption were small, suggesting that at least two of these species are generally resilient to decreasing pH.

  8. Isotopically exchangeable phosphate in freshwater sediments: Effects of u.v.-irradiation, formaldehyde, solid/solution ratio, and pH on its experimental determination

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vaas, L.H.; Comans, R.N.J.; Reith, J.M.M.; Weijden, C.H. van der; Das, H.A.

    The influence of bioactivities, solid/solution ratio and the pH on the isotopic exchangeability of phosphate in a freshwater sediment was investigated. From the comparison of the results obtained for the same sample in the presence or absence of formaldehyde, it is concluded that microorganisms

  9. Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL)

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Neutral Buoyancy Laboratory (NBL) is an astronaut training facility and neutral buoyancy pool operated by NASA and located at the Sonny Carter Training Facility,...

  10. Modified Mathematical Model For Neutralization System In Stirred Tank Reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmmed Saadi Ibrehem

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available A modified model for the neutralization process of Stirred Tank Reactors (CSTR reactor is presented in this study. The model accounts for the effect of strong acid [HCL] flowrate and strong base [NaOH] flowrate with the ionic concentrations of [Cl-] and [Na+] on the Ph of the system. In this work, the effect of important reactor parameters such as ionic concentrations and acid and base flowrates on the dynamic behavior of the CSTR is investigated and the behavior of mathematical model is compared with the reported models for the McAvoy model and Jutila model. Moreover, the results of the model are compared with the experimental data in terms of pH dynamic study. A good agreement is observed between our model prediction and the actual plant data. © 2011 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved(Received: 1st March 2011, Revised: 28th March 2011; Accepted: 7th April 2011[How to Cite: A.S. Ibrehem. (2011. Modified Mathematical Model For Neutralization System In Stirred Tank Reactor. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 6(1: 47-52. doi:10.9767/bcrec.6.1.825.47-52][How to Link / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.6.1.825.47-52 || or local:  http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/825 ] | View in 

  11. Development of a novel pH sensor based upon Janus Green B immobilized on triacetyl cellulose membrane: Experimental design and optimization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chamkouri, Narges; Niazi, Ali; Zare-Shahabadi, Vali

    2016-03-05

    A novel pH optical sensor was prepared by immobilizing an azo dye called Janus Green B on the triacetylcellulose membrane. Condition of the dye solution used in the immobilization step, including concentration of the dye, pH, and duration were considered and optimized using the Box-Behnken design. The proposed sensor showed good behavior and precision (RSDpH range of 2.0-10.0. Advantages of this optical sensor include on-line applicability, no leakage, long-term stability (more than 6 months), fast response time (less than 1 min), high selectivity and sensitivity as well as good reversibility and reproducibility. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  12. Experimental and theoretical distribution of electron density and thermopolimerization in crystals of Ph3Sb(O2CCH=CH2)2 complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukin, Georgy K.; Samsonov, Maxim A.; Arapova, Alla V.; Mazur, Anton S.; Artamonova, Tatiana O.; Khodorkovskiy, Mikhail A.; Vasilyev, Aleksander V.

    2017-10-01

    In this paper we present the results of a high-resolution single crystal X-ray diffraction experiment of a triphenylantimony diacrylate (Ph3Sb(O2CCH=CH2)2 (1)) and a subsequent charge density study based on a topological analysis according to quantum theory of atoms in molecules (QTAIM) together with density functional theory (DFT) calculation of isolated molecule. The QTAIM was used to investigate nature of the chemical bonds and molecular graph of Ph3Sb(O2CCH=CH2)2 complex. The molecular graph shows that only in one acrylate group there is an evidence of bonding between antimony and carbonyl oxygen atom in terms of the presence of a bond path. Thus the molecular graph for this class of compounds does not provide a definitive picture of the chemical bonding and should be complemented with other descriptors, such as and а source function (SF), noncovalent interaction (NCI) index and delocalization index (DI). Moreover the realization of π…π interactions between double bonds of acrylate groups in adjacent molecules allowed us to carry out a thermopolimerization reaction in crystals of Ph3Sb(O2CCH=CH2)2 complex and to determine a probable structure of polymer by solid state CP/MAS 13C NMR.

  13. Cinética do escurecimeno não-enzimático com soluções modelo de açúcares e aminoácidos em pH neutro e ácido = Kinetic of non-enzimatic browning with model solutions of sugar and aminoacids in neutral and acid pH

    OpenAIRE

    Vandré Barbosa Brião; Lígia Follmer; Marília de Souza; Vera Maria Rodrigues

    2011-01-01

    A cor dos alimentos é um importante atributo para a escolha do consumidor. O escurecimento é desejável em alguns alimentos pela cor e pelo aroma produzidos (como nos casos do pão e carne assada), mas, é indesejável em outros (como no tratamento térmico de leite). A reação de Maillard é influenciada pela natureza dos açúcares e aminoácidos envolvidos, bem como pelo pH e temperatura do processo. O objetivo do trabalho foi avaliar o escurecimento de soluções modelo contendo açúcares e aminoácido...

  14. Rational Development of Neutral Aqueous Electrolytes for Zinc–Air Batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clark, Simon; Latz, Arnulf

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Neutral aqueous electrolytes have been shown to extend both the calendar life and cycling stability of secondary zinc–air batteries (ZABs). Despite this promise, there are currently no modeling studies investigating the performance of neutral ZABs. Traditional continuum models are numerically insufficient to simulate the dynamic behavior of these complex systems because of the rapid, orders‐of‐magnitude concentration shifts that occur. In this work, we present a novel framework for modeling the cell‐level performance of pH‐buffered aqueous electrolytes. We apply our model to conduct the first continuum‐scale simulation of secondary ZABs using aqueous ZnCl2–NH4Cl as electrolyte. We first use our model to interpret the results of two recent experimental studies of neutral ZABs, showing that the stability of the pH value is a significant factor in cell performance. We then optimize the composition of the electrolyte and the design of the cell considering factors including pH stability, final discharge product, and overall energy density. Our simulations predict that the effectiveness of the pH buffer is limited by slow mass transport and that chlorine‐containing solids may precipitate in addition to ZnO. PMID:28898553

  15. Alkalinity conversion of bauxite refinery residues by neutralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnston, M; Clark, M W; McMahon, P; Ward, N

    2010-10-15

    Red mud remains the largest environmental issue for the alumina industry due to its high pH (>13), fine-grained nature (>90% is 50 g/kg), and soluble alkalinity (approximately 30 g/kg as equivalent CaCO(3)), which reduce the transport and reuse options of red mud. The neutralization of red mud provides potential reuse options because neutralization lowers pH, increases grain-size (e.g., coagulation), and precipitates or converts alkalinity. This paper investigates the geochemistry of 3 treatments of a red mud to affect neutralization and potentially convert materials from a waste material to a resource. This study investigates two commonly used neutralization techniques, a CO(2)-neutralized red mud (CNRM), a Basecon-neutralized red mud (Basecon), and a more novel approach of a CO(2)-neutralization followed by a Basecon-neutralization (Hybrid) to understand the effects that these treatments have on neutralization process. Data indicate that the neutralization techniques form two distinct geochemical groups when discriminated on total alkalinity alone, that is treatments with, and treatments without alkalinity precipitation. However, each treatment has distinct alkalinity speciation (hydroxide-dominant or carbonate/bicarbonate dominant) and residual Ca, Mg and Al in the treatment solution. Similarly, solids produced differ in their reaction pH and ANC, and contrary pH and ANC, a contrary to other studies, Dawsonite was not seen to precipitate during any neutralization. However, despite this approximately 17 g/kg CO(2) was sequestered during CNRM and hybrid neutralizations and all treatments increased either the transport or reuse options of red mud in some way. 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Transformation of Au144(SCH2CH2Ph)60 to Au133(SPh-tBu)52 Nanomolecules: Theoretical and Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nimmala, Praneeth Reddy; Theivendran, Shevanuja; Barcaro, Giovanni; Sementa, Luca; Kumara, Chanaka; Jupally, Vijay Reddy; Apra, Edoardo; Stener, Mauro; Fortunelli, Alessandro; Dass, Amala

    2015-06-04

    Ultrastable gold nanomolecule Au144(SCH2CH2Ph)60 upon etching with excess tert-butylbenzenethiol undergoes a core-size conversion and compositional change to form an entirely new core of Au133(SPh-tBu)52. This conversion was studied using high-resolution electrospray mass spectrometry which shows that the core size conversion is initiated after 22 ligand exchanges, suggesting a relatively high stability of the Au144(SCH2CH2Ph)38(SPh-tBu)22 intermediate. The Au144 → Au133 core size conversion is surprisingly different from the Au144 → Au99 core conversion reported in the case of thiophenol, -SPh. Theoretical analysis and ab initio molecular dynamics simulations show that rigid p-tBu groups play a crucial role by reducing the cluster structural freedom, and protecting the cluster from adsorption of exogenous and reactive species, thus rationalizing the kinetic factors that stabilize the Au133 core size. This 144-atom to 133-atom nanomolecule's compositional change is reflected in optical spectroscopy and electrochemistry.

  17. The LIPSS search for light neutral bosons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrei Afanasev; Oliver K. Baker; Kevin Beard; George Biallas; James Boyce; Minarni Minarni; Roopchan Ramdon; Michelle D. Shinn; Penny Slocum

    2009-07-01

    An overview is presented of the LIPSS experimental search for very light neutral bosons using laser light from Jefferson Lab's Free Electron Laser. This facility provides very high power beams of photons over a large optical range, particularly at infrared wavelengths. Data has been collected in several experimental runs during the course of the past three years, most recently in the Fall of 2009.

  18. Modeling Neutral Hydrogen in the HSX Stellarator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephey, L.; Bader, A.; Anderson, D. T.; Talmadge, J. N.; Hegna, C.; Anderson, F. S. B.

    2012-10-01

    Efforts to improve the understanding of neutral hydrogen in the HSX stellarator are ongoing. The DEGAS code [1], a fully 3D Monte-Carlo neutral particle code, is used to simulate neutral particle density and synthetic H-alpha emission in HSX. DEGAS simulations are compared to EMC3-EIRENE [2] simulations in an effort to understand the similarities and differences in how each code predicts neutral physics in the unique HSX geometry and relatively low operating density. Additionally, experimentally motivated DEGAS simulations are presented of a supersonic gas injection system that will be installed on HSX. Finally, simulations of many different wall recycling scenarios are presented in an effort to develop a plasma wall interaction model that more closely matches experimental H-alpha measurements.[4pt] [1] D. B. Heifetz et al, J. Comp. Phys. Vol. 46 (1982) p. 309.[0pt] [2] Y. Feng et al, Contribution Plasma Physics, 44 1-3 (2004) p. 57-69.

  19. Effect of spatial differences in microbial activity, pH, and substrate levels on methanogenesis initiation in refuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staley, Bryan F; de Los Reyes, Francis L; Barlaz, Morton A

    2011-04-01

    The initiation of methanogenesis in refuse occurs under high volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration and low pH (5.5 to 6.25), which generally are reported to inhibit methanogenic Archaea. One hypothesized mechanism for the initiation of methanogenesis in refuse decomposition is the presence of pH-neutral niches within the refuse that act as methanogenesis initiation centers. To provide experimental support for this mechanism, laboratory-scale landfill reactors were operated and destructively sampled when methanogenesis initiation was observed. The active bacterial and archaeal populations were evaluated using RNA clone libraries, RNA terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism (T-RFLP), and reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR). Measurements from 81 core samples from vertical and horizontal sections of each reactor showed large spatial differences in refuse pH, moisture content, and VFA concentrations. No pH-neutral niches were observed prior to methanogenesis. RNA clone library results showed that active bacterial populations belonged mostly to Clostridiales, and that methanogenic Archaea activity at low pH was attributable to Methanosarcina barkeri. After methanogenesis began, pH-neutral conditions developed in high-moisture-content areas containing substantial populations of M. barkeri. These areas expanded with increasing methane production, forming a reaction front that advanced to low-pH areas. Despite low-pH conditions in >50% of the samples within the reactors, the leachate pH was neutral, indicating that it is not an accurate indicator of landfill microbial conditions. In the absence of pH-neutral niches, this study suggests that methanogens tolerant to low pH, such as M. barkeri, are required to overcome the low-pH, high-VFA conditions present during the anaerobic acid phase of refuse decomposition.

  20. Generation of effective libraries by neutral drift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaltenbach, Miriam; Tokuriki, Nobuhiko

    2014-01-01

    Neutral drift is a recently developed experimental technique used to identify superior starting points for protein engineering. Neutral drift explores accessible sequence space by repeated rounds of mutagenesis and selection to maintain wild-type function. Mutations that are largely neutral for the native function accumulate, and those that are highly detrimental are purged, yielding a library of high diversity and quality. This technique is useful in situations where laboratory evolution is at a dead end, i.e., when the enzyme activity intended for evolution proves recalcitrant to improvements or is too low to be detected.

  1. Evaluation of smallpox vaccines using variola neutralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damon, Inger K; Davidson, Whitni B; Hughes, Christine M; Olson, Victoria A; Smith, Scott K; Holman, Robert C; Frey, Sharon E; Newman, Frances; Belshe, Robert B; Yan, Lihan; Karem, Kevin

    2009-08-01

    The search for a 'third'-generation smallpox vaccine has resulted in the development and characterization of several vaccine candidates. A significant barrier to acceptance is the absence of challenge models showing induction of correlates of protective immunity against variola virus. In this light, virus neutralization provides one of few experimental methods to show specific 'in vitro' activity of vaccines against variola virus. Here, we provide characterization of the ability of a modified vaccinia virus Ankara vaccine to induce variola virus-neutralizing antibodies, and we provide comparison with the neutralization elicited by standard Dryvax vaccination.

  2. Gargamelle: first neutral current

    CERN Multimedia

    1973-01-01

    This event shows the real tracks produced in the 1200 litre Gargamelle bubble chamber that provided the first confirmation of a neutral current interaction. A neutrino interacts with an electron, the track of which is seen horizontally, and emerges as a neutrino without producing a muon. The discovery of the neutral current was announced in the CERN main auditorium in July 1973.

  3. Toxic effects of Al-based coagulants on Brassica chinensis and Raphanus sativus growing in acid and neutral conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kaisong; Zhou, Qixing

    2005-04-01

    The ecotoxicological effects of aluminum (Al)-based coagulants are of concern because of their wide-ranging applications in wastewater treatment and water purification. As important Al-based coagulants, AlCl(3) and PAC (polyaluminum-chloride) were selected as examples to examine the toxic effects on representative vegetables including the cabbage Brassica chinensis and the radish Raphanus sativus over a range of exposure concentrations in neutral (pH 7.00) and acidic (pH 4.00) conditions, using seed germination and root elongation in the early-growth stage as indicators of toxicity. The results showed that root elongation of the two vegetables was a more sensitive indicator than was seed germination for evaluating the toxicity of Al. As a single influencing factor, H(+) had no significant direct effects on root elongation of Brassica chinensis and Raphanus sativus under the experimental conditions. The toxicity of Al played the main role in inhibiting root elongation and seed germination and was strongly related to changes in pH. There was a markedly positive relationship between the inhibitory rate of root elongation, seed germination, and the concentration of Al at pH 4.00 (p pH than at pH 4.00, but Raphanus sativus was more susceptible to AlCl(3) toxicity at a neutral pH than at pH 4.00. Both Raphanus sativus and Brassica chinensis had a more toxic response to a low concentration (pH is relevant when treatment solids are used in agriculture.

  4. Effect of Anionic Salt and Highly Fermentable Carbohydrate Supplementations on Urine pH and on Experimentally Induced Hypocalcaemia in Cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enemark JMD

    2004-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to determine the effect of dietary grain on calcium homeostasis. Six rumen-fistulated dairy cows with 3 or more previous lactations and no history of parturient paresis were randomly assigned to a sequence of diets in a crossover study with 4 periods of 10 days each. Dietary treatments were: A control ration consisting of wrap grass silage alone (1, the control ration supplemented with ammonium chloride and ammonium sulphate salt solution (2, control ration following a period with supplementation (3 and control ration supplemented with increasing amounts of barley from 4 to 10 kg/cow per day, expected to produce subclinical rumen acidosis (4. Daily intake of the diets was adjusted to 14 kg DM/cow per day. On day 11, the calcium-regulating mechanisms in cows were challenged until recumbency by a standardized intravenous EDTA infusion and cows were left to recover spontaneously. Anion supplementation and the feeding of highly fermentable carbohydrate lowered urine pH below 7.0 due to subclinical acidosis. During spontaneous recovery from EDTA induced hypocalcaemia, the cows more quickly regained a whole blood free calcium concentration of 1.00 mmol/L if they had most recently been supplemented with either anionic salts or with increasing amounts of barley, as compared to the basic ration. It is concluded that so-called slug-feeding or 'steaming up' with highly fermentable carbohydrates before parturition in milk fever susceptible cows enhanced calcium homeostasis similar to the effect seen in cows on anionic diets.

  5. In-line approach to pH control of chemical effluent

    OpenAIRE

    Nortcliffe, Anne; Love, Jonathan

    1996-01-01

    pH control of the neutralization process is a difficult problem. This is largely due to the inherent nonlinear behaviour of pH measurement, but also due to the\\ud variable time delays inherent in the process.

  6. Fresh water leaching of alkaline bauxite residue after sea water neutralization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menzies, Neal W; Fulton, Ian M; Kopittke, Rosemary A; Kopittke, Peter M

    2009-01-01

    Processing of bauxite to extract alumina produces a strongly alkaline waste, bauxite refining residue, which is commonly stored in engineered structures. Once full, these waste dumps must be revegetated. In many alumina refineries, the waste is separated into fine-textured red mud and coarse-textured residue sand (RS). The sand component has physical characteristics that make it a suitable plant growth medium, provided the adverse chemical characteristics can be addressed. Neutralization of the highly saline-sodic RS with sea water lowers pH, reduces Na saturation, and adds plant nutrients. However, sea water-neutralized RS remains saline sodic and needs fresh water leaching before use as a plant growth medium. Columns containing sea water-neutralized RS were leached with 30 m depth-equivalent of fresh water to evaluate the effects of rainfall on the RS and its leachate. Entrained cations were rapidly displaced by the fresh water, lowering salinity to non-plant-limiting levels (< or =0.3 dS m(-1)). The percentage of the effective cation exchange capacity (ECEC) saturated by Na decreased from 71 to 62% due to a reduction in soil solution ionic strength (causing a decrease in the ECEC) and the preferential displacement of Na(+) (and K(+)) from the exchange. Fresh water leaching increased pH (leachate pH increased from 8.0 to 10.1). This pH increase is attributed to the slow dissolution of the Na-containing mineral sodalite. Under the current experimental conditions, the application of 30 m depth-equivalent of leaching reduced the total RS sodalite content by <10%.

  7. Insights into Insulin Fibril Assembly at Physiological and Acidic pH and Related Amyloid Intrinsic Fluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clara Iannuzzi

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Human insulin is a widely used model protein for the study of amyloid formation as both associated to insulin injection amyloidosis in type II diabetes and highly prone to form amyloid fibrils in vitro. In this study, we aim to gain new structural insights into insulin fibril formation under two different aggregating conditions at neutral and acidic pH, using a combination of fluorescence, circular dichroism, Fourier-transform infrared spectroscopy, and transmission electron miscroscopy. We reveal that fibrils formed at neutral pH are morphologically different from those obtained at lower pH. Moreover, differences in FTIR spectra were also detected. In addition, only insulin fibrils formed at neutral pH showed the characteristic blue-green fluorescence generally associated to amyloid fibrils. So far, the molecular origin of this fluorescence phenomenon has not been clarified and different hypotheses have been proposed. In this respect, our data provide experimental evidence that allow identifying the molecular origin of such intrinsic property.

  8. pH Regulation of Electrogenic Sugar/H+ Symport in MFS Sugar Permeases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Bazzone

    Full Text Available Bacterial sugar symporters in the Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS use the H+ (and in a few cases Na+ electrochemical gradients to achieve active transport of sugar into the cell. Because a number of structures of MFS sugar symporters have been solved recently, molecular insight into the transport mechanism is possible from detailed functional analysis. We present here a comparative electrophysiological study of the lactose permease (LacY, the fucose permease (FucP and the xylose permease (XylE, which reveals common mechanistic principles and differences. In all three symporters energetically downhill electrogenic sugar/H+ symport is observed. Comparison of the pH dependence of symport at symmetrical pH exhibits broad bell-shaped pH profiles extending over 3 to 6 pH units and a decrease at extremely alkaline pH ≥ 9.4 and at acidic to neutral pH = 4.6-7.5. The pH dependence can be described by an acidic to neutral apparent pK (pKapp and an alkaline pKapp. Experimental evidence suggests that the alkaline pKapp is due to H+ depletion at the protonation site, while the acidic pKapp is due to inhibition of deprotonation. Since previous studies suggest that a single carboxyl group in LacY (Glu325 may be the only side chain directly involved in H+ translocation and a carboxyl side chain with similar properties has been identified in FucP (Asp46 and XylE (Asp27, the present results imply that the pK of this residue is switched during H+/sugar symport in all three symporters.

  9. pH Regulation of Electrogenic Sugar/H+ Symport in MFS Sugar Permeases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazzone, Andre; Madej, M Gregor; Kaback, H Ronald; Fendler, Klaus

    2016-01-01

    Bacterial sugar symporters in the Major Facilitator Superfamily (MFS) use the H+ (and in a few cases Na+) electrochemical gradients to achieve active transport of sugar into the cell. Because a number of structures of MFS sugar symporters have been solved recently, molecular insight into the transport mechanism is possible from detailed functional analysis. We present here a comparative electrophysiological study of the lactose permease (LacY), the fucose permease (FucP) and the xylose permease (XylE), which reveals common mechanistic principles and differences. In all three symporters energetically downhill electrogenic sugar/H+ symport is observed. Comparison of the pH dependence of symport at symmetrical pH exhibits broad bell-shaped pH profiles extending over 3 to 6 pH units and a decrease at extremely alkaline pH ≥ 9.4 and at acidic to neutral pH = 4.6-7.5. The pH dependence can be described by an acidic to neutral apparent pK (pKapp) and an alkaline pKapp. Experimental evidence suggests that the alkaline pKapp is due to H+ depletion at the protonation site, while the acidic pKapp is due to inhibition of deprotonation. Since previous studies suggest that a single carboxyl group in LacY (Glu325) may be the only side chain directly involved in H+ translocation and a carboxyl side chain with similar properties has been identified in FucP (Asp46) and XylE (Asp27), the present results imply that the pK of this residue is switched during H+/sugar symport in all three symporters.

  10. Evidence for neutral-current diffractive neutral pion production from hydrogen in neutrino interactions on hydrocarbon

    CERN Document Server

    Wolcott, J; Altinok, O; Bercellie, A; Betancourt, M; Bodek, A; Bravar, A; Budd, H; Cai, T; Carneiro, M F; Chvojka, J; Devan, J; Dytman, S A; Diaz, G A; Eberly, B; Endress, E; Felix, J; Fields, L; Galindo, R; Gallagher, H; Golan, T; Gran, R; Harris, D A; Higuera, A; Hurtado, K; Kiveni, M; Kleykamp, J; Kordosky, M; Le, T; Maher, E; Manly, S; Mann, W A; Marshall, C M; Caicedo, D A Martinez; McFarland, K S; McGivern, C L; McGowan, A M; Messerly, B; Miller, J; Mislivec, A; Morfin, J G; Mousseau, J; Naples, D; Nelson, J K; Norrick, A; Nuruzzaman,; Paolone, V; Park, J; Patrick, C E; Perdue, G N; Rakotondravohitra, L; Ramirez, M A; Ray, H; Ren, L; Rimal, D; Rodrigues, P A; Ruterbories, D; Schellman, H; Schmitz, D W; Salinas, C J Solano; Sanchez, S F; Tagg, N; Tice, B G; Valencia, E; Walton, T; Wospakrik, M; Zhang, D

    2016-01-01

    The MINERvA experiment observes an excess of events containing electromagnetic showers relative to the expectation from Monte Carlo simulations in neutral-current neutrino interactions with mean beam energy of 4.5 GeV on a hydrocarbon target. The excess is characterized and found to be consistent with neutral-current neutral pion production with a broad energy distribution peaking at 7 GeV and a total cross section of 0.26 +- 0.02 (stat) +- 0.08 (sys) x 10^{-39} cm^{2}. The angular distribution, electromagnetic shower energy, and spatial distribution of the energy depositions of the excess are consistent with expectations from neutrino neutral-current diffractive neutral pion production from hydrogen in the hydrocarbon target. These data comprise the first direct experimental observation and constraint for a reaction that poses an important background process in neutrino oscillation experiments searching for muon neutrino to electron neutrino oscillations.

  11. Treatment of alumina refinery waste (red mud) through neutralization techniques: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Suchita; Wasewar, K L; Agnihotri, A

    2017-06-01

    In the Bayer process of extraction of alumina from bauxite, the insoluble product generated after bauxite digestion with sodium hydroxide at elevated temperature and pressure is known as 'red mud' or 'bauxite residue'. This alumina refinery waste is highly alkaline in nature with a pH of 10.5-12.5 and is conventionally disposed of in mostly clay-lined land-based impoundments. The alkaline constituents in the red mud impose severe and alarming environmental problems, such as soil and air pollution. Keeping in view sustainable re-vegetation and residue management, neutralization/treatment of red mud using different techniques is the only alternative to make the bauxite residue environmentally benign. Hence, neutralization techniques, such as using mineral acids, acidic waste (pickling liquor waste), coal dust, superphosphate and gypsum as amenders, CO 2 , sintering with silicate material and seawater for treatment of red mud have been studied in detail. This paper is based upon and emphasizes the experimental work carried out for all the neutralization techniques along with a comprehensive review of each of the processes. The scope, applicability, limitations and feasibility of these processes have been compared exhaustively. Merits and demerits have been discussed using flow diagrams. All the techniques described are technically feasible, wherein findings obtained with seawater neutralization can be set as a benchmark for future work. Further studies should be focused on exploring the economical viability of these processes for better waste management and disposal of red mud.

  12. Acid neutralization of precipitation in Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yuesi; Yu, Wenpeng; Pan, Yuepeng; Wu, Dan

    2012-02-01

    There is an increasing concern over the impact of human-related emissions on the acid precipitation in China. However, few measurements have been conducted so far to clarify the acid-neutralization of precipitation on a regional scale. Under a network of 10 sites across Northern China operated during a 3-year period from December 2007 to November 2010, a total of 1118 rain and snow samples were collected. Of this total, 28% was acid precipitation with pH acid samples, 53% were found heavily acidic with pH value below 5.0, indicating significantly high levels of acidification of precipitation. Most of the acidity of precipitation was caused by H2SO4 and HNO3, their relative contribution being 72% and 28%, respectively. However; the contribution of HNO3 to precipitation acidity will be enhanced due to the increasing NO(x) and stable SO2 emissions in future. Neutralization factors for K+, NH4+, Ca2+, Na+, and Mg2+ were estimated as 0.06, 0.71, 0.72, 0.15, and 0.13, respectively. The application of multiple regression analysis further quantified higher NH4+ and Ca2+ contribution to the neutralization process, but the dominant neutralizing agent varied from site to site. The neutralization was less pronounced in the rural than urban areas, probably due to different levels of alkaline species, which strongly buffered the acidity. Presence of high concentrations of basic ions was mainly responsible for high pH of precipitation with annual volume-weighted mean (VWM) values larger than 5.6 at several sites. It was estimated that in the absence of buffering ions, for the given concentration of SO4(2-) and NO3-, the annual VWM pH of precipitation would have been recorded around 3.5 across Northern China. This feature suggested that emissions of particles and gaseous NH3 played very important role in controlling the spatial variations of pH of precipitation in the target areas.

  13. Ph3CCOOSnPh3.Ph3PO AND Ph3CCOOSnPh3.Ph3AsO: SYNTHESIS AND INFRARED STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ABDOU MBAYE

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The mixture of ethanolic solutions of Ph3CCOOSnPh3 and Ph3PO or Ph3AsO gives Ph3CCOOSnPh3.Ph3PO and Ph3CCOOSnPh3.Ph3AsO adducts which have been characterized by infrared spectroscopy. A discrete structure is suggested for both, the environment around the tin centre being trigonal bipyramidal, the triphenylacetate anion behaving as a mondentate ligand.

  14. Switchable surfactant-assisted carbon nanotube coatings: Innovation through pH shift

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos eSanchís

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The inner surface of fused silica capillaries has been coated with a dense/homogeneous coating of commercial multi-wall carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs using a stable ink as deposit precursor. Solubilization of the MWCNTs was achieved in water/ethanol/dimethylformamide by the action of a surfactant which can switch between a neutral or an ionic form depending on the pH of the medium, which thus becomes the driving force for the entire deposition process. Careful control of the experimental conditions have allowed us to selectively deposit CNTs on the inner surface of insulating silica capillaries by a simple, reproducible, and easily adaptable method.

  15. Bifunctional Probes of Cathepsin Protease Activity and pH Reveal Alterations in Endolysosomal pH during Bacterial Infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sanman, L.E.; Linden, W.A. van der; Verdoes, M.; Bogyo, M.

    2016-01-01

    Cysteine cathepsins are lysosomal proteases involved in regulation of both normal cellular processes and disease. Biochemical studies with peptide substrates indicate that cathepsins have optimal activity at acidic pH and highly attenuated activity at neutral pH. In contrast, there is mounting

  16. Diamagnetism and neutrals depletion in a plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruchtman, Amnon; Shinohara, Shunjiro

    2017-10-01

    Recent experimental and theoretical findings [Shinohara et al., Phys. Plasmas 23, 122108 (2016)] regarding the pressure balance between a cylindrical plasma, an axial magnetic field, and neutral gas are explored further theoretically. The length of the cylinder is assumed much larger than its radius, so that axial losses are small and cross-field transport is dominant. Conditions for either magnetic pressure or neutral pressure balancing the plasma pressure and an associated coupling parameter, which were identified in the above-mentioned recent study, are examined further. In addition, a second coupling parameter is identified which determines which is larger, the relative change in the magnetic field or the relative change in neutral density. An unexpected nonmonotonic variation of the plasma density with the plasma particle flux is demonstrated. It is shown that for plasma beta close to unity, as plasma generation and plasma particle flux increase, the plasma density surprisingly decreases. This decrease follows a decrease in plasma confinement due to an increased plasma diamagnetism. The effect of the magnetic field on neutral depletion is examined. It is shown that an increase in the magnetic field as the plasma density is kept constant results in a decrease in neutral depletion, while an increase in the magnetic field as the plasma particle flux is kept constant results in constant neutral depletion.

  17. CO2-Neutral Fuels

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goede, A.; van de Sanden, M. C. M.

    2016-01-01

    Mimicking the biogeochemical cycle of System Earth, synthetic hydrocarbon fuels are produced from recycled CO2 and H2O powered by renewable energy. Recapturing CO2 after use closes the carbon cycle, rendering the fuel cycle CO2 neutral. Non-equilibrium molecular CO2 vibrations are key to high energy

  18. Bleach Neutralizes Mold Allergens

    Science.gov (United States)

    Science Teacher, 2005

    2005-01-01

    Researchers at National Jewish Medical and Research Center have demonstrated that dilute bleach not only kills common household mold, but may also neutralize the mold allergens that cause most mold-related health complaints. The study, published in the Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, is the first to test the effect on allergic…

  19. Evidence for biofilm acid neutralization by baking soda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zero, Domenick T

    2017-11-01

    The generating of acids from the microbial metabolism of dietary sugars and the subsequent decrease in biofilm pH below the pH at which tooth mineral begins to demineralize (critical pH) are the key elements of the dental caries process. Caries preventive strategies that rapidly neutralize biofilm acids can prevent demineralization and favor remineralization and may help prevent the development of sugar-induced dysbiosis that shifts the biofilm toward increased cariogenic potential. Although the neutralizing ability of sodium bicarbonate (baking soda) has been known for many years, its anticaries potential as an additive to fluoride dentifrice has received only limited investigation. There is evidence that baking soda rapidly can reverse the biofilm pH decrease after a sugar challenge; however, the timing of when it is used in relation to a dietary sugar exposure is critical in that the sooner its used the greater the benefit in preventing a sustained biofilm pH decrease and subsequent demineralization. Furthermore, the effectiveness of baking soda in elevating biofilm pH appears to depend on concentration. Thus, the concentration of baking soda in marketed dentifrice products, which ranges from 10% to 65%, may affect their biofilm pH neutralizing performance. People with hyposalivation particularly may benefit from using fluoride dentifrice containing baking soda because of their diminished ability to clear dietary sugars and buffer biofilm acids. Although promising, there is the need for more evidence that strategies that modify the oral ecology, such as baking soda, can alter the cariogenic (acidogenic and aciduric) properties of biofilm microorganisms. The acid neutralization of dental biofilm by using fluoride dentifrice that contains baking soda has potential for helping counteract modern high-sugar diets by rapidly neutralizing biofilm-generated acid, especially in people with hyposalivation. Copyright © 2017 American Dental Association. Published by

  20. Modeling thermospheric neutral density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Liying

    Satellite drag prediction requires determination of thermospheric neutral density. The NCAR Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (TIEGCM) and the global-mean Thermosphere-Ionosphere-Mesosphere-Electrodynamics General Circulation Model (TIMEGCM) were used to quantify thermospheric neutral density and its variations, focusing on annual/semiannual variation, the effect of using measured solar irradiance on model calculations of solar-cycle variation, and global change in the thermosphere. Satellite drag data and the MSIS00 empirical model were utilized to compare to the TIEGCM simulations. The TIEGCM simulations indicated that eddy diffusion and its annual/semiannual variation is a mechanism for annual/semiannual density variation in the thermosphere. It was found that eddy diffusion near the turbopause can effectively influence thermospheric neutral density. Eddy diffusion, together with annual insolation variation and large-scale circulation, generated global annual/semiannual density variation observed by satellite drag. Using measured solar irradiance as solar input for the TIEGCM improved the solar-cycle dependency of the density calculation shown in F10.7 -based thermospheric empirical models. It has been found that the empirical models overestimate density at low solar activity. The TIEGCM simulations did not show such solar-cycle dependency. Using historic measurements of CO2 and F 10.7, simulations of the global-mean TIMEGCM showed that thermospheric neutral density at 400 km had an average long-term decrease of 1.7% per decade from 1970 to 2000. A forecast of density decrease for solar cycle 24 suggested that thermospheric density will decrease at 400 km from present to the end of solar cycle 24 at a rate of 2.7% per decade. Reduction in thermospheric density causes less atmospheric drag on earth-orbiting space objects. The implication of this long-term decrease of thermospheric neutral density is that it will increase the

  1. Low energy neutral beam production by laser vaporization of metals

    OpenAIRE

    Breton, C.; De Michelis, C.; Hecq, W.; Mattioli, M.

    1980-01-01

    We have quantitatively studied the production of low energy (0.1-10 eV) metal neutral beams by laser vaporization of thin metal foils. For the experimental geometry available on the TFR tokamak, this technique results in the injection of 1015 neutrals in a time of ∼ 300 μs.

  2. Inducing Risk Neutral Preferences with Binary Lotteries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Harrison, Glenn W.; Martínez-Correa, Jimmy; Swarthout, J. Todd

    2013-01-01

    We evaluate the binary lottery procedure for inducing risk neutral behavior. We strip the experimental implementation down to bare bones, taking care to avoid any potentially confounding assumptions about behavior having to be made. In particular, our evaluation does not rely on the assumed...... validity of any strategic equilibrium behavior, or even the customary independence axiom. We show that subjects sampled from our population are generally risk averse when lotteries are defined over monetary outcomes, and that the binary lottery procedure does indeed induce a statistically significant shift...... toward risk neutrality. This striking result generalizes to the case in which subjects make several lottery choices and one is selected for payment....

  3. Discrete symmetries with neutral mesons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabéu, José

    2018-01-01

    Symmetries, and Symmetry Breakings, in the Laws of Physics play a crucial role in Fundamental Science. Parity and Charge Conjugation Violations prompted the consideration of Chiral Fields in the construction of the Standard Model, whereas CP-Violation needed at least three families of Quarks leading to Flavour Physics. In this Lecture I discuss the Conceptual Basis and the present experimental results for a Direct Evidence of Separate Reversal-in-Time T, CP and CPT Genuine Asymmetries in Decaying Particles like Neutral Meson Transitions, using Quantum Entanglement and the Decay as a Filtering Measurement. The eight transitions associated to the Flavour-CP eigenstate decay products of entangled neutral mesons have demonstrated with impressive significance a separate evidence of TRV and CPV in Bd-physics, whereas a CPTV asymmetry shows a 2σ effect interpreted as an upper limit. Novel CPTV observables are discussed for K physics at KLOE-2, including the difference between the semileptonic asymmetries from KL and KS, the ratios of double decay rate Intensities to Flavour-CP eigenstate decay products and the ω-effect. Their observation would lead to a change of paradigm beyond Quantum Field Theory, however there is nothing in Quantum Mechanics forbidding CPTV.

  4. Mod en neutral seksualitet!

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leer, Jonatan

    2013-01-01

    Towards a Neutral Sexuality! or Roland Barthes as a Queer Thinker? This article argues that the work of Roland Barthes has interesting perspectives in common with the queer theory. This argument will be put forward by using his concept of ‘the neutral’ that Barthes defines as “that which outplays...... the paradigm”. This notion was presented at a series of lectures at Collège de France in 1977. Through a reading of Barthes’s autobiography, Roland Barthes par Roland Barthes (1975), the article demonstrates how Barthes in this text tries to outplay the paradigms that rules over the hegemonic understanding...... of gender and sexuality; also the fragmented text presents a vision of a sexual utopia, a neutral sexuality, that tries – like the queer theory – to go and think beyond a binary conception of gender and sexuality. Finally, it is suggested that we should start to think about a movement of “French queer...

  5. Internal structure of the geomagnetic neutral sheet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, K.; Ness, N. F.

    1972-01-01

    A study of the internal structure of the neutral sheet in the geomagnetic tail has been made from data obtained by the NASA-GSFC magnetic-field experiment on the Explorer 34 spacecraft during its tail passage in the first half of 1968. The data used in the analysis are individual measurements of the vector magnetic field at 2.56-sec intervals. The experimental results consist of statistical studies of relevant properties of the magnetic field as a function of field magnitude. The results do not support nearly one-dimensional field models with characteristic lengths for field variation parallel to the neutral sheet much larger than the neutral-sheet width. The principal conclusion from the data points toward consistency with a quasi-periodic (possibly turbulent) structure with a tendency to formation of magnetic loops as one might expect from stability studies.

  6. Gargamelle: neutral current event

    CERN Multimedia

    1973-01-01

    This event shows real tracks of particles from the 1200 litre Gargamelle bubble chamber that ran on the PS from 1970 to 1976 and on the SPS from 1976 to 1979. In this image a neutrino passes close to a nucleon and reemerges as a neutrino. Such events are called neutral curent, as they are mediated by the Z0 boson which has no electric charge.

  7. Exercise Equipment: Neutral Buoyancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shackelford, Linda; Valle, Paul

    2016-01-01

    Load Bearing Equipment for Neutral Buoyancy (LBE-NB) is an exercise frame that holds two exercising subjects in position as they apply counter forces to each other for lower extremity and spine loading resistance exercises. Resistance exercise prevents bone loss on ISS, but the ISS equipment is too massive for use in exploration craft. Integrating the human into the load directing, load generating, and motion control functions of the exercise equipment generates safe exercise loads with less equipment mass and volume.

  8. pH and Titratable Acidity of different Cough Syrups in Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Also, the buffering capability of each cough syrup was assessed by titrating 0.1N Sodium hydroxide (NaOH) with 10mls of each sample until neutral pH of 7.0 was achieved for acidic syrups. For alkaline samples, 0.1N Hydrochloric acid (HCl) was titrated until the neutral pH of 7.0 was achieved. Results: The pH of the syrups ...

  9. Neutralization of Interleukin-10 Significantly Enhances Gamma Interferon Expression in Peripheral Blood by Stimulation with Johnin Purified Protein Derivative and by Infection with Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in Experimentally Infected Cattle with Paratuberculosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buza, Joram J.; Hikono, Hirokazu; Mori, Yasuyuki; Nagata, Reiko; Hirayama, Sachiyo; Bari, Abusaleh M.; Shu, Yujing; Tsuji, Noriko M.; Momotani, Eiichi

    2004-01-01

    Monoclonal antibody neutralization of interleukin-10 (IL-10) increased Johnin purified protein derivative-induced whole-blood gamma interferon (IFN-γ) secretion 23-fold and also increased IFN-γ secretion ninefold following in vitro Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection of peripheral blood mononuclear cells. These results demonstrate the suppressive effect of IL-10 on immune responses to M. avium subsp. paratuberculosis infection in cattle. PMID:15039374

  10. Ultracold neutral plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, M.; Rolston, S. L.

    2017-01-01

    By photoionizing samples of laser-cooled atoms with laser light tuned just above the ionization limit, plasmas can be created with electron and ion temperatures below 10 K. These ultracold neutral plasmas have extended the temperature bounds of plasma physics by two orders of magnitude. Table-top experiments, using many of the tools from atomic physics, allow for the study of plasma phenomena in this new regime with independent control over the density and temperature of the plasma through the excitation process. Characteristic of these systems is an inhomogeneous density profile, inherited from the density distribution of the laser-cooled neutral atom sample. Most work has dealt with unconfined plasmas in vacuum, which expand outward at velocities of order 100 m/s, governed by electron pressure, and with lifetimes of order 100 μs, limited by stray electric fields. Using detection of charged particles and optical detection techniques, a wide variety of properties and phenomena have been observed, including expansion dynamics, collective excitations in both the electrons and ions, and collisional properties. Through three-body recombination collisions, the plasmas rapidly form Rydberg atoms, and clouds of cold Rydberg atoms have been observed to spontaneously avalanche ionize to form plasmas. Of particular interest is the possibility of the formation of strongly coupled plasmas, where Coulomb forces dominate thermal motion and correlations become important. The strongest impediment to strong coupling is disorder-induced heating, a process in which Coulomb energy from an initially disordered sample is converted into thermal energy. This restricts electrons to a weakly coupled regime and leaves the ions barely within the strongly coupled regime. This review will give an overview of the field of ultracold neutral plasmas, from its inception in 1999 to current work, including efforts to increase strong coupling and effects on plasma properties due to strong coupling.

  11. Ultracold neutral plasmas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyon, M; Rolston, S L

    2017-01-01

    By photoionizing samples of laser-cooled atoms with laser light tuned just above the ionization limit, plasmas can be created with electron and ion temperatures below 10 K. These ultracold neutral plasmas have extended the temperature bounds of plasma physics by two orders of magnitude. Table-top experiments, using many of the tools from atomic physics, allow for the study of plasma phenomena in this new regime with independent control over the density and temperature of the plasma through the excitation process. Characteristic of these systems is an inhomogeneous density profile, inherited from the density distribution of the laser-cooled neutral atom sample. Most work has dealt with unconfined plasmas in vacuum, which expand outward at velocities of order 100 m/s, governed by electron pressure, and with lifetimes of order 100 μs, limited by stray electric fields. Using detection of charged particles and optical detection techniques, a wide variety of properties and phenomena have been observed, including expansion dynamics, collective excitations in both the electrons and ions, and collisional properties. Through three-body recombination collisions, the plasmas rapidly form Rydberg atoms, and clouds of cold Rydberg atoms have been observed to spontaneously avalanche ionize to form plasmas. Of particular interest is the possibility of the formation of strongly coupled plasmas, where Coulomb forces dominate thermal motion and correlations become important. The strongest impediment to strong coupling is disorder-induced heating, a process in which Coulomb energy from an initially disordered sample is converted into thermal energy. This restricts electrons to a weakly coupled regime and leaves the ions barely within the strongly coupled regime. This review will give an overview of the field of ultracold neutral plasmas, from its inception in 1999 to current work, including efforts to increase strong coupling and effects on plasma properties due to strong coupling.

  12. Anticorpos neutralizantes contra o vírus da Diarréia Viral Bovina (BVDV: comparação entre um imunógeno experimental atenuado e três vacinas comerciais inativadas Vaccination-induced neutralizing antibodies against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV: comparison between an experimental modified-live vaccine and three comercial inactivated vaccines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo de Lima

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Os títulos e duração de anticorpos neutralizantes contra o vírus da Diarréia Viral Bovina (BVDV induzidos por uma vacina experimental atenuada (vacina A: dose única foram comparados com os induzidos por três vacinas comerciais inativadas (B, C e D: duas doses com intervalo de 30 dias. Trinta dias após a vacinação (vacina A ou após a segunda dose (vacinas B, C e D, anticorpos neutralizantes contra o BVDV-1 foram detectados em todos os animais (12/12 do grupo A (título médio geométrico GMT=1612,7; em 32 de 36 animais do grupo B (GMT=14,3; 22 de 28 do grupo C (GMT=25,1; e em 16 de 30 do grupo D (GMT=40,0. Anticorpos frente ao BVDV-2 foram detectados em todos os animais do grupo A (GMT=151,0; em 27 de 36 do grupo B (GMT=10,0; 12 de 28 do grupo C (GMT=11,5 e em 10 de 30 animais do grupo D (GMT=10,0. No dia 180 após a vacinação, o número de animais que ainda apresentava anticorpos contra o BVDV-1 e os GMTs para cada grupo foram: vacina A (12/12, GMT=905,0; vacina B (30/36, GMT=28,3; vacina C (20/28, GMT=28,3; vacina D (14/30, GMT=16,1; e contra o BVDV-2 foram: vacina A (12/12, GMT=56,6; vacina B (18/36, GMT=16,8; vacina C (10/28, GMT=21,6 e vacina D (6/30, GMT=16,1. Os títulos médios (GMTs induzidos pela vacina A foram significativamente superiores aos demais, tanto para o BVDV-1 (PThe titers and duration of neutralizing antibodies against bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV induced by an experimental attenuated vaccine (vaccine A: one dose were compared to those induced by three commercial inactivated ones (B, C and D: two doses at a 30 day interval. Thirty days after vaccination (vaccine A or the second dose (vaccines B, C and D, neutralizing antibodies to BVDV-1 were detected in all calves (12/12 from group A (mean geometric titer GMT=1612.7; in 32 out of 36 from group B (GMT=14.3; 22/28 from group C (GMT=25.1; 16/30 from group D (GMT=40.0. Antibodies reacting with BVDV-2 were detected in all animals from group A (GMT=151.0; 27

  13. Photoproduction of neutral pions

    OpenAIRE

    Fuhrer, Andreas

    2009-01-01

    The pion and nucleon mass differences generate a very pronounced cusp in the photoproduction reaction of a single neutral pion on the proton. A nonrelativistic effective field theory to describe this reaction is constructed. The approach is rigorous in the sense that it is an effective field theory with a consistent power counting scheme. Expressions for the S- and P-wave multipole amplitudes at one loop are given. The relation of the phase of the electric multipole E_0+ to the phase of the S...

  14. Conformational changes in the bilirubin-human serum albumin complex at extreme alkaline pH

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Honoré, B; Frandsen, P C

    1986-01-01

    Light-absorption, c.d. and fluorescence of the bilirubin-albumin complex were investigated at extreme alkaline pH. Above pH 11.1 albumin binds the bilirubin molecule, twisted oppositely to the configuration at more neutral pH. On the basis of light-absorption it is shown that two alkaline transit...

  15. Results on Intense Beam Focusing and Neutralization from the Neutralized Transport Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Simon; Anders, Andre; Bieniosek, F. M.; Eylon, Shmuel; Henestroza, Enrique; Roy, Prabir; Shuman, Derek; Waldron, William L.; Houck, Tim; Sharp, William; Rose, Dave; Dale, Welch; Efthimion, Philip; Gilson, Eric; Sefkow, Adam

    2003-10-01

    In heavy ion inertial confinement fusion systems, intense beams of ions must be transported from the exit of the final focus magnet system through the target chamber to hit millimeter spot sizes on the target. Effective plasma neutralization of intense ion beams through the target chamber is essential for the viability of an economically competitive heavy ion fusion power plant. The physics of final magnetic transport and neutralized drift has been studied extensively with PIC simulations. To provide quantitative comparisons of theoretical predictions with experiment, the Heavy Ion Fusion Virtual National Laboratory has completed the construction and has begun experimentation with the NTX (Neutralized Transport Experiment). The experiment consists of 3 phases, each with physics issues of its own. Phase 1 is designed to generate a very high brightness potassium beam with variable perveance, using a beam aperturing technique. Phase 2 consists of magnetic transport through four pulsed quadrupoles. Here, beam tuning as well as the effects of phase space dilution through higher order nonlinear fields must be understood. In Phase 3, a converging ion beam at the exit of the magnetic section is transported through a drift section with plasma sources for beam neutralization, and the final spot size is measured under various conditions of neutralization. In this paper, we present results from all 3 phases of the experiment, with particular emphasis on the neutralization experiments.

  16. Immobilized pH gradient gel cell to study the pH dependence of drug lipophilicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Hoang-Trang; Pereira, Carlos M; Roussel, Christophe; Carrupt, Pierre-Alain; Girault, Hubert H

    2006-03-01

    An experimental setup to study the pH dependence of standard ion-transfer potentials at the water/NPOE interface is presented. The system is composed of a microhole generated by laser photoablation in a 12-microm polyethylene terephthalate film, the aqueous phase consisting of a commercial immobilized pH gradient gel reswelled in electrolyte solution and a droplet of organic solution. Two electrodes are used, an Ag/AgCl aqueous electrode and an Ag/AgTPBCl organic electrode. This setup is applied to the study of two ionizable compounds (pyridine, 2,4-dinitrophenol). Thermodynamic parameters such as the standard transfer potential, the Gibbs energy of transfer, and the partition coefficients of the ionized forms as well as the neutral forms of these drug compounds are evaluated by differential pulse voltammetry. The data obtained are summarized in ionic partition diagrams, which are a useful tool for predicting and interpreting the transfer behavior of ionized drugs at the liquid/liquid interfaces mimicking the biological membranes.

  17. Ratiometric fluorescent sensing of pH values in living cells by dual-fluorophore-labeled i-motif nanoprobes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jin; Ying, Le; Yang, Xiaohai; Yang, Yanjing; Quan, Ke; Wang, He; Xie, Nuli; Ou, Min; Zhou, Qifeng; Wang, Kemin

    2015-09-01

    We designed a new ratiometric fluorescent nanoprobe for sensing pH values in living cells. Briefly, the nanoprobe consists of a gold nanoparticle (AuNP), short single-stranded oligonucleotides, and dual-fluorophore-labeled i-motif sequences. The short oligonucleotides are designed to bind with the i-motif sequences and immobilized on the AuNP surface via Au-S bond. At neutral pH, the dual fluorophores are separated, resulting in very low fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) efficiency. At acidic pH, the i-motif strands fold into a quadruplex structure and leave the AuNP, bringing the dual fluorophores into close proximity, resulting in high FRET efficiency, which could be used as a signal for pH sensing. The nanoprobe possesses abilities of cellular transfection, enzymatic protection, fast response and quantitative pH detection. The in vitro and intracellular applications of the nanoprobe were demonstrated, which showed excellent response in the physiological pH range. Furthermore, our experimental results suggested that the nanoprobe showed excellent spatial and temporal resolution in living cells. We think that the ratiometric sensing strategy could potentially be applied to create a variety of new multicolor sensors for intracellular detection.

  18. Effect of environmental pH on enzyme activity and growth of Bacteroides gingivalis W50.

    OpenAIRE

    McDermid, A S; McKee, A. S.; Marsh, P.D.

    1988-01-01

    Since the pH of the gingival crevice increases from below neutrality in health to above pH 8 in disease, we decided to investigate the effect of environmental pH on the growth and enzyme activity of Bacteroides gingivalis W50. Cells were grown in a chemostat under hemin-excess conditions over a range of pH values; stable growth was observed only between pH 6.7 and 8.3, with the maximum yields obtained between pH 7.0 and 8.0. The enzyme profile of cells varied markedly with pH. Enzymes with a ...

  19. Brief chewing of Garcinia manii stick reverses reduced saliva pH after a glucose rinse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Addai, Frederick Kwaku; Nuamah, Isaac Kwasi K; Parkins, Grace E

    2002-11-01

    A popular variety of wood, pieces of which are chewed as an oral hygiene practice in Southern Ghana, was tested for its capacity to reverse experimentally lowered pH of saliva. This was done to determine whether (Garcinia manii) stick-chewing neutralizes acidogenic challenge to teeth, and thereby potentially affords dental caries prevention benefit. Seventy-two volunteer medical students gave (baseline) saliva samples by spitting 3-4 times into a 25 ml conical flask. They then rinsed their mouths with a five-percent aqueous solution of glucose. Subsequent to the glucose rinse, half of the subjects (chewers), pre-selected by drawing lots, chewed a popular chewing stick Garcinia manii for five minutes, while the other half (controls) did not. The pH of saliva samples given by the volunteers at various time intervals was measured using a Kent EIL 7020 pH meter, and the results were analysed by the Analysis of Variance (Anova) method. As expected, saliva pH was reduced in both groups after the glucose rinse, but increased significantly faster in stick chewers compared with controls. It is suggested from this study that brief (Garcina manii) stick-chewing confers a caries prevention/control benefit by reversing acidogenic challenge to teeth.

  20. Decrease in Daphnia egg viability at elevated pH

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vijverberg, J.; Kalf, D.F.; Boersma, M.

    1996-01-01

    The effect of high pH on the reproduction of two Daphnia galeata clones was experimentally investigated in the laboratory. We observed that the mortality of juveniles and adults did not increase with increasing pH in the range pH 9.0- 10.5, which agrees with what is generally reported in the

  1. Complexation of buffer constituents with neutral complexation agents: part I. Impact on common buffer properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riesová, Martina; Svobodová, Jana; Tošner, Zdeněk; Beneš, Martin; Tesařová, Eva; Gaš, Bohuslav

    2013-09-17

    The complexation of buffer constituents with the complexation agent present in the solution can very significantly influence the buffer properties, such as pH, ionic strength, or conductivity. These parameters are often crucial for selection of the separation conditions in capillary electrophoresis or high-pressure liquid chromatography (HPLC) and can significantly affect results of separation, particularly for capillary electrophoresis as shown in Part II of this paper series (Beneš, M.; Riesová, M.; Svobodová, J.; Tesařová, E.; Dubský, P.; Gaš, B. Anal. Chem. 2013, DOI: 10.1021/ac401381d). In this paper, the impact of complexation of buffer constituents with a neutral complexation agent is demonstrated theoretically as well as experimentally for the model buffer system composed of benzoic acid/LiOH or common buffers (e.g., CHES/LiOH, TAPS/LiOH, Tricine/LiOH, MOPS/LiOH, MES/LiOH, and acetic acid/LiOH). Cyclodextrins as common chiral selectors were used as model complexation agents. We were not only able to demonstrate substantial changes of pH but also to predict the general complexation characteristics of selected compounds. Because of the zwitterion character of the common buffer constituents, their charged forms complex stronger with cyclodextrins than the neutral ones do. This was fully proven by NMR measurements. Additionally complexation constants of both forms of selected compounds were determined by NMR and affinity capillary electrophoresis with a very good agreement of obtained values. These data were advantageously used for the theoretical descriptions of variations in pH, depending on the composition and concentration of the buffer. Theoretical predictions were shown to be a useful tool for deriving some general rules and laws for complexing systems.

  2. CO2-neutral fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goede A. P. H.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The need for storage of renewable energy (RE generated by photovoltaic, concentrated solar and wind arises from the fact that supply and demand are ill-matched both geographically and temporarily. This already causes problems of overcapacity and grid congestion in countries where the fraction of RE exceeds the 20% level. A system approach is needed, which focusses not only on the energy source, but includes conversion, storage, transport, distribution, use and, last but not least, the recycling of waste. Furthermore, there is a need for more flexibility in the energy system, rather than relying on electrification, integration with other energy systems, for example the gas network, would yield a system less vulnerable to failure and better adapted to requirements. For example, long-term large-scale storage of electrical energy is limited by capacity, yet needed to cover weekly to seasonal demand. This limitation can be overcome by coupling the electricity net to the gas system, considering the fact that the Dutch gas network alone has a storage capacity of 552 TWh, sufficient to cover the entire EU energy demand for over a month. This lecture explores energy storage in chemicals bonds. The focus is on chemicals other than hydrogen, taking advantage of the higher volumetric energy density of hydrocarbons, in this case methane, which has an approximate 3.5 times higher volumetric energy density. More importantly, it allows the ready use of existing gas infrastructure for energy storage, transport and distribution. Intermittent wind electricity generated is converted into synthetic methane, the Power to Gas (P2G scheme, by splitting feedstock CO2 and H2O into synthesis gas, a mixture of CO and H2. Syngas plays a central role in the synthesis of a range of hydrocarbon products, including methane, diesel and dimethyl ether. The splitting is accomplished by innovative means; plasmolysis and high-temperature solid oxygen electrolysis. A CO2-neutral fuel

  3. CO2-neutral fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goede, A. P. H.

    2015-08-01

    The need for storage of renewable energy (RE) generated by photovoltaic, concentrated solar and wind arises from the fact that supply and demand are ill-matched both geographically and temporarily. This already causes problems of overcapacity and grid congestion in countries where the fraction of RE exceeds the 20% level. A system approach is needed, which focusses not only on the energy source, but includes conversion, storage, transport, distribution, use and, last but not least, the recycling of waste. Furthermore, there is a need for more flexibility in the energy system, rather than relying on electrification, integration with other energy systems, for example the gas network, would yield a system less vulnerable to failure and better adapted to requirements. For example, long-term large-scale storage of electrical energy is limited by capacity, yet needed to cover weekly to seasonal demand. This limitation can be overcome by coupling the electricity net to the gas system, considering the fact that the Dutch gas network alone has a storage capacity of 552 TWh, sufficient to cover the entire EU energy demand for over a month. This lecture explores energy storage in chemicals bonds. The focus is on chemicals other than hydrogen, taking advantage of the higher volumetric energy density of hydrocarbons, in this case methane, which has an approximate 3.5 times higher volumetric energy density. More importantly, it allows the ready use of existing gas infrastructure for energy storage, transport and distribution. Intermittent wind electricity generated is converted into synthetic methane, the Power to Gas (P2G) scheme, by splitting feedstock CO2 and H2O into synthesis gas, a mixture of CO and H2. Syngas plays a central role in the synthesis of a range of hydrocarbon products, including methane, diesel and dimethyl ether. The splitting is accomplished by innovative means; plasmolysis and high-temperature solid oxygen electrolysis. A CO2-neutral fuel cycle is

  4. Effectiveness of various methods of formaldehyde neutralization using monoethanolamine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coskey, Andrew; Gest, Thomas R

    2015-05-01

    Formaldehyde is the most commonly used fixative chemical for the preservation of human cadavers used for educational purposes in the United States. Formaldehyde is also a known carcinogenic agent whose exposure level is regulated by guidelines of the Occupational Safety and Health Administration. Various methods for formaldehyde neutralization exist, yet many donations programs do not take any steps to neutralize the formaldehyde in embalmed donor bodies. The effectiveness of monoethanolamine (MEA) in neutralizing formaldehyde is well documented when used as a final injection during embalming. The purpose of this study is to report the effectiveness of several post-embalming techniques of formaldehyde neutralization. Twenty-four donor bodies were assigned to four experimental groups of six. For the three experimental groups, the techniques tested involve delivery of a 20:1 dilution of deionized water:MEA via recannulization and gravity flow infusion, compartment injection, and alternate wetting solution containing four percent MEA. Our results indicated that spray bottle delivery was not effective in neutralization of formaldehyde compared to the control group, but that formaldehyde levels decreased when recannulization or compartment injection were used. The most effective method of formaldehyde neutralization was compartment injection of MEA solution (P < 0.01). The results of this study indicate that, in situations where MEA is not used as a final infusion during embalming, compartment injection of MEA solution is an effective method of formaldehyde neutralization. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. The effect of pH on the bioconcentration and toxicity of weak organic electrolytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rendal, Cecilie

    Many of the compounds in use today have ionizing properties. Investigations have shown that around half of the compounds preregistered for REACH and over 70% of all pharmaceuticals are ionizing organic compounds. These compounds may pose a risk when they are released into the environment....... Ionization, however, complicates the environmental risk assessment of these compounds because the uptake processes of the neutral fraction differ from the processes of the ionized fraction. Acids are increasingly neutral at pH levels below the pKa while bases are increasingly neutral at pH levels above the p......Ka. Because the neutral fraction is more lipophilic than the ionized fraction, ionizing organic compounds are often taken up more efficiently when they are present in the neutral form. Several studies have thus shown that acids are more toxic and more bioconcentrating at lower pH levels while bases are more...

  6. The 'pH optimum anomaly' of intracellular enzymes of Ferroplasma acidiphilum.

    OpenAIRE

    Golyshina, Olga V; Golyshin, Peter N.; Timmis, Kenneth N.; Ferrer, Manuel

    2006-01-01

    A wide range of microorganisms, the so-called acidophiles, inhabit acidic environments and grow optimally at pH values between 0 and 3. The intracellular pH of these organisms is, however, close to neutrality or slightly acidic. It is to be expected that enzymatic activities dedicated to extracellular functions would be adapted to the prevailing low pH of the environment (0-3), whereas intracellular enzymes would be optimally active at the near-neutral pH of the cytoplasm (4.6-7.0). The genes...

  7. A new approach to entangling neutral atoms.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jongmin [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Martin, Michael J. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Jau, Yuan-Yu [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Deutsch, Ivan H. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Biedermann, Grant W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Our team has developed a new approach to entangling neutral atoms with a Rydberg-dressed interaction. Entangling neutral atoms is an essential key of quantum technologies such as quantum computation, many-body quantum simulation, and high-precision atomic sensors . The demonstrated Rydberg-dressed protocol involves adiabatically imposing a light shift on the ground state by coupling an excited Rydberg state with a tuned laser field. Using this technique, we have demonstrated a strong and tunable dipole - dipole interaction between two individually trapped atoms with energy shifts of order 1 MHz, which has been challenging to achieve in other protocols . During this program, we experimentally demonstrated Bell-state entanglement and the isomorphism to the Jaynes - Cumming model of a Rydberg-dressed two-atom system. Our theoretical calculations of a CPHASE quantum logic gate and arbitrary Dicke state quantum control in this system encourage further work.

  8. Neutral evolution of mutational robustness.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nimwegen, E. van; Crutchfield, J.P.; Huynen, M.A.

    1999-01-01

    We introduce and analyze a general model of a population evolving over a network of selectively neutral genotypes. We show that the population's limit distribution on the neutral network is solely determined by the network topology and given by the principal eigenvector of the network's adjacency

  9. The merits of neutral theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alonso, David; Etienne, Rampal S.; McKane, Alan J.

    Hubbell's neutral theory of biodiversity has challenged the classic niche-based view of ecological community structure. Although there have been many attempts to falsify Hubbell's theory, we argue that falsification should not lead to rejection, because there is more to the theory than neutrality

  10. The merits of neutral theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alonso, D.; Etienne, R.S.; McKane, A.J.

    2006-01-01

    Hubbell's neutral theory of biodiversity has challenged the classic niche-based view of ecological community structure. Although there have been many attempts to falsify Hubbell's theory, we argue that falsification should not lead to rejection, because there is more to the theory than neutrality

  11. Net neutrality and audiovisual services

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, N.; Nikoltchev, S.

    2011-01-01

    Net neutrality is high on the European agenda. New regulations for the communication sector provide a legal framework for net neutrality and need to be implemented on both a European and a national level. The key element is not just about blocking or slowing down traffic across communication

  12. Prebiotic Peptide (Amide) Bond Synthesis Accelerated by Glycerol and Bicarbonate Under Neutral to Alkaline Dry-Down Conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forsythe, J. G.; Weber, A. L.

    2017-01-01

    Past studies of prebiotic peptide bond synthesis have generally been carried out in the acidic to neutral pH range [1, 2]. Here we report a new process for peptide bond (amide) synthesis in the neutral to alkaline pH range that involves simple dry-down heating of amino acids in the presence of glycerol and bicarbonate. Glycerol was included in the reaction mixture as a solvent and to provide hydroxyl groups for possible formation of ester intermediates previously implicated in peptide bond synthesis under acidic to neutral conditions [1]. Bicarbonate was added to raise the reaction pH to 8-9.

  13. Ranking REACH registered neutral, ionizable and ionic organic chemicals based on their aquatic persistency and mobility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arp, H P H; Brown, T N; Berger, U; Hale, S E

    2017-07-19

    The contaminants that have the greatest chances of appearing in drinking water are those that are mobile enough in the aquatic environment to enter drinking water sources and persistent enough to survive treatment processes. Herein a screening procedure to rank neutral, ionizable and ionic organic compounds for being persistent and mobile organic compounds (PMOCs) is presented and applied to the list of industrial substances registered under the EU REACH legislation as of December 2014. This comprised 5155 identifiable, unique organic structures. The minimum cut-off criteria considered for PMOC classification herein are a freshwater half-life >40 days, which is consistent with the REACH definition of freshwater persistency, and a log Doc organic carbon-water distribution coefficient). Experimental data were given the highest priority, followed by data from an array of available quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSARs), and as a third resort, an original Iterative Fragment Selection (IFS) QSAR. In total, 52% of the unique REACH structures made the minimum criteria to be considered a PMOC, and 21% achieved the highest PMOC ranking (half-life > 40 days, log Doc < 1.0 between pH 4-10). Only 9% of neutral substances received the highest PMOC ranking, compared to 30% of ionizable compounds and 44% of ionic compounds. Predicted hydrolysis products for all REACH parents (contributing 5043 additional structures) were found to have higher PMOC rankings than their parents, due to increased mobility but not persistence. The fewest experimental data available were for ionic compounds; therefore, their ranking is more uncertain than neutral and ionizable compounds. The most sensitive parameter for the PMOC ranking was freshwater persistency, which was also the parameter that QSARs performed the most poorly at predicting. Several prioritized drinking water contaminants in the EU and USA, and other contaminants of concern, were identified as PMOCs. This

  14. PH og modernismen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahnfeldt-Mollerup, Merete

    2012-01-01

    Artiklen kaster et kritisk blik på Poul Henningsens samfundsanalyse og dennes sammenhæng med hans design. PH ses i en bredere national og international sammenhæng. Diskussion af designmetoder, æstetik og Bauhaus.......Artiklen kaster et kritisk blik på Poul Henningsens samfundsanalyse og dennes sammenhæng med hans design. PH ses i en bredere national og international sammenhæng. Diskussion af designmetoder, æstetik og Bauhaus....

  15. Neutral point detection by satellites. [magnetospheric neutral sheets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schindler, K.; Ness, N. F.

    1974-01-01

    The concept of a neutral point depends on the physical phenomena described. The regions with B less than about 1 gamma detected by Schindler and Ness may be interpreted as neutral regions for the ion-tearing process. The assumption of the presence of a multiple neutral point structure (with temporal variations) is still the most promising interpretation of the Explorer 34 data. Alternatives suggested by Russell lead to difficulties. Nevertheless, the final answer can come only from multiple satellite systems. A 1-day displacement of the day count in the data discussed by Schindler and Ness is corrected.

  16. Use of steel slag to neutralize acid mine drainage (AMD in sulfidic material from a uranium mine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Camila Marcon de Carvalho Leite

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Acid Mine Drainage (AMD is one of the main environmental impacts caused by mining. Thus, innovative mitigation strategies should be exploited, to neutralize acidity and prevent mobilization of trace elements in AMD. The use of industrial byproducts has been considered an economically and environmentally effective alternative to remediate acid mine drainage. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the use of steel slag to mitigate acid mine drainage in a sulfidic material from a uranium mine, as an alternative to the use of limestone. Thus, increasing doses of two neutralizing agents were applied to a sulfidic material from the uranium mine Osamu Utsumi in Caldas, Minas Gerais State. A steel slag from the company ArcelorMittal Tubarão and a commercial limestone were used as neutralizing agents. The experiment was conducted in leaching columns, arranged in a completely randomized, [(2 x 3 + 1] factorial design, consisting of two neutralizing agents, three doses and one control, in three replications, totaling 21 experimental units. Electrical conductivity (EC, pH and the concentrations of Al, As, Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, S, Se, and Zn were evaluated in the leached solutions. The trace element concentration was evaluated by ICP-OES. Furthermore, the CO2 emission was measured at the top of the leaching columns by capturing in NaOH solution and titration with HCl, in the presence of BaCl2. An increase in the pH of the leachate was observed for both neutralizing agents, with slightly higher values for steel slag. The EC was lower at the higher lime dose at an early stage of the experiment, and CO2 emission was greater with the use of limestone compared to steel slag. A decrease in trace element mobilization in the presence of both neutralizing agents was also observed. Therefore, the results showed that the use of steel slag is a suitable alternative to mitigate AMD, with the advantage of reducing CO2 emissions to the atmosphere

  17. Neutral current induced neutrino oscillations in a supernova

    CERN Document Server

    Kusenko, A; Kusenko, Alexander; Segre, Gino

    1997-01-01

    Neutral currents induced matter oscillations of electroweak-active (anti-)neutrinos to sterile neutrinos can explain the observed motion of pulsars. In contrast to a recently proposed explanation of the pulsar birth velocities based on the electron to tau (muon) neutrino oscillations [hep-ph/9606428], the heaviest neutrino (either active or sterile) would have to have mass of order several keV.

  18. Spectrophotometric determination of yeast RNA with neutral red ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The interaction of neutral red (NR) with yeast RNA (yRNA) was studied by UV-Vis spectrophotometry to develop a simple spectrophotometric method for the determination yRNA. NR exhibited a maximum absorption peak at 528 nm in a Britton-Robinson (B-R) buffer solution of pH 4.0. After the addition of yRNA into NR ...

  19. Neutrality Versus Materiality: A Thermodynamic Theory of Neutral Surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rémi Tailleux

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a theory for constructing quasi-neutral density variables γ directly in thermodynamic space is formulated, which is based on minimising the absolute value of a purely thermodynamic quantity J n . Physically, J n has a dual dynamic/thermodynamic interpretation as the quantity controlling the energy cost of adiabatic and isohaline parcel exchanges on material surfaces, as well as the dependence of in-situ density on spiciness, in a description of water masses based on γ, spiciness and pressure. Mathematically, minimising | J n | in thermodynamic space is showed to be equivalent to maximising neutrality in physical space. The physics of epineutral dispersion is also reviewed and discussed. It is argued, in particular, that epineutral dispersion is best understood as the aggregate effect of many individual non-neutral stirring events (being understood here as adiabatic and isohaline events with non-zero buoyancy, so that it is only the net displacement aggregated over many events that is approximately neutral. This new view resolves an apparent paradox between the focus in neutral density theory on zero-buoyancy motions and the overwhelming evidence that lateral dispersion in the ocean is primarily caused by non-zero buoyancy processes such as tides, residual currents and sheared internal waves. The efficiency by which a physical process contributes to lateral dispersion can be characterised by its energy signature, with those processes releasing available potential energy (negative energy cost being more efficient than purely neutral processes with zero energy cost. The latter mechanism occurs in the wedge of instability, and its source of energy is the coupling between baroclinicity, thermobaricity, and density compensated temperature/salinity anomalies. Such a mechanism, which can only exist in a salty ocean, is speculated to be important for dissipating spiciness anomalies and neutral helicity. The paper also discusses potential

  20. Net Neutrality: Background and Issues

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gilroy, Angele A

    2006-01-01

    .... The move to place restrictions on the owners of the networks that compose and provide access to the Internet, to ensure equal access and nondiscriminatory treatment, is referred to as "net neutrality...

  1. Incomplete Neutralization and Deviation from Sigmoidal Neutralization Curves for HIV Broadly Neutralizing Monoclonal Antibodies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura E McCoy

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available The broadly neutralizing HIV monoclonal antibodies (bnMAbs PG9, PG16, PGT151, and PGT152 have been shown earlier to occasionally display an unusual virus neutralization profile with a non-sigmoidal slope and a plateau at <100% neutralization. In the current study, we were interested in determining the extent of non-sigmoidal slopes and plateaus at <100% for HIV bnMAbs more generally. Using both a 278 panel of pseudoviruses in a CD4 T-cell (U87.CCR5.CXCR4 assay and a panel of 117 viruses in the TZM-bl assay, we found that bnMAbs targeting many neutralizing epitopes of the spike had neutralization profiles for at least one virus that plateaued at <90%. Across both panels the bnMAbs targeting the V2 apex of Env and gp41 were most likely to show neutralization curves that plateaued <100%. Conversely, bnMAbs targeting the high-mannose patch epitopes were less likely to show such behavior. Two CD4 binding site (CD4bs Abs also showed this behavior relatively infrequently. The phenomenon of incomplete neutralization was also observed in a large peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC-grown molecular virus clone panel derived from patient viral swarms. In addition, five bnMAbs were compared against an 18-virus panel of molecular clones produced in 293T cells and PBMCs and assayed in TZM-bl cells. Examples of plateaus <90% were seen with both types of virus production with no consistent patterns observed. In conclusion, incomplete neutralization and non-sigmoidal neutralization curves are possible for all HIV bnMAbs against a wide range of viruses produced and assayed in both cell lines and primary cells with implications for the use of antibodies in therapy and as tools for vaccine design.

  2. Exercise and Pulmonary Hypertension (PH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PH Find a Doctor PH Care Centers PHA Classroom PHA Registry Insurance Guide Specialty Pharmacy Other Resources ... Forums PH Associations Worldwide Tom Lantos Awards Take Action ... Research PHA’s Research Program Named Research Grants Other Opportunities ...

  3. Weak neutral-current interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnett, R.M.

    1978-08-01

    The roles of each type of experiment in establishing uniquely the values of the the neutral-current couplings of u and d quarks are analyzed together with their implications for gauge models of the weak and electromagnetic interactions. An analysis of the neutral-current couplings of electrons and of the data based on the assumption that only one Z/sup 0/ boson exists is given. Also a model-independent analysis of parity violation experiments is discussed. 85 references. (JFP)

  4. The Economics of Net Neutrality

    OpenAIRE

    Hahn, Robert W.; Wallsten, Scott

    2006-01-01

    This essay examines the economics of "net neutrality" and broadband Internet access. We argue that mandating net neutrality would be likely to reduce economic welfare. Instead, the government should focus on creating competition in the broadband market by liberalizing more spectrum and reducing entry barriers created by certain local regulations. In cases where a broadband provider can exercise market power the government should use its antitrust enforcement authority to police anticompetitiv...

  5. Plant Habitat (PH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onate, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    The International Space Station (ISS) will soon have a platform for conducting fundamental research of Large Plants. Plant Habitat (PH) is designed to be a fully controllable environment for high-quality plant physiological research. PH will control light quality, level, and timing, temperature, CO2, relative humidity, and irrigation, while scrubbing ethylene. Additional capabilities include leaf temperature and root zone moisture and oxygen sensing. The light cap will have red (630 nm), blue (450 nm), green (525 nm), far red (730 nm) and broad spectrum white LEDs. There will be several internal cameras (visible and IR) to monitor and record plant growth and operations.

  6. Vendor neutral archive in PACS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tapesh Kumar Agarwal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available An archive is a location containing a collection of records, documents, or other materials of historical importance. An integral part of Picture Archiving and Communication System (PACS is archiving. When a hospital needs to migrate a PACS vendor, the complete earlier data need to be migrated in the format of the newly procured PACS. It is both time and money consuming. To address this issue, the new concept of vendor neutral archive (VNA has emerged. A VNA simply decouples the PACS and workstations at the archival layer. This is achieved by developing an application engine that receives, integrates, and transmits the data using the different syntax of a Digital Imaging and Communication in Medicine (DICOM format. Transferring the data belonging to the old PACS to a new one is performed by a process called migration of data. In VNA, a number of different data migration techniques are available to facilitate transfer from the old PACS to the new one, the choice depending on the speed of migration and the importance of data. The techniques include simple DICOM migration, prefetch-based DICOM migration, medium migration, and the expensive non-DICOM migration. "Vendor neutral" may not be a suitable term, and "architecture neutral," "PACS neutral," "content neutral," or "third-party neutral" are probably better and preferred terms. Notwithstanding this, the VNA acronym has come to stay in both the medical IT user terminology and in vendor nomenclature, and radiologists need to be aware of its impact in PACS across the globe.

  7. THE ROLE OF NEUTRALS IN H-MODE PEDESTAL FORMATION

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R.J. GROEBNER; M.A. MAHDAVI; A.W. LEONARD; T.H. OSBORNE; G.D. PORTER; R.J. COLCHIN; L.W.OWEN

    2001-11-01

    An analytic model, derived from coupled continuity equations for the electron and neutral deuterium densities, is consistent with many features of edge electron density profiles in the DIII-D tokamak. For an assumed constant particle diffusion coefficient, the model shows that particle transport and neutral fueling produce electron and neutral density profiles that have the same characteristic scale lengths at the plasma edge. For systematic variations of density in H-mode discharges, the model predicts that the width of the electron density transport barrier decreases and the maximum gradient increases, as observed in the experiments. The widths computed from the model agree quantitatively with the experimental widths for conditions in which the model is valid. These results support models of transport barrier formation in which the H-mode particle barrier is driven by the edge particle flux and the width of the barrier is approximately the neutral penetration length.

  8. The buffer effect in neutral electrolyte supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vindt, Steffen T.; Skou, Eivind M.

    2016-02-01

    The observation that double-layer capacitors based on neutral aqueous electrolytes can have significantly wider usable potential windows than those based on acidic or alkaline electrolytes is studied. This effect is explained by a local pH change taking place at the electrode surfaces, leading to a change in the redox potential of water in opposite directions on the two electrodes, resulting in the wider stability window. The magnitude of this effect is suggested to be dependent on the buffer capacity, rather than the intrinsic pH value of the electrolyte. This is confirmed by studying the impact of addition of a buffer to such systems. It is shown that a 56 % higher dynamic storage capacity may be achieved, simply by controlling the buffer capacity of the electrolyte. The model system used, is based on a well-known commercial activated carbon (NORIT™ A SUPRA) as the electrode material, aqueous potassium nitrate as the electrolyte and potassium phosphates as the buffer system.

  9. Properties of dental resins submitted to pH catalysed hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cilli, Renato; Pereira, Jose Carlos; Prakki, Anuradha

    2012-12-01

    This study evaluated the surface microhardness (SM) and roughness (SR) alterations of dental resins submitted to pH catalysed degradation regimens. Thirty discs of each TPH Spectrum (Dentsply), Z100 (3M-ESPE), or an unfilled experimental bis-GMA/TEGDMA resin were fabricated, totaling 90 specimens. Each specimen was polymerized for 40 s, finished, polished, and individually stored in deionized water at 37 °C for 7 days. Specimens were randomly assigned to the following pH solutions: 1.0, 6.9 or 13, and for SM or SR evaluations (n = 5). Baseline Knoop-hardness of each specimen was obtained by the arithmetic mean of five random micro-indentations. For SR, mean baseline values were obtained by five random surface tracings (R(a)). Specimens were then soaked in one of the following storage media at 37 °C: (1) 0.1 M, pH 1.0 HCl, (2) 0.1 N, pH 13.0 NaOCl, and (3) deionized water (pH 6.9). Solutions were replaced daily. Repeated SM and SR measurements were performed at the 3-, 7- and 14-day storage time intervals. For each test and resin, data were analysed by two-way ANOVA followed by Tukey's test (α = 0.05). There was significant decrease in SM and increase in SR values of composites after storage in alkaline medium. TPH and Z100 presented similar behaviour for SM and SR after immersion in the different media, whereas unfilled resin values showed no significant change. Hydrolytic degradation of resin composites seems to begin with the silanized inorganic particles and therefore depend on their composition. To accelerate composite hydrolysis and produce quick in vitro microstructural damage, alkaline medium appears to be more suitable than acidic medium. Contemporary resin composite properties seem to withstand neutral and acidic oral environments tolerably well. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. pH matters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Inaba, Masanori; Quinson, Jonathan; Arenz, Matthias

    2017-01-01

    to home-made catalysts does not lead to satisfying results, although reported work could be reproduced using commercial catalyst samples. It is demonstrated that the pH of the catalyst ink, which has not been addressed in previous TF-RDE studies, is an important parameter that needs to be carefully...

  11. pH Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lunelli, Bruno; Scagnolari, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    The exposition of the pervasive concept of pH, of its foundations and implementation as a meaningful quantitative measurement, in nonspecialist university texts is often not easy to follow because too many of its theoretical and operative underpinnings are neglected. To help the inquiring student we provide a concise introduction to the depth just…

  12. PH controller for aquarium

    OpenAIRE

    Dvořák, Jan

    2014-01-01

    Tato bakalářská práce je zaměřena na realizaci systému regulujícího hodnotu pH akvarijní vody dle zadaných parametrů. První a druhá kapitola obsahuje základní požadavky a možnosti řízení pH v akvarijní vodě. Jsou zde popsány hlavní metody měření pH, včetně řízení a regulace. Třetí kapitola bakalářské práce se zabývá návrhem systému pH regulátoru. Praktické řešení a programové vybavení bakalářské práce se nachází ve čtvrté a páté kapitole. V těchto kapitolách jsou popsány detaily hlavních blok...

  13. Light acclimation and pH perturbations affect photosynthetic performance in

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ihnken, S.; Beardall, J.; Kromkamp, J.C.; Gómez Serrano, C.; Torres, M.A.; Masojídek, J.; Malpartida, I.; Abdala, R.; Gil Jerez, C.; Malapascua, J.R.; Navarro, E.; Rico, R.M.; Peralta, E.; Ferreira Ezequil, J.P.; Lopez Figueroa, F

    2014-01-01

    Chlorella spp. are robust chlorophyte microalgal species frequently used in mass culture. The pH optimum for growth is close to neutrality; at this pH, theoretically little energy is required to maintain homeostasis. In the present study, we grew Chlorella fusca cells in an open, outdoor, thin-layer

  14. The Influence of pH on Prokaryotic Cell Size and Temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundararajan, D.; Gutierrez, F.; Heim, N. A.; Payne, J.

    2015-12-01

    The pH of a habitat is essential to an organism's growth and success in its environment. Although most organisms maintain a neutral internal pH, their environmental pH can vary greatly. However, little research has been done concerning an organism's environmental pH across a wide range of taxa. We studied pH tolerance in prokaryotes and its relationship with biovolume, taxonomic classification, and ideal temperature. We had three hypotheses: pH and temperature are not correlated; pH tolerance is similar within taxonomic groups; and extremophiles have small cell sizes. To test these hypotheses, we used pH, size, and taxonomic data from The Prokaryotes. We found that the mean optimum external pH was neutral for prokaryotes as a whole and when divided by domain, phylum, and class. Using ANOVA to test for pH within and among group variances, we found that variation of pH in domains, phyla, classes, and families was greater than between them. pH and size did not show much of a correlation, except that the largest and smallest sized prokaryotes had nearly neutral pH. This seems significant because extremophiles need to divert more of their energy from growth to maintain a neutral internal pH. Acidophiles showed a larger range of optimum pH values than alkaliphiles. A similar result was seen with the minimum and maximum pH values of acidophiles and alkaliphiles. While acidophiles were spread out and had some alkaline maximum values, alkaliphiles had smaller ranges, and unlike some acidophiles that had pH minimums close to zero, alkaliphile pH maximums did not go beyond a pH of 12. No statistically significant differences were found between sizes of acidophiles and alkaliphiles. However, optimum temperatures of acidophiles and alkaliphiles did have a statistically significant difference. pH and temperature had a negative correlation. Therefore, pH seems to have a correlation with cell size, temperature, and taxonomy to some extent.

  15. Observation of Iron Specific Interaction with a Charge Neutral Phospholipid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Wenjie; Zhang, Honghu; Feng, Shuren; San Emeterio, Josue; Kuzmenko, Ivan; Nilsen-Hamilton, Marit; Mallapragada, Surya; Vaknin, David

    2015-03-01

    Using surface sensitive X-ray scattering and spectroscopic techniques we show that phosphatidyl choline (PC) head groups attract positively charged iron ions and complexes even at pH values that are lower than 3. DPPC (1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine) is a zwitterionic lipid typically used as a model system for cell membranes. Within a large pH range (3 -11), it carries a negative charge on the phosphate group and a positive charge on the quaternary ammonium cation, thus appears charge neutral. Further lowering the pH, i.e. adding a proton to the phosphate group, results in a positively charged headgroup. Surprisingly, we detect significant enrichment of iron at the interface of the DPPC monolayer and the aqueous subphase with the pH maintained at 3 or even lower. With a supposedly charge neutral or even positive surface, the observation of surface bound, charge positive iron ions or iron hydroxides is counter-intuitive and suggests iron-specific interaction with the phospholipid headgroup, which is not governed by electrostatic interaction. The effect of the integration of Mms6, a membrane protein that promotes the formation of magnetic nanocrystals, into the DPPC monolayer will also be discussed. Research supported by the U.S. Department of Energy under Contract No. DE-AC02-07CH11358 and DE-AC02-06CH11357.

  16. Neutral gas depletion in low temperature plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fruchtman, A.

    2017-11-01

    Neutral depletion can significantly affect the steady state of low temperature plasmas. Processes that lead to neutral depletion and the resulting plasma–neutrals steady state are reviewed. Two such processes are due to collisions of neutrals with plasma. One process is the drag by ions that collide with neutrals and push them towards the wall. Another process is neutral-gas heating by collisions with plasma that makes the gas hotter at the discharge center. These processes, which usually occur under (static) pressure balance between plasma and neutrals, are called here ‘neutral pumping’. When collisions are negligible, neutrals that move ballistically between the chamber walls are depleted through ionization, a process called here ‘ion pumping’. The effect of the magnetic field on neutral depletion is explored in plasma in which the dynamics is governed by cross-field diffusion. Finally, neutral depletion in a flowing plasma is analyzed.

  17. Characterization of Neutral Radicals from a Dissociative Electron Attachment Process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhou; Milosavljević, Aleksandar R.; Carmichael, Ian; Ptasinska, Sylwia

    2017-08-01

    Despite decades of gas-phase studies on dissociative electron attachment (DEA) to various molecules, as yet there has been no direct detection and characterization of the neutral radical species produced by this process. In this study, we performed stepwise electron spectroscopy to directly measure and characterize the neutrals produced upon zero-electron-energy DEA to the model molecule, carbon tetrachloride (CCl4 ). We observed the direct yield of the trichloromethyl radical (CCl3. ) formed by DEA to CCl4 and measured the appearance energies of all the other neutral species. By combining these experimental findings with high-level quantum chemical calculations, we performed a complete analysis of both the DEA to CCl4 and the subsequent electron-impact ionization of CCl3. . This work paves the way toward a complete experimental characterization of DEA processes, which will lead to a better understanding of the low-energy electron-induced formation of radical species.

  18. {sup 6}Co aqueous speciation and pH effect on the adsorption behavior on inorganic materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Granados, F. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A. P. 18-1027, Col. Escandon, Delegacion Miguel Hidalgo, C. P. 11801, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco No. 186, A. P. 55-532, C. P. 09340, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Bertin, V. [Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana Iztapalapa, Av. San Rafael Atlixco No. 186, A. P. 55-532, C. P. 09340, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico); Bulbulian, S. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A. P. 18-1027, Col. Escandon, Delegacion Miguel Hidalgo, C. P. 11801, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)]. E-mail: sb@nuclear.inin.mx; Solache-Rios, M. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, A. P. 18-1027, Col. Escandon, Delegacion Miguel Hidalgo, C. P. 11801, Mexico, D.F. (Mexico)

    2006-03-15

    The adsorption of radioactive cobalt from aqueous solution on MgO, MnO{sub 2}, TiO{sub 2}, SnO, activated carbon and calcined hydrotalcite was studied under static conditions as a function of pH (1, 3, 5, 7, and 10) of the {sup 6}Co solution. It was found that under the experimental conditions, {sup 6}Co was significantly adsorbed on MnO{sub 2}, TiO{sub 2} and activated carbon and in smaller quantities on MgO, SnO and calcined hydrotalcite. The adsorption of {sup 6}Co species on MgO, MnO{sub 2}, TiO{sub 2} and SnO can be attributed to the direct exchange of ions with a specific group on the adsorbing surface, in accordance with the concept of zero point charge (zpc). The radionuclide content was determined by gamma-spectrometry. The {sup 6}Co chemical species present in aqueous solutions with different pH values were surveyed by using high-voltage electrophoresis. It was also found that {sup 6}Co was present only as a cationic species at pH 1, 3, 5 and 7 and a neutral species at alkaline pH.

  19. Charged current unitarity and extra neutral gauge bosons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marciano, W.J.; Sirling, A.

    1987-03-01

    The experimental status of the Kobayashi-Maskawa-Cabibbo (KMC) matrix is surveyed and shown to provide a precision test of the standard model at the level of its O(..cap alpha..) radiative corrections. Implications for new physics and constraints of extra neutral gauge bosons are described. 12 refs., 1 fig.

  20. Violation of Bell's inequality in neutral kaons system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    We show by general considerations that it is not possible to test violation of the existing versions of Bell's inequality in entangled neutral kaons system using experimentally accessible thin regenerators. We point out the loophole in the recent argument (A Bramon and M Nowakowski, Phys. Rev. Lett. 83, 1 (1999)) that ...

  1. Search for flavour-changing neutral currents with top quarks

    CERN Document Server

    Skovpen, Kirill

    2017-01-01

    Flavour-changing neutral currents are extremely rare processes in the standard model that can be sensitive to various new physics effects. A summary of the latest experimental results from the LHC experiments is given. Preliminary results of sensitivity studies for future colliders are also discussed.

  2. Optical Neutrality: Invisibility without Cloaking

    OpenAIRE

    Hodges, Reed; Dean, Cleon; Durach, Maxim

    2016-01-01

    We show that it is possible to design an invisible wavelength-sized metal-dielectric metamaterial object without evoking cloaking. Our approach is an extension of the neutral inclusion concept by Zhou and Hu [Phys.Rev.E 74, 026607 (2006)] to Mie scatterers. We demonstrate that an increase of metal fraction in the metamaterial leads to a transition from dielectric-like to metal-like scattering, which proceeds through invisibility or optical neutrality of the scatterer. Formally this is due to ...

  3. Mediated electrochemical oxidation of organic wastes using a Co(III) mediator in a neutral electrolyte

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balazs, G. Bryan; Lewis, Patricia R.

    1999-01-01

    An electrochemical cell with a Co(III) mediator and neutral pH anolyte provides efficient destruction of organic and mixed wastes. The organic waste is concentrated in the anolyte reservoir, where the cobalt mediator oxidizes the organics and insoluble radioactive species and is regenerated at the anode until all organics are converted to carbon dioxide and destroyed. The neutral electrolyte is non-corrosive, and thus extends the lifetime of the cell and its components.

  4. Fulvic acids concentration and pH influence on the stability of hematite nanoparticles in aquatic systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palomino, Daniel; Stoll, Serge

    2013-02-01

    In aquatic systems, fulvic acids (FAs) are expected to play key roles on the stability and aggregation behavior of manufactured nanoparticles (NPs). The exact conditions under which aggregation or dispersion occurs will depend on the nanoparticle surface charge properties, FAs concentration as well as solution conditions, such as pH and ionic strength. The systematic calculation of stability (aggregation versus disaggregation) diagrams is therefore a key aspect in the prediction of the environmental fate and behavior of manufactured nanoparticles in aquatic systems. In this study, the responses to changes in pH and FAs concentrations on the resulting surface charge of purified iron oxide nanoparticles (53 nm nominal diameter) is investigated. By adjusting the pH, different nanoparticle surface charge electrostatic regions are found, corresponding to positively, neutral, and negatively charged nanoparticle solutions. For each situation, the adsorption of negatively charged FAs at variable concentrations is considered by analyzing surface charge modifications and calculating experimental kinetics aggregation rates. Results show that, under the conditions used, and range of FAs environmental relevant conditions, the nanoparticle aggregation process is promoted only when the nanoparticle positive surface charge (solution pH less than the charge neutralization point) is compensated by the adsorption of FAs. In all the other cases, FAs adsorption and increase of FAs concentration are expected to promote not only the NPs stabilization but also the disaggregation of NPs aggregates. In addition, our study suggest that very low concentrations of FAs >0.1 mg/l are sufficient to rapidly stabilize iron hydroxide NPs solutions at concentration <5 mg/l.

  5. Fulvic acids concentration and pH influence on the stability of hematite nanoparticles in aquatic systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Palomino, Daniel; Stoll, Serge, E-mail: serge.stoll@unige.ch [University of Geneva, Group of Environmental Physical Chemistry, F.-A. Forel Institute (Switzerland)

    2013-02-15

    In aquatic systems, fulvic acids (FAs) are expected to play key roles on the stability and aggregation behavior of manufactured nanoparticles (NPs). The exact conditions under which aggregation or dispersion occurs will depend on the nanoparticle surface charge properties, FAs concentration as well as solution conditions, such as pH and ionic strength. The systematic calculation of stability (aggregation versus disaggregation) diagrams is therefore a key aspect in the prediction of the environmental fate and behavior of manufactured nanoparticles in aquatic systems. In this study, the responses to changes in pH and FAs concentrations on the resulting surface charge of purified iron oxide nanoparticles (53 nm nominal diameter) is investigated. By adjusting the pH, different nanoparticle surface charge electrostatic regions are found, corresponding to positively, neutral, and negatively charged nanoparticle solutions. For each situation, the adsorption of negatively charged FAs at variable concentrations is considered by analyzing surface charge modifications and calculating experimental kinetics aggregation rates. Results show that, under the conditions used, and range of FAs environmental relevant conditions, the nanoparticle aggregation process is promoted only when the nanoparticle positive surface charge (solution pH less than the charge neutralization point) is compensated by the adsorption of FAs. In all the other cases, FAs adsorption and increase of FAs concentration are expected to promote not only the NPs stabilization but also the disaggregation of NPs aggregates. In addition, our study suggest that very low concentrations of FAs >0.1 mg/l are sufficient to rapidly stabilize iron hydroxide NPs solutions at concentration <5 mg/l.

  6. Charge-leveling and proper treatment of long-range electrostatics in all-atom molecular dynamics at constant pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wallace, Jason A; Shen, Jana K

    2012-11-14

    Recent development of constant pH molecular dynamics (CpHMD) methods has offered promise for adding pH-stat in molecular dynamics simulations. However, until now the working pH molecular dynamics (pHMD) implementations are dependent in part or whole on implicit-solvent models. Here we show that proper treatment of long-range electrostatics and maintaining charge neutrality of the system are critical for extending the continuous pHMD framework to the all-atom representation. The former is achieved here by adding forces to titration coordinates due to long-range electrostatics based on the generalized reaction field method, while the latter is made possible by a charge-leveling technique that couples proton titration with simultaneous ionization or neutralization of a co-ion in solution. We test the new method using the pH-replica-exchange CpHMD simulations of a series of aliphatic dicarboxylic acids with varying carbon chain length. The average absolute deviation from the experimental pK(a) values is merely 0.18 units. The results show that accounting for the forces due to extended electrostatics removes the large random noise in propagating titration coordinates, while maintaining charge neutrality of the system improves the accuracy in the calculated electrostatic interaction between ionizable sites. Thus, we believe that the way is paved for realizing pH-controlled all-atom molecular dynamics in the near future.

  7. Neutral particle dynamics in the Alcator C-Mod tokamak

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Niemczewski, Artur P. [Massachusetts Inst. of Technology (MIT), Cambridge, MA (United States)

    1995-08-01

    This thesis presents an experimental study of neutral particle dynamics in the Alcator C-Mod tokamak. The primary diagnostic used is a set of six neutral pressure gauges, including special-purpose gauges built for in situ tokamak operation. While a low main chamber neutral pressure coincides with high plasma confinement regimes, high divertor pressure is required for heat and particle flux dispersion in future devices such as ITER. Thus we examine conditions that optimize divertor compression, defined here as a divertor-to-midplane pressure ratio. We find both pressures depend primarily on the edge plasma regimes defined by the scrape-off-layer heat transport. While the maximum divertor pressure is achieved at high core plasma densities corresponding to the detached divertor state, the maximum compression is achieved in the high-recycling regime. Variations in the divertor geometry have a weaker effect on the neutral pressures. For otherwise similar plasmas the divertor pressure and compression are maximum when the strike point is at the bottom of the vertical target plate. We introduce a simple flux balance model, which allows us to explain the divertor neutral pressure across a wide range of plasma densities. In particular, high pressure sustained in the detached divertor (despite a considerable drop in the recycling source) can be explained by scattering of neutrals off the cold plasma plugging the divertor throat. Because neutrals are confined in the divertor through scattering and ionization processes (provided the mean-free-paths are much shorter than a typical escape distance) tight mechanical baffling is unnecessary. The analysis suggests that two simple structural modifications may increase the divertor compression in Alcator C-Mod by a factor of about 5. Widening the divertor throat would increase the divertor recycling source, while closing leaks in the divertor structure would eliminate a significant neutral loss mechanism.

  8. Dynamics of Ion Beam Charge Neutralization by Ferroelectric Plasma Sources

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stepanov, Anton D.; Gilson, Erik P.; Grisham, Larry R.; Kaganovich, Igor D.; Davidson, Ronald C.; Ji, Qing; Persaud, Arun; Seidl, Peter A.; Schenkel, Thomas

    2016-10-01

    Ferroelectric Plasma Sources (FEPSs) can generate plasma that provides effective space-charge neutralization of intense high-perveance ion beams. Here we present experimental results on charge neutralization of a high-perveance 38 keV Ar+ beam by a FEPS plasma. By comparing the measured beam radius with the envelope model for space-charge expansion, it is shown that a charge neutralization fraction of 98% is attainable. The transverse electrostatic potential of the ion beam is reduced from 15 V before neutralization to 0.3 V, implying that the energy of the neutralizing electrons is below 0.3 eV. Near-complete charge neutralization is established 5 μs after the driving pulse is applied to the FEPS, and can last for 35 μs. It is argued that the duration of neutralization is much longer than a reasonable lifetime of the plasma produced in the sub- μs surface discharge. Measurements of current flow in the driving circuit of the FEPS suggest that plasma can be generated for tens of μs after the high voltage pulse is applied. This is confirmed by fast photography of the plasma in the 1-meter long FEPS on NDCX-II, where effective charge neutralization of the beam was achieved with the optimized FEPS timing. This work was supported by the Office of Science of the US Department of Energy under contracts DE-AC0209CH11466 (PPPL) and DE-AC0205CH11231 (LBNL).

  9. Quantum Mechanics with Neutral Kaons

    OpenAIRE

    Bramon, A.; Garbarino, G.; Hiesmayr, B. C.

    2007-01-01

    We briefly illustrate a few tests of quantum mechanics which can be performed with entangled neutral kaon pairs at a Phi-factory. This includes a quantitative formulation of Bohr's complementarity principle, the quantum eraser phenomenon and various forms of Bell inequalities.

  10. Net Neutrality in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Eijk, N.

    2014-01-01

    The Netherlands is among the first countries that have put specific net neutrality standards in place. The decision to implement specific regulation was influenced by at least three factors. The first was the prevailing social and academic debate, partly due to developments in the United States. The

  11. Capillary electrophoretic analysis of neutral carbohydrates using ionic liquids as background electrolytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaher, Merike; Koel, Mihkel; Kazarjan, Jana; Kaljurand, Mihkel

    2011-04-01

    In this study, ionic liquids (ILs) as BGE additives were applied for the analysis of neutral carbohydrates in CE. The ILs served primarily as chromophores for indirect UV detection. The influence of imidazolium-based ionic liquids on the separation, detection limits and mobility of underivatized neutral carbohydrates was investigated. BGEs consisting of 10-50  mM of ILs at pH 12.4 without other additives provided fast separation of neutral sugars. This method was used to determine sucrose, glucose and fructose in certain vegetable juices. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  12. PhD Dissertations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redazione Reti Medievali (a cura di

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Report of PhD Dissertations. Gianmarco Cossandi Gli statuti di Novara nel XIV secolo. Studio ed edizione della legislazione di Giovanni e di Galeazzo II Visconti, tesi di dottorato in Storia medievale (XVII ciclo, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore di Milano, 2006   Anna Elisa Carrisi Ostuni nel XV secolo. Istituzioni e società, Tesi di dottorato in Il Mezzogiorno tra Europa e Mediterraneo: territorio, istituzione e società del medioevo all’età contemporanea (XX ciclo, Università del Salento, 2008

  13. Laboratory simulation of cometary neutral gas ionization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Tsuey-Fen; Rahman, H. U.; White, R. S.

    1989-01-01

    The laboratory simulation of the interaction of the solar wind with a comet is used to study the cometary neural gas ionization. The experiment is carried out in the UCR T-1 facility with an ice ball as the comet model. Photographs and data are taken with a variety of values of the solar wind velocity, interplanetary magnetic field (IMF), and comet configurations. The results show that the cometary neutral gas ionization depends on both the velocity of the solar wind and the interplanetary magnetic field. The plasma cloud surrounding the comet is visible only when the solar wind velocity and IMF are both above certain minimum values. This velocity dependent phenomena is explained by Alfven's critical ionization velocity effect. The critical magnetic field may be explained by assuming two stream lower hybrid instability as a triggering mechanism for the ionization of the neutral gas by plasma flow. Critical upper and lower limits for the magnetic field, required by anomalous ionization, are also derived that satisfy the experimental observations.

  14. Membrane docking geometry of GRP1 PH domain bound to a target lipid bilayer: an EPR site-directed spin-labeling and relaxation study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huai-Chun Chen

    Full Text Available The second messenger lipid PIP(3 (phosphatidylinositol-3,4,5-trisphosphate is generated by the lipid kinase PI3K (phosphoinositide-3-kinase in the inner leaflet of the plasma membrane, where it regulates a broad array of cell processes by recruiting multiple signaling proteins containing PIP(3-specific pleckstrin homology (PH domains to the membrane surface. Despite the broad importance of PIP(3-specific PH domains, the membrane docking geometry of a PH domain bound to its target PIP(3 lipid on a bilayer surface has not yet been experimentally determined. The present study employs EPR site-directed spin labeling and relaxation methods to elucidate the membrane docking geometry of GRP1 PH domain bound to bilayer-embedded PIP(3. The model target bilayer contains the neutral background lipid PC and both essential targeting lipids: (i PIP(3 target lipid that provides specificity and affinity, and (ii PS facilitator lipid that enhances the PIP(3 on-rate via an electrostatic search mechanism. The EPR approach measures membrane depth parameters for 18 function-retaining spin labels coupled to the PH domain, and for calibration spin labels coupled to phospholipids. The resulting depth parameters, together with the known high resolution structure of the co-complex between GRP1 PH domain and the PIP(3 headgroup, provide sufficient constraints to define an optimized, self-consistent membrane docking geometry. In this optimized geometry the PH domain engulfs the PIP(3 headgroup with minimal bilayer penetration, yielding the shallowest membrane position yet described for a lipid binding domain. This binding interaction displaces the PIP(3 headgroup from its lowest energy position and orientation in the bilayer, but the headgroup remains within its energetically accessible depth and angular ranges. Finally, the optimized docking geometry explains previous biophysical findings including mutations observed to disrupt membrane binding, and the rapid lateral

  15. Effect of pH on the precipitation of synthetic CaCO3 polymorphs and determination of Mg/Ca ratios in synthetic low-magnesium calcite: An experimental investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabitov, R. I.; Weremeichik, J. M.; Novak, A.; Sadekov, A.; Thirumalai, R. V. K. G.

    2016-02-01

    The intent of the work presented is to determine the effect which the Mg/Ca ratio in fluid has on the Mg partition coefficient (KMg) between synthetically precipitated low-magnesium calcite and solution. In nature, planktonic foraminifera produce low-magnesium calcite with distinct Mg/Ca that is typically found to be within the range of 1.4 to 10 mmol/mol (e.g. Regenberg et al., 2009; Sadekov et al., 2009). Our intent was to replicate Mg/Ca found in foraminifera by conducting experiments where low-Mg calcite was grown inorganically at a near-constant salinity and temperature. Synthetic low-Mg calcite was precipitated using a continuous pumping method whereby NaHCO3 and Mg-doped CaCl2 solutions were pumped into a NaCl solution. Continuous pumping allows for delivery of solutions to a reaction vessel at a constant rate while simultaneously maintaining fluid volume by removing fluid at a constant rate equal to the delivery rate. In order to vary the Mg/Ca ratio while keeping salinity near-constant, magnesium and calcium molar concentrations were varied but the sum of the concentrations was kept equal to the concentration of NaHCO3 or Na2CO3. Optical microscopy analysis of samples showed that the use of Na2CO3 as the carbonate ion source in experiments precipitated predominately aragonite with needle-like crystals whereas use of NaHCO3 yielded calcite with rhombohedral crystals. Powder XRD analysis of a sample collected from one of the Na2CO3 experiments confirmed that the dominant CaCO3 polymorph precipitated was aragonite. This suggests that aragonite is being produced at higher pH values using Na2CO3 and calcite is being produced at lower values of pH using NaHCO3. We intend use XRD, AAS, and ICP-MS to confirm that rhombohedral crystals are calcite and determine Mg/Ca of fluid and those crystals. ReferencesRegenberg et al. (2009) Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 278, doi: 10.1016/j.epsl.2008.12.019. Sadekov et al. (2009) Paleoceanography, 24, doi: 10.1029/2008PA001664.

  16. Assessment of acid neutralizing capacity in cola-based drinks and energy beverages by artificial saliva.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Felix, Kariny Ramos; Bressan, Maria Claudia; Kanis, Luiz Alberto; de Oliveira, Marcelo Tomas

    2013-07-01

    To assess the pH of regular and light cola-based drinks and energy drinks, and examine the acid neutralizing capacity by the addition of artificial saliva. Ten packages of each product purchased locally at different stores were evaluated. The pH was measured by a pH-electrode calibrated in standard buffer solutions. To assess the pH neutralizing capacity, 1 ml/min of artificial saliva was added until a pH of 5.5 set as a cutoff point was reached in the tested solution. The data were subjected to analysis of variance (ANOVA), at the 0.05 significance level. The surveyed beverages had an initial acidic pH, ranging between 2.3 and 3.4. The average amount of saliva required to raise the pH of the cola-based drinks above 5.5 ranged between 6.0 and 6.8 ml. Energy drinks used volumes between 11.3 and 12.5 ml; however, it was not possible to achieve a pH of 5.5. According to the methodology used, it was concluded that: (1) All beverages analyzed showed an initial acidic pH. (2) There was no statistical difference between the initial pH level and acid neutralization by the addition of artificial saliva in both regular and light drinks. It was not possible to reach the appropriate pH, set as the cutoff point, for the energy drinks.

  17. On the role of neutral particles on edge turbulence and electric fields in the ATF torsatron

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hidalgo, C.; Branas, B. [Centro de Investigaciones Energeticas, Medioambientales y Tecnologicas (CIEMAT), Madrid (Spain); Uckan, T.; Harris, J.H.; Isler, R. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Ritz, Ch.P.; Wootton, A. [Texas Univ., Austin, TX (United States). Fusion Research Center

    1993-12-31

    Turbulence driven by neutral particles and radiative instabilities has been considered one of the dominant processes to partially account for the observed edge turbulence characteristics. The possible role of neutrals in determining confinement has also been discussed. Neutrals can affect directly the ionization and the charge exchange sources. Ionization effects have been theoretically considered as a possible driving mechanism of edge fluctuations. At the lowest temperatures (< 10 eV) charge exchange is much more probable than ionization mechanisms. In this paper we report experimental evidence of edge turbulence and edge electric fields modified by the presence of neutrals. (author) 11 refs., 4 figs.

  18. Electroacoustic isoelectric point determinations of bauxite refinery residues: different neutralization techniques and minor mineral effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire, Tiago S S; Clark, Malcolm W; Comarmond, M Josick; Payne, Timothy E; Reichelt-Brushett, Amanda J; Thorogood, Gordon J

    2012-08-14

    Bauxite refinery residue (BRR) is a highly caustic, iron hydroxide-rich byproduct from alumina production. Some chemical treatments of BRR reduce soluble alkalinity and lower residue pH (to values <10) and generate a modified BRR (MBRR). MBRR has excellent acid neutralizing (ANC) and trace-metal adsorption capacities, making it particularly useful in environmental remediation. However, soluble ANC makes standard acid-base isoelectric point (IEP) determination difficult. Consequently, the IEP of a BRR and five MBRR derivatives (sulfuric acid-, carbon dioxide-, seawater-, a hybrid neutralization, i.e, partial CO(2) neutralization followed by seawater, and an activated-seawater-neutralized MBRR) were determined using electroacoustic techniques. Residues showed three significantly different groups of IEPs (p < 0.05) based around the neutralization used. Where the primary mineral assemblage is effectively unchanged, the IEPs were not significantly different from BRR (pH 6.6-6.9). However, neutralizations generating neoformational minerals (alkalinity precipitation) significantly increased the IEP to pH 8.1, whereas activation (a removal of some primary mineralogy) significantly lowered the IEP to pH 6.2. Moreover, surface charging curves show that surfaces remain in the ±30 mV surface charge instability range, which provides an explanation as to why MBRRs remove trace metals and oxyanions over a broad pH range, often simultaneously. Importantly, this work shows that minor mineral components in complex mineral systems may have a disproportionate effect on the observable bulk IEP. Furthermore, this work shows the appropriateness of electroacoustic techniques in investigating samples with significant soluble mineral components (e.g., ANC).

  19. No nitrification in lakes below pH 3.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeschke, Christina; Falagán, Carmen; Knöller, Kay; Schultze, Martin; Koschorreck, Matthias

    2013-12-17

    Lakes affected by acid mine drainage (AMD) or acid rain often contain elevated concentrations of ammonium, which threatens water quality. It is commonly assumed that this is due to the inhibition of microbial nitrification in acidic water, but nitrification was never directly measured in mine pit lakes. For the first time, we measured nitrification by (15)NH4Cl isotope tracer addition in acidic as well as neutral mine pit lakes in Spain and Germany. Nitrification activity was only detected in neutral lakes. In acidic lakes no conversion of (15)NH4(+) to (15)NO3(-) was observed. This was true both for the water column as well as for biofilms on the surface of macrophytes or dead wood and the oxic surface layer of the sediment. Stable isotope analysis of nitrate showed (18)O values typical for nitrification only in neutral lakes. In a comparison of NH4(+) concentrations in 297 surface waters with different pH, ammonium concentrations higher 10 mg NH4-N L(-1) were only observed in lakes below pH 3. On the basis of the results from stable isotope investigations and the examination of a metadata set we conclude that the lower limit for nitrification in lakes is around pH 3.

  20. Optical neutrality: invisibility without cloaking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hodges, Reed; Dean, Cleon; Durach, Maxim

    2017-02-15

    We show that it is possible to design an invisible wavelength-sized metal-dielectric metamaterial object without evoking cloaking. Our approach is an extension of the neutral inclusion concept by Zhou and Hu [Phys. Rev. E74, 026607 (2006)PLEEE81063-651X10.1103/PhysRevE.74.026607] to Mie scatterers. We demonstrate that an increase of metal fraction in the metamaterial leads to a transition from dielectric-like to metal-like scattering, which proceeds through invisibility or optical neutrality of the scatterer. Formally this is due to cancellation of multiple scattering orders, similarly to plasmonic cloaking introduced by Alù and Engheta [Phys. Rev. E72, 016623 (2005)PLEEE81063-651X10.1103/PhysRevE.72.016623], but without introduction of the separation of the scatterer into cloak and hidden regions.

  1. Neutral atom traps of radioactives

    CERN Document Server

    Behr, J A

    2003-01-01

    Neutral atoms trapped with modern laser cooling techniques offer the promise of improving several broad classes of experiments with radioactive isotopes. In nuclear beta decay, neutrino spectroscopy from beta-recoil coincidences, along with highly polarized samples, enable experiments to search for non-Standard Model interactions, test whether parity symmetry is maximally violated, and search for new sources of time reversal violation. Ongoing efforts at TRIUMF, Los Alamos and Berkeley will be highlighted. The traps also offer bright sources for Doppler-free spectroscopy, particularly in high-Z atoms where precision measurements could measure the strength of weak neutral nucleon-nucleon and electron-nucleon interactions. Physics with francium atoms has been vigorously pursued at Stony Brook. Several facilities plan work with radioactive atom traps; concrete plans and efforts at KVI Groningen and Legnaro will be among those summarized. Contributions to the multidisciplinary field of trace analysis will be left...

  2. Radiative lifetimes of neutral gadolinium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den Hartog, E A; Bilty, K A; Lawler, J E, E-mail: eadenhar@wisc.edu, E-mail: biltyka@uwec.edu, E-mail: jelawler@wisc.edu [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, 1150 University Ave, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2011-03-14

    The current work is part of an ongoing study of radiative properties of rare earth neutral atoms motivated by research needs in several disparate fields including astrophysics, laser chemistry and lighting technology. Time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence on a slow atomic beam has been used to measure radiative lifetimes, accurate to {+-}5%, for 136 levels of neutral gadolinium. Of the 136 levels, 6 are odd parity ranging in energy from 32 929 to 36 654 cm{sup -1}, and the remaining 130 are even parity ranging from 17 750 to 34 175 cm{sup -1}. This set of Gd i lifetimes represents a significant extension to the available published data, with 93 of the 136 level lifetimes measured for the first time. These lifetimes will provide the absolute normalization for a large set of measured Gd i transition probabilities.

  3. Neutrality and the social contract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ian J. Carroll

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Given the fact of moral disagreement, theories of state neutrality which rely on moral premises will have limited application, in that they will fail to motivate anyone who rejects the moral premises on which they are based. By contrast, contractarian theories can be consistent with moral scepticism, and can therefore avoid this limitation. In this paper, I construct a contractarian model which I claim is sceptically consistent and includes a principle of state neutrality as a necessary condition. The principle of neutrality which I derive incorporates two conceptions of neutrality (consequential neutrality and justificatory neutrality which have usually been thought of as distinct and incompatible. I argue that contractarianism gives us a unified account of these conceptions. Ultimately, the conclusion that neutrality can be derived without violating the constraint established by moral scepticism turns out to rely on an assumption of equal precontractual bargaining power. I do not attempt to defend this assumption here. If the assumption cannot be defended in a sceptically consistent fashion, then the argument for neutrality given here is claimed to be morally minimal, rather than fully consistent with moral scepticism. L’existence d’un désaccord sur les questions morales fait en sorte que les constructions théoriques de la neutralité de l’État se fondant sur des prémisses morales ne peuvent avoir qu’une application limitée, car elles échouent à motiver quiconque rejette ces prémisses fondatrices. Par opposition, les théories contractualistes peuvent s’accommoder d’un scepticisme moral et peuvent donc éviter cette limitation. Cet article développe un modèle contractualiste compatible avec le scepticisme et qui inclut comme condition nécessaire la neutralité de l’État. Le principe de neutralité que je dérive à partir de ce modèle incorpore deux conceptions de la neutralité, soit la neutralité des cons

  4. The neutral theory of molecular evolution in the genomic era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nei, Masatoshi; Suzuki, Yoshiyuki; Nozawa, Masafumi

    2010-01-01

    The neutral theory of molecular evolution has been widely accepted and is the guiding principle for studying evolutionary genomics and the molecular basis of phenotypic evolution. Recent data on genomic evolution are generally consistent with the neutral theory. However, many recently published papers claim the detection of positive Darwinian selection via the use of new statistical methods. Examination of these methods has shown that their theoretical bases are not well established and often result in high rates of false-positive and false-negative results. When the deficiencies of these statistical methods are rectified, the results become largely consistent with the neutral theory. At present, genome-wide analyses of natural selection consist of collections of single-locus analyses. However, because phenotypic evolution is controlled by the interaction of many genes, the study of natural selection ought to take such interactions into account. Experimental studies of evolution will also be crucial.

  5. Optimization of Neutral Atom Imagers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shappirio, M.; Coplan, M.; Balsamo, E.; Chornay, D.; Collier, M.; Hughes, P.; Keller, J.; Ogilvie, K.; Williams, E.

    2008-01-01

    The interactions between plasma structures and neutral atom populations in interplanetary space can be effectively studied with energetic neutral atom imagers. For neutral atoms with energies less than 1 keV, the most efficient detection method that preserves direction and energy information is conversion to negative ions on surfaces. We have examined a variety of surface materials and conversion geometries in order to identify the factors that determine conversion efficiency. For chemically and physically stable surfaces smoothness is of primary importance while properties such as work function have no obvious correlation to conversion efficiency. For the noble metals, tungsten, silicon, and graphite with comparable smoothness, conversion efficiency varies by a factor of two to three. We have also examined the way in which surface conversion efficiency varies with the angle of incidence of the neutral atom and have found that the highest efficiencies are obtained at angles of incidence greater then 80deg. The conversion efficiency of silicon, tungsten and graphite were examined most closely and the energy dependent variation of conversion efficiency measured over a range of incident angles. We have also developed methods for micromachining silicon in order to reduce the volume to surface area over that of a single flat surface and have been able to reduce volume to surface area ratios by up to a factor of 60. With smooth micro-machined surfaces of the optimum geometry, conversion efficiencies can be increased by an order of magnitude over instruments like LENA on the IMAGE spacecraft without increase the instruments mass or volume.

  6. The pH of tooth-whitening products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Price, R B; Sedarous, M; Hiltz, G S

    2000-09-01

    Tooth whitening products may be in contact with intraoral structures for several hours or they may be used daily to whiten the teeth. Consequently, these products should have a relatively neutral pH to minimize potential damage. This study measured the pH of 26 commercially available tooth-whitening products. The pH of the different whitening products ranged from 3.67 (highly acidic) to 11.13 (highly basic). The dentist-supervised home-bleaching products had a mean pH of 6.48 (range 5.66 to 7.35). The over-the-counter whitening products had a mean pH of 8.22 (range 5.09 to 11.13), and the whitening toothpastes had a mean pH of 6.83 (range 4.22 to 8.35). The 3 in-office bleaching products had a pH between 3.67 and 6.53. One-way ANOVA showed that there was a significant difference between the 4 product categories. The most basic pH of all the products tested was 11.13 for the whitening gel of Natural White-Rapid White. The most acidic pH of all products tested was 3.67 for Opalescence Xtra 35% hydrogen peroxide in-office bleach. The Least-Squares-Means test showed that the over-the-counter category had a pH significantly different from the other categories (p < 0.05).

  7. Autologous HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies: emergence of neutralization-resistant escape virus and subsequent development of escape virus neutralizing antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, M; Nielsen, C; Hansen, J E

    1992-01-01

    of neutralizing antibodies to the primary virus isolates was detected 13-45 weeks after seroconversion. Emergence of escape virus with reduced sensitivity to neutralization by autologous sera was demonstrated. The patients subsequently developed neutralizing antibodies against the escape virus but after a delay...... escape virus may be part of the explanation of the apparent failure of the immune system to control HIV infection....

  8. Reconstruction of NSTX midplane neutral density profiles from visible imaging data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stotler, D.P., E-mail: dstotler@pppl.gov [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543-0451 (United States); Scotti, F. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Bell, R.E.; LeBlanc, B.P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543-0451 (United States); Raman, R. [University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    The experimental determination of neutral densities in tokamak plasmas from line radiation is only accurate in the narrow region in which both the excitation rate and neutral density are significant. We describe an alternative procedure using the DEGAS 2 Monte Carlo neutral transport code to invert light emission data obtained from a tangentially viewing camera, yielding absolute radial profiles of deuterium atoms and molecules at midplane. That the neutral source in these simulations can be adequately characterized as a uniform flux at the vacuum vessel wall is demonstrated by the similarity of the shapes of the simulated and observed brightness profiles. A second test is obtained by comparing the resulting neutral pressures at the vessel walls with data from midplane micro-ion gauges. We also show that the simulated camera image is insensitive to variations in the spatial distribution of the neutral source.

  9. Evaluating high pH for control of dreissenid mussels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dave Evans

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Two field experiments were carried out using a custom built flow-through laboratory to test the effect of elevated pH on dreissenid musselsas a potential control method. Both experiments tested the ability of dreissenid pediveligers to settle under conditions of elevated pH and thelong-term survival of adult dreissenids under the same conditions. The two experimental sites had different water quality and differentspecies of dreissenids present. The settlement of quagga mussel pediveligers at the lower Colorado River was inhibited with increasing pH.At the maximum achieved pH of 9.1, there was approximately 90% reduction compared to the maximum settlement observed in the controls.Since the settlement was almost as low in pH 8.9 as at pH 9.1, the inhibition in settlement may have been due to the presence of a precipitateformed under high pH conditions rather than the increase in background pH. No mortality of quagga mussel adults was observed in theexperimental pH levels at the lower Colorado River. At San Justo Reservoir, zebra mussel settlement decreased with increasing pH. Newsettlement was almost entirely absent at the highest pH tested (pH 9.6. The observed mortality of adult zebra mussels was low, but did tendto increase with increasing pH. We also tested the response of adult zebra mussels to short-term exposure to very high pH levels (i.e. pH 10,11, and 12. Adult mussels in poor physical condition experienced 90% mortality after 12 hours at pH 12. For unstressed adult zebra mussels,90% mortality was reached after 120 hours at pH 12. Significant mortalities were also observed both at pH 10 and pH 11. From this study,we conclude that pH elevation could be used both as a preventative treatment to eliminate settlement by dreissenid mussels and as an end ofseason treatment to eliminate adults. The high pH treatment would have to be tailored to the site water quality to prevent formation ofprecipitate during treatment and to minimize corrosive

  10. Plasma/Neutral-Beam Etching Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, William; Cohen, Samuel; Cuthbertson, John; Manos, Dennis; Motley, Robert

    1989-01-01

    Energies of neutral particles controllable. Apparatus developed to produce intense beams of reactant atoms for simulating low-Earth-orbit oxygen erosion, for studying beam-gas collisions, and for etching semiconductor substrates. Neutral beam formed by neutralization and reflection of accelerated plasma on metal plate. Plasma ejected from coaxial plasma gun toward neutralizing plate, where turned into beam of atoms or molecules and aimed at substrate to be etched.

  11. Neutral beamline with improved ion energy recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jinchoon

    1984-01-01

    A neutral beamline employing direct energy recovery of unneutralized residual ions is provided which enhances the energy recovery of the full energy ion component of the beam exiting the neutralizer cell, and thus improves the overall neutral beamline efficiency. The unneutralized full energy ions exiting the neutralizer are deflected from the beam path and the electrons in the cell are blocked by a magnetic field applied transverse to the beam direction in the neutral izer exit region. The ions which are generated at essentially ground potential and accelerated through the neutralizer cell by a negative acceleration voltage are collected at ground potential. A neutralizer cell exit end region is provided which allows the magnetic and electric fields acting on the exiting ions to be loosely coupled. As a result, the fractional energy ions exiting the cell are reflected onto and collected at an interior wall of the neutralizer formed by the modified end geometry, and thus do not detract from the energy recovery efficiency of full energy ions exiting the cell. Electrons within the neutralizer are prevented from exiting the neutralizer end opening by the action of crossed fields drift (ExB) and are terminated to a collector collar around the downstream opening of the neutralizer. The correct combination of the extended neutralizer end structure and the magnet region is designed so as to maximize the exit of full energy ions and to contain the fractional energy ions.

  12. The Net Neutrality Debate: The Basics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenfield, Rich

    2006-01-01

    Rich Greenfield examines the basics of today's net neutrality debate that is likely to be an ongoing issue for society. Greenfield states the problems inherent in the definition of "net neutrality" used by Common Cause: "Network neutrality is the principle that Internet users should be able to access any web content they choose and…

  13. PhD Dissertations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redazione Reti Medievali (a cura di

    2003-06-01

    Full Text Available Reporto of PhD Dissertations.   Mario Dalle Carbonare Società, potere e clientele nell’Irlanda altomedievale (secoli V-IX, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia sociale europea, Università "Ca' Foscari" di Venezia, 2003 Vieri Mazzoni La legislazione antighibellina e la politica oligarchica della Parte Guelfa di Firenze nel secondo Trecento (1347-1378, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia Medievale (ciclo XII, Università degli Studi di Firenze   Alma Poloni Pisa dalle origini del movimento popolare alla discesa di Ludovico il Bavaro. I gruppi dirigenti cittadini tra continuità e trasformazione, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia dell'Europa nel medioevo, Università degli studi di Pisa, 2003   Andrea Puglia Potere marchionale, amministrazione del territorio, società locali dalla morte di Ugo di Tuscia a Guelfo VI di Baviera (1001-1160, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia medievale, Università degli studi di Milano, 2003

  14. PhD Dissertations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redazione Reti Medievali (a cura di

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Report of PhD dissertations. Andrea Brugnoli Una storia locale: l’organizzazione del territorio veronese nel medioevo: trasformazioni della realtà e schemi notarili (IX-metà XII secolo, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Scienze Storiche e Antropologiche (XXII ciclo, Università degli Studi di Verona, 2010   Luca Filangieri Famiglie e gruppi dirigenti a Genova (secoli XII-metà XIII, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia medievale (XXII ciclo, Università degli Studi di Firenze, 2010   Jakub Kujawi ski Wernakularna kolekcja historiograficzna z rękopisu francuskiego nr 688 z Biblioteki Narodowej w Paryżu. Studium źródłoznawcze (La raccolta dei volgarizzamenti delle opere storiografiche nel manoscritto francese 688 della Biblioteca Nazionale di Parigi, Tesi di dottorato, Università “Adam Mickiewicz”, Facoltà di Storia, Pozna, a.a. 2009/2010   Marta Longhi I signori “de Radicata”. Strategie di affermazione familiare e patrimoniale nel Piemonte dei secoli XII-XIV, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Istituzioni, Società, Religioni dal Tardo Antico alla fine del Medioevo (XX ciclo, Università di Torino, 2008

  15. PhD Dissertations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redazione Reti Medievali (a cura di

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Report of PhD Dissertations. Francesco Barone Istituzioni, società ed economia a Catania nel tardo medioevo (XIV-XV secolo, Tesi di dottorato in Storia medievale (XVI ciclo, Università degli Studi di Firenze, 2004   Laura Berti Ceroni Il territorio e le strutture di Cesarea e Classe tra tarda antichità e alto medioevo in rapporto con Ravenna, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia e Informatica, Università degli studi di Bologna, 2002-2003.   Marco Bicchierai Poppi dalla signoria dei conti Guidi al vicariato del Casentino (1360-1480, Tesi di dottorato in Storia medievale (XIV ciclo, Università degli Studi di Firenze, 2004   Emanuela Garimberti Spatiosa ad habitandum loca. Luoghi e identità nella Historia Langobardorum di Paolo Diacono, Tesi di dottorato in Storia medievale (XV ciclo, Università degli Studi di Bologna, 2004   Lorenzo Tanzini Sistemi normativi e pratiche istituzionali a Firenze dalla fine del XIII all’inizio del XV secolo, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia medievale (XVI ciclo, Università degli Studi di Firenze, 2004   Stefania Tarquini Pellegrinaggio e asseto urbano di Roma, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia dei centri, delle vie e della cultura dei pellegrinaggi nel Medioevo euro mediterraneo (XV ciclo, Università degli studi di Lecce, 2003

  16. PhD Dissertations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redazione Reti Medievali (a cura di

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Report of PhD Dissertations. Guido Antonioli Conservator pacis et iustitie. La signoria di Taddeo Pepoli a Bologna (1337-1347, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Filologia romanza e cultura medievale (XIII ciclo, Università degli Studi di Bologna, 2001   Elisabetta Filippini «In vassallatico episcopi permanere debent». Rapporti vassallatici e concessioni beneficiali dei vescovi di Cremona fra X e XIII secolo, Tesi di dottorato di Ricerca in Storia Medievale (XV ciclo, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore di Milano, 2003   Marco Meschini, Innocenzo III e il "negotium pacis et fidei" in Linguadoca tra il 1198 e il 1215, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia medievale, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore, 2003   Fabrizio Ricciardelli The Politics of Exclusion in Florence (1215-1434, thesis submitted in partial fulfilment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy in History, University of Warwick, Department of History, April 2003 Renata Salvarani Baptizare pueros et decimas dare. Cura delle anime, strutturazione ecclesiastica e organizzazione delle campagne in area gardesana fra VIII e XIII secolo (diocesi di Brescia, Verona, Mantova e Trento, Tesi di dottorato in Storia medievale (XV ciclo, Università Cattolica del Sacro Cuore di Milano, 2002-2003   Vito Sibilio Le parole della prima crociata, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Storia dei centri delle vie e della cultura dei pellegrinaggi nel medioevo euromediterraneo, Università degli studi di Lecce, 2003

  17. Environmental filtering by pH and soil nutrients drives community assembly in fungi at fine spatial scales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glassman, Sydney I; Wang, Ian J; Bruns, Thomas D

    2017-11-07

    Whether niche processes, like environmental filtering, or neutral processes, like dispersal limitation, are the primary forces driving community assembly is a central question in ecology. Here, we use a natural experimental system of isolated tree "islands" to test whether environment or geography primarily structures fungal community composition at fine spatial scales. This system consists of isolated pairs of two distantly related, congeneric pine trees established at varying distances from each other and the forest edge, allowing us to disentangle the effects of geographic distance vs. host and edaphic environment on associated fungal communities. We identified fungal community composition with Illumina sequencing of ITS amplicons, measured all relevant environmental parameters for each tree-including tree age, size and soil chemistry-and calculated geographic distances from each tree to all others and to the nearest forest edge. We applied generalized dissimilarity modelling to test whether total and ectomycorrhizal fungal (EMF) communities were primarily structured by geographic or environmental filtering. Our results provide strong evidence that as in many other organisms, niche and neutral processes both contribute significantly to turnover in community composition in fungi, but environmental filtering plays the dominant role in structuring both free-living and symbiotic fungal communities at fine spatial scales. In our study system, we found pH and organic matter primarily drive environmental filtering in total soil fungal communities and that pH and cation exchange capacity-and, surprisingly, not host species-were the largest factors affecting EMF community composition. These findings support an emerging paradigm that pH may play a central role in the assembly of all soil-mediated systems. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Influence of pH, type of acid and recovery media on the thermal inactivation of Listeria innocua.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Fátima A; Ramos, Bárbara; Gil, Maria M; Brandão, Teresa R S; Teixeira, Paula; Silva, Cristina L M

    2009-07-31

    Acidification of foods with organic acids, either by fermentation or by intentional addition, is an important and common mechanism for controlling foodborne pathogens in a diversity of food products. The objective of this work was to study thermal inactivation of Listeria innocua, an acid tolerant microorganism, at 52.5, 60.0 and 65.0 degrees C, at different pH values (4.5, 6.0 and 7.5), using three types of acid (lactic, acetic and hydrochloric) and three different plating media (Tryptic Soy Agar with 0.6% yeast extract-TSAYE; TSAYE plus 5% NaCl-TSAYE+5%NaCl; and Palcam Agar with selective supplement-Palcam Agar), according to a 3(4) factorial experimental design. Survival data experimentally obtained were fitted with a Gompertz-inspired model and kinetic parameters (shoulder, maximum inactivation rate-k(max), and tail) were estimated for all conditions considered. The influence of temperature, pH, type of acid and enumeration media on kinetic parameters was assessed. Results showed that, with the exception of the type of acid, all the remaining factors and their combinations significantly affected the shoulder period and k(max). In relation to tail, temperature and recovery media were the affectable factors. It was concluded that the survival of this bacteria is higher when combining low temperature with neutral pH, and when TSAYE is the enumeration medium. Bigelow-inspired models were successfully developed and describe accurately the temperature and pH effects on the kinetic parameters.

  19. Predicting Thermodynamic Behaviors of Non-Protein Amino Acids as a Function of Temperature and pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kitadai, Norio

    2016-03-01

    Why does life use α-amino acids exclusively as building blocks of proteins? To address that fundamental question from an energetic perspective, this study estimated the standard molal thermodynamic data for three non-α-amino acids (β-alanine, γ-aminobutyric acid, and ɛ-aminocaproic acid) and α-amino- n-butyric acid in their zwitterionic, negative, and positive ionization states based on the corresponding experimental measurements reported in the literature. Temperature dependences of their heat capacities were described based on the revised Helgeson-Kirkham-Flowers (HKF) equations of state. The obtained dataset was then used to calculate the standard molal Gibbs energies ( ∆G o) of the non-α-amino acids as a function of temperature and pH. Comparison of their ∆G o values with those of α-amino acids having the same molecular formula showed that the non-α-amino acids have similar ∆G o values to the corresponding α-amino acids in physiologically relevant conditions (neutral pH, <100 °C). In acidic and alkaline pH, the non-α-amino acids are thermodynamically more stable than the corresponding α-ones over a broad temperature range. These results suggest that the energetic cost of synthesis is not an important selection pressure to incorporate α-amino acids into biological systems.

  20. Photonic porous silicon as a pH sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pace, Stephanie; Vasani, Roshan B; Zhao, Wei; Perrier, Sébastien; Voelcker, Nicolas H

    2014-01-01

    Chronic wounds do not heal within 3 months, and during the lengthy healing process, the wound is invariably exposed to bacteria, which can colonize the wound bed and form biofilms. This alters the wound metabolism and brings about a change of pH. In this work, porous silicon photonic films were coated with the pH-responsive polymer poly(2-diethylaminoethyl acrylate). We demonstrated that the pH-responsive polymer deposited on the surface of the photonic film acts as a barrier to prevent water from penetrating inside the porous matrix at neutral pH. Moreover, the device demonstrated optical pH sensing capability visible by the unaided eye.

  1. Supported Nanosized α-FeOOH Improves Efficiency of Photoelectro-Fenton Process with Reaction-Controlled pH Adjustment for Sustainable Water Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chuan Wang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The overall photoelectro-Fenton (PE-Fenton process for water treatment with neutral initial pH includes three steps of pH reduction, PE-Fenton reaction, and pH elevation. Reaction-controlled pH adjustment (RCpA, which utilizes the intrinsic electrochemical reactions instead of chemical addition, has been employed to lower the pH, maintain the lowered pH for the Fenton reaction, and recover the pH for final effluent discharge. This study demonstrated that the overall efficiency of this sustainable PE-Fenton process was improved by rapidly recycling the iron substance. Nanosized iron oxide was prepared and employed to ensure such rapid recycling. SEM and XRD results showed that the as-prepared iron oxide was α-FeOOH with 20 nm in size. The experimental results of dimethyl phthalate (DMP degradation showed that diatomite-supported α-FeOOH (N-α-FeOOH/diatomite could efficiently reduce the DMP concentration and total organic carbon. Furthermore, compared with Fe3+, the N-α-FeOOH/diatomite saved 160 min for iron settlement at 20 mg L−1 DMP concentration. Also, with the increment in the initial DMP concentration, extra energy consumed by the individual step of PE-Fenton reaction using the N-α-FeOOH/diatomite became negligible compared with that using free iron ions with the increment in the initial DMP concentration. This development is expected to be a major step of the PE-Fenton process with RCpA towards actual water treatment.

  2. ORNL positive ion neutral beam program

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whealton, J.H.; Haselton, H.H.; Barber, G.C.

    1978-01-01

    The neutral beam group at Oak Ridge National Laboratory has constructed neutral beam generators for the ORMAK and PLT devices, is presently constructing neutral beam devices for the ISX and PDX devices, and is contemplating the construction of neutral beam systems for the advanced TNS device. These neutral beam devices stem from the pioneering work on ion sources of G. G. Kelley and O. B. Morgan. We describe the ion sources under development at this Laboratory, the beam optics exhibited by these sources, as well as some theoretical considerations, and finally the remainder of the beamline design.

  3. PhD Dissertations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Redazione Reti Medievali (a cura di

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Report of PhD Dissertations. Davide Caffù L'aristocrazia tra corti e città: stili di vita e modelli sociali in alcune fonti narrative dell'Italia nord-occidentale (secoli XII-XIII, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Istituzioni, società, religioni dal Tardo Antico alla fine del Medioevo (XIX ciclo, Università degli Studi di Torino, 2007 Lucia Cuttin Le chapitre général des Chartreux et la province de Lombardia propinquior au XVe siècle, Theses de doctorat en Histoire Université de Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne - Università degli Studi di Milano, 2006 Gianmarco De Angelis Poteri cittadini e intellettuali di potere a Bergamo dall'età carolingia all'affermazione del comune. Scrittura, documentazione e iniziativa politica nei secoli IX-XII, Tesi di dottorato di ricerca in Istituzioni, società e religioni dal tardo antico alla fine del medioevo, Università degli Studi di Torino, 2008 Beatrice Del Bo Uomini e strutture di un potere: il marchesato di Monferrato nel XV secolo (1418-1483, Tesi di dottorato in Storia medievale, Università degli Studi di Milano, 2007 Adolfo Morizio Eremitismo e monachesimo in italia tra XIII e XIV secolo: i «Celestini» di fra Pietro del Morrone. Storia e documenti (metà sec. XIII-1320, Tesi di dottorato in Storia del Cristianesimo e delle Chiese, Università degli Studi di Padova, 2008 Eugenio Riversi Intorno alla Vita Mathildis di Donizone. Saggi di contestualizzazione e analisi della rappresentazione, Tesi di dottorato in Storia medievale, Università di Pisa, 2007

  4. The Final Frontier of pH and the Undiscovered Country Beyond

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bal, Wojciech; Kurowska, Ewa; Maret, Wolfgang

    2012-01-01

    The comparison of volumes of cells and subcellular structures with the pH values reported for them leads to a conflict with the definition of the pH scale. The pH scale is based on the ionic product of water, Kw = [H+]×[OH−].We used Kw [in a reversed way] to calculate the number of undissociated H2O molecules required by this equilibrium constant to yield at least one of its daughter ions, H+ or OH− at a given pH. In this way we obtained a formula that relates pH to the minimal volume VpH required to provide a physical meaning to Kw, (where NA is Avogadro’s number). For example, at pH 7 (neutral at 25°C) VpH = 16.6 aL. Any deviation from neutral pH results in a larger VpH value. Our results indicate that many subcellular structures, including coated vesicles and lysosomes, are too small to contain free H+ ions at equilibrium, thus the definition of pH based on Kw is no longer valid. Larger subcellular structures, such as mitochondria, apparently contain only a few free H+ ions. These results indicate that pH fails to describe intracellular conditions, and that water appears to be dissociated too weakly to provide free H+ ions as a general source for biochemical reactions. Consequences of this finding are discussed. PMID:23049874

  5. Thermodynamics of neutral protein evolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloom, Jesse D; Raval, Alpan; Wilke, Claus O

    2007-01-01

    Naturally evolving proteins gradually accumulate mutations while continuing to fold to stable structures. This process of neutral evolution is an important mode of genetic change and forms the basis for the molecular clock. We present a mathematical theory that predicts the number of accumulated mutations, the index of dispersion, and the distribution of stabilities in an evolving protein population from knowledge of the stability effects (delta deltaG values) for single mutations. Our theory quantitatively describes how neutral evolution leads to marginally stable proteins and provides formulas for calculating how fluctuations in stability can overdisperse the molecular clock. It also shows that the structural influences on the rate of sequence evolution observed in earlier simulations can be calculated using just the single-mutation delta deltaG values. We consider both the case when the product of the population size and mutation rate is small and the case when this product is large, and show that in the latter case the proteins evolve excess mutational robustness that is manifested by extra stability and an increase in the rate of sequence evolution. All our theoretical predictions are confirmed by simulations with lattice proteins. Our work provides a mathematical foundation for understanding how protein biophysics shapes the process of evolution.

  6. Conformational Flexibility and pH Effects on Anisotropic Growth of Sheet-Like Assembly of Amphiphilic Peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Hongzhou; Ganguly, Debabani; Chen, Jianhan; Sun, Xiuzhi S

    2015-06-01

    Peptide-based biomaterials have many potential applications in tissue engineering, drug delivery, surface engineering, and other areas. In this study, we exploited a series of amphiphilic diblock model peptides (L5K10, L5GSIIK10, and L5P(D)PK10) to understand how the supramolecular assembly morphology may be modulated by the physical properties of the peptide monomer and experimental conditions. A combination of experimentation and simulation revealed that although all three peptides lack stable structures as monomers, their levels of conformational heterogeneity differ significantly. Importantly, such differences appear to be correlated with the peptides' ability to form sheet-like assemblies. In particular, substantial conformational heterogeneity appears to be required for anisotropic growth of sheet-like materials, likely by reducing the peptide assembly kinetics. To test this hypothesis, we increased the pH to neutralize the lysine residues and promote peptide aggregation, and the resulting faster assembly rate hindered the growth of the sheet morphology as predicted. In addition, we designed and investigated the assembly morphologies of a series of diblock peptides with various lengths of polyglycine inserts, L5GxK10, x = 1, 2, 3, 4. The results further supported the importance of peptide conformational flexibility and pH in modulation of the peptide supramolecular assembly morphology.

  7. The fragile X chromosome (GCC) repeat folds into a DNA tetraplex at neutral pH

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Fojtík, Petr; Vorlíčková, Michaela

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 29, č. 22 (2001), s. 4684-4690 ISSN 0305-1048 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/01/0561 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5004920 Keywords : Parallel-stranded DNA * circular dichroism spectroscopy Subject RIV: BO - Biophysics Impact factor: 6.373, year: 2001

  8. Streptococcus oligofermentans inhibits Streptococcus mutans in biofilms at both neutral pH and cariogenic conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bao, X.; de Soet, J.J.; Tong, H.; Gao, X.; He, L.; van Loveren, C.; Deng, D.M.

    2015-01-01

    Homeostasis of oral microbiota can be maintained through microbial interactions. Previous studies showed that Streptococcus oligofermentans, a non-mutans streptococci frequently isolated from caries-free subjects, inhibited the cariogenic Streptococcus mutans by the production of hydrogen peroxide

  9. ROBUST CONTROL OF WIENER SYSTEMS: APPLICATION TO A pH NEUTRALIZATION PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    Biagiola, S. I.; O. E. Agamennoni; J. L. FIGUEROA

    2016-01-01

    Abstract In this paper, the robustness of a typical control scheme for Wiener systems is studied. These systems consist of the cascade connection of a linear time invariant system and a static nonlinearity. To control this kind of systems, several approaches were discussed in the literature. Most of these control schemes involve transformation of the measured variable as well as the setpoint, by the inverse of the nonlinear gain. The approach followed in this work uses the inverse model of th...

  10. Hybrid fuzzy logic and pid controller based ph neutralization pilot plant

    OpenAIRE

    Naseer, 1Oumair; Khan, Atif Ali

    2013-01-01

    Use of Control theory within process control industries has changed rapidly due to the increase complexity of instrumentation, real time requirements, minimization of operating costs and highly nonlinear characteristics of chemical process. Previously developed process control technologies which are mostly based on a single controller are not efficient in terms of signal transmission delays, processing power for computational needs and signal to noise ratio. Hybrid controller with efficient s...

  11. Polymeric nanosensors for measuring the full dynamic pH range of endosomes and lysosomes in mammalian cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sun, Honghao; Andresen, Thomas Lars; Benjaminsen, Rikke Vicki

    2009-01-01

    as pH sensitive dyes, which gave a dynamic pH measurement range from 4.1-7.5. Thus, the sensors cover the pH range of almost all intracellular compartments in mammalian cells. Both neutral and cationic polyacrylamide particles were synthesized where (3-acrylamidopropyl) trimethylammonium chloride...... was used to introduce a net positive charge in the cationic particles. It was found that the positively charged particle sensors were internalized spontaneously by HepG2 cancer cells. These new pH nanosensors are potential tools in time resolved quantification of pH in the endocytic pathway of living cells....

  12. Urine pH test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Diabetic ketoacidosis Diarrhea Too much acid in the body fluids ( metabolic acidosis ), such as diabetic ketoacidosis Starvation Risks There are no risks with this test. Alternative Names pH - urine Images Female urinary tract PH urine test Male urinary tract References Fogazzi GB, Garigali G. Urinalysis. ...

  13. Effect of pH, various divalent metal ion and different substrates on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EZUGWU ARINZE LINUS

    Key words: Glucoamylase, pH, metal ions, Aspergillus niger, tiger nut starch, amylopectin. ... formation of a nucleophilic hydroxide ion at neutral pH by .... sodium acetate. Each of the reaction mixtures contains 0.5 ml of enzyme solution, 0.5 ml of starch solution (1%) and 1 ml of metal ion solutions (Ca2+, Mg2+, Mn2+, Fe2+, ...

  14. Acidic Food pH Increases Palatability and Consumption and Extends Drosophila Lifespan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Sonali A; Yamada, Ryuichi; Mak, Christine M; Hunter, Brooke; Soto Obando, Alina; Hoxha, Sany; Ja, William W

    2015-12-01

    Despite the prevalent use of Drosophila as a model in studies of nutrition, the effects of fundamental food properties, such as pH, on animal health and behavior are not well known. We examined the effect of food pH on adult Drosophila lifespan, feeding behavior, and microbiota composition and tested the hypothesis that pH-mediated changes in palatability and total consumption are required for modulating longevity. We measured the effect of buffered food (pH 5, 7, or 9) on male gustatory responses (proboscis extension), total food intake, and male and female lifespan. The effect of food pH on germfree male lifespan was also assessed. Changes in fly-associated microbial composition as a result of food pH were determined by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. Male gustatory responses, total consumption, and male and female longevity were additionally measured in the taste-defective Pox neuro (Poxn) mutant and its transgenic rescue control. An acidic diet increased Drosophila gustatory responses (40-230%) and food intake (5-50%) and extended survival (10-160% longer median lifespan) compared with flies on either neutral or alkaline pH food. Alkaline food pH shifted the composition of fly-associated bacteria and resulted in greater lifespan extension (260% longer median survival) after microbes were eliminated compared with flies on an acidic (50%) or neutral (130%) diet. However, germfree flies lived longer on an acidic diet (5-20% longer median lifespan) compared with those on either neutral or alkaline pH food. Gustatory responses, total consumption, and longevity were unaffected by food pH in Poxn mutant flies. Food pH can directly influence palatability and feeding behavior and affect parameters such as microbial growth to ultimately affect Drosophila lifespan. Fundamental food properties altered by dietary or drug interventions may therefore contribute to changes in animal physiology, metabolism, and survival. © 2015 American Society for Nutrition.

  15. Acidic Food pH Increases Palatability and Consumption and Extends Drosophila Lifespan12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deshpande, Sonali A; Yamada, Ryuichi; Mak, Christine M; Hunter, Brooke; Obando, Alina Soto; Hoxha, Sany; Ja, William W

    2015-01-01

    Background: Despite the prevalent use of Drosophila as a model in studies of nutrition, the effects of fundamental food properties, such as pH, on animal health and behavior are not well known. Objectives: We examined the effect of food pH on adult Drosophila lifespan, feeding behavior, and microbiota composition and tested the hypothesis that pH-mediated changes in palatability and total consumption are required for modulating longevity. Methods: We measured the effect of buffered food (pH 5, 7, or 9) on male gustatory responses (proboscis extension), total food intake, and male and female lifespan. The effect of food pH on germfree male lifespan was also assessed. Changes in fly-associated microbial composition as a result of food pH were determined by 16S ribosomal RNA gene sequencing. Male gustatory responses, total consumption, and male and female longevity were additionally measured in the taste-defective Pox neuro (Poxn) mutant and its transgenic rescue control. Results: An acidic diet increased Drosophila gustatory responses (40–230%) and food intake (5–50%) and extended survival (10–160% longer median lifespan) compared with flies on either neutral or alkaline pH food. Alkaline food pH shifted the composition of fly-associated bacteria and resulted in greater lifespan extension (260% longer median survival) after microbes were eliminated compared with flies on an acidic (50%) or neutral (130%) diet. However, germfree flies lived longer on an acidic diet (5–20% longer median lifespan) compared with those on either neutral or alkaline pH food. Gustatory responses, total consumption, and longevity were unaffected by food pH in Poxn mutant flies. Conclusions: Food pH can directly influence palatability and feeding behavior and affect parameters such as microbial growth to ultimately affect Drosophila lifespan. Fundamental food properties altered by dietary or drug interventions may therefore contribute to changes in animal physiology, metabolism, and

  16. Radiative lifetimes of neutral cerium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Den Hartog, E. A.; Buettner, K. P.; Lawler, J. E.

    2009-04-01

    Radiative lifetimes, accurate to ±5%, have been measured for 153 levels of neutral cerium using time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence (TRLIF) on a slow beam of cerium atoms. Of the 153 levels studied, 150 are even parity and 3 are odd parity. The levels range in energy from 16 869 to 28 557 cm-1. This set of Ce I lifetimes is much more extensive than others published to date, and will provide the absolute calibration for a very large set of measured Ce I transition probabilities. Accurate transition probabilities for lines in the visible and ultraviolet are needed both in astrophysics, for the determination of elemental abundances, and by the lighting community, for research and development of metal halide high-intensity discharge lamps.

  17. $\\tau$ decays with neutral kaons

    CERN Document Server

    Abbiendi, G.; Akesson, P.F.; Alexander, G.; Allison, John; Anderson, K.J.; Arcelli, S.; Asai, S.; Ashby, S.F.; Axen, D.; Azuelos, G.; Bailey, I.; Ball, A.H.; Barberio, E.; Barlow, Roger J.; Batley, J.R.; Baumann, S.; Behnke, T.; Bell, Kenneth Watson; Bella, G.; Bellerive, A.; Bentvelsen, S.; Bethke, S.; Betts, S.; Biebel, O.; Biguzzi, A.; Bloodworth, I.J.; Bock, P.; Bohme, J.; Boeriu, O.; Bonacorsi, D.; Boutemeur, M.; Braibant, S.; Bright-Thomas, P.; Brigliadori, L.; Brown, Robert M.; Burckhart, H.J.; Capiluppi, P.; Carnegie, R.K.; Carter, A.A.; Carter, J.R.; Chang, C.Y.; Charlton, David G.; Chrisman, D.; Ciocca, C.; Clarke, P.E.L.; Clay, E.; Cohen, I.; Conboy, J.E.; Cooke, O.C.; Couchman, J.; Couyoumtzelis, C.; Coxe, R.L.; Cuffiani, M.; Dado, S.; Dallavalle, G.Marco; Dallison, S.; Davis, R.; de Roeck, A.; Dervan, P.; Desch, K.; Dienes, B.; Dixit, M.S.; Donkers, M.; Dubbert, J.; Duchovni, E.; Duckeck, G.; Duerdoth, I.P.; Estabrooks, P.G.; Etzion, E.; Fabbri, F.; Fanfani, A.; Fanti, M.; Faust, A.A.; Feld, L.; Ferrari, P.; Fiedler, F.; Fierro, M.; Fleck, I.; Frey, A.; Furtjes, A.; Futyan, D.I.; Gagnon, P.; Gary, J.W.; Gaycken, G.; Geich-Gimbel, C.; Giacomelli, G.; Giacomelli, P.; Gingrich, D.M.; Glenzinski, D.; Goldberg, J.; Gorn, W.; Grandi, C.; Graham, K.; Gross, E.; Grunhaus, J.; Gruwe, M.; Hajdu, C.; Hanson, G.G.; Hansroul, M.; Hapke, M.; Harder, K.; Harel, A.; Hargrove, C.K.; Harin-Dirac, M.; Hauschild, M.; Hawkes, C.M.; Hawkings, R.; Hemingway, R.J.; Herten, G.; Heuer, R.D.; Hildreth, M.D.; Hill, J.C.; Hobson, P.R.; Hocker, James Andrew; Hoffman, Kara Dion; Homer, R.J.; Honma, A.K.; Horvath, D.; Hossain, K.R.; Howard, R.; Huntemeyer, P.; Igo-Kemenes, P.; Imrie, D.C.; Ishii, K.; Jacob, F.R.; Jawahery, A.; Jeremie, H.; Jimack, M.; Jones, C.R.; Jovanovic, P.; Junk, T.R.; Kanaya, N.; Kanzaki, J.; Karapetian, G.; Karlen, D.; Kartvelishvili, V.; Kawagoe, K.; Kawamoto, T.; Kayal, P.I.; Keeler, R.K.; Kellogg, R.G.; Kennedy, B.W.; Kim, D.H.; Klier, A.; Kobayashi, T.; Kobel, M.; Kokott, T.P.; Kolrep, M.; Komamiya, S.; Kowalewski, Robert V.; Kress, T.; Krieger, P.; von Krogh, J.; Kuhl, T.; Kupper, M.; Kyberd, P.; Lafferty, G.D.; Landsman, H.; Lanske, D.; Lauber, J.; Lawson, I.; Layter, J.G.; Lellouch, D.; Letts, J.; Levinson, L.; Liebisch, R.; Lillich, J.; List, B.; Littlewood, C.; Lloyd, A.W.; Lloyd, S.L.; Loebinger, F.K.; Long, G.D.; Losty, M.J.; Lu, J.; Ludwig, J.; Macchiolo, A.; Macpherson, A.; Mader, W.; Mannelli, M.; Marcellini, S.; Marchant, T.E.; Martin, A.J.; Martin, J.P.; Martinez, G.; Mashimo, T.; Mattig, Peter; McDonald, W.John; McKenna, J.; Mckigney, E.A.; McMahon, T.J.; McPherson, R.A.; Meijers, F.; Mendez-Lorenzo, P.; Merritt, F.S.; Mes, H.; Meyer, I.; Michelini, A.; Mihara, S.; Mikenberg, G.; Miller, D.J.; Mohr, W.; Montanari, A.; Mori, T.; Nagai, K.; Nakamura, I.; Neal, H.A.; Nisius, R.; O'Neale, S.W.; Oakham, F.G.; Odorici, F.; Ogren, H.O.; Okpara, A.; Oreglia, M.J.; Orito, S.; Pasztor, G.; Pater, J.R.; Patrick, G.N.; Patt, J.; Perez-Ochoa, R.; Petzold, S.; Pfeifenschneider, P.; Pilcher, J.E.; Pinfold, J.; Plane, David E.; Poli, B.; Polok, J.; Przybycien, M.; Quadt, A.; Rembser, C.; Rick, H.; Robins, S.A.; Rodning, N.; Roney, J.M.; Rosati, S.; Roscoe, K.; Rossi, A.M.; Rozen, Y.; Runge, K.; Runolfsson, O.; Rust, D.R.; Sachs, K.; Saeki, T.; Sahr, O.; Sang, W.M.; Sarkisian, E.K.G.; Sbarra, C.; Schaile, A.D.; Schaile, O.; Scharff-Hansen, P.; Schieck, J.; Schmitt, S.; Schoning, A.; Schroder, Matthias; Schumacher, M.; Schwick, C.; Scott, W.G.; Seuster, R.; Shears, T.G.; Shen, B.C.; Shepherd-Themistocleous, C.H.; Sherwood, P.; Siroli, G.P.; Skuja, A.; Smith, A.M.; Snow, G.A.; Sobie, R.; Soldner-Rembold, S.; Spagnolo, S.; Sproston, M.; Stahl, A.; Stephens, K.; Stoll, K.; Strom, David M.; Strohmer, R.; Surrow, B.; Talbot, S.D.; Taras, P.; Tarem, S.; Teuscher, R.; Thiergen, M.; Thomas, J.; Thomson, M.A.; Torrence, E.; Towers, S.; Trefzger, T.; Trigger, I.; Trocsanyi, Z.; Tsur, E.; Turner-Watson, M.F.; Ueda, I.; Van Kooten, Rick J.; Vannerem, P.; Verzocchi, M.; Voss, H.; Wackerle, F.; Waller, D.; Ward, C.P.; Ward, D.R.; Watkins, P.M.; Watson, A.T.; Watson, N.K.; Wells, P.S.; Wengler, T.; Wermes, N.; Wetterling, D.; White, J.S.; Wilson, G.W.; Wilson, J.A.; Wyatt, T.R.; Yamashita, S.; Zacek, V.; Zer-Zion, D.

    2000-01-01

    The branching ratio of the tau lepton to a neutral K meson is measured from a sample of approximately 200,000 tau decays recorded by the OPAL detector at centre-of-mass energies near the Z0 resonance. The measurement is based on two samples which identify one-prong tau decays with KL and KS mesons. The combined branching ratios are measured to be B(tau- -->pi- K0bar nutau) = (9.33+-0.68+-0.49)x10^-3 B(tau- -->pi- K0bar [>=1pi0] nutau) = (3.24+-0.74+-0.66)x10^-3 B(tau- -->K- K0bar [>=0pi0] nutau) = (3.30+-0.55+-0.39)x10^-3 where the first error is statistical and the second systematic.

  18. Radiative lifetimes of neutral cerium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den Hartog, E A; Buettner, K P; Lawler, J E [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI 53706 (United States)], E-mail: eadenhar@wisc.edu, E-mail: Kevin.Buettner@usma.edu, E-mail: jelawler@wisc.edu

    2009-04-28

    Radiative lifetimes, accurate to {+-}5%, have been measured for 153 levels of neutral cerium using time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence (TRLIF) on a slow beam of cerium atoms. Of the 153 levels studied, 150 are even parity and 3 are odd parity. The levels range in energy from 16 869 to 28 557 cm{sup -1}. This set of Ce I lifetimes is much more extensive than others published to date, and will provide the absolute calibration for a very large set of measured Ce I transition probabilities. Accurate transition probabilities for lines in the visible and ultraviolet are needed both in astrophysics, for the determination of elemental abundances, and by the lighting community, for research and development of metal halide high-intensity discharge lamps.

  19. Radiative lifetimes of neutral erbium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Den Hartog, E A; Chisholm, J P; Lawler, J E, E-mail: eadenhar@wisc.ed, E-mail: chisholm@astro.wisc.ed, E-mail: jelawler@wisc.ed [Department of Physics, University of Wisconsin, 1150 University Ave., Madison, WI 53706 (United States)

    2010-08-14

    Radiative lifetimes have been measured for 123 levels of neutral erbium using time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence on a slow beam of erbium atoms. Of the 123 levels, 56 are even parity and range in energy from 26 993 to 40 440 cm{sup -1} and 67 are odd parity ranging from 16 070 to 38 401 cm{sup -1}. This set of Er i lifetimes is much more extensive than others published to date, with 90 of the 123 level lifetimes measured for the first time. These lifetimes will provide the absolute calibration for a large set of measured Er i transition probabilities. Spectroscopic studies of rare earth elements including erbium are motivated by research needs in both the astrophysics and lighting communities.

  20. Laser sputter neutral mass spectrometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    King, B.V.; Clarke, M.; Hu, H.; Betz [Newcastle Univ., NSW (Australia). Dept. of Physics

    1993-12-31

    Laser sputter neutral mass spectrometry (LSNMS) is an emerging technique for highly sensitive surface analysis. In this technique a target is bombarded with a pulsed beam of keV ions. The sputtered particles are intercepted by a high intensity pulsed laser beam above the surface and ionised with almost 100% efficiency. The photions may then be mass analysed using a quadrupole or, more commonly, using time of flight (TOF) techniques. In this method photoions are extracted from the ionisation region, accelerated to a known energy E{sub o} and strike a channelplate detector a distance `d` away. The flight time `t` of the photoions is then related to their mass by `d` {radical}m / {radical} 2E{sub o} so measurement of `t` allows mass spectra to be obtained. It is found that LSNMS is an emerging technique of great sensitivity and flexibility, useful for both applied analysis and to investigate basic sputtering processes. 4 refs., 3 figs.

  1. Huntington II Simulation Program - PH. Student Workbook, Teacher's Guide, and Resource Handbook.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedland, James

    Described is the computer simulation program "PH." The program consists of three different laboratory investigations dealing with the pH specificity of enzymes. The purpose of the program is to enable tenth- to twelfth-grade students to determine a possible explanation for pH specificity in an experimental, but mathematical, fashion.…

  2. Autologous HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies: emergence of neutralization-resistant escape virus and subsequent development of escape virus neutralizing antibodies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arendrup, M; Nielsen, C; Hansen, J E

    1992-01-01

    The capacity of consecutive human sera to neutralize sequentially obtained autologous virus isolates was studied. HIV-1 was isolated three times over a 48-164-week period from three individuals immediately after seroconversion and from two individuals in later stages of infection. Development...... escape virus may be part of the explanation of the apparent failure of the immune system to control HIV infection....... of neutralizing antibodies to the primary virus isolates was detected 13-45 weeks after seroconversion. Emergence of escape virus with reduced sensitivity to neutralization by autologous sera was demonstrated. The patients subsequently developed neutralizing antibodies against the escape virus but after a delay...

  3. A BODIPY-derived fluorescent probe for cellular pH measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Fangfei; Xu, Yanmei; Jiang, Dechen; Qin, Yu; Chen, Hongyuan

    2013-04-15

    In this study, BODIPY-appended calix[4]arene was chosen as a fluorescent probe for intracellular pH. The compound with cell permeability can monitor the minor pH change near neutrality inside the cell and is the first BODIPY-derived probe reported for cytosolic pH. Owing to a high level of cell retention and minor cytotoxicity of the probe, stable fluorescence is provided in the cells for 24h, facilitating the precise observation of intracellular pH. A model of cell apoptosis was designed by exposure of the cells to a low concentration of hydrogen peroxide. An increase in the fluorescence of the cells confirmed that BODIPY-appended calix[4]arene sensed the fluctuation of the cellular pH during early cell apoptosis. The developed fluorescent pH probe will be useful for the study of cell apoptosis. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Neutrality and the response of rare species to environmental variance.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lisandro Benedetti-Cecchi

    Full Text Available Neutral models and differential responses of species to environmental heterogeneity offer complementary explanations of species abundance distribution and dynamics. Under what circumstances one model prevails over the other is still a matter of debate. We show that the decay of similarity over time in rocky seashore assemblages of algae and invertebrates sampled over a period of 16 years was consistent with the predictions of a stochastic model of ecological drift at time scales larger than 2 years, but not at time scales between 3 and 24 months when similarity was quantified with an index that reflected changes in abundance of rare species. A field experiment was performed to examine whether assemblages responded neutrally or non-neutrally to changes in temporal variance of disturbance. The experimental results did not reject neutrality, but identified a positive effect of intermediate levels of environmental heterogeneity on the abundance of rare species. This effect translated into a marked decrease in the characteristic time scale of species turnover, highlighting the role of rare species in driving assemblage dynamics in fluctuating environments.

  5. Arenavirus Glycan Shield Promotes Neutralizing Antibody Evasion and Protracted Infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rami Sommerstein

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Arenaviruses such as Lassa virus (LASV can cause severe hemorrhagic fever in humans. As a major impediment to vaccine development, delayed and weak neutralizing antibody (nAb responses represent a unifying characteristic of both natural infection and all vaccine candidates tested to date. To investigate the mechanisms underlying arenavirus nAb evasion we engineered several arenavirus envelope-chimeric viruses and glycan-deficient variants thereof. We performed neutralization tests with sera from experimentally infected mice and from LASV-convalescent human patients. NAb response kinetics in mice correlated inversely with the N-linked glycan density in the arenavirus envelope protein's globular head. Additionally and most intriguingly, infection with fully glycosylated viruses elicited antibodies, which neutralized predominantly their glycan-deficient variants, both in mice and humans. Binding studies with monoclonal antibodies indicated that envelope glycans reduced nAb on-rate, occupancy and thereby counteracted virus neutralization. In infected mice, the envelope glycan shield promoted protracted viral infection by preventing its timely elimination by the ensuing antibody response. Thus, arenavirus envelope glycosylation impairs the protective efficacy rather than the induction of nAbs, and thereby prevents efficient antibody-mediated virus control. This immune evasion mechanism imposes limitations on antibody-based vaccination and convalescent serum therapy.

  6. Fabrication of an amperometric bienzyme biosensing system with neutral red functionalized carbon nanotubes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeykumari, D R Shobha; Narayanan, S Sriman

    2009-08-01

    Novel nanomaterials for biosensor applications represent a rapidly progressing field of nanotechnology. An exploration of functionalized multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs) as a platform for amperometric determination of glucose employing the enzymes glucose oxidase (GOx) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP), which were immobilized with neutral red (NR) functionalized MWNTs is presented. The fabrication and analytical characterization of the glucose biosensor for the measurement of low concentration of glucose is described. Owing to the electrocatalytic effect of carbon nanotubes, the measurement of faradic responses resulting from enzymatic reactions has been realized at low potential with acceptable sensitivity. Experimental parameters affecting the sensitivity of biosensors, e.g., applied potential, pH, temperature etc., were optimized and potential interferences were examined. The response time for the glucose biosensor was very fast (within 2 seconds) and it showed good storage stability at 4 degrees C over a 5-month period. The proposed biosensor exhibited short response time, high sensitivity, easy operation, and simple sensor assembly. The biosensor was successfully applied to the determination of glucose in human blood samples and acceptable results were obtained.

  7. Distributions of 12 elements on 64 absorbers from simulated Hanford Neutralized Current Acid Waste (NCAW)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Svitra, Z.V.; Bowen, S.M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States); Marsh, S.F. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-12-01

    As part of the Hanford Tank Waste Remediation System program at Los Alamos, we evaluated 64 commercially available or experimental absorber materials for their ability to remove hazardous components from high-level waste. These absorbers included cation and anion exchange resins, inorganic exchangers, composite absorbers, and a series of liquid extractants sorbed on porous support-beads. We tested these absorbers with a solution that simulates Hanford neutralized current acid waste (NCAW) (pH 14.2). To this simulant solution we added the appropriate radionuclides and used gamma spectrometry to measure fission products (Cs, Sr, Tc, and Y) and matrix elements (Cr, Co, Fe, Mn, Ni, V, Zn, and Zr). For each of 768 element/absorber combinations, we measured distribution coefficients for dynamic contact periods of 30 min, 2 h, and 6 h to obtain information about sorption kinetics. On the basis of these 2304 measured distribution coefficients, we determined that many of the tested absorbers may be suitable for processing NCAW solutions.

  8. Governance Instruments for Energy Neutral Housing Developments

    OpenAIRE

    Qi Han; Sahul Reddy Kadarpeta; Bauke de Vries

    2011-01-01

    Netherlands has set national energy targets for year 2020 following the European Union vision. In this context at the local level Eindhoven Municipality has set its ambition to go energy neutral in housing sector by 2020 and decided to develop new energy neutral housing areas. Lack of strict regulations and appropriate forms of support aimed at relevant stakeholders involved has attributed to the lack of acceptance for energy neutral housing in the current housing market. Further lack of a de...

  9. The pH Value of Fungicide, Insecticide and Mineral Fertilizer Mixtures Depending on Water Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dušanka Inđić

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper deals with the effect of water quality on the pH value of fungicides, insecticides, mineral fertilizers and their mixtures. The fungicides propineb (Antracol WP-70 and mancozeb (Dithane M-70, insecticides pirimiphos-methyl (Actellic-50 and imidacloprid(Confidor 200-SL, several fertilizers (Ferticare I, Ferticare II, Ferticare III and Wuxal Super and their mixtures were analyzed for pH value under laboratory conditions using a potentiometric pH meter. Measurements were made directly after preparation or mixing with tap and well water and 24 hours later. Tap water exhibited a neutral reaction. A slightly alkaline reaction of well water was mostlikely due to high ammonium content. The suspensions of Antracol WP-70 exhibited slightly alkaline reactions with both water types during 24 hours. The spray liquids of Dithane M-70 mixed with tap or well water had neutral reaction after preparation and slightly alkaline reaction after 24 hours. The emulsions of Actellic-50 showed neutral reaction with both water types, followed by a pH increase in tap water after 24 hours. The solutions of Confidor200-SL had a slightly alkaline reaction after mixing and the pH value increased with both water types after 24 hours. It is therefore recommended to apply these insecticides directly after preparation. Mineral fertilizers considerably reduced pH values of the fungicide and insecticide components in double and triple mixtures, especially Ferticare nutrients which had a moderately acid reaction. Wuxal Super had a neutral reaction with both water types.The mixtures with well water increased pH values, which indicates that water pH does affect the pH value of the mixture. Both individual fertilizers and all mixtures (double and triple with Ferticare had pH values between 2.4 and 6, which allows their active liquids to be stored for 12 to 24 hours. The suspensions (Antracol WP-70, double and triple mixtures, emulsions (Actellic-50 and Actellic-50+Wuxal Super

  10. The acid test of fluoride: how pH modulates toxicity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramaswamy Sharma

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available It is not known why the ameloblasts responsible for dental enamel formation are uniquely sensitive to fluoride (F(-. Herein, we present a novel theory with supporting data to show that the low pH environment of maturating stage ameloblasts enhances their sensitivity to a given dose of F(-. Enamel formation is initiated in a neutral pH environment (secretory stage; however, the pH can fall to below 6.0 as most of the mineral precipitates (maturation stage. Low pH can facilitate entry of F(- into cells. Here, we asked if F(- was more toxic at low pH, as measured by increased cell stress and decreased cell function.Treatment of ameloblast-derived LS8 cells with F(- at low pH reduced the threshold dose of F(- required to phosphorylate stress-related proteins, PERK, eIF2alpha, JNK and c-jun. To assess protein secretion, LS8 cells were stably transduced with a secreted reporter, Gaussia luciferase, and secretion was quantified as a function of F(- dose and pH. Luciferase secretion significantly decreased within 2 hr of F(- treatment at low pH versus neutral pH, indicating increased functional toxicity. Rats given 100 ppm F(- in their drinking water exhibited increased stress-mediated phosphorylation of eIF2alpha in maturation stage ameloblasts (pH<6.0 as compared to secretory stage ameloblasts (pH approximately 7.2. Intriguingly, F(--treated rats demonstrated a striking decrease in transcripts expressed during the maturation stage of enamel development (Klk4 and Amtn. In contrast, the expression of secretory stage genes, AmelX, Ambn, Enam and Mmp20, was unaffected.The low pH environment of maturation stage ameloblasts facilitates the uptake of F(-, causing increased cell stress that compromises ameloblast function, resulting in dental fluorosis.

  11. Wound pH depends on actual wound size

    CERN Document Server

    Sirkka, T; Apell, S P

    2016-01-01

    Wound healing is an intricate process that involves many types of cells, reaction pathways as well as chemical, physical and electrical cues. Since biochemical reactions and physiological events are pH-dependent we study here pH as an important major characteristic of the wound healing process in the presence of endogenous and exogenous electric fields. Our model gives the spatial pH distribution in a wound. In particular we isolate a number of dimensionless quantities which sets the length, energy and time scales governing the wound healing process and which can be experimentally tested. Most interesting finding is that wound pH depends on actual wound size.

  12. On implicit abstract neutral nonlinear differential equations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernández, Eduardo, E-mail: lalohm@ffclrp.usp.br [Universidade de São Paulo, Departamento de Computação e Matemática, Faculdade de Filosofia Ciências e Letras de Ribeirão Preto (Brazil); O’Regan, Donal, E-mail: donal.oregan@nuigalway.ie [National University of Ireland, School of Mathematics, Statistics and Applied Mathematics (Ireland)

    2016-04-15

    In this paper we continue our developments in Hernández and O’Regan (J Funct Anal 261:3457–3481, 2011) on the existence of solutions for abstract neutral differential equations. In particular we extend the results in Hernández and O’Regan (J Funct Anal 261:3457–3481, 2011) for the case of implicit nonlinear neutral equations and we focus on applications to partial “nonlinear” neutral differential equations. Some applications involving partial neutral differential equations are presented.

  13. Emissions trading and profit-neutral grandfathering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hepburn, Cameron; Ritz, Robert; Quah, John (Oxford Univ., Smith School of Enterprise and the Environment, Oxford (United Kingdom))

    2008-07-01

    This paper examines the amount of grandfathering needed for an emissions trading scheme (ETS) to have a neutral impact on firm profits. We provide a simple formula to calculate profit-neutral grandfathering in an asymmetric Cournot model with a general demand function. Using this formula, we obtain estimates of profit-neutral grandfathering for the electricity, cement, newsprint and steel industries. Under the current EU ETS, firms obtain close to full grandfathering. We find no evidence that any industry as a whole could be worse off with full grandfathering. We also show that the common presumption that a higher rate of cost pass-through lowers profit-neutral grandfathering is unreliable

  14. Specificity of the autologous neutralizing antibody response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Penny L; Gray, Elin S; Morris, Lynn

    2009-09-01

    It has long been known that autologous neutralizing antibodies (AnAbs) exert pressure on the envelope of HIV, resulting in neutralization escape. However, recently, progress has been made in uncovering the precise targets of these potent early antibodies. AnAbs primarily target variable regions of the HIV-1 envelope, explaining the strain-specificity of these antibodies. Despite high neutralizing potential and cross-reactivity, anti-V3 antibodies do not contribute to autologous neutralization. The V1V2 is commonly immunogenic in early HIV-1 and simian human immunodeficiency virus infections, though the nature of these epitopes remains to be determined. In subtype C viruses, the C3 region is a neutralization target, possibly as a result of its more exposed and amphipathic structure. Autologous neutralization appears to be mediated by very few AnAb specificities that develop sequentially suggesting the possibility of immunological hierarchies for both binding and neutralizing antibodies. The role of AnAbs in preventing superinfection and in restricting virus replication is reexamined in the context of recent data. New studies have greatly contributed toward our understanding of the specificities mediating autologous neutralization and highlighted potential vulnerabilities on transmitted viruses. However, the contribution of AnAbs to the development of neutralization breadth remains to be characterized.

  15. Effect of feeding fine maize particles on the reticular pH, milk yield and composition of dairy cows.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Nardi, R; Marchesini, G; Stefani, A-L; Barberio, A; Andrighetto, I; Segato, S

    2014-06-01

    The particle size of cereal grains has been found to modulate the rate of passage from the rumen and the digestibility of starch and neutral detergent fibre (NDF), but few studies have examined its impact on reticular pH. The study aimed to evaluate the effect of feeding finely ground maize on the risk of ruminal acidosis, milk yield and composition. Twelve Holstein-Friesian cows were assigned to one of two experimental groups and fed according to a cross-over design. Diets were isoenergetic and isonitrogenous and were characterised by the same NDF and ADF, differing only in maize particle size. In the control diet (Ct), the maize meal was ground to 1.0 mm, whereas in the experimental diet, it was finely ground (Fg) to 0.5 mm. The pH and temperature of the reticulum were continuously measured in eight cows throughout the trial using indwelling sensors. Dry matter intake was higher in cows offered Fg diet than in Ct (19.0 vs. 20.3 kg/day; p = 0.067). However, milk yield (p = 0.855) and the 3.5% fat-corrected milk (FCM) (p = 0.724) did not show any differences between the diets. Casein (2.48 vs. 2.57%; p = 0.035) and crude protein (CP) (3.18 vs. 3.31%; p = 0.021) resulted higher in Fg. Similarly, starch digestibility increased in animals offered Fg diet versus Ct (0.94 vs. 0.98; p = 0.078). Among the reticular parameters, the Fg-fed cows spent a significantly higher time below the 5.5 pH threshold (15 vs. 61 min/day; p = 0.047) and had an average daily variation in reticular pH characterised by a lower nadir pH (5.95 vs. 5.72; p < 0.001) and a higher pH range (0.79 vs. 0.94; p = 0.003). In this study, grain particle size affected the risk of the onset of ruminal acidosis. Therefore, it should be carefully considered when formulating rations. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition © 2013 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  16. Gaz Phase IR and UV Spectroscopy of Neutral Contact Ion Pairs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habka, Sana; Brenner, Valerie; Mons, Michel; Gloaguen, Eric

    2016-06-01

    Cations and anions, in solution, tend to pair up forming ion pairs. They play a crucial role in many fundamental processes in ion-concentrated solutions and living organisms. Despite their importance and vast applications in physics, chemistry and biochemistry, they remain difficult to characterize namely because of the coexistence of several types of pairing in solution. However, an interesting alternative consists in applying highly selective gas phase spectroscopy which can offer new insights on these neutral ion pairs. Our study consists in characterizing contact ion pairs (CIPs) in isolated model systems (M+, Ph-(CH2)n-COO- with M=Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs, and n=1-3), to determine their spectral signatures and compare them to ion pairs in solution. We have used laser desorption to vaporize a solid tablet containing the desired salt. Structural information for each system was obtained by mass-selective, UV and IR laser spectroscopy combined with high level quantum chemistry calculations1. Evidence of the presence of neutral CIPs was found by scanning the π-π* transition of the phenyl ring using resonant two-photon ionization (R2PI). Then, conformational selective IR/UV double resonance spectra were recorded in the CO2- stretch region for each conformation detected. The good agreement between theoretical data obtained at the BSSE-corrected-fullCCSD(T)/dhf-TZVPP//B97-D3/dhf-TZVPP level and experimental IR spectra led us to assign the 3D structure for each ion pair formed. Spectral signatures of (M+, Ph-CH2-COO-) pairs, were assigned to a bidentate CIPs between the alkali cation and the carboxylate group. In the case of (Li+, Ph-(CH2)3-COO-) pairs, the presence of a flexible side chain promotes a cation-π interaction leading to a tridentate O-O-π structure with its unique IR and UV signatures. IR spectra obtained on isolated CIPs were found very much alike the ones published on lithium and sodium acetate in solution2. However, in the case of sodium acetate, solution

  17. [Expression and characterization of a neutral Enterobacter cloacae GX-3 invertase].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Yingli; Wu, Qianqian; Zhang, Zhikai; Wang, Zilong; Wei, Yutuo; Huang, Ribo; Du, Liqin

    2015-04-04

    To characterize a neutral invertase from Enterobacter cloacae GX-3. By searching GenBank database, we found the genes encoding invertase from the same genus Enterobacter. These sequences were aligned and analyzed. Then, a gene encoding neutral invertase was amplified by PCR. The recombinant plasmid pQE-Einv was constructed. We purified the expressed protein Einv with nickel-nitrilotriacetic acid chromatography. At last, the characterics of the recombinant protein Einv were studied in detail. A gene encoding neutral invertase was discovered and cloned from E. cloacae GX-3. The recombinant enzyme Einv was characterized. Einv had an optimum pH of 6.5 and an optimum temperature of 40 degrees C. The results of sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electropheresis (SDS-PAGE) and gel permeation chromatography ( GPC) showed that Einv was a homo-dimer protein. Einv retained 80% activity at sucrose concentrations up to 1170 mmol/L. But, Einv had no transglycosylation activity at high sucrose concentration. It could hydrolyze raffinose, 1-kestose, nystose, fructofuranosylnystose and stachyose. It is first reported that an invertase from Enterobacter cloacae is a beta-fructofuranosidase at neutral pH range. It only has hydrolysis activity without tranglycosylation activity. These characteristics indicate that the neutral invertase Einv has important applications in food industry.

  18. ACIDIC AND NEUTRAL LIQUID INGESTION IN PATIENTS WITH GASTROESOPHAGEAL REFLUX DISEASE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dafne Calsoni GOMES

    Full Text Available Context Sour acidic liquid has a slower distal esophageal transit than a neutral liquid. Our hypothesis was that an acidic sour bolus has a different ingestion dynamic than a neutral bolus. Method In 50 healthy volunteers and 29 patients with gastroesophageal reflux disease (GERD, we evaluated the ingestion dynamics of 100 mL of acidic sour liquid (concentrated lemon juice, pH: 3.0 and 100 mL of water (pH: 6.8. The time to ingest the total volume, the number of swallows to ingest the volume, the interval between swallows, the flux of ingestion and the volume ingested in each swallow was measured. Results In both groups, healthy volunteers and patients in treatment for GERD, the acidic liquid took longer to be ingested, a higher number of swallows, a slower flux of ingestion and a smaller volume in each swallow than the neutral bolus. There was no difference between healthy volunteers and patients with GERD. The ingestion in women was longer than in men for acidic and neutral liquids. Conclusion Acidic liquid has a different dynamic of ingestion than the neutral liquid, which may be consequence of the slower transit through the distal esophageal body or an anticipation to drink a sour bolus. Patients with GERD have the same prolonged ingestion of the acidic liquid bolus as seen in healthy volunteers.

  19. Liberal Neutrality : Constructivist, not foundationalist

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lendell Horne

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In defending the principle of neutrality, liberals have often appealed to a more general moral principle that forbids coercing persons in the name of reasons those persons themselves cannot reasonably be expected to share. Yet liberals have struggled to articulate a non-arbitrary, non-dogmatic distinction between the reasons that persons can reasonably be expected to share and those they cannot. The reason for this, I argue, is that what it means to “share a reason” is itself obscure. In this paper I articulate two different conceptions of what it is to share a reason; I call these conceptions “foundationalist” and “constructivist.” On the foundationalist view, two people “share” a reason just in the sense that the same reason applies to each of them independently. On this view, I argue, debates about the reasons we share collapse into debates about the reasons we have, moving us no closer to an adequate defense of neutrality. On the constructivist view, by contrast, “sharing reasons” is understood as a kind of activity, and the reasons we must share are just those reasons that make this activity possible. I argue that the constructivist conception of sharing reasons yields a better defense of the principle of neutrality. À travers leur défense du principe de neutralité, les libéraux ont souvent interpellé un principe moral plus général qui interdit de contraindre des personnes pour des raisons dont on ne peut raisonnablement attendre que ces personnes elles-mêmes les partagent. Les libéraux éprouvent cependant de la difficulté à articuler une distinction non-arbitraire et non-dogmatique entre les raisons dont on peut raisonnablement attendre que les personnes les partagent et celles dont on ne le peut pas. Je soutiens dans cet article que cette difficulté provient du fait que «partager une raison » est une notion obscure. Pour illustrer cela, je me pencherai sur deux conceptions distinctes de ce que veut dire

  20. Photoproduction of Neutral Kaons on Deuterons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckford, Brian

    2006-11-01

    Experimentation to greater understand the strangeness production mechanism can be performed by observing the electromagnetic interaction that leads to Kaon photoproduction. The n (γ, K^0) λ reaction may assist in answering questions about the strangeness photo-production process. An experiment into the elementary Kaon photoproduction process was investigated in an experiment conducted at the Laboratory of Nuclear Science of Tohoku University (LNS) using the Neutral Kaon Spectrometer. (NKS). The experiment was conducted by the d (γ, K^0) reaction. K^0 will be measured in the K^0->π^+π^- decay chain by the NKS. The NKS implements many detectors working in coincidence: These ranging from the Tagged Photon Beam generated by the 1.2 GeV Electron beam via bremsstrahlung, an Inner Plastic Scintillator Hodoscope (IH), a Straw Drift Chamber (SDC), a Cylindrical Drift Chamber (CDC), and an Outer Plastic Scintillator Hodoscope. Due to the background produced through the γ-> e+e- process, electron veto counters (EV) were placed in the middle of the OH to reject charged particles in the horizontal plane of the beam line. Preliminary analysis of the data indicates the need for pulse height correction. This was achieved by analysis of the Inner and Outer hodoscopes, and determining the energy deposit in the scintillators.

  1. Modeling the adsorption of hydrogen, sodium, chloride and phthalate on goethite using a strict charge-neutral ion-exchange theory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ndu, Udonna

    2017-01-01

    Simultaneous adsorption modeling of four ions was predicted with a strict net charge-neutral ion-exchange theory and its corresponding equilibrium and mass balance equations. An important key to the success of this approach was the proper collection of all the data, particularly the proton adsorption data, and the inclusion of variable concentrations of conjugate ions from the experimental pH adjustments. Using IExFit software, the ion-exchange model used here predicted the competitive retention of several ions on goethite by assuming that the co-adsorption or desorption of all ions occurred in the correct stoichiometries needed to maintain electroneutrality. This approach also revealed that the retention strength of Cl− ions on goethite increases in the presence of phthalate ions. That is, an anion-anion enhancement effect was observed. The retention of Cl− ions was much weaker than phthalate ions, and this also resulted in a higher sensitivity of the Cl− ions toward minor variations in the surface reactivity. The proposed model uses four goethite surface sites. The drop in retention of phthalate ions at low pH was fully described here as resulting from competitive Cl− reactions, which were introduced in increasing concentrations into the matrix as the conjugate base to the acid added to lower the pH. PMID:28464020

  2. Modeling the adsorption of hydrogen, sodium, chloride and phthalate on goethite using a strict charge-neutral ion-exchange theory.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristian P Schulthess

    Full Text Available Simultaneous adsorption modeling of four ions was predicted with a strict net charge-neutral ion-exchange theory and its corresponding equilibrium and mass balance equations. An important key to the success of this approach was the proper collection of all the data, particularly the proton adsorption data, and the inclusion of variable concentrations of conjugate ions from the experimental pH adjustments. Using IExFit software, the ion-exchange model used here predicted the competitive retention of several ions on goethite by assuming that the co-adsorption or desorption of all ions occurred in the correct stoichiometries needed to maintain electroneutrality. This approach also revealed that the retention strength of Cl- ions on goethite increases in the presence of phthalate ions. That is, an anion-anion enhancement effect was observed. The retention of Cl- ions was much weaker than phthalate ions, and this also resulted in a higher sensitivity of the Cl- ions toward minor variations in the surface reactivity. The proposed model uses four goethite surface sites. The drop in retention of phthalate ions at low pH was fully described here as resulting from competitive Cl- reactions, which were introduced in increasing concentrations into the matrix as the conjugate base to the acid added to lower the pH.

  3. Study of neutral red interaction with DNA by resolution of rank deficient multi-way fluorescence data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moghaddam, Fatemeh Ghasemi; Kompany Zare, Mohsen; Gholami, Somayeh

    2012-01-01

    The interaction of neutral red (NR) as an efficient anticancer drug with DNA was studied under physiological pH condition. Three-way data array were recorded by measuring excitation-emission fluorescence during the titration of neutral red with DNA at constant pH. The acid-base equilibrium constant...... of the equilibrium state suggested that both NR and HNR could bind concurrently to DNA. For the first time, rank annihilation factor analysis (RAFA) method was used for estimation of the equilibrium constants by annihiling contribution of equilibrium concentrations of one or more species (protonated and deprotonated...

  4. A Neutral Odor May Become a Sexual Incentive through Classical Conditioning in Male Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kvitvik, Inger-Line; Berg, Kristine Marit; Agmo, Anders

    2010-01-01

    A neutral olfactory stimulus was employed as CS in a series of experiments with a sexually receptive female as UCS and the execution of an intromission as the UCR. Each experimental session lasted until the male ejaculated. The time the experimental subject spent in a zone adjacent to the source of the olfactory stimulus during the 10 s of CS…

  5. Neutralization of highly charged ions at grazing incidence on a metal surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeijlmans van Emmichoven, P.A. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6372 (US) Joint Institute for Heavy Ion Research, Holifield Heavy Ion Research Facility, Oak Facility, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6374 (USA)); Havener, C.C.; Meyer, F.W. (Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831-6372 (USA))

    1991-02-01

    Electron energy spectra and total electron yields are studied to provide information on the neutralization of 24-keV N{sup {ital q}+} ions ({ital q}=2,4,6) incident at grazing angles on a Cu(100) surface. A computer simulation of the neutralization is presented that assumes resonant neutralization of the ions leading to highly excited hollow'' atoms. Deexcitation of these atoms is assumed to take place by purely intra-atomic Auger transitions. The results of this simulation are not in agreement with our experimental observations. A modified simulation, assuming again resonant neutralization of the ions followed by faster deexcitation processes, and, in addition, fast Auger deexcitation directly into the {ital L} shell, shows a much better agreement with the experimental observations.

  6. Acid Water Neutralization Using Microbial Fuel Cells: An Alternative for Acid Mine Drainage Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Leiva

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Acid mine drainage (AMD is a complex environmental problem, which has adverse effects on surface and ground waters due to low pH, high toxic metals, and dissolved salts. New bioremediation approach based on microbial fuel cells (MFC can be a novel and sustainable alternative for AMD treatment. We studied the potential of MFC for acidic synthetic water treatment through pH neutralization in batch-mode and continuous-flow operation. We observed a marked pH increase, from ~3.7 to ~7.9 under batch conditions and to ~5.8 under continuous-flow operation. Likewise, batch reactors (non-MFC inoculated with different MFC-enriched biofilms showed a very similar pH increase, suggesting that the neutralization observed for batch operation was due to a synergistic influence of these communities. These preliminary results support the idea of using MFC technologies for AMD remediation, which could help to reduce costs associated with conventional technologies. Advances in this configuration could even be extrapolated to the recovery of heavy metals by precipitation or adsorption processes due to the acid neutralization.

  7. Enveloped virus inactivation using neutral arginine solutions and applications in therapeutic protein purification processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCue, Justin T; Selvitelli, Keith; Cecchini, Doug; Brown, Rhonda

    2014-01-01

    For the manufacturing of recombinant protein therapeutics produced from mammalian cell culture, demonstrating the capacity of the purification process to effectively clear infectious viruses is a regulatory requirement. At least two process steps, using different mechanisms of virus removal and/or inactivation, should be validated in support of the regulatory approval process. For example, exposure of the product stream to low pH, detergents or solvent/detergent combinations is commonly incorporated in protein purification processes for the inactivation of lipid-enveloped viruses. However, some proteins have limited stability at low pH or in the presence of the detergents, and alternative techniques for achieving the inactivation of enveloped viruses would be beneficial. We present here an alternative and novel approach for the rapid inactivation of enveloped viruses using pH-neutral buffer solutions containing arginine. The implementation of this approach in a monoclonal antibody or Fc-fusion protein purification process is described and illustrated with several different therapeutic proteins. The use of the neutral pH arginine solution was able to effectively inactivate two enveloped model viruses, with no measurable effect on the product quality of the investigated proteins. Thus, the use of pH-neutral arginine containing buffer solutions provides an alternative means of virus inactivation where other forms of virus inactivation, such as low pH and/or solvent/detergent treatments are not possible or undesirable due to protein stability limitations. © 2013 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  8. Effect of delayed processing on nutrient composition, pH and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fish are a nutrient rich food but highly perishable due to its high water activity, protein content, neutral pH and presence of autolytic enzymes. This explains why fresh fish quality deteriorates rapidly if not properly stored after catch such as use of low temperature. The implication is that delayed processing of fresh fish ...

  9. Wood Ash Induced pH Changes Strongly Affect Soil Bacterial Numbers and Community Composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bang-Andreasen, Toke; Nielsen, Jeppe T.; Voriskova, Jana

    2017-01-01

    -neutralizing capabilities. However, wood ash has several ecosystem-perturbing effects like increased soil pH and pore water electrical conductivity both known to strongly impact soil bacterial numbers and community composition. Studies investigating soil bacterial community responses to wood ash application remain sparse...

  10. Activated carbon addition affects substrate pH and germination of six plant species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabouw, P.; Nab, M.; Dam, van M.

    2010-01-01

    Activated carbon (AC) is widely used in ecological studies for neutralizing allelopathic compounds. However, it has been suggested that AC has direct effects on plants because it alters substrate parameters such as nutrient availability and pH. These side-effects of AC addition may interfere with

  11. Activated carbon addition affects soil pH and germination of six plant species

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kabouw, P.; Nab, M.R.; Van Dam, N.M.

    2010-01-01

    Activated carbon (AC) is widely used in ecological studies for neutralizing allelopathic compounds. However, it has been suggested that AC has direct effects on plants because it alters substrate parameters such as nutrient availability and pH. These side-effects of AC addition may interfere with

  12. The Methods Behind PH WINS

    OpenAIRE

    Leider, Jonathon P.; Bharthapudi, Kiran; Pineau, Vicki; Liu, Lin; Harper, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey (PH WINS) has yielded the first-ever nationally representative sample of state health agency central office employees. The survey represents a step forward in rigorous, systematic data collection to inform the public health workforce development agenda in the United States. PH WINS is a Web-based survey and was developed with guidance from a panel of public health workforce experts including practitioners and researchers. It draws heavily...

  13. Programmable pH buffers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gough, Dara Van; Huber, Dale L.; Bunker, Bruce C.; Roberts, Mark E.

    2017-01-24

    A programmable pH buffer comprises a copolymer that changes pK.sub.a at a lower critical solution temperature (LCST) in water. The copolymer comprises a thermally programmable polymer that undergoes a hydrophobic-to-hydrophilic phase change at the LCST and an electrolytic polymer that exhibits acid-base properties that are responsive to the phase change. The programmable pH buffer can be used to sequester CO.sub.2 into water.

  14. Control of electron transfer in the cytochrome system of mitochondria by pH, transmembrane pH gradient and electrical potential. The cytochromes b-c segment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papa, S; Lorusso, M; Izzo, G; Capuano, F

    1981-02-15

    1. A study is presented of the effects of pH, transmembrane pH gradient and electrical potential on oxidoreductions of b and c cytochromes in ox heart mitochondria and 'inside-out' submitochondrial particles. 2. Kinetic analysis shows that, in mitochondria at neutral pH, there is a restraint on the aerobic oxidation of cytochrome b566 with respect to cytochrome b562. Valinomycin plus K+ accelerates cytochrome b566 oxidation and retards net oxidation of cytochrome b562. At alkaline pH the rate of cytochrome b566 oxidation approaches that of cytochrome b562 and the effects of valinomycin on b cytochromes are impaired. 3. At slightly acidic pH, oxygenation of antimycin-supplemented mitochondria causes rapid reduction of cytochrome b566 and small delayed reduction of cytochrome b562. Valinomycin or a pH increase in the medium promote reduction of cytochrome b562 and decrease net reduction of cytochrome b566. 4. Addition of valinomycin to mitochondria and submitochondrial particles in the respiring steady state causes, at pH values around neutrality, preferential oxidation of cytochrome b566 with respect to cytochrome b562. The differential effect of valinomycin on oxidation of cytochromes b566 and b562 is enhanced by substitution of 1H2O of the medium with 2H2O and tends to disappear as the pH of the medium is raised to alkaline values. 5. Nigericin addition in the aerobic steady state causes, both in mitochondria and submitochondrial particles, preferential oxidation of cytochrome b562 with respect to cytochrome b566. This is accompanied by c cytochrome oxidation in mitochondria but c cytochrome reduction in submitochondrial particles. 6. In mitochondria as well as in submitochondrial particles, the aerobic transmembrane potential (delta psi) does not change by raising the pH of the external medium from neutrality to alkalinity. The transmembrane pH gradient (delta pH) on the other hand, decrease slightly. 7. The results presented provide evidence that the delta psi

  15. Voltammetric pH Nanosensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michalak, Magdalena; Kurel, Malgorzata; Jedraszko, Justyna; Toczydlowska, Diana; Wittstock, Gunther; Opallo, Marcin; Nogala, Wojciech

    2015-12-01

    Nanoscale pH evaluation is a prerequisite for understanding the processes and phenomena occurring at solid-liquid, liquid-liquid, and liquid-gas interfaces, e.g., heterogeneous catalysis, extraction, partitioning, and corrosion. Research on the homogeneous processes within small volumes such as intracellular fluids, microdroplets, and microfluidic chips also requires nanometer scale pH assessment. Due to the opacity of numerous systems, optical methods are useless and, if applicable, require addition of a pH-sensitive dye. Potentiometric probes suffer from many drawbacks such as potential drift and lack of selectivity. Here, we present a voltammetric nanosensor for reliable pH assessment between pH 2 and 12 with high spatial resolution. It consists of a pyrolytic carbon nanoelectrode obtained by chemical vapor deposition (CVD) inside a quartz nanopipette. The carbon is modified by adsorption of syringaldazine from its ethanolic solution. It exhibits a stable quasi-reversible cyclic voltammogram with nearly Nernstian dependency of midpeak potentials (-54 mV/pH). This sensor was applied as a probe for scanning electrochemical microscopy (SECM) in order to map pH over a platinum ultramicroelectrode (UME), generating hydroxide ions (OH(-)) by the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) at a diffusion-controlled rate in aerated phosphate buffered saline (PBS). The results reveal the alkalization of the electrolyte close to the oxygen reducing electrode, showing the insufficient buffer capacity of PBS to maintain a stable pH at the given conditions.

  16. Absorption from Neutral Acceptors in GaAs and GaP

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Ove

    1973-01-01

    We present a new calculation of the absorption due to transitions of holes between neutral acceptors and the various valence-band sublevels in GaAs and GaP. The acceptor wave function was approximated by a previously suggested expression for ground-state wave functions appropriate to complicated ...... band extrema. Numerical calculations of the absorption from intervalence-band transitions of free holes and neutral acceptors have been performed. Good agreement with experimental results is obtained....

  17. Understanding of Neutral Gas Transport in the Alcator C-Mod Tokamak Divertor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.P. Stotler; C.S. Pitcher; C.J. Boswell; B. LaBombard; J.L. Terry; J.D. Elder; S. Lisgo

    2002-05-07

    A series of experiments on the effect of divertor baffling on the Alcator C-Mod tokamak provides stringent tests on models of neutral gas transport in and around the divertor region. One attractive feature of these experiments is that a trial description of the background plasma can be constructed from experimental measurements using a simple model, allowing the neutral gas transport to be studied with a stand-alone code. The neutral-ion and neutral-neutral elastic scattering processes recently added to the DEGAS 2 Monte Carlo neutral transport code permit the neutral gas flow rates between the divertor and main chamber to be simulated more realistically than before. Nonetheless, the simulated neutral pressures are too low and the deuterium Balmer-alpha emission profiles differ qualitatively from those measured, indicating an incomplete understanding of the physical processes involved in the experiment. Some potential explanations are examined and opportunities for future exploration a re highlighted. Improvements to atomic and surface physics data and models will play a role in the latter.

  18. Study of $\\pi^{-}p$ interactions with neutral final states

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    This experiment is a study of the production of neutral particles or states decaying into photons in the reaction $\\pi^{-} + p \\rightarrow M^{0} + n$ at SPS energies. \\\\ \\\\ Special attention is paid to the measurement of the production of heavy particles with hidden quantum numbers and of possible new heavy spinless states decaying into two photons. \\\\ \\\\ The large four-momentum transfer behaviour of binary processes involving known neutral mesons and the production of new meson resonances with high mass and spin will also be studied. Complex multiparticle final states will be analysed as a by-product.\\\\ \\\\ The central unit of the experimental set-up is a 4000 cell Cerenkov hodoscope spectrometer (GAMS) which allows the measurement of the momentum vector of each $\\gamma$ in a multigamma event. \\\\ \\\\ The longitudinal position of the interaction point in the liquid hydrogen target is measured by the Cerenkov light intensity. \\\\ \\\\ A guard system, made of scintillation counters and lead-glass Cerenkov counters, ...

  19. Advanced neutral gas diagnostics for magnetic confinement devices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenzel, U.; Kremeyer, T.; Schlisio, G.; Marquardt, M.; Pedersen, T. S.; Schmitz, O.; Mackie, B.; Maisano-Brown, J.; the W7-X Team

    2017-09-01

    For the study of particle exhaust in nuclear fusion devices the neutral pressure must be measured in strong magnetic fields. We describe as an example the neutral pressure gauges in the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator. Two types are used: hot cathode ionization gauges (or ASDEX pressure gauges) and Penning gauges. We show some results from the first experimental campaign. The main problems were runtime effects and the failure of some ASDEX pressure gauges. To improve the reliability we integrated a new LaB6 electron emitter into the ASDEX pressure gauges. In addition, a special Penning gauge without permanent magnets was developed in order to operate Penning gauges near the plasma edge. These new pressure gauges will be used in the upcoming campaign of Wendelstein 7-X.

  20. A New Age of Constructivism: "Mode Neutral"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Peter; Smith, Brian; Sherratt, Cathy

    2008-01-01

    This article presents work in progress exploring social constructivism within Mode Neutral, and how various conditions impact upon the student experience. Mode Neutral's three dimensions--curriculum design, the role of the tutor and communication for learning--are affected by the conditions that can vary in any given context. The authors realise…

  1. 6 CFR 27.305 - Neutral adjudications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 6 Domestic Security 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Neutral adjudications. 27.305 Section 27.305 Domestic Security DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY, OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY CHEMICAL FACILITY ANTI-TERRORISM STANDARDS Orders and Adjudications § 27.305 Neutral adjudications. (a) Any facility or other person who has...

  2. A new sampling formula for neutral biodiversity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Etienne, R.S.

    2005-01-01

    The neutral model of biodiversity, proposed by Hubbell (The Unified Neutral Theory of Biodiversity and Biogeography, Princeton University Press, Princeton, NJ, 2001) to explain the diversity of functionally equivalent species, has been subject of hot debate in community ecology. Whereas Hubbell

  3. Neutral Vlasov kinetic theory of magnetized plasmas

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Tronci; E. Camporeale (Enrico)

    2014-01-01

    htmlabstractThe low-frequency limit of Maxwell equations is considered in the Maxwell-Vlasov system. This limit produces a neutral Vlasov system that captures essential features of plasma dynamics, while neglecting radiation effects. Euler-Poincar\\'e reduction theory is used to show that the neutral

  4. Neutral Vlasov kinetic theory of magnetized plasmas.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C. Tronci; E. Camporeale (Enrico)

    2015-01-01

    htmlabstractThe low-frequency limit of Maxwell equations is considered in the Maxwell-Vlasov system. This limit produces a neutral Vlasov system that captures essential features of plasma dynamics, while neglecting radiation effects. Euler-Poincar\\'e reduction theory is used to show that the neutral

  5. The case for ecological neutral theory

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosindell, James; Hubbell, Stephen P.; He, Fangliang; Harmon, Luke J.; Etienne, Rampal S.

    Ecological neutral theory has elicited strong opinions in recent years. Here, we review these opinions and strip away some unfortunate problems with semantics to reveal three major underlying questions. Only one of these relates to neutral theory and the importance of ecological drift, whereas the

  6. Net neutrality and inflation of traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peitz, M.; Schütt, Florian

    Under strict net neutrality Internet service providers (ISPs) are required to carry data without any differentiation and at no cost to the content provider. We provide a simple framework with a monopoly ISP to evaluate the short-run effects of different net neutrality rules. Content differs in its

  7. Net Neutrality and Inflation of Traffic

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peitz, M.; Schütt, F.

    2015-01-01

    Under strict net neutrality Internet service providers (ISPs) are required to carry data without any differentiation and at no cost to the content provider. We provide a simple framework with a monopoly ISP to evaluate different net neutrality rules. Content differs in its sensitivity to delay.

  8. 32 CFR 644.323 - Neutral language.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Neutral language. 644.323 Section 644.323 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL PROPERTY REAL ESTATE HANDBOOK Disposal § 644.323 Neutral language. Wherever the words “man”, “men”, or their related...

  9. Tax Neutrality on International Capital Investments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gizem KAPUCU

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available The tax policies which states follow with regard to developing technology and capital investments with raising mobility due to globalism are need to be discussed in its legal basis. The principle of tax neutrality has the aim of being legal foundation for these policies. According to this, the neutrality principle in taxation of international capital investments is provided with two measures, namely; not effecting the investment decision and not discriminate between investments. In this paper, initially focused on the conceptual framework and the foundations of the tax neutrality principle and later capital export neutrality and capital import neutrality are considered and explained with regard to international capital movements. Moreover, conformity and diversion to the principle of the current situation and regulations in OECD, EU and Turkey are examined.

  10. Study on the interaction of the antiviral drug, zidovudine with DNA using neutral red (NR) and methylene blue (MB) dyes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shahabadi, Nahid, E-mail: nahidshahabadi@yahoo.com [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Moghadam, Neda Hossein pour [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, Razi University, Kermanshah (Iran, Islamic Republic of)

    2013-02-15

    The interaction between the drug, zidovudine and calf thymus DNA (CT-DNA) in physiological buffer (pH 7.4) was investigated using neutral red (NR) and methylene blue (MB) dyes as a spectral probes by UV-vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy, as well as circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. The experimental results showed that the conformational changes in DNA helix induced by zidovudine are the reason for the fluorescence quenching of the DNA-NR system. In addition, by increasing zidovudine to DNA-MB solution, the fluorescence has no change. From the experimental results, it was found that zidovudine can cause structural changes on CT-DNA and bind with DNA via groove binding mode. At the same time, the paper proved that conformational changes of DNA can also lead to the fluorescence decrease of DNA-probe systems. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Search for new molecular structures which exhibit effective antitumor activities among popular drugs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The DRUG can bind to DNA via groove binding mode. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Several spectroscopic techniques have been used in this research.

  11. Acid neutralizing, mechanical and physical properties of pit and fissure sealants containing melt-derived 45S5 bioactive glass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Song-Yi; Piao, Yin-Zhu; Kim, Sung-Min; Lee, Yong-Keun; Kim, Kyoung-Nam; Kim, Kwang-Mahn

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine the effects of 45S5 bioactive glass (BAG) on the acid neutralizing, mechanical and physical properties of pit and fissure sealants. 45S5BAG (properties, specimens were immersed in lactic acid solution (pH 4.0). Then, the change in pH and the time required to raise the pH from 4.0 to 5.5 were measured. In addition, flexural strength, water sorption and solubility were analyzed. The acid neutralizing properties of each group exhibited increasing pH values as more 45S5BAG was added, and the time required to raise the pH from 4.0 to 5.5 became shorter as the proportion of 45S5BAG increased (P0.05), except for BAG50. The novel pit and fissure sealants neutralized the acid solution (pH 4.0) and exhibited appropriate mechanical and physical properties. Therefore, these compounds are suitable candidates for caries-inhibiting dental materials. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Neutral-red reaction is related to virulence and cell wall methyl-branched lipids in Mycobacterium tuberculosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardona, P-J; Soto, C Y; Martín, C; Giquel, B; Agustí, G; Andreu, Núria; Guirado, E; Sirakova, T; Kolattukudy, P; Julián, E; Luquin, M

    2006-01-01

    Searching for virulence marking tests for Mycobacterium tuberculosis, Dubos and Middlebrook reported in 1948 that in an alkaline aqueous solution of neutral-red, the cells of the virulent H37Rv M. tuberculosis strain fixed the dye and became red in color, whereas the cells of the avirulent H37Ra M. tuberculosis strain remained unstained. In the 1950 and 1960s, fresh isolates of M. tuberculosis were tested for this neutral-red cytochemical reaction and it was reported that they were neutral-red positive, whereas other mycobacteria of diverse environmental origins that were non-pathogenic for guinea pigs were neutral-red negative. However, neutral-red has not really been proven to be a virulence marker. To test if virulence is in fact correlated to neutral-red, we studied a clinical isolate of M. tuberculosis that was originally neutral-red positive but, after more than 1 year passing through culture mediums, turned neutral-red negative. We found that, in comparison to the original neutral-red positive strain, this neutral-red negative variant was attenuated in two murine models of experimental tuberculosis. Lipid analysis showed that this neutral-red negative natural mutant lost the capacity to synthesize pthiocerol dimycocerosates, a cell wall methyl-branched lipid that has been related to virulence in M. tuberculosis. We also studied the neutral-red of different gene-targeted M. tuberculosis mutants unable to produce pthiocerol dimycocerosates or other cell wall methyl-branched lipids such as sulfolipids, and polyacyltrehaloses. We found a negative neutral-red reaction in mutants that were deficient in more than one type of methyl-branched lipids. We conclude that neutral-red is indeed a marker of virulence and it indicates important perturbations in the external surface of M. tuberculosis cells.

  13. Feline Immunodeficiency Virus (FIV Neutralization: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Margaret J. Hosie

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available One of the major obstacles that must be overcome in the design of effective lentiviral vaccines is the ability of lentiviruses to evolve in order to escape from neutralizing antibodies. The primary target for neutralizing antibodies is the highly variable viral envelope glycoprotein (Env, a glycoprotein that is essential for viral entry and comprises both variable and conserved regions. As a result of the complex trimeric nature of Env, there is steric hindrance of conserved epitopes required for receptor binding so that these are not accessible to antibodies. Instead, the humoral response is targeted towards decoy immunodominant epitopes on variable domains such as the third hypervariable loop (V3 of Env. For feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV, as well as the related human immunodeficiency virus-1 (HIV-1, little is known about the factors that lead to the development of broadly neutralizing antibodies. In cats infected with FIV and patients infected with HIV-1, only rarely are plasma samples found that contain antibodies capable of neutralizing isolates from other clades. In this review we examine the neutralizing response to FIV, comparing and contrasting with the response to HIV. We ask whether broadly neutralizing antibodies are induced by FIV infection and discuss the comparative value of studies of neutralizing antibodies in FIV infection for the development of more effective vaccine strategies against lentiviral infections in general, including HIV-1.

  14. Net Neutrality: Media Discourses and Public Perception

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christine Quail

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper analyzes media and public discourses surrounding net neutrality, with particular attention to public utility philosophy, from a critical perspective. The article suggests that further public education about net neutrality would be beneficial. The first portion of this paper provides a survey of the existing literature surrounding net neutrality, highlighting the contentious debate between market-based and public interest perspectives. In order to contextualize the debate, an overview of public utility philosophy is provided, shedding light on how the Internet can be conceptualized as a public good. Following this discussion, an analysis of mainstream media is presented, exploring how the media represents the issue of net neutrality and whether or not the Internet is discussed through the lens of public utility. To further examine how the net neutrality debate is being addressed, and to see the potential impacts of media discourses on the general public, the results of a focus group are reported and analyzed. Finally, a discussion assesses the implications of the net neutrality debate as presented through media discourses, highlighting the future of net neutrality as an important policy issue.

  15. Neutral Supersymmetric Higgs Boson Searches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robinson, Stephen Luke [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom)

    2008-07-01

    In some Supersymmetric extensions of the Standard Model, including the Minimal Supersymmetric Standard Model (MSSM), the coupling of Higgs bosons to b-quarks is enhanced. This enhancement makes the associated production of the Higgs with b-quarks an interesting search channel for the Higgs and Supersymmetry at D0. The identification of b-quarks, both online and offline, is essential to this search effort. This thesis describes the author's involvement in the development of both types of b-tagging and in the application of these techniques to the MSSM Higgs search. Work was carried out on the Level-3 trigger b-tagging algorithms. The impact parameter (IP) b-tagger was retuned and the effects of increased instantaneous luminosity on the tagger were studied. An extension of the IP-tagger to use the z-tracking information was developed. A new b-tagger using secondary vertices was developed and commissioned. A tool was developed to allow the use of large multi-run samples for trigger studies involving b-quarks. Offline, a neural network (NN) b-tagger was trained combining the existing offline lifetime based b-tagging tools. The efficiency and fake rate of the NN b-tagger were measured in data and MC. This b-tagger was internally reviewed and certified by the Collaboration and now provides the official b-tagging for all analyses using the Run IIa dataset at D0. A search was performed for neutral MSSM Higgs bosons decaying to a b{bar b} pair and produced in association with one or more b-quarks. Limits are set on the cross-section times the branching ratio for such a process. The limits were interpreted in various MSSM scenarios. This analysis uses the NN b-tagger and was the first to use this tool. The analysis also relies on triggers using the Level-3 IP b-tagging tool described previously. A likelihood discriminant was used to improve the analysis and a neural network was developed to cross-check this technique. The result of the analysis has been submitted to PRL

  16. Coping with PH over the Long Term

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... PH Find a Doctor PH Care Centers PHA Classroom PHA Registry Insurance Guide Specialty Pharmacy Other Resources ... Forums PH Associations Worldwide Tom Lantos Awards Take Action ... Research PHA’s Research Program Named Research Grants Other Opportunities ...

  17. PH-triggered micellar membrane for controlled release microchips

    KAUST Repository

    Yang, Xiaoqiang

    2011-01-01

    A pH-responsive membrane based on polystyrene-b-poly(4-vinylpyridine) (PS-b-P4VP) block copolymer was developed on a model glass microchip as a promising controlled polymer delivery system. The PS-b-P4VP copolymer assembles into spherical and/or worm-like micelles with styrene block cores and pyridine coronas in selective solvents. The self-assembled worm-like morphology exhibited pH-responsive behaviour due to the protonation of the P4VP block at low pH and it\\'s deprotonation at high pH and thus constituting a switchable "off/on" system. Doxorubicin (Dox) was used as cargo to test the PS-b-P4VP membrane. Luminescence experiments indicated that the membrane was able to store Dox molecules within its micellar structure at neutral pH and then release them as soon as the pH was raised to 8.0. The performance of the cast membrane was predictable and most importantly reproducible. The physiochemical and biological properties were also investigated carefully in terms of morphology, cell viability and cell uptake. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry.

  18. Neutral-neutral and neutral-ion collision integrals for Y2O3-Ar plasma system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhamale, Gayatri D.; Nath, Swastik; Mathe, Vikas L.; Ghorui, Srikumar

    2017-06-01

    A detailed investigation on the neutral-neutral and neutral-ion collision integrals is reported for Y2O3-Ar plasma, an important system of functional material with unique properties having a wide range of processing applications. The calculated integrals are indispensible pre-requisite for the estimation of transport properties needed in CFD modelling of associated plasma processes. Polarizability plays an important role in determining the integral values. Ambiguity in selecting appropriate polarizability data available in the literature and calculating effective number of electrons in the ionized species contributing to the polarizability are addressed. The integrals are evaluated using Lennard-Jones like phenomenological potential up to (l,s) = (4,4). Used interaction potential is suitable for both neutral-neutral and neutral-ion interactions. For atom-parent ion interactions, contribution coming from the inelastic resonant charge transfer process has been accounted properly together with that coming from the elastic counterpart. A total of 14 interacting species and 60 different interactions are considered. Key contributing factors like basic electronic properties of the interacting species and associated polarizability values are accounted carefully. Adopted methodology is first benchmarked against data reported in the literature and then applied to the Y2O3-Ar plasma system for estimating the collision integrals. Results are presented in the temperature range of 100 K-100 000 K.

  19. Acid-base machines: electrical work from neutralization reactions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lima, Gilberto; Morais, William G; Gomes, Wellington J A S; Huguenin, Fritz

    2017-11-29

    We have developed an electrochemical system that performs electrical work due to changes in alkaline ion and proton activities associated with acidic solution neutralization. This system can be used to treat wastewater, contributing to sustainable growth. The system includes an electrochemical machine that operates between an acidic and a basic reservoir to produce work in cycles comprising four stages: two isothermal ionic insertion/de-insertion steps and two steps involving acid and base injection. On the basis of the mixing free energy associated with the reaction free energy, we have developed the thermodynamic formalism by considering reversible electrochemical processes to determine the maximum work performed by this acid-base machine and the efficiency. Electrochemical methods in the time and frequency domains helped in investigating the kinetics of sodium ions and proton insertion in host matrices consisting of copper hexacyanoferrate and phosphomolybdic acid, respectively, to improve our understanding of the factors underlying dissipation as a function of pH and pNa. The full cell composed of these insertion electrodes was used as a proof of concept. It performed a maximum work of 26.4 kJ per mol of electro-inserted ion from HCl solution neutralization with the addition of NaOH, to simulate acidic wastewater treatment in a profitable and sustainable way.

  20. Flotation mechanisms of molybdenite fines by neutral oils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Qing-quan; Gu, Guo-hua; Wang, Hui; Liu, You-cai; Fu, Jian-gang; Wang, Chong-qing

    2018-01-01

    The flotation mechanisms of molybdenite fines by neutral oils were investigated through microflotation test, turbidity measurements, infrared spectroscopy, and interfacial interaction calculations. The results of the flotation test show that at pH 2-11, the floatability of molybdenite fines in the presence of transformer oil is markedly better than that in the presence of kerosene and diesel oil. The addition of transformer oil, which enhances the floatability of molybdenite fines, promotes the aggregation of molybdenite particles. Fourier transform infrared measurements illustrate that physical interaction dominates the adsorption mechanism of neutral oil on molybdenite. Interfacial interaction calculations indicate that hydrophobic attraction is the crucial force that acts among the oil collector, water, and molybdenite. Strong hydrophobic attraction between the oily collector and water provides the strong dispersion capability of the collector in water. Furthermore, the dispersion capability of the collector, not the interaction strength between the oily collectors and molybdenite, has a highly significant role in the flotation system of molybdenite fines. Our findings provide insights into the mechanism of molybdenite flotation.

  1. Testing kappa-Poincaré with neutral kaons

    CERN Document Server

    Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Amelino-Camelia, Giovanni; Buccella, Franco

    2000-01-01

    In recent work on experimental tests of quantum-gravity-motivated phenomenological models, a significant role has been played by the so-called ``$\\kappa$'' deformations of Poincaré symmetries. Sensitivity to values of the relevant deformation length $\\lambda$ as small as $5 \\cdot 10^{-33}m$ has been achieved in recent analyses comparing the structure of $\\kappa$-Poincaré symmetries with data on the gamma rays we detect from distant astrophysical sources. We investigate violations of CPT symmetry which may be associated with estimate indicates that experiments on the neutral kaons may actually be more already allow to probe values of $\\lambda$ of order the Planck length.

  2. A traveling wave decelerator for neutral polar molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meek, Samuel A; Parsons, Maxwell F; Heyne, Georg; Platschkowski, Viktor; Haak, Henrik; Meijer, Gerard; Osterwalder, Andreas

    2011-09-01

    Recently, a decelerator for neutral polar molecules has been presented that operates on the basis of macroscopic, three-dimensional, traveling electrostatic traps [A. Osterwalder, S. A. Meek, G. Hammer, H. Haak, and G. Meijer, Phys. Rev. A 81, 051401 (2010)]. In the present paper, a complete description of this decelerator is given, with emphasis on the electronics and the mechanical design. Experimental results showing the transverse velocity distributions of guided molecules are shown and compared to trajectory simulations. An assessment of non-adiabatic losses is made by comparing the deceleration signals from (13)CO with those from (12)CO and with simulated signals. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  3. Dynamics of finite size neutrally buoyant particles in isotropic turbulence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elhimer, M; Jean, A; Praud, O; Bazile, R; Marchal, M; Couteau, G, E-mail: elhimer@imft.fr [Universite de Toulouse, INPT, UPS, IMFT - Institut de Mecanique des Fluides de Toulouse, Allee Camille Soula, F-31400 Toulouse (France); CNRS, IMFT, F-31400 Toulouse (France)

    2011-12-22

    The dynamics of neutrally buoyant particles suspended in a turbulent flow is investigated experimentally, with particles having diameters larger than the Kolmogorov length scale. To that purpose, a turbulence generator have been constructed and the resulting flow characterized. The fluid was then seeded with polystyrene particles of diameter about 1 mm and their velocity measured separately and simultaneously with the surrounding fluid. Comparison of the velocities statistics between the two phases shows no appreciable discrepancy. However, simultaneous velocity measurement shows that particles may move in different direction from the underlying flow.

  4. Recombinant Sheep Pox Virus Proteins Elicit Neutralizing Antibodies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga V. Chervyakova

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to evaluate the immunogenicity and neutralizing activity of sheep pox virus (SPPV; genus Capripoxvirus, family Poxviridae structural proteins as candidate subunit vaccines to control sheep pox disease. SPPV structural proteins were identified by sequence homology with proteins of vaccinia virus (VACV strain Copenhagen. Four SPPV proteins (SPPV-ORF 060, SPPV-ORF 095, SPPV-ORF 117, and SPPV-ORF 122, orthologs of immunodominant L1, A4, A27, and A33 VACV proteins, respectively, were produced in Escherichia coli. Western blot analysis revealed the antigenic and immunogenic properties of SPPV-060, SPPV-095, SPPV-117 and SPPV-122 proteins when injected with adjuvant into experimental rabbits. Virus-neutralizing activity against SPPV in lamb kidney cell culture was detected for polyclonal antisera raised to SPPV-060, SPPV-117, and SPPV-122 proteins. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the virus-neutralizing activities of antisera raised to SPPV-060, SPPV-117, and SPPV-122 proteins.

  5. Recombinant Sheep Pox Virus Proteins Elicit Neutralizing Antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chervyakova, Olga V; Zaitsev, Valentin L; Iskakov, Bulat K; Tailakova, Elmira T; Strochkov, Vitaliy M; Sultankulova, Kulyaisan T; Sandybayev, Nurlan T; Stanbekova, Gulshan E; Beisenov, Daniyar K; Abduraimov, Yergali O; Mambetaliyev, Muratbay; Sansyzbay, Abylay R; Kovalskaya, Natalia Y; Nemchinov, Lev G; Hammond, Rosemarie W

    2016-06-07

    The aim of this work was to evaluate the immunogenicity and neutralizing activity of sheep pox virus (SPPV; genus Capripoxvirus, family Poxviridae) structural proteins as candidate subunit vaccines to control sheep pox disease. SPPV structural proteins were identified by sequence homology with proteins of vaccinia virus (VACV) strain Copenhagen. Four SPPV proteins (SPPV-ORF 060, SPPV-ORF 095, SPPV-ORF 117, and SPPV-ORF 122), orthologs of immunodominant L1, A4, A27, and A33 VACV proteins, respectively, were produced in Escherichia coli. Western blot analysis revealed the antigenic and immunogenic properties of SPPV-060, SPPV-095, SPPV-117 and SPPV-122 proteins when injected with adjuvant into experimental rabbits. Virus-neutralizing activity against SPPV in lamb kidney cell culture was detected for polyclonal antisera raised to SPPV-060, SPPV-117, and SPPV-122 proteins. To our knowledge, this is the first report demonstrating the virus-neutralizing activities of antisera raised to SPPV-060, SPPV-117, and SPPV-122 proteins.

  6. Neutral null models for diversity in serial transfer evolution experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harpak, Arbel; Sella, Guy

    2014-09-01

    Evolution experiments with microorganisms coupled with genome-wide sequencing now allow for the systematic study of population genetic processes under a wide range of conditions. In learning about these processes in natural, sexual populations, neutral models that describe the behavior of diversity and divergence summaries have played a pivotal role. It is therefore natural to ask whether neutral models, suitably modified, could be useful in the context of evolution experiments. Here, we introduce coalescent models for polymorphism and divergence under the most common experimental evolution assay, a serial transfer experiment. This relatively simple setting allows us to address several issues that could affect diversity patterns in evolution experiments, whether selection is operating or not: the transient behavior of neutral polymorphism in an experiment beginning from a single clone, the effects of randomness in the timing of cell division and noisiness in population size in the dilution stage. In our analyses and discussion, we emphasize the implications for experiments aimed at measuring diversity patterns and making inferences about population genetic processes based on these measurements. © 2014 The Author(s). Evolution © 2014 The Society for the Study of Evolution.

  7. Constructive neutral evolution: exploring evolutionary theory’s curious disconnect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stoltzfus Arlin

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Constructive neutral evolution (CNE suggests that neutral evolution may follow a stepwise path to extravagance. Whether or not CNE is common, the mere possibility raises provocative questions about causation: in classical neo-Darwinian thinking, selection is the sole source of creativity and direction, the only force that can cause trends or build complex features. However, much of contemporary evolutionary genetics departs from the conception of evolution underlying neo-Darwinism, resulting in a widening gap between what formal models allow, and what the prevailing view of the causes of evolution suggests. In particular, a mutationist conception of evolution as a 2-step origin-fixation process has been a source of theoretical innovation for 40 years, appearing not only in the Neutral Theory, but also in recent breakthroughs in modeling adaptation (the “mutational landscape” model, and in practical software for sequence analysis. In this conception, mutation is not a source of raw materials, but an agent that introduces novelty, while selection is not an agent that shapes features, but a stochastic sieve. This view, which now lays claim to important theoretical, experimental, and practical results, demands our attention. CNE provides a way to explore its most significant implications about the role of variation in evolution. Reviewers Alex Kondrashov, Eugene Koonin and Johann Peter Gogarten reviewed this article.

  8. Aggregation induced emission enhancement (AIEE) characteristics of quinoline based compound - A versatile fluorescent probe for pH, Fe(III) ion, BSA binding and optical cell imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikandan, Irulappan; Chang, Chien-Huei; Chen, Chia-Ling; Sathish, Veerasamy; Li, Wen-Shan; Malathi, Mahalingam

    2017-07-05

    Novel benzimidazoquinoline derivative (AVT) was synthesized through a substitution reaction and characterized by various spectral techniques. Analyzing the optical properties of AVT under absorption and emission spectral studies in different environments exclusively with respect to solvents and pH, intriguing characteristics viz. aggregation induced emission enhancement (AIEE) in the THF solvent and 'On-Off' pH sensing were found at neutral pH. Sensing nature of AVT with diverse metal ions and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was also studied. Among the metal ions, Fe 3+ ion alone tunes the fluorescence intensity of AVT probe in aqueous medium from "turn-on" to "turn-off" through ligand (probe) to metal charge transfer (LMCT) mechanism. The probe AVT in aqueous medium interacts strongly with BSA due to Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) and the conformational change in BSA was further analyzed using synchronous fluorescence techniques. Docking study of AVT with BSA reveals that the active site of binding is tryptophan residue which is also supported by the experimental results. Interestingly, fluorescent AVT probe in cells was examined through cellular imaging studies using BT-549 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Thus, the single molecule probe based detection of multiple species and stimuli were described. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Aggregation induced emission enhancement (AIEE) characteristics of quinoline based compound - A versatile fluorescent probe for pH, Fe(III) ion, BSA binding and optical cell imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manikandan, Irulappan; Chang, Chien-Huei; Chen, Chia-Ling; Sathish, Veerasamy; Li, Wen-Shan; Malathi, Mahalingam

    2017-07-01

    Novel benzimidazoquinoline derivative (AVT) was synthesized through a substitution reaction and characterized by various spectral techniques. Analyzing the optical properties of AVT under absorption and emission spectral studies in different environments exclusively with respect to solvents and pH, intriguing characteristics viz. aggregation induced emission enhancement (AIEE) in the THF solvent and 'On-Off' pH sensing were found at neutral pH. Sensing nature of AVT with diverse metal ions and bovine serum albumin (BSA) was also studied. Among the metal ions, Fe3 + ion alone tunes the fluorescence intensity of AVT probe in aqueous medium from ;turn-on; to ;turn-off; through ligand (probe) to metal charge transfer (LMCT) mechanism. The probe AVT in aqueous medium interacts strongly with BSA due to Fluorescence Resonance Energy Transfer (FRET) and the conformational change in BSA was further analyzed using synchronous fluorescence techniques. Docking study of AVT with BSA reveals that the active site of binding is tryptophan residue which is also supported by the experimental results. Interestingly, fluorescent AVT probe in cells was examined through cellular imaging studies using BT-549 and MDA-MB-231 cells. Thus, the single molecule probe based detection of multiple species and stimuli were described.

  10. Complexation and synergistic boundary lubrication of porcine gastric mucin and branched poly(ethyleneimine) in neutral aqueous solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Patil, Navinkumar J.; Sankaranarayanan, Rishikesan; Nikogeorgos, Nikolaos

    2017-01-01

    Lubrication of soft polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) elastomer interfaces was studied in aqueous mixtures ofporcine gastric mucin (PGM) and branched polyethyleneimine (b-PEI) at neutral pH and various ionicstrengths (0.1–1.0 M). While neither PGM nor b-PEI improved lubrication compared to polymer...

  11. Functional genomics of pH homeostasis in Corynebacterium glutamicum revealed novel links between pH response, oxidative stress, iron homeostasis and methionine synthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Persicke Marcus

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The maintenance of internal pH in bacterial cells is challenged by natural stress conditions, during host infection or in biotechnological production processes. Comprehensive transcriptomic and proteomic analyses has been conducted in several bacterial model systems, yet questions remain as to the mechanisms of pH homeostasis. Results Here we present the comprehensive analysis of pH homeostasis in C. glutamicum, a bacterium of industrial importance. At pH values between 6 and 9 effective maintenance of the internal pH at 7.5 ± 0.5 pH units was found. By DNA microarray analyses differential mRNA patterns were identified. The expression profiles were validated and extended by 1D-LC-ESI-MS/MS based quantification of soluble and membrane proteins. Regulators involved were identified and thereby participation of numerous signaling modules in pH response was found. The functional analysis revealed for the first time the occurrence of oxidative stress in C. glutamicum cells at neutral and low pH conditions accompanied by activation of the iron starvation response. Intracellular metabolite pool analysis unraveled inhibition of the TCA and other pathways at low pH. Methionine and cysteine synthesis were found to be activated via the McbR regulator, cysteine accumulation was observed and addition of cysteine was shown to be toxic under acidic conditions. Conclusions Novel limitations for C. glutamicum at non-optimal pH values were identified by a comprehensive analysis on the level of the transcriptome, proteome, and metabolome indicating a functional link between pH acclimatization, oxidative stress, iron homeostasis, and metabolic alterations. The results offer new insights into bacterial stress physiology and new starting points for bacterial strain design or pathogen defense.

  12. Neuronal pH regulation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vorstrup, S; Jensen, K E; Thomsen, C

    1989-01-01

    The intracellular pH in the brain was studied in six healthy volunteers before and immediately after the administration of 2 g of acetazolamide. Phosphorus-31 nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy by a 1.5 tesla whole-body scanner was used. The chemical shift between the inorganic phosphate and...

  13. pH in Action

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tijskens, L.M.M.; Biekman, E.S.A.

    2001-01-01

    Based on fundamental chemical relations, well-established in chemical engineering and chemical technology over almost a century, the effects of pH in food and agricultural products will be deduced for different situations and processes. Based on simple equilibria and dissociation of water, salts,

  14. PhEDEx Data Service

    CERN Document Server

    Egeland, Ricky; Huang, Chih-Hao

    2009-01-01

    The PhEDEx Data Service provides access to information from the central PhEDEx database, as well as certificate-authenticated managerial operations such as requesting the transfer or deletion of data. The Data Service is integrated with the SiteDB service for fine-grained access control, providing a safe and secure environment for operations. A plug-in architecture allows server-side modules to be developed rapidly and easily by anyone familiar with the schema, and can automatically return the data in a variety of formats for use by different client technologies. Using HTTP access via the Data Service instead of direct database connections makes it possible to build monitoring web-pages with complex drill-down operations, suitable for debugging or presentation from many aspects. This will form the basis of the new PhEDEx website in the near future, as well as providing access to PhEDEx information and certificate-authenticated services for other CMS dataflow and workflow management tools such as CRAB, WMCore,...

  15. Esophageal pH monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Esophageal pH monitoring References Katzka DA, Falk G. Diseases of the esophagus. In: Goldman L, Schafer AI, eds. Goldman-Cecil Medicine . 25th ed. Philadelphia, PA: Elsevier Saunders; 2016:chap ... Gastroesophageal reflux disease. In: Feldman M, Friedman LS, Brandt LJ, eds. ...

  16. Development and modelling of a steel slag filter effluent neutralization process with CO2-enriched air from an upstream bioprocess.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bove, Patricia; Claveau-Mallet, Dominique; Boutet, Étienne; Lida, Félix; Comeau, Yves

    2018-02-01

    The main objective of this project was to develop a steel slag filter effluent neutralization process by acidification with CO 2 -enriched air coming from a bioprocess. Sub-objectives were to evaluate the neutralization capacity of different configurations of neutralization units in lab-scale conditions and to propose a design model of steel slag effluent neutralization. Two lab-scale column neutralization units fed with two different types of influent were operated at hydraulic retention time of 10 h. Tested variables were mode of flow (saturated or percolating), type of media (none, gravel, Bionest and AnoxKaldnes K3), type of air (ambient or CO 2 -enriched) and airflow rate. One neutralization field test (saturated and no media, 2000-5000 ppm CO 2 , sequential feeding, hydraulic retention time of 7.8 h) was conducted for 7 days. Lab-scale and field-scale tests resulted in effluent pH of 7.5-9.5 when the aeration rate was sufficiently high. A model was implemented in the PHREEQC software and was based on the carbonate system, CO 2 transfer and calcite precipitation; and was calibrated on ambient air lab tests. The model was validated with CO 2 -enriched air lab and field tests, providing satisfactory validation results over a wide range of CO 2 concentrations. The flow mode had a major impact on CO 2 transfer and hydraulic efficiency, while the type of media had little influence. The flow mode also had a major impact on the calcite surface concentration in the reactor: it was constant in saturated mode and was increasing in percolating mode. Predictions could be made for different steel slag effluent pH and different operation conditions (hydraulic retention time, CO 2 concentration, media and mode of flow). The pH of the steel slag filter effluent and the CO 2 concentration of the enriched air were factors that influenced most the effluent pH of the neutralization process. An increased concentration in CO 2 in the enriched air reduced calcite precipitation

  17. A wearable fingernail chemical sensing platform: pH sensing at your fingertips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jayoung; Cho, Thomas N; Valdés-Ramírez, Gabriela; Wang, Joseph

    2016-04-01

    This article demonstrates an example of a wearable chemical sensor based on a fingernail platform. Fingernails represent an attractive wearable platform, merging beauty products with chemical sensing, to enable monitoring of our surrounding environment. The new colorimetric pH fingernail sensor relies on coating artificial nails with a recognition layer consisted of pH indicators entrapped in a polyvinyl chloride (PVC) matrix. Such color changing fingernails offer fast and reversible response to pH changes, repeated use, and intense color change detected easily with naked eye. The PVC matrix prevents leaching out of the indicator molecules from the fingernail sensor toward such repeated use. The limited narrow working pH range of a single pH indicator has been addressed by multiplexing three different pH indicators: bromothymol blue (pH 6.0-7.6), bromocresol green (pH 3.8-5.4), and cresol red (pH 7.2-8.8), as demonstrated for analyses of real-life samples of acidic, neutral, and basic character. The new concept of an optical wearable chemical sensor on fingernail platforms can be expanded towards diverse analytes for various applications in connection to the judicious design of the recognition layer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Simultaneous Hydrogen Generation and Waste Acid Neutralization in a Reverse Electrodialysis System

    KAUST Repository

    Hatzell, Marta C.

    2014-09-02

    Waste acid streams produced at industrial sites are often co-located with large sources of waste heat (e.g., industrial exhaust gases, cooling water, and heated equipment). Reverse electrodialysis (RED) systems can be used to generate electrical power and hydrogen gas using waste heat-derived solutions, but high electrode overpotentials limit system performance. We show here that an ammonium bicarbonate (AmB) RED system can achieve simultaneous waste acid neutralization and in situ hydrogen production, while capturing energy from excess waste heat. The rate of acid neutralization was dependent on stack flow rate and increased 50× (from 0.06 ± 0.04 to 3.0 ± 0.32 pH units min -1 m-2 membrane), as the flow rate increased 6× (from 100 to 600 mL min-1). Acid neutralization primarily took place due to ammonium electromigration (37 ± 4%) and proton diffusion (60 ± 5%). The use of a synthetic waste acid stream as a catholyte (pH ≈ 2) also increased hydrogen production rates by 65% (from 5.3 ± 0.5 to 8.7 ± 0.1 m3 H2 m-3 catholyte day -1) compared to an AmB electrolyte (pH ≈ 8.5). These findings highlight the potential use of dissimilar electrolytes (e.g., basic anolyte and acidic catholyte) for enhanced power and hydrogen production in RED stacks. © 2014 American Chemical Society.

  19. Nitrogen-neutrality: a step towards sustainability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leip, Adrian; Leach, Allison; Musinguzi, Patrick; Tumwesigye, Trust; Olupot, Giregon; Tenywa, John Stephen; Mudiope, Joseph; Hutton, Olivia; Cordovil, Claudia M. d. S.; Bekunda, Mateete; Galloway, James

    2014-11-01

    We propose a novel indicator measuring one dimension of the sustainability of an entity in modern societies: Nitrogen-neutrality. N-neutrality strives to offset Nr releases an entity exerts on the environment from the release of reactive nitrogen (Nr) to the environment by reducing it and by offsetting the Nr releases elsewhere. N-neutrality also aims to increase awareness about the consequences of unintentional releases of nitrogen to the environment. N-neutrality is composed of two quantified elements: Nr released by an entity (e.g. on the basis of the N footprint) and Nr reduction from management and offset projects (N offset). It includes management strategies to reduce nitrogen losses before they occur (e.g., through energy conservation). Each of those elements faces specific challenges with regard to data availability and conceptual development. Impacts of Nr releases to the environment are manifold, and the impact profile of one unit of Nr release depends strongly on the compound released and the local susceptibility to Nr. As such, N-neutrality is more difficult to conceptualize and calculate than C-neutrality. We developed a workable conceptual framework for N-neutrality which was adapted for the 6th International Nitrogen Conference (N2013, Kampala, November 2013). Total N footprint of the surveyed meals at N2013 was 66 kg N. A total of US 3050 was collected from the participants and used to offset the conference’s N footprint by supporting the UN Millennium Village cluster Ruhiira in South-Western Uganda. The concept needs further development in particular to better incorporate the spatio-temporal variability of impacts and to standardize the methods to quantify the required N offset to neutralize the Nr releases impact. Criteria for compensation projects need to be sharply defined to allow the development of a market for N offset certificates.

  20. CP violation in the neutral kaon system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brod, Joachim [TTP, Uni Karlsruhe (Germany); Gorbahn, Martin [TU Muenchen, IAS (Germany)

    2009-07-01

    The parameter {epsilon}{sub K} describes CP violation in the mixing of neutral K-mesons. It is an important ingredient in the standard analysis of the unitarity triangle. Recent progress in the lattice calculation of B{sub K}, parameterising the long distance effects in neutral Kaon mixing, have made a NNLO calculation of the short distance contributions mandatory. I discuss this calculation and present first results.

  1. Optical nanofibres and neutral atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Nieddu, Thomas; Chormaic, Sile Nic

    2015-01-01

    Optical nanofibres are increasingly being used in cold atom experiments due to their versatility and the clear advantages they have when developing all-fibred systems for quantum technologies. They provide researchers with a method of overcoming the Rayleigh range for achieving high intensities in a focussed beam over a relatively long distance, and can act as a noninvasive tool for probing cold atoms. In this review article, we will briefly introduce the theory of mode propagation in an ultrathin optical fibre and highlight some of the more significant theoretical and experimental progresses to date, including the early work on atom probing, manipulation and trapping, the study of atom-dielectric surface interactions, and the more recent observation of nanofibre-mediated nonlinear optics phenomena in atomic media. The functionality of optical nanofibres in relation to the realisation of atom-photon hybrid quantum systems is also becoming more evident as some of the earlier technical challenges are surpassed ...

  2. Preparation of dual-stimuli-responsive liposomes using methacrylate-based copolymers with pH and temperature sensitivities for precisely controlled release.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sugimoto, Takumi; Yamazaki, Naoko; Hayashi, Takaaki; Yuba, Eiji; Harada, Atsushi; Kotaka, Aki; Shinde, Chiharu; Kumei, Takayuki; Sumida, Yasushi; Fukushima, Mitsuhiro; Munekata, Yuki; Maruyama, Keiichi; Kono, Kenji

    2017-07-01

    Dual-signal-sensitive copolymers were synthesized by copolymerization of methoxy diethylene glycol methacrylate, methacrylic acid, and lauroxy tetraethylene glycol methacrylate, which respectively provide temperature sensitivity, pH sensitivity, and anchoring to liposome surfaces. These novel copolymers, with water solubility that differs depending on temperature and pH, are soluble in water under neutral pH and low-temperature conditions, but they become water-insoluble and form aggregates under acidic pH and high-temperature conditions. Liposomes modified with these copolymers exhibited enhanced content release at weakly acidic pH with increasing temperature, although no temperature-dependent content release was observed in neutral conditions. Interaction between the copolymers and the lipid monolayer at the air-water interface revealed that the copolymer chains penetrate more deeply into the monolayer with increasing temperature at acidic pH than at neutral pH, where the penetration of copolymer chains was moderate and temperature-independent at neutral pH. Interaction of the copolymer-modified liposomes with HeLa cells demonstrated that the copolymer-modified liposomes were adsorbed quickly and efficiently onto the cell surface and that they were internalized more gradually than the unmodified liposomes through endocytosis. Furthermore, the copolymer-modified liposomes enhanced the content release in endosomes with increasing temperature, but no such temperature-dependent enhancement of content release was observed for unmodified liposomes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. An ICR study of ion-molecule reactions of PH(n)+ ions. [of importance to interstellar chemistry, using ion cyclotron resonance techniques

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorne, L. R.; Anicich, V. G.; Huntress, W. T.

    1983-01-01

    The reactions of PH(n)+ ions (n = 0-3) were examined with a number of neutrals using ion-cyclotron-resonance techniques. The reactions examined have significance for the distribution of phosphorus in interstellar molecules. The results indicate that interstellar molecules containing the P-O bond are likely to be more abundant than those containing the P-H bond.

  4. Low Emittance Growth in a LEBT with Un-Neutralized Section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prost, Lionel [Fermilab; Carneiro, Jean-Paul [Fermilab; Shemyakin, Alexander [Fermilab

    2016-06-01

    In a Low Energy Beam Transport line (LEBT), the emittance growth due to the beam's own space charge is typically suppressed by way of neutralization from either electrons or ions, which originate from ionization of the background gas. In cases where the beam is chopped, the neutralization pattern changes throughout the beginning of the pulse, causing the Twiss parameters to differ significantly from their steady state values, which, in turn, may result in beam losses downstream. For a modest beam perveance, there is an alternative solution, in which the beam is kept un-neutralized in the portion of the LEBT that contains the chopper. The emittance can be nearly preserved if the transition to the un-neutralized section occurs where the beam exhibits low transverse tails. This report discusses the experimental realization of such a scheme at Fermilab's PXIE, where low beam emittance dilution was demonstrated

  5. DEGAS 2 neutral transport modeling of high density, low temperature plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stotler, D.P.; Karney, C.F.F. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Princeton Plasma Physics Lab.; Pigarov, A.Y. [Massachusetts Inst. of Tech., Cambridge, MA (United States). Plasma Fusion Center]|[I.V. Kurchatov Inst. of Atomic Energy, Moscow (Russian Federation)] [and others

    1997-05-01

    Neutral transport in the high density, low temperature plasma regime is examined using the DEGAS 2 Monte Carlo neutral transport code. DEGAS 2 is shown to agree with an analytic fluid neutral model valid in this regime as long as the grid cell spacing is less than twice the neutral mean-free path. Using new atomic physics data provided by the collisional radiative code CRAMD, DEGAS 2 is applied to a detached Alcator C-Mod discharge. A model plasma with electron temperature {approximately}1 eV along detached flux tubes, between the target and the ionization front, is used to demonstrate that recombination is essential to matching the experimental data. With the CRAMD data, {approximately}20% of the total recombination is due to molecular activated recombination.

  6. Measurement of neutral-beam deposition profiles at W7-AS and LHD stellarator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rust, N.; Hartmann, D.; Ott, W.; Speth, E. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Association EURATOM-IPP, Garching (Germany); Osakabe, M. [National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS), Oroshi-cho, Toki, GIFU (Japan)

    2003-07-01

    Experiments to determine the neutral-beam deposition profiles in a stellarator have now been carried out at W7-AS and recently also at LHD using the same method for data evaluation. While modulating the neutral beam, spatially resolved measurements of the resulting Te modulation amplitudes are carried out. Their evaluation yields the neutral-beam deposition profiles. On W7-AS as compared to the previous modulation experiments the diagnostic was improved during its last experimental campaign. At LHD these modulation experiments have been performed not only on a significantly larger machine, but the neutral beam system at LHD is quite different from that of W7-AS. The LHD system uses a negative-ion beam at a significantly higher acceleration voltage. (orig.)

  7. Neutralization of LC- and RC-Disturbances with Left-Handed and NGD Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Ravelo

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper focus is on the neutralization technique of the unwanted physical disturbances in the radio frequencies (RF and digital electronic structures. Most of parasitic effects induced in these systems can be modeled by RC- and LC- passive networks. For canceling these disturbing effects, we can proceed with the transfer function neutralization in the considered operating frequency bands. This neutralization concept is developed by using first, a left-handed (LH and negative group delay (NGD circuits inspired from metamaterials. The fundamental theoretical approach illustrating the RC- and LC-effects transfer function neutralization is described. Synthesis relations enabling to determine the elements of the LH and NGD circuit correctors in function of the perturbation parameters are established. Numerical and experimental demonstrators are presented to validate the technique proposed. This later is particularly useful for the improvement of the analogue and digital signal integrity degraded by electromagnetic interferences.

  8. Phenylisoserine in the gas-phase and water: Ab initio studies on neutral and zwitterion conformers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rode, Joanna E; Dobrowolski, Jan Cz; Sadlej, Joanna

    2011-05-01

    The conformational landscape of phenylisoserine (PhIS) was studied. Trial structures were generated by allowing for all combinations of single-bond rotamers. Based on the B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ calculations 54 conformers were found to be stable in the gas phase. The six most stable conformers were further optimized at the B3LYP/aug-cc-pVTZ and MP2/aug-cc-pVDZ levels for which characteristic intramolecular hydrogen bond types were classified. To estimate the influence of water on PhIS conformation, the IEF-PCM/B3LYP/aug-cc-pVDZ calculations were carried out and showed 51 neutral and six zwitterionic conformers to be stable in water solution. According to DFT calculations, the conformer equilibrium in the gas phase is dominated by one conformer, whereas the MP2 calculations suggest three PhIS structures to be significantly populated. Comparison of DFT and MP2 energies of all 57 structures stable in water indicates that, in practice, one zwitterionic and one neutral conformer determine the equilibrium in water. Based on the AIM calculations, we found that for the neutral conformers in vacuum and in water, d(H...B) is linearly correlated with Laplacian at the H-bond critical point. Figure Phenylisoserine (PhIS) is an active side chain of cytotoxic Paclitaxel medicine. The conformational landscape of phenylisoserine was studied. One zwitterionic and one neutralconformer determine the equilibrium in water whereas in the gas phase the MP2 calculations suggest three PhIS structures to be significantly populated.

  9. Spectrophotometric determination of yeast RNA with neutral red

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xueliang Niu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The interaction of neutral red (NR with yeast RNA (yRNA was studied by UV-Vis spectrophotometry to develop a simple spectrophotometric method for the determination yRNA. NR exhibited a maximum absorption peak at 528 nm in a Britton-Robinson (B-R buffer solution of pH 4.0. After the addition of yRNA into NR solution, the absorbance value was greatly decreased and no new absorption peaks appeared. The interaction conditions such as the buffer pH, reaction time, etc. were carefully studied. Under the optimal conditions the decrease in absorbance value was proportional to the yRNA concentration in the range from 0.2 to 20.0 mg L-1 when 8.0 × 10-5 M NR was employed. The detection limit was calculated as 0.78 mg L-1 (3σ and three synthetic samples were determined satisfactorily. A binding ratio of NR to yRNA was found to be 1:1 by the molar ratio method.

  10. Industrial PhD report: Sustainable Innovation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Gitte Gylling Hammershøj

    2011-01-01

    Erhvervs PhD rapport udarbejdet i tilknytning til Erhvervs PhD kurset der er obligatorisk for Erhvervs PhD studerende. Rapporten omhandler relationer melllem den akademiske verden og industrien i sammenhæng med PhD projektet, betragtet og analyseret gennem teori om bæredygtig innovation....

  11. Preference behavior of silver catfish, Rhamdia quelen, juveniles in waters with pH gradients: laboratory experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jaqueline Ineu Golombieski

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the preferred pH in silver catfish Rhamdia quelenjuveniles acclimated to different water hardness and the effect of shelters and infection by Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. Fish were acclimated for two weeks at different water hardness levels (4, 24, 50, or 100 mg CaCO3 L-1 and then transferred to a polyethylene tube with a pH gradient ranging from 3.5 to 11.7 and maintaining the same hardness. The position of the fish in the pH gradient was observed at 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12 h after transfer. Acclimation to different water hardness did not change pH preference of uninfected silver catfish (pH 7.30-7.83, and the presence of a shelter at the preferred pH or outside this preferred pH did not change the chosen pH range, either. Consequently silver catfish favored the acid-base regulation over shelter seeking tendency. Juveniles infected with I. multifiliis acclimated to water hardness of 24 mg CaCO3 L-1 preferred alkaline pH (9.08-9.79. This choice is not explained by the higher Na+ levels at alkaline pH compared to neutral pH because infected and uninfected fish choose the same waterborne Na+ levels in a Na+ gradient with the same pH.

  12. The final frontier of pH and the undiscovered country beyond.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Bal

    Full Text Available The comparison of volumes of cells and subcellular structures with the pH values reported for them leads to a conflict with the definition of the pH scale. The pH scale is based on the ionic product of water, K(w = [H(+]×[OH(-].We used K(w [in a reversed way] to calculate the number of undissociated H(2O molecules required by this equilibrium constant to yield at least one of its daughter ions, H(+ or OH(- at a given pH. In this way we obtained a formula that relates pH to the minimal volume V(pH required to provide a physical meaning to K(w, V(pH=10(pH-pK(w/2 x 10(pK(w/2/N(A (where N(A is Avogadro's number. For example, at pH 7 (neutral at 25°C V(pH =16.6 aL. Any deviation from neutral pH results in a larger V(pH value. Our results indicate that many subcellular structures, including coated vesicles and lysosomes, are too small to contain free H(+ ions at equilibrium, thus the definition of pH based on K(w is no longer valid. Larger subcellular structures, such as mitochondria, apparently contain only a few free H(+ ions. These results indicate that pH fails to describe intracellular conditions, and that water appears to be dissociated too weakly to provide free H(+ ions as a general source for biochemical reactions. Consequences of this finding are discussed.

  13. PH Department: at the heart of CERN

    CERN Multimedia

    Antonella Del Rosso

    2014-01-01

    The Physics Department is where the Laboratory’s scientific activity takes place. Some 1000 members of the personnel and 11,000 users work together on CERN’s highly diversified experimental programme. The challenges for the coming years are twofold: maintain the level of excellence that led the Laboratory to the discovery of the Higgs boson, and preserve the diversity of the scientific programme. The new Department Head discusses his vision with us.   Livio Mapelli. “On paper, our plan for the next two years shows no surprises,” says Livio Mapelli, former Deputy Department Head and now, since January, Head of the Physics Department (PH). “We have to finish the completion, consolidation and initial upgrades of the experiments planned for LS1. In 2015, our core activity will be supporting the experiments during the restart of the accelerator complex. However, as physicists, the best reward for us would be to obtain new breakthroughs and importa...

  14. Traceability of pH to the Mole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Filomena Camões

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Free acidity of aqueous solutions was initially defined in 1909 by Søren Peter Lauritz Sørensen as pH = −lgcH+ (c/mol·dm−3 or m/mol·kg−1 of the free hydrogen ions in solution, H+ soon (1910 was changed to pH = paH+ = −lgaH+, integrating the new concepts of activity, ai and activity coefficient γi, for the ionic species i under concern, H+ in this case; it is ai = −lg(miγi. Since individual ions do not exist alone in solution, primary pH values cannot be assigned solely by experimental measurements, requiring extra thermodynamic model assumptions for the activity coefficient, γH+, which has put pH in a unique situation of not being fully traceable to the International System of Units (SI. Also the concept of activity is often not felt to be as perceptible as that of concentration which may present difficulties, namely with the interpretation of data. pH measurements on unknown samples rely on calibration of the measuring setup with adequate reference pH buffers. In this work, the assignment of pH values to buffers closely matching the samples, e.g., seawater, is revisited. An approach is presented to assess the quantity pmH+ = −lgmH+ profiting from the fact that, contrary to single ion activity coefficients, mean activity coefficients,   can be assessed based on experimentally assessed quantities alone, γExp ±, thus ensuring traceability to the mole, the SI base unit for amount of substance. Compatibility between γExp ± and mean activity coefficient calculated by means of Pitzer model equations, γPtz ±, validates the model for its intended use.

  15. Dynamic root uptake model for neutral lipophilic organics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Trapp, Stefan

    2002-01-01

    gave concentrations far below the thermodynamic equilibrium. The approach was tested against experimental uptake data of benzo[a]pyrene, polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), and chlorobenzenes from soil into carrots. Measured concentrations in carrot peels were up to 100 times higher than in the core......In current European risk assessment, an equilibrium approach is used to estimate chemical uptake from soil into root vegetables. Here a dynamic model for uptake of neutral lipophilic compounds from soil into roots is presented. Using experimental results, it is compared with the equilibrium...... approach. Very lipophilic compounds (e.g., DDT) diffuse very slowly into plant tissue, so they are likely to remain in the peel of root vegetables. In addition, a dynamic (steady-state) flux model for uptake with transpiration water into thick roots is presented. The model considers input from soil...

  16. pH in Action

    OpenAIRE

    Tijskens, L.M.M.; Biekman, E.S.A.

    2001-01-01

    Based on fundamental chemical relations, well-established in chemical engineering and chemical technology over almost a century, the effects of pH in food and agricultural products will be deduced for different situations and processes. Based on simple equilibria and dissociation of water, salts, acids and bases, and considering the reaction of hydrogen ions in these food-related systems, simple and reliable formulations are developed capable of describing surprisingly well the discoloration ...

  17. Photoionization of the valence shells of the neutral tungsten atom

    CERN Document Server

    Ballance, Connor P

    2015-01-01

    Results from large-scale theoretical cross section calculations for the total photoionization of the 4f, 5s, 5p and 6s orbitals of the neutral tungsten atom using the Dirac Coulomb R-matrix approximation (DARC: Dirac-Atomic R-matrix codes) are presented. Comparisons are made with previous theoretical methods and prior experimental measurements. In previous experiments a time-resolved dual laser approach was employed for the photo-absorption of metal vapours and photo-absorption measurements on tungsten in a solid, using synchrotron radiation. The lowest ground state level of neutral tungsten is $\\rm 5p^6 5d^4 6s^2 \\; {^5}D_{\\it J}$, with $\\it J$=0, and requires only a single dipole matrix for photoionization. To make a meaningful comparison with existing experimental measurements, we statistically average the large-scale theoretical PI cross sections from the levels associated with the ground state $\\rm 5p^6 5d^4 6s^2 \\; {^5}D_{\\it J}[{\\it J}=0,1,2,3,4]$ levels and the $\\rm 5d^56s \\; ^7S_3$ excited metastable...

  18. The Methods Behind PH WINS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leider, Jonathon P; Bharthapudi, Kiran; Pineau, Vicki; Liu, Lin; Harper, Elizabeth

    2015-01-01

    The Public Health Workforce Interests and Needs Survey (PH WINS) has yielded the first-ever nationally representative sample of state health agency central office employees. The survey represents a step forward in rigorous, systematic data collection to inform the public health workforce development agenda in the United States. PH WINS is a Web-based survey and was developed with guidance from a panel of public health workforce experts including practitioners and researchers. It draws heavily from existing and validated items and focuses on 4 main areas: workforce perceptions about training needs, workplace environment and job satisfaction, perceptions about national trends, and demographics. This article outlines the conceptualization, development, and implementation of PH WINS, as well as considerations and limitations. It also describes the creation of 2 new data sets that will be available in public use for public health officials and researchers--a nationally representative data set for permanently employed state health agency central office employees comprising over 10,000 responses, and a pilot data set with approximately 12,000 local and regional health department staff responses.

  19. Long photoperiods sustain high pH in Arctic kelp forests

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krause-Jensen, Dorte; Marbà, Núria; Sanz-Martin, M.

    2016-01-01

    Concern on the impacts of ocean acidification on calcifiers, such as bivalves, sea urchins, and foraminifers, has led to efforts to understand the controls on pH in their habitats, which include kelp forests and seagrass meadows. The metabolism of these habitats can lead to diel fluctuation in p......H with increases during the day and declines at night, suggesting no net effect on pH at time scales longer than daily. We examined the capacity of subarctic and Arctic kelps to up-regulate pH in situ and experimentally tested the role of photoperiod in determining the capacity of Arctic macrophytes to up......-regulate pH. Field observations at photoperiods of 15 and 24 hours in Greenland com- bined with experimental manipulations of photoperiod show that photoperiods longer than 21 hours, characteristic of Arctic summers, are conducive to sustained up-regulation of pH by kelp photosynthesis. We report a gradual...

  20. Formation of positron-atom bound states in collisions between Rydberg Ps and neutral atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Swann, A R; Deller, A; Gribakin, G F

    2016-01-01

    Predicted twenty years ago, positron binding to neutral atoms has not yet been observed experimentally. A new scheme is proposed to detect positron-atom bound states by colliding Rydberg positronium (Ps) with neutral atoms. Estimates of the charge-transfer-reaction cross section are obtained using the first Born approximation for a selection of neutral atom targets and a wide range of incident Ps energies and principal quantum numbers. We also estimate the corresponding Ps ionization cross section. The accuracy of the calculations is tested by comparison with earlier predictions for Ps charge transfer in collisions with hydrogen and antihydrogen. We describe an existing Rydberg Ps beam suitable for producing positron-atom bound states and estimate signal rates based on the calculated cross sections and realistic experimental parameters. We conclude that the proposed methodology is capable of producing such states and of testing theoretical predictions of their binding energies.

  1. Neutral beamline with improved ion energy recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dagenhart, William K.; Haselton, Halsey H.; Stirling, William L.; Whealton, John H.

    1984-01-01

    A neutral beamline generator with unneutralized ion energy recovery is provided which enhances the energy recovery of the full energy ion component of the beam exiting the neutralizer cell of the beamline. The unneutralized full energy ions exiting the neutralizer are deflected from the beam path and the electrons in the cell are blocked by a magnetic field applied transverse to the beamline in the cell exit region. The ions, which are generated at essentially ground potential and accelerated through the neutralizer cell by a negative acceleration voltage, are collected at ground potential. A neutralizer cell exit end region is provided which allows the magnetic and electric fields acting on the exiting ions to be closely coupled. As a result, the fractional energy ions exiting the cell with the full energy ions are reflected back into the gas cell. Thus, the fractional energy ions do not detract from the energy recovery efficiency of full energy ions exiting the cell which can reach the ground potential interior surfaces of the beamline housing.

  2. Sputtering of neutral and ionic indium clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Z.; Coon, S.R.; Calaway, W.F.; Pellin, M.J.; Gruen, D.M.; Von Nagy-Felsobuki, E.I.

    1993-10-01

    Secondary neutral and secondary ion cluster yields were measured during the sputtering of a polycrystalline indium surface by normally incident {approximately}4 keV Ar{sup +} ions. In the secondary neutral mass spectra, indium clusters as large as In{sub 32} were observed. In the secondary ion mass spectra, indium clusters up to In{sub 18}{sup +} were recorded. Cluster yields obtained from both the neutral and ion channel exhibited a power law dependence on the number of constituent atoms, n, in the cluster, with the exponents measured to be {minus}5.6 and {minus}4. 1, respectively. An abundance drop was observed at n=8, 15, and 16 in both the neutral and ion yield distributions suggesting that the stability of the ion (either secondary ion or photoion) plays a significant role in the observed distributions. In addition, our experiments suggest that unimolecular decomposition of the neutral cluster may also plays an important role in the measured yield distributions.

  3. A carrier-based approach for overmodulation of three-level neutral-point-lamped inverter with zero neutral-point current

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Maheshwari, Ram Krishan; Munk-Nielsen, Stig; Busquets-Monge, S.

    2012-01-01

    In a voltage source inverter, overmodulation is required to extend the range of operation and enhance the dc-link voltage utilization. A carrier-based implementation of a modulation strategy for the three-level neutral-point-clamped inverter is proposed for the overmodulation region. The modulation...... strategy ensures zero average neutral-point current in a switching period. A newly proposed boundary compression is used to regulate the dc-link voltage at all operating points. A description of the algorithm to implement the modulation strategy is also presented. The main advantage of the proposed...... algorithm is its simplicity. The reference signals for the PWM can be calculated using maximum six steps and does not require knowledge of the reference vector angle. The modulation strategy has been implemented in a three-level neutral-point-clamped inverter, and experimental results are presented....

  4. Microenvironmental pH measurement during sodium naproxenate dissolution in acidic medium by UV/vis imaging

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ostergaard, Jesper; Jensen, Henrik; Larsen, Susan W

    2014-01-01

    Variable dissolution from sodium salts of drugs containing a carboxylic acid group after passing the acidic environment of the stomach may affect oral bioavailability. The aim of the present proof of concept study was to investigate pH effects in relation to the dissolution of sodium naproxenate...... in 0.01M hydrochloric acid. For this purpose a UV/vis imaging-based approach capable of measuring microenvironmental pH in the vicinity of the solid drug compact as well as monitoring drug dissolution was developed. Using a pH indicating dye real-time spatially resolved measurement of pH was achieved....... Sodium naproxenate, can significantly alter the local pH of the dissolution medium, is eventually neutralized and precipitates as the acidic species naproxen. The developed approach is considered useful for detailed studies of pH dependent dissolution phenomena in dissolution testing....

  5. Understanding pH and ionic strength effects on aluminum sulfate-induced microalgae flocculation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Y; Yuan, W; Cheng, J

    2014-08-01

    The objective of this study was to understand the effect of pH and ionic strength of aluminum sulfate on the flocculation of microalgae. It was found that changing pH and ionic strength influenced algal flocculation by changing the zeta potential of cells, which was described by the classical theory of Derjaguin, Landau, Verwey, and Overbeek (DLVO). For both algal species of Scenedesmus dimorphus and Nannochloropsis oculata, cells with lower total DLVO interaction energy had higher flocculation efficiency, indicating that the DLVO model was qualitatively accurate in predicting the flocculation of the two algae. However, the two algae responded differently to changing pH and ionic strength. The flocculation of N. oculata increased with increasing aluminum sulfate concentration and favored either low (pH 5) or high (pH 10) pH where cells had relatively low negative surface charges. For S. dimorphus, the highest flocculation was achieved at low ionic strength (1 μM) or moderate pH (pH 7.5) where cell surface charges were fully neutralized (zero zeta potential).

  6. Molecular Dynamics Simulations Capture the Misfolding of the Bovine Prion Protein at Acidic pH

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chin Jung Cheng

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE, or mad cow disease, is a fatal neurodegenerative disease that is transmissible to humans and that is currently incurable. BSE is caused by the prion protein (PrP, which adopts two conformers; PrPC is the native innocuous form, which is α-helix rich; and PrPSc is the β-sheet rich misfolded form, which is infectious and forms neurotoxic species. Acidic pH induces the conversion of PrPC to PrPSc. We have performed molecular dynamics simulations of bovine PrP at various pH regimes. An acidic pH environment induced conformational changes that were not observed in neutral pH simulations. Putative misfolded structures, with nonnative β-strands formed in the flexible N-terminal domain, were found in acidic pH simulations. Two distinct pathways were observed for the formation of nonnative β-strands: at low pH, hydrophobic contacts with M129 nucleated the nonnative β-strand; at mid-pH, polar contacts involving Q168 and D178 facilitated the formation of a hairpin at the flexible N-terminus. These mid- and low pH simulations capture the process of nonnative β-strand formation, thereby improving our understanding of how PrPC misfolds into the β-sheet rich PrPSc and how pH factors into the process.

  7. pH Dependence of microbe sterilization by cationic antimicrobial peptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walkenhorst, William F; Klein, J Wolfgang; Vo, Phuong; Wimley, William C

    2013-07-01

    We recently described a family of cationic antimicrobial peptides (CAMPs) selected from a combinatorial library that exhibited potent, broad-spectrum activity at neutral pH and low ionic strength. To further delimit the utility and activity profiles of these peptides, we investigated the effects of solution conditions, such as pH and ionic strength, on the efficacy of the peptide antimicrobials against a panel of microorganisms. Peptide minimum sterilizing concentrations (MSCs) varied linearly with pH for each subtype within our family of CAMPs for all organisms tested. The peptides were much less effective against Gram-negative bacteria at high pH, consistent with a decrease in net positive charge on the peptides. A similar trend was observed for the fungus Candida albicans. Surprisingly, the opposite pH trend was observed with the Gram-positive Staphylococcus aureus. In addition, an additive ionic strength effect was observed with increasing buffer strengths at identical pH values. The extreme difference in the observed pH behavior between Gram-negative and Gram-positive organisms is attributed to the presence of native charged molecules in the much thicker peptidoglycan layer of the Gram-positive organism. The novel species-specific effects of pH observed here have important implications for applications using CAMPs and for the design of novel CAMPs.

  8. Treatment of surfactant-damaged skin in humans with creams of different pH values.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buraczewska, Izabela; Lodén, Marie

    2005-01-01

    Skin surface has an acidic pH, whereas the body's internal environment maintains a near-neutral pH. The physiological role of the 'acidic mantle' and the function of the pH gradient throughout the stratum corneum remain unexplained. The pH gradient has been suggested to activate enzymes responsible for the maintenance of the skin barrier function and to facilitate the desquamation process in the stratum corneum. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of pH of a moisturizing cream on barrier recovery in surfactant-damaged human skin. Volunteers had their skin damaged with sodium lauryl sulphate and treated those areas with the cream, adjusted to either pH 4.0 or 7.5. The study did not prove the superiority of a cream of pH 4.0 to a cream of pH 7.5 regarding promotion of skin barrier recovery, since no significant differences (p > 0.05) were found in transepidermal water loss, blood flow and skin capacitance between the treated areas. 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Influence of binding pH and protein solubility on the dynamic binding capacity in hydrophobic interaction chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baumann, Pascal; Baumgartner, Kai; Hubbuch, Jürgen

    2015-05-29

    Hydrophobic interaction chromatography (HIC) is one of the most frequently used purification methods in biopharmaceutical industry. A major drawback of HIC, however, is the rather low dynamic binding capacity (DBC) obtained when compared to e.g. ion exchange chromatography (IEX). The typical purification procedure for HIC includes binding at neutral pH, independently of the proteins nature and isoelectric point. Most approaches to process intensification are based on resin and salt screenings. In this paper a combination of protein solubility data and varying binding pH leads to a clear enhancement of dynamic binding capacity. This is shown for three proteins of acidic, neutral, and alkaline isoelectric points. High-throughput solubility screenings as well as miniaturized and parallelized breakthrough curves on Media Scout RoboColumns (Atoll, Germany) were conducted at pH 3-10 on a fully automated robotic workstation. The screening results show a correlation between the DBC and the operational pH, the protein's isoelectric point and the overall solubility. Also, an inverse relationship of DBC in HIC and the binding kinetics was observed. By changing the operational pH, the DBC could be increased up to 30% compared to the standard purification procedure performed at neutral pH. As structural changes of the protein are reported during HIC processes, the applied samples and the elution fractions were proven not to be irreversibly unfolded. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. But some neutrally stable strategies are more neutrally stable than others

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Veelen, M.

    2010-01-01

    For games in which there is no evolutionarily stable strategy, it can be useful to look for neutrally stable ones. In extensive form games for instance there is typically no evolutionary stable strategy, while there may very well be a neutrally stable one. Such strategies can however still be

  11. A simple protocol for the routine calibration of pH meters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. FEDERMAN NETO

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available

    A simplified laboratory protocol for the calibration of pH meters is described and tested. It is based on the use of two analytical primary buffer solutions, potassium hydrogen phthalate and Borax (sodium tetraborate decahydrate of precisely known concentrations and pH. The solutions may be stored at room temperature for long periods, without decomposition and used directly. The calibration of the meter can be checked with standard solutions of sodium dihydrogen phosphate, sodium carbonate, sodium benzoate, sodium salicylate or potassium oxalate. Methods for the purification of Borax and potassium chloride are also given, and a new method for the neutralization of 0.9% saline is suggested. Keywords: pH meters (calibration; saline (0.9%; pH standards; potassium biphthalate; Borax.

  12. Magnesium hydroxide coagulation performance and floc properties in treating high pH reactive orange wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Meile; Lu, Jingfang; Wei, Lei; Wang, Kang; Zhao, Jianhai

    2015-01-01

    Application of magnesium hydroxide as a coagulant for treating high pH reactive orange wastewater was studied. The coagulation performance and magnesium hydroxide-reactive orange floc properties were investigated under different dosages, feeding modes and pH values. Flocculation index (FI) was then discussed with controlled experiments using an intelligent particle dispersion analyzer and optimum coagulant dose of 150 mg/L (magnesium ion) was obtained for pH value 12. The results showed that the optimum magnesium ion dose tended to decrease with the increase of initial pH value. One time addition feeding mode led to relatively large FI value and higher removal efficiency compared with other addition modes. All of the flocs under investigation showed a limited capacity for re-growth when they had been previously broken. Based on the changes of zeta potential and floc properties, charge neutralization and precipitate enmeshment were proposed to be the main coagulation mechanisms.

  13. Hyperthermal neutral beam sources for material processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, S J; Kim, D C; Joung, M; Kim, J S; Lee, B J; Oh, K S; Kim, K U; Kim, Y H; Kim, Y W; Choi, S W; Son, H J; Park, Y C; Jang, J-N; Hong, M P

    2008-02-01

    Hyperthermal neutral beams have a great potential for material processes, especially for etching and thin film deposition for semiconductor and display fabrication as well as deposition for various thin film applications. Plasma-induced damage during plasma etching is a serious problem for manufacturing deep submicron semiconductor devices and is expected to be a problem for future nanoscale devices. Thermal and plasma-induced damage is also problematic for thin film depositions such as transparent conductive oxide films on organic light emitting diodes or flexible displays due to high temperature processes in plasma environments. These problems can be overcome by damage-free and low-temperature processes with hyperthermal neutral beams. We will present the status of the hyperthermal neutral beam development and the applications, especially, in semiconductor and display fabrication and introduce potential applications of thin film growing for optoelectronic devices such as light emitting diodes.

  14. Abstinence and neutrality: development and diverse views.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schachter, J

    1994-08-01

    Usually, Freud adopted a technical device for personal or practical reasons and only later formulated its theoretical basis. His conception of abstinence initially seemed designed to curb his own troublesome erotic countertransference. These speculations, while having no bearing on the clinical value of abstinence and related neutrality, do emphasise the necessity to assess their utility objectively, on the basis of clinical data. Diverse views of abstinence and neutrality persist in part because early inconsistencies in Freud's conceptions remain unresolved, and in part because these views are derived from the analyst's personality and character, are not based upon clinical data, but are buttressed by iteration. An approach to empirical assessment is suggested using multiple analyst-observers: (1) to develop reliable criteria for four analyst behaviours: abstinence, neutrality, gratification and suggestion; and (2) to evaluate enhancement or impairment of analytic work. Utilisation of this approach in the supervision of candidates would enhance analytic pedagogy and to some degree facilitate a research orientation in candidates.

  15. Multiplicity Distributions and Charged-neutral Fluctuations

    CERN Document Server

    Nayak, Tapan K.; Agnihotri, A.; Ahammed, Z.; Angelis, A.L.S.; Antonenko, V.; Arefev, V.; Astakhov, V.; Avdeitchikov, V.; Awes, T.C.; Baba, P.V.K.S.; Badyal, S.K.; Baldine, A.; Barabach, L.; Barlag, C.; Bathe, S.; Batiounia, B.; Bernier, T.; Bhalla, K.B.; Bhatia, V.S.; Blume, C.; Bock, R.; Bohne, E.M.; Bucher, D.; Buijs, A.; Buis, E.J.; Busching, H.; Carlen, L.; Chalyshev, V.; Chattopadhyay, S.; Chenawi, K.E.; Cherbatchev, R.; Chujo, T.; Claussen, A.; Das, A.C.; Decowski, M.P.; Djordjadze, V.; Donni, P.; Doubovik, I.; Dubey, A.K.; Dutta Majumda, M.R.; Eliseev, S.; Enosawa, K.; Feldmann, H.; Foka, P.; Fokin, S.; Frolov, V.; Ganti, M.S.; Garpman, S.; Gavrishchuk, O.; Geurts, F.J.M.; Ghosh, T.K.; Glasow, R.; Gupta, S.K.; Guskov, B.; Gustafsson, H.A.; Gutbrod, H.H.; Higuchi, R.; Hrivnacova, I.; Ippolitov, M.; Kalechofsky, H.; Kamermans, R.; Kampert, K.H.; Karadjev, K.; Karpio, K.; Kato, S.; Kees, S.; Kim, H.; Kolb, B.W.; Kosarev, I.; Koutcheryaev, I.; Kugler, A.; Kulinich, P.; Kumar, V.; Kurata, M.; Kurita, K.; Kuzmin, N.; Langbein, I.; Lebedev, A.; Lee, Y.Y.; Lohner, H.; Mahapatra, D.P.; Manko, V.; Martin, M.; Maximov, A.; Mehdiyev, Rashid R.; Mgebrichvili, G.; Miake, Y.; Mikhalev, D.; Mishra, G.C.; Miyamoto, Y.; Mohanty, B.; Morrison, Douglas R.O.; Mukhopadhyay, D.S.; Myalkovski, V.; Naef, H.; Nandi, B.K.; Nayak, S.K.; Nayak, T.K.; Neumaier, S.; Nianine, A.; Nikitine, V.; Nikolaev, S.; Nishimura, S.; Nomokov, P.; Nystrand, J.; Obenshain, F.E.; Oskarsson, A.; Otterlund, I.; Pachr, M.; Parfenov, A.; Pavliouk, S.; Peitzmann, T.; Petracek, V.; Plasil, F.; Purschke, M.L.; Raeven, B.; Rak, J.; Raniwala, R.; Raniwala, S.; Ramamurthy, V.S.; Rao, N.K.; Retiere, F.; Reygers, K.; Roland, G.; Rosselet, L.; Roufanov, I.; Rubio, J.M.; Sambyal, S.S.; Santo, R.; Sato, S.; Schlagheck, H.; Schmidt, H.R.; Shabratova, G.; Sibiriak, I.; Siemiarczuk, T.; Sinha, B.C.; Slavine, N.; Soderstrom, K.; Solomey, N.; Sood, G.; Sorensen, S.P.; Stankus, P.; Stefanek, G.; Steinberg, P.; Stenlund, E.; Stuken, D.; Sumbera, M.; Svensson, T.; Trivedi, M.D.; Tsvetkov, A.; Twenhofel, C.; Tykarski, L.; Urbahn, J.; van Eijndhoven, N.; van Heeringen, W.H.; van Nieuwenhuizen, G.J.; Vinogradov, A.; Viyogi, Y.P.; Vodopianov, A.S.; Voros, S.; Vos, M.A.; Wyslouch, B.; Yagi, K.; Yokota, Y.; Young, G.R.; Nayak, Tapan K.

    2001-01-01

    Results from the multiplicity distributions of inclusive photons and charged particles, scaling of particle multiplicities, event-by-event multiplicity fluctuations, and charged-neutral fluctuations in 158$\\cdot A$ GeV Pb+Pb collisions are presented and discussed. A scaling of charged particle multiplicity as $N_{part}^{1.07\\pm 0.05}$ and photons as $N_{part}^{1.12\\pm 0.03}$ have been observed, indicating violation of naive wounded nucleon model. The analysis of localized charged-neutral fluctuation indicates a model-independent demonstration of non-statistical fluctuations in both charged particles and photons in limited azimuthal regions. However, no correlated charged-neutral fluctuations are observed.

  16. Putrescine biosynthesis in Lactococcus lactis is transcriptionally activated at acidic pH and counteracts acidification of the cytosol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Del Rio, Beatriz; Linares, Daniel; Ladero, Victor; Redruello, Begoña; Fernandez, Maria; Martin, Maria Cruz; Alvarez, Miguel A

    2016-11-07

    Lactococcus lactis subsp. cremoris CECT 8666 is a lactic acid bacterium that synthesizes the biogenic amine putrescine from agmatine via the agmatine deiminase (AGDI) pathway. The AGDI genes cluster includes aguR. This encodes a transmembrane protein that functions as a one-component signal transduction system, the job of which is to sense the agmatine concentration of the medium and accordingly regulate the transcription of the catabolic operon aguBDAC. The latter encodes the proteins necessary for agmatine uptake and its conversion into putrescine. This work reports the effect of extracellular pH on putrescine biosynthesis and on the genetic regulation of the AGDI pathway. Increased putrescine biosynthesis was detected at acidic pH (pH5) compared to neutral pH. Acidic pH induced the transcription of the catabolic operon via the activation of the aguBDAC promoter PaguB. However, the external pH had no significant effect on the activity of the aguR promoter PaguR, or on the transcription of the aguR gene. The transcriptional activation of the AGDI pathway was also found to require a lower agmatine concentration at pH5 than at neutral pH. Finally, the following of the AGDI pathway counteracted the acidification of the cytoplasm under acidic external conditions, suggesting it to provide protection against acid stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Low pH Cements

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Savage, David; Benbow, Steven [Quintessa Ltd., Henley-on-Thames (United Kingdom)

    2007-05-15

    The development of low-pH cements for use in geological repositories for radioactive waste stems from concerns over the potential for deleterious effects upon the host rock and other EBS materials (notably bentonite) under the hyperalkaline conditions (pH > 12) of cement pore fluids. Low pH cement (also known as low heat cement) was developed by the cement industry for use where large masses of cement (e.g. dams) could cause problems regarding heat generated during curing. In low pH cements, the amount of cement is reduced by substitution of materials such as fly ash, blast furnace slag, silica fume, and/or non-pozzolanic silica flour. SKB and Posiva have ruled out the use of blast furnace slag and fly-ash and are focusing on silica fume as a blending agent. Currently, no preferred composition has been identified by these agencies. SKB and Posiva have defined a pH limit {<=} 11 for cement grout leachates. To attain this pH, blending agents must comprise at least 50 wt % of dry materials. Because low pH cement has little, or no free portlandite, the cement consists predominantly of calcium silicate hydrate (CSH) gel with a Ca/Si ratio {<=} 0.8. Although there are potential implications for the performance of the spent fuel and cladding due to the presence of hyperalkaline fluids from cement, the principal focus for safety assessment lies with the behaviour of bentonite. There are a number of potential constraints on the interaction of hyperalkaline cement pore fluids with bentonite, including mass balance, thermodynamic issues, mass transport, and kinetics, but none of these is likely to be limiting if conventional OPC cements are employed in repository construction. Nevertheless: Low-pH cements may supply approximately 50 % less hydroxyl ions than conventional OPC for a given volume of cement, but mass balance constraints are complicated by the uncertainty concerning the type of secondary minerals produced during cement-bentonite interaction. The change of aqueous

  18. Alkaline pH sensor molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murayama, Takashi; Maruyama, Ichiro N

    2015-11-01

    Animals can survive only within a narrow pH range. This requires continual monitoring of environmental and body-fluid pH. Although a variety of acidic pH sensor molecules have been reported, alkaline pH sensor function is not well understood. This Review describes neuronal alkaline pH sensors, grouped according to whether they monitor extracellular or intracellular alkaline pH. Extracellular sensors include the receptor-type guanylyl cyclase, the insulin receptor-related receptor, ligand-gated Cl- channels, connexin hemichannels, two-pore-domain K+ channels, and transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. Intracellular sensors include TRP channels and gap junction channels. Identification of molecular mechanisms underlying alkaline pH sensing is crucial for understanding how animals respond to environmental alkaline pH and how body-fluid pH is maintained within a narrow range. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Structure determination of neutral MgO clusters-hexagonal nanotubes and cages

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haertelt, M.; Fielicke, A.; Meijer, G.; Kwapien, K.; Sierka, M.; Sauer, J.

    2012-01-01

    Structural information for neutral magnesium oxide clusters has been obtained by a comparison of their experimental vibrational spectra with predictions from theory. (MgO)n clusters with n = 3-16 have been studied in the gas phase with a tunable IR-UV two-color ionization scheme and size-selective

  20. Triggering on Long-Lived Neutral Particles in the ATLAS Detector

    CERN Document Server

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    2009-01-01

    Neutral particles with long decay paths that decay to many-particle final states represent, from an experimental point of view, a challenge both for the trigger and for the reconstruction capabilities of the ATLAS apparatus. The Hidden Valley scenario serves as an excellent setting for the purpose of exploring the challenges to the trigger posed by long-lived particles.

  1. Dynamics of Single Rising Bubbles in Neutrally Buoyant Liquid-Solid Suspensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hoosyar, N.; Van Ommen, J.R.; Hamersma, P.J.; Sundaresan, S.; Mudde, R.F.

    2013-01-01

    We experimentally investigate the effect of particles on the dynamics of a gas bubble rising in a liquid-solid suspension while the particles are equally sized and neutrally buoyant. Using the Stokes number as a universal scale, we show that when a bubble rises through a suspension characterized by

  2. Search for flavour-changing neutral currents with top quarks arXiv

    CERN Document Server

    Skovpen, Kirill

    Flavour-changing neutral currents are extremely rare processes in the standard model that can be sensitive to various new physics effects. The summary of the latest experimental results from the LHC experiments is given. Preliminary results of sensitivity studies for future colliders are also discussed.

  3. Service without a Smile: Comparing the Consequences of Neutral and Positive Display Rules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trougakos, John P.; Jackson, Christine L.; Beal, Daniel J.

    2011-01-01

    We used an experimental design to examine the intrapersonal and interpersonal processes through which neutral display rules, compared to positive display rules, influence objective task performance of poll workers and ratings provided by survey respondents of the poll workers. Student participants (N = 140) were trained to adhere to 1 of the 2…

  4. Desenvolvimento e composição mineral do picão-preto sob diferentes níveis de pH Development and mineral content of the hairy beggar-ticks under different pH levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sergio Y. Obara

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available Visando estudar a tolerância do picão-preto (Bidens pilosa a diferentes níveis de pH do substrato, conduziu-se um ensaio em condições de câmara de crescimento e utilizando-se a técnica de hidroponia, no qual três plântulas foram transplantadas para recipientes contendo solução nutritiva de Hoagland & Arnon, com pH ajustado para 3,5, 4,0, 5,0, 6,0, 7,0 e 8,0. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado com três repetições. Ao final do período experimental, 42 dias após o transplante, observou-se que as plantas que se desenvolveram nos pHs 3,5 e 8,0 apresentaram-se menores, com menor comprimento e volume do sistema radicular, menor número de folhas vivas e, consequentemente, menor peso de matéria seca das folhas, caule e raízes. Os teores de N e S nas raízes diminuiram com o aumento do pH do substrato, enquanto os de Ca e Mg aumentaram e os de K e P diminuiram no pH 5,0 a 6,0. No caule, apenas o teor de Mg foi afetado pelo pH, mostrando resposta positiva. Na folha obteve-se os maiores teores de P, S, Ca e Mg quando a planta se desenvolveu em pH 6,0. Não se constatou diferença significativa entre os efeitos dos pHs 5,0, 6,0 e 7,0 nos parâmetros avaliados, sendo que foi no pH 6,0 que se estimou, através de análise de regressão, melhor desenvolvimento do picão-preto. Concluiu-se que o picãopreto apresenta melhor desenvolvimento em pHs próximo ao neutro, com certa tolerância a pHs extremos (3,5 e 8,0.An assay was conducted under growth chamber condition to study the hairy beggar-ticks (Bidens pilosa tolerance to different pH levels of the substrate. Three seedlings were transplanted into recipients containing Hoaglands & Anion's nourfishing solution with pH ajusted to 3.5, 4.0, 5.0, 6.0, 7.0 and 8.0 . The experimental design used was the completely randomized with three replications. At the end of the experimental period (42 days after transplantation the development of the plants at pHs 3.5 and 8

  5. The net neutrality debate on Twitter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolf J. Schünemann

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The internet has been seen as a medium that empowers individual political actors in relation to established political elites and media gatekeepers. The present article discusses this “net empowerment hypothesis” and tests it empirically by analysing Twitter communication on the regulation of net neutrality. We extracted 503.839 tweets containing #NetNeutrality posted between January and March 2015 and analysed central developments and the network structure of the debate. The empirical results show that traditional actors from media and politics still maintain a central role.

  6. Ratiometric fluorescent pH-sensitive polymers for high-throughput monitoring of extracellular pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Liqiang; Su, Fengyu; Kong, Xiangxing; Lee, Fred; Day, Kevin; Gao, Weimin; Vecera, Mary E; Sohr, Jeremy M; Buizer, Sean; Tian, Yanqing; Meldrum, Deirdre R

    2016-01-01

    Extracellular pH has a strong effect on cell metabolism and growth. Precisely detecting extracellular pH with high throughput is critical for cell metabolism research and fermentation applications. In this research, a series of ratiometric fluorescent pH sensitive polymers are developed and the ps-pH-neutral is characterized as the best one for exculsive detection of extracellular pH. Poly(N-(2-hydroxypropyl)methacrylamide) (PHPMA) is used as the host polymer to increase the water solubility of the pH sensitive polymer without introducing cell toxicity. The fluorescent emission spectra from the polymeric sensor under excitation at the isosbestic point 455 nm possess two fluorescence peaks at 475 nm and 505 nm, which have different responding trends to pH. This enables the polymer to detect pH using fluorescent maxima at 475 nm and 505 nm (I475nm /I505nm ) ratiometrically. The cell impermeability ensures the sensor can solely detect the environmental pH. The sensor is tested to detect the extracellular pH of bacteria or eukaryotic cells in high throughput assays using a microplate reader. Results showed that the pH sensor can be used for high throughput detection of extracellular pH with high repeatability and low photobleaching effect.

  7. Bacterial profile of dentine caries and the impact of pH on bacterial population diversity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nima Kianoush

    Full Text Available Dental caries is caused by the release of organic acids from fermentative bacteria, which results in the dissolution of hydroxyapatite matrices of enamel and dentine. While low environmental pH is proposed to cause a shift in the consortium of oral bacteria, favouring the development of caries, the impact of this variable has been overlooked in microbial population studies. This study aimed to detail the zonal composition of the microbiota associated with carious dentine lesions with reference to pH. We used 454 sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene (V3-V4 region to compare microbial communities in layers ranging in pH from 4.5-7.8 from 25 teeth with advanced dentine caries. Pyrosequencing of the amplicons yielded 449,762 sequences. Nine phyla, 97 genera and 409 species were identified from the quality-filtered, de-noised and chimera-free sequences. Among the microbiota associated with dentinal caries, the most abundant taxa included Lactobacillus sp., Prevotella sp., Atopobium sp., Olsenella sp. and Actinomyces sp. We found a disparity between microbial communities localised at acidic versus neutral pH strata. Acidic conditions were associated with low diversity microbial populations, with Lactobacillus species including L. fermentum, L. rhamnosus and L. crispatus, being prominent. In comparison, the distinctive species of a more diverse flora associated with neutral pH regions of carious lesions included Alloprevotella tanerrae, Leptothrix sp., Sphingomonas sp. and Streptococcus anginosus. While certain bacteria were affected by the pH gradient, we also found that ∼ 60% of the taxa associated with caries were present across the investigated pH range, representing a substantial core. We demonstrated that some bacterial species implicated in caries progression show selective clustering with respect to pH gradient, providing a basis for specific therapeutic strategies.

  8. Ionic identity of pore water influences pH preference in Collembola.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Salmon, S.; Ponge, J.F.; van Straalen, N.M.

    2002-01-01

    A test system described by Van Straalen and Verhoef [J Appl Ecol 34 (1997) 217] was used in order to check whether the endogeic Collembolan Heteromurus nitidus was repelled by acid pH. In each of the eight experimental runs 16 naive animals were allowed to select sectors in a circular pH gradient

  9. Optimization of pH and direct imaging conditions of complexed ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    Abstract. Significant results of our experimental investigations on the dependence of pH on real time transmission characteristics on recording media fabricated by doping PVC with complexed methylene blue are presented. The optimum pH value for faster bleaching was found to be 4⋅5. In typical applications, the.

  10. Cold neutral atoms via charge exchange from excited state positronium: a proposal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertsche, W. A.; Charlton, M.; Eriksson, S.

    2017-05-01

    We present a method for generating cold neutral atoms via charge exchange reactions between trapped ions and Rydberg positronium. The high charge exchange reaction cross section leads to efficient neutralisation of the ions and since the positronium-ion mass ratio is small, the neutrals do not gain appreciable kinetic energy in the process. When the original ions are cold the reaction produces neutrals that can be trapped or further manipulated with electromagnetic fields. Because a wide range of species can be targeted we envisage that our scheme may enable experiments at low temperature that have been hitherto intractable due to a lack of cooling methods. We present an estimate for achievable temperatures, neutral number and density in an experiment where the neutrals are formed at a milli-Kelvin temperature from either directly or sympathetically cooled ions confined on an ion chip. The neutrals may then be confined by their magnetic moment in a co-located magnetic minimum well also formed on the chip. We discuss general experimental requirements.

  11. An improved microtiter assay for evaluating anti-HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies from sera or plasma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Yunyun

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The anti-HIV-1 neutralizing antibody assay is widely used in AIDS vaccine research and other experimental and clinical studies. The vital dye staining method applied in the detection of anti-HIV-1 neutralizing antibody has been used in many laboratories. However, the unknown factor(s in sera or plasma affected cell growth and caused protection when the tested sera or plasma was continuously maintained in cell culture. In addition, the poor solubility of neutral red in medium (such as RPMI-1640 also limited the use of this assay. Methods In this study, human T cell line C8166 was used as host cells, and 3-(4,5-Dimethyl-2-thiazolyl-2,5-diphenyl-2H-tetrazolium bromide (MTT instead of neutral red was used as vital dye. In order to avoid the effect of the unknown factor(s, the tested sera or plasma was removed by a washout procedure after initial 3–6 h culture in the assay. Result This new assay eliminated the effect of the tested sera or plasma on cell growth, improved the reliability of detection of anti-HIV-1 neutralizing antibody, and showed excellent agreement with the p24 antigen method. Conclusion The results suggest that the improved assay is relatively simple, highly duplicable, cost-effective, and well reliable for evaluating anti-HIV-1 neutralizing antibodies from sera or plasma.

  12. Influence of soil pH on the sorption of ionizable chemicals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Franco, Antonio; Fu, Wenjing; Trapp, Stefan

    2009-01-01

    , the optimal pH to model dissociation was lower than the bulk soil pH. The knowledge of the soil pH allows calculation of the fractions of neutral and ionic molecules in the system, thus improving the existing regression for acids. The same approach was not successful with bases, for which the impact of p......The soil-water distribution coefficient of ionizable chemicals (K-d) depends on the soil acidity, mainly because the pH governs speciation. Using pH-specific K-d values normalized to organic carbon (K-OC) from the literature, a method was developed to estimate the K-OC of monovalent organic acids...... and bases. The regression considers pH-dependent speciation and species-specific partition coefficients, calculated from the dissociation constant (pK(a)) and the octanol-water partition coefficient of the neutral molecule (log P-n). Probably because of the lower pH near the organic colloid-water interface...

  13. Adaptation of Ustilago maydis to extreme pH values: A transcriptomic analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cervantes-Montelongo, Juan Antonio; Aréchiga-Carvajal, Elva Teresa; Ruiz-Herrera, José

    2016-11-01

    Fungi are capable to adapt to environments with different pH values. Here we used microarrays to analyze the transcriptomic response of the Basidiomycota Ustilago maydis when transferred from a neutral pH medium to acidic, or alkaline media. Yeast and hyphal monomorphic mutants were used as controls, permitting the identification of 301 genes differentially regulated during the transfer from neutral to an acidic medium, of which 162 were up-regulated and 139 down-regulated. When cells were transferred to an alkaline medium, we identified 797 differentially regulated genes, 335 up-regulated, and 462 down-regulated. The category showing the highest number of regulated genes during the change to either pH, besides "unclassified," was "metabolism," indicating that a very important factor for adaptation is a change in the metabolic machinery. These data reveal that adaptation of U. maydis to environments with different pH involves a severe modification of the transcription machinery to cope with the new conditions, and that the stress by an alkaline environment is more drastic than a change to an acidic medium. The data also revealed that only a minor proportion of the identified genes are under the apparent control of the Pal/Rim pathway, indicating that pH adaptation of this fungus involves other than this cannonical pathway. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Efficacy of Neutral Electrolyzed Water for Inactivation of Human Norovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moorman, Eric; Montazeri, Naim; Jaykus, Lee-Ann

    2017-08-15

    Human norovirus (NoV) is the leading cause of acute gastroenteritis worldwide. Persistence on surfaces and resistance to many conventional disinfectants contribute to widespread transmission of norovirus. We examined the efficacy of neutral electrolyzed water (NEW; pH 7) for inactivation of human NoV GII.4 Sydney in suspension (ASTM method 1052-11) and on stainless steel surfaces (ASTM method 1053-11) with and without an additional soil load. The impact of the disinfectant on viral capsid was assessed using reverse transcriptase quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR; with an RNase pretreatment), SDS-PAGE, transmission electron microscopy, and a histo-blood group antigen (HBGA) receptor-binding assay. These studies were done in parallel with those using Tulane virus (TuV), a cultivable human NoV surrogate. Neutral electrolyzed water at 250 ppm free available chlorine produced a 4.8- and 0.4-log 10 reduction in NoV genome copy number after 1 min in suspension and on stainless steel, respectively. Increasing the contact time on surfaces to 5, 10, 15, and 30 min reduced human NoV genomic copies by 0.5, 1.6, 2.4, and 5.0 log 10 and TuV infectious titers by 2.4, 3.0, 3.8, and 4.1 log 10 PFU, respectively. Increased soil load effectively eliminated antiviral efficacy regardless of testing method and virus. Exposure to NEW induced a near complete loss of receptor binding (5 ppm, 30 s), degradation of VP1 major capsid protein (250 ppm, 5 min), and increased virus particle aggregation (150 ppm, 30 min). Neutral electrolyzed water at 250 ppm shows promise as an antinoroviral disinfectant when used on precleaned stainless steel surfaces. IMPORTANCE Norovirus is the leading cause of acute viral gastroenteritis worldwide. Transmission occurs by fecal-oral or vomitus-oral routes. The persistence of norovirus on contaminated environmental surfaces exacerbates its spread, as does its resistance to many conventional disinfectants. The purpose of this research was to evaluate the antinoroviral

  15. Predicting Calcite (CaCO3) Requirements of Sphagnum Peat Moss from pH Titration Curves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liming materials are required to neutralize acidity in peat moss to make it a suitable substrate for growing container crops. A series of time-consuming incubations of peat:lime mixtures are typically used to determine the liming rate to achieve a desired pH. Our objective was to evaluate the util...

  16. How Objective a Neutral Word Is? A Neutrosophic Approach for the Objectivity Degrees of Neutral Words

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mihaela Colhon

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available In the latest studies concerning the sentiment polarity of words, the authors mostly consider the positive and negative constructions, without paying too much attention to the neutral words, which can have, in fact, significant sentiment degrees. More precisely, not all the neutral words have zero positivity or negativity scores, some of them having quite important nonzero scores for these polarities. At this moment, in the literature, a word is considered neutral if its positive and negative scores are equal, which implies two possibilities: (1 zero positive and negative scores; (2 nonzero, but equal positive and negative scores. It is obvious that these cases represent two different categories of neutral words that must be treated separately by a sentiment analysis task. In this paper, we present a comprehensive study about the neutral words applied to English as is developed with the aid of SentiWordNet 3.0: the publicly available lexical resource for opinion mining. We designed our study in order to provide an accurate classification of the so-called “neutral words” described in terms of sentiment scores and using measures from neutrosophy theory. The intended scope is to fill the gap concerning the neutrality aspect by giving precise measurements for the words’ objectivity.

  17. IMPLEMENTASI PRINSIP NEUTRALITY DALAM PROSES MEDIASI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lina Nur Anisa

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Mediasi merupakan salah satu bentuk alternatif penyelesaian sengketa di luar pengadilan. Gary Godpaster mengemukakan mediasi adalah proses negosiasi penyelesaian masalah atau sengketa dimana pihak ketiga atau pihak luar tidak memihak (impartial dan netral berkerja dengan pihak yang bersengketa untuk membantu mereka memperoleh kesepakatan perjanjian yang memuaskan. Mediasi mengantarkan para pihak pada perwujudan kesepakatan damai dengan menempatkan kedua belah pihak pada posisi yang sama, tidak ada pihak yang dimenangkan atau pihak yang dikalahkan (win-win solution. Dalam mediasi para pihak yang bersengketa pro aktif dan memiliki kewenangan penuh dalam pengambilan keputusan. Mediator tidak memiliki kewenangan dalam pengambilan keputusan, tetapi ia hanya membantu para pihak dalam menjaga proses mediasi guna mewujudkan kesepakatan damai mereka. Mediator harus memiliki sejumlah persyaratan dan keahlian (skill, yang akan membantunya mencari sejumlah kemungkinan penyelesaian sengketa. Neutrality (netralitas merupakan salah satu prinsip dari lima prinsip dasar yang ada dalam mediasi, kelima prinsip tersebut adalah prinsip kerahasiaan (confidentiality, sukarela (Volunteer, pemberdayaan (empowerment, netralitas (Neutrality, dan solusi yang unik (a unique solution. Kelima prinsip tersebut wajib dipahami oleh mediator, terlebih prinsip neutrality, mediator harus memahaminya secara menyeluruh dan sempurna. Kata Kunci: Mediasi, Mediator, Neutrality

  18. The fallacies of network neutrality regulation

    OpenAIRE

    Knieps, Günter; Zenhäusern, Patrick

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, historical functionalities of the traditional Internet are contrasted with today's Internet functionalities of the 'smart' Internet architecture. It is shown that network neutrality regulation prohibiting congestion management and traffic quality differentiation is contrary to economically founded allocation mechanisms. By access regulation of local loop bottleneck components the transfer of market power from the telecommunications infrastructure into the complementary Internet...

  19. Development of KSTAR Neutral Beam Heating System

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, B. H.; Song, W. S.; Yoon, B. J. (and others)

    2007-10-15

    The prototype components of a neutral beam injection (NBI) system have been developed for the KSTAR, and a capability of the manufactured components has been tested. High power ion source, acceleration power supply, other ion source power supplies, neutralizer, bending magnet for ion beam separation, calorimeter, and cryo-sorption pump have been developed by using the domestic technologies and tested for a neutral beam injection of 8 MW per beamline with a pulse duration of 300 seconds. The developed components have been continuously upgraded to achieve the design requirements. The development technology of high power and long pulse neutral beam injection system has been proved with the achievement of 5.2 MW output for a short pulse length and 1.6 MW output for a pulse length of 300 seconds. Using these development technologies, the domestic NB technology has been stabilized under the development of high power ion source, NB beamline components, high voltage and current power supplies, NB diagnostics, NB system operation and control.

  20. Educating for a Carbon Neutral Future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mads Dines

    2014-01-01

    In the past decades the focus on first energy efficient architecture and later carbon neutral buildings has increased significantly. A part of this focus has started discussions about the design process and terms like integrated design has emerged from here, focusing on integrating the different...

  1. Γ-source Neutral Point Clamped Inverter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mo, Wei; Loh, Poh Chiang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    Transformer based Z-source inverters are recently proposed to achieve promising buck-boost capability. They have improved higher buck-boost capability, smaller size and less components count over Z-source inverters. On the other hand, neutral point clamped inverters have less switching stress...

  2. Neutron production by neutral beam sources

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkner, K.H.; Massoletti, D.J.; McCaslin, J.B.; Pyle, R.V.; Ruby, L.

    1979-11-01

    Neutron yields, from interactions of multiampere 40- to 120-keV deuterium beams with deuterium atoms implanted in copper targets, have been measured in order to provide input data for shielding of neutral-deuterium beam facilities for magnetic fusion experiments.

  3. Risk neutral second best toll pricing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-01

    We propose a risk-neutral second best toll pricing scheme to account for the possible no uniqueness : of user equilibrium solutions. The scheme is designed to optimize for the expected objective value : as the UE solution varies within the solution s...

  4. A storage ring for neutral molecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Crompvoets, F.M.H.

    2005-01-01

    Time-varying inhomogeneous electric fields can be used to manipulate the motion of neutral molecules in phase-space, i.e., position-momentum space, via their electric dipole moment. A theoretical background is given on the motion of the molecules in phase-space. As the forces exerted on the

  5. CP violation in neutral kaon decays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buchalla, G.

    1997-05-01

    A brief review of the theoretical status of CP violation in decays of neutral kaons is presented. We focus on three important topics: {epsilon}, {epsilon}`/{epsilon} and K{sub L}{yields}{pi}{sup 0}{nu}{anti {nu}}.

  6. CP Violation, Neutral Currents, and Weak Equivalence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fitch, V. L.

    1972-03-23

    Within the past few months two excellent summaries of the state of our knowledge of the weak interactions have been presented. Correspondingly, we will not attempt a comprehensive review but instead concentrate this discussion on the status of CP violation, the question of the neutral currents, and the weak equivalence principle.

  7. Toxic emissions and devalued CO2-neutrality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Czeskleba-Dupont, Rolf

    friendly effects of substituting wood burning for fossil fuels. With reference to Bent Sørensen's classical work on 'Renewable Energy' the assumption of CO2-neutrality regarding incineration is problematised when applied to plants with long rotation periods as trees. Registered CO2-emissions from wood...

  8. Separation of Acids, Bases, and Neutral Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujita, Megumi; Mah, Helen M.; Sgarbi, Paulo W. M.; Lall, Manjinder S.; Ly, Tai Wei; Browne, Lois M.

    2003-01-01

    Separation of Acids, Bases, and Neutral Compounds requires the following software, which is available for free download from the Internet: Netscape Navigator, version 4.75 or higher, or Microsoft Internet Explorer, version 5.0 or higher; Chime plug-in, version compatible with your OS and browser (available from MDL); and Flash player, version 5 or higher (available from Macromedia).

  9. If It's Neutral, It's Not Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strate, Lance

    2012-01-01

    Taking a media ecology perspective, this article argues that technology cannot be neutral, because it is a form of change, and it has an inherent bias based on the properties of its materials and methods. Additionally, the application of a technology is an intrinsic part of the technology itself, as is technique, instructions, software, or…

  10. Neutral anion receptors: design and application

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Antonisse, M.M.G.; Reinhoudt, David

    1998-01-01

    After the development of synthetic cation receptors in the late 1960s, only in the past decade has work started on the development of synthetic neutral anion receptors. Combination and preorganization of different anion binding groups, like amides, urea moieties, or Lewis acidic metal centers lead

  11. Fetal scalp pH testing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fetal scalp blood; Scalp pH testing; Fetal blood testing - scalp; Fetal distress - fetal scalp testing; Labor - fetal scalp testing ... a baby. In these cases, testing the scalp pH can help the doctor decide whether the fetus ...

  12. Acid loading test (pH)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003615.htm Acid loading test (pH) To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The acid loading test (pH) measures the ability of the ...

  13. Catalysis of Glyceraldehyde Synthesis by Primary or Secondary Amino Acids Under Prebiotic Conditions as a Function of pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslow, Ronald; Ramalingam, Vijayakumar; Appayee, Chandrakumar

    2013-10-01

    The synthesis of an excess of D-glyceraldehyde by coupling glycolaldehyde with formaldehyde under prebiotic conditions is catalyzed by L amino acids having primary amino groups at acidic pH's, but at neutral or higher pH's they preferentially form L-glyceraldehyde. L Amino acids having secondary amino groups, such as proline, have the reverse preferences, affording excess L-glyceraldehyde at low pH but excess D-glyceraldehyde at higher pHs. Detailed mechanistic proposals make these preferences understandable. The relevance of these findings to the origin of D sugars on prebiotic Earth is described.

  14. [Effects of magaldrate on circadian profile of gastric juice pH in medical intensive care patients (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dammann, H G; Flashoff, D; Müller, P; Kather, H; Simon, B

    1981-10-30

    The effect of the antacid magaldrate on intragastric pH behaviour was investigated in 9 medical intensive care patients. During the 24-hour test period 10 ml of this complex preparation induced pH increases to values between 6 and 7 when it was administered every two hours. However, three-hourly administration of 15 ml magaldrate did not result in a sufficient intragastric pH increase. Thus relatively small volumes of magaldrate are sufficient to neutralize gastric acid of these intensive care patients effectively.

  15. Electropolymerization of pyrrole: effects of pH and anions on the conductivity and growth kinetics of polypyrrole

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kupila, E.L. (Dept. of Chemistry, Univ. of Turku (Finland)); Kankare, J. (Dept. of Chemistry, Univ. of Turku (Finland))

    1993-03-22

    Polypyrrole is one of the most studied conducting polymers. In situ AC conductimetry during electropolymerization is a method which allows the specific conductivity to be estimated for the polymer in statu nascendi. We have applied this method to the electropolymerization of pyrrole in aqueous solutions at various conditions. Polymers synthesized at lower pH range are of better quality than those synthesized at higher pH values. The use of small anions in the supporting electrolyte results in a layer of low conductivity at pH 7. The use of long-chain organic anions like sodium dodecylsulfate gives a high quality polymer even in neutral unbuffered solutions. (orig.)

  16. Reactive geothermal transport simulation to study the formation mechanism of impermeable barrier between acidic and neutral fluid zones in the Onikobe Geothermal Field, Japan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Todaka, Norifumi; Akasaka, Chitosi; Xu, Tianfu; Pruess, Karsten

    2003-04-09

    Two types of fluids are encountered in the Onikobe geothermal reservoir, one is neutral and the other is acidic (pH=3). It is hypothesized that acidic fluid might be upwelling along a fault zone and that an impermeable barrier might be present between the acidic and neutral fluid zones. We carried out reactive geothermal transport simulations using TOUGHREACT (Xu and Pruess, 1998 and 2001) to test such a conceptual model. Mn-rich smectite precipitated near the mixing front and is likely to form an impermeable barrier between regions with acidic and neutral fluids.

  17. pH sensor calibration procedure

    OpenAIRE

    Artero Delgado, Carola; Nogueras Cervera, Marc; Manuel Lázaro, Antonio; Prat Tasias, Jordi; Prat Farran, Joana d'Arc

    2013-01-01

    This paper describes the calibration of pH sensor located at the OBSEA marine Observatory. This instrument is based on an industrial pH electrode that is connected to a CTD instrument (Conductivity, Temperature, and Depth ). The calibration of the pH sensor has been done using a high precision spectrophotometer pH meter from Institute of Marine Sciences (ICM), and in this way it has been obtained a numerical function for the p H sensor propor...

  18. Compact Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer with Ion Drifts, Temperatures and Neutral Winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paschalidis, Nikolaos

    2016-07-01

    In situ measurements of atmospheric neutral and ion composition and density, temperatures, ion drifts and neutral winds, are in high demand to study the dynamics of the ionosphere-theremosphere-mesosphere system. This paper presents a compact Ion and Neutral Mass Spectrometer (INMS) with impended ion drifts and temperature, and neutral winds capability for in situ measurements of ions and neutrals H, He, N, O, N2, O2. The mass resolution M/dM is approximately 10 at an incoming energy range of 0-20eV. The goal is to resolve ion drifts in the range 0 to 3000m/sec with a resolution better than 50m/sec, and neutral winds in the range of 0 to 1000m/sec with similar resolution. For temperatures the goal is to cover a dynamic range of 0 to 5000K. The INMS is based on front end optics for ions and neutrals, pre acceleration, gated time of flight, top hat ESA, MCP detectors and compact electronics. The instrument is redundant for ions and neutrals with the ion and neutral sensor heads on opposite sides and with full electronics in the middle. The ion front end includes RPA for temperature scanning and neutral front end includes angular modulation and thermionic ionization and ion blocking grids. The electronics include fast electric gating, TOF electronics, TOF binning and C&DH digital electronics. The data package includes 400 mass bins each for ions and neutrals and key housekeeping data for instrument health and calibration. The data sampling can be commanded from 0.1 to 10 sec with 1sec nominal setting. The instrument has significant onboard storage capability and a data compression scheme. The mass spectrometer version of the instrument has been flown on the Exocube mission. The instrument occupied 1.5U volume, weighed only 560 g and required nominal power of 1.6W The ExoCube mission was designed to acquire global knowledge of in-situ densities of [H], [He], [O] and H+, He+, O+ in the upper ionosphere and lower exosphere in combination with incoherent scatter radar and

  19. Monitoring the Productivity of Coastal Systems Using PH ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The impact of nutrient inputs to the eutrophication of coastal ecosystems has been one of the great themes of coastal ecology. There have been countless studies devoted to quantifying how human sources of nutrients, in particular nitrogen (N), effect coastal water bodies. These studies, which often measure in situ concentrations of nutrients, chlorophyll, and dissolved oxygen, are often spatially and/or temporally intensive and expensive. We provide evidence from experimental mesocosms, coupled with data from the water column of a well-mixed estuary, that pH can be a quick, inexpensive, and integrative measure of net ecosystem metabolism. In some cases, this approach is a more sensitive tracer of production than direct measurements of chlorophyll and carbon-14. Taken together, our data suggest that pH is a sensitive, but often overlooked, tool for monitoring estuarine production. This presentation will explore the potential utility of pH as an indicator of ecosystem productivity. Our data suggest that pH is a sensitive and potentially integrator of net ecosystem production. It should not be overlooked, that measuring pH is quick, easy, and inexpensive, further increasing its value as an analytical tool.

  20. A Self-Powered Triboelectric Nanosensor for PH Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Wu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A self-powered, sliding electrification based triboelectric sensor was developed for detecting PH value from a periodic contact/separation motion. This innovative, cost-effective, simply designed sensor is composed of a fluorinated ethylene propylene thin film and an array of electrodes underneath. The operation of the TENG (triboelectric nanogenerator sensor relies on a repetitive emerging-submerging process with traveling solution waves, in which the coupling between triboelectrification and electrostatic induction gives rise to alternating flows of electrons between electrodes. On the basis of coupling effect between triboelectrification and electrostatic induction, the sensor generates electric output signals which are associated with PH value. Experimental results show that the output voltage of the TENG sensor increases with the increasing PH value, which indicate that the PH value of different solution can be real-time monitored. This work not only demonstrates a new principle in the field of PH value measurement but also greatly expands the applicability of triboelectric nanogenerator (TENG as self-powered sensors.

  1. Optimalization of Poly(neutral red Coated-wire Electrode for Determination of Citrate in Soft Drinks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vladimír Král

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available This report presents an optimization of potentiometric measurements withcitrate-selective electropolymerized poly(neutral red electrodes. The optimal backgroundelectrolyte for these measurements is a TRIS buffer with nitrate at pH 8.5. The electrodesdescribed here exhibit stable and reproducible near-Nernstian response to citrates with alow detection limit of 6 × 10-6 M. Electrodes polymerized from sulfuric acid andacetonitrile are compared in detail. Simple and sensitive method for quantification ofcitrate in real-life samples by potentiometry with poly(neutral red electrodes arepresented. Data from potentiometric measurements of citrate are compared with capillaryelectrophoresis.

  2. Kinetics study of hydrochlorothiazide lactose liquid state interaction using conventional isothermal arrhenius method under basic and neutral conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faranak Ghaderi

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The Maillard reaction of hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ and lactose has been previously demonstrated in pharmaceutical formulations. In this study, the activation energy of - hydrohlorothiazide and lactose interaction in the liquid state was ascertained under basic and neutral conditions. Conventional isothermal High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC technique was employed to ascertain the kinetic parameters using Arrhenius method. Results: The activation energy obtained was 82.43 and 100.28 kJ/mol under basic and neutral conditions, respectively. Consequently, it can be inferred that Maillard reaction is significantly affected by pH, which can be used as a control factor whenever the reaction potentially occurs.

  3. PhD students and integrative research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fry, G.; Tress, B.; Tress, G.

    2006-01-01

    The training of PhD students is currently very dynamic and varies widely from place to place. We present some examples of this variation and comment on how it may affect the way PhD students cope with integrative studies. Our focus is on the training needs of PhD students studying integrative

  4. Neutralization of Bactericidal Activity Related to Antimicrobial Carryover in Broiler Carcass Rinse Samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gamble, Gary R; Berrang, Mark E; Buhr, R Jeff; Hinton, Arthur; Bourassa, Dianna V; Ingram, Kimberly D; Adams, Eric S; Feldner, Peggy W; Johnston, John J

    2017-04-01

    Studies were conducted to examine the ability of three chemicals to neutralize residual antibacterial activity of commercial antimicrobial chemicals used in poultry processing. Chemical antimicrobial interventions used in poultry processing may have potential for carryover into whole poultry carcass buffered peptone water (BPW) rinses collected for monitoring Salmonella contamination. Such carryover may lead to false-negative results due to continuing bactericidal action of the antimicrobial chemicals in the rinse. To simulate testing procedures used to detect Salmonella contamination, studies were conducted by separately adding test neutralizers (highly refined soy lecithin, sodium thiosulfate, or sodium bicarbonate) to BPW and using these solutions as carcass rinses. Control samples consisted of BPW containing no additional neutralizing agents. One of four antimicrobial solutions (cetylpyridinium chloride, peroxyacetic acid, acidified sodium chlorite, and a pH 1 hydrochloric:citric acid mix) was then added to the rinses. The four antimicrobial solutions were prepared at maximum allowable concentrations and diluted with modified BPW rinses to volumes simulating maximum carryover. These solutions were then inoculated with a mixed culture of five nalidixic acid-resistant Salmonella serovars at 10(6) CFU/mL. The inoculated rinse was stored at 4°C for 24 h, and Salmonella was enumerated by direct plating on brilliant green sulfa agar supplemented with nalidixic acid. Results indicate that incorporation of optimal concentrations of three neutralizing agents into BPW neutralized the demonstrated carryover effects of each of the four antimicrobial solutions tested, allowing recovery of viable Salmonella at 10(6) CFU/mL (P > 0.05), equivalent to recovery from carcass rinses with no antimicrobial carryover. Incorporation of these neutralizers in BPW for Salmonella monitoring may reduce false-negative results and aid regulatory agencies in accurate reporting of Salmonella

  5. Geothermal Resource Exploration by Stream pH Mapping in Mutsu Hiuchi Dake Volcano, Japan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yota Suzuki

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Although pH measurements of hot spring water are taken in conventional geothermal resource research, previous studies have seldom created pH distribution maps of stream and spring waters for an entire geothermal field as a technique for geothermal exploration. In this study, a pH distribution map was created by measuring stream and spring water pH at 75 sites in the Mutsu Hiuchi Dake geothermal field, Japan. Areas of abnormally high pH were detected in midstream sections of the Ohaka and Koaka rivers; these matched the location of the Mutsu Hiuchi Dake East Slope Fault, which is believed to have formed a geothermal reservoir. The abnormally high pH zone is attributed to the trapping of rising volcanic gases in a mature geothermal reservoir with neutral geothermal water. This causes the gas to dissolve and prevents it from reaching the surface. Thus, the mapping of stream water pH distribution in a geothermal field could provide a new and effective method for estimating the locations of geothermal reservoirs. As the proposed method does not require laboratory analysis, and is more temporally and economically efficient than conventional methods, it might help to promote geothermal development in inaccessible and remote regions.

  6. The development of a neutralizing amines based reagent for maintaining the water chemistry for medium and high pressures steam boilers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butakova, M. V.; Orlov, K. A.; Guseva, O. V.

    2017-11-01

    An overview of the development for neutralizing amine based reagent for water chemistry of steam boilers for medium and high pressures was given. Total values of the neutralization constants and the distribution coefficients of the compositions selected as a main criteria for reagent composition. Experimental results of using this new reagent for water chemistry in HRSG of power plant in oil-production company are discussed.

  7. Human Immune Response to Botulinum Pentavalent (ABCDE) Toxoid, Determined by a Neutralization Test and by an ELISA

    Science.gov (United States)

    1988-05-04

    difficult to ascertain from such assays. A good correlation between neutralizing activity and ELISA titer has been demonstrated for antibody to tetanus toxoid...15). Eighty serum samples, ranging from < 0.01 to >100 IU/ml, were assayed by both techniques. The ELISA used plates coated with tetanus toxoid... horses (3). The ELISA overcomes many of the disadvantages of the neutralization test: it does not require experimental animals, the test can be

  8. Experiments on Ion Beam Space-Charge Neutralization with Pulsed Electron Beams

    CERN Document Server

    Herleb, U

    1998-01-01

    Space-charge neutralization of heavy ion beams with electron beam pulses generated by electron guns incorporating ferroelectric cathodes has been experimentally investigated. Several experiments are described, the results of which prove that the intensity of selected ion beam parts with defined charge states generated in a laser ion source can be increased by an order of magnitude. For elevated charge states the intensity amplification is more significant than for low charge states. A charge enhancement factor of four has been achieved by neutralization with pulsed electron beams for Al7+ ions generated from an aluminium target.

  9. Generation of a neutral, high-density electron-positron plasma in the laboratory

    CERN Document Server

    Sarri, G; Cole, J; Schumaker, W; Di Piazza, A; Reville, B; Doria, D; Dromey, B; Gizzi, L; Green, A; Grittani, G; Kar, S; Keitel, C H; Krushelnick, K; Kushel, S; Mangles, S; Najmudin, Z; Thomas, A G R; Vargas, M; Zepf, M

    2013-01-01

    We report on the laser-driven generation of purely neutral, relativistic electron-positron pair plasmas. The overall charge neutrality, high average Lorentz factor ($\\gamma_{e/p} \\approx 15$), small divergence ($\\theta_{e/p} \\approx 10 - 20$ mrad), and high density ($n_{e/p}\\simeq 10^{15}$cm$^{-3}$) of these plasmas open the pathway for the experimental study of the dynamics of this exotic state of matter, in regimes that are of relevance to electron-positron astrophysical plasmas.

  10. Continuum considerations for Rydberg atom formation in low-density ultracold neutral plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Ting; Roberts, Jacob

    2016-10-01

    Rydberg atoms are formed in ultracold neutral plasmas primarily through three-body recombination for typical experimental conditions. At low densities, the relative importance of electron-Rydberg state-changing collisions in the dynamical evolution of the Rydberg atom state populations increases, leading to temperature scalings different from the usual T - 9 / 2 scaling associated with the three-body recombination rate. We report our measurement of Rydberg atom formation rates in low-density ultracold neutral plasmas. We also discuss continuum considerations in the calculation of the three-body recombination rate and its relation to our observations. This work supported by the AFOSR.

  11. Effect of high-energy neutral particles on extreme ultraviolet spectroscopy in large helical device.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Chunfeng; Morita, Shigeru; Tokitani, Masayuki; Goto, Motoshi; Sakaue, Hiroyuki; Wang, Erhui; Zushi, Hideki

    2012-10-01

    Spectra measured by an extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrometer frequently suffer large spike noise when Large Helical Device is operated in low-density range (≤ 3 × 10(13) cm(-3)) with neutral beam injection (NBI). The spike noise completely disappears in electron cyclotron heating discharges. In order to examine the effect of NBI, a carbon filter with thickness of 150 nm was installed in the EUV spectrometer. As a result, the spike noise was reduced by an order of magnitude. It is experimentally verified that the spike noise is caused by escaping high-energy neutral particles resulting from the circulating high-energy hydrogen ions borne from NBI.

  12. Spectroscopic Data for Neutral and Ionized Rare Earth Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lawler, J. E.; den Hartog, E. A.; Sneden, C.

    2005-05-01

    The spectra of neutral and ionized rare earth elements have been receiving renewed attention from laboratory spectroscopists during recent years. These efforts have been motivated by data needs of the astrophysics and lighting research communities. In astrophysics studies of metal-poor Galactic halo stars are providing a deeper understanding of the origins of heavy elements, of the chemical evolution of the Galaxy, and some insights into the rapid and slow neutron-capture mechanisms. Rare earth elements are widely used in Metal Halide High Intensity Discharge lamps. The superior performance of such lamps has motivated further development of these devices. Basic spectroscopic data are needed for modeling and diagnosing new lamp designs. This paper reviews progress on determining atomic transition probabilities for neutral and singly ionized rare elements. The most widely used experimental method involves combining radiative lifetimes from laser induced fluorescence measurements, with emission branching fractions from Fourier transform spectra. Theoretical methods for determining atomic transition probabilities have also been improved in recent years. Progress on hyperfine structure and isotopic data is also discussed in this paper.

  13. Separate T, CP, CPT Asymmetries in Neutral Meson Transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernabéu, José

    2017-07-01

    Symmetries, and Symmetry Breakings, in the Laws of Physics play a crucial role in Fundamental Science. Parity and Charge Conjugation Violations prompted the consideration of Chiral Fields in the construction of the Standard Model, whereas CP-Violation needed at least three families of Quarks leading to Flavour Physics. In this Lecture I will discuss the Conceptual Basis and the present experimental results for a Direct Evidence of Separate Reversal-in-Time T, CP and CPT Genuine Asymmetries in Decaying Particles like Neutral Meson Transitions, using Quantum Entanglement and the Decay as a Filtering Measurement. The eight transitions associated to the Flavour-CP eigenstate decay products of entangled neutral mesons have demonstrated with impressive significance a separate evidence of TRV and CPV in Bd-physics, whereas a CPTV asymmetry shows a 2-σ effect interpreted as an upper limit. Novel CPTV observables are discussed for K and Bd transitions. Their observation would lead to a change of paradigm beyond Quantum Field Theory, however there is nothing in Quantum Mechanics forbidding CPTV. A clean methodology to disentangle CPTV effects in the Hamiltonian dynamics and the ω-effect weakening Entanglement in a given experiment is discussed.

  14. Modeling the LPS neutralization activity of anti-endotoxins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thippakorn, Chadinee; Suksrichavalit, Thummaruk; Nantasenamat, Chanin; Tantimongcolwat, Tanawut; Isarankura-Na-Ayudhya, Chartchalerm; Naenna, Thanakorn; Prachayasittikul, Virapong

    2009-05-20

    Bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS), also known as endotoxins, are major structural components of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria that serve as a barrier and protective shield between them and their surrounding environment. LPS is considered to be a major virulence factor as it strongly stimulates the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines which mediate the host immune response and culminating in septic shock. Quantitative structure-activity relationship studies of the LPS neutralization activities of anti-endotoxins were performed using charge and quantum chemical descriptors. Artificial neural network implementing the back-propagation algorithm was selected for the multivariate analysis. The predicted activities from leave-one-out cross-validation were well correlated with the experimental values as observed from the correlation coefficient and root mean square error of 0.930 and 0.162, respectively. Similarly, the external testing set also yielded good predictivity with correlation coefficient and root mean square error of 0.983 and 0.130. The model holds great potential for the rational design of novel and robust compounds with enhanced neutralization activity.

  15. Genetic engineering of platelets to neutralize circulating tumor cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiahe; Sharkey, Charles C; Wun, Brittany; Liesveld, Jane L; King, Michael R

    2016-04-28

    Mounting experimental evidence demonstrates that platelets support cancer metastasis. Within the circulatory system, platelets guard circulating tumor cells (CTCs) from immune elimination and promote their arrest at the endothelium, supporting CTC extravasation into secondary sites. Neutralization of CTCs in blood circulation can potentially attenuate metastases to distant organs. Therefore, extensive studies have explored the blockade of platelet-CTC interactions as an anti-metastatic strategy. Such an intervention approach, however, may cause bleeding disorders since the platelet-CTC interactions inherently rely on the blood coagulation cascade including platelet activation. On the other hand, platelets have been genetically engineered to correct inherited bleeding disorders in both animal models and human clinical trials. In this study, inspired by the physical association between platelets and CTCs, platelets were genetically modified to express surface-bound tumor necrosis factor-related apoptosis-inducing ligand (TRAIL), a cytokine known to induce apoptosis specifically in tumor cells. The TRAIL-expressing platelets were demonstrated to kill cancer cells in vitro and significantly reduce metastases in a mouse model of prostate cancer metastasis. Our results suggest that using platelets to produce and deliver cancer-specific therapeutics can provide a Trojan-horse strategy of neutralizing CTCs to attenuate metastasis. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Modeling the LPS Neutralization Activity of Anti-Endotoxins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Virapong Prachayasittikul

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS, also known as endotoxins, are major structural components of the outer membrane of Gram-negative bacteria that serve as a barrier and protective shield between them and their surrounding environment. LPS is considered to be a major virulence factor as it strongly stimulates the secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines which mediate the host immune response and culminating in septic shock. Quantitative structure-activity relationship studies of the LPS neutralization activities of anti-endotoxins were performed using charge and quantum chemical descriptors. Artificial neural network implementing the back-propagation algorithm was selected for the multivariate analysis. The predicted activities from leave-one-out cross-validation were well correlated with the experimental values as observed from the correlation coefficient and root mean square error of 0.930 and 0.162, respectively. Similarly, the external testing set also yielded good predictivity with correlation coefficient and root mean square error of 0.983 and 0.130. The model holds great potential for the rational design of novel and robust compounds with enhanced neutralization activity.

  17. Probing CPT in transitions with entangled neutral kaons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bernabeu, J. [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of Valencia, and IFIC, University Valencia-CSIC,E-46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Domenico, A. Di [Department of Physics, Sapienza University of Rome, and INFN Sezione di Roma,P.le A. Moro, 2, I-00185 Rome (Italy); Villanueva-Perez, P. [Department of Theoretical Physics, University of Valencia, and IFIC, University Valencia-CSIC,E-46100 Burjassot, Valencia (Spain); Paul Scherrer Institut,Villigen (Switzerland)

    2015-10-21

    In this paper we present a novel CPT symmetry test in the neutral kaon system based, for the first time, on the direct comparison of the probabilities of a transition and its CPT reverse. The required interchange of in↔out states for a given process is obtained exploiting the Einstein-Podolsky-Rosen correlations of neutral kaon pairs produced at a ϕ-factory. The observable quantities have been constructed by selecting the two semileptonic decays for flavour tag, the ππ and 3π{sup 0} decays for CP tag and the time orderings of the decay pairs. The interpretation in terms of the standard Weisskopf-Wigner approach to this system, directly connects CPT violation in these observables to the violating ℜδ parameter in the mass matrix of K{sup 0}−K̄{sup 0}, a genuine CPT violating effect independent of ΔΓ and not requiring the decay as an essential ingredient. Possible spurious effects induced by CP violation in the decay and/or a violation of the ΔS=ΔQ rule have been shown to be well under control. The proposed test is thus fully robust, and might shed light on possible new CPT violating mechanisms, or further improve the precision of the present experimental limits. It could be implemented at the DAΦNE facility in Frascati, where the KLOE-2 experiment might reach a statistical sensitivity of O(10{sup −3}) on the newly proposed observable quantities.

  18. Applications and Implications of Neutral versus Non-neutral Markers in Molecular Ecology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heather Kirk

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The field of molecular ecology has expanded enormously in the past two decades, largely because of the growing ease with which neutral molecular genetic data can be obtained from virtually any taxonomic group. However, there is also a growing awareness that neutral molecular data can provide only partial insight into parameters such as genetic diversity, local adaptation, evolutionary potential, effective population size, and taxonomic designations. Here we review some of the applications of neutral versus adaptive markers in molecular ecology, discuss some of the advantages that can be obtained by supplementing studies of molecular ecology with data from non-neutral molecular markers, and summarize new methods that are enabling researchers to generate data from genes that are under selection.

  19. Applications and implications of neutral versus non-neutral markers in molecular ecology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Kirk, Heather; Freeland, Joanna R

    2011-01-01

    The field of molecular ecology has expanded enormously in the past two decades, largely because of the growing ease with which neutral molecular genetic data can be obtained from virtually any taxonomic group...

  20. Neutral detergent fibre in piglet diets: performance and gastrointestinal implications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Carlos Nepomuceno

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The intestinal health of piglets depends on the balance between diet, microflora and mucosal integrity. Disruption of this balance can compromise the digestive functions, leading to diarrhoeal frame and decline in performance of piglets. However, the level and type of fibre can limit digestive disorders. Thirty newly weaned piglets were used to evaluate the levels of neutral detergent fibre (NDF in diets regarding performance, pH, viscosity and concentration of short chain fatty acids of digestive contents, gastrointestinal transit time, morphology of the intestinal mucosa, weights of organs and occurrence of diarrhoea. NDF level had quadratic effect on weight gain and feed conversion ratio of piglets, estimating best results at the level of 10.4%. NDF level had no effect on the pH, viscosity and concentration of short chain fatty acids. NDF levels below 10.2% or above 13.5% reduced the transit time of digesta. There was quadratic effect on villus height in the duodenum and jejunum and in the crypt depth of jejunum. There was linear increase in stomach, caecum and colon weights and linear decrease in the occurrence of diarrhoea according to increasing NDF levels. It is concluded that levels below 10.2% and above 13.5% reduce the transit time of digesta, whereas 12.2% NDF level results in better mucosa structure of the small intestinal, with an increase in the weights of the stomach, caecum and colon and a reduction in the occurrence of diarrhoea with increasing NDF level in diets, resulting in better performance of weaned piglets with 10.4% of NDF.