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Sample records for experimental oral squamous

  1. Recent advances in Oral Oncology 2008; squamous cell carcinoma aetiopathogenesis and experimental studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bagan, Jose V; Scully, Crispian

    2009-07-01

    This paper provides a synopsis of the main papers related to the aetiopathogenesis of oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and head and neck SCC (HNSCC) published in 2008 in Oral Oncology - an international interdisciplinary journal which publishes high quality original research, clinical trials and review articles, and all other scientific articles relating to the aetiopathogenesis, epidemiology, prevention, clinical features, diagnosis, treatment, and management of patients with neoplasms in the head and neck, and orofacial disease in patients with malignant disease.

  2. Current Aspects on Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Markopoulos, Anastasios K

    2012-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most common malignant epithelial neoplasm affecting the oral cavity. This article overviews the essential points of oral squamous cell carcinoma, highlighting its risk and genomic factors, the potential malignant disorders and the therapeutic approaches. It also emphasizes the importance of the early diagnosis.

  3. Oral pathology case: squamous papiloma

    OpenAIRE

    Amorim, J

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT An 11 year-old boy was referred to our department due to a slow growing and painless neoformation of the dorsum of the tongue. Excisional biopsy was performed, and the histology revealed a squamous papiloma.

  4. ORAL MYIASIS CONVERTING TO ORAL SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akshay

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Oral Myiasis, a condition of infestation of the body by fly larvae (maggots is a rare pathology in humans. It is associated with poor oral hygiene, alcoholism, senility, suppurating lesions, severe halitosis. It is seen frequently in tropical countries and hot climatic regions. The reported cases in literature of oral Myiasis associated with oral cancer are few. The treatment is a mechanical removal of the maggots but a systemic treatment with Ivermectin, a semi - synthetic macrolide antibiotic, has been used successfully for treatment for oral m yiasis. We present a case of 55 yr old male alcoholic patient with oral myiasis with extensive proliferative growth of oral cavity. Our patient was managed with manual debridement and administration of systemic ivermect in along with antibiotic coverage. Incisional biopsy of the proliferative lesion showed well differentiated squamous cell carcinoma. Thus our patient showed presence of oral myiasis in association with oral squamous cell carcinoma.

  5. Oral leukoplakia and oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bewley, Arnaud F; Farwell, D Gregory

    Oral leukoplakia is defined as a white oral lesion not related to another disease process. These lesions are largely asymptomatic, and the clinical relevance of oral leukoplakia is primarily tied to its association with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma. Timely workup and effective management of these lesions can reduce the risk of malignant transformation and promote early diagnosis of invasive tumors. A biopsy should be performed promptly of any persistent or suspicious leukoplakia with subsequent management dictated by histologic findings. Benign lesions can be observed or treated with topical therapy, and dysplastic lesions should be excised. Some risk of malignant transformation remains even after treatment, and close follow-up is required. Oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma is an aggressive malignancy that can result from malignant conversion of oral leukoplakia or occur de novo. These tumors are primarily treated with surgical resection and adjuvant radiation or chemoradiation as dictated by histopathologic findings. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Oral squamous cell carcinoma around dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czerninski, Rakefet; Kaplan, Ilana; Almoznino, Galit; Maly, Alexander; Regev, Eran

    2006-10-01

    It is well documented that oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is related to risk factors such as smoking and alcohol consumption as well as premalignant lesions and conditions such as leukoplakia, oral lichen planus (OLP), and previous malignancy of the upper respiratory system and gastrointestinal tract. Osseointegrated dental implants are rarely reported in association with OSCC. This article presents 2 cases of OSCC adjacent to dental implants in patients at risk for oral cancer--1 was a heavy smoker with OLP; the other had a history of previous oral and colon cancer. Six additional cases of malignancy adjacent to dental implants were retrieved from the literature; the majority of cases had at least 1 recognized risk factor for oral cancer. Although such cases are rarely reported, patients at risk for oral cancer, especially those with multiple existing risk factors, that present with failing dental implants should be thoroughly evaluated to rule out the presence of malignancy disguised as peri-implant disease.

  7. Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity in the Elderly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yi-Shing Leu

    2009-03-01

    Conclusion: Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity did not have a significantly different outcome for elderly patients when compared with younger patients. Elderly patients with stage IVA squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity had poorer survival rates. When properly evaluated and monitored, conservative and conventional therapies seemed efficacious in the elderly.

  8. Serum metabolomics in oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Gokul; Ramani, Pratibha; Patankar, Sangeeta

    2017-01-01

    Metabolomics is a core discipline of system biology focusing on the study of low molecular weight compounds in biological system. Analysis of human metabolome, which is composed of diverse group of metabolites, can aid in diagnosis and prognosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The aim of the present study is to analyze and identify serum metabolites in oral leukoplakia and OSCC as a potential diagnostic biomarker and a predictor for malignant transformation of oral leukoplakia. Serum metabolomic profile of patients diagnosed with oral leukoplakia (n = 21) and OSCC (n = 22) was compared with normal controls (n = 18) using quadrupole time of flight-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. MassHunter profile software was used for metabolite identification, and statistical analysis to assess the variation of the metabolites was performed using Mass Profiler Professional software. Statistical significance between the three groups was expressed using ANOVA (P oral leukoplakia and OSCC than in normal controls. Furthermore, significant upregulation of 5,6-dihydrouridine, 4-hydroxypenbutolol glucuronide, 8-hydroxyadenine, and putrescine was evident in OSCC group than in oral leukoplakia. Upregulation of L-carnitine, lysine, 2-methylcitric acid, putrescine; 8-hydroxyadenine; 17-estradiol; 5,6-dihydrouridine; and MTA suggests their diagnostic potential in oral leukoplakia and OSCC. Further, a significant upregulation of putrescine, 8-hydroxyadenine, and 5,6-dihydrouridine in OSCC than in oral leukoplakia indicates their potential role in predicting the malignant transformation of oral leukoplakia.

  9. Comparison of Immunohistochemical Expression of Antiapoptotic Protein Survivin in Normal Oral Mucosa, Oral Leukoplakia, and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Amita Negi; Abhiney Puri; Rakhi Gupta; Rajat Nangia; Alisha Sachdeva; Megha Mittal

    2015-01-01

    Background. Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the sixth most frequent malignant tumor worldwide and the third most common cancers in developing countries. Oral leukoplakia is the best-known precursor lesion of oral squamous cell carcinoma. The aim of the present study was to compare immunohistochemical expression of antiapoptotic protein survivin in normal oral mucosa, oral leukoplakia, and oral squamous cell carcinoma. Method. Total 45 specimens of formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue block...

  10. Photodynamic Therapy With HPPH in Treating Patients With Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-19

    Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Recurrent Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Recurrent Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage I Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage I Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage II Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage II Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVC Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx; Stage IVC Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

  11. Oral squamous cell carcinoma. Cytometric parameters of prognostic interest.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saiz-Bustillo, Ramón; Corchero-Martín, Guadalupe; García-Montesinos-Perea, Belén; Gonzalez-Terán, Tomás; Sánchez-Santolino, Sergio

    2005-01-01

    The present study was made in order to find possible prognostic factors in oral squamous cell carcinoma, given that it is a frequent disease (3-4% of all malignant tumors) and is the cause of a high morbidity and mortality which justifies any attempt to contribute something towards the understanding of this pathology. 81 oral squamous cell carcinomas, treated with the same procedure, and retrieved from the archive of the Hospital Universitario Marqués de Valdecilla (Santander) were studied. Flow cytometry was carried out on 67 of the samples. No statistically significant differences were found between the cellular proliferative index and the mitotic index, ploidy and the S-phase factor. Likewise, none of the cytometric variables studied presented any association with the appearance of local relapse, distant metastases or survival. These variables cannot be used as a prognostic factors in squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity.

  12. Significance of myofibroblasts in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thode, Christenze; Jørgensen, Trine G.; Dabelsteen, Erik

    2011-01-01

    It is now recognized that the tumor microenvironment makes significant contribution to tumor progression. Activated fibroblast endothelial cells, inflammatory cells, and various extra cellular matrix components are parts of this microenvironment. Most of the activated fibroblasts are a......-smooth muscle actin-positive myofibroblast that often represent the majority of tumor stromal cells. Their production of growth factors chemokines and extracellular matrix facilitates tumor growth. Myofibroblast have been demonstrated in close to 50% of oral squamous cell carcinomas. In this review, we...... highlight the histological distribution of myofibroblast in oral squamous cell and the myofibroblast relation to tumor growth on prognosis....

  13. Comparison of Immunohistochemical Expression of Antiapoptotic Protein Survivin in Normal Oral Mucosa, Oral Leukoplakia, and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Negi, Amita; Puri, Abhiney; Gupta, Rakhi; Nangia, Rajat; Sachdeva, Alisha; Mittal, Megha

    2015-01-01

    Background. Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the sixth most frequent malignant tumor worldwide and the third most common cancers in developing countries. Oral leukoplakia is the best-known precursor lesion of oral squamous cell carcinoma. The aim of the present study was to compare immunohistochemical expression of antiapoptotic protein survivin in normal oral mucosa, oral leukoplakia, and oral squamous cell carcinoma. Method. Total 45 specimens of formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissue blocks, 15 in each of the following: normal oral mucosa, leukoplakia, and oral squamous cell carcinoma were used for the study. Immunohistochemical reaction for survivin protein was performed for the 4 µm thick histological sections taken on positively charged slides. Results. 20% normal mucosa cases, 53.33% cases of leukoplakia, and 80% of oral squamous cell carcinoma were found out to be survivin positive. One way ANOVA test indicated statistically significant difference of survivin expression between the three different groups (p oral epithelial dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma samples indicate that survivin protein expression may be an early event in initiation and progression of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

  14. Color Doppler Ultrasonography in Mapping Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

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    Rahul Gandhi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Although Color Doppler Ultrasonography (CDUS is useful in the diagnosis of various diseases of the head and neck, flow signals in oral malignant masses are less studied; hence the present study assesses the usefulness of Color Doppler Ultrasonography in quantifying oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC vascularization. In addition, we determine the hemodynamic parameters by spectral analysis obtained during a Color Doppler Ultrasonography procedure. We have studied the usefulness of Color Doppler Ultrasonography in mapping oral squamous cell carcinoma of the buccal mucosa, tongue and lip. Methods: This case-control study enrolled 60 subjects aged 20-70 years. Group A constituted 30 cases diagnosed with oral squamous cell carcinoma and Group B constituted 30 healthy controls. Ultrasonographic investigation of each mass was performed. The spectral waveform (time-velocity Doppler spectrum of the flow signal was analyzed for the pulsatility index, resistive index, peak systolic velocity (m/sec, and end diastolic velocity (m/sec. All patients had real-time, gray-scale sonography and Color Doppler Ultrasonography with spectral wave analysis. Results: The mean value for the resistive index in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma was 0.40±0.14 whereas for healthy subjects, it was 0.83±0.07. The mean pulsatility index value in malignant patients was 0.86±0.20 while for healthy subjects, it came-out to be 2.61±0.77. Conclusion: These Doppler indices have been shown to be sensitive and specific for the diagnosis of malignant oral tumors. Although Color Doppler Ultrasonography cannot replace histopathological procedures, it plays a definite role as an adjunct to clinical evaluation of oral squamous cell carcinoma patients.

  15. p53 immunohistochemical staining patterns in oral squamous cell carcinoma

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    G Dundy

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mutation of p53 gene is one of the most common events in oral carcinogenesis. Accumulation of p53 protein has also been detected in premalignant lesions.Materials and Methods:  This study included 40 biopsy samples, which were received in department of pathology, Sarojini Naidu Medical College, Agra, to ascertain p53 expression by immunohistochemically, in patients with oral squamous cell carcinomas and to correlate its expression with histological grade, different sites in oral cavity and tobacco intake/smoking habits.Results: Out of 40 biopsies of oral mucosa, 03 showed normal oral mucosa and 37 were diagnosed as squamous cell carcinoma (SCC, most patients were in 5th and 6th decade and majority (86.5% of oral SCC were males with buccal mucosa being the most common site. There was a statistically significant difference in p53 expression between oral SCC and normal oral mucosa (p value <0.05. Of total 37 cases, 12 cases were well differentiated type, 16 moderately differentiated and 09 of poorly differentiated type of SCC. In each category, about two thirds were positive for p53 staining. Out of total 37 cases of oral SCC, 64.9% were positive and 35.1% were negative for p53 expression, 34 cases had positive history of tobacco intake/smoking habits, of which 23 cases were positive while 11 cases were negative for p53 staining.Conclusion: Abnormal p53 protein was detected in 64.9% of oral squamous cell carcinoma, but not in normal oral mucosa. p53 expression was associated with malignant transformation of oral mucosa. 

  16. Assessment of programmed cell death proteins in oral squamous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a significant health concern in Nigeria and although the prevalence is relatively low compared to other populations, late patient presentation, yet to be clearly defined etiology and inadequate facilities for management result in high mortality rates. Chronic inflammation, which borders ...

  17. gene polymorphism with oral squamous cell carcinoma in north ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    risk factors for oral squamous cell carcinoma. Otolaryngol. Clin. North. Am. 39, 277–294. Meenagh A., Williams F., Ross O. A., Patterson C., Gorodezky. C., Hammond M. et al. 2002 Frequency of cytokine polymor- phisms in populations from western Europe, Africa, Asia, the middle East and south America. Hum. Immunol.

  18. Concomitant leukoplakia in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepman, K.; der Meij, E.; Smeele, L.; der Waal, I.

    1999-01-01

    There is an ongoing debate on the prevalence of premalignant lesions, in particular leukoplakia, at the time of diagnosis of an oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The aim of the present study was to determine the presence of concomitant leukoplakia in 100 patients with OSCC, and to evaluate

  19. Expression of Podoplanin in Different Grades of Oral Squamous Cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: The expression of podoplanin is up‑regulated in a number of different human cancers, including squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and its relationship with tumor invasion raises the possibility that podoplanin expression could be used as a biomarker for diagnosis and prognosis. Aim: The aim of the ...

  20. Oral non-squamous malignant tumors; diagnosis and treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van der Waal, Rutger; van der Waal, Isaäc

    2007-11-01

    Some 90% of oral cancers consist of squamous cell carcinomas that arise from the oral mucosa. The remaining 10% of malignancies consist of malignant melanomas, carcinomas of the intraoral salivary glands, sarcomas of the soft tissues and the bones, malignant odontogenic tumors, non-Hodgkin's lymphomas and metastases from primary tumors located elsewhere in the body. These malignancies will be briefly reviewed and discussed. The emphasis is on diagnosis and management.

  1. [Frequency of oral squamous cell carcinoma and oral epithelial dysplasia in oral and oropharyngeal mucosa in Chile].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez, Carolina; Hernández, Marcela; Martínez, Benjamín; Adorno, Daniela

    2016-02-01

    Oral cancer in Chile corresponds approximately to 1.6% of all cancer cases. There are few studies about oral epithelial dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma in the Chilean population. To determine the frequency of hyperkeratosis, mild, moderate and severe oral epithelial dysplasia, in situ carcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma of the oral and oropharyngeal mucosa in a registry of the Oral Pathology Reference Institute of the Faculty of Dentistry, Universidad de Chile, in a ten years period. Review of clinical records and pathological plates of 389 patients, obtained between 1990 and 2009. Cases were selected according to their pathological diagnosis, including hyperkeratosis, oral epithelial dysplasia, in situ carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma and verrucous carcinoma. Forty four percent of cases were squamous cell carcinoma, followed by hyperkeratosis in 37% and mild epithelial dysplasia in 11%. Squamous cell carcinoma was more common in men aged over 50 years. Most of the potentially malignant disorders presented clinically as leukoplakia and squamous cell carcinoma were clinically recognized as cancer. In this study, men aged over 50 years are the highest risk group for oral cancer. Early diagnosis is deficient since most of these lesions were diagnosed when squamous cell carcinoma became invasive. Leukoplakia diagnosis is mostly associated with hyperkeratosis and epithelial dysplasia, therefore biopsy of these lesions is mandatory to improve early diagnosis.

  2. Oral squamous cell carcinoma in a coyote (Canis latrans).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernstein, K S; Schelling, S H

    1999-06-01

    A 19-yr-old spayed female coyote (Canis latrans) was evaluated for an elliptical swelling of the skin beneath its right eye and an elevated mass that involved the soft and hard palate and gingivae around the upper right carnassial tooth and molars. Histopathologic analysis revealed a squamous cell carcinoma, and a postmortem examination revealed no evidence of vascular invasion or dissemination to the regional lymph nodes or viscera. This report describes the biology and progresion of an oral squamous cell carcinoma in an aged captive coyote.

  3. Hypofractionated Radiation Therapy Followed by Surgery in Treating Patients With Advanced Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-15

    Stage III Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage III Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVA Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IVB Verrucous Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity; Tongue Cancer

  4. The role of mast cells in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swetha Gudiseva

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The mast cells are initial effective lineage in both humoral and adaptive immunity. They are ubiquitous in skin, mucosa, and in function. They contain biologically essential and dynamic mediators in healthy and harmful conditions of tissue. Mast cell malfunctioning could be attributed to various chronic allergic diseases. Considerately, emerging evidence of mast cell involvement in various cancers shows them to have both positive and negative roles in tumour growth. It mostly indulges in tumour progression and metastasis via angiogenesis, extracellular matrix degradation, and mitogenic activity in the tumour microenvironment. The current paper reviewed research papers on mast cells in oral squamous cell carcinoma through the PubMed database from 1980 to the present date. The present paper is an attempt to summarise the research reports on the role of mast cells in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Further to this note, this paper also outlines the role of mast cells in normal physiological processes and tumour biology.

  5. [Association between oral hygiene, chronic diseases, and oral squamous cell carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Jiangfeng; He, Baochang; Chen, Fa; Liu, Fangping; Yan, Lingjun; Hu, Zhijian; Lin, Lisong; He, Fei; Cai, Lin

    2015-08-01

    To investigate the association between oral hygiene, chronic diseases, and oral squamous cell carcinoma. We performed a case-control study with 414 cases and 870 controls in Fujian during September 2010 to January 2015. Patients were newly diagnosed oral squamous cell carcinoma cases according to the pathologic diagnoses, control subjects were enrolled from community population. Epidemiological data were collected by in-person interviews using a standard questionnaire. The contents of the questionnaire included demography character, history of tobacco smoking and alcohol drinking, dietary habits, oral hygiene status, family history of cancer, etc. Using unconditional logistic regression analysis to estimate adjusted odds ratios (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) for oral hygiene and chronic diseases. We also stratified by sex, smoking and drinking to explore possible difference in association between subgroups. The multivariate logistic regression analysis indicated that number of teeth (20-27 and bad prosthesis, recurrent oral ulceration were the risk factors of oral squamous cell carcinoma, the adjusted OR (95% CI) values were 2.01 (1.49-2.73), 3.51 (2.39-5.15), 2.33 (1.79-3.04), 3.96 (2.11-7.44), respectively; brushing tooth once per bay, brushing tooth more than once per day, regular oral health examination at least 5 years per time were the protective factors of oral squamous cell carcinoma, the adjusted OR (95% CI) values were 0.24 (0.13-0.43), 0.13 (0.07-0.24), 0.37 (0.26-0.53), respectively. The stratification analysis indicated that recurrent oral ulceration could increase the risk of oral squamous cell carcinoma for non-smokers and non-drinking, the adjusted OR (95% CI) value was 5.21 (2.42-11.18) and 4.71 (2.37-9.36); and a risky effect of hypertension on risk of oral squamous cell carcinoma was observed for non-smokers and non-drinking, the adjusted OR (95% CI) values were 1.70 (1.10-2.61) and 1.58 (1.07-2.34). Oral hygiene and chronic

  6. Role of viruses in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rashmi Metgud

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The etiology of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC is complex and involves many factors. The most clearly defined risk factors are smoking and alcohol, which substantially increase the risk of oral SCC. However, despite this clear association, a substantial proportion of patients develop OSCC without exposure to them, emphasizing the role of other risk factors such as genetic susceptibility and oncogenic viruses. Some viruses are strongly associated with OSCC while the association of others is less frequent and may depend on co-factors for their carcinogenic effects. Therefore, the exact role of viruses must be evaluated with care in order to improve the diagnosis and treatment of OSCC.

  7. Actual proliferating index in oral squamous cell carcinoma and leukoplakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chandak, Abhay R; Gadbail, Amol Ramchandra; Chaudhary, Minal S; Chandak, Shweta A; Wadhwani, Ritesh

    2011-08-01

      To examine the possible association between epithelial proliferation and disease progression in the oral mucosa using the actual proliferation index.   The actual proliferation index was measured by the Ki-67 labeling index and argyrophilic nucleolar organizer region count per nucleus. Immunohistochemistry was carried out for Ki-67 by using the molecular immunology borstel-1 clone in 20 leukoplakias, 20 oral squamous cell carcinomas, and 10 normal oral mucosae.   The argyrophilic nucleolar organizer region count per nucleus, Ki-67 labeling index, and actual proliferation index were significantly higher in oral squamous cell carcinoma, followed by leukoplakia and normal oral mucosa. Leukoplakia with dysplasia showed a significantly higher Ki-67 labeling index and actual proliferation index, compared to leukoplakia without dysphasia. There was a significant correlation of Bryne's histological malignancy grading with the argyrophilic nucleolar organizer region count and the Ki-67 labeling index. There was a significant positive correlation between the argyrophilic nucleolar organizer region count and the Ki-67 labeling index among all groups.   Leukoplakia or suspected epithelial dysplasia should be stained for argyrophilic nucleolar organizer regions and Ki-67. The actual proliferation index is not only useful as a prognostic factor, but could also be a promising treatment determining modality for patients with premalignant and malignant lesions. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  8. Adenoid squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terada, Tadashi

    2012-01-01

    Because immunohistochemical features of adenoid squamous cell carcinoma (AdSCC) of the oral cavity is unclear, the author reports herein AdSCC in the gingival with an emphasis on immunohistochemical features. A 73-year-old woman presented with a left lower gingival tumor. The tumor was mildly elevated tumor measuring 1.5 x 1.5 x 0.5 cm. Dentist's diagnosis was granulation tissue, and a biopsy was taken. The biopsy showed proliferation of carcinoma cells arranged in cords, and squamous and tubular differentiations were noted in places. The biopsy diagnosis was adenosquamous carcinoma. Tumor excision with resection of mandibular bone was performed. The resected tissue showed a mixture and squamous cell carcinoma and tubular formation. Gradual merges between the two and acantholytic features of the squamous cell carcinoma element were seen. Both components were free from mucins. Both components were positive for pancytokeratins (AE1/3, CAM5.2) +++, cytokeratin (CK) 5/6 +, CK34βE12 ++, CK7 +, CK14 +++, CEA +, CA19-9 +, CA125 +, p53 +++, p63 +++, KIT + and MUC1 ++. Both components were negative for CK8, CK18, CK19, CK20, EMA, vimentin, TTF-1, desmin, myoglobin, S100 protein, melanosome, smooth muscle actin, CD34, CDX2, CD10, chromogranin, synaptophysin, NSE, CD56, lysozyme, CD68, MDM2, PDGFRA, MUC2, MUC5AC, and MUC6. Since both components were positive for squmaous cell carcinoma markers (CD5/6, CK34βE12, and p63) and adenocarcinoma markers (CEA, CA19-9, CA125, MUC1), this case of AdSCC appears an intermediate form between adenocarcinoma and squamous cell carcinoma. The margins were negative. No metastasis was found by imaging techniques. The patient is now free from tumor and is followed up carefully.

  9. Glutaminolysis and carcinogenesis of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cetindis, Marcel; Biegner, Thorsten; Munz, Adelheid; Teriete, Peter; Reinert, Siegmar; Grimm, Martin

    2016-02-01

    Glutaminolysis is a crucial factor for tumor metabolism in the carcinogenesis of several tumors but has not been clarified for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) yet. Expression of glutaminolysis-related solute carrier family 1, member 5 (SLC1A5)/neutral amino acid transporter (ASCT2), glutaminase (GLS), and glutamate dehydrogenase (GLDH) was analyzed in normal oral mucosa (n = 5), oral precursor lesions (simple hyperplasia, n = 11; squamous intraepithelial neoplasia, SIN I-III, n = 35), and OSCC specimen (n = 42) by immunohistochemistry. SLC1A5/ASCT2 and GLS were significantly overexpressed in the carcinogenesis of OSCC compared with normal tissue, while GLDH was weakly detected. Compared with SIN I-III SLC1A5/ASCT2 and GLS expression were significantly increased in OSCC. GLDH expression did not significantly differ from SIN I-III compared with OSCC. This study shows the first evidence of glutaminolysis-related SLC1A5/ASCT2, GLS, and GLDH expression in OSCC. The very weak GLDH expression indicates that glutamine metabolism is rather related to nucleotide or protein/hexosamine biosynthesis or to the function as an antioxidant (glutathione) than to energy production or generation of lactate through entering the tricarboxylic acid cycle. Overcoming glutaminolysis by targeting c-Myc oncogene (e.g. by natural compounds) and thereby cross-activation of mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 or SLC1A5/ASCT2, GLS inhibitors may be a useful strategy to sensitize cancer cells to common OSCC cancer therapies.

  10. Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma with an unusual clinical manifestation: a case report

    OpenAIRE

    Falaki, Farnaz; Delavarian, Zahra; Pakfetrat, Atessa; Mohtasham, Nooshin; Shirazian, Shiva

    2009-01-01

    Introduction Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common malignant tumor of the oral cavity and one of the 10th most common causes of death. It arises from dysplastic oral squamous epithelium. By considering the pathogenesis of squamous cell carcinoma, the smooth and intact surface for this lesion is not usual. Case presentation A painful nodular lesion with smooth surface on the left buccal mucosa of a 75-year-old female patient was observed. She noticed it 2 weeks ago. Histopathological exam...

  11. Computer aided morphometric analysis of oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, K; Gupta, J; Miglani, R

    2016-01-01

    We compared the changes in the cells in the basal layer of normal mucosa, oral leukoplakia with dysplasia and different grades of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) using computer aided image analysis of tissue sections. We investigated three morphometric parameters: nuclear area (NA), cell area (CA) and their ratio (NA:CA). NA and NA:CA ratio showed a statistically significant increase from dysplasia to increasing grades of OSCC. Nuclear size was useful for differentiating normal tissue, potentially malignant leukoplakia and OSCC.

  12. Oral squamous cell carcinoma with an unusual clinical manifestation: a case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Delavarian

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC is the most common malignant tumor of the oral cavity and one of the ten most common causes of death. It arises from dysplastic oral squamous epithelium. Considering the pathogenesis of SCC, a smooth and intact surface in this lesion is not a usual finding. In this paper, we report an extremely rare case of oral SCC in buccal mucosa presenting as an exophytic lesion with smooth and intact surface, very unusual for oral SCC.

  13. Oral squamous cell carcinoma: survival, recurrence and death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antônio Camilo Souza Cruz

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper was based in data survey from macro and microscopic oral lesions characteristics, personal data and medical history of patients diagnosed with oral squamous cell carcinoma in the Lab of Pathological Anatomy from the Federal University of Alfenas from January 2000 to December 2010, establishing comparative parameters among clinical data, type of treatment, recurrence, survival and anatomic pathological characteristics of the lesions. Were analyzed the histopathological reports, dental and hospital records. The highest incidence was in white men, age between 50 and 60 years, married, with low education and socioeconomic levels. The beginning of treatment occurred in average 67 days after the histopathological diagnosis. The estimated survival of patients at five years was 42%. The consumption of alcohol and tobacco and the occurrence of metastasis were statistically significant for the increase of recurrence and lethality.

  14. Gene therapy for oral squamous cell carcinoma: An overview

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saraswathi T

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available A potential approach to the treatment of genetic disorders is gene therapy. The goal of gene therapy is to introduce therapeutic genetic material into the target cell to exert the intended therapeutic effect. Gene therapy has already shown promising results for the treatment of monogenic disorders such as severe combined immunodeficiency and haemophilia. Now the procedure has been extended to the level of treating malignant conditions such as cancer of the lungs, breast, colon etc. The prevalence of tumours of the larynx and oral cavity has increased in both developed and developing countries. This increase underscores the need for a novel therapeutic modality that would decrease or completely terminate the proliferation of malignant cells. This review highlights various types of gene therapy procedures with respect to oral squamous cell carcinoma.

  15. [Suppression of VEGF protein expression by arctigenin in oral squamous cell carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pu, Guang-rui; Liu, Fa-yu; Wang, Bo

    2015-08-01

    To observe arctigenin's inhibitory effect on oral squamous cell carcinoma, and explore the possible mechanism. The expression of VEGF in 32 cases of oral squamous cell cancer and 20 adjacent tissue specimen were detected with immunohistochemistry. Human nude mouse transplantation tumor model of oral squamous cell cancer was prepared with HSC-3 cells line. Transplanted tumor growth and VEGF expression in transplanted tumor tissues were assayed after treatment with arctigenin. One-way ANOVA was used for comparison between groups with SPSS 16.0 software package. Compared with the adjacent tissue, immunohistochemical staining score of VEGF was significantly higher (Parctigenin, the growth of oral squamous cell transplanted tumors in nude mouse was inhibited (Parctigenin group (PArctigenin can dose-dependently inhibit the growth of oral squamous cell carcinomas, and this effect may be related to down regulation of VEGF expression.

  16. Depression and anxiety in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    PURPOSE: The aim of this study was to investigate symptoms of depression and anxiety in the patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). METHODS: 76 patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma participated in this program. All patients were rated with the self-rating anxiety scale (SAS) and the self-rating depression scale (SDS). The mean scores of SAS and SDS were compared to those scores of the Norm of Chinese people. In addition, the different treatment results of the patients with different levels of anxiety and depression were studied. Further, the number of patients of SAS, SDS with more than 50 score were compared between primary cancer patients and recurrent cancer patients. RESULTS: The scores of SAS, SDS and the number of patients with more than 50 score in the patients group were obviously higher than those in Chinese Norm (P<0.01).The levels of anxiety and depression in 32 patients with recurrent cancer were more severe than those of 44 patients with primary cancer. The patients with anxiety and/or depression showed poor prognosis. CONCLUSION: Anxiety and depression are common symptoms in patients with OSCC and have negative effects on the prognosis, thus the psychological intervention for the patients must be carried out.

  17. Photomodulation of the osteoclastogenic potential of oral squamous carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dias Schalch, Tatiana; Porta Santos Fernandes, Kristianne; Costa-Rodrigues, João; Pereira Garcia, Mônica; Agnelli Mesquita-Ferrari, Raquel; Kalil Bussadori, Sandra; Fernandes, Maria Helena

    2016-12-01

    The treatment for oral cancer usually involves surgical excision followed by chemotherapy and/or radiotherapy. The combination of these therapies generally promotes a serious inflammation of the mucosa of the digestive tract, denominated mucositis, which compromises continuity of treatment. Photobiomodulation (PBM) therapy has been used successfully to reduce the oral mucositis, however there is still some controversy regarding the effects of this therapy on unintentionally irradiated tumor cells that may remain after cancer treatment. The aim of this study was to analyze the effect of PBM therapy (using parameters for mucositis) on the modulation of osteoclastogenic potential of a cell line derived from human lingual squamous cell carcinoma (SCC9). Previously irradiated SCC9 cells were co-cultured with human osteoclast precursors. Co-cultures performed with non-irradiated SCC9 cells served as control. After 7, 14 and 21 days the co-cultures were evaluated for the tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP) activity, an osteoclastogenic marker. Additionally, the monocultures of SCC9 cells (non-irradiated and irradiated) were analyzed for cell viability/proliferation and for the expression of IL-11 and PTHrP. The irradiation of SCC9 cells with PBM with an energy density of 4 J/cm2 decreased the pro-osteoclastogenic potential of those cells. This may represent a potential useful side effect of PBM therapy. PBM (using recommended parameters for mucositis treatment) decreases the osteoclastogenic potential of oral squamous carcinoma cells. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  18. Laser treatment of an oral squamous papilloma in a pediatric patient: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmet Ferhat Misir

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral squamous papilloma is a benign proliferation of the stratified squamous epithelium, which results in a papillary or verrucous exophytic mass induced by human papilloma virus (HPV. These oral mucosa lesions are most often asymptomatic and have small progression. Laser assisted surgery is common nowadays with several advantages including successful hemostasis, devoid of sutures, wound sterilization and minimal post-operative pain and edema. The aim of this report is to present the oral squamous papilloma in a pediatric patient and its treatment with soft tissue laser. The lesion was excised with diode laser and the healing was uneventful in follow-up visit after one year. Oral squamous papillomas can be found in child′s oral cavity and laser dentistry can be used by dental clinicians to treat these kinds of oral lesions and should be considered as an alternative to conventional surgery.

  19. Mutational Status of FGFR3 in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

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    P. Motahhary

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma, including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC is the sixth most common cancer in the human population.Despite significant efforts committed in treatment of OSCC the overall survival rate of OSCC has not improved significantly. Activating mutations in the fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3 genes are responsible for some humancancers, including bladder and cervical carcinoma. Despite a high frequency in some benign skin disorders, FGFR3 mutations have not been reported in cutaneous malignancies. Therefore, FGFR3 gene may play a role in epithelial biology and mutations of FGFR3 gene may contribute to the development of OSCC.Materials and Methods: In this cross-sectional study, DNA was extracted and purified from snap frozen tissue biopsy sections of 20 OSCC cases. Exons 7 and 15 were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR and sequenced in both directions.Results: In three cases silent mutations were identified in exon 7 (882 T to Cwhich may be introduced as Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP and no mutation was identified in exon 15.Conclusion: FGFR3 gene mutation in exon 7 and 15 has no significant role in the development and progression of OSCC. Analyzing other exons or considering other advanced gene mutation assessment techniques may clarify the role of this receptor mutation in OSCC pathogenesis.

  20. Palliative management of malodorous squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity with Manuka honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drain, Jerri; Fleming, Michael O

    2015-01-01

    The management of malignant malodorous wounds within the oral cavity can be challenging due to limited availability of dressings that are safe, efficacious, and ingestible. An 80-year-old woman with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity was admitted to home care with complaints and distress related to extreme malodor. Manuka honey proved a safe, effective, palliative treatment to reduce odor and inflammation in wounds secondary to squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity in this patient.

  1. Oral squamous cell carcinoma arising around osseointegrated dental implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, Fawad; Al-Askar, Mansour; Qayyum, Faisal; Wang, Hom-Lay; Al-Hezaimi, Khalid

    2012-08-01

    This literature review investigates the occurrence of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) around osseointegrated dental implants (DI). Databases were searched from 1989 up to and including November 2011. The eligibility criteria were as follows: (1) original studies, (2) clinical studies and case reports, (3) reference lists of the relevant original and review articles, (4) intervention: occurrence of OSSC around osseointegrated DI, and (5) articles published only in English language. Fourteen studies were included. In nine studies, the dental implant patients with diagnosed OSCC had previously been exposed to cancer. In five studies, the patients presented with a history of habitual tobacco smoking and alcohol consumption. OSCC is more likely to arise around osseointegrated DI in patients with a previous history of cancer. However, the role of other factors including tobacco and alcohol usage cannot be disregarded.

  2. Staging of Cervical Lymph Nodes in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Norling, Rikke; Buron, Birgitte Marie Due; Therkildsen, Marianne Hamilton

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: Clinical staging of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is crucial for the choice of treatment. Computed tomography (CT) and/or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) are typically recommended and used for staging of the cervical lymph nodes (LNs). Although ultrasonography (US......) is a non-expensive, accessible and non-ionising imaging modality this method is not consistently used. This study aimed to investigate if addition of US of patients classified as clinically LN negative (cN0) by CT and/or MRI, increases the detection of LN metastases. Also, we aimed to identify which...... of the sonographic characteristics: echogenicity, border, shape, appearance of hilum and nodal blood-flow pattern best detect metastases in this patient group. METHOD: Fifty-one patients with OSCC classified as cN0 by CT/MRI were consecutively included and prospectively examined with US prior to sentinel node biopsy...

  3. Estimation of salivary sialic acid in oral premalignancy and oral squamous cell carcinoma

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    Vishakha Chaudhari

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: Oral cancer is the most life-threatening disease of oral tissues. In societies where the incidence of oral cancer is high, clinically recognizable premalignant lesions are particularly common. Diagnosing oral cancers at an early stage is critical in improving the survival rate and reducing the morbidity associated with the disease. Alterations in the sialic acid levels in cancer patients have stimulated interest in this sugar residue as a possible tumor marker. Settings and Design: The purpose of this study was to estimate the salivary sialic acid levels in patients with oral premalignancy and squamous cell carcinoma and to correlate it with their grades to develop a cost-effective and noninvasive diagnostic parameter. Materials and Methods: Unstimulated whole saliva was collected from the groups under study and subjected to biochemical analysis for determination of sialic acid levels. Statistical Analysis Used: The salivary sialic acid levels were correlated with the clinical stage and histological grade by one-way ANOVA (SPSS software version 15. Results: Salivary sialic acid was elevated in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC compared to oral premalignancy and control group. A statistically significant correlation was observed between the grades of squamous cell carcinoma, grades of dysplasia in premalignancy, and sialic acid level. Conclusion and Clinical Significance: Evaluation of salivary sialic acid levels in premalignant and malignant lesions can serve as a screening tool. The mortality and morbidity of OSCC can be reduced if the lesions are diagnosed in early precancerous states using such noninvasive diagnostic methods for screening and monitoring of the population.

  4. Evidences Suggesting Involvement of Viruses in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

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    Kanupriya Gupta

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancer is one of the most common cancers and it constitutes a major health problem particularly in developing countries. Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC represents the most frequent of all oral neoplasms. Several risk factors have been well characterized to be associated with OSCC with substantial evidences. The etiology of OSCC is complex and involves many factors. The most clearly defined potential factors are smoking and alcohol, which substantially increase the risk of OSCC. However, despite this clear association, a substantial proportion of patients develop OSCC without exposure to them, emphasizing the role of other risk factors such as genetic susceptibility and oncogenic viruses. Some viruses are strongly associated with OSCC while the association of others is less frequent and may depend on cofactors for their carcinogenic effects. Therefore, the exact role of viruses must be evaluated with care in order to improve the diagnosis and treatment of OSCC. Although a viral association within a subset of OSCC has been shown, the molecular and histopathological characteristics of these tumors have yet to be clearly defined.

  5. [Expression of Prion protein and its clinical significance in oral squamous cells carcinoma and oral leukoplakia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jie; Zeng, Yan; Zheng, Jun; Xu, Jiang

    2013-12-01

    To examine Prion protein(PrP) expression and its clinical significance in oral mucosa, oral leukoplakia, oral squamous cell carcinoma(OSCC) and its subgroups. Expression of PrP in OSCC, oral leukoplakia and mucosa specimen was detected by immunohistochemistry. The association between the expression and gender, TNM clinical stages, pathological grades was evaluated. The positive expression rate of PrP in normal, oral leukoplakia and OSCC tissues was 15% (3/20) , 42% (11/26) and 95% (80/84) , respectively. There was a significant difference between the expression of PrP in leukoplakia and in high, moderately and poorly differentiated OSCC(P 0.05). Between stages I+II and III+IV in the overa II expression of PrP, there was a significant difference(P leukoplakia to OSCC was closely related to the carcinogenesis of OSCC, pathologic stage and clinical TNM stage.

  6. [Determination of human papillomavirus in oral leukoplakia,oral lichen planus and oral squamous cell carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Jie; Jin, Jian-qiu; Deng, Da-jun; Liu, Hong-wei

    2016-02-18

    To investigate the possibility for human papillomavirus (HPV) infection to be a predictable signal for the carcinogenesis of oral mucosa by comparing the prevalences of HPV in each stage of oral mucosal carcinogenesis and to compare the sensitivity differences of the two methods in detecting HPV infection in oral cavity. The hybrid capture (HC-II) was used to detect infection of HPV in 255 samples taken from 12 cases of healthy oral mucosa, 211 cases of patients with pathological diagnosis and 32 cases of patients with clinical diagnosis. The diagnosed cases included 8 cases of benign lesions of the oral mucosa, precancerous lesions [74 cases of oral leukoplakia (OLK) with hyperplasia and 42 cases of OLK with oral epithelial dysplasia (OED)], 91 cases of precancerous condition [oral lichen planus (OLP)] and 28 cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). And in situ hybridization (ISH) was used to detect infection of HPV in 33 cases of OSCC and 76 cases of OLK, including 30 cases of hyperplasia, 15 cases of mild OED, 15 cases of moderate OED and 16 cases of severe OED. The prevalence of HPV in OLP samples was higher (12.12%, 8/66) than that of OLK (2.59%, 3/116) (χ(2)=4.666, P=0.031) and OSCC(7.14%, 2/28, χ(2)=0.513, P=0.474). The prevalence of HPV in OSCC (7.14%, 2/28) was higher than that of OLK (2.59%, 3/116), and no significant difference was found. There was only one case of smoke spot and statistical analysis was not carried out. ISH was used to detect type 16/18 and type 31/33 HPV DNA in 109 cases of oral mucosal lesions in paraffin sections and only one case of OSCC was HPV positive. Thirty-seven cases were detected by HC-II and ISH methods at the same time. The same negative results by the two methods were found in 94.6% samples (35/37). In the other two samples, one was OSCC with early infiltration and the other was OLK with hyperplasia, The HC-II results were positive while the ISH results were negative. The patients with OLP and HPV testing results

  7. Candida albicans infection in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma

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    Čanković Miloš

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Bacground/Aim. Systemic candidiasis in intensive care units remains an improtant problem due to antifungal resistance. Patients undergoing radiotherapy for head and neck cancer are at increased risk of developing oral candidiasis and they more frequent have prior fungi colonization. Due to identification of specific risk factors predisposing to fungal infection in order to threat such patients the aim of this study was to determine the presence of Candida species in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma and compare it to the control subjects (patients with benign oral mucosal lesions. Methods. A total number of 30 consecutive oral cancer examined patients were included in this prospective study (24 men and 6 women with a mean age of 61.47 years, range 41-81 years. The control group consisted of 30 consecutive patients with histologically proven benign oral mucosal lesions (16 men and 14 women with a mean age of 54.53 years, range 16- 83 years. The samples for mycological examination were obtained by using sterile cotton swabs from the cancer lesion surface and in the patients of the control group from the benign mucosal lesion surface. Samples were inoculated in Sabouraud' dextrose agar. For identification purposes, Mackenzie germ tube test was performend on all isolates. Results. The prevalence of Candida was significantly higher in oral cancer patients than in control subjects (χ2 = 5.455, p = 0.020. Candida was found on nine of the 30 cancer surfaces; 5 (16.7% were identified as non-albicans Candida and 4 (13.3% as Candida albicans. In the control group, only Candida albicans was isolated from 2 (6.7% patients. In this study, no statistically significant differences in the presence of Candida species was found with respect to gender, age, smoking, alcohol consumption, wearing of dental protheses and the site of cancer lesion. Conclusion. The increased prevalence of yeasts on the surfaces of oral carcinoma indicates a need for their

  8. Trends in frequency and prevalence of oral cancer and oral squamous cell carcinoma in Mexicans. A 20 years retrospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaitán-Cepeda, Luis-Alberto; Peniche-Becerra, Adriana-Graciela; Quezada-Rivera, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    To establish the time trends of the frequency and prevalence of oral cavity cancer in regard to age and gender in a 20-years (time period 1989 - 2008) cohort of Mexicans. 13,235 head and neck biopsies from the archive of the Oral Pathology Laboratory, Dental School, National Autonomous University of Mexico were revised. The cases with diagnoses of oral cancer were selected. Gender and age at diagnosis was obtained from medical records. The frequency and prevalence of oral cavity cancer and oral squamous cell carcinoma were assessed biannually in regard to the total number of population served by the oral pathology laboratory. The statistical significance of trends was established using the linear logistic regression (curve estimation) test (s 0.05). 298 cases (138 males; 160 females) of oral cancer were included; 167 (92 females; 75 males; female:male ratio: 1.1:1) corresponded to oral squamous cell carcinoma. From 1989 to 2008 the prevalence of oral cancer and oral squamous cell carcinoma increased 200% (s 0.05) and 100% (s 0.000) respectively. The increase of frequency and prevalence was observed in both genders however only in females was significant (s 0.000). We do not identify changes in the age at diagnosis. Oral cancer, specifically oral squamous cell carcinoma, has increase in Mexicans females in the last 20 years.

  9. Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Associated with a Dental Implant: a case report and literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Moshref, Mohammad; Jamilian, Abdolreza; Lotfi, Ali; Showkatbakhsh,Rahman

    2011-01-01

    Objectives: Prosthodontic rehabilitation using dental implants has become a common practice in dentistry at the present time. Although severe complications related to dental osseointegrated implants are uncommon, in recent years several cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma adjacent to dental implants have been published. Study Design: A 67-year-old edentulous woman developed an oral squamous cell carcinoma around right mandibular implant about 12 months after receiving dental imp...

  10. The need for early detection of neck nodal metastasis in squamous cell carcinoma of oral cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P Satish Kumaran

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the Indian subcontinent, the incidence of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity has been constantly increasing despite the improvement in the awareness about squamous cell carcinoma. The patients generally report to us in the period in which the tumor would have undergone metastasis. This article highlights about the grading, staging, and decision-making regarding the surgical management of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity. The article also stresses upon the early detection of the lesion by the practitioner for a definitive successful surgical treatment of the patient.

  11. Salivary mRNA markers having the potential to detect oral squamous cell carcinoma segregated from oral leukoplakia with dysplasia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michailidou, Evangelia; Tzimagiorgis, Georgios; Chatzopoulou, Fani; Vahtsevanos, Konstantinos; Antoniadis, Konstantinos; Kouidou, Sofia; Markopoulos, Anastasios; Antoniades, Dimitrios

    2016-08-01

    In the current study the presence of extracellular IL-1B, IL-8, OAZ and SAT mRNAs in the saliva was evaluated as a tool in the early detection of oral squamous cell carcinoma. 34 patients with primary oral squamous cell carcinoma stage T1N0M0/T2N0M0, 20 patients with oral leukoplakia and dysplasia (15 patients with mild dysplasia and 5 with severe dysplasia/in situ carcinoma) and 31 matched healthy-control subjects were included in the study. The presence of IL-1B, IL-8, OAZ and SAT mRNA was evaluated in extracellular RNA isolated from saliva samples using sequence-specific primers and real-time RT-PCR. ROC curve analysis was used to estimate the ability of the biomarkers to detect oral squamous cell carcinoma patients. The data reveal that the combination of these four biomarkers provides a good predictive probability of up to 80% (AUC=0.799, p=0.002) for patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma but not patients suffering from oral leukoplakia with dysplasia. Moreover, the combination of only the two biomarkers (SAT and IL-8) also raises a high predictive ability of 75.5% (AUC=0.755, p=0.007) approximately equal to the four biomarkers suggesting the use of the two biomarkers only in the prediction model for oral squamous cell carcinoma patients limiting the economic and health cost in half. SAT and IL-8 mRNAs are present in the saliva in high quality and quantity, with a good discriminatory ability for oral squamous cell carcinoma patients only but not for patients with oral leukoplakia and dysplasia an oral potentially malignant disorder. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  12. Comparative Evaluation of EGF in Oral Lichen Planus and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

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    Farzaneh Agha-Hosseini

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Oral lichen planus (OLP is classified as a potential malignant disorder, and epidermal growth factor (EGF may play a key role in cancer development. The aim of this study was to compare serum and saliva EGF among patients with OLP and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC. A cross-sectional study was performed on 27 patients with OLP (10 reticular and 17 atrophic-erosive forms, 27 patients with OSCC and 27 healthy control group. The study was conducted at the Cancer Department, Clinic of Oral Medicine, Tehran University of Medical Sciences. The serum and saliva EGF were assayed by ELISA method. Statistical analysis of ANOVA was used. The mean serum EGF in OLP and OSCC patients was significantly lower compared to healthy control group (P

  13. GLUT-1 immunoexpression in oral epithelial dysplasia, oral squamous cell carcinoma, and verrucous carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angadi, Vidya C; Angadi, Punnya V

    2015-06-01

    Glucose transporters, such as GLUT-1, mediate the important mechanisms involved in cellular glucose influx, allowing cells to proliferate and survive. The significance of GLUT-1 expression in oral epithelial dysplasia (OED) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has been less explored, and no study has investigated it in relation to verrucous carcinoma (VC). We evaluated 30 cases each of OED, OSCC, and VC, graded further on the basis of their differentiation, immunohistochemically for GLUT-1 expression, along with 10 specimens of normal oral mucosa (NOM) as controls. In OSCC, GLUT-1 expression increased with the degree of dysplasia and increasing grade (P GLUT-1 expression in OSCC along with the degree of dysplasia and the histologic grade reflects the expanding glycolytic response to hypoxia. This is the first study to have revealed prominent GLUT-1 expression in VC, highlighting its inherent metabolic capacity.

  14. [The study of HPV prevalence in normal oral mucosa and oral squamous cell carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Qian; Zhang, Zhi-yuan

    2007-10-01

    Mucosal infection with high-risk human papiloma virus(HPV) types 16 and 18 is the cause of cervical cancer and might be a subset of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), yet the prevalence and type distribution of HPV in oral SCC remained unclear. We systematically reviewed published studies of OSCC biopsies, which were employed to detect and genotype HPV through different methods. The aim of this investigation is to carry out a bibliographic review on the prevalence of HPV in OSCC and normal oral mucosa. Supported by Key Project of National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No.30630065), Key Lab Project of Science and Technology Committee of Shanghai Municipality (Grant No.06DZ22026) and Shanghai Leading Academic Discipline Project (Grant No. Y0203).

  15. Oral health-related quality of life of patients with oral lichen planus, oral leukoplakia, or oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karbach, Julia; Al-Nawas, Bilal; Moergel, Maximilian; Daubländer, Monika

    2014-08-01

    To compare oral health-related quality of life (OHRQoL) of patients with oral lichen planus (OLP), oral leukoplakia (OL), or oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Seventy-three patients with OLP, 44 with OL, and 37 with OSCC participated in this prospective study. The German version of the 14-item Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-G 14) was used to measure OHRQoL. Descriptive statistics and multivariate analysis of clinical forms, age, gender, alcohol consumption, and smoking habits were evaluated. No association to cumulative OHIP-14 score (P = .086) among the 3 groups was found. However, patients with OLP showed a higher "physical pain" score and a lower "social disability" score (P = .026) than patients with OSCC, followed by patients with OL. Women with OLP had a lower OHRQoL than men. After differentiation of clinical forms of OLP (symptomatic vs asymptomatic), an impact on these patients' OHRQoL in the dimensions "physical pain" and "physical disability" was found. Patients with OLP or OSCC and high OHIP-G 14 scores reported physical pain, which emphasizes the need for physical therapy. For improved OHRQoL, patients with symptomatic forms of OLP would gain more from a treatment compared with those with asymptomatic forms. In contrast, patients with asymptomatic OLP or OL and thus with a minimal impact on their OHRQoL might be at risk of delayed consultation, diagnosis, and treatment of their condition. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Estimation of salivary lactate dehydrogenase in oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma: a biochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Shrikant; Metgud, Rashmi

    2015-01-01

    Enzyme Lactate Dehydrogenase (LDH) is found in the cells of almost all body tissues. The profile of salivary total LDH enzymes is similar to that found in oral epithelium, indicating that the major source of salivary LDH is probably the oral epithelium-shedding cells. Consequently, LDH concentration in saliva, as an expression of cellular necrosis, could be a specific indicator for oral lesions that affect the integrity of the oral mucosa. Study comprised of three groups as follows: Group I: Comprised of 25 healthy individuals of comparable age. Group II: 25 otherwise healthy and consenting patients with oral leukoplakia (OL). Group III: 25 otherwise healthy and consenting oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients. Biochemical estimation of LDH was done with the help of Semiautomatic Analyzer. Inter comparison of salivary total LDH levels between all the three groups revealed that salivary LDH levels increase from healthy control group to Oral Leukoplakia group to further increase in OSCC group. On comparisons between the histopathological grades of OSCC group the level of LDH were found to increase from well differentiated to moderately differentiated to further increase in poorly differentiated patients. The present salivary analysis for LDH enzyme reveals an overall altered salivary LDH enzyme level in OL and OSCC cases.

  17. Oral squamous cell carcinoma arising in background of oral submucous fibrosis: a clinicopathologically distinct disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Vaishampayan, Sagar S; Nair, Sudhir; Nair, Deepa; Agarwal, J P; Kane, S V; Pawar, Prashant; Datta, Sourav

    2013-10-01

    Oral cancer is the most common cancer in Indian males and is the third most common cancer in Indian females. Tobacco, alcohol, areca nut, and human papillomavirus (HPV) are the common etiologic factors. Each of these agents follows a unique model of carcinogenesis that leads to a certain distinct presentation and behavior. For example, HPV is strongly associated with oropharyngeal cancers in younger age and is known to have a better outcome and specific histopathologic characteristics. A high incidence of oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) is linked to areca nut (group 1 human carcinogen) chewing in the Indian subcontinent. We prospectively studied 371 consecutive patients with proven squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity. Of these, 112 patients had oral cancer with OSMF and 259 had oral cancer without OSMF. All patients underwent standard management and their clinicopathologic findings were recorded. We found that patients of oral cancer with OSMF are younger males with better prognostic factors such as better grade of tumor differentiation, lesser incidence of nodal metastases, and extracapsular spread. This difference was maintained even after matching for stage. We also report that presence of OSMF is an independent factor influencing nodal metastases. Based on these findings we propose that oral cancers with OSMF constitute a clinicopathologically distinct disease. Since all patients with OSMF had chewed areca nut with or without smokeless tobacco, we believe that the differences in the 2 groups emanate from differential mechanisms of areca nut carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  18. Unusual Presentation of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma in a Young Woman

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diurianne CC França

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC is the most common oral malignant neoplasm, mainly affecting individuals over 50 years old with a history of tobacco and alcohol use. The occurrence of this oral cancer in individuals under 40 years old is unusual and, when it does occur, shows a weaker relation to those risk factors and a more aggressive clinical course. Due to the paucity of reports in this population, it is difficult to prove its increasing trend. A case of oral squamous cell carcinoma in a 39-year-old woman with no history of tobacco or alcohol use is reported. Clinical and histopathological findings, aetiology, and treatment are discussed. The increasing trend of oral squamous cell carcinoma in young women without known risk factors highlights the need for clinicians to be prepared to diagnose this lesion quickly and precisely, providing a better prognosis, chance of survival, and quality of life for the patient.

  19. Corellation of p53 expressions and histopathological grading in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma

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    Silvi Kintawati

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Squamous cell carcinoma is a malignancy of oral cavity mostly occurred and can also metastasize. p53 gene is a tumor suppressor gene that plays an important role in carcinogenesis. The role of wild-type p53 is very important in suppressing the formation of a malignancy. p53 also has many other important functions. p53 is a suppressor of tumor/ cancer progression through the response of cell cycle to DNA damage and by giving time to repair DNA prior to replication of genes. p53 mutation, mostly occurs in a malignancy, so earlier histopathological transformation can be detected by observing p53 mutation. The prognosis of squamous cell carcinoma in oral cavity, therefore, depends on histopathological grading and clinical staging of the tumor. To enforce the histopathological grading, in addition based on histopathology differentiation, the earlier histopathological transformation can also be assessed. Purpose: This study aimed to determine the correlation of p53 expressions and histopathological grading in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma. Method: This study was a retrospective study on 20 cases of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma examined at Department of Pathology Anatomy in Hasan Sadikin Hospital in Bandung. Immunohistochemical examination was then performed using p53 antibodies to determine the correlation of p53 expression and histopathological grading in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma to predict prognosis. Result: The overall results showed that there was no correlation between p53 expression and histopathological grading in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity although there was a very strong correlation between p53 expression and histopathological grading I (p<0.01. Conclusion: It can be concluded that there was no correlation between p53 expression and histopathological grading in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma. Thus, p53 expression cannot be used to predict a prognosis.

  20. Comparative cytomorphometric analysis of oral mucosal cells in normal, tobacco users, oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nivia, Mahadoon; Sunil, Sukumaran Nair; Rathy, Ravindran; Anilkumar, Thapasimuthu Vijayamma

    2015-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the third most common cause of oral morbidity in India despite the numerous advances made in the treatment protocol. To compare the cytomorphometric changes of oral mucosal cells in normal subjects (Group I) with that of tobacco users without any lesion (Group II), tobacco users with oral leukoplakia (Group III), and tobacco users with oral SCC (Group IV) through a semi-automated image analysis system. Oral mucosal cells collected from study subjects (n = 100) stained using rapid Papanicolaou stain. Photomicrograph of 50 nonoverlapping cells captured at 50× magnification with a digital image capture system. Cytomorphometric analysis of cells in the captured images was performed with Image-Pro image analysis software. Image analysis was performed to obtain cell diameter (CD), cytoplasmic area (CyA), nuclear diameter (ND), nuclear area (NA), and nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio. These values were statistically compared among the groups using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Mann-Whitney U test. The ND, NA, and nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio values were found to be increased in the samples collected from leukoplakia and oral SCC. The CD and CyA decreased compared to the normal mucosa in oral SCC samples. The cytomorphometric changes observed in samples from oral SCC and oral leukoplakia were consistent with the current diagnostic features. Hence, the semi-automated cytomorphometric analysis of oral mucosal cells can be used as an objective adjunct diagnostic tool in the diagnosis of these lesions.

  1. Expression of heat shock protein70 in oral submucous fibrosis and oral squamous cell carcinoma: An immunohistochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Thubashini

    2011-01-01

    Conclusion: HSP70 is synthesized upon stress situations arising in cells of all living organisms. Expression of HSP70 indicates that stress plays an important role as a predisposing factor in oral submucous fibrosis and its subsequent progression to oral squamous cell carcinoma.

  2. Isolated perifacial lymph node metastasis in oral squamous cell carcinoma with clinically node-negative neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agarwal, Sangeet Kumar; Arora, Sowrabh Kumar; Kumar, Gopal; Sarin, Deepak

    2016-10-01

    The incidence of occult perifacial nodal disease in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma is not well reported. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the incidence of isolated perifacial lymph node metastasis in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma with a clinically node-negative neck. The study will shed light on current controversies and will provide valuable clinical and pathological information in the practice of routine comprehensive removal of these lymph node pads in selective neck dissection in the node-negative neck. Prospective analysis. This study was started in August 2011 when intraoperatively we routinely separated the lymph node levels from the main specimen for evaluation of the metastatic rate to different lymph node levels in 231 patients of oral squamous cell cancer with a clinically node-negative neck. The current study demonstrated that 19 (8.22%) out of 231 patients showed ipsilateral isolated perifacial lymph node involvement. The incidence of isolated perifacial nodes did not differ significantly between the oral tongue (7.14%) and buccal mucosa (7.75%). Incidence was statistically significant in cases with lower age group (oral squamous cell carcinoma with a clinically node-negative neck. The incidence of isolated perifacial involvement is high in cases of buccal mucosal and tongue cancers. A meticulous dissection of the perifacial nodes seems prudent when treating the neck in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma. 4 Laryngoscope, 126:2252-2256, 2016. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  3. Serum iron concentration and total iron binding capacity in patients of oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakhawat Hossain, Motiur Rahman Molla and Mahmuda Akhter

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The serum iron concentration and Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC status of 24 patients of oral squamous cell carcinoma were compared with 13 healthy subjects. Biochemical evidence shows oral squamous cell carcinoma is found to have association with low serum iron level. More patients were found to be with significantly lower iron content in serum (p0.05. Irrespective of age, sex, smoking and betel nut chewing habit of subjects, low serum iron level significantly increase the risk of oral malignancy.

  4. Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Mutational Profile in Taiwanese Population | Office of Cancer Clinical Proteomics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a major oral cancer subtype that is the fourth most common cancer affecting Taiwanese men. Despite known risk behaviors such as cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, and betel nut chewing often indulged by Taiwanese men, the genetic contribution to the incidence or progression of OSCC has yet been elucidated in the Taiwanese population.

  5. Genetic and epigenetic alterations of the blood group ABO gene in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Shan; Worm, Jesper; Guldberg, Per

    2004-01-01

    Loss of histo-blood group A and B antigen expression is a frequent event in oral carcinomas and is associated with decreased activity of glycosyltransferases encoded by the ABO gene. We examined 30 oral squamous cell carcinomas for expression of A and B antigens and glycosyltransferases. We also ...

  6. Bioimpedance Assessment of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma with Clinicopathological Correlation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarode, Gargi S; Sarode, Sachin C; Kulkarni, Meena; Karmarkar, Swarada; Patll, Shagkargouda; Auciustine, Domimc

    2015-09-01

    Molecular alterations at membrane, cytosol and nuclear level in cancer cells/tissue show variations in bioimpedance measure. In the present study, bioimpedance assessment and comparison was investigated between oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and normal tissue. Study further involves clinicopathological correlation of bioimpedance values in OSCC. The present study is comprised of 50 OSCC cases and 50 healthy control subjects. Four electrical properties of OSCC were measured: Impedance (Z); Phase angle (9); Real part of impedance (R); and Imaginary part of impedance (X) at six frequencies: 20 Hz; 50 kHz; 1.3 MHz; 2.5 MHz; 3.7 MHz; and 5 MHz with the amplitude of the applied voltage limited to 200 mV. The bioimpedance of OSCC as well as control group decreased as the measurement frequency increased from 20 Hz to 5 MHz. The bioimpedance of OSCC was generally smaller than that of control group. The mean bioimpedance of OSCC was found to be 4493 ± 216.9 Ω and 370.0 ± 26.45 Ω and that of control group was 15490 ± 287.2 Ω and 817.1 ± 7.227 Ω at frequencies of 20 Hz and 50 MHz respectively which is statistically significant (p Bioimpedance at a particular frequency showed significant alteration in OSCC tissue as compared to control. Hence, it can be potentially promising detection technique for OSCC. It is a low-cost real time method, which requires little training, and hence can be easily used in primary care centers or in developing countries where multiple challenges limit national screening programs.

  7. Development of tissue-engineered models of oral dysplasia and early invasive oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colley, H E; Hearnden, V; Jones, A V; Weinreb, P H; Violette, S M; Macneil, S; Thornhill, M H; Murdoch, C

    2011-11-08

    Current organotypic models of dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) lack the complexity that mimics in vivo tissue. Here we describe a three-dimensional in vitro model of the oral epithelium that replicates tumour progression from dysplasia to an invasive phenotype. The OSCC cell lines were seeded as a cell suspension (D20, Cal27) or as multicellular tumour spheroids (FaDu) with oral fibroblasts on to a de-epidermised acellular dermis to generate tissue-engineered models and compared with patient biopsies. The D20 and Cal27 cells generated a model of epithelial dysplasia. Overtime Cal27 cells traversed the basement membrane and invaded the connective tissue to reproduce features of early invasive OSCC. When seeded onto a model of the normal oral mucosa, FaDu spheroids produced a histological picture mimicking carcinoma in situ with severe cellular atypia juxtaposed to normal epithelium. It is possible to culture in vitro models with the morphological appearance and histological characteristics of dysplasia and tumour cell invasion seen in vivo using native dermis. Such models could facilitate study of the molecular processes involved in malignant transformation, invasion and tumour growth as well as in vitro testing of new treatments, diagnostic tests and drug delivery systems for OSCC. 2011 Cancer Research UK

  8. Palmar dermatoglyphics in oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elluru Venkatesh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Dermatoglyphics are the dermal ridge configuration on the digits, palms and soles. They are genetically determined and influenced by environmental forces that are operating before birth. Several studies have shown association between dermatoglyphics and different types of cancer. Hence this study was undertaken to determine whether specific dermatoglyphic patterns exists which help in predicting the occurrence of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC and oral leukoplakia. Materials and Methods: Finger and palm prints were collected using Ink method from 30 subjects with OSCC, 30 subjects with oral leukoplakia and 30 healthy controls and were evaluated qualitatively and quantitatively. Results: Arches and loops were more frequent in cases than in controls whereas whorls were more frequent in control group ( P < 0.01. Conclusion: Our study concluded that dermatoglyphic patterns may have a role in identifying individuals either with or at risk for developing oral leukoplakia and OSCC. Hence can be used to identify high risk group, so that early primary and secondary preventive measures can be instituted in order to prevent the occurrence of these lesions.

  9. Acetaldehyde production and microbial colonization in oral squamous cell carcinoma and oral lichenoid disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marttila, Emilia; Uittamo, Johanna; Rusanen, Peter; Lindqvist, Christian; Salaspuro, Mikko; Rautemaa, Riina

    2013-07-01

    The main aim of this prospective study was to explore the ability of the oral microbiome to produce acetaldehyde in ethanol incubation. A total of 90 patients [30 oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC); 30 oral lichenoid disease (OLD); 30 healthy controls (CO)] were enrolled in the study. Microbial samples were taken from the mucosa using a filter paper method. The density of microbial colonization was calculated and the spectrum analyzed. Microbial acetaldehyde production was measured by gas chromatography. The majority (68%) of cultures produced carcinogenic levels of acetaldehyde (>100 μM) when incubated with ethanol (22 mM). The mean acetaldehyde production by microbes cultured from smoker samples was significantly higher (213 μM) than from non-smoker samples (141 μM) (P=.0326). The oral microbiota from OSCC, OLD patients and healthy individuals are able to produce carcinogenic levels of acetaldehyde. The present provisional study suggests smoking may increase the production of acetaldehyde. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. TWIST and p-Akt immunoexpression in normal oral epithelium oral dysplasia and in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Fernanda-Paula; Corrêa Pontes, Flávia-Sirotheau; Cury, Sérgio-Elias; Fonseca, Felipe-Paiva; Rebelo-Pontes, Hélder; Pinto-Júnior, Décio-dos Santos

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate the immunoexpression of TWIST and p-Akt proteins in oral leukoplakia (OL) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), correlating their expressions with the histological features of the lesions. Study design: Immunohistochemical studies were carried out on 10 normal oral epithelium, 30 OL and 20 OSCC formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue samples. Immunoperoxidase reactions for TWIST and p-Akt proteins were applied on the specimens and the positivity of the reactions was calculated for 1000 epithelial cells. Results: Kruskal-Wallis and Dunn’s post tests revealed a significant difference in TWIST and p-Akt immunoexpression among normal oral mucosa, OL and OSCC. In addition, a significant positive correlation was found between TWIST and p-Akt expressions according to the Pearson’s correlation test. Conclusions: The results obtained in the current study suggest that TWIST and p-Akt may participate of the multi-step process of oral carcinogenesis since its early stages. Key words: Oral cancer, oral leukoplakia, dysplasia, immunohistochemistry. PMID:21743395

  11. Expression of GLUT-1 in oral squamous cell carcinoma in tobacco and non-tobacco users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azad, Neha; Kumari Maurya, Malti; Kar, Meenakshi; Goel, Madhu Mati; Singh, Ajay Kumar; Sagar, Mala; Mehrotra, Divya; Kumar, Vijay

    2016-01-01

    GLUTs are a family of proteins that mediate glucose transport through the membrane, expressed in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. GLUT-1 positivity in malignant cells indicates increased proliferative activity, energy requirements, aggressive behaviour and poor radiation response. To observe the expression of GLUT-1 protein in oral squamous cell carcinoma in tobacco and non-tobacco users and to correlate the expression with histopathological grading and pathological staging. 50 cases (25 tobacco and 25 non-tobacco) of oral squamous cell carcinoma, selected during period of August 2014 to July 2015. Histopathological grading, TNM and staging were done. Immunohistochemical staining was performed using standard protocol for paraffin embedded sections. Analysis was performed on SPSS software (Windows version 17.0). Significant association of GLUT-1 expression was found with history of tobacco (p GLUT-1 expression in stage II, stage III and stage IV was found as compared to stage I. GLUT-1 immunoexpression also shows progressive switch from membranous to cytoplasmic to combined location correlating with histopathologic grade and pTNM stage. GLUT-1 expression correlates significantly with histological grade and pTNM staging of oral squamous cell carcinoma. It also significantly correlates with tobacco addiction. Thus, GLUT-1 expression may serve as a biomarker for patients of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

  12. Immunophenotype of neutrophils in oral squamous cell carcinoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldeira, Patrícia Carlos; Vieira, Érica Leandro Marciano; Sousa, Alexandre Andrade; Teixeira, Antônio Lúcio; Aguiar, Maria Cássia Ferreira

    2017-10-01

    The aim was to explore the immunophenotype of neutrophils and lymphocytes and the inflammatory mediators in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma, comparing with controls; and to associate with clinicopathological data. Blood was collected from 13 patients and 13 controls. The immunophenotype of neutrophils (CD66b, CD16, CD11a, arginase-1), T lymphocytes (CD4, CD8) and the intracellular cytokine production (IL-10, TNF, IFN-γ) was evaluated by flow cytometry. Plasma concentration of sVCAM-1, sTNF-RI, sTNF-RII, and IL-1β was measured by ELISA. MPO, Lipocalin-2/NGAL, sICAM-1, and p-selectin were quantified by Luminex assay. The excised tumors were submitted to immunohistochemistry for neutrophils (CD66b) and lymphocytes (CD3, CD4, CD8). Association with clinical data was explored. P values <.05 were considered significant. Patients presented higher percentage of neutrophils and lower lymphocytes, resulting a higher neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio than controls. They also presented higher percentage of neutrophils expressing CD66b(+) , CD66b(+) Arginase-1(+) , CD66b(+) IL10(+) , CD66b(+) TNF(+) , CD66b(+) Arginase-1(+) IL-10(+) , and lower CD66b(+) CD16(+) CD11a(+) and CD66b(+) Arginase-1(+) TNF(+) . CD66b(+) neutrophils were detected in all tumors, with a CD66b(+) /CD3(+) ratio of 0.40. Patients showed higher concentration of plasmatic sVCAM-1 and lower Lipocalin-2/NGAL. Patients with good outcome presented lower percentage of neutrophils, higher percentage of lymphocytes, and lower NLR than patients who died. The amount and immunophenotype of neutrophils and lymphocytes differ between patients and healthy individuals, with a pro-tumorigenic profile of neutrophils. As these cells also get within tumor microenvironment, they possibly exert systemic and local functions in cancer pathogenesis. The association of neutrophil count with outcome corroborates recent studies and this merits further investigation for applicability as a prognosticator. © 2017 John Wiley

  13. [Prevalence of human papillomavirus infection in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, oropharynx and larynx].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villagómez-Ortíz, Vicente José; Paz-Delgadillo, Diana Estela; Marino-Martínez, Iván; Ceseñas-Falcón, Luis Ángel; Sandoval-de la Fuente, Anabel; Reyes-Escobedo, Alfonso

    2016-01-01

    Cancer of the head and neck comprises a group of neoplasms that share a similar anatomical origin. Most originate from the epithelium of the aerodigestive tract and 90% correspond to squamous cell carcinoma. In the last 15 years, an increase in the incidence of squamous cell carcinoma induced by human papillomavirus (HPV) has been seen, mainly types 16 and 18, which are the most frequent found in cancers of the oral cavity and oropharynx, and types 6 and 11 in laryngeal cancer. There are reports in the literature that show HPV as the leading cause of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. Determine the prevalence of infection with high-risk HPV in patients diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, oropharynx and larynx. An observational, cross-sectional, descriptive, unblinded study was performed. Prevalence of HPV infection was determined by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in DNA samples from tumour tissue of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, oropharynx and larynx. Typing was subsequently performed in HPV positive samples in order to detect types 18, 16, 11 and 6, using custom primers. A total of 45 patients were included. The association between laryngeal squamous cell carcinoma and HPV was established in two patients, which represented an overall prevalence of 4.4% in our population, and 10% for laringeal tumours. There is a low prevalence of HPV infection in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity, oropharynx and larynx, in our population. Prospective studies on younger patients could provide more information. Copyright © 2016 Academia Mexicana de Cirugía A.C. Publicado por Masson Doyma México S.A. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparative cytomorphometric analysis of oral mucosal cells in normal, tobacco users, oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nivia, Mahadoon; Sunil, Sukumaran Nair; Rathy, Ravindran; Anilkumar, Thapasimuthu Vijayamma

    2015-01-01

    Background: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the third most common cause of oral morbidity in India despite the numerous advances made in the treatment protocol. Aim: To compare the cytomorphometric changes of oral mucosal cells in normal subjects (Group I) with that of tobacco users without any lesion (Group II), tobacco users with oral leukoplakia (Group III), and tobacco users with oral SCC (Group IV) through a semi-automated image analysis system. Materials and Methods: Oral mucosal cells collected from study subjects (n = 100) stained using rapid Papanicolaou stain. Photomicrograph of 50 nonoverlapping cells captured at 50× magnification with a digital image capture system. Cytomorphometric analysis of cells in the captured images was performed with Image-Pro image analysis software. Image analysis was performed to obtain cell diameter (CD), cytoplasmic area (CyA), nuclear diameter (ND), nuclear area (NA), and nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio. These values were statistically compared among the groups using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Mann-Whitney U test. Results: The ND, NA, and nuclear-to-cytoplasmic ratio values were found to be increased in the samples collected from leukoplakia and oral SCC. The CD and CyA decreased compared to the normal mucosa in oral SCC samples. Conclusion: The cytomorphometric changes observed in samples from oral SCC and oral leukoplakia were consistent with the current diagnostic features. Hence, the semi-automated cytomorphometric analysis of oral mucosal cells can be used as an objective adjunct diagnostic tool in the diagnosis of these lesions. PMID:26811574

  15. Agrin and Perlecan Mediate Tumorigenic Processes in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kawahara, Rebeca; Granato, Daniela C.; Carnielli, Carolina M.; Cervigne, Nilva K.; Oliveria, Carine E.; Martinez, César A. R.; Yokoo, Sami; Fonseca, Felipe P.; Lopes, Marcio; Santos-Silva, Alan R.; Graner, Edgard; Coletta, Ricardo D.; Leme, Adriana Franco Paes

    2014-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most common type of cancer in the oral cavity, representing more than 90% of all oral cancers. The characterization of altered molecules in oral cancer is essential to understand molecular mechanisms underlying tumor progression as well as to contribute to cancer biomarker and therapeutic target discovery. Proteoglycans are key molecular effectors of cell surface and pericellular microenvironments, performing multiple functions in cancer. Two of the major basement membrane proteoglycans, agrin and perlecan, were investigated in this study regarding their role in oral cancer. Using real time quantitative PCR (qRT-PCR), we showed that agrin and perlecan are highly expressed in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Interestingly, cell lines originated from distinct sites showed different expression of agrin and perlecan. Enzymatically targeting chondroitin sulfate modification by chondroitinase, oral squamous carcinoma cell line had a reduced ability to adhere to extracellular matrix proteins and increased sensibility to cisplatin. Additionally, knockdown of agrin and perlecan promoted a decrease on cell migration and adhesion, and on resistance of cells to cisplatin. Our study showed, for the first time, a negative regulation on oral cancer-associated events by either targeting chondroitin sulfate content or agrin and perlecan levels. PMID:25506919

  16. In silico analysis of pathways activation landscape in oral squamous cell carcinoma and oral leukoplakia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarev, Eugene; Schubert, Adrian D; Kanherkar, Riya R; London, Nyall; Teka, Mahder; Ozerov, Ivan; Lezhnina, Ksenia; Bedi, Atul; Ravi, Rajani; Mehra, Rannee; Hoque, Mohammad O; Sloma, Ido; Gaykalova, Daria A; Csoka, Antonei B; Sidransky, David; Zhavoronkov, Alex; Izumchenko, Evgeny

    2017-01-01

    A subset of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), the most common subtype of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC), harbor dysplastic lesions (often visually identified as leukoplakia) prior to cancer diagnosis. Although evidence suggest that leukoplakia represents an initial step in the progression to cancer, signaling networks driving this progression are poorly understood. Here, we applied in silico Pathway Activation Network Decomposition Analysis (iPANDA), a new bioinformatics software suite for qualitative analysis of intracellular signaling pathway activation using transcriptomic data, to assess a network of molecular signaling in OSCC and pre-neoplastic oral lesions. In tumor samples, our analysis detected major conserved mitogenic and survival signaling pathways strongly associated with HNSCC, suggesting that some of the pathways identified by our algorithm, but not yet validated as HNSCC related, may be attractive targets for future research. While pathways activation landscape in the majority of leukoplakias was different from that seen in OSCC, a subset of pre-neoplastic lesions has demonstrated some degree of similarity to the signaling profile seen in tumors, including dysregulation of the cancer-driving pathways related to survival and apoptosis. These results suggest that dysregulation of these signaling networks may be the driving force behind the early stages of OSCC tumorigenesis. While future studies with larger leukoplakia data sets are warranted to further estimate the values of this approach for capturing signaling features that characterize relevant lesions that actually progress to cancers, our platform proposes a promising new approach for detecting cancer-promoting pathways and tailoring the right therapy to prevent tumorigenesis. PMID:28580171

  17. Concomitant-chemoradiotherapy-associated oral lesions in patients with oral squamous-cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minhas, Sadia; Kashif, Muhammad; Altaf, Wasif; Afzal, Nadeem; Nagi, Abdul Hanan

    2017-05-01

    : Oral squamous-cell carcinoma (OSCC) accounts for >90% of oral cancers affecting adults mostly between the fourth to seventh decades of life. The most common OSCC treatment is concomitant chemoradiotherapy (CCRT) having both loco-regional and distant control, but CCRT has acute and chronic toxic effects on adjacent normal tissue. This study aimed to determine the side effects of CCRT on the oral mucosa and to characterize the clinicopathology of oral lesions in patients with OSCC. This descriptive, cross-sectional study was certified by the Ethical Review Committee (UHS/Education/126-12/2728) of the University of Health Sciences, Lahore, Pakistan. OSSC patients (n=81) with various histological subtypes, grades, and stages were recruited, and findings on their oral examination were recorded. These patients received 70, 90, and 119 Gy of radiotherapy dosages in combination with the chemotherapy drugs cisplatin and 5-fluorouracil. Data were analyzed using SPSS 20.0. : The most common presentation of OSCC was a nonhealing ulcer (63%) involving tongue (55.6%). Clinical findings included mucositis (92.6%) and xerostomia of mild, moderate, and severe degrees in 11.1%, 46.9%, and 35.8% cases, respectively. Ulcers (87.7%), palpable lymph nodes (64.2%), limited mouth opening (64.2%) and fistula (40.7%) were also observed. In females, the association of radiotherapy dosage with limited mouth opening, xerostomia, and histological grading was statistically significant (P<0.05). The association of chemotherapy drugs with xerostomia (P=0.003) was also statistically significant. : CCRT induced mucositis, xerostomia, and trismus in patients with OSCC.

  18. [Oral squamous cell carcinoma and lichen planus vs. lichenoid lesions. Case report].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esquivel-Pedraza, Lilly; Fernández-Cuevas, Laura; Ruelas-Villavicencio, Ana Lilia; Guerrero-Ramos, Brenda; Hernández-Salazar, Amparo; Milke-García, María Pilar; Méndez-Flores, Silvia

    2016-01-01

    The development of squamous cell carcinoma from oral lichen planus is controversial. We report a case of intraoral squamous cell carcinoma, which presents together with lesions of oral lichen planus. The aim of this report was to analyze the problem to distinguish between the incipient changes of squamous cell carcinoma from the features described in oral lichen planus, in order to establish an accurate diagnosis of both entities. A 57-year old man with a history of smoking and chronic alcohol intake, who had an ulcerated tumor mass located in the tongue, and bilateral white reticular patches on buccal mucosa and borders of the tongue. The histopathological report was moderately differentiated invasive squamous cell carcinoma and lichen planus respectively. The premalignant nature of OLP is still indeterminate and controversial, this is primarily due to inconsistency in the clinical and histological diagnostic criteria used to differentiate cases of oral lichen planus from lichenoid reactions or other lesions causing intraepithelial dysplasia with high potentially malignant transformation. Oral lichenoid reactions are possibly most likely to develop malignant transformation as compared to the classic OLP lesions.

  19. LCK, survivin and PI-3K in the molecular biomarker profiling of oral lichen planus and oral squamous cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Oluwadara, Oluwadayo; Giacomelli, Luca; Christensen, Russell; Kossan, George; Avezova, Raisa; Chiappelli, Francesco

    2009-01-01

    T cell signaling is critical in oral lichen planus (OLP) based on the pathogenesis of this chronic inflammatory autoimmune mucocutaneous lesion. Lck plays a key role in T cell signaling; ultimately this signaling affects other targets such as PI-3K. Excessive activity in PI-3K inhibits apoptosis and promotes uncontrolled cell growth. Molecular biomarker profiling in OLP, Chronic Interface Mucosities (CIM), Epithelial Dysplasia (EpD) and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCCA) with application of ...

  20. Loss of a novel mucin-like epithelial glycoprotein in oral and cervical squamous cell carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, P A; Mandel, U; Therkildsen, M H

    1997-01-01

    with the cell membrane, but the identity of the carrier molecule(s) remains largely unknown. We report here the identification of a membrane-bound M(r) 200,000-250,000 glycoprotein (gp230) that is expressed in stratified squamous epithelia of the oral cavity. Western blot analysis identified gp230 as a major...... epithelial dysplasia and squamous cell carcinomas of oral and cervical mucosa....... layers of buccal epithelium and was also found in larynx, esophagus, vagina, and exocervix, but not in epidermis. Data showed that gp230 was distinct from MUC1 or CD44. It is interesting that in most cases gp230 was not expressed in squamous cell carcinomas of buccal and cervical mucosa. A few moderately...

  1. Evaluation of stromal myofibroblasts in oral leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis, and oral squamous cell carcinoma--an immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Kanupriya; Metgud, Rashmi; Gupta, Jatin

    2015-01-01

    Oral leukoplakia (OL) and oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) are the main potentially malignant disorders and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common malignancy of the oral mucosa. Myofibroblasts (MFs) secrete numerous growth factors and inflammatory mediators that stimulate epithelial cell proliferation and play an important role in tumoral invasion and use a combination of different factors in the course of neoplastic growth and development. Hence the present study was undertaken to evaluate and compare the distribution of MFs using alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) in OL, OSMF, and various histopathological grades OSCC. Sixty formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue blocks consisting of histopathologically diagnosed cases of normal mucosa (n = 10), OL (n = 14) hyperkeratosis with various grades of dysplasia, OSMF (n = 11), and OSCC (n = 25) were subjected to immunohistochemistry using α-SMA antibody for detection of MFs. MFs were not detected in normal oral mucosa. On comparison of frequency of mean scores in OL, OSMF, and OSCC the values were 0.6 ± 0.2 (0-2), 1.2 ± 0.68 (1-2), and 2.6 ± 1.34 (0-4), respectively. The results were statistically significant (P < 0.001). These findings are suggestive of role of MFs with the creation of a permissive environment for tumor invasion in OSCC. Hence the presence of MF is a prognostic marker and evaluation of the frequency in the stroma can be used as therapeutic targets.

  2. Study of P21 Expression in Oral Lichen Planus and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma by Immunohistochemical Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghaei, Fahimeh; Shojaei, Setareh; Afshar-Moghaddam, Noushin; Zargaran, Massoumeh; Rastin, Verisheh; Nasr, Mohsen; Moghimbeigi, Abbas

    2015-09-01

    Lichen planus is a mucocutaneous disease that is relatively common in middle aged individuals. Some studies have shown that oral lichen planus has a potential to progress to squamous cell carcinoma.p21 is a cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor that regulates the cell cycle, thus it acts as an inhibitor in cell proliferation. This study was aimed to evaluate and compare the immunostaining of p21 (as a proliferation inhibitory factor) in oral lichen planus (OLP) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). In this descriptive cross-sectional study, p21expression was investigated in 24 samples of oral lichen planus (OLP), 24 samples of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and 24 samples of oral epithelial hyperplasia (OEH) by employing immunohistochemical staining. The mean percentage of p21-positive cells in OSCC (54.5±6.6) was significantly higher than that in OLP (32.8±6.08) and OEH (9.4±3.8). Moreover, OLP samples expressed p21 significantly higher than the OEH. Kruskal Wallis test revealed a statistically significant difference between the groups regarding the intensity of staining (plichen planus to SCC. Therefore, continuous follow-up periods for OLP are recommended for diagnosis of the malignant transformations in early stages.

  3. Orthogonal polarization spectral (OPS) imaging and topographical characteristics of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindeboom, Jerome A; Mathura, Keshen R; Ince, Can

    2006-07-01

    Tumor microcirculatory characteristics until now have only been assessed by histological examination of biopsies or invasive imaging technique. The recent introduction of orthogonal polarization spectral (OPS) imaging as a new tool for in vivo visualization of human microcirculation makes it possible to acquire high resolution images of the oral mucosa. In this study we report the microcirculatory changes in ten patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue and compared the images to the normal contralateral side as the control. All carcinomas were T2 tumors without evidence for lymph node metastasis. The carcinomas were characterized by chaotic and dilated vessels accompanied by numerous areas of haemorrhage. The OPS technique seems very promising in the assessment of oral squamous cell carcinoma microcirculatory characteristics and may possibly play a future role in both the detection of early oral mucosal vascular aberrations and the effect of anti-tumor agents on the tumor microvasculature.

  4. [Radiological assessment of invasion of the mandible by squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stefanidis, S; Hirakis, S

    1990-09-01

    Three cases of invasion of the mandible by squamous carcinomas of the oral cavity are presented in this study. The current literature is reviewed and the diagnostic capabilities of contemporary imaging methods are emphasised. The detection of the location and extent of the possible infiltration of the mandible is a determinant factor concerning the choice of treatment and prognosis.

  5. Expression of Oct-4 in oncogenic miR-155-positive oral squamous ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To identify effective molecular diagnostic methods for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) to facilitate treatment of the disease in its initial stages. Methods: To identify molecular markers, OSCC tissue samples were collected from cancer patients and healthy controls. CD44+ cells were sorted using quantitative ...

  6. Circulating miRNAs as biomarkers for oral squamous cell carcinoma recurrence in operated patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yan, Yan; Wang, Xuan; Venø, Morten Trillingsgaard

    2017-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small regulatory non-coding RNAs for which altered expression in cancers can serve as potential biomarkers for diseases. We here investigated whether circulating miRNAs can serve as biomarkers for predicting post-operational recurrence of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC)...

  7. A novel Multiple-Marker Method for the Early Diagnosis of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jutta Ries

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Melanoma associated antigens-A (MAGE-A expression is highly specific to cancer cells. Thus, they can be the most suitable targets for the diagnosis of malignancy. The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity of multiple MAGE-A expression analysis for the diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC.

  8. Sentinel node biopsy for oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma in the previously treated neck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flach, G.B.; Broglie, M.A.; van Schie, A.; Bloemena, E.; Leemans, C.R.; de Bree, R.; Stoeckli, S.J.

    2012-01-01

    In patients with early stage oral or oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) sentinel node biopsy (SNB) is a reliable method to detect occult disease in the neck. However, patients with a history of surgery or radiotherapy in the neck may have aberrant lymphatic drainage caused by disruption of

  9. CMTM5 exhibits tumor suppressor activity through promoter methylation in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Heyu [Central Laboratory, Peking University School of Stomatology, Beijing (China); Nan, Xu [Center for Human Disease Genomics, Department of Immunology, Key Laboratory of Medical Immunology, Ministry of Health, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China); Li, Xuefen [Central Laboratory, Peking University School of Stomatology, Beijing (China); Chen, Yan; Zhang, Jianyun [Department of Oral Pathology, Peking University School of Stomatology, Beijing (China); Sun, Lisha [Central Laboratory, Peking University School of Stomatology, Beijing (China); Han, Wenlin [Center for Human Disease Genomics, Department of Immunology, Key Laboratory of Medical Immunology, Ministry of Health, School of Basic Medical Sciences, Peking University, Beijing (China); Li, Tiejun, E-mail: litiejun22@vip.sina.com [Department of Oral Pathology, Peking University School of Stomatology, Beijing (China)

    2014-05-02

    Highlights: • Down-regulation of CMTM5 expression in OSCC tissues was found. • The promoter methylation status of CMTM5 was measured. • CMTM5-v1 inhibited cell proliferation and migration and induced apoptosis. • CMTM5 might act as a putative tumor suppressor gene in OSCC. - Abstract: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most common types of malignancies in the head and neck region. CKLF-like MARVEL transmembrane domain-containing member 5 (CMTM5) has been recently implicated as a tumor suppressor gene in several cancer types. Herein, we examined the expression and function of CMTM5 in oral squamous cell carcinoma. CMTM5 was down-regulated in oral squamous cell lines and tumor samples from patients with promoter methylation. Treatment with the demethylating agent 5-aza-2′-deoxycytidine restored CMTM5 expression. In the OSCC cell lines CAL27 and GNM, the ectopic expression of CMTM5-v1 strongly inhibited cell proliferation and migration and induced apoptosis. In addition, CMTM5-v1 inhibited tumor formation in vivo. Therefore, CMTM5 might act as a putative tumor suppressor gene through promoter methylation in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

  10. Different miRNA signatures of oral and pharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas: a prospective translational study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lajer, C B; Nielsen, F C; Friis-Hansen, L

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are small non-coding RNAs, which regulate mRNA translation/decay, and may serve as biomarkers. We characterised the expression of miRNAs in clinically sampled oral and pharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC and PSCC) and described the influence of human papilloma virus (HPV)....

  11. Oral squamous cell carcinoma and a clinically negative neck : the value of follow-up

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wensing, Bart M; Merkx, Matthias A W; Krabbe, Paul F M; Marres, Henri A M; Van den Hoogen, Frank J A

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: In squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (SCCOC), regular follow-up comprises 5 years of prescheduled visits, irrespective of tumor stage/classification and/or treatment. We analyzed our standard treatment and follow-up protocol in patients with a preoperative clinically negative

  12. Lymphangiogenesis and angiogenesis in oral cavity and lower lip squamous cell carcinoma

    OpenAIRE

    Alaeddini, Mojgan; Etemad-Moghadam, Shahroo

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: Tumors of the lip and oral cavity differ in various aspects; therefore a clarification of the distinctions among these sites may help to better understand the biologic behavior of neoplasms occurring in these locations. OBJECTIVE: Considering that angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis are two major elements that can influence various aspects of tumor biology, we aimed to compare these factors between squamous cell carcinoma of the lower lip and oral cavity. METHODS: ...

  13. Desmosomal Component Expression in Normal, Dysplastic, and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nagamani Narayana

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Squamous cell carcinoma (oral SCC is the most common oral cancer in the U.S., affecting nearly 30,000 Americans each year. Despite recent advances in detection and treatment, there has been little improvement in the five-year survival rate for this devastating disease. Oral cancer may be preceded by premalignant disease that appears histologically as dysplasia. Identification of molecular markers for cellular change would assist in determining the risk of dysplasia progressing to oral squamous cell carcinoma. The goal of this study was to determine if any correlation exists between histological diagnosed dysplasia and OSCC lesions and altered expression of desmosomal cell-cell adhesion molecules in the oral epithelium. Our data showed that oral SCC tissue samples showed decreased immunoreactivity of both desmoplakin and plakophilin-1 proteins compared to normal oral epithelium. Furthermore, significant decrease in desmoplakin immunoreactivity was observed in dysplastic tissue compared to normal oral epithelium. In contrast, the level of desmoglein-1 staining was unchanged between samples however desmoglein-1 was found localized to cell borders in oral SCC samples. These data suggest that changes in expression of desmoplakin and plakophilin-1 may prove to be a useful marker for changes in tissue morphology and provide a tool for identifying pre-neoplastic lesions of the oral cavity.

  14. Human calmodulin-like protein (CLP) expression in oral squamous mucosa and in malignant transformation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brooks, Michael D; Bennett, Richard D; Strehler, Emanuel E; Sebo, Thomas J; Eckert, Stephen E; Carr, Alan B

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to test whether calmodulin-like protein (CLP) is expressed in normal human oral mucosal cells and if downregulation of CLP occurs in malignant transformation. Oral mucosal tissue was taken from three individuals in a double-blind manner. The samples were cut, measured, and homogenized. Total RNA was extracted and reverse transcribed. Each cDNA sample was subjected to polymerase chain reaction (PCR). PCR fragments were purified, cloned, and sequenced to verify the presence of CLP. Three oral mucosal tissue samples with biopsy-confirmed squamous cell carcinoma were obtained. These samples demonstrated regions of normal epithelial cells as well as invasive squamous cell carcinoma. One normal breast epithelial sample was also obtained for positive control. Sections were stained with an affinity-purified CLP antibody and counterstained with a diluted hematoxylin. Two observers evaluated the specimens for expression of CLP. Staining patterns and intensity were noted in normal oral mucosa, comparing them to the normal breast epithelium sample. Staining patterns and intensity were then observed in squamous tumor cells, comparing them to the patterns of benign squamous mucosa. CLP coding sequences were positively identified from the normal oral mucosal tissue samples by reverse transcription and polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) with 100% identity to the published CLP sequence (accession #M58026). In the three oral mucosa tissue samples with known squamous cell carcinoma, expression of CLP was readily detected in areas of normal oral mucosa, while a notable downregulation of CLP expression occurred in areas of malignant transformation. The staining intensity was equivalent to the staining seen in the benign breast epithelium used as a control. In the areas of squamous cell carcinoma, a decrease in CLP immunoreactivity occurred. There was a sharp contrast in staining quality and clarity between benign and malignant tissue. In the majority of

  15. Do polyomavirus hominis strains BK and JC play a role in oral squamous cell carcinoma?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dorota Polz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Head and neck cancers are the most common cancers worldwide. It is estimated that approximately 90% of all head and neck cancers are represented by squamous cell carcinoma (SCC. There are many risk factors causing this type of cancer, including environmental factors and lifestyle choices, such as tobacco smoking or abusing alcohol. Other important risk factor include infectious factors. [b]Objective[/b]. The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence of BK and JC virus infections among patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC. [b]Materials and method[/b]. The correlation between BKV infection and OSCC, and correlation between BKV, OSCC, alcohol abuse, tobacco smoking, demographic data, pre-treatment staging, metastases of lymph node evidence, and grading, was analyzed. The study group consisted of 92 patients with squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC, 75 males, and 17 females, aged between 40 – 87 (average 56.8. All the patients underwent surgery and were not subjected to chemotherapy or radiotherapy prior to treatment. The analyzed samples were collected from paraffin sections. [b]Results[/b]. BKV DNA was detected in 18.5% of patients with OSCC. In the control group, BKV DNA was detected in 3.3%. BKV DNA was statistically more frequently detected among patients with squamous carcinoma, compared to the control group (p<0.05. [b]Conclusions[/b]. The obtained results suggest that the BKV virus may play an important role in the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

  16. Immunohistochemical study of p21 and Bcl-2 in leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis and oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutariya, Rakesh V; Manjunatha, Bhari Sharanesha

    2016-11-01

    Oral Squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) results from genetic damage, leading to uncontrolled cell proliferation of damaged cells and the cell death. In the course of its progression, visible changes are taking place at the cellular level (atypical) and the resultant at the tissue level (epithelial dysplasia). The Aim of the present study was to evaluate and compare the expressions of intensity of p21 and Bcl-2 in Leukoplakia, oralsubmucous fibrosis (OSMF) and oral squamous cell carcinoma. Total 60 cases, 30 cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma, 15 cases of oral submucous fibrosis and 15 cases of Leukoplakia were evaluated immunohistochemically for p21 and Bcl-2 expression. p21 showed positive expression in 13 (86.67%) cases out of 15 cases of OSMF, 12 (80%) cases of leukoplakia out of 15 cases and 24 (80%) cases out of 30 cases of OSCC. The Bcl-2 expression was positive in 13 (86.67%) cases of OSMF, all cases of Leukoplakia and 25 (83.33%) cases of OSCC. No statistical significance was noted in the expression of p21 and Bcl-2 positive expression between OSMF, Leukoplakia and OSCC. Statistical analysis for comparison of intensity of p21 expression in different grades of OSCC showed no significance. Statistical significance difference was found between the expressions of Bcl-2 in moderately and poorly differentiated SCC. The intensity of p21 and Bcl-2 expressions in different grades of OSCC indicates a key role in progression of oral neoplasia.

  17. Metastatic papillary carcinoma thyroid co-existing with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma: A case report and review of literature

    OpenAIRE

    Roshan K. Verma; Nishikanta Tripathi; Pallavi Aggarwal; Naresh K. Panda

    2014-01-01

    The incidental discovery of metastatic papillary carcinoma thyroid in lymph node while the patient is being investigated for primary squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity is an unusual clinical situation and the appropriate management in such clinical situation is controversial and confusing. We report a case of a 65 year old male with primary squamous cell carcinoma of alveolus with bilateral neck nodes. Fine needle aspiration cytology showed metastatic squamous cell carcinoma in lymph ...

  18. Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of oral cavity: Report of two cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heera, R; Ayswarya, T; Padmakumar, S K; Ismayil, P

    2016-01-01

    Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (BSCC) is an aggressive, high-grade, variant of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), which is uncommon in the oral cavity but slightly more common in the oropharynx. We present two cases of BSCC, one arising in the floor of the mouth and the other arising on the lateral border of the tongue. The diagnosis of this subtype of SCC is important owing to its particular behavior, with an aggressive course, a high incidence of local recurrence, regional lymph node metastases and mortality rate.

  19. Clinical and Histologic Features Compared with AgNOR Count in Oral Leukoplakia, Erosive Lichen Planus, Oral Submucous Fibrosis and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarbjeet Singh

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the study was to correlate and compare AgNOR count in speckled leukoplakia, oral lichen planus, oral submucous fibrosis and in oral squamous cell carcinoma and to assess if AgNOR count could contribute to the pre-therapeutic assessment of the biologic aggressiveness of the disease and to detect malignant potential of premalignant lesion and conditions which could render us to assess the prognosis of the disease.

  20. Altered serum and salivary C-reactive protein levels in patients with oral premalignant lesions and oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metgud, R; Bajaj, S

    2016-01-01

    Chronic inflammation is associated with cancer development. C-reactive protein (CRP), an acute phase protein synthesized primarily in the liver, is a marker for inflammation and for the progression of many cancers. We compared serum and salivary CRP levels in 20 normal individuals, 20 patients with oral premalignant lesions and 20 patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) to assess its efficacy as a prognostic indicator for OSCC. Saliva and blood samples were obtained and evaluated for CRP levels. Mean CRP levels were higher in patients with oral premalignant lesions compared to controls. CRP levels in OSCC patients were elevated and were associated with advanced tumor stages.

  1. Immunoreactive transforming growth factor alpha and epidermal growth factor in oral squamous cell carcinomas

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Therkildsen, M H; Poulsen, Steen Seier; Bretlau, P

    1993-01-01

    , the cells above the basal cell layer were positive for both TGF-alpha and EGF. The same staining pattern was observed in oral mucosa obtained from healthy persons. In moderately to well differentiated carcinomas, the immunoreactivity was mainly confined to the cytologically more differentiated cells, thus......Forty oral squamous cell carcinomas have been investigated immunohistochemically for the presence of transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-alpha) and epidermal growth factor (EGF). The same cases were recently characterized for the expression of EGF-receptors. TGF-alpha was detected...... previous results confirms the existence of TGF-alpha, EGF, and EGF-receptors in the majority of oral squamous cell carcinomas and their metastases....

  2. Primary oral squamous cell carcinoma arising around dental osseointegrated implants mimicking peri-implantitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eguia del Valle, Asier; Martínez-Conde Llamosas, Rafael; López Vicente, José; Uribarri Etxebarria, Agurne; Aguirre Urizar, José Manuel

    2008-08-01

    Prosthodontic rehabilitation using dental implants has become a common practice in dentistry at the present time. The number of complications related to dental osseointegrated implants has increased according to the generalization of its use along the last decade. Among the most common of these complications are chronic inflammatory conditions affecting both hard and soft tissues around dental implants. Although severe complications are uncommon, in recent years several cases of oral squamous cell carcinoma adjacent to dental implants have been published. In this paper we present a new unusual case of primary oral squamous cell carcinoma arising around a dental fixed prosthesis over osseointegrated implants in a 76 male patient with no previous history of malignance and no risk factors related to oral cancer.

  3. Risk factors for distant metastasis in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumioka, Satoshi; Sawai, Natsuko Y; Kishino, Mitsunobu; Ishihama, Kouji; Minami, Masato; Okura, Masaya

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to identify risk factors for distant metastasis (DM) in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity. A retrospective analysis of 516 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity from 1986 through 2009 was performed. DM was classified as 2 types based on whether patients had locoregional failure (LRF). The frequency and clinicopathologic risk factors for the 2 types of DM were evaluated separately using univariate χ(2) tests and multivariate logistic regression models. Overall survival was evaluated with the Kaplan-Meier method and compared by the log-rank test. Fifty-four patients (10%) developed DM, 16 with isolated DM and 38 with DM with LRF. The 5-year survival rate from a DM diagnosis in patients with isolated DM was 13%, significantly higher than the rate of those with DM with LRF (0%; log-rank test, P Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Lymphangiogenesis and angiogenesis in oral cavity and lower lip squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alaeddini, Mojgan; Etemad-Moghadam, Shahroo

    2016-01-01

    Tumors of the lip and oral cavity differ in various aspects; therefore a clarification of the distinctions among these sites may help to better understand the biologic behavior of neoplasms occurring in these locations. Considering that angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis are two major elements that can influence various aspects of tumor biology, we aimed to compare these factors between squamous cell carcinoma of the lower lip and oral cavity. A total of 84 primary squamous cell carcinomas including 45 oral and 39 lower lip tumors were selected and immunohistochemically stained with monoclonal antibody against D2-40 and CD105. Mean microvessel density was assessed in tumoral tissue, while lymphatic vessel density was calculated in both neoplastic tissue and invasion front. Data were statistically analyzed using t-test and p-values of oral cavity and 27.54±20.8 in lower lip squamous cell carcinomas, with no significant difference (p=0.32). Mean lymphatic vessel density±standard deviation was 13.05±8.2 and 16.57±10.79 in of oral cavity and lower lip neoplastic tissue, respectively. The corresponding values were 9.94±5.59 and 12.50±7.8 in the invasive front. Significant differences were not observed in either of the lymphatic vessel density variables between the two sites. According to our results, it seems that the search for additional factors other than those related to the vasculature should continue, to help clarify the differences in biologic behavior between lower lip and oral cavity squamous cell carcinomas. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  5. Involvement of potential pathways in malignant transformation from Oral Leukoplakia to Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma revealed by proteomic analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Jing

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC is one of the most common forms of cancer associated with the presence of precancerous oral leukoplakia. Given the poor prognosis associated with oral leukoplakia, and the difficulties in distinguishing it from cancer lesions, there is an urgent need to elucidate the molecular determinants and critical signal pathways underlying the malignant transformation of precancerous to cancerous tissue, and thus to identify novel diagnostic and therapeutic target. Results We have utilized two dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE followed by ESI-Q-TOF-LC-MS/MS to identify proteins differentially expressed in six pairs of oral leukoplakia tissues with dysplasia and oral squamous cancer tissues, each pair was collected from a single patient. Approximately 85 differentially and constantly expressed proteins (> two-fold change, P Conclusion Varying levels of differentially expressed proteins were possibly involved in the malignant transformation of oral leukoplakia. Their expression levels, bioprocess, and interaction networks were analyzed using a bioinformatics approach. This study shows that the three homologs of PA28 may play an important role in malignant transformation and is an example of a systematic biology study, in which functional proteomics were constructed to help to elucidate mechanistic aspects and potential involvement of proteins. Our results provide new insights into the pathogenesis of oral cancer. These differentially expressed proteins may have utility as useful candidate markers of OSCC.

  6. Retrospective cohort study of prognostic factors in patients with oral cavity and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrillo, José F; Carrillo, Liliana C; Cano, Ana; Ramirez-Ortega, Margarita C; Chanona, Jorge G; Avilés, Alejandro; Herrera-Goepfert, Roberto; Corona-Rivera, Jaime; Ochoa-Carrillo, Francisco J; Oñate-Ocaña, Luis F

    2016-04-01

    Prognostic factors in oral cavity and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) are debated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the association of prognostic factors with oncologic outcomes. Patients with oral cavity and oropharyngeal SCC treated from 1997 to 2012 were included in this retrospective cohort study. Associations of prognostic factors with locoregional recurrence (LRR) or overall survival (OS) were analyzed using the logistic regression and the Cox models. Six hundred thirty-four patients were included in this study; tumor size, surgical margins, and N classification were associated with LRR (p oral cavity and oropharyngeal SCC. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Cytokeratin and protein expression patterns in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity provide evidence for two distinct pathogenetic pathways

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Frohwitter, Gesche; Buerger, Horst; van Diest, Paul J.; Korsching, Eberhard; Kleinheinz, Johannes; Fillies, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral cavity is a morphological heterogeneous disease. Various cytokeratin (CK) expression patterns with different prognostic values have been described, but little is known concerning the underlying biological cell mechanisms. Therefore, the present study

  8. Involvement of potential pathways in malignant transformation from Oral Leukoplakia to Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma revealed by proteomic analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhi; Feng, Xiaodong; Liu, Xinyu; Jiang, Lu; Zeng, Xin; Ji, Ning; Li, Jing; Li, Longjiang; Chen, Qianming

    2009-01-01

    Background Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most common forms of cancer associated with the presence of precancerous oral leukoplakia. Given the poor prognosis associated with oral leukoplakia, and the difficulties in distinguishing it from cancer lesions, there is an urgent need to elucidate the molecular determinants and critical signal pathways underlying the malignant transformation of precancerous to cancerous tissue, and thus to identify novel diagnostic and therapeutic target. Results We have utilized two dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) followed by ESI-Q-TOF-LC-MS/MS to identify proteins differentially expressed in six pairs of oral leukoplakia tissues with dysplasia and oral squamous cancer tissues, each pair was collected from a single patient. Approximately 85 differentially and constantly expressed proteins (> two-fold change, P leukoplakia. Their expression levels, bioprocess, and interaction networks were analyzed using a bioinformatics approach. This study shows that the three homologs of PA28 may play an important role in malignant transformation and is an example of a systematic biology study, in which functional proteomics were constructed to help to elucidate mechanistic aspects and potential involvement of proteins. Our results provide new insights into the pathogenesis of oral cancer. These differentially expressed proteins may have utility as useful candidate markers of OSCC. PMID:19691830

  9. Immunohistochemical detection of p53 and p63 in oral squamous cell carcinoma, oral leukoplakia, and oral submucous fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varun, B R; Ranganathan, K; Rao, Umadevi K; Joshua, Elizabeth

    2014-08-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) may be preceded by potentially malignant disorders such as leukoplakia and oral submucous fibrosis (OSF). p63 in concert with p53 regulates cell proliferation and differentiation and may have a role in potentially malignant and malignant lesions of the oral cavity. The aim of the study was to evaluate and compare the expression of p53 and p63 proteins in OSCC, leukoplakia, and OSF by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Tissue sections of OSCC (n = 20), leukoplakia (n = 20), OSF (n = 20) and normal oral mucosa (n = 10) were stained with p53 and p63 antibodies by IHC. Mean labeling index (LI) among the study groups were compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test. The mean LI of p53 for OSCC, leukoplakia, OSF, and normal mucosa were 56.9 ± 21.3, 37.6 ± 12.6, 34.6 ± 8.7 and 15.1 ± 9, while mean LI of p63 were 56.8 ± 19.6, 42.3 ± 10.5, 32.8 ± 12.1, and 26.4 ± 9.4. The mean LI of p53 and p63 were significantly higher in OSCC, leukoplakia and OSF compared to normal mucosa (P leukoplakia, and OSF suggests their role as surrogate markers of malignant transformation. © 2013 Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  10. Squamous epitheliotropism of Enterovirus A71 in human epidermis and oral mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phyu, Win Kyaw; Ong, Kien Chai; Kong, Chee Kwan; Alizan, Abdul Khalil; Ramanujam, Tindivanam Muthurangam; Wong, Kum Thong

    2017-03-21

    Hand-foot-and-mouth disease is a self-limiting paediatric infectious disease commonly caused by Enterovirus A71 (Genus: Enterovirus, Family: Picornaviridae). Typical lesions in and around the hands, feet, oral cavity and other places may rarely be complicated by acute flaccid paralysis and acute encephalomyelitis. Although virus is readily cultured from skin vesicles and oral secretions, the cellular target/s of Enterovirus A71 in human skin and oral mucosa are unknown. In Enterovirus A71-infected human skin and oral mucosa organotypic cultures derived from the prepuce and lip biopsies, focal viral antigens and viral RNA were localized to cytoplasm of epidermal and mucosal squamous cells as early as 2 days post-infection. Viral antigens/RNA were associated with cytoplasmic vacuolation and cellular necrosis. Infected primary prepuce epidermal keratinocyte cultures showed cytopathic effects with concomitant detection of viral antigens from 2 days post-infection. Supernatant and/or tissue homogenates from prepuce skin organotypic cultures and primary prepuce keratinocyte cultures showed viral titres consistent with active viral replication. Our data strongly support Enterovirus A71 squamous epitheliotropism in the human epidermis and oral mucosa, and suggest that these organs are important primary and/or secondary viral replication sites that contribute significantly to oral and cutaneous viral shedding resulting in person-to-person transmission, and viraemia, which could lead to neuroinvasion.

  11. Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity: an analysis of 92 cases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fritsch, Valerie A; Gerry, Daniel R; Lentsch, Eric J

    2014-07-01

    Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma (BSCC) is considered a rare and possibly more aggressive squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) variant. Until now, a series of exclusively oral cavity BSCC patients has not been previously reported. We endeavored to compare BSCC and SCC of the oral cavity, focusing on epidemiologic factors and survival outcomes. Retrospective analysis of population-based data. We compared epidemiologic factors, clinicopathologic data, and disease-specific survivals (DSS) between 92 patients with oral cavity BSCC and 15,181 patients with SCC. High-grade tumors and distant metastases were more common in the BSCC group (P≤0.001). On multivariable analysis controlling for disease stage, BSCC patients had similar DSS to those with typical SCC (P=0.231). Although there was a trend favoring definitive radiotherapy for BSCC, there were no significant differences in treatment approach between BSCC and SCC. The choice of treatment modality (radiation, surgery±radiation) did not reveal a difference in DSS between the two tumor subtypes. Analysis of the largest oral cavity BSCC series to date demonstrates that BSCC of the oral cavity carries a comparable prognosis to conventional-type oral SCC. 2b. © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  12. Aggressive Recurrence of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma in a patient with Fanconi’s Anaemia (FA)

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Nolan, M.

    2017-03-01

    Fanconi’s Anaemia is a rare autosomal recessive disease for which the incidence of head and neck cancer can be increased 700-fold1. We report a case of a 31-year old Caucasian male with FA who initially presented in July 2007 with oral squamous cell carcinoma for which he received radical surgery and radiotherapy. He was disease-free until August 2015 when he presented with an extremely aggressive recurrence.

  13. Correlation of clinical, cytological and histological findings in oral squamous cell carcinomas

    OpenAIRE

    SOUSA, MICHELE CARDOSO; ALVES, MONICA GHISLAINE OLIVEIRA; SOUZA, LUCIANO ALBINO; BRANDÃO, ADRIANA AIGOTTI HABERBECK; ALMEIDA, JANETE DIAS; CABRAL, LUIZ ANTONIO GUIMARÃES

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the efficiency of exfoliative cytology by correlating the clinical lesions of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) with exfoliative cytology and histopathological findings. Cases of OSCC diagnosed between 1984 and 2010 were analyzed. The inclusion criteria for the present study were the availability of detailed clinical findings and a diagnosis of the disease through exfoliative cytology and histopathology. The cases were assessed and assigned scores, whi...

  14. Prevalence trends of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Mexico City's General Hospital experience

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Guerrero, Juan Carlos; Jacinto Alemán, Luís Fernando; Jiménez Farfán Farfán, María Dolores; Macario Hernández, Alejandro; Hernández Flores, Florentino; Alcántara Vázquez, Avissai

    2013-01-01

    Objective: Recent reports suggest an increase in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) frequency. To improve programs in public health, it is necessary to understand the epidemiological conditions. The aim of this study was to analyze the trend in gender, age, anatomic zone and OSCC stage from Mexico City?s General Hospital patients from 1990 to 2008. Study design: A retrospective review of all OSCC cases diagnosed by the Pathology Department of the Mexico City General Hospital was performed. D...

  15. Prognostic value of various molecular and cellular features in oral squamous cell carcinomas: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryne, M

    1991-10-01

    Recent findings of prognostic value for oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) which may supplement clinical staging are reviewed. Many reports show that histopathologic grading, measurements of tumor-thickness and DNA-content have independent prognostic value and may thus be of clinical value. Features regarding cells at the invading margins of the tumors are probably of higher prognostic value than features within other parts of the tumors. Reportedly, various other cellular and serum markers have prognostic associations worthwhile further research.

  16. Quantitative evaluation of serum fucose in oral squamous cell carcinoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parwani, Rajkumar N; Parwani, Simran R

    2011-01-01

    Cancer, a disorder of cellular behavior is characterized by the alteration of serum glycoproteins, which are composed of different monosaccharides. One of the monosaccharides is l-fucose, a methyl pentose, which is the terminal sugar in most of the plasma glycoproteins. Elevated levels of protein-bound fucose have been reported in various disease states as well as in malignancies. To ascertain the role of serum fucose as a biomarker and to correlate with other studies for its effective clinical application. T0 he study was carried out on 67 subjects, including 14 healthy individuals and 53 oral squamous cell carcinoma cases. The serum fucose level estimation was done based on the method as adopted by Winzler using cysteine reagent. Statistical analysis included Chi-square test, Karl Pearson correlation test and Student's t test to evaluate the significance and variability of values between groups. Serum fucose levels were independent of age and sex. However, there was significant increase in mean serum fucose level of oral squamous cell carcinoma patients compared with healthy controls. The results correlated well with other studies. Serum fucose can be used as an effective diagnostic biomarker in oral squamous cell carcinoma patients.

  17. Molecular assessment of p53 abnormalities at the invasive front of oral squamous cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piffkò, J; Bànkfalvi, A; Tory, K; Füzesi, L; Bryne, M; Ofner, D; Kusch, F; Joos, U; Schmid, K W

    1998-01-01

    The prognostic significance of the invasive tumor front in squamous cell carcinomas has recently been recognized. The aim of the present study was to investigate possible molecular mechanisms underlying the significance of this area in oral squamous cell carcinomas. We used immunohistochemical and molecular genetic techniques to investigate whether p53 alterations at the invasive tumor front could determine the aggressiveness of oral cancers. p53 Overexpression was detected in 52% to 56% (four different p53 antibodies) of 100 carcinomas studied. The concordance rate between results of immunohistochemistry and genetic analysis was 60%. No correlation was found between p53 status of the tumors and clinicopathologic parameters analyzed statistically. p53 Alterations have no prognostic impact in oral squamous cell carcinomas and apparently do not represent a molecular basis for the biologic significance of the invasive tumor front. The detection of discordant p53 aberrations between primary and second primary carcinomas in some patients provide evidence for their independent origin, with possible impact on prevention and therapy.

  18. Induction of apoptosis by grape seed extract (Vitis vinifera in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amirala Aghbali

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Development of novel therapeutic modalities is crucial for the treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC. Recent scientific studies have been focused on herbal medicines as potent anti-cancer drug candidates. This study is the first to investigate the cytotoxic effects and the mechanism of cell death induced by grape seed extract (GSE in oral squamous cell carcinoma (KB cells. MTT (3-(4,5-dimetylthiazol-2-yl-2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide and trypan blue assays were performed in KB cells as well as human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC were used to analyze the cytotoxic activity of GSE. Furthermore, the apoptosis-inducing action of the extract was determined by TUNEL, DNA fragmentation and cell death analysis. Statistical significance was determined by analysis of variance (ANOVA, followed by Duncan’s test at a significance level of P≤0.05. The results showed apoptotic potential of GSE, confirmed by significant inhibition of cell growth and viability in a dose- and time- dependent manner without inducing damage to non-cancerous cell line HUVEC. The results of this study suggest that this plant contains potential bioactive compound(s for the treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

  19. Cathepsin K modulates invasion, migration and adhesion of oral squamous cell carcinomas in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamashita, K; Iwatake, M; Okamoto, K; Yamada, S-I; Umeda, M; Tsukuba, T

    2017-05-01

    Cathepsin K was initially discovered as an osteoclast-specific cysteine proteinase, but the enzyme is also expressed in various cancers including oral squamous cell carcinomas. This study aimed to clarify the function of cathepsin K in oral squamous cell carcinomas. Expression levels of cathepsin K were examined in six types of cell carcinomas. Carcinomas overexpressing cathepsin K were constructed. Effects of cathepsin K overexpression and treatment with odanacatib, a specific cathepsin K inhibitor, on cell invasion, migration and adhesion were analysed. Different levels of cathepsin K were expressed in carcinomas. Cathepsin K was predominantly localised in lysosomes. Cathepsin K overexpression impaired the proliferation of carcinomas. Invasion analysis showed that cathepsin K overexpression enhanced invasion and migration of carcinomas, whereas inhibition of cathepsin K by odanacatib caused the opposite effects in carcinomas. Cathepsin K overexpression also increased cell adhesion and slightly increased surface expression of the adhesion receptor CD29/integrin β1 . The enhanced invasion of carcinomas resulting from cathepsin K overexpression is probably due to the increased cell migration and adhesion. Thus, cathepsin K is implicated not only in protein degradation but also in invasion, migration and adhesion of oral squamous cell carcinomas. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. Ghrelin and obestatin expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma: an immunohistochemical and biochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alnema, Manar M; Aydin, Suleyman; Ozkan, Yusuf; Dagli, Adile F; Ozercan, Hanifi I; Yildirim, Nezahat; Sahin, Ibrahim; Karaoglu, Aziz; Kilic, Nermin; Yilmaz, Mustafa; Ozercan, Mehmet R; Donder, Emir

    2010-06-01

    The underlying molecular mechanism of carcinogenesis in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is poorly understood and appears to be controlled on many genetic, environmental, and hormonal factors. Obestatin and ghrelin, two recently discovered hormones, are co-expressed in endocrine cells. The purpose of this investigation was to examine the immunohistochemical features of OSCCs in relation to the tissue concentration of ghrelin and obestatin. The association between OSCC and Epstein Barr Virus (EBV) status was also explored. The expression of ghrelin and obestatin was examined by immunohistochemistry and immunoassay in oral biopsy specimens: 10 benign squamous epithelial cell samples, 10 microinvasive squamous cell carcinomas, and seven well-differentiated and seven poorly differentiated OSCCs. The presence of EBV was evaluated in these samples using immunohistochemistry. The concentrations of ghrelin and obestatin in tissue homogenates were measured by RIA and ELISA, respectively. Squamous cell carcinomas and benign tissue samples were positive for anti-EBV antibody, and obestatin and ghrelin were shown to be co-expressed in all stratified squamous epithelium samples. Expression of ghrelin and obestatin was decreased or absent in OSCCs in relation to the invasiveness of the carcinoma; ghrelin and obestatin levels in cancerous tissue homogenates were lower than in benign tissue homogenates. These results indicate that the concentrations and distribution of immunoreactive obestatin and ghrelin might be helpful in distinguishing OSCC from benign tumors. Maintaining normal levels of these hormones might be required for regulation of normal cell division. However, detailed studies will be required for better understanding of the complex mechanism of carcinogenesis relating to OSCCs.

  1. Relationship between human oral lichen planus and oral squamous cell carcinoma at a genomic level: a datamining study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacomelli, Luca; Oluwadara, Oluwadayo; Chiappe, Giacomo; Barone, Antonio; Chiappelli, Francesco; Covani, Ugo

    2009-12-31

    The leader gene approach is a data mining method based on the systematic search for genes involved in a specific process and their ranking according to the number of interconnections with the other genes identified. The genes with the strongest interconnections are termed leader genes, since they may be supposed to play an important role in the process. The potential of malignant progression of OLP to oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is still not completely clear. In this study, the leader gene approach is applied to investigate the association between OLP and OSCC at a molecular level. Results were integrated with those obtained in an experimental analysis (see paper 1 of this series). Genes involved in OLP and OSCC were identified by systematic queries to dedicated databases. Interconnections among identified genes were calculated and given a confidence value using STRING database. Leader genes were identified by clustering genes according to their interconnections. This theoretical analysis shows that OLP and OSCC share two leader genes: TP53 and CDKN1A, involved in the PI3K signalling events mediated by AKT pathway. This finding and those obtained in the experimental analysis suggest the possible involvement of some key genes/proteins LCK, PIK3CA, BIRC5, TP53 and CDKN1A in the malignant progression from OLP to OSCC. Moreover, these findings support the role of some molecular pathways, namely IL2 signalling events mediated by PI3K, PI3K signalling events mediated by AKT, and, possibly, Aurora A signalling in the association between OLP and OSCC.

  2. Elevated level of serum growth differentiation factor 15 is associated with oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Cheng-Zhe; Ma, Jie; Luo, Qing-Qiong; Neskey, David M; Zhu, Dong-Wang; Liu, Ying; Myers, Jeffrey N; Zhang, Chen-Ping; Zhang, Zhi-Yuan; Zhong, Lai-Ping

    2014-01-01

    Although molecular mechanism of growth differentiation factor 15 (GDF15) in tumorigenesis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is not clear, the diagnostic and prognostic value of serum GDF15 detection has been noticed. However, serum GDF15 levels in patients with oral leukoplakia and GDF15 as a potential predictive biomarker for response to induction chemotherapy in patients with OSCC have not been reported. Pretreatment serum GDF15 concentration was detected using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in 30 healthy persons, 24 patients with oral leukoplakia, and 60 patients with OSCC. Serum GDF15 concentration was significantly higher in patients with oral leukoplakia and OSCC, compared with healthy controls (F = 13.701, df = 2, P leukoplakia, but also a prognostic/predictive biomarker associated with decreased survival and diminished response to induction chemotherapy for patients with OSCC. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. Serum iron concentration and total iron binding capacity in patients of oral squamous cell carcinoma

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    Shakhawat Hossain

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available The serum iron concentration and Total Iron Binding Capacity (TIBC status of 24 patients of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC were compared with the findings of 13 healthy subjects. OSCC was found to have association with low serum iron level. More patients were found to be with significantly lower iron content in serum (p<0.05. But no association between serum TIBC and increased risk of cancer was found (p>0.05. Irrespective of age, sex, smoking and betel nut chewing habit of subjects, low serum iron level significantly increase the risk of oral malignancy.

  4. Recent advances in oral oncology 2008; squamous cell carcinoma imaging, treatment, prognostication and treatment outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scully, Crispian; Bagan, Jose V

    2009-06-01

    This paper provides a synopsis of the main papers on diagnosis, imaging, treatment, prognostication and treatment outcomes in patients with oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and head and neck SCC (HNSCC) published in 2008 in Oral Oncology - an international interdisciplinary journal which publishes high quality original research, clinical trials and review articles, and all other scientific articles relating to the aetiopathogenesis, epidemiology, prevention, clinical features, diagnosis, treatment and management of patients with neoplasms in the head and neck, and orofacial disease in patients with malignant disease.

  5. Distinct expression of perforin and granzyme B in lip and oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Nádia Lago; Gonçalves, Andréia Souza; Souza-Lima, Nathália Caroline; Jaime-Paiva, Luís Gustavo; Junqueira-Kipnis, Ana Paula; Silva, Tarcília Aparecida; Mendonça, Elismauro Francisco; Batista, Aline Carvalho

    2011-05-01

    Perforin and granzyme B (GB) are the main constituents of cytotoxic T-lymphocyte granules, and they have important roles in preventing the initiation and progression of cancer. The aim of this study was to compare the expression of CD8(+) /perforin(+) double-staining and GB(+) cells, by immunohistochemistry, in primary oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC), lip squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC), non-dysplastic leukoplakia (LK), dysplastic LK, actinic cheilitis (AC), oral lichen planus (LP) and normal oral mucosa. Our results showed a higher expression of CD8(+) /perforin(+) and GB(+) cells in LSCC when compared with the samples of OCSCC, non-dysplastic and dysplastic LK, AC, oral LP and normal oral mucosa. In addition, increased CD8(+) /perforin(+) and GB(+) cell numbers were observed in all pre-malignant lesions (non-dysplastic LK, dysplastic LK, AC) when compared with the control. Perforin and GB proteins may contribute to antitumoural immunity, leading to the direct killing of tumour cells; however, it seems to occur more effectively in LSCC than OCSCC. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  6. [The characteristics and significance of microvessel in oral squamous cell carcinoma].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Chao; Chen, Jian-Chao; Wang, Zhao-hui; Zhang, Bing; Li, Bin; Song, Yu-feng

    2007-02-01

    To investigate the characteristics of distribution status of maturation and morphology of the microvessel in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and analyze the correlations between the characteristics and clinicopathologic parameters. The microvessel in 62 cases of OSCC, 30 cases of adjacent normal tissue and 10 cases of normal oral mucosa were detected by double-labeling immunohistochemistry technique. Image analysis mucosa, the microvascular density (MVD) was higher while vessel maturation system was also used for the analysis Compared with adjacent normal tissues and normal oral index (VMI), vascular form factor (VFF) and vascular perimeter (VP) were lower in OSCC with significant difference (P normal oral tissues. The differences may contribute to the application of antiangiogenic therapy, and the peritumoral area in OSCC may become a target site of the therapy. The MVD may be hopefully used as an indicator of tumor malignancy.

  7. Expression and associations of TRAF1, BMI-1, ALDH1, and Lin28B in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Tian-Fu; Li, Yi-Cun; Ma, Si-Rui; Bing-Liu; Zhang, Wen-Feng; Sun, Zhi-Jun

    2017-04-01

    Tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 1, an adaptor protein of tumor necrosis factor 2, is involved in classical nuclear factor (NF)-κB activation and lymphocyte recruitment. However, less is known about the expression and association of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 1 with cancer stem cell markers in oral squamous cell carcinoma. This study aimed to investigate the expression of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 1 and stem cell characteristic markers (lin28 homolog B, B cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1, and aldehyde dehydrogenase 1) in oral squamous cell carcinoma and analyze their relations. Paraffin-embedded tissues of 78 oral squamous cell carcinomas, 39 normal oral mucosa, and 12 oral dysplasia tissues were employed in tissue microarrays, and the expression of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 1, B cell-specific Moloney murine leukemia virus integration site 1, aldehyde dehydrogenase 1, and lin28 homolog B was measured by immunohistostaining and digital pathological analysis. The expression of tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 1 was higher in the oral squamous cell carcinoma group as compared with the expression in the oral mucosa (p oral dysplasia (p oral squamous cell carcinoma. The patient survival rate was lower in the highly expressed tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 1 group, although the difference was not significant. The clustering analysis showed that tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 1 was most related to aldehyde dehydrogenase 1. These findings suggest that tumor necrosis factor receptor-associated factor 1 has potential direct/indirect regulations with the cancer stem cell markers in oral squamous cell carcinoma, which may help in further analysis of the cancer stem cell characteristics.

  8. Cranberry and Grape Seed Extracts Inhibit the Proliferative Phenotype of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kourt Chatelain

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Proanthocyanidins, compounds highly concentrated in dietary fruits, such as cranberries and grapes, demonstrate significant cancer prevention potential against many types of cancer. The objective of this study was to evaluate cranberry and grape seed extracts to quantitate and compare their anti-proliferative effects on the most common type of oral cancer, oral squamous cell carcinoma. Using two well-characterized oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines, CAL27 and SCC25, assays were performed to evaluate the effects of cranberry and grape seed extract on phenotypic behaviors of these oral cancers. The proliferation of both oral cancer cell lines was significantly inhibited by the administration of cranberry and grape seed extracts, in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, key regulators of apoptosis, caspase-2 and caspase-8, were concomitantly up-regulated by these treatments. However, cranberry and grape seed extracts elicited differential effects on cell adhesion, cell morphology, and cell cycle regulatory pathways. This study represents one of the first comparative investigations of cranberry and grape seed extracts and their anti-proliferative effects on oral cancers. Previous findings using purified proanthocyanidin from grape seed extract demonstrated more prominent growth inhibition, as well as apoptosis-inducing, properties on CAL27 cells. These observations provide evidence that cranberry and grape seed extracts not only inhibit oral cancer proliferation but also that the mechanism of this inhibition may function by triggering key apoptotic regulators in these cell lines. This information will be of benefit to researchers interested in elucidating which dietary components are central to mechanisms involved in the mediation of oral carcinogenesis and progression.

  9. Cyclin D1 Expression and Its Correlation with Histopathological Differentiation in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

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    Swati Saawarn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Cyclin D1 regulates the G1 to S transition of cell cycle. Its deregulation or overexpression may lead to disturbance in the normal cell cycle control and tumour formation. Overexpression of cyclin D1 has been reported in various tumors of diverse histogenesis. This case control retrospective study was carried out to study the immunohistochemical reactivity and expression of cyclin D1 and its association with site, clinical staging, and histopathological differentiation of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC. Methods. Forty formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue blocks of biopsy specimens of oral squamous cell carcinoma were immunohistochemically evaluated for expression of cyclin D1. Results. Cyclin D1 expression was seen in 45% cases of OSCC. It did not correlate with site and clinical staging. Highest expression was seen in well-differentiated, followed by moderately differentiated, and poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinomas, with a statistically significant correlation. Conclusion. Cyclin D1 expression significantly increases with increase in differentiation.

  10. Intraoperative Margin Assessment in Early Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiosea, Simion I

    2017-03-01

    The surgical method of margin sampling affects local control, pathologists' approach to margin sampling, and clarity of pathology reports. Studies have shown that exclusive reliance on tumor bed margins is associated with worse local control and should be avoided. En bloc resections and margins obtained from the resection specimen remain the "gold standard." Successful surgical treatment of early carcinomas of the oral cavity relies on close cooperation between surgeons and pathologists on issues of specimen orientation and margin sampling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. [Raman spectral characteristics of oral squamous cell carcinoma, epithelial dysplasia and normal mucosa].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Lili; Li, Yi; Cai, Qiaoling; Sun, Pei; Luo, Xianyang; Yan, Bing

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the Raman spectral characteristics of oral squamous cell carcinoma, high-grade epithelial dysplasia and normal mucosa. Fifty- six fresh samples of oral carcinoma, 50 of high-grade epithelial dysplasia and 32 of normal mucosa were collected. The i-Raman spectrometer with an optical fiber tube was applied to acquire Raman spectrum. The diagnostic model established by principle component analysis (PCA) and discriminant function analysis (DFA) was used to analyze and classify the spectra of different samples. There were significant differences among the Raman spectra of these samples. Compared with the spectra of normal mucosa, the spectra of oral carcinoma and dysplasia showed strong peaks which were contributed to nucleic acids, proteins and lipids. The diagnostic models established by PCA-DFA could successfully classify these Raman spectra of different samples with a high accuracy of 96.4% (133/138). The model was evaluated by 'Leave one out' cross-validation and reached a high accuracy of 92.8% (128/138). The proliferation and metabolism of oral squamous cell carcinoma and epithelial high-grade dysplasia are more active than normal mucosa. The diagnostic models established by PCA-DFA can classify these Raman spectra of different samples with a high accuracy.

  12. Techniques for early diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma: Systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carreras-Torras, Clàudia; Gay-Escoda, Cosme

    2015-05-01

    The diagnosis of early oral potentially malignant disorders (OPMD) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is of paramount clinical importance given the mortality rate of late stage disease. The aim of this study is to review the literature to assess the current situation and progress in this area. A search in Cochrane and PubMed (January 2006 to December 2013) has been used with the key words "squamous cell carcinoma", "early diagnosis" "oral cavity", "Potentially Malignant Disorders" y "premalignant lesions". The inclusion criteria were the use of techniques for early diagnosis of OSCC and OPMD, 7 years aged articles and publications written in English, French or Spanish. The exclusion criteria were case reports and studies in other languages. Out of the 89 studies obtained initially from the search 60 articles were selected to be included in the systematic review: 1 metaanalysis, 17 systematic reviews, 35 prospective studies, 5 retrospective studies, 1 consensus and 1 semi-structured interviews. The best diagnostic technique is that which we have sufficient experience and training. Definitely tissue biopsy and histopathological examination should remain the gold standard for oral cancer diagnose. In this systematic review it has not been found sufficient scientific evidence on the majority of proposed techniques for early diagnosis of OSCC, therefore more extensive and exhaustive studies are needed.

  13. Angiogenic squamous dysplasia-like phenomenon in oral epithelial precursor lesions

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    Siar CH

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Statement of the problem Dysplasia, the morphological yardstick of epithelial precursor lesions, is the collective term for a variety of architectural and cytological changes within the altered oral epithelium. Angiogenic squamous dysplasia (ASD, a distinct morphological characteristic in pre-invasive bronchial lesions, describes the presence of capillary tufts that are closely juxtaposed to and projecting into the dysplastic bronchial epithelium. Objective To determine whether ASD-like phenomenon occurs in oral epithelial precursor lesions, and to speculate on its relevance. Methods Twenty cases each of mild, moderate and severe oral dysplasia (inclusive of carcinoma-in-situ, and 10 normal oral mucosa (normal controls were serial sectioned for H and E staining, and for microvessel density (MVD scoring with CD31, CD34 and CD105. Microcapillary pattern images were digitally captured for 3-D reconstruction. Results Oral ASD foci consisting of CD31-and CD34-positive capillary loops abutting onto the overlying dysplastic oral epithelium (and causing it to assume an irregular or papillary surface configuration were identified in moderate (3/20; 15% and severe dysplasia (13/20; 65%, but not in normal oral mucosa and mild dysplasia. MVD score demonstrated increasing vascularity as epithelium progressed from normal to severe dysplasia (p Conclusions These preliminary findings taken together suggest that: 1. ASD-like phenomenon may be an important intermediary biomarker in oral precursor lesions; and 2. architectural alterations of the entire disturbed mucosa may be a more useful pre-malignancy index.

  14. Cytotoxicity of Thymus vulgaris essential oil towards human oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sertel, Serkan; Eichhorn, Tolga; Plinkert, Peter K; Efferth, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC) accounts for 2% to 3% of all malignancies and has a high mortality rate. The majority of anticancer drugs are of natural origin. However, it is unknown whether the medicinal plant Thymus vulgaris L. (thyme) is cytotoxic towards head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Cytotoxicity of thyme essential oil was investigated on the HNSCC cell line, UMSCC1. The IC₅₀ of thyme essential oil extract was 369 μg/ml. Moreover, we performed pharmacogenomics analyses. Genes involved in the cell cycle, cell death and cancer were involved in the cytotoxic activity of thyme essential oil at the transcriptional level. The three most significantly regulated pathways by thyme essential oil were interferon signaling, N-glycan biosynthesis and extracellular signal-regulated kinase 5 (ERK5) signaling. Thyme essential oil inhibits human HNSCC cell growth. Based on pharmacogenomic approaches, novel insights into the molecular mode of anticancer activity of thyme are presented.

  15. Nuclear and cytoplasmic expression of Met in oral squamous cell carcinoma and in an organotypic oral cancer model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brusevold, Ingvild J; Søland, Tine M; Khuu, Cuong; Christoffersen, Thoralf; Bryne, Magne

    2010-08-01

    Met, the hepatocyte growth factor receptor, is important in transducing signals for tumour growth and metastasis. The aim of this study was to examine the pattern of Met expression and its value as a prognostic factor in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs). The material consisted of 53 OSCCs and five healthy controls from normal oral mucosa supplied with cell lines, 10 organotypic models supplied with oral cancer cells, and three organotypic models supplied with normal keratinocytes. Met protein expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry and western blotting. Met expression was scarce and limited to the basal layer in normal oral mucosa, but was more extensive in the tumours. Cytoplasmic expression of Met was found in the majority of the tumours, and nuclear expression was found in 72%, including a high fraction of the cells located at the invasive front. Organotypic models with normal or malignant oral cells yielded principally similar results as in the mucosa and the cancers, respectively. A smaller amount of Met immunoreactivity was detected, by western blotting, in the nuclear fraction of cultured oral cancer cells. In conclusion, Met was upregulated in OSCCs and was also found in the nucleus. However, Met was not a marker for prognosis in this study. (c) 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation (c) 2010 Eur J Oral Sci.

  16. A comparative study on the mast cells count in oral squamous cell carcinoma and normal oral mucosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahsa Dastpak

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC is one of the 10 most common malignant tumors and SCC accounts 94% of all oral malignancies. Mast cells are regarded as complex and multifunctional cells, playing a significant role in immunopathology . The aim of this study is to evaluate the number of mast cells in tissue sections of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC in comparison with normal mucosa. Materials & Methods: Sixty paraffin-embedded specimens were obtained from the archives of the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology,dental school of Babol university of medical science (15 high grade,15 low grade and 30 Iritation Fibroma. Classification of OSCC cases was according to the BRODER`S malignancy grading system. Hematoxylin and Eosin-stained slides were re-evaluated before entering the samples in our study. Toluidine blue(1% staining was used to identify Mast cells in samples . We used SPSS software version 18 and one way ANOVA test for analyzing data. Results: The highest mast cell count was seen in normal tissue and it was higher in low grade OSCC in comparison with high grade, but the differences between groups weren’t statistically significant. The Mean count of mast cell between OSCC and normal oral mucosa was statistically significant different(p=0.019.We didn’t observe any statistically significant difference between Mast cell counts of control group and low grade OSCC . The same result was seen between high garde and low grade OSCC . The Mean mast cell count difference between male and female groups weren’t statistically significant. The Mean mast cell count difference between high grade OSCC and control group was significant (p<0.05. Conclusion: According to the results, the average amount of mast cells decreased in OSCC in comparison with normal oral mucosa . It does not seem that mast cells play an important role in tumor progression, although further study is needed. 

  17. [Study of testicular cancer gene expression in samples of oral leukoplakia and squamous cell carcinoma of the mouth].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skorodumova, L O; Muraev, A A; Zakharova, E S; Shepelev, M V; Korobko, I V; Zaderenko, I A; Ivanov, S Iu; Gnuchev, N V; Georgiev, G P; Larin, S S

    2012-01-01

    Cancer-testis (CT) antigens are normally expressed mostly in human germ cells, there is also an aberrant expression in some tumor cells. This expression profile makes them potential tumor growth biomarkers and a promising target for tumor immunotherapy. Specificity of CT genes expression in oral malignant and potentially malignant diseases, e.g. oral leukoplakia, is not yet studied. Data on CT genes expression profile in leukoplakia would allow developing new diagnostic methods with potential value for immunotherapy and prophylaxis of leukoplakia malignization. In our study we compared CT genes expression in normal oral mucosa, oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma. We are the first to describe CT genes expression in oral leukoplakia without dysplasia. This findings make impossible differential diagnosis of oral leukoplakia and squamous cell carcinoma on the basis of CT genes expression. The prognostic value of CT genes expression is still unclear, therefore the longitudinal studies are necessary.

  18. Accuracy of Preoperative Imaging in Detecting Nodal Extracapsular Spread in Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aiken, A H; Poliashenko, S; Beitler, J J; Chen, A Y; Baugnon, K L; Corey, A S; Magliocca, K R; Hudgins, P A

    2015-09-01

    The increasing impact of diagnosing extracapsular spread by using imaging, especially in patients with oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, highlights the need to rigorously evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of imaging. Previous analysis suggested 62.5%-80.9% sensitivity and 60%-72.7% specificity. Our goals were to evaluate the accuracy of imaging in diagnosing extracapsular spread in a cohort of patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (pathologic confirmation of extracapsular spread routinely available), as a proxy for oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, and to independently assess the reliability of imaging features (radiographic lymph node necrosis, irregular borders/stranding, gross invasion, and/or node size) in predicting pathologically proven extracapsular spread. One hundred eleven consecutive patients with untreated oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma and available preoperative imaging and subsequent lymph node dissection were studied. Two neuroradiologists blinded to pathologically proven extracapsular spread status and previous radiology reports independently reviewed all images to evaluate the largest suspicious lymph node along the expected drainage pathway. Radiologic results were correlated with pathologic results from the neck dissections. Of 111 patients, 29 had radiographically determined extracapsular spread. Pathologic examination revealed that 28 of 111 (25%) had pathologically proven extracapsular spread. Imaging sensitivity and specificity for extracapsular spread were 68% and 88%, respectively. Radiographs were positive for lymph node necrosis in 84% of the patients in the pathology-proven extracapsular spread group and negative in only 7% of those in the pathologically proven extracapsular spread-negative group. On logistic regression analysis, necrosis (P = .001), irregular borders (P = .055), and gross invasion (P = .068) were independently correlated with pathologically proven extracapsular spread. Although the specificity

  19. Novel diagnostic modalities for assessment of the clinically node-negative neck in oral squamous-cell carcinoma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leusink, F.K.; Es, R.J. van; Bree, R. de; Baatenburg de Jong, R.J.; Hooff, S.R. van; Holstege, F.C.; Slootweg, P.J.; Brakenhoff, R.H.; Takes, R.P.

    2012-01-01

    Oral squamous-cell carcinomas arise in mucosal linings of the oral cavity and frequently metastasise to regional lymph nodes in the neck. The presence of nodal metastases is a determinant of prognosis and clinical management. The neck is staged by palpation and imaging, but accuracy of these

  20. Oral squamous cell carcinoma in patients twenty years of age or younger - Review and analysis of 186 reported cases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bodner, L.; Manor, E.; Friger, M.D.; van der Waal, I.

    2014-01-01

    To review the literature on reported cases of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral cavity in patients twenty-years-of-age or younger. All well-documented cases of oral SCC in patients twenty-years-of-age or less, published between 1936 and 2012, were collected and the clinicopathologic features

  1. Invasive Front Grading and Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition in Canine Oral and Cutaneous Squamous Cell Carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagamine, E; Hirayama, K; Matsuda, K; Okamoto, M; Ohmachi, T; Uchida, K; Kadosawa, T; Taniyama, H

    2017-09-01

    Oral and cutaneous tissues are the most frequent origin in canine squamous cell carcinoma (SSC). In SCC, changes in adhesion molecule expression and transition from epithelial to mesenchymal phenotype are thought to be important in development of invasive behavior of neoplastic cells at the leading front of the tumor. We therefore investigated histological invasive front grading and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in both oral SCCs and cutaneous SCCs. EMT was assessed by evaluating immunohistochemical expression of E-cadherin, β-catenin, desmoglein, vimentin, and N-cadherin. Regardless of the anatomic location, invasive front grading resulted in higher histological grades than grading of the surface. Most oral SCCs were of significantly higher histologic grade than cutaneous SCCs ( P front grading and loss of E-cadherin, β-catenin, and desmoglein ( P front grading with assessment of immunohistochemical expression of E-cadherin, β-catenin, and desmoglein may allow more accurate prediction of biological behavior of canine SCCs.

  2. Concurrent chemoradiotherapy compared with surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy for oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gore, Sinclair M; Crombie, Anthony K; Batstone, Martin D; Clark, Jonathan R

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare survival and functional outcomes in patients with advanced oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) treated with either surgery + adjuvant radiotherapy (RT) or concurrent chemoradiotherapy (CRT). Patients treated with curative intent by either surgery + RT or concurrent CRT were identified over a 6-year period (2001-2007). Disease and functional outcomes were analyzed on an intention-to-treat basis. Fifty-four patients underwent surgical excision and received postoperative RT. Fifty patients underwent concurrent CRT. Overall survival (OS) and disease-specific survival (DSS) was significantly higher in the surgically treated group (p oral cavity SCC resulted in better disease control than treatment with CRT. This supports traditional surgical treatment algorithms for oral cavity cancer. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. TREATMENT OPTIONS FOR LOCOREGIONAL RECURRENCES OF ORAL AND OROPHARYNGEAL MUCOSAL SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Zaderenko

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study included 314 patients with recurrent squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and oropharynx after radical treatment. Patients were divided into groups depending on the timing – patients with early recurrence (n = 162, and late recurrence (n = 152 , and depending on the type of treatment of recurrent tumors: conservative treatment group (n = 56 , surgical (n = 235 and combined treatment (n = 23 group. A comparative evaluation of the effectiveness of the treatment of these patients based on the results of treatment, survival rates, the frequency and severity of complications. The conservative therapy of recurrent tumors of the oral cavity if surgical treatment is impossible is effective, especially in cases of late recurrent tumors but only surgical or combined treatment may reach the five-year survival rate in patients with recurrent tumor, cancer of the oral cavity and oropharynx.

  4. An in vivo cytogenetic analysis of human oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhimanyu Mohanta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Oral cancer ranks in the top three of all cancers in India, which accounts for over 30% of all cancers reported in the country. The micronucleus test (MNT is one of the most widely applied short term tests used in genetic toxicology to evaluate the mutagenicity and carcinogenicity. Aims: The present study aims at an in vivo cytogenetic analysis of human oral squamous cell carcinoma and to assess the applicability of MNT in diagnosing early detection of oral carcinoma. Materials and Methods: Exfoliated scrape smears were collected from the clinically diagnosed 136 patients suffering from oral precancerous and cancerous lesions. The wet fixed smears were stained by adopting Papanicolaou's staining protocol and counter-stained with Giemsa's solution. Results: The frequency of micronucleated cells has been observed to be in increasing order with the increase of the age-groups and from control to precancerous to cancerous cases significantly in both sexes. Conclusion: Micronucleus formation in the oral mucosa could be a biomarker of genetic damage and also a potential onco-indicator in the long run of oral carcinogenesis. Therefore, MNT can be applied for the early detection of oral carcinoma in the human being.

  5. Spectroscopic characterization of oral epithelial dysplasia and squamous cell carcinoma using multiphoton autofluorescence micro-spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Rahul; Edward, Kert; Ma, Liang; Qiu, Suimin; Vargas, Gracie

    2017-11-01

    Multiphoton autofluorescence microscopy (MPAM) has shown potential in identifying features that are directly related to tissue microstructural and biochemical changes throughout epithelial neoplasia. In this study, we evaluate the autofluorescence spectral characteristics of neoplastic epithelium in dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) using multiphoton autofluorescence spectroscopy (MPAS) in an in vivo hamster model of oral neoplasia in order to identify unique signatures that could be used to delineate normal oral mucosa from neoplasia. A 9,10-dimethyl-1,2-benzanthracene (DMBA) hamster model of oral precancer and OSCC was used for in vivo MPAM and MPAS. Multiphoton Imaging and spectroscopy were performed with 780 nm excitation while a bandpass emission 450-650 nm was used for MPAM. Autofluorescence spectra was collected in the spectral window of 400-650 nm. MPAS with fluorescence excitation at 780 nm revealed an overall red shift of a primary blue-green peak (480-520 nm) that is attributed to NADH and FAD. In the case of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and some high-grade dysplasia an additional prominent peak at 635 nm, attributed to PpIX was observed. The fluorescence intensity at 635 nm and an intensity ratio of the primary blue-green peak versus 635 nm peak, showed statistically significant difference between control and neoplastic tissue. Neoplastic transformation in the epithelium is known to alter the intracellular homeostasis of important tissue metabolites such as NADH, FAD, and PpIX, which was observed by MPAS in their native environment. A combination of deep tissue microscopy owing to higher penetration depth of multiphoton excitation and depth resolved spectroscopy could prove to be invaluable in identification of cytologic as well as biomolecular spectral characteristic of oral epithelial neoplasia. Lasers Surg. Med. 49:866-873, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. GSTM1 null polymorphism prevalence in tobacco users, oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma patients in South Indian population: A polymerase chain reaction study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanwar, Renu; Iyengar, Asha R; Nagesh, K S; Patil, Seema; Subhash, B V

    2016-01-01

    Tobacco abuse is a well-known risk factor for potentially malignant disorders as well as oral squamous cell carcinoma. Factors that influence tobacco-exposed individuals developing a malignancy may include the combination of total tobacco exposure and genetic susceptibility. This study was undertaken to determine the prevalence of the glutathione S-transferase M1 (GSTM1) null polymorphism in oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma patients in South Indian population. This case-control study was conducted in hospital setting on South Indian population. About 280 subjects with history of tobacco use, oral leukoplakia, oral squamous cell carcinoma were included in this study. Three milliliter of blood was collected and transported under cold cycle and taken for evaluation of GSTM1 null polymorphism using multiplex polymerase chain reaction. On comparing the prevalence of GSTM1 null polymorphism among the group with subjects with habits and no oral lesions, oral leukoplakia, and oral squamous cell carcinoma, it was observed that there was a statistically significant association between GSTM1 null polymorphism and the different groups (P leukoplakia and thereby increases the susceptibility of lesion to undergo malignant changes.

  7. Differential infiltration of CD8+ and NK cells in lip and oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zancope, E; Costa, N L; Junqueira-Kipnis, A P; Valadares, M C; Silva, T A; Leles, C R; Mendonça, E F; Batista, A C

    2010-02-01

    CD8+ and natural killer (NK) cells have been considered the most effective cells in the combat of cancer, contributing to better prognosis and longer survival. The aim of this study was to evaluate the population of CD8+ and NK cells, by immunohistochemistry, in samples of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC) and lip squamous cell carcinoma (LSCC), leukoplakia, actinic cheilitis, and healthy oral mucosa (control). The relationship of CD8+ and NK cells with survival data, lymph node metastasis, tumor size, and proliferative index was also evaluated. The number of peritumoral and intratumoral CD8+ and NK cells was significantly higher in LSCC, when compared with control, pre-malignant lesions, and OCSCC. A higher proportion of peritumoral CD8+ cells demonstrated correlation with a lower neoplastic proliferative index. Moreover, patients with OCSCC with a high density of peritumoral CD8+ cells showed a tendency towards a longer survival time. The differential CD8+ and NK cells infiltration in oral SCC might reflect a distinctive tumor microenvironment with a favorable local cytotoxic immune response against neoplastic cells.

  8. A reverse Warburg metabolism in oral squamous cell carcinoma is not dependent upon myofibroblasts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, David Hebbelstrup; Therkildsen, Marianne Hamilton; Dabelsteen, Erik

    2015-01-01

    The reverse Warburg effect describes the phenomenon that epithelial cancer cells take advantage of the metabolic machinery from nearby cancer-associated fibroblast, inducing them to produce lactate and ketones to fuel the high metabolic demands of the epithelial tumour tissues. This is in breast...... expression of MCT-4 have been shown to have prognostic importance, primarily in patients with breast cancer. However, this phenomenon has only scarcely been described in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Given the prognostic importance of myofibroblasts in OSCC, we also examined a potential relationship...

  9. Risk factors for and consequences of inadequate surgical margins in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawaetz, Mads; Homøe, Preben

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to examine which factors are associated with inadequate surgical margins and to assess the postoperative consequences. STUDY DESIGN: A retrospective cohort of 110 patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma treated with surgery during a 2-year period...... was examined. Clinical, histopathologic, and operative variables were related to the surgical margin status. Furthermore postoperative treatment data were compared with margin status. RESULTS: Univariate statistically significant associations were found between the tumor site in the floor of mouth, more...

  10. MiR-21 expression in the tumor stroma of oral squamous cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hedbäck, Nora; Jensen, David H; Specht, Lena

    2014-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients have a high mortality rate; thus, new clinical biomarkers and therapeutic options are needed. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are short noncoding RNAs that regulate posttranscriptional gene expression and are commonly deregulated in OSCC and other cancers. MicroRNA......-21 (miR-21) is the most consistently overexpressed miRNA in several types of cancer, and it might be a useful clinical biomarker and therapeutic target. To better understand the role of miR-21 in OSCC, paraffin-embedded tumor tissue samples from 86 patients with primary OSCC were analyzed by in situ...

  11. ORAL SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA IN AN AGED CAPTIVE WHITE RHINOCEROS (CERATOTHERIUM SIMUM).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langer, Sandra; Czerwonka, Nadine; Ternes, Kerstin; Herbst, Dr Werner; Koehler, Kernt

    2016-12-01

    A 48-yr-old captive white rhinoceros ( Ceratotherium simum ) was euthanized due to old age, pododermatitis, and progressive laminitis of the middle toe of the left fore- and hindlimbs. Severe chronic necrotizing periodontitis and dental loss was diagnosed, although food intake prior to death had not decreased. In addition, extensive ulceration of the tongue was noted. Histologically, squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue was diagnosed with chronic severe ulcerative glossitis. Metastatic lesions were not detected. Clinicians should monitor the oral health of aging rhinoceros due to the occult nature of these lesions.

  12. HIF1-Alpha Expression Predicts Survival of Patients with Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Marcelo; Mercante, Ana Maria da Cunha; Louro, Iúri Drumond; Gonçalves, Antônio José; de Carvalho, Marcos Brasilino; da Silva, Eloiza Helena Tajara; da Silva, Adriana Madeira Álvares

    2012-01-01

    Background Oral squamous cell carcinoma is an important cause of death and morbidity wordwide and effective prognostic markers are still to be discovered. HIF1α protein is associated with hypoxia response and neovascularization, essential conditions for solid tumors survival. The relationship between HIF1α expression, tumor progression and treatment response in head and neck cancer is still poorly understood. Patients and Methods In this study, we investigated HIF1α expression by immunohistochemistry in tissue microarrays and its relationship with clinical findings, histopathological results and survival of 66 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the lower mouth. Results Our results demonstrated that high HIF1α expression is associated with local disease-free survival, independently from the choice of treatment. Furthermore, high expression of HIF1α in patients treated with postoperative radiotherapy was associated with survival, therefore being a novel prognostic marker in squamous cell carcinoma of the mouth. Additionally, our results showed that MVD was associated with HIF1α expression and local disease relapse. Conclusion These findings suggest that HIF1α expression can be used as a prognostic marker and predictor of postoperative radiotherapy response, helping the oncologist choose the best treatment for each patient. PMID:23028863

  13. HIF1-alpha expression predicts survival of patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Marcelo; Mercante, Ana Maria da Cunha; Louro, Iúri Drumond; Gonçalves, Antônio José; de Carvalho, Marcos Brasilino; da Silva, Eloiza Helena Tajara; da Silva, Adriana Madeira Álvares

    2012-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma is an important cause of death and morbidity wordwide and effective prognostic markers are still to be discovered. HIF1α protein is associated with hypoxia response and neovascularization, essential conditions for solid tumors survival. The relationship between HIF1α expression, tumor progression and treatment response in head and neck cancer is still poorly understood. In this study, we investigated HIF1α expression by immunohistochemistry in tissue microarrays and its relationship with clinical findings, histopathological results and survival of 66 patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the lower mouth. Our results demonstrated that high HIF1α expression is associated with local disease-free survival, independently from the choice of treatment. Furthermore, high expression of HIF1α in patients treated with postoperative radiotherapy was associated with survival, therefore being a novel prognostic marker in squamous cell carcinoma of the mouth. Additionally, our results showed that MVD was associated with HIF1α expression and local disease relapse. These findings suggest that HIF1α expression can be used as a prognostic marker and predictor of postoperative radiotherapy response, helping the oncologist choose the best treatment for each patient.

  14. [Oral leukoplakia in manifest squamous epithelial carcinoma. A clinical prospective study of 101 patients].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheifele, C; Reichart, P A

    1998-11-01

    The Uppsala-definition of leukoplakia has recently redefined oral leukoplakia. Based on this definition, the aim of our study was to reevaluate the prevalence of oral leukoplakia in patients with histologically proven primary oral cancer. A total of 101 in-patients in four tumor centers in Berlin were interviewed and clinically examined just prior to surgery of an oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The prevalence of leukoplakia immediately adjacent to the carcinoma was 15.8%. Additional leukoplakias without relation to the carcinoma were found in 4% of the patients. There were no significant differences in age- or sex-distribution, history of tobacco habits or diet between patients with or without leukoplakia. T1 carcinomas were found in 62.5% of patients with, and 24.4% of patients without associated leukoplakia, whereas a balanced distribution was found for the pre-operative staging of the tumor. The prevalence of oral leukoplakia in patients with OSCC was low, compared to retrospective studies. The presence or absence of leukoplakia indicated no influence on the prognosis of the tumor, except of tumor size. The results emphasize that most OSCC develop from healthy appearing oral mucosa.

  15. Histomorphometric study to compare histological changes between oral squamous cell carcinoma and apparently normal adjacent oral mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babji, Deepa V; Kale, Alka D; Hallikerimath, Seema R; Kotrashetti, Vijayalakshmi S

    2015-03-01

    Despite the advances in surgery, radiotherapy and chemotherapy the annual death for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is rising rapidly. The carcinoma has propensity to develop in a field of cancerization. Clinically may it be apparently normal mucosa (ANM) adjacent to squamous cell carcinoma which harbours certain discrete molecular alteration which ultimately reflects in cellular morphology. Hence the aim of the study is to assess histomorphometric changes in ANM adjacent to OSCC. A prospective study was done on 30 each of histologically diagnosed cases OSCC, ANM at least 1 cm away from OSCC, and normal oral mucosa (NOM). Cellular and nuclear morphometric measurements were assessed on hematoxylin and eosin sections using image analysis software. Statistical analysis was done using analysis of variance test and Tukey's post hoc test. The present study showed significant changes in cellular and nuclear area in superficial and invasive island of OSCC compared to ANM. The basal cells of ANM showed significant decrease in cellular and nuclear areas and nuclear cytoplasmic ratio when compared to NOM. Histomorphometry definitely can differentiate OSCC form ANM and NOM. The basal cells of ANM showed significant alterations in cellular area, nuclear area and nuclear cytoplasmic area when compared to NOM suggesting change in the field and have high risk of malignant transformation. These parameters can be used as indicator of field cancerization.

  16. Evaluation of salivary and serum lipid peroxidation, and glutathione in oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metgud, Rashmi; Bajaj, Saumya

    2014-06-01

    Lipid peroxidation induced by reactive oxygen species (ROS) is involved in the pathogenesis of malignancy. Overall, lipid peroxidation levels are indicated by malondialdehyde (MDA), which is the most frequently used biomarker to detect oxidative changes. Antioxidant defense systems such as glutathione (GSH) limit cell injury induced by ROS. Therefore, MDA and GSH can be used to monitor oxidative stress (OS). Hence, this study aimed to evaluate and compare both salivary and serum levels of MDA and GSH in oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients, and healthy controls. The study included 100 subjects comprising 30 apparently healthy controls, 30 patients with oral leukoplakia and 40 clinically and histologically diagnosed patients with OSCC. Saliva and blood samples were obtained and evaluated for MDA and GSH. The study revealed enhanced MDA levels in saliva and serum in oral leukoplakia and OSCC patients as compared to controls. On the other hand, significant decreases were seen in serum and salivary GSH levels in oral leukoplakia and OSCC patients as compared to controls. Augmentation of OS in blood and saliva is reflected by increase in MDA and decrease in GSH levels, indicating that tumor processes cause an imbalance of oxidant-antioxidant status in cell structures.

  17. Suprabasal expression of Ki-67 as a marker for the severity of oral epithelial dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nidhi Dwivedi

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Transition of the normal oral epithelium to dysplasia and to malignancy is featured by increased cell proliferation. To evaluate the hypothesis of distributional disturbances in proliferating and stem cells in oral epithelial dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC. Aim: To evaluate layer wise expression of Ki-67 in oral epithelial dysplasia and in OSCC. Materials and Methods: Thirty histologically confirmed cases of oral epithelial dysplasia, fifteen cases of OSCC and five cases of normal buccal mucosa were immunohistochemically examined and nuclear expression of Ki-67 was counted according to basal, parabasal, and suprabasal layers in epithelial dysplasia and number of positive cells per 100 cells in OSCC as labeling index (LI. Results: Suprabasal expression of Ki-67 increased according to the severity of epithelial dysplasia and the difference was statistically significant ( P < 0.001. The mean Ki-67LI was 12.78 for low risk lesions, 28.68 for high risk lesions, 39.45 for OSCC and 13.6 for normal buccal mucosa. Conclusion: The results of the present study demonstrate the use of proliferative marker Ki-67 in assessing the severity of epithelial dysplasia. Suprabasal expression of Ki-67 provides an objective criteria for determining the severity of epithelial dysplasia and histological grading of OSCC.

  18. Mast Cells: Key Players in the Shadow in Oral Inflammation and in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaje, Pusa Nela; Amalia Ceausu, Raluca; Jitariu, Adriana; Stratul, Stefan Ioan; Rusu, Laura-Cristina; Popovici, Ramona Amina; Raica, Marius

    2016-01-01

    Although mast cells (MCs) have been discovered over 130 years ago, their function was almost exclusively linked to allergic affections. At the time being, it is well known that MCs possess a great variety of roles, in both physiologic and pathologic conditions. In the oral tissues, MCs release different proinflammatory cytokines, tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), that promote leukocyte infiltration in various inflammatory states of the oral cavity. These cells play a key role in the inflammatory process and, as a consequence, their number changes in different pathologic conditions of the oral cavity, like gingivitis, periodontitis, and so on. MCs also represent a rich source of proteases, especially of mast cell tryptase and chymase, which directly degrade the extracellular matrix through their proteolytic activity and thus indirectly stimulate angiogenesis and facilitate invasion and metastasis. It may be stated that mast cells could have an impact on primary tumor development, progression, and metastases in oral squamous cell carcinoma. By understanding the role of mast cells in the pathogenesis of different inflammatory and tumor diseases of the oral cavity, these cells may become therapeutic targets that could possibly improve the prognosis and survival of these patients.

  19. Efficacy of per oral access in the surgical management of T2/T3 oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battoo, Azhar J; Thankappan, Krishnakumar; Ahmad, Sheikh Zahoor; Hedne, Naveen; Balasubramanian, Deepak; Trivedi, Nirav; Iyer, Subramania; Kuriakose, Moni Abraham

    2012-12-01

    Transcutaneous "access" procedures still continue to be widely employed for surgical management of medium-sized (T2, T3) oral cavity tumors in spite of the almost 4-cm mouth opening available to the surgeon to access the oral cavity. We undertook a retrospective study to objectively evaluate "per oral access" in managing these tumors with regard to the ability to achieve a clear surgical margin and enable reconstruction of resultant defect. Case series with chart review. Tertiary academic hospital. Seventy-nine consecutive patients of oral squamous cell carcinoma excised by per oral approach were analyzed. Multiple patient- and tumor-related factors known to influence status of surgical margins were analyzed. The overall frequency of clear, close, and involved margins was noted, as well as 5-year local control rate. The method of reconstruction employed was evaluated. The close/involved margins were more frequent with larger tumors and tumors exhibiting perineural infiltration, but none were statistically significant (P > .12). The overall frequency of clear, close, and involved margins was 81%, 11%, and 8%, respectively. Tongue and buccal mucosa sites constituted approximately 85% of the cases and had an 85% clear margin rate. Five-year local control rate was 70.35%. Fifty-three free flaps reconstruction were undertaken without any additional "access" procedure. Our results demonstrate ability to obtain comparable tumor clearance rates employing per oral access, without compromising ability to perform optimal reconstruction. We suggest per oral access should be the access of choice for medium-sized oral cavity tumors, and additional access procedures should only be considered if the initial access proves inadequate.

  20. Outcome and histopathologic regression in oral squamous cell carcinoma after preoperative radiochemotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Driemel, Oliver; Ettl, Tobias; Reichert, Torsten E. [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Univ. Hospital Regensburg (Germany); Koelbl, Oliver [Dept. of Radiotherapy, Univ. Hospital Regensburg (Germany); Dresp, Bernd V.; Reuther, Juergen [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Univ. Hospital Wuerzburg (Germany); Pistner, Hans [Dept. of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Helios Hospital Erfurt (Germany)

    2009-05-15

    Background and purpose: preoperative radiochemotherapy has been reported to enhance tumor response and to improve long-term survival in advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck. This retrospective study evaluates regression rate and long-term survival in 228 patients with primary oral squamous cell carcinoma treated by neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy and radical surgery. Patients and methods: all patients with biopsy-proven, resectable oral squamous cell carcinoma - TNM stages II-IV without distant metastasis - received preoperative treatment consisting of fractioned irradiation of the primary and the regional lymph nodes with a total dose of 40 Gy and additional cisplatin (n = 160) or carboplatin (n = 68) during the 1st week of treatment. Radical surgery and neck dissection followed after a delay of 10-14 days. The study only included cases with histologically negative resection margins. Results: after a median follow-up of 5.2 years, 53 patients (23.2%) had experienced local-regional recurrence. The median 2-year disease-specific survival (DSS) rate was 86.2%. 5-year DSS and 10-year DSS were 76.3% and 66.7%, respectively. Complete histological local tumor regression after surgery (ypTO) was observed in 50 patients (21.9%) and was independent of pretreatment tumor classification. Uni- and multivariate survival analysis revealed that ypT- and ypN-stage were the most decisive predictors for DSS. Conclusion: preoperative radiochemotherapy with cisplatin/carboplatin followed by radical surgery attains favorable long-term survival rates. This applies especially to cases with complete histological tumor regression after radiochemotherapy, which can be assumed for one of five patients. (orig.)

  1. Piperlongumine Suppresses Proliferation of Human Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma through Cell Cycle Arrest, Apoptosis and Senescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    San-Yuan Chen

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC, an aggressive cancer originating in the oral cavity, is one of the leading causes of cancer deaths in males worldwide. This study investigated the antitumor activity and mechanisms of piperlongumine (PL, a natural compound isolated from Piper longum L., in human OSCC cells. The effects of PL on cell proliferation, the cell cycle, apoptosis, senescence and reactive oxygen species (ROS levels in human OSCC cells were investigated. PL effectively inhibited cell growth, caused cell cycle arrest and induced apoptosis and senescence in OSCC cells. Moreover, PL-mediated anti-human OSCC behavior was inhibited by an ROS scavenger N-acetyl-l-cysteine (NAC treatment, suggesting that regulation of ROS was involved in the mechanism of the anticancer activity of PL. These findings suggest that PL suppresses tumor growth by regulating the cell cycle and inducing apoptosis and senescence and is a potential chemotherapy agent for human OSCC cells.

  2. Endoglin (CD105) expression in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schimming, Ronald; Marmé, Dieter

    2002-02-01

    Increasing evidence suggests that endoglin (CD105) is a new powerful marker of neovascularization in solid malignancies. To explain the rating of CD105 expression in 51 squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (SCCOC) we analyzed CD105 expression in tumor tissue and adjacent normal healthy mucosa. Mean CD105 density was quantitated by counting the number of CD105-immunostained blood vessels. The results were compared with clinical parameters like T and N stage, grading, tumor localization, and specific characteristics of patients by means of statistical analysis. Endoglin expression in tumor tissue was significantly higher than in normal healthy mucosa (p normal healthy oral mucosa. Endoglin may have a significant role in the development of SCCOC and might be relatively more specific than commonly used endothelial markers. Copyright 2002 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  3. Novel technologies for oral squamous carcinoma biomarkers in diagnostics and prognostics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irimie, Alexandra Iulia; Braicu, Cornelia; Cojocneanu-Petric, Roxana; Berindan-Neagoe, Ioana; Campian, Radu Septimiu

    2015-04-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a highly prevalent malignant pathology of the oral cavity. Despite the significant progress accomplished in the field of OSCC, the diagnosis is performed mostly in advanced stages; thus, novel biomarkers need to be developed for the diagnostic and prognostic of this malignancy. Many new technologies are used to provide indispensable information related to the pathogenesis of OSCC. The molecular profiling studies that incorporate genetic and epigenetic alterations need to be integrated in clinical practice as routine approaches to facilitate a better diagnostic and prognostic. In this review, the authors present a summary of these novel technologies in the field of genomics, transcriptomics or proteomics, capable of generating data related to personalized diagnostic and treatment.

  4. Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity; An unselected material from a 5-year period

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lindeloev, B.; Kirkegaard, J.; Hansen, H.S. (Copenhagen Univ. Hospital (Denmark). Dept. of Head and Neck Oncology Copenhagen Univ. Hospital (Denmark). Dept. of Otolaryngology)

    1990-01-01

    Three hundred and four patients with squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity were treated at the Finsen Institute in cooperation with the ENT-surgical departments between 1978 and 1982. The primary treatment consisted of radiotherapy alone in 74%, surgery alone in 4%, and a combination of radiotherapy and surgery in 15% of the patients. 2% received other treatment (cryotherapy), 5% did not complete the planned radiotherapy, and 1% were not treated at all. Of 203 patients with tumour remnant or first recurrence, 45% were operated, 2% received radiotherapy, and 2% combined treatment. This treatment strategy made 38% of the patients free of disease in the follow-up period (3 1/2 to 8 years) or until the patients died from other causes. Fifty-nine percent of the patients died from their oral carcinomas. Tumour size (T), lymph node status (N), and tumour stage were as expected important prognostic factors. (orig.).

  5. New malignancy grading is a better prognostic indicator than Broders' grading in oral squamous cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryne, M; Koppang, H S; Lilleng, R; Stene, T; Bang, G; Dabelsteen, E

    1989-09-01

    The prognostic value of histopathologic grading of oral squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) has varied from not any to highly significant. We have retrospectively studied all (130) SCCs registered in Norway 1963-72 in the buccal and maxillary alveolar mucosa. From 68 of these cases biopsy specimens of acceptable quality were obtained. Broders' method of grading was compared with a modification of a recent malignancy grading system recommended by Anneroth et al. which was performed only within the histologically most invasive areas of the tumors. Cox's multivariate survival analyses showed that this grading in the invasive sites had highly significant prognostic value. Broders grade had no prognostic value. The stage of tumor had also prognostic value. These highly significant results indicate that the histologically invasive areas may be primarily responsible for the clinical behavior of the tumor, and this may be of importance for the choice of therapy for oral SCC.

  6. Prognostic value of Rhesus blood groups in oral squamous cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bryne, M; Thrane, P S; Lilleng, R; Dabelsteen, E

    1991-11-15

    In the current study of the prognosis of all patients (N equals 70) with squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of floor of mouth in Norway during the period 1963 to 1972, the authors found that patients with Rhesus (Rh) (D)-negative blood group had significantly poorer prognosis (mean 5-year survival, 8%) than patients with Rh (D)-positive blood group (5-year survival, 30%) (P equals 0.04). This extends the authors' previous observations in another group of oral cancer patients. The authors do not know the explanation for this association. However, the Rh gene locus is located on the short arm of chromosome 1 which reportedly has shown rearrangements in some head and neck SCC and other human neoplasms. The authors therefore speculate that the Rh gene locus may be linked with chromosome 1 changes of importance for the progression of oral SCC.

  7. Expression of GLUT1 in stratified squamous epithelia and oral carcinoma from humans and rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Voldstedlund, M; Dabelsteen, Erik

    1997-01-01

    Most cells express facilitative glucose transporters. Four isoforms (GLUT1-4) transporting D-glucose across the plasma membrane show a specific tissue distribution, which is the basis for tissue-specific patterns in glucose metabolism. GLUT1 is expressed at high levels in tissue barriers...... such as the blood-brain barrier, and this isoform has been suggested as an indicator of such barriers. GLUT1 has been found in basal layers of human epidermis where no such tissue barrier is present. To further clarify these issues, we examined the distribution of GLUT1 and GLUT4 in skin, different types of oral...... mucosa from rat and man, and a human oral carcinoma by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy. The results showed that GLUT1 was expressed in the basal and parabasal layers of the different stratified squamous epithelia, with some variations between keratinized and non-keratinized subtypes. GLUT1...

  8. Potential biomarkers for the cytologic diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Chung Vivian Yang

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Unlike other deep cancers, oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC, which occurs in the oral cavity, is more easily monitored, and specimens for diagnosis are easier to collect. However, identifying reliable and sensitive markers for the early diagnosis and markers for identification of the recurrence of OSCC remains a challenge. This article mainly focused on reviewing recently identified potential biomarkers for a cytologic diagnosis during OSCC development. In addition, markers used in modern diagnostic technologies, including a sensitive labeling method and a photodynamic approach for cytologic diagnosis, are also described. Cytologic examinations using sensitive and specific biomarkers can improve the accuracy of the diagnosis. Hence, they can lead to appropriate treatment without delay and to the reduced recurrence of OSCC.

  9. Selective Killing Effects of Cold Atmospheric Pressure Plasma with NO Induced Dysfunction of Epidermal Growth Factor Receptor in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Hwan Lee

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of cold atmospheric pressure plasma (CAP-induced radicals on the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR, which is overexpressed by oral squamous cell carcinoma, to determine the underlying mechanism of selective killing. CAP-induced highly reactive radicals were observed in both plasma plume and cell culture media. The selective killing effect was observed in oral squamous cell carcinoma compared with normal human gingival fibroblast. Degradation and dysfunction of EGFRs were observed only in the EGFR-overexpressing oral squamous cell carcinoma and not in the normal cell. Nitric oxide scavenger pretreatment in cell culture media before CAP treatment rescued above degradation and dysfunction of the EGFR as well as the killing effect in oral squamous cell carcinoma. CAP may be a promising cancer treatment method by inducing EGFR dysfunction in EGFR-overexpressing oral squamous cell carcinoma via nitric oxide radicals.

  10. Regional Failures after Selective Neck Dissection in Previously Untreated Squamous Cell Carcinoma of Oral Cavity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hassan Iqbal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Aim. To share experience with regional failures after selective neck dissection in both node negative and positive previously untreated patients diagnosed with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity. Patients and Methods. Data of 219 patients who underwent SND at Shaukat Khanum Cancer Hospital from 2003 to 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Patient characteristics, treatment modalities, and regional failures were assessed. Expected 5-year regional control was calculated and prognostic factors were determined. Results. Median follow-up was 29 (9–109 months. Common sites were anterior tongue in 159 and buccal mucosa in 22 patients. Pathological nodal stage was N0 in 114, N1 in 32, N2b in 67, and N2c in 5 patients. Fourteen (6% patients failed in clinically node negative neck while 8 (4% failed in clinically node positive patients. Out of 22 total regional failures, primary tumor origin was from tongue in 16 (73% patients. Expected 5-year regional control was 95% and 81% for N0 and N+ disease, respectively (P<0.0001. Only 13% patients with well differentiated, T1 tumors in cN0 neck were pathologically node positive. Conclusions. Selective neck dissection yields acceptable results for regional management of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Wait and see policy may be effective in a selected subgroup of patients.

  11. Oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma in young patients: the Netherlands Cancer Institute experience.

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    van Monsjou, Hester S; Lopez-Yurda, Marta I; Hauptmann, Michael; van den Brekel, Michiel W M; Balm, Alfons J M; Wreesmann, Volkert B

    2013-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) mainly affects patients between the fifth and seventh decade of life but is increasingly seen in young patients (<40 years old). Controversy exists in the literature regarding outcomes for younger patients with HNSCC. A retrospective cohort analysis was performed comparing survival of 54 early-onset (<40 years) and 1708 older patients with oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) treated at The Netherlands Cancer Institute between 1977 and 2008. Survival analysis was performed using univariable and multivariable weighted Cox proportional hazards regression. The primary endpoint for the survival analysis was disease-specific survival (DSS). There was no difference in DSS between patients who were 40 years or younger and those older than 40 years (p = .878), although young patients had significantly better overall survival (OS). In this series, patients younger than 40 years with oral and oropharyngeal SCC showed no significant difference in DSS compared with patients older than 40 years, even when adjusted for tobacco and alcohol consumption. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Glut1 and Glut3 as Potential Prognostic Markers for Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

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    Fernanda Rocha Rojas Ayala

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available We associated clinical-pathological features of 142 OSCC with the expression pattern of GLUT1 and GLUT3 in order to estimate their prognostic value. Methods: Clinical-pathological features and overall survival data of 142 patients with Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC were retrospectively reviewed from A.C.Camargo hospital records. A tissue microarray (TMA was built for the immunohistochemical (IHC analysis of GLUT 1 and GLUT 3. IHC results were evaluated according to the staining pattern and number of positive cells. Results: GLUT 1 was over expressed in 50.3% of OSSC cases showing membrane staining pattern. However, nuclear expression was observed in 49.7% of the analyzed cases. GLUT 3 over expression was detected in 21.1% of OSCC cases. The pattern of GLUT 1 expression showed significant association with alcohol consumption (p = 0.004. Positive cell membrane GLUT 3 protein expression was associated with advanced clinic-staging of tumours (p = 0.005 as well as with vascular embolization (p = 0.005. Positive expression of GLUT 3 was associated with unfavorable free-disease survival (p = 0.021. Conclusion: GLUT1 and GLUT3 protein expression evaluated by immunohistochemistry are, significantly, indicators of poor prognosis outcome in oral squamous cell carcinoma, probably due to the enhanced glycolytic metabolism of more aggressive neoplastic cells.

  13. Neoadjuvant Chemotherapy for Locally Advanced Squamous Carcinoma of Oral Cavity: a Pilot Study.

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    Sanambar Sadighi

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available To evaluate the effect of adding neoadjuvant chemotherapy to surgery and radiation therapy for locally advanced resectable oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma, 24 patients with T3 or T4a oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma were randomly assigned to surgery alone or Docetaxel, Cisplatin, and 5-FU (TPF induction chemotherapy followed by surgery. All patients were planned to receive chemoradiotherapy after surgery. The primary end-points were organ preservation and progression-free-survival. SPSS version 17 was used for data analysis. Median follow-up was 16 months. The median age of the patients was 62 years old (23-75 years. Man/woman ratio was 1.13. The primary site of the tumor was the tongue in most patients (48%. No significant difference was observed between pathologic characteristics of the two groups. Chemotherapy group showed 16% complete pathologic response to TPF. No significant difference in organ preservation surgery or overall survival was detected. However, the patients in the chemotherapy group had longer progression-free-survival (P=0.014. Surgery followed by chemoradiotherapy with or without TPF induction results in similar survival time. However, progression-free-survival improves with the TPF induction chemotherapy. Studies with more patents and new strategies are recommended to evaluate organ preservation improvement and long-term outcomes.

  14. Acacia catechu ethanolic bark extract induces apoptosis in human oral squamous carcinoma cells

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    Thangavelu Lakshmi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancer is in approximately 30% of all cancers in India. This study was conducted to evaluate the cytotoxic activity of ethanolic extract of Acacia catechu bark (ACB against human squamous cell carcinoma cell line-25 (SCC-25. Cytotoxic effect of ACB extract was determined by 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium Bromide assay. A. catechu extract was treated SCC-25 cells with 25 and 50 μg/mL for 24 h. Apoptosis markers such as caspases-8 and 9, bcl-2, bax, and cytochrome c (Cyt-c were done by RT-PCR. Morphological changes of ACB treated cells were evaluated using acridine orange/ethidium bromide (AO/EB dual staining. Nuclear morphology and DNA fragmentation were evaluated using propidium iodide (PI staining. Further, cell cycle analysis was performed using flow cytometry. A. catechu treatment caused cytotoxicity in SCC-25 cells with an IC50 of 52.09 μg/mL. Apoptotic marker gene expressions were significantly increased on ACB treatment. Staining with AO/EB and PI shows membrane blebbing and nuclear membrane distortion, respectively, and it confirms the apoptosis induction in SCC-25 cells. These results suggest that ACB extract can be used as a modulating agent in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

  15. Human papilloma virus in oral squamous cell carcinoma in a Mexican population.

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    Ibieta, Blanca R; Lizano, Marcela; Fras-Mendivil, Mauricio; Barrera, José L; Carrillo, Adela; Ma Ruz-Godoy, Luz; Mohar, Alejandro

    2005-03-01

    To determine the human papilloma virus (HPV) infection in oral cancer and its association with smoking and drinking habits. A cross-sectional study was performed; samples were collected from 51 patients with histological diagnosis of squamous-cell carcinoma were collected at the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología in Mexico City. HPV infection was detected by polymerase chain reaction, and the clinical characteristics of this population were analyzed. Fifty samples out of 51 were positive for beta-globin; 21 (42%) cases were HPV-positive, and 14/21 were positive for HPV-16. We found more samples positive in men than in women (71% vs 29%). No differences were observed between HPV-positive and -negative patients in relation to smoking and drinking habits (81% vs 79%). HPV infection was present in 42% of patients with oral squamous-cell carcinoma (OSCC); HPV-16 was the most frequent type, identified in 66.6%. Other cofactors participate in the development of OSCC, independent of HPV infection.

  16. Glycogen-Rich Clear Cell Squamous Cell Carcinoma Originating in the Oral Cavity.

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    Khoury, Zaid H; Bugshan, Amr; Lubek, Joshua E; Papadimitriou, John C; Basile, John R; Younis, Rania H

    2017-12-01

    Clear cell squamous cell carcinoma (CCSCC) is a rare histological subtype of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) that was originally described in the skin. Here, we report a case of a 66-year-old female patient who presented with a fungating ulcerative mass of the left lateral tongue extending anteriorly to the floor of the mouth, and posteriorly to the left retromolar fossa and the oropharynx. The patient had a history of SCC of the left posterior tongue that was treated with partial glossectomy and adjuvant radiotherapy. Representative biopsies were obtained from the floor of the mouth, tongue and retromolar fossa. The examined biopsies showed various degrees of dysplastic surface epithelium with transition into infiltrating epithelial tumor nests and cords with clear cytoplasm and malignant cellular features. Pancytokeratin, CK5/6, and p63 were all diffusely positive. S-100, Calponin, and smooth muscle actin (SMA) were negative. PAS stain was diffusely positive and diastase labile in the tumor clear cells. Sparse areas of mucicarmine positivity were noted. Based on these findings a final diagnosis of a glycogen-rich CCSCC was given. This case represents a very rare histological variant of oral SCC, which is significant for the histological differential diagnosis of clear cell tumors of the oral cavity.

  17. Relationship between the Expression of Matrix Metalloproteinase and Clinicopathologic Features in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

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    Amir Hossein Jafarian

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity is one of the most important and common types of head and neck malignancy, with an estimated rate of 4% among all human malignancies. The aim of this study was to determine the association between expression of matrix metalloproteinase 2 and 9 and the clinicopathological features of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC.   Materials and Methods: One hundred existing samples of formalin-fixed paraffin embedded specimens of OSCC were evaluated by immunohistochemistry staining for matrix metalloproteinase 2 and 9 antibodies. Samples were divided into four groups: negative, 50%. Patient records were assessed for demographic characteristics such as age and gender, smoking and family history of OSCC as well as tumor features including location, differentiation, stage and lymph node involvement.   Results: In this study, 58 patients (58% were male and 42 (42% female. The mean age of patients was 60.38±14.07 years. The average number of lymph nodes involved was 8.9±3.8. Tumoral grade, tumoral stage, lymphatic metastasis and history of smoking were significantly related to MMP2 and MMP9 expression.   Conclusion:  Our study demonstrated that MMP2 and MMP9 expression are important in the development of OSCC.

  18. Oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma: factors related to occult lymph node metastasis.

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    d'Alessandro, André Fernandes; Pinto, Fábio Roberto; Lin, Chin Shien; Kulcsar, Marco Aurélio Vamondes; Cernea, Cláudio Roberto; Brandão, Lenine Garcia; Matos, Leandro Luongo de

    2015-01-01

    Elective neck dissection is recommended in cases of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma without lymph node metastasis because of the risk of occult metastasis. The present study aimed to evaluate predictive factors for occult lymph node metastasis in patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma treated with elective neck dissection and their impact on overall and disease-free survival. Forty surgically treated patients were retrospectively included. Ten cases (25%) had lymphatic metastasis. Of the studied variables, perineural and angiolymphatic invasion in addition to tumor thickness were statistically associated with lymph node metastasis. Only angiolymphatic invasion was identified as an independent risk factor for occult metastasis in the logistic regression (OR=39.3; p=0.002). There was no association between overall and disease-free survival with the presence of occult lymph node metastasis. Metastatic disease rate was similar to that found in the literature. Perineural and angiolymphatic invasion and tumor thickness were associated with occult metastasis, but only angiolymphatic invasion showed to be an independent risk factor. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  19. Expression of stem cell markers in oral cavity and oropharynx squamous cell carcinoma.

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    de Moraes, Flávia Paiva Prudente; Lourenço, Silvia Vanessa; Ianez, Renata Carolina Fraga; de Sousa, Elen Alves; Silva, Marlon Messias da Conceição; Damascena, Aline Santos; Kowalski, Luiz Paulo; Soares, Fernando Augusto; Coutinho-Camillo, Cláudia Malheiros

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the expression of CD24, CD44, CD133, ALDH1, CD29 (integrin-β1), and Ki-67 in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and oropharynx. Fifty-two tumors and 21 metastatic lymph nodes were evaluated by using immunohistochemistry. Seven of 52 cases (13.5%) showed positive cytoplasmic staining of aldehyde dehydrogenase 1; integrin-β1 was expressed in 45 of 50 cases (90%); 30 of 52 cases (57.7%) had positive membranous staining of CD44; CD24 was expressed in 44 of 50 cases (88%); and three of 52 cases (5.8%) stained positively for membranous CD133. Median proliferation rate, measured by Ki-67, was 37.1% for tumors. Five-year cancer-specific survival rates for the CD44-negative and CD44-positive groups were 74% and 38%, respectively, although this difference did not reach statistical significance (P = .052). Our study demonstrated the expression of putative stem cell markers in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and oropharynx, with participation of CD44-positive cells in association with poor survival outcome. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Photodynamic Treatment of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cells with Low Curcumin Concentrations.

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    Beyer, Kim; Nikfarjam, Frangis; Butting, Manuel; Meissner, Markus; König, Anke; Ramirez Bosca, Ana; Kaufmann, Roland; Heidemann, Detlef; Bernd, August; Kippenberger, Stefan; Zöller, Nadja

    2017-01-01

    Objective: Curcumin is known for its anti-oxidative, anti-inflammatory and anti-tumorigenic qualities at concentrations ranging from 3.7µg/ml to 55µg/ml. Therefore it is pre-destined for tumour therapy. Due to high oral doses that have to be administered and the low bioavailability of curcumin new therapy concepts have to be developed. One of these therapy concepts is the combination of low curcumin concentrations and UVA or visible light. Aim of our study was to investigate the influence of this treatment regime on oral squamous cell carcinoma cells. Materials and Methods: A human oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line (HN) was pre-incubated with low curcumin concentrations (0.01µg/ml to 1µg/ml). Thereafter cell cultures were either left un-irradiated or were irradiated either with 1J/cm2 UVA or for 5min with visible light. Quantitative analysis of proliferation, membrane integrity, oxidative potential and DNA fragmentation were done. Results: It could be shown that low curcumin concentrations neither influenced proliferation, nor cell morphology, nor cell integrity nor apoptosis. When combining these curcumin concentrations with UVA or visible light irradiation cell proliferation as well as development of reactive oxygen species was reduced whereas DNA fragmentation was increased. Concentration as well as light entity specific effects could be observed. Conclusions: The present findings substantiate the potential of the combination of low curcumin concentrations and light as a new therapeutic concept to increase the efficacy of curcumin in the treatment of cancer of the oral mucosa.

  1. Characterization of the tumor suppressor gene WWOX in primary human oral squamous cell carcinomas

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    Pimenta, Flávio J.; Gomes, Dawidson A.; Perdigão, Paolla F.; Barbosa, Alvimar A.; Romano-Silva, Marco A.; Gomez, Marcus V.; Aldaz, C. Marcelo; De Marco, Luiz; Gomez, Ricardo S.

    2014-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common malignant neoplasm of the oral cavity, representing ~90% of all oral carcinomas and accounting for 3–5% of all malignancies. The WWOX gene (WW-domain containing oxidoreductase) is a candidate tumor suppressor gene located at 16q23.3–24.1, spanning the second most common fragile site, FRA16D. In this report, the role of the WWOX gene was investigated in 20 tumors and 10 normal oral mucosas, and we demonstrated an altered WWOX gene in 50% (10/20) of OSCCs. Using nested RT-PCR, mRNA transcription was altered in 35% of the tumors, with the complete absence of transcripts in 2 samples as well as absence of exons 6–8 (2 tumors), exon 7 (1 tumor), exon 7 and exon 6–8 (1 tumor) and partial loss of exons 8 and 9 (1 tumor). To determine if the aberrant transcripts were translated, Western blots were performed in all samples; however, only the normal protein was detected. By immunohistochemistry, a reduction in Wwox protein expression was observed, affecting 40% of the tumors when compared with normal mucosa. In addition, a novel somatic mutation (S329F) was found. The presence of alterations in mRNA transcription correlated with the reduced expression of Wwox protein in the tumors. These results show that the WWOX gene is frequently altered in OSCC and may contribute to the carcinogenesis processes in oral cancer. PMID:16152610

  2. Role of hyaluronan synthase 2 to promote CD44-dependent oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma progression.

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    Wang, Steven J; Earle, Christine; Wong, Gabriel; Bourguignon, Lilly Y W

    2013-04-01

    CD44 is a transmembrane receptor found on many different benign and malignant cells. Hyaluronan (HA), a major component of the extracellular matrix, is the primary ligand for CD44 receptors. In cancer cells, HA interaction with CD44 promotes multiple signaling pathways that influence tumor cell progression behaviors in a variety of solid tumors. Increasing evidence indicates that HA and CD44 signaling play an important role in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma progression. HA is primarily synthesized by hyaluronan synthases, and the current study investigated the role of hyaluronan synthase 2 (HAS 2) in oral cavity carcinoma progression behaviors. Analysis of HAS 2 mRNA and protein expression, HA production, and HAS 2-mediated tumor cell proliferation and migration behaviors with and without HAS 2 suppression were carried out on 2 established oral cavity cancer cell lines. Immunohistochemical analysis of HAS 2 and CD44 expression in oral cavity carcinoma tumor specimens was performed. HAS 2 was expressed in the 2 oral cancer cell lines, HSC-3 and SCC-4. Suppression of HAS 2 expression resulted in CD44-dependent decreased tumor cell migration, decreased tumor cell growth, and increased cisplatin sensitivity, suggesting the importance of tumor cell HA production to promote in vitro tumor progression behaviors in oral cancer cells. Increased HAS 2 expression in oral cavity carcinoma clinical specimens was associated with poor clinicopathologic characteristics and worse disease-free survival. HAS 2 may be a potential therapeutic target for the treatment of oral cavity cancer. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Leptin acts on neoplastic behavior and expression levels of genes related to hypoxia, angiogenesis, and invasiveness in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

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    Sobrinho Santos, Eliane Macedo; Guimarães, Talita Antunes; Santos, Hércules Otacílio; Cangussu, Lilian Mendes Borborema; de Jesus, Sabrina Ferreira; Fraga, Carlos Alberto de Carvalho; Cardoso, Claudio Marcelo; Santos, Sérgio Henrique Souza; de Paula, Alfredo Maurício Batista; Gomez, Ricardo Santiago; Guimarães, André Luiz Sena; Farias, Lucyana Conceição

    2017-05-01

    Leptin, one of the main hormones controlling energy homeostasis, has been associated with different cancer types. In oral cancer, its effect is not well understood. We investigated, through in vitro and in vivo assays, whether leptin can affect the neoplastic behavior of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Expression of genes possibly linked to the leptin pathway was assessed in leptin-treated oral squamous cell carcinoma cells and also in tissue samples of oral squamous cell carcinoma and oral mucosa, including leptin, leptin receptor, hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha, E-cadherin, matrix metalloproteinase-2, matrix metalloproteinase-9, Col1A1, Ki67, and mir-210. Leptin treatment favored higher rates of cell proliferation and migration, and reduced apoptosis. Accordingly, leptin-treated oral squamous cell carcinoma cells show decreased messenger RNA caspase-3 expression, and increased levels of E-cadherin, Col1A1, matrix metalloproteinase-2, matrix metalloproteinase-9, and mir-210. In tissue samples, hypoxia-inducible factor 1-alpha messenger RNA and protein expression of leptin and leptin receptor were high in oral squamous cell carcinoma cases. Serum leptin levels were increased in first clinical stages of the disease. In animal model, oral squamous cell carcinoma-induced mice show higher leptin receptor expression, and serum leptin level was increased in dysplasia group. Our findings suggest that leptin seems to exert an effect on oral squamous cell carcinoma cells behavior and also on molecular markers related to cell proliferation, migration, and tumor angiogenesis.

  4. Viral infection and oral habits as risk factors for oral squamous cell carcinoma in Yemen: a case-control study.

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    Nasher, Akram T; Al-Hebshi, Nezar N; Al-Moayad, Ebtisam E; Suleiman, Ahmed M

    2014-11-01

    The role of qat chewing, tobacco (shammah) dipping, smoking, alcohol drinking, and oral viral infection as risk factors for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) in Yemen was assessed. A total of 60 cases of OSCC and 120 age- and gender-matched controls were analyzed with respect to demographic data, history of oral habits, and the presence of human papillomavirus (HPV)-16, HPV-18, or Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) as determined by Taqman quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Logistic regression analysis was used to identify independent predictors of the disease. Shammah use was the only risk factor for OSCC, with an odds ratio of 12.6 (CI, 3.3-48.2) and 39 (CI, 14-105) for the ex-users and current users, respectively. The association of shammah use alone with OSCC exceeded that of shammah use in combination with qat chewing, smoking, or both. EBV infection, smoking, and qat chewing showed no association with OSCC, while neither HPV-16 nor HPV-18 were detected in any sample. Shammah use is a major risk factor for oral cancer in Yemen. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Identification of genes associated with cisplatin resistance in human oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line

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    Zhang Ping

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cisplatin is widely used for chemotherapy of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. However, details of the molecular mechanism responsible for cisplatin resistance are still unclear. The aim of this study was to identify the expression of genes related to cisplatin resistance in oral squamous cell carcinoma cells. Methods A cisplatin-resistant cell line, Tca/cisplatin, was established from a cisplatin-sensitive cell line, Tca8113, which was derived from moderately-differentiated tongue squamous cell carcinoma. Global gene expression in this resistant cell line and its sensitive parent cell line was analyzed using Affymetrix HG-U95Av2 microarrays. Candidate genes involved in DNA repair, the MAP pathway and cell cycle regulation were chosen to validate the microarray analysis results. Cell cycle distribution and apoptosis following cisplatin exposure were also investigated. Results Cisplatin resistance in Tca/cisplatin cells was stable for two years in cisplatin-free culture medium. The IC50 for cisplatin in Tca/cisplatin was 6.5-fold higher than that in Tca8113. Microarray analysis identified 38 genes that were up-regulated and 25 that were down-regulated in this cell line. Some were novel candidates, while others are involved in well-characterized mechanisms that could be relevant to cisplatin resistance, such as RECQL for DNA repair and MAP2K6 in the MAP pathway; all the genes were further validated by Real-time PCR. The cell cycle-regulated genes CCND1 and CCND3 were involved in cisplatin resistance; 24-hour exposure to 10 μM cisplatin induced a marked S phase block in Tca/cisplatin cells but not in Tca8113 cells. Conclusion The Tca8113 cell line and its stable drug-resistant variant Tca/cisplatin provided a useful model for identifying candidate genes responsible for the mechanism of cisplatin resistance in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Our data provide a useful basis for screening candidate targets for early diagnosis

  6. Human Papillomavirus in Oral Leukoplakia, Verrucous Carcinoma, Squamous Cell Carcinoma, and Normal Mucous Membrane.

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    Saghravanian, Nasrollah; Ghazi, Narges; Meshkat, Zahra; Mohtasham, Nooshin

    2015-11-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the most common oral malignancy, and verrucous carcinoma (VC) is a less invasive type of SCC. Leukoplakia (LP) is the most frequent premalignant lesion in the oral cavity. The human papillomavirus (HPV) has been recognized as one of the etiologic factors of these conditions. The association of anogenital and cervical cancers with HPV particularly its high-risk subtypes (HPV HR) has been demonstrated. The purpose of our study was to investigate the hypothetical association between HPV and the mentioned oral cavity lesions. One hundred and seventy-three samples (114 SCCs, 21 VCs, 20 LPs) and 18 normal mucosa samples (as a control group) were retrieved from the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology of Mashhad Dental School, Iran. The association of HPV genotypes in LP, VC, and SCC was compared to normal oral mucosa using the polymerase chain reaction. The results showed the absence of HPV in normal mucosa and LP lesions. In three samples of VC (14.3%), we observed the presence of HPV HR (types 16 and 18). All VCs were present in the mandibular ridge of females aged over 65 years old. No statistically significant correlation between HPV and VC was observed (p=0.230). Additionally, 15 (13.1%) SCCs showed HPV positivity, but this was not significant (p=0.830). The prevalence of SCC was higher on the tongue with the dominant presence of less carcinogenic species of HPV (types 6 and 11). A statistically significant association was not observed between HPV and SCC or VC in the oral cavity. More studies are necessary to better understand the relationship between HPV and malignant/premalignant oral cavity lesions.

  7. Human Papillomavirus in Oral Leukoplakia, Verrucous Carcinoma, Squamous Cell Carcinoma, and Normal Mucous Membrane

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    Nasrollah Saghravanian

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC is the most common oral malignancy, and verrucous carcinoma (VC is a less invasive type of SCC. Leukoplakia (LP is the most frequent premalignant lesion in the oral cavity. The human papillomavirus (HPV has been recognized as one of the etiologic factors of these conditions. The association of anogenital and cervical cancers with HPV particularly its high-risk subtypes (HPV HR has been demonstrated. The purpose of our study was to investigate the hypothetical association between HPV and the mentioned oral cavity lesions.  Methods: One hundred and seventy-three samples (114 SCCs, 21 VCs, 20 LPs and 18 normal mucosa samples (as a control group were retrieved from the Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology of Mashhad Dental School, Iran. The association of HPV genotypes in LP, VC, and SCC was compared to normal oral mucosa using the polymerase chain reaction.  Results: The results showed the absence of HPV in normal mucosa and LP lesions. In three samples of VC (14.3%, we observed the presence of HPV HR (types 16 and 18. All VCs were present in the mandibular ridge of females aged over 65 years old. No statistically significant correlation between HPV and VC was observed (p=0.230. Additionally, 15 (13.1% SCCs showed HPV positivity, but this was not significant (p=0.830. The prevalence of SCC was higher on the tongue with the dominant presence of less carcinogenic species of HPV (types 6 and 11. A statistically significant association was not observed between HPV and SCC or VC in the oral cavity.  Conclusions: More studies are necessary to better understand the relationship between HPV and malignant/premalignant oral cavity lesions.

  8. Anticancer Effect of Ursodeoxycholic Acid in Human Oral Squamous Carcinoma HSC-3 Cells through the Caspases

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    Liang Pang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Bear bile was used as a traditional medicine or tonic in East Asia, and ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA is the most important compound in bear bile. Further, synthetic UDCA is also used in modern medicine and nutrition; therefore, its further functional effects warrant research, in vitro methods could be used for the fundamental research of its anticancer effects. In this study, the apoptotic effects of UDCA in human oral squamous carcinoma HSC-3 cells through the activation of caspases were observed by the experimental methods of MTT (3-(4,5-dimethyl-2-thiazolyl-2,5-diphenyl-2-H-tetrazolium bromide assay, DAPI (4’,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole staining, flow cytometry analysis, RT-PCR (reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay and Western blot assay after HSC-3 cells were treated by different concentrations of UDCA. With 0 to 400 μg/mL UDCA treatment, UDCA had strong growth inhibitory effects in HSC-3 cells, but had almost no effect in HOK normal oral cells. At concentrations of 100, 200 and 400 μg/mL, UDCA could induce apoptosis compared to untreated control HSC-3 cells. Treatment of 400 μg/mL UDCA could induce more apoptotic cancer cells than 100 and 200 μg/mL treatment; the sub-G1 DNA content of 400 μg/mL UDCA treated cancer cells was 41.3% versus 10.6% (100 μg/mL and 22.4% (200 μg/mL. After different concentrations of UDCA treatment, the mRNA and protein expressions of caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, Bax, Fas/FasL (Fas ligand, TRAIL (TNF-related apoptosis-inducing ligand, DR4 (death receptor 4 and DR5 (death receptor 5 were increased in HSC-3 cells, and mRNA and protein expressions of Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphoma 2, Bcl-xL (B-cell lymphoma-extra large, XIAP (X-linked inhibitor of apoptosis protein, cIAP-1 (cellular inhibitor of apoptosis 1, cIAP-2 (cellular inhibitor of apoptosis 2 and survival were decreased. Meanwhile, at the highest concentration of 400 μg/mL, caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, Bax, Fas/FasL, TRAIL, DR4, DR5, and

  9. Carvacrol suppresses proliferation and invasion in human oral squamous cell carcinoma

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    Dai W

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Wei Dai,1,2 Changfu Sun,1,2 Shaohui Huang,1,2 Qing Zhou1,21Department of Oromaxillofacial-Head and Neck Surgery, 2Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Stomatology, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning, People’s Republic of ChinaAbstract: Carvacrol, a component of thyme oil, as a novel antitumor agent, has been implicated in several types of cancer cells. However, the mechanisms underlying the effect of carvacrol in human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC remain unclear. Here, we report that carvacrol significantly inhibits tumor cell proliferation, metastasis and invasion, and induces apoptosis in OSCC. Our results demonstrated that the molecular mechanisms of the effect of carvacrol in Tca-8113 induces G1/S cell cycle arrest through downregulation of CDK regulator CCND1 and CDK4, and upregulation of CDK inhibitor P21. Further analysis demonstrated that carvacrol also inhibited Tca-8113 cells’ clone formation in clonogenic cell survival assay. Student’s t-test (two-tailed was used to compare differences between groups, and the significance level was P<0.01. Then, treatment of Tca-8113 cells with carvacrol resulted in downregulation of Bcl-2, Cox2, and upregulation of Bax. Carvacrol significantly inhibited the migration and invasion of human OSCC cells by blocking the phosphorylation of FAK and MMP-9 and MMP-2, transcription factor ZEB1, and β-catenin proteins’ expression. Taken together, these results provide novel insights into the mechanism of carvacrol and suggest potential therapeutic strategies for human OSCC.Keywords: carvacrol, proliferation, metastasis and invasion, oral squamous cell carcinoma

  10. Predictive factors of occult neck metastasis in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma

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    Renato Fortes Bittar

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT INTRODUCTION: It is well established that cervical lymph node metastasis is the most important prognostic factor in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract. The definition of parameters and classifications that could separate patients in groups of low, intermediate and high-risk is being attempted for several years. OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to determine possible predictive factors related to the occurrence of occult cervical lymph node metastasis through the analysis of histopathological reports of surgical specimens obtained after oral squamous cell carcinoma resection and selective neck dissections of patients initially classified as N0. METHODS: This was a primary, retrospective, observational, case-control study. Histopathological reports were reviewed to determine if some findings were related to the occurrence of occult lymph node metastasis. The events analyzed were oral cavity subsites, pT-stage, muscular infiltration, desmoplasia, vascular emboli, perineural infiltration, tumor thickness and compromised margins. RESULTS: Occult cervical metastasis accounted for 19.10 percent of the cases. Desmoplasia, perineural infiltration, tumor thickness and pT4a stage are predictive factors of occult neck metastasis (p-value = 0.0488, 0.0326, 0.0395, 0.0488, respectively. CONCLUSION: The accurate definition of predictive factors of occult cervical metastasis may guide the selection of patients that should be referred to radiotherapy, avoiding the unnecessary exposure of low-risk patients to radiation and allowing a better regional control of the disease in those of moderate or high risk.

  11. Predictive factors of occult neck metastasis in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittar, Renato Fortes; Ferraro, Homero Penha; Ribas, Marcelo Haddad; Lehn, Carlos Neutzling

    2016-01-01

    It is well established that cervical lymph node metastasis is the most important prognostic factor in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma of the upper aerodigestive tract. The definition of parameters and classifications that could separate patients in groups of low, intermediate and high-risk is being attempted for several years. The objective of this study was to determine possible predictive factors related to the occurrence of occult cervical lymph node metastasis through the analysis of histopathological reports of surgical specimens obtained after oral squamous cell carcinoma resection and selective neck dissections of patients initially classified as N0. This was a primary, retrospective, observational, case-control study. Histopathological reports were reviewed to determine if some findings were related to the occurrence of occult lymph node metastasis. The events analyzed were oral cavity subsites, pT-stage, muscular infiltration, desmoplasia, vascular emboli, perineural infiltration, tumor thickness and compromised margins. Occult cervical metastasis accounted for 19.10 percent of the cases. Desmoplasia, perineural infiltration, tumor thickness and pT4a stage are predictive factors of occult neck metastasis (p-value=0.0488, 0.0326, 0.0395, 0.0488, respectively). The accurate definition of predictive factors of occult cervical metastasis may guide the selection of patients that should be referred to radiotherapy, avoiding the unnecessary exposure of low-risk patients to radiation and allowing a better regional control of the disease in those of moderate or high risk. Copyright © 2015 Associação Brasileira de Otorrinolaringologia e Cirurgia Cérvico-Facial. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  12. Toll-like receptors -4 and -5 in oral and cutaneous squamous cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Omar, Abdirisak Ahmed Haji; Korvala, Johanna; Haglund, Caj; Virolainen, Susanna; Häyry, Valtteri; Atula, Timo; Kontio, Risto; Rihtniemi, Jarmo; Pihakari, Antti; Sorsa, Timo; Hagström, Jaana; Salo, Tuula

    2015-04-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has a worse prognosis than cutaneous squamous cell carcinoma (CSCC). Toll-like receptor- 4 (TLR-4) and TLR-5 are transmembrane proteins that recognize endogenous and microbial agents. Their activation has been connected to cancer invasion. The aim was to study the expression of TLR-4 and TLR-5 in OSCC and CSCC samples, and the effects of TLR-5 ligand flagellin on the proliferation, migration, and invasion of different mucocutaneous cell lines in vitro. Samples of early-stage tumors (T1-T2N0M0) from 63 patients with OSCC and CSCC were obtained, in addition to eight normal mucosa and skin tissues from healthy subjects. Oral-cavity-derived highly aggressive HSC-3, less invasive SAS, and HPV-transformed benign IHGK as well as C-ha-ras-transformed (HaCat) skin carcinoma II-4 and non-invasive A5 cell lines were used. Flagellin-induced mucocutaneous cell lines were compared by using BrdU-proliferation, scratch migration, and myoma organotypic invasion assays. TLR-4 expression was similar in OSCC and CSCC tumors. TLR-5 was more abundant in OSCC than in CSCC samples. Flagellin induced the proliferation of SAS, II-4 and A5, migration of IHGK, II-4 and A5, and the invasion of II-4 cells. It had no effect on HSC-3 cells. Flagellin, a TLR-5 agonist, induced the migration and invasion of less aggressive mucocutaneous cell lines, but it had no effect on the most invasive oral carcinoma cells. The more aggressive clinical behavior of OSCC compared to CSCC may partially be related to the differences in the expression of TLR-5 in these malignancies. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Detection of human papillomavirus infection in oral squamous cell carcinoma: a cohort study of Japanese patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kouketsu, Atsumu; Sato, Ikuro; Abe, Satoko; Oikawa, Mariko; Shimizu, Yoshinaka; Takahashi, Tetsu; Kumamoto, Hiroyuki

    2016-09-01

    Recent evidence suggests that human papillomavirus (HPV)-related head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is a separate HNSCC subgroup with distinct epidemiology, histopathological characteristics, therapeutic response to chemotherapy and radiation, and clinical outcome. This study aimed to investigate the role of HPV infection in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and the correlation between HPV infection, tumor suppressor protein p16 expression, and clinicopathological features in Japanese patients. In total, 174 OSCC specimens were examined for p16 levels by immunohistochemistry, and p16-positive OSCCs were analyzed for HPV DNA by in situ hybridization (ISH) and HPV genotypes by real-time PCR. The results were evaluated for the association with clinicopathological characteristics of OSCC patients. Twenty-four OSCC samples were found positive for p16 expression; all of them were well-differentiated tumors. P16 immunoreactivity was significantly associated with the invasion depth and tended to correlate with sex, site in the oral cavity, stromal reaction, TNM stage, and survival. HPV DNA was detected in 13 of 24 (54%) p16-positive OSCC by real-time PCR; HPV 16, 18, and other high-risk genotypes were the most prevalent. However, ISH failed to detect HPV DNA in p16-positive OSCCs. P16 immunoreactivity and HPV genotyping by real-time PCR may be useful markers of HPV infection in OSCC. However, although HPV-related OSCC showed good outcomes, HPV infection may have a minor role in oral oncogenesis in Japanese patients. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  14. Palliative radiation therapy outcomes for cats with oral squamous cell carcinoma (1999-2005).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabhlok, Aarti; Ayl, Rodney

    2014-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) accounts for approximately 10% of all feline tumors. The purpose of this retrospective study was to describe outcomes for a group of cats with oral SCC that were treated with palliative radiation therapy. Fifty-four cats met the inclusion criteria of nonresectable, oral SCC treated with coarse fractionated megavoltage (MeV) radiation therapy. Radiation therapy for all cats was delivered with a 6 MeV linear accelerator. Total radiation doses of 24 Gray to 40 Gray were administered in three to four fractions, once-per-week over 4 to 5 weeks. Concurrent chemotherapy protocols varied and were administered at the discretion of the clinician and client. Forty-nine patients completed the planned treatment protocols. Overall mean and median survival times for cats completing the planned treatment protocols were 127 and 92 days (n = 49). Mean and median survival times of cats receiving palliative radiation therapy alone were 157 and 113 days (n = 12). Mean and median survival times of patients receiving both radiation therapy and chemotherapy were 116 and 80 days (n = 37). Patients with sublingual tumors had a median survival time of 135 days (n = 15), compared to mandibular tumors that had a median survival time of 80 days (n = 26). For the majority of patients that completed the planned treatment protocol (65%), owners reported a subjectively improved quality of life. Findings from this uncontrolled study supported the use of palliative radiation therapy for cats with nonresectable oral squamous cell carcinoma. © 2014 American College of Veterinary Radiology.

  15. Advances of Salivary Proteomics in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC Detection: An Update

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rabia Sannam Khan

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancer refers to malignancies that have higher morbidity and mortality rates due to the late stage diagnosis and no early detection of a reliable diagnostic marker, while oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC is amongst the world’s top ten most common cancers. Diagnosis of cancer requires highly sensitive and specific diagnostic tools which can support untraceable hidden sites of OSCC, yet to be unleashed, for which plenty of biomarkers are identified; the most recommended biomarker detection medium for OSCC includes biological fluids, such as blood and saliva. Saliva holds a promising future in the search for new clinical biomarkers that are easily accessible, less complex, accurate, and cost effective as well as being a non-invasive technique to follow, by analysing the malignant cells’ molecular pathology obtained from saliva through proteomic, genomic and transcriptomic approaches. However, protein biomarkers provide an immense potential for developing novel marker-based assays for oral cancer, hence this current review offers an overall focus on the discovery of a panel of candidates as salivary protein biomarkers, as well as the proteomic tools used for their identification and their significance in early oral cancer detection.

  16. Immunohistochemical expression of phosphatase and tensin homolog in histologic gradings of oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shiny S.R. Jasphin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN is a tumor suppressor gene located on chromosome 10q23. PTEN has its major function in the regulation of cell adhesion, cell cycle arrest, migration, apoptosis programming, and differentiation. This genomic region suffers loss of heterozygosity in many human cancers. Aims: The aim of this study was to compare the immunohistochemical expression of PTEN in normal oral mucosa and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC and to correlate the PTEN expression in gradings of OSCC. Materials and Methods: Thirty cases of paraffin tissue sections of previously diagnosed OSCC were taken. Of thirty cases, ten were well differentiated, ten were moderately differentiated, and ten were poorly differentiated. As a control, ten paraffin sections of oral normal mucosa tissue specimens were taken from patients undergoing extractions. The sections were stained for immunohistochemical expression of PTEN. The cells stained by PTEN antibody were counted, and an immunohistochemical score was obtained. Statistical Analysis Used: Statistical analysis was done using Mann–Whitney's test and Kruskal–Wallis test. Results: Statistical analysis revealed that there was a significant difference between normal mucosa and OSCC in immunohistochemistry staining. However, there was no significant difference in PTEN expression among gradings of OSCC. Conclusions: The study concluded that there was a decrease in PTEN expression in OSCC than normal mucosa. It also concluded that PTEN is a tumor suppressor gene which has a wide role in oral carcinogenesis.

  17. Oral squamous cell carcinoma associated with symphyseal dental implants: an unusual case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallego, Lorena; Junquera, Luis; Baladrón, Jaime; Villarreal, Pedro

    2008-08-01

    The development of squamous cell carcinoma (SCCa) around dental implants is an uncommon pathological manifestation. This case report describes a patient with history of oral lichen planus (OLP) and previous SCCa of the gingiva who developed SCCa adjacent to symphyseal implants. An 81-year-old edentulous woman with history of OLP developed an in situ SCCa on the left mandibular edentulous ridge. One of the authors, an oral and maxillofacial surgeon, performed a marginal mandibular resection of the lesion. Functional oral rehabilitation was achieved by means of two endosseous symphyseal implants. Three years after the patient underwent implant-supported reconstruction, the oral and maxillofacial surgeon detected an exophytic mass adjacent to the right implant and diagnosed it as recurrent SCCa. Two of the authors performed a marginal mandibular resection. One year later, the patient developed a recurrence over the resected area, requiring segmental mandibulectomy. This case report demonstrates that recurrent primary malignancy can masquerade as benign peri-implant complications. A high degree of vigilance is required in the follow-up of patients with previous cancer or premalignant lesions.

  18. A loss of profilin-1 in late-stage oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adami, Guy R; O'Callaghan, Thomas N; Kolokythas, Antonia; Cabay, Robert J; Zhou, Yalu; Schwartz, Joel L

    2017-08-01

    The genes for PFN1 and TMSB4 are both highly expressed in oral tissue and both encode actin monomer binding proteins thought to play a role in cell motility and possibly other crucial parts of tumor progression. Oral brush cytology of epithelium from oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) was used to measure PFN1 and TMSB4 mRNA in OSCC, while immunohistochemical analysis of tissue was used to check protein levels. High but variable expression of mRNAs encoding these two proteins was observed suggesting they may contribute to tumor characteristics in a subset of OSCCs. Both proteins were highly expressed in normal appearing basal epithelium, in the cytoplasm, and perinuclear area, while expression was minimal in upper epithelial layers. In OSCCs, expression of these proteins varied. In tumors classified as later stage, based on size and/or lymph node involvement, PFN1 levels were lower in tumor epithelium. A control gene, KRT13, showed expression in normal differentiated basal and suprabasal oral mucosa epithelial cells and as reported was lost in OSCC cells. Loss of PFN1 in tumor cells has been associated with lymph node invasion and metastasis in other tumor types, strengthening the argument that the protein has the potential to be a tumor suppressor in late-stage OSCC. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Serum Advanced Oxidation Protein Products in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Possible Markers of Diagnostic Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhishek Singh Nayyar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to measure the concentrations (levels ofserum total proteins and advanced oxidation protein products as markers of oxidantmediated protein damage in the sera of patients with oral cancers.Methods: The study consisted of the sera analyses of serum total protein andadvanced oxidation protein products’ levels in 30 age and sex matched controls, 60patients with reported pre-cancerous lesions and/or conditions and 60 patients withhistologically proven oral squamous cell carcinoma. One way analyses of variance wereused to test the difference between groups. To determine which of the two groups’ meanswere significantly different, the post-hoc test of Bonferroni was used. The results wereaveraged as mean ± standard deviation. In the above test, P values less than 0.05 weretaken to be statistically significant. The normality of data was checked before thestatistical analysis was performed.Results: The study revealed statistically significant variations in serum levels ofadvanced oxidation protein products (P<0.001. Serum levels of total protein showedextensive variations; therefore the results were largely inconclusive and statisticallyinsignificant.Conclusion: The results emphasize the need for more studies with larger samplesizes to be conducted before a conclusive role can be determined for sera levels of totalprotein and advanced oxidation protein products as markers both for diagnosticsignificance and the transition from the various oral pre-cancerous lesions and conditionsinto frank oral cancers.

  20. Orofacial pain and predictors in oral squamous cell carcinoma patients receiving treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shu-Ching; Liao, Chun-Ta; Chang, Joseph Tung-Chien

    2011-02-01

    Surgical and radiation therapy for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) may generate orofacial pain. The aims of this study were to (1) characterize the pain experienced by people with orofacial pain, and (2) determine the factors associated with changes in orofacial pain in OSCC patients during the postoperative and post-radiation therapy periods. The study had a prospective longitudinal design with consecutive sampling. Seventy-two eligible patients were recruited from the outpatient department of otolaryngology, head and neck cancer, and radiation therapy of a medical center in northern Taiwan. A set of questionnaires was used for patient assessment, including the University of California San Francisco Oral Cancer Pain Questionnaire, Symptom Severity Scale, Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale, and Karnofsky's Performance Status Index. Patients were assessed at two time points: 1 month after surgery (T1) and 1 month after completion of radiation treatment (T2). The findings showed that (1) patients reported moderate orofacial pain at both time points; (2) orofacial pain, oral function-related symptoms, and psychological distress were significantly higher at T1 than at T2; and (3) older age, eating difficulty, speech difficulty, and depression were significant predictors of orofacial pain. Oral rehabilitation and relaxation training may reduce orofacial pain in this patient population. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Expression of human telomerase reverse transcriptase protein in oral epithelial dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma: An immunohistochemical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghunandan, Bangalore Nagarajachar; Sanjai, Karpagaselvi; Kumaraswamy, Jayalakshmi; Papaiah, Lokesh; Pandey, Bhavna; Jyothi, Bellur MadhavaRao

    2016-01-01

    Background: Telomerase is an RNA-dependent DNA polymerase that synthesizes TTAGGG telomeric DNA sequences and almost universally provides the molecular basis for unlimited proliferative potential. The telomeres become shorter with each cycle of replication and reach a critical limit; most cells die or enter stage of replicative senescence. Telomere length maintenance by telomerase is required for all the cells that exhibit limitless replicative potential. It has been postulated that reactivation of telomerase expression is necessary for the continuous proliferation of neoplastic cells to attain immortality. Use of immunohistochemistry (IHC) is a useful, reliable method of localizing the human telomerase reverse transcriptase (hTERT) protein in tissue sections which permits cellular localization. Although there exists a lot of information on telomerase in oral cancer, little is known about their expression in oral epithelial dysplasia and their progression to oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) compared to normal oral mucosa. This study addresses this lacuna. Aims: To compare the expression of hTERT protein in oral epithelial dysplasia and OSCC with normal oral mucosa by Immunohistochemical method. Subjects and Methods: In this preliminary study, IHC was used to detect the expression of hTERT protein in OSCC (n = 20), oral epithelial dysplasia (n = 21) and normal oral mucosa (n = 10). The tissue localization of immunostain, cellular localization of immunostain, nature of stain, intensity of stain, percentage of cells stained with hTERT protein were studied. A total number of 100 cells were counted in each slide. Statistical Analysis: All the data were analyzed using SPSS software version 16.0. The tissue localization, cellular localization of cytoplasmic/nuclear/both of hTERT stain, staining intensity was compared across the groups using Pearson's Chi-square test. The mean percentage of cells stained for oral epithelial dysplasia, OSCC and normal oral mucosa were

  2. MicroRNA-137 promoter methylation in oral lichen planus and oral squamous cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dang, Jun; Bian, Yong-qian; Sun, Jian-yong

    2013-01-01

    Oral lichen planus (OLP) is a common oral mucosal disease, which is generally considered a potentially malignant lesion. To identify efficiently prognostic biomarker, we investigated the microRNA-137 (miR-137) promoter methylation in OLP and compared with the samples from healthy volunteers and p...

  3. F-18-FDG PET as a Routine Posttreatment Surveillance Tool in Oral and Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma : A Prospective Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krabbe, Christiaan A.; Pruim, Jan; Dijkstra, Pieter U.; Balink, Hans; van der Laan, Bernard F.; de Visscher, Jan G.; Roodenburg, Jan L.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the role and timing of serial F-18-FDG PET scans as routine surveillance for detecting early locoregional recurrence, distant metastases, and second primary tumors in patients treated for advanced squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) in the oral cavity or

  4. TP53 mutation and human papilloma virus status of oral squamous cell carcinomas in young adult patients

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braakhuis, B.J.M.; Rietbergen, M.M.; Buijze, M.; Snijders, P.J.F.; Bloemena, E.; Brakenhoff, R.H.; Leemans, C.R.

    2014-01-01

    Objective Little is known about the molecular carcinogenesis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) in young adult patients. The aim of this study was to investigate the detailed TP53 mutation and human papilloma virus (HPV) status of OSCC in patients, younger than 45 years. Methods TP53 mutations

  5. Joint practice guidelines for radionuclide lymphoscintigraphy for sentinel node localization in oral/oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkureishi, L W T; Burak, Z; Alvarez, J A

    2009-01-01

    Involvement of the cervical lymph nodes is the most important prognostic factor for patients with oral/oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), and the decision of whether to electively treat patients with clinically negative necks remains a controversial topic. Sentinel node biopsy (SNB...

  6. Joint practice guidelines for radionuclide lymphoscintigraphy for sentinel node localization in oral/oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkureishi, Lee W T; Burak, Zeynep; Alvarez, Julio A

    2009-01-01

    Involvement of the cervical lymph nodes is the most important prognostic factor for patients with oral/oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), and the decision whether to electively treat patients with clinically negative necks remains a controversial topic. Sentinel node biopsy (SNB...

  7. MicroRNA alterations and associated aberrant DNA methylation patterns across multiple sample types in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wiklund, Erik Digman; Gao, Shan; Hulf, Toby

    2011-01-01

    MicroRNA (miRNA) expression is broadly altered in cancer, but few studies have investigated miRNA deregulation in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Epigenetic mechanisms are involved in the regulation of >30 miRNA genes in a range of tissues, and we aimed to investigate this further in OSCC....

  8. Second primary tumours after a squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity or oropharynx using the cumulative incidence method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Haring, I. S.; Schaapveld, M. S.; Roodenburg, J. L. N.; de Bock, G. H.

    The aim of this study was to define the incidence of second primary tumours (SPTs) after treatment of a first primary oral or oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and to define patient groups with an increased or decreased risk of developing SPT with adjustment for competing risks. Cancer

  9. Sentinel node biopsy for squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and oropharynx: a diagnostic meta-analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Govers, T.M.; Hannink, G.J.; Merkx, M.A.W.; Takes, R.P.; Rovers, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The aim of the study was to systematically assess the accuracy of a sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) in cT1/T2N0 oral cavity and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma patients. METHODS: We searched electronic databases, including EMBASE and MEDLINE (Pubmed) up to November 7 2012, by

  10. Histopathologic, stereologic, epidemiologic, and clinical parameters in the prognostic evaluation of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, T; Bentzen, S M; Wildt, J

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prognostic indicators that could assist in a more precise selection of patients with oral cancer for differentiated therapy would be clinically valuable.METHODS: A consecutive series of 161 cases of intraoral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) occurring during a 5-year period in a population...

  11. Nodal spread of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity detected with PET-tyrosine, MRI and CT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Braams, JW; Pruim, J; Nikkels, PGJ; Roodenburg, JLN; Vaalburg, W; Vermey, A

    The uptake of L-1-[C-11]-tyrosine (TYR) in cervical lymph nodes of eleven patients with squamous-cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral cavity was studied with PET to detect lymphogenic metastases. Methods: The TYR-PET results were compared with clinical, MRI, CT, histopathologic findings and historical

  12. Assessment of preoperative ultrasonography of the neck and elective neck dissection in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wensing, B.M.; Merkx, M.A.W.; Wilde, P.C.M. de; Marres, H.A.M.; Hoogen, F.J.A. van den

    2010-01-01

    Estimating the value of our preoperative workup in the treatment of patients with clinically N0 (cN0) squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity. Retrospective analysis. Results of preoperative palpation, ultrasound (US) and ultrasound-guided fine needle aspiration cytology (FNAC) were compared to

  13. Bax expression measured by AQUAnalysis is an independent prognostic marker in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bose Pinaki

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Resistance to apoptosis is a hallmark of cancer and proteins regulating apoptosis have been proposed as prognostic markers in several malignancies. However, the prognostic impact of apoptotic markers has not been consistently demonstrated in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC. This inconsistency in reported associations between apoptotic proteins and prognosis can be partly attributed to the intrinsic low resolution and misclassification associated with manual, semi-quantitative methods of biomarker expression measurement. The aim of this study was to examine the association between apoptosis-regulating proteins and clinical outcomes in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC using the quantitative fluorescence immunohistochemistry (IHC based AQUAnalysis technique. Methods Sixty-nine OSCC patients diagnosed between 1998–2005 in Calgary, Alberta, Canada were included in the study. Clinical data were obtained from the Alberta Cancer Registry and chart review. Tissue microarrays (TMAs were assembled from triplicate cores of formalin-fixed paraffin embedded pre-treatment tumour tissue. Bax, Bcl-2 and Bcl-XL protein expression was quantified using fluorescent IHC and AQUA technology in normal oral cavity squamous epithelium (OCSE and OSCC tumour samples. Survival was analyzed using Kaplan-Meier plots and the Cox proportional hazard model. Results Bax expression was predominantly nuclear in OCSE and almost exclusively cytoplasmic in OSCC. No similar differences in localization were observed for Bcl-2 or Bcl-XL. Only Bax expression associated with disease-specific survival (DSS, with 5-year survival estimates of 85.7% for high Bax versus 50.3% for low Bax (p = 0.006, in univariate analysis. High Bax expression was also significantly associated with elevated Ki67 expression, indicating that increased proliferation might lead to an improved response to radiotherapy in patients with elevated Bax expression. In multivariate analyses

  14. Sulforaphane targets cancer stemness and tumor initiating properties in oral squamous cell carcinomas via miR-200c induction

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Chia-Ming; Peng, Chih-Yu; Liao, Yi-Wen; Lu, Ming-Yi; Tsai, Meng-Lun; Yeh, Jung-Chun; Yu, Chuan-Hang; Yu, Cheng-Chia

    2017-01-01

    Background/Purpose: Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are deemed as the driving force of tumorigenesis in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs). In this study, we investigated the chemotherapeutic effect of sulforaphane, a dietary component from broccoli sprouts, on targeting OSCC-CSCs. Methods: The effect of sulforaphane on normal oral epithelial cells (SG) and sphere-forming OSCC-CSCs isolated from SAS and GNM cells was examined. ALDH1 activity and CD44 positivity of OSCC-CSCs with sulforaphane t...

  15. The role of oxidative stress and periodontal disease in squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity – a review

    OpenAIRE

    Simina Boia1,; Marioara Poenaru2,; Doina Onisei1,; Dan Onisei1,; Nicolae Constantin Balica2,; Eugen Radu Boia2

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVES AND BACKGROUND This multidisciplinary and retrospective study of the Periodontal, Ear nose and throat, Oral-Maxillofacial and Biochemical literature aims, highlights and recalls the important role of the oxidative stress (OS) and periodontal disease in the development of squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity (OSCC). MATERIALS AND METHODS In the present study we analyzed a total number of 670 cases, collected from specialized scientific papers bel...

  16. The role of oxidative stress and periodontal disease in squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity – a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simina Boia1,

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES AND BACKGROUND This multidisciplinary and retrospective study of the Periodontal, Ear nose and throat, Oral-Maxillofacial and Biochemical literature aims, highlights and recalls the important role of the oxidative stress (OS and periodontal disease in the development of squamous cell carcinomas of the oral cavity (OSCC. MATERIALS AND METHODS In the present study we analyzed a total number of 670 cases, collected from specialized scientific papers belonging to several authors of international level. These scientific papers are focused on highlighting the most common lipid peroxidation marker, Malondialdehyde (MDA, of both periodontal disease and squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity from serum or saliva samples that are biochemically collected and analyzed. RESULTS In all analyzed studies, we found that oxidative stress alters the composition of saliva. Also the depletion of antioxidants was remarked in the groups of subjects diagnosed with OSCC and those affected by periodontal disease. Scientific studies that investigated smokers, revealed the fact that these patients also show increased levels of reactive oxygen species. Thus, it is very likely that oxidative damage is intensified by smoking. CONCLUSIONS The purpose of this review was to emphasize the importance of oxidative stress in the development of periodontal disease as a first stage towards the development of squamous cell carcinomas and to represent the essential foundation of more extensive future investigations. REFERENCES 1. Rashmi M, Saumya B. Evaluation of salivary and serum lipid peroxidation, and glutathione in oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma. Journal of Oral Science. 2014;56:135-142. 2. Tóthová L, Kamodyová N, Červenka T, Celec P. Salivary markers of oxidative stress in oral diseases. Front. Cell. Infect. Microbiol. 2015. 3. Bahar G, Feinmesser R, Shpitzer T, Popovtzer A, Nagler RM, Salivary analysis in oral cancer patients: DNA and protein

  17. Galectin-9 as an important marker in the differential diagnosis between oral squamous cell carcinoma, oral leukoplakia and oral lichen planus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muniz, Janusa Maria; Bibiano Borges, Cláudia Renata; Beghini, Marcela; de Araújo, Marcelo Sivieri; Miranda Alves, Polyanna; de Lima, Lilian Margareth Biagioni; Pereira, Sanívia Aparecida de Lima; Nogueira, Ruchele Dias; Napimoga, Marcelo Henrique; Rodrigues, Virmondes; Rodrigues, Denise Bertulucci Rocha

    2015-08-01

    To evaluate the expression of Galectins (Gal) 1, 3 and 9, Metalloproteinase 3 (MMP-3) and mast cell density in oral lesions of patients with potentially malignant disorders (PMD) and oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) by comparison with the controls. We selected 40 cases of PMD, 40 OSCC and 13 with normal histopathological profile. Immunohistochemistry was performed for Gal-1, Gal-3, Gal-9 and MMP-3. Gal-9 was significantly higher in patients with OSCC than in others groups (p leukoplakia than those with OSCC and controls (p = 0.0001). Gal-3 was significantly lower in patients with OSCC than those with leukoplakia (p = 0.03). MMP-3 was lower in patients with leukoplakia in comparison with the lichen planus group (p = 0.013). The increased expression of Gal-9 may be helpful to differentiate of OSCC from other oral cavity lesions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  18. Salivary and serum level of CYFRA 21-1 in oral precancer and oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, K; Ramya, R; Nandhini, G; Rajashree, P; Ramesh Kumar, A; Nirmala Anandan, S

    2015-01-01

    CYFRA 21-1, a constituent of the intermediate filament proteins of epithelial cells, is known to be increased in many cancers. This study was designed to estimate the levels of salivary and serum CYFRA 21-1 in patients with oral precancer and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and compare them with healthy controls. Each group comprised of 100 subjects. Saliva and blood samples were collected from patients with OSCC, premalignant subjects, and normal healthy subjects. Serum and salivary CYFRA 21-1 levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Appropriate statistical tests were employed to assess diagnostic potency of CYFRA 21-1. We found a significant increase in CYFRA 21-1 level in OSCC compared with PML and healthy subjects. Salivary CYFRA 21-1 levels in OSCC was threefold higher when compared to serum levels. PML group showed increased salivary CYFRA 21-1 when compared to control subjects, but it was significantly lower compared with OSCC. Receiver operator characteristic curve analysis showed salivary CYFRA 21-1 to have superior sensitivity in detecting OSCC compared with serum CYFRA 21-1. The outcome of this study suggests that salivary CYFRA 21-1 can be utilized as a biomarker in early detection of oral cancer. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma: role of pretreatment imaging and its influence on management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arya, S; Rane, P; Deshmukh, A

    2014-09-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) is the commonest malignancy in the oral cavity. The oral cavity has several subsites. Knowledge of the patterns of disease spread at each subsite with the impact on treatment and prognosis provides a deeper understanding of the role of imaging. Information from imaging helps accurate staging, assess resectability, and plan multimodality treatment. Mandibular erosion, posterior soft tissue extent, and perineural spread influence treatment and prognosis in gingival, buccal, and retromolar trigone (RMT) cancers. Multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) with multiplanar reformations and bone and soft tissue algorithms provides the highest specificity for bone erosion. Hard palate SCC is optimally imaged with contrast-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to detect perineural spread. In oral tongue and floor of the mouth (FOM) SCC, extrinsic muscle invasion, extension across the midline, extent of posterior and inferior spread, and proximity to the hyoid are issues that impact therapeutic options. Contrast-enhanced MRI is the optimal imaging method for staging the primary due to its superior soft tissue resolution. In oral tongue SCCs with tumour thickness ≤4 mm, elective neck dissection can be avoided. For nodal staging (N-staging), all imaging methods are comparable, but fall short of surgical staging. Sentinel lymph node biopsy has a promising role in N-staging. Positron emission tomography (PET)/integrated PET/CT has no role in evaluating the clinically negative neck. PET/CT has a role in pretreatment evaluation of advanced oral cavity SCC for depicting distant metastases and for mapping nodal extent in the clinically positive neck. Diffusion-weighted MRI, dynamic contrast-enhanced MRI, and CT perfusion have a potential role as baseline pretreatment studies for response assessment to chemoradiation in advanced oral cavity SCC. Copyright © 2014 The Royal College of Radiologists. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Nrf2 regulates cellular behaviors and Notch signaling in oral squamous cell carcinoma cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Hong; Paiboonrungruan, Chorlada; Zhang, Xinyan; Prigge, Justin R; Schmidt, Edward E; Sun, Zheng; Chen, Xiaoxin

    2017-11-04

    Oxidative stress is known to play a pivotal role in the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We have demonstrated that activation of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling pathway has chemopreventive effects against oxidative stress-associated OSCC. However, Nrf2 have dual roles in cancer development; while it prevents carcinogenesis of normal cells, hyperactive Nrf2 also promotes the survival of cancer cells. This study is aimed to understand the function of Nrf2 in regulating cellular behaviors of OSCC cells, and the potential mechanisms through which Nrf2 facilitates OSCC. We established the Nrf2-overexpressing and Nrf2-knockdown OSCC cell lines, and examined the function of Nrf2 in regulating cell proliferation, migration, invasion, cell cycle and colony formation. Our data showed that Nrf2 overexpression promoted cancer phenotypes in OSCC cells, whereas Nrf2 silencing inhibited these phenotypes. In addition, Nrf2 positively regulated Notch signaling pathway in OSCC cells in vitro. Consistent with this observation, Nrf2 activation in Keap1-/- mice resulted in not only hyperproliferation of squamous epithelial cells in mouse tongue as evidenced by increased expression of PCNA, but also activation of Notch signaling in these cells as evidenced by increased expression of NICD1 and Hes1. In conclusion, Nrf2 regulates cancer behaviors and Notch signaling in OSCC cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Clinical Significance and Prognostic Value of the Expression of LAMP3 in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

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    Jun Lu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies demonstrated high expression of lysosome-associated membrane protein 3 (LAMP3 in a variety of malignancies including esophageal squamous cell carcinoma, gastrointestinal cancer, breast cancer, and cervical cancer and its involvement in several biological activities of tumor cells. However, the expression of LAMP3 and its value in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC remain unclear. In this study, we examined the expression of LAMP3 in OSCC tissue samples and investigated the relationship between LAMP3 and clinical characteristics of patients with OSCC. We examined mRNA and protein levels of LAMP3 in OSCC tissues and neighboring normal tissues using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction and immunohistochemistry analyses, respectively. Both the mRNA and protein levels of LAMP3 were significantly higher in OSCC tissues than in adjacent normal tissues. Chi-square analysis showed that the high LAMP3 expression was notably linked to the degree of tumor differentiation and advanced TNM stage. Univariate and multivariate analyses showed that the high LAMP3 expression was an independent prognostic marker in OSCC. Our results suggest that LAMP3 might act as a potential anticancer target and a prognostic marker in patients with OSCC.

  2. Squamous Cell Carcinoma Arising from Inverted Schneiderian Papilloma: A Case Report with Oral Involvement

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    Alexandre Simões Garcia

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Inverted Schneiderian papilloma is an uncommon benign tumor that presents tendency to recur and propensity to be associated with malignancy in approximately 10% of the cases. Some of these lesions are isolated in the maxillary sinus, and predominantly affect white males with mean age of 50 years. We report a case of squamous cell carcinoma arising from inverted Schneiderian papilloma in the maxillary sinus extending to the mouth. The patient was submitted to extraction of a maxillary molar tooth four months before the exacerbation of the symptoms of nasal airway obstruction and facial enlargement. Computed tomography scan revealed a sinonasal mass causing opacification of the right maxillary sinus with destruction of the lateral nasal wall and maxillary sinus floor. The patient was referred to an oncology center for treatment and died from tumor progression one year after the cancer was diagnosed. The intention of this report is to alert dentists to include the inverted Schneiderian papilloma, either associated with squamous cell carcinoma, or not, in the differential diagnosis of maxillary sinus tumors with aggressive behavior, which may extend to the oral cavity or involve roots of teeth.

  3. Collision Tumour of Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Malignant Melanoma in the Oral Cavity of a Dog.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, F; Castro, P; Ramírez, G A

    2016-05-01

    A 7-year-old, male cocker spaniel was presented with a gingival proliferative lesion in the rostral maxilla and enlargement of the regional lymph node. Morphological and immunohistochemical analysis revealed a collision tumour composed of two malignant populations, epithelial and melanocytic, with metastasis of the neoplastic melanocytes to the regional lymph node. The epithelial component consisted of trabeculae and islands of well-differentiated squamous epithelium immunoreactive to cytokeratins. The melanocytic component had a varying degree of pigmentation of polygonal and spindle-shaped cells, growing in nests or densely packed aggregates and immunolabelled with S100, melanoma-associated antigen (melan A), neuron-specific enolase and vimentin antibodies. Protein markers involved in tumorigenesis or cell proliferation (i.e. COX-2, p53, c-kit and Ki67), were overexpressed by the neoplastic cells. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first description of an oral collision tumour involving malignant melanoma and squamous cell carcinoma in the dog. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. FGFR Family Members Protein Expression as Prognostic Markers in Oral Cavity and Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koole, Koos; Clausen, Martijn J A M; van Es, Robert J J; van Kempen, Pauline M W; Melchers, Lieuwe J; Koole, Ron; Langendijk, Johannes A; van Diest, Paul J; Roodenburg, Jan L N; Schuuring, Ed; Willems, Stefan M

    2016-08-01

    Fibroblast growth factor receptor family member proteins (FGFR1-4) have been identified as promising novel therapeutic targets and prognostic markers in a wide spectrum of solid tumors. The present study investigates the expression and prognostic value of four FGFR family member proteins in a large multicenter oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC) and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) cohort. Protein expression of FGFR1-4 was determined by immunohistochemistry on tissue microarrays containing 951 formalin-fixed paraffin embedded OCSCC and OPSCC tissues from the University Medical Center Utrecht and University Medical Center Groningen. Protein expression was correlated to overall survival using Cox regression models, and bootstrapping was performed as internal validation. FGFR proteins were highly expressed in 39-64 % of OCSCC and 63-79 % of OPSCC. Seventy-three percent (299/412) of OCSCC and 85 % (305/357) of OPSCC highly co-expressed two or more FGFR family member proteins. FGFR1 protein was more frequently highly expressed in human papillomavirus (HPV)-negative OPSCC than HPV-positive OPSCC (82 vs. 65 %; p = 0.008). Furthermore, protein expression of FGFR family members was not related to overall survival in OCSCC or OPSCC (p > 0.05). FGFR family members are frequently highly expressed in OCSCC and OPSCC. These FGFR family member proteins are therefore potential targets for novel therapies that are urgently required to improve survival of OCSCC and OPSCC patients.

  5. Bupropion Hydrochloride or Patient's Choice for Smoking Cessation in Patients With Squamous Cell Head and Neck Cancer Undergoing Radiation Therapy With or Without Chemotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-05-30

    Current Smoker; Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma; Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  6. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma: current status and unresolved challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bluemel, Christina; Herrmann, Ken [University Hospital of Wuerzburg, Department of Nuclear Medicine, Wuerzburg (Germany); Rubello, Domenico [Rovigo Hospital, Department of Nuclear Medicine-PET/CT Oncologic and Endocrine Sections, Rovigo (Italy); Colletti, Patrick M. [University of Southern California, Department of Radiology, Los Angeles, CA (United States); Bree, Remco de [UMC Utrecht Cancer Center, Department of Head and Neck Surgical Oncology, Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2015-08-15

    Because imaging with ultrasound, computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging or positron emission tomography is unreliable for preoperative lymph node staging of early-stage oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), elective neck dissection has been typically performed. The targeted sampling of sentinel lymph nodes (SLN) identified by lymphoscintigraphy and detected by gamma probe has become an effective alternative for the selection of patients for regional nodal resection. With careful consideration to technique, high SLN detection rates have been reported. Advanced techniques including intraoperative handheld gamma camera imaging and freehand single photon emission computed tomography (SPECT) are expected to increase surgical confidence in these procedures. This review gives an update on SLN biopsy in patients with OSCC including clinical standards and controversial aspects. (orig.)

  7. Immunohistochemical analysis of mast cell infiltrates and microvessel density in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyziak, L; Stasikowska-Kanicka, O; Danilewicz, M; Wągrowska-Danilewicz, M

    2013-12-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate mast cell concentration and microvessel density in perilesional and intralesional regions of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and furthermore to assess the possible relationship between the above-mentioned parameters. Paraffin-embedded specimens from 47 cases of OSCC and 12 cases of normal mucosa were investigated immunohistochemically with anti-CD-31 antibody to stain microvessels and anti-tryptase antibody to visualize mast cells. The degree of vascularization and mast cell infiltration was measured with an image analysis system. The study revealed considerably increased microvessel density and mast cell abundance in intralesional and perilesional regions of OSCCs in comparison to normal mucosa. There was a significant positive correlation between microvessel density and mast cell concentration in both localizations of OSCCs (p therapeutic significance which require further research.

  8. Incidence of Mast Cells in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Short Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Anuradha

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Mast cells are regarded as complex and multifunctional cells, playing a significant role in immunopathology and a substantial role in tumor angiogenesis. Angiogenesis is a complex process that is tightly regulated by various growth factors in which mast cells act directly by releasing angiogenic factors and henceforth promoting tumor growth and metastasis. The aim of this study is to evaluate the number of mast cells in tissue sections of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC in comparison with normal mucosa. A total of 40 cases (20 OSCC and 20 normal mucosa were stained with 1% toluidine blue and the quantitative analysis was done by using light microscope under 400x magnification. A significant increase in the mast cell count was observed in the sections of OSCC when compared to normal mucosa suggesting their contributing role in tumor growth and progression.

  9. Correlation of clinical, cytological and histological findings in oral squamous cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sousa, Michele Cardoso; Alves, Monica Ghislaine Oliveira; Souza, Luciano Albino; Brandão, Adriana Aigotti Haberbeck; Almeida, Janete Dias; Cabral, Luiz Antonio Guimarães

    2014-08-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the efficiency of exfoliative cytology by correlating the clinical lesions of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) with exfoliative cytology and histopathological findings. Cases of OSCC diagnosed between 1984 and 2010 were analyzed. The inclusion criteria for the present study were the availability of detailed clinical findings and a diagnosis of the disease through exfoliative cytology and histopathology. The cases were assessed and assigned scores, which were then submitted to modal expression analysis, which considers the higher frequency scores, thus relating the variables. The cytological findings demonstrated that the majority of the cases had malignant potential. Exfoliative cytology should be used as a supplementary tool for the diagnosis of OSCC, as it enables the early detection of these lesions. However, cytology should not be used as a substitute for histopathological examination.

  10. Circulating tumor cells in oral squamous cell carcinoma-an enigma or reality?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N Anitha

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC is ranking 1 st among males and 4 th among females in India. In spite of major advances in diagnosis and treatment of OSCC, survival rates, have remained poor. Circulating tumor cells (CTCs in the blood stream, play an important role in establishing metastases. It is important to identify patients suffering from nonlocalized tumor with "circulating" tumor cells to determine the tailor made, systemic therapy in addition to local resection and irradiation. Thus, detecting metastases at an early stage are needed for better prognosis and survival. CTCs as new prognostic marker to detect the metastatic potential will provide a novel insight into tumor burden and efficacy of therapy. The recent advances and its application in OSCC will be reviewed.

  11. Retracted: Worst Pattern Of Invasion and occult cervical metastases for oral squamous carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velosa, Claudia; Shi, Qiuying; Stevens, Todd M; Chiosea, Simion I; Purgina, Bibiana; Carroll, William; Rosenthal, Eben; Morlandt, Anthony; Loree, Thom; Brandwein-Weber, Margaret S

    2017-03-28

    The above article, published online in Wiley Online Library as the Version of Record on March 28, 2017 (doi 10.1002/hed.24754), has been retracted by agreement between the Editor-in-Chief, Ehab Y. Hanna, and Wiley Periodicals, Inc. The retraction has been agreed owing to a dispute as to authorship and inclusion of some data in the analysis. Velosa, C., Shi, Q., Stevens, T. M., Chiosea, S. I., Purgina, B., Carroll, W., Rosenthal, E., Morlandt, A., Loree, T. and Brandwein-Weber, M. S. (2017), Worst pattern of invasion and occult cervical metastases for oral squamous carcinoma. Head Neck. doi:10.1002/hed.24754. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Variation in treatment and outcome in the early stage oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gogarty, Darragh S; Lennon, Paul; Deady, Sandra; Barry O'Sullivan, J; McArdle, Orla; Leader, Mary; Sheahan, Patrick; O'Neill, James Paul

    2017-02-01

    This study aims to determine the survival impact of patient characteristics and treatment options associated with the early stage oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma, OCSCC. The methods are analysis of Irish cancer database examining T1/2, N0, and M0 cases of OCSCC from 1997 to 2007 inclusive. In total, 397 cases were identified. Anterolateral tongue accounted for 52.9 % of cases. Increased age at diagnosis and smoking are independent prognostic survival indicators associated with poorer outcomes. Surgery as the initial intervention was associated with significantly better survival outcomes, while surgery and adjuvant radiotherapy significantly worse outcomes. Surgical intervention is recommended as the first-line treatment in the early stage OCSCC in combination with elective neck dissection.

  13. Hypoxia inducible factor: a potential prognostic biomarker in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qian, Jiang; Wenguang, Xu; Zhiyong, Wang; Yuntao, Zou; Wei, Han

    2016-08-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common oral cancer. Hypoxia inducible factor (HIF) is involved in many malignant tumors' growth and metastasis and upregulated by hypoxia, including oral cancer. Many studies have studied about the prognostic value of HIF expression in OSCC; however, they do not get the consistent results. Therefore, this study explored the correlation between the HIF expression and the prognosis of OSCC. It conducted a meta-analysis of relevant publications searched in the Web of Science, PubMed, and ISI Web of Knowledge databases. Totally, this study identified 12 relevant articles reporting a total of 1112 patients. This analysis revealed a significant association between increased risk of mortality (RR = 1.20; 95 % CI 0.74-1.95; I (2) 85.4 %) and overexpression of HIFs. Furthermore, different HIF isoforms were associated with overall survival [HIF-1α (RR = 1.18; 95 % CI 0.66-2.11; I (2) 87.2 %) and HIF-2α (RR = 1.40; 95 % CI 0.93-2.09; I(2) 0.0 %)]. These results show that overexpression of HIFs, regardless of whether the HIF-1α or HIF-2α isoforms are overexpressed is significantly associated with increased risk of mortality in OSCC patients. In this study, the funnel is symmetric, suggesting existed no publication bias.

  14. Volatile Organic Compounds in the Breath of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Patients: A Pilot Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartwig, Stefan; Raguse, Jan D; Pfitzner, Dorothee; Preissner, Robert; Paris, Sebastian; Preissner, Saskia

    2017-12-01

    Objective To assess the feasibility of detecting signature volatile organic compounds in the breath of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma. Study Design Prospective cohort pilot study. Setting University hospital. Subjects and Methods Using gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, emitted volatile organic compounds in the breath of patients before and after curative surgery (n = 10) were compared with those of healthy subjects (n = 4). It was hypothesized that certain volatile organic compounds disappear after surgical therapy. A characteristic signature of these compounds for diseased patients was compiled and validated. Results Breath analyses revealed 125 volatile organic compounds in patients with oral cancer. A signature of 8 compounds that were characteristic for patients with oral cancer could be detected: 3 from this group presented were absent after surgery. Conclusion The presented results confirmed the hypothesis of an absence of cancer-associated volatile organic compounds in the breath after therapy. In this pilot study, we proved the feasibility of this test approach. Further studies should be initiated to establish protocols for usage in a clinical setting.

  15. Biomarkers in molecular epidemiology study of oral squamous cell carcinoma in the era of precision medicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qing-Hao Zhu

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancer, which occurs in the mouth, lips, and tongue, is a multifactorial disease whose etiology involves environment, genetic, and epigenetic factors. Tobacco use and alcohol consumption are regarded as the primary risk factors for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC, and betel use, other chemicals, radiation, environmental, and genetics are reported as relevant risk factors for oral carcinogenesis. The human papillomavirus infection is an independent risk factor. Traditional epidemiology studies have revealed that environmental carcinogens are risk factors for OSCC. Molecular epidemiology studies have revealed that the susceptibility to OSCC is influenced by both environmental and genetic risk factors. However, the details and mechanisms of risk factors involved in OSCC are unclear. Advanced methods and techniques used in human genome studies provide great opportunities for researchers to explore and identify (a the details of such risk factors and (b genetic susceptibility involved in OSCC. Human genome epidemiology is a new branch of epidemiology, which leads the epidemiology study from the molecular epidemiology era into the era of genome-wide association study. In the era of precision medicine, molecular epidemiology studies should focus on biomarkers for cancer genomics and their potential utility in clinical practice. Here, we briefly reviewed several molecular epidemiology studies of OSCC, focusing on biomarkers as valuable utility in risk assessment, clinical screening, diagnosis, and prognosis prediction of OSCC in the era of precision medicine.

  16. Diagnostic utility of central node necrosis in predicting extracapsular spread among oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Randall, Derrick R; Lysack, John T; Hudon, Marc E; Guggisberg, Kelly; Nakoneshny, Steven C; Wayne Matthews, T; Dort, Joseph C; Chandarana, Shamir P

    2015-01-01

    Oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) represents the most common SCC affecting the head and neck region. Long-term survival of patients with oral cavity SCC is adversely affected by lymph node metastasis and further decreased by the presence of lymph node extracapsular spread (ECS). Using a case-control design, preoperative CT scans from patients with oral cavity SCC and metastatic lymphadenopathy were evaluated by 2 independent neuroradiologists, blinded to the study, for a number of radiologic parameters, including central node necrosis. Multivariate logistic regression was used to identify parameters independently predicting pathologic ECS. For both neuroradiologists, central node necrosis was a significant predictor of ECS, with high interrater agreement (kappa = 0.71). On multivariate analysis, only central node necrosis independently predicted ECS (odds ratio [OR] = 12.1; 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.24-119). Central node necrosis predicted ECS with 91% sensitivity and 88% negative predictive values. Our findings suggest that central node necrosis on preoperative CT scans is strongly associated with the presence of ECS. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Serum big endothelin-1 as a biomarker in oral squamous cell carcinoma patients: an analytical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankapure, Pritam Kumar; Barpande, Suresh Ramchandra; Bhavthankar, Jyoti Dilip; Mandale, Manda

    2015-10-01

    Detection of abnormally elevated levels of molecules in patients with oral cancer may be useful in early diagnosis. These markers can be included in current Histopathology grading and in TNM staging systems of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC) to make it more efficient. Several pro-angiogenic molecules have been assessed for the same reason. Endothelin-1 (ET-1) is a vasoactive peptide associated with the development and spread of many solid tumors, including Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC), but its utility in OSCC has not been confirmed. This study aims to evaluate the role of the serum big ET-1 as a biomarker of OSCC, by correlating it with the clinical staging and the histopathological grading. Serum levels of big ET-1 measured by the sandwich Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA) in 40 OSCC cases were compared with the levels from the control group using independent t-test. Clinical stages and histopathological grades of OSCC cases were compared in relation to their mean levels of serum big ET-1, one using the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) test and the other the independent t-test, respectively. The significance of the mean difference between the groups was evaluated by Tukey's multiple comparison test. All statistical analyses were performed on GraphPad statistical software version 5.0. By comparing the mean of the big ET-1 concentrations of cases and controls, the independent t-test revealed significant higher big ET-1 concentration of OSCC cases when compared to controls (pbig ET-1. However, the mean of the big ET-1 concentrations of cases of grade I and of grade II did not differ statistically (p=0.729). Serum big ET-1 levels may be useful as a diagnostic tool in OSCC and as an adjunct to OSCC staging. However, its use as a prognostic marker warrants larger prospective studies.

  18. Cancer stem cell-like cells from a single cell of oral squamous carcinoma cell lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felthaus, O. [Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, University of Regensburg (Germany); Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Regensburg (Germany); Ettl, T.; Gosau, M.; Driemel, O. [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Regensburg (Germany); Brockhoff, G. [Department of Gynecology and Obstetrics, University of Regensburg (Germany); Reck, A. [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Regensburg (Germany); Zeitler, K. [Institute of Pathology, University of Regensburg (Germany); Hautmann, M. [Department of Radiotherapy, University of Regensburg (Germany); Reichert, T.E. [Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, University of Regensburg (Germany); Schmalz, G. [Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, University of Regensburg (Germany); Morsczeck, C., E-mail: christian.morsczeck@klinik.uni-regensburg.de [Department of Operative Dentistry and Periodontology, University of Regensburg (Germany)

    2011-04-01

    Research highlights: {yields} Four oral squamous cancer cell lines (OSCCL) were analyzed for cancer stem cells (CSCs). {yields} Single cell derived colonies of OSCCL express CSC-marker CD133 differentially. {yields} Monoclonal cell lines showed reduced sensitivity for Paclitaxel. {yields} In situ CD133{sup +} cells are slow cycling (Ki67-) indicating a reduced drug sensitivity. {yields} CD133{sup +} and CSC-like cells can be obtained from single colony forming cells of OSCCL. -- Abstract: Resistance of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) to conventional chemotherapy or radiation therapy might be due to cancer stem cells (CSCs). The development of novel anticancer drugs requires a simple method for the enrichment of CSCs. CSCs can be enriched from OSCC cell lines, for example, after cultivation in serum-free cell culture medium (SFM). In our study, we analyzed four OSCC cell lines for the presence of CSCs. CSC-like cells could not be enriched with SFM. However, cell lines obtained from holoclone colonies showed CSC-like properties such as a reduced rate of cell proliferation and a reduced sensitivity to Paclitaxel in comparison to cells from the parental lineage. Moreover, these cell lines differentially expressed the CSC-marker CD133, which is also upregulated in OSCC tissues. Interestingly, CD133{sup +} cells in OSCC tissues expressed little to no Ki67, the cell proliferation marker that also indicates reduced drug sensitivity. Our study shows a method for the isolation of CSC-like cell lines from OSCC cell lines. These CSC-like cell lines could be new targets for the development of anticancer drugs under in vitro conditions.

  19. Curcumin targets fibroblast–tumor cell interactions in oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dudás, József, E-mail: jozsef.dudas@i-med.ac.at [Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Medical University Innsbruck, Anichstrasse 35, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Fullár, Alexandra, E-mail: fullarsz@gmail.com [Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Medical University Innsbruck, Anichstrasse 35, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); 1st Department of Pathology and Experimental Cancer Research, Semmelweis University, Üllői út 26, 1085 Budapest (Hungary); Romani, Angela, E-mail: angela.romani@i-med.ac.at [Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Medical University Innsbruck, Anichstrasse 35, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Pritz, Christian, E-mail: christian.pritz@i-med.ac.at [Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Medical University Innsbruck, Anichstrasse 35, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Kovalszky, Ilona, E-mail: koval@korb1.sote.hu [1st Department of Pathology and Experimental Cancer Research, Semmelweis University, Üllői út 26, 1085 Budapest (Hungary); Hans Schartinger, Volker, E-mail: volker.schartinger@i-med.ac.at [Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Medical University Innsbruck, Anichstrasse 35, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Mathias Sprinzl, Georg, E-mail: georg.sprinzl@i-med.ac.at [Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Medical University Innsbruck, Anichstrasse 35, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria); Riechelmann, Herbert, E-mail: herbert.riechelmann@i-med.ac.at [Department of Otorhinolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery, Medical University Innsbruck, Anichstrasse 35, A-6020 Innsbruck (Austria)

    2013-04-01

    Co-culture of periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PDLs) and SCC-25 oral squamous carcinoma cells (OSCC) results in conversion of PDLs into carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and induces epithelial-to mesenchymal transition (EMT) of OSCC tumor cells. We hypothesized that Curcumin targets this dynamic mutual interaction between CAFs and tumor cells. Normal and 2 μM Curcumin-treated co-culture were performed for 4 days, followed by analysis of tumor cell invasivity, mRNA/protein expression of EMT-markers and mediators, activity measure of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP-9), and western blot analysis of signal transduction in tumor cells and fibroblasts. In Curcumin-treated co-culture, in tumor cells, the levels of nuclear factor κB (NFκBα) and early response kinase (ERK)—decreased, in fibroblasts, integrin αv protein synthesis decreased compared to corresponding cells in normal co-culture. The signal modulatory changes induced by Curcumin caused decreased release of EMT-mediators in CAFs and reversal of EMT in tumor cells, which was associated with decreased invasion. These data confirm the palliative potential of Curcumin in clinical application. - Graphical abstract: Co-culture of periodontal ligament fibroblasts (PDLs) and SCC-25 oral squamous carcinoma cells (OSCC) results in conversion of PDLs into carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and induces epithelial-to mesenchymal transition (EMT) of tumor cells. Curcumin targets this dynamic mutual interaction between CAFs and tumor cells by inhibiting the production of EMT mediators in CAFs and by modification of intracellular signaling in tumor cells. This causes less invasivity and reversal of EMT in tumor cells. Highlights: ► Curcumin targets tumor–fibroblast interaction in head and neck cancer. ► Curcumin suppresses mediators of epithelial–mesenchymal transition. ► Curcumin decreases the invasivity of tumor cells.

  20. The Role of Heat Shock Proteins in Pathogenesis of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adi Prayitno

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Cell in the distress situation, denaturation of proteins may occur, and may also respond by expressing stress proteins. However, such homeostasis effort does not always succeed and even may lead to disease, including cancer. In distress situation also ensue much protein misfolding. Objective: This research were to explain the role of heat shock protein 40 (Hsp40 and Hsp70 in pathogenesis of occurred oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC patient which realized human papilloma virus (HPV infection. Material and Method: Tissue biopsy frozen section were taken from BOSC and OSCC patients was cut into three part. Parrafin blocks were made from cutting I, which was subsequently stains with HE to ascertain the type of neoplasm. Cutting II was subjected to DNA isolation. The DNA isolation results were subjected to PCR to amplify L1-HPV gene for fixed the HPV stressoor. Protein isolation was treated from Cutting III, folloewd with Blottdot test by using antibody monoclonal anti Hsp40 and Hsp70 and continued with measurement using densitometer to find the concentration of Hsp40 and Hsp70. The collected data were analyzed with F Test (Manova and discriminant analysis. Result: This experiment showed the differences in concentration of Hsp40 (p<=0,070 and Hsp70 (p<=0,006 between beningn oral squamous cell (BOSC and OSCC patients which realized HPV infection. Conclusion: This experiment proved that OSCC patients which realized HPV infection indicated an up regulated of Hsp70 concentration, so that there was occurs misfolding of the proteins cell. The misfolding was ensue obstacle of apoptosis and to raise cell proliferation which to storm carcinogenesis. An up regulated of Hsp40 was role as co-chaperone.DOI: 10.14693/jdi.v16i2.91 

  1. Study of Collagen Birefringence in Different Grades of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Using Picrosirius Red and Polarized Light Microscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pillai Arun Gopinathan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. The present study was done to evaluate birefringence pattern of collagen fibres in different grades of oral squamous cell carcinoma using Picrosirius red stain and polarization microscopy and to determine if there is a change in collagen fibres between different grades of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Materials and Methods. Picrosirius red stained 5 μm thick sections of previously diagnosed different grades of squamous cell carcinoma and normal oral mucosa were studied under polarization microscopy for arrangement as well as birefringence of collagen fibres around tumour islands. Results. It was found that thin collagen fibres increased and thick collagen fibres decreased with dedifferentiation of OSCC (P<0.0001 . It was observed that there was change in polarization colours of thick fibres from yellowish orange to greenish yellow with dedifferentiation of OSCC indicating loosely packed fibres (P<0.0001. Conclusion. There was a gradual change of birefringence of collagen from yellowish orange to greenish yellow from well to poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, indicating that there is a change from mature form of collagen to immature form as tumour progresses. Studying collagen fibres with Picrosirius red for stromal changes around tumour islands along with routine staining may help in predicting the prognosis of tumour.

  2. Retracted: Knockdown of tumor protein D52-like 2 induces cell growth inhibition and apoptosis in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-03-01

    The above article, published online on 13 October 2014 in Wiley Online Library (http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/10.1002/cbin.10388/abstract), has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the journal Editor, Sergio Schenkman, and John Wiley & Sons Ltd. The retraction has been agreed because the authors discovered after publication that one of the cell lines described in the article had been unintentionally misidentified. The experiments described in the article as being conducted on Human Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma cell line KB were in fact conducted on a Human Oral Epidermal-like Cancer cell line. The authors and publisher apologise for any inconvenience. References He Y, Chen F, Cai Y and Chen S (2015) Knockdown of tumor protein D52-like 2 induces cell growth inhibition and apoptosis in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Cell Biology International 39: 264-271. doi: 10.1002/cbin.10388. © 2016 International Federation for Cell Biology.

  3. Postoperative (Chemo)Radiotherapy for Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinomas: Outcomes and Patterns of Failure.

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    Metcalfe, E; Aspin, L; Speight, R; Ermiş, E; Ramasamy, S; Cardale, K; Dyker, K E; Sen, M; Prestwich, R J D

    2017-01-01

    To determine outcomes after adjuvant radiotherapy for squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and to correlate locoregional recurrence patterns with radiotherapy target volumes. All patients receiving adjuvant radiotherapy±chemotherapy after surgery with curative intent for oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma between 2007 and 2012 were retrospectively analysed. Locoregional recurrences were reconstructed on the planning computed tomography scan by both deformable image co-registration and by visual assessment. Recurrences were categorised as in-field, marginal or out-of-field if >95%, 20-95%, and Oral cavity subsites included oral tongue (54%) and floor of mouth (32%). Thirty (28%) patients received concurrent chemotherapy. Fifty-five (52%) patients received bilateral neck radiotherapy. Two year overall, disease-free, local disease-free, regional disease-free and distant metastases-free survival were 72, 83, 92, 89, 94%, respectively. On multivariate analysis, extracapsular nodal spread was the only factor significantly associated with inferior overall survival. Fourteen (13%) patients have experienced locoregional failure. Of the eight local recurrences at the primary tumour site, four, three and one were classified as in-field, marginal and out-of-field, respectively. Of 10 regional recurrences, one, one and eight were in-field, marginal and out-of-field. There were 7/21 (33%) contralateral regional recurrences in patients with pN2a/b disease who did not receive contralateral neck irradiation; there were 0/21 (0%) and 0/9 (0%) contralateral regional recurrences in patients with pN0 or pN1 disease, respectively, who did not receive contralateral neck irradiation. Marginal recurrences highlight the need for generous target volume delineation. Based upon rates of contralateral regional recurrences, a comprehensive approach to target volume selection should be advised for tumour subsites with bilateral lymphatic drainage in the presence of pN2a/b disease

  4. Smad2 and Smad6 as predictors of overall survival in oral squamous cell carcinoma patients

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    Snitcovsky Igor

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background To test if the expression of Smad1-8 mRNAs were predictive of survival in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC. Patients and Methods We analyzed, prospectively, the expression of Smad1-8, by means of Ribonuclease Protection Assay in 48 primary, operable, oral SCC. In addition, 21 larynx, 10 oropharynx and 4 hypopharynx SCC and 65 matched adjacent mucosa, available for study, were also included. For survival analysis, patients were categorized as positive or negative for each Smad, according to median mRNA expression. We also performed real-time quantitative PCR (QRTPCR to asses the pattern of TGFβ1, TGFβ2, TGFβ3 in oral SCC. Results Our results showed that Smad2 and Smad6 mRNA expression were both associated with survival in Oral SCC patients. Cox Multivariate analysis revealed that Smad6 positivity and Smad2 negativity were both predictive of good prognosis for oral SCC patients, independent of lymph nodal status (P = 0.003 and P = 0.029, respectively. In addition, simultaneously Smad2- and Smad6+ oral SCC group of patients did not reach median overall survival (mOS whereas the mOS of Smad2+/Smad6- subgroup was 11.6 months (P = 0.004, univariate analysis. Regarding to TGFβ isoforms, we found that Smad2 mRNA and TGFβ1 mRNA were inversely correlated (p = 0.05, R = -0.33, and that seven of the eight TGFβ1+ patients were Smad2-. In larynx SCC, Smad7- patients did not reach mOS whereas mOS of Smad7+ patients were only 7.0 months (P = 0.04. No other correlations were found among Smad expression, clinico-pathological characteristics and survival in oral, larynx, hypopharynx, oropharynx or the entire head and neck SCC population. Conclusion Smad6 together with Smad2 may be prognostic factors, independent of nodal status in oral SCC after curative resection. The underlying mechanism which involves aberrant TGFβ signaling should be better clarified in the future.

  5. Comparative cytomorphometric analysis of oral mucosal cells in normal, tobacco users, oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma

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    Mahadoon Nivia

    2015-01-01

    Conclusion: The cytomorphometric changes observed in samples from oral SCC and oral leukoplakia were consistent with the current diagnostic features. Hence, the semi-automated cytomorphometric analysis of oral mucosal cells can be used as an objective adjunct diagnostic tool in the diagnosis of these lesions.

  6. Transfection of oral squamous cell carcinoma with human papillomavirus-16 induces proliferative and morphological changes in vitro

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    O'Malley Susan

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Human papillomavirus has been implicated in virtually all cervical cancers and is believed to be the primary etiological factor that transforms cervical epithelia. The presence of HPV in oral cancers suggests that HPV may play a similar role in transforming the oral epithelia. The prevalence of HPV in oral cancers is highly variable, however, presenting problematic issues regarding the etiology of oral cancers, which must be investigated more thoroughly. Past analyses of HPV in cancers of the oral cavity have largely been confined to retrospective studies of cancer patients. The purpose of this study was to examine the potential for HPV16 infection to alter the proliferative phenotype of oral squamous cell carcinoma in vitro. Results This study found that the oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line, CAL27, transfected with HPV16, exhibited significantly increased proliferation, compared with non-transfected CAL27. The increased proliferation was observed under low density conditions, even in the absence of serum. Moreover, these effects were specific to proliferation, adhesion, and morphology, while cell viability was not affected. Conclusion This study represents one of the first investigations of the effects of HPV16 infection on the proliferation, adhesion, and morphology of an oral squamous cell carcinoma cell line in vitro. The finding that HPV16 has the ability to measurably alter adhesion and proliferative potential is significant, indicating that HPV may have multiple influences on precancerous and cancerous lesions and should be explored as a risk factor and mediator of cancer phenotypes. These measurements and observations will be of benefit to researchers interested in elucidating the mechanisms of oral cancer transformation and the factors governing carcinogenesis and progression.

  7. Differential Impact of Close Surgical Margin on Local Recurrence According to Primary Tumor Size in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

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    Jang, Jeon Yeob; Choi, Nayeon; Ko, Young-Hyeh; Chung, Man Ki; Son, Young-Ik; Baek, Chung-Hwan; Baek, Kwan-Hyuck; Jeong, Han-Sin

    2017-06-01

    The extent of surgical safety margin (gross tumor border to resection margin) in oral cancer surgery remains unclear, and no study has determined the differential impact of close surgical margin and microscopic extension according to primary tumor size in oral cancers. We retrospectively analyzed the clinical data of 325 patients with surgically treated oral cavity squamous cell carcinomas to determine the effect of a close surgical margin (gross tumor border was significantly associated with primary tumor thickness (ρ = 0.390, p margin can be redefined according to the primary tumor size.

  8. Diagnostic and therapeutic relevance of NY-ESO-1 expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

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    Ries, Jutta; Mollaoglu, Nur; Vairaktaris, Eleftherios; Neukam, Friedrich W; Nkenke, Emeka

    2009-12-01

    Cancer/testis antigen 1B (NY-ESO-1) is exclusively expressed in various types of tumor but not in healthy normal tissue, except testis, and induces strong cellular and humoral immune responses. Therefore, it represents an ideal target for diagnostic and immunotherapeutic applications. The aim of the study was to investigate the expression of NY-ESO-1 in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) to determine its impact as a diagnostic parameter or a therapeutic target for oral cancer. A total of 65 OSCC and 20 normal oral mucosal samples of otherwise healthy volunteers were included in this study. Expression of NY-ESO-1 was determined using reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). The results were correlated to diagnosis and clinicopathological parameters. NY-ESO-1 was expressed in 27.7% of the investigated tumor samples, but not in normal oral mucosal. The correlation between NY-ESO-1 expression and malignancy was significant (p=0.008). The prevalence of NY-ESO-1 expression was significantly associated with tumor size (p=0.033), but not with histological grading, positive lymph node status or clinical stage of disease. NY-ESO-1 expression is restricted to OSCC, clearly indicating malignancy. However, the expression rate of this antigen is too low for clinical application but it might be a useful additional biomarker within a multiple marker system for the diagnosis of OSCC. In addition, NY-ESO-1 might be a candidate for immunotherapy and polyvaccination in patients suffering from OSCC.

  9. Cytological grading: An alternative to histological grading in oral squamous cell carcinoma

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    Srilekha Namala

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Micronuclei (MN in oral exfoliative cells have been shown to indicate a disparaging change in genetic information of the cell. Recent studies showed correlation between the frequency of MN and severity of this damage. Grading of lesions can be used to determine the austerity of this damage. Aims: The aim of this study is to compare the MN frequency in oral exfoliated cells of normal and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC individuals and to cytologically grade the frequency of MN in cytological smears and to correlate it with histological grading. The objective is to ascertain whether MN frequency in oral exfoliated cells can be a parameter for grading of OSCC. Settings and Design: The study group comprises of 40 subjects (20 controls and 20 OSCC patients in the age group of 45-85 years. Materials and Methods: The cytosmear was obtained from each group and stained with Papanicolaou (PAP stain. Twenty cells from each slide were counted for MN and cytological grade of OSCC was assigned based on the average frequency of MN. Cytological grade was correlated with histological grading and the data were recorded. Student′s t-test and Spearman′s correlation were used for the analysis of the data. Results: Average frequency of MN was 2.5 times higher in OSCC patients when compared to that in controls and the difference was found to be highly significant. Sixty percent correlation was found between cytological grade and histological grade of OSCC and the difference between them was not significant. Conclusions: Cytological grading can be used in grading OSCC, and MN insinuates genotoxic damage occurring in the epithelial cells.

  10. Evaluation of cytomorphometric changes in tobacco users and diagnosed oral squamous cell carcinoma individuals.

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    Udayashankar, Urmila; Guduru, Vijay Srinivas; Ananthaneni, Anuradha; Ramisetty, Sabitha Devi; Kuberappa, Puneeth Horatti; Namala, Srilekha

    2016-01-01

    To determine the cellular and nuclear area of keratinocytes in smears obtained from the oral mucosa of tobacco users, those with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), and from normal healthy persons and resolve if any significant difference exists in these three groups. The study group comprised 100 subjects 20 controls, (40 OSCC patients-20 from lesional sites and 20 from nonlesional sites, 20 tobacco smokers and 20 tobacco chewers) in the age group of 25-75 years. Oral mucosal smears obtained by using a cytobrush were stained with Papanicolaou (PAP) stain and using 20X objective in trinocular Olympus model BX53 with Jenoptik scientific grade-dedicated microphotographic camera images were taken. With ProgRes version 8.0 image analysis software, 20 cells with defined borders were evaluated from each slide. Finally, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA) was used to compare the above parameters in the studied groups. Minitab and Excel software were used to analyze the data. One-way ANOVA was used to compare the above parameters in the studied groups. The mean value of the cell area for groups I, II, III, IV, and V were 2838 ± 275.2, 2762.1 ± 511.4, 2861.9 ± 512.9, 2643.8 ± 333.3, and 3064.3 ± 362.7, respectively, the nuclear area (NA) was 83.88 ± 9.86, 106.19 ± 13.45, 95.11 ± 14.24, 85.55 ± 21.11, and 80.83 ± 13.45, respectively, and nuclear-to-cellular (N:C) ratio was 0.0297, 0.03924, 0.0337, 0.03257, and 0.02678, respectively. Thus, our study elucidates that cytomorphology gauges the effect of tobacco on the oral mucosa and possibly establishes a link between premalignant and malignant transformations even before a lesion is visibly noted.

  11. Treatment of Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oral Cavity, Oropharynx and Hypopharynx

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    Luukkaa, Marjaana; Minn, Heikki; Aitasalo, Kalle; Kronqvist, Pauliina; Kulmala, Jarmo; Pyrhoenen, Seppo; Grenman, Reidar [Turku Univ. Central Hospital (Finland). Depts. of Oncology and Radiotherapy

    2003-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine the efficacy and feasibility of full-dose preoperative radiation therapy (RT) in head and neck cancer presenting in the oral cavity, oro- and hypopharynx, within a single university hospital district. During a seven-year period, 1989 to 1995, 174 patients with squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral cavity (OC, 70% of all patients), oropharynx (OP, 15%) and hypopharynx (HP, 15%) were referred to Turku University Central Hospital. All patients were seen by a tumor board consisting of an ENT (ear-nose-throat) head and neck surgeon, a radiation oncologist and a dentist. Potentially curative treatment was given to 142 patients. Of these, 88 (62%) had preoperative RT, 6 (4%) postoperative RT, 34 (24%) definitive RT and 14 patients (10%) were treated with surgery only. The radiation dose was S50 Gy, averagely 64 Gy. The major endpoints of the study were local control, overall survival and major complications of the combined treatment. The 5-year relative survival rate (RSR) was 40% for all, and 43% for patients treated with curative intent. For these, the local control at 5 years was 60%; the disease-specific 5-year survival rate was 65% for the patients with lingual SCC, 45% for those with other oral tumor localizations, 64% for the oropharynx patients and 47% for those with tumor in their hypopharynx, while it was 55% for all patients. The preoperative radiotherapy was fairly well tolerated. Ten (7%) of the patients treated with curative intent suffered major complications, and four patients had evidence of osteoradionecrosis. With the exception of patients with early SCC the outcome remains rather poor in this group of cancer patients who often have marked co-morbidity. In our opinion, preoperative radiotherapy to a dose of 62-64 Gy can safely be given, and remains a feasible means to treat patients with oral, oropharyngeal or hypopharyngeal cancer.

  12. Characterization of dendritic cells in lip and oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Costa, Nádia Lago; Gonçalves, Andréia Souza; Martins, Allisson Filipe Lopes; Arantes, Diego Antônio Costa; Silva, Tarcília Aparecida; Batista, Aline Carvalho

    2016-07-01

    There may be differences in the antitumor immunity induced by dendritic cells (DCs) during the development of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) located in the lip rather than in the oral cavity. The aim of this study was to evaluate the number of immature and mature DCs in SCC and potentially malignant disorders of the oral cavity and lip. Immunohistochemistry was used to identify the number (cells/mm(2) ) of immature (CD1a(+) ) or mature (CD83(+) ) DCs in samples of oral cavity SCC (OCSCC) (n = 39), lip SCC (LSCC) (n = 23), leukoplakia (LK) (n = 21), actinic cheilitis (AC) (n = 13), and normal mucosa of the oral cavity (OC control, n = 12) and the lip (lip control, n = 11). The number of CD1a(+) cells tended to be higher in the OC control samples compared with the LK (P = 0.04) and OCSCC (P = 0.21). Unlike, this cell population was lower in the lip control than in AC or LSCC (P cells was increased in the LSCC samples compared with the AC and lip control (P = 0.0001) and in OCSCC compared with both the LK (P = 0.001) and OC control (P = 0.0001) samples. LSCC showed an elevated number of CD1a(+) and CD83(+) cells compared with OCSCC (P = 0.03). The population of mature DCs was lower than the population of immature DCs in all of the tested groups (P < 0.05). There were a greater number of both mature and immature DC populations in the LSCC samples than in the OCSCC, which could contribute to establishing a more effective immune antitumor response for this neoplasm. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Immunohistochemical location of the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) in oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiyosue, Takahiro; Kawano, Shintaro; Matsubara, Ryota; Goto, Yuichi; Hirano, Mitsuhiro; Jinno, Teppei; Toyoshima, Takeshi; Kitamura, Ryoji; Oobu, Kazunari; Nakamura, Seiji

    2013-02-01

    Recent studies have demonstrated that the p75 neurotrophin receptor (p75NTR) is a useful marker of keratinocyte stem cells. Although the stem cell markers of original normal tissue have been used to identify cancer stem cells in a variety of cancers, the expression and function of p75NTR have been poorly understood in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The objective of this study is, thus, to examine p75NTR expression immunohistochemically in oral leukoplakia (OL), the most frequent precancerous lesion, and OSCC, and to reveal the usefulness of p75NTR as a marker for undifferentiated cancer cells and a novel prognostic factor for OSCC patients. In this study immunohistochemical expression of p75NTR, Ki-67, cytokeratin (CK) 5, and CK14 was examined in 112 cases of OL and 81 of OSCC. The labeling indices (LIs) of p75NTR and Ki-67 were calculated, and the association of these LIs with histopathologic characteristics was then evaluated. In the normal oral epithelium and OL, p75NTR was expressed only in the basal layer, and its LI was invariant, irrespective of the extent of epithelial dysplasia. In OSCC, however, p75NTR-LI was significantly increased in association with upgrading of histologic grade and mode of tumor invasion. Furthermore, the prognosis of the high p75NTR-LI group (LI ≥ 53.1%) was poorer than that of the low p75NTR-LI group (LI < 53.1%). These results suggest that p75NTR is expressed in undifferentiated cell populations in OL and OSCC. Furthermore, p75NTR is possibly involved in invasion and poor prognosis in OSCC.

  14. Oral squamous cell carcinoma: clinicopathological features from 346 cases from a single Oral Pathology service during an 8-year period

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    Fabio Ramoa Pires

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiological data from oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC is mostly derived from North American, European and East Asian populations. OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to report the demographic and clinicopathological features from OSCC diagnosed in an Oral Pathology service in southeastern Brazil in an 8-year period. MATERIAL AND METHODS: All OSCC diagnosed from 2005 to 2012 were reviewed, including histological analysis of all hematoxylin and eosin stained slides and review of all demographic and clinical information from the laboratory records. RESULTS: A total of 346 OSCC was retrieved and males represented 67% of the sample. Mean age of the patients was 62.3 years-old and females were affected a decade older than males (p<0.001. Mean time of complaint with the tumors was 10 months and site distribution showed that the border of the tongue (37%, alveolar mucosa/gingiva (20% and floor of mouth/ventral tongue (19% were the most common affected sites. Mean size of the tumors was 3.4 cm, with no differences for males and females (p=0.091 and males reported both tobacco and alcohol consumption more frequently than females. Histological grade of the tumors revealed that 27%, 40% and 21% of the tumors were, respectively, classified as well-, moderately- and poorly-differentiated OSCC, 26 cases (7.5% were microinvasive OSCC and 17 cases were OSCC variants. OSCC in males mostly affected the border of tongue, floor of mouth/ventral tongue and alveolar mucosa/gingival, while they were more frequent on the border of tongue, alveolar mucosa/gingival and buccal mucosa/buccal sulcus in females (p=0.004. CONCLUSIONS: The present data reflect the epidemiological characteristics of OSCC diagnosed in a public Oral Pathology laboratory in southeastern Brazil and have highlighted several differences in clinicopathological features when comparing male and female OSCC-affected patients.

  15. Clinicopathological Correlation Study of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma in a Local Indian Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Harish Chandra; Ahmed, Junaid

    2016-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), the most common malignancy of the oral cavity, shows geographical variation with respect to the age, sex, site and habits of the population. The histolopathologic grade of the tumor is closely related to its tissue of origin. This study was conducted to establish the prevalence of OSCC in relation to patient sex, age, habits and sites of lesions. A total of 130 cases of histopathologically diagnosed OSCC were selected for the study, out of which 66, 38 and 26 were well (WD), moderately (MD)and poorly differentiated (PD), respectively. Sections were stained with haematoxylin and eosin and graded according to a modified Borders's system. Then statistically analyzed different grades of OSCC for correlations with other variables. In our study the majority cases of OSCC were found in the 5th to 7th decades of life, males acconting for 53%. The most common site was the buccal mucosa and most cases had habit of tobacco use either in the form of chewing or smoking or both. When the different grades of OSCC were compared with different sites a statistically significant value was observed (P=0.029). The incidence of high grade PD is very much less in female patients but in males such lesions were common. In our location population the buccal mucosa is the most common site due to the tobbaco habits of the patients and majority cases of the buccal mucosa are WD whereas in tongue, floor of the mouth and palate PD are common.

  16. Membrane connexin 43 acts as an independent prognostic marker in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

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    Brockmeyer, Phillipp; Jung, Klaus; Perske, Christina; Schliephake, Henning; Hemmerlein, Bernhard

    2014-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the expression and localization of connexin (Cx) 26, -43 and -45 in a group of 35 patients with primary oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) with the objective of making a more accurate disease prognosis. We analysed the expression of connexins in tissue samples of primary OSCC, matching oral mucosa free of dysplasia, and its associated lymph node metastases (LNM) by semi-quantitative immunohistochemistry of membrane, cytoplasmic and nuclear connexin expression. The levels of expression were correlated with the overall survival time (OS). Cx43 was overexpressed in tumour cells compared to epithelia in dysplasia-free mucosa. High membrane expression of Cx43 on tumour cells was the only statistically significant and independent prognostic factor of short OS (P=0.0088). Membrane expression of Cx43 in matching dysplasia-free mucosa acted similarly, but did not reach statistical significance (P=0.059). No correlation was found between the Cx26, Cx45 expression and OS. We conclude that Cx43 expression in dysplasia-free mucosa may indicate a very early stage of tumour promotion. Although overexpression of Cx43 is found in invasive tumours we only found membrane Cx43 expression to correlate with OS. This observation suggests that cytoplasmic Cx43 serves as storage and only membrane translocation may promote the formation of gap junctions and gap junctional intercellular communication (GJIC) with prognostic relevance.

  17. The Expression and Correlation of iNOS and p53 in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

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    Lan Yang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC is the most prevalent form of oral cancer. Inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS and p53 are associated with a variety of human cancers, but their expression and interaction in OSCC have not been fully explored. In this study, we investigated the expression of iNOS and p53 in OSCC and their correlation with tumor development and prognosis. In addition, we explored the interaction of iNOS and p53 in OSCC. The expression of iNOS and p53 in OSCC was investigated using immunohistochemical method and their interaction was studied using RNAi technique. Our results showed that the expression of both iNOS and p53 was significantly correlated with tumor stages and pathological grade of OSCC (P<0.05. In contrast, there was no correlation between iNOS and p53 expression and lymph node metastasis (P<0.05. The OSCC survival rate was negatively associated with iNOS expression, but not with p53. A significant increase in the expression of the p53 was observed when iNOS expression was knocked down. The immunoexpression of iNOS is correlated with tumorigenesis and prognosis of OSCC and may serve as a prognostic marker.

  18. Comparison of COX2 expression between oral squamous cell carcinoma, leukoplakia and normal mucosa.

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    Amirchaghmaghi, Maryam; Mohtasham, Nooshin; Mozaffari, Pegah Mosannen

    2012-03-01

    To compare cyclooxygenase 2 expression (COX2-E) between normal, oral leukoplakia lesions and different grades of oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Around 90 paraffin embedded blocks consisting of 45 SCC, 15 leukoplakia and 17 controls were selected for immunohistochemistry (IHC) for detection of COX2- E. COX2-E was divided in four grades, as A (0-10%), B (11- 40%), C (41-70%) and D (leukoplakia (p > 0.05). COX2-E in spinous layer of normal tissue was significantly lower than SCC (p = 0.000). COX2-E was significantly different in SCC grade 3 and leukoplakia (p = 0.001) and normal tissue (p = 0.000). COX2-E was significantly higher in SCC grade 3 compared to leukoplakia (basal layer) (p = 0.000). We showed a significant higher COX2-E in SCC lesions compared to leukoplakias and normal controls. In our study COX2-E was not significantly different in SCC grades 1, 2 and 3 (p < 0.05).

  19. RED MEAT, MICRONUTRIENTS AND ORAL SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA OF ARGENTINE ADULT PATIENTS.

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    Secchi, Dante Gustavo; Aballay, Laura Rosana; Galíndez, María Fernanda; Piccini, Daniel; Lanfranchi, Héctor; Brunotto, Mabel

    2015-09-01

    the identification of risk group of oral cancer allows reducing the typical morbidity and mortality rates of this pathology. it was analyzed the role of red meat, macronutrients and micronutrients on Oral Squamous Cell carcinoma (OSCC) in a case-control study carried out in Cordoba, Argentina. case-control study 3:1, both genders, aged 24-80 years. Dietary information was collected using a quali-quantitative food frequency questionnaire. The logistic regression was applied for assessing the association among case/control status and daily red meat/macronutrient/ micronutrients/energy intake. micronutrients and minerals in the diet that showed high significant median values of common consumption in cases relative to controls were iron, phosphorus, vitamins B1, B5, B6, E and K and selenium. The association measurement estimated by logistic regression was showed that a significant association between red meat, fat, daily energy, phosphorous, vitamin B5, vitamin E, and selenium intake and OSCC presence. a high intake of fats, phosphorus, vitamin B5, vitamin E, and selenium intake and red meat appears to be related to the presence OSCC in Cordoba, Argentina. In relation to red meat consumption and risk of OSCC, the future research should center of attention on reducing the complexity of diet and disease relationships and reducing variability in intake data by standardizing of criteria in order to implement simple strategies in public health for recognizing risk groups of OSCC. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2014. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  20. Prevalence trends of oral squamous cell carcinoma. Mexico City's General Hospital experience.

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    Hernández-Guerrero, Juan-Carlos; Jacinto-Alemán, Luís-Fernando; Jiménez-Farfán, María-Dolores; Macario-Hernández, Alejandro; Hernández-Flores, Florentino; Alcántara-Vázquez, Avissai

    2013-03-01

    Recent reports suggest an increase in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) frequency. To improve programs in public health, it is necessary to understand the epidemiological conditions. The aim of this study was to analyze the trend in gender, age, anatomic zone and OSCC stage from Mexico City's General Hospital patients from 1990 to 2008. A retrospective review of all OSCC cases diagnosed by the Pathology Department of the Mexico City General Hospital was performed. Demographic data, in addition to anatomic zone and histological degree of differentiation were obtained. Central tendency, dispersion and prevalence rate per 100,000 individuals were determined. A total of 531 patients were diagnosed with OSCC; 58.4% were men, giving a male:female ratio of 1.4:1, and the mean age was 62.5 ± 14.9 years. The predominant anatomic zone was the tongue (44.7%), followed by the lips (21.2%) and gums (20.5%). The most frequent histological degree was moderately differentiated in 325 cases (61.2%). The rates of OSCC prevalence showed similar patterns in terms across time. A significant correlation (P = 0.007) between anatomic zone and age was observed. According to our results, the prevalence of OSCC does not show important variations; however, a relationship between age and anatomic zone was observed. These data could be used as parameters for the diagnosis of OSCC as well as for the development and dissemination of preventive programs for the early detection of oral cancer.

  1. Oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma in never smokers: analysis of clinicopathologic characteristics and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durr, Megan L; Li, David; Wang, Steven J

    2013-01-01

    To examine the relationship between tobacco smoking history and the clinicopathologic and survival characteristics of patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC). This is a retrospective review of 531 patients treated for OCSCC from January 1998 to December 2009 at a tertiary care medical center. Thirty-two percent of OCSCC patients were never smokers. There were significant differences in tumor location between ever smokers and never smokers (pnever smokers more likely to have oral tongue tumors. Smokers were significantly (pnever smokers to present with locally advanced (T3 or T4) disease (57.8% vs. 35.4%). Never smokers demonstrated improved overall survival (78.8 months in never smokers vs. 44.7 months in ever smokers, p=.03). However, there were no survival differences when the two groups were compared separately for locally early (T1/T2) or advanced (T3/T4) disease. For T1/T2 tumors, mean survival was 88.2 months for never smokers and 78.5 months for smokers (p=.10). For T3/T4 tumors, median survival was 29.1 months for never smokers and 23.8 months for smokers (p=.09). Primary tumor location and T-status in OCSCC differed between never smokers and smokers. Compared to smokers, never smokers had fewer locally advanced tumors and better overall survival. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Nitric oxide synthase 2 (NOS2) expression in histologically normal margins of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morelatto, Rosana; Itoiz, María-Elina; Guiñazú, Natalia; Piccini, Daniel; Gea, Susana; López-de Blanc, Silvia

    2014-05-01

    The activity of Nitric Oxide Synthase 2 (NOS2) was found in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) but not in normal mucosa. Molecular changes associated to early carcinogenesis have been found in mucosa near carcinomas, which is considered a model to study field cancerization. The aim of the present study is to analyze NOS2 expression at the histologically normal margins of OSCC. Eleven biopsy specimens of OSCC containing histologically normal margins (HNM) were analyzed. Ten biopsies of normal oral mucosa were used as controls. The activity of NOS2 was determined by immunohistochemistry. Salivary nitrate and nitrite as well as tobacco and alcohol consumption were also analyzed. The Chi-squared test was applied. Six out of the eleven HNM from carcinoma samples showed positive NOS2 activity whereas all the control group samples yielded negative (p=0.005). No statistically significant association between enzyme expression and tobacco and/or alcohol consumption and salivary nitrate and nitrite was found. NOS2 expression would be an additional evidence of alterations that may occur in a state of field cancerization before the appearance of potentially malignant morphological changes.

  3. Micro-Raman spectroscopy for optical pathology of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishna, C Murali; Sockalingum, G D; Kurien, Jacob; Rao, Lakshmi; Venteo, L; Pluot, M; Manfait, M; Kartha, V B

    2004-09-01

    Micro-Raman spectra of formalin-fixed oral squamous normal and carcinoma tissues, stored at room temperature for 2 months, have been recorded. Spectra were recorded both in the epithelial and subepithelial regions of the tissues. No noticeable spectral contamination due to formalin was observed. Very significant differences between spectra of normal epithelial and malignant epithelial samples were found. No such differences in spectra of subepithelial malignant and subepithelial normal samples could be observed. This study shows that spectra from the epithelial region changes drastically because of malignancy-induced biochemical changes in this region. Major differences between normal and malignant spectra seem to arise from the protein composition, conformational/structural changes, and possible increase in protein content in malignant epithelia. The differences between normal epithelial and subepithelial spectra, as expected, arise mainly from the collagen in subepithelial tissue. Principal component analysis of the combined sets of spectra-epithelial and subepithelial, normal and malignant- showed that very good discrimination can be achieved by Raman microspectroscopy. This study thus validates the suitability of formalin-fixed tissues for optical pathology in oral malignancy.

  4. Squamous Cell Carcinoma Arising from an Oral Lichenoid Lesion: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Taghavi Zenouz

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Lichenoid reactions represent a family of lesions with different etiologic factors and a common clinical and histologic appearance. Lichen planus is included with lichenoid reactions and is a relatively common chronic mucocutaneous disorder. The most important complication of lichenoid reactions is the possibility of malignant transformation. That is why it has been considered a precancerous condition. Although the malignant transformation rate varies widely in the literature, from 0.4 to 6.5 percent, in most studies it does not exceed 1%. The aim of this paper is to report a rare case of squamous cell carcinoma (SCC arising within an oral lichenoid lesion in a 17-year-old woman, where SCC is very uncommon. The patient did not have any risk factors and was healthy. The lesion was located on the border of the tongue. In view of the common occurrence of OLP (oral lichen planus and the unresolved issues regarding its premalignant potential, this case report illustrates the need for histologic confirmation and a close follow-up of clinical lesions with lichenoid features.

  5. Prevalence of oral squamous cell carcinoma cases for ten years in Qazvin province (2003-13

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Keshani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Human cancers comprise a large group of diseases that despite modern methods of diagnosis and advanced treatment techniques its mortality rate is high. Considering the role of environmental and cultural factors in the prevalence of oral cancer, epidemiological studies have a great importance. Objective: The aim of this research was to determine the prevalence of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC in the province of Qazvin in a period of ten years. Methods: In this descriptive - analytical study, the documents of 88 patients with OSCC that were recorded by the Qazvin Cancer Registry Center during 2003-13, were used. Demographic data including age, sex and location of lesions were extracted from patient records. Data analysis were performed using chi-square, t-test and fisher exact test. Findings: Among the 88 patients, the average age was 64.3±17.7. The male to female ratio was 1 to 1.37 and the most involved area was tongue with 39 cases (63.9%, and the lowest was upper lip with 1 case (1.6%. The most of the patients were in the age between 70-80 years old. Conclusions: Pattern of OSCC in this study was similar to the other studies but the number of females and the mean age of patient had increased. Also, the mean age of patients was increased in eight decades and the most involved area tongue was reported.

  6. Basal stem cells contribute to squamous cell carcinomas in the oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Xiao-Han; Scognamiglio, Theresa; Gudas, Lorraine J

    2013-05-01

    The cells of origin of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC) are unknown. We used a cell lineage tracing approach (adult K14-CreER(TAM); ROSA26 mice transiently treated with tamoxifen) to identify and track normal epithelial stem cells (SCs) in mouse tongues by X-gal staining and to determine if these cells become neoplastically transformed by treatment with a carcinogen, 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide (4-NQO). Here, we show that in normal tongue epithelia, X-gal(+) cells formed thin columns throughout the entire epithelium 12 weeks after tamoxifen treatment, indicating that the basal layer contains long-lived SCs that produce progeny by asymmetric division to maintain homeostasis. Carcinogen treatment results in a ~10-fold reduction in the total number of X-gal(+) clonal cell populations and horizontal expansion of X-gal(+) clonal cell columns, a pattern consistent with symmetric division of some SCs. Finally, X-gal(+) SCs are present in papillomas and invasive OCSCCs, and these long-lived X-gal(+) SCs are the cells of origin of these tumors. Moreover, the resulting 4-NQO-induced tumors are multiclonal. These findings provide insights into the identity of the initiating cells of oral cancer.

  7. Sentinel lymph node biopsy in node-negative squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and oropharynx.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Burns, P

    2012-02-01

    OBJECTIVES: Considerable controversy exists regarding the merits of elective neck dissection in patients with early stage oral cavity and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. It is highly desirable to have a method of identifying those patients who would benefit from further treatment of the neck when they are clinically node-negative. The purpose of the present study was to examine the use of sentinel lymph node biopsy in identifying occult neck disease in a cohort of patients with node-negative oral cavity and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma. DESIGN: We evaluated a total of 13 patients with oral cavity and oropharyngeal cancer who were clinically and radiologically node-negative. RESULTS: A sentinel lymph node was found in all 13 patients, revealing metastatic disease in five patients, four of whom had one or more positive sentinel lymph nodes. There was one false negative result, in which the sentinel lymph node was negative for tumour whereas histological examination of the neck dissection specimen showed occult disease. CONCLUSION: In view of these findings, we would recommend the use of sentinel lymph node biopsy in cases of oral cavity and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma, in order to aid the differentiation of those patients whose necks are harbouring occult disease and who require further treatment.

  8. Amino acid profile of saliva from patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma using high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Indira; Sherlin, Herald J; Ramani, Pratibha; Premkumar, Priya; Natesan, Anuja; Chandrasekar, Thiruvengadam

    2012-09-01

    Oral cancer is the leading cause of death worldwide and it is the eighth most common cause of cancer death. Cancer cells utilize more glucose and amino acids than their benign counterparts. Diagnosis of disease via the analysis of saliva is potentially valuable, as the collection of fluid is associated with fewer compliance problems than the collection of blood. Hence, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the comprehensive amino acid profiling of saliva by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The study group comprised 16 subjects, of whom eight were classified as having well-differentiated oral squamous (OSCC) cell carcinoma (Group I) and eight were classified as having moderately differentiated oral squamous cell carcinoma (Group II). Eight healthy individuals comprised the control group (Group III). The results showed increased salivary levels of all the amino acids in both groups of OSCC patients (Groups I and II) when compared with healthy controls (Group III). Hence, our study showed higher levels of all amino acids in the saliva of OSCC patients than in the saliva of healthy controls. The increased levels may serve as a "diagnostic and prognostic marker" for oral squamous cell carcinoma and for further detection of metastatic spread.

  9. Applicability of preoperative nuclear morphometry to evaluating risk for cervical lymph node metastasis in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaaki Karino

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: We previously reported the utility of preoperative nuclear morphometry for evaluating risk for cervical lymph node metastases in tongue squamous cell carcinoma. The risk for lymph node metastasis in oral squamous cell carcinoma, however, is known to differ depending on the anatomical site of the primary tumor, such as the tongue, gingiva, mouth floor, and buccal mucosa. In this study, we evaluated the applicability of this morphometric technique to evaluating the risk for cervical lymph node metastasis in oral squamous cell carcinoma. METHODS: A digital image system was used to measure the mean nuclear area, mean nuclear perimeter, nuclear circular rate, ratio of nuclear length to width (aspect ratio, and nuclear area coefficient of variation (NACV. Relationships between these parameters and nodal status were evaluated by t-test and logistic regression analysis. RESULTS: Eighty-eight cases of squamous cell carcinoma (52 of the tongue, 25 of the gingiva, 4 of the buccal mucosa, and 7 of the mouth floor were included: 46 with positive node classification and 42 with negative node classification. Nuclear area and perimeter were significantly larger in node-positive cases than in node-negative cases; however, there were no significant differences in circular rate, aspect ratio, or NACV. We derived two risk models based on the results of multivariate analysis: Model 1, which identified age and mean nuclear area and Model 2, which identified age and mean nuclear perimeter. It should be noted that primary tumor site was not associated the pN-positive status. There were no significant differences in pathological nodal status by aspect ratio, NACV, or primary tumor site. CONCLUSION: Our method of preoperative nuclear morphometry may contribute valuable information to evaluations of the risk for lymph node metastasis in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

  10. Evidence-based practice: management of the clinical node-negative neck in early-stage oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monroe, Marcus M; Gross, Neil D

    2012-10-01

    This article provides a critical review of the evidence surrounding the management of the clinical node-negative patient with early-stage oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  11. The drug efficacy and adverse reactions in a mouse model of oral squamous cell carcinoma treated with oxaliplatin at different time points during a day

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang K

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Kai Yang,1,2 Ningbo Zhao,1 Dan Zhao,1,2 Dan Chen,1 Yadong Li1 1Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, 2Chongqing Key Laboratory for Oral Diseases and Biomedical Sciences, Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, People’s Republic of China Background: Recent studies have shown that the growth and proliferation of cancer cells in vivo exhibit circadian rhythm, and the efficacy and adverse reactions of platinum-based anticancer drugs administered at different times of the day vary significantly on colon cancer. However, since the circadian rhythms of growth and proliferation of various cancer cells often differ, the question of whether the administration of platinum anticancer drugs at different times of the day exerts significantly different efficacy and adverse effects on oral cancers remains to be elucidated. This study has compared the efficacy and adverse effects of oxaliplatin (L-OHP administration at different times during a day on oral squamous cell carcinoma in mice and has analyzed cellular circadian rhythms. Methods: The mouse model for oral squamous cell carcinoma was established in 75 nude mice, housed in a 12 hour light/12 hour dark cycle environment. The mice were randomly divided into five groups; four experimental groups were intravenously injected with L-OHP at four time points within a 24-hour period (4, 10, 16, and 22 hours after lights on [HALO]. The control group was intravenously injected with the same volume of saline. Treatment efficacy and adverse reactions were compared on the seventh day after the injection, at 22 HALO. The existence of circadian rhythms was determined by cosine analysis. Results: Only injections of L-OHP at 16 and 22 HALO significantly prolonged animal survival time. The adverse reactions in mice injected with L-OHP at 16 and 22 HALO were significantly less than those observed in mice administered L-OHP at 4 and 10 HALO

  12. PDGFRβ Is a Novel Marker of Stromal Activation in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas.

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    Vinay K Kartha

    Full Text Available Carcinoma associated fibroblasts (CAFs form the main constituents of tumor stroma and play an important role in tumor growth and invasion. The presence of CAFs is a strong predictor of poor prognosis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Despite significant progress in determining the role of CAFs in tumor progression, the mechanisms contributing to their activation remain poorly characterized, in part due to fibroblast heterogeneity and the scarcity of reliable fibroblast surface markers. To search for such markers in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC, we applied a novel approach that uses RNA-sequencing data derived from the cancer genome atlas (TCGA. Specifically, our strategy allowed for an unbiased identification of genes whose expression was closely associated with a set of bona fide stroma-specific transcripts, namely the interstitial collagens COL1A1, COL1A2, and COL3A1. Among the top hits were genes involved in cellular matrix remodeling and tumor invasion and migration, including platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRβ, which was found to be the highest-ranking receptor protein genome-wide. Similar analyses performed on ten additional TCGA cancer datasets revealed that other tumor types shared CAF markers with OSCC, including PDGFRβ, which was found to significantly correlate with the reference collagen expression in ten of the 11 cancer types tested. Subsequent immunostaining of OSCC specimens demonstrated that PDGFRβ was abundantly expressed in stromal fibroblasts of all tested cases (12/12, while it was absent in tumor cells, with greater specificity than other known markers such as alpha smooth muscle actin or podoplanin (3/11. Overall, this study identified PDGFRβ as a novel marker of stromal activation in OSCC, and further characterized a list of promising candidate CAF markers that may be relevant to other carcinomas. Our novel approach provides for a fast and accurate method to identify CAF markers without

  13. PDGFRβ Is a Novel Marker of Stromal Activation in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kartha, Vinay K; Stawski, Lukasz; Han, Rong; Haines, Paul; Gallagher, George; Noonan, Vikki; Kukuruzinska, Maria; Monti, Stefano; Trojanowska, Maria

    2016-01-01

    Carcinoma associated fibroblasts (CAFs) form the main constituents of tumor stroma and play an important role in tumor growth and invasion. The presence of CAFs is a strong predictor of poor prognosis of head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. Despite significant progress in determining the role of CAFs in tumor progression, the mechanisms contributing to their activation remain poorly characterized, in part due to fibroblast heterogeneity and the scarcity of reliable fibroblast surface markers. To search for such markers in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), we applied a novel approach that uses RNA-sequencing data derived from the cancer genome atlas (TCGA). Specifically, our strategy allowed for an unbiased identification of genes whose expression was closely associated with a set of bona fide stroma-specific transcripts, namely the interstitial collagens COL1A1, COL1A2, and COL3A1. Among the top hits were genes involved in cellular matrix remodeling and tumor invasion and migration, including platelet-derived growth factor receptor beta (PDGFRβ), which was found to be the highest-ranking receptor protein genome-wide. Similar analyses performed on ten additional TCGA cancer datasets revealed that other tumor types shared CAF markers with OSCC, including PDGFRβ, which was found to significantly correlate with the reference collagen expression in ten of the 11 cancer types tested. Subsequent immunostaining of OSCC specimens demonstrated that PDGFRβ was abundantly expressed in stromal fibroblasts of all tested cases (12/12), while it was absent in tumor cells, with greater specificity than other known markers such as alpha smooth muscle actin or podoplanin (3/11). Overall, this study identified PDGFRβ as a novel marker of stromal activation in OSCC, and further characterized a list of promising candidate CAF markers that may be relevant to other carcinomas. Our novel approach provides for a fast and accurate method to identify CAF markers without the need for

  14. Post-treatment weight change in oral cavity and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Zi; Brown, Justin C; O'Malley, Bert W; Troxel, Andrea B; Bauml, Joshua M; Rubnitz, Kaitlyn R; Grosso, Colleen M; Weinstein, Gregory S; Schmitz, Kathryn H

    2016-05-01

    Incidence of head and neck cancer (HNC) due to human papillomavirus (HPV) infection has been increasing. Treatment regimens have evolved. These changes might result in alterations of assumed treatment-related weight changes for HNC patients. We aimed to compare the trajectory of pre- to post-treatment weight changes of oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OPSCC) versus oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC) patients and to compare weight changes between patients with primary surgery ± adjuvant therapy to patients with primary radiation and/or chemotherapy. This retrospective cohort study examined adult OPSCC and OCSCC patients with initial definitive treatment at the University of Pennsylvania from January 1, 2009 to December 31, 2010. Patient demographics, medical history, treatments, and pre- and post-treatment body weight data were collected from electronic medical records. Mixed-effects modeling was performed. Among 354 patients who met the inclusion criteria, 290 (82 %) survivors were available for inclusion by 24-month follow-up. More than 70 % OPSCC and OCSCC patients were overweight or obese at all pre- and post-treatment time points. The average weight among OPSCC patients was 6.63 kg higher than OCSCC patients at all time points (mean = 6.63, 95 % confidence interval (CI), 2.46-10.79, p = 0.002). After adjusting for potential confounders, patients with primary surgery had significantly more weight gain from pre-treatment to 12-18 month post-treatment follow-up as compared to patients with primary radiation and/or chemotherapy (adjusted mean = 4.01, 95 % CI, 0.16-7.87, p = 0.041). Overweight and obesity may be a new challenge in OPSCC and OCSCC patient care. Further study is needed to evaluate whether exercise and nutritional interventions can improve their survivorship.

  15. Epigenetic alterations of the SERPINE1 gene in oral squamous cell carcinomas and normal oral mucosa

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Shan; Nielsen, Boye Schnack; Krogdahl, Annelise

    2010-01-01

    A high level of plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 (PAI-1 or SERPINE1) in tumor extracts is a marker of a poor prognosis in human cancers, including oral carcinomas. However, the mechanisms responsible for the upregulation of PAI-1 in cancers remain unclear. Investigating specific PAI-1 expressing...... level of methylation, whereas there was very little methylation in tissue from healthy volunteers, suggesting that tumor-adjacent normal tissue already contains transformation-associated epigenetic changes. However, there was no general inverse correlation between PAI-1 mRNA levels and SERPINE1 gene...

  16. Association between polymorphisms in pre-miRNA genes and risk of oral squamous cell cancer in a Chinese population.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enjiao Zhang

    Full Text Available MicroRNAs play important roles in the development of human cancers. This case-control study is to evaluate the roles of the polymorphisms in pre-miRNAs on risk of oral cancer in a Chinese population.The genotypes of three polymorphisms were determined in 340 patients with oral squamous cell cancer and 340 healthy controls who were frequency matched for age and sex. Odds ratios (ORs and 95% confidence intervals (95%CIs were calculated to assess the association. All analyses were performed using the SPSS software. 3.154( 0.001.For miR-499 rs3746444, individuals carrying homozygous CC genotype had increased risks of oral cancer compared with the homozygous wild TT genotype (adjusted OR was 3.154, 95%CI was 1.555-6.397, P value was 0.001. The C allele of miR-499 rs3746444 was associated with a higher risk of oral cancer with significant odds ratio of 1.453. In the stratified analyses by sex, the associations between miR-499 rs3746444 and miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphisms with the susceptibility of oral squamous cell cancer were significant in males. However, with 1/4 as many subjects there were no significant associations between the three polymorphisms and oral cancer risks in females. The joint effects of miRNA polymorphisms and smoking on the risk of OSCC were analyzed and the results suggested that the association between microRNA genetic variants and OSCC risk was modified by smoking.These findings suggest that miR-499 rs3746444 and miR-146a rs2910164 polymorphisms may contribute to genetic susceptibility to oral squamous cell cancer.

  17. Expression of Epstein-Barr virus among oral potentially malignant disorders and oral squamous cell carcinomas in the South Indian tobacco-chewing population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reddy, Sujatha S; Sharma, Shivani; Mysorekar, Vijaya

    2017-07-01

    Oral cancer is the sixth most common malignancy in the world. Viruses are the causative agents of approximately 10-15% of all cancers worldwide (Cancers, 6, 2014 and 2155). The tumorigenic roles of Epstein-Barr virus in oral cancer are unclear. Literature search results are conflicting and dependent on various factors such as geographical/regional variations, sociocultural lifestyles, dietary habits, chewing/smoking tobacco habit. This study is the first original observation about frequency of Epstein-Barr virus among South Indian tobacco-chewing patients to elucidate its involvement in oral carcinogenesis and to know whether this can be a valuable diagnostic and prognostic indicator. A total number of 75 tobacco chewer subjects aged between 23 and 76 years with histopathologically confirmed oral potentially malignant disorders (25), oral squamous cell carcinoma (25), and age-matched healthy controls (25) formed the study group. Immunohistochemical expression of Epstein-Barr virus latent membrane protein 1 was assessed among cases and healthy controls. Out of the total 75 subjects, six subjects (8%) were positive for Epstein-Barr virus antigen and 69 subjects (92%) negative. The antigen positivity was observed among two cases of moderately differentiated oral squamous cell carcinoma, two cases of leukoplakia, and two healthy controls. No significant association between Epstein-Barr virus positivity was observed among oral potentially malignant disorders and oral squamous cell carcinoma among South Indian tobacco-chewing patients. This can be partially explained by the methodology employed, by the patient population analyzed and different habits in various geographical regions. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  18. Clinicopathologic features of oral squamous cell carcinoma: do they vary in different age groups?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Troeltzsch, Matthias; Knösel, Thomas; Eichinger, Christina; Probst, Florian; Troeltzsch, Markus; Woodlock, Timothy; Mast, Gerson; Ehrenfeld, Michael; Otto, Sven

    2014-07-01

    To analyze clinicopathologic parameters of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) in different age groups. We hypothesized that clinical and pathologic parameters of OSCCs will vary in different age groups. A retrospective cohort study was performed. All patients who were treated for a primary manifestation of OSCC at a single institution from 2001 to 2012 were reviewed and allocated to predefined age groups (predictor variable) as follows: young (≤40 years), middle-aged (40-80 years), and very elderly (≥80 years). The following outcome variables were recorded: demographic parameters, classic risk factors, tumor location and size, neck node involvement, histopathologic and therapeutic details, and association with human papillomavirus (HPV). The descriptive statistics were computed. Parametric and nonparametric tests were used for additional analysis. The significance level was set at P age 34.2 ± 2.8 years) and 17 (2.3%) very elderly patients (mean age 83.1 ± 1.2 years). The predilection site for OSCC was the oral tongue (63%) in young patients, the floor of the mouth (52%) in middle-aged patients, and the alveolar process (60%) in very elderly patients. One patient in the young group (9%) and 8 patients in the very elderly group (47%) had been exposed to risk factors; however, all of the examined middle-aged patients had had such exposure. The association of OSCC with HPV was distributed equally among the age groups. No age-related differences in the histopathologic parameters of OSCC were found. The features of OSCC that vary at different ages are the anatomic predilection site and the association with classic risk factors. HPV was not an age-related independent risk factor for OSCC development in the present study. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. B7-H4 expression indicates poor prognosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Lei; Deng, Wei-Wei; Yu, Guang-Tao; Mao, Liang; Bu, Lin-Lin; Ma, Si-Rui; Liu, Bing; Zhang, Wen-Feng; Sun, Zhi-Jun

    2016-09-01

    Checkpoint blockade therapy utilizing monoclonal antibodies to reactivate T cells and recover their antitumor activity makes an epoch in cancer immunotherapy. The role of B7-H4, a novel negative immune checkpoint, in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has still not been elucidated. In this study, tissue samples from human OSCC, which contains 165 primary OSCC, 48 oral epithelial dysplasia and 43 normal oral mucosa specimens, and Tgfbr1/Pten 2cKO mice OSCC model were stained with B7-H4 antibody to analyze the correlations between B7-H4 expression and clinicopathological characteristics. Kaplan-Meier analysis was used to compare the survival of patients with high B7-H4 expression and patients with low B7-H4 expression. We found B7-H4 is highly expressed in human OSCC tissue, and the B7-H4 expression level was associated with the clinicopathological parameters containing pathological grade and lymph node status. Moreover, we confirmed that B7-H4 was overexpressed in Tgfbr1/Pten 2cKO mice OSCC model. Our data also indicated that patients with high B7-H4 expression had poor overall survival compared with those with low B7-H4 expression. Furthermore, this study demonstrated that B7-H4 was positively associated with PD-L1, CD11b, CD33, PI3Kα p110, and p-S6 (S235/236). Taken together, these findings suggest B7-H4 is a potential target in the treatment of OSCC.

  20. Effects of 3-styrylchromones on metabolic profiles and cell death in oral squamous cell carcinoma cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Sakagami

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available 4H-1-benzopyran-4-ones (chromones are important naturally-distributing compounds. As compared with flavones, isoflavones and 2-styrylchromones, there are only few papers of 3-styrylchromones that have been published. We have previously reported that among fifteen 3-styrylchromone derivatives, three new synthetic compounds that have OCH3 group at the C-6 position of chromone ring, (E-3-(4-hydroxystyryl-6-methoxy-4H-chromen-4-one (compound 11, (E-6-methoxy-3-(4-methoxystyryl-4H-chromen-4-one (compound 4, (E-6-methoxy-3-(3,4,5-trimethoxystyryl-4H-chromen-4-one (compound 6 showed much higher cytotoxicities against four epithelial human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC lines than human normal oral mesenchymal cells. In order to further confirm the tumor specificities of these compounds, we compared their cytotoxicities against both human epithelial malignant and non-malignant cells, and then investigated their effects on fine cell structures and metabolic profiles and cell death in human OSCC cell line HSC-2. Cytotoxicities of compounds 4, 6, 11 were assayed with MTT method. Fine cell structures were observed under transmission electron microscope. Cellular metabolites were extracted with methanol and subjected to CE-TOFMS analysis. Compounds 4, 6, 11 showed much weaker cytotoxicity against human oral keratinocyte and primary human gingival epithelial cells, as compared with HSC-2, confirming their tumor-specificity, whereas doxorubicin and 5-FU were highly cytotoxic to these normal epithelial cells, giving unexpectedly lower tumor-specificity. The most cytotoxic compound 11, induced the mitochondrial vacuolization, autophagy suppression followed by apoptosis induction, and changes in the metabolites involved in amino acid and glycerophospholipid metabolisms. Chemical modification of lead compound 11 may be a potential choice for designing new type of anticancer drugs.

  1. Bone morphogenetic protein 6 expression in oral cavity squamous cell cancer is associated with bone invasion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kejner, Alexandra E; Burch, M Benjamin; Sweeny, Larissa; Rosenthal, Eben L

    2013-12-01

    To evaluate bone invasion, survival, and expression of bone morphogenetic protein-6 (BMP-6) in oral cavity cancer in the context of known biomarkers indicative of poor prognosis. Molecular expression study combined with retrospective chart review of corresponding patients at a tertiary care center. Between 2000 and 2009, a total of 197 patients underwent resection for oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma. Of these, 30 pathologic specimens were chosen for further molecular analysis. These 30 patients were separated into three groups (10 per group) based on American Joint Committee on Cancer (AJCC) staging and staging based on size alone (TAJCC /SIZE ). The first group consisted of tumors staged as T2 /2 based on size less than 4 cm and that had no evidence of bone invasion. The T2 /4 group consisted of tumors that were upstaged from T2 based on bone invasion. The T4 /4 group consisted of tumors that were large with and without bone invasion. The expression of extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN), BMP-6, and epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) was examined using immunohistochemistry techniques. Patient demographics, tumor characteristics, survival, and recurrence were compared. Average follow-up was 21 months. Expression of BMP-6 was significantly higher in the T2 /4 cohort (tumor less than 4 cm with bony invasion) than the larger tumors without bone invasion (T4 /4 cohort, P = .05). In addition, increased BMP-6 expression correlated with aggressive behavior in the smaller tumors. Furthermore, increased EGFR expression positively correlated with increased levels of BMP-6. Increased expression of BMP-6 in oral cavity cancer may affect bone invasion. Copyright © 2013 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  2. Postoperative intensity-modulated radiotherapy following surgery for oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma: patterns of failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Andrew K; Huang, Shao Hui; Le, Lisa W; Yu, Eugene; Dawson, Laura A; Kim, John J; Cho, B C John; Bayley, Andrew J; Ringash, Jolie; Goldstein, David; Chan, Kelvin; Waldron, John; O'Sullivan, Brian; Cummings, Bernard; Hope, Andrew J

    2013-03-01

    To review outcomes and analyze the patterns of locoregional recurrence of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC) treated with surgery and postoperative intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT). All patients with Stage I-IVB OCSCC treated with surgery and postoperative IMRT± concurrent chemotherapy between 2005 and 2010 were evaluated. Patient survival and tumor outcomes were prospectively recorded. Outcome measures were 2 year overall survival (OS), local control (LC), regional control (RC) and distant control (DC). Locoregional recurrences were spatially localized in relation to dosimetric plans. A total of 180 consecutive patients with median follow-up of 34 months were identified. Disease subsites were oral tongue (46%), floor of mouth (23%), alveolus and hard palate (12%), buccal (9%), retromolar trigone (5%), and lip (4%). The 2 year rates of OS, LC, RC, locoregional control (LRC), and DC were 65%, 87%, 83%, 78% and 83%, respectively. The 2-year estimated rates of LRC for larger subsites were: oral tongue (72%), floor of mouth (84%). Of the 180 patients, 38 (21%) had locoregional failure (LRF). Most LRFs were in-field (26, 68%) with 7 marginal and 5 out-of-field. Marginal/out-of-field failures occurred in the contralateral neck in N2b patients, at high level II/skull base, and in intentionally spared regions (near parotid) of pathologically involved necks. Nearly a third (12/38) of LR recurrences were marginal or out-of-field following postoperative IMRT for OCSCC. Postoperative IMRT following gross total surgical resection requires careful and comprehensive target volume delineation, and larger volumes may be needed than the primary RT setting. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Assessment of Tissue Eosinophilia as a Prognosticator in Oral Epithelial Dysplasia and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma—An Image Analysis Study

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    Megha Jain

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Association of tissue eosinophilia with oral squamous cell carcinoma has shown variable results ranging from favourable to unfavourable or even having no influence on prognosis. Also, very few studies have been done to know the role of eosinophils in premalignancy. So the present study investigated role of eosinophilic infiltration in oral precancer and cancer and its possible use as a prognosticator. 60 histopathologically proven cases (20 cases each of metastatic and nonmetastatic oral squamous cell carcinoma and oral leukoplakia with dysplasia of various grades were included. Congo red is used as a special stain for eosinophils. Each specimen slide was viewed under high power in 10 consecutive microscopic fields for counting of eosinophils. As a result, a significant increase in eosinophil count was found in oral carcinomas compared to dysplasia. Nonmetastatic cases showed higher counts than metastatic carcinomas. So, it is concluded that eosinophilia is a favourable histopathological prognostic factor in oral cancer. Moreover, higher eosinophil counts in carcinoma group compared to dysplasia group proved that they might have a role in stromal invasion thus suggesting that quantitative assessment of tissue eosinophilia should become a part of the routine histopathological diagnosis for oral precancer and OSCC.

  4. Role of dental hardware in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma in the low-risk nonsmoker nondrinker population.

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    Yesensky, Jessica A; Hasina, Rifat; Wroblewski, Kristen E; Bellairs, Joseph; Gooi, Zhen; Saloura, Vassiliki; Cipriani, Nicole A; Vokes, Everett E; Portugal, Louis G; Seiwert, Tanguy Y; Blair, Elizabeth D; Agrawal, Nishant

    2018-01-22

    Oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) arising in nonsmokers and nondrinkers remains poorly characterized. We hypothesized that these patients had prior exposure to metallic dental hardware. We utilized a questionnaire querying the lifetime oral health status of 54 patients. Demographics and extensive oral health history were collected. The majority of patients (74%) had prior exposure to metallic dental hardware. The younger population with almost exclusively oral tongue cancer had a high prevalence of metallic orthodontic braces (40%) within 15 years before diagnosis. In the 51+ year age group, 82% had crowns, dental implants, and/or dentures with metallic elements. Exposure to metallic dental hardware has increased in the past few decades given the rise of orthodontic braces and older adults retaining more teeth. Although this study does not prove a causal relationship between oral cavity SCC and dental hardware, this is a step toward identifying and investigating their role. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Correlation between immunohistochemical staining of CEACAM1 and clinicopathological findings in oral pre-neoplastic lesions and squamous cell carcinoma.

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    Simonetti, Oriana; Lucarini, Guendalina; Rubini, Corrado; Zizzi, Antonio; Aspriello, Simone Domenico; Di Primio, Roberto; Offidani, Anna Maria

    2017-09-08

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity represents the sixth most common cancer worldwide and it is often preceded by pre-neoplastic lesions. Sometimes it is still difficult for pathologists to make objective differential diagnoses only on histological characteristics. Tumorigenesis is accompanied by altered expression of cell adhesion molecules, like carcinoembryonic antigen cell adhesion molecule (CEACAM)1. We wanted to investigative CEACAM1 in oral dysplastic lesions, carcinoma in situ (CIS) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We examined immunohistochemical CEACAM1 expression in 50 OSCC, 30 oral CIS and 40 pre-neoplastic lesions and assessed its correlation with clinical and pathological parameters. CEACAM1 was not expressed in normal mucosa, significantly expressed in CIS while it was negative in all the dysplastic lesions. In OSCC, high CEACAM1 expression was associated with tumor grade and inversely correlated with both overall and disease-specific 5-year survival. We showed that CEACAM1 expression is very dynamic: absent in dysplastic lesions, up-regulated in CIS and OSCC. We suggest that CEACAM1 could be a prognostic marker of OSCC and oral CIS. Our most important finding was that it could help pathologists diagnosing oral carcinoma in situ.

  6. Serum big endothelin-1 as a biomarker in oral squamous cell carcinoma patients: an analytical study

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    Pritam Kumar MANKAPURE

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Detection of abnormally elevated levels of molecules in patients with oral cancer may be useful in early diagnosis. These markers can be included in current Histopathology grading and in TNM staging systems of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC to make it more efficient. Several pro-angiogenic molecules have been assessed for the same reason. Endothelin-1 (ET-1 is a vasoactive peptide associated with the development and spread of many solid tumors, including Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCC, but its utility in OSCC has not been confirmed.Objective This study aims to evaluate the role of the serum big ET-1 as a biomarker of OSCC, by correlating it with the clinical staging and the histopathological grading.Material and Methods Serum levels of big ET-1 measured by the sandwich Enzyme-Linked Immunosorbent Assay (ELISA in 40 OSCC cases were compared with the levels from the control group using independent t-test. Clinical stages and histopathological grades of OSCC cases were compared in relation to their mean levels of serum big ET-1, one using the Analysis of Variance (ANOVA test and the other the independent t-test, respectively. The significance of the mean difference between the groups was evaluated by Tukey’s multiple comparison test. All statistical analyses were performed on GraphPad statistical software version 5.0.Results By comparing the mean of the big ET-1 concentrations of cases and controls, the independent t-test revealed significant higher big ET-1 concentration of OSCC cases when compared to controls (p<0.0001. Tukey’s multiple comparison test also revealed statistically significant difference among all OSCC stages in relation to the mean levels of serum big ET-1. However, the mean of the big ET-1 concentrations of cases of grade I and of grade II did not differ statistically (p=0.729.Conclusion Serum big ET-1 levels may be useful as a diagnostic tool in OSCC and as an adjunct to OSCC staging. However, its use as a prognostic

  7. The role of NLRP3 inflammasome in 5-fluorouracil resistance of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

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    Feng, Xiaodong; Luo, Qingqiong; Zhang, Han; Wang, Han; Chen, Wantao; Meng, Guangxun; Chen, Fuxiang

    2017-06-21

    5-Fluorouracil (5-FU) is a widely used drug for the therapy of cancer. However, the chemoresistance of tumor cells to 5-FU usually limits its clinical effectiveness. In this study, we explored the role of NLRP3 inflammasome in 5-FU resistance of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The mRNA and protein expression levels of NLRP3, Caspase1 and IL-1β in resected OSCC specimens or cell lines were measured respectively by quantitative real time-PCR (qRT-PCR) and western blot. NLRP3 and Ki-67 expression in paraffin-embedded OSCC tissues was determined by immunohistochemistry. The correlation between 5-FU treatment and the expression and activation of NLRP3 inflammasome was further examined by evaluating NLRP3 and IL-1β expression in OSCC cell lines without or with NLRP3 knocked down. Cell viabilities of OSCC cells were determined by the MTT assay. Apoptosis and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) of OSCC cells induced by 5-FU were measured by the flow cytometer. The carcinogen-induced tongue squamous carcinoma mice model was established by continuous oral administration of 4-nitroquinoline 1-oxide in wild-type BALB/c, Nlrp3 -/- and Caspase1 -/- mice. Tumor incidence were observed and tumor area were evaluated. In the clinical analysis, expression and activation of NLRP3 inflammasome was clearly increased in OSCC tissues of patients who received 5-FU-based chemotherapy. Multivariate Cox regression analysis revealed that this high expression was significantly correlated with tumor stage and differentiation, and was associated with poor prognosis. Moreover, 5-FU treatment increased expression and activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in OSCC cells in a cell culture system and xenograft mouse model. Silencing of NLRP3 expression significantly inhibited OSCC cell proliferation and enhanced 5-FU-induced apoptosis of OSCC cells. Further investigation showed that intracellular ROS induced by 5-FU promoted the expression and activation of NLRP3 inflammasome and increased

  8. The caspase 3-dependent apoptotic effect of pycnogenol in human oral squamous cell carcinoma HSC-3 cells

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    Yang, In-Hyoung; Shin, Ji-Ae; Kim, Lee-Han; Kwon, Ki Han; CHO, SUNG-DAE

    2015-01-01

    In the present study, the apoptotic effect of pycnogenol and its molecular mechanism in human oral squamous cell carcinoma HSC-3 cells were investigated. Pycnogenol significantly inhibited the viability of HSC-3 cells and suppressed neoplastic cell transformation in HSC-3 cells and TPA-treated JB6 cells. It caused caspase-dependent apoptosis evidenced by the increase in cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase and caspase 3 in a dose-dependent manner. Pycnogenol increased Bak protein by enhancing...

  9. Expression of MUC1 mucin in potentially malignant disorders, oral squamous cell carcinoma and normal oral mucosa: An immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, M Harish; Sanjai, Karpagaselvi; Kumarswamy, Jayalakshmi; Keshavaiah, Roopavathi; Papaiah, Lokesh; Divya, S

    2016-01-01

    Mucins alteration in glycosylation is associated with the development and progression of malignant diseases. Therefore, mucins are used as valuable markers to distinguish normal and disease conditions. Many studies on MUC1 expression have been conducted on variety of neoplastic lesions other than head and neck region. None of the study has made an attempt to show its significance in potentially malignant disorders (PMDs) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Hence, ours is one of the pioneer studies done to assess and evaluate the same. This study aims to compare and correlate the expression of MUC1 mucin protein in normal oral mucosa (NOM), PMD's and OSCC by immunohistochemical method. Institutional study, archived tissue sections of OSCC (n = 20), PMD's (n = 20) and NOM (n = 20) were immunostained for MUC1 mucin and percentage of positive cells evaluated. Results obtained were statistically analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis test, Mann-Whitney test and Student's t-test. The mean MUC1 mucin positive cells in the study groups were as follows, 40% in OSCC, 28% in PMD's and 0.75% in NOM. Higher mean immunohistochemical score was observed in OSCC group followed by PMD's group and NOM group. The difference in immunohistochemical score among the groups was found to be statistically significant (P < 0.001). The result of the current study suggests that determination of MUC1 mucin expression may be a parameter in the diagnosis of malignant behavior of PMD's to OSCC. MUC1 mucin expression may be a useful diagnostic marker for prediction of the invasive/metastatic potential of OSCC.

  10. LCK, survivin and PI-3K in the molecular biomarker profiling of oral lichen planus and oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oluwadara, Oluwadayo; Giacomelli, Luca; Christensen, Russell; Kossan, George; Avezova, Raisa; Chiappelli, Francesco

    2009-12-31

    T cell signaling is critical in oral lichen planus (OLP) based on the pathogenesis of this chronic inflammatory autoimmune mucocutaneous lesion. Lck plays a key role in T cell signaling; ultimately this signaling affects other targets such as PI-3K. Excessive activity in PI-3K inhibits apoptosis and promotes uncontrolled cell growth. Molecular biomarker profiling in OLP, Chronic Interface Mucosities (CIM), Epithelial Dysplasia (EpD) and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (SCCA) with application of the principle of biomarker voting may represent a new frontier in the diagnosis, assessment and the arguable debate of OLP transformation to cancer. The presence of Lck, PI-3K and Survivin, a cancer specific anti-apoptotic protein was assessed, using immunohistochemistry and tissue micro-array on patient samples, in OLP, SCCA, CIM and EpD. Lck expression was very high in 78.6 % of OLP patients compared to 3.7% in SCCA; PI-3K was high in 63% of SCCA, 100% of EpD, and 35.7% OLP cases. Survivin was high in 64.3% of OLP cases, 96.3% of SCCA, and 100% of EpD. CIM cases may be slightly different molecularly to OLP. Taken together, our data suggest that biomarker protein voting can be effectively used to isolate high-risk OLP cases. Specifically, we show data with four remarkable cases demonstrating that molecular factors are predictive of histopathology. We conclude that it is safer to treat OLP as premalignant lesions, to adopt aggressive treatment measure in histopathologic described well and moderately differentiated SCCA, and to monitor progress of these diseases molecularly using individualized auto-proteomic approach. The use of Lck inhibitors in OLP management needs to be investigated in the future.

  11. Diagnostic delay in oral squamous cell carcinoma: the role of cognitive and psychological variables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panzarella, Vera; Pizzo, Giuseppe; Calvino, Francesco; Compilato, Domenico; Colella, Giuseppe; Campisi, Giuseppina

    2014-03-01

    This retrospective study investigated, in two cohorts of subjects living in Southern Italy and awaiting treatment for oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), the variables related to diagnostic delay ascribable to the patient, with particular reference to the cognitive and psychological ones. A total of 156 patients with OSCC (mean age: 62 years, M/F: 2.39∶1) were recruited at the Universities of Palermo and Naples. Risk factors related to patient delay included: sociodemographic, health-related, cognitive and psychological variables. The analysis was conducted by considering two different delay ranges: dichotomous (≤1 month vs. >1 month) and polytomous (3 months) delay. Data were investigated by univariate and multivariate analyses and a P value ≤0.05 was considered statistically significant. For both delay measurements, the most relevant variables were: 'Personal experience of cancer' (dichotomous delay: P=0.05, odds ratio (OR)=0.33, 95% confidence interval (CI)=0.11-0.99; polytomous delay: P=0.006, Chi-square=10.224) and 'Unawareness' (dichotomous delay: Pdichotomous and for polytomous categorization of delay, respectively. The findings of this study indicated that, in the investigated cohorts, the knowledge about cancer issues is strongly linked to the patient delay. Educational interventions on the Mediterranean population are necessary in order to increase the patient awareness and to emphasize his/her key role in early diagnosis of OSCC.

  12. Risk Factors for Distant Metastasis in Patients with Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma Undergoing Surgical Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aires, Felipe Toyama; Lin, Chin Shien; Matos, Leandro Luongo; Kulcsar, Marco Aurélio Vamondes; Cernea, Claudio Roberto

    2018-01-23

    The aim of this study is to investigate the clinical and pathological factors related to distant metastasis in patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC) undergoing surgery. A retrospective data review was conducted on patients who underwent primary surgery for OCSCC at the Instituto do Cancer do Estado de São Paulo (ICESP) between 2009 and 2015. Distant metastasis rates were calculated and predictive factors were determined by the Cox proportional-hazards model. There was a total of 274 patients, including 210 (76.6%) men and 64 (23.4%) women, with a mean age of 59.9 ± 10.9 years. The incidence of distant metastasis was 9.6%, with the lung being the most common site. The mean time interval between surgical treatment and the diagnosis of distant metastasis was 12 months (range 2-40 months). In the multivariate analysis, angiolymphatic invasion (HR = 2,87; p = 0.023), contralateral cervical metastasis (HR = 3.3; p = 0,007), tumor thickness >25 mm (HR = 3.50; p = 0.009), and locoregional recurrence (HR = 6.59; p 25 mm, angiolymphatic invasion, or locoregional recurrence after surgical treatment have a greater risk of developing distant metastasis. © 2018 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Long term results of sentinel lymph node biopsy in early oral squamous cell carcinoma

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    Dequanter D

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Didier Dequanter, Mohammad Shahla, Pascal Paulus, Philippe Lothaire Civil Hospital of Charleroi (site Vésale, Montigny le Tilleul, Belgium Abstract: The objective of the study was to evaluate the long term results of the sentinel node (SN biopsy technique in the management of the clinically negative (N0 neck in patients with early oral squamous cell carcinoma (T1–T2. Patients with positive SN underwent neck dissection. A sentinel lymph node (SLN biopsy was performed on 31 consecutive patients. Six of the 31 patients were upstaged by the results of the SLN biopsy. The SLN biopsy allowed the identification of node metastasis in 100% of the cases with a sensitivity of 100%, specificity of 100%, and negative predictive value of 100%. There was a mean follow-up of 59 months. The neck control rate was 100% in the SLN negative group and two SLN positive patients developed subsequent neck disease (neck control rate of 88%. One SLN patient presented at the follow-up with a second primary tumor, 18 months later treated successfully by chemoradiotherapy. The overall survival rate was 100% in both groups. The promising reported short-term results have been sustained by long term follow-up. Patients with negative SLN achieved an excellent neck control rate. The neck control rate in SN negative patients was superior to that in SLN positive patients, but not statistically different. Keywords: sentinel lymph node, characteristics of patients, head and neck cancer

  14. Antiproliferative effect of Tualang honey on oral squamous cell carcinoma and osteosarcoma cell lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghashm, Abdulmlik A; Othman, Nor H; Khattak, Mohammed N; Ismail, Noorliza M; Saini, Rajan

    2010-09-14

    The treatment of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC) and human osteosarcoma (HOS) includes surgery and/or radiotherapy which often lead to reduced quality of life. This study was aimed to study the antiproliferative activity of local honey (Tualang) on OSCC and HOS cell lines. Several concentrations of Tualang honey (1% - 20%) were applied on OSCC and HOS cell lines for 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours. Morphological characteristics were observed under light and fluorescent microscope. Cell viability was assessed using MTT assay and the optical density for absorbance values in each experiment was measured at 570 nm by an ELISA reader. Detection of cellular apoptosis was done using the Annexin V-FITC Apoptosis Detection Kit. Morphological appearance showed apoptotic cellular changes like becoming rounded, reduction in cell number, blebbed membrane and apoptotic nuclear changes like nuclear shrinkage, chromatin condensation and fragmented nucleus on OSCC and HOS cell lines. Cell viability assay showed a time and dose-dependent inhibitory effect of honey on both cell lines. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50) for OSCC and HOS cell lines was found to be 4% and 3.5% respectively. The maximum inhibition of cell growth of ≥80% was obtained at 15% for both cell lines. Early apoptosis was evident by flow cytometry where percentage of early apoptotic cells increased in dose and time dependent manner. Tualang honey showed antiproliferative effect on OSCC and HOS cell lines by inducing early apoptosis.

  15. Stathmin is overexpressed and regulated by mutant p53 in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

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    Ma, Hai-Long; Jin, Shu-Fang; Ju, Wu-Tong; Fu, Yong; Tu, Yao-Yao; Wang, Li-Zhen; Jiang-Li; Zhang, Zhi-Yuan; Zhong, Lai-Ping

    2017-08-14

    The aim of this study was to investigate the oncogenic function and regulatory mechanism of stathmin in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Two-dimensional electrophoresis and liquid chromatography-tandem mass chromatography were applied to screen differentiated proteins during carcinogenesis in OSCC. Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK-8) assays, colony formation, migration, flow cytometry, immunofluorescence and a xenograft model were used to detect the function of stathmin. The correlation between stathmin and p53 expression was analyzed using immunohistochemistry. Mutant/wild type p53 plasmids and small interfering RNA were used to examine the regulation of stathmin. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays and luciferase assays were performed to detect the transcriptional activation of stathmin by p53. Overexpression of stathmin was screened and confirmed in OSCC patients and cell lines. Silencing expression of stathmin inhibited proliferation, colony formation and migration and promoted apoptosis. Poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) and cyclin-dependent kinase 1 (cdc2) were activated after silencing the expression of stathmin. Suppression of tumorigenicity was also confirmed in vivo. Mutant p53 transcriptionally activated the expression of stathmin in HN6 and HN13 cancer cells, but not in HN30 cells harboring wild type p53. These results suggest that stathmin acts as an oncogene and is transcriptionally regulated by mutant p53, but not by wild-type p53. Stathmin could be a potential anti-tumor therapeutic target in OSCC.

  16. Clinical and histopathological evidence of oral squamous cell carcinoma in young patients: systematized review

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    Janaina Almeida Mesquita

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC very often affects subjects above the sixth decade of life. However an increasing incidence has been observed in younger individuals, below 40 years. We conducted a systematized review of the current clinical, histopathological and therapeutic aspects of OSCC in young patients. Our work included studies that addressed OSCC involving young patients in the period 2007 2012, and which were indexed in PubMed. Initially, 499 articles were obtained; after refinement, 340 articles had their titles and abstracts evaluated, with 17 included in the sample. The majority of studies reported male predominance (87.5%, association with tobacco and/ or alcohol use (66.6%, advanced clinical stages at diagnosis (77.7% and, at histopathology, moderately differentiated tumors (72.7%. Based on the results, we believe there are differences in the factors associated with pathogenesis, biological behavior and prognosis in young patients, since most studies show more rapid and aggressive tumor progression in this age group. We suggest the conduction of research focusing on the pathogenesis and carcinogenesis of OSCC in young patients, thereby searching for better scientific evidence.

  17. Immunohistochemical evaluation of p63 and cyclin D1 in oral squamous cell carcinoma and leukoplakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Sunit B; Manjunatha, Bhari S; Shah, Vandana; Soni, Nishit; Sutariya, Rakesh

    2017-10-01

    There are only a limited number of studies on cyclin D1 and p63 expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and leukoplakia. This study compared cyclin D1 and p63 expression in leukoplakia and OSCC to investigate the possible correlation of both markers with grade of dysplasia and histological grade of OSCC. The study included a total of 60 cases, of which 30 were diagnosed with OSCC and 30 with leukoplakia, that were evaluated immunohistochemically for p63 and cyclin D1 expression. Protein expression was correlated based on grades of dysplasia and OSCC. Out of 30 cases of OSCC, 23 cases (76.7%) were cyclin D1 positive and 30 cases (100%) were p63 positive. Out of 30 cases of leukoplakia, 21 cases (70.0%) were cyclin D1 positive and 30 (100%) were p63 positive (Pleukoplakia. Based on these results cyclin D1 and p63 products can be a useful tool for improved leukoplakia prognosis.

  18. Influence of MTHFR Genetic Background on p16 and MGMT Methylation in Oral Squamous Cell Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferlazzo, Nadia; Currò, Monica; Zinellu, Angelo; Caccamo, Daniela; Isola, Gaetano; Ventura, Valeria; Carru, Ciriaco; Matarese, Giovanni; Ientile, Riccardo

    2017-01-01

    Genetic polymorphisms of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) enzyme may influence DNA methylation. Alterations in DNA methylation patterns of genes involved in the regulation of the cell cycle, DNA repair, cell adherence and metastasis process are known to contribute to cancer development. In this study, the influence of the MTHFR C677T and A1298C gene polymorphisms on global DNA methylation and site-specific methylation on p16 and O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT) gene promoters was investigated in patients with oral squamous cell cancer (OSCC). To this aim, methylation studies were carried out by using genomic DNA isolated from saliva samples of 58 OSCC patients and 90 healthy controls. The frequency of the CT/AC and TT/AA genotypes was significantly higher in patients than in controls. Whereas no difference in global DNA methylation levels was observed between patients and controls, a higher frequency of methylation at both p16 and MGMT gene promoters was detected in patients compared with controls. A significant association between MTHFR gene polymorphisms and p16 and MGMT gene promoter methylation was found. The frequency of p16 and MGMT methylation was around 60% in patients with either the CT/AC or TT/AA genotype. Our results suggest that hypermethylation of cancer-related genes may be affected by MTHFR polymorphisms. PMID:28353639

  19. Analysis of reticulin fiber pattern in lymph nodes with metastasis from oral squamous cell carcinoma

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    Shanmukha Raviteja Yinti

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The aim of the study was to determine the susceptibility of lymph nodes to metastasis in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC by analyzing the alterations in reticulin fiber pattern. Materials and Methods: This retrospective study on 30 cases of OSCC had 15 cases that presented with lymph node metastasis (test group and 15 cases without metastatic episodes (control group. Four micron thick sections of the tumor proper and the resected lymph nodes of the cases were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and Gordon and Sweet′s stain for reticulin. Statistical analysis of the variations in the staining patterns of reticulin at the invasive tumor front (ITF, involved and uninvolved lymph nodes were done with Statistical Package for Social Sciences (SPSS 15 version using chi-square test. Results: The assessment of reticulin fiber patterns at the ITF, cortical and medullary areas of lymph nodes in test cases showed thin, long individual fibers, as compared to thick, shorter interlacing fibers that were seen in control cases. The peritumoral and uninvolved areas in metastatic lymph nodes of almost all test cases showed very scant fibers. Conclusion: Reticulin pattern alteration by aggressive tumors may be appreciated as a part of the wide spectrum of "proneoplastic" stromal alterations. The histopathologist can discern these changes and thereby aid the clinician in predicting tumor behavior, the clinical course of the disease, and weighing the prognostic implications.

  20. Influence of MTHFR Genetic Background on p16 and MGMT Methylation in Oral Squamous Cell Cancer

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    Nadia Ferlazzo

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Genetic polymorphisms of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR enzyme may influence DNA methylation. Alterations in DNA methylation patterns of genes involved in the regulation of the cell cycle, DNA repair, cell adherence and metastasis process are known to contribute to cancer development. In this study, the influence of the MTHFR C677T and A1298C gene polymorphisms on global DNA methylation and site-specific methylation on p16 and O6-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase (MGMT gene promoters was investigated in patients with oral squamous cell cancer (OSCC. To this aim, methylation studies were carried out by using genomic DNA isolated from saliva samples of 58 OSCC patients and 90 healthy controls. The frequency of the CT/AC and TT/AA genotypes was significantly higher in patients than in controls. Whereas no difference in global DNA methylation levels was observed between patients and controls, a higher frequency of methylation at both p16 and MGMT gene promoters was detected in patients compared with controls. A significant association between MTHFR gene polymorphisms and p16 and MGMT gene promoter methylation was found. The frequency of p16 and MGMT methylation was around 60% in patients with either the CT/AC or TT/AA genotype. Our results suggest that hypermethylation of cancer-related genes may be affected by MTHFR polymorphisms.

  1. Influence of MTHFR Genetic Background on p16 and MGMT Methylation in Oral Squamous Cell Cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferlazzo, Nadia; Currò, Monica; Zinellu, Angelo; Caccamo, Daniela; Isola, Gaetano; Ventura, Valeria; Carru, Ciriaco; Matarese, Giovanni; Ientile, Riccardo

    2017-03-29

    Genetic polymorphisms of the methylenetetrahydrofolate reductase (MTHFR) enzyme may influence DNA methylation. Alterations in DNA methylation patterns of genes involved in the regulation of the cell cycle, DNA repair, cell adherence and metastasis process are known to contribute to cancer development. In this study, the influence of the MTHFR C677T and A1298C gene polymorphisms on global DNA methylation and site-specific methylation on p16 and O ⁶-methylguanine-DNA methyltransferase ( MGMT ) gene promoters was investigated in patients with oral squamous cell cancer (OSCC). To this aim, methylation studies were carried out by using genomic DNA isolated from saliva samples of 58 OSCC patients and 90 healthy controls. The frequency of the CT/AC and TT/AA genotypes was significantly higher in patients than in controls. Whereas no difference in global DNA methylation levels was observed between patients and controls, a higher frequency of methylation at both p16 and MGMT gene promoters was detected in patients compared with controls. A significant association between MTHFR gene polymorphisms and p16 and MGMT gene promoter methylation was found. The frequency of p16 and MGMT methylation was around 60% in patients with either the CT/AC or TT/AA genotype. Our results suggest that hypermethylation of cancer-related genes may be affected by MTHFR polymorphisms.

  2. HH/GLI signalling as a new therapeutic target for patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Ming; Wang, Lijun; Zuo, Hui; Zhang, Zhiyuan; Chen, Wantao; Mao, Li; Zhang, Ping

    2011-06-01

    Aberrant activation of HH/GLI has recently been reported in multiple cancer types, yet its role in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has not been investigated. In this study, we aimed to determine the role of HH/GLI in OSCC. Expression of GLI1 and GLI2 was examined in OSCC samples from 136 patients by immunohistochemistry and correlated with clinicopathology parameters and clinical outcomes of the patients. Two HH/GLI specific small molecule inhibitors cyclopamine and GANT61, were used to test the potential role of HH/GLI in OSCC. We found that GLI2, one of the main transcriptional activators of HH/GLI signalling, was expressed in 60 (44%) of the 136 OSCC samples and the expression was significantly associated with poor clinical outcomes. Only 44% of the patients whose tumours expressed GLI2 survived at 5years after surgery compared to 77% of those whose tumours lacked the GLI2 expression (PHH/GLI pathway plays an important role in OSCC progression. Together with the finding that expression of GLI2 is strongly associated with a poor clinic outcome of OSCC patients, the data suggest that a subset of OSCC patients may benefit from anti-HH/GLI therapies. Copyright © 2011. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  3. Clinicopathologic significance of ROCK2 expression in oral squamous cell carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dourado, Mauricio R; de Oliveira, Carine E; Sawazaki-Calone, Iris; Sundquist, Elias; Coletta, Ricardo D; Salo, Tuula

    2017-10-20

    Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase 2 (ROCK2) is an oncoprotein that controls cytoskeleton organization and acts as prognostic marker in different types of solid tumors. ROCK2 overexpression is also observed in cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAF), which suggests its relevance within the tumor microenvironment. This study aimed to access the prognostic value of ROCK2 in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) and its association with CAF density. Rho-associated coiled-coil kinase 2 immunohistochemical analysis was applied in 93 OSCC samples from 2 centers in Brazil and Finland. The samples were also stained for isoform α of smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) to characterize the presence of CAF in the tumor stroma. Clinicopathological associations were analyzed using Chi-squared test, survival curves were constructed according to the Kaplan-Meier method, and Cox proportional hazard model was applied for multivariate survival analysis. Advanced clinical stage (P = .002) and increased density of CAF (P = .002) were significantly associated with high ROCK2 expression. The high expression of ROCK2 was also associated with shortened disease-specific survival (HR: 2.22, 95% CI: 1.15-4.38, P = .04), but the association did not withstand the Cox multivariate survival analysis. The findings suggest that high ROCK2 expression in OSCC is associated with advanced disease and follows the increase in CAF density, which may be important for tumor progression. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Morphological and ultrastructural characteristics of extracellular matrix changes in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

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    Agrawal, Usha; Rai, Himanshu; Jain, Arun K

    2011-01-01

    The biology of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), including its progression from dysplasia to carcinoma, "field effects", genetic changes in tumor associated mucosa (TAM) and effect of matrix metalloproteinases in breaking down of matrix proteins to facilitate invasion, has been well documented. However, what remains to be done is to extrapolate this knowledge to improve patient care. The aim of this study was to observe the extracellular matrix (ECM) changes with the routine histochemical stains available to most histopathologists. The study includes 72 cases of OSCC in which the tumor and adjacent normal appearing areas were sampled to study the ECM changes with hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) and Verhoeff's-Van Gieson elastic stain (VVG). Basophilic fragmentation of collagen (H and E) and clumped short elastic fibers (VVG) were seen in 12 (16.7%) cases. Of the remaining cases, 18 (25%) had a dense lymphocytic infiltrate and had no demonstrable elastic fibers. Those cases with H and E changes were further studied and compared with normal mucosa for ultrastructural changes. The ultrastructural study demonstrated an increase in oxytalan, elaunin and elastic fibers and decrease in collagen fibers with some transformation changes associated with OSCCs and lymph node metastasis. Changes in transformation of collagen to elastic fibers and also the loss of both the fibers in areas of lymphocytic infiltration possibly indicate degradation of ECM fibers by factors released from the lymphocytes or tumor cells and the limiting effect on the tumor by ECM remodeling.

  5. Clinical relevance of the tumor microenvironment and immune escape of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

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    Eckert, Alexander W; Wickenhauser, Claudia; Salins, Paul C; Kappler, Matthias; Bukur, Juergen; Seliger, Barbara

    2016-04-05

    Changes in the tumor microenvironment and immune surveillance represent crucial hallmarks of various kinds of cancer, including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), and a close crosstalk of hypoxia regulating genes, an activation of chemokines and immune cells has been described. A review about the pivotal role of HIF-1, its crosstalk to various cornerstones in OSCC tumorigenesis is presented. Hypoxia is a frequent event in OSCC and leads to a reprogramming of the cellular metabolism in order to prevent cell death. Hypoxic OSCC cells induce different adaptive changes such as anaerobic glycolysis, pH stabilisation and alterations of the gene and protein expression profile. This complex metabolic program is orchestrated by the hypoxia inducible factor (HIF)-1, the master regulator of early tumor progression. Hypoxia-dependent and -independent alterations in immune surveillance lead to different immune evasion strategies, which are partially mediated by alterations of the tumor cells, changes in the frequency, activity and repertoire of immune cell infiltrates and of soluble and environmental factors of the tumor micromilieu with consecutive generation of an immune escape phenotype, progression of disease and poor clinical outcome of OSCC patients. This review focusses on the importance of HIF-1 in the adaption and reprogramming of the metabolic system to reduced oxygen values as well as on the role of the tumor microenvironment for evasion of OSCC from immune recognition and destruction.

  6. α-Mangostin Induces Apoptosis and Cell Cycle Arrest in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Cell

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    Hyun-Ho Kwak

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Mangosteen has long been used as a traditional medicine and is known to have antibacterial, antioxidant, and anticancer effects. Although the effects of α-mangostin, a natural compound extracted from the pericarp of mangosteen, have been investigated in many studies, there is limited data on the effects of the compound in human oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC. In this study, α-mangostin was assessed as a potential anticancer agent against human OSCC cells. α-Mangostin inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell death in OSCC cells in a dose- and time-dependent manner with little to no effect on normal human PDLF cells. α-Mangostin treatment clearly showed apoptotic evidences such as nuclear fragmentation and accumulation of annexin V and PI-positive cells on OSCC cells. α-Mangostin treatment also caused the collapse of mitochondrial membrane potential and the translocation of cytochrome c from the mitochondria into the cytosol. The expressions of the mitochondria-related proteins were activated by α-mangostin. Treatment with α-mangostin also induced G1 phase arrest and downregulated cell cycle-related proteins (CDK/cyclin. Hence, α-mangostin specifically induces cell death and inhibits proliferation in OSCC cells via the intrinsic apoptosis pathway and cell cycle arrest at the G1 phase, suggesting that α-mangostin may be an effective agent for the treatment of OSCC.

  7. Deletion polymorphism at chromosome 3q26.1 and oral squamous cell carcinoma

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    KAWACHI, HOMARE; SUGAHARA, KEISUKE; NAKAMURA, YASUTAKA; KATAKURA, AKIRA; MINAGUCHI, KIYOSHI; SHIBAHARA, TAKAHIKO

    2013-01-01

    Several recent studies have investigated DNA instability in malignancies including deletions and duplications of part of the chromosome using array-based comparative genomic hybridization (CGH) analysis. Using the same approach on oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) tissue samples, we found a frequent deletion at chromosome 3q26.1 in OSCC patients; this polymorphism showed a gene frequency of 0.293–0.368 in healthy volunteers (n=60) and 0.129–0.195 in OSCC patients (n=54). Detailed analysis around the polymorphic region revealed the deletion breakage point. A significant association of gene frequency for the deletion polymorphism between healthy volunteers and patients implicated genetic factors related to this polymorphism in the development of OSCC. Currently, no gene is predicted to lie within the 3,606-kbp region around the polymorphism. Thus, although a single-gene model could not explain the occurrence of OSCC, we believe that examining this polymorphism could be useful in identifying risk factors for OSCC. PMID:23258604

  8. Histochemical analysis of collagen reorganization at the invasive front of oral squamous cell carcinoma tumors.

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    Devendra, Alrani; Niranjan, Kochli C; Swetha, Acharya; Kaveri, Hallikeri

    2017-07-17

    The aim of the present study was to: (a) analyze the nature of collagen with respect to cohesive and discohesive invasive tumor front (ITF) of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC); (b) analyze the clinicopathological correlation with the nature of collagen at the ITF of OSCC; and (c) correlate the nature of collagen with Broder's and Bryne's histological grading system of OSCC. Tissue sections of 29 OSCC with ITF were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and picrosirius red staining for evaluation under a polarized microscope. Tumors with a cohesive front had a thick collagen fiber, are predominantly organized, red-yellow in color, well packed, and show strong birefringence (Pfront, where the collagen fibers were thin, disorganized, yellow-orange to green-yellow in color, loosely packed, and with weak birefringence (Pfront with organized collagen fibers prevents tumor invasion and metastasis. As it is inhibits an increase in tumor size, it is associated with the initial stage of tumor (I & II), whereas in a discohesive tumor front, the fibers might enhance the movement of tumor cells, resulting in invasion and metastasis. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  9. Three-Dimensional Reconstruction of Oral Tongue Squamous Cell Carcinoma at Invasion Front

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    Tomoo Kudo

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We conducted three-dimensional (3D reconstruction of oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC using serial histological sections to visualize the architecture of invasive tumors. Fourteen OTSCC cases were collected from archival paraffin-embedded specimens. Based on a pathodiagnostic survey of whole cancer lesions, a core tissue specimen (3 mm in diameter was dissected out from the deep invasion front using a paraffin tissue microarray. Serial sections (4 μm thick were double immunostained with pan-cytokeratin and Ki67 antibodies and digitized images were acquired using virtual microscopy. For 3D reconstruction, image registration and RGB color segmentation were automated using ImageJ software to avoid operator-dependent subjective errors. Based on the 3D tumor architecture, we classified the mode of invasion into four types: pushing and bulky architecture; trabecular architecture; diffuse spreading; and special forms. Direct visualization and quantitative assessment of the parenchymal-stromal border provide a new dimension in our understanding of OTSCC architecture. These 3D morphometric analyses also ascertained that cell invasion (individually and collectively occurs at the deep invasive front of the OTSCC. These results demonstrate the advantages of histology-based 3D reconstruction for evaluating tumor architecture and its potential for a wide range of applications.

  10. Three-dimensional reconstruction of oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma at invasion front.

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    Kudo, Tomoo; Shimazu, Yoshihito; Yagishita, Hisao; Izumo, Toshiyuki; Soeno, Yuuichi; Sato, Kaori; Taya, Yuji; Aoba, Takaaki

    2013-01-01

    We conducted three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction of oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) using serial histological sections to visualize the architecture of invasive tumors. Fourteen OTSCC cases were collected from archival paraffin-embedded specimens. Based on a pathodiagnostic survey of whole cancer lesions, a core tissue specimen (3 mm in diameter) was dissected out from the deep invasion front using a paraffin tissue microarray. Serial sections (4  μ m thick) were double immunostained with pan-cytokeratin and Ki67 antibodies and digitized images were acquired using virtual microscopy. For 3D reconstruction, image registration and RGB color segmentation were automated using ImageJ software to avoid operator-dependent subjective errors. Based on the 3D tumor architecture, we classified the mode of invasion into four types: pushing and bulky architecture; trabecular architecture; diffuse spreading; and special forms. Direct visualization and quantitative assessment of the parenchymal-stromal border provide a new dimension in our understanding of OTSCC architecture. These 3D morphometric analyses also ascertained that cell invasion (individually and collectively) occurs at the deep invasive front of the OTSCC. These results demonstrate the advantages of histology-based 3D reconstruction for evaluating tumor architecture and its potential for a wide range of applications.

  11. Type of cell death induced by alpha-trifluoromethyl acyloins in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

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    Ideo, Atsushi; Hashimoto, Ken; Shimada, Jun; Kawase, Masami; Sakagami, Hiroshi

    2009-01-01

    We previously reported that alpha-trifluoromethyl acyloins (TFs) induced various types of cell death, depending on the target cancer cell line. We investigated here what type of cell death is induced by a-trifluoromethyl acyloins in two human oral squamous cell carcinoma cell lines (HSC-2, HSC-4). TFs produced few TUNEL-positive cells. TFs induced annexin V/PI-double positive HSC-2 cells and annexin V-positive/PI-negative HSC-4 cells, respectively, but failed to activate caspase-3, capase-8 and caspase-9 in both HSC-2 and HSC-4 cells. On the other hand, TFs induced the formation of acidic organelles (detected by acridine orange staining) in both HSC-2 and HSC-4 cells. When HSC-2 and HSC-4 cells that had been transfected with expression vector encording the microtubule-associated protein 1 light chain 3 (LC3) gene fused to green fluorescent protein (GFP) were treated with TFs, LC3-GFP fusion protein was accumulated as granular dots in autophagosomes. Pretreatment with 3-methyladenine, an inhibitor of autophagy, partially inhibited the cytotoxicity of TFs, the formation of acidic organelles and LC3 accumulation in the autophagosome. These data suggest that alpha-trifluoromethyl acyloins may induce autophagic cell death in HSC-2 and HSC-4 cells following the early stage of necrosis or apoptosis, respectively.

  12. Antiproliferative effect of Tualang honey on oral squamous cell carcinoma and osteosarcoma cell lines

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    Ismail Noorliza M

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The treatment of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC and human osteosarcoma (HOS includes surgery and/or radiotherapy which often lead to reduced quality of life. This study was aimed to study the antiproliferative activity of local honey (Tualang on OSCC and HOS cell lines. Methods Several concentrations of Tualang honey (1% - 20% were applied on OSCC and HOS cell lines for 3, 6, 12, 24, 48 and 72 hours. Morphological characteristics were observed under light and fluorescent microscope. Cell viability was assessed using MTT assay and the optical density for absorbance values in each experiment was measured at 570 nm by an ELISA reader. Detection of cellular apoptosis was done using the Annexin V-FITC Apoptosis Detection Kit. Results Morphological appearance showed apoptotic cellular changes like becoming rounded, reduction in cell number, blebbed membrane and apoptotic nuclear changes like nuclear shrinkage, chromatin condensation and fragmented nucleus on OSCC and HOS cell lines. Cell viability assay showed a time and dose-dependent inhibitory effect of honey on both cell lines. The 50% inhibitory concentration (IC50 for OSCC and HOS cell lines was found to be 4% and 3.5% respectively. The maximum inhibition of cell growth of ≥80% was obtained at 15% for both cell lines. Early apoptosis was evident by flow cytometry where percentage of early apoptotic cells increased in dose and time dependent manner. Conclusion Tualang honey showed antiproliferative effect on OSCC and HOS cell lines by inducing early apoptosis.

  13. Piperine Triggers Apoptosis of Human Oral Squamous Carcinoma Through Cell Cycle Arrest and Mitochondrial Oxidative Stress.

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    Siddiqui, Sahabjada; Ahamad, Md Sultan; Jafri, Asif; Afzal, Mohd; Arshad, Md

    2017-07-01

    Piperine is a nitrogenous pungent substance exhibiting multifunctional pharmacological properties. However, the mechanism underlying its anticancer potential is not well elucidated in human oral squamous carcinoma (KB) cell line. The anticancer potential of piperine was evaluated through potent biomarkers viz. reactive oxygen species (ROS), cellular apoptosis, and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential (MMP). In addition, cell cycle kinetics and caspases-3 activity were also carried out to confirm anticancer activity of piperine. Results showed that various concentrations (25-300 μM) of piperine exposure reduced the cell viability of KB cells significantly (P Piperine induced significant (P piperine stimulated cell death by inducing loss of MMP, and caspase-3 activation. Cell cycle study revealed that piperine arrested the cells in G2/M phase and decreased the DNA content. Findings of this study suggest the efficacy of piperine in inducing cell death via the decrease in MMP and ROS liberation followed by caspase-3 activation and cell cycle arrest. Further assessment of the anticancer potency of piperine is needed for anticancer drug development.

  14. Cancer stem cells and field cancerization of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

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    Simple, M; Suresh, Amritha; Das, Debashish; Kuriakose, Moni A

    2015-07-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) has a high propensity for local failure, which is attributed to recurrence at the primary site or the development of second primary tumors (SPT). Field cancerization that refers to the existence of transformed cells in areas adjacent to the primary tumor, has been attributed to be one of the probable reasons underlying disease relapse. The carcinogenic process necessitates multiple molecular events for the transformation of a normal cell into a cancer cell. This implies that only the long-time residents of the epithelium, such as the stem cells, might be the candidates capable of accumulating these genetic hits. These transformed stem cells- the 'Cancer stem cells' (CSCs), are further known to be equipped with the properties of tumor initiation and migration, both of which are essential for orchestrating field cancerization. The concept that the CSCs might be responsible for field cancerization in OSCC has not been explored extensively. If the role of CSCs as the primary units of field cancerization process is established, their presence in the mucosa adjacent to the tumor may be an indicator for local recurrence and/or development of second primary tumors. In this review, we examine the available evidence in literature exploring the possibilities of CSCs driving the process of field cancerization and thereby being the underlying mechanism for disease recurrence and development of SPT. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  15. Three-dimensional visualization and quantification for the growth and invasion of oral squamous cell carcinoma

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    Yoshihito Shimazu

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Recent advance in three-dimensional (3D imaging technology allows us to inspect visually and quantitatively the architecture of complex biological tissues and pathological lesions. We initiated histology-based 3D reconstruction of oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC in order to collect quantitative information of diagnostic value regarding cancer invasion and prognosis. The basic procedures for 3D reconstruction are: preparation of serial histological sections in combination with immunostaining of cell/tissue constituents of interest, alignment and superposition of digitized images, computer-assisted color segmentation of labeled targets, and finally viewing and morphometric analysis of the reconstruct. Our past experience showed that cytokeratin-positive tumor parenchyma can be segmented readily from the surrounding stroma with the aid of Image-J and RATOC TRI-SRF2 software. Cytoplasm/nucleus segmentation of individual SCC cells was also feasible at higher magnifications, leading to quantitative analysis of several histological parameters in tissue space, e.g., parenchyma and stroma volume, nuclear numbers and nuclear/cytoplasm volume ratio, as well as proliferation activity of cancer cells by counting separately the number of Ki-67 positive and negative nuclei in the parenchyma. The results support the wide potential usage and advantage of histology-based 3D reconstruction in cancer biology understanding and pathological diagnosis.

  16. Hemidesmosomal linker proteins regulate cell motility, invasion and tumorigenicity in oral squamous cell carcinoma derived cells.

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    Chaudhari, Pratik Rajeev; Charles, Silvania Emlit; D'Souza, Zinia Charlotte; Vaidya, Milind Murlidhar

    2017-11-15

    BPAG1e and Plectin are hemidesmosomal linker proteins which anchor intermediate filament proteins to the cell surface through β4 integrin. Recent reports indicate that these proteins play a role in various cellular processes apart from their known anchoring function. However, the available literature is inconsistent. Further, the previous study from our laboratory suggested that Keratin8/18 pair promotes cell motility and tumor progression by deregulating β4 integrin signaling in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) derived cells. Based on these findings, we hypothesized that linker proteins may have a role in neoplastic progression of OSCC. Downregulation of hemidesmosomal linker proteins in OSCC derived cells resulted in reduced cell migration accompanied by alterations in actin organization. Further, decreased MMP9 activity led to reduced cell invasion in linker proteins knockdown cells. Moreover, loss of these proteins resulted in reduced tumorigenic potential. SWATH analysis demonstrated upregulation of N-Myc downstream regulated gene 1 (NDRG1) in linker proteins downregulated cells as compared to vector control cells. Further, the defects in phenotype upon linker proteins ablation were rescued upon loss of NDRG1 in linker proteins knockdown background. These data together indicate that hemidesmosomal linker proteins regulate cell motility, invasion and tumorigenicity possibly through NDRG1 in OSCC derived cells. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Prognostic value of GLUT-1 expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma

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    Li, Chen-Xi; Sun, Jia-Lin; Gong, Zhong-Cheng; Lin, Zhao-Quan; Liu, Hui

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: A variety of studies have evaluated the correlation between glucose transporter-1 (GLUT-1) expression and prognosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC); however, the results were inconsistent and inconclusive. A meta-analysis was performed to assess the prognostic significance of GLUT-1 in OSCC. Methods: Electronic databases of PubMed, Embase, and Web of Science were searched for relevant studies. The last search was updated on July 2016. Odds ratio (OR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) were pooled to evaluate the relationship between GLUT-1 and clinical features and hazard ratio (HR) and 95% CI were combined to measure the effect of GLUT-1 on overall survival (OS). P value GLUT-1 expression was associated with advanced tumor stages (n = 7, OR = 2.99, 95% CI: 2.01–4.46, P GLUT-1 expression was also correlated with shorter OS (n = 8, HR = 1.88, 95%CI: 1.51–2.33, P GLUT-1 overexpression was in connection with aggressive clinical features and worse OS in OSCC. However, further studies are still needed to verify whether GLUT-1 could serve as a prognostic biomarker for OSCC. PMID:27828852

  18. Glut-1 as a prognostic biomarker in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

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    Harshani, Jyotsna M; Yeluri, Sivaranjani; Guttikonda, Venkateswara Rao

    2014-01-01

    Glut-1 is a glucose transporter protein, the expression of which is upregulated in malignant cells which show increased glucose uptake. Alterations in expression of Glut-1 have been reported in several pre-malignant and malignant lesions. The objectives of the present study were to compare the expression of Glut-1 in normal persons and in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), to correlate the expression of Glut-1 with respect to clinical staging of OSCC and to evaluate the expression of Glut-1 with respect to different histopathological grades of OSCC. Thirty cases of OSCC were staged clinically and graded histopathologically. Immunohistochemical method was used to detect the expression of Glut-1 in OSCC and the same was compared with the normal subjects. The scores were compared using the chi-square test. Glut-1 expression was detected in all grades of OSCC. A significant correlation with a P value of 0.00004 was found in immunostaining between normal and OSCC. The expression of Glut-1 was significant when compared with different clinical stages with significant P value of 0.0004 and in different histopathological grades of OSCC with a P value of 0.00001. Higher immunohistochemical staining scores were obtained with increased clinical staging and histopathological grades of OSCC. High expression of Glut-1 may be related to poor prognosis in OSCC.

  19. GLUT-1(+)/TKTL1(+) coexpression predicts poor outcome in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

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    Grimm, Martin; Munz, Adelheid; Teriete, Peter; Nadtotschi, Tatjana; Reinert, Siegmar

    2014-06-01

    Tumor hypoxia is a crucial negative prognostic factor associated with outcome of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Expression of glucose transporter 1 (GLUT-1) (solute carrier family 2 [facilitated glucose transporter], member 1 [SLC2A1]) was analyzed in OSCC specimen (n = 161) and cancer cell lines by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. GLUT-1 expression on protein level was correlated with transketolase-like 1 (TKTL1) expression, clinical characteristics, and effect on survival. Subgroup analysis was performed for GLUT-1/TKTL1 coexpression. GLUT-1 expression was significantly correlated with TKTL1 expression (P GLUT-1 expression to be an independent prognostic factor (P = .2478). GLUT-1(+)/TKTL1(+) subgroup showed the worst effect on survival compared with the GLUT-1(-)/TKTL1(-) subgroup (P = .0002). This study provides evidence that tumors linked with combined enhanced glucose uptake (GLUT-1(+)) and hypoxia-related glucose metabolism (TKTL1(+)) characteristics (GLUT-1(+)/TKTL1(+) coexpression) are associated with shorter survival in OSCC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Assessment of Tumor Cell Cannibalism as a Predictor of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma - A Histopathologic Correlation.

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    Jain, Megha; Saawarn, Swati; Gupta, Anish; Ashok, Sahana; Mhaske, Shubhangi; Khan, Samark; Jain, Manish

    2017-01-01

    Cellular cannibalism is defined as the ability of a cell to engulf another cell of its own type or any other. It has been recognized in various malignancies and is linked well with the aggressiveness, degree of anaplasia, invasiveness and metastatic potential. Literature search fetched up very few studies related to the presence and significance of cannibalism with respect to Oral squamous cell carcinoma [OSCC]. The present study was aimed to detect tumor cell cannibalism in OSCC and to validate its role as a prognosticator of OSCC in relation to metastasis and degree of differentiation. 30 histopathologically proven cases, 15 cases each of metastatic OSCC (7 well differentiated OSCC and 8 moderately differentiated OSCC) and non-metastatic OSCC (8 well differentiated OSCC and 7 moderately differentiated OSCC) were included in the study. Quantitative assessment of tumor cell cannibalism was done. The data was analyzed using Mann Whitney test. Metastatic OSCC showed higher frequency of cannibalistic cells compared to non-metastatic OSCC. More number of cannibalistic cells were found in moderately differentiated OSCC than well differentiated OSCC in both groups. Moreover, Grade III cannibalism and complex cannibalism was also found to be associated with metastatic, moderately differentiated OSCC exclusively. It has been found that higher number of cannibalistic cells were associated with OSCC showing metastasis indicating their aggressive behavior. So, we recommend that quantitative assessment of tumor cell cannibalism should become a part of the routine histopathological examination of OSCC to screen its hostile behavior.

  1. Cancer Stem Cells in Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, Ranui; Tan, Swee T; Itinteang, Tinte

    2017-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) have been identified in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC). CSCs possess the ability for perpetual self-renewal and proliferation, producing downstream progenitor cells and cancer cells that drive tumor growth. Studies of many cancer types including OCSCC have identified CSCs using specific markers, but it is still unclear as to where in the stem cell hierarchy these markers fall. This is compounded further by the presence of multiple CSC subtypes within OCSCC, making investigation reliant on the use of multiple markers. This review examines the current knowledge in CSC markers OCT4, SOX2, NANOG, ALDH1, phosphorylated STAT3, CD44, CD24, CD133, and Musashi-1, specifically focusing on their use and validity in OCSCC CSC research and how they may be organized into the CSC hierarchy. OCSCC CSCs also express components of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), which suggests CSCs may be novel therapeutic targets by modulation of the RAS using existing medications.

  2. Cyclin D1 overexpression and poor clinical outcomes in Taiwanese oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma

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    Huang Shiang-Fu

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cyclin D1 gene regulates cell cycle and plays an important role in the tumorigenesis of human cancers. The association between cyclin D1, clinicopathologic parameters and prognosis in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC is inconclusive. Methods A total of 264 male OSCCs were examined for cyclin D1 protein expression using immunohistochemistry (IHC. The expression levels of cyclin D1 were defined as overexpression when more than 10% of tumor cells displayed nuclear staining with moderate to strong intensity. Results Overexpression of cyclin D1 was found in 97 (36.7% OSCCs. Cyclin D1 protein overexpression was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis (P = 0.002, tumor cell differentiation (P = 0.031 and tumor stage (P = 0.051, but not associated with age onset, cigarette smoking, alcohol drinking, or areca quid chewing. Overexpression of cyclin D1 was also significantly associated with poor clinical outcomes in terms of disease-free survival (DFS, P = 0.002 and overall survival (OS, P Conclusion Cyclin D1 protein worked as an independent prognostic factor and can be as a biomarker for the aggressiveness of OSCC.

  3. Evaluation of cytomorphometric changes in tobacco users and diagnosed oral squamous cell carcinoma individuals

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    Urmila Udayashankar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To determine the cellular and nuclear area of keratinocytes in smears obtained from the oral mucosa of tobacco users, those with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC, and from normal healthy persons and resolve if any significant difference exists in these three groups. Materials and Methods: The study group comprised 100 subjects 20 controls, (40 OSCC patients-20 from lesional sites and 20 from nonlesional sites, 20 tobacco smokers and 20 tobacco chewers in the age group of 25-75 years. Oral mucosal smears obtained by using a cytobrush were stained with Papanicolaou (PAP stain and using 20X objective in trinocular Olympus model BX53 with Jenoptik scientific grade-dedicated microphotographic camera images were taken. With ProgRes version 8.0 image analysis software, 20 cells with defined borders were evaluated from each slide. Finally, one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA was used to compare the above parameters in the studied groups. Statistical Analysis Used: Minitab and Excel software were used to analyze the data. One-way ANOVA was used to compare the above parameters in the studied groups. Results: The mean value of the cell area for groups I, II, III, IV, and V were 2838 ± 275.2, 2762.1 ± 511.4, 2861.9 ± 512.9, 2643.8 ± 333.3, and 3064.3 ± 362.7, respectively, the nuclear area (NA was 83.88 ± 9.86, 106.19 ± 13.45, 95.11 ± 14.24, 85.55 ± 21.11, and 80.83 ± 13.45, respectively, and nuclear-to-cellular (N:C ratio was 0.0297, 0.03924, 0.0337, 0.03257, and 0.02678, respectively. Conclusions: Thus, our study elucidates that cytomorphology gauges the effect of tobacco on the oral mucosa and possibly establishes a link between premalignant and malignant transformations even before a lesion is visibly noted.

  4. Circadian rhythm characteristics of oral squamous cell carcinoma growth in an orthotopic xenograft model

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    Zhao NB

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Ningbo Zhao,* Hong Tang,* Kai Yang, Dan Chen Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, the First Affiliated Hospital of Chongqing Medical University, Chongqing, China*These authors contributed equally to this workBackground: Recent studies show that circadian rhythm changes are closely related to the occurrence and development of various tumors, such as breast, liver, and prostate. However, there are significant differences in circadian rhythm between different tumors. At present, the circadian rhythm characteristics of oral cancer remain unknown. The purpose of this study is to investigate the circadian rhythm characteristics of the in vivo growth of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC.Materials and methods: Thirty-two nude mice were placed under 12-hour light/12-hour dark cycles. The human OSCC cell line BcaCD885 was inoculated in the cheek of nude mice. After 3 weeks, eight mice were sacrificed at four time points, including 4 hours after light onset (HALO, 10 HALO, 16 HALO, and 22 HALO, during a period of 24 hours. The volume of excised tumors was measured and the proliferative index (PI and apoptotic index (AI of tumor cells were determined by flow cytometry. A cosine analysis method was used to determine whether the tumor volume, PI, and AI obeyed a circadian rhythm.Results: There was a significant circadian rhythm in the tumor volume and PI of OSCC cells. For the tumor volume, there were significant differences between the four time points. The peak and trough values of the tumor volume appeared at 3.23 HALO and 15.23 HALO, whereas the peak and trough values of PI appeared at 6.60 HALO and 18.16 HALO, respectively. However, there was no circadian rhythm in the AI of tumor cells, despite significant differences between the four time points.Conclusion: This study demonstrates, for the first time, that the tumor volume and PI of in vivo growing OSCC undergo circadian rhythms. These results support the assertion that time factor should be

  5. Altered epigenetic regulation of homeobox genes in human oral squamous cell carcinoma cells

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    Marcinkiewicz, Katarzyna M.; Gudas, Lorraine J., E-mail: ljgudas@med.cornell.edu

    2014-01-01

    To gain insight into oral squamous cell carcinogenesis, we performed deep sequencing (RNAseq) of non-tumorigenic human OKF6-TERT1R and tumorigenic SCC-9 cells. Numerous homeobox genes are differentially expressed between OKF6-TERT1R and SCC-9 cells. Data from Oncomine, a cancer microarray database, also show that homeobox (HOX) genes are dysregulated in oral SCC patients. The activity of Polycomb repressive complexes (PRC), which causes epigenetic modifications, and retinoic acid (RA) signaling can control HOX gene transcription. HOXB7, HOXC10, HOXC13, and HOXD8 transcripts are higher in SCC-9 than in OKF6-TERT1R cells; using ChIP (chromatin immunoprecipitation) we detected PRC2 protein SUZ12 and the epigenetic H3K27me3 mark on histone H3 at these genes in OKF6-TERT1R, but not in SCC-9 cells. In contrast, IRX1, IRX4, SIX2 and TSHZ3 transcripts are lower in SCC-9 than in OKF6-TERT1R cells. We detected SUZ12 and the H3K27me3 mark at these genes in SCC-9, but not in OKF6-TERT1R cells. SUZ12 depletion increased HOXB7, HOXC10, HOXC13, and HOXD8 transcript levels and decreased the proliferation of OKF6-TERT1R cells. Transcriptional responses to RA are attenuated in SCC-9 versus OKF6-TERT1R cells. SUZ12 and H3K27me3 levels were not altered by RA at these HOX genes in SCC-9 and OKF6-TERT1R cells. We conclude that altered activity of PRC2 is associated with dysregulation of homeobox gene expression in human SCC cells, and that this dysregulation potentially plays a role in the neoplastic transformation of oral keratinocytes. - Highlights: • RNAseq elucidates differences between non-tumorigenic and tumorigenic oral keratinocytes. • Changes in HOX mRNA in SCC-9 vs. OKF6-TERT1R cells are a result of altered epigenetic regulation. • RNAseq shows that retinoic acid (RA) influences gene expression in both OKF6-TERT1R and SCC-9 cells.

  6. Cytotoxic T cell responses to Streptococcus are associated with improved prognosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

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    Wang, Jie; Sun, Feng; Lin, Xiaoyu; Li, Zaiye; Mao, Xiaohe; Jiang, Canhua

    2018-01-01

    Several species of Streptococcus, such as S. salivarius, S. mitis, and S. anginosus, are found to extensively colonize the oral cavity and the upper respiratory tract, and have been shown to increase in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Accumulating evidence have revealed that commensal bacteria are involved in antitumor immunity via T cell-mediated mechanisms, but the role of Streptococcus enrichment in OSCC is yet unclear. In this study, we stimulated peripheral blood mononuclear cells from non-cancer controls (NCs) and OSCC patients with S. salivarius, S. mitis, and S. anginosus. We observed that compared to NC subjects, OSCC patients at earlier stages had higher frequencies of granzyme B-expressing CD8 T cells for all Streptococcus species tested, while OSCC patients at more advanced stages had higher frequencies of granzyme B-expressing CD8 T cells for S. anginosus but not other Streptococcus species. In OSCC patients, the Streptococcus-reactive CD8 T cells presented significantly lower levels of PD-1 and TIM-3 expression than Streptococcus-nonreactive CD8 T cells. The clinical outcomes of OSCC patients in our cohort were tracked for 24 months after the resection of the primary tumor. In patients that did not present tumor recurrence, the frequencies of S. salivarius-reactive and S. mitis-reactive CD8 T cells were significantly higher than that in patients that developed recurrent tumor. Furthermore, in patients with tumor recurrence, the duration between primary tumor resection and tumor recurrence was positively associated with the frequencies of S. salivarius-reactive and S. anginosus-reactive CD8 T cells. Together, we demonstrated that Streptococcus-reactive CD8 T cell responses might contribute to antitumor immunity in OSCC patients. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. NDRG2 is a candidate tumor-suppressor for oral squamous-cell carcinoma

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    Furuta, Hiroshi; Kondo, Yuudai [Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Medicine of Sensory and Motor Organs, University of Miyazaki, 5200 Kihara, Kiyotake, Miyazaki-gun, Miyazaki 889-1692 (Japan); Division of Tumor and Cellular Biochemistry, Department of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Miyazaki, 5200 Kihara, Kiyotake, Miyazaki-gun, Miyazaki 889-1692 (Japan); Nakahata, Shingo; Hamasaki, Makoto [Division of Tumor and Cellular Biochemistry, Department of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Miyazaki, 5200 Kihara, Kiyotake, Miyazaki-gun, Miyazaki 889-1692 (Japan); Sakoda, Sumio [Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Medicine of Sensory and Motor Organs, University of Miyazaki, 5200 Kihara, Kiyotake, Miyazaki-gun, Miyazaki 889-1692 (Japan); Morishita, Kazuhiro, E-mail: kmorishi@med.miyazaki-u.ac.jp [Division of Tumor and Cellular Biochemistry, Department of Medical Sciences, Faculty of Medicine, University of Miyazaki, 5200 Kihara, Kiyotake, Miyazaki-gun, Miyazaki 889-1692 (Japan)

    2010-01-22

    Oral cancer is one of the most common cancers worldwide, and squamous-cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most common phenotype of oral cancer. Although patients with OSCC have poor survival rates and a high incidence of metastasis, the molecular mechanisms of OSCC development have not yet been elucidated. This study investigated whether N-myc downstream-regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) contributes to the carcinogenesis of OSCC, as NDRG2 is reported to be a candidate tumor-suppressor gene in a wide variety of cancers. The down-regulation of NDRG2 mRNA, which was dependent on promoter methylation, was seen in the majority of OSCC cases and in several cases of precancerous leukoplakia with dysplasia. Induction of NDRG2 expression in an HSC-3/OSCC cell line significantly inhibited cell proliferation and decreased colony formation ability on soft agar. The majority of OSCC cell lines showed an activation of PI3K/Akt signaling, and enforced expression of NDRG2 in HSC-3 cells decreased the level of phosphorylated Akt at Serine 473 (p-Akt). Immunohistochemical p-Akt staining was detected in 56.5% of the OSCC tumors, and 80.4% of the tumors were negative for NDRG2 staining. Moreover, positive p-Akt staining was inversely correlated with decreased NDRG2 expression in OSCC tumors with moderate to poor differentiation (p < 0.005). Therefore, NDRG2 is a candidate tumor-suppressor gene for OSCC development and probably contributes to the tumorigenesis of OSCC partly via the modulation of Akt signaling.

  8. Epigenetic deregulation of the anaplastic lymphoma kinase gene modulates mesenchymal characteristics of oral squamous cell carcinomas.

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    Huang, Tze-Ta; Gonzales, Cara B; Gu, Fei; Hsu, Ya-Ting; Jadhav, Rohit R; Wang, Chiou-Miin; Redding, Spencer W; Tseng, Chih-En; Lee, Ching-Chih; Thompson, Ian M; Chen, Hau-Ren; Huang, Tim Hui-Ming; Kirma, Nameer B

    2013-08-01

    DNA hypermethylation of promoter CpG islands is associated with epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor genes in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs). We used a methyl-CpG-binding domain protein capture method coupled with next-generation sequencing (MBDCap-seq) to survey global DNA methylation patterns in OSCCs with and without nodal metastasis and normal mucosa (total n = 58). Of 1462 differentially methylated CpG islands identified in OSCCs relative to normal controls, MBDCap-seq profiling uncovered 359 loci linked to lymph node metastasis. Interactive network analysis revealed a subset of these loci (n = 23), including the anaplastic lymphoma kinase (ALK) gene, are potential regulators and effectors of invasiveness and metastatic progression. Promoter methylation of ALK was preferentially observed in OSCCs without node metastasis, whereas relatively lower methylation levels were present in metastatic tumors, implicating an active state of ALK transcription in the latter group. The OSCC cell line, SCC4, displayed reduced ALK expression that corresponded to extensive promoter CpG island methylation. SCC4 treatment with demethylating agents induced ALK expression and increased invasion and migration characteristics. Inhibition of ALK activity in OSCC cells with high ALK expression (CAL27, HSC3 and SCC25), decreased cell growth and resulted in changes in invasive potential and mesenchymal marker expression that were cell-line dependent. Although ALK is susceptible to epigenetic silencing during oral tumorigenesis, overwriting this default state may be necessary for modulating invasive processes involved in nodal metastases. Given the complex response of OSCC cells to ALK inhibition, future studies are required to assess the feasibility of targeting ALK to treat invasive OSCCs.

  9. Clinical significance of preoperative serum C-reactive protein in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

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    Acharya, S; Kale, J; Hallikeri, K; Anehosur, V; Arnold, D

    2018-01-01

    C-reactive protein (CRP) is an index of systemic inflammation. However, CRP is not usually assessed preoperatively. Hence the study intended to evaluate the preoperative serum CRP levels in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients and to analyse its relationship with the clinicopathologic characteristics. CRP values for 60 OSCCs and 30 healthy controls were evaluated using a CRP assessment kit and spectrophotometer. The Mann-Whitney U test, χ2 test, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis, and logistic regression were applied. The CRP ranged from 0.3 to 86mg/L in OSCCs. CRP was significantly higher in OSCCs than in controls. A raised CRP was seen in 70% of OSCCs. CRP in OSCCs was associated with clinical nodal status and lymph node metastasis (LNM) (P<0.05). CRP was significantly higher in the metastatic than in the non-metastatic group. The area under the ROC was 0.819. The best cut-off value for predicting LNM was 8.65mg/L for the CRP with 0.767 sensitivity and 0.767 specificity (P<0.05). The cut-off revealed a significant association with LNM. Raised CRP may predict LNM. The CRP levels regressed significantly in relation to LNM. CRP could offer prognostic information beyond staging and histology. Hence, CRP can be added as an extension to known clinicopathologic parameters to predict the prognosis in OSCCs. Copyright © 2017 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. A history of allergies is associated with reduced risk of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stott-Miller, Marni; Chen, Chu; Doody, David R; Carter, Joseph L; Galloway, Denise A; Madeleine, Margaret M; Schwartz, Stephen M

    2012-12-01

    A history of allergies is associated with a decreased risk of several types of cancers. Potential mechanisms include enhanced immune surveillance against tumor cells early in disease development and/or carcinogenic infectious agents. We tested whether allergies are inversely associated with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), accounting for factors that may modify the association, such as tumor site, stage, and HPV infection. We estimated odds ratios (OR) and 95 % confidence intervals (CI) for the association between allergy history (including different types of allergies) and OSCC, adjusted for potential confounders, among 400 cases and 613 controls. Analyses were also stratified by site, stage, and measures of HPV infection. We observed a weak inverse association between history of any allergy and OSCC (OR = 0.81, 95 % CI 0.61-1.08). This association was present only for allergies to airborne allergens (dust/pollen/mold) (OR = 0.67; 95 % CI 0.48-0.93). The inverse associations with airborne allergies were slightly stronger for oropharyngeal SCC (OR = 0.56; 95 % CI 0.35-0.90) than for oral cavity SCC (OR = 0.71; 95 % CI 0.49-1.05) and present only for later-stage cancers (OR = 0.42; 95 % CI 0.26-0.66) as opposed to earlier-stage cancers (OR = 0.98; 95 % CI 0.66-1.46). Inverse associations were not particularly present or stronger among HPV-16-seropositive individuals or for HPV DNA-positive OSCC. There is an inverse association between history of allergies to dust, pollen, or mold and OSCC. Whether the inverse association involves heightened immune surveillance, increased immune response to HPV or other antigen, or other carcinogenic mechanism remains to be determined in more definitive studies.

  11. Inhibition of Cell Proliferation and MAP Kinase and Akt Pathways in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma by Genistein and Biochanin A

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    Tara L. Johnson

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available High morbidity and mortality associated with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC are largely attributable to late stage diagnosis. Despite significant advances in therapeutic strategies, the five-year survival rate for oral cancer remains at about 50%. A chemopreventive approach may be an effective alternative or adjunct to current therapies. Previous studies have shown anti-tumor effects of isoflavones in several cancers, including oral cancer. However, their mechanisms of action are still unclear. We hypothesized that isoflavones inhibit multiple signaling pathways implicated in oral carcinogenesis. To address our hypothesis, we investigated the effects of three isoflavone derivatives, genistein, biochanin A and daidzein, on SCC15 and SCC25 squamous cell carcinoma cell lines. In cell proliferation experiments, we found that genistein and biochanin A inhibited SCC15 and SCC25 cell growth with an IC50 of 50 μM. We also investigated the effect of isoflavones on ERK and Akt pathways. Our results, from western blot analysis, suggest that both genistein and biochanin A induced decreases in phosphorylation of ERK and Akt at treatment concentrations of 20, 50 and 100 μM. Taken together, our results clearly demonstrate a differential regulation of signaling pathways by various isoflavones in OSCC cell lines. Thus, tumor progression models can be utilized to study the preventive and therapeutic roles of isoflavones in oral cancer cell lines.

  12. Oral squamous cell carcinoma associated with proliferative verrucous leukoplakia compared with conventional squamous cell carcinoma--a clinical, histologic and immunohistochemical study.

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    Akrish, Sharon; Ben-Izhak, Ofer; Sabo, Edmond; Rachmiel, Adi

    2015-03-01

    Proliferative verrucous leukoplakia (PVL), a potentially malignant disorder, often undergoes malignant transformation to oral squamous cell carcinoma. The aim of our study was to document and compare the histologic, immunohistochemical, and clinical features and the survival rates of carcinoma arising in patients with PVL (p-scca) with conventional squamous cell carcinoma (c-scca) in order to determine if p-scca should be categorized as a separate clinical entity. A retrospective review of 11 patients with PVL, 38 with p-scca tumors and 49 with c-scca tumors: buccal mucosa (n = 28) and gingiva or palate (n = 21). Immunohistochemistry was performed by using antibodies directed against p16, p53, and ki67. P-scca had lower clinical stage (P = .0001), smaller tumor size (P = .0033), no lymph node metastasis (P = .0002) or distant metastasis (P = .05), and better short term (P = .03), but not long term (P = .12) survival. Microscopically, p-scca tumor thickness was significantly less (P = .0001). P-53 overexpression was more common in p-scca (P = .0043) but not ki67 or p16 overexpression. P-scca, compared with c-scca, presented with significantly better prognostic factors and short-term survival rates and longer duration of disease. Our results suggest that p-scca may represent a distinct entity, which may have practical implications when deciding on treatment. Further studies on a larger cohort of patients are recommended. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Expression of E-cadherin and β-catenin in basaloid and conventional squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity: are potential prognostic markers?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanemann, João Adolfo Costa; Oliveira, Denise Tostes; Nonogaki, Suely; Nishimoto, Inês Nobuko; de Carli, Marina Lara; Landman, Gilles; Kowalski, Luiz Paulo

    2014-06-03

    Basaloid squamous cell carcinoma presents with a preference for the head and neck region, and shows a distinct aggressive behavior, with frequent local recurrences, regional and distant metastasis. The alterations in the cadherin-catenin complex are fundamental requirements for the metastasis process, and this is the first study to evaluate the immunostaining of E-cadherin and β-catenin in oral basaloid squamous cell carcinoma. Seventeen cases of this tumor located exclusively in the mouth were compared to 26 cases of poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma and 28 cases of well to moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma matched by stage and tumor site. The immunostaining of E-cadherin and β-catenin were evaluated in the three groups and compared to their clinicopathological features and prognosis. For groups poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma and basaloid squamous cell carcinoma, reduction or absence of E-cadherin staining was observed in more than 80.0% of carcinomas, and it was statistically significant compared to well to moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma (p = .019). A strong expression of β-catenin was observed in 26.9% and 20.8% of well to moderately differentiated squamous cell carcinoma and poorly differentiated squamous cell carcinoma, respectively, and in 41.2% of basaloid squamous cell carcinoma. The 5-year and 10-year overall and disease-free survival rates demonstrated no significant differences among all three groups. The clinical and biological behavior of three groups of the oral cavity tumors evaluated are similar. E-cadherin and β-catenin immunostaining showed no prognostic value for basaloid and conventional squamous cell carcinomas.

  14. Selective neck dissection is effective in N1/N2 nodal stage oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battoo, Azhar Jan; Hedne, Naveen; Ahmad, Sheikh Zahoor; Thankappan, Krishnakumar; Iyer, Subramania; Kuriakose, Moni Abraham

    2013-03-01

    Although the efficacy of selective neck dissection (SND) in the management of a node-negative neck is established, its utility in the management of node-positive disease remains controversial. The objective of this study was to evaluate the oncologic safety of SND in the management of N1/N2 oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma. From a prospectively collected electronic database of patients with oral cavity cancer, a retrospective analysis was conducted of patients with nonrecurrent, clinical, and/or pathologic N1/N2 oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma who underwent SND of levels I to III/IV. The patients were stratified into 2 groups: clinical N0 but pathologic N1/N2 (cN0-pN1/N2) and clinical N1/N2 (cN1/N2). The primary outcome variable of the study was the ipsilateral regional recurrence rate. Categorical data were analyzed by the 2-sided Fisher exact test, and 3-year Kaplan-Meier ipsilateral regional control rate, regional recurrence-free survival, disease-free survival, and overall survival were estimated. Forty-nine patients constituted the study sample, with 37 patients in the cN1/N2 group and 12 patients in the cN0-pN1/N2 group. During the follow-up period of 3 years, 2 patients (∼4%) developed ipsilateral neck recurrence, and these patients were in the cN1/N2 group. The 3-year Kaplan-Meier ipsilateral regional control rate was 95%. SND may produce a satisfactory ipsilateral regional control rate in patients with early-stage node-positive oral squamous cell carcinoma. A prospective, randomized clinical trial comparing SND with modified radical neck dissection may be required for a categorical conclusion of these findings. Copyright © 2013 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Downregulation of TGF-beta receptor types II and III in oral squamous cell carcinoma and oral carcinoma-associated fibroblasts

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    Zhang Lin

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The purpose of this study was to assess the expression levels for TβRI, TβRII, and TβRIII in epithelial layers of oral premalignant lesions (oral leukoplakia, OLK and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC, as well as in oral carcinoma-associated fibroblasts (CAFs, with the final goal of exploring the roles of various types of TβRs in carcinogenesis of oral mucosa. Methods Normal oral tissues, OLK, and OSCC were obtained from 138 previously untreated patients. Seven primary human oral CAF lines and six primary normal fibroblast (NF lines were established successfully via cell culture. The three receptors were detected using immunohistochemical (IHC, quantitative RT-PCR, and Western blot approaches. Results IHC signals for TβRII and TβRIII in the epithelial layer decreased in tissue samples with increasing disease aggressiveness (P 0.05; and TβRII and TβRIII were significantly downregulated in CAFs compared with NFs, at the mRNA and protein levels (P Conclusion This study provides the first evidence that the loss of TβRII and TβRIII expression in oral epithelium and stroma is a common event in OSCC. The restoration of the expression of TβRII and TβRIII in oral cancerous tissues may represent a novel strategy for the treatment of oral carcinoma.

  16. Genetic changes in oral premalignant lesion, condition, and oral squamous cell carcinoma - A study based on inhibition of G2M phase by colchicines

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    Santosh Kanwar

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims: To assess the percentage of cell arrested in G2M phase by colchicine in the early detection and prognosis of oral cancer, by comparison of oral squamous cell with leukoplakia and oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF using flow cytometry analysis. Materials and Methods: Biopsy samples 5 each of clinically diagnosed and histopathologically confirmed case of leukoplakia, OSMF, and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC are included in the study. Results: Colchicines significantly inhibited the growth of oral SCC-9 cell line by arresting G2M phase of the cell cycle (94.90%. This cell cycle result indicated that doubling of DNA is a characteristic feature of cancer. Colchicines significantly inhibited the G2M phase of the cell cycle in leukoplakia (33.51% as compared to control (23.60%. Colchicines marginally inhibited the G2M phase of the cell cycle in OSMF (31.83% as compared to control (28.36%. Colchicines significantly inhibited the G2M phase of the cell cycle in SCC (63.05% as compared to control (26.40%. Conclusion: DNA analysis by inhibition of G2M phase of cell cycle using colchicine facilitates early detection and also helps determine the prognosis of leukoplakia, OSMF, and oral cancer.

  17. Serum vitamin D levels of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and expression of vitamin D receptor in oral precancerous lesions and OSCC.

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    Grimm, Martin; Cetindis, Marcel; Biegner, Thorsten; Lehman, Max; Munz, Adelheid; Teriete, Peter; Reinert, Siegmar

    2015-03-01

    Resistance to programmed cell death (apoptosis) is a crucial factor for the carcinogenesis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Vitamin D (calcitriol) may overcome apoptosis resistance in tumor cells of OSCC. Vitamin D receptor (VDR) expression in oral precancerous lesions of OSCC has not been analyzed and serum vitamin D level seems to be a predictor of cancer development. Expression of VDR was analyzed in normal oral mucosa (n=5), oral precursor lesions (simple hyperplasia, n=11; squamous intraepithelial neoplasia, SIN I-III, n=35), and OSCC specimen (n=42) by immunohistochemistry (IHC). Moreover, serum vitamin D levels were measured by 25(OH)D3 (calcidiol) in patients with OSCC (n=42) and correlated with IHC results. Expression of VDR was significantly increased in precancerous and OSCC compared with normal tissue. Compared with SIN I-III lesions VDR expression significantly decreased in OSCC. Severe vitamin D deficiency was detected in our OSCC patient cohort but there was no significant correlation analyzed between serum vitamin D levels and corresponding immunohistochemically detected VDR expression in OSCC. Our survey provides the first evidence of VDR expression in precancerous lesions of OSCC. Apoptosis induction of VDR+ cells in oral precancerous lesions and OSCC by natural vitamin D or synthetic vitamin D compounds could be useful for chemoprevention. Moreover, systemically and/or locally applied, these compounds may act as sensitizers for apoptosis mediated by radio-, and chemotherapy treatment in OSCC.

  18. Impact of Nodal Level Distribution on Survival in Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma: A Population-Based Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiano, Emily; Patel, Tapan D; Eloy, Jean Anderson; Baredes, Soly; Park, Richard Chan Woo

    2016-07-01

    Regional lymph node metastasis is an important prognostic factor in squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck, decreasing survival by up to 50%. Oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OC-SCCa) most commonly spreads to levels I, II, and III. Retrospective analysis of a population-based tumor registry. Academic medical center. The Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database was queried for cases of OC-SCCa from 2004 to 2011 (22,973 cases). Resulting data including patient demographics, clinicopathological features, topographical distribution of nodal metastasis, and survival based on lymph node level involvement were analyzed. In total, 8281 patients were identified with OC-SCCa who underwent neck dissection. Level I, closely followed by levels II and III, represented the most commonly involved nodal basins. The 5-year disease-specific survival (DSS) for patients with only level I, II, or III was 42.0% compared with 30.6% for the level IV group (P Oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma most commonly involves nodal levels I, II, and III. Involvement of nodal level IV or V portends a worse prognosis than patients with only level I to III disease, and multimodality therapy should be considered for these patients. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2016.

  19. Neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy and radical resection for advanced squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity. Outcome of 134 patients

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    Eich, H.T.; Loeschcke, M.; Kocher, M.; Bongartz, R.; Mueller, R.P. [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Univ. of Cologne (Germany); Scheer, M.; Zoeller, J.E. [Dept. of Cranio-Maxillofacial and Oral Surgery, Univ. of Cologne (Germany); Wacker, S. [Inst. of Medical Statistics, Informatics, and Epidemiology, Univ. of Cologne (Germany)

    2008-01-15

    Background and purpose: several multimodal strategies have been developed to treat patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity. The advantages of preoperative radiochemotherapy are downstaging of the primary tumor, an increased resectability rate, and the elimination of micrometastases. After successful phase II trials, the following therapy regimen for resectable advanced oral carcinoma was applied. Patients and methods: 134 patients with resectable squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity stage II-IV received neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy consisting of 39.6 Gy in daily fractions of 1.8 Gy and concomitant carboplatin (70 mg/m{sup 2} days 1-5). Radical resection and neck dissection were carried out afterwards. Results: after a median follow-up of 73 months, 82 patients (61%) had died. 54 patients (40%) experienced locoregional relapses or distant metastases. The overall survival was 65% {+-} 4% after 2 years and 45% {+-} 4% after 5 years. Cox regression survival analysis identified tumor regression, extracapsular lymph node spread and resection state as prognostic factors. Side effects of grade 3-4 were rare. Conclusion: neoadjuvant radiochemotherapy with subsequent radical surgery can be recommended as an effective and safe treatment for primary resectable advanced tumors of the oral cavity. Acute and long-term toxicities appear to be moderate. (orig.)

  20. Function and importance of p63 in normal oral mucosa and squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thurfjell, Niklas; Coates, Philip J; Boldrup, Linda

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND/AIMS: Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC) is the 6th most common malignancy worldwide with a 5-year survival that has not improved over the last 20-25 years. Factors of prognostic significance for this tumour type include the presence of regional lymph node metastasis ...... the cell layers in normal oral mucosa, and primary HNSCC has a high expression level of p63 isoforms normally expressed in basal cells. Data suggest that p63 expression in HNSCC influences tumour cell differentiation.......BACKGROUND/AIMS: Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC) is the 6th most common malignancy worldwide with a 5-year survival that has not improved over the last 20-25 years. Factors of prognostic significance for this tumour type include the presence of regional lymph node metastasis...

  1. Four-gene expression model predictive of lymph node metastases in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasini, Fátima Solange; Maistro, Simone; Snitcovsky, Igor; Barbeta, Lílian P; Rotea Mangone, Flavia R; Lehn, Carlos N; Walder, Fernando; Carvalho, Marcos B; Brentani, M Mitzi; Federico, Miriam H H

    2012-01-01

    Previous knowledge of cervical lymph node compromise may be crucial to choose the best treatment strategy in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Here we propose a set four genes, whose mRNA expression in the primary tumor predicts nodal status in OSCC, excluding tongue. We identified differentially expressed genes in OSCC with and without compromised lymph nodes using Differential Display RT-PCR. Known genes were chosen to be validated by means of Northern blotting or real time RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). Thereafter we constructed a Nodal Index (NI) using discriminant analysis in a learning set of 35 patients, which was further validated in a second independent group of 20 patients. Of the 63 differentially expressed known genes identified comparing three lymph node positive (pN +) and three negative (pN0) primary tumors, 23 were analyzed by Northern analysis or RT-PCR in 49 primary tumors. Six genes confirmed as differentially expressed were used to construct a NI, as the best set predictive of lymph nodal status, with the final result including four genes. The NI was able to correctly classify 32 of 35 patients comprising the learning group (88.6%; p = 0.009). Casein kinase 1alpha1 and scavenger receptor class B, member 2 were found to be up regulated in pN + group in contrast to small proline-rich protein 2B and Ras-GTPase activating protein SH3 domain-binding protein 2 which were upregulated in the pN0 group. We validated further our NI in an independent set of 20 primary tumors, 11 of them pN0 and nine pN + with an accuracy of 80.0% (p = 0.012). The NI was an independent predictor of compromised lymph nodes, taking into the consideration tumor size and histological grade. The genes identified here that integrate our "Nodal Index" model are predictive of lymph node metastasis in OSCC.

  2. Serum alkaline phosphatase in oral squamous cell carcinoma and its association with clinicopathological characteristics

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    Swetha Acharya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Biochemical changes occur in biological fluids and tissues of different types of malignancies. Tumor markers in serum, tissue, and other body fluids during neoplastic process are of clinical value in the management of patients with cancers. Serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP activity is potentially a useful indicator for detection of malignancies, but its status in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC is less explored. Aims: The aim of this study is to evaluate the serum level of ALP in OSCC patients and assess its relation with the clinicopathological features. Settings and Design: A total of 175 participants (145 OSCC patients and 30 healthy controls were included in the study. One hundred and forty-five patients with OSCC who underwent treatment at our institution were included to obtain the clinicopathological data. Materials and Methods: Fasting blood ALP activity was evaluated using ALP assessment kit and biochemistry analyzer. Statistical Analysis Used: The data were analyzed by SPSS-21 software (SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 21.0, Armonk, NY, USA, using t-test, Mann–Whitney U, and Kruskal–Wallis tests. Results: Raised ALP was seen in 24% of OSCC patients. The mean ALP in OSCC was significantly higher than the control. ALP level in patients with advanced stage was significantly higher than with early stage. The serum ALP level in OSCC patients with bone involvement (BI by local extension of tumor was significantly higher than without BI. Conclusion: ALP showed statistically significant differences in relation to tumor stages and BI. Hence, ALP could be useful in advanced stage disease for expressing the endurance of patient and tumor expansion. Elevated ALP in OSCC patients may indicate BI.

  3. Genomic profiling of oral squamous cell carcinoma by array-based comparative genomic hybridization.

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    Shunichi Yoshioka

    Full Text Available We designed a study to investigate genetic relationships between primary tumors of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC and their lymph node metastases, and to identify genomic copy number aberrations (CNAs related to lymph node metastasis. For this purpose, we collected a total of 42 tumor samples from 25 patients and analyzed their genomic profiles by array-based comparative genomic hybridization. We then compared the genetic profiles of metastatic primary tumors (MPTs with their paired lymph node metastases (LNMs, and also those of LNMs with non-metastatic primary tumors (NMPTs. Firstly, we found that although there were some distinctive differences in the patterns of genomic profiles between MPTs and their paired LNMs, the paired samples shared similar genomic aberration patterns in each case. Unsupervised hierarchical clustering analysis grouped together 12 of the 15 MPT-LNM pairs. Furthermore, similarity scores between paired samples were significantly higher than those between non-paired samples. These results suggested that MPTs and their paired LNMs are composed predominantly of genetically clonal tumor cells, while minor populations with different CNAs may also exist in metastatic OSCCs. Secondly, to identify CNAs related to lymph node metastasis, we compared CNAs between grouped samples of MPTs and LNMs, but were unable to find any CNAs that were more common in LNMs. Finally, we hypothesized that subpopulations carrying metastasis-related CNAs might be present in both the MPT and LNM. Accordingly, we compared CNAs between NMPTs and LNMs, and found that gains of 7p, 8q and 17q were more common in the latter than in the former, suggesting that these CNAs may be involved in lymph node metastasis of OSCC. In conclusion, our data suggest that in OSCCs showing metastasis, the primary and metastatic tumors share similar genomic profiles, and that cells in the primary tumor may tend to metastasize after acquiring metastasis-associated CNAs.

  4. Evaluation of Chromosomal Disorders in Tissue and Blood Samples in Patients with Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

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    A. Parvaneroo

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Statement of Problem: Many studies have indicated that genetic disturbances are common findings in patients with Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC. Identification of these changes can be helpful in diagnostic procedures of these tumors.Purpose: The aim of this study was to appraise the chromosomal disorders in blood and tissue patients with OSCC.Methods and Materials: In this descriptive study, the study group consisted of all OSCC patients who were referred to the Faculty of Dentistry, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Maxillofacial Surgery Clinic of Shariati Hospital, and Amir Aalam Hospital fromSeptember 2000 to November 2002. In order to study chromosomal disorders in the peripheral blood lymphocytes, 5 mL of blood was obtained from each patient In patients with the large lesion, a piece of involved tissue were obtained and cultured for 24 hours.This led to 29 blood samples and 16 tissue specimens and any relation between OSCC and age, sex, smoking and alcohol use were evaluated.Results: In this study, OSCC was more common in males than in females (3 to 5. 31% of our patients were smokers, and one had a history of alcoholic consumption. There was an increase in incidence of OSCC with age. In this study, all patients had numerical(aneuploidy, polyploidy and structural chromosomal disorders (double minute, fragment,breakage and dicentric. There was significant difference between blood and tissue chromosomal disorders (aneuploidy, polyploidy,breakage in OSCC patients.Conclusion: It can be concluded that chromosomes in patients with OSCC might show some genetic aberration and evaluation of involved tissue might be better way for determining this disorders.

  5. Morphological and ultrastructural characteristics of extracellular matrix changes in oral squamous cell carcinoma

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    Usha Agrawal

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The biology of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC, including its progression from dysplasia to carcinoma, "field effects", genetic changes in tumor associated mucosa (TAM and effect of matrix metalloproteinases in breaking down of matrix proteins to facilitate invasion, has been well documented. However, what remains to be done is to extrapolate this knowledge to improve patient care. Aim: The aim of this study was to observe the extracellular matrix (ECM changes with the routine histochemical stains available to most histopathologists. Materials and Methods: The study includes 72 cases of OSCC in which the tumor and adjacent normal appearing areas were sampled to study the ECM changes with hematoxylin and eosin (H and E and Verhoeff′s-Van Gieson elastic stain (VVG. Results: Basophilic fragmentation of collagen (H and E and clumped short elastic fibers (VVG were seen in 12 (16.7% cases. Of the remaining cases, 18 (25% had a dense lymphocytic infiltrate and had no demonstrable elastic fibers. Those cases with H and E changes were further studied and compared with normal mucosa for ultrastructural changes. The ultrastructural study demonstrated an increase in oxytalan, elaunin and elastic fibers and decrease in collagen fibers with some transformation changes associated with OSCCs and lymph node metastasis. Conclusion: Changes in transformation of collagen to elastic fibers and also the loss of both the fibers in areas of lymphocytic infiltration possibly indicate degradation of ECM fibers by factors released from the lymphocytes or tumor cells and the limiting effect on the tumor by ECM remodeling.

  6. Prognostic biomarkers for oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

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    Almangush, Alhadi; Heikkinen, Ilkka; Mäkitie, Antti A; Coletta, Ricardo D; Läärä, Esa; Leivo, Ilmo; Salo, Tuula

    2017-09-05

    Identifying informative prognostic biomarkers for oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) is of great importance in order to better predict tumour behaviour and to guide treatment planning. Here, we summarise existing evidence regarding immunohistochemical prognostic biomarkers for OTSCC. A systematic search of the literature was performed using the databases of Scopus, Ovid Medline, Web of Science and Cochrane Library. All studies which had investigated the prognostic significance of immunohistochemical biomarkers in OTSCC during the period from 1985 to 2015 were retrieved. For the five most often evaluated biomarkers a random-effects meta-analysis on overall survival was performed, including those studies that provided the necessary statistical results. A total of 174 studies conducted during the last three decades were found, and in these 184 biomarkers were evaluated for the prognostication of OTSCC. The five biomarkers most frequently assessed were p53, Ki-67, p16, VEGFs and cyclin D1. In the meta-analyses, the most promising results of the prognostic power for OTSCC were obtained for cyclin D1. For studies of VEGF A and C the results were equivocal, but the pooled analysis of VEGF A separately showed it to be a useful prognosticator for OTSCC. There was no sufficient evidence to support p53, Ki-67 and p16 as prognostic biomarkers for OTSCC. Limitations in the quality of the published studies (e.g., small cohorts, lack of compliance with REMARK guidelines) are widespread. Numerous biomarkers have been presented as useful prognosticators for OTSCC, but the quality of the conduct and reporting of original studies is overall unsatisfactory which does not allow reliable conclusions. The value of two biomarkers (VEGF-A and cyclin D1) should be validated in a multicentre study setting following REMARK guidelines.

  7. Cathepsin K Is Present in Invasive Oral Tongue Squamous Cell Carcinoma In Vivo and In Vitro

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    Bitu, Carolina C.; Kauppila, Joonas H.; Bufalino, Andréia; Nurmenniemi, Sini; Teppo, Susanna; Keinänen, Meeri; Vilen, Suvi-Tuuli; Lehenkari, Petri; Nyberg, Pia; Coletta, Ricardo D.; Salo, Tuula

    2013-01-01

    Objectives Cathepsin K, a lysosomal cysteine protease, is expressed in the tumor microenvironment (TME) of skin carcinoma, but nothing is known about cathepsin K in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC). Our aim was to describe the expression of cathepsin K in invasive OTSCC in vitro and in a series of clinical cancer specimens. Materials and Methods OTSCC invasion in vitro was studied using invasive HSC-3 tongue carcinoma cells in 3D organotypic models. In total, 121 mobile tongue OTSCCs and 10 lymph node metastases were analyzed for cathepsin K expression. The association between cathepsin K expression and clinicopathological factors was evaluated. Results Cysteine protease inhibitor E64 and cathepsin K silencing significantly (p<0.0001) reduced HSC-3 cell invasion in the 3D models. Cathepsin K was expressed in a majority of carcinoma and metastatic cells, but the expression pattern in carcinoma cells did not correlate with clinical parameters. Instead, the weak expression of cathepsin K in the invasive TME front correlated with increased overall recurrence (p<0.05), and in early-stage tumors this pattern predicted both cancer recurrence and cancer-specific mortality (p<0.05 and p<0.005, respectively). Conclusions Cathepsin K is expressed in OTSCC tissue in both carcinoma and TME cells. Although the diminished activity and expression in aggressive tongue HSC-3 cells reduced 3D invasion in vitro, the amount of cathepsin K in carcinoma cells was not associated with the outcome of cancer patients. Instead, cathepsin K in the invasive TME front seems to have a protective role in the complex progression of tongue cancer. PMID:23951042

  8. Cathepsin K is present in invasive oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma in vivo and in vitro.

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    Carolina C Bitu

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Cathepsin K, a lysosomal cysteine protease, is expressed in the tumor microenvironment (TME of skin carcinoma, but nothing is known about cathepsin K in oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC. Our aim was to describe the expression of cathepsin K in invasive OTSCC in vitro and in a series of clinical cancer specimens. MATERIALS AND METHODS: OTSCC invasion in vitro was studied using invasive HSC-3 tongue carcinoma cells in 3D organotypic models. In total, 121 mobile tongue OTSCCs and 10 lymph node metastases were analyzed for cathepsin K expression. The association between cathepsin K expression and clinicopathological factors was evaluated. RESULTS: Cysteine protease inhibitor E64 and cathepsin K silencing significantly (p<0.0001 reduced HSC-3 cell invasion in the 3D models. Cathepsin K was expressed in a majority of carcinoma and metastatic cells, but the expression pattern in carcinoma cells did not correlate with clinical parameters. Instead, the weak expression of cathepsin K in the invasive TME front correlated with increased overall recurrence (p<0.05, and in early-stage tumors this pattern predicted both cancer recurrence and cancer-specific mortality (p<0.05 and p<0.005, respectively. CONCLUSIONS: Cathepsin K is expressed in OTSCC tissue in both carcinoma and TME cells. Although the diminished activity and expression in aggressive tongue HSC-3 cells reduced 3D invasion in vitro, the amount of cathepsin K in carcinoma cells was not associated with the outcome of cancer patients. Instead, cathepsin K in the invasive TME front seems to have a protective role in the complex progression of tongue cancer.

  9. A novel technique to assess chromatin texture using pixel optical densitometry in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

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    Natarajan, Srikant; Juneja, Manish; Pallam, Nandita Kottieth; Boaz, Karen; Mohindra, Aashima; Lewis, Amitha

    2012-08-01

    The early detection of neoplasia is the prime aim of a diagnostician. Altered chromatin distribution is the earliest microscopic change observed in malignant transformation making it a valuable morphometric parameter. This study was aimed to assess and correlate the progressive changes in chromatin texture from normal to varying grades of premalignancies to malignancy of the oral cavity. Thirty-four archival tissue specimens categorized as normal buccal mucosa (5), low-grade epithelial dysplasia (11), high-grade epithelial dysplasia (7), and squamous cell carcinoma (11) were stained with Feulgen reaction. Pixel optical densitometry histograms were obtained from analysis of an average of 300 cells/case using ImageJ software. Nine histogram curve characteristics (including area under the curve, area integer percentage, center, centroid) were then analyzed statistically for differences between the four groups. Area integer percentage (P = 0.002), center (P = 0.038), and centroid (P = 0.021) were statistically significant within the four groups The parameters showed a dip in their value from normal to low-grade dysplasia but showed a steady increase in high-grade dysplasia and carcinoma. The optical density characteristics had the ability to differentiate the progression of neoplastic changes by extracting information of the chromatin distribution not quantifiable by routine microscopy. The early clumping of chromatin in the periphery in low-grade dysplasia followed by progressively increasing chromatin aggregates in high-grade dysplasia and carcinoma correlated well with the shift observed in the histogram center and centroid. The novel pixel optical densitometry technique efficiently predicted malignant transformation. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Healthy life expectancy of oral squamous cell carcinoma patients aged 75years and older.

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    Yamada, Shin-Ichi; Kurita, Hiroshi; Tomioka, Takahiro; Ohta, Ryousuke; Yoshimura, Nobuhiko; Nishimaki, Fumihiro; Koyama, Yoshihito; Kondo, Eiji; Kamata, Takahiro

    2017-01-01

    Healthy life expectancy, an extension of the concept of life expectancy, is a summary measure of population health that takes into account the mortality and morbidity of a population. The aim of the present study was to retrospectively analyze the self-reliance survival times of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients. One hundred and twelve patients aged 75years or older with primary OSCC were included and examined at Shinshu University Hospital. To investigate healthy life expectancy, OSCC patients older than 75years were divided into 3 groups: 75-79, 80-84, and older than 85years. The Kaplan-Meier method was used to estimate the median times of healthy life expectancy. The Log-rank test was used to test significant differences between actual curves. The median self-reliance survival times of patients aged 75-79, 80-84, and older than 85years were 5.7, 1.6, and 1.4years, respectively. Most patients with early stage cancers underwent curative treatments and showed a health expectancy of more than 5years. In patients with advanced cancers, health expectancy was poor (less than one year), except among patients aged 75-79years who underwent standard treatments. It seems that in patients with advanced cancers, health expectancy was poor (less than 1year), except among patients aged 75-79years who underwent standard treatments. In elderly patients, healthy life expectancy (self-reliance survival time) may be one of the measures of patient prognosis as well as overall survival times. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Prevalence of human papillomavirus in oral squamous cell carcinomas in northern Spain.

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    Rodríguez-Santamarta, Tania; Rodrigo, Juan Pablo; García-Pedrero, Juana M; Álvarez-Teijeiro, Saúl; Ángeles Villaronga, M; Suárez-Fernández, Laura; Alvarez-Argüelles, Marta E; Astudillo, Aurora; de Vicente, Juan Carlos

    2016-12-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the prevalence of high-risk HPV in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) in a northern Spanish population, as well as to ascertain the prognostic role of p16INK4a expression. The examination samples were collected from paraffin tissue blocks, from 125 patients surgically treated between 1996 and 2007. All cases were histologically evaluated, and the presence of HPV was assessed by p16 and p53immunohistochemistry followed by DNA detection by in situ hybridization (ISH) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) amplification using the combination of consensus primers MY11/GP6 + . Fourteen cases (11 %) were p16-immunopositive, and p53 was scored positive in 73 cases (58 %). Five cases (4 %) showed a simultaneous p16-positive and p53-negative immunostaining. ISH was negative in all the cases. Among the p16INK4a-immunopositive cases, PCR amplification failed to reveal HPV DNA in any tumor samples. There were no statistically significant differences in any clinical or pathological characteristics of the patients regarding p16INK4a expression. T classification, neck-node metastasis, and clinical stage showed outcome relevance. However, no significant differences in cause-specific survival based on p16INK4a were observed. We did not find any high-risk HPV types in our patients, thus, are unlikely that HPV has an important role in the etiology of OSCC. p16INK4a protein was neither an accurate marker of HPV infection nor a prognosis marker in OSCC.

  12. Genetic polymorphism of interleukin-10 (-A592C) among oral cancer with squamous cell carcinoma.

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    Singh, Prithvi Kumar; Ahmad, Mohammad Kaleem; Kumar, Vijay; Gupta, Rajni; Kohli, Monica; Jain, Amita; Mahdi, Abbas Ali; Bogra, Jaishri; Chandra, Girish

    2017-05-01

    Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is a pleiotropic cytokine with either immunosuppressive or immunostimulative activities. It has been reported that in cancer, the promoter region polymorphism of IL-10 (-A592C) alters both the expression and serum levels of this cytokine. In the present study, we have addressed the question as to whether the single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at positions -592 A/C in the IL-10 gene promoter, could predispose an individual to oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). We analyzed the genotype of the IL-10 (-A592C) gene, in 250 histopathologically confirmed OSCC patients and similar number of healthy volunteers taken as controls, in an Indian population by using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. Allele and genotype frequencies were analyzed by the Student's t-test and the chi-squared test, and strength of associations by the odds ratio (OR) with 95% confidence intervals. The genotype and allele distribution of IL-10 (-A592C) gene polymorphism was significantly different between OSCC cases and controls (genotype AA vs AC: OR 2.87; 95 % CI 1.50-5.48; p=0.0016 and AA vs CC: OR 4.08; 95 % CI 1.98-8.41; p=0.0002). The -592 C alleles were found to be significantly different among OSCC cases and controls (OR: 1.44, 95% CI: 1.12-1.85, pIL-10 gene promoter region (-592) A/C polymorphism is significantly associated with reduced risk of OSCC. The OSCC group had a significantly greater frequency of genotype AA as compared to control group. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Impact of perineural invasion in the pathologically N0 neck in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma.

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    Chinn, Steven B; Spector, Matthew E; Bellile, Emily L; McHugh, Jonathan B; Gernon, Thomas J; Bradford, Carol R; Wolf, Gregory T; Eisbruch, Avraham; Chepeha, Douglas B

    2013-12-01

    Patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC) undergo adjuvant radiation for pathologically high-risk features including positive nodal disease and extracapsular spread (ECS). In the absence of these high-risk features, our objective was to determine if perineural invasion (PNI) is an independent risk factor and if adjuvant radiation (XRT) improves disease control rates. Historical cohort analysis. Tertiary university hospital. Eighty-eight OCSCC patients (46 males, 42 females; mean age = 56.7 years; median follow-up = 4.6 years) treated surgically with pathologically N0 (pN0) necks were studied. Overall, 23% (20/88) were pN0/PNI+ and of those with PNI, 70% (14/20) underwent XRT. Survival analysis using Kaplan-Meier followed by multivariable Cox models was performed. Multivariate analysis verified PNI to be associated with worse disease-free interval (DFI) (P = .012) and local-regional control (LRC) (P = .005) and perivascular invasion (PVI) associated with worse DFI (P = .05). Among pN0/PNI+ patients, those who received XRT demonstrated significantly improved DFI (mean = 6.5 years vs 1.7 years; P = .014) and LRC (mean 6.7 years vs 1.9 years; P = .047). There was no improvement in overall survival (P = .68) or disease-specific survival (P = .8) in those receiving XRT. PNI is an independent adverse risk factor in the absence of nodal metastasis and extracapsular spread. We observed a statistically significantly longer DFI and LRC when patients were treated with adjuvant radiation.

  14. Improvement in survival of patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma: An international collaborative study.

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    Amit, Moran; Yen, Tzu-Chen; Liao, Chun-Ta; Chaturvedi, Pankaj; Agarwal, Jai Prakash; Kowalski, Luiz P; Ebrahimi, Ardalan; Clark, Jonathan R; Kreppel, Matthias; Zöller, Joachim; Fridman, Eran; Bolzoni, Villaret A; Shah, Jatin P; Binenbaum, Yoav; Patel, Snehal G; Gil, Ziv

    2013-12-15

    An association between the survival of patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC) and advancements in diagnosis and therapy has not been established. This was a retrospective, longitudinal, international, population-based study of 2738 patients who underwent resection of OCSCC during 2 different decades. Characteristics of patients from 7 international cancer centers who received treatment between 1990 and 2000 (group A; n = 735) were compared with patients who received treatment between 2001 and 2011 (group B; n = 2003). Patients in group B had more advanced tumors and tended to develop distant metastases more frequently than patients in group A (P = .005). More group B patients underwent selective neck dissection and received adjuvant radiotherapy (P < .001). Outcome analysis revealed a significant improvement in 5-year overall survival, from 59% for group A to 70% for group B (P < .001). There was also a significant improvement in disease-specific survival associated with operations performed before and after 2000 (from 69% to 81%, respectively; P < .001). Surgery after 2000, negative margins, adjuvant treatment, and early stage disease were independent predictors of a better outcome in multivariate analysis. The decade of treatment was an independent prognostic factor for cancer-specific mortality (hazard ratio, 0.42; 95% confidence interval, 0.3-0.6). The survival rate of patients with OCSCC improved significantly during the past 2 decades despite older age, more advanced disease stage, and a higher rate of distant metastases. The current results suggest that the prognosis for patients with OCSCC has improved over time, presumably because of advances in imaging and therapy. © 2013 American Cancer Society.

  15. Establishment and characterization of an oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma cell line from a never-smoking patient.

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    Wang, Steven J; Asthana, Saurabh; van Zante, Annemieke; Heaton, Chase M; Phuchareon, Janyaporn; Stein, Leighton; Higuchi, Saito; Kishimoto, Tomoya; Chiu, Charles Y; Olshen, Adam B; McCormick, Frank; Tetsu, Osamu

    2017-06-01

    The rising incidence of oral tongue squamous cell carcinoma (OTSCC) in patients who have never smoked and the paucity of knowledge of its biological behavior prompted us to develop a new cell line originating from a never-smoker. Fresh tumor tissue of keratinizing OTSCC was collected from a 44-year-old woman who had never smoked. Serum-free media with a low calcium concentration were used in cell culture, and a multifaceted approach was taken to verify and characterize the cell line, designated UCSF-OT-1109. UCSF-OT-1109 was authenticated by STR DNA fingerprint analysis, presence of an epithelial marker EpCAM, absence of human papilloma virus (HPV) DNA, and SCC-specific microscopic appearance. Sphere-forming assays supported its tumorigenic potential. Spectral karyotype (SKY) analysis revealed numerical and structural chromosomal abnormalities. Whole-exome sequencing (WES) identified 46 non-synonymous and 13 synonymous somatic single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and one frameshift deletion in the coding regions. Specifically, mutations of CDKN2A, TP53, SPTBN5, NOTCH2, and FAM136A were found in the databases. Copy number aberration (CNA) analysis revealed that the cell line loses chromosome 3p and 9p, but lacks amplification of 3q and 11q (as does HPV-negative, smoking-unrelated OTSCC). It also exhibits four distinctive focal amplifications in chromosome 19p, containing 131 genes without SNPs. Particularly, 52 genes showed >3- to 4-fold amplification and could be potential oncogenic drivers. We have successfully established a novel OTSCC cell line from a never-smoking patient. UCSF-OT-1109 is potentially a robust experimental model of OTSCC in never-smokers. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. The prevalence of squamous cell carcinoma in different sites of oral cavity at our Rural Health Care Centre in Loni, Maharashtra - a retrospective 10-year study.

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    Tandon, Parul; Dadhich, Anuj; Saluja, Harish; Bawane, Shilpa; Sachdeva, Shivani

    2017-01-01

    Oral cancer ranks in the top three of all cancers in India and is quickly becoming a global health priority. More than 90% of oral and oropharyngeal cancers are squamous cell carcinoma. The purpose of this study was to document its incidence depending upon the involvement of different sites of oral cavity, and its variation with age and gender. Histopathologically proven oral squamous cell carcinoma cases were collected from the department of oral and maxillofacial surgery RDC, PIMS. The cases were systematically grouped under three headings: anatomical sub-site of oral cavity, age group, and gender, which were analysed to calculate the prevalence of oral cancer. The study was undertaken after obtaining approval from the institutional Ethical Committee board. Among the different sites of oral cavity, the highest incidence (31.47%) of oral squamous cell carcinoma was seen for buccal mucosa in our study. The most affected age group (39.50%) were patients above 50 years old, predominantly involving males. The population in this study were mostly from remote areas, among which a high rate of occurrence of oral cancer was encountered because the people were of low socio-economic class, had a casual attitude towards their health, high rate of tobacco consumption, and limited health care facilities. This study provides valuable data of the prevalence of oral cancer among the rural population.

  17. Cervical level IIb metastases in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity: a systematic review and meta-analysis

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    Kou Y

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Yurong Kou,1,* Tengfei Zhao,2,* Shaohui Huang,2 Jie Liu,3 Weiyi Duan,2 Yunjing Wang,2 Zechen Wang,2 Delong Li,2 Chunliu Ning,2 Changfu Sun2 1Department of Oral Biology, School of Stomatology, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning, People’s Republic of China; 2Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, School of Stomatology, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning, People’s Republic of China; 3Centre of Science Experiment, China Medical University, Shenyang, Liaoning, People’s Republic of China *These authors contributed equally to this work Purpose: The aim of this study was to clarify whether level IIb dissection should be performed or avoided in the treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma by meta-analysis.Materials and methods: Articles that were published before June 2017 were searched electronically in four databases (Web of Science, PubMed, Ovid and China National Knowledge Infrastructure without any date or language restrictions by two independent reviewers. Abstracts and full-text papers which investigated the cervical metastases to level IIb from primary head and neck cancers and were deemed potentially relevant were screened. Data were analyzed using RevMan 5.3.Results: Four hundred and fifty-five abstracts and 129 full-text papers were screened, and 22 studies were included in the analysis. Among the 2001 patients included, 112 patients had level IIb metastases, the pooled frequency of which was 6% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 4.0–7.0. Among the 400 patients with tongue squamous cell carcinoma from 12 studies, 37 patients had level IIb metastases, the pooled incidence of which was 7% (95% CI: 5.0–10.0. Metastases to level IIb always went together with level IIa, and only three patients were found to have isolated level IIb metastases without involving the other levels.Conclusion: Due to the low frequency of level IIb nodal metastases in oral squamous cell carcinoma patients and rare occurrence of isolated

  18. Oral squamous cell carcinoma in a patient treated with long-term pegylated liposomal doxorubicin for recurrent ovarian cancer.

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    Pezzoli, Matteo; Bona Galvagno, Maurizio; Bongioannini, Guido

    2015-01-14

    We present a case of a woman who developed an oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) after being treated for a recurrent ovarian carcinoma with subtotal gastric resection and adjuvant pegylated liposomal doxorubicin (PLD). She received six cycles of PLD induction and maintenance therapy, which was continued for 5 years. She was free from disease at the following visits but 3 years later she developed SCC of her left inferior edentulous gums. The patient was negative for human papillomavirus and had never smoked in her life or had a history of alcohol use or any other environmental risk factors. PLD is known to accumulate in eccrine glands of the hands and the feet and in the oral mucosa, therefore causing skin toxicity and mucositis. It is conceivable that this specific biodistribution to the oral mucosa may be responsible for the onset of SCC. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  19. Accuracy of administrative and clinical registry data in reporting postoperative complications after surgery for oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma.

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    Awad, Mahmoud I; Shuman, Andrew G; Montero, Pablo H; Palmer, Frank L; Shah, Jatin P; Patel, Snehal G

    2015-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe and compare how postoperative complications after oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) surgery are reported in medical records, institutional billing claims, and national clinical registries. The medical records of 355 previously untreated patients who underwent surgery for oral cavity SCC at our institution were retrospectively reviewed for postoperative complications. Information was compared with claims and National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (NSQIP) data. We identified 219 patients (62%) experiencing 544 complications (10% major). Billing claims identified 29% of these patients, 36% of overall complications, and 98% of major complications. Of overlapping patients, NSQIP identified 27% of patients, 33% of overall complications, and 100% of major complications noted on chart abstraction. The incidence of minor postoperative complications after oral cavity SCC surgery is relatively high. Both claims data and NSQIP accurately recorded major complications, but were suboptimal compared to chart abstraction in capturing minor complications. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. Detection of human papilloma virus (HPV and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV in oral squamous cell carcinoma: A polymerized chain reaction (PCR study

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    Suresh Dirasantchu

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Aims and Objectives: Certain strains of human papillomavirus (HPV have been shown to be etiologically related to the development of uterine, cervical, and other genital cancers, but their role in the development of malignancies at other sites is less well established. Previous studies have shown HPV in tumors of the head and neck, but its prevalence has varied depending on the detection methods and the types of tumor and/or tissue examined. This study was undertaken for the detection of high-risk HPV types 16 and 18 and human immunodeficiency virus (HIV in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Materials and Methods: Twenty-five patients histologically diagnosed with oral squamous cell carcinoma and 10 apparently normal persons as controls were selected for the present study. Two biopsy specimens were removed surgically by incision biopsy for histopathological examination and polymerized chain reaction (PCR study. Results: Out of 25 oral squamous cell carcinoma subjects, 8 were found to be HPV positive in PCR. Out of these eight subjects, four had HPV 16 and the other four had other genotypes, and one subject was HIV positive. Conclusion: The conclusion drawn from the present study was that well-defined risk factors like HPV may play a prominent role in the development of oral squamous cell carcinomas, in addition to other risk factors. Further studies with a larger sample size are necessary to arrive at conclusions and to explore the relationship of HPV and HIV in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

  1. Low etiologic fraction for high-risk human papillomavirus in oral cavity squamous cell carcinomas.

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    Lingen, Mark W; Xiao, Weihong; Schmitt, Alessandra; Jiang, Bo; Pickard, Robert; Kreinbrink, Paul; Perez-Ordonez, Bayardo; Jordan, Richard C; Gillison, Maura L

    2013-01-01

    Human papillomavirus (HPV) is a cause of oropharyngeal cancer, but a role for HPV in the etiology of oral cavity squamous cell carcinomas (OCSCC) remains uncertain. We sought to estimate the etiologic fraction for HPV among consecutive, incident OCSCC diagnosed from 2005 to 2011 at four North American hospitals. DNA and RNA purified from paraffin-embedded tumors were considered evaluable if positive for DNA and mRNA control genes by quantitative PCR. Fifteen high-risk (HR) HPV types were detected in tumors by consensus PCR followed by type-specific HR-HPV E6/7 oncogene expression by quantitative reverse-transcriptase PCR. P16 expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC). A study of 400 cases allowed for precision to estimate an etiologic fraction of as low as 0% (97.5% confidence interval, 0-0.92%). Of 409 evaluable OCSCC, 24 (5.9%, 95%CI 3.6-8.2) were HR-HPV E6/7 expression positive; 3.7% (95%CI 1.8-5.5) for HPV16 and 2.2% (95%CI 0.8-3.6) for other HR-HPV types. HPV-positive tumors arose from throughout the oral cavity (floor of mouth [n=9], anterior tongue [6], alveolar process [4], hard palate [3], gingiva [1] and lip [1]) and were significantly associated with male gender, small tumor stage, poor tumor differentiation, and basaloid histopathology. P16 IHC had very good-to-excellent sensitivity (79.2%, 95%CI 57.9-92.9), specificity (93.0%, 95%CI 90.0-95.3), and negative-predictive value (98.6%, 95%CI 96.8-99.6), but poor positive-predictive value (41.3%, 95%CI 27.0-56.8) for HR-HPV E6/7 expression in OCSCC. The etiologic fraction for HR-HPV in OCSCC was 5.9%. p16 IHC had poor positive predictive value for detection of HPV in these cancers. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Treatment of Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma With Adjuvant or Definitive Intensity-Modulated Radiation Therapy

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    Sher, David J., E-mail: dsher@lroc.harvard.edu [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Thotakura, Vijaya [Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Balboni, Tracy A. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Norris, Charles M.; Haddad, Robert I.; Posner, Marshall R.; Lorch, Jochen [Department of Medical Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Goguen, Laura A.; Annino, Donald J. [Department of Surgery, Division of Otolaryngology, Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States); Tishler, Roy B. [Department of Radiation Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women' s Hospital, Boston, Massachusetts (United States)

    2011-11-15

    Purpose: The optimal management of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC) typically involves surgical resection followed by adjuvant radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy (CRT) in the setting of adverse pathologic features. Intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) is frequently used to treat oral cavity cancers, but published IMRT outcomes specific to this disease site are sparse. We report the Dana-Farber Cancer Institute experience with IMRT-based treatment for OCSCC. Methods and Materials: Retrospective study of all patients treated at Dana-Farber Cancer Institute for OCSCC with adjuvant or definitive IMRT between August 2004 and December 2009. The American Joint Committee on Cancer disease stage criteria distribution of this cohort included 5 patients (12%) with stage I; 10 patients (24%) with stage II (n = 10, 24%),; 14 patients (33%) with stage III (n = 14, 33%),; and 13 patients (31%) with stage IV. The primary endpoint was overall survival (OS); secondary endpoints were locoregional control (LRC) and acute and chronic toxicity. Results: Forty-two patients with OCSCC were included, 30 of whom were initially treated with surgical resection. Twenty-three (77%) of 30 surgical patients treated with adjuvant IMRT also received concurrent chemotherapy, and 9 of 12 (75%) patients treated definitively without surgery were treated with CRT or induction chemotherapy and CRT. With a median follow-up of 2.1 years (interquartile range, 1.1-3.1 years) for all patients, the 2-year actuarial rates of OS and LRC following adjuvant IMRT were 85% and 91%, respectively, and the comparable results for definitive IMRT were 63% and 64% for OS and LRC, respectively. Only 1 patient developed symptomatic osteoradionecrosis, and among patients without evidence of disease, 35% experienced grade 2 to 3 late dysphagia, with only 1 patient who was continuously gastrostomy-dependent. Conclusions: In this single-institution series, postoperative IMRT was associated with promising LRC

  3. Differences in survival outcome between oropharyngeal and oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma in relation to HPV status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Kenneth; Killingsworth, Murray; Matthews, Slade; Caixeiro, Nicole; Evangelista, Carlyn; Wu, Xiao; Wykes, James; Samakeh, Alan; Forstner, Dion; Niles, Navin; Hong, Angela; Lee, Cheok Soon

    2017-09-01

    This study examined the prognostic significance of human papillomavirus (HPV) in patients with oropharyngeal and oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). Tissue microarrays were constructed from oropharyngeal and oral cavity SCC (n = 143). The presence of functional HPV in tumour was determined by combined assessments of p16 immunohistochemistry and HPV in situ hybridisation. Oropharyngeal SCC patients presented with more advanced disease in comparison with oral cavity SCC patients (P = 0.001). HPV is present in 60% and 61% of oropharyngeal and oral cavity SCC patients, respectively. HPV-positive oropharyngeal SCC patients with advanced TNM stages displayed better overall and disease-free survival outcomes than HPV-negative patients (P = 0.022 and 0.046, respectively). Such survival differences were not observed in oral cavity SCC. HPV is common in both oropharyngeal and oral cavity SCC and is associated with better survival outcome in oropharyngeal SCC but not in oral cavity SCC patients. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  4. Immunohistochemical study of integrin α₅β₁, fibronectin, and Bcl-2 in normal oral mucosa, inflammatory fibroepithelial hyperplasia, oral epithelial dysplasia, and oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Núñez, Manuel Antonio Gordón; de Matos, Felipe Rodrigues; Freitas, Roseana de Almeida; Galvão, Hébel Cavalcanti

    2013-07-01

    The objective of this study was to compare the immunoexpression of integrin α₅β₁, fibronectin, and the Bcl-2 protein in normal oral mucosa (NOM), inflammatory fibroepithelial hyperplasia (IFH), oral epithelial dysplasia (OED), and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Eleven cases of NOM, 16 IFH, 20 OED, and 27 OSCC were selected for analysis of the immunoexpression of integrin α₅β₁, fibronectin, and bcl-2 protein. There was an association between the intensity and location of the integrin α₅β₁ expression, especially in the OSCC, that 48.1% of cases showed weak immunoreactivity and 40.7% in the suprabasal layer (P < 0.05). There was an association between the pattern and distribution of fibronectin expression in basement membrane, where 90% of NOM showed a pattern of linear continuous and 80% of OED exhibited focal distribution (P < 0.05). The fibronectin expression in connective tissue was predominantly intense with an association of staining pattern among the different specimens, where 37% of OSCC showed a reticular pattern (P < 0.05). There was an association of bcl-2 protein among the types of specimens, especially in IFH and OSCC, where 100% of the cases exhibited scores 1 of staining (P < 0.05). Within this context, the interaction of integrin α₅β₁ with its main ligand in the extracellular matrix, fibronectin, is suggested to influence the survival of tumor cells and to favor their proliferation by modulating apoptosis through the upregulation of antiapoptotic proteins or the suppression of apoptotic mediators.

  5. MVP expression in the prediction of clinical outcome of locally advanced oral squamous cell carcinoma patients treated with radiotherapy

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    Henríquez-Hernández Luis

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objective To explore the role of Major Vault Protein (MVP in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma patients. Subjects and Methods 131 consecutive patients suffering from oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma were included in the study. In the whole series, the mean follow-up for survivors was 123.11 ± 40.36 months. Patients in tumour stages I and II were referred to surgery; patients in stage III-IV to postoperative radiotherapy (mean dose = 62.13 ± 7.74 Gy in 1.8–2 Gy/fraction. MVP expression was studied by immunohistochemistry in paraffin-embedded tumour tissue. Results MVP expression was positive in 112 patients (85.5% and no relation was found with clinic pathological variables. MVP overexpression (those tumours with moderate or strong expression of the protein was related to insulin-like growth factor receptor-1 (IGF-1R expression (P = 0.014. Tumour stage of the disease was the most important prognostic factor related to survival. Tumours overexpressing MVP and IGF-1R were strongly related to poor disease-free survival (P = 0.008, Exp(B = 2.730, CI95% (1.302-5.724 and cause-specific survival (P = 0.014, Exp(B = 2.570, CI95% (1.215-5.437 in patients achieving tumour stages III-IV, in multivariate analysis. Conclusions MVP and IGF-1R expression were related in oral squamous cell carcinoma and conferred reduced long-term survival in patients suffering from advanced stages of the disease.

  6. Low Mast Cell Density Predicts Poor Prognosis in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Reduces Survival in Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attramadal, Cecilie Gjøvaag; Kumar, Sheeba; Gao, Jian; Boysen, Morten Ebbe; Halstensen, Trond Sundby; Bryne, Magne

    2016-10-01

    The cellular composition of the tumor microenvironment (TME) at the invading front of oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs) may reflect biologically important cancer features and host responses, and thus be related to disease progression. The TME density of mast cells (MCs), macrophages, cancer-associated fibroblasts (CAFs) and endothelial cells were quantified at the invasive front and analyzed regarding their relation to disease recurrence in patients with small T1/2N0M0 OSCCs. mRNA for MC-specific proteins were analyzed in a second patient cohort with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). Samples from 62 patients with T1/2N0M0 OSCC were immunohistochemically stained and scored for the cellular expression of mast/stem cell growth factor receptor (c-KIT) (MCs), CD68 (macrophages), α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) (CAFs) and CD31 (endothelial cells) and this was analyzed according to disease recurrence. Data from The Cancer Genome Atlas database were used to examine mRNA expression profiles and clinical data of patients with 399 HNSCC. Increased MC density at the invasive front was significantly associated with reduced disease recurrence, as none of the patients with high MC density experienced relapse. Moreover, increased expression of mRNA for MC specific markers as c-KIT, and α-, β-, and δ-tryptases and the MC-stimulating factor, stem cell factor (SCF), was significantly associated with good prognosis in patients with HNSCC. Decreased MC density at the invasive front may reflect tumor biology related to disease progression and prognosis. Counting MCs seems to be an easy and practical tool, that could be utilized for prognostic evaluation. Copyright© 2016 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  7. Nuclear fractal dimension in oral squamous cell carcinoma: a novel method for the evaluation of grading, staging, and survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mincione, Gabriella; Di Nicola, Marta; Di Marcantonio, Maria Carmela; Muraro, Raffaella; Piattelli, Adriano; Rubini, Corrado; Penitente, Enrico; Piccirilli, Marcello; Aprile, Giuseppe; Perrotti, Vittoria; Artese, Luciano

    2015-10-01

    Fractal dimension (FD) in tissue specimens from patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) was evaluated. FD values in different stages of OSCC, and the correlations with clinicopathological variables and patient survival were investigated. Histological sections from OSCC and control non-neoplastic mucosa specimens were stained with hematoxylin-eosin for pathological analysis and with Feulgen for nuclear evaluation. FD in OSCC groups vs. controls revealed statistically significant differences (P Fractal geometry could give insights into tumor morphology and could become an useful tool for analyzing irregular tumor growth patterns. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Histopathologic, stereologic, epidemiologic, and clinical parameters in the prognostic evaluation of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bundgaard, T; Bentzen, S M; Wildt, J

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Prognostic indicators that could assist in a more precise selection of patients with oral cancer for differentiated therapy would be clinically valuable.METHODS: A consecutive series of 161 cases of intraoral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) occurring during a 5-year period in a population......%) with stage I disease had unfavorable histologic and stereologic parameters. The observed survival (+/- 1 standard error of the estimate) for these patients was 33% +/- 18%. The observed survival for stage I patients with more favorable histologic and stereologic characteristics (n = 36) was 76% +/- 8...

  9. Comparison of myofibroblasts expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma, verrucous carcinoma, high risk epithelial dysplasia, low risk epithelial dysplasia and normal oral mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhary, Minal; Gadbail, Amol Ramchandra; Vidhale, Gaurav; Mankar Gadbail, Mugdha P; Gondivkar, Shailesh M; Gawande, Madhuri; Patil, Swati

    2012-09-01

    The aim was to evaluate and compare the presence of myofibroblasts in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), verrucous carcinoma (VC), high-risk epithelial dysplasia (HRED), low-risk epithelial dysplasia (LRED), and normal oral mucosa (NOM). The study consisted of 37 OSCC, 15 VC, 15 HRED, 15 LRED and 15 NOM. α-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) antibody was used to identify myofibroblasts. The α-SMA expression was not observed in NOM and LRED. The α-SMA was expressed in 97.29% of OSCC, 86.66% of VC, 46.66 % of HRED. The α-SMA expression was significantly higher in OSCC than VC (p = 0.023) and HRED (p oral premalignancy and malignancy.

  10. Estimation of serum β2-microglobulin in potentially malignant disorders and squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity: A clinicopathological study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Pratap Singh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Tumor markers are substances, which quantitatively changes in serum, during the tumor development, one such tumor marker is serum β2-microglobulin (β2-m. The aim of this study was to establish the role of β2-m as a biochemical parameter for diagnosis and prognosis of oral carcinoma by estimation of serum β2-m levels in potentially malignant lesions, conditions, and oral squamous cell carcinoma. Materials and Methods: The study was carried out on 48 subjects (16 control, 8 oral submucous fibrosis, 8 oral leukoplakia, and 16 oral squamous cell carcinoma patients of different stages, conducted at department of Oral Medicine, Kothiwal Dental College, Moradabad, India. Under aseptic precautions, 5 ml venous blood was drawn and serum was separated. Estimation of β2-m level in serum was carried out by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay. The data were analyzed by using the statistical package for social sciences (SPSS 17.0 software. Cases and controls were tested for statistical significance with one-way ANOVA with post-hoc Tukey′s HSD. Values of P < 0.05 were considered significant. Results: The mean serum β2-m level in the control group was 1.173 ± 0.059, in potentially malignant lesions/conditions group was 1.688 ± 0.137 and in oral squamous cell carcinoma group was 2.835 ± 0.0313. This progressive increase in serum β2-m level was found to be highly significant (P value < 0.001. Results of Receiver operating characteristic analysis showed β2-m as a 100% sensitive and specific biomarker for oral squamous cell carcinoma. Conclusion: The present study establishes β2-m as a specific biological tumor marker for diagnostic and prognostic evaluation of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

  11. Tumor Budding, EMT and Cancer Stem Cells in T1-2/N0 Oral Squamous Cell Carcinomas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attramadal, Cecilie Gjøvaag; Kumar, Sheeba; Boysen, Morten E; Dhakal, Hari Prasad; Nesland, Jahn Marthin; Bryne, Magne

    2015-11-01

    Early oral carcinomas have a high recurrence rate despite surgery with clear margins. In an attempt to classify the risk of recurrence of oral squamous cell carcinomas, we explored the significance of tumor budding, epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) and certain cancer stem cell markers (CSC). Tumor budding (single cells or clusters of ≤5 cells in the tumor front, divided into high- and low-budding tumors), EMT and CSC markers were studied in 62 immunohistochemically stained slides of T1/2N0M0 oral squamous cell carcinomas. Tissues and records of follow-up were obtained from the Oslo University Hospital, Norway. Tumor budding, EMT and CSC markers were scored and analyzed. The only significant prognostic marker was tumor budding (p=0.043). Expression of the EMT marker E-cadherin was lost from the invasive front and tended to be a prognostic factor (p=0.17), and up-regulation of vimentin in tumor cells in the invasive front was found; this indicates that EMT had occurred. CSC markers were not associated with recurrence rate in the present study. A high budding index was related to poor prognosis in patients with oral cancer. Budding was associated with EMT-like changes. CSC factors were detected but reflected differentiation rather than stemness. Scoring of buds in patients with oral cancer may help discriminate invasive tumors prone to relapse, and thus, provide an indication for adjuvant therapy. Copyright© 2015 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  12. Comparative evaluation of eosinophils in normal mucosa, dysplastic mucosa and oral squamous cell carcinoma with hematoxylin-eosin, Congo red, and EMR1 immunohistochemical staining techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kargahi, Neda; Razavi, Sayyed Mohammad; Deyhimi, Parviz; Homayouni, Solmaz

    2015-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma is the most common malignant lesion of the oral cavity, and it involves various molecular mechanisms. The development of oral squamous cell carcinoma is influenced by the host immune cells, such as eosinophils. The present study was conducted to compare the presence of eosinophils in normal mucosa, dysplastic mucosa, and oral squamous cell carcinoma by -hematoxylin- eosin staining, Congo red staining, and epidermal growth factor-like (EGF-like) module containing a mucin-like hormone receptor1 (EMR1) immunohistochemical marker. In this cross-sectional study, 60 paraffinized samples were selected, consisting of 20 normal mucosae, 20 dysplastic mucosae, and 20 squamous cell carcinoma samples. After confirmation of the diagnosis, the mean number of eosinophils was evaluated by hematoxylin-eosin, Congo red, and immunohystochemical staining techniques. The data were analyzed by SPSS-10 software using the Kruskal-Wallis and Friedman tests. The results showed that the number of eosinophils in dysplastic mucosa was significantly higher than the number in normal mucosa, and the number of eosinophils in squamous cell carcinoma was significantly higher than the number in dysplastic mucosa in all staining techniques (poral lesions in cases with borderline diagnosis and in targeted molecular therapy.

  13. Establishment and Characterization of Primary Cultures from Iranian Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Patients by Enzymatic Method and Explant Culture

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    Meysam Ganjibakhsh

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC is the most frequent oral cancer worldwide. It is known as the eighth most common cancer in men and as the fifth most common cancer in women. Cytogenetic and biochemical studies in recent decades have emphasized the necessity of providing an appropriate tool for such researches. Cancer cell culture is a useful tool for investigations on biochemical, genetic, molecular and immunological characteristics of different cancers, including oral cancer. Here, we explain the establishment process of five primary oral cancer cells derived from an Iranian population.Materials and Methods: The specimens were obtained from five oral cancer patients. Enzymatic, explant culture and magnetic-activated cell sorting (MACS methods were used for cell isolation. After quality control tests, characterization and authentication of primary oral cancer cells were performed by short tandem repeats (STR profiling, chromosome analysis, species identification, and monitoring the growth, morphology and the expression of CD326 and CD133 markers.Results: Five primary oral cancer cells were established from an Iranian population. The flow cytometry results showed that the isolated cells were positive for CD326 and CD133 markers. Furthermore, the cells were free from mycoplasma, bacterial and fungal contamination. No misidentified or cross-contaminated cells were detected by STR analysis.Conclusions: Human primary oral cancer cells provide an extremely useful platform for studying carcinogenesis pathways of oral cancer in Iranian population. They may be helpful in explaining the ethnic differences in cancer biology and the individuality in anticancer drug response in future studies.

  14. Clinical Outcomes in Elderly Patients Treated for Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jie Jane; Shah, Jennifer L; Harris, Jeremy P; Bui, Timothy T; Schaberg, Kurt; Kong, Christina S; Kaplan, Michael J; Divi, Vasu; Schoppy, David; Le, Quynh-Thu; Hara, Wendy Y

    2017-07-15

    Oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC) commonly occurs in elderly patients. This study explores the clinical outcomes in elderly patients with OCSCC based on their functional status and clinical comorbidities. We retrospectively reviewed 180 patients aged ≥70 who were treated with definitive intent with surgery followed by adjuvant therapy if indicated for newly diagnosed OCSCC from 1998 to 2013. Pathology review was conducted, and Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status and the Head and Neck Charlson Comorbidity Index (HN-CCI) were assessed. We performed Kaplan-Meier analyses and cumulative incidence estimates to assess overall survival (OS), progression-free survival (PFS), and locoregional recurrence (LRR). Univariate and multivariate analyses were used to test age, adjuvant therapy, adverse pathologic features, ECOG status, and HN-CCI status as predictors. The median age was 80 years (range, 70-95 years), with a median follow-up time of 23 months. The median OS was 18 months and 46 months for patients aged 70 to 84 and ≥85, respectively (P=.0017). The LRR was 24% at 1 year and 30% at 2 years for all patients. On univariate analysis, ECOG score ≥2 (hazard ratio [HR] = 1.96; confidence interval [CI] 1.19-3.21; P=.008) and HN-CCI score ≥2 (HR=1.97; CI 1.17-3.34; P=.011) were predictors of worse OS. On multivariate analysis, HN-CCI score was a better predictor of OS, PFS, and LRR than was ECOG score. Predictors of worse OS were age ≥85 (HR=1.78; CI 1.07-2.96; P=.026), HN-CCI score of ≥2 (HR=2.21; CI 1.20-4.08; P=.011), and adverse features (HR=2.35; CI 1.34-4.13; P=.003). Adjuvant therapy did not have a significant impact on OS or LRR for patients with adverse features even though 48% of them did not receive it. Elderly patients with good health and performance status may live long enough to experience disease progression from OCSCC. ECOG and HN-CCI scores may be useful to evaluate the candidacy of elderly patients

  15. The RANKL/RANK system as a therapeutic target for bone invasion by oral squamous cell carcinoma (Review).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jimi, Eijiro; Shin, Masashi; Furuta, Hiroyuki; Tada, Yukiyo; Kusukawa, Jingo

    2013-03-01

    Squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) of the gingiva frequently invade the mandible or maxilla; this invasion is associated with a worse prognosis. The bone destruction associated with carcinomal invasion is mediated by osteoclasts rather than directly by the carcinoma. Therefore, if the cellular and molecular mechanisms by which oral SCC regulates bone invasion were known, it could inform the development of new therapeutic targets. Recently, dysregulation of the functional equilibrium in the receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL)/RANK/osteoprotegerin (OPG) triad has been shown to be responsible for osteolysis associated with the development of malignant tumors in bone sites. Furthermore, the administration of OPG or soluble RANK prevents bone metastasis by cancer cells. In this review, we discuss recent findings indicating that bone invasion by oral SCC is mediated via RANKL/RANK and may be successfully prevented by RANKL inhibition.

  16. The caspase 3-dependent apoptotic effect of pycnogenol in human oral squamous cell carcinoma HSC-3 cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, In-Hyoung; Shin, Ji-Ae; Kim, Lee-Han; Kwon, Ki Han; Cho, Sung-Dae

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, the apoptotic effect of pycnogenol and its molecular mechanism in human oral squamous cell carcinoma HSC-3 cells were investigated. Pycnogenol significantly inhibited the viability of HSC-3 cells and suppressed neoplastic cell transformation in HSC-3 cells and TPA-treated JB6 cells. It caused caspase-dependent apoptosis evidenced by the increase in cleaved poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase and caspase 3 in a dose-dependent manner. Pycnogenol increased Bak protein by enhancing its protein stability whereas other Bcl-2 family members were not altered. In addition, the treatment with pycnogenol led to the production of reactive oxygen species and N-acetyl-l-cysteine almost blocked pycnogenol-induced reactive oxygen species generation. Taken together, these findings suggest that pycnogenol may be a potential candidate for the chemoprevention or chemotherapy of human oral cancer.

  17. Role of microscopic spread beyond gross disease as an adverse prognostic factor in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, A; Datta, S; Malik, A; Garg, A; Nair, D; Nair, S; Mair, M; Bal, M; Agarwal, J; Chaturvedi, P

    2017-08-01

    Despite meticulous surgery and proper adjuvant treatment, outcome of oral squamous cell carcinoma remains unpredictable. This shows that there may be other factors which should be considered while prognosticating these patients. Many a times there is spread of disease beyond the gross margin which can alter the margin status. We hypothesized that microscopic spread beyond gross disease may portend a poor prognosis. This is a retrospective study of prospectively collected data of 1025 treatment naïve oral squamous cell carcinoma patients. All patients underwent surgery from January 2012 to October 2013, this was followed by appropriate adjuvant treatment. Demographic and histopathological details were noted from the electronic medical records. Microscopic spread beyond gross disease (MSGD) is associated with higher incidence of nodal positivity (p < 0.046), peri-neural invasion (p < 0.001), thicker tumours (p < 0.024) and poor differentiation (p < 0.060). The overall survival in patients with MSGD was 32.45 months vs. 37.5 months in patients without MSGD (p < 0.002). Tumours with MSGD tend to have a higher incidence of nodal metastasis, PNI and thicker tumours. Presence of MSGD was associated with lower overall survival as compared to those without. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd, BASO ~ The Association for Cancer Surgery, and the European Society of Surgical Oncology. All rights reserved.

  18. Promotion of cell proliferation by the proto-oncogene DEK enhances oral squamous cell carcinogenesis through field cancerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakashima, Takayuki; Tomita, Hiroyuki; Hirata, Akihiro; Ishida, Kazuhisa; Hisamatsu, Kenji; Hatano, Yuichiro; Kanayama, Tomohiro; Niwa, Ayumi; Noguchi, Kei; Kato, Keizo; Miyazaki, Tatsuhiko; Tanaka, Takuji; Shibata, Toshiyuki; Hara, Akira

    2017-10-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) develops through a multistep carcinogenic process involving field cancerization. The DEK gene is a proto-oncogene with functions in genetic and epigenetic modifications, and has oncogenic functions, including cellular proliferation, differentiation, and senescence. DEK overexpression is associated with malignancies; however, the functional roles of DEK overexpression are unclear. We demonstrated that DEK-expressing cells were significantly increased in human dysplasia/carcinoma in situ and OSCC. Furthermore, we generated ubiquitous and squamous cell-specific doxycycline (DOX)-inducible Dek mice (iDek and iDek-e mice respectively). Both DOX+ iDek and iDek-e mice did not show differences in the oral mucosa compared with DOX- mice. In the environment exposed to carcinogen, DOX-treated (DOX+) iDek mice showed field cancerization and OSCC development. Microarray analysis revealed that DEK overexpression was mediated by the upregulation of DNA replication- and cell cycle-related genes, particularly those related to the G1 /S transition. Tongue tumors overexpressing DEK showed increased proliferating cell nuclear antigen and elongator complex protein 3 expression. Our data suggest that DEK overexpression enhanced carcinogenesis, including field cancerization, in OSCC by stimulating the G1 /S phase transition and promoting DNA replication, providing important insights into the potential applications of DEK as a target in the treatment and prevention of OSCC. © 2017 The Authors. Cancer Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Evaluation of DNA damage in oral precancerous and squamous cell carcinoma patients by single cell gel electrophoresis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanjit Mukherjee

    2011-01-01

    Materials and Methods: Peripheral blood was collected by venepuncture and comet assay was performed using SCGE. Mean tail length was compared between diagnostic groups and between different oral habit groups using t-tests and analysis of variance (ANOVA. Pearson′s product moment correlation was used to examine the linear association between the extent of DNA damage and oral habit pack-years. Scheffe′s pair-wise test was employed to adjust for multiple comparisons. Results: None of the controls were associated with any oral habits. Mean (±SD tail lengths (in mm for cancer (24.95 ± 5.09 and leukoplakia (12.96 ± 2.68 were significantly greater than in controls (8.54 ± 2.55, P<0.05. After adjustment, well-, moderately, and poorly differentiated carcinomas had significantly greater tail length than controls. Whereas the extent of DNA damage in cancer cases was significantly greater in leukoplakia than in compared to OSMF (11.03 ± 5.92, the DNA damage in latter was not different from controls. DNA damage for people with any oral habit (19.78 ± 7.77 was significantly greater than those with no habits (8.54 ± 2.55; P<0.0001. Conclusions: DNA damage measured by SCGE is greater in leukoplakia and squamous cell carcinoma, but not in OSMF. Deleterious oral habits are also associated with greater DNA damage.

  20. Effects of radiation therapy on blood coagulation-fibrinolysis system in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma

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    Watanabe, Kou; Kawamura, Hiroshi; Yosue, Takashi [Nippon Dental Univ., Tokyo (Japan). School of Dentistry; Arai, Chiaki [Nippon Dental Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Hospital

    2002-04-01

    The aims of this study were to clarify the effects of radiotherapy on haemostatic activity in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) and to investigate the differences in the clinical findings. The subjects were 61 patients with primary oral SCC (SCC group) who had undergone preoperative radiotherapy of 34.2{+-}7.2 Gy (mean{+-}SD). These patients were divided into early group (stage I and II) and advanced group (stage III and IV), and the region in the oral cavity. Before and after radiotherapy, activated partial thromboplastin time (APTT), fibrinogen, prothrombin fragment 1+2 (F1+2) and plasmin-{alpha}{sub 2} plasmin inhibitor complex (PAP) were measured. In SCC group, after the radiotherapy, APTT extended and PAP increased. In the early stage group, PAP increased and in the advanced group, there was the extension of APTT. The regional division of the patients, there was the extension of APTT in oral floor and lower gingiva groups. F1+2 in lower gingiva group increased, and PAP rose in tongue and buccal mucosa groups. These results indicate that irradiation affects blood coagulation fibrinolysis system in patients with oral SCC, but the amount of the activation differs by the clinical findings. (author)

  1. [Pickled food, fish, seafood intakes and oral squamous cell carcinoma: a case-control study].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, J F; Qiu, Y; Cai, L; Liu, F P; Chen, F; Yan, L J; Wu, J F; Bao, X D; Liu, F Q; Zheng, X Y; Lin, L S; He, B C

    2017-08-06

    Objective: To investigate the effects between fish, seafood and pickled food intakes on oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Methods: A case-control study was carried out in Fujian area during September 2010 to December 2016, in which 604 newly diagnosed primary OSCC cases confirmed by pathological diagnosis were collected from hospital and 1 343 control subjects were enrolled from community and healthy hospital population. Demographic data, history of smoking drinking and tea drinking, oral hygiene status and dietary behaviors (fish, seafood and pickled food intakes) were collected by in-person interviews using a standard questionnaire.Using unconditional logistic regression to estimate adjusted odds ratios (ORs) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CIs) to assess the effects of fish, seafood and pickled food intakes on OSCC. Analysis stratified by smoking, alcohol drinking and bad prosthesis to explore the possible difference in association between subgroups. Multiplicative interactions and additive interactions between fish and bad prosthesis, seafood and alcohol drinking, pickled food and bad prosthesis were assessed by unconditional logistic regression, relative excess risk due to interaction (RERI), attributable proportion due to interaction (AP) and synergy index (S). Results: The average age of case group and control group were separately (58.69±13.92) years old and (59.27±11.37) years old (χ(2)=4.75, P=0.191). The people whose fish and seafood intakes ≥3 times/week had the lower risk of OSCC, the adjusted OR (95%CI) values were 0.63 (0.52-0.77) and 0.51 (0.41-0.64); The stratified analysis indicated that the people having bad prosthesis had the lower risk of OSCC if they eating fish ≥3 times/week, and the adjusted OR (95%CI) values was 0.53 (0.39-0.71); the people having bad prosthesis had the higher risk of OSCC if they eating pickled food ≥3 times/week, the adjusted OR (95%CI) values was 1.37 (1.02-1.88). Regularly eating seafood can

  2. Immunohistochemical expression of p53, p16 and hTERT in oral squamous cell carcinoma and potentially malignant disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Correa Abrahao

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Oral carcinogenesis is a multi-step process. One possible step is the development of potentially malignant disorders known as leukoplakia and erytroplakia. The objective of this study was to use immunohistochemistry to analyze the patterns of expression of the cell-cycle regulatory proteins p53 and p16INK4a in potentially malignant disorders (PMD of the oral mucosa (with varying degrees of dysplasia and in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCC to correlate them with the expression of telomerase (hTERT. Fifteen PMD and 30 OSCC tissue samples were analyzed. Additionally, 5 cases of oral epithelial hyperplasia (OEH were added to analyze clinically altered mucosa presenting as histological hyperplasia without dysplasia. p53 positivity was observed in 93.3% of PMD, in 63.3% of OSCC and in 80% of OEH. Although there was no correlation between p53 expression and the grade of dysplasia, all cases with severe dysplasia presented p53 suprabasal immunoexpression. p16INK4a expression was observed in 26.7% of PMD, in 43.3% of OSCC and in 2 cases of OEH. The p16INK4a expression in OEH, PMD and OSCC was unable to differentiate non-dysplastic from dysplastic oral epithelium. hTERT positivity was observed in all samples of OEH and PMD and in 90% of OSCC. The high hTERT immunoexpression in all three lesions indicates that telomerase is present in clinically altered oral mucosa but does not differentiate hyperplastic from dysplastic oral epithelium. In PMD of the oral mucosa, the p53 immunoexpression changes according to the degree of dysplasia by mechanisms independent of p16INK4a and hTERT.

  3. Size of cervical lymph node and metastasis in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue and floor of mouth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarungroongruangchai, Weerawut; Charoenpitakchai, Mongkol; Silpeeyodom, Tawatchai; Pruksapong, Chatchai; Burusapat, Chairat

    2014-02-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the oral tongue and floor of mouth are the most common head and neck cancers. Regional metastasis of SCC is most likely found at the cervical lymph node. Size and characteristics of pathologically suspicious lymph nodes are related to the aggressiveness of the primary tumor: The objective of this study is to analyze the conrrelation between sizes of cervical node and metastasis in SCC of oral tongue and floor of mouth. Retrospective review was conducted firom the patient's charts between January 2008 and December 2012. Clinical, histopathology and surgical records were reviewed. Cervical lymph nodes ofSCC of oral tongue and floor of mouth were reviewed and divided into four groups depending on their size (1-5 mm, 6-9 mm, 10-30 mm and more than 30 am,). A p-value oral cavity were recorded. Sixteen patients ofSCC of the oral tongue and 15patients of SCC of the floor of mouth underwent neck dissection (641 cervical nodes). Most ofthe patients were diagnosed with stage 3 (41.94%). Extracapsular extension was found in 72.15% of SCC of oral tongue and 73.33 % of SCC ofthe floor of mouth. Size of cervical lymph nodes less than 10 mm was found to be metastasis at 9.27% and 10.82% of SCC of oral tongue and floor of mouth, respectively. Cervical node metastasis can be found in SCC of the oral tongue and floor ofmouth with clinlically negative node andsize of cervical node less than 10 mm. Here in, size of cervical node less than 10 mm was still important due to the chance for metastasis especially high grade tumors, advanced stage cancer and lymphovascular invasion.

  4. Durvalumab Before Surgery in Treating Patients With Oral Cavity or Oropharynx Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-12-20

    Human Papillomavirus Infection; Stage I Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage I Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage II Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage II Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  5. Validation of the diagnostic utility of salivary interleukin 8 in the differentiation of potentially malignant oral lesions and oral squamous cell carcinoma in a region with high endemicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajkumar, K; Nandhini, G; Ramya, R; Rajashree, P; Kumar, A Ramesh; Anandan, S Nirmala

    2014-09-01

    To evaluate the clinical utility of salivary interleukin 8 (IL-8) in the differential diagnosis of potentially malignant lesions (PMLs) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) in a region with high oral cancer prevalence. Saliva and blood samples were collected from 100 participants in each group (OSCC, PMLs, and healthy controls). Serum and salivary IL-8 levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The data were subjected to appropriate statistical analysis. A significant increase in levels of serum and salivary IL-8 was found in OSCC compared with PMLs and healthy controls. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis found salivary IL-8 to have superior sensitivity in detecting OSCC. A significant increase in IL-8 levels based on the histologic grading of OSCC was also observed. This study confirms that salivary IL-8 can be a potent marker that can be used as a tool in the differential diagnosis of PMLs and OSCC. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma in young patients: the Netherlands Cancer Institute experience

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Monsjou, Hester S.; Lopez-Yurda, Marta I.; Hauptmann, Michael; van den Brekel, Michiel W. M.; Balm, Alfons J. M.; Wreesmann, Volkert B.

    2013-01-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) mainly affects patients between the fifth and seventh decade of life but is increasingly seen in young patients ( <40 years old). Controversy exists in the literature regarding outcomes for younger patients with HNSCC. A retrospective cohort analysis was

  7. Fluorescence spectroscopy for the detection of potentially malignant disorders and squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francisco, Ana Lucia Noronha; Correr, Wagner Rafael; Azevedo, Luciane Hiramatsu; Kern, Vivian Galletta; Pinto, Clóvis Antônio Lopes; Kowalski, Luiz Paulo; Kurachi, Cristina

    2014-06-01

    Oral cancer is a public health problem with relevant incidence in the world population. The affected patient usually presents advanced stage disease and the consequence of this delay is a reduction in survival rates. Given this, it is essential to detect oral cancer at early stages. Fluorescence spectroscopy is a non-invasive diagnostic tool that can improve cancer detection in real time. It is a fast and accurate technique, relatively simple, which evaluates the biochemical composition and structure using the tissue fluorescence spectrum as interrogation data. Several studies have positive data regarding the tools for differentiating between normal mucosa and cancer, but the difference between cancer and potentially malignant disorders is not clear. The aim of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of fluorescence spectroscopy in the discrimination of normal oral mucosa, oral cancer, and potentially malignant disorders. The fluorescence spectroscopy was evaluated in 115 individuals, of whom 55 patients presented oral squamous cell carcinoma, 30 volunteers showing normal oral mucosa, and 30 patients having potentially malignant disorders. The spectra were classified and compared to histopathology to evaluate the efficiency in diagnostic discrimination employing fluorescence. In order to classify the spectra, a decision tree algorithm (C4.5) was applied. Despite of the high variance observed in spectral data, the specificity and sensitivity obtained were 93.8% and 88.5%, respectively at 406 nm excitation. These results point to the potential use of fluorescence spectroscopy as an important tool for oral cancer diagnosis and potentially malignant disorders. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. miR-181a shows tumor suppressive effect against oral squamous cell carcinoma cells by downregulating K-ras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Ki-Hyuk, E-mail: kshin@dentistry.ucla.edu [School of Dentistry, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Dental Research Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Bae, Susan D.; Hong, Hannah S. [School of Dentistry, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Kim, Reuben H.; Kang, Mo K. [School of Dentistry, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Dental Research Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Park, No-Hee [School of Dentistry, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Dental Research Institute, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); Jonsson Comprehensive Cancer Center, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States); David Geffen School of Medicine, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095 (United States)

    2011-01-28

    Research highlights: {yields} MicroRNA-181a (miR-181a) was frequently downregulated in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). {yields} Overexpression of miR-181a suppressed OSCC growth. {yields} K-ras is a novel target of miR-181a. {yields} Decreased miR-181a expression is attributed to its lower promoter activity in OSCC. -- Abstract: MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are epigenetic regulators of gene expression, and their deregulation plays an important role in human cancer, including oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Recently, we found that miRNA-181a (miR-181a) was upregulated during replicative senescence of normal human oral keratinocytes. Since senescence is considered as a tumor suppressive mechanism, we thus investigated the expression and biological role of miR-181a in OSCC. We found that miR-181a was frequently downregulated in OSCC. Ectopic expression of miR-181a suppressed proliferation and anchorage independent growth ability of OSCC. Moreover, miR-181a dramatically reduces the growth of OSCC on three dimensional organotypic raft culture. We also identified K-ras as a novel target of miR-181a. miR-181a decreased K-ras protein level as well as the luciferase activity of reporter vectors containing the 3'-untranslated region of K-ras gene. Finally, we defined a minimal regulatory region of miR-181a and found a positive correlation between its promoter activity and the level of miR-181a expression. In conclusion, miR-181a may function as an OSCC suppressor by targeting on K-ras oncogene. Thus, miR-181a should be considered for therapeutic application for OSCC.

  9. P53 gene codon 72 polymorphism in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma in the population of northern Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sina, Mahmud; Pedram, Mehrdad; Ghojazadeh, Morteza; Kochaki, Ahmad; Aghbali, Amirala

    2014-11-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma is the most common cancer of the oral cavity, and several etiologic factors are involved in its developing. Single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) of the P53 gene codon 72 (P53c72) changes the structure of the protein and affects its activity. The prevalence of P53c72 different genotypes, which seems to vary with race and geographic location, has shown a strong correlation with many types of human cancers. The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between P53c72polymorphism and risk of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) in the heavily populated Gilan Province in northern Iran. This case-control study was done on 55 paraffin-embedded samples from OSCC patients and 100 samples of non-dysplastic oral cavity lesions. The P53c72 genotypes were determined using the ARMS-PCR method. SPSS-15 software was used for statistical analysis. There were no significant statistical differences found between the prevalence of different P53c72 genotypes in the OSCC group vs. the control. However, the Pro/Pro genotype in OSCC samples showed a strong correlation with age, as 70% of such patients were below 50 years old. Interestingly, a large portion (40%) of the patients with the Pro/Pro genotype had the tumor in the lip area. Although P53c72 polymorphism does not appear to be a predisposing factor for OSCC in the population of Northern Iran, the Pro/Pro genotype could be considered as a risk factor for OSCC in adults below 50 years old and the anatomical location of the tumor.

  10. Expression of stem cell-regulating miRNAs in oral cavity and oropharynx squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brito, Bárbara de Lima; Lourenço, Silvia Vanessa; Damascena, Aline Santos; Kowalski, Luiz Paulo; Soares, Fernando Augusto; Coutinho-Camillo, Cláudia Malheiros

    2016-10-01

    Head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) is the sixth most common tumor worldwide and is histologically heterogeneous. Studies have demonstrated the presence of stem cell markers in HNSCC, and microRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as powerful regulators of differentiation, controlling the self-renewal of stem cells. miRNAs are non-coding RNA molecules that regulate gene expression post-transcriptionally. Many miRNAs have been described as regulators of stem cells in different types of cancer. We have analyzed the expression of let-7a, miR-34, miR-125b, miR-138, miR-145, miR-183, miR-200b, miR-203, and miR-205 by real-time RT-PCR (qPCR), in 35 oral cavity and oropharynx squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) samples and 10 non-neoplastic oral mucosa controls, to determine possible associations between the expression of these miRNAs and clinical and pathological features of these tumors. We observed downregulation of miR-200b and miR-203 in 60.0% and 71.4% of the samples, respectively. Upregulation of miR-138 and miR-183 was observed in 50.0% of the samples. Downregulation of let-7a was associated with perineural invasion. Upregulation of miR-138, miRNA-145, and miR-205 was associated with advanced tumor stages, vascular invasion, and lymph node metastasis, respectively. Our study provides evidence of the expression of miRNAs associated with stem cell regulation in oral cavity and oropharynx SCC and the association of these miRNAs with clinical and pathological features of these tumors. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  11. CD163+ Tumor-Associated Macrophages Correlated with Poor Prognosis and Cancer Stem Cells in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke-Fei He

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs play an important role in the progression and prognostication of numerous cancers. However, the role and clinical significance of TAM markers in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC has not been elucidated. The present study was designed to investigate the correlation between the expression of TAM markers and pathological features in OSCC by tissue microarray. Tissue microarrays containing 16 normal oral mucosa, 6 oral epithelial dysplasia, and 43 OSCC specimens were studied by immunohistochemistry. We observed that the protein expression of the TAM markers CD68 and CD163 as well as the cancer stem cell (CSC markers ALDH1, CD44, and SOX2 increased successively from the normal oral mucosa to OSCC. The expressions of CD68 and CD163 were significantly associated with lymph node status, and SOX2 was significantly correlated with pathological grade and lymph node status, whereas ALDH1 was correlated with tumor stage. Furthermore, CD68 was significantly correlated with CD163, SOX2, and ALDH1 (P<0.05. Kaplan-Meier analysis revealed that OSCC patients overexpressing CD163 had significantly worse overall survival (P<0.05. TAM markers are associated with cancer stem cell marker and OSCC overall survival, suggesting their potential prognostic value in OSCC.

  12. Function and importance of p63 in normal oral mucosa and squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurfjell, Niklas; Coates, Philip J; Boldrup, Linda; Lindgren, Britta; Bäcklund, Bodil; Uusitalo, Tony; Mahani, David; Dabelsteen, Erik; Dahlqvist, Ake; Sjöström, Björn; Roos, Göran; Vojtesek, Borek; Nenutil, Rudolf; Nylander, Karin

    2005-01-01

    Squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (HNSCC) is the 6th most common malignancy worldwide with a 5-year survival that has not improved over the last 20-25 years. Factors of prognostic significance for this tumour type include the presence of regional lymph node metastasis and amplification of chromosome 3q21-29, where the p63 gene is located. This gene encodes 6 proteins and is crucial for formation of the oral mucosa, teeth, salivary glands and skin. Each of the 6 different p63 proteins has different characteristics and functions, where some resemble the tumour suppressor protein p53, whilst others have functions that oppose p53. To understand the function and importance of p63 in oral mucosa and tumour development we have studied protein as well as mRNA expression in normal oral mucosa and tumours. Expression of p63 proteins differs between the cell layers in normal oral mucosa, and primary HNSCC has a high expression level of p63 isoforms normally expressed in basal cells. Data suggest that p63 expression in HNSCC influences tumour cell differentiation.

  13. Endogenous expression of CD80 co-stimulatory molecule facilitates in vivo tumor regression of oral squamous carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Giovana R; Wen, Judy

    2006-01-01

    Most tumor tissues, especially those of non-hematopoietic origin, do not express CD80 co-stimulatory molecules, possibly as a mechanism to evade immune surveillance. The objective of this study was to determine whether abundant endogenous CD80 expression on oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) early during tumor progression can facilitate immune elimination and reverse immune tolerance. The growth of regressor and progressor oral SCC lines with differing endogenous CD80 expression were examined in immune-competent and -deficient mice. Immune effectors were determined by T-cell depletion experiments and immunohistochemistry. Our studies show regression of early tumor growth when immunocompetent animals are inoculated with oral SCC progressor cell lines expressing abundant endogenous CD80. The CD80-induced antitumor response was due largely to induced T-cell responses. Our findings suggest that inadequate CD80 expression during early oral SCC formation may contribute to the escape of tumors from immune elimination. This information can be useful in the design of new approaches to generate more effective immunotherapy against this disease.

  14. Nivolumab, Carboplatin, and Paclitaxel in Treating Patients With Stage III-IV Head and Neck Squamous Cell Carcinoma That Can Be Removed by Surgery

    Science.gov (United States)

    2017-11-20

    Name Human Papillomavirus Positive Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage II Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage III Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IV Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVA Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVB Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Hypopharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Laryngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma; Stage IVC Oropharyngeal Squamous Cell Carcinoma

  15. Role of bcl-2 oncoprotein in oral potentially malignant disorders and squamous cell carcinoma: An immunohistochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V M Sudha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: The product of bcl-2 gene, bcl-2 protein, an anti-apoptotic protein, is known to be over-expressed in potentially malignant disorders and squamous cell carcinoma (SCC of the oral cavity. The aim of this study is to compare the topographical aspect and degree of bcl-2 over-expression in potentially malignant disorders including leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF, and oral lichen planus (OLP, with that of the oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC, and to determine whether bcl-2 protein can be considered as a tumor marker. Materials and Methods : A group of 60 histo-pathologically diagnosed, formalin-fixed, paraffin embedded tissue samples was included in the study. The study group was further subdivided into four groups: Group I, consisting of oral leukoplakia; Group II, OSMF; Group III, OLP and Group IV, OSCC. These samples were collected from Government Dental College, Bangalore, and then subjected to immunohistochemical (IHC staining using indirect immunoenzyme labeled streptavidin biotin (LSAB method. Results : Out of 30 cases of OSCC: 11 (36.7% cases showed greater supra-basal keratinocyte staining; 15 (50% cases showed greater number of positive cells in the basal cell layer, with relatively less number of supra-basal cells showing positive staining; and, rest of the 4 (13.3% cases did not show convincing staining. Among the total 30 cases of potentially malignant disorders: 10 each of leukoplakia, OSMF and OLP, 2 (20%, 2 (20%, 4 (40% of the cases showed greater supra-basal cell layer positive staining and 8 (80%, 6 (60%, 6 (60% of them showed greater basal cell staining, respectively. Two cases of OSMF did not show convincing staining. In the cases that were bcl-2 positive: 2 (6.67% of the OSCC, 3 (30% of leukoplakia, 2 (20% of OSMF and 1 (10% of OLP, showed more than 50% of the cells positive. 25-50% cells were positive in 21 (70% of OSCC, 6 (60% of leukoplakia, 4 (40% of OSMF and 6 (60% of OLP cases. 10

  16. Management of the N0 neck in early stage oral squamous cell cancer: a modeling study of the cost-effectiveness

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Govers, T.M.; Takes, R.P.; Baris Karakullukcu, M.; Hannink, G.J.; Merkx, M.A.W.; Grutters, J.P.C.; Rovers, M.M.

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To assess the cost-effectiveness of five strategies for diagnosing and treating cT1-2N0 oral squamous cell cancer. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A Markov decision analytic model was used to evaluate the cost-effectiveness of (1) elective neck dissection (END), (2) watchful waiting (WW), (3)

  17. CHARACTERIZATION OF A RAT ORAL SQUAMOUS-CELL CARCINOMA CELL-LINE UHG-RAC-'93 INDUCED BY 4-NITROQUINOLINE-1-OXIDE IN-VIVO

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WITJES, M; SCHOLMA, J; VANDRUNEN, E; ROODENBURG, JLN; MESANDER, G; HAGEMEIJER, A; TOMSON, AM

    1995-01-01

    This study describes several characteristics of a cell line, UHG-RaC '93 derived from rat oral squamous cell carcinoma induced by the carcinogen 4-nitroquinoline-1-oxide (4NQO), The cell Line was established from explant cultures without support of fibroblast feeder cells and continued for > 30

  18. Performance of F-18-FDG PET/contrast-enhanced CT in the staging of squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and oropharynx

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krabbe, C. A.; Balink, H.; Roodenburg, J. L. N.; Dol, J.; de Visscher, J. G. A. M.

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the diagnostic value of integrated whole body positron emission tomography/contrast-enhanced CT (PET/CECT) as a one step examination in the initial staging of oral and oropharyngeal squamous cell carcinoma (OOSCC). Seventy three consecutive OOSCC patients who

  19. The importance of immunohistochemical expression of EGFr in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity treated with surgery and postoperative radiotherapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smid, Ernst J.; Stoter, T. Rianne; Bloemena, Elisabeth; Lafleur, M. Vincent M.; Leemans, C. Rene; van der Waal, Isaac; Slotman, Ben J.; Langendijk, Johannes A.

    2006-01-01

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to investigate the prognostic significance of epidermal growth factor (EGFr) expression in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OCSCC) treated with curative surgery and postoperative radiotherapy. Methods and Materials: This retrospective study included 165 OCSCC

  20. A histochemical comparison of methyl green-pyronin, and hematoxylin and eosin for detecting apoptotic cells in oral squamous cell carcinoma, oral leukoplakia, oral submucous fibrosis and normal oral mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sumedha, S; Kotrashetti, V S; Somannavar, P; Nayak, R; Babji, D

    2015-05-01

    Analysis of apoptotic cells in oral pathological states could be useful for determining the rates of tissue turnover, which would help determine prognosis. The use of histochemical stains such as hematoxylin and eosin (H & E) and methyl green-pyronin (MGP) can provide a simple and cost-effective method for detecting apoptotic cells. We compared the efficacy of MGP and H & E for detecting apoptotic cells in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), oral leukoplakia (OL), oral submucous fibrosis (OSMF) and normal oral mucosa (NOM). Ten cases each of OSCC, OSMF, OL and NOM were retrieved from the archives and two serial sections were stained, one with H & E and the other with MGP. Apoptotic cells were identified at 100 x magnification and the apoptotic index was calculated. Apoptotic cells were distinguished more readily in MGP stained sections than in those stained with H & E. Also, the apoptotic cell count was greater in OSCC compared to OL, OSMF and NOM. We concluded that MGP staining can be used as a routine, cost-effective method for detecting apoptotic cells.

  1. Association of Compliance With Process-Related Quality Metrics and Improved Survival in Oral Cavity Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Graboyes, Evan M; Gross, Jennifer; Kallogjeri, Dorina; Piccirillo, Jay F; Al-Gilani, Maha; Stadler, Michael E; Nussenbaum, Brian

    2016-05-01

    Quality metrics for patients with head and neck cancer are available, but it is unknown whether compliance with these metrics is associated with improved patient survival. To identify whether compliance with various process-related quality metrics is associated with improved survival in patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma who receive definitive surgery with or without adjuvant therapy. A retrospective cohort study was conducted at a tertiary academic medical center among 192 patients with previously untreated oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma who underwent definitive surgery with or without adjuvant therapy between January 1, 2003, and December 31, 2010. Data analysis was performed from January 26 to August 7, 2015. Surgery with or without adjuvant therapy. Compliance with a collection of process-related quality metrics possessing face validity that covered pretreatment evaluation, treatment, and posttreatment surveillance was evaluated. Association between compliance with these quality metrics and overall survival, disease-specific survival, and disease-free survival was calculated using univariable and multivariable Cox proportional hazards analysis. Among 192 patients, compliance with the individual quality metrics ranged from 19.7% to 93.6% (median, 82.8%). No pretreatment or surveillance metrics were associated with improved survival. Compliance with the following treatment-related quality metrics was associated with improved survival: elective neck dissection with lymph node yield of 18 or more, no unplanned surgery within 14 days of the index surgery, no unplanned 30-day readmissions, and referral for adjuvant radiotherapy for pathologic stage III or IV disease. Increased compliance with a "clinical care signature" composed of these 4 metrics was associated with improved overall survival, disease-specific survival, and disease-free survival on univariable analysis (log-rank test; P metrics was associated with improved overall survival (100

  2. Outcome following surgical resection, or surgical resection plus adjunctive, hypofractionated radiotherapy, of oral squamous cell carcinoma and fibrosarcoma in 87 dogs (2000-2009)

    OpenAIRE

    Riggs, J; Adams, V.; Hermer, J; Dobson, J.; Murphy, S; Ladlow, JF

    2017-01-01

    Objective – To report the outcome of 87 dogs undergoing surgical treatment of oral, non-tonsillar, squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) and fibrosarcomas (FSA) and to determine prognostic factors affecting survival. Design – Retrospective case series Animals – 39 client-owned dogs with oral SCC and 48 client-owned dogs with FSA undergoing maxillectomy or mandibulectomy between 2000 and 2009. Procedures – Data regarding patient signalment, tumor location and size, evidence of lymph node...

  3. Estudo de p27, p21, p16 em epitélio escamoso normal, papiloma escamoso e carcinoma de células escamosas da cavidade oral Comparative analysis of the immunohistochemistry expression of p27, p21WAF/Cip1, and p16INK4a in oral normal epithelium, squamous papilloma and squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Beatriz Piazza Queiroz

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO E OBJETIVO: O tipo de câncer oral mais frequente é o carcinoma de células escamosas, que corresponde a 95% dos casos(9. O papiloma escamoso oral é uma neoplasia benigna normalmente associada à infecção pelo papilomavírus humano (HPV(21. A análise da literatura mostra alterações nos genes reguladores do ciclo celular p27, p21WAF/Cip1 e p16INK4a, porém sem uma definição de seus papéis na carcinogênese oral. O objetivo foi caracterizar imuno-histoquimicamente p27, p21WAF/Cip1 e p16NK4a em epitélio escamoso normal, papilomas escamosos e carcinomas de células escamosas da cavidade oral. MÉTODOS: Imuno-histoquímica para p27, p21WAF/Cip1 e p16NK4a em 32 casos de epitélio escamoso normal, 30 casos de papiloma escamoso e 34 de carcinoma de células escamosas da cavidade oral. RESULTADOS: p27: 97,06% dos casos de carcinoma de células escamosas apresentaram imunopositividade focal. O grupo papiloma escamoso apresentou 33,33% e o grupo controle, 18,75%. p21WAF/Cip1: 100% de imunopositividade focal tanto no grupo controle como no grupo carcinoma de células escamosas, e 90% no grupo papiloma escamoso. p16INK4a: 100% de imunopositividade focal para os grupos controle e papiloma escamoso, e 94% para o grupo carcinoma de células escamosas. CONCLUSÃO: Imuno-histoquimicamente demonstrou-se diferença significativa para p27 quando feita comparação dos grupos controle e papiloma escamoso com o grupo carcinoma de células escamosas. O p21WAF/Cip1 não demonstrou poder de diferenciar os grupos analisados. O p16INK4a apresentou imunopositividade difusa em uma minoria dos casos do grupo carcinoma de células escamosas. O grupo papiloma escamoso se comportou de maneira similar ao grupo controle em relação aos três marcadores.INTRODUCTION: The most frequent type of oral cancer is the squamous cell carcinoma, which corresponds to 95% of the cases(9.The oral squamous papilloma is a benign neoplasia, commonly associated with

  4. Association of differential β-catenin expression with Oct-4 and Nanog in oral squamous cell carcinoma and their correlation with clinicopathological factors and prognosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravindran, Gokulan; Sawant, Sharada S; Hague, Angela; Kingsley, Karl; Devaraj, Halagowder

    2015-07-01

    The re-expression of pluripotent markers (Oct-4 and Nanog) and the reactivation of stem cell-related pathways in oral carcinoma have been well researched. However, the relationship between the stem cell signaling molecule β-catenin and pluripotent markers Oct-4 and Nanog in oral cancer is yet to be studied in detail. Therefore, we have investigated the correlation among Oct-4, Nanog, and β-catenin in oral squamous cell carcinoma, which, in turn, could provide valuable insight into its prognostic significance. The immunohistochemical analysis was performed for 60 cases of oral cancer to study the expression pattern of Oct-4, Nanog, and β-catenin. Whereas immunofluorescence analysis was used to investigate the co-localization of β-catenin with Oct-4 and Nanog in oral carcinoma tissues and H314 cell line. Finally, co-immunoprecipitation analysis was used to study the possible interaction between β-catenin and Oct-4 in oral carcinoma cells. β-catenin, Oct-4, and Nanog showed significant correlation with lymph node metastasis, stage, grade, and prognosis in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Interestingly, a significant positive correlation was found among the expression of Oct-4, Nanog, and β-catenin. Moreover, the interaction between β-catenin and Oct-4 was observed in oral cancer. The positive correlation among Oct-4, Nanog, and β-catenin suggests their coordinated role in maintaining proliferation in oral carcinoma cells. The interaction between β-catenin and Oct-4 may be a crucial event in oral carcinogenesis. On the other hand, β-catenin, Oct-4, and Nanog could be used as independent prognostic markers of oral squamous cell carcinoma. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Association of cancer metabolism-related proteins with oral carcinogenesis – indications for chemoprevention and metabolic sensitizing of oral squamous cell carcinoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Tumor metabolism is a crucial factor for the carcinogenesis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Methods Expression of IGF-R1, glycolysis-related proteins (GLUT-1, HK 2, PFK-1, LDHA, TKTL1), mitochondrial enzymes (SDHA, SDHB, ATP synthase) were analyzed in normal oral mucosa (n = 5), oral precursor lesions (simple hyperplasia, n = 11; squamous intraepithelial neoplasia, SIN I-III, n = 35), and OSCC specimen (n = 42) by immunohistochemistry and real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis in OSCC cell lines. Metabolism-related proteins were correlated with proliferation activity (Ki-67) and apoptotic properties (TUNEL assay) in OSCC. Specificity of antibodies was confirmed by western blotting in cancer cell lines. Results Expression of IGF-R1, glycolysis-related proteins (GLUT-1, HK 2, LDHA, TKTL1), and mitochondrial enzymes (SDHA, SDHB, ATP synthase) were significantly increased in the carcinogenesis of OSCC. Metabolic active regions of OSCC were strongly correlated with proliferating cancer (Ki-67+) cells without detection of apoptosis (TUNEL assay). Conclusions This study provides the first evidence of the expression of IGF-R1, glycolysis-related proteins GLUT-1, HK 2, PFK-1, LDHA, and TKTL1, as well as mitochondrial enzymes SDHA, SDHB, and ATP synthase in the multi-step carcinogenesis of OSCC. Both, hypoxia-related glucose metabolism and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation characteristics are associated with the carcinogenesis of OSCC. Acidosis and OXPHOS may drive a metabolic shift towards the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). Therefore, inhibition of the PPP, glycolysis, and targeted anti-mitochondrial therapies (ROS generation) by natural compounds or synthetic vitamin derivatives may act as sensitizer for apoptosis in cancer cells mediated by adjuvant therapies in OSCC. PMID:25048361

  6. Association of cancer metabolism-related proteins with oral carcinogenesis - indications for chemoprevention and metabolic sensitizing of oral squamous cell carcinoma?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimm, Martin; Cetindis, Marcel; Lehmann, Max; Biegner, Thorsten; Munz, Adelheid; Teriete, Peter; Kraut, Wiebke; Reinert, Siegmar

    2014-07-21

    Tumor metabolism is a crucial factor for the carcinogenesis of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Expression of IGF-R1, glycolysis-related proteins (GLUT-1, HK 2, PFK-1, LDHA, TKTL1), mitochondrial enzymes (SDHA, SDHB, ATP synthase) were analyzed in normal oral mucosa (n = 5), oral precursor lesions (simple hyperplasia, n = 11; squamous intraepithelial neoplasia, SIN I-III, n = 35), and OSCC specimen (n = 42) by immunohistochemistry and real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) analysis in OSCC cell lines. Metabolism-related proteins were correlated with proliferation activity (Ki-67) and apoptotic properties (TUNEL assay) in OSCC. Specificity of antibodies was confirmed by western blotting in cancer cell lines. Expression of IGF-R1, glycolysis-related proteins (GLUT-1, HK 2, LDHA, TKTL1), and mitochondrial enzymes (SDHA, SDHB, ATP synthase) were significantly increased in the carcinogenesis of OSCC. Metabolic active regions of OSCC were strongly correlated with proliferating cancer (Ki-67+) cells without detection of apoptosis (TUNEL assay). This study provides the first evidence of the expression of IGF-R1, glycolysis-related proteins GLUT-1, HK 2, PFK-1, LDHA, and TKTL1, as well as mitochondrial enzymes SDHA, SDHB, and ATP synthase in the multi-step carcinogenesis of OSCC. Both, hypoxia-related glucose metabolism and mitochondrial oxidative phosphorylation characteristics are associated with the carcinogenesis of OSCC. Acidosis and OXPHOS may drive a metabolic shift towards the pentose phosphate pathway (PPP). Therefore, inhibition of the PPP, glycolysis, and targeted anti-mitochondrial therapies (ROS generation) by natural compounds or synthetic vitamin derivatives may act as sensitizer for apoptosis in cancer cells mediated by adjuvant therapies in OSCC.

  7. Src Family Kinases Mediate Betel Quid-Induced Oral Cancer Cell Motility and Could Be a Biomarker for Early Invasion in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jeff Yi-Fu Chen

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Betel quid (BQ-chewing oral cancer is a prevalent disease in many countries of Southeast Asia. Yet, the precise disease mechanism remains largely unknown. Here, we show that BQ extract-induced cell motility in three oral cancer cells (Ca9-22, SAS, and SCC9 presumably involves the Src family kinases (SFKs. Besides, BQ extract can markedly induce cell migration of wild type mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs but not MEFs lacking three SFK members, namely, Src, Yes, and Fyn, indicating the requirement of SFKs for BQ-induced cell motility. Betel quid extract can also elevate cellular SFK activities because phosphorylation of tyrosine 416 at the catalytic domain is increased, which in turn promotes phosphorylation of an in vitro substrate, enolase. Furthermore, we identified that areca nut, a major component of BQ, is the key factor accounting for BQ-induced cell migration and invasion through SFKs-mediated signaling pathways. Immunohistochemistry revealed that, particularly in BQ-chewing cases, the activity of SFKs was significantly higher in tumor-adjacent mucosa than that in solid tumor areas (P < .01. These results suggest a possible role of SFKs in tumor-host interface and thus in early tumor invasion in vivo. Consistent with this is the observation that activation of SFKs is colocalized with invasive tumor fronts in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Together, we conclude that SFKs may represent a potential biomarker of invasion and therapeutic target in BQ-induced oral cancer.

  8. Immunohistochemical localization of C1 subunit of V-ATPase (ATPase C1) in oral squamous cell cancer and normal oral mucosa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-García, A; Pérez-Sayáns García, M; Rodríguez, M J; Antúnez-López, J; Barros-Angueira, F; Somoza-Martín, M; Gándara-Rey, J M; Aguirre-Urízar, J M

    2012-02-01

    The ATP6V1C1 gene encodes the C1 subunit of the vacuolar-ATPase (V-ATPase) proton pump. This gene is over-expressed in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) as determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The aim of our study was to perform an immunohistochemical study of the distribution of the C1 subunit in normal epithelium of the oral cavity and in OSCC. We analyzed the expression of the C1 subunit in eight OSCC samples and two normal oral mucosa samples using polyclonal V-ATPase C1 antibody (clone H-300). In the normal oral mucosa samples, C1 subunit staining was observed in the basal and intermediate layers of the epithelium. No staining was visible in the keratinized superficial layers. More intense staining was observed in the OSCC samples, with the predominant expression at the periphery of tumor nests and absence of expression in dyskeratotic areas. C1 subunit expression in tumor cells was predominantly cytoplasmic, although there was perinuclear and nuclear expression in some samples. These findings demonstrate that V-ATPase is necessary for proper epithelial functioning and show its importance in the development of OSCC as evidenced by the over-expression of ATP6V1C1 in OSCC.

  9. Crystal violet stain as a selective stain for the assessment of mitotic figures in oral epithelial dysplasia and oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jadhav, Kiran B; Ahmed Mujib, B R; Gupta, Nidhi

    2012-01-01

    Assessment of mitotic figures (MFs) is routinely practiced as prognostic indicator in oral epithelial dysplasia (OED) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), but identification of MFs poses a problem in terms of staining characteristics. To evaluate effectiveness of crystal violet stain for staining of MFs and its comparison with hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) stain. Study sample includes archival tissues embedded in paraffin blocks diagnosed as OED (n = 30) and OSCC (n = 30). The control group comprised of tissue specimen from oral mucosa of healthy volunteers (n = 30). Two serial sections of each tissue specimen were stained separately with H and E stain and 1% crystal violet stain. The stained sections were observed under microscope for identification and counting of MFs. Data obtained was statistically analyzed by using the Man-Whitney U test. A significant increase in number of MFs was observed in OED and OSCC in comparison with normal oral mucosa. There was a highly significant increase in number of MFs in crystal violet stained tissue sections when compared with H and E stain. Metaphase is the most commonly observed phase of mitosis in crystal violet stain when compared with H and E stain for all three groups. Crystal violet stain can be considered as selective stain for mitotic figures.

  10. Evaluation of serum uric acid levels in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma

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    Syeda Arshiya Ara

    2016-01-01

    Conclusion: This study showed that serum uric acid was lower in oral cancer patients compared with healthy volunteers and low serum uric acid was associated with increased risk of oral cancer development.

  11. Investigating a case of possible field cancerization in oral squamous cell carcinoma by the use of next-generation sequencing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tabatabaeifar, Siavosh; Larsen, Martin J.; Larsen, Stine R.

    2017-01-01

    Objectives Local recurrence and the development of second primary tumors (SPT) are important factors that can influence the survival rate of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) patients. We investigate the concept of field cancerization which proposes that normal tissue adjacent to the primary...... tumor harbor pre-neoplastic alterations that can lead to the development of local recurrence and SPTs. Materials and methods To examine the concept of field cancerization, we applied whole-exome and targeted ultra-deep sequencing on 5 freshly frozen samples from a stage III OSCC patient from three tumor...... are derived from. In both instances, the clinical recurrence is of a monoclonal origin which suggests either field cancerization by migration of mutated cells in the adjacent mucosa, or that the recurrence developed out of remaining tumor tissue....

  12. Tivantinib (ARQ-197) exhibits anti-tumor activity with down-regulation of FAK in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xi, Wei-Hong; Yang, Li-Yun; Cao, Zhong-Yi; Qian, Yong

    2015-02-20

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is one of the most common cancers worldwide and the 5 years survival rate of the patients is about 60% in the USA, due to acquired chemotherapeutic resistance and metastasis of the disease. In this study, we found that tivantinib, a selective MET inhibitor, suppresses OCSS cell proliferation and colony formation, however, anti-tumor activities induced by tivantinib are independent of the inhibition of MET signaling pathway. In addition, tivantinib cause G2/M cell cycle arrest and caspases-dependent apoptosis in OSCC cell lines. We also found that tivantinib dose-dependently suppressed the activation and expression of FAK. In all, these data suggested that tivantinib may be developed as a chemotherapeutic agent to effectively treat certain cancers including OSCC. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Three-year follow-up of sentinel node-negative patients with early oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sebbesen, Lars; Bilde, Anders; Therkildsen, Marianne

    2014-01-01

    2009, 53 consecutive SNB-negative patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) T1 to T2 were accrued. Follow-up was done continuously with the most recent examination in October 2011. The location of the sentinel lymph nodes was determined using dynamic and planar lymphoscintigraphy......BACKGROUND: Resection of the primary tumor followed by sentinel node biopsy (SNB) for the clinically N0 patient has been implemented in our Head and Neck University Center. The purpose of this study was to report on the outcome for patients with negative SNB. METHODS: From April 2007 to October...... and single photon emission CT (SPECT)-CT. Intraoperatively, a hand-held gamma probe was applied. The harvested sentinel lymph nodes underwent histopathologic examination using step-serial sectioning at 150-μm intervals and immunohistochemistry. In the follow-up period, we observed and examined the SNB...

  14. Progression of oral squamous cell carcinoma accompanied with reduced E-cadherin expression but not cadherin switch.

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    Takashi Hashimoto

    Full Text Available The cadherin switch from E-cadherin to N-cadherin is considered as a hallmark of the epithelial-mesenchymal transition and progression of carcinomas. Although it enhances aggressive behaviors of adenocarcinoma cells, the significance and role of cadherin switch in squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs are largely controversial. In the present study, we immunohistochemically examined expression of E-cadherin and N-cadherin in oral SCCs (n = 63 and its implications for the disease progression. The E-cadherin-positive carcinoma cells were rapidly decreased at the invasive front. The percentage of carcinoma cells stained E-cadherin at the cell membrane was reduced in parallel with tumor dedifferentiation (P<0.01 and enhanced invasion (P<0.01. In contrast, N-cadherin-positive cells were very limited and did not correlate with the clinicopathological parameters. Mouse tongue tumors xenotransplantated oral SCC cell lines expressing both cadherins in vitro reproduced the reduction of E-cadherin-positive carcinoma cells at the invasive front and the negligible expression of N-cadherin. These results demonstrate that the reduction of E-cadherin-mediated carcinoma cell-cell adhesion at the invasive front, but not the cadherin switch, is an important determinant for oral SCC progression, and suggest that the environments surrounding carcinoma cells largely affect the cadherin expression.

  15. Induced Pluripotent-stem-cell Related Genes Contribute to De-differentiation in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Daisuke; Hasegawa, Takumi; Ueha, Takeshi; Iwata, Eiji; Harada, Risa; Sakakibara, Akiko; Kawamoto, Teruya; Minamikawa, Tsutomu; Sakai, Yoshitada; Komori, Takahide

    2017-03-01

    Cancer stem cells are suspected to contribute to malignancy in tumors. Hypoxia affects cell differentiation and induces stem-cell-like characteristics in malignancies. Induced pluripotency was demonstrated in mouse fibroblasts by reprogramming with four transcriptional factors: Oct3/4, Sox2, c-Myc, and Klf4. Conversely, oncogenic transformations frequently express transcriptional factors and Nanog. Therefore, cancer cells present some similarities with induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells. We investigated the expression of iPS-related genes in vitro and in clinical samples to identify their relationships with hypoxia and tumorigenesis. Oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) cells were used to show that expression levels of Oct3/4, Sox2, and Nanog were significantly increased in hypoxic condition in vitro and in moderately- and poorly-differentiated samples. We propose that Oct3/4, Sox2 and Nanog are associated with tumor hypoxia characterized in oral SCC and that these factors may also contribute to the undifferentiated potency observed in oral SCC clinically. Copyright© 2017, International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. George J. Delinasios), All rights reserved.

  16. Small size of metastatic lymph nodes with extracapsular spread greatly impacts treatment outcomes in oral squamous cell carcinoma patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michikawa, C; Izumo, T; Sumino, J; Morita, T; Ohyama, Y; Michi, Y; Uzawa, N

    2018-01-17

    Extracapsular spread (ECS) of metastatic lymph nodes from oral carcinoma is the most significant prognostic predictor of a poor treatment outcome. However, only a few reports on prognostic factors in ECS-positive cases have been investigated. To address this problem, a detailed examination of ECS pathology was conducted to determine the prognostic factors of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) with ECS of metastatic lymph nodes. This study involved 63 OSCC patients with at least one pathologically metastatic node with ECS. Among the 229 metastatic lymph nodes, 149 exhibited ECS. Univariate analysis revealed that a poor outcome and recurrence were significantly associated with the number of ECS-positive nodes, density of ECS, and the minor axis of the smallest ECS-positive node. However, multivariate analysis identified only small size of ECS-positive nodes as a significant and independent factor predicting recurrence and a poor outcome. Thus, small size of ECS-positive nodes is the most important prognostic indicator for OSCC with ECS in metastatic lymph nodes. The classification of ECS status using the minor axis of ECS-positive nodes may be useful for further prediction of a poorer prognosis in OSCC cases. Standardization of ECS diagnosis and multicenter prospective studies will be required to confirm and refine these findings. Copyright © 2017 International Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Expression of T-lymphoma invasion and metastasis factor on the occurrence of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, B; Wang, L F; Fan, X H; Zuo, J H; Huang, Y M

    2017-01-01

    In recent years, many studies have found that tumor metastasis-related gene T-lymphoma invasion and metastasis-inducing factor 1 (TIAM1) had abnormal high expression in a variety of tumor cells; however, there are few studies regarding its expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). This study aimed to observe the expression of TIAM1 in OSCC and investigated its clinical significance. The expression of TIAM1 in tissues from 120 cases of OSCC and oral mucosa from 40 normal cases was detected by immunohistochemistry, and the relationship between the expression of TIAM1 and the clinicopathological parameters of OSCC was analyzed. The positive expression rate of TIAM1 in the OSCC tissues was significantly higher than that in the normal oral mucosa (92.5% vs 0%). With the decrease of histological differentiation of OSCC, the increase of tumor node metastasis (TNM) stage and the occurrence of lymph node metastasis, the TIAM1 staining positive rate was gradually increased, and the difference was statistically significant (P less than 0.05). However, the expression of TIAM1 in the OSCC tissues was in no correlation with the gender and age of the patients. The expression of TIAM1 is closely related to the occurrence, development and metastasis of OSCC, and it can be used as a new marker for reflecting its biological behaviors.

  18. HIF1-alpha overexpression indicates a good prognosis in early stage squamous cell carcinomas of the oral floor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joos Ulrich

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hypoxia-inducible factor 1 (HIF-1 is a transcription factor, which plays a central role in biologic processes under hypoxic conditions, especially concerning tumour angiogenesis. HIF-1α is the relevant, oxygen-dependent subunit and its overexpression has been associated with a poor prognosis in a variety of malignant tumours. Therefore, HIF-1α expression in early stage oral carcinomas was evaluated in relation to established clinico-pathological features in order to determine its value as a prognostic marker. Methods 85 patients with histologically proven surgically treated T1/2 squamous cell carcinoma (SCC of the oral floor were eligible for the study. Tumor specimens were investigated by means of tissue micro arrays (TMAs and immunohistochemistry for the expression of HIF-1. Correlations between clinical features and the expression of HIF-1 were evaluated by Kaplan-Meier curves, log-rank tests and multivariate Cox regression analysis. Results HIF-1α was frequently overexpressed in a probably non-hypoxia related fashion. The expression of HIF-1α was related with a significantly improved 5-year survival rate (p Conclusion HIF-1α overexpression is an indicator of favourable prognosis in T1 and T2 SCC of the oral floor. Node negative patients lacking HIF-1α expression may therefore be considered for adjuvant radiotherapy.

  19. Impact of mandibular invasion on prognosis in oral squamous cell carcinoma four centimeters or less in size.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fives, Cassie; Nae, Andreea; Roche, Phoebe; O'Leary, Gerard; Fitzgerald, Brendan; Feeley, Linda; Sheahan, Patrick

    2017-04-01

    Previous studies have reported variable results for the impact of bone invasion on survival in oral cancer. It is unclear whether bone invasion in small (≤4 cm) squamous cell carcinomas (SCC) of the oral cavity is an independent adverse prognosticator. Our objective was to investigate impact on survival of bone invasion in SCC of floor of mouth (FOM), lower alveolus (LA), and retromolar trigone (RMT) ≤4 cm in size. Retrospective study of 96 patients with SCC of the FOM, LA, and RMT undergoing primary surgical treatment. Original pathology reports and slides were reviewed by three pathologists. Level of bone invasion was categorized as cortical or medullary. Main outcome measures were local control (LC) and overall survival (OS). Bone invasion was present in 31 cases (32%). On review of pathology slides, all cases of bone invasion demonstrated medullary involvement. Median follow-up was 36 months for all patients, and 53 months for patients not dying from cancer. Among tumors ≤4 cm, bone invasion was associated with significantly worse LC (P =.04) and OS (P =.0005). Medullary invasion (hazard ratio: 2.2, 95% confidence interval: 1.1-4.4, P =.03), postoperative radiotherapy (hazard ratio: 0.3, 95% confidence interval: 0.1-0.5, P oral cancers, irrespective of small size of primary tumor. Such cases should be considered for postoperative radiotherapy. 4. Laryngoscope, 127:849-854, 2017. © 2016 The American Laryngological, Rhinological and Otological Society, Inc.

  20. Trends in frequency and prevalence of oral cancer and oral squamous cell carcinoma in mexicans. A 20 years retrospective study

    OpenAIRE

    Gaitán Cepeda, Luis Alberto; Peniche Becerra, Adriana Gabriela; Quezada Rivera, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Objective. To establish the time trends of the frequency and prevalence of oral cavity cancer in regard to age and gender in a 20-years (time period 1989 ? 2008) cohort of Mexicans. Design and Setting. 13,235 head and neck biopsies from the archive of the Oral Pathology Laboratory, Dental School, National Autonomous University of Mexico were revised. The cases with diagnoses of oral cancer were selected. Gender and age at diagnosis was obtained from medical records. The frequency and...

  1. SIPA1 promotes invasion and migration in human oral squamous cell carcinoma by ITGB1 and MMP7

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahara, Toshikazu [Department of Oral Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba (Japan); Kasamatsu, Atsushi, E-mail: kasamatsua@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Department of Dentistry and Oral-Maxillofacial Surgery, Chiba University Hospital, Chiba (Japan); Yamatoji, Masanobu [Department of Dentistry and Oral-Maxillofacial Surgery, Chiba University Hospital, Chiba (Japan); Iyoda, Manabu; Kasama, Hiroki; Saito, Tomoaki [Division of Oral Surgery, Chiba Rosai Hospital, Chiba (Japan); Takeuchi, Shin [Department of Oral Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba (Japan); Endo-Sakamoto, Yosuke [Department of Dentistry and Oral-Maxillofacial Surgery, Chiba University Hospital, Chiba (Japan); Shiiba, Masashi [Department of Medical Oncology, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba (Japan); Tanzawa, Hideki [Department of Oral Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba (Japan); Department of Dentistry and Oral-Maxillofacial Surgery, Chiba University Hospital, Chiba (Japan); Uzawa, Katsuhiro, E-mail: uzawak@faculty.chiba-u.jp [Department of Oral Science, Graduate School of Medicine, Chiba University, Chiba (Japan); Department of Dentistry and Oral-Maxillofacial Surgery, Chiba University Hospital, Chiba (Japan)

    2017-03-15

    Signal-induced proliferation-associated protein 1 (SIPA1) is known to be a GTPase activating protein. Overexpressed SIPA1 is related to metastatic progression in breast and prostate cancers; however, the relevance of SIPA1 in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is still unknown. The aim of this study was to examine SIPA1 expression and its functional mechanisms in OSCC. SIPA1 mRNA and protein expressions were analyzed by quantitative reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, Western blot analysis, and immunohistochemistry. The expressions of SIPA1 were up-regulated significantly in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, SIPA1 expression was correlated with regional lymph node metastasis. We next assessed the cellular functions associated with tumoral metastasis using SIPA1 knockdown (shSIPA1) cells and analyzed the downstream molecules of SIPA1, i.e., bromodomain containing protein 4(BRD4), integrin beta1 (ITGB1), and matrix metalloproteinase 7 (MMP7). The shSIPA1 cells showed decreased invasiveness and migratory activities, however cellular adhesion ability was maintained at a high level. In addition, ITGB1 expression was greater in shSIPA1 cells, whereas MMP7 expression was lower than in control cells. This research is the first to establish that SIPA1 promotes cancer metastasis by regulating the ITGB1 and MMP7. Therefore, SIPA1 might be a novel therapeutic target for patients with lymph node metastasis of OSCC. - Highlights: • SIPA1 expression was up-regulated in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). • SIPA1-positive OSCCs were correlated with regional lymph node metastasis. • SIPA1 controlled BRD4 and influenced transcription of ITGB1and MMP7. • SIPA1 induced cellular invasion and migration and decreased cellular adhesion. • SIPA1 might be a potential biomarker of cancer metastasis for OSCC.

  2. DNA ploidy and cell cycle protein expression in oral squamous cell carcinomas with and without lymph node metastases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zargoun, Ibtisam M; Bingle, L; Speight, P M

    2017-10-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is the most frequently occurring malignant tumour in the oral cavity. OSCC arises because of multiple genetic alterations. Cell cycle aberrations and aneuploidy are reportedly among the main characteristics of cancer cells and are associated with aggressive growth and poor prognosis. The study sample included 47 non-metastasised and 39 metastasised primary OSCC, with matched positive cervical lymph nodes and 17 normal oral mucosa samples. Tissue microarrays (TMAs) were prepared with a minimum of three cores from each case. TMA sections were cut and immunostained with MCM2, Ki-67, geminin and cyclin D1 antibodies. DNA image analysis was performed on the whole tissue section before TMAs were created. The results revealed that there were no differences in cell cycle protein expression in different areas of the tumours or between the metastatic and non-metastatic carcinomas. None of the cell cycle proteins showed significant differences between the lymph node metastasis and the primary OSCC, except for Ki-67. Geminin/Ki-67 ratio showed significant difference between metastatic and non-metastatic tumours. Aneuploidy was detected in all (100%) cases of OSCC. Similarly, all lymph node samples (39 cases) were aneuploid. The results suggest that although there was dysregulation of cell cycle regulatory proteins, only Ki-67 and the MCM2/Ki-67 and geminin/Ki-67 ratios may have prognostic significance in oral cancer. DNA ploidy alone was not specific and may not be a good tool to evaluate prognosis or metastatic progression in oral cavity carcinomas. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  3. The significance of Epstein Barr Virus (EBV & DNA Topoisomerase II alpha (DNA-Topo II alpha immunoreactivity in normal oral mucosa, Oral Epithelial Dysplasia (OED and Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Osman Mohamed M

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Head and neck cancer including oral cancer is considered to develop by accumulated genetic alterations and the major pathway is cancerization from lesions such as intraepithelial dysplasia in oral leukoplakia and erythroplakia. The relationship of proliferation markers with the grading of dysplasia is uncertain. The involvement of EBV in oral carcinogenesis is not fully understood. Aim The present study was designed to investigate the role of EBV and DNA Topoisomerase II∝ (DNA-Topo II∝ during oral carcinogenesis and to examine the prognostic significance of these protein expressions in OSCCs. Methods Using specific antibodies for EBV and DNA-Topo II∝, we examined protein expressions in archival lesion tissues from 16 patients with oral epithelial dysplasia, 22 oral squamous cell carcinoma and 20 normal oral mucosa by immunohistochemistry. Clinical information was obtained through the computerized retrospective database from the tumor registry. Results DNA-Topo II∝ was expressed in all examined specimens. Analysis of Variance ANOVA revealed highly significant difference (P 0.05 in inferior surface of tongue and in hard palatal tissues. Significant differences were observed between OEDs and NSE (P Conclusion EBV and DNA Topo II-αLI expression are possible indicators in oral carcinogenesis and may be valuable diagnostic and prognostic indices in oral carcinoma.

  4. Myofibroblast presence in apparently normal mucosa adjacent to oral squamous cell carcinoma associated with chronic tobacco/areca nut use: evidence for field cancerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angadi, Punnya V; Patil, Prakash V; Kale, Alka D; Hallikerimath, Seema; Babji, Deepa

    2014-10-01

    Myofibroblasts are primary cellular components of activated tumor stroma, associated with poor prognosis in oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). However, their role in field cancerization has not been addressed. This study aims to evaluate the presence of myofibroblasts in patient-matched histologically normal mucosa adjacent to oral squamous cell carcinoma (HNMAOSCC) and OSCC tissues. Fifty patient-matched tissues of OSCC and HNMAOSCC associated with chronic areca nut/tobacco use were subjected to immunohistochemistry using α-SMA for detection of myofibroblasts. Normal oral mucosa (n = 15) were stained as controls. The number of α-SMA stained myofibroblasts in OSCC and HNMAOSCC were significantly increased as compared to that of the normal controls (p cancerization and their potential use as a field effect marker.

  5. Oral squamous cell carcinoma patients which human papilloma virus infection: a case control study in Muwardi Hospital Surakarta, Central Java, Indonesia

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    SUHARTONO TAAT PUTRA

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Prayitno A, Aznar E, Poernomo, Putra ST. 2011. Oral squamous cell carcinoma patients which human papilloma virus infection: a case control study in Muwardi Hospital Surakarta, Central Java, Indonesia. Nusantara Bioscience 3: 64-67. Annual incidence rates for oral and pharyngeal cancer are estimated at 25 cases per 100,000 in developing countries. Human papilloma virus (HPV was implicated in pathogenesis of Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma (OSCC. Aims of this research were to know the incidence of OSSC patient which realized HPV infection. Women OSCC (15 and Benign Oral Squamous Cells (BOSC (40 tissue biopsy frozen sections were from Departement of Oral and Dental, Muwardi Hospital in Surakarta from January to December 2007. Tissue was cut into two parts. To ascertain the type of neoplasm was subsequently stains with HE. To amplify the L1-HPV gene for 450bp long. The collected data was analyzed by Chi Square Test. The result of this experiment showed nine patients from 40 patients BOSC identified have HPV infections (9/40 = 23%. Eleven patient from 15 patient OSCC identified have HPV infections (11/15 = 73%. From Chi Square analysis have significant differences between BOSC and OSCC. HPV is a factor for OSCC pathogenesis.

  6. Investigation of trefoil factor expression in saliva and oral mucosal tissues of patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chaiyarit, Ponlatham; Utrawichian, Akasith; Leelayuwat, Chanvit

    2012-01-01

    . Materials and methods Saliva samples were from 23 healthy subjects and 23 OSCC patients. Tissue samples were collected from 32 normal oral mucosa (NOM) and 32 OSCC biopsy specimens. ELISA and immunohistochemical methods were used to evaluate the expression of TFF1, TFF2, and TFF3 in saliva and oral mucosal...

  7. Alpha B-crystallin - a validated prognostic factor for poor prognosis in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity.

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    Annertz, Karin; Enoksson, Jens; Williams, Rebecca; Jacobsson, Helene; Coman, William B; Wennerberg, Johan

    2014-05-01

    Alpha B-crystallin was found to be an independent prognostic marker for poor prognosis in oral cavity tumours. For oropharyngeal cancer, alpha B-crystallin had no prognostic value. The aim of this study was to see if earlier findings of alpha B-crystallin as an independent prognostic marker, and SPARC/osteonectin, PAI-1 and uPA as a prognostic combination for poor outcome in squamous cell carcinoma (SCC) of the head and neck could be confirmed in a new set of tumours. In a consecutive series of patients, assessed and primarily treated at a tertiary referral centre, histological sections from 55 patients with oral and SCC (OOPHSSC) with complete clinical data and follow-up were obtained. Oral and oropharyngeal tumours were studied separately. Immunohistochemical detection of alpha B-crystallin, SPARC/osteonectin, PAI-1 and uPA expression was performed. Thirty-five patients had an oral tumour and 20 patients an oropharyngeal tumour. Twenty-five oral tumours stained negatively and 10 positively for alpha B-crystallin. For oropharyngeal tumours the figures were 15 negatively and 5 positively. Median disease-specific survival (DSS) for both sites was 33.8 and 11.9 months, for negative and positive alpha B-crystallin staining, respectively (p = 0.046). For the oral cavity, median DSS was 27.3 months for negative tumours and 7.5 months for positive tumours (p = 0.012). Corresponding figures for oropharyngeal tumours were 33.8 and 34.1 months (p = 0.95). Thus, significance in survival was only found in oral cavity tumours. In multivariate analyses there were no significant differences in DSS in the oropharyngeal group when adjusted for tumour size (T status) and presence of neck node metastasis (N status). In the oral cavity group, the significantly better DSS for negative tumours became even stronger when adjusted for T and N status. No statistical difference was found in DSS between positive and negative staining for SPARC/osteonectin, PAI-1 or uPA.

  8. Molecular Targeting of Her-2/neu Protein Is Not Recommended as an Adjuvant Therapy in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Oral Lichen Planus.

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    Kouhsoltani, Maryam; Aghbali, Amirala; Shokoohi, Behrooz; Ahmadzadeh, Ronak

    2015-12-01

    Target therapy against molecular markers of EGFR family has been recently used in the treatment protocol of several diseases. However, the role of Her-2/neu in OSCC is a matter of controversy and more studies are required to clarify the role of Her-2/neu in OSCC. We aimed to investigate the role of Her-2/neu in the process of carcinogenesis in oral epithelium as ELP is a premalignant and OSCC is a malignant lesion, but RLP shows no evidence of premalignancy and malignancy.To our Knowledge, this is the first study comparing Her-2/neu expression in erosive lichen planus (ELP), reticular lichen planus (RLP), and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). 60 samples, including 20 cases of RLP, 20 cases of ELP, and 20 cases of OSCC were evaluated immunohistochemically in this study. Our findings showed that there was not a significant increase in Her-2/neu expression from RLP to ELP and from ELP to OSCC. Therefore, Her-2/neu had no role in differentiating between RLP, ELP and OSCC and this protein does not contribute to the process of carcinogenesis in the oral epithelium. The lack of Her-2/neu overexpression indicates that molecular targeting of Her-2/neu protein is not recommended as an adjuvant therapy in OSCC and OLP.

  9. Radiation-induced malignant melanoma following radiation treatment for squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity - a case report and review of literature -

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    Shin, Young Ju; Yang, Koang Mo; Suh, Hyun Suk [Inje Univ. College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1998-03-01

    Malignant melanoma of the oral cavity is rare, accounting for 1 to 8% of all malignant melanomas. The overall prognosis remains poor despite the available treatments such as radical surgery, adjuvant radiotherapy, chemotherapy and immunotherapy due to failure in early detection and tendency in early metastasis. The etiology of mucosal malignant melanoma remains unkown. However, there are few cases of malignant melanoma of the oral cavity reported in the literature, which might be related to preexisting melanosis and radiation treatment. A case with malignant melanoma developed on the same site after 6 years following irradiation for squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity is reported in this article.

  10. A Minimal DNA Methylation Signature in Oral Tongue Squamous Cell Carcinoma Links Altered Methylation with Tumor Attributes.

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    Krishnan, Neeraja M; Dhas, Kunal; Nair, Jayalakshmi; Palve, Vinayak; Bagwan, Jamir; Siddappa, Gangotri; Suresh, Amritha; Kekatpure, Vikram D; Kuriakose, Moni Abraham; Panda, Binay

    2016-09-01

    Oral tongue squamous cell carcinomas (OTSCC) are a homogenous group of aggressive tumors in the head and neck region that spread early to lymph nodes and have a higher incidence of regional failure. In addition, there is a rising incidence of oral tongue cancer in younger populations. Studies on functional DNA methylation changes linked with altered gene expression are critical for understanding the mechanisms underlying tumor development and metastasis. Such studies also provide important insight into biomarkers linked with viral infection, tumor metastasis, and patient survival in OTSCC. Therefore, we performed genome-wide methylation analysis of tumors (N = 52) and correlated altered methylation with differential gene expression. The minimal tumor-specific DNA 5-methylcytosine signature identified genes near 16 different differentially methylated regions, which were validated using genomic data from The Cancer Genome Atlas cohort. In our cohort, hypermethylation of MIR10B was significantly associated with the differential expression of its target genes NR4A3 and BCL2L11 (P = 0.0125 and P = 0.014, respectively), which was inversely correlated with disease-free survival (P = 9E-15 and P = 2E-15, respectively) in patients. Finally, differential methylation in FUT3, TRIM5, TSPAN7, MAP3K8, RPS6KA2, SLC9A9, and NPAS3 genes was found to be predictive of certain clinical and epidemiologic parameters. This study reveals a functional minimal methylation profile in oral tongue tumors with associated risk habits, clinical, and epidemiologic outcomes. In addition, NR4A3 downregulation and correlation with patient survival suggests a potential target for therapeutic intervention in oral tongue tumors. Data from the current study are deposited in the NCBI Geo database (accession number GSE75540). Mol Cancer Res; 14(9); 805-19. ©2016 AACR. ©2016 American Association for Cancer Research.

  11. Colposcopy in pre-malignant lesions and oral squamous cell carcinoma: Linking threads of clinical, histopathological and colposcopic inferences.

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    Ujwala, Naphade; Singh, Nayyar Abhishek; Milind, Naphade; Prafulla, Patil; Vidhya, Patil; Bhushan, Bhagat; Qahar, Qureshi Abdul; Abhijeet, Wankhade

    2016-01-01

    The single most important factor that is known to improve the end result of head and neck cancer is the early diagnosis of these cancers while they are still localized and can be treated with a high probability of cure. Early diagnosis of cancer plays a lifesaving pivotal role in overall management. The technique of colposcopy enables evaluation of changes in surface topography and vascular patterns of the lining mucosa thus, aiding in selecting the most appropriate site of biopsy ruling out the possibility of taking biopsy from the most representative area supposed to reveal epithelial dysplasia. In view of the intra-oral application of micro-colposcopy, it was felt that colposcopy might provide a useful aid for the early enough diagnosis of oral precancerous and cancerous lesions and conditions affecting the oral mucosa to improve the prognosis. To clinicopathologically correlate cases of oral precancers; correlate the surface characteristics revealed by micro-colposcopy with the histopathological diagnoses of the sites under observation; and map out the areas of surface dysplasia to indicate the full extent of epithelial changes before taking the biopsy specimen to take specimen from areas most representative of dysplasic features (guided biopsies). A total 90 subjects were studied including 30 cases of oral submucous fibrosis, 20 cases each of hyperkeratotic lesions including homogeneous and nonhomogeneous leukoplakias and oral lichen planus and 20 cases of clinically diagnosed and histopathologically proven oral squamous cell carcinoma. In this study, a sensitivity of colposcopic screening test came-out to be about 71% while specificity was about 91%. Positive predictive value was 91%. Although the degree of abnormality in colposcopic findings can be predicted by the vascular patterns of the lesion, the major advantage of colposcopy is to outline the most suspicious lesion for histologic diagnosis by directed biopsy, which is the mainstay in establishing the

  12. Stromal response in different histological grades of oral squamous cell carcinoma: A histochemical study

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    Jiji George

    2012-01-01

    Clinical Relevance: The reactive changes in the tumor stroma may alter the biological aggressiveness of oral cancer, and by incorporating this concept into a prognostic system, we may help to reflect the biologic diversity of oral cancer and predict its clinical outcomes.

  13. Tim-3-expressing macrophages are functionally suppressed and expanded in oral squamous cell carcinoma due to virus-induced Gal-9 expression.

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    Dong, Jianfeng; Cheng, Lijun; Zhao, Minchao; Pan, Xiangfeng; Feng, Zhiqiang; Wang, Dawei

    2017-05-01

    Oropharyngeal head and neck squamous cell carcinoma is a common malignant tumor in the oral cavity. High-risk human papillomavirus 16 infection is a major cause of oropharyngeal head and neck squamous cell carcinoma development. Strong antitumor immune responses, especially CD8+ T cell responses, are thought to be essential to effective cancer treatment and are associated with better prognosis in oropharyngeal head and neck squamous cell carcinoma. In this study, we examined the role of the Tim-3/Gal-9 pathway in oropharyngeal head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients. We found that Gal-9 expression by CD4+ T cells was increased in human papillomavirus-positive oropharyngeal head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients, but not in human papillomavirus-negative oropharyngeal head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients. Increased Gal-9 secretion by CD4+ T cells presented multiple immunosuppressive effects. Coculturing monocytes with high Gal-9-expressing CD4+ T cells resulted in the expansion of Tim-3+ monocytes, which suppressed interferon gamma production by activated CD8+ T cells. Subsequently, total monocytes incubated with exogenous Gal-9, or high Gal-9-expressing CD4+ T cells, suppressed the expression of interferon gamma by CD8+ T cells. Exogenous Gal-9 and high Gal-9-expressing CD4+ T cells also suppressed the secretion of both interleukin 10 and interleukin 12 by monocytes. These effects are Tim-3/Gal-9-dependent because blocking Tim-3 and/or Gal-9 could enhance the support of CD8+ T cell interferon gamma production and the interleukin 10 and interleukin 12 secretion by monocytes. Together, these data suggest that the high Tim-3 expression in monocytes could be utilized by tumor-promoting Gal-9 expression on CD4+ T cells. Immunotherapy in human papillomavirus-positive oropharyngeal head and neck squamous cell carcinoma patients therefore faces an additional challenge posed by Tim-3 and Gal-9 and likely requires the blockade of these molecules.

  14. Sulforaphane targets cancer stemness and tumor initiating properties in oral squamous cell carcinomas via miR-200c induction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Chia-Ming; Peng, Chih-Yu; Liao, Yi-Wen; Lu, Ming-Yi; Tsai, Meng-Lun; Yeh, Jung-Chun; Yu, Chuan-Hang; Yu, Cheng-Chia

    2017-01-01

    Cancer stem cells (CSCs) are deemed as the driving force of tumorigenesis in oral squamous cell carcinomas (OSCCs). In this study, we investigated the chemotherapeutic effect of sulforaphane, a dietary component from broccoli sprouts, on targeting OSCC-CSCs. The effect of sulforaphane on normal oral epithelial cells (SG) and sphere-forming OSCC-CSCs isolated from SAS and GNM cells was examined. ALDH1 activity and CD44 positivity of OSCC-CSCs with sulforaphane treatment was assessed by flow cytometry analysis. In vitro and in vivo tumorigenicity assays of OSCC-CSCs with sulforaphane treatment were presented. We observed that the sulforaphane dose-dependently eliminated the proliferation rate of OSCC-CSCs, whereas the inhibition on SG cells proliferation was limited. Cancer stemness properties including self-renewal, CD44 positivity, and ALDH1 activity were also decreased in OSCC-CSCs with different doses of sulforaphane treatment. Moreover, sulforaphane treatment of OSCC-CSCs decreased the migration, invasion, clonogenicity, and in vivo tumorigenicity of xenograghts. Sulforaphane treatment resulted in a dose-dependent increase in the levels of tumor suppressive miR200c. These lines of evidence suggest that sulforaphane can suppress the cancer stemness and tumor-initiating properties in OSCC-CSCs both in vitro and in vivo. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  15. Correlation between metabolic tumor volume and pathologic tumor volume in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, James D.; Chisholm, Karen M.; Daly, Megan E.; Wiegner, Ellen A.; Truong, Daniel; Iagaru, Andre; Maxim, Peter G.; Loo, Billy W.; Graves, Edward E.; Kaplan, Michael J.; Kong, Christina; Le, Quynh-Thu

    2011-01-01

    Purpose To explore the relationship between pathologic tumor volume and volume estimated from different tumor segmentation techniques on 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) positron emission tomography (PET) in oral cavity cancer. Materials and Methods Twenty-three patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral tongue had PET-CT scans before definitive surgery. Pathologic tumor volume was estimated from surgical specimens. Metabolic tumor volume (MTV) was defined from PET-CT scans as the volume of tumor above a given SUV threshold. Multiple SUV thresholds were explored including absolute SUV thresholds, relative SUV thresholds, and gradient-based techniques. Results Multiple MTV's were associated with pathologic tumor volume; however the correlation was poor (R2 range 0.29–0.58). The ideal SUV threshold, defined as the SUV that generates an MTV equal to pathologic tumor volume, was independently associated with maximum SUV (p=0.0005) and tumor grade (p=0.024). MTV defined as a function of maximum SUV and tumor grade improved the prediction of pathologic tumor volume (R2 = 0.63). Conclusions Common SUV thresholds fail to predict pathologic tumor volume in head and neck cancer. The optimal technique that allows for integration of PET-CT with radiation treatment planning remains to be defined. Future investigation should incorporate biomarkers such as tumor grade into definitions of MTV. PMID:21665308

  16. Expression of E-cadherin in primary oral squamous cell carcinoma and metastatic lymph nodes: An immunohistochemical study

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    Kaur Gurkiran

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: E-cadherin plays an important role in cell-to-cell adhesion and cell motility and its loss is associated with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC progression. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of E-cadherin in various grades of OSCC and to correlate changes in the expression between these various grades and metastatic lymph nodes. Materials and Methods: Immunohistochemistry (IHC was used to detect E-cadherin expression in normal oral mucosa, primary OSCC ( n = 37, and metastatic lymph nodes ( n = 10. E-cadherin immunoreactivity was correlated with grades of differentiation and with clinicopathological features. Results: E-cadherin immunoreactivity was found to inversely correlate with the loss of cell differentiation. The expression of E-cadherin decreased significantly in advanced cases of OSCC. However, increase in E-cadherin immunoreactivity was seen in early lesions, that is, in well differentiated ( n = 9 and moderately differentiated OSCC ( n = 13. Furthermore, E-cadherin was negative in majority of metastatic lymph nodes (7/10. Conclusions: Loss of the cell adhesion and E-cadherin plays an important role in progression of OSCC, that is, down regulation of its expression is associated with de-differentiation and metastasis.

  17. Largescale Transcriptomics Analysis Suggests Over-Expression of BGH3, MMP9 and PDIA3 in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma.

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    Yuan He

    Full Text Available Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC has been reported as the most prevalent cancer of the head and neck region, while early diagnosis remains challenging. Here we took a comprehensive bioinformatics study on microarray data of 326 OSCC clinical samples with control of 165 normal tissues. The cell interaction pathways of ECM-receptor interaction and focal adhesion were found to be significantly regulated in OSCC samples. Further analysis of the topological properties and expression consistency identified that three hub genes in the gene interaction network, MMP9, PDIA3 and BGH3, were consistently up-expressed in OSCC samples. When being validated on additional microarray datasets of 41 OSCC samples, the validation rate of over-expressed BGH3, MMP9, and PDIA3 reached 90%, 90% and 84% respectively. At last, immuno-histochemical assays were done to test the protein expression of the three genes on newly collected clinical samples of 35 OSCC, 20 samples of pre-OSCC stage, and 12 normal oral mucosa specimens. Their protein expression levels were also found to progressively increase from normal mucosa to pre-OSCC stage and further to OSCC (ANOVA p = 0.000, suggesting their key roles in OSCC pathogenesis. Based on above solid validation, we propose BGH3, MMP9 and PDIA3 might be further explored as potential biomarkers to aid OSCC diagnosis.

  18. Knockdown of USP39 by lentivirus-mediated RNA interference suppresses the growth of oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Ke-Yi; Zhang, Jie; Jiang, Li-Cheng; Zhang, Bin; Xia, Chun-Peng; Xu, Kai; Chen, Hai-Ying; Yang, Qiao-Zhi; Liu, Shu-Wei; Zhu, Hong

    2016-01-01

    Oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) is a frequently diagnosed life-threatening oral cancer worldwide and has become one of the leading causes of cancer-related mortality. However, the pathogenesis of this disease is very limited. In this study, we aimed to investigate the functional relationship between OSCC and a potential tumor related gene ubiquitin-specific proteases 39 (USP39). The lentivirus-based RNA interference was utilized to knock down USP39 expression in human OSCC CAL27 cells. The effect of USP39 on cell proliferation was detected by MTT and colony formation assays. The results uncovered that the proliferation rate was significantly decreased in specific USP39-targeting lentivirus infected cells compared to control lentivirus infected cells. The colony formation capacity was also attenuated in CAL27 cells after USP39 knockdown. Moreover, knockdown of USP39 arrested CAL27 cells in S and G1/M phases of the cell cycle. Furthermore, USP39 silencing induced apoptosis of CAL27 cells via activations of Caspase 3 and PARP. In conclusion, the inhibition of USP39 in CAL27 cells suppressed cell growth probably via induction cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. USP39 might act as an oncogenic factor in OSCC and could be a potential molecular target for OSCC gene therapy.

  19. Detection of oral squamous-cell cancer and precancerous lesions by fluorescence imaging in a hamster cheek-pouch model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Stephen; Kluftinger, A. M.; Hung, J.; Davis, N. L.; Quenville, N. F.; Palcic, Branko

    1993-03-01

    The role of non-skin phototoxic dose of Photofrin in the detection of dysplasia and carcinoma in situ was assessed in a small animal model of oral squamous cell cancer (SCC). Nine,10-dimethyl 1,2-benzanthracene (DMBA) impregnated cotton sutures, covered with a silicone sheath, were sewn into the hamster cheek pouch to produce dysplasia, carcinoma in situ, and invasive cancer. The yield of SCC was 83% by 20 weeks. Fluorescence imaging was performed using a specially designed device that exploits differences of fluorescence properties of normal, precancerous, and cancerous tissues with and without Photofrin. The fluorescence was induced by a helium-cadmium laser (442 nm) and then measured at two different wavelengths by an image intensified camera. Computed images using a mathematical transformation of fluorescence data were then displayed on a video monitor. Areas with dysplasia and both in situ and invasive cancers could be clearly delineated from the adjacent normal tissues. Lesions as small as 2 mm in diameter could be identified. Because of the presence of endogenous porphyrins, the addition of a non-skin phototoxic dose of Photofrin (0.25 mg/kg iv) did not enhance the signal to noise ratio. Our results suggest that fluorescence imaging can accurately detect both precancerous and cancerous lesions in the oral mucosa without exogenous porphyrins. It may have an important role as a non-invasive, clinical diagnostic tool in oropharyngeal cancer.

  20. Anti-Neoplastic Effects of Gallic Acid, a Major Component of Toona sinensis Leaf Extract, on Oral Squamous Carcinoma Cells

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    Robert H. Chiu

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Extract of Toona sinensis (TS has been reported to have various effects on cultured cell lines, including anti-proliferative activity in cancer cells. We have studied the effects of TS on various human oral squamous carcinoma cell lines (HOSCC, including UM1, UM2, SCC-4, and SCC-9. These cell lines were treated with TS leaf extract and screened for viability, apoptosis, necrosis, and apoptotic gene expression. Normal human oral keratinocytes (NHOK served as a control for cytotoxic assays. Viability of TS-treated HOSCC was reduced, whereas that of NHOK was not affected. FACScan analysis revealed that the leaf extract induced apoptosis or a combination of apoptosis and necrosis, depending on cell type. Microarray and semi-quantitative RT-PCR analysis for apoptotic-related gene expression revealed that 3,4,5-trihydroxybenzoic acid (gallic acid, one of the major bioactive compounds purified from TS extract up-regulated pro-apoptotic genes such TNF-α, TP53BP2, and GADD45A, and down-regulated the anti-apoptotic genes Survivin and cIAP1, resulting in cell death. This study suggests that gallic acid, the major bioactive compound present, is responsible for the anti-neoplastic effect of Toona sinensis leaf extract.

  1. Salivary and Serum Interleukin-6 Levels in Oral Premalignant Disorders and Squamous Cell Carcinoma: Diagnostic Value and Clinicopathologic Correlations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dineshkumar, Thayalan; Ashwini, Balakuntla Krishnamurthy; Rameshkumar, Annasamy; Rajashree, Padmanaban; Ramya, Ramadas; Rajkumar, Krishnan

    2016-11-01

    Aim: To assess the diagnostic utility of serum and salivary interleukin 6 (IL-6) levels in the differential diagnosis of potentially malignant lesions and conditions (PMLs/PMCs) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) in a high oral cancer prevalence region. Methods: After appropriate ethical clearance and informed consent, salivary and blood samples were collected from 100 participants in each group (OSCC, PMLs, and healthy controls). Serum and salivary IL-6 levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and data were subjected to appropriate statistical analysis. Results: Significant differences in IL-6 concentration were noted between OSCC and PML/C patients in both serum and saliva, with salivary levels being 2 to 3 fold higher than serum values in all the groups. Receiver operating characteristic curve analysis demonstrated 96% specificity and 99% sensitivity for salivary IL-6 in differentiating PML from OSCC. Conclusions: The results of the present study suggest that the pro-inflammatory cytokine, IL-6, is elevated in the saliva of patients with OSSC compared to PMD and controls, and thus may prove to have diagnostic and/or prognostic significance. Creative Commons Attribution License

  2. Analysis of hypermethylation and expression profiles of APC and ATM genes in patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma

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    Rigi-Ladiz Mohammad

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Adenomatous polyposis coli (APC and Ataxia-telangiectasia-mutated (ATM gene products have an important role in cell cycle control and maintenance of genomic stability. Our aim was to analyze ATM and APC methylation and its relationship with oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC. Materials and methods Eighty-four OSCC tissues that have been fixed in paraffin along with 57 control oral samples have been used for analyzing promoter methylation of ATM and APC genes by Methylation Specific Polymerase Chain Reaction (MS-PCR. In addition, 10 cases of OSCC and the same of matched controls were examined for estimating expression of the above mentioned genes using Real-Time Reverse-Transcription PCR. Results Observed promoter methylations were 71.42% and 87.71% for the APC gene and 88.09% and 77.19% for the ATM gene in cases and controls, respectively. Analysis of these data showed that promoter methylation at APC was significantly different in cases compared to healthy controls (p = 0.01, but no difference was detected for the ATM gene. Furthermore, the mRNA expression levels did not differ statistically between cases and controls for both ATM (cases = 9, controls = 10 and APC (cases = 11, controls = 10 genes. Conclusions Our results, for the first time, provide methylation profiles of ATM and APC genes in a sample of patients with OSCC in a southeast Iranian population. The present data support related evidence of APC methylation effect on OSCC development.

  3. Secretome profiling of primary cells reveals that THBS2 is a salivary biomarker of oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Chia-Wei; Yu, Jau-Song; Peng, Pei-Hua; Liu, Shu-Chen; Chang, Yu-Sun; Chang, Kai-Ping; Wu, Chih-Ching

    2014-11-07

    Oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), which is a leading cause of cancer-related death worldwide, is frequently associated with poor prognosis and mortality. The discovery of body fluid-accessible biomarkers may help improve the detection of OSCC. In the present work, we established primary cell cultures derived from OSCC and adjacent noncancerous epithelium and performed comparative profiling of their secretomes. Using spectral counting-based label-free quantification, we found that 64 proteins were significantly higher in primary OSCC cells compared with primary adjacent noncancerous cells. We then retrieved the mRNA expression levels of these 64 proteins in oral cavity tumor and noncancerous tissues from public domain array-based transcriptome data sets and used this information to prioritize the biomarker candidates. We identified 19 candidates; among them, the protein levels of THBS2, UFD1L, and DNAJB11 were found to be elevated in OSCC tissues compared with adjacent noncancerous epithelia. Importantly, higher levels of THBS2 in OSCC tissues were associated with a higher overall pathological stage, positive perineural invasion, and a poorer prognosis. Moreover, the salivary levels of THBS2 in OSCC patients were elevated compared to those of noncancer controls. Our results collectively indicate that analysis of the primary cell secretome is a feasible strategy for biomarker identification, and that THBS2 is a potentially useful salivary marker for the detection of OSCC.

  4. Tumor volume as an independent predictive factor of worse survival in patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chin Shien; de Oliveira Santos, André Bandiera; Silva, Evandro Lima E; de Matos, Leandro Luongo; Moyses, Raquel Ajub; Kulcsar, Marco Aurélio Vamondes; Pinto, Fábio Roberto; Brandão, Lenine Garcia; Cernea, Claudio Roberto

    2017-05-01

    The purpose of the present study was to investigate the role of tumor volume in the prognosis of patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (SCC). One hundred twenty-three patients with T4a oral cavity SCCs underwent surgical treatment. The volumes of the primary cancer were calculated by the multiplication of 3 macroscopic dimensions of the surgical specimen and related to recurrence and death. There were 54 recurrences (43.9%) and 75 deaths (60.9%). The mean tumor volume among the patients living without disease during the follow-up period was 28.2 cc, compared to 88.2 cc for patients living with disease, and to 78.9 cc for patients who died of the disease (p < .001). Multivariate analyses showed that volume and perineural invasion were independent factors for recurrence, whereas volume and lymph node metastasis were independent factors for death. Among patients who already have advanced cancers, tumor volume can significantly impact their prognoses. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 39: 960-964, 2017. © 2017 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. Analyses of numerical aberrations of chromosome 17 and tp53 gene deletion/amplification in human oral squamous cell carcinoma using dual-color fluorescence in situ hybridization

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    Noemi MESZAROS

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available In Romania, oral and facial cancers represent approximately 5% of all cancers. Deactivation and unregulated expression of oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes may be involved in the pathogenesis of oral squamous cell carcinoma. The genomic change results in numerical and structural chromosomal alterations, particularly in chromosomes 3, 9, 11 and 17. The aim of our study was to identify numerical aberrations of chromosome 17, deletion or amplification of p53 gene and to reveal correlations between abnormalities of chromosome 17and of p53 gene with TNM status and grading in 15 subjects with oral squamous cell carcinoma. 80 % of cases presented chromosome 17 polysomy and only 20% of cases had chromosome 17 monosomy. 46.6 % of samples revealed p53 gene amplification and 33.3 % of them p53 deletion. Polysomy of chromosome 17 was also detected in tumor-adjacent epithelia. The degree of the cytogenetic abnormality did not correlate with the stage of the disease, the histological differentiation of oral squamous cell carcinoma and lymph node metastasis. Molecular cytogenetic techniques, using fluorescence in situ hybridization with chromosome-specific DNA probes, facilitate the confirmation of presumed chromosomal aberrations with high sensitivity and specificity.

  6. Validation of a gene expression signature for assessment of lymph node metastasis in oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Hooff, Sander R; Leusink, Frank K J; Roepman, Paul; Baatenburg de Jong, Robert J; Speel, Ernst-Jan M; van den Brekel, Michiel W M; van Velthuysen, Marie-Louise F; van Diest, Paul J; van Es, Robert J J; Merkx, Matthias A W; Kummer, J Alain; Leemans, C René; Schuuring, Ed; Langendijk, Johannes A; Lacko, Martin; De Herdt, Maria J; Jansen, Jeroen C; Brakenhoff, Ruud H; Slootweg, Piet J; Takes, Robert P; Holstege, Frank C P

    2012-11-20

    Current assessment of lymph node metastasis in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma is not accurate enough to prevent overtreatment. The aim of this study was validation of a gene expression signature for distinguishing metastasizing (N+) from nonmetastasizing (N0) squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity (OSCC) and oropharynx (OPSCC) in a large multicenter cohort, using a diagnostic DNA microarray in a Clinical Laboratory Improvement Amendments/International Organization for Standardization-approved laboratory. A multigene signature, previously reported as predictive for the presence of lymph node metastases in OSCC and OPSCC, was first re-evaluated and trained on 94 samples using generic, whole-genome, DNA microarrays. Signature genes were then transferred to a dedicated diagnostic microarray using the same technology platform. Additional samples (n=222) were collected from all head and neck oncologic centers in the Netherlands and analyzed with the diagnostic microarray. Human papillomavirus status was determined by real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. The negative predictive value (NPV) of the diagnostic signature on the entire validation cohort (n=222) was 72%. The signature performed well on the most relevant subset of early-stage (cT1-T2N0) OSCC (n=101), with an NPV of 89%. Combining current clinical assessment with the expression signature would decrease the rate of undetected nodal metastases from 28% to 11% in early-stage OSCC. This should be sufficient to enable clinicians to refrain from elective neck treatment. A new clinical decision model that incorporates the expression signature is therefore proposed for testing in a prospective study, which could substantially improve treatment for this group of patients.

  7. Resilience Through Squamous Cell Carcinoma and Rhabdomyosarcoma of Oral Cavity: A Unique Case Report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaikh, Sidra Mumtaz; Faisal, Sobia; Khyani, Iqbal A. M.; Sikandar, Bushra

    2016-01-01

    Rhabdomyosarcoma (RMS) is a soft tissue neoplasm of mesenchymal origin. It is a commonly encountered malignant tumor amongst pediatric patients, yet relatively rare in adults. It usually involves the head and neck region, genitourinary organs and retroperitoneal structures. In adults, the most commonly affected area is the head and neck region. We present here a case of a 30-year-old male patient with a primary squamous cell carcinoma of the tongue (T1, N0, M1), successfully cured with surgery and chemoradiotherapy and later on development of metachronous ipsilateral lesion on the left lower alveolus. Biopsy was consistent with spindle cell RMS. Immunohistochemistry demonstrated positivity for desmin, vimentin and myogenin, thus confirming the mesenchymal origin. With the best of our literature search, this is an exceptional case presenting two malignant lesions with diverse genetic origins, diagnosed at stage 1 and giving a favorable outcome. PMID:28983370

  8. Human MutL homolog 1 immunoexpression in oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma: A prospective study in Indian population

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Narendra T; Tupkari, Jagdish V; Joy, Tabita; Ahire, Manisha S

    2016-01-01

    Background: Mammalian mismatch repair system is responsible for maintaining genomic stability during repeated duplications, and human MutL homolog 1 (hMLH1) protein constitutes an important part of it. Various isolated studies have reported the altered expression of hMLH1 in oral leukoplakia (OL) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Research is lacking in the quantitative estimation and comparison of hMLH1 expression in OL and OSCC. Aims: To evaluate, quantify and compare hMLH1 immunoexpression in normal oral mucosa, OL and OSCC. Settings and Design: Thirty patients of OL and thirty patients of OSCC formed the study group and thirty patients were included in the control group (normal oral mucosa). Formalin-fixed paraffin wax blocks were prepared from the tissue samples. Materials and Methods: Immunohistochemistry for hMLH1 was performed, and the total number of positive cells was counted in high-power fields, and based on that percentage positivity of hMLH1 was calculated in all the cases. Statistical Analysis: Kruskal–Wallis and t-test were used. P leukoplakia and OSCC was 78.26, 54.33 and 40.97 respectively. hMLH1 immunoexpression showed decreasing indexes from control group to leukoplakia and then further to OSCC. hMLH1 expression was significantly lower in OSCC as compared to leukoplakia. There was no significant correlation of mean hMLH1 expression between different clinical and histopathological stages of leukoplakia and OSCC. Conclusions: hMLH1 immunoexpression was inversely related to the degree of dysplasia. These findings suggest that there is a progressive decrease in hMLH1 expression from control to leukoplakia and further to OSCC. Thus, it can be concluded that hMLH1 can be used as a reliable biomarker for malignant transformation. PMID:27721611

  9. Human MutL homolog 1 immunoexpression in oral leukoplakia and oral squamous cell carcinoma: A prospective study in Indian population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhari, Narendra T; Tupkari, Jagdish V; Joy, Tabita; Ahire, Manisha S

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian mismatch repair system is responsible for maintaining genomic stability during repeated duplications, and human MutL homolog 1 (hMLH1) protein constitutes an important part of it. Various isolated studies have reported the altered expression of hMLH1 in oral leukoplakia (OL) and oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). Research is lacking in the quantitative estimation and comparison of hMLH1 expression in OL and OSCC. To evaluate, quantify and compare hMLH1 immunoexpression in normal oral mucosa, OL and OSCC. Thirty patients of OL and thirty patients of OSCC formed the study group and thirty patients were included in the control group (normal oral mucosa). Formalin-fixed paraffin wax blocks were prepared from the tissue samples. Immunohistochemistry for hMLH1 was performed, and the total number of positive cells was counted in high-power fields, and based on that percentage positivity of hMLH1 was calculated in all the cases. Kruskal-Wallis and t-test were used. P leukoplakia and OSCC was 78.26, 54.33 and 40.97 respectively. hMLH1 immunoexpression showed decreasing indexes from control group to leukoplakia and then further to OSCC. hMLH1 expression was significantly lower in OSCC as compared to leukoplakia. There was no significant correlation of mean hMLH1 expression between different clinical and histopathological stages of leukoplakia and OSCC. hMLH1 immunoexpression was inversely related to the degree of dysplasia. These findings suggest that there is a progressive decrease in hMLH1 expression from control to leukoplakia and further to OSCC. Thus, it can be concluded that hMLH1 can be used as a reliable biomarker for malignant transformation.

  10. Fluctuating Roles of Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suvi-Tuuli Vilen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available One hallmark of cancer is the degradation of the extracellular matrix (ECM, which is caused by proteinases. In oral cancers, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs, especially MMP-9, are associated with this degradation. MMPs break down the ECM allowing cancer to spread; they also release various factors from their cryptic sites, including cytokines. These factors modulate cell behavior and enhance cancer progression by regulating angiogenesis, migration, proliferation, and invasion. The development of early metastases is typical for oral cancer, and increased MMP-9 expression is associated with a poor disease prognosis. However, many studies fail to relate MMP-9 expression with metastasis formation. Contrary to earlier models, recent studies show that MMP-9 plays a protective role in oral cancers. Therefore, the role of MMP-9 is complicated and may fluctuate throughout the different types and stages of oral cancers.

  11. Lack of Effects of Recombinant Human Bone Morphogenetic Protein2 on Angiogenesis in Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma Induced in the Syrian hamster Cheek Pouch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaid, Khaled Waleed; Nhar, Bander Mossa; Ghadeer Alanazi, Salman Mohammed; Murad, Rashad; Domani, Ahmad; Alhafi, Awadh Jamman

    2016-01-01

    Recombinant human bone morphogenetic protein2 (rhBMP2 ), a member of the TGF? family, has been used widely in recent years to regenerate defects of the maxillary and mandible bones. Such defects are sometimes caused by resection of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) yet the biologic effects of rhBMP2 on these carcinomas are not fully clear. The objective of this study was to determine histologically whether rhBMP2 produces adverse effects on angiogenesis during induction of OSCC, a biologic process critical for tumor formation in an experimental model in the buccal pouch of golden Syrian hamsters. Buccal cavities were exposed to painting with 0.5% DMBA in liquid paraffin three times a week for 14 weeks, then biopsies were taken. Division was into 2 groups: a study group of 10 hamsters receiving 0.25?g/ml of rhBMP2 in the 3rd and 6th weeks; and a control group of 10 hamsters which did not receive any additional treatment. VEGF expression and microvessel density were measured but no differences were noted between the two groups. According to this study, rhBMP2 does not stimulate angiogenesis during induction of OCSSs.

  12. Successful treatment of an early invasive oral squamous cell carcinoma with topical 5-aminolevulinic acid-mediated photodynamic therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hsin-Ming Chen

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Our previous studies showed successful treatment of a series of 36 oral verrucous hyperplasia lesions and of an extensive oral verrucous carcinoma with a topical 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA-mediated photodynamic therapy (topical ALA-PDT protocol (with a fluence rate of 100 mW/cm2 and a light exposure dose of 100 J/cm2 using a 635-nm light-emitting diode (LED light source. In this case report, we tested whether an enhanced topical ALA-PDT protocol (with a fluence rate of 200 mW/cm2 and a light exposure dose of 200 J/cm2 could be used to treat an early invasive oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC with a verrucous appearance of the left lower posterior edentulous alveolar mucosa of a 67-year-old male former areca-quid chewer and ex-smoker. The main verrucous lesion showed complete regression after eight treatments with PDT. However, 10 extra treatments were needed to eradicate the multiple residual leukoplakia lesions on the edentulous alveolar mucosa. Moderate to severe post-PDT pain was noted during the initial eight treatments, and the patient needed analgesics (codeine phosphate, 30 mg three times daily to control the pain. No recurrence of the OSCC lesion was found after a follow-up period of 4 years. We suggest that our enhanced topical ALA-PDT protocol may have good potential to be used as a treatment of choice for a superficially invasive OSCC without regional or distant metastasis before the commencement of other effective therapies.

  13. Qualitative analysis of connective tissue stroma in different grades of oral squamous cell carcinoma: A histochemical study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smitha Kullage

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Detection of oral cancer at an early stage is of utmost importance to decrease morbidity and mortality. Tumor stroma plays a critical role during carcinogenesis. There is lack of information regarding the characteristics of the stroma in relation to the invading malignant epithelial cells and the interdependence between stroma and tumor cells in different grades of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC. Aim: The present study was aimed to analyze and compare the nature of stroma in the vicinity of invading tumor islands in different grades of OSCC, using a histochemical technique picrosirius-polarization method. The present study also evaluated and correlated the possible role of inflammatory response in determining the nature of the stroma. Subjects and Methods: The study included thirty cases of different grades of histologically diagnosed OSCC and ten sections of normal buccal mucosa as a control group. Nature of collagen was analyzed using picrosirius-polarization method, and intensity of inflammatory cell infiltrate was recorded using ImageJ software (1.42q, NIH, USA. The results were tabulated and analyzed statistically. Results: Normal oral mucosa showed predominantly reddish birefringence. All cases of well-differentiated OSCC showed reddish-orange color. Nearly 70% moderately differentiated cases showed yellowish-orange (YO and 60% of poorly differentiated cases, showed greenish-yellow (GY. The mean inflammatory cell count was highest in well-differentiated group. There was shift to YO and GY collagen when the cell differentiation and inflammatory cell count decreased in moderate and poorly differentiated cases. Conclusion: Both inflammatory cells and tumor cells have a role in determining the nature of the collagen fibers in tumor stroma of OSCC, probably with opposing effects on stromal behavior and hence both are significant in predicting prognosis.

  14. Qualitative analysis of connective tissue stroma in different grades of oral squamous cell carcinoma: A histochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kullage, Smitha; Jose, Maji; Shanbhag, Vagish Kumar L; Abdulla, Riaz

    2017-01-01

    Detection of oral cancer at an early stage is of utmost importance to decrease morbidity and mortality. Tumor stroma plays a critical role during carcinogenesis. There is lack of information regarding the characteristics of the stroma in relation to the invading malignant epithelial cells and the interdependence between stroma and tumor cells in different grades of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The present study was aimed to analyze and compare the nature of stroma in the vicinity of invading tumor islands in different grades of OSCC, using a histochemical technique picrosirius-polarization method. The present study also evaluated and correlated the possible role of inflammatory response in determining the nature of the stroma. The study included thirty cases of different grades of histologically diagnosed OSCC and ten sections of normal buccal mucosa as a control group. Nature of collagen was analyzed using picrosirius-polarization method, and intensity of inflammatory cell infiltrate was recorded using ImageJ software (1.42q, NIH, USA). The results were tabulated and analyzed statistically. Normal oral mucosa showed predominantly reddish birefringence. All cases of well-differentiated OSCC showed reddish-orange color. Nearly 70% moderately differentiated cases showed yellowish-orange (YO) and 60% of poorly differentiated cases, showed greenish-yellow (GY). The mean inflammatory cell count was highest in well-differentiated group. There was shift to YO and GY collagen when the cell differentiation and inflammatory cell count decreased in moderate and poorly differentiated cases. Both inflammatory cells and tumor cells have a role in determining the nature of the collagen fibers in tumor stroma of OSCC, probably with opposing effects on stromal behavior and hence both are significant in predicting prognosis.

  15. Patients with advanced oral squamous cell carcinoma have high levels of soluble E-cadherin in the saliva

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Verdín, Sandra; Soto-Avila, Juan-José; Zamora-Perez, Ana-Lourdes; Lazalde-Ramos, Blanca-Patricia; Martínez-Fierro, Margarita de la Luz; González-González, Rogelio; Molina-Frechero, Nelly; Isiordia-Espinoza, Mario-Alberto

    2017-01-01

    Background The objective of this study was to assess the potential clinical value of the concentration of soluble salivary E-cadherin (sE-cadherin) compared with the clinical value of the presence of membranous E-cadherin (mE-cadherin) in oral squamous cell carcinoma tumor tissues. Material and Methods Data regarding patient demographics, clinical stage, saliva and tumor tissue samples were collected. The saliva was analyzed for sE-cadherin protein levels and was compared to the mE-cadherin immunohistochemical expression levels in tumor tissues, which were assessed via the HercepTest® method. Patients without cancer were included in the study as a control group for comparisons of the sE-cadherin levels. Results sE-cadherin levels in the saliva of patients without cancer were lower than those in patients with cancer, and the difference was statistically significant (p=0.031). Low mE-cadherin expression was statistically significantly associated with lymph node positivity (p=0.015) and advanced clinical stage (p=0.001). The inverse relationship between mE-cadherin and sE-cadherin was significant in terms of lymph node positivity (p=0.014) and advanced clinical stage (p=0.037). Conclusions The results suggest that sE-cadherin levels are significantly increased in patients with oral cancer and that its low expression within the membrane as well as the progression of the disease appear to be inversely associated with levels of sE-cadherin in the saliva. Key words:E-cadher.in, saliva, oral cancer. PMID:29053653

  16. Role of p53 mutation in the effect of boron neutron capture therapy on oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ohnishi Ken

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT is a selective radiotherapy, being effective for the treatment of even advanced malignancies in head and neck regions as well as brain tumors and skin melanomas. To clarify the role of p53 gene, the effect of BNCT on oral squamous cell carcinoma (SCC cells showing either wild- (SAS/neo or mutant-type (SAS/mp53 p53 was examined. Methods Cells were exposed to neutron beams in the presence of boronophenylalanine (BPA at Kyoto University Research Reactor. Treated cells were monitored for modulations in colony formation, proliferation, cell cycle, and expression of cell cycle-associated proteins. Results When SAS/neo and SAS/mp53 cells were subjected to BNCT, more suppressive effects on colony formation and cell viability were observed in SAS/neo compared with SAS/mp53 cells. Cell cycle arrest at the G1 checkpoint was observed in SAS/neo, but not in SAS/mp53. Apoptotic cells increased from 6 h after BNCT in SAS/neo and 48 h in SAS/mp53 cells. The expression of p21 was induced in SAS/neo only, but G2 arrest-associated proteins including Wee1, cdc2, and cyclin B1 were altered in both cell lines. Conclusion These results indicate that oral SCC cells with mutant-type are more resistant to BNCT than those with wild-type p53, and that the lack of G1 arrest and related apoptosis may contribute to the resistance. At a physical dose affecting the cell cycle, BNCT inhibits oral SCC cells in p53-dependent and -independent manners.

  17. Depsipeptide in Unresectable Recurrent or Metastatic Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-04-29

    Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Hypopharynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Larynx; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Lip and Oral Cavity; Stage IV Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Oropharynx

  18. Evaluation of sentinel lymph node size and shape as a predictor of occult metastasis in patients with squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Langhans, Linnea; Bilde, Anders; Charabi, Birgitte

    2013-01-01

    . A retrospective study based on data from 50 patients with clinically N0 neck and oral squamous cell carcinoma stage T1-2N0M0, SNB and consecutive neck dissection was performed. Excised sentinel nodes were measured in three axes by the surgeons before undergoing histopathological examination. Measured sentinel......The aim of the study was to evaluate sentinel lymph node size as a predictor of metastasis in N0 patients with oral squamous cell carcinoma treated by individual sentinel node biopsy (SNB) guided neck dissection. In addition, to evaluate lymph node shape as an indicator of malignancy...... node axis lengths were compared with the histopathological results. Data were analysed using Microsoft Excel 2008 for Mac, version 12.0. A total of 167 sentinel nodes was excised with a median of 3.3 per patient. Following SNB 18% of the patients was upstaged at the subsequent histopathological...

  19. MiR-206 functions as a tumor suppressor and directly targets K-Ras in human oral squamous cell carcinoma [Retraction

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    Lin FO

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available The Editor-in-Chief and Publisher of OncoTargets and Therapy have been alerted to unacceptable levels of duplication with another published paper: Zhang D, Ni Z, Xu X, and Xiao J. MiR-32 Functions as a Tumor Suppressor and Directly Targets EZH2 in Human Oral Squamous Cell Carcinoma. Medical Science Monitor. 20:2527–2535, 2014.Accordingly, we retract Lin FO, Yao LJ, Xiao J, Liu DF, and Ni ZY. MiR-206 functions as a tumor suppressor and directly targets K-Ras in human oral squamous cell carcinoma. OncoTargets and Therapy. 2014;7:1583–1591.This Retraction relates to 

  20. Prediction of occult lymph node metastasis in squamous cell carcinoma of the oral cavity and the oropharynx using peritumoral Prospero homeobox protein 1 lymphatic nuclear quantification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mermod, Maxime; Bongiovanni, Massimo; Petrova, Tatiana V; Dubikovskaya, Elena A; Simon, Christian; Tolstonog, Genrich; Monnier, Yan

    2016-09-01

    The use of lymphatic vessel density as a predictor of occult lymph node metastasis (OLNM) in head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) has never been reported. Staining of the specific lymphatic endothelial cells nuclear marker, PROX1, as an indicator of lymphatic vessel density was determined by counting the number of positive cells in squamous cell carcinomas (SCCs) of the oral cavity and the oropharynx with clinically negative necks. Correlation with histopathological data was established. Peritumoral PROX1 lymphatic nuclear count significantly correlated with the detection of OLNM in multivariate analysis (p < .005). The sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value (PPV), and negative predictive value (NPV) of this parameter was 60%, 95%, 85%, and 90%, respectively. Peritumoral PROX1 lymphatic nuclear count in primary SCCs of the oral cavity and the oropharynx allows accurate prediction of occult lymph node metastasis. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck 38: 1407-1415, 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. A Consistent Orally-Infected Hamster Model for Enterovirus A71 Encephalomyelitis Demonstrates Squamous Lesions in the Paws, Skin and Oral Cavity Reminiscent of Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Win Kyaw Phyu

    Full Text Available Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71 causes self-limiting, hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD that may rarely be complicated by encephalomyelitis. Person-to-person transmission is usually by fecal-oral or oral-oral routes. To study viral replication sites in the oral cavity and other tissues, and to gain further insights into virus shedding and neuropathogenesis, we developed a consistent, orally-infected, 2-week-old hamster model of HFMD and EV-A71 encephalomyelitis. Tissues from orally-infected, 2-week-old hamsters were studied by light microscopy, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization to detect viral antigens and RNA, respectively, and by virus titration. Hamsters developed the disease and died after 4-8 days post infection; LD50 was 25 CCID50. Macroscopic cutaneous lesions around the oral cavity and paws were observed. Squamous epithelium in the lip, oral cavity, paw, skin, and esophagus, showed multiple small inflammatory foci around squamous cells that demonstrated viral antigens/RNA. Neurons (brainstem, spinal cord, sensory ganglia, acinar cells (salivary gland, lacrimal gland, lymphoid cells (lymph node, spleen, and muscle fibres (skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscles, liver and gastric epithelium also showed varying amounts of viral antigens/RNA. Intestinal epithelium, Peyer's patches, thymus, pancreas, lung and kidney were negative. Virus was isolated from oral washes, feces, brain, spinal cord, skeletal muscle, serum, and other tissues. Our animal model should be useful to study squamous epitheliotropism, neuropathogenesis, oral/fecal shedding in EV-A71 infection, person-to-person transmission, and to test anti-viral drugs and vaccines.

  2. A Consistent Orally-Infected Hamster Model for Enterovirus A71 Encephalomyelitis Demonstrates Squamous Lesions in the Paws, Skin and Oral Cavity Reminiscent of Hand-Foot-and-Mouth Disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phyu, Win Kyaw; Ong, Kien Chai; Wong, Kum Thong

    2016-01-01

    Enterovirus A71 (EV-A71) causes self-limiting, hand-foot-and-mouth disease (HFMD) that may rarely be complicated by encephalomyelitis. Person-to-person transmission is usually by fecal-oral or oral-oral routes. To study viral replication sites in the oral cavity and other tissues, and to gain further insights into virus shedding and neuropathogenesis, we developed a consistent, orally-infected, 2-week-old hamster model of HFMD and EV-A71 encephalomyelitis. Tissues from orally-infected, 2-week-old hamsters were studied by light microscopy, immunohistochemistry and in situ hybridization to detect viral antigens and RNA, respectively, and by virus titration. Hamsters developed the disease and died after 4-8 days post infection; LD50 was 25 CCID50. Macroscopic cutaneous lesions around the oral cavity and paws were observed. Squamous epithelium in the lip, oral cavity, paw, skin, and esophagus, showed multiple small inflammatory foci around squamous cells that demonstrated viral antigens/RNA. Neurons (brainstem, spinal cord, sensory ganglia), acinar cells (salivary gland, lacrimal gland), lymphoid cells (lymph node, spleen), and muscle fibres (skeletal, cardiac and smooth muscles), liver and gastric epithelium also showed varying amounts of viral antigens/RNA. Intestinal epithelium, Peyer's patches, thymus, pancreas, lung and kidney were negative. Virus was isolated from oral washes, feces, brain, spinal cord, skeletal muscle, serum, and other tissues. Our animal model should be useful to study squamous epitheliotropism, neuropathogenesis, oral/fecal shedding in EV-A71 infection, person-to-person transmission, and to test anti-viral drugs and vaccines.

  3. Clinicopathological significance of ZEB-1 and E-cadherin proteins in patients with oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao X

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Xiaofeng Yao,1,2 Shanshan Sun,1,2 Xuan Zhou,1,2 Qiang Zhang,1,2 Wenyu Guo,1,2 Lun Zhang1,2 1Department of Maxillofacial and Otorhinolaryngology Head and Neck Surgery, Tianjin Medical University Cancer Institute and Hospital, 2Key Laboratory of Cancer Prevention and Therapy, National Clinical Research Center of Cancer, Tianjin, People’s Republic of China Background: Zinc-finger E-box binding homeobox 1 (ZEB-1, a member of the ZFH family, plays a key role in epithelial–mesenchymal transition during tumor progression in various cancers. However, little information is available on ZEB-1 expression in oral cavity squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC.Methods: The expression levels of ZEB-1 and E-cadherin were assessed by immunohistochemistry in a cohort of 120 patients with OSCC treated by curative operation, and then the correlations between ZEB-1 and E-cadherin expression and clinical factors were evaluated, including patient prognosis. Quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR assays were performed to assess mRNA levels of ZEB-1 and E-cadherin in 20 matched OSCC specimens.Results: Patients were followed up for a median period of 66 months (range 8-116 months, and 5-year overall survival was 68.3%. Positive ZEB-1 and E-cadherin immunostaining reactivity was detected in 64 (53.3% and 53 (44.2% patients, respectively. There was a negative correlation between ZEB-1 expression and E-cadherin expression. In addition, overexpression of ZEB-1 was significantly associated with recurrence, lymph node metastasis, and pathologic grading of patients, loss of E-cadherin was significantly associated with lymph node metastasis and pathologic grading of patients. Univariate analysis showed that increased ZEB-1 expression, loss of E-cadherin expression, lymph node metastasis, recurrence, and pathology grade were prognostic factors. In multivariate analysis, increased ZEB-1 expression and recurrence remained independent prognostic factors. In particular

  4. CANCERIZATION OF CUTANEOUS FLAP RECONSTRUCTION FOR ORAL SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA: REPORT OF THREE CASES STUDIED WITH THE mtDNA D-LOOP SEQUENCE ANALYSIS

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Aims: tissue defects, resulting from surgical resection of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC), are routinely reconstructed with skin graft. OSCC arising from the grafted skin have been described, however, it is still unclear whether primary and second tumours have a common clonal origin. By screening mitochondrial DNA D-loop region (mtDNA), we evaluated the clonal relationship between the primary OSCC and the second neoplastic features appearing in the skin graft in three...

  5. Tyms double (2R) and triple repeat (3R) confers risk for human oral squamous cell carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezerra, Alexandre Medeiros; Sant'Ana, Thalita Araújo; Gomes, Adriana Vieira; de Lacerda Vidal, Aurora Karla; Muniz, Maria Tereza Cartaxo

    2014-12-01

    The oral cancer is responsible for approximately 3 % of cases of cancer in Brazil. Epidemiological studies have associated low folate intake with an increased risk of epithelial cancers, including oral cancer. Folic acid has a key role in DNA synthesis, repair, methylation and this is the basis of explanations for a putative role for folic acid in cancer prevention. The role of folic acid in carcinogenesis may be modulated by polymorphism C677T in MTHFR and tandem repeats 2R/3R in the promoter site of TYMS gene that are related to decreased enzymatic activity and quantity and availability of the enzyme, respectively. These events cause a decrease in the synthesis, repair and DNA methylation, which can lead to a disruption in the expression of tumor suppressor genes as TP53. The objective of this study was investigate the distribution of polymorphisms C677T and tandem repeats 2R/3R associated with the development of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). 53 paraffin-embedded samples from patients who underwent surgery but are no longer at the institution and 43 samples collected by method of oral exfoliation by cytobrush were selected. 132 healthy subjects were selected by specialists at the dental clinics of the Faculdade de Odontologia de Pernambuco-FOP. The MTHFR genotyping was performed by PCR-RFLP, and the TYMS genotyping was performed by conventional PCR. Fisher's Exact test at significant level of 5 %. Odds ratios (ORs) and 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) were used to measure the strength of association between genotype frequency and OSCC development. The results were statistically significant for the tandem repeats of the TYMS gene (p = 0.015). The TYMS 2R3R genotype was significantly associated with the development of OSCC (OR = 3.582; 95 % CI 1.240-10.348; p = 0.0262) and also the genotype 3R3R (OR = 3.553; 95 % CI 1.293-9.760; p = 0.0345). When analyzed together, the TYMS 2R3R + 3R3R genotypes also showed association (OR = 3.518; 95 % CI 11.188-10.348; p

  6. Pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia after diode laser oral surgery. An experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seoane, Juan; González-Mosquera, Antonio; García-Martín, José-Manuel; García-Caballero, Lucía; Varela-Centelles, Pablo

    2015-01-01

    Background To examine the process of epithelial reparation in a surgical wound caused by diode laser. Material and Methods An experimental study with 27 Sprage-Dawley rats was undertaken. The animals were randomly allocated to two experimental groups, whose individuals underwent glossectomy by means of a diode laser at different wattages, and a control group treated using a number 15 scalpel blade. The animals were slaughtered at the 2nd, 7th, and 14th day after glossectomy. The specimens were independently studied by two pathologists (blinded for the specimens’ group). Results At the 7th day, re-epithelisation was slightly faster for the control group (conventional scalpel) (p=0.011). At the 14th day, complete re-epithelization was observed for all groups. The experimental groups displayed a pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia. Conclusions It is concluded that, considering the limitations of this kind of experimental studies, early re-epithelisation occurs slightly faster when a conventional scalpel is used for incision, although re-epithelisation is completed in two weeks no matter the instrument used. In addition, pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia is a potential event after oral mucosa surgery with diode laser. Knowledge about this phenomenon (not previously described) may prevent diagnostic mistakes and inadequate treatment approaches, particularly when dealing with potentially malignant oral lesions. Key words:Diode laser, animal model, oral biopsy, oral cancer, oral precancer, pseudoepitheliomatous hyperplasia. PMID:26116841

  7. Cyclin D1 overexpression is associated with poor clinicopathological outcome and survival in oral squamous cell carcinoma in Asian populations: insights from a meta-analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanhui Zhao

    Full Text Available The clinicopathological significance of cyclin D1 overexpression and prognosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma has not been fully quantified. We performed a comprehensive meta-analysis for evaluation of cyclin D1 overexpression in oral squamous cell carcinoma to determine the strength of this association.Using both medical subheadings and free terms, we searched PubMed, Embase and the Institute for Scientific Information Web of Science for all eligible studies published before Nov. 2013. We retrieved 1674 citations, determining that 15 met the selection criteria. We used the odds ratio (OR and hazard ratio (HR as the common measures of association to quantitatively determine the correlation between cyclin D1 overexpression and outcomes of oral cancer. We performed a meta-analysis and heterogeneity, sensitivity, and subgroup analyses to clarify and validate the pooled results.The pooled results provided compelling evidence that cyclin D1 overexpression was significantly correlated with increased tumor size (OR = 1.617, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.046-2.498, p = 0.031, lymphoid node metastasis (OR = 2.035, 95% CI = 1.572-2.635, p<0.001, tumor differentiation (OR = 1.976, 95% CI = 1.363-2.866, p<0.001, and advancement of clinical stages (OR = 1.516, 95% CI = 1.140-2.015, p = 0.004, and adversely influenced overall survival of OSCC patients (HR = 1.897, 95% CI = 1.577-2.282, p<0.001. The strength of association varied in different oral cavity subsites.Our findings indicated that cyclin D1 expression correlates with detrimental clinicopathological outcome and poor prognosis in oral squamous cell carcinoma. Our results may be useful in the management of oral cancer.

  8. Color Doppler-ultrasonography in oral squamous cell carcinoma: Making ultrasonography more meaningful

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rahul Gandhi

    2016-01-01

    Conclusions: The said Doppler indices were shown to be sensitive as well as specific for the diagnosis of malignant oral tumors. Although CD-USG cannot replace histopathological procedures, it plays a definite role as an adjunct to the clinical evaluation of OSCC cases.

  9. Specific role of targeted molecular therapy in treatment of oral squamous cell carcinoma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Gupta

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Oral cancer is a potentially fatal disease that constitutes an important portion of tumors that occur in the head and neck region. Oral cancer can affect overall and mental health, appearance, employment, social life, and family living. The disease can cause serious changes in the functioning of the upper aero digestive tract that affects the quality of life in patients. The use of conventional treatment modalities (surgery, radiation, and/or chemotherapy depends on tumor respectability and location as well as whether an organ preservation approach is feasible. However, their role in oral cancer treatment is nonselective and can cause damage to normal tissue. In particular, chemo radiotherapy is associated with systemic toxicities that often reduce patient compliance and prevent timely completion of therapy. The development of targeted therapies to target select pathways involved in carcinogenesis, potentially decrease systemic toxicities and morbidities associated with cancer burden and hence improve the prognosis in cancer patients. In the present article, the role of various targeted molecules in the treatment of oral cancer is discussed.

  10. A Study on Assessment of Mast Cells in Oral Squamous Cell ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    of clinico-pathologic and histological grading.[2]. Mast cells are mobile secretory ... Zaidi MA, Mallick AK1. Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Pathology and Microbiology, Uttaranchal Dental and Medical Research Institute,. Dehradun ..... tumour invasion in rat mammary adenocarcinoma. Br J. Cancer 1986;54:459-65. 8.

  11. Electrotaxis of oral squamous cell carcinoma cells in a multiple-electric-field chip with uniform flow field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsai, Hsieh-Fu; Peng, Shih-Wei; Wu, Chun-Ying; Chang, Hui-Fang; Cheng, Ji-Yen

    2012-01-01

    We report a new design of microfluidic chip (Multiple electric Field with Uniform Flow chip, MFUF chip) to create multiple electric field strengths (EFSs) while providing a uniform flow field simultaneously. MFUF chip was fabricated from poly-methyl methacrylates (PMMA) substrates by using CO2 laser micromachining. A microfluidic network with interconnecting segments was utilized to de-couple the flow field and the electric field (EF). Using our special design, different EFSs were obtained in channel segments that had an identical cross-section and therefore a uniform flo