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Sample records for experimental neck muscle

  1. Bilateral experimental neck pain reorganize axioscapular muscle coordination and pain sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christensen, S W; Hirata, R P; Graven-Nielsen, T

    2017-04-01

    Neck pain is a large clinical problem where reorganized trunk and axioscapular muscle activities have been hypothesised contributing to pain persistence and pain hypersensitivity. This study investigated the effects of bilateral experimental neck pain on trunk and axioscapular muscle function and pain sensitivity. In 25 healthy volunteers, bilateral experimental neck pain was induced in the splenius capitis muscles by hypertonic saline injections. Isotonic saline was used as control. In sitting, subjects performed slow, fast and slow-resisted unilateral arm movements before, during and after injections. Electromyography (EMG) was recorded from eight shoulder and trunk muscles bilaterally. Pressure pain thresholds (PPTs) were assessed bilaterally at the neck, head and arm. Data were normalized to the before-measures. Compared with control and post measurements, experimental neck pain caused (1) decreased EMG activity of the ipsilateral upper trapezius muscles during all but slow-resisted down movements (p neck pain reorganized axioscapular and trunk muscle activity together with local hyperalgesia and widespread hypoalgesia indicating that acute neck pain immediately affects trunk and axioscapular function which may affect both assessment and treatment. Bilateral clinical neck pain alters axioscapular muscle coordination but only effects of unilateral experimental neck pain has been investigated. Bilateral experimental neck pain causes task-dependent reorganized axioscapular and trunk muscle activity in addition to widespread decrease in pressure pain sensitivity. © 2016 European Pain Federation - EFIC®.

  2. An increased response to experimental muscle pain is related to psychological status in women with chronic non-traumatic neck-shoulder pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Neck-shoulder pain conditions, e.g., chronic trapezius myalgia, have been associated with sensory disturbances such as increased sensitivity to experimentally induced pain. This study investigated pain sensitivity in terms of bilateral pressure pain thresholds over the trapezius and tibialis anterior muscles and pain responses after a unilateral hypertonic saline infusion into the right legs tibialis anterior muscle and related those parameters to intensity and area size of the clinical pain and to psychological factors (sleeping problems, depression, anxiety, catastrophizing and fear-avoidance). Methods Nineteen women with chronic non-traumatic neck-shoulder pain but without simultaneous anatomically widespread clinical pain (NSP) and 30 age-matched pain-free female control subjects (CON) participated in the study. Results NSP had lower pressure pain thresholds over the trapezius and over the tibialis anterior muscles and experienced hypertonic saline-evoked pain in the tibialis anterior muscle to be significantly more intense and locally more widespread than CON. More intense symptoms of anxiety and depression together with a higher disability level were associated with increased pain responses to experimental pain induction and a larger area size of the clinical neck-shoulder pain at its worst. Conclusion These results indicate that central mechanisms e.g., central sensitization and altered descending control, are involved in chronic neck-shoulder pain since sensory hypersensitivity was found in areas distant to the site of clinical pain. Psychological status was found to interact with the perception, intensity, duration and distribution of induced pain (hypertonic saline) together with the spreading of clinical pain. The duration and intensity of pain correlated negatively with pressure pain thresholds. PMID:21992460

  3. An increased response to experimental muscle pain is related to psychological status in women with chronic non-traumatic neck-shoulder pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Persson Ann L

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neck-shoulder pain conditions, e.g., chronic trapezius myalgia, have been associated with sensory disturbances such as increased sensitivity to experimentally induced pain. This study investigated pain sensitivity in terms of bilateral pressure pain thresholds over the trapezius and tibialis anterior muscles and pain responses after a unilateral hypertonic saline infusion into the right legs tibialis anterior muscle and related those parameters to intensity and area size of the clinical pain and to psychological factors (sleeping problems, depression, anxiety, catastrophizing and fear-avoidance. Methods Nineteen women with chronic non-traumatic neck-shoulder pain but without simultaneous anatomically widespread clinical pain (NSP and 30 age-matched pain-free female control subjects (CON participated in the study. Results NSP had lower pressure pain thresholds over the trapezius and over the tibialis anterior muscles and experienced hypertonic saline-evoked pain in the tibialis anterior muscle to be significantly more intense and locally more widespread than CON. More intense symptoms of anxiety and depression together with a higher disability level were associated with increased pain responses to experimental pain induction and a larger area size of the clinical neck-shoulder pain at its worst. Conclusion These results indicate that central mechanisms e.g., central sensitization and altered descending control, are involved in chronic neck-shoulder pain since sensory hypersensitivity was found in areas distant to the site of clinical pain. Psychological status was found to interact with the perception, intensity, duration and distribution of induced pain (hypertonic saline together with the spreading of clinical pain. The duration and intensity of pain correlated negatively with pressure pain thresholds.

  4. Increased neck muscle activity and impaired balance among females with whiplash-related chronic neck pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul-Kristensen, Birgit; Clausen, Brian; Ris Hansen, Inge

    2013-01-01

    To investigate neck muscle activity and postural control in patients with whiplash-associated disorder compared with healthy controls.......To investigate neck muscle activity and postural control in patients with whiplash-associated disorder compared with healthy controls....

  5. Neck muscle function in violinists/violists with and without neck pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinmetz, Anke; Claus, Andrew; Hodges, Paul W; Jull, Gwendolen A

    2016-04-01

    Neck pain is associated with changes in neuromuscular control of cervical muscles. Violin and viola playing requires good function of the flexor muscles to stabilize the instrument. This study investigated the flexor muscle behaviour in violin/viola players with and without neck pain using the craniocervical flexion test (CCFT). In total, 12 violin/viola players with neck pain, 21 violin/viola players without neck pain in the preceding 12 weeks and 21 pain-free non-musicians were included. Activity of the sternocleidomastoid muscles (SCM) was measured with surface electromyography (EMG) during the CCFT. Violin/viola players with neck pain displayed greater normalised SCM EMG amplitudes during CCFT than the pain-free musicians and non-musicians (P neck pain in violinists/violists is associated with altered behaviour of the superficial neck flexor muscles consistent with neck pain, despite the specific use of the deep and superficial neck flexors during violin playing.

  6. Neck Muscle Fatigue with Helmet-Mounted Systems

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Eveland, Edward S; Pellettiere, Joseph A

    2006-01-01

    .... Changes in neck muscle strength were identified along with EMG evidence of fatigue. When flights occurred on an almost daily basis over 4 days, the force imparted to the neck was reduced each day...

  7. Frequency response of vestibular reflexes in neck, back, and lower limb muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forbes, Patrick A; Dakin, Christopher J; Vardy, Alistair N; Happee, Riender; Siegmund, Gunter P; Schouten, Alfred C; Blouin, Jean-Sébastien

    2013-10-01

    Vestibular pathways form short-latency disynaptic connections with neck motoneurons, whereas they form longer-latency disynaptic and polysynaptic connections with lower limb motoneurons. We quantified frequency responses of vestibular reflexes in neck, back, and lower limb muscles to explain between-muscle differences. Two hypotheses were evaluated: 1) that muscle-specific motor-unit properties influence the bandwidth of vestibular reflexes; and 2) that frequency responses of vestibular reflexes differ between neck, back, and lower limb muscles because of neural filtering. Subjects were exposed to electrical vestibular stimuli over bandwidths of 0-25 and 0-75 Hz while recording activity in sternocleidomastoid, splenius capitis, erector spinae, soleus, and medial gastrocnemius muscles. Coherence between stimulus and muscle activity revealed markedly larger vestibular reflex bandwidths in neck muscles (0-70 Hz) than back (0-15 Hz) or lower limb muscles (0-20 Hz). In addition, vestibular reflexes in back and lower limb muscles undergo low-pass filtering compared with neck-muscle responses, which span a broader dynamic range. These results suggest that the wider bandwidth of head-neck biomechanics requires a vestibular influence on neck-muscle activation across a larger dynamic range than lower limb muscles. A computational model of vestibular afferents and a motoneuron pool indicates that motor-unit properties are not primary contributors to the bandwidth filtering of vestibular reflexes in different muscles. Instead, our experimental findings suggest that pathway-dependent neural filtering, not captured in our model, contributes to these muscle-specific responses. Furthermore, gain-phase discontinuities in the neck-muscle vestibular reflexes provide evidence of destructive interaction between different reflex components, likely via indirect vestibular-motor pathways.

  8. The Influence of Neck Posture and Helmet Configuration on Neck Muscle Demands

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-22

    Electromyography ( EMG ) of 10 neck muscles were assessed while performing 7 distinct movements wearing 6 different helmet configurations. With respect to posture...configuration on muscular responses of the neck. In general, the muscular demands were modest, with mean EMG values for all muscles and tasks ranging...CF) pilots and flight engineers, neck pain and muscle fatigue are common with over 80% of CH146 Griffon helicopter pilots and flight engineers

  9. Relationship between neck muscles functions and hand muscles strenght in musicians

    OpenAIRE

    Vaina, Mindaugas

    2016-01-01

    Relationship Between Neck Muscles Functions and Hand Muscles Strenght in Musicians The aim of research work: to determine the relationship between musicians hand muscle strength, fatigue and neck strength, endurance and movement amplitude. Tasks of work: 1. To evaluate and compare the musicians playing with string and wind instruments neck muscle strength, endurance, range of motion, hand muscle strength and fatigue between the groups as well as commonly used standards. 2. To determine the re...

  10. Neck muscle endurance and head posture: A comparison between adolescents with and without neck pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Ana Carolina; Silva, Anabela G

    2016-04-01

    The main aims of this study were to compare the neck flexor and extensor endurance and forward head posture between adolescents with and without neck pain. The secondary aims were to explore potential associations between muscles endurance, head posture and neck pain characteristics and to assess intra-rater reliability of the measurements used. Adolescents with neck pain (n = 35) and age-matched asymptomatic adolescents (n = 35) had their forward head posture, neck flexor endurance and neck extensor endurance measured using clinical tests. Intra-rater reliability was also assessed. Forward head posture and neck flexor and extensor endurance tests showed moderate to almost perfect intra-rater reliability (ICC between 0.58 and 0.88). Adolescents with neck pain showed significantly less forward head posture (neck pain = 46.62 ± 4.92; asymptomatic = 44.18°± 3.64°, p > 0.05) and less neck flexor (neck pain = 24.50 ± 23.03s; asymptomatic = 35.89 ± 21.53s, p > 0.05) and extensor endurance (neck pain = 12.6.64 ± 77.94s; asymptomatic = 168.66 ± 74.77s, p > 0.05) than asymptomatic adolescents. Results suggest that changes in posture and neck muscle endurance are a feature of adolescents with neck pain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Muscle activation during selected strength exercises in women with chronic neck muscle pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars L; Kjaer, Michael; Andersen, Christoffer H

    2008-01-01

    selected strengthening exercises in women undergoing rehabilitation for chronic neck muscle pain (defined as a clinical diagnosis of trapezius myalgia). SUBJECTS: The subjects were 12 female workers (age=30-60 years) with a clinical diagnosis of trapezius myalgia and a mean baseline pain intensity of 5......BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE: Muscle-specific strength training has previously been shown to be effective in the rehabilitation of chronic neck muscle pain in women. The aim of this study was to determine the level of activation of the neck and shoulder muscles using surface electromyography (EMG) during...... muscle pain. Several of the strength exercises had high activation of neck and shoulder muscles in women with chronic neck pain. These exercises can be used equally in the attempt to achieve a beneficial treatment effect on chronic neck muscle pain....

  12. Muscle activation during selected strength exercises in women with chronic neck muscle pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L.L.; Kjaer, M.; Andersen, C.H.

    2008-01-01

    Background and Purpose. Muscle-specific strength training has previously been shown to be effective in the rehabilitation of chronic neck muscle pain in women. The aim of this stud), was to determine the level of activation of the neck and shoulder muscles using surface electromyography (EMG) (lu...

  13. Scapulothoracic muscle strength in individuals with neck pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Shannon M; Domino, Nathan A; Cook, Chad E

    2016-08-10

    People with neck pain often present with weakness in the scapulothoracic muscles. Few studies have examined lower trapezius (LT), middle trapezius (MT) and serratus anterior (SA) muscle strength in individuals with neck pain, nor compared strength to asymptomatic individuals. The aim of this study was to examine LT, MT and SA muscle strength in individuals with chronic neck pain. Descriptive cross sectional design. Twenty two individuals with chronic neck pain and 17 asymptomatic individuals were included. Participants were asked to complete a screening questionnaire, Neck Disability Index, and underwent manual muscle testing for the LT, MT, and SA muscles bilaterally. Data analyses included paired and comparative independent t-tests. For individuals with neck pain, significant within subject differences in strength between sides for the LT (Pneck pain were significantly weaker than asymptomatic individuals for the LT (p= 0.02), MT (p= 0.03), and SA (p= 0.01) on their side of neck pain, but not on their non-painful side. Significant within subject differences were found between sides for the LT and MT while significant between group differences were identified for all three muscles tested.

  14. Evaluation of document location during computer use in terms of neck muscle activity and neck movement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goostrey, Sonya; Treleaven, Julia; Johnston, Venerina

    2014-05-01

    This study evaluated the impact on neck movement and muscle activity of placing documents in three commonly used locations: in-line, flat desktop left of the keyboard and laterally placed level with the computer screen. Neck excursion during three standard head movements between the computer monitor and each document location and neck extensor and upper trapezius muscle activity during a 5 min typing task for each of the document locations was measured in 20 healthy participants. Results indicated that muscle activity and neck flexion were least when documents were placed laterally suggesting it may be the optimal location. The desktop option produced both the greatest neck movement and muscle activity in all muscle groups. The in-line document location required significantly more neck flexion but less lateral flexion and rotation than the laterally placed document. Evaluation of other holders is needed to guide decision making for this commonly used office equipment. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Ultrasonographic analysis of dorsal neck muscles thickness changes induced by isometric contraction of shoulder muscles: A comparison between patients with chronic neck pain and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Noureddin; Rezasoltani, Asghar; Rahnama, Leila; Noori-Kochi, Farhang; Jaberzadeh, Shapour

    2016-04-01

    Altered pattern of muscle activity is commonly seen with chronic neck pain (CNP). However, limited investigations have been done on dorsal neck muscles' activity pattern while performing upper limb tasks in patients with CNP. To investigate dorsal neck muscles' thickness changes during isometric contraction of shoulder muscles. Case-control study. This study investigated dorsal neck muscles' thickness changes during isometric contraction of shoulder muscles in 20 healthy participants (mean age 27 ± 4.37) and 17 patients with CNP (mean age 29 ± 5.50). Effects of isometric force of shoulder muscles on dorsal neck muscles' thickness changes were also evaluated. Significant muscle × group interaction was observed for the dorsal neck muscles thickness changes (p = 0.008) indicating different pattern of muscle activity in terms of changes in muscle thickness of two groups. Significant main effects of direction was observed (P = 0.003), with the abduction had the greatest impact on changing the dorsal neck muscles thickness. patients with CNP showed altered pattern of muscle thickness changes in comparison to healthy participants. Isometric abduction of shoulder muscles induced the greatest changes of dorsal neck muscles thickness among other force directions. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Clinical effects of deep cervical flexor muscle activation in patients with chronic neck pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin Young; Kwag, Kwang Il

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate clinical effects of deep cervical flexor (DCF) muscles exercise on pain, Neck Disability Index (NDI), and neck and shoulder postures in patients with chronic neck pain. [Subjects and Methods] Twenty-eight patients with chronic neck pain were randomly assigned into either the general strengthening exercise (GSE) group or the DCF activation group as control and experimental groups, respectively. All exercises were performed three times per week over 4 weeks. NDI and numeric rating scale (NRS) score for pain were determined and radiological assessment of neck-shoulder postures (head tilt angle [HTA], neck flexion angle [NFA], and forward shoulder angle [FSA]) was performed before (baseline), 4 weeks after, and 8 weeks after exercise in order to directly compare the exercise effects between the groups. [Results] In the DCF group, the NDI, NRS score, and neck-shoulder postures (analyzed by uisng HTA, NFA, and FSA) were significantly improved. [Conclusion] DCF activation exercise was effective to alleviate pain, recover functions, and correct forward head posture in the patients with neck pain. Hence, it might be recommended in the rehabilitation of patients with chronic neck pain.

  17. Reliability of Ultrasonographic Measurement of Cervical Multifidus Muscle Dimensions during Isometric Contraction of Neck Muscles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Amiri Arimi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: Cervical multifidus is considered as one of the most important neck stabilizers. Weakness and muscular atrophy of this muscle were seen in patients with chronic neck pain. Ultrasonographic imaging is a non-invasive and feasible technique that commonly used to record such changes and measure muscle dimensions. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate the reliability of ultrasonographic measurement of cervical multifidus muscle’s dimensions during isometric contraction of neck muscles. Materials and Method: Ten subjects (5 patients with chronic neck pain and 5 healthy subjects were recruited in this study. Cervical multifidus muscle’s dimensions were measured at the level of forth cervical vertebrae. Ultrasonographic measurement of cervical multifidus muscle at rest, 50% and 100% of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC were performed by one examiner within 1 week interval. The dimensions of cervical multifidus muscle including cross-sectional area (CSA, anterior posterior dimension (APD, and lateral dimension (LD were measured. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC, standard error of measurement (SEM and minimal detectable change (MDC were computed for data analysis.Results: The between days reliability of maximum strength of neck muscles and multifidus muscle dimensions at rest, 50% and 100% of MVC of neck muscles were good to excellent (ICC=0.75-0.99.Conclusion: The results of this study showed that ultrasonographic measuring of cervical multifidus muscle’s dimensions during isometric contraction of neck muscles at the level of C4 in females with chronic neck pain and healthy subjects is a reliable and repeatable method.

  18. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase is involved in the induction of NGF induced neck muscle nociception

    OpenAIRE

    Isaak, Andreas

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neck muscle nociception mediated by nitric oxide may play a role in the pathophysiology of tension-type headache.OBJECTIVE: The present study addresses the involvement of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in the facilitation of neck muscle nociception after local application of nerve growth factor (NGF).METHODS: After administration of NGF into semispinal neck muscles, the impact of neck muscle noxious input on brainstem processing was monitored by the jaw-opening reflex in an...

  19. Muscle activation patterns in posttraumatic neck pain

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nederhand, Marcus Johannes

    2003-01-01

    As an important consequence of our research, we question the relevance of the criteria of the WAD injury severity classification system. We showed that the musculoskeletal signs in WAD grade II are not characterized by muscle spasm, (i.e. increase of muscle activity), but rather by a decrease in

  20. Early-onset dropped head syndrome after radiotherapy for head and neck cancer: dose constraints for neck extensor muscles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inaba, Koji; Nakamura, Satoshi; Okamoto, Hiroyuki; Kashihara, Tairo; Kobayashi, Kazuma; Harada, Ken; Kitaguchi, Mayuka; Sekii, Shuhei; Takahashi, Kana; Murakami, Naoya; Ito, Yoshinori; Igaki, Hiroshi; Uno, Takashi; Itami, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Dropped head syndrome (DHS) is a famous but unusual late complication of multimodality treatment for head and neck carcinoma. We reported this early-onset complication and analyzed the dose to the neck extensor muscles. We examined the records of three patients with DHS after radiotherapy. The doses to the neck extensor muscles were compared between three patients with DHS and nine patients without DHS. The mean dose to the neck extensor muscles of the three patients with DHS were 58.5 Gy, 42.3 Gy and 60.9 Gy, while the dose was <50 Gy in all nine patients in the control group. The onset of this syndrome was 5 months, 6 months and 15 months. The early-onset DHS may have something to do with dose to the neck extensor muscles. The proposed dose to the neck extensor muscles might be <46 Gy (or at least <50 Gy)

  1. Neck muscle vibration can improve sensorimotor function in patients with neck pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beinert, Konstantin; Keller, Martin; Taube, Wolfgang

    2015-03-01

    People with neck pain display a diminished joint position sense and disturbed postural control, which is thought to be a result of impaired somatosensory afferent activity and/or integration. Afferent processing can be artificially manipulated by vibration and was shown to reduce motor performance in healthy subjects. However, the effect of vibration on sensorimotor function in neck pain patients is scarcely investigated. To assess the effect of neck muscle vibration on joint position sense and postural control in neck pain subjects and healthy controls. Case control study. Thirteen neck pain patients and 10 healthy controls participated in the present study. Cervical joint position sense and dynamic and static postural stability. Short-term, targeted neck muscle vibration with 100 Hz was applied after baseline measurement. Vibration had opposite effects in patients and healthy subjects. Patients showed improved joint position sense (pneck pain. Thus, vibration may be used to counteract sensorimotor impairment of the cervical spine. Potential underlying mechanisms are discussed. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  2. Neck muscle atrophy and soft-tissue fibrosis after neck dissection and postoperative radiotherapy for oral cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Jinu; Shin, Eun Seow; Kim, Jeong Eon; Yoon, Sang Pil [Jeju National University School of Medicine, Jeju (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Young Suk [Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Jeju National University Hospital, Jeju National University School of Medicine, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-12-15

    Late complications of head and neck cancer survivors include neck muscle atrophy and soft-tissue fibrosis. We present an autopsy case of neck muscle atrophy and soft-tissue fibrosis (sternocleidomastoid, omohyoid, digastric, sternohyoid, sternothyroid, and platysma muscles) within the radiation field after modified radical neck dissection type I and postoperative radiotherapy for floor of mouth cancer. A 70-year-old man underwent primary tumor resection of the left floor of mouth, left marginal mandibulectomy, left modified radical neck dissection type I, and reconstruction with a radial forearm free flap. The patient received adjuvant radiotherapy. The dose to the primary tumor bed and involved neck nodes was 63 Gy in 35 fractions over 7 weeks. Areas of subclinical disease (left lower neck) received 50 Gy in 25 fractions over 5 weeks. Adjuvant chemotherapy was not administered.

  3. Prevalence and anatomical location of muscle tenderness in adults with nonspecific neck/shoulder pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars L; Hansen, Klaus; Mortensen, Ole S

    2011-01-01

    Many adults experience bothersome neck/shoulder pain. While research and treatment strategies often focus on the upper trapezius, other neck/shoulder muscles may be affected as well. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the prevalence and anatomical location of muscle tenderness in adults...... with nonspecific neck/shoulder pain....

  4. Comparison of Muscle Fatigue Effects on Electromyographic Onset Latency of Trapezius Muscle in Posterior-Anterior Perturbation between Patients with Chronic Neck Pain and Healthy Persons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahra Rojhani-Shirazi

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Fatigue process in patients with neck pain was happened more quickly than healthy persons and neck muscle fatigue increased body sway during standing, but there is less evidence about the behavior of these muscles in dynamic conditions such as external perturbation, so this study was done to investigate the effect of muscle fatigue on onset latency of upper trapezius muscle in posterior-anterior perturbation among patients with chronic neck pain and healthy individuals. Materials & Methods: In this quasi experimental and interventional study 16 patients with chronic neck pain (intervention group and 16 healthy individuals (control group were selected by simple and convenient sampling and based on inclusive and exclusive criteria. Data collection was done by using questionnaire and doing some tests and the main equipments were dynamometer, accelerometer and surface electromyography. The weight equal to 30% of maximum voluntary contraction used to produce fatigue process and 10% of body weight used to produce perturbation. Independent T test, Paired T test and Repeated ANOVA were used for data analysis. Results: There was significant difference in onset latency of upper Trapezius muscle in posterior – anterior perturbation between two groups, before (P=0.006 and after (P=0.026 fatigue. This means that the onset latency was increased in healthy individuals and decreased in patients after fatigue. Also, there was significant difference in onset latency of Trapezius muscle in posterior – anterior perturbation between before and after fatigue in patients group (P<0.001 and healthy persons group (P=0.04. Conclusion: Pain can change the onset latency of trapezius muscle and possibly it can decrease muscle activity in deep muscle and change the pattern of muscle activation. Fatigue as an exaggerated risk factor can decrease onset latency of superficial muscle in patients with chronic neck pain to stabilize the system, that it can increase

  5. The effects of femoral neck cut, cable tension, and muscles forces on the greater trochanter fixation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petit, Yvan; Cloutier, Luc P; Duke, Kajsa; Laflamme, G Yves

    2012-04-01

    Greater trochanter (GT) stabilization techniques following a fracture or an osteotomy are still showing high levels of postoperative complications. Understanding the effect of femoral neck cut placement, cable tension and muscles forces on GT fragment displacements could help surgeons optimize their techniques. A 3D finite element model has been developed to evaluate, through a statistical experimental design, the impact of the above variables on the GT fragment gap and sliding displacements. Muscles forces were simulating typical daily activities. Stresses were also investigated. The femoral neck cut placement had the most significant effect on the fragment displacement. Lowering it by 5 mm increased the gap and sliding fragment displacements by 288 and 128 %, respectively. Excessive cable tightening provided no significant reduction in fragment displacement. Muscle activities increased the gap and the sliding displacements for all muscle configurations. The maximum total displacement of 0.41 mm was present with a 10 mm femoral neck cut, a cable tension of 178 N, and stair climbing. Caution must be used not to over tighten the cables as the potential damage caused by the increased stress is more significant than any reduction in fragment displacement. Furthermore, preservation of the contact area is important for GT stabilization.

  6. Isometric and Dynamic Control of Neck Muscles : Reflexive contributions and muscle synergies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Bruijn, E.

    2014-01-01

    It is well established that the central nervous system (CNS) stabilizes the head using reflexive feedback and cocontraction. The major reflexive pathways in the neck are through muscle spindles generating the cervicocollic reflex (CCR) and through the vestibular organ generating the vestibulocollic

  7. Neck extensor muscle weakness (Dropped head syndrome) following radiotherapy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhatia, S.; Miller, R.C.; Lachance, D.L.

    2006-01-01

    Background. Dropped head syndrome is an unusual condition in which the head cannot be held upright in its normal anatomic position secondary to pronounced, isolated, neck extensor muscle weakness. Case report. A case of dropped head syndrome in a female with a history of radiotherapy for Hodgkin's lymphoma and a clinical history consistent with multiple sclerosis is presented, and potential etiologies are discussed. Conclusions. Muscular atrophy and lower motor neuron injury secondary to isolated anterior horn cell injury from radiotherapy emerge as the most likely etiology. (author)

  8. Decreased thickness of the lower trapezius muscle in patients with unilateral neck pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthaikhup, Sureeporn; Pensri, Chalomjai; Kawsoiy, Kanokon

    2016-09-01

    Thickness of the lower trapezius muscle in patients with neck pain has not been established. We examined the thickness of the lower trapezius muscle in patients with and without unilateral neck pain. Twenty women with unilateral (right) neck pain and 20 matched controls participated in the study. Thickness of the lower trapezius muscles was measured bilaterally at rest (0 ° and 120 ° of shoulder abduction) and during contraction (120 ° of shoulder abduction) using ultrasound imaging. The neck pain group had smaller thickness of the lower trapezius muscle on the painful side compared with controls both at rest and during contraction (P  0.05). Patients with neck pain had smaller thickness of the lower trapezius muscle on the painful side compared with healthy controls. Muscle Nerve 54: 439-443, 2016. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  9. Effects of Document Holder on Postural Neck Muscles Activity among Computer Users: A Preliminary Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambusam, Subramaniam; Omar, Baharudin; Joseph, Leonard; Deepashini, Harithasan

    2015-01-01

    Computer users are exposed to work related neck disorders due to repetitive movement and static posture for prolonged period. Viewing document and typing simultaneously are one of the contributing factors for neck disorders. This preliminary study was conducted to evaluate the effects of the document holder on the postural neck muscles activity among computer users. Nine healthy participants with pre-defined inclusion and exclusion criteria were recruited for the study. Neck muscles activity were analyzed using the surface electromyography (EMG) in five different document location such as flat right, flat left, flat center, stand right and stand left during a 5 min typing task. The mean and standard deviation results showed a least amount of muscles activity using a document holder compared to without document holder. Nevertheless, the statistical analysis showed no significant differences between the using of a document holder. The effects of document holder on head excursion and neck muscle activity is recommended in clinical neck pain population.

  10. ''Dropped-head'' syndrome due to isolated myositis of neck extensor muscles: MRI findings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gaeta, Michele; Mazziotti, Silvio; Blandino, Alfredo; Toscano, Antonio; Rodolico, Carmelo; Mazzeo, Anna

    2006-01-01

    MRI findings of a patient with dropped-head syndrome due to focal myositis of the neck extensor muscles are presented. MRI showed oedematous changes and marked enhancement of the neck extensor muscles. After therapy MRI demonstrated disappearance of the abnormal findings. (orig.)

  11. Neck and shoulder muscle strength in patients with tension-type headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bjarne K; Søgaard, Karen; Andersen, Lars L.

    2016-01-01

    . Patients were included if they had TTH ≥8 days per month. The MVC neck extensor and flexor muscles were tested with the participant seated upright. MVC shoulder abduction was tested with the individual lying supine. RESULTS: Compared to controls TTH patients had significantly weaker muscle strength in neck......INTRODUCTION: Tension-type headache (TTH) is highly prevalent in the general population, and it is characterized by increased muscle tenderness with increasing headache frequency and intensity. AIM: The aim of this case-control study was to compare muscle strength in neck and shoulder muscles...... in TTH patients and healthy controls by examining maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVC) during shoulder abduction, neck flexion and extension as well as the extension/flexion strength ratio of the neck. METHODS: Sixty TTH patients and 30 sex- and age-matched healthy controls were included...

  12. Relationship between neck acceleration and muscle activation in people with chronic neck pain: Implications for functional disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Sharon M H; Szeto, Grace P Y; Lee, Raymond Y W

    2016-06-01

    Previous study has found that people with chronic neck pain moved with a consistently compromised acceleration/deceleration at their cervical and thoracic spines. This study examined the strength of the association between the electromyographic activities and the acceleration/deceleration of the cervical and thoracic spine, and its correlation with the functional disabilities in individuals with neck pain. Time history of the cervical and thoracic acceleration/deceleration and EMG activity was acquired in thirty-four subjects with chronic neck pain and thirty-four age- and gender-matched asymptomatic subjects during active neck movements. The strength of the association between the electromyographic activity of spinal muscles and the cervical and thoracic acceleration/deceleration was determined using cross-correlation method. Relationship between the strength of this association and the severity of the functional disabilities in neck pain group was examined using correlation analysis. The strength of the association between cervical and thoracic acceleration/deceleration and electromyographic activities was significantly lower in neck pain group. Significant negative correlations were found between the functional disability level and the strength of this defined association in the symptomatic group. The compromised capability of the spinal muscles to produce acceleration/deceleration in the neck pain group may imply an impaired electromechanical coupling of these spinal muscles when performing neck movements. Significant negative correlation of the degree of functional disabilities suggests that the present approach can be used as an objective and specific evaluation of the dynamic performance of the spinal muscles and its relationship with the functional disabilities in neck pain subjects. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  13. Neck muscle fatigue differentially alters scapular and humeral kinematics during humeral elevation in subclinical neck pain participants versus healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabihhosseinian, Mahboobeh; Holmes, Michael W R; Howarth, Samuel; Ferguson, Brad; Murphy, Bernadette

    2017-04-01

    Scapular orientation is highly dependent on axioscapular muscle function. This study examined the impact of neck muscle fatigue on scapular and humeral kinematics in participants with and without subclinical neck pain (SCNP) during humeral elevation. Ten SCNP and 10 control participants performed three unconstrained trials of dominant arm humeral elevation in the scapular plane to approximately 120 degrees before and after neck extensor muscle fatigue. Three-dimensional scapular and humeral kinematics were measured during the humeral elevation trials. Humeral elevation plane angle showed a significant interaction between groups (SCNP vs controls) and trial (pre- vs post-fatigue) (p=0.001). Controls began the unconstrained humeral elevation task after fatigue in a more abducted position, (p=0.002). Significant baseline differences in scapular rotation existed between the two groups (Posterior/Anterior tilt, p=0.04; Internal/External Rotation, p=0.001). SCNP contributed to altered scapular kinematics. Neck muscle fatigue influenced humeral kinematics in controls but not the SCNP group; suggesting that altered scapular motor control in the SCNP group resulted in an impaired adaption further to the neck muscle fatigue. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of deep cervical flexor muscles training using pressure biofeedback on pain and disability of school teachers with neck pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Zaheen Ahmed; Rajan, Reena; Khan, Sohrab Ahmed; Alghadir, Ahmad H

    2013-06-01

    [Purpose] The job of secondary school teachers involves a lot of head down posture as frequent reading, assignment correction, computer use and writing on a board put them at risk of developing occupational related neck pain. Available studies of neck pain experienced by teachers are limited. The purpose of this study was to determine whether training of deep cervical flexor muscles with pressure biofeedback has any significant advantage over conventional training for pain and disability experienced by school teachers with neck pain. [Subjects] Thirty teachers aged 25-45 years with neck pain and poor craniocervical flexion test participated in this study. [Methods] A pretest posttest experimental group design was used in which experimental group has received training with pressure biofeedback and conventional exercises while control group received conventional exercises only. Measurements of dependent variables were taken at baseline, and after 2 and 4 weeks of training. Pain intensity was assessed using a numeric pain rating scale and functional disability was assessed using the neck disability index. [Results] The data analysis revealed that there was significant improvement in pain and disability in both the groups and the results were better in the experimental group. [Conclusion] Addition of pressure biofeedback for deep cervical flexor muscles training gave a better result than conventional exercises alone. Feedback helps motor learning which is the set of processes associated with practice or experience leading to permanent changes in ability to respond.

  15. Analysis of scapular muscle EMG activity in patients with idiopathic neck pain: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelein, Birgit; Cools, Ann; Bostyn, Emma; Delemarre, Jolien; Lemahieu, Trees; Cagnie, Barbara

    2015-04-01

    It is proposed that altered scapular muscle function can contribute to abnormal loading of the cervical spine. However, it is not clear if patients with idiopathic neck pain show altered activity of the scapular muscles. The aim of this paper was to systematically review the literature regarding the differences or similarities in scapular muscle activity, measured by electromyography ( = EMG), between patients with chronic idiopathic neck pain compared to pain-free controls. Case-control (neck pain/healthy) studies investigating scapular muscle EMG activity (amplitude, timing and fatigue parameters) were searched in Pubmed and Web of Science. 25 articles were included in the systematic review. During rest and activities below shoulder height, no clear differences in mean Upper Trapezius ( = UT) EMG activity exist between patients with idiopathic neck pain and a healthy control group. During overhead activities, no conclusion for scapular EMG amplitude can be drawn as a large variation of results were reported. Adaptation strategies during overhead tasks are not the same between studies. Only one study investigated timing of the scapular muscles and found a delayed onset and shorter duration of the SA during elevation in patients with idiopathic neck pain. For scapular muscle fatigue, no definite conclusions can be made as a wide variation and conflicting results are reported. Further high quality EMG research on scapular muscles (broader than the UT) is necessary to understand/draw conclusions on how scapular muscles react in the presence of idiopathic neck pain. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Femoral Neck Strain during Maximal Contraction of Isolated Hip-Spanning Muscle Groups

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saulo Martelli

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate femoral neck strain during maximal isometric contraction of the hip-spanning muscles. The musculoskeletal and the femur finite-element models from an elderly white woman were taken from earlier studies. The hip-spanning muscles were grouped by function in six hip-spanning muscle groups. The peak hip and knee moments in the model were matched to corresponding published measurements of the hip and knee moments during maximal isometric exercises about the hip and the knee in elderly participants. The femoral neck strain was calculated using full activation of the agonist muscles at fourteen physiological joint angles. The 5%±0.8% of the femoral neck volume exceeded the 90th percentile of the strain distribution across the 84 studied scenarios. Hip extensors, flexors, and abductors generated the highest tension in the proximal neck (2727 με, tension (986 με and compression (−2818 με in the anterior and posterior neck, and compression (−2069 με in the distal neck, respectively. Hip extensors and flexors generated the highest neck strain per unit of joint moment (63–67 με·m·N−1 at extreme hip angles. Therefore, femoral neck strain is heterogeneous and muscle contraction and posture dependent.

  17. Responses of Myosin Heavy Chain Phenotypes and Gene Expressions in Neck Muscle to Micro- an Hyper-Gravity in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohira, Tomotaka; Ohira, Takashi; Kawano, F.; Shibaguchi, T.; Okabe, H.; Ohno, Y.; Nakai, N.; Ochiai, T.; Goto, K.; Ohira, Y.

    2013-02-01

    Neck muscles are known to play important roles in the maintenance of head posture against gravity. However, it is not known how the properties of neck muscle are influenced by gravity. Therefore, the current study was performed to investigate the responses of neck muscle (rhomboideus capitis) in mice to inhibition of gravity and/or increase to 2-G for 3 months to test the hypothesis that the properties of neck muscles are regulated in response to the level of mechanical load applied by the gravitational load. Three male wild type C57BL/10J mice (8 weeks old) were launched by space shuttle Discovery (STS-128) and housed in Japanese Experimental Module “KIBO” on the International Space Station in mouse drawer system (MDS) project, which was organized by Italian Space Agency. Only 1 mouse returned to the Earth alive after 3 months by space shuttle Atlantis (STS-129). Neck muscles were sampled from both sides within 3 hours after landing. Cage and laboratory control experiments were also performed on the ground. Further, 3-month ground-based control experiments were performed with 6 groups, i.e. pre-experiment, 3-month hindlimb suspension, 2-G exposure by using animal centrifuge, and vivarium control (n=5 each group). Five mice were allowed to recover from hindlimb suspension (including 5 cage control) for 3 months in the cage. Neck muscles were sampled bilaterally before and after 3-month suspension and 2-G exposure, and at the end of 3-month ambulation recovery. Spaceflight-associated shift of myosin heavy chain phenotype from type I to II and atrophy of type I fibers were observed. In response to spaceflight, 17 genes were up-regulated and 13 genes were down-regulated vs. those in the laboratory control. Expression of 6 genes were up-regulated and that of 88 genes were down-regulated by 3-month exposure to 2-G vs. the age-matched cage control. In response to chronic hindlimb suspension, 4 and 20 genes were up- or down-regulated. Further, 98 genes responded

  18. Neuronal nitric oxide synthase is involved in the induction of nerve growth factor-induced neck muscle nociception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isaak, Andreas; Ellrich, Jens

    2011-05-01

    Neck muscle nociception mediated by nitric oxide may play a role in the pathophysiology of tension-type headache. The present study addresses the involvement of neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) in the facilitation of neck muscle nociception after local application of nerve growth factor (NGF). After administration of NGF into semispinal neck muscles, the impact of neck muscle noxious input on brainstem processing was monitored by the jaw-opening reflex in anesthetized mice. The modulatory effect of preceding and subsequent administration of an inhibitor of neuronal nitric oxide synthase on central facilitation was addressed in a controlled study. With preceding i.p. application of saline or 0.096 mg/kg of the specific nNOS inhibitor Nω-propyl-L-arginine (NPLA), NGF induced a sustained reflex facilitation within 60 minutes. Preceding injection of 0.96 mg/kg or 1.92 mg/kg NPLA completely prevented the potentially facilitatory effect of NGF. Subsequent administration of 0.96 mg/kg NPLA did not affect established NGF-evoked reflex facilitation. Thus, NPLA prevents facilitation of brainstem processing by noxious myofascial input from neck muscles in a dose-dependent manner. These findings suggest that nNOS is involved in the induction but not the maintenance of NGF-evoked facilitation of nociception in the brainstem. These results from an experimental animal model may support the idea of NOS and nNOS as potential targets for pharmacological treatment of tension-type headache. © 2011 American Headache Society.

  19. Investigation of the Effect of Neck Muscle Active Force on Whiplash Injury of the Cervical Spine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Yan

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present study is to investigate the influence of neck muscle activation on whiplash neck injury of the occupants of a passenger vehicle under different severities of frontal and rear-end impact collisions. The finite element (FE model has been used as a versatile tool to simulate and understand the whiplash injury mechanism for occupant injury prevention. However, whiplash injuries and injury mechanisms have rarely been investigated in connection with neck active muscle forces, which restricts the complete reappearance and understanding of the injury mechanism. In this manuscript, a mixed FE human model in a sitting posture with an active head-neck was developed. The response of the cervical spine under frontal and rear-end collision conditions was then studied using the FE model with and without neck muscle activation. The effect of the neck muscle activation on the whiplash injury was studied based on the results of the FE simulations. The results indicated that the neck active force influenced the head-neck dynamic response and whiplash injury during a collision, especially in a low-speed collision.

  20. Frequency response of vestibular reflexes in neck, back, and lower limb muscles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Forbes, P.A.; Dakin, C.J.; Vardy, A.N.; Happee, R.; Siegmund, G.P.; Schouten, Alfred Christiaan; Blouin, J.S.

    2013-01-01

    Vestibular pathways form short-latency disynaptic connections with neck motoneurons, whereas they form longer-latency disynaptic and polysynaptic connections with lower limb motoneurons. We quantified frequency responses of vestibular reflexes in neck, back, and lower limb muscles to explain

  1. Association between Neck/Shoulder Pain and Trapezius Muscle Tenderness in Office Workers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brandt, Mikkel; Sundstrup, Emil; Jakobsen, Markus D.

    2014-01-01

    Background. Neck/shoulder pain is a common musculoskeletal disorder among adults.The pain is often assumed to be related to muscular tenderness rather than serious chronic disease. Aim. To determine the association between neck/shoulder pain intensity and trapezius muscle tenderness in office wor...

  2. Effect of two contrasting types of physical exercise on chronic neck muscle pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars L; Kjaer, Michael; Søgaard, Karen

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The prevalence of neck muscle pain has steadily increased and especially pain from the descending part of the trapezius muscle has been associated with monotonous work tasks such as computer work. Physical exercise is generally recommended as treatment, but it is unclear which type...... for the affected muscle, general fitness training performed as leg bicycling with relaxed shoulders, or a reference intervention without physical activity. The main outcome measure was an acute and prolonged change in intensity of neck muscle pain (100-mm visual analog scale [VAS]). RESULTS: A decrease of 35 mm...

  3. Effect of two contrasting types of physical exercise on chronic neck muscle pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L.L.; Kjær, Michael; Søgaard, Kirsten

    2008-01-01

    Objective. The prevalence of neck muscle pain has steadily increased and especially pain from the descending part of the trapezius muscle has been associated with monotonous work tasks such as computer work. Physical exercise is generally recommended as treatment, but it is unclear which type...... for the affected muscle, general fitness training performed as leg bicycling with relaxed shoulders, or a reference intervention without physical activity. The main outcome measure was an acute and prolonged change in intensity of neck muscle pain (100-mm visual analog scale [VAS]). Results. A decrease of 35 mm...

  4. Effect of two contrasting types of physical exercise on chronic neck muscle pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, L.L.; Kjær, Michael; Søgaard, Kirsten

    2008-01-01

    of training is most effective. Our objective was to determine the effectiveness of specific strength training of the painful muscle versus general fitness training without direct involvement of the painful muscle (leg bicycling) on work-related neck muscle pain. Methods. We conducted a randomized controlled...... trial and recruited subjects from 7 workplaces characterized by monotonous jobs (e.g., computer-intensive work). Forty-eight employed women with chronic neck muscle pain (defined as a clinical diagnosis of trapezius myalgia) were randomly assigned to 10 weeks of specific strength training locally...

  5. Torque-EMG-velocity relationship in female workers with chronic neck muscle pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars L; Nielsen, Pernille K; Søgaard, Karen

    2008-01-01

    The present study investigated the effect of chronic neck muscle pain (defined as trapezius myalgia) on neck/shoulder muscle function during concentric, eccentric and static contraction. Forty-two female office workers with trapezius myalgia (MYA) and 20 healthy matched controls (CON) participated....... Isokinetic (-60, 60 and 180 degrees s(-1)) and static maximal voluntary shoulder abductions were performed in a Biodex dynamometer, and electromyography (EMG) obtained in the trapezius and deltoideus muscles. Muscle thickness in the trapezius was measured with ultrasound. Pain and perceived exertion were...... were not significantly different between the groups. While perceived exertion increased in both groups in response to the test (ppain increased in MYA only (ppainful...

  6. Experimental knee pain reduces muscle strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Marius; Mortensen, Sara Rosager; Aaboe, Jens

    2011-01-01

    Pain is the principal symptom in knee pathologies and reduced muscle strength is a common observation among knee patients. However, the relationship between knee joint pain and muscle strength remains to be clarified. This study aimed at investigating the changes in knee muscle strength following...... experimental knee pain in healthy volunteers, and if these changes were associated with the pain intensities. In a crossover study, 18 healthy subjects were tested on 2 different days. Using an isokinetic dynamometer, maximal muscle strength in knee extension and flexion was measured at angular velocities 0....... Knee pain reduced the muscle strength by 5 to 15% compared to the control conditions (P muscle strength was positively correlated to the pain intensity. Experimental knee pain significantly reduced knee extension...

  7. The influence of different sitting postures on head/neck posture and muscle activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caneiro, Joao Paulo; O'Sullivan, Peter; Burnett, Angus; Barach, Avi; O'Neil, David; Tveit, Orjan; Olafsdottir, Karolina

    2010-02-01

    To date the influence that specific sitting posture has on the head/neck posture and cervico-thoracic muscle activity has been insufficiently investigated. Therefore the aim of this study was to investigate whether three different thoraco-lumbar sitting postures affect head/neck posture and cervico-thoracic muscle activity. Twenty (10 men, 10 women) asymptomatic subjects were placed in 3 standardized thoraco-lumbar sitting postures (lumbo-pelvic, thoracic upright and slump) to investigate their influence on cervico-thoracic muscle activity and head/neck posture. There were significant differences in lumbar and thoracic curvatures in the 3 different sitting postures (Psitting was associated with greater head/neck flexion, anterior translation of the head (Psitting (P=0.001). Thoracic upright sitting showed increased muscle activity of thoracic erector spinae (TES) compared to slump and lumbo-pelvic postures (P=0.015). Upper trapezius (UT) demonstrated no significant difference in muscle activation in the 3 sitting postures (Psitting postures affect head/neck posture and cervico-thoracic muscle activity. It highlights the potential importance of thoraco-lumbar spine postural adjustment when training head/neck posture.

  8. Electromagnetic Head-And-Neck Hyperthermia Applicator: Experimental Phantom Verification and FDTD Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paulides, Margarethus M.; Bakker, Jurriaan F.; Rhoon, Gerard C. van

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: To experimentally verify the feasibility of focused heating in the neck region by an array of two rings of six electromagnetic antennas. We also measured the dynamic specific absorption rate (SAR) steering possibilities of this setup and compared these SAR patterns to simulations. Methods and Materials: Using a specially constructed laboratory prototype head-and-neck applicator, including a neck-mimicking cylindrical muscle phantom, we performed SAR measurements by electric field, Schottky-diode sheet measurements and, using the power-pulse technique, by fiberoptic thermometry and infrared thermography. Using phase steering, we also steered the SAR distribution in radial and axial directions. All measured distributions were compared with the predictions by a finite-difference time-domain-based electromagnetic simulator. Results: A central 50% iso-SAR focus of 35 ± 3 mm in diameter and about 100 ± 15 mm in length was obtained for all investigated settings. Furthermore, this SAR focus could be steered toward the desired location in the radial and axial directions with an accuracy of ∼5 mm. The SAR distributions as measured by all three experimental methods were well predicted by the simulations. Conclusion: The results of our study have shown that focused heating in the neck is feasible and that this focus can be effectively steered in the radial and axial directions. For quality assurance measurements, we believe that the Schottky-diode sheet provides the best compromise among effort, speed, and accuracy, although a more specific and improved design is warranted

  9. Neck Muscle Moment Arms Obtained In-Vivo from MRI: Effect of Curved and Straight Modeled Paths.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suderman, Bethany L; Vasavada, Anita N

    2017-08-01

    Musculoskeletal models of the cervical spine commonly represent neck muscles with straight paths. However, straight lines do not best represent the natural curvature of muscle paths in the neck, because the paths are constrained by bone and soft tissue. The purpose of this study was to estimate moment arms of curved and straight neck muscle paths using different moment arm calculation methods: tendon excursion, geometric, and effective torque. Curved and straight muscle paths were defined for two subject-specific cervical spine models derived from in vivo magnetic resonance images (MRI). Modeling neck muscle paths with curvature provides significantly different moment arm estimates than straight paths for 10 of 15 neck muscles (p straight lines to model muscle paths can lead to overestimating neck extension moment. However, moment arm methods for curved paths should be investigated further, as different methods of calculating moment arm can provide different estimates.

  10. Endurance and fatigue characteristics in the neck muscles during sub-maximal isometric test in patients with cervical radiculopathy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorsen, Marie; Abbott, Allan; Peolsson, Anneli; Dedering, Åsa

    2014-03-01

    The aim of the study was to compare myoelectric manifestation in neck muscle endurance and fatigue characteristics during sub-maximal isometric endurance test in patients with cervical radiculopathy and asymptomatic subjects. An additional aim was to explore associations between primary neck muscle endurance, myoelectric fatigability, and self-rated levels of fatigue, pain and subjective health measurements in patients with cervical radiculopathy. Muscle fatigue in the ventral and dorsal neck muscles was assessed in patients with cervical radiculopathy and in an asymptomatic group during an isometric neck muscle endurance test in prone and supine. 46 patients and 34 asymptomatic subjects participated. Surface electromyography signals were recorded from the sternocleidomastoid, cervical paraspinal muscles and upper and middle trapezius bilaterally during the endurance test. Subjective health measurements were assessed with questionnaires. The results showed altered neck muscle endurance in several of the muscles investigated with greater negative median frequency slope, greater variability, side imbalance, lower endurance time and higher experience of fatigue among the cervical radiculopathy patients compared with healthy subjects. Endurance times were significantly lower in both prone and in supine positions between the patients compared to asymptomatic subjects. During the neck muscle endurance test, fatigues in the upper trapezius muscles during the prone test and in the sternocleidomastoid muscles during the supine test were of more importance than self-perceived pain, fatigue, disability and kinesiophobia in predicting neck muscle endurance (NME). NME testing in the primary neck muscles seems to be an important factor to take into consideration in rehabilitation.

  11. The reliability of assessing sternocleidomastoid muscle length and strength in adults with and without mild neck pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cibulka, Michael T; Herren, Jessica; Kilian, Anne; Smith, Steven; Mahmutovic, Fatima; Dolles, Courtney

    2017-04-01

    The sternocleidomastoid (SCM) is an important cervical spine muscle. Weakness of the SCM muscle has been implicated with cervical problems. No studies have examined the reliability of assessing the SCM muscle length or strength. Also no studies exist that have looked to see if imbalances in SCM muscle length or strength exists between the left and right sides in those with and without neck pain. To determine the reliability of assessing the SCM muscle for length and strength and to see if SCM length could predict SCM strength in those with and without neck pain. Cross-sectional study. Fifty-one subjects with and without mild neck pain. Intratester reliability was assessed for SCM muscle length and SCM muscle strength. Differences in SCM length and strength were examined in those with and without neck pain. Intratester reliability was shown to be excellent (ICC (2,2) > 0.90) for the left and right SCM when assessing muscle length and muscle strength for those with and without neck pain. No differences were noted when comparing left to right SCM between those with and without neck pain regarding muscle length or muscle strength. Neither regression models were able to predict SCM muscle strength from SCM muscle length. SCM muscle length and SCM strength can be reliably assessed using a bubble goniometer and HHD. No differences were found when comparing left to right SCM muscle length or strength in those with or without mild neck pain.

  12. Effects of scapular stabilization exercise on neck posture and muscle activation in individuals with neck pain and forward head posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Im, Boyoung; Kim, Young; Chung, Yijung; Hwang, Sujin

    2016-03-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of scapular stabilization exercise on neck posture, muscle activity, pain, and quality of life in individuals with neck pain and forward head posture. [Subjects and Methods] Fifteen participants were recruited according to the selection criteria and were randomly allocated to the scapular stabilization group (n=8) and the control group (n=7). The scapular stabilization group underwent training for 30 minutes a day, 3 times a week for 4 weeks; the control group performed relaxation exercises for 4 weeks. [Results] After training the scapular stabilization group showed significant improvement on the craniovertebral angle, upper trapezius muscle activity, serratus anterior muscle activity, Neck Disability Index scores, Visual Analog Scale scores, and World Health Organization Quality of Life Assessment-BREF scores compared to those in the control group. [Conclusion] Scapular stabilization exercise can help improve the head posture and pain in the patients with neck pain and forward head posture. Controlling the muscular activities through scapular stabilization exercise also improves the patients' quality of life.

  13. Prevalence and anatomical location of muscle tenderness in adults with nonspecific neck/shoulder pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Lars L; Hansen, Klaus; Mortensen, Ole S; Zebis, Mette K

    2011-07-22

    Many adults experience bothersome neck/shoulder pain. While research and treatment strategies often focus on the upper trapezius, other neck/shoulder muscles may be affected as well. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the prevalence and anatomical location of muscle tenderness in adults with nonspecific neck/shoulder pain. Clinical neck/shoulder examination at two large office workplaces in Copenhagen, Denmark. 174 women and 24 men (aged 25-65 years) with nonspecific neck/shoulder pain for a duration of at least 30 days during the previous year and a pain intensity of at least 2 on a modified VAS-scale of 0-10 participated. Exclusion criteria were traumatic injuries or other serious chronic disease. Using a standardized finger pressure of 2 kg, palpable tenderness were performed of eight anatomical neck/shoulder locations in the left and right side on a scale of 'no tenderness', 'some tenderness' and 'severe tenderness'. In women, the levator scapulae, neck extensors and infraspinatus showed the highest prevalence of severe tenderness (18-30%). In comparison, the prevalence of severe tenderness in the upper trapezius, occipital border and supraspinatus was 13-19%. Severe tenderness of the medial deltoid was least prevalent (0-1%). In men, the prevalence of severe tenderness in the levator scapulae was 13-21%, and ranged between 0-8% in the remainder of the examined anatomical locations. A high prevalence of tenderness exists in several anatomical locations of the neck/shoulder complex among adults with nonspecific neck/shoulder pain. Future research should focus on several neck/shoulder muscles, including the levator scapulae, neck extensors and infraspinatus, and not only the upper trapezius. ISRCTN60264809.

  14. Prevalence and anatomical location of muscle tenderness in adults with nonspecific neck/shoulder pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background Many adults experience bothersome neck/shoulder pain. While research and treatment strategies often focus on the upper trapezius, other neck/shoulder muscles may be affected as well. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the prevalence and anatomical location of muscle tenderness in adults with nonspecific neck/shoulder pain. Methods Clinical neck/shoulder examination at two large office workplaces in Copenhagen, Denmark. 174 women and 24 men (aged 25-65 years) with nonspecific neck/shoulder pain for a duration of at least 30 days during the previous year and a pain intensity of at least 2 on a modified VAS-scale of 0-10 participated. Exclusion criteria were traumatic injuries or other serious chronic disease. Using a standardized finger pressure of 2 kg, palpable tenderness were performed of eight anatomical neck/shoulder locations in the left and right side on a scale of 'no tenderness', 'some tenderness' and 'severe tenderness'. Results In women, the levator scapulae, neck extensors and infraspinatus showed the highest prevalence of severe tenderness (18-30%). In comparison, the prevalence of severe tenderness in the upper trapezius, occipital border and supraspinatus was 13-19%. Severe tenderness of the medial deltoid was least prevalent (0-1%). In men, the prevalence of severe tenderness in the levator scapulae was 13-21%, and ranged between 0-8% in the remainder of the examined anatomical locations. Conclusions A high prevalence of tenderness exists in several anatomical locations of the neck/shoulder complex among adults with nonspecific neck/shoulder pain. Future research should focus on several neck/shoulder muscles, including the levator scapulae, neck extensors and infraspinatus, and not only the upper trapezius. Trial Registration ISRCTN60264809 PMID:21777478

  15. Prevalence and anatomical location of muscle tenderness in adults with nonspecific neck/shoulder pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mortensen Ole S

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many adults experience bothersome neck/shoulder pain. While research and treatment strategies often focus on the upper trapezius, other neck/shoulder muscles may be affected as well. The aim of the present study is to evaluate the prevalence and anatomical location of muscle tenderness in adults with nonspecific neck/shoulder pain. Methods Clinical neck/shoulder examination at two large office workplaces in Copenhagen, Denmark. 174 women and 24 men (aged 25-65 years with nonspecific neck/shoulder pain for a duration of at least 30 days during the previous year and a pain intensity of at least 2 on a modified VAS-scale of 0-10 participated. Exclusion criteria were traumatic injuries or other serious chronic disease. Using a standardized finger pressure of 2 kg, palpable tenderness were performed of eight anatomical neck/shoulder locations in the left and right side on a scale of 'no tenderness', 'some tenderness' and 'severe tenderness'. Results In women, the levator scapulae, neck extensors and infraspinatus showed the highest prevalence of severe tenderness (18-30%. In comparison, the prevalence of severe tenderness in the upper trapezius, occipital border and supraspinatus was 13-19%. Severe tenderness of the medial deltoid was least prevalent (0-1%. In men, the prevalence of severe tenderness in the levator scapulae was 13-21%, and ranged between 0-8% in the remainder of the examined anatomical locations. Conclusions A high prevalence of tenderness exists in several anatomical locations of the neck/shoulder complex among adults with nonspecific neck/shoulder pain. Future research should focus on several neck/shoulder muscles, including the levator scapulae, neck extensors and infraspinatus, and not only the upper trapezius. Trial Registration ISRCTN60264809

  16. Respiratory muscle endurance training reduces chronic neck pain: A pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wirth, B; Ferreira, T Duarte; Mittelholzer, M; Humphreys, B K; Boutellier, U

    2016-11-21

    Patients with chronic neck pain show also respiratory dysfunctions. To investigate the effects of respiratory muscle endurance training (RMET) on chronic neck pain. In this pilot study (single-subject design: 3 baseline measurements, 4 measurements during RMET), 15 neck patients (49.3 ± 13.7 years; 13 females) conducted 20 sessions of home-based RMET using a SpiroTiger® (normocapnic hyperpnoea). Maximal voluntary ventilation (MVV), maximal inspiratory (Pimax) and expiratory (Pemax) pressure were measured before and after RMET. Neck flexor endurance, cervical and thoracic mobility, forward head posture, chest wall expansion and self-assessed neck disability [Neck Disability Index (NDI), Bournemouth questionnaire] were weekly assessed. Repeated measure ANOVA (Bonferroni correction) compared the first and last baseline and the last measurement after RMET. RMET significantly increased MVV (p= 0.025), Pimax (p= 0.001) and Pemax (pneck pain. The underlying mechanisms, including blood gas analyses, need further investigation in a randomized controlled study.

  17. Does muscle morphology change in chronic neck pain patients? - A systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Pauw, R; Coppieters, I; Kregel, J; De Meulemeester, K; Danneels, L; Cagnie, B

    2016-04-01

    Neck pain is a common disabling worldwide health problem with a high socio-economic burden. Changes underlying the transition to, or the maintenance of a chronic state are still barely understood. Increasing evidence suggests that morphological muscle changes, including changes in cross-sectional area (CSA) or fatty infiltration, play a role in chronic neck pain. However, a structured overview of the current evidence of morphological changes is lacking. To systematically review the morphological muscle changes in patients with chronic neck pain, including those with whiplash-associated disorders (WAD) and chronic idiopathic neck pain. A systematic review using the PRISMA-guidelines. Fourteen of 395 papers were included after extensive screening. Most studies were of moderate methodological quality. A higher CSA was found in all flexor muscles in both patients with WAD and patients with chronic idiopathic neck pain, except for the deeper flexor muscles in patients with chronic idiopathic neck pain. The cervical extensor muscles show an increased CSA at the highest cervical segments in patients with WAD, while most studies in patients with chronic idiopathic neck pain report a decreased CSA in all extensor muscles. Fatty infiltration, which could be accountable for an increased CSA, of both cervical extensors and flexors seems to occur only in patients with WAD. Some evidence is available for changes in muscle morphology, however more high quality prospective and cross-sectional research is needed to confirm these changes and to identify potential underlying causes that need yet to be discovered. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Neck posture during lifting and its effect on trunk muscle activation and lumbar spine posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hlavenka, Thomas M; Christner, Vanessa F K; Gregory, Diane E

    2017-07-01

    Neck and head posture have been found to have a significant influence on the posture of the lower spine region during lifting and both an extended/upward gaze and a flexed/downward gaze have been hypothesized to lead to increased pain and/or overuse of the neck musculature. As a result, strength training recommendations have turned to the use of a retracted neck posture as being the safer posture to assume during lifting. This study examined trunk and neck muscle activity and lumbar spine posture in seven participants while performing moderate load lifts using a retracted neck posture (chin drawn in posteriorly; recently gaining popularity among coaches, trainers, and physical therapists to reduce neck pain during lifting, and freestyle neck posture (no instructions given). The retracted neck resulted in less lumbar spine flexion and increased lumbar erector spinae, external oblique, and sternocleidomastoid activity. The retracted posture also resulted in decreased activity in the thoracic erector spinae and dorsal neck musculature. The increased trunk and sternocleidomastoid activity and decreased spine flexion observed in the seven participants of this study when lifting with a retracted neck may have the potential to help lower the risk of spine pain/injury. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Short- and long-term effects of exercise on neck muscle function in cervical radiculopathy: A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halvorsen, Marie; Falla, Deborah; Gizzi, Leonardo; Harms-Ringdahl, Karin; Peolsson, Anneli; Dedering, Åsa

    2016-10-05

    To compare short- and long-term changes in neck muscle endurance, electromyography measures of neck muscle activation and fatigue and ratings of fatigue and pain after neck-specific training or physical activity in people with cervical radiculopathy. Randomized clinical trial. Seventy-five patients with cervical radiculopathy. Patients underwent neck-specific training in combination with a cognitive behavioural approach or prescribed physical activity over a period of 14 weeks. Immediately after the intervention and 12 months later, surface electromyography was recorded from neck flexor and extensor muscles during neck endurance tests. Time to task failure, amplitude and median frequency of the electromyography signal, and subjective fatigue and pain ratings were analysed in 50 patients who completed at least one follow-up. A significant increase in neck flexor endurance time was observed for both groups at 14 weeks compared with baseline and this was maintained at the 12-month follow-up (p < 0.005). No change was identified for the slope of the median frequency. For the neck-specific training group, splenius capitis was less active during neck flexion at both follow-ups (p < 0.01), indicating reduced muscle co-activation. Both specific and general exercise increased neck flexor endurance, but neck-specific training only reduced co-activation of antagonist muscles during sustained neck flexion.

  20. The Effects of Forward Head Posture on Neck Extensor Muscle Thickness: An Ultrasonographic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodarzi, Fereshte; Rahnama, Leila; Karimi, Noureddin; Baghi, Raziyeh; Jaberzadeh, Shapour

    2018-01-01

    This study aimed to compare neck extensor muscle thickness, thickness changes, and strength between participants with forward head posture (FHP) and controls with normal head posture (NHP). Twenty college students with FHP (mean age 21.30 ± 2.36 years) and 20 students with NHP (mean age 21.85 ± 2.78 years) participated in this case-control study. The thickness of neck extensor muscles was measured at rest and at maximal voluntary isometric contraction (MVIC). In addition, the craniovertebral angle (CVA) was calculated. To compare thickness changes between the 2 groups and among 5 muscles, a 2-way repeated measures analysis of variance was applied. In addition, Pearson's correlation test was performed to investigate the relationship between neck extensor MVIC and CVA. The FHP group demonstrated lower MVIC compared with the NHP group (P = .03). Semispinalis capitis showed the smallest thickness changes during neck extensor MVIC in FHP compared with the controls (P < .001). However, no significant difference in terms of muscle thickness was observed between the 2 groups at the state of rest (P = .16-.99). A positive association was also found between the MVIC and CVA (P = .02). Semispinalis capitis had less thickness changes during MVIC of neck extensors in individuals with FHP compared with those with NHP. This indirectly implies lower activity of this muscle in FHP condition. This study finding may help researchers develop therapeutic exercise protocols to manage FHP. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  1. Jaw Dysfunction Is Associated with Neck Disability and Muscle Tenderness in Subjects with and without Chronic Temporomandibular Disorders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Silveira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. Tender points in the neck are common in patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD. However, the correlation among neck disability, jaw dysfunction, and muscle tenderness in subjects with TMD still needs further investigation. This study investigated the correlation among neck disability, jaw dysfunction, and muscle tenderness in subjects with and without chronic TMD. Participants. Forty females between 19 and 49 years old were included in this study. There were 20 healthy controls and 20 subjects who had chronic TMD and neck disability. Methods. Subjects completed the neck disability index and the limitations of daily functions in TMD questionnaires. Tenderness of the masticatory and cervical muscles was measured using an algometer. Results. The correlation between jaw disability and neck disability was significantly high (r=0.915, P<0.05. The correlation between level of muscle tenderness in the masticatory and cervical muscles with jaw dysfunction and neck disability showed fair to moderate correlations (r=0.32–0.65. Conclusion. High levels of muscle tenderness in upper trapezius and temporalis muscles correlated with high levels of jaw and neck dysfunction. Moreover, high levels of neck disability correlated with high levels of jaw disability. These findings emphasize the importance of considering the neck and its structures when evaluating and treating patients with TMD.

  2. Changes of postural control and muscle activation pattern in response to external perturbations after neck flexor fatigue in young subjects with and without chronic neck pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Chih-Hsiu; Chien, Andy; Hsu, Wei-Li; Yen, Ling-Wei; Lin, Yang-Hua; Cheng, Hsin-Yi Kathy

    2015-03-01

    Previous studies have identified sensorimotor disturbances and greater fatigability of neck muscles in patients with neck pain. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of neck pain and neck flexor fatigue on standing balance following postural perturbations. Twenty patients with chronic neck pain (CNP) (24.7±3.6 year-old) and 20 age-matched asymptomatic subjects (22.1±2.2 year-old) were recruited. Subjects stood barefoot on a force plate and experienced backward perturbations before and after neck flexor fatigue. Center of pressure, electromyography of cervical and lumbar muscles, and head/trunk accelerations were recorded. Two-way ANOVA (pain×fatigue) was used for statistical analysis. CNP group showed larger body sway during quiet standing but not during perturbed standing compared with asymptomatic adults. In both groups, neck flexor fatigue resulted in greater body sway during the quiet standing but smaller body sway during perturbed standing, increased neck muscle activations and decreased lumbar muscle activations, as well as increased time to maximal head acceleration. Disturbed balance control was observed in CNP patients during the quiet standing. However, a rigid strategy was used to minimize the postural sway and to protect the head against backward perturbations in both CNP and asymptomatic young adults after neck flexor fatigue. The results facilitate the understanding of how the subjects with chronic neck pain and with neck muscle fatigue deal with the challenging condition. Further studies are needed to verify if such phenomenon could be changed after the intervention of specific flexor muscle retraining and balance control exercises. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Neck muscle fatigue alters the cervical flexion relaxation ratio in sub-clinical neck pain patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zabihhosseinian, Mahboobeh; Holmes, Michael W R; Ferguson, Brad; Murphy, Bernadette

    2015-06-01

    The cervical flexion relaxation ratio is lower in neck pain patients compared to healthy controls. Fatigue modulates the onset and offset angles of the silent period in both the lumbar and cervical spine in healthy individuals; however, this response has not been studied with neck pain patients. The purpose of this study was to determine if cervical extensor fatigue would alter the parameters of the cervical flexion relaxation more in a neck pain group than a healthy control group. Thirteen healthy and twelve neck pain patients participated. Cervical extensor activity was examined bilaterally and kinematics of the neck and head were collected. An isometric, repetitive neck extension task at 70% of maximum elicited fatigue. Participants performed 3 trials of maximal cervical flexion both pre and post fatigue. The healthy controls and neck pain groups fatigued after 56 (41) and 39 (31) repetitions, respectively. There was a significant interaction effect for the flexion relaxation ratio between the control and neck pain groups from pre to post fatigue trials (F1,96=22.67, P=0.0001), but not for onset and offset angles (F1, 96=0.017, P=0.897), although the onset and offset angles did decrease significantly for both groups following fatigue (F1,96=9.26, P=0.002). Individuals with mild to moderate neck pain have significant differences in their neuromuscular control relative to controls, experienced myoelectric fatigue with fewer repetitions in a shorter time, had a lower cervical flexion relaxation ratio at baseline and had an inability to decrease this ratio further in response to fatigue. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Cervical-scapular muscles strength and severity of temporomandibular disorder in women with mechanical neck pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Pasinato

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction: Changes in cervical muscle function have been observed in patients with neck pain (NP and TMD. However, the relationship between TMD severity and neck muscle strength in the presence/absence of NP is unknown. Objective: To determine the prevalence of TMD in women with and without mechanical NP and assess the cervical-scapular muscle strength and its association with TMD severity. Methods: Fifteen volunteers without neck pain (CG and 14 women with mechanical neck pain (NPG took part and were selected by the Neck Disability Index. The diagnosis and severity of TMD were determined by the Research Diagnostic Criteria for TMD and Temporomandibular Index (TI, respectively. The strength of the upper trapezius muscle, and cervical flexor and extensor muscles was measured by digital hand dynamometer. Results: 64.5% of women with NP and 33.3% without NP were diagnosed with TMD (p = 0.095. The NPG showed lower strength of the cervical flexor (p = 0.044 and extensor (p=0.006 muscles, and higher TI (p = 0.038 than in the CG. It was also verified moderate negative correlation between TI and the strength of dominant (p = 0.046, r = -0.547 and non-dominant (p = 0.007, r = -0.695 upper trapezius, and cervical flexors (p = 0.023, r = -0.606 in the NPG. Conclusion: There was no difference in the prevalence of TMD in women with and without NP. However, women with NP have lower cervical muscle strength - compared to those without NP - which was associated with greater severity of TMD. Thus, in women with NP associated with TMD, it is advisable to assess and address the severity of this dysfunction and identify the cervical-scapular muscles compromise.

  5. Differential Activation of the Dorsal Neck Muscles During a Light Arm-Elevation Task in Patients With Chronic Nonspecific Neck Pain and Asymptomatic Controls: An Ultrasonographic Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baghi, Raziyeh; Rahnama, Leila; Karimi, Noureddin; Goodarzi, Fereshte; Rezasoltani, Asghar; Jaberzadeh, Shapour

    2017-07-01

    Disturbance in neck muscle function is a well-known complication of chronic nonspecific neck pain (CNNP). It is, however, unclear which muscles are more susceptible to functional impairment in patients with CNNP during upper limb tasks. To compare ultrasonographic changes in dorsal neck muscles thickness in patients with CNNP and asymptomatic controls while they performed a light load upper-limb movement. Case control. University research laboratory. Twenty individuals with CNNP with a mean age of 23.35 ± 2.94 and 20 asymptomatic controls with a mean age of 22.30 ± 2.86, without any history of cervical diskopathy, fracture, trauma, inflammation, and spinal deformity were recruited for this study. Ultrasonographic measurement of dorsal neck muscles thickness was performed during a light load 3-second arm-elevation task (shoulder scaption to 120°) in the 2 groups. Associations between pain intensity and patients' perceived disability and between pain intensity and muscle thickness also were evaluated at the state of rest. The thickness changes of the dorsal neck muscles throughout the arm elevation were calculated. The pain intensity and the patient's perceived disability also were measured. A significant main effect of muscle activity status was revealed for the multifidus and semispinalis cervicis and the splenius capitis, indicating an increase in their thickness throughout the arm elevation (P < .001). The only muscle that showed a difference between groups was the multifidus (P = .007). Direct associations between pain and disability (r = .48, P = .03) and between pain and multifidus thickness (r = -.49, P = .03) also were observed. The deteriorating effect of CNNP on the neck muscles targets the deep layer of the dorsal neck muscles (ie, the multifidus) more than the superficial muscles during light upper-limb tasks. III. Copyright © 2017 American Academy of Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Efficacy of kinesiology tape versus postural correction exercises on neck disability and axioscapular muscles fatigue in mechanical neck dysfunction: A randomized blinded clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Abd, Aliaa M; Ibrahim, Abeer R; El-Hafez, Haytham M

    2017-04-01

    Mechanical neck dysfunction (MND), with axioscapular muscles fatigue, is highly prevalent worldwide. While postural correction is commonly used for its treatment, efficacy of kinesiology tape (KT) has received considerable attention. To determine the effectiveness of KT versus correction exercises on neck disability, and axioscapular muscles fatigue in MND patients. 46 MND patients were randomly assigned into 1 of 2 groups receiving 4 weeks treatment of either KT or correction exercises. Neck disability and axioscapular muscles fatigue as median frequency of electromyography (EMG-MF) were measured pre and post treatment. Group-by-time interaction was not significant in the multivariable test. Post hoc tests revealed that KT produced more disability reduction than the postural exercises. However, there was no significant interaction for EMG-MF. KT has been found to be more effective than postural exercises to reduce neck disability. However, both modalities have similar effects to reduce axioscapular muscles fatigue. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Jaw dysfunction is associated with neck disability and muscle tenderness in subjects with and without chronic temporomandibular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, A; Gadotti, I C; Armijo-Olivo, S; Biasotto-Gonzalez, D A; Magee, D

    2015-01-01

    Tender points in the neck are common in patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD). However, the correlation among neck disability, jaw dysfunction, and muscle tenderness in subjects with TMD still needs further investigation. This study investigated the correlation among neck disability, jaw dysfunction, and muscle tenderness in subjects with and without chronic TMD. Participants. Forty females between 19 and 49 years old were included in this study. There were 20 healthy controls and 20 subjects who had chronic TMD and neck disability. Subjects completed the neck disability index and the limitations of daily functions in TMD questionnaires. Tenderness of the masticatory and cervical muscles was measured using an algometer. The correlation between jaw disability and neck disability was significantly high (r = 0.915, P dysfunction and neck disability showed fair to moderate correlations (r = 0.32-0.65). High levels of muscle tenderness in upper trapezius and temporalis muscles correlated with high levels of jaw and neck dysfunction. Moreover, high levels of neck disability correlated with high levels of jaw disability. These findings emphasize the importance of considering the neck and its structures when evaluating and treating patients with TMD.

  8. Effect of abdominal and pelvic floor tasks on muscle activity, abdominal pressure and bladder neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junginger, Baerbel; Baessler, Kaven; Sapsford, Ruth; Hodges, Paul W

    2010-01-01

    Although the bladder neck is elevated during a pelvic floor muscle (PFM) contraction, it descends during straining. This study aimed to investigate the relationship between bladder neck displacement, electromyography (EMG) activity of the pelvic floor and abdominal muscles and intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) during different pelvic floor and abdominal contractions. Nine women without PFM dysfunction performed maximal, gentle and moderate PFM contractions, maximal and gentle transversus abdominis (TrA) contractions, bracing, Valsalva and head lift. Bladder neck position was assessed with perineal ultrasound. PFM and abdominal muscle activities were recorded with a vaginal probe and fine-wire electrodes, respectively. IAP was recorded with a rectal balloon. Bladder neck elevation only occurred during PFM and TrA contractions. PFM EMG and IAP increased during all tasks from 0.5 (gentle TrA) to 45.7 cmH2O (maximal Valsalva). Bladder neck elevation was only observed when the activity of PFM EMG was high relative to the IAP increase.

  9. The Role of Neck Muscle Activities on the Risk of Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in American Football.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Xin; Feng, Zhaoying; Mika, Valerie; Li, Haiyan; Viano, David C; Yang, King H

    2017-10-01

    Concussion, or mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI), is frequently associated with sports activities. It has generally been accepted that neck strengthening exercises are effective as a preventive strategy for reducing sports-related concussion risks. However, the interpretation of the link between neck strength and concussion risks remains unclear. In this study, a typical helmeted head-to-head impact in American football was simulated using the head and neck complex finite element (FE) model. The impact scenario selected was previously reported in lab-controlled incident reconstructions from high-speed video footages of the National Football League using two head-neck complexes taken from Hybrid III dummies. Four different muscle activation strategies were designed to represent no muscle response, a reactive muscle response, a pre-activation response, and response due to stronger muscle strength. Head kinematics and various head/brain injury risk predictors were selected as response variables to compare the effects of neck muscles on the risk of sustaining the concussion. Simulation results indicated that active responses of neck muscles could effectively reduce the risk of brain injury. Also, anticipatory muscle activation played a dominant role on impact outcomes. Increased neck strength can decrease the time to compress the neck and its effects on reducing brain injury risks need to be further studied.

  10. Effect of brief daily resistance training on rapid force development in painful neck and shoulder muscles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jay, Kenneth; Schraefel, Mc; Andersen, Christoffer H

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the effect of small daily amounts of progressive resistance training on rapid force development of painful neck/shoulder muscles. METHODS: 198 generally healthy adults with frequent neck/shoulder muscle pain (mean: age 43.1 years, computer use 93% of work time, 88% women......, duration of pain 186 day during the previous year) were randomly allocated to 2- or 12 min of daily progressive resistance training with elastic tubing or to a control group receiving weekly information on general health. A blinded assessor took measures at baseline and at 10-week follow-up; participants...... relationship existed between changes in rapid force development and pain (r = 0.27, Presistance training in adults with frequent neck/shoulder pain increases rapid force development and...

  11. Dystonic neck muscles show a shift in relative autospectral power during isometric contractions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Bruijn, E.; Nijmeijer, S. W. R.; Forbes, P. A.; Koelman, J. H. T. M.; Van Der Helm, F. C. T.; Tijssen, M. A. J.; Happee, R.

    2017-01-01

    Objective: To identify effects of a deviant motor drive in the autospectral power of dystonic muscles during voluntary contraction in cervical dystonia patients. Methods: Submaximal (20%) isometric head-neck tasks were performed with the head fixed, measuring surface EMG of the sternocleidomastoid,

  12. Activation of Neck and Low-Back Muscles Is Reduced with the Use of a Neck Balance System Together with a Lumbar Support in Urban Drivers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Menotti

    Full Text Available Driving is associated with high activation of low-back and neck muscles due to the sitting position and perturbations imposed by the vehicle. The aim of this study was to investigate the use of a neck balance system together with a lumbar support on the activation of low-back and neck muscles during driving. Twelve healthy male subjects (age 32±6.71 years were asked to drive in two conditions: 1 with devices; 2 without devices. During vehicle accelerations and decelerations root mean square (RMS of surface electromyography (sEMG was recorded from the erector spinae, semispinalis capitis and sternocleidomastoid muscles and expressed as a percentage of maximal voluntary contraction (MVC. The pitch of the head was obtained by means of an inertial sensor placed on the subjects' head. A visual analog scale (VAS was used to assess the level of perceived comfort. RMS of the low back muscles was lower with than without devices during both acceleration and deceleration of the vehicle (1.40±0.93% vs 29 2.32±1.90% and 1.88±1.45% vs 2.91±2.33%, respectively, while RMS of neck extensor muscles was reduced only during acceleration (5.18±1.96% vs 5.91±2.16%. There were no differences between the two conditions in RMS of neck flexor muscles, the pitch of the head and the VAS score. The use of these two ergonomic devices is therefore effective in reducing the activation of low-back and neck muscles during driving with no changes in the level of perceived comfort, which is likely due to rebalancing weight on the neck and giving a neutral position to lumbar segments.

  13. Dry needling of the trapezius muscle in office workers with neck pain: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cerezo-Téllez, Ester; Lacomba, María Torres; Fuentes-Gallardo, Isabel; Mayoral Del Moral, Orlando; Rodrigo-Medina, Beatriz; Gutiérrez Ortega, Carlos

    2016-09-01

    Neck pain is a frequent complaint in office workers. This pain can be caused by myofascial trigger points (MTrPs) in the trapezius muscle. This study aimed to determine the effectiveness of deep dry needling (DDN) of active MTrPs in the trapezius muscle. A randomized, single blinded clinical trial was carried out at the Physical Therapy Department at Physiotherapy in Women's Health Research Group at Physical Therapy Department of University of Alcalá, in Alcalá de Henares, Madrid, Spain. Forty-four office workers with neck pain and active MTrPs in the trapezius muscle were randomly allocated to either the DDN or the control group (CG). The participants in the DDN group were treated with DDN of all MTrPs found in the trapezius muscle. They also received passive stretch of the trapezius muscle. The CG received the same passive stretch of the trapezius muscle only. The primary outcome measure was subjective pain intensity, measured using a visual analogue scale (VAS). Secondary outcomes were pressure pain threshold (PPT), cervical range of motion (CROM) and muscle strength. Data were collected at baseline, after interventions and 15 days after the last treatment. Differences were found between the DDN group and the CG for the VAS (P dry needling and passive stretch seems to be more effective than passive stretch only. The effects are maintained in the short term. The results support the use of DDN in the management of trapezius muscle myofascial pain syndrome in neck pain.

  14. Effect of cycling on oxygenation of relaxed neck/shoulder muscles in women with and without chronic pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Lars L; Blangsted, Anne Katrine; Nielsen, Pernille Kofoed

    2010-01-01

    -maximal cycling in an upright position with relaxed shoulders. Near-infrared spectroscopy was used to measure trapezius muscle oxygenation during and 2 min after the cycling period. For both MYA and CON, oxygenation of the passive trapezius increased in a linear fashion over time, to values approximately 5 micro...... increases oxygenation of resting neck/shoulder muscles in women with and without trapezius myalgia, indicating acute positive effects of either neural or humoral factors on vascular beds of distant relaxed muscles. Although this beneficial response was observed in both groups, the post-exercise response......Work-related neck/shoulder muscle pain has been associated with increased anaerobic muscle metabolism. Thus, interventions to enhance oxygenation of painful muscles seem relevant. While cycling with relaxed shoulders has been shown to result in acute neck/shoulder muscle pain reduction, the effect...

  15. Electromyographic fatigue in neck/shoulder muscles and endurance in women with repetitive work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansson, G A; Strömberg, U; Larsson, B; Ohlsson, K; Balogh, I; Moritz, U

    1992-11-01

    EMG was recorded with surface electrodes from the trapezius and deltoid muscles during a static endurance test at approximately 20% of maximal voluntary contraction. Objective parameters for localized muscular fatigue were derived from the time course of the root mean square (RMS) and mean power frequency (MPF) of the EMG recordings. Isotonic regression is introduced as a tool for assessment of such parameters. The most pronounced sign of fatigue for trapezius was an increase in the RMS values, while for deltoid it was a decrease in the MPF values. This could be explained by the different functions of the two muscles. The endurance time for a group of 11 women in industrial work with repetitive short-cycled work tasks who were diagnosed with neck/shoulder disorders (tension neck) was significantly shorter (p less than 0.05) than for a group with the same work, but without neck/shoulder disorders (n = 11), and shorter than for a control group (n = 11). Regarding the EMG fatigue measures, there were no significant differences between the three groups. We did not find any relationships between endurance time and the EMG parameters. The results indicate that neck/shoulder disorders were not associated with divergent mechanisms for developing fatigue in the muscles, as recorded with surface EMG.

  16. Clinimetric evaluation of methods to measure muscle functioning in patients with non-specific neck pain: a systematic review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smits-Engelsman Bouwien CM

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neck pain is a significant health problem in modern society. There is evidence to suggest that neck muscle strength is reduced in patients with neck pain. This article provides a critical analysis of the research literature on the clinimetric properties of tests to measure neck muscle strength or endurance in patients with non-specific neck pain, which can be used in daily practice. Methods A computerised literature search was performed in the Medline, CINAHL and Embase databases from 1980 to January 2007. Two reviewers independently assessed the clinimetric properties of identified measurement methods, using a checklist of generally accepted criteria for reproducibility (inter- and intra-observer reliability and agreement, construct validity, responsiveness and feasibility. Results The search identified a total of 16 studies. The instruments or tests included were: muscle endurance tests for short neck flexors, craniocervical flexion test with an inflatable pressure biofeedback unit, manual muscle testing of neck musculature, dynamometry and functional lifting tests (the cervical progressive iso-inertial lifting evaluation (PILE test and the timed weighted overhead test. All the articles included report information on the reproducibility of the tests. Acceptable intra- and inter-observer reliability was demonstrated for t enduranctest for short neck flexors and the cervical PILE test. Construct validity and responsiveness have hardly been documented for tests on muscle functioning. Conclusion The endurance test of the short neck flexors and the cervical PILE test can be regarded as appropriate instruments for measuring different aspects of neck muscle function in patients with non-specific neck pain. Common methodological flaws in the studies were their small sample size and an inappropriate description of the study design.

  17. Immediate and Short-Term Effects of Upper Thoracic Manipulation on Myoelectric Activity of Sternocleidomastoid Muscles in Young Women With Chronic Neck Pain: A Randomized Blind Clinical Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pires, Paulo Fernandes; Packer, Amanda Carine; Dibai-Filho, Almir Vieira; Rodrigues-Bigaton, Delaine

    2015-10-01

    The aim of this study was to assess the immediate and short-term effects of upper thoracic spine manipulation on pain intensity and myoelectric activity of the sternocleidomastoid muscles in young women with chronic neck pain. A randomized clinical trial was carried out involving 32 women with chronic neck pain (mean age, 24.8 ± 5.4 years) allocated to an experimental group and a placebo group. Three evaluations were carried out: baseline, immediate postintervention, and short-term postintervention (48-72 hours after intervention). Myoelectric activity of the right and left sternocleidomastoid muscles was assessed at rest and during isometric contractions for cervical flexion and elevation of the shoulder girdle. Neck pain intensity was assessed at rest using a visual analog scale. Comparisons of the data were performed using 2-way repeated-measures analysis of variance with the Bonferroni correction. The level of significance was set at P 0.40). No statistically significant differences were found for any of the variables analyzed in the intergroup comparisons at the different evaluation times (P > .05). No statistically significant differences were found in the intragroup or intergroup analyses of the experimental and placebo groups regarding myoelectric activity of the cervical muscles or the intensity of neck pain at rest in the immediate or short-term postintervention evaluations. Copyright © 2015 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Discrete wavelet transform analysis of surface electromyography for the fatigue assessment of neck and shoulder muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chowdhury, Suman Kanti; Nimbarte, Ashish D; Jaridi, Majid; Creese, Robert C

    2013-10-01

    Assessment of neuromuscular fatigue is essential for early detection and prevention of risks associated with work-related musculoskeletal disorders. In recent years, discrete wavelet transform (DWT) of surface electromyography (SEMG) has been used to evaluate muscle fatigue, especially during dynamic contractions when the SEMG signal is non-stationary. However, its application to the assessment of work-related neck and shoulder muscle fatigue is not well established. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to establish DWT analysis as a suitable method to conduct quantitative assessment of neck and shoulder muscle fatigue under dynamic repetitive conditions. Ten human participants performed 40min of fatiguing repetitive arm and neck exertions while SEMG data from the upper trapezius and sternocleidomastoid muscles were recorded. The ten of the most commonly used wavelet functions were used to conduct the DWT analysis. Spectral changes estimated using power of wavelet coefficients in the 12-23Hz frequency band showed the highest sensitivity to fatigue induced by the dynamic repetitive exertions. Although most of the wavelet functions tested in this study reasonably demonstrated the expected power trend with fatigue development and recovery, the overall performance of the "Rbio3.1" wavelet in terms of power estimation and statistical significance was better than the remaining nine wavelets. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Use of the Teres Major Muscle in Chimeric Subscapular System Free Flaps for Head and Neck Reconstruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomlinson, Andrew R; Jameson, Mark J; Pagedar, Nitin A; Schoeff, Stephen S; Shearer, A Eliot; Boyd, Nathan H

    2015-09-01

    We present what we believe to be the first case series in which the teres major muscle is used as a free flap in head and neck reconstruction. To describe our experience with the teres major muscle in free flap reconstruction of head and neck defects and to identify advantages of this approach. A retrospective review was performed at 2 tertiary care centers between February 1, 2007, and June 30, 2012. Data analysis was conducted from July 31, 2014, through December 1, 2014. Teres major muscle free flap for use in head and neck reconstruction. Indications for use, complications, and outcomes including donor site morbidity. The teres major free flap was used in 11 patients as a component of chimeric subscapular system free flaps for a variety of complex head and neck defects. The teres major muscle was used to fill soft-tissue defects of the neck, face, and nasal cavity; it provided substantial soft-tissue volume but was less bulky than the latissimus dorsi muscle. The teres major muscle was also used to provide protection for vascular anastomoses and/or great vessels and to enhance soft-tissue coverage of the mandibular reconstruction plate. In addition, the muscle was selected as a substrate for skin grafting where inadequate neck skin remained. Flap survival occurred in 10 of 11 flaps (91%). Two flaps (18%) demonstrated venous congestion that was managed successfully. Two patients (18%) developed minor recipient-site complications (submental fistula and infection with recurrent wound dehiscence and plate exposure). All donor sites healed well, with chronic, mild shoulder pain noted in 2 patients (18%) and no postoperative seromas observed in any patient. Addition of the teres major muscle to a subscapular system free flap is an option for reconstruction of a variety of complex head and neck defects, particularly when a moderate amount of soft tissue is required. In select cases, the teres major muscle may have advantages over the latissimus dorsi muscle.

  20. Physical Workload On Neck And Shoulder Muscles During Military Helicopter Flight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murray, Mike; Lange, Britt; Olsen, Henrik Baare

    PHYSICAL WORKLOAD ON NECK AND SHOULDER MUSCLES DURING MILITARY HELICOPTER FLIGHT Murray M, 1, Lange B, 2, Olsen H.B, 1, Søgaard K, 1, Sjøgaard G, 1 1Institute of Sports Science and Clinical Biomechanics, University of Southern Denmark, DK 2Department of Anesthesia and Intensive Care Medicine......, Odense University Hospital, DK E-mail: mmurray@health.sdu.dk AIM: Flight-related neck/shoulder pain is common among military helicopter pilots and crew members. During flight, the flight helmet and additional Night Vision Goggles (NVG) pose a considerable load on the cervical spine. The aim of this study...... was to quantify the physical workload on the cervical muscles during flight with and without NVG. METHODS: Nine pilots and nine crew members participated in this study. Before a flight, one pilot and one crew member were equipped with 6 wireless electromyography sensors, positioned bilaterally above trapezius m...

  1. Cranio-cervical flexor muscle impairment at maximal, moderate, and low loads is a feature of neck pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Leary, Shaun; Jull, Gwendolen; Kim, Mehwa; Vicenzino, Bill

    2007-02-01

    Impairment of the cranio-cervical flexor (CCF) muscles is a feature of painful cervical spine disorders. The aim of this study was to investigate if CCF muscle impairment is present over a range of contraction intensities (maximal, moderate, low) in neck pain sufferers compared to individuals with no history of neck pain. Isometric CCF muscle strength (isometric maximal voluntary contraction (MVC)), and endurance at moderate (50% of MVC), and low (20% of MVC) loads was compared in 46 participants with neck pain (Neck Disability Index (NDI): mean+/-SD; 22.8+/-5.2) and 47 control participants (NDI: 2.6+/-2.6). Compared to the control group, the neck pain group had a significant deficit (15.9%, P=0.037) in their MVC peak torque recordings, as well as a significantly reduced capacity to sustain isometric CCF muscle contractions to task failure at 20% of MVC (35% deficit, P=0.03) and 50% of MVC (27% deficit, P=0.002). Neck pain participants also demonstrated poorer accuracy in maintaining their MVC(20) contraction at the nominated isometric CCF torque amplitude (P=0.02), compared to control participants. It would appear that impairment in isometric CCF muscle performance exists over a range of contraction intensities in neck pain sufferers, which may benefit from specific therapeutic intervention.

  2. Contributions of muscle fatigue to a neuromuscular neck injury in female ballroom dancers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCabe, Teri R; Hopkins, J Ty; Vehrs, Pat; Draper, David O

    2013-06-01

    To investigate the etiology of a loss-of-control neck injury in international modern (IM) dancesport dancers. A comparison to identify if dancers with neck injury have a greater decrease in median frequency in electromyography (EMG) than non-injured dancers. Twenty female subjects (mean age 21.6 ± 3.0 yrs, height 167.1 ± 4.3 cm, weight 59.1 ± 5.2 kg, mean BMI 21.1 ± 1.2) with minimum 1-year experience in competitive IM dancesport. measurements: EMG activity from the left upper trapezius, left splenius capitius, and right sternocleidomastoid muscles before and after dancing the five IM dances. Extension, lateral flexion, and neck length were also measured. There was no significant difference in all measurements. Although we did not find the etiology of this neck injury, this was the first research into this injury. Future research could study the different IM dances, compare different competition levels, or the amount of force placed on the neck when dancing.

  3. The intra- and inter-rater reliability of five clinical muscle performance tests in patients with and without neck pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background This study investigates the reliability of muscle performance tests using cost- and time-effective methods similar to those used in clinical practice. When conducting reliability studies, great effort goes into standardising test procedures to facilitate a stable outcome. Therefore, several test trials are often performed. However, when muscle performance tests are applied in the clinical setting, clinicians often only conduct a muscle performance test once as repeated testing may produce fatigue and pain, thus variation in test results. We aimed to investigate whether cervical muscle performance tests, which have shown promising psychometric properties, would remain reliable when examined under conditions similar to those of daily clinical practice. Methods The intra-rater (between-day) and inter-rater (within-day) reliability was assessed for five cervical muscle performance tests in patients with (n = 33) and without neck pain (n = 30). The five tests were joint position error, the cranio-cervical flexion test, the neck flexor muscle endurance test performed in supine and in a 45°-upright position and a new neck extensor test. Results Intra-rater reliability ranged from moderate to almost perfect agreement for joint position error (ICC ≥ 0.48-0.82), the cranio-cervical flexion test (ICC ≥ 0.69), the neck flexor muscle endurance test performed in supine (ICC ≥ 0.68) and in a 45°-upright position (ICC ≥ 0.41) with the exception of a new test (neck extensor test), which ranged from slight to moderate agreement (ICC = 0.14-0.41). Likewise, inter-rater reliability ranged from moderate to almost perfect agreement for joint position error (ICC ≥ 0.51-0.75), the cranio-cervical flexion test (ICC ≥ 0.85), the neck flexor muscle endurance test performed in supine (ICC ≥ 0.70) and in a 45°-upright position (ICC ≥ 0.56). However, only slight to fair agreement was found for the neck extensor test (ICC

  4. Patterns of experimentally induced pain in pericranial muscles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt-Hansen, Peter Thede; Svensson, Peter; Jensen, Troels Staehelin

    2006-01-01

    Nociceptive mechanisms in the craniofacial muscle tissue are poorly understood. The pain pattern in individual pericranial muscles has not been described before. Experimental muscle pain was induced by standardized infusions of 0.2 ml 1 m hypertonic saline into six craniofacial muscles (masseter...... (VAS) and the perceived area of pain was drawn on anatomical maps. The pain areas were measured and the localization determined by a new centre-of-gravity method. The PPTs were lowest on the sternocleidomastoid muscle (anova: P ... into the masseter muscle (anova: P muscles had significantly different patterns of spread and referral of pain according to trigeminally vs...

  5. Impaired trunk muscle function in sub-acute neck pain: etiologic in the subsequent development of low back pain?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moseley, G Lorimer

    2004-08-01

    Low back pain (LBP) and neck pain are associated with dysfunction of the trunk and neck muscles, respectively, and may involve common or similar mechanisms. In both cases, dysfunction may compromise spinal control. Anecdotally, neck pain patients commonly develop LBP. This study investigated the possibility that trunk muscle function is compromised in neck pain patients and that compromised trunk muscle function is associated with increased risk of LBP. Fifty-four neck pain patients and 52 controls were assessed on an abdominal drawing-in task (ADIT) and on self-report tests. Performance on the ADIT was able to detect neck pain patients with 85% sensitivity and 73% specificity. Catastrophizing and McGill pain questionnaire (affective) scores were higher in patients with an abnormal task response than in patients with an uncertain or normal response, although the self-report data did not predict task performance. Fifty subjects from each group were contactable by telephone at 2 years. They were asked whether they had experienced persistent or recurrent LBP since the assessment. Subjects (patients and controls) who obtained an abnormal response on the ADIT were 3 to 6 times more likely to develop persistent or recurrent LBP than those who obtained an uncertain or normal response. ADIT performance was the main predictor of development of LBP in patients. The results suggest that reduced voluntary trunk muscle control in neck pain patients is associated with an increased risk of developing LBP.

  6. Relationships among head posture, pain intensity, disability and deep cervical flexor muscle performance in subjects with postural neck pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arun V. Subbarayalu, PhD

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Information Technology (IT professionals working with computers gradually develop forward head posture and, as a result, these professionals are susceptible to several neck disorders. This study intended to reveal the relationships between pain intensity, disability, head posture and deep cervical flexor (DCF muscle performance in patients with postural neck pain. Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted on 84 IT professionals who were diagnosed with postural neck pain. The participants were recruited with a random sampling approach. A Visual Analogue Scale (VAS, the Northwick Park Neck Pain Questionnaire (NPQ, the Modified Head Posture Spinal Curvature Instrument (MHPSCI, and the Stabilizer Pressure Biofeedback Unit were used to measure neck pain intensity, neck disability, head posture, and DCF muscle performance, respectively. Results: The Pearson correlation coefficient revealed a significantly strong positive relationship between the VAS and the NPQ (r = 0.734. The cranio-vertebral (CV angle was found to have a significantly negative correlation with the VAS (r = −0.536 and a weak negative correlation with the NPQ (r = −0.389. Conclusion: This study concluded that a smaller CV angle corresponded to greater neck pain intensity and disability. Furthermore, there is no significant relationship between CV angle and DCF muscle performance, indicating that head posture re-education through postural correction exercises would not completely correct the motor control deficits in DCF muscles. In addition, a suitable exercise regimen that exclusively targets the deep cervical flexor muscle to improve its endurance is warranted. Keywords: Craniovertebral angle, Disability deep cervical flexors muscle performance, Head posture, Postural neck pain

  7. Comparison of Cervical Extensor Muscles Thickness in Females with Chronic Nonspecific Neck Pain and Healthy Individuals by Ultrasonography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raziyeh Baghi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Neck pain is one of the most common musculoskeletal disorders. Structural and functional alteration of cervical muscles is a commonly-reported complication of chronic neck pain (CNP. Measurement of muscle thickness is an acceptable way to evaluate muscle morphological structure. Therefore, this study aimed to measure cervical extensor muscles thickness in individuals with chronic nonspecific neck pain and healthy controls using ultrasonography so as to evaluate structural differences between the 2 groups. Materials & Methods:  A total of 30 female volunteers (15 individuals with nonspecific CNP and 15 controls participated in this casual comparative  study. Thickness of cervical extensor muscles, including multifidus, semispinalis cervicis, semispinalis capitis, splenius capitis, and upper trapezius at the level of the forth cervical vertebrae were measured using ultrasonography in resting position. Independent t test was performed to analyze the data by using the spss 20 software. Results: The thicknesses of cervical multifidus and semispinalis cervicis muscles in patients with CNP were smaller than those of controls with P=0.03 and P=0.01, respectively. There were no significant differences between two groups regarding the thicknesses of semispinalis capitis, splenius capitis, and upper trapezius muscles (P>0.05. Conclusion: Reduced multifidus and semispinalis cervicis thickness seen in the present study indicates deep neck extensor muscles atrophy and weakness in patients with neck pain. However, there were no differences between two groups with regard to superficial muscles thicknesses. Accordingly, exercise therapy for deep muscles should be considered in the management of patients with nonspecific CNP.

  8. Are Ultrasonographic Measures of Cervical Flexor Muscles Correlated With Flexion Endurance in Chronic Neck Pain and Asymptomatic Participants?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghamkhar, Leila; Kahlaee, Amir Hossein

    2017-12-01

    This study compared the relationship between some clinical factors and the size of neck flexors in participants with or without chronic neck pain. In this case-control study, the correlation between flexor endurance capacity as well as thickness, cross-section area, and shape ratio of longus colli/capitis and sternocleidomastoid muscles were examined in 30 patients with chronic neck pain and 30 asymptomatic participants. The patients showed lower flexor endurance (P = 0.02), smaller thickness (P = 0.03), and cross-section area (P neck pain. In the control group, flexor endurance was negatively correlated with longus colli shape ratio (r = -0.45, P = 0.01) but positively correlated with longus capitis thickness (r = 0.45, P = 0.01) and cross-section area (r = 0.38, P = 0.03). Neck disability and pain intensity indices were not significantly correlated with either flexor muscles endurance or size. The ultrasonographic measures of the deep neck flexor muscles and the flexor endurance test, being associated with each other, could successfully differentiate patients with chronic neck pain from asymptomatic participants. However, the endurance test scores were not correlated with self-reported disability or pain intensity indices.

  9. A comparison of muscle activity in using touchscreen smartphone among young people with and without chronic neck-shoulder pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yanfei; Szeto, Grace P Y; Dai, Jie; Madeleine, Pascal

    2016-01-01

    This study aimed to examine differences in muscle activity between young people with and without neck-shoulder pain (n = 20 in each group), when they performed texting on a smartphone. Texting was compared between using both hands ('bilateral texting') and with only one hand ('unilateral texting'). Texting tasks were also compared with computer typing. Surface electromyography from three proximal postural muscles and four distal hand/thumb muscles on the right side was recorded. Compared with healthy controls, young people with neck-shoulder pain showed altered motor control consisting of higher muscle activity in the cervical erector spinae and upper trapezius when performing texting and typing tasks. Generally, unilateral texting was associated with higher muscle loading compared with bilateral texting especially in the forearm muscles. Compared with computer typing, smartphone texting was associated with higher activity in neck extensor and thumb muscles but lower activity in upper and lower trapezius as well as wrist extensors. This study demonstrated that symptomatic individuals had increased muscle activity in the neck–shoulder region when texting on a smartphone. Contemporary ergonomic guidelines should include advice on how to interact with handheld electronic devices to achieve a relaxed posture and reduced muscle load in order to reduce the risk of musculoskeletal disorders.

  10. Internal fixation and muscle pedicle bone grafting in femoral neck fractures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gupta A

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The treatment of displaced intracapsular femoral neck fracture is still an unsolved problem. Non-union and avascular necrosis are the two main complications of this fracture, especially if patient presents late. Muscle pedicle bone grafting has been advocated to provide additional blood supply. We present analysis of our 32 cases of displaced femoral neck fracture treated by internal fixation and quadratus femoris based muscle pedicle bone grafting. Materials and Methods: Open reduction and internal fixation with muscle pedicle grafting was done in 32 patients. The age of patients varied from 14-62 years (average age 45 years with male to female ratio of 13:3. Twenty-nine fractures were more than three weeks old. All the cases were treated by Meyers′ procedure. The fracture was internally fixed after open reduction and then a muscle pedicle graft was applied. It was supplemented by cancellous bone graft in seven cases. Fixation was done by parallel cancellous lag screws ( n = 19, crossed Garden′s screws ( n = 7, parallel Asnis screws ( n = 5 and Moore′s pin ( n = 1.Quadratus femoris muscle pedicle graft was used in 32 cases. In the initial 12 cases the graft was fixed with circumferential proline sutures, but later, to provide a secure fixation, the graft was fixed with a cancellous screw ( n = 20. Postoperative full weight bearing was deferred to an average of 10 weeks. Results: Union was achieved in 26/29 (89.65% cases which could be followed for an average period of 3.4 years, (2-8.5 years with good functional results and had the ability to squat and sit cross-legged. Results were based on hip rating system given by Salvatti and Wilson. The results were excellent in 15 cases, good in four cases, fair in four cases and poor in six cases. Complications were avascular necrosis ( n = 2, transient foot drop ( n = 2, coxa-vara ( n = 1 and temporary loss of scrotal sensation ( n = 1. Conclusion: Muscle pedicle bone grafting with

  11. Neck Flexor and Extensor Muscle Endurance in Subclinical Neck Pain: Intrarater Reliability, Standard Error of Measurement, Minimal Detectable Change, and Comparison With Asymptomatic Participants in a University Student Population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lourenço, Ana S; Lameiras, Carina; Silva, Anabela G

    2016-01-01

    The aims of this study were to assess intrarater reliability and to calculate the standard error of measurement (SEM) and minimal detectable change (MDC) for deep neck flexor and neck extensor muscle endurance tests, and compare the results between individuals with and without subclinical neck pain. Participants were students of the University of Aveiro reporting subclinical neck pain and asymptomatic participants matched for sex and age to the neck pain group. Data on endurance capacity of the deep neck flexors and neck extensors were collected by a blinded assessor using the deep neck flexor endurance test and the extensor endurance test, respectively. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs), SEM, and MDC were calculated for measurements taken within a session by the same assessor. Differences between groups for endurance capacity were investigated using a Mann-Whitney U test. The deep neck flexor endurance test (ICC = 0.71; SEM = 6.91 seconds; MDC = 19.15 seconds) and neck extensor endurance test (ICC = 0.73; SEM = 9.84 minutes; MDC = 2.34 minutes) are reliable. No significant differences were found between participants with and without neck pain for both tests of muscle endurance (P > .05). The endurance capacity of the deep neck flexors and neck extensors can be reliably measured in participants with subclinical neck pain. However, the wide SEM and MDC might limit the sensitivity of these tests. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  12. Neck and shoulder muscle activity and posture among helicopter pilots and crew-members during military helicopter flight

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murray, Mike; Lange, Britt; Chreiteh, Shadi Samir

    2016-01-01

    for normalization of EMG (MVE). Neck posture of pilots and crew-members was monitored and pain intensity of neck, shoulder, and back was recorded. Mean muscle activity for UNE was ∼10% MVE and significantly higher than TRA and SCM, and SCM was significantly lower than TRA. There was no significant difference...... between AB-NVG and AB+NVG. Muscle activity in the UNE was significantly higher during SAR+NVG than AB-NVG. Sortie time (%) with non-neutral neck posture for SAR+NVG and AB-NVG was: 80.4%, 74.5% (flexed), 55.5%, 47.9% (rotated), 4.5%, 3.7% (lateral flexed). Neck pain intensity increased significantly from...

  13. Lasting improvements in left spatial neglect following a protocol combining neck-muscle vibration and voluntary arm movements: a case-study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceyte, Hadrien; Beis, Jean-Marie; Simon, Mathilde; Rémy, Ariane; Anxionnat, René; Paysant, Jean; Caudron, Sébastien

    2018-01-22

    Beyond promising experimental results of sensory passive stimulations in spatial cognition disorders, some questions still remain regarding interests of these stimulations during the daily activities in neglect. The aim of this case-study was to evaluate the effects of a protocol combining left neck-muscle vibration with daily simple movements, like arm pointing movements, on perceptivo-locomotor deficits in a left spatial neglect patient. Two neuropsychological tests, one subjective straight-ahead pointing (SSA) test and one wheelchair navigation test were carried out before the combination protocol, immediately after, 1 h later, and 24 h later. The results showed a reduction of neglect spatial bias following the protocol lasted at least 24 h in all the tests (except for the SSA test due to the unavailability of the pointing device). The range of improvements in the symptoms of spatial neglect suggests that this therapeutic intervention based on the combining neck-muscle vibration to voluntary arm movements could be a useful treatment for this condition. One of future investigation axes should be the development of a vibratory tool in order to facilitate the combining this proprioceptive stimulation to daily activities. Implications for rehabilitation Spatial neglect is a perplexing neuropsychological syndrome, affecting different domains of spatial cognition and impacting also the functional domain. The treatments based on neck-muscle vibration are simple to use, non-invasive and requires none active participation of patient. A therapeutic intervention based on the combining left neck-muscle vibration and voluntary arm movements in a left-spatial-neglect show a lasting reduction of symptoms especially in daily activities. The combination of treatments based on the Bottom-Up approach opens innovative perspectives in rehabilitation.

  14. Evaluation of Driver-vehicle Matching using Neck Muscle Activity and Vehicle Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iwamoto, Yoshiki; Umetsu, Daisuke; Ozaki, Shigeru

    Objective measurement of a car driver's feeling has been a subject of automobile researches. In the present study, we aimed at quantifying the matching between the physiological response of a driver and the vehicle motion. Assuming that the performance of a head stabilization mechanism, the vestibulo-collic reflex, affects driving feeling, we recorded the activity of neck muscles that help maintain the head position. Electromyograms (EMGs) were recorded from the sternocleidomastoid muscles (SCM) using active electrodes and a compact amplifier. Vehicle acceleration and gas pedal movement were recorded with small accelerometers. Subjects were required to perform straight-line acceleration. Four road cars with different characteristics were used. EMG signals were filtered, full-wave rectified and averaged across trials. Main results are summarized as follows. First, the EMG response of a driver's neck muscle depended not only on vehicle acceleration but on its time derivative, jerk. A quantitative analysis showed that, for the data obtained with the four cars, the EMG profile can be reproduced by a linear sum of acceleration and jerk. The correlation coefficient, an index of goodness of matching, ranged from ~0.8 to ~0.95. Second, our analysis indicated that the relationship between the muscle response and the vehicle motion can be characterized by two parameters: the optimal weight for the jerk term and the optimal time lag. The current study proposes a method for characterizing a physiological response of a driver to dynamic vehicle motion. It remains to be investigated whether these parameters are related to the driving feeling.

  15. Comparison Between Neck and Shoulder Stiffness Determined by Shear Wave Ultrasound Elastography and a Muscle Hardness Meter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akagi, Ryota; Kusama, Saki

    2015-08-01

    The goals of this study were to compare neck and shoulder stiffness values determined by shear wave ultrasound elastography with those obtained with a muscle hardness meter and to verify the correspondence between objective and subjective stiffness in the neck and shoulder. Twenty-four young men and women participated in the study. Their neck and shoulder stiffness was determined at six sites. Before the start of the measurements, patients rated their present subjective symptoms of neck and shoulder stiffness on a 6-point verbal scale. At all measurement sites, the correlation coefficients between the values of muscle hardness indices determined by the muscle hardness meter and shear wave ultrasound elastography were not significant. Furthermore, individuals' subjective neck and shoulder stiffness did not correspond to their objective symptoms. These results suggest that the use of shear wave ultrasound elastography is essential to more precisely assess neck and shoulder stiffness. Copyright © 2015 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Notebook computer use with different monitor tilt angle: effects on posture, muscle activity and discomfort of neck pain users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiou, Wen-Ko; Chou, Wei-Ying; Chen, Bi-Hui

    2012-01-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the posture, muscle activities, and self reported discomforts of neck pain notebook computer users on three monitor tilt conditions: 100°, 115°, and 130°. Six subjects were recruited in this study to completed typing tasks. Results showed subjects have a trend to show the forward head posture in the condition that monitor was set at 100°, and the significant less neck and shoulder discomfort were noted in the condition that monitor was set at 130°. These result suggested neck pain notebook user to set their monitor tilt angle at 130°.

  17. Functional variation of neck muscles and their relation to feeding style in Tyrannosauridae and other large theropod dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snively, Eric; Russell, Anthony P

    2007-08-01

    Reconstructed neck muscles of large theropod dinosaurs suggest influences on feeding style that paralleled variation in skull mechanics. In all examined theropods, the head dorsiflexor m. transversospinalis capitis probably filled in the posterior dorsal concavity of the neck, for a more crocodilian- than avian-like profile in this region. The tyrannosaurine tyrannosaurids Daspletosaurus and Tyrannosaurus had relatively larger moment arms for latero-flexion by m. longissimus capitis superficialis and m. complexus than albertosaurine tyrannosaurids, and longer dorsiflexive moment arms for m. complexus. Areas of dorsiflexor origination are significantly larger relative to neck length in adult Tyrannosaurus rex than in other tyrannosaurids, suggesting relatively large muscle cross-sections and forces. Tyrannosaurids were not particularly specialized for neck ventro-flexion. In contrast, the hypothesis that Allosaurus co-opted m. longissimus capitis superficialis for ventro-flexion is strongly corroborated. Ceratosaurus had robust insertions for the ventro-flexors m. longissimus capitis profundus and m. rectus capitis ventralis. Neck muscle morphology is consistent with puncture-and-pull and powerful shake feeding in tyrannosaurids, relatively rapid strikes in Allosaurus and Ceratosaurus, and ventroflexive augmentation of weaker jaw muscle forces in the non tyrannosaurids. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  18. Laboratory prototype for experimental validation of MR-guided radiofrequency head and neck hyperthermia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paulides, M. M.; Bakker, J. F.; Hofstetter, L. W.; Numan, W. C. M.; Pellicer, R.; Fiveland, E. W.; Tarasek, M.; Houston, G. C.; van Rhoon, G. C.; Yeo, D. T. B.; Kotek, G.

    2014-05-01

    Clinical studies have established a strong benefit from adjuvant mild hyperthermia (HT) to radio- and chemotherapy for many tumor sites, including the head and neck (H&N). The recently developed HYPERcollar allows the application of local radiofrequency HT to tumors in the entire H&N. Treatment quality is optimized using electromagnetic and thermal simulators and, whenever placement risk is tolerable, assessed using invasively placed thermometers. To replace the current invasive procedure, we are investigating whether magnetic resonance (MR) thermometry can be exploited for continuous and 3D thermal dose assessment. In this work, we used our simulation tools to design an MR compatible laboratory prototype applicator. By simulations and measurements, we showed that the redesigned patch antennas are well matched to 50 Ω (S11W input power, a maximum specific absorption rate (SAR) of 100 W kg-1 and a temperature increase of 4.5 °C in 6 min is feasible at the center of a cylindrical fat/muscle phantom. Temperature measurements using the MR scanner confirmed the focused heating capabilities and MR compatibility of the setup. We conclude that the laboratory applicator provides the possibility for experimental assessment of the feasibility of hybrid MR-HT in the H&N region. This versatile design allows rigorous analysis of MR thermometry accuracy in increasingly complex phantoms that mimic patients' anatomies and thermodynamic characteristics.

  19. Quantify work load and muscle functional activation patterns in neck-shoulder muscles of female sewing machine operators using surface electromyogram.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fei-Ruo; He, Li-Hua; Wu, Shan-Shan; Li, Jing-Yun; Ye, Kang-Pin; Wang, Sheng

    2011-11-01

    Work-related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) have high prevalence in sewing machine operators employed in the garment industry. Long work duration, sustained low level work and precise hand work are the main risk factors of neck-shoulder disorders for sewing machine operators. Surface electromyogram (sEMG) offers a valuable tool to determine muscle activity (internal exposure) and quantify muscular load (external exposure). During sustained and/or repetitive muscle contractions, typical changes of muscle fatigue in sEMG, as an increase in amplitude or a decrease as a shift in spectrum towards lower frequencies, can be observed. In this paper, we measured and quantified the muscle load and muscular activity patterns of neck-shoulder muscles in female sewing machine operators during sustained sewing machine operating tasks using sEMG. A total of 18 healthy women sewing machine operators volunteered to participate in this study. Before their daily sewing machine operating task, we measured the maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) and 20%MVC of bilateral cervical erector spinae (CES) and upper trapezius (UT) respectively, then the sEMG signals of bilateral UT and CES were monitored and recorded continuously during 200 minutes of sustained sewing machine operating simultaneously which equals to 20 time windows with 10 minutes as one time window. After 200 minutes' work, we retest 20%MVC of four neck-shoulder muscles and recorded the sEMG signals. Linear analysis, including amplitude probability distribution frequency (APDF), amplitude analysis parameters such as roof mean square (RMS) and spectrum analysis parameter as median frequency (MF), were used to calculate and indicate muscle load and muscular activity of bilateral CES and UT. During 200 minutes of sewing machine operating, the median load for the left cervical erector spinae (LCES), right cervical erector spinae (RCES), left upper trapezius (LUT) and right upper trapezius (RUT) were 6.78%MVE, 6.94%MVE, 6

  20. The influence of experimentally induced pain on shoulder muscle activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, L.P.; Winther, A.; Dyhre-Poulsen, P.

    2009-01-01

    Muscle function is altered in painful shoulder conditions. However, the influence of shoulder pain on muscle coordination of the shoulder has not been fully clarified. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of experimentally induced shoulder pain on shoulder muscle function. Eleven...... healthy men (range 22-27 years), with no history of shoulder or cervical problems, were included in the study. Pain was induced by 5% hypertonic saline injections into the supraspinatus muscle or subacromially. Seated in a shoulder machine, subjects performed standardized concentric abduction (0A degrees...... that acute pain both subacromially and in the supraspinatus muscle modulates coordination of the shoulder muscles during voluntary movements. During painful conditions, an increased activity was detected in the antagonist (latissimus), which support the idea that localized pain affects muscle activation...

  1. The influence of experimentally induced pain on shoulder muscle activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, L.P.; Winther, A.; Dyhre-Poulsen, P.

    2009-01-01

    Muscle function is altered in painful shoulder conditions. However, the influence of shoulder pain on muscle coordination of the shoulder has not been fully clarified. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of experimentally induced shoulder pain on shoulder muscle function. Eleven...... that acute pain both subacromially and in the supraspinatus muscle modulates coordination of the shoulder muscles during voluntary movements. During painful conditions, an increased activity was detected in the antagonist (latissimus), which support the idea that localized pain affects muscle activation...... in a way that protects the painful structure. Further, the changes in muscle activity following subacromial pain induction tend to expand the subacromial space and thereby decrease the load on the painful structures Udgivelsesdato: 2009/4...

  2. The influence of experimentally induced pain on shoulder muscle activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diederichsen, Louise Pyndt; Winther, Annika; Dyhre-Poulsen, Poul; Krogsgaard, Michael R; Nørregaard, Jesper

    2009-04-01

    Muscle function is altered in painful shoulder conditions. However, the influence of shoulder pain on muscle coordination of the shoulder has not been fully clarified. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of experimentally induced shoulder pain on shoulder muscle function. Eleven healthy men (range 22-27 years), with no history of shoulder or cervical problems, were included in the study. Pain was induced by 5% hypertonic saline injections into the supraspinatus muscle or subacromially. Seated in a shoulder machine, subjects performed standardized concentric abduction (0 degrees -105 degrees) at a speed of approximately 120 degrees/s, controlled by a metronome. During abduction, electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded by intramuscular wire electrodes inserted in two deeply located shoulder muscles and by surface-electrodes over six superficially located shoulder muscles. EMG was recorded before pain, during pain and after pain had subsided and pain intensity was continuously scored on a visual analog scale (VAS). During abduction, experimentally induced pain in the supraspinatus muscle caused a significant decrease in activity of the anterior deltoid, upper trapezius and the infraspinatus and an increase in activity of lower trapezius and latissimus dorsi muscles. Following subacromial injection a significantly increased muscle activity was seen in the lower trapezius, the serratus anterior and the latissimus dorsi muscles. In conclusion, this study shows that acute pain both subacromially and in the supraspinatus muscle modulates coordination of the shoulder muscles during voluntary movements. During painful conditions, an increased activity was detected in the antagonist (latissimus), which support the idea that localized pain affects muscle activation in a way that protects the painful structure. Further, the changes in muscle activity following subacromial pain induction tend to expand the subacromial space and thereby decrease the load

  3. Influence of Cervical Muscle Fatigue on Musculo-Tendinous Stiffness of the Head-Neck Segment during Cervical Flexion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Portero, Raphaël; Quaine, Franck; Cahouet, Violaine; Léouffre, Marc; Servière, Christine; Portero, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine if the fatigue of cervical muscles has a significant influence on the head-neck segment musculo-tendinous stiffness. Ten men (aged 21.2 ± 1.9 years) performed four quick-release trials of flexion at 30 and 50% MVC before and after the induction of muscular fatigue on cervical flexors. Electromyographic activity was recorded on the sternocleidomastoids (SCM) and spinal erectors (SE), bilaterally. Musculo-tendinous stiffness was calculated through the quick-release method adapted to the head-neck segment. We noticed a significant linear increase of the head-neck segment musculo-tendinous stiffness with the increase of exertion level both before (P fatigue procedure (P fatigue procedure. EMG analysis revealed a significant increase of the root mean square for the right SCM (P = 0.0002), the left SCM (P fatigue. We did not find significant changes in the head-neck segment musculo-tendinous stiffness with fatigue of cervical muscles. We found a significant increase in EMG activity in the SCM and the SE after the induction of fatigue of the SCM. Our findings suggest that with fatigue of cervical flexors, neck muscle activity is modulated in order to maintain the musculo-tendinous stiffness at a steady state.

  4. Reorganization of muscle synergies during multidirectional reaching in the horizontal plane with experimental muscle pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muceli, Silvia; Falla, Deborah; Farina, Dario

    2014-04-01

    Muscle pain induces a complex reorganization of the motor strategy which cannot be fully explained by current theories. We tested the hypothesis that the neural control of muscles during reaching in the presence of nociceptive input is determined by a reorganization of muscle synergies with respect to control conditions. Muscle pain was induced by injection of hypertonic saline into the anterior deltoid muscle of eight men. Electromyographic (EMG) signals were recorded from 12 upper limb muscles as subjects performed a reaching task before (baseline) and after the injection of hypertonic (pain) saline, and after the pain sensation vanished. The EMG envelopes were factorized in muscle synergies, and activation signals extracted for each condition. Nociceptive stimulation resulted in a complex muscle reorganization without changes in the kinematic output. The anterior deltoid muscle activity decreased in all subjects while the changes in other muscles were subject specific. Three synergies sufficed to describe the EMG patterns in each condition, suggesting that reaching movements remain modular in the presence of experimental pain. Muscle reorganization in all subjects was accompanied by a change in the activation signals compatible with a change in the central drive to muscles. One, two or three synergies were shared between the baseline and painful conditions, depending on the subject. These results indicate that nociceptive stimulation may induce a reorganization of modular control in reaching. We speculate that such reorganization may be due to the recruitment of synergies specific to the painful condition.

  5. Braided artificial muscles: modeling and experimental validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dragan, Liliana; Cioban, Horia

    2009-01-01

    The paper presents a few graphical modalities for constructing the double helical braid, which is the basis for the braided artificial pneumatic muscles, by using specialized software applications. This represents the first stage in achieving the method of finite element analysis of this type of linear pneumatic actuator.

  6. The influence of experimentally induced pain on shoulder muscle activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Diederichsen, L.P.; Winther, A.; Dyhre-Poulsen, P.

    2009-01-01

    muscles. EMG was recorded before pain, during pain and after pain had subsided and pain intensity was continuously scored on a visual analog scale (VAS). During abduction, experimentally induced pain in the supraspinatus muscle caused a significant decrease in activity of the anterior deltoid, upper......-105A degrees) at a speed of approximately 120A degrees/s, controlled by a metronome. During abduction, electromyographic (EMG) activity was recorded by intramuscular wire electrodes inserted in two deeply located shoulder muscles and by surface-electrodes over six superficially located shoulder...... trapezius and the infraspinatus and an increase in activity of lower trapezius and latissimus dorsi muscles. Following subacromial injection a significantly increased muscle activity was seen in the lower trapezius, the serratus anterior and the latissimus dorsi muscles. In conclusion, this study shows...

  7. An analysis of the activity and muscle fatigue of the muscles around the neck under the three most frequent postures while using a smartphone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Jung-Hyun; Jung, Min-Ho; Yoo, Kyung-Tae

    2016-05-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to identify changes in the activity and fatigue of the splenius capitis and upper trapezius muscles, which are agonists to the muscles supporting the head, under the three postures most frequently adopted while using a smartphone. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects were 15 college students in their 20s. They formed a single group and had to adopt three different postures (maximum bending, middle bending, and neutral). While the 15 subjects maintained the postures, muscle activity and fatigue were measured using surface electromyography. [Results] Comparison of the muscle fatigue caused by each posture showed statistically significant differences for the right splenius capitis, left splenius capitis, and left upper trapezius muscles. In addition, maintaining the maximum bending posture while using a smartphone resulted in higher levels of fatigue in the right splenius capitis, left splenius capitis, and left upper trapezius muscles compared with those for the middle bending posture. [Conclusion] Therefore, this study suggests that individuals should bend their neck slightly when using a smartphone, rather than bending it too much, or keep their neck straight to reduce fatigue of the cervical erector muscles.

  8. An Electromagnetic Head and Neck Hyperthermia Applicator: experimental phantom verification and FDTD model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.M. Paulides (Maarten); J.F. Bakker (Jurriaan); G.C. van Rhoon (Gerard)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractPurpose: To experimentally verify the feasibility of focused heating in the neck region by an array of two rings of six electromagnetic antennas. We also measured the dynamic specific absorption rate (SAR) steering possibilities of this setup and compared these SAR patterns to

  9. The Effect of Dry Needling on Range of Motion of Neck Lateral Flexion in Subjects With Active Trigger Point in Upper Trapezius Muscle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ziaeifar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background Myofascial trigger point is one of the most common causes of musculoskeletal disorders. Myofascial trigger point in upper trapezius has been reported as a symptom in patients with neck and upper thoracic pain. Objectives The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of dry needling compared with ischemic pressure on trigger point in upper trapezius muscle. Materials and Methods 28 subjects with myofascial trigger point in upper trapezius participated in this study. The subjects were randomly assigned to two groups: dry needling (n = 13 and ischemic pressure (n = 15. The neck lateral flexion range of motion was measured before and after treatment in both groups using a standard goniometer. Paired t-test was used to determine any significant difference in range of motion after treatment sessions compared with pre-treatment score in control and experimental group. Analysis of Covariance (ANCOVA was calculated to determine the significance of differences between the control and experimental groups in post-test scores, with pre-treatment scores used as covariates in the analysis. Results Statistical analysis (paired t-test revealed significant increase in neck lateral flexion range of motion in contra-lateral side after treatment sessions in control and experimental group compared with pre-treatment score (P < 0.05. However, only dry needling was effective in increase of range of motion in Ipsi-lateral side (P = 0.001. In the ANCOVA, controlling for pre-test scores, no significant difference was found between the two groups in the after treatment sessions (P = 0.06 and (P = 0.15. Conclusions The application of DN produces an improvement in ILF and CLF can be prescribed for subjects with MTP in UT muscles.

  10. Cervical joint position sense in neck pain. Immediate effects of muscle vibration versus mental training interventions: a RCT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beinert, K; Preiss, S; Huber, M; Taube, W

    2015-12-01

    Impaired cervical joint position sense is a feature of chronic neck pain and is commonly argued to rely on abnormal cervical input. If true, muscle vibration, altering afferent input, but not mental interventions, should have an effect on head repositioning acuity and neck pain perception. The aim of the present study was to determine the short-term effects of neck muscle vibration, motor imagery, and action observation on cervical joint position sense and pressure pain threshold in people with chronic neck pain. Forty-five blinded participants with neck pain received concealed allocation and were randomized in three treatment groups. A blinded assessor performed pre- and post-test measurement. Patients were recruited from secondary outpatient clinics in the southwest of Germany. Chronic, non specific neck pain patients without arm pain were recruited for this study. A single intervention session of 5 minutes was delivered to each blinded participant. Patients were either allocated to one of the following three interventions: (1) neck muscle vibration; (2) motor imagery; (3) action observation. Primary outcomes were cervical joint position sense acuity and pressure pain threshold. Repeated measures ANOVAs were used to evaluate differences between groups and subjects. Repositioning acuity displayed significant time effects for vibration, motor imagery, and action observation (all P<0.05), but revealed no time*group effect. Pressure pain threshold demonstrated a time*group effect (P=0.042) as only vibration significantly increased pressure pain threshold (P=0.01). Although motor imagery and action observation did not modulate proprioceptive, afferent input, they nevertheless improved cervical joint position sense acuity. This indicates that, against the common opinion, changes in proprioceptive input are not prerequisite to improve joint repositioning performance. However, the short-term applications of these cognitive treatments had no effect on pressure pain

  11. Experimental quadriceps muscle pain impairs knee joint control during walking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Marius; Alkjaer, Tine; Lund, Hans

    2007-01-01

    Pain is a cardinal symptom in musculoskeletal diseases involving the knee joint, and aberrant movement patterns and motor control strategies are often present in these patients. However, the underlying neuromuscular mechanisms linking pain to movement and motor control are unclear. To investigate...... the functional significance of muscle pain on knee joint control during walking, three-dimensional gait analyses were performed before, during, and after experimentally induced muscle pain by means of intramuscular injections of hypertonic saline (5.8%) into vastus medialis (VM) muscle of 20 healthy subjects......, and EMG activity in the VM and VL muscles was reduced. Compressive forces, adduction moments, knee joint kinematics, and hamstring EMG activity were unaffected by pain. Interestingly, the observed changes persisted when the pain had vanished. The results demonstrate that muscle pain modulated the function...

  12. Influence of Cervical Muscle Fatigue on Musculo-Tendinous Stiffness of the Head-Neck Segment during Cervical Flexion.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raphaël Portero

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to determine if the fatigue of cervical muscles has a significant influence on the head-neck segment musculo-tendinous stiffness.Ten men (aged 21.2 ± 1.9 years performed four quick-release trials of flexion at 30 and 50% MVC before and after the induction of muscular fatigue on cervical flexors. Electromyographic activity was recorded on the sternocleidomastoids (SCM and spinal erectors (SE, bilaterally. Musculo-tendinous stiffness was calculated through the quick-release method adapted to the head-neck segment.We noticed a significant linear increase of the head-neck segment musculo-tendinous stiffness with the increase of exertion level both before (P < 0.0001 and after the fatigue procedure (P < 0.0001. However, this linear relationship was not different before and after the fatigue procedure. EMG analysis revealed a significant increase of the root mean square for the right SCM (P = 0.0002, the left SCM (P < 0.0001, the right SE (P < 0.0001, and the left SE (P < 0.0001 and a significant decrease of the median power frequency only for the right (P = 0.0006 and the left (P = 0.0003 SCM with muscular fatigue.We did not find significant changes in the head-neck segment musculo-tendinous stiffness with fatigue of cervical muscles. We found a significant increase in EMG activity in the SCM and the SE after the induction of fatigue of the SCM. Our findings suggest that with fatigue of cervical flexors, neck muscle activity is modulated in order to maintain the musculo-tendinous stiffness at a steady state.

  13. Differences in cervical multifidus muscle thickness during isometric contraction of shoulder muscles: a comparison between patients with chronic neck pain and healthy controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahnama, Leila; Rezasoltani, Asghar; Zavieh, Minoo Khalkhali; NooriKochi, Farhang; Baghban, Alireza Akbarzadeh

    2015-01-01

    The purposes of this study were to (1) measure the thickness of cervical multifidus muscle (CMM) in different maximal voluntary contraction percentages of isometric contraction of shoulder muscles, (2) evaluate the differences of the CMM thickness in different directions of the shoulder movement, and (3) compare the changes in the CMM thickness of participants with neck pain and also of healthy individuals. Twenty healthy men (age, 27.45 ± 4.37 years; height, 177 ± 4.66 cm; weight, 72.85 ± 6.46 kg) and 20 men with chronic mechanical neck pain (age, 28.90 ± 5.53 years; height, 176 ± 5.98 cm; weight, 73.15 ± 7.82 kg) participated in the study. Both the right and left CMM thicknesses were measured using an ultrasound device while participants performed isometric contraction of shoulder muscles in 6 movement directions. In both groups, an increment of CMM thickness followed as the increase of isometric force (P pain participants (P = .03). Although no significant difference of CMM thickness was seen among the effects of the 6 force directions (P > .05), there was a significant difference of activity noted between the left and right sides (P = .047). The results of the present study indicate that isometric contraction of shoulder muscles caused an increase in the CMM thickness regardless of force direction. This increase was seen in both groups of healthy participants and patients with neck pain. However, less thickness changes were observed in participants with neck pain, which may be interpreted as reduced CMM activity in such people. Copyright © 2015 National University of Health Sciences. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Effect of brief daily resistance training on occupational neck/shoulder muscle activity in office workers with chronic pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lidegaard, Mark; Jensen, Rene B; Andersen, Christoffer H

    2013-01-01

    PURPOSE: This study investigates the acute and longitudinal effects of resistance training on occupational muscle activity in office workers with chronic pain. METHODS: 30 female office workers with chronic neck and shoulder pain participated for 10 weeks in high-intensity elastic resistance...... training for 2 minutes per day (n = 15) or in control receiving weekly email-based information on general health (n = 15). Electromyography (EMG) from the splenius and upper trapezius was recorded during a normal workday. RESULTS: Adherence to training and control interventions were 86% and 89......%, respectively. Compared with control, training increased isometric muscle strength 6% (P training. By contrast, at 10-week follow...

  15. Effects of experimental insoles on body posture, mandibular kinematics and masticatory muscles activity. A pilot study in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marini, Ida; Alessandri Bonetti, Giulio; Bortolotti, Francesco; Bartolucci, Maria Lavinia; Gatto, Maria Rosaria; Michelotti, Ambra

    2015-06-01

    It has been hypothesized that different plantar sensory inputs could influence the whole body posture and dental occlusion but there is a lack of evidence on this possible association. To investigate the effects of experimental insoles redistributing plantar pressure on body posture, mandibular kinematics and electromyographic (EMG) activity of masticatory muscles on healthy subjects. A pilot study was conducted on 19 healthy volunteers that wore custom-made insoles normalizing the plantar pressure distribution for 2 weeks. Body posture parameters were measured by means of an optoelectronic stereophotogrammetric analysis; mandibular kinematics was analyzed by means of gothic arch tracings; superficial EMG activity of head and neck muscles was performed. Measurements were carried out 10 days before the insertion of the insoles, immediately before the insertion, the day after, 7 and 14 days after, in four different exteroceptive conditions. The outcomes of the present study show that insoles do not modify significantly over time the parameters of body posture, SEMG activity of head and neck muscles and mandibular kinematics. In this pilot study the experimental insoles did not significantly influence the body posture, the mandibular kinematics and the activity of masticatory muscles during a 14-day follow up period. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Effect of different types of rest-break interventions on neck and shoulder muscle activity, perceived discomfort and productivity in symptomatic VDU operators: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakphet, Nuttika; Chaikumarn, Montakarn; Janwantanakul, Prawit

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the effect of different types of activities during rest-break interventions on neck and shoulder muscle activity, muscle discomfort and productivity among symptomatic video display unit (VDU) operators performing prolonged computer terminal work. Randomized controlled trial was used. Thirty symptomatic VDU operators were randomly assigned to 2 active break groups (stretching and dynamic movement) and a reference group. The subjects performed the same typing task for 60 min and received 3-min breaks after each 20 min of work. Root mean square and median frequency were calculated for neck and shoulder muscle activity. Muscle discomfort was measured with Borg's CR-10 scale. Productivity was measured by counting words. There were no significant differences between the types of activities during breaks on neck and shoulder muscle activity, muscle discomfort or productivity. However, there was a significant difference in the level of muscle discomfort over time. Three types of activity during breaks showed a favourable effect on neck and shoulder muscle activity and productivity, and a positive effect on muscle discomfort in symptomatic VDU operators.

  17. Does Deep Cervical Flexor Muscle Training Affect Pain Pressure Thresholds of Myofascial Trigger Points in Patients with Chronic Neck Pain? A Prospective Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlos Bobos

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. We need to understand more about how DNF performs in different contexts and whether it affects the pain threshold over myofascial trigger points (MTrPs. Purpose. The objectives were to investigate the effect of neck muscles training on disability and pain and on pain threshold over MTrPs in people with chronic neck pain. Methods. Patients with chronic neck pain were eligible for participation with a Neck Disability Index (NDI score of over 5/50 and having at least one MTrP on either levator scapulae, upper trapezoid, or splenius capitis muscle. Patients were randomly assigned into either DNF training, superficial neck muscle exercise, or advice group. Generalized linear model (GLM was used to detect differences in treatment groups over time. Results. Out of 67 participants, 60 (47 females, mean age: 39.45 ± 12.67 completed the study. Neck disability and neck pain were improved over time between and within groups (p<0.05. However, no differences were found within and between the therapeutic groups (p<0.05 in the tested muscles’ PPTs and in cervicothoracic angle over a 7-week period. Conclusion. All three groups improved over time. This infers that the pain pathways involved in the neck pain relief are not those involved in pain threshold.

  18. Correlations among visual analogue scale, neck disability index, shoulder joint range of motion, and muscle strength in young women with forward head posture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Young Jun; Kim, Won Hyo; Kim, Seong Gil

    2017-08-01

    This study investigated the correlation between the neck disability index (NDI) and visual analogue scale (VAS), which are indicators of neck pain, shoulder joint range of motion (ROM), and muscle strength in women with a slight forward head posture. This study was carried out on 42 female college students attending Uiduk University in Gyeongju, Korea. The neck pain and disability index for each subject was measured using VAS and NDI, respectively. Two physiotherapists measured the shoulder joint ROM and muscle strengths of the subjects using a goniometer and a dynamometer, respectively. External rotation, internal rotation, and abduction of the shoulder joint were measured for each subject. A significant negative correlation between neck pain and shoulder joint ROM in external rotation and the muscle strength of the shoulder joint in abduction was found in the subjects. In addition, a significant positive correlation was observed between ROM in external rotation and muscle strength in abduction. This study showed a significant negative correlation between neck pain and ROM in external rotation as well as between neck pain and the muscle strength in abduction.

  19. A unilateral open door laminoplasty technique: prospective analysis of the relationship between midline extensor muscle preservation and postoperative neck pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jin Hoon; Jeong, Eui-Kyun; Lee, Moon Kyu; Chul Rhim, Seung; Roh, Sung Woo; Kim, Jeoung Hee; Jeon, Sang Ryong

    2015-02-01

    Since laminoplasty was first introduced, several techniques have been developed to reduce postoperative neck pain and progressive kyphosis following this procedure. We describe the importance of deep muscle preservation to prevent postoperative neck pain following cervical posterior surgery, using the inter-muscular plane. We performed cervical laminoplasty on 10 patients from March to July 2012. The mean follow-up duration was 14.6 (range 12-18) months, and the mean age was 58.8 (48-68) years. There were eight men and two women in the study cohort, which consisted of eight cases of cervical spondylotic myelopathy and two cases of ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament. The Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) score and neck disability index (NDI) score were assessed before and at 6 and 12 months after surgery. The numeric rating scale (NRS) for neck pain was evaluated at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery. CT scan was performed immediately after the operation, and a radiograph was performed preoperatively and during the follow-up evaluation at 1, 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery. The preoperative JOA and NDI scores improved in all patients. Although there were two patients who complained of moderate postoperative neck pain (NRS 4 and 5), their condition gradually improved. Seven patients had mild or no neck pain (below NRS 3) at the 12 month follow-up. In addition, the cervical alignment was well maintained in all but one patient. Although larger prospective cohorts, longer follow-up periods, and comparative analyses are still needed, the clinical and radiological outcomes observed in the short 12 month period in this small cohort are promising. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Correlation of single-breath count test and neck flexor muscle strength with spirometry in myasthenia gravis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elsheikh, Bakri; Arnold, W David; Gharibshahi, Shahram; Reynolds, Jerold; Freimer, Miriam; Kissel, John T

    2016-01-01

    Although formal spirometry is the gold standard for monitoring respiratory function in patients with myasthenia gravis (MG), such testing is often delayed or unavailable. There is a need for a simple bedside test that can accurately measure respiratory function. We conducted a prospective, cross-sectional, single-blind study in adults with acetylcholine receptor antibody positive MG. Participants performed the single breath count test (SBCT) and underwent manual muscle strength testing, and a respiratory therapist performed spirometry blinded to SBCT and strength results. Thirty-one patients, aged 57 ± 19 years participated. SBCT showed significant correlations with forced vital capacity (FVC), negative inspiratory force, and neck flexor strength (P strength (P = 0.02) but no correlation with shoulder abductor strength. These data suggest that the SBCT and neck flexor strength testing are valuable tools for bedside assessment of respiratory function in MG patients. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Physical workload on neck and shoulder muscles during military helicopter flight - a need for exercise training?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murray, Mike; Lange, Britt; Chreiteh, Shadi Samir

    with the flexed and/or rotated positioning of the head may play a role for the high prevalence of neck/shoulder pain among this occupational group. The present exposure-assessment suggests that strengthening exercises for the UNE, lowering the relative load during flights, could potentially alleviate neck pain.......Introduction Work-related neck/shoulder pain is a common complaint among military helicopter pilots and crew members. The flight helmet and additional Night Vision Goggles (NVG) place a considerable load on the cervical spine. The aim of this study was to quantify the physical workload on neck/shoulder...... neck extensors (UNE) and m. sternocleidomastoideus (SCM). Maximal Voluntary Isometric Contractions (MVC) was performed for normalization. A modified version of the observational method “Posture Activity Tools and Handling” (PATH) was used for assessing work positions during flights. For every minute...

  2. The head and neck muscles of the serval and tiger: homologies, evolution, and proposal of a mammalian and a veterinary muscle ontology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diogo, Rui; Pastor, Francisco; De Paz, Felix; Potau, Josep M; Bello-Hellegouarch, Gaëlle; Ferrero, Eva M; Fisher, Rebecca E

    2012-12-01

    Here we describe the head and neck muscles of members of the two extant felid subfamilies (Leptailurus serval: Felinae; Panthera tigris: Pantherinae) and compare these muscles with those of other felids, other carnivorans (e.g., domestic dogs), other eutherian mammals (e.g., rats, tree-shrews and modern humans), and noneutherian mammals including monotremes. Another major goal of the article is to discuss and help clarify nomenclatural discrepancies found in the Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria and in veterinary atlases and textbooks that use cats and dogs as models to understand the anatomy of domestic mammals and to stress differences with modern humans. We propose a unifying nomenclature that is expanded to all the head and neck muscles and to all mammalian taxa in order to help build veterinary and mammalian muscle ontologies. Our observations and comparisons and the specific use of this nomenclature point out that felids such as tigers and servals and other carnivorans such as dogs have more facial muscle structures related to the mobility of both the auricular and orbital regions than numerous other mammals, including modern humans, which might be the result of an ancient adaptation related to the remarkable predatory capacities of carnivorans. Interestingly, the skeletal differences, mainly concerning the hyoid apparatus, pharynx, and larynx, that are likely associated with the different types of vocalizations seen in the Felinae (mainly purring) and Pantherinae (mainly roaring) are not accompanied by clear differences in the musculature connected to these structures in the feline L. serval and the pantherine P. tigris. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. More gain less pain: balance control learning shifts the activation patterns of leg and neck muscles and increases muscular parsimony.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iodice, Pierpaolo; Cesinaro, Stefano; Romani, Gian Luca; Pezzulo, Giovanni

    2015-07-01

    Athletes such as skaters or surfers maintain their balance on very unstable platforms. Remarkably, the most skilled athletes seem to execute these feats almost effortlessly. However, the dynamics that lead to the acquisition of a defined and efficient postural strategy are incompletely known. To understand the posture reorganization process due to learning and expertise, we trained twelve participants in a demanding balance/posture maintenance task for 4 months and measured their muscular activity before and after a (predictable) disturbance cued by an auditory signal. The balance training determined significant delays in the latency of participants' muscular activity: from largely anticipatory muscular activity (prior to training) to a mixed anticipatory-compensatory control strategy (after training). After training, the onset of activation was delayed for all muscles, and the sequence of activation systematically reflected the muscle position in the body from top to bottom: neck/upper body muscles were recruited first and in an anticipatory fashion, whereas leg muscles were recruited after the disturbance onset, producing compensatory adjustments. The resulting control strategy includes a mixture of anticipatory and compensatory postural adjustments, with a systematic sequence of muscular activation reflecting the different demands of neck and leg muscles. Our results suggest that subjects learned the precise timing of the disturbance onset and used this information to deploy postural adjustments just-in-time and to transfer at least part of the control of posture from anticipatory to less-demanding feedback-based strategies. In turn, this strategy shift increases the cost-efficiency of muscular activity, which is a key signature of skilled performance.

  4. Effect of brief daily resistance training on rapid force development in painful neck and shoulder muscles: randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jay, Kenneth; Schraefel, Mc; Andersen, Christoffer H; Ebbesen, Frederik S; Christiansen, David H; Skotte, Jørgen; Zebis, Mette K; Andersen, Lars L

    2013-09-01

    To determine the effect of small daily amounts of progressive resistance training on rapid force development of painful neck/shoulder muscles. 198 generally healthy adults with frequent neck/shoulder muscle pain (mean: age 43.1 years, computer use 93% of work time, 88% women, duration of pain 186 day during the previous year) were randomly allocated to 2- or 12 min of daily progressive resistance training with elastic tubing or to a control group receiving weekly information on general health. A blinded assessor took measures at baseline and at 10-week follow-up; participants performed maximal voluntary contractions at a static 90-degree shoulder joint angle. Rapid force development was determined as the rate of torque development and maximal muscle strength was determined as the peak torque. Compared with the control group, rate of torque development increased 31.0 Nm s(-1) [95% confidence interval: (1.33-11.80)] in the 2-min group and 33.2 Nm s(-1) (1.66-12.33) in the 12-min group from baseline to 10-week follow-up, corresponding to an increase of 16.0% and 18.2% for the two groups, respectively. The increase was significantly different compared to controls (Ppain (r = 0.27, Ppain. Small daily amounts of progressive resistance training in adults with frequent neck/shoulder pain increases rapid force development and, to a less extent, maximal force capacity. © 2013 The Authors Clinical Physiology and Functional Imaging © 2013 Scandinavian Society of Clinical Physiology and Nuclear Medicine.

  5. Experimental muscle pain produces central modulation of proprioceptive signals arising from jaw muscle spindles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Capra, N F; Ro, J Y

    2000-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of intramuscular injection with hypertonic saline, a well-established experimental model for muscle pain, on central processing of proprioceptive input from jaw muscle spindle afferents. Fifty-seven cells were recorded from the medial edge of the subnucleus interpolaris (Vi) and the adjacent parvicellular reticular formation from 11 adult cats. These cells were characterized as central units receiving jaw muscle spindle input based on their responses to electrical stimulation of the masseter nerve, muscle palpation and jaw stretch. Forty-five cells, which were successfully tested with 5% hypertonic saline, were categorized as either dynamic-static (DS) (n=25) or static (S) (n=20) neurons based on their responses to different speeds and amplitudes of jaw movement. Seventy-six percent of the cells tested with an ipsilateral injection of hypertonic saline showed a significant modulation of mean firing rates (MFRs) during opening and/or holding phases. The most remarkable saline-induced change was a significant reduction of MFR during the hold phase in S units (100%, 18/18 modulated). Sixty-nine percent of the DS units (11/16 modulated) also showed significant changes in MFRs limited to the hold phase. However, in the DS neurons, the MFRs increased in seven units and decreased in four units. Finally, five DS neurons showed significant changes of MFRs during both opening and holding phases. Injections of isotonic saline into the ipsilateral masseter muscle had little effect, but hypertonic saline injections made into the contralateral masseter muscle produced similar results to ipsilateral injections with hypertonic saline. These results unequivocally demonstrate that intramuscular injection with an algesic substance, sufficient to produce muscle pain, produces significant changes in the proprioceptive properties of the jaw movement-related neurons. Potential mechanisms involved in saline-induced changes in the

  6. Physical, psychosocial, and individual risk factors for neck/shoulder pain with pressure tenderness in the muscles among workers performing monotonous, repetitive work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, JH; Kaergaard, A.; Frost, P.

    2002-01-01

    factors versus individual factors in the etiology of pain in the neck and/or shoulders. METHODS: Study participants were 3123 workers from 19 plants. Physical risk factors were evaluated via video observations, and psychosocial risk factors were assessed with the job content questionnaire. Other...... procedures included symptom survey, clinical examination, and assessment of health-related quality of life (SF-36). The main outcome variable, neck/shoulder pain with pressure tenderness, was defined on the basis of subjective pain score and pressure tenderness in muscles of the neck/shoulder region. RESULTS......STUDY DESIGN: Cross-sectional study. OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of individual characteristics and physical and psychosocial workplace factors on neck/shoulder pain with pressure tenderness in the muscles. SUMMARY OF BACKGROUND DATA: Controversy prevails about the importance of workplace...

  7. The envelope of motion of the cervical spine and its influence on the maximum torque generating capability of the neck muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegler, Sorin; Caravaggi, Paolo; Tangorra, James; Milone, Mary; Namani, Ramya; Marchetto, Paul A

    2015-10-15

    The posture of the head and neck is critical for predicting and assessing the risk of injury during high accelerations, such as those arising during motor accidents or in collision sports. Current knowledge suggests that the head's range-of-motion (ROM) and the torque-generating capability of neck muscles are both dependent and affected by head posture. A deeper understanding of the relationship between head posture, ROM and maximum torque-generating capability of neck muscles may help assess the risk of injury and develop means to reduce such risks. The aim of this study was to use a previously-validated device, known as Neck Flexibility Tester, to quantify the effects of head's posture on the available ROM and torque-generating capability of neck muscles. Ten young asymptomatic volunteers were enrolled in the study. The tri-axial orientation of the subjects' head was controlled via the Neck Flexibility Tester device. The head ROM was measured for each flexed, extended, axially rotated, and laterally bent head's orientation and compared to that in unconstrained neutral posture. Similarly, the torque applied about the three anatomical axes during Isometric Maximum Voluntary Contraction (IMVC) of the neck muscles was measured in six head's postures and compared to that in fully-constrained neutral posture. The further from neutral the neck posture was the larger the decrease in ROM and IMVC. Head extension and combined two-plane rotations postures, such as extension with lateral bending, produced the largest decreases in ROM and IMVC, thus suggesting that these postures pose the highest potential risk for injury. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  8. Responses of muscle spindles in feline dorsal neck muscles to electrical stimulation of the cervical sympathetic nerve.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hellström, F; Roatta, S; Thunberg, J; Passatore, M; Djupsjöbacka, M

    2005-09-01

    Previous studies performed in jaw muscles of rabbits and rats have demonstrated that sympathetic outflow may affect the activity of muscle spindle afferents (MSAs). The resulting impairment of MSA information has been suggested to be involved in the genesis and spread of chronic muscle pain. The present study was designed to investigate sympathetic influences on muscle spindles in feline trapezius and splenius muscles (TrSp), as these muscles are commonly affected by chronic pain in humans. Experiments were carried out in cats anesthetized with alpha-chloralose. The effect of electrical stimulation (10 Hz for 90 s or 3 Hz for 5 min) of the peripheral stump of the cervical sympathetic nerve (CSN) was investigated on the discharge of TrSp MSAs (units classified as Ia-like and II-like) and on their responses to sinusoidal stretching of these muscles. In some of the experiments, the local microcirculation of the muscles was monitored by laser Doppler flowmetry. In total, 46 MSAs were recorded. Stimulation of the CSN at 10 Hz powerfully depressed the mean discharge rate of the majority of the tested MSAs (73%) and also affected the sensitivity of MSAs to sinusoidal changes of muscle length, which were evaluated in terms of amplitude and phase of the sinusoidal fitting of unitary activity. The amplitude was significantly reduced in Ia-like units and variably affected in II-like units, while in general the phase was affected little and not changed significantly in either group. The discharge of a smaller percentage of tested units was also modulated by 3-Hz CSN stimulation. Blockade of the neuromuscular junctions by pancuronium did not induce any changes in MSA responses to CSN stimulation, showing that these responses were not secondary to changes in extrafusal or fusimotor activity. Further data showed that the sympathetically induced modulation of MSA discharge was not secondary to the concomitant reduction of muscle blood flow induced by the stimulation. Hence

  9. Altered spinal kinematics and muscle recruitment pattern of the cervical and thoracic spine in people with chronic neck pain during functional task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Sharon M H; Szeto, Grace P Y; Lee, Raymond Y W

    2014-02-01

    Knowledge on the spinal kinematics and muscle activation of the cervical and thoracic spine during functional task would add to our understanding of the performance and interplay of these spinal regions during dynamic condition. The purpose of this study was to examine the influence of chronic neck pain on the three-dimensional kinematics and muscle recruitment pattern of the cervical and thoracic spine during an overhead reaching task involving a light weight transfer by the upper limb. Synchronized measurements of the three-dimensional spinal kinematics and electromyographic activities of cervical and thoracic spine were acquired in thirty individuals with chronic neck pain and thirty age- and gender-matched asymptomatic controls. Neck pain group showed a significantly decreased cervical velocity and acceleration while performing the task. They also displayed with a predominantly prolonged coactivation of cervical and thoracic muscles throughout the task cycle. The current findings highlighted the importance to examine differential kinematic variables of the spine which are associated with changes in the muscle recruitment in people with chronic neck pain. The results also provide an insight to the appropriate clinical intervention to promote the recovery of the functional disability commonly reported in patients with neck pain disorders. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Voluntary activation of the trapezius muscle in cases with neck/shoulder pain compared to healthy controls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bech, Katrine Tholstrup; Larsen, Camilla Marie; Sjøgaard, Gisela

    2017-01-01

    Subjects reporting neck/shoulder pain have been shown to generate less force during maximal voluntary isometric contractions (MVC) of the shoulder muscles compared to healthy controls. This has been suggested to be caused by a pain-related decrease in voluntary activation (VA) rather than lack....... Upper trapezius muscle thickness was measured using ultrasonography and pain intensity was measured on a 100mm visual analog scale (VAS). VA was calculated from five maximal muscle activation attempts. Superimposed stimuli were delivered to the accessory nerve at peak force and during a 2% MVC following...... the maximal contraction. Presented as mean±SD for cases and controls, respectively: VAS; 16.0±14.4mm and 2.1±4.1mm (P=0.004), MVC; 545±161N and 664±195N (P=0.016), upper trapezius muscle thickness; 10.9±1.9mm and 10.4±1.5mm (P=0.20), VA; 93.6±14.2% and 96.3±6.0% (P=0.29). In spite of significantly eight...

  11. Experimental muscle pain decreases the frequency threshold of electrically elicited muscle cramps.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serrao, Mariano; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Ge, Hong-You; Pierelli, Francesco; Sandrini, Giorgio; Farina, Dario

    2007-09-01

    This study in humans tested the hypothesis that nociceptive muscle afferent input facilitates the occurrence of muscle cramps. In 13 healthy adults, muscle cramps were experimentally induced in the foot by stimulating the tibialis posterior nerve at the ankle with 2-s bursts of stimuli separated by 30 s, with stimulation frequency increasing by 2-Hz increments from 10 Hz until the cramp appeared. The minimum stimulation frequency that induced the cramp was defined "cramp frequency threshold". In 2 days, elicitation of the cramp was performed in the two-feet with and without (baseline condition) injection of hypertonic (painful condition) or isotonic (control condition) saline into the deep midportion of the flexor hallucis brevis muscle, from where surface EMG signals were recorded. The cramp frequency threshold was lower for the painful condition with respect to its baseline (mean +/- SE, hypertonic saline: 25.7 +/- 2.1 Hz, corresponding baseline: 31.2 +/- 2.8 Hz; P cramp than immediately before the stimulation that elicited the cramp (pre-cramp: 13.9 +/- 1.6 muV and 75.4 +/- 3.8 Hz, respectively; post-cramp: 19.9 +/- 3.2 muV and 101.6 +/- 6.0 Hz; P cramps.

  12. Are chronic neck pain, scapular dyskinesis and altered scapulothoracic muscle activity interrelated?: A case-control study with surface and fine-wire EMG.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Castelein, Birgit; Cools, Ann; Parlevliet, Thierry; Cagnie, Barbara

    2016-12-01

    The function of the scapula is important in normal neck function and might be disturbed in patients with neck pain. The surrounding muscular system is important for the function of the scapula. To date, it is not clear if patients with idiopathic neck pain show altered activity of these scapulothoracic muscles. Therefore, the objective of this study was to investigate differences in deeper and superficial lying scapulothoracic muscle activity between patients with idiopathic neck pain and healthy controls during arm elevation, and to identify the influence of scapular dyskinesis on muscle activity. Scapular dyskinesis was rated with the yes/no method. The deeper lying (Levator Scapulae, Pectoralis Minor (Pm) and Rhomboid major) and superficial lying (Trapezius and Serratus Anterior) scapulothoracic muscles' activity was investigated with fine-wire and surface EMG, respectively, in 19 female subjects with idiopathic neck pain (age 28.3±10.1years, average duration of neck pain 45.6±36.3months) and 19 female healthy control subjects (age 29.3±11.7years) while performing scaption and towel wall slide. Possible interactions or differences between subject groups, scapular dyskinesis groups or phases of the task were studied with a linear mixed model. Higher Pm activity during the towel wallslide (p=0.024, mean difference 8.8±3.3% MVIC) was shown in patients with idiopathic neck pain in comparison with healthy controls. For the MT, a significant group∗dyskinesis interaction effect was found during scaption which revealed that patients with neck pain and scapular dyskinesis showed lower Middle Trapezius (MT) activity in comparison with healthy controls with scapular dyskinesis (p=0.029, mean difference 5.1±2.2% MVIC). In the presence of idiopathic neck pain, higher Pm activity during the towel wallslide was found. Patients with neck pain and scapular dyskinesis showed lower MT activity in comparison with healthy controls with scapular dyskinesis during scaption

  13. Effect of neck flexor muscle activation on impact velocity of the head during backward falls in young adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, W J; Robinovitch, S N; Ross, S A; Phan, J; Cipriani, D

    2017-11-01

    Falls are a common cause of traumatic brain injuries (TBI) across the lifespan. A proposed but untested hypothesis is that neck muscle activation influences impact severity and risk for TBI during a fall. We conducted backward falling experiments to test whether activation of the neck flexor muscles facilitates the avoidance of head impact, and reduces impact velocity if the head contacts the ground. Young adults (n=8) fell from standing onto a 30cm thick gymnastics mat while wearing a helmet. Participants were instructed to fall backward and (a) prevent their head from impacting the mat ("no head impact" trials); (b) allow their head to impact the mat, but with minimal impact severity ("soft impact" trials); and (c) allow their head to impact the mat, while inhibiting efforts to reduce impact severity ("hard impact" trials). Trial type associated with peak magnitude of electromyographic activity of the sternocleidomastoid (SCM) muscles (p<0.017), and with the vertical and horizontal velocity of the head at impact (p<0.001). Peak SCM activations, expressed as percent maximal voluntary isometric contraction (%MVIC), averaged 75.3, 67.5, and 44.5%MVIC in "no head impact", "soft impact", and "hard impact" trials, respectively. When compared to "soft impact" trials, vertical impact velocities in "hard impact" trials averaged 87% greater (3.23 versus 1.73m/s) and horizontal velocities averaged 83% greater (2.74 versus 1.50m/s). For every 10% increase in SCM %MVIC, vertical impact velocity decreased 0.24m/s and horizontal velocity decreased 0.22m/s. We conclude that SCM activation contributes to the prevention and modulation of head impact severity during backward falls. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Dose to the masseter muscle and risk of trismus after chemoradiation for advanced head & neck cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    S Verheijen; Emmy Lamers

    2015-01-01

    Purpose / objective: Head and neck cancer patients treated with chemoradiation are at risk for developing trismus (reduced mouth opening). Trismus is often a persisting side-effect and difficult to manage. It impairs eating, speech and oral hygiene, affecting quality of life. Although several

  15. The coordination of shoulder girdle muscles during repetitive arm movements at either slow or fast pace among women with or without neck-shoulder pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Januario, Leticia Bergamin; Oliveira, Ana Beatriz; Cid, Marina Machado; Madeleine, Pascal; Samani, Afshin

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the coordination of the shoulder girdle muscles among subjects with or without neck-shoulder pain performing repetitive arm movement at either a slow or fast pace. Thirty female adults were allocated to one of two groups-healthy controls or cases with neck-shoulder pain. Surface electromyography (sEMG) signals from the clavicular, acromial, middle and lower trapezius portions and the serratus anterior muscles were recorded during a task performed for 20min at a slow pace and 20min at a fast pace. The root mean square (RMS), relative rest time (RRT) and normalised mutual information (NMI, an index of functional connectivity between two muscles in a pair) were computed. No significant differences on RMS, RRT and NMI were found between groups. For both groups, the fast movement pace resulted in increased levels of RMS, lower degrees of RRT and higher NMI compared to the slow pace. No interaction between group and movement pace was found. This study highlights the change in sEMG activity of muscles to meet the demands of performing a task at fast movement pace. The fast pace imposed a higher muscle demand evidenced by increased sEMG amplitude, low degree of muscle rest and increased functional connectivity for subjects in both the case and control groups. No indication of impaired sEMG activity was found in individuals with neck-shoulder pain. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Increased gain of vestibulospinal potentials evoked in neck and leg muscles when standing under height-induced postural threat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naranjo, E N; Allum, J H J; Inglis, J T; Carpenter, M G

    2015-05-07

    To measure changes in amplitudes of vestibular evoked myogenic potentials (VEMPs) elicited from neck, upper and lower limb muscles during a quiet standing task with increased postural threat achieved by manipulating surface height. Twenty eight subjects were tested while standing on a platform raised to 0.8 m and 3.2 m from the ground. Surface electromyography was recorded from the ipsilateral sternocleidomastoid (SCM), biceps brachii (BB), flexor carpi radialis (FCR), soleus (SOL) and medial gastrocnemius (MG) muscles. Stimulation was with air-conducted short tone bursts (4 ms). After controlling for background muscle activity, VEMP amplitudes were compared between heights and correlated with changes in state anxiety, fear and arousal. VEMP amplitude significantly increased in SCM (9%) and SOL (12.7%) with increased surface height (pgains. Results demonstrate that VEMPs can be used to test different VSR pathways simultaneously during stance. Since fear and anxiety are prevalent with vestibular disorders, they should be considered as potential contributing factors for clinical vestibular outcome measures. Copyright © 2015 IBRO. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Reduced neck-shoulder muscle strength and aerobic power together with increased pericranial tenderness are associated with tension-type headache in girls

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tornoe, Birte; Andersen, Lars L; Skotte, Jørgen H

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Tension-type headaches (TTH) are common among children worldwide and mean a potential risk of disability and medication overuse headache. The associated mechanisms, however, remain unsolved. Our study investigated muscle strength in the neck-shoulder region, aerobic power...

  18. Trapezius muscle rest time during standardised computer work - A comparison of female computer usters with and without self-reported neck/shoulder complaints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thorn, S.; Sogaard, K.; Kallenberg, L.A.C.; Sandsjö, L.; Sjogaard, G.; Hermens, Hermanus J.; Kadefors, R.; Forsman, M.

    2006-01-01

    Work related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) in the shoulder/neck area are a common and increasing problem among European computer workers, especially women. Long-term low-level workloads with low degree of muscle rest are a potential risk factor for developing WMSDs. The purpose of the present

  19. Low skeletal muscle mass is a predictive factor for chemotherapy dose-limiting toxicity in patients with locally advanced head and neck cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wendrich, Anne W; Swartz, Justin E; Bril, Sandra I; Wegner, Inge; de Graeff, Alexander; Smid, Ernst J; de Bree, Remco; Pothen, Ajit J

    OBJECTIVES: Low skeletal muscle mass (SMM) or sarcopenia is emerging as an adverse prognostic factor for chemotherapy dose-limiting toxicity (CLDT) and survival in cancer patients. Our aim was to determine the impact of low SMM on CDLT in patients with locally advanced head and neck squamous cell

  20. Osteosynthesis of ununited femoral neck fracture by internal fixation combined with iliac crest bone chips and muscle pedicle bone grafting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D D Baksi

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Ununited femoral neck fracture is seen commonly in developing countries due to delayed presentation or failure of primary internal fixation. Such fractures, commonly present with partial or total absorption of femoral neck, osteonecrosis of femoral head in 8-30% cases with upward migration of trochanter posing problem for osteosynthesis, especially in younger individuals. Several techniques for treatment of such conditions are described like osteotomies or nonvascularied cortical or cancellous bone grafting provided varying degrees of success in terms of fracture union but unsatisfactory long term results occurred due to varying incidence of avascular necrosis (AVN of femoral head. Moreover, in presence of AVN of femoral head neither free fibular graft nor cancellous bone graft is satisfactory. The vascularied bone grafting by deep circumflex iliac artery based on iliac crest bone grafting, free vascularied fibular grafting and muscle pedicle periosteal grafting showed high incidence of success rate. Osteosynthesis is the preferred treatment of choice in ununited femoral neck fracture in younger individuals. Materials and Methods: Of the 293 patients operated during the period from June 1977 to June 2009, 42 were lost to followup. Seven patients with gluteus medius muscle pedicle bone grafting (MPBG were excluded. Thus, out of 244 patients, 208 (85.3% untreated nonunion and 36 (14.7% following failure of primary internal fixation were available for studies. Time interval between the date of injury and operation in untreated nonunion cases was mean 6.5 months and in failed internal fixation cases was mean 11.2 months. Ages of the patients varied from 16 to 55 years. Seventy patients had partial and 174 had subtotal absorption of the femoral neck. Evidence of avascular necrosis (AVN femoral head was found histologically in 135 (54.3% and radiologically in 48 (19.7% patients. The patients were operated by open reduction of fracture

  1. Design of anisotropic pneumatic artificial muscles and their applications to soft wearable devices for text neck symptoms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hojoong Kim; Hyuntai Park; Jongwoo Kim; Kyu-Jin Cho; Yong-Lae Park

    2017-07-01

    Pneumatic artificial muscles (PAMs) are frequently used actuators in soft robotics due to their structural flexibility. They are generally characterized by the tensile force due to the axial contraction and the radial force with volume expansion. To date, most applications of P AMs have utilized axial contractions. In contrast, we propose a novel way to control radial expansions of particular P AMs using anisotropic behaviors. P AMs generally consist of a cylindrical rubber bladder that expands with injection of air and multiple flexible but inextensible strings or mesh that surround the bladder to generate axial contraction force. We propose methods of generating radial expansion force in two ways. One is to control the spatial density of the strings that hold the bladder, and the other is to give asymmetric patterns directly to the bladder for geometrical anisotropy. To evaluate the performance of the actuators, soft sensors made of a hyperelastic material and a liquid conductor were attached to the P AMs for measuring local strains and pressures of the PAMs. We also suggest use of the proposed PAMs to a wearable therapeutic device for treating text neck symptoms as an application. The P AMs were used to exert a pressure to the back of the neck to recover the original spinal alignment from the deformed shape.

  2. Results of triple muscle (sartorius, tensor fascia latae and part of gluteus medius) pedicle bone grafting in neglected femoral neck fracture in physiologically active patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Pankaj Kumar; Gupta, Anuj; Gaur, Suresh Chandra

    2014-09-01

    Femoral neck fractures are notorious for complications like avascular necrosis and nonunion. In developing countries, various factors such as illiteracy, low socioeconomic status, ignorance are responsible for the delay in surgery. Neglected fracture neck femur always poses a formidable challenge. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of triple muscle pedicle bone grafting using sartorius, tensor fasciae latae and part of gluteus medius in neglected femoral neck fracture. This is a retrospective study with medical record of 50 patients, who were operated by open reduction, internal fixation along with muscle pedicle bone grafting by the anterior approach. After open reduction, two to three cancellous screws (6.5 mm) were used for internal fixation in all cases. A bony chunk of the whole anterior superior iliac spine of 1 cm thickness, 1 cm width and 4.5 cm length, taken from the iliac crest comprised of muscle pedicle of sartorius, tensor fascia latae and part of gluteus medius. Then the graft with all three muscles mobilized and put in the trough made over the anterior or anterosuperior aspect of the femoral head. The graft was fixed with one or two 4.5 mm self-tapping cortical screw in anterior to posterior direction. 14 patients were lost to followup. The results were based on 36 patients. We observed that in our series, there was union in 34, out of 36 (94.4%) patients. All patients were within the age group of 15-51 years (average 38 years) with displaced neglected femoral neck fracture of ≥30 days. Mean time taken for full clinicoradiological union was 14 weeks (range-10-24 weeks). Triple muscle pedicle bone grafting gives satisfactory results for neglected femoral neck fracture in physiologically active patients.

  3. Results of triple muscle (sartorius, tensor fascia latae and part of gluteus medius pedicle bone grafting in neglected femoral neck fracture in physiologically active patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pankaj Kumar Mishra

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Femoral neck fractures are notorious for complications like avascular necrosis and nonunion. In developing countries, various factors such as illiteracy, low socioeconomic status, ignorance are responsible for the delay in surgery. Neglected fracture neck femur always poses a formidable challenge. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the results of triple muscle pedicle bone grafting using sartorius, tensor fasciae latae and part of gluteus medius in neglected femoral neck fracture. Materials and Methods: This is a retrospective study with medical record of 50 patients, who were operated by open reduction, internal fixation along with muscle pedicle bone grafting by the anterior approach. After open reduction, two to three cancellous screws (6.5 mm were used for internal fixation in all cases. A bony chunk of the whole anterior superior iliac spine of 1 cm thickness, 1 cm width and 4.5 cm length, taken from the iliac crest comprised of muscle pedicle of sartorius, tensor fascia latae and part of gluteus medius. Then the graft with all three muscles mobilized and put in the trough made over the anterior or anterosuperior aspect of the femoral head. The graft was fixed with one or two 4.5 mm self-tapping cortical screw in anterior to posterior direction. Results: 14 patients were lost to followup. The results were based on 36 patients. We observed that in our series, there was union in 34, out of 36 (94.4% patients. All patients were within the age group of 15-51 years (average 38 years with displaced neglected femoral neck fracture of ≥30 days. Mean time taken for full clinicoradiological union was 14 weeks (range-10-24 weeks. Conclusion: Triple muscle pedicle bone grafting gives satisfactory results for neglected femoral neck fracture in physiologically active patients.

  4. Reorganized trunk muscle activity during multidirectional floor perturbations after experimental low back pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Henrik; Hirata, Rogerio Pessoto; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas

    2016-01-01

    Low back pain changes the trunk muscle activity after external perturbations but the relationship between pain intensities and distributions and their effect on the trunk muscle activity remains unclear. The effects of unilateral and bilateral experimental low back pain on trunk muscle activity w...

  5. Effect of experimental chewing on masticatory muscle pain onset

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo César Rodrigues Conti

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: To evaluate the effect of a chewing exercise on pain intensity and pressure-pain threshold in patients with myofascial pain. METHODS: Twenty-nine consecutive women diagnosed with myofascial pain (MFP according to the Research Diagnostic Criteria comprised the experimental group and 15 healthy age-matched female were used as controls. Subjects were asked to chew a gum stick for 9 min and to stay at rest for another 9 min afterwards. Pain intensity was rated on a visual analog scale (VAS every 3 min. At 0, 9 and 18 min, the pressure-pain threshold (PPT was measured bilaterally on the masseter and the anterior, medium, and posterior temporalis muscles. RESULTS: Patients with myofascial pain reported increase (76% and no change (24% on the pain intensity measured with the VAS. A reduction of the PPT at all muscular sites after the exercise and a non-significant recovery after rest were also observed. CONCLUSION: The following conclusions can be drawn: 1. there are at least two subtypes of patients with myofascial pain that respond differently to experimental chewing; 2. the chewing protocol had an adequate discriminative ability in distinguishing patients with myofascial pain from healthy controls.

  6. Skeletal muscle regeneration models for experimental stem cell therapy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Čížková, D.; Mokrý, J.; Soukup, Tomáš

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 8, č. S2 (2006), s. 64-65 ISSN 1465-3249. [International Conference "Strategies in Tissue Engineering" /2./. 31.05.2006-02.06.2006, Würzburg] Keywords : rat * skeletal muscle * stem cell s * muscle regeneration * muscle regeneration model Subject RIV: ED - Physiology

  7. NECK PAIN: AN ANCIENT VIEW

    OpenAIRE

    Yogitha Bali

    2012-01-01

    Neck pain is one of the very common complaints across the globe. Common neck pain occurs due to problems in the neck muscles, ligaments and discs due to faulty neck postures and daily neck misadventures accounting for more than 80% of neck pains around the globe. Conventional treatment methods which include drugs, physiotherapy, exercises & operative care have their own limitations and are not entirely effective. Alternative therapeutic approach could complement or supplement the existing tre...

  8. Dose to the masseter muscle and risk of trismus after chemoradiation for advanced head & neck cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sonja Verheijen; Emmy Lamers

    2016-01-01

    Poster presentatie op ESTRO in Italië (Turijn): Objective: To quantify the relationship between radiation dose to the masseter muscle and radiation-induced trismus in a chemo-IMRT-VMAT population. Conclusions: The risk of trismus can be estimated with the mean dose to the ipsilateral masseter

  9. Masticatory and cervical muscle tenderness and pain sensitivity in a remote area in subjects with a temporomandibular disorder and neck disability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Anelise; Armijo-Olivo, Susan; Gadotti, Inae C; Magee, David

    2014-01-01

    To compare the masticatory and cervical muscle tenderness and pain sensitivity in the hand (remote region) between patients with temporomandibular disorders (TMD) and healthy controls. Twenty female subjects were diagnosed with chronic TMD, and 20 were considered healthy. Subjects completed the Neck Disability Index and Limitations of Daily Functions in a TMD questionnaire. Tenderness of the masticatory and cervical muscles and pain sensitivity in the hand were measured using an algometer. Three-way mixed analysis of variance (ANOVA) evaluated differences in muscle tenderness between groups. One-way ANOVA compared pain sensitivity in the hand between groups. Effect sizes were assessed using Cohen guidelines. Significantly increased masticatory and cervical muscle tenderness and pain sensitivity in the hand were found in subjects with TMD when compared with healthy subjects. Moderate to high effect sizes showed the clinical relevance of the findings. The results of this study have highlighted the importance of assessing TMD patients not only in the craniofacial region but also in the neck and other parts of the body. Future studies should focus on testing the effectiveness of treatments addressing the neck and the pain sensitivity in the hand in patients with TMD.

  10. Is there a difference in the pattern of muscle activity when performing neck exercises with a guild board versus a pulley?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peolsson, Anneli; Peolsson, Michael; Jull, Gwendolen; O' Leary, Shaun

    2013-09-01

    Guild boards and pulleys are apparatus commonly used to train cervical muscle function for their purported benefit in facilitating activity of the deeper muscle layers, although this effect has not been substantiated. The objective of this study was to compare the activity of the different layers of cervical muscles when performing exercise with these 2 types of apparatus. A total of 19 healthy persons (mean age 28 years, (standard deviation 7 years). Ultrasound measurements of muscle deformation and deformation rate were recorded from the dorsal and ventral neck muscle layers during extension and flexion exercises. Pulley exercises were performed in the upright sitting position against a standardized resistance (men 2 kg, women 1 kg) and guild board exercises at an angle of 45º. The dorsal muscles generally showed greater levels of deformation and deformation rate during exercise with the guild board compared with the pulley system (p  0.05)). No differences were observed for the ventral muscles between exercise methods (p > 0.05). While both exercise methods appear to train cervical muscle function, neither appear to be more selective in facilitating deep cervical muscle activity, probably as they involve very similar cervical kinematics.

  11. Efficacy of kinesio taping versus postural correction exercises on pain intensity and axioscapular muscles activation in mechanical neck dysfunction: a randomized blinded clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Abd, Aliaa M; Ibrahim, Abeer R; El-Hafez, Haytham M

    2017-10-01

    While postural correction is commonly used for mechanical neck dysfunction (MND), efficacy of KT has received considerable attention. This study was conducted to determine the effectiveness of kinesio taping (KT) versus postural correction exercises on pain intensity and axioscapular muscles activation in patients with MND. Randomized clinical trial for which forty six patients with MND were randomly assigned in to 1 of 2 groups received 4 weeks treatment; KT group: received kinesio taping, PCE group: performed postural correction exercises. Neck pain and axioscapular muscles activation in form of normalized root mean square of dominant upper trapezius and levator scapula muscles were measured pre- and post-treatment by visual analogue scale and electromyography. Two ways MANOVA was used to examine the effects of treatment on outcome measures. The variable of interest was the group-by-time interaction at an a priori alpha level of 0.05. Intragroup comparisons were performed using paired t-tests. Group by time interaction was statistically significant in multivariate test (F=3.114, P=0.031). KT produced more pain reduction than postural exercises (P<0.05). There was no significant interaction for either UT RMS (P=0.274) or LS RMS (P=0.59). In both groups, Paired t tests revealed that there was significant reduction in pain and muscle activation of both measured muscles (P<0.01). KT has been found to be more effective than postural exercises to reduce neck pain. However, both modalities have similar effects to reduce axioscapular muscles activation.

  12. The Evolution of and Risk Factors for Neck Muscle Atrophy and Weakness in Nasopharyngeal Carcinoma Treated With Intensity-Modulated Radiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu-Lu; Mao, Yan-Ping; Zhou, Guan-Qun; Tang, Ling-Long; Qi, Zhen-Yu; Lin, Li; Yao, Ji-Jin; Ma, Jun; Lin, Ai-Hua; Sun, Ying

    2015-01-01

    Abstract The aim of this study was to investigate the evolution of sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM) atrophy in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) patients following intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT), and the relationship between SCM atrophy and neck weakness. Data were retrospectively analyzed from 223 biopsy-proven NPC patients with no distant metastasis who underwent IMRT with or without chemotherapy. The volume of SCM was measured on pretreatment magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and MRIs were conducted 1, 2, and 3 years after the completion of IMRT. Change in SCM volume was calculated and classified using the late effects of normal tissues–subjective, objective, management, and analytic system. The grade of neck muscle weakness, classified by the Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events V 3.0, was measured 3 years after the completion of IMRT. The average SCM atrophy ratio was −10.97%, −18.65%, and −22.25% at 1, 2, and 3 years postirradiation, respectively. Multivariate analysis indicated N stage and the length of time after IMRT were independent prognostic variables. There were significant associations between the degree of SCM atrophy and neck weakness. Radical IMRT can cause significant SCM atrophy in NPC patients. A more advanced N stage was associated with more severe SCM atrophy, but no difference was observed between N2 and N3. SCM atrophy progresses over time during the 3 years following IMRT. Grade of SCM atrophy is significantly associated with neck weakness. PMID:26252307

  13. Calpain inhibition attenuated morphological and molecular changes in skeletal muscle of experimental allergic encephalomyelitis rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sookyoung; Nozaki, Kenkichi; Guyton, M Kelly; Smith, Joshua A; Ray, Swapan K; Banik, Naren L

    2012-11-01

    Muscle weakness and atrophy are important manifestations of multiple sclerosis (MS). To investigate the pathophysiological mechanisms of skeletal muscle change in MS, we induced experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in Lewis male rats and examined morphological and molecular changes in skeletal muscle. We also treated EAE rats with calpepetin, a calpain inhibitor, to examine its beneficial effects on skeletal muscle damage. Morphological changes in muscle tissue of EAE rats included smaller and irregularly shaped muscle fibers and fibrosis. Western blot analysis demonstrated increased calpain:calpastatin ratio, inflammation-related transcription factors (nuclear factor-κB:inhibitor of κB α ratio), and proinflammatory enzymes (cyclooxygenase-2). TUNEL-positive myonuclei in skeletal muscle cells of EAE rats indicated cell death. In addition, markers of apoptotic cell death (Bax:Bcl-2 ratio and caspase-12 protein levels) were elevated. Expression of muscle-specific ubiquitin ligases (muscle atrophy F-box and muscle ring finger protein 1), was upregulated in muscle tissue of EAE-vehicle animals. Both prophylactic and therapeutic treatment with calpeptin partially attenuated muscle changes noted in EAE animals. These results indicate that morphological and molecular changes including apoptotic cell death and protein breakdown develop in skeletal muscle of EAE animals and that these changes can be reversed by calpain inhibition. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Lean body mass and muscle function in head and neck cancer patients and healthy individuals - results from the DAHANCA 25 study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lønbro, Simon; Dalgas, Ulrik; Primdahl, Hanne

    2013-01-01

    speed, 30 s chair rise, 30 s arm curl, stair climb) from HNSCC patients from the DAHANCA 25 trials and data from 24 healthy individuals were included. Results. Lean body mass and maximal muscle strength were significantly associated according to the gender and age-adjusted linear regression model (p ...Introduction. Loss of lean body mass is common following radiotherapy in patients with head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) and may reduce maximal muscle strength and functional performance. However, the associations between lean body mass, muscle strength and functional performance.......0001). In addition, maximal muscle strength were associated with 30 s arm curl performance, 10 m max gait speed and 30 s chair rise (p regression analyses showed that HNSCC patients expressed significant lower levels of the investigated variables after radiotherapy than healthy individuals (p

  15. Effectiveness of home-based cupping massage compared to progressive muscle relaxation in patients with chronic neck pain--a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauche, Romy; Materdey, Svitlana; Cramer, Holger; Haller, Heidemarie; Stange, Rainer; Dobos, Gustav; Rampp, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Chronic neck pain is a major public health problem with very few evidence-based complementary treatment options. This study aimed to test the efficacy of 12 weeks of a partner-delivered home-based cupping massage, compared to the same period of progressive muscle relaxation in patients with chronic non-specific neck pain. Patients were randomly assigned to self-directed cupping massage or progressive muscle relaxation. They were trained and asked to undertake the assigned treatment twice weekly for 12 weeks. Primary outcome measure was the current neck pain intensity (0-100 mm visual analog scale; VAS) after 12 weeks. Secondary outcome measures included pain on motion, affective pain perception, functional disability, psychological distress, wellbeing, health-related quality of life, pressure pain thresholds and adverse events. Sixty one patients (54.1±12.7 years; 73.8%female) were randomized to cupping massage (n = 30) or progressive muscle relaxation (n = 31). After treatment, both groups showed significantly less pain compared to baseline however without significant group differences. Significant effects in favor of cupping massage were only found for wellbeing and pressure pain thresholds. In conclusion, cupping massage is no more effective than progressive muscle relaxation in reducing chronic non-specific neck pain. Both therapies can be easily used at home and can reduce pain to a minimal clinically relevant extent. Cupping massage may however be better than PMR in improving well-being and decreasing pressure pain sensitivity but more studies with larger samples and longer follow-up periods are needed to confirm these results. ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01500330.

  16. Effectiveness of Home-Based Cupping Massage Compared to Progressive Muscle Relaxation in Patients with Chronic Neck Pain—A Randomized Controlled Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauche, Romy; Materdey, Svitlana; Cramer, Holger; Haller, Heidemarie; Stange, Rainer; Dobos, Gustav; Rampp, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    Chronic neck pain is a major public health problem with very few evidence-based complementary treatment options. This study aimed to test the efficacy of 12 weeks of a partner-delivered home-based cupping massage, compared to the same period of progressive muscle relaxation in patients with chronic non-specific neck pain. Patients were randomly assigned to self-directed cupping massage or progressive muscle relaxation. They were trained and asked to undertake the assigned treatment twice weekly for 12 weeks. Primary outcome measure was the current neck pain intensity (0–100 mm visual analog scale; VAS) after 12 weeks. Secondary outcome measures included pain on motion, affective pain perception, functional disability, psychological distress, wellbeing, health-related quality of life, pressure pain thresholds and adverse events. Sixty one patients (54.1±12.7 years; 73.8%female) were randomized to cupping massage (n = 30) or progressive muscle relaxation (n = 31). After treatment, both groups showed significantly less pain compared to baseline however without significant group differences. Significant effects in favor of cupping massage were only found for wellbeing and pressure pain thresholds. In conclusion, cupping massage is no more effective than progressive muscle relaxation in reducing chronic non-specific neck pain. Both therapies can be easily used at home and can reduce pain to a minimal clinically relevant extent. Cupping massage may however be better than PMR in improving well-being and decreasing pressure pain sensitivity but more studies with larger samples and longer follow-up periods are needed to confirm these results. Trial Registration ClinicalTrials.gov NCT01500330 PMID:23762355

  17. Dose–volume-related dysphagia after constrictor muscles definition in head and neck cancer intensity-modulated radiation treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzola, R; Ricchetti, F; Fiorentino, A; Fersino, S; Giaj Levra, N; Naccarato, S; Sicignano, G; Albanese, S; Di Paola, G; Alterio, D; Ruggieri, R

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Dysphagia remains a side effect influencing the quality of life of patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) after radiotherapy. We evaluated the relationship between planned dose involvement and acute and late dysphagia in patients with HNC treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), after a recontouring of constrictor muscles (PCs) and the cricopharyngeal muscle (CM). Methods: Between December 2011 and December 2013, 56 patients with histologically proven HNC were treated with IMRT or volumetric-modulated arc therapy. The PCs and CM were recontoured. Correlations between acute and late toxicity and dosimetric parameters were evaluated. End points were analysed using univariate logistic regression. Results: An increasing risk to develop acute dysphagia was observed when constraints to the middle PCs were not respected [mean dose (Dmean) ≥50 Gy, maximum dose (Dmax) >60 Gy, V50 >70% with a p = 0.05]. The superior PC was not correlated with acute toxicity but only with late dysphagia. The inferior PC was not correlated with dysphagia; for the CM only, Dmax >60 Gy was correlated with acute dysphagia ≥ grade 2. Conclusion: According to our analysis, the superior PC has a major role, being correlated with dysphagia at 3 and 6 months after treatments; the middle PC maintains this correlation only at 3 months from the beginning of radiotherapy, but it does not have influence on late dysphagia. The inferior PC and CM have a minimum impact on swallowing symptoms. Advances in knowledge: We used recent guidelines to define dose constraints of the PCs and CM. Two results emerge in the present analysis: the superior PC influences late dysphagia, while the middle PC influences acute dysphagia. PMID:25348370

  18. Dose-volume-related dysphagia after constrictor muscles definition in head and neck cancer intensity-modulated radiation treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazzola, R; Ricchetti, F; Fiorentino, A; Fersino, S; Giaj Levra, N; Naccarato, S; Sicignano, G; Albanese, S; Di Paola, G; Alterio, D; Ruggieri, R; Alongi, F

    2014-12-01

    Dysphagia remains a side effect influencing the quality of life of patients with head and neck cancer (HNC) after radiotherapy. We evaluated the relationship between planned dose involvement and acute and late dysphagia in patients with HNC treated with intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT), after a recontouring of constrictor muscles (PCs) and the cricopharyngeal muscle (CM). Between December 2011 and December 2013, 56 patients with histologically proven HNC were treated with IMRT or volumetric-modulated arc therapy. The PCs and CM were recontoured. Correlations between acute and late toxicity and dosimetric parameters were evaluated. End points were analysed using univariate logistic regression. An increasing risk to develop acute dysphagia was observed when constraints to the middle PCs were not respected [mean dose (Dmean) ≥50 Gy, maximum dose (Dmax) >60 Gy, V50 >70% with a p = 0.05]. The superior PC was not correlated with acute toxicity but only with late dysphagia. The inferior PC was not correlated with dysphagia; for the CM only, Dmax >60 Gy was correlated with acute dysphagia ≥ grade 2. According to our analysis, the superior PC has a major role, being correlated with dysphagia at 3 and 6 months after treatments; the middle PC maintains this correlation only at 3 months from the beginning of radiotherapy, but it does not have influence on late dysphagia. The inferior PC and CM have a minimum impact on swallowing symptoms. We used recent guidelines to define dose constraints of the PCs and CM. Two results emerge in the present analysis: the superior PC influences late dysphagia, while the middle PC influences acute dysphagia.

  19. Soft-tissue anatomy of the primates: phylogenetic analyses based on the muscles of the head, neck, pectoral region and upper limb, with notes on the evolution of these muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diogo, R; Wood, B

    2011-09-01

    Apart from molecular data, nearly all the evidence used to study primate relationships comes from hard tissues. Here, we provide details of the first parsimony and Bayesian cladistic analyses of the order Primates based exclusively on muscle data. The most parsimonious tree obtained from the cladistic analysis of 166 characters taken from the head, neck, pectoral and upper limb musculature is fully congruent with the most recent evolutionary molecular tree of Primates. That is, this tree recovers not only the relationships among the major groups of primates, i.e. Strepsirrhini {Tarsiiformes [Platyrrhini (Cercopithecidae, Hominoidea)]}, but it also recovers the relationships within each of these inclusive groups. Of the 301 character state changes occurring in this tree, ca. 30% are non-homoplasic evolutionary transitions; within the 220 changes that are unambiguously optimized in the tree, ca. 15% are reversions. The trees obtained by using characters derived from the muscles of the head and neck are more similar to the most recent evolutionary molecular tree than are the trees obtained by using characters derived from the pectoral and upper limb muscles. It was recently argued that since the Pan/Homo split, chimpanzees accumulated more phenotypic adaptations than humans, but our results indicate that modern humans accumulated more muscle character state changes than chimpanzees, and that both these taxa accumulated more changes than gorillas. This overview of the evolution of the primate head, neck, pectoral and upper limb musculature suggests that the only muscle groups for which modern humans have more muscles than most other extant primates are the muscles of the face, larynx and forearm. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Anatomy © 2011 Anatomical Society of Great Britain and Ireland.

  20. Trapezius muscle rest time during standardised computer work--a comparison of female computer users with and without self-reported neck/shoulder complaints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thorn, S; Søgaard, K; Kallenberg, L A C; Sandsjö, L; Sjøgaard, G; Hermens, H J; Kadefors, R; Forsman, M

    2007-08-01

    Work related musculoskeletal disorders (WMSDs) in the shoulder/neck area are a common and increasing problem among European computer workers, especially women. Long-term low-level workloads with low degree of muscle rest are a potential risk factor for developing WMSDs. The purpose of the present study of female computer users (age 45-65 years) in Denmark and Sweden was to investigate if subjects with self-reported neck/shoulder complaints (cases, N=35) show less trapezius muscle relative rest time (RRT) than controls (N=44) when performing standardised short-term computer work tasks in controlled laboratory conditions. Surface electromyography (EMG) signals were recorded bilaterally from the upper trapezius muscles during a type, edit, precision and colour word stress task. Besides RRT, 10th percentile RMS values were calculated. On the average, 15 of the cases and 18 of the controls showed analysable EMG files per task. For the colour word stress task, the results showed lower RRT values and higher 10th percentile RMS amplitude levels among cases compared to controls. No such signs could be found for the other tasks performed. The present results indicate an increased motor response to a psychological stressor among subjects with self-reported neck/shoulder complaints.

  1. Head-Up; An interdisciplinary, participatory and co-design process informing the development of a novel head and neck support for people living with progressive neck muscle weakness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, Heath; Langley, Joe; Stanton, Andy; Heron, Nicola; Clarke, Zoe; Judge, Simon; McCarthy, Avril; Squire, Gill; Quinn, Ann; Wells, Oliver; Tindale, Wendy; Baxter, Susan; Shaw, Pamela J; McDermott, Christopher J

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the Head-Up project, that aims to provide innovative head support to help improve posture, relieve pain and aid communication for people living with progressive neck muscle weakness. The initial focus is motor neurone disease. The case study illustrates collaborative, interdisciplinary research and new product development underpinned by participatory design. The study was initiated by a 2-day stakeholder workshop followed by early proof-of-concept modelling and patient need evidence building. The work subsequently led to a successful NIHR i4i application funding a 24-month iterative design process, patenting, CE marking and clinical evaluation. The evaluation has informed amendments to the proposed design refered to here as the Sheffield Support Snood (SSS). The outcome positively demonstrates use and performance improvements over current neck orthoses and the process of multidisciplinary and user engagement has created a sense of ownership by MND participants, who have since acted as advocates for the product.

  2. Effects of experimental muscle pain on shoulder-abduction force steadiness and muscle activity in healthy subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bandholm, Thomas Quaade; Rasmussen, Lars; Aagaard, Per

    2007-01-01

    pain on shoulder motor function in healthy subjects. The fluctuations in exerted force (force steadiness) and electromyographic (EMG) activity from eight shoulder muscles were determined during sub-maximal isometric and dynamic contractions with the shoulder abductors in nine healthy subjects (27...... contractions (P = 0.012) and tended to do so during concentric contractions (P = 0.083). Middle deltoid, and infraspinatus and lower trapezius muscle activity increased (3-5% EMG(max)) during isometric and concentric contractions, respectively (P muscle pain reduced......We previously demonstrated that the steadiness of shoulder abduction is reduced in patients with subacromial impingement syndrome (SIS), which might be related to shoulder pain associated with the SIS. The aim of the present study was to examine the acute effects of experimental shoulder muscle...

  3. Effects of combining ergonomic interventions and motor control exercises on muscle activity and kinematics in people with work-related neck-shoulder pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsang, Sharon M H; So, Billy C L; Lau, Rufina W L; Dai, Jie; Szeto, Grace P Y

    2018-04-01

    This study compared the effects of "Ergomotor" intervention and conventional physiotherapy, on influencing the motor control in the neck-shoulder region in people with work-related neck-shoulder pain (WRNSP). 101 patients (age range 20-54 years) diagnosed with chronic WRNSP were randomized into control (CO) group (n = 50) and Ergomotor (EM) group (n = 51). Each group received a 12-week intervention. Participants in CO group received treatment for pain relief and general exercises. EM group received individualized motor control training and advice of ergonomic modifications at their workplaces. At post-intervention, EM group showed significant reduction of bilateral upper trapezius muscle activity during active neck movements (left: 40-35%, right: 35-27%) and functional tasks such as lifting a weight forward-backward (left: 31-21%, right: 22-14%) and upward-downward (left: 26-23%, right: 20-13%). Cervical erector spinae also showed significant decrease in muscle activity during some phases of the functional tasks (left: 13-6%, right: 10-2%). In contrast, CO group did not show such changes in muscle activity at post-intervention. EM group also showed significant increase in movement velocity and acceleration during active neck movements in all directions (from 18 to 31%), while CO group only showed significant increase in movement velocity in some directions. Both groups reported significant but similar reduction in pain scores, at post-intervention and 1-year follow-up. The present results provided some evidence to support the positive and sustainable benefits of integrating motor control training into the workplace postures and motions.

  4. An Objective Functional Characterisation of Head Movement Impairment in Individuals with Neck Muscle Weakness Due to Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Pancani

    Full Text Available Neck muscle weakness and head drop are well recognised in patients with Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS, but an objective characterisation of the consequent head movement impairment is lacking. The aim of this study was to quantitatively characterise head movements in ALS compared to aged matched controls.We evaluated two groups, one of thirteen patients with ALS and one of thirteen age-matched controls, during the execution of a series of controlled head movements, performed while wearing two inertial sensors attached on the forehead and sternum, respectively. We quantified the differences between the two groups from the sensor data using indices of velocity, smoothness and movement coupling (intended as a measure of undesired out of plane movements.Results confirmed a general limitation in the ability of the ALS patients to perform and control head movements. High inter-patient variability was observed due to a wide range of observed functional impairment levels. The ability to extend the head backward and flex it laterally were the most compromised, with significantly lower angular velocity (P 0.8, reduced smoothness and greater presence of coupled movements with respect to the controls. A significant reduction of angular velocity (P 0.8 in extension, axial rotation and lateral flexion was observed when patients were asked to perform the movements as fast as possible.This pilot study is the first study providing a functional objective quantification of head movements in ALS. Further work involving different body areas and correlation with existing methods of evaluating neuromuscular function, such as dynamometry and EMG, is needed to explore the use of this approach as a marker of disease progression in ALS.

  5. The Temporal Development of Fatty Infiltrates in the Neck Muscles Following Whiplash Injury: An Association with Pain and Posttraumatic Stress

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elliott, James; Pedler, Ashley; Kenardy, Justin; Galloway, Graham; Jull, Gwendolen; Sterling, Michele

    2011-01-01

    Background Radiological findings associated with poor recovery following whiplash injury remain elusive. Muscle fatty infiltrates (MFI) in the cervical extensors on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with chronic pain have been observed. Their association with specific aspects of pain and psychological factors have yet to be explored longitudinally. Materials and Findings 44 subjects with whiplash injury were enrolled at 4 weeks post-injury and classified at 6 months using scores on the Neck Disability Index as recovered, mild and moderate/severe. A measure for MFI and patient self-report of pain, loss of cervical range of movement and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD) were collected at 4 weeks, 3 months and 6 months post-injury. The effects of time and group and the interaction of time by group on MFI were determined. We assessed the mediating effect of posttraumatic stress and cervical range of movement on the longitudinal relationship between initial pain intensity and MFI. There was no difference in MFI across all groups at enrollment. MFI values increased in the moderate/severe group and were significantly higher in comparison to the recovered and mild groups at 3 and 6 months. No differences in MFI values were found between the mild and recovered groups. Initial severity of PTSD symptoms mediated the relationship between pain intensity and MFI at 6 months. Initial ROM loss did not. Conclusions MFI in the cervical extensors occur soon following whiplash injury and suggest the possibility for the occurrence of a more severe injury with subsequent PTSD in patients with persistent symptoms. PMID:21698170

  6. The temporal development of fatty infiltrates in the neck muscles following whiplash injury: an association with pain and posttraumatic stress.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James Elliott

    Full Text Available Radiological findings associated with poor recovery following whiplash injury remain elusive. Muscle fatty infiltrates (MFI in the cervical extensors on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI in patients with chronic pain have been observed. Their association with specific aspects of pain and psychological factors have yet to be explored longitudinally.44 subjects with whiplash injury were enrolled at 4 weeks post-injury and classified at 6 months using scores on the Neck Disability Index as recovered, mild and moderate/severe. A measure for MFI and patient self-report of pain, loss of cervical range of movement and posttraumatic stress disorder (PTSD were collected at 4 weeks, 3 months and 6 months post-injury. The effects of time and group and the interaction of time by group on MFI were determined. We assessed the mediating effect of posttraumatic stress and cervical range of movement on the longitudinal relationship between initial pain intensity and MFI. There was no difference in MFI across all groups at enrollment. MFI values increased in the moderate/severe group and were significantly higher in comparison to the recovered and mild groups at 3 and 6 months. No differences in MFI values were found between the mild and recovered groups. Initial severity of PTSD symptoms mediated the relationship between pain intensity and MFI at 6 months. Initial ROM loss did not.MFI in the cervical extensors occur soon following whiplash injury and suggest the possibility for the occurrence of a more severe injury with subsequent PTSD in patients with persistent symptoms.

  7. Skeletal muscle contractility, self-reported pain and tissue sensitivity in females with neck/shoulder pain and upper Trapezius myofascial trigger points - a randomized intervention study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Myburgh, Corrie; Hartvigsen, Jan; Aagaard, Per

    2012-01-01

    or intervention (p=0.001). CONCLUSIONS: In selected female neck/shoulder pain sufferers, maximum voluntary contraction and rapid force generation of the upper Trapezius was not influenced by clinically relevant self-reported pain or the presence of diagnostically relevant MFTrPs. Dry needling, deep or superficial......The present investigation is one of the first to examine the hypothesis of gross muscle contractile inhibition due to the presence of diagnostically relevant MFTrPs.Individuals suffering from clinically relevant levels of self-reported pain are able to tolerate maximum voluntary contraction testing....... METHODS: Seventy-seven female office workers (25-46yrs) with and without neck/shoulder pain were observed with respect to self-reported pain (NRS-101), pressure-pain threshold (PPT), maximum voluntary contraction (Fmax) and rate of force development (RFD) at baseline (pre-intervention), immediately post...

  8. Effect of Brief Daily Resistance Training on Occupational Neck/Shoulder Muscle Activity in Office Workers with Chronic Pain: Randomized Controlled Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Lidegaard

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. This study investigates the acute and longitudinal effects of resistance training on occupational muscle activity in office workers with chronic pain. Methods. 30 female office workers with chronic neck and shoulder pain participated for 10 weeks in high-intensity elastic resistance training for 2 minutes per day (n=15 or in control receiving weekly email-based information on general health (n=15. Electromyography (EMG from the splenius and upper trapezius was recorded during a normal workday. Results. Adherence to training and control interventions were 86% and 89%, respectively. Compared with control, training increased isometric muscle strength 6% (P<0.05 and decreased neck/shoulder pain intensity by 40% (P<0.01. The frequency of periods with complete motor unit relaxation (EMG gaps decreased acutely in the hours after training. By contrast, at 10-week follow-up, training increased average duration of EMG gaps by 71%, EMG gap frequency by 296% and percentage time below 0.5%, and 1.0% EMGmax by 578% and 242%, respectively, during the workday in m. splenius. Conclusion. While resistance training acutely generates a more tense muscle activity pattern, the longitudinal changes are beneficial in terms of longer and more frequent periods of complete muscular relaxation and reduced pain.

  9. Experimental model of human corpus cavernosum smooth muscle relaxation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rommel P. Regadas

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To describe a technique for en bloc harvesting of the corpus cavernosum, cavernous artery and urethra from transplant organ donors and contraction-relaxation experiments with corpus cavernosum smooth muscle. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The corpus cavernosum was dissected to the point of attachment with the crus penis. A 3 cm segment (corpus cavernosum and urethra was isolated and placed in ice-cold sterile transportation buffer. Under magnification, the cavernous artery was dissected. Thus, 2 cm fragments of cavernous artery and corpus cavernosum were obtained. Strips measuring 3 x 3 x 8 mm3 were then mounted vertically in an isolated organ bath device. Contractions were measured isometrically with a Narco-Biosystems force displacement transducer (model F-60, Narco-Biosystems, Houston, TX, USA and recorded on a 4-channel Narco-Biosystems desk model polygraph. RESULTS: Phenylephrine (1µM was used to induce tonic contractions in the corpus cavernosum (3 - 5 g tension and cavernous artery (0.5 - 1g tension until reaching a plateau. After precontraction, smooth muscle relaxants were used to produce relaxation-response curves (10-12M to 10-4 M. Sodium nitroprusside was used as a relaxation control. CONCLUSION: The harvesting technique and the smooth muscle contraction-relaxation model described in this study were shown to be useful instruments in the search for new drugs for the treatment of human erectile dysfunction.

  10. Differential RNA Expression Profile of Skeletal Muscle Induced by Experimental Autoimmune Myasthenia Gravis in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henry Kaminski

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The differential susceptibility of skeletal muscle by myasthenia gravis (MG is not well understood. We utilized RNA expression profiling of extraocular muscle (EOM, diaphragm (DIA, and extensor digitorum (EDL of rats with experimental autoimmune MG (EAMG to evaluate the hypothesis that muscles respond differentially to injury produced by EAMG. EAMG was induced in female Lewis rats by immunization with acetylcholine receptor purified from the electric organ of the Torpedo. Six weeks later after rats had developed weakness and serum antibodies directed against the AChR, animals underwent euthanasia and RNA profiling performed on DIA, EDL, and EOM. Profiling results were validated by qPCR. Across the three muscles between the experiment and control groups, three hundred and fifty-nine probes (1.16% with greater than 2 fold changes in expression in 7 of 9 series pairwise comparisons from 31,090 probes were identified with approximately two-thirds being increased. The three muscles shared 16 genes with increased expression and 6 reduced expression. Functional annotation demonstrated that these common expression changes fell predominantly into categories of metabolism, stress response, and signaling. Evaluation of specific gene function indicated that EAMG led to a change to oxidative metabolism. Genes related to muscle regeneration and suppression of immune response were activated. Evidence of a differential immune response among muscles was not evident. Each muscle had a distinct RNA profile but with commonality in gene categories expressed that are focused on muscle repair, moderation of inflammation, and oxidative metabolism.

  11. Movement does not promote recovery of motor output following acute experimental muscle pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schabrun, Siobhan M.; Palsson, Thorvaldur Skuli; Thapa, Tribikram

    2018-01-01

    Objective.:  To examine the effect of motor activity on the magnitude and duration of altered corticomotor output following experimental muscle pain. Design. : Experimental, pre-post test. Setting. : University laboratory. Subjects. : Twenty healthy individuals. Methods.:  Participants were rando...

  12. 'Pharyngocise': Randomized Controlled Trial of Preventative Exercises to Maintain Muscle Structure and Swallowing Function During Head-and-Neck Chemoradiotherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carnaby-Mann, Giselle, E-mail: gmann@phhp.ufl.edu [Department of Behavioral Science and Community Health, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Crary, Michael A. [Department of Speech Language and Hearing Sciences, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States); Schmalfuss, Ilona [Department of Radiology, North Florida/South Georgia Veterans Health System, Gainesville, FL (Georgia); Amdur, Robert [Department of Radiation Oncology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    2012-05-01

    Purpose: Dysphagia after chemoradiotherapy is common. The present randomized clinical trial studied the effectiveness of preventative behavioral intervention for dysphagia compared with the 'usual care.' Methods and Materials: A total of 58 head-and-neck cancer patients treated with chemoradiotherapy were randomly assigned to usual care, sham swallowing intervention, or active swallowing exercises (pharyngocise). The intervention arms were treated daily during chemoradiotherapy. The primary outcome measure was muscle size and composition (determined by T{sub 2}-weighted magnetic resonance imaging). The secondary outcomes included functional swallowing ability, dietary intake, chemosensory function, salivation, nutritional status, and the occurrence of dysphagia-related complications. Results: The swallowing musculature (genioglossus, hyoglossuss, and mylohyoid) demonstrated less structural deterioration in the active treatment arm. The functional swallowing, mouth opening, chemosensory acuity, and salivation rate deteriorated less in the pharyngocise group. Conclusion: Patients completing a program of swallowing exercises during cancer treatment demonstrated superior muscle maintenance and functional swallowing ability.

  13. No release of interstitial glutamate in experimental human model of muscle pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashina, M.; Jørgensen, M.; Stallknecht, Bente

    2005-01-01

    concentration of glutamate before, during and after acute pain of trapezius muscle in humans using the microdialysis technique. In addition, we examined the nutritive skeletal muscle blood flow and the interstitial concentrations of lactate, glucose, glycerol, pyruvate and urea. Experimental pain and tenderness...... were induced by intramuscular infusion of a chemical mixture consisting of bradykinin, prostaglandin E(2), histamine and serotonin. One EMG-needle and one microdialysis catheter were inserted into non-dominant and dominant trapezius muscles on a standard anatomical point in 19 healthy subjects...

  14. The influence of a semi-reclined seated posture on head and neck kinematics and muscle activity while reading a tablet computer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douglas, Ethan C; Gallagher, Kaitlin M

    2017-04-01

    Increased tablet computer usage calls for a proper understanding of potential injury risks from these devices. The purpose of this study was to assess the influence of tablet computer reading postures on head and neck flexion and muscle activity. Nineteen participants completed read a tablet computer in four different postures (standard computer monitor, tablet on a desk, tablet in the lap, semi-reclined with tablet in the lap). Reading the tablet in a semi-reclined trunk posture with the tablet in one's lap increased (p reading from the standard computer monitor (6.39%ROM). Head flexion in the semi-reclined posture (19.7%ROM) and muscle activity (8.88%MVC) were similar to when reading from a standard computer monitor. Despite potentially reducing the gravitational moment produced by the head, the semi-reclined position could still compromise the force capabilities of the neck extensor musculature and result in increased strain on the passive tissues of the spine. Future work should assess how the semi-reclined position influences cervical intervertebral angles and passive tissue properties of the cervical spine. Overall, more research needs to be conducted on thoracic spine kinematics while reading a tablet computer. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Jaw Dysfunction Related to Pterygoid and Masseter Muscle Dosimetry After Radiation Therapy in Children and Young Adults With Head-and-Neck Sarcomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krasin, Matthew J.; Wiese, Kristin M.; Spunt, Sheri L.; Hua, Chia-ho; Daw, Najat; Navid, Fariba; Davidoff, Andrew M.; McGregor, Lisa; Merchant, Thomas E.; Kun, Larry E.; McCrarey, Lola

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To investigate the relationship between jaw function, patient and treatment variables, and radiation dosimetry of the mandibular muscles and joints in children and young adults receiving radiation for soft-tissue and bone sarcomas. Methods and Materials: Twenty-four pediatric and young adult patients with head-and-neck sarcomas were treated on an institutional review board−approved prospective study of focal radiation therapy for local tumor control. Serial jaw depression measurements were related to radiation dosimetry delivered to the medial and lateral pterygoid muscles, masseter muscles, and temporomandibular joints to generate mathematical models of jaw function. Results: Baseline jaw depression was only influenced by the degree of surgical resection. In the first 12 weeks from initiation of radiation, surgical procedures greater than a biopsy, administration of cyclophosphamide containing chemotherapy regimes, and large gross tumor volumes adversely affected jaw depression. Increasing dose to the pterygoid and masseter muscles above 40 Gy predicted loss of jaw function over the full course of follow-up. Conclusions: Clinical and treatment factors are related to initial and subsequent jaw dysfunction. Understanding these complex interactions and the affect of specific radiation doses may help reduce the risk for jaw dysfunction in future children and young adults undergoing radiation therapy for the management of soft-tissue and bone sarcomas.

  16. [A field study on the work load and muscle fatigue at neck-shoulder in female sewing machine operators by using surface electromyography].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Fei-ruo; Wang, Sheng; He, Li-hua; Zhang, Ying; Wu, Shan-shan; Li, Jing-yun; Hu, Guang-yi; Ye, Kang-ping

    2011-03-01

    To study neck and shoulder work-related muscle fatigue of female sewing machine operators. 18 health female sewing machine operators without musculoskeletal disorders work in Beijing garment industry factory as volunteers in participate of this study. The maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and 20% MVC of bilateral upper trapezium and cervical erectors spinae was tested before sewing operations, then the whole 20 time windows (1 time window = 10 min) sewing machine operations was monitored and the surface electromyography (sEMG) signals simultaneously was recorded after monitoring the 20%MVC was tested. Use amplitude analysis method to reduction recorded EMG signals. During work, the median load for the left cervical erector spinae (LCES), right cervical erector spinae (RCES), left upper trapezium (LUT) and right upper trapezium (RUT) respectively was 6.78 ± 1.05, 6.94 ± 1.12, 5.68 ± 2.56 and 6.47 ± 3.22, work load of right is higher than the left; static load analysis indicated the value of RMS(20%MVC) before work was higher than that value after work, the increase of right CES and UT RMS(20%MVC) was more; the largest 20%MVE of bilateral CES occurred at 20th time window, and that of bilateral UT happened at 16th. The work load of female sewing machine operators is sustained "static" load, and work load of right neck-shoulder is higher than left, right neck-shoulder muscle is more fatigable and much serious once fatigued.

  17. Masticatory sensory-motor changes after an experimental chewing test influenced by pain catastrophizing and neck-pain-related disability in patients with headache attributed to temporomandibular disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Touche, Roy; Paris-Alemany, Alba; Gil-Martínez, Alfonso; Pardo-Montero, Joaquín; Angulo-Díaz-Parreño, Santiago; Fernández-Carnero, Josué

    2015-03-05

    Recent research has shown a relationship of craniomandibular disability with neck-pain-related disability has been shown. However, there is still insufficient information demonstrating the influence of neck pain and disability in the sensory-motor activity in patients with headache attributed to temporomandibular disorders (TMD). The purpose of this study was to investigate the influence of neck-pain-related disability on masticatory sensory-motor variables. An experimental case-control study investigated 83 patients with headache attributed to TMD and 39 healthy controls. Patients were grouped according to their scores on the neck disability index (NDI) (mild and moderate neck disability). Initial assessment included the pain catastrophizing scale and the Headache Impact Test-6. The protocol consisted of baseline measurements of pressure pain thresholds (PPT) and pain-free maximum mouth opening (MMO). Individuals were asked to perform the provocation chewing test, and measurements were taken immediately after and 24 hours later. During the test, patients were assessed for subjective feelings of fatigue (VAFS) and pain intensity. VAFS was higher at 6 minutes (mean 51.7; 95% CI: 50.15-53.26) and 24 hours after (21.08; 95% CI: 18.6-23.5) for the group showing moderate neck disability compared with the mild neck disability group (6 minutes, 44.16; 95% CI 42.65-45.67/ 24 hours after, 14.3; 95% CI: 11.9-16.7) and the control group. The analysis shows a decrease in the pain-free MMO only in the group of moderate disability 24 hours after the test. PPTs of the trigeminal region decreased immediately in all groups, whereas at 24 hours, a decrease was observed in only the groups of patients. PPTs of the cervical region decreased in only the group with moderate neck disability 24 hours after the test. The strongest negative correlation was found between pain-free MMO immediately after the test and NDI in both the mild (r = -0.49) and moderate (r = -0.54) neck disability

  18. EFFICACY OF KALTENBORN GRADE III MOBILIZATIONS, MUSCLE ENERGY TECHNIQUES AND THEIR COMBINATION TO IMPROVE RANGE AND FUNCTIONAL ABILITY IN ADULTS WITH MECHANICAL NECK PAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveed Anwar

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Physiotherapy is an essentialtreatment in the management of Mechanical Neck ache, still there was lack of literature seen supporting the effectiveness of Physiotherapy interventions with their doses targeting specific group of population. The focus of study was to see the effectiveness of Kaltenborn Grade III mobilization, Muscle Energy Techniques and their combination to improve range and functional ability in patients with Mechanical Neck ache. Methods: 72 patients with Mechanical Neck achewere randomly categorized in 3 groups (Mobilization, METs and Combination group. NDI scale and goniometry was used as an assessment tool to measure the outcome before and after treatment (follow up 1 week. Results: According to the results there was significant improvement seen in Combination group (Mobilization and METs in terms of pain, which decreased from 7.70±0.69 to 1.25±1.93 (p=0.00, gain in ROM e.g. Cervical Flexion (27.29±2.38 to 37.54±3.14. Whereas, marked significance (p=0.00 was seen in the NDI score and percentage of Combination group. ANOVA tells us that difference was significant in all three groups in categories of pain (VAS, gain in cervical ranges and NDI score and percentage as p=0.00. Combination group had significant difference within the groups then METs and Mobilization group in all categories of VAS, Cervical ranges, NDI score and percentage. Conclusion: Combination of (Grade III Kaltenborn and METs was seen more effective in terms of improving Mechanical Neck Pain, in smaller treatment session (7 days only.

  19. Fatty infiltrate in the cervical extensor muscles is not a feature of chronic, insidious-onset neck pain

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elliott, J. [Division of Physiotherapy, School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia); Department of Physical Therapy, Rueckert-Hartman School for Health Professions, Regis University, Denver, Colorado (United States); Centre for Magnetic Resonance, University of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia)], E-mail: jelltt@regis.edu; Sterling, M. [Division of Physiotherapy, School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia); Noteboom, J.T. [Department of Physical Therapy, Rueckert-Hartman School for Health Professions, Regis University, Denver, Colorado (United States); Darnell, R. [Division of Physiotherapy, School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia); Galloway, G. [Centre for Magnetic Resonance, University of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia); Jull, G. [Division of Physiotherapy, School of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Queensland, Brisbane (Australia)

    2008-06-15

    Aim: To investigate the presence of fatty infiltrate in the cervical extensor musculature in patients with insidious-onset neck pain to better understand the possible pathophysiology underlying such changes in chronic whiplash-associated disorders (WAD). Materials and methods: A sample of convenience of 23 women with persistent insidious-onset neck pain (mean age 29.2 {+-} 6.9 years) was recruited for the study. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to quantify fatty infiltration in the cervical extensor musculature. Quantitative Sensory Testing (QST; pressure and thermal pain thresholds) was performed as sensory features are present in chronic whiplash. Self-reported pain and disability, as well as psychological distress, were measured using the Neck Disability Index (NDI) and the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28), respectively. Results: Measures were compared with those of a previous dataset of chronic whiplash patients (n = 79, mean age 29.7 {+-} 7.8 years). Using a classification tree, insidious-onset neck pain was clearly identified from whiplash (p < 0.001), based on the presence of MRI fatty infiltrate in the cervical extensor musculature (0/102 individuals) and altered temperature thresholds (cold; 3/102 individuals). Conclusion: Fatty infiltrates in the cervical extensor musculature and widespread hyperalgesia were not features of the insidious-onset neck pain group in this study; whereas these features have been identified in patients with chronic WAD. This novel finding may enable a better understanding of the underlying pathophysiological processes in patients with chronic whiplash.

  20. Fatty infiltrate in the cervical extensor muscles is not a feature of chronic, insidious-onset neck pain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elliott, J.; Sterling, M.; Noteboom, J.T.; Darnell, R.; Galloway, G.; Jull, G.

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the presence of fatty infiltrate in the cervical extensor musculature in patients with insidious-onset neck pain to better understand the possible pathophysiology underlying such changes in chronic whiplash-associated disorders (WAD). Materials and methods: A sample of convenience of 23 women with persistent insidious-onset neck pain (mean age 29.2 ± 6.9 years) was recruited for the study. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was used to quantify fatty infiltration in the cervical extensor musculature. Quantitative Sensory Testing (QST; pressure and thermal pain thresholds) was performed as sensory features are present in chronic whiplash. Self-reported pain and disability, as well as psychological distress, were measured using the Neck Disability Index (NDI) and the General Health Questionnaire-28 (GHQ-28), respectively. Results: Measures were compared with those of a previous dataset of chronic whiplash patients (n = 79, mean age 29.7 ± 7.8 years). Using a classification tree, insidious-onset neck pain was clearly identified from whiplash (p < 0.001), based on the presence of MRI fatty infiltrate in the cervical extensor musculature (0/102 individuals) and altered temperature thresholds (cold; 3/102 individuals). Conclusion: Fatty infiltrates in the cervical extensor musculature and widespread hyperalgesia were not features of the insidious-onset neck pain group in this study; whereas these features have been identified in patients with chronic WAD. This novel finding may enable a better understanding of the underlying pathophysiological processes in patients with chronic whiplash

  1. A novel computational framework for deducing muscle synergies from experimental joint moments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anantharaman eGopalakrishnan

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Prior experimental studies have hypothesized the existence of a ‘muscle synergy’ based control scheme for producing limb movements and locomotion in vertebrates. Such synergies have been suggested to consist of fixed muscle grouping schemes with the co-activation of all muscles in a synergy resulting in limb movement. Quantitative representations of these groupings (termed muscle weightings and their control signals (termed synergy controls have traditionally been derived by the factorization of experimentally measured EMG. This study presents a novel approach for deducing these weightings and controls from inverse dynamic joint moments that are computed from an alternative set of experimental measurements – movement kinematics and kinetics. This technique was applied to joint moments for healthy human walking at 0.7 and 1.7 m/s, and two sets of ‘simulated’ synergies were computed based on two different criteria (1 synergies were required to minimize errors between experimental and simulated joint moments in a musculoskeletal model (pure-synergy solution (2 along with minimizing joint moment errors, synergies also minimized muscle activation levels (optimal-synergy solution. On comparing the two solutions, it was observed that the introduction of optimality requirements (optimal-synergy to a control strategy solely aimed at reproducing the joint moments (pure-synergy did not necessitate major changes in the muscle grouping within synergies or the temporal profiles of synergy control signals. Synergies from both the simulated solutions exhibited many similarities to EMG derived synergies from a previously published study, thus implying that the analysis of the two different types of experimental data reveals similar, underlying synergy structures.

  2. Experimental muscle pain challenges the postural stability during quiet stance and unexpected posture perturbation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirata, Rogério Pessoto; Ervilha, Ulysses Fernandes; Arendt-Nielsen, Lars; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas

    2011-08-01

    Musculoskeletal pain impairs postural control and stability. Nine subjects stood as quietly as possible on a moveable force platform before, during, and after experimental pain in the right leg muscles. A moveable force platform was used to measure the center of pressure and provided unexpected perturbations. Lower limb muscle activity, joint angles, and foot pressure distributions were measured. Hypertonic saline was used to induce pain in the vastus lateralis, vastus medialis, or biceps femoris muscle of the right leg. Compared to baseline and control sessions, pain in the knee extensor muscles during quiet standing evoked: 1) larger sway area, greater medial-lateral center of pressure displacement and higher speed (P Pain provoked longer time to return to an equilibrium posture after forward EMG activity for, and pain in vastus medialis muscle decreased the time for the maximum hip flexion during this perturbation (P pain impairs postural stability during quiet standing and after unexpected perturbation, which suggest that people suffering from leg muscle pain are more vulnerable to falls. This article presents the acute responses to leg muscle pain on the postural control. This measure could potentially help clinicians who seek to assess how pain responses may contribute to patient's postural control and stability during quiet standing and after recovering from unexpected perturbations. Copyright © 2011 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Muscle lesion comparing of imaging procedures (sonography and MRT) -experimental and clinical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mellerowicz, H.; Lubasch, A.; Dulce, M.; Wagner, S.; Paul, B.

    1993-01-01

    Muscle injuries in sports are more common now. Diagnosis and follow up of muscle injuries is nowadays achieved by sonography and MRT. In order to assess the two imagine procedures, a direct test for comparison of sonography and MRT was performed in an experimental study: A standardised disconnection of m. triceps surae in rats was either sutured and glued or not treated. Clinical studies were performed in 26 patients suffering from muscle trauma. Sonography was proved to be a reliable procedure especially in follow up control until full weight bearing and should be used first. Negative or doubtfull findings require further investigation by MRT. Especially contrast medium (Gd-DTPA) assisted examinations enables a long term follow up and may even show small (muscle strain) and deep lying injuries. (orig.) [de

  4. Microfibrillar-associated protein 4 modulates airway smooth muscle cell phenotype in experimental asthma

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pilecki, Bartosz; Schlosser, Anders; Wulf-Johansson, Helle

    2015-01-01

    . In the current study we investigated the role of MFAP4 in experimental allergic asthma. METHODS: MFAP4-deficient mice were subjected to alum/ovalbumin and house dust mite induced models of allergic airway disease. In addition, human healthy and asthmatic primary bronchial smooth muscle cell cultures were used...... to evaluate MFAP4-dependent airway smooth muscle responses. RESULTS: MFAP4 deficiency attenuated classical hallmarks of asthma, such as eosinophilic inflammation, eotaxin production, airway remodelling and hyperresponsiveness. In wild-type mice, serum MFAP4 was increased after disease development...... and correlated with local eotaxin levels. MFAP4 was expressed in human bronchial smooth muscle cells and its expression was upregulated in asthmatic cells. Regarding the underlying mechanism, we showed that MFAP4 interacted with integrin αvβ5 and promoted asthmatic bronchial smooth muscle cell proliferation...

  5. Content of selected amino acids in the gastrocnemius muscle during experimental hypothyroidism in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gołyński Marcin

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Thyroid hormones affect protein turnover, and in the case of hypothyroidism a decrease in protein synthesis and reduced release of certain amino acids from skeletal muscles are observed. Changes in the amino acid system of skeletal muscles may be responsible for the occurrence of muscle disorders. Material and Methods: The study measured the content of selected amino acids in the gastrocnemius muscle of Wistar rats during experimental hypothyroidism induced by oral administration of methimazole at a concentration of 0.05% in drinking water for 90 d. The rats were divided into four groups: E1 (n = 6 - experimental males, E2 (n = 6 - experimental females, C1 (n = 6 - control males, and C2 (n = 6 control females. Results: A statistically significant reduction occurred in leucine, isoleucine, and 1-methylhistidine levels in males, and 1-methylhistidine in females, in comparison to the control groups. Conclusion: The hypothyroidism-induced changes in amino acid content may be responsible for the occurrence of skeletal muscle function disorders.

  6. Referred pain from myofascial trigger points in head and neck-shoulder muscles reproduces head pain features in children with chronic tension type headache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-de-las-Peñas, César; Fernández-Mayoralas, Daniel M; Ortega-Santiago, Ricardo; Ambite-Quesada, Silvia; Palacios-Ceña, Domingo; Pareja, Juan A

    2011-02-01

    Our aim was to describe the referred pain pattern and areas from trigger points (TrPs) in head, neck, and shoulder muscles in children with chronic tension type headache (CTTH). Fifty children (14 boys, 36 girls, mean age: 8 ± 2) with CTTH and 50 age- and sex- matched children participated. Bilateral temporalis, masseter, superior oblique, upper trapezius, sternocleidomastoid, suboccipital, and levator scapula muscles were examined for TrPs by an assessor blinded to the children's condition. TrPs were identified with palpation and considered active when local and referred pains reproduce headache pain attacks. The referred pain areas were drawn on anatomical maps, digitalized, and also measured. The total number of TrPs was significantly greater in children with CTTH as compared to healthy children (P < 0.001). Active TrPs were only present in children with CTTH (P < 0.001). Within children with CTTH, a significant positive association between the number of active TrPs and headache duration (r (s) = 0.315; P = 0.026) was observed: the greater the number of active TrPs, the longer the duration of headache attack. Significant differences in referred pain areas between groups (P < 0.001) and muscles (P < 0.001) were found: the referred pain areas were larger in CTTH children (P < 0.001), and the referred pain area elicited by suboccipital TrPs was larger than the referred pain from the remaining TrPs (P < 0.001). Significant positive correlations between some headache clinical parameters and the size of the referred pain area were found. Our results showed that the local and referred pains elicited from active TrPs in head, neck and shoulder shared similar pain pattern as spontaneous CTTH in children, supporting a relevant role of active TrPs in CTTH in children.

  7. Prevalance of neck pain in computer users

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sabeen, F.; Bashir, M.S.; Hussain, S.I.

    2013-01-01

    Prolonged use of computers during daily work activities and recreation is often cited as a cause of neck pain. Neck pain and computer users are clearly connected due to extended periods of sitting in a certain position with no breaks to stretch the neck muscles. Pro-longed computer use with neck bent forward, will cause the anterior neck muscles to gradually get shorter and tighter, while the muscles in the back of neck will grow longer and weaker. These changes will lead to development of neck pain. Objectives: To find incidence of neck pain in computer users, association between neck pain and prolong sitting in wrong posture, association between effects of break during prolong work, association between types of chair in use in prolong sitting and occurrence of neck pain. Methodology: For this observational study data was collected through Questionnaires from office workers (computer users), and students. Results: Out of 50 persons 72% of computer users had neck pain. Strong association was found between neck pain and prolonged computer use (p = 0.001). Those who took break during their work had less neck pain. No significant association was found between type of chair in use and neck pain. Neck pain and type of system in use also had no significant association. Conclusion: So duration of computer use and frequency of breaks are associated with neck pain at work. Severe Neck pain was found in people who use computer for more than 5 hours a day. (author)

  8. Investigating the effect of stabilization exercise and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation exercises on cross-sectional area of deep cervical flexor muscles in patients with chronic non-specific neck pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghadiri Harati Parisa

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to investigate and to determine the effectiveness of specific Stability Exercises (SEon the muscles of the neck in comparison with Proprioceptive Neuromuscular Facilitation exercises (PNFE in the cross-sectional area of deep cervical flexor muscles and to examine the improvement of disability and pain in patients with chronic neck pain. This randomized controlled clinical trial was conducted on 44 patients with chronic neck pain in 2016. The patients were randomly divided into two SE and (PNFE groups (each containing 22 subjects. The pain of patients was assessed using VisualAnalogScale(VAS questionnaire(VAS and the disability was assessed using Neck Disability Index(NDIquestionnaire, and cross-sectional area of deep cervical flexor muscles in the right side was assessed using ultrasonography before treatment training and 8 weeks after the start of training. Treatment program for both groups was 8 weeks (6 sessions per week and two sessions per day with repetition of specified trainings. Variance analysis, independent t-test, and paired t-test were used to compare results before and after treatment between groups and within groups .The mean pain score in both SE (P<0.001 and PNFE (P<0.001 groups was declined. Mean NDI in both SE (P<0.001 and PNFE (P<0.001 groups showed a significant decrease. The mean cross-sectional area of deep cervical flexor muscles of patients in SE group and PNFE group increased while the increase in PNFE group (P=0.09 was not significant but in SE group was statistically significant (P=0.008.This study revealed that both methods of SE and PNFE in patients with chronic neck pain reduced pain and disability, but SE had better effects. Although cross-sectional area of deep cervical flexor muscles increased in both treatment groups, but the increase in cross-sectional area of deep flexor muscles in SE group was significant.

  9. The fibula osteoseptocutaneous flap incorporating the hemisoleus muscle for complex head and neck defects: anatomical study and clinical applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Chin-Ho; Ong, Yee-Siang; Chew, Khong-Yik; Tan, Bien-Keem; Song, Colin

    2009-12-01

    In patients with extensive bone and soft-tissue defects, the inclusion of the hemisoleus muscle with the fibula osteoseptocutaneous flap would provide the needed soft-tissue volume to the flap. This study evaluates the reliability and technical considerations for the inclusion of the hemisoleus with the fibula and skin paddle as a chimeric, peroneal artery-based flap. The location and size of major arterial branches of the peroneal artery supplying the lateral hemisoleus muscle were investigated in 10 cadaveric injected lower limb specimens. The utility of this design was demonstrated in five clinical cases. The lateral hemisoleus was noted to be consistently supplied by large muscle branches from the peroneal artery, soleus vessels 1 (proximal) and 2 (distal). The mean diameter and distance from the origin of the peroneal artery for soleus vessels 1 and 2 were 1.8 mm and 2.1 cm, and 1.6 mm and 6.3 cm, respectively. The fibula osteoseptocutaneous flap incorporating the hemisoleus muscle was performed in five clinical cases. All were successful. Either soleus vessel 1 or soleus vessel 2 can be used as the pedicle to the muscle, depending on the specific reconstructive requirements for the reach and placement of the hemisoleus. The fibula osteoseptocutaneous flap incorporating the hemisoleus muscle can reliably be raised by preserving constant muscle branches that arise from the peroneal artery to supply the lateral hemisoleus. This flap provides the additional bulk in selected cases, with little additional donor-site morbidity.

  10. Quantitative CT assessment of proximal femoral bone density. An experimental study concerning its correlation to breaking load for femoral neck fractures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Buitrago-Tellez, C.H.; Schulze, C.; Gufler, H.; Langer, M.; Bonnaire, F.; Hoenninger, A.; Kuner, E.

    1997-01-01

    Purpose: In an experimental study, the correlation between the trabecular bone density of the different regions of the proximal femur and the fracture load in the setting of femoral neck fractures was examined. Methods: The bone mineral density 41 random proximal human femora was estimated by single-energy quanitative CT (SE-QCT). The trabecular bone density was measured at the greatest possible extracortical volume at midcapital, midneck and intertrochanteric level and in the 1 cm 3 volumes of the centres of these regions in a standardised 10 mm thick slice in the middle of the femoral neck axis (in mg/ml Ca-hydroxyl apatite). The proximal femora were then isolated and mounted on a compression/bending device under two-legged stand conditions and loaded up to the point when a femoral neck fracture occurred. Results: Statistical analysis revealed a linear correlation between the trabecular bone density and the fracture load for the greater regions, with the highest value in the maximal area of the head (coefficient factor r=0.76). Conclusion: According to our data, the measurement of the trabecular bone by SE-QCT at the femoral head is a more confident adjunct than the neck or trochanteric area to predict a femoral neck fracture. (orig.) [de

  11. Behavioural changes and muscle strength in Rattus norvegicus experimentally infected with Toxocara cati and T. canis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santos, S V; Moura, J V L; Lescano, S A Z; Castro, J M; Ribeiro, M C S A; Chieffi, P P

    2015-07-01

    Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati are nematode parasites in dogs and cats, respectively, transmitted by ingestion of embryonated eggs, transmammary and transplacental (T. canis) routes and paratenic host predation. Many parasites use mechanisms that change the behaviour of their hosts to ensure continued transmission. Several researchers have demonstrated behavioural changes in mouse models as paratenic hosts for T. canis. However, there have been no studies on behavioural changes in laboratory rats (Rattus norvegicus) experimentally infected with T. cati. This study investigated behavioural changes and muscle strength in male and female rats experimentally infected with T. cati or T. canis in acute and chronic phases of infection. Regardless of sex, rats infected with T. cati showed a greater decrease in muscle strength 42 days post infection compared to rats infected with T. canis. However, behavioural changes were only observed in female rats infected with T. canis.

  12. Exercise training reverses skeletal muscle atrophy in an experimental model of VCP disease.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Angèle Nalbandian

    Full Text Available The therapeutic effects of exercise resistance and endurance training in the alleviation of muscle hypertrophy/atrophy should be considered in the management of patients with advanced neuromuscular diseases. Patients with progressive neuromuscular diseases often experience muscle weakness, which negatively impact independence and quality of life levels. Mutations in the valosin containing protein (VCP gene lead to Inclusion body myopathy associated with Paget's disease of bone and frontotemporal dementia (IBMPFD and more recently affect 2% of amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS-diagnosed cases.The present investigation was undertaken to examine the effects of uphill and downhill exercise training on muscle histopathology and the autophagy cascade in an experimental VCP mouse model carrying the R155H mutation. Progressive uphill exercise in VCP(R155H/+ mice revealed significant improvement in muscle strength and performance by grip strength and Rotarod analyses when compared to the sedentary mice. In contrast, mice exercised to run downhill did not show any significant improvement. Histologically, the uphill exercised VCP(R155H/+ mice displayed an improvement in muscle atrophy, and decreased expression levels of ubiquitin, P62/SQSTM1, LC3I/II, and TDP-43 autophagy markers, suggesting an alleviation of disease-induced myopathy phenotypes. There was also an improvement in the Paget-like phenotype.Collectively, our data highlights that uphill exercise training in VCP(R155H/+ mice did not have any detrimental value to the function of muscle, and may offer effective therapeutic options for patients with VCP-associated diseases.

  13. Experimental knee joint pain during strength training and muscle strength gain in healthy subjects: A randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, T J; Langberg, H; Hodges, P W

    2012-01-01

    Knee joint pain and reduced quadriceps strength are cardinal symptoms in many knee pathologies. In people with painful knee pathologies, quadriceps exercise reduces pain, improves physical function, and increases muscle strength. A general assumption is that pain compromises muscle function...... and thus may prevent effective rehabilitation. This study evaluated the effects of experimental knee joint pain during quadriceps strength training on muscle strength gain in healthy individuals....

  14. The intra- and inter-rater reliability of five clinical muscle performance tests in patients with and without neck pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Juul, Tina; Langberg, Henning; Enoch, Flemming

    2013-01-01

    This study investigates the reliability of muscle performance tests using cost- and time-effective methods similar to those used in clinical practice. When conducting reliability studies, great effort goes into standardising test procedures to facilitate a stable outcome. Therefore, several test ...

  15. Acute pulmonary injury induced by experimental muscle trauma Lesão pulmonar aguda induzida por trauma muscular experimental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Andréa da Silva Carvalho Sombra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To develop an easily reproducible model of acute lung injury due to experimental muscle trauma in healthy rats. METHODS: Eighteen adult Wistar rats were randomized in 3 groups (n=6: G-1- control, G-2 - saline+trauma and G-3 - dexamethasone+trauma. Groups G-1 and G-2 were treated with saline 2,0ml i.p; G-3 rats were treated with dexamethasone (DE (2 mg/kg body weight i.p.. Saline and DE were applied 2h before trauma and 12h later. Trauma was induced in G-2 and G-3 anesthetized (tribromoethanol 97% 100 ml/kg i.p. rats by sharp section of anterior thigh muscles just above the knee, preserving major vessels and nerves. Tissue samples (lung were collected for myeloperoxidase (MPO assay and histopathological evaluation. RESULTS: Twenty-four hours after muscle injury there was a significant increase in lung neutrophil infiltration, myeloperoxidase activity and edema, all reversed by dexamethasone in G-3. CONCLUSION: Trauma by severance of thigh muscles in healthy rats is a simple and efficient model to induce distant lung lesions.OBJETIVO: Desenvolver um modelo facilmente reprodutível de lesão pulmonar aguda decorrente de trauma muscular experimental em ratos sadios. MÉTODOS: Dezoito ratos Wistar adultos foram randomizados em 3 grupos (n=6: G-1-controle, G-2 - trauma+salina e G-3 - trauma+dexametasona. Grupos G-1 e G-2 foram tratados com salina 2,0 ml ip, G-3 ratos foram tratados com dexametasona (DE (2 mg/kg peso corporal ip. Salina e DE foram aplicadas 2h antes e 12h depois do trauma. Trauma foi induzido em ratos G-2 e G-3 anestesiados (tribromoetanol 97% de 100 ml/kg, i.p. por secção da musculatura anterior da coxa logo acima da articulação do joelho, preservando os grandes vasos e nervos. Amostras de tecido (pulmão foram coletadas para avaliação da mieloperoxidase (MPO, e exames histopatológicos. RESULTADOS: Vinte e quatro horas após a indução da lesão muscular houve um aumento significativo na infiltração de neutr

  16. Test-retest repeatability of strength capacity, aerobic power and pericranial tenderness of neck and shoulder muscles in children - relevant for tension-type headache

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tornøe B

    2013-08-01

    -Altman Plots; and by quantifying the variability. Results: The results showed an acceptable test-retest repeatability of isometric maximal voluntary contraction (ICC 0.90-0.97. The force steadiness measurements revealed a trend of systematic changes in the direction of neck flexion and need further examination in both healthy and ill children. The rate of force development, Total Tenderness Score, and prediction of VO2 max showed repeatability, with ICC 0.80-0.87. Conclusion: The measurements of strength capacity, aerobic power, and tenderness provide acceptable repeatability, suitable for research in children. Keywords: muscle strength, intratester reliability, cardiovascular fitness

  17. Combined stent implantation and embolization with liquid 2-polyhydroxyethyl methacrylate for treatment of experimental canine wide-necked aneurysms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Klisch, J.; Zitt, J.; Schumacher, M.; Schellhammer, F.; Scheufler, K.M.; Pagenstecher, A.; Nagursky, H.

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of the study was the evaluation of 2-polyhydroxyethyl methacrylate (2-P-HEMA) for endovascular liquid embolization of experimental side-wall aneurysms following stent protection in a canine model. The swelling behaviour and polymerization characteristics of 2-P-HEMA in different solutions were investigated in vitro. Different methods for applications were tested in a latex aneurysm model under pulsatile flow conditions. Twenty broad-based carotid side-wall aneurysms were microsurgically produced in five dogs. Four weeks after surgery self-expandable nitinol stents were placed, covering the orifice of the aneurysms. 2-P-HEMA was injected via a microcatheter, which was positioned through the meshwork of the stent. Control angiography was performed immediately after treatment and after 1, 6 and 9 months. In-vivo stent placement succeeded in all but one case. Two aneurysms occluded spontaneously after stent placement. Combined embolization of 17 aneurysms using a stent and 2-P-HEMA was performed. Eleven aneurysms could be primarily completely occluded (65%). A small remaining neck was evident in six aneurysms. Efflux of 2-P-HEMA during the process of embolization was observed in seven aneurysms, due to an excess volume of 2-P-HEMA. The excessive 2-P-HEMA led to significant vessel stenosis in two cases. Two carotid arteries (three treated aneurysms) occluded after 1 month, due to insufficient anticoagulation management. Histological examination of embolized aneurysms revealed no foreign-body or inflammatory reaction. A smooth neo-intimal layer covered the stented vessel segment. Liquid embolization of side-wall aneurysms with 2-P-HEMA is technically feasible. Embolotherapy of aneurysms with liquid agents still has the risk that embolic material will exit even when it is stent-protected. To avoid this problem, stents with smaller strut diameter and/or additional balloon-protection are required. The inert 2-P-HEMA seems to be a promising agent for combining

  18. Experimental pain in human temporal muscle induced by hypertonic saline, potassium and acidity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, K; Norup, M

    1992-01-01

    healthy subjects had 0.2 ml test solution injected into one temporal muscle and saline into the other. Following each injection, pain was rated on a 10-point ordinal scale and pressure-pain thresholds were measured every minute for 10 min by a pressure algometer. Hypertonic saline (n = 11) and potassium......The study was aimed at developing a reference model for experimental pain and tenderness in the human temporal muscle by the local injection of hypertonic saline, potassium chloride and acidic phosphate buffer, using isotonic saline as control. The design was randomized and double-blind. Twenty...... chloride (n = 12) induced significantly more pain than isotonic saline (ANOVA, p less than 0.0001). Compared to control injections, hypertonic saline and potassium chloride induced a significant reduction in pressure-pain threshold (ANOVA, p less than 0.0001 and p less than 0.05). Forty-eight percent...

  19. A computerized experimental set-up for in vitro evaluation of smooth muscle contractility.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, J; Vereecken, R L; Schellemans, D

    1986-12-01

    A fully automated system is designed and developed for the investigation of in vitro contractility of muscle tissue in response to dose-dependent pharmacologic and/or electrical stimulation. The heart of the set-up is a personal technical computer. It drives the experiment by selecting and changing drug concentrations, by applying electrical stimulation, by sampling the tissue's contractile response and by real-time calculation of results. Parameters of interest are derived and updated for further selection and statistical manipulation. Alpha-numerical or graphical hardcopies may be drawn at any time. Investigator's intervention is limited to preparing perfusing solutions, mounting the muscle tissue strips, deciding test condition parameters, supervising the experimental progress and leading statistical calculations.

  20. Women with dysmenorrhea are hypersensitive to experimental deep muscle pain across the menstrual cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iacovides, Stella; Baker, Fiona C; Avidon, Ingrid; Bentley, Alison

    2013-10-01

    Primary dysmenorrhea is a common painful condition in women that recurs every month across the reproductive years. The recurrent nociceptive input into the central nervous system that occurs during menstruation each month in women with dysmenorrhea is hypothesized to lead to increased sensitivity to painful stimuli. We investigated whether women with primary dysmenorrhea are hyperalgesic to deep muscle pain induced by a cleanly nociceptive method of hypertonic saline injection. Pain stimulation was applied both within an area of referred menstrual pain (lower back) and at a remote site outside of referred menstrual pain (forearm) in 12 healthy women with severe dysmenorrhea and 9 healthy women without dysmenorrhea, at 3 phases of the menstrual cycle: menstruation and follicular and luteal phases. Women rated their pain severity on a 100-mm visual analog scale every 30 seconds after injection until the pain subsided. In both groups of women, menstrual cycle phase had no effect on the reported intensity and duration of muscle pain. However, women with dysmenorrhea had increased sensitivity to experimental muscle pain both at the site of referred pain and at a remote nonpainful site, as assessed by peak pain severity visual analog scale rating, area under the visual analog scale curve, and pain duration, compared to women without dysmenorrhea. These data show that women with severe primary dysmenorrhea, who experience monthly menstrual pain, are hyperalgesic to deep muscle pain compared to women without dysmenorrhea. Our findings that dysmenorrheic women are hyperalgesic to a clinically relevant, deep muscle pain in areas within and outside of referred menstrual pain indicates lasting changes in pain sensitivity outside of the painful period during menstruation. Copyright © 2013 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effect of Deep Cervical Flexor Training vs. Conventional Isometric Training on Forward Head Posture, Pain, Neck Disability Index In Dentists Suffering from Chronic Neck Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, Bhuvan Deep; Aggarwal, Shagun; Gupta, Bharat; Gupta, Madhuri; Gupta, Neha

    2013-10-01

    Neck pain accounts for 15% of all soft tissue problems seen in general practice and are a common reason for referral to physiotherapy treatment. The prevalence of neck pain in dentists is 74.3%. Musculoskeletal symptoms in dentists are caused due to many reasons for e.g., prolonged static posture, repetitive movements, suboptimal lighting, and genetic predisposition. Since deep cervical muscle activity is required in synergy with superficial muscle activity to stabilize the cervical segments, a study is needed, to compare the effectiveness of deep cervical flexor (DCF) training and posture correction training on neck pain and neck disability index and forward head posture. To determine and compare the effect of DCF training on forward head posture, neck pain and neck disability index in dentists suffering from chronic non severe neck pain. Total of 30 subjects were selected, based on inclusion and exclusion criteria, who were further divided into Experimental and Control groups. Baseline information of dependent variables was taken at the beginning of study on day one, for Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and Neck disability Index (NDI). Forward head posture was measured on day one using digital photograph technique. Then, Experimental group was given DCF training and Control group was given conventional isometrics training (CIT) for 4 weeks under supervision of examiner. All measurements were repeated at end of 4(th) week, on completion of study. It was observed that pain and disability had reduced in both groups on group analysis. But the forward head posture had improved significantly in experimental group only. DCF training is more effective than CIT in improving forward head posture, decreasing pain and disability in dentists suffering from chronic neck pain.

  2. TC pathological Neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia Fontes, M.

    2012-01-01

    This presentation is about different imaging techniques such as ultrasound, CT, RNM, PET-CT. These techniques permit to detect head and neck tumors, breast and digestive pathologies as well as congenital diseases and glandular tumor in the thyroid, parathyroid, muscles, lymphatic, nerves and vessels

  3. Preclinical deposition of pathological prion protein in muscle of experimentally infected primates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susanne Krasemann

    Full Text Available Prion diseases are transmissible fatal neurodegenerative disorders affecting humans and animals. A central step in disease progression is the accumulation of a misfolded form (PrP(Sc of the host encoded prion protein (PrP(C in neuronal and non-neuronal tissues. The involvement of peripheral tissues in preclinical states increases the risk of accidental transmission. On the other hand, detection of PrP(Sc in non-neuronal easy-accessible compartments such as muscle may offer a novel diagnostic tool. Primate models have proven invaluable to investigate prion diseases. We have studied the deposition of PrP(Sc in muscle and central nervous system of rhesus monkeys challenged with sporadic Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (sCJD, variant CJD (vCJD and bovine spongiform encephalopathy (BSE in preclinical and clinical stage using biochemical and morphological methods. Here, we show the preclinical presence of PrP(Sc in muscle and central nervous system of rhesus monkeys experimentally infected with vCJD.

  4. Experimental study of a metal hydride driven braided artificial pneumatic muscle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vanderhoff, Alexandra; Kim, Kwang J

    2009-01-01

    This paper reports the experimental study of a new actuation system that couples a braided artificial pneumatic muscle (BAPM) with a metal hydride driven hydrogen compressor to create a compact, lightweight, noiseless system capable of high forces and smooth actuation. The results indicate that the metal hydride–BAPM system has relatively good second law efficiency average of 30% over the desorption cycle. The thermal efficiency is low, due mainly to the highly endothermic chemical reaction that releases the stored hydrogen gas from the metal hydride. The force to metal hydride weight is very high (∼14 000 N Force /kg MH ) considering that this system has not been optimized to use the minimum amount of metal hydride required for a full actuation stroke of the fluidic muscle. Also, a thermodynamic model for the complete system is developed. The analysis is restricted in some aspects concerning the complexity of the hydriding/dehydriding chemical process of the system and the three-dimensional geometry of the reactor, but it provides a useful comparison to other actuation devices and clearly reveals the parameters necessary for optimization of the actuation system in future work. The system shows comparable work output and has the benefits of biological muscle-like properties for potential use in robotic systems

  5. Experimental study of a metal hydride driven braided artificial pneumatic muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderhoff, Alexandra; Kim, Kwang J.

    2009-12-01

    This paper reports the experimental study of a new actuation system that couples a braided artificial pneumatic muscle (BAPM) with a metal hydride driven hydrogen compressor to create a compact, lightweight, noiseless system capable of high forces and smooth actuation. The results indicate that the metal hydride-BAPM system has relatively good second law efficiency average of 30% over the desorption cycle. The thermal efficiency is low, due mainly to the highly endothermic chemical reaction that releases the stored hydrogen gas from the metal hydride. The force to metal hydride weight is very high (~14 000 NForce/kgMH) considering that this system has not been optimized to use the minimum amount of metal hydride required for a full actuation stroke of the fluidic muscle. Also, a thermodynamic model for the complete system is developed. The analysis is restricted in some aspects concerning the complexity of the hydriding/dehydriding chemical process of the system and the three-dimensional geometry of the reactor, but it provides a useful comparison to other actuation devices and clearly reveals the parameters necessary for optimization of the actuation system in future work. The system shows comparable work output and has the benefits of biological muscle-like properties for potential use in robotic systems.

  6. A 3D active-passive numerical skeletal muscle model incorporating initial tissue strains. Validation with experimental results on rat tibialis anterior muscle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grasa, J; Ramírez, A; Osta, R; Muñoz, M J; Soteras, F; Calvo, B

    2011-10-01

    This paper presents a three-dimensional finite element model of skeletal muscle and its validation incorporating inital tissue strains. A constitutive relation was determined by using a convex free strain energy function (SEF) where active and passive response contributions were obtained fitting experimental data from the rat tibialis anterior (TA) muscle. The passive and active finite strains response was modelled within the framework of continuum mechanics by a quasi-incompressible transversely isotropic material formulation. Magnetic resonance images (MRI) were obtained to reconstruct the external geometry of the TA. This geometry includes initial strains also taken into account in the numerical model. The numerical results show excellent agreement with the experimental results when comparing reaction force-extension curves both in passive and active tests. The proposed constitutive model for the muscle is implemented in a subroutine in the commercial finite element software package ABAQUS.

  7. The effect of experimental low back pain on lumbar muscle activity in people with a history of clinical low back pain: a muscle functional MRI study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danneels, Lieven; Cagnie, Barbara; D'hooge, Roseline; De Deene, Yves; Crombez, Geert; Vanderstraeten, Guy; Parlevliet, Thierry; Van Oosterwijck, Jessica

    2016-02-01

    In people with a history of low back pain (LBP), structural and functional alterations have been observed at several peripheral and central levels of the sensorimotor pathway. These existing alterations might interact with the way the sensorimotor system responds to pain. We examined this assumption by evaluating the lumbar motor responses to experimental nociceptive input of 15 participants during remission of unilateral recurrent LBP. Quantitative T2 images (muscle functional MRI) were taken bilaterally of multifidus, erector spinae, and psoas at several segmental levels (L3 upper and L4 upper and lower endplate) and during several conditions: 1) at rest, 2) upon trunk-extension exercise without pain, and 3) upon trunk-extension exercise with experimental induced pain at the clinical pain-side (1.5-ml intramuscular hypertonic saline injections in erector spinae). Following experimental pain induction, muscle activity levels similarly reduced for all three muscles, on both painful and nonpainful sides, and at multiple segmental levels (P = 0.038). Pain intensity and localization from experimental LBP were similar as during recalled clinical LBP episodes. In conclusion, unilateral and unisegmental experimental LBP exerts a generalized and widespread decrease in lumbar muscle activity during remission of recurrent LBP. This muscle response is consistent with previous observed patterns in healthy people subjected to the same experimental pain paradigm. It is striking that similar inhibitory patterns in response to pain could be observed, despite the presence of preexisting alterations in the lumbar musculature during remission of recurrent LBP. These results suggest that motor output can modify along the course of recurrent LBP. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Reconstitution of experimental neurogenic bladder dysfunction using skeletal muscle-derived multipotent stem cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nitta, Masahiro; Tamaki, Tetsuro; Tono, Kayoko; Okada, Yoshinori; Masuda, Maki; Akatsuka, Akira; Hoshi, Akio; Usui, Yukio; Terachi, Toshiro

    2010-05-15

    BACKGROUND.: Postoperative neurogenic bladder dysfunction is a major complication of radical hysterectomy for cervical cancer and is mainly caused by unavoidable damage to the bladder branch of the pelvic plexus (BBPP) associated with colateral blood vessels. Thus, we attempted to reconstitute disrupted BBPP and blood vessels using skeletal muscle-derived multipotent stem cells that show synchronized reconstitution capacity of vascular, muscular, and peripheral nervous systems. METHODS.: Under pentobarbital anesthesia, intravesical pressure by electrical stimulation of BBPP was measured as bladder function. The distal portion of BBPP with blood vessels was then cut unilaterally (experimental neurogenic bladder model). Measurements were performed before, immediately after, and at 4 weeks after transplantation as functional recovery. Stem cells were obtained from the right soleus and gastrocnemius muscles after enzymatic digestion and cell sorting as CD34/45 (Sk-34) and CD34/45 (Sk-DN). Suspended cells were autografted around the damaged region, whereas medium alone and CD45 cells were transplanted as control groups. To determine the morphological contribution of the transplanted cells, stem cells obtained from green fluorescent protein transgenic mouse muscles were transplanted into a nude rat model and were examined by immunohistochemistry and immunoelectron microscopy. RESULTS.: At 4 weeks after surgery, the transplantation group showed significantly higher functional recovery ( approximately 80%) than the two controls ( approximately 28% and 24%). The transplanted cells showed an incorporation into the damaged peripheral nerves and blood vessels after differentiation into Schwann cells, perineurial cells, vascular smooth muscle cells, pericytes, and fibroblasts around the bladder. CONCLUSION.: Transplantation of multipotent Sk-34 and Sk-DN cells is potentially useful for the reconstitution of damaged BBPP.

  9. Experimental integrative muscular movement technique enhances cervical range of motion in patients with chronic neck pain: a pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rohe, Benjamin G; Carter, Ronald; Thompson, William R; Duncan, Randall L; Cooper, Carlton R

    2015-04-01

    Neck pain presents a tremendous physical and financial burden. This study compared the efficacy of the complementary and alternative medical treatments of integrative muscular movement technique (IMMT) and Swedish massage on neck pain in women of occupation age, the largest demographic group with neck pain. A total of 38 women were assigned to IMMT (n=28) or Swedish massage (n=10) in a blinded manner. Both groups received eight 30-minute treatments over 4 weeks. Cervical range of motion (ROM) in flexion, extension, sidebending, and rotation was measured before and after treatment. Each patient's pain was assessed by using an analogue pain scale of 0-10. Compared with the Swedish massage group, patients receiving IMMT experienced a significant increase in ROM in cervical flexion (ppain for IMMT was -1.75 units compared with -0.3 units for Swedish massage (pneck pain may lead to decreased pain and increased cervical ROM. These positive effects of the IMMT intervention may have a role in enhancing functional outcomes in patients with neck pain.

  10. Comparison of electromyographic activity and range of neck motion in violin students with and without neck pain during playing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Kyue-nam; Kwon, Oh-yun; Ha, Sung-min; Kim, Su-jung; Choi, Hyun-jung; Weon, Jong-hyuck

    2012-12-01

    Neck pain is common in violin students during a musical performance. The purpose of this study was to compare electromyographic (EMG) activity in superficial neck muscles with neck motion when playing the violin as well as neck range of motion (ROM) at rest, between violin students with and without neck pain. Nine violin students with neck pain and nine age- and gender-matched subjects without neck pain were recruited. Muscle activity of the bilateral upper trapezius, sternocleidomastoid, and superficial cervical extensor muscles was measured using surface EMG. Kinematic data on neck motion while playing and active neck ROM were also measured using a three-dimensional motion analysis system. Independent t-tests were used to compare EMG activity with kinematic data between groups. These analyses revealed that while playing, both the angle of left lateral bending and leftward rotation of the cervical spine were significantly greater in the neck pain group than among those without neck pain. Similarly, EMG activity of the left upper trapezius, both cervical extensors, and both sternocleidomastoid muscles were significantly greater in the neck pain group. The active ROM of left axial rotation was significantly lower in the neck pain group. These results suggest that an asymmetric playing posture and the associated increased muscle activity as well as decreased neck axial rotation may contribute to neck pain in violin students.

  11. Muscle Energy Technique and Static Stretching for Treatment of Mechanical Neck Pain 16 July 2012 International Journal of Health and Rehabilitation Sciences Volume 1 Number 1 O RIGINAL R ESEARCH Comparative Effectiveness of Muscle Energy Technique and Static Stretching for Treatment of Subacute Mechanical N eck Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richa Mahajan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neck pain is a common problem within our society. Upper trapezius and the levator scapulae are the most common postural muscles that tends to get shorten leading to restricted neck mobility. If these group of muscles are treated it may provide with best results. There is lack of evidence to allow conclusions to be drawn about the effectiveness of Muscle energy technique (MET when compared with stretching exercises for relieving mechanical neck pain. It would be interesting to study if these two techniques yield comparable outcomes and if one technique is superior to the next which should be the alternate choice of therapy Objective: To evaluate the comparative effectiveness of Muscle energy technique and static stretching on pain and active cervical range of motion (ROM in subacute mechanical neck pain Subjects and methods: 45 patients with subacute mechanical neck pain were randomly assigned to receive Muscle Energy Technique plus conventional physiotherapy (group 1, n = 15, static stretching plus conventional exercise program (group 2, n = 15 and conventional physiotherapy only (group 3, n = 15. Intervention: Group 1 received 6 sessions of Muscle Energy Technique and 10 sessions of conventional physiotherapy. Group 2 received 6 sessions of static stretching and 10 sessions of conventional physiotherapy. Group 3 received 10 sessions of conventional physiotherapy. All groups were treated for 2 weeks.Outcome measures:Pain intensity on 100mm VAS, active cervical lateral flexion range of motion, active cervical rotation range of motion. Results: Paired t-test was used for within group analysis. ANOVA followed by post hoc analysis was employed for between group comparisons. No significant difference was found in any of the outcome measure between MET and static stretching groups (p > 0.05 while both were found to be significantly better than the conventional exercise group (p < 0.05 between the 3 groups. Statistically significant

  12. Placebo effect of an inert gel on experimentally induced leg muscle pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James G Hopker

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available James G Hopker1, Abigail J Foad2, Christopher J Beedie2, Damian A Coleman2, Geoffrey Leach11Centre for Sports Studies, University of Kent, Chatham, Kent, UK; 2Department of Sports Science, Tourism and Leisure, Canterbury Christ Church University, Canterbury, Kent, UKPurpose: This study examined the therapeutic effects of an inert placebo gel on experimentally induced muscle pain in a sports therapy setting. It aimed to investigate the degree to which conditioned analgesia, coupled with an expectation of intervention, was a factor in subsequent analgesia.Methods: Participants were sixteen male and eight female sports therapy students at a UK University. With institutional ethics board approval and following informed consent procedures, each was exposed to pain stimulus in the lower leg in five conditions, ie, conditioning, prebaseline, experimental (two placebo gel applications, and postbaseline. In conditioning trials, participants identified a level of pain stimulus equivalent to a perceived pain rating of 6/10. An inert placebo gel was then applied to the site with the explicit instruction that it was an analgesic. Participants were re-exposed to the pain stimulus, the level of which, without their knowledge, had been decreased, creating the impression of an analgesic effect resulting from the gel. In experimental conditions, the placebo gel was applied and the level of pain stimulus required to elicit a pain rating of 6/10 recorded.Results: Following application of the placebo gel, the level of pain stimulus required to elicit a pain rating of 6/10 increased by 8.2%. Application of the placebo gel significantly decreased participant’s perceptions of muscle pain (P = 0.001.Conclusion: Subjects’ experience and expectation of pain reduction may be major factors in the therapeutic process. These factors should be considered in the sports therapeutic environment.Keywords: conditioning, expectation, perception, positive belief, sports therapy

  13. Secretome Analysis of Lipid-Induced Insulin Resistance in Skeletal Muscle Cells by a Combined Experimental and Bioinformatics Workflow

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Deshmukh, Atul S; Cox, Juergen; Jensen, Lars Juhl

    2015-01-01

    the secretome of lipid-induced insulin-resistant skeletal muscle cells. Our workflow identified 1073 putative secreted proteins including 32 growth factors, 25 cytokines, and 29 metalloproteinases. In addition to previously reported proteins, we report hundreds of novel ones. Intriguingly, ∼40% of the secreted......-resistant conditions. Our study demonstrates an efficient combined experimental and bioinformatics workflow to identify putative secreted proteins from insulin-resistant skeletal muscle cells, which could easily be adapted to other cellular models....

  14. Experimental knee joint pain during strength training and muscle strength gain in healthy subjects: a randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, T J; Langberg, H; Hodges, P W; Bliddal, H; Henriksen, M

    2012-01-01

    Knee joint pain and reduced quadriceps strength are cardinal symptoms in many knee pathologies. In people with painful knee pathologies, quadriceps exercise reduces pain, improves physical function, and increases muscle strength. A general assumption is that pain compromises muscle function and thus may prevent effective rehabilitation. This study evaluated the effects of experimental knee joint pain during quadriceps strength training on muscle strength gain in healthy individuals. Twenty-seven healthy untrained volunteers participated in a randomized controlled trial of quadriceps strengthening (3 times per week for 8 weeks). Participants were randomized to perform resistance training either during pain induced by injections of painful hypertonic saline (pain group, n = 13) or during a nonpainful control condition with injection of isotonic saline (control group, n = 14) into the infrapatellar fat pad. The primary outcome measure was change in maximal isokinetic muscle strength in knee extension/flexion (60, 120, and 180 degrees/second). The group who exercised with pain had a significantly larger improvement in isokinetic muscle strength at all angular velocities of knee extension compared to the control group. In knee flexion there were improvements in isokinetic muscle strength in both groups with no between-group differences. Experimental knee joint pain improved the training-induced gain in muscle strength following 8 weeks of quadriceps training. It remains to be studied whether knee joint pain has a positive effect on strength gain in patients with knee pathology. Copyright © 2012 by the American College of Rheumatology.

  15. Effects of Experimental Anterior Knee Pain on Muscle Activation During Landing and Jumping Performed at Various Intensities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jihong; Denning, W Matt; Pitt, Jordan D; Francom, Devin; Hopkins, J Ty; Seeley, Matthew K

    2017-01-01

    Although knee pain is common, some facets of this pain are unclear. The independent effects (ie, independent from other knee injury or pathology) of knee pain on neural activation of lower-extremity muscles during landing and jumping have not been observed. To investigate the independent effects of knee pain on lower-extremity muscle (gastrocnemius, vastus medialis, medial hamstrings, gluteus medius, and gluteus maximus) activation amplitude during landing and jumping, performed at 2 different intensities. Laboratory-based, pretest, posttest, repeated-measures design, where all subjects performed both data-collection sessions. Thirteen able-bodied subjects performed 2 different land and jump tasks (forward and lateral) under 2 different conditions (control and pain), at 2 different intensities (high and low). For the pain condition, experimental knee pain was induced via a hypertonic saline injection into the right infrapatellar fat pad. Functional linear models were used to evaluate the influence of experimental knee pain on muscle-activation amplitude throughout the 2 land and jump tasks. Experimental knee pain independently altered activation for all of the observed muscles during various parts of the 2 different land and jump tasks. These activation alterations were not consistently influenced by task intensity. Experimental knee pain alters activation amplitude of various lower-extremity muscles during landing and jumping. The nature of the alteration varies between muscles, intensities, and phases of the movement (ie, landing and jumping). Generally, experimental knee pain inhibits the gastrocnemius, medial hamstring, and gluteus medius during landing while independently increasing activation of the same muscles during jumping.

  16. Altered Pulmonary Artery Endothelial - Smooth Muscle Cell Interactions in Experimental Congenital Diaphragmatic Hernia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acker, Shannon N.; Seedorf, Gregory J.; Abman, Steven H.; Nozik-Grayck, Eva; Kuhn, Katherine; Partrick, David A.; Gien, Jason

    2014-01-01

    Background Pulmonary hypertension (PH) secondary to vascular remodeling contributes to poor outcomes in congenital diaphragmatic hernia (CDH), however mechanisms responsible are unknown. We hypothesized that pulmonary artery endothelial cell (PAEC) dysfunction contributes to smooth muscle cell (SMC) hyperplasia in experimental CDH. Methods PAEC and SMC were isolated from fetal sheep with experimental CDH and controls. SMC growth was assessed alone and with SOD plus catalase and during co-culture with control or CDH PAEC with and without ET-1 siRNA transfection. ET-1 protein was measured in PAEC and PASMC lysates and supernatant. ROS production was measured in normal and CDH PAECs with and without ET-1 siRNA. PAEC growth and tube formation were measured with SOD plus catalase. Results CDH SMC growth was decreased and and increased with co-culture with CDH PAEC more than control PAEC. Treatment of CDH PAEC with SOD plus catalase or ET-1 siRNA prevented the increase in SMC growth seen with co-culture. ET-1 protein was increased in CDH PAEC and SMC. ROS production was increased in CDH PAEC and decreased with ET-1 SiRNA. SOD plus catalase restored CDH PAEC growth and tube formation. Conclusions PAEC dysfunction in experimental CDH increases SMC proliferation via ET-1 induced ROS production by PAEC. PMID:25580737

  17. Interferential therapy: lack of effect upon experimentally induced delayed onset muscle soreness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minder, P M; Noble, J G; Alves-Guerreiro, J; Hill, I D; Lowe, A S; Walsh, D M; Baxter, G D

    2002-09-01

    This study was designed to assess the analgesic effects of interferential therapy (IFT) on experimentally induced muscular pain under randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled conditions. After ethical approval and written consent were obtained, 40 healthy human volunteers (20 males: 20 females) aged 18-25 years were recruited and randomly assigned to one of four experimental groups (n = 10 per group: male = female): IFT 1, IFT 2, control or placebo. Delayed onset muscle soreness (DOMS) was induced in the elbow flexors of the non-dominant arm of each subject using a single bout of eccentric exercises to exhaustion. Measurements of isometric peak torque, resting angle, mechanical pain threshold and visual analogue scales were performed at set time points. Treatment was applied for 30 min daily over the biceps brachii muscle, for five consecutive days, according to group allocation. IFT 1 received 10-20 Hz, whilst subjects in IFT 2 were treated with 80-100 Hz (bi-pole; carrier frequency: 4 kHz; pulse duration: 125 microseconds). For the placebo group, the procedure was identical to that in the active treatment groups; however, no interferential current was delivered. The control group received no treatment. No significant between group difference was identified at any time point (P > or = 0.14). However, some inconsistent, yet significant differences in daily treatment effects, interactive effects and effects over time were detected. Based on the results of this study it can be concluded that application of IFT at the parameters used here, had no overall beneficial effect on DOMS.

  18. TENS attenuates repetition-induced summation of activity-related pain following experimentally induced muscle soreness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mankovsky-Arnold, Tsipora; Wideman, Timothy H; Larivière, Christian; Sullivan, Michael J L

    2013-11-01

    This study sought to determine whether repetition-induced summation of activity-related pain (RISP) could be demonstrated in healthy individuals in response to experimentally induced musculoskeletal pain. This study also assessed the effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on RISP. The relation between the index of RISP and psychological factors such as catastrophizing and fear of pain was also explored. The sample consisted of 56 healthy (35 women, 21 men) participants who underwent 2 testing sessions, separated by 24 hours. In the first session, musculoskeletal pain was induced with a delayed-onset muscle soreness protocol. During the second session, participants were randomly assigned to the transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation or placebo condition and were asked to rate their pain as they lifted a series of 18 weighted canisters. An index of RISP was derived as the change in pain ratings across repeated lifts. Approximately 25% of participants showed evidence of RISP. Results also revealed that transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation attenuated the RISP effect. Psychological measures (fear of pain, catastrophizing) were not significantly correlated with the index of RISP, but the index of RISP was significantly correlated with a measure of physical tolerance. Discussion addresses the clinical implications of the findings as well as the potential mechanisms underlying RISP. This study showed that RISP could be demonstrated in healthy individuals in response to experimentally induced musculoskeletal pain with delayed-onset muscle soreness. Transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation led to a significant reduction in RISP. Copyright © 2013 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. EFFECT OF THE CERVICAL ENDURANCE TRAINING PROGRAMME IN MECHANICAL NECK PAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pranjal Gogoi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mechanical neck pain commonly arises insidiously and is generally multifactorial in origin. Regardless of the primary source of pain, the prognosis for individual experiencing chronic neck pain is poor. Exercise interventions are important for effective management of patients with neck pain.the objective of the study is to compare the efficacy of cervical endurance training programme with cervical isometric exercise in alleviating symptoms of mechanical neck pain. Methods: 40 subjects were assessed and identified with Mechanical Neck Pain and recruited for the study and were randomly divided into two groups. In one group endurance training for cervical muscles and in another group resisted isometric had been given for 3 weeks. The post treatment scores regarding endurance, pain intensity, disability, Range of motion and muscle power were compared with the pre treatment scores. Results: Paired‘t’ test was done to compare the pretreatment scores with the post treatment scores .Unpaired ‘t’ test was done to compare the post treatment scores of both the groups. The pain intensity, disability were found to be significantly decreased in experimental group than the control group (p<0.001. While the endurance was found to be significantly increased in experimental group than the control group (p < 0.001. The muscle power was found to be slightly increased in the control group than the experimental group .The post treatment cervical range of motion does not have significant difference in between the groups (Flexion- p=0.35 and Extension-p=0.40. Conclusion: This study showed that the progressive endurance exercise is beneficial in alleviating mechanical neck pain and should be incorporated along with the conventional physiotherapy treatment for mechanical neck pain.

  20. Experimental evidence against the mitochondrial theory of aging. A study of isolated human skeletal muscle mitochondria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Ulla F.; Krustrup, Peter; Kjær, Michael

    2003-01-01

    age effects, ATP formation, BSA effects, collagen content, low temperature spectroscopy, oxygen uptakes, quadriceps muscle, respiration, specific enzyme activities......age effects, ATP formation, BSA effects, collagen content, low temperature spectroscopy, oxygen uptakes, quadriceps muscle, respiration, specific enzyme activities...

  1. Variations in muscle activation levels during traditional latissimus dorsi weight training exercises: An experimental study.

    OpenAIRE

    Lehman, Gregory J; Buchan, Day Deans; Lundy, Angela; Myers, Nicole; Nalborczyk, Andrea

    2004-01-01

    Background Exercise beliefs abound regarding variations in strength training techniques on muscle activation levels yet little research has validated these ideas. The purpose of the study is to determine muscle activation level, expressed as a percent of a normalization contraction, of the latissimus dorsi, biceps brachii and middle trapezius/rhomboids muscle groups during a series of different exercise tasks. Methods The average muscle activity during four tasks; wide grip pulldown, reverse ...

  2. Experimental tooth clenching. A model for studying mechanisms of muscle pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dawson, Andreas

    2013-01-01

    ) participated in two sessions at a minimum interval of 1 wk. Microdialysis was done to collect 5-HT, glutamate, pyruvate, and lactate and to measure masseter muscle blood flow. Two hours after the start of microdialysis, participants were randomized to a 20-min repetitive experimental tooth clenching task (50% of MVCF) or a control session (no clenching). Pain intensity was measured throughout the experiment. Substance levels and blood flow were unaltered at all time points between sessions, and between genders in each session. Pain intensity was significantly higher after clenching in the clenching session compared to the same time point in the control session. In (IV), 15 patients with M-TMD and 15 healthy controls participated in one session and the methodology described above was used. M-TMD patients had significantly higher levels of 5-HT and significantly lower blood flows than healthy controls. No significant differences for any substance at any time point were observed between groups. Time and group had significant main effects on pain intensity. Qu-ATEBS, the 7-item evidence-based quality assessment tool, is reliable, exhibits face-validity, and has excellent discriminative validity. Tooth clenching was associated with pain, fatigue, and short-lasting mechanical hyperalgesia, but not with proprioceptive allodynia. It seems that tooth clenching is not directly related to delayed onset muscle soreness. In healthy subjects and in patients with M-TMD, levels of 5-HT, glutamate, pyruvate, and lactate were unaltered after tooth clenching. But 5-HT levels were significantly higher and blood flows significantly lower in M-TMD patients than in healthy controls at all time points. These two factors may facilitate the release, and enhance the effects, of other algesic substances that may cause pain.

  3. A failure-type specific risk prediction tool for selection of head-and-neck cancer patients for experimental treatments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Håkansson, Katrin; Rasmussen, Jacob H.; Rasmussen, Gregers B.

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The objective of this work was to develop a tool for decision support, providing simultaneous predictions of the risk of loco-regional failure (LRF) and distant metastasis (DM) after definitive treatment for head-and-neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC). MATERIALS AND METHODS......: Retrospective data for 560HNSCC patients were used to generate a multi-endpoint model, combining three cause-specific Cox models (LRF, DM and death with no evidence of disease (death NED)). The model was used to generate risk profiles of patients eligible for/included in a de-intensification study (RTOG 1016.......8%, p20% risk of tumor relapse. Conversely, 9 of the 15 dose escalation trial participants had LRF risks

  4. Trichinella spiralis, T-britovi, and T-nativa: infectivity, larval distribution in muscle, and antibody response after experimental infection of pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kapel, C.M.O.; Webster, P.; Lind, Peter

    1998-01-01

    larvae per gram (lpg)] and in three of four pigs inoculated with T. britovi (mean 7 lpg). No larvae were found in pigs inoculated with T. nativa. For T. spiralis and T. britovi, the neck muscle (m. splenius) appears to be a predilection site in addition to the tongue, the diaphram, and the jaw. High...... samples from wild animals. Immunoblotting (Western blots) on slaughter sera revealed no species specificity when comparing homologous versus heterologous staining....

  5. The effects of threshold inspiratory muscle training in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease: A randomised experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Han-Yu; Chang, Hsiao-Yun; Fang, Yueh-Yen; Guo, Su-Er

    2017-12-01

    To investigate the effects of threshold inspiratory muscle training in patients with stages II through IV chronic obstructive pulmonary disease using maximum inspiratory pressure, baseline dyspnoea index, 6-minute walk test and quality of life. A threshold inspiratory muscle training device provides pressure for inspiratory muscle strength, but there is limited information on the effects of threshold inspiratory muscle training starting at low pressure training. Randomised experimental design. A total of 55 patients completed this study between September 2013-April 2014. The experimental group (n = 27) was provided medical treatment and routine care, along with five sessions of threshold inspiratory muscle training per week (21-30 min per session), accompanied by a progressive increase in the pressure threshold over a period of 8 weeks. The control group (n = 28) was provided medical treatment and routine care only, without intervention. In the inferential analysis, p values inspiratory pressure improved by -17.6 ± 0.18 cmH 2 O, mean 6-minute walk test improved by 47.8 ± 1.46 m, and the baseline dyspnoea index increased from 4.48 ± 2.12 points to 9.0 ± 2.27 points. These data and quality of life were statistically different between the experimental and the control groups (p inspiratory muscle training can reduce patients' difficulties with respect to daily activities, thereby reducing the burden on the family, and improving prognosis in patients with moderate-to-very severe chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  6. Diffusion-weighted MRI of denervated muscle: a clinical and experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holl, Nathalie; Bierry, Guillaume; Moser, Thomas; Dietemann, Jean-Louis; Kremer, Stephane [Hopitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, Service de Radiologie 2, Strasbourg (France); Echaniz-Laguna, Andoni [Hopitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, Departement de Neurologie, BP 426, Strasbourg (France); Mohr, Michel [Hopitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, Departement d' Anatomie Pathologique, Strasbourg (France); Loeffler, Jean-Philippe [INSERM U692, Laboratoire de Signalisations Moleculaires et Neurodegenerescence, Faculte de Medecine, Strasbourg (France)

    2008-12-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate skeletal muscle denervation using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWMRI). Sciatic nerve axotomy was performed in a group of nine New Zealand White rabbits, and electromyographic (EMG), pathological, and DWMRI studies were conducted on ipsilateral hamstring muscles 1 and 8 days after axotomy. In addition, DWMRI studies were carried out on leg muscles of ten patients with acute and subacute lumbosacral radiculopathy. High intensity signals on short tau inversion recovery (STIR) magnetic resonance imaging and an increased apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were observed in denervated muscles of the animals 1 and 8 days after axotomy as well as in denervated muscles of the patients with radiculopathy. In the clinical study, ADC was 1.26{+-}0.18 x 10{sup -9} m{sup 2}/s in normal muscle and increased to 1.56{+-}0.23 x 10{sup -9} m{sup 2}/s in denervated muscles (p =0.0016). In animals, EMG and muscle pathological studies were normal 1 day after axotomy, and the muscles demonstrated spontaneous activity on EMG and neurogenic atrophy on histological studies 7 days later. This DWMRI study demonstrates that enlargement of extracellular fluid space in muscle denervation is an early phenomenon occurring several days before the appearance of EMG and histological abnormalities. (orig.)

  7. Diffusion-weighted MRI of denervated muscle: a clinical and experimental study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holl, Nathalie; Bierry, Guillaume; Moser, Thomas; Dietemann, Jean-Louis; Kremer, Stephane; Echaniz-Laguna, Andoni; Mohr, Michel; Loeffler, Jean-Philippe

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate skeletal muscle denervation using diffusion-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (DWMRI). Sciatic nerve axotomy was performed in a group of nine New Zealand White rabbits, and electromyographic (EMG), pathological, and DWMRI studies were conducted on ipsilateral hamstring muscles 1 and 8 days after axotomy. In addition, DWMRI studies were carried out on leg muscles of ten patients with acute and subacute lumbosacral radiculopathy. High intensity signals on short tau inversion recovery (STIR) magnetic resonance imaging and an increased apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) were observed in denervated muscles of the animals 1 and 8 days after axotomy as well as in denervated muscles of the patients with radiculopathy. In the clinical study, ADC was 1.26±0.18 x 10 -9 m 2 /s in normal muscle and increased to 1.56±0.23 x 10 -9 m 2 /s in denervated muscles (p =0.0016). In animals, EMG and muscle pathological studies were normal 1 day after axotomy, and the muscles demonstrated spontaneous activity on EMG and neurogenic atrophy on histological studies 7 days later. This DWMRI study demonstrates that enlargement of extracellular fluid space in muscle denervation is an early phenomenon occurring several days before the appearance of EMG and histological abnormalities. (orig.)

  8. Neck Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... arms or hands or if you have shooting pain into your shoulder or down your arm. Symptoms Signs and symptoms ... org/search/Pages/results.aspx?k=Chronic neck pain. Accessed June 11, 2015. Isaac Z. Evaluation of the patient with neck pain and cervical ...

  9. Neck Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vehicle accidents is a common cause of neck pain. The diagnosis of neck pain is determined by a medical history and physical ... qualified health care provider for professional medical advice, diagnosis and treatment of a medical or health condition. ... Links Glossary of Rheumatology Terms ...

  10. The anatomy and ontogeny of the head, neck, pectoral, and upper limb muscles of Lemur catta and Propithecus coquereli (primates): discussion on the parallelism between ontogeny and phylogeny and implications for evolutionary and developmental biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diogo, Rui; Molnar, Julia L; Smith, Timothy D

    2014-08-01

    Most anatomical studies of primates focus on skeletal tissues, but muscular anatomy can provide valuable information about phylogeny, functional specializations, and evolution. Herein, we present the first detailed description of the head, neck, pectoral, and upper limb muscles of the fetal lemuriforms Lemur catta (Lemuridae) and Propithecus coquereli (Indriidae). These two species belong to the suborder Strepsirrhini, which is often presumed to possess some plesiomorphic anatomical features within primates. We compare the muscular anatomy of the fetuses with that of infants and adults and discuss the evolutionary and developmental implications. The fetal anatomy reflects a phylogenetically more plesiomorphic condition in nine of the muscles we studied and a more derived condition in only two, supporting a parallel between ontogeny and phylogeny. The derived exceptions concern muscles with additional insertions in the fetus which are lost in adults of the same species, that is, flexor carpi radialis inserts on metacarpal III and levator claviculae inserts on the clavicle. Interestingly, these two muscles are involved in movements of the pectoral girdle and upper limb, which are mainly important for activities in later stages of life, such as locomotion and prey capture, rather than activities in fetal life. Accordingly, our findings suggest that some exceptions to the "ontogeny parallels phylogeny" rule are probably driven more by ontogenetic constraints than by adaptive plasticity. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Oral transmission of porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus by muscle of experimentally infected pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Linden, van der I.F.A.; Bril, E.M.; Voermans, J.J.M.; Rijn, van P.A.; Pol, J.M.A.; Martin, R.; Steverink, P.J.G.M.

    2003-01-01

    The current study was performed to determine if porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) could be transmitted to pigs by feeding muscle tissue obtained from recently infected pigs. Muscle obtained from pigs infected with either a European strain (EU donor pigs) or American strain

  12. Neck pain: manipulating the upper back helps lessen pain and improve neck motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    Neck pain is very common. In the United States, between 30% and 50% of people suffer from an aching neck each year. Although neck pain can be caused by injury, most of this pain results from more gradual stresses, such as particular sitting, standing, or work postures, lifting patterns, or sleeping positions. Typical neck pain can also cause headaches, pain between your shoulders, or a feeling of knots in your neck and upper back muscles. Although manual therapy, sometimes called "manipulation," is a common treatment for many types of spine pain, some people are uncomfortable having their necks manipulated. Recently, though, researchers have tested the benefits of a thrust manipulation of the upper back to treat neck pain. A study published in the September 2011 issue of JOSPT provides new insight and an evidence-based summary of the benefits of manipulating the upper back to ease and eliminate neck pain.

  13. Antispasmodic effect of shakuyakukanzoto extract on experimental muscle cramps in vivo: role of the active constituents of Glycyrrhizae radix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Keiko K; Omiya, Yuji; Yuzurihara, Mitsutoshi; Kase, Yoshio; Kobayashi, Hiroyuki

    2013-01-09

    Shakuyakukanzoto (SKT) composed of Glycyrrhizae radix (G. radix) and Paeoniae radix (P. radix) has been traditionally used in Japan, Korea and China as an antispasmodic drug for the treatment of skeletal muscle cramps and intestinal cramps. To evaluate the antispasmodic activity of SKT and its two components, as well as to identify the key constituents of the components which mediate this effect in skeletal muscles in vivo. An experimental cramp model was constructed to evaluate the effects of peripherally-acting muscle relaxants on electrically-induced cramps under physiological conditions. This was accomplished by surgically isolating the motor supply to the gastrocnemius muscle in an anesthetized rat and delivering electrical stimuli to an isolated tibial nerve to induce tetanic contractions. We first tested dantrolene, a well-known peripherally-acting relaxant, to determine the sensitivity and reliability of our experimental model. We then evaluated the effects of SKT, P. radix, G. radix, and the eight active constituents of G. radix against tetanic contractions. We found that dantrolene (10 and 30 mg/kg, i.d.) rapidly and significantly inhibited tetanic contractions (Pcramps as treatment requires a two-pronged approach, i.e., inhibition of hyperexcitable skeletal tissues and modulation of the pain accompanying cramps. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Center of Pressure Displacement of Standing Posture during Rapid Movements Is Reorganised Due to Experimental Lower Extremity Muscle Pain.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shinichiro Shiozawa

    Full Text Available Postural control during rapid movements may be impaired due to musculoskeletal pain. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of experimental knee-related muscle pain on the center of pressure (CoP displacement in a reaction time task condition.Nine healthy males performed two reaction time tasks (dominant side shoulder flexion and bilateral heel lift before, during, and after experimental pain induced in the dominant side vastus medialis or the tibialis anterior muscles by hypertonic saline injections. The CoP displacement was extracted from the ipsilateral and contralateral side by two force plates and the net CoP displacement was calculated.Compared with non-painful sessions, tibialis anterior muscle pain during the peak and peak-to-peak displacement for the CoP during anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs of the shoulder task reduced the peak-to-peak displacement of the net CoP in the medial-lateral direction (P<0.05. Tibialis anterior and vastus medialis muscle pain during shoulder flexion task reduced the anterior-posterior peak-to-peak displacement in the ipsilateral side (P<0.05.The central nervous system in healthy individuals was sufficiently robust in maintaining the APA characteristics during pain, although the displacement of net and ipsilateral CoP in the medial-lateral and anterior-posterior directions during unilateral fast shoulder movement was altered.

  15. Experimental muscle pain during a forward lunge--the effects on knee joint dynamics and electromyographic activity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Marius; Alkjaer, T; Simonsen, Erik Bruun

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the knee joint dynamics during a forward lunge could be modulated by experimentally induced vastus medialis pain in healthy subjects. DESIGN: Randomised cross-over study. SETTING: Biomechanical movement laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: 20 h...... of muscle pain and prevention of injuries during activities involving the knee joint.......OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether the knee joint dynamics during a forward lunge could be modulated by experimentally induced vastus medialis pain in healthy subjects. DESIGN: Randomised cross-over study. SETTING: Biomechanical movement laboratory. PARTICIPANTS: 20....... Isotonic saline (0.9%) was used as control. MAIN OUTCOME MEASUREMENTS: Three-dimensional movement analyses were performed and inverse dynamics were used to calculate joint kinematics and kinetics for ankle, knee and hip joints. Electromyographic (EMG) signals of the hamstrings and quadriceps muscles were...

  16. Influence of delayed muscle reflexes on spinal stability: model-based predictions allow alternative interpretations of experimental data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liebetrau, Anne; Puta, Christian; Anders, Christoph; de Lussanet, Marc H E; Wagner, Heiko

    2013-10-01

    Model-based calculations indicate that reflex delay and reflex gain are both important for spinal stability. Experimental results demonstrate that chronic low back pain is associated with delayed muscle reflex responses of trunk muscles. The aim of the present study was to analyze the influence of such time-delayed reflexes on the stability using a simple biomechanical model. Additionally, we compared the model-based predictions with experimental data from chronic low back pain patients and healthy controls using surface-electromyography. Linear stability methods were applied to the musculoskeletal model, which was extended with a time-delayed reflex model. Lateral external perturbations were simulated around equilibrium to investigate the effects of reflex delay and gain on the stability of the human lumbar spine. The model simulations predicted that increased reflex delays require a reduction of the reflex gain to avoid spinal instability. The experimental data support this dependence for the investigated abdominal muscles in chronic low back pain patients and healthy control subjects. Reflex time-delay and gain dependence showed that a delayed reflex latency could have relevant influence on spinal stability, if subjects do not adapt their reflex amplitudes. Based on the model and the experimental results, the relationship between muscle reflex response latency and the maximum of the reflex amplitude should be considered for evaluation of (patho) physiological data. We recommend that training procedures should focus on speeding up the delayed reflex response as well as on increasing the amplitude of these reflexes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of Glucocorticoids on Ultrastructure of Myocardial Muscle in the Course of Experimentally Induced Acute Myocardial Ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Kuropka

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The search for effective methods of myocardial cytoprotection against ischemia is the most significant issue in modern cardiology and cardiac surgery. Glucocorticoids are deemed very strong modulators of inflammatory response and thus can potentially protect heart muscle from postreperfusion injury and myocardial ischemia during cardiac surgery. Ultrastructural examination of the left ventricle heart samples revealed that the intravenous application of dexamethasone and hydrocortisone proved to exert cytoprotective effect on cardiomyocytes during experimentally induced acute ischemia in rats.

  18. Neck and arm pain syndromes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    de las Peñas, César Fernández; Cleland, Joshua; Huijbregts, Peter

    The first of its kind, Neck and Arm Pain Syndromes is a comprehensive evidence- and clinical-based book, covering research-based diagnosis, prognosis and management of neuromusculoskeletal pathologies and dysfunctions of the upper quadrant, including joint, muscle, myofascial and neural tissue ap...

  19. Reorganized Trunk Muscle Activity During Multidirectional Floor Perturbations After Experimental Low Back Pain: A Comparison of Bilateral Versus Unilateral Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsen, Lars Henrik; Hirata, Rogerio Pessoto; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas

    2016-02-01

    Low back pain changes trunk muscle activity after external perturbations but the relationship between pain intensities and distributions and their effect on trunk muscle activity remains unclear. The effects of unilateral and bilateral experimental low back pain on trunk muscle activity were compared during unpredictable multidirectional surface perturbations in 19 healthy participants. Pain intensity and distribution were assessed using a visual analogue scale (VAS) and pain drawings. Root mean square (RMS) of the electromyographic (EMG) signals from 6 trunk muscles bilaterally after each perturbation was extracted and averaged across perturbations. The difference (ΔRMS-EMG) and absolute difference (absolute ΔRMS-EMG) RMS from baseline conditions were extracted for each muscle during pain conditions and averaged bilaterally for back and abdominal muscle groups. Bilateral compared with unilateral pain induced higher VAS scores (P muscle activity during unilateral (P abdominal (P muscles during bilateral and decreased in the back (P abdominal (P muscles during unilateral pain. Bilateral pain caused greater absolute ΔRMS-EMG changes in the back (P abdominal (P muscle groups than unilateral pain. This study provided novel observations of differential trunk muscle activity in response to perturbations dependent on pain intensity and/or pain distribution. Because of complex and variable changes the relevance of clinical examination of muscle activity during postural tasks is challenged. Copyright © 2016 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Effect of age on fatty infiltration of supraspinatus muscle after experimental tendon release in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farshad Mazda

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Rotator cuff tendon tear is a leading cause for atrophy, fibrosis and fatty infiltration of the rotator cuff muscles. The pathophysiology of fatty muscle infiltration is not well understood. An animal model suited to study cellular and molecular mechanisms would therefore be desirable. While a rat model has been established for chronic rotator cuff tendon pathology, sufficient and easily identifiable fatty infiltration of the muscle has not yet been shown in rats. As younger animals regenerate better, we hypothesized that the absence of a sufficient amount of fatty infiltration in previous experiments was due to the selection of young animals and that older animals would exhibit higher amounts of fatty infiltration after tendon tear. Findings The supraspinatus tendon was released using tenotomy in 3 young (6 weeks old and in 3 aged (24 months old Sprague Dawley rats (group I and II. Another 3 aged (24 months old rats underwent sham surgery and served as a control group (group III. In group I and II retraction of the musculotendinous unit was allowed for 6 weeks. All animals were sacrificed 6 weeks after surgery and the supraspinatus muscles were harvested. Each sample was examined for fatty infiltration of the muscle by histological methods and micro-CT. In histology, fat cells were counted with a 10-fold magnification in 6 fields of view twice. An adjusted measurement setup was developed for the use of micro-CT to quantify the absorption coefficient of the muscle as a reciprocal indicator for fatty infiltration, based on the established procedure for quantification of fatty infiltration on CT in humans. Tenotomy resulted in an insignificant increase of fat cells in histological sections in both, aged and young rats. Micro-CT was able to quantify small differences in the absorption coefficients of muscle samples; the absorption coefficient was 8.1% ± 11.3% lower in retracted muscles (group I and II compared with the control

  1. [Spinal accessory nerve and lymphatic neck dissection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pinsolle, V; Michelet, V; Majoufre, C; Caix, P; Siberchicot, F; Pinsolle, J

    1997-09-01

    Radical neck dissection was the golden standard of treatment for cervical nodes in head and neck tumors. From the seventies, the preservation of the spinal accessory nerve has become increasingly popular in order to improve the functional result of the neck dissections. The aim of this study was to assess the degree of functional disability associated with each type of neck dissection and the value of anatomical references for dissection of the spinal accessory nerve. One hundred twenty seven patients were evaluated 1 month and 1 year after radical, functional or supraomohyoid neck dissection with a questionnaire and a physical examination. Anatomical measurements of the spinal accessory nerve were performed in 20 patients. We found considerable or severe shoulder dysfunction in 7%, 34% and 51% respectively of patients in whom supraomohyoid, functional and radical neck dissections were performed. Furthermore 49% of patients having undergone a radical neck dissection had little or no symptoms. Sacrifice of the spinal accessory nerve in radical neck dissection may lead to shoulder dysfunction. A functional disability may also be associated, although in a less extent, with any neck dissection in which the spinal accessory nerve is dissected and placed in traction. There is a large variation in the degree of functional disability and pain in patients with similar neck dissections. The course of the spinal accessory nerve in the neck makes it particularly vulnerable to injury during the dissection near the sternocleidomastoid muscle and in the posterior cervical triangle.

  2. Center of Pressure Displacement of Standing Posture during Rapid Movements Is Reorganised Due to Experimental Lower Extremity Muscle Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiozawa, Shinichiro; Hirata, Rogerio Pessoto; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas

    2015-01-01

    Postural control during rapid movements may be impaired due to musculoskeletal pain. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of experimental knee-related muscle pain on the center of pressure (CoP) displacement in a reaction time task condition. Nine healthy males performed two reaction time tasks (dominant side shoulder flexion and bilateral heel lift) before, during, and after experimental pain induced in the dominant side vastus medialis or the tibialis anterior muscles by hypertonic saline injections. The CoP displacement was extracted from the ipsilateral and contralateral side by two force plates and the net CoP displacement was calculated. Compared with non-painful sessions, tibialis anterior muscle pain during the peak and peak-to-peak displacement for the CoP during anticipatory postural adjustments (APAs) of the shoulder task reduced the peak-to-peak displacement of the net CoP in the medial-lateral direction (Ppain during shoulder flexion task reduced the anterior-posterior peak-to-peak displacement in the ipsilateral side (Ppain, although the displacement of net and ipsilateral CoP in the medial-lateral and anterior-posterior directions during unilateral fast shoulder movement was altered.

  3. Femoral neck shortening after internal fixation of a femoral neck fracture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zielinski, Stephanie M.; Keijsers, Noël L.; Praet, Stephan F. E.; Heetveld, Martin J.; Bhandari, Mohit; Wilssens, Jean Pierre; Patka, Peter; van Lieshout, Esther M. M.; Devereaux, Philip J.; Guyatt, Gordon; Jeray, Kyle; Liew, Susan; Richardson, Martin J.; Schemitsch, Emil H.; Swiontkowski, Marc; Tornetta, Paul; Walter, Stephen; Sprague, Sheila; Simunovic, Helena Viveiros Nicole; Heels-Ansdell, Diane; Buckingham, Lisa; Duraikannan, Aravin; Swiontkowski, Marc F.; Agel, Julie; Goslings, J. Carel; Haverlag, Robert; Ponsen, Kees Jan; Bronkhorst, Maarten W. G. A.; Guicherit, O. R.; Eversdijk, Martin G.; Peters, Rolf; den Hartog, Dennis; van Waes, Oscar J. F.; Oprel, Pim; de Rijcke, Piet A. R.; Koppert, C. L.; Buijk, Steven E.; Groenendijk, Richard P. R.; Dawson, I.; Tetteroo, G. W. M.; Bruijninckx, Milko M. M.; Doornebosch, Pascal G.; de Graaf, E. J. R.; Gasthuis, Kennemer; Visser, Gijs A.; Stockmann, Heyn; Silvis, Rob; Snellen, J. P.; Rijbroek, A.; Scheepers, Joris J. G.; Vermeulen, Erik G. J.; Siroen, M. P. C.; Vuylsteke, Ronald; Brom, H. L. F.; Ryna, H.; Roukema, Gert R.; Josaputra, H.; Keller, Paul; de Rooij, P. D.; Kuiken, Hans; Boxma, Han; Cleffken, Barry I.; Liem, Ronald; Rhemrev, Steven J.; Bosman, C. H. R.; van Otterloo, Alexander de Mol; Hoogendoorn, Jochem; de Vries, Alexander C.; Meylaerts, Sven A. G.; Poolman, Rudolf W.; Simons, Maarten P.; van der Heijden, Frank H. W. M.; Willems, W. J.; de Meulemeester, Frank R. A. J.; van der Hart, Cor P.; Turckan, Kahn; Festen, Sebastiaan; de Nies, F.; Out, Nico J. M.; Bosma, J.; van der Elst, Maarten; van der Pol, Carmen C.; van 't Riet, Martijne; Karsten, T. M.; de Vries, M. R.; Stassen, Laurents P. S.; Schep, Niels W. L.; Schmidt, G. B.; Hoffman, W. H.; Segers, Michiel J. M.; Zijl, Jacco A. C.; Verhoeven, Bart; Smits, Anke B.; de Vries, J. P. P. M.; Fioole, Bram; van der Hoeven, H.; Theunissen, Evert B. M.; de Vries Reilingh, Tammo S.; Govaert, Lonneke; Wittich, Philippe; de Brauw, Maurits; Wille, Jan; Go, Peter M. N. Y. M.; Ritchie, Ewan D.; Wessel, R. N.; Hammacher, Eric R.; Verhofstad, Michiel H. J.; Meijer, Joost; van Egmond, Teun; van der Brand, Igor; van der Vis, Harm M.; Campo, Martin; Verhagen, Ronald; Albers, G. H. R.; Zurcher, A.; van Kampen, A.; Biert, Jan; van Vugt, Arie B.; Edwards, Michael J. R.; Blokhuis, Taco J.; Frölke, Jan Paul M.; Geeraedts, L. M. G.; Gardeniers, J. W. M.; Tan, Edward T. C. H.; Poelhekke, L. M. S. J.; de Waal Malefijt, M. C.; Schreurs, Bart; Simmermacher, Rogier K. J.; van Mulken, Jeroen; van Wessem, Karlijn; van Gaalen, Steven M.; Leenen, Luke P. H.; Frihagen, Frede; Nordsletten, Lars; Stoen, Ragnhild Oydna; Brekke, Kine; Tetsworth, Kevin; Weinrauch, Patrick; Pincus, Paul; Donald, Geoff; yang, Steven; Halliday, Brett; Gervais, Trevor; Holt, Michael; Flynn, Annette; Pirpiris, Marinis; Love, David; Bucknill, Andrew; Farrugia, Richard J.; Dowrick, Adam; Donohue, Craig; Bedi, Harvinder; Li, Doug; Edwards, Elton; Csongvay, Steven; Miller, Russell; Wang, Otis; Chia, Andrew; Jain, Arvind; Mammen, Mathan; Murdoch, Zoe; Sage, Claire; Kumar, Anil; Pankaj, Amite; Singh, Ajay Pal; Pesantez, Rodrigo; Martinez, Adriana; Novoa, Catherine; Buckley, Richard E.; Duffy, Paul; Korley, Robert; Johnston, Kelly; Puloski, Shannon; Carcary, Kimberly; Avram, Victoria; Bicknell, Ryan; Yach, Jeff; Bardana, Davide; Lambert, Sue; Sanders, David W.; Howard, Jamie; Macleod, Mark; Bartly, C. T.; Tieszer, Christina; Peterson, Devin; Zalzal, Paul; Maumetz, Victor; Brien, Heather; Weening, Brad; Wai, Eugene K.; Roffey, Darren; McCormack, Robert; Stone, Trevor; Perey, Bertrand; Viskontas, Darius; Boyer, Dory; Perey, Bert; Zomar, Mauri; Moon, Karyn; Oatt, Amber; McKee, Michael; Hall, Jeremy; Ahn, Henry; Vicente, Milena R.; Wild, Lisa M.; Kreder, Hans J.; Stephen, David J. G.; Nousianinen, Markku; Cagaanan, Ria; Kunz, Monica; Syed, Khalid; Azad, Tania; Coles, Chad; Leighton, Ross; Johnstone, David; Glazebrook, Mark; Alexander, David; Trask, Kelly; Dobbin, Gwendolyn; Oliver, Todd M.; Jones, Vicky; Ronan, James; Brown, Desmond T.; Carlilse, Hope; Shaughnessy, Lisa; Schwappach, John; Davis, Craig A.; Weingarten, Peter; Weinerman, Stewart; Newman, Heike; Baker, Janell; Browner, Kieran; Hurley, Meghan; Zura, Robert; Manson, Maria J.; Goetz, David; Broderick, Scott J.; Porter, Scott; Pace, Thomas; Tanner, Stephanie L.; Snider, Becky; Schmidt, Andrew H.; Haas, Jonathan; Templeman, David; Westberg, Jerald R.; Mullis, Brian; Ertl, J. P.; Shively, Karl; Frizzel, Valda; Marcantonio, Andrew J.; Iorio, Richard; Lobo, Margaret; Kain, Michael; Specht, Lawrence; Garfi, John; Prayson, Michael J.; Davis, Craig; Laughlin, Richard; Rubino, Joe; Lawless, Mathew; DiPaola, Matt; Gaydon, Chris; Dulaney, Liz; Vallier, Heather A.; Wilber, John; Sontich, John; Patterson, Brendan; Dolenc, Andrea; Robinson, Chalitha; Wilber, Roger; DePaolo, Charles J.; Alosky, Rachel; Shell, Leslie E.; Keeve, Jonathan P.; Anderson, Chris; McDonald, Michael; Hoffman, Jodi; Baele, Joseph; Weber, Tim; Edison, Matt; Musapatika, Dana; Jones, Clifford; Ringler, James; Endres, Terrance; Gelbke, Martin; Jabara, Michael; Sietsema, Debra L.; Engerman, Susan M.; Switzer, Julie A.; Li, Mangnai; Marston, Scott; Cole, Peter; Vang, Sandy X.; Foley, Amy; McBeth, Jessica; Comstock, Curt; Ziran, Navid; Shaer, James; Hileman, Barbara; Karges, David; Cannada, Lisa; Kuldjanov, Djoldas; Watson, John Tracy; Mills, Emily; Simon, Tiffany; Abdelgawad, Amr; Shunia, Juan; Jenkins, Mark; Zumwalt, Mimi; Romero, Amanda West; Lowe, Jason; Goldstein, Jessica; Zamorano, David P.; Lawson, Deanna; Archdeacon, Michael; Wyrick, John; Hampton, Shelley; Lewis, Courtland G.; Ademi, Arben; Sullivan, Raymond; Caminiti, Stephanie; Graves, Matthew; Smith, Lori; Della Rocca, Gregory J.; Crist, Brett D.; Murtha, Yvonne; Anderson, Linda K.; Kliewer, Toni K.; McPherson, Melinda K.; Sullivan, Kelly M.; Sagebien, Carlos; Seuffert, Patricia; Mehta, Samir; Esterhai, John; Ahn, Jaimo; Tjoumakaris, Fotios; Horan, Annamarie D.; Kaminski, Christine; Tarkin, Ivan; Siska, Peter; Luther, Arlene; Irrgang, James; Farrell, Dana; Gorczyca, John T.; Gross, Jonathan M.; Kates, Stephen Lloyd; Colosi, Jen; Hibsch, Nancy; Noble, Krista; Agarwal, Animesh; Wright, Rebecca; Hsu, Joseph R.; Ficke, James R.; Napierala, Matthew A.; Charlton, Michael T.; Fan, Mary K.; Obremskey, William T.; Richards, Justin E.; Robinson, Kenya; Carroll, Eben; Kulp, Brenda

    2013-01-01

    This study assesses femoral neck shortening and its effect on gait pattern and muscle strength in patients with femoral neck fractures treated with internal fixation. Seventy-six patients from a multicenter randomized controlled trial participated. Patient characteristics and Short Form 12 and

  4. Does experimental low back pain change posteroanterior lumbar spinal stiffness and trunk muscle activity? A randomized crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, Arnold Y L; Parent, Eric C; Prasad, Narasimha; Huang, Christopher; Chan, K Ming; Kawchuk, Gregory N

    2016-05-01

    While some patients with low back pain demonstrate increased spinal stiffness that decreases as pain subsides, this observation is inconsistent. Currently, the relation between spinal stiffness and low back pain remains unclear. This study aimed to investigate the effects of experimental low back pain on temporal changes in posteroanterior spinal stiffness and concurrent trunk muscle activity. In separate sessions five days apart, nine asymptomatic participants received equal volume injections of hypertonic or isotonic saline in random order into the L3-L5 interspinous ligaments. Pain intensity, spinal stiffness (global and terminal stiffness) at the L3 level, and the surface electromyographic activity of six trunk muscles were measured before, immediately after, and 25-minute after injections. These outcome measures under different saline conditions were compared by generalized estimating equations. Compared to isotonic saline injections, hypertonic saline injections evoked significantly higher pain intensity (mean difference: 5.7/10), higher global (mean difference: 0.73N/mm) and terminal stiffness (mean difference: 0.58N/mm), and increased activity of four trunk muscles during indentation (Ppain subsided. While previous clinical research reported inconsistent findings regarding the association between spinal stiffness and low back pain, our study revealed that experimental pain caused temporary increases in spinal stiffness and concurrent trunk muscle co-contraction during indentation, which helps explain the temporal relation between spinal stiffness and low back pain observed in some clinical studies. Our results substantiate the role of spinal stiffness assessments in monitoring back pain progression. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Effects of unilateral and bilateral experimental low back pain on trunk muscle activity during stair walking in healthy and recurrent low back pain patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Henrik; Hirata, Rogerio Pessoto; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas

    Aim To explore the trunk muscle activity in healthy and recurrent low back pain (R-LBP) patients with no present pain during stair ascent and descent before and after unilateral and bilateral experimental low back pain (LBP). Methods Twenty-five healthy controls and 25 pain-free R-LBP patients...... in m. rectus abdominis during all phases, with larger decrease during bilateral compared with unilateral pain (Ppain in the back muscles (P....04). Conclusions The impact of unilateral and bilateral experimental LBP on trunk muscle activity was different between healthy participants and R-LBP patients. Pain resulted in increased trunk muscle activity in healthy, while R-LBP patients decreased the back and increased the abdominal muscle activity. However...

  6. Effects of experimental hypokinesia in rats on metabolism of skeletal muscle proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kazaryan, V.A.; Shitov, G.D.; Rapoport, E.A.

    1986-08-01

    Outbred male rats were subjected to an 8-week period of hypokinesia to study the effects of motor inactivity on protein metabolism in skeletal muscle. Using radiolabeled leucine, true atrophy was demonstrated to result from a sharp inhibition of synthesis of the sarcoplasmic proteins during the initial two weeks of hypokinesia, as well as a diminished rate in the biosynthesis and acceleration of catabolism of actomyosin. In the first week, muscle weight of the test (m. extensor digitorum longus) decreased by ca. 10%. However, the weight of the muscle relative to that of the body weight remained essentially constant throughout the experiment and basically equivalent, on a ratio basis, to that of the control rats. In the third-to-eighth weeks weight gain the muscle under study was largely precluded by accelerated catabolism of newly-synthesized components of the contractile proteins. The initial inhibition of sarcoplasmic proteins was attributed to stress-related hormonal effects, i.e., increased release of glucocorticoids. 20 references.

  7. The force-length relationship of a muscle-tendon complex : experimental results and model calculations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bobbert, Maarten F.; Ettema, Gertjan C.; Huijing, Peter A.

    1990-01-01

    Models are useful when studying how architectural and physiological properties of muscle-tendon complexes are related to function, because they allow for the simulation of the behaviour of such complexes during natural movements. In the construction of these models, evaluation of their accuracy is

  8. Methotrexate increases skeletal muscle GLUT4 expression and improves metabolic control in experimental diabetes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Long-term administration of 5-aminoimidazole-4-carboxamide ribonucleoside (AICAR) mimics the effects of endurance exercise by activating AMP kinase and by increasing skeletal muscle expression of GLUT4 glucose transporter. AICAR is an intermediate in the purine de novo synthesis, and its tissue conc...

  9. Multi-muscle control during bipedal stance: an EMG–EMG analysis approach. Experimental Brain Research

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Danna-Dos-Santos, A.; Boonstra, T.W.; Degani, A.M.; Cardoso, V.S.; Magalhaes, A.T.; Mochizuki, L.

    2014-01-01

    Posture and postural reactions to mechanical perturbations require the harmonic modulation of the activity of multiple muscles. This precision can become suboptimal in the presence of neuromuscular disorders and result in higher fall risk and associated levels of comorbidity. This study was designed

  10. Effects of transcutaneous electrical stimulation of lower limb muscles on experimental fatty liver.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Kafoury, Bataa M; Seif, Ansam A; El-Aziz Abd El-Hady, Enas A; El-Sebaiee, Ahmed E

    2016-03-01

    Although the beneficial effects of exercise on fatty liver have been described, a previous study conducted at our department showed that transcutaneous electrical muscle stimulation (TEMS) of lower abdominal muscles aggravated fatty liver. The present study aims to evaluate the ability of TEMS of the lower limb muscles to improve fatty liver infiltration. Thirty male Wistar rats were randomly allocated into three groups: control; fructose-fed (F), fed fructose-enriched diet for 6weeks; and fructose-fed with transcutaneous electrical muscle stimulation (F+TEMS), fed fructose-enriched diet for 6weeks and lower limb muscles subjected to TEMS during the last 3weeks of feeding, five sessions/week. Body weight, length, body mass index (BMI), and abdominal and lower limb circumferences were all recorded. Fasting blood glucose, serum insulin, serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), total protein, serum albumin, high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), triglyceride (TG), and total cholesterol (TC) levels were measured. LDL cholesterol (LDL-C) and the atherogenic index (AI) were calculated. Absolute and relative hepatic weights as well as histological examination of the liver were assessed. Final body weight, abdominal and lower limb circumferences, absolute liver weight, homoeostasis model assessment (HOMA) score, and TG, LDL-C, AI, serum ALT, and AST levels were all significantly reduced in the (F+TEMS) group compared to the (F) group. There was a significant increase in GPx and HDL-C levels, HDL/LDL ratio, and total protein and serum albumin content in (F+TEMS) rats compared to (F) rats. Histologically, hepatic tissue from (F+TEMS) rats had minimal steatotic changes that were restricted to zone 1 and less marked inflammatory cell infiltration compared to (F) rats. TEMS was able to reverse steatosis, hyperglycaemia, insulin resistance, dyslipidaemia, and fatty liver caused by fructose feeding. The study confirmed that the variation in

  11. Glucose Metabolic Changes in the Brain and Muscles of Patients with Nonspecific Neck Pain Treated by Spinal Manipulation Therapy: A [18F]FDG PET Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akie Inami

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The aim of this study was to investigate changes in brain and muscle glucose metabolism that are not yet known, using positron emission tomography with [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose ([18F]FDG PET. Methods. Twenty-one male volunteers were recruited for the present study. [18F]FDG PET scanning was performed twice on each subject: once after the spinal manipulation therapy (SMT intervention (treatment condition and once after resting (control condition. We performed the SMT intervention using an adjustment device. Glucose metabolism of the brain and skeletal muscles was measured and compared between the two conditions. In addition, we measured salivary amylase level as an index of autonomic nervous system (ANS activity, as well as muscle tension and subjective pain intensity in each subject. Results. Changes in brain activity after SMT included activation of the dorsal anterior cingulate cortex, cerebellar vermis, and somatosensory association cortex and deactivation of the prefrontal cortex and temporal sites. Glucose uptake in skeletal muscles showed a trend toward decreased metabolism after SMT, although the difference was not significant. Other measurements indicated relaxation of cervical muscle tension, decrease in salivary amylase level (suppression of sympathetic nerve activity, and pain relief after SMT. Conclusion. Brain processing after SMT may lead to physiological relaxation via a decrease in sympathetic nerve activity.

  12. Serum sex steroids and steroidogenesis-related enzyme expression in skeletal muscle during experimental weight gain in men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sato, K; Samocha-Bonet, D; Handelsman, D J; Fujita, S; Wittert, G A; Heilbronn, L K

    2014-12-01

    Low-circulating testosterone is associated with development of type 2 diabetes in obese men. In this study, we examined the effects of experimental overfeeding and weight gain on serum levels of sex hormones and skeletal muscle expression of steroidogenic enzymes in healthy men with (FH+) and without (FH-) a family history of type 2 diabetes. Following a 3-day lead in energy balanced diet, FH+ (n = 9) and FH- men (n = 11) were overfed by 5200 kJ/day (45% fat) for 28 days. Body weight, fasting glucose, insulin, sex steroid, sex hormone binding globulin (SHBG) levels, insulin sensitivity (hyperinsulinaemic-euglycaemic clamp) and body fat (DXA) were assessed in all individuals at baseline and day 28, and sex steroidogenesis-related enzyme expression in vastus lateralis biopsies was examined in a subset (n = 11). Body weight, fat mass and fasting insulin levels were increased by overfeeding (P muscle expression of enzymes involved in the formation of testosterone in skeletal muscle. Men with a family history of T2DM were more susceptible to deleterious outcomes of overfeeding with greater reductions in serum testosterone and DHT and greater increases in markers of insulin resistance, which may contribute to increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  13. Freeze-tolerance of Trichinella muscle larvae in experimentally infected wild boars

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lacour, Sandrine A.; Heckmann, Aurelie; Mace, Pauline

    2013-01-01

    Freeze-tolerance of encapsulated Trichinella muscle larvae (ML) is mainly determined by Trichinella species, but is also influenced by host species, the age of the infection and the storage time and temperature of the infected meat. Moreover, the freeze-tolerance of the encapsulated species appears...... spiralis and Trichinella britovi ML in wild boar meat 24 weeks post inoculation (wpi). Three groups of four wild boars were infected with 200, 2000 or 20,000 ML of T. britovi (ISS 1575), respectively. Additionally, three wild boars were inoculated with 20,000 ML of T. spiralis (ISS 004) and two animals...... served as negative controls. All wild boars were sacrificed 24 wpi. Muscle samples of 70 g were stored at -21 degrees C for 19,30 and 56h, and for 1-8 weeks. Larvae were recovered by artificial digestion. Their mobilities were recorded using Saisam (R) image analysis software and their infectivities were...

  14. Effects of muscle dysmorphia, social comparisons and body schema priming on desire for social interaction: an experimental approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Catharina; Agthe, Maria; Yanagida, Takuya; Voracek, Martin; Hennig-Fast, Kristina

    2017-06-15

    Muscle dysmorphia (MD) is a relatively young diagnosis referring to the desire for a high degree in lean muscle mass, while simultaneously believing that one is insufficiently muscular, mostly found in men. It goes along with a risk for social withdrawal to maintain rigid exercise and dietary regimen. The aim of the current study was thus, to explore differences in men with and without a risk for muscle dysmorphia regarding their desire for social interaction. Furthermore, we investigated potential effects of individual social comparison tendencies (the tendency to compare oneself with persons who are perceived to be superior or inferior to oneself on a certain dimension) and of one's own body schema on the desire for social interaction. One hundred physically active, college aged Austrian men were recruited via social media and flyers at fitness centers and the sports department of the University of Vienna. Participants were randomly assigned to a priming condition evoking their own body schema or a control condition and had to state their desire for social interaction with male or female stimulus persons of high or average attractiveness. We conducted a 2 (group of participant; men with vs. without a risk for MD) × 2 (priming condition; priming vs. non-priming) × 2 (attractiveness of stimulus person; highly attractive vs. less attractive) experimental design with different social comparison tendencies as covariates. Men with a risk for muscle dysmorphia showed lesser desire for social interaction than men without this risk, which can be seen as a risk factor for psychopathological outcomes. Generally, men with and without a risk for muscle dysmorphia did not differ with regard to their preferences for attractive stimulus persons as subjects for social interaction. We confirmed the notion that a tendency for downward social comparisons goes along with a diminished desire for social interaction. This study showed that men with a risk for muscle dysmorphia

  15. Correlation between muscle electrical impedance data and standard neurophysiologic parameters after experimental neurogenic injury

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahad, M; Rutkove, S B

    2010-01-01

    Previous work has shown that electrical impedance measurements of muscle can assist in quantifying the degree of muscle atrophy resulting from neuronal injury, with impedance values correlating strongly with standard clinical parameters. However, the relationship between such data and neurophysiologic measurements is unexplored. In this study, 24 Wistar rats underwent sciatic crush, with measurement of the 2–1000 kHz impedance spectrum, standard electrophysiological measures, including nerve conduction studies, needle electromyography, and motor unit number estimation (MUNE) before and after sciatic crush, with animals assessed weekly for 4 weeks post-injury. All electrical impedance values, including a group of 'collapsed' variables, in which the spectral characteristics were reduced to single values, showed reductions as high as 47.2% after sciatic crush, paralleling and correlating with changes in compound motor action potential amplitude, conduction velocity and most closely to MUNE, but not to the presence of fibrillation potentials observed on needle electromyography. These results support the concept that localized impedance measurements can serve as surrogate makers of nerve injury; these measurements may be especially useful in assessing nerve injury impacting proximal or axial muscles where standard quantitative neurophysiologic methods such as nerve conduction or MUNE cannot be readily performed

  16. Head repositioning errors in normal student volunteers: a possible tool to assess the neck's neuromuscular system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gudavalli M Ram

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background A challenge for practitioners using spinal manipulation is identifying when an intervention is required. It has been recognized that joint pain can interfere with the ability to position body parts accurately and that the recent history of muscle contraction can play a part in that interference. In this study, we tested whether repositioning errors could be induced in a normal population by contraction or shortening of the neck muscles. Methods In the experimental protocol, volunteers free of neck problems first found a comfortable neutral head posture with eyes closed. They deconditioned their cervical muscles by moving their heads 5 times in either flexion/extension or lateral flexion and then attempted to return to the same starting position. Two conditioning sequences were interspersed within the task: hold the head in an extended or laterally flexed position for 10 seconds; or hold a 70% maximum voluntary contraction in the same position for 10 seconds. A computer-interfaced electrogoniometer was used to measure head position while a force transducer coupled to an auditory alarm signaled the force of isometric contraction. The difference between the initial and final head orientation was calculated in 3 orthogonal planes. Analysis of variance (1-way ANOVA with a blocking factor (participants was used to detect differences in proprioceptive error among the conditioning sequences while controlling for variation between participants. Results Forty-eight chiropractic students participated: 36 males and 12 females, aged 28.2 ± 4.8 yrs. During the neck extension test, actively contracting the posterior neck muscles evoked an undershoot of the target position by 2.1° (p Conclusion The results suggest that the recent history of cervical paraspinal muscle contraction can influence head repositioning in flexion/extension. To our knowledge this is the first time that muscle mechanical history has been shown to influence

  17. Effects of posture-related auditory cueing (PAC) program on muscles activities and kinematics of the neck and trunk during computer work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoo, Won-Gyu; Park, Se-Yeon

    2015-01-01

    The etiology of the neck and back discomfort are highly associated with abnormal static posture such as forward head posture and flexed relaxed posture; such postures are regarded as the risk factors for work-related musculoskeletal disorders. Although, various ergonomic chairs and devices have been developed for computer workers, there are few reports of software that can alert users to their posture or work hours. Purpose of the present study was to investigate the difference of kinematics of the neck and trunk segments as well as muscular activation between condition with and without posture related auditory cueing. Twelve male computer workers were recruited in this study. A posture related auditory cueing (PAC) program used a media file that generated postural correction cue at intervals of 300 seconds. Surface electromyography was used to measure the activity of the erector spine and upper trapezius. Kinematic data were obtained using an ultrasonic three dimensional movement analysis system. The results showed that the means of trunk flexion and forward head angle were significantly reduced with PAC. The muscular activity of the erector spine and upper trapezius was significantly higher with the PAC and significantly lower without the PAC. Our findings suggested that the software providing PACs is an ergonomic device with positive effects for preventing habitual poor posture and potential for widespread practical usage.

  18. Inter-vertebral flexibility of the ostrich neck: implications for estimating sauropod neck flexibility.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew J Cobley

    Full Text Available The flexibility and posture of the neck in sauropod dinosaurs has long been contentious. Improved constraints on sauropod neck function will have major implications for what we know of their foraging strategies, ecology and overall biology. Several hypotheses have been proposed, based primarily on osteological data, suggesting different degrees of neck flexibility. This study attempts to assess the effects of reconstructed soft tissues on sauropod neck flexibility through systematic removal of muscle groups and measures of flexibility of the neck in a living analogue, the ostrich (Struthio camelus. The possible effect of cartilage on flexibility is also examined, as this was previously overlooked in osteological estimates of sauropod neck function. These comparisons show that soft tissues are likely to have limited the flexibility of the neck beyond the limits suggested by osteology alone. In addition, the inferred presence of cartilage, and varying the inter-vertebral spacing within the synovial capsule, also affect neck flexibility. One hypothesis proposed that flexibility is constrained by requiring a minimum overlap between successive zygapophyses equivalent to 50% of zygapophyseal articular surface length (ONP50. This assumption is tested by comparing the maximum flexibility of the articulated cervical column in ONP50 and the flexibility of the complete neck with all tissues intact. It is found that this model does not adequately convey the pattern of flexibility in the ostrich neck, suggesting that the ONP50 model may not be useful in determining neck function if considered in isolation from myological and other soft tissue data.

  19. Pain education combined with neck- and aerobic training is more effective at relieving chronic neck pain than pain education alone - A preliminary randomized controlled trial

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brage, K; Ris Hansen, Inge; Falla, D

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of training and pain education vs pain education alone, on neck pain, neck muscle activity and postural sway in patients with chronic neck pain. METHODS: Twenty women with chronic neck pain were randomized to receive pain education and specific training (neck......-shoulder exercises, balance and aerobic training) (INV), or pain education alone (CTRL). Effect on neck pain, function and Global Perceived Effect (GPE) were measured. Surface electromyography (EMG) was recorded from neck flexor and extensor muscles during performance of the Cranio-Cervical Flexion Test (CCFT...... for increased GPE (p = 0.06), reduced sternocleidomastoid activity during the CCFT (p = 0.09), reduced sway length (p = 0.09), and increased neck extensor activity (p = 0.02) during sway compared to the CTRL group. CONCLUSION: Pain education and specific training reduce neck pain more than pain education alone...

  20. Neck and scleral hemorrhage in drowning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alexander, Russell T; Jentzen, Jeffrey M

    2011-03-01

    The determination of the cause and manner of death for a body recovered from the water can be difficult because of a lack of autopsy findings specific for drowning. This case report describes a 30-year-old man found submerged at the bottom of a hotel pool. An autopsy revealed scleral hemorrhages and fascial hemorrhages of multiple muscles of the anterior and posterior neck bilaterally. No evidence of traumatic injury was on the surface of the body. An investigation by law enforcement found no evidence of foul play. The occurrence of petechial and neck hemorrhage in a body recovered from the water is controversial, and a review of this literature will be given. We suggest that fascial hemorrhages of the muscles of the neck, as well as cephalic hemorrhages, can be explained by drowning-related elevated central venous pressure that is communicated to the head through the valveless veins of the neck. © 2010 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  1. Freeze-tolerance of Trichinella muscle larvae in experimentally infected wild boars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacour, Sandrine A; Heckmann, Aurélie; Macé, Pauline; Grasset-Chevillot, Aurélie; Zanella, Gina; Vallée, Isabelle; Kapel, Christian M O; Boireau, Pascal

    2013-05-20

    Freeze-tolerance of encapsulated Trichinella muscle larvae (ML) is mainly determined by Trichinella species, but is also influenced by host species, the age of the infection and the storage time and temperature of the infected meat. Moreover, the freeze-tolerance of the encapsulated species appears to be correlated to the development of thick capsule walls which increases with age. An extended infection period and the muscle composition in some hosts (e.g. herbivores) may provide freeze-avoiding matrices due to high carbohydrate contents. The present experiment compares freeze-tolerance of Trichinella spiralis and Trichinella britovi ML in wild boar meat 24 weeks post inoculation (wpi). Three groups of four wild boars were infected with 200, 2000 or 20,000 ML of T. britovi (ISS 1575), respectively. Additionally, three wild boars were inoculated with 20,000 ML of T. spiralis (ISS 004) and two animals served as negative controls. All wild boars were sacrificed 24 wpi. Muscle samples of 70 g were stored at -21°C for 19, 30 and 56 h, and for 1-8 weeks. Larvae were recovered by artificial digestion. Their mobilities were recorded using Saisam(®) image analysis software and their infectivities were evaluated using mouse bioassays. Samples frozen for 19, 30 and 56 h allowed recovery of mobile ML, but samples frozen for 1 or 2 weeks did not. Correspondingly, only T. spiralis and T. britovi larvae isolated from wild boar meat frozen for 19, 30 and 56 h established in mice. This study showed that freezing at -21°C for 1 week inactivated T. spiralis and T. britovi ML encapsulated in wild boar meat for 24 weeks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Prevalence of Neck and Back Pain amongst Aircrew at the Extremes of Anthropometric Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-09-06

    severe enough to require epidural, two required opiates, four required muscle relaxants, ten used non- steroidal anti inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and...exercises Back Stay fit (working out in the gym ) Neck and back Motrin Exercise Neck and back Push less pallets 40 Back or neck...Back Sleeping, driving Neck and Back Sleep, drive, run, and workouts at gym . Neck and Back Reduces ability to do certain activities/ need extra

  3. Test-retest repeatability of strength capacity, aerobic power and pericranial tenderness of neck and shoulder muscles in children - relevant for tension-type headache

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tornøe, Birte; Andersen, Lars L; Skotte, J H

    2013-01-01

    Frequent or chronic tension-type headache in children is a prevalent and debilitating condition for the child, often leading to medication overuse. To explore the relationship between physical factors and tension-type headache in children, the quality of repeated measures was examined. The aim of...... of the present study was to determine the test-retest repeatability of parameters determining isometric neck and shoulder strength and stability, aerobic power, and pericranial tenderness in children.......Frequent or chronic tension-type headache in children is a prevalent and debilitating condition for the child, often leading to medication overuse. To explore the relationship between physical factors and tension-type headache in children, the quality of repeated measures was examined. The aim...

  4. The Effect of Cervical Collar on Standing Balance in Different Positions of Head and Neck

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iman Rezaei

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Patients suffering from neck pain are usually advised to wear a cervical collar in an attempt to relieve symptoms of pain and muscle spasm or to limit neck movements. However, little information is available on the effect of wearing a collar on postural stability. The purpose of this study was therefore, to investigate the effect of cervical collar in neutral and 20 degrees extension of head and neck on balance. Materials & Methods: In this Quasi-experimental study, 36 healthy subjects volunteered to take part in the study through convenient simple sampling method. Data on anteropoterior (AP and mediolateral (ML displacement of center of pressure (COP and AP, ML and total sway velocity were collected in four different test positions of neutral head and neck with and without cervical collar and extended head and neck with and without cervical collar. Paired Sample T-test was employed for statistical evaluation. Results: No statistically significant different (P<0. 05 was found between collar and no collar positions. The same result was achieved when neutral and extended positions were compared. Only a significant ML sway velocity (P=0. 043 was measured in extended head and neck position with collar compared to the neutral position. Conclusion: Results of this study can be concluded to indicate the deteriorating effect of wearing a cervical collar in extended position on standing balance, supporting a combined effect of decreased neck proprioception and disrupted vestibular function. So, patients should be advised to wear suitable cervical collar tailored to their appropriate neck size.

  5. Efficacy of massage treatment technique in masseter muscle hardness: robotic experimental approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hiraiwa, Yuichiro; Ariji, Yoshiko; Kise, Yoshitaka; Sakuma, Shigemitsu; Kurita, Kenichi; Ariji, Eiichiro

    2013-10-01

    The study aimed to clarify the masseter muscle hardness in patients with myofascial pain, to examine their changes after massage, and to analyze whether the hardness can be an index for massage treatment. Sixteen patients with myofascial pain (12 with unilateral and 4 with bilateral masseter muscle pain) and 24 healthy volunteers were enrolled in this study. The masseter hardness between patients and the healthy volunteers was compared. The changes in the hardness in patients after massage were examined. The relation of the hardness with massage regimens and efficacies was analyzed. There was a significant right-and-left difference of the hardness in patients, although there was no difference in the healthy volunteers. The hardness decreased after massage. The pretreatment asymmetry index of the hardness showed a significant correlation with the massage pressure. It was concluded that there was a significant difference between the right and left masseter hardness in patients with myofascial pain. After massage treatment, the masseter hardness and right-and-left difference decreased. The hardness may be an index for determining the massage pressure.

  6. Clinical analysis of deep neck space infections

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hatano, Atsushi; Ui, Naoya; Shigeta, Yasushi; Iimura, Jiro; Rikitake, Masahiro; Endo, Tomonori; Kimura, Akihiro

    2009-01-01

    Deep neck space infections, which affect soft tissues and fascial compartments of the head and neck, can lead to lethal complications unless treated carefully and quickly, even with the advanced antibiotics available. We reviewed our seventeen patients with deep neck abscesses, analyzed their location by reviewing CT images, and discussed the treatment. Deep neck space infections were classified according to the degree of diffusion of infection diagnosed by CT images. Neck space infection in two cases was localized to the upper neck space above the hyoid bone (Stage I). Neck space infection in 12 cases extended to the lower neck space (Stage II), and further extended to the mediastinum in one case (Stage III). The two cases of Stage I and the four cases of Stage II were managed with incision and drainage through a submental approach. The seven cases of Stage II were managed with incision and drainage parallel to the anterior border of the sternocleidomastoid muscle, the ''Dean'' approach. The one case of Stage III received treatment through transcervicotomy and anterior mediastinal drainage through a subxiphodal incision. The parapharyngeal space played an important role in that the inflammatory change can spread to the neck space inferiorly. The anterior cervical space in the infrahyoid neck was important for mediastinal extension of parapharyngeal abscesses. It is important to diagnose deep neck space infections promptly and treat them adequately, and contrast-enhanced CT is useful and indispensable for diagnosis. The point is which kind of drainage has to be performed. If the surgical method of drainage is chosen according to the level of involvement in the neck space and mediastinum, excellent results may be obtained in terms of survival and morbidity. (author)

  7. EFFICACY OF POST ISOMETRIC RELAXATION VERSUS STATIC STRECHING IN SUBJECTS WITH CHRONIC NON SPECIFIC NECK PAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.Haritha

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neck pain is a common problem within our society. Upper trapezius sternocleidomastoid and the levator scapulae are the most common postural muscles that tends to get shorten leading to restricted neck mobility. There is lack of evidence to allow conclusions to be drawn about the effectiveness of post isometric relaxation when compared with static stretching exercises. The aim is to find out the effectiveness of Post isometric relaxation Versus Static stretching in the subjects with chronic nonspecific neck pain. To evaluate the effectiveness of post isometric relaxation technique on pain by using Visual analoge scale, range of motion by using Universal Goniometry, and functional disability by using Neck Disability Index in chronic nonspecific neck pain. Methods: A convenient sample of thirty seven subjects was diagnosed with nonspecific neck pain was randomly allocated to one of the two treatment groups on the basis of the inclusion criteria. The experimental group (n=15 received three sessions of post isometric relaxation technique for trapezius, sternocleidomastoid and the levator scapulae and control group (n=15 received the three sessions of static stretching for trapezius, sternocliedomastiod and levator scapulae for four weeks. Results: Non parametric tests demonstrated a statistically significant difference with experimental group showing greater improvement in ROM, VAS, and NDI than the control group and significant difference within the group also. Conclusion: This study concluded and the results reflected that post isometric relaxation technique group had better improvement in reduction of pain, improvement in the range of motion, and increased neck functional activities than the static stretching group.

  8. MR of head and neck hemangiomas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bilaniuk, L.T.; Zimmerman, R.A.; Gusnard, D.A.

    1990-01-01

    This paper defines the MR characteristics of head and neck hemangiomas and to evaluate the role of MR in their diagnosis and management. Eighteen pediatric and young adult patients with head and neck hemangiomas (six neck, six face, three eyelid, two scalp, and one parotid) underwent high-field-strength 1.5-T MR imaging. Conventional spin-echo sequences with T1 and T2 weighting were performed. In addition, one-third of patients underwent MR angiography and gadolinium enhancement. The hemangiomas were isointense to muscle on T1-weighted images and hyperintense on proton-density and T2-weighted images

  9. Neck lift my way: an update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Joel J

    2014-12-01

    The author updates prior descriptions of an approach to the surgical neck lift that aims for a maximum degree of control over the size, shape, and position of every anatomical feature of the neck that is negatively affecting its appearance. A 38-year clinical experience guided the development of the operative tactics that define the strategy. Data collected from a records review of 522 consecutive neck lifts performed during the 10-year period 2004 through 2013 further inform the report. The approach has eight features: (1) nearly routine use of open submental access to all tissue layers of the central neck, including a regimen that curbed the problems that may attend an extensive tissue dissection; (2) management of lax neck skin by lateral excision using a specific postauricular incision, or by using the nonexcisional method of redistribution; (3) open lipectomy for precise removal of excess subcutaneous neck and jawline fat; (4) individualized modifications to subplatysmal fat, perihyoid fascia, and anterior digastric muscles; (5) treatment of large, ptotic, or malpositioned submandibular salivary glands by partial excision using a transcutaneous traction suture; (6) the current version of the corset platysmaplasty, which is used to treat static paramedian platysma muscle bands, and to avoid contour imperfections following subplatysmal maneuvers; (7) an approach that facilitates an isolated neck lift; and (8) durable results. Case examples demonstrate outcomes. Although the updated approach remains relatively complex and invasive, the author believes that the ends justify the means.

  10. Experimental studies of mitochondrial function in CADASIL vascular smooth muscle cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Viitanen, Matti [Division of Clinical Geriatrics, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Department of Geriatrics, Turku City Hospital and University of Turku, Turku (Finland); Sundström, Erik [Division of Neurodegeneration, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Baumann, Marc [Protein Chemistry Unit, Institute of Biomedicine/Anatomy, University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Poyhonen, Minna [Department of Clinical Genetics, Helsinki University Hospital, HUSLAB, Helsinki (Finland); Tikka, Saara [Protein Chemistry Unit, Institute of Biomedicine/Anatomy, University of Helsinki, Helsinki (Finland); Behbahani, Homira, E-mail: homira.behbahani@ki.se [Division of Clinical Geriatrics, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden); Karolinska Institutet Alzheimer' s Disease Research Center, Department of Neurobiology, Care Sciences and Society, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm (Sweden)

    2013-02-01

    Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a familiar fatal progressive degenerative disorder characterized by cognitive decline, and recurrent stroke in young adults. Pathological features include a dramatic reduction of brain vascular smooth muscle cells and severe arteriopathy with the presence of granular osmophilic material in the arterial walls. Here we have investigated the cellular and mitochondrial function in vascular smooth muscle cell lines (VSMCs) established from CADASIL mutation carriers (R133C) and healthy controls. We found significantly lower proliferation rates in CADASIL VSMC as compared to VSMC from controls. Cultured CADASIL VSMCs were not more vulnerable than control cells to a number of toxic substances. Morphological studies showed reduced mitochondrial connectivity and increased number of mitochondria in CADASIL VSMCs. Transmission electron microscopy analysis demonstrated increased irregular and abnormal mitochondria in CADASIL VSMCs. Measurements of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψ{sub m}) showed a lower percentage of fully functional mitochondria in CADASIL VSMCs. For a number of genes previously reported to be changed in CADASIL VSMCs, immunoblotting analysis demonstrated a significantly reduced SOD1 expression. These findings suggest that alteration of proliferation and mitochondrial function in CADASIL VSMCs might have an effect on vital cellular functions important for CADASIL pathology. -- Highlights: ► CADASIL is an inherited disease of cerebral vascular cells. ► Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in the pathogenesis of CADASIL. ► Lower proliferation rates in CADASIL VSMC. ► Increased irregular and abnormal mitochondria and lower mitochondrial membrane potential in CADASIL VSMCs. ► Reduced mitochondrial connectivity and increased number of mitochondria in CADASIL VSMCs.

  11. Experimental studies of mitochondrial function in CADASIL vascular smooth muscle cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viitanen, Matti; Sundström, Erik; Baumann, Marc; Poyhonen, Minna; Tikka, Saara; Behbahani, Homira

    2013-01-01

    Cerebral Autosomal Dominant Arteriopathy with Subcortical Infarcts and Leukoencephalopathy (CADASIL) is a familiar fatal progressive degenerative disorder characterized by cognitive decline, and recurrent stroke in young adults. Pathological features include a dramatic reduction of brain vascular smooth muscle cells and severe arteriopathy with the presence of granular osmophilic material in the arterial walls. Here we have investigated the cellular and mitochondrial function in vascular smooth muscle cell lines (VSMCs) established from CADASIL mutation carriers (R133C) and healthy controls. We found significantly lower proliferation rates in CADASIL VSMC as compared to VSMC from controls. Cultured CADASIL VSMCs were not more vulnerable than control cells to a number of toxic substances. Morphological studies showed reduced mitochondrial connectivity and increased number of mitochondria in CADASIL VSMCs. Transmission electron microscopy analysis demonstrated increased irregular and abnormal mitochondria in CADASIL VSMCs. Measurements of mitochondrial membrane potential (Δψ m ) showed a lower percentage of fully functional mitochondria in CADASIL VSMCs. For a number of genes previously reported to be changed in CADASIL VSMCs, immunoblotting analysis demonstrated a significantly reduced SOD1 expression. These findings suggest that alteration of proliferation and mitochondrial function in CADASIL VSMCs might have an effect on vital cellular functions important for CADASIL pathology. -- Highlights: ► CADASIL is an inherited disease of cerebral vascular cells. ► Mitochondrial dysfunction has been implicated in the pathogenesis of CADASIL. ► Lower proliferation rates in CADASIL VSMC. ► Increased irregular and abnormal mitochondria and lower mitochondrial membrane potential in CADASIL VSMCs. ► Reduced mitochondrial connectivity and increased number of mitochondria in CADASIL VSMCs.

  12. Effectiveness of a tailored neck training program on neck strength, movement, and fatigue in under-19 male rugby players: a randomized controlled pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrett, Matthew D; McLoughlin, Terence F; Gallagher, Kieran R; Gatherer, Don; Parratt, Michael Tr; Perera, Jonathan R; Briggs, Tim Wr

    2015-01-01

    To investigate the effect of a tailored neck muscle conditioning program on neck muscle strength, neck muscle fatigue, and range of neck movement in 16-18-year-old male rugby players. Thirty-four male rugby players were divided into forward and back playing positions and randomized within these groups. Seventeen players were randomly assigned to each group. The test group was given a tailored 6-week exercise regime based on their baseline measurements to be performed three times a week in addition to their normal training and playing. The control group trained and played as normal. The outcome measures used were cervical spine range of movement, neck strength, and neck muscle fatigability. There were no clinically relevant statistically significant differences between the two groups. Trends identified between the two groups suggest that a tailored neck exercise program increases neck strength, particularly neck extension, and increases resistance to fatigue, as well as influencing right- and left-sided neck muscle balance. A reduction in range of movement was also demonstrated in the test group. There was a great deal of variability in range of movement and strength within this age group. No previously undiagnosed neck conditions were detected, and there were no adverse events reported. This study has shown that neck strength, range of movement, and susceptibility of the neck muscles to fatigue can be influenced using a focused neck training regime. It forms an important basis for a larger, multicenter study to ensure the neck is given due attention in rugby training and receives the same focus of conditioning as other parts of the body.

  13. Straight-leg rasing in 'short hamstrings'. An experimental study of muscle elasticy and defense reactions.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Göeken, Ludwig Nanno Hiltjo

    1988-01-01

    The central guestion asked in this thesis is whether an Experimental Straight-Leg Raising test (E.S.L.R.) can contribute to the solution of a diagnostical problem frequently encountered in rehabilitation medicine. It concerns the determination of the cause of the movement restriction in patients who

  14. Experimental analysis of the relationship between charge movement components in skeletal muscle of Rana temporaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adrian, R H; Huang, C L

    1984-08-01

    Experiments were performed to ascertain whether the monotonic (q beta) and delayed (q gamma) components of non-linear charge in skeletal muscle membranes form a sequential system, or are the result of separate, independent processes. The non-linear capacitance studied in a large number of fibres increased with fibre diameter. This dependence was attributable to tetracaine-sensitive (q gamma) but not to tetracaine-resistant (q beta and q alpha) charge. The kinetics and total quantity of q gamma charge moving in response to voltage steps from varying pre-pulse potentials to a fixed probe potential remained constant despite variations in the size of the early q beta decay. The kinetics of the delayed (q gamma) charging current obtained from a single 20 mV depolarizing step were compared with the sum of the responses to two 10 mV steps adding to the same voltage excursion. The respective transients superimposed only if one of the 10 mV steps did not reach the voltage at which q gamma first appears. In the two preceding experiments, total charge was conserved. These results are consistent with separate and functionally independent q beta and q gamma systems of potential-dependent charge, with q gamma residing in the transverse tubules and q beta on surface membrane. The findings can be discussed in terms of a contractile 'activator' with a steep sensitivity to voltage that begins only with depolarization beyond a level close to the actual mechanical threshold.

  15. The Effect of a Program Using Some Therapeutic Methods to Rehabilitate Patients Suffering from Neck Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ayad O MAR

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Neck pain is one of the common physical problems of the adults which needs to be taken seriously in order to prevent further health problems. As the daily life of the modern people leads physical in activity, and the use of electronic devices causes imprope r effect on certain parts of the body, specials programs have to be developed as preventive treatment. Therapeutic methods can also be listed through such preventive methods. The purpose of this study was to i dentify the impact of the proposed program usin g some natural methods of treatment for the rehabilitation of people with neck pain , to i dentify the improved range of motion in all directions to the neck area , and also t o identify the extent of improvement in muscle strength for the neck and back. Twelv e patients in Ain Zara Physiotherapy Center and Tripoli Clinic (in Tripoli city were chosen as voluntarily whose age ranged from 30 to 50 years, and the subjects were divided into two groups , as experimental and control groups. This study proved that pro posed therapeutic methods help the treatment of neck pain.

  16. Atrophy of type I and II muscle fibers is reversible in the case of grade >2 fatty degeneration of the supraspinatus muscle: an experimental study in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fabis, Jaroslaw; Danilewicz, Marian; Zwierzchowski, Jacek T; Niedzielski, Kryspin

    2016-03-01

    Although clinical investigations indicate that the limit of reversibility of rotator cuff muscles fibers type I and II atrophy is grade 2 of fatty degeneration (FD) according to the Goutallier computed tomography classification, little is known about the morphometric verification of these findings. The supraspinatus tendon was detached from the greater tubercle and the infraspinatus and subscapularis in 12 rabbits, and a 12-week observation period followed. This proved to be sufficient for development of grade >2 FD of the supraspinatus tendon. The tendon was then reinserted. The animals were euthanized 24 weeks after tendon reconstruction. The sections of middle part of supraspinatus were stained for adenosine triphosphatase reaction, and morphometric measurements were taken of type I and II muscle fiber diameters. The contralateral shoulders served as controls. The macroscopic inspection of the supraspinatus tendons revealed complete healing in all cases. No statistically significant differences were found between controls and operated-on shoulders for type I (P = .13) and type II (P = .55) muscle fibers. Atrophy of type I and II muscle fibers in rabbit supraspinatus muscle, characterized by grade >2 fatty degeneration according to the Goutallier computed tomography classification, is reversible after 24 weeks from reattachment of its tendon. A requirement for type I and II muscle fibers hypertrophy is a change in the biomechanical and functional conditions of the muscle after its tendon is reconstructed. Copyright © 2016 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Effect of Oxysterol-Induced Apoptosis of Vascular Smooth Muscle Cells on Experimental Hypercholesterolemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonia Perales

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Smooth muscle cells (SMCs undergo changes related to proliferation and apoptosis in the physiological remodeling of vessels and in diseases such as atherosclerosis and restenosis. Recent studies also have demonstrated the vascular cell proliferation and programmed cell death contribute to changes in vascular architecture in normal development and in disease. The present study was designed to investigate the apoptotic pathways induced by 25-hydroxycholesterol in SMCs cultures, using an in vivo/in vitro cell model in which SMCs were isolated and culture from chicken exposed to an atherogenic cholesterol-rich diet (SMC-Ch and/or an antiatherogenic fish oil-rich diet (SMC-Ch-FO. Cells were exposed in vitro to 25-hydroxycholesterol to study levels of apoptosis and apoptotic proteins Bcl-2, Bcl-XL and Bax and the expression of bcl-2 and bcl-xL, genes. The quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction and the Immunoblotting western blot analysis showed that 25-hydroxycholesterol produces apoptosis in SMCs, mediated by a high increase in Bax protein and Bax gene expression. These changes were more marked in SMC-Ch than in SMC-Ch-FO, indicating that dietary cholesterol produces changes in SMCs that make them more susceptible to 25-hydroxycholesterol-mediated apoptosis. Our results suggest that the replacement of a cholesterol-rich diet with a fish oil-rich diet produces some reversal of cholesterol-induced changes in the apoptotic pathways induced by 25-hydroxycholesterol in SMCs cultures, making SMCs more resistant to apoptosis.

  18. The relationship between neck pain and physical activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheung, Janice; Kajaks, Tara; Macdermid, Joy C

    2013-01-01

    Neck pain is a significant societal burden due to its high prevalence and healthcare costs. While physical activity can help to manage other forms of chronic musculoskeletal pain, little data exists on the relationship between physical activity and neck pain. The purpose of this study was to compare physical activity levels between individuals with neck pain and healthy controls, and then to relate disability, fear of movement, and pain sensitivity measures to physical activity levels in each of the two participant groups. 21 participants were recruited for each of the two participant groups (n = 42). Data collection included the use of the Neck Disability Index, the Tampa Scale for Kinesiophobia, electrocutaneous (Neurometer® CPT) and pressure stimulation (JTech algometer) for quantitative sensory testing, and 5 days of subjective (Rapid Assessment of Physical Activity) and objective (BioTrainer II) measurements of physical activity. Analysis of Variance and Pearson's Correlation were used to determine if differences and relationships exist between dependent variables both within and between groups. The results show that individuals with mild neck pain and healthy controls do not differ in subjectively and objectively measured physical activity. While participants with neck pain reported higher neck disability and fear of movement, these factors did not significantly relate to physical activity levels. Perceived activity level was related to pain threshold and tolerance at local neck muscles sites (C2 paraspinal muscle and upper trapezius muscle), whereas measured activity was related to generalized pain sensitivity, as measured at the tibialis anterior muscle site.

  19. Jaw-motor effects of experimental jaw-muscle pain and stress in patients with deep bite and matched control subjects

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonnesen, Liselotte; Svensson, Peter

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The effect of experimental jaw-muscle pain and stress on masticatory muscle activity in TMD-patients has been discussed. Furthermore, associations between TMD and deep bite patients have been studied. Accordingly in the present study, comparison of EMG responses at rest, maximal...... clenching, during evoked pain and stress between deep bite patients and controls was investigated. DESIGN: In 30 deep bite patients and in 30 sex-/age-matched controls with neutral occlusion EMG activity was recorded bilaterally from masseter and anterior temporalis muscles before and during evoked pain...... and before and during a stress task. Evoked pain was induced by injections of glutamate into the masseter (local pain) and brachioradialis (remote pain) muscles and resting EMG activity was recorded before and after 1, 2, 3, 4, 5 and 10min. A precision task was used to simulate a stressful condition and EMG...

  20. Neck curve polynomials in neck rupture model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurniadi, Rizal; Perkasa, Yudha S.; Waris, Abdul

    2012-01-01

    The Neck Rupture Model is a model that explains the scission process which has smallest radius in liquid drop at certain position. Old fashion of rupture position is determined randomly so that has been called as Random Neck Rupture Model (RNRM). The neck curve polynomials have been employed in the Neck Rupture Model for calculation the fission yield of neutron induced fission reaction of 280 X 90 with changing of order of polynomials as well as temperature. The neck curve polynomials approximation shows the important effects in shaping of fission yield curve.

  1. Effect of neck exercise on sitting posture in patients with chronic neck pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Falla, Deborah; Jull, Gwendolen; Russell, Trevor; Vicenzino, Bill; Hodges, Paul

    2007-04-01

    Poor sitting posture has been implicated in the development and perpetuation of neck pain symptoms. This study had 2 purposes: (1) to compare change in cervical and thoracic posture during a distracting task between subjects with chronic neck pain and control subjects and (2) to compare the effects of 2 different neck exercise regimens on the ability of people with neck pain to maintain an upright cervical and thoracic posture during this task. Fifty-eight subjects with chronic, nonsevere neck pain and 10 control subjects participated in the study. Change in cervical and thoracic posture from an upright posture was measured every 2 minutes during a 10-minute computer task. Following baseline measurements, the subjects with neck pain were randomized into one of two 6-week exercise intervention groups: a group that received training of the craniocervical flexor muscles or a group that received endurance-strength training of the cervical flexor muscles. The primary outcomes following intervention were changes in the angle of cervical and thoracic posture during the computer task. Subjects with neck pain demonstrated a change in cervical angle across the duration of the task (mean=4.4 degrees ; 95% confidence interval [CI]=3.3-5.4), consistent with a more forward head posture. No significant difference was observed for the change in cervical angle across the duration of the task for the control group subjects (mean=2.2 degrees ; 95% CI=1.0-3.4). Following intervention, the craniocervical flexor training group demonstrated a significant reduction in the change of cervical angle across the duration of the computer task. This study showed that people with chronic neck pain demonstrate a reduced ability to maintain an upright posture when distracted. Following intervention with an exercise program targeted at training the craniocervical flexor muscles, subjects with neck pain demonstrated an improved ability to maintain a neutral cervical posture during prolonged sitting.

  2. Aggressive fibromatosis of the neck in a patient with Gardner's syndrome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rai, A.T.; Nguyen, T.P.; Hogg, J.P.; Gabriele, F.J.

    2001-01-01

    We report a patient with Gardner's syndrome who, in addition to a total colectomy, had multiple excisions of desmoid tumors in both thighs. He presented with left-sided neck swelling and pain. MRI was highly suggestive of desmoid tumors in multiple neck muscles. To our knowledge this is the first description of diffuse fibromatosis of the neck in association with Gardner's syndrome. (orig.)

  3. Analysis of deep tissue hypersensitivity to pressure pain in professional pianists with insidious mechanical neck pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate whether pressure pain hyperalgesia is a feature of professional pianists suffering from neck pain as their main playing-related musculoskeletal disorder. Methods Twenty-three active expert pianists, 6 males and 17 females (age: 36 ± 12 years) with insidious neck pain and 23 pianists, 9 males and 14 females (age: 38 ± 10 years) without neck pain the previous year were recruited. A numerical pain rate scale, Neck Disability Index, hand size and pressure pain thresholds (PPT) were assessed bilaterally over the C5-C6 zygapophyseal joint, deltoid muscle, the second metacarpal and the tibialis anterior muscle in a blinded design. Results The results showed that PPT levels were significantly decreased bilaterally over the second metacarpal and tibialis anterior muscles (P 0.10), in pianists with neck pain as compared to healthy pianists. Pianists with neck pain had a smaller (P neck pain (mean: 188. 6 ± 13.1). PPT over the tibialis anterior muscles was negatively correlated with the intensity of neck pain. Conclusions Our findings revealed pressure pain hypersensitivity over distant non-symptomatic distant points but not over the symptomatic areas in pianists suffering from neck pain. In addition, pianists with neck pain also had smaller hand size than those without neck pain. Future studies are needed to further determine the relevance of these findings in the clinical course of neck pain as playing-related musculoskeletal disorder in professional pianists. PMID:22111912

  4. Effect of Targeted Strength, Endurance, and Coordination Exercise on Neck and Shoulder Pain Among Fighter Pilots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lange, Britt; Toft, Palle; Myburgh, Corrie

    2013-01-01

    : To explore in Danish F-16 pilots: (1) the effect on neck and shoulder pain of a 24-week training intervention including targeted training of the deep neck muscles; (2) selected clinical signs and symptoms at baseline; (3) the prevalence and intensity of neck and shoulder pain....

  5. Evolution and development of the vertebrate neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ericsson, Rolf; Knight, Robert; Johanson, Zerina

    2013-01-01

    Muscles of the vertebrate neck include the cucullaris and hypobranchials. Although a functional neck first evolved in the lobe-finned fishes (Sarcopterygii) with the separation of the pectoral/shoulder girdle from the skull, the neck muscles themselves have a much earlier origin among the vertebrates. For example, lampreys possess hypobranchial muscles, and may also possess the cucullaris. Recent research in chick has established that these two muscles groups have different origins, the hypobranchial muscles having a somitic origin but the cucullaris muscle deriving from anterior lateral plate mesoderm associated with somites 1-3. Additionally, the cucullaris utilizes genetic pathways more similar to the head than the trunk musculature. Although the latter results are from experiments in the chick, cucullaris homologues occur in a variety of more basal vertebrates such as the sharks and zebrafish. Data are urgently needed from these taxa to determine whether the cucullaris in these groups also derives from lateral plate mesoderm or from the anterior somites, and whether the former or the latter represent the basal vertebrate condition. Other lateral plate mesoderm derivatives include the appendicular skeleton (fins, limbs and supporting girdles). If the cucullaris is a definitive lateral plate-derived structure it may have evolved in conjunction with the shoulder/limb skeleton in vertebrates and thereby provided a greater degree of flexibility to the heads of predatory vertebrates. © 2012 The Authors. Journal of Anatomy © 2012 Anatomical Society.

  6. Dose-volume relationships for moderate or severe neck muscle atrophy after intensity-modulated radiotherapy in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lu-Lu; Wang, Xiao-Ju; Zhou, Guan-Qun; Tang, Ling-Long; Lin, Ai-Hua; Ma, Jun; Sun, Ying

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to identify the dosimetric parameters and radiation dose tolerances associated with moderate or severe sternocleidomastoid muscle (SCM) atrophy after intensity-modulated radiotherapy (IMRT) in nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC). We retrospectively analysed 138 patients treated with IMRT between 2011 and 2012 for whom IMRT treatment plans and pretreatment and 3-year post-IMRT MRI scans were available. The association between mean dose (Dmean), maximum dose (Dmax), VX (% SCM volume that received more than X Gy), DX (dose to X% of the SCM volume) at X values of 20, 25, 30, 35, 40, 45, 50, 55, 60, 65, 70, 75, 80 and SCM atrophy at 3 years after IMRT were analyzed. All dosimetric parameters, except V40, V50 and V80, were significantly associated with moderate or severe SCM atrophy. Multivariate analysis showed that V65 was an independent predictor of moderate or severe SCM atrophy (P atrophy. We suggest a limit of 21.47% for V65 to optimize NPC treatment planning, whilst minimizing the risk of moderate or severe SCM atrophy. PMID:26678599

  7. Head and neck cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vogl, S.E.

    1988-01-01

    This book contains 10 chapters. Some of the titles are: Combined Surgical Resection and Irradiation for Head and Neck Cancers; Analysis of Radiation Therapy Oncology Group Head and Neck Database: Identification of Prognostic Factors and the Re-evaluation of American Joint Committee Stages; Combined Modality Approach to Head and Neck Cancer; Induction Combination Chemotherapy of Regionally Advanced Head and Neck Cancer; and Outcome after Complete Remission to Induction Chemotherapy in Head and Neck Cancer

  8. Electrotherapy for neck pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroeling, Peter; Gross, Anita; Graham, Nadine; Burnie, Stephen J; Szeto, Grace; Goldsmith, Charles H; Haines, Ted; Forget, Mario

    2013-08-26

    ).Very low quality evidence showed that modulated galvanic current, iontophoresis and electric muscle stimulation (EMS) were not more effective than placebo.There were four trials that reported on other outcomes such as function and global perceived effects, but none of the effects were of clinical importance. When TENS, iontophoresis and PEMF were compared to another treatment, very low quality evidence prevented us from suggesting any recommendations. No adverse side effects were reported in any of the included studies. We cannot make any definite statements on the efficacy and clinical usefulness of electrotherapy modalities for neck pain. Since the evidence is of low or very low quality, we are uncertain about the estimate of the effect. Further research is very likely to change both the estimate of effect and our confidence in the results. Current evidence for PEMF, rMS, and TENS shows that these modalities might be more effective than placebo. When compared to other interventions the quality of evidence was very low thus preventing further recommendations.Funding bias should be considered, especially in PEMF studies. Galvanic current, iontophoresis, EMS, and a static magnetic field did not reduce pain or disability. Future trials on these interventions should have larger patient samples, include more precise standardization, and detail treatment characteristics.

  9. Experimental characterization of thermally-activated artificial muscles based on coiled nylon fishing lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonello Cherubini

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The discovery of an innovative class of thermally activated actuators based on twisted polymeric fibres has opened new horizons toward the development of effective devices that can be easily manufactured using inexpensive materials such as fishing lines or sewing threads. These new devices show large deformations when heated together with promising performance in terms of energy and power densities. With the aim of providing information and data useful for the future engineering applications, we present the results of a thermo-mechanical characterization conducted on a specific type of twisted polymeric fibre (i.e. nylon-made coiled actuators that is considered particularly promising. A custom experimental test-bench and procedure have been developed and employed to run isothermal and isometric tensile tests on a set of specimens that are fabricated with a simple and repeatable process. The results of the experiments highlight some important issues related to the response of these actuators such as hysteresis, repeatability, predictability and stored elastic energy.

  10. Experimental characterization of thermally-activated artificial muscles based on coiled nylon fishing lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cherubini, Antonello; Moretti, Giacomo; Vertechy, Rocco; Fontana, Marco

    2015-06-01

    The discovery of an innovative class of thermally activated actuators based on twisted polymeric fibres has opened new horizons toward the development of effective devices that can be easily manufactured using inexpensive materials such as fishing lines or sewing threads. These new devices show large deformations when heated together with promising performance in terms of energy and power densities. With the aim of providing information and data useful for the future engineering applications, we present the results of a thermo-mechanical characterization conducted on a specific type of twisted polymeric fibre (i.e. nylon-made coiled actuators) that is considered particularly promising. A custom experimental test-bench and procedure have been developed and employed to run isothermal and isometric tensile tests on a set of specimens that are fabricated with a simple and repeatable process. The results of the experiments highlight some important issues related to the response of these actuators such as hysteresis, repeatability, predictability and stored elastic energy.

  11. Effects of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) and diclofenac (topical and intramuscular) as single and combined therapy in experimental model of controlled muscle strain in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Paiva Carvalho, Rodrigo Leal; Leal-Junior, Ernesto Cesar Pinto; Petrellis, Maria Carla; Marcos, Rodrigo Labat; de Carvalho, Maria Helena Catelli; De Nucci, Gilberto; Lopes-Martins, Rodrigo Alvaro Brandão

    2013-01-01

    Muscle injuries represent ca 30% of sports injuries and excessive stretching of muscle causes more than 90% of injuries. Currently the most used treatments are nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), however, in last years, low-level laser therapy (LLLT) is becoming an interesting therapeutic modality. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of single and combined therapies (LLLT, topical application of diclofenac and intramuscular diclofenac) on functional and biochemical aspects in an experimental model of controlled muscle strain in rats. Muscle strain was induced by overloading tibialis anterior muscle of rats. Injured groups received either no treatment, or a single treatment with topical or intramuscular diclofenac (TD and ID), or LLLT (3 J, 810 nm, 100 mW) 1 h after injury. Walking track analysis was the functional outcome and biochemical analyses included mRNA expression of COX-1 and COX-2 and blood levels of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ). All treatments significantly decreased COX-1 and COX-2 gene expression compared with injury group (P < 0.05). However, LLLT showed better effects than TD and ID regarding PGE2 levels and walking track analysis (P < 0.05). We can conclude that LLLT has more efficacy than topical and intramuscular diclofenac in treatment of muscle strain injury in acute stage. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Photochemistry and Photobiology © 2012 The American Society of Photobiology.

  12. Quantitative CT assessment of proximal femoral bone density. An experimental study concerning its correlation to breaking load for femoral neck fractures; Quantitative CT des proximalen Femurs. Experimentelle Untersuchungen zur Korrelation mit der Bruchlast bei Schenkelhalsfrakturen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Buitrago-Tellez, C.H.; Schulze, C.; Gufler, H.; Langer, M. [Abt. Roentgendiagnostik, Radiologische Universitaetsklinik, Albert-Ludwigs-Univ. Freiburg (Germany); Bonnaire, F.; Hoenninger, A.; Kuner, E. [Abt. Unfallchirurgie, Chirurgische Universitaetsklinik, Albert-Ludwigs-Univ. Freiburg (Germany)

    1997-12-01

    Purpose: In an experimental study, the correlation between the trabecular bone density of the different regions of the proximal femur and the fracture load in the setting of femoral neck fractures was examined. Methods: The bone mineral density 41 random proximal human femora was estimated by single-energy quanitative CT (SE-QCT). The trabecular bone density was measured at the greatest possible extracortical volume at midcapital, midneck and intertrochanteric level and in the 1 cm{sup 3} volumes of the centres of these regions in a standardised 10 mm thick slice in the middle of the femoral neck axis (in mg/ml Ca-hydroxyl apatite). The proximal femora were then isolated and mounted on a compression/bending device under two-legged stand conditions and loaded up to the point when a femoral neck fracture occurred. Results: Statistical analysis revealed a linear correlation between the trabecular bone density and the fracture load for the greater regions, with the highest value in the maximal area of the head (coefficient factor r=0.76). Conclusion: According to our data, the measurement of the trabecular bone by SE-QCT at the femoral head is a more confident adjunct than the neck or trochanteric area to predict a femoral neck fracture. (orig.) [Deutsch] Ziel: In einer experimentellen Versuchsserie wurde der Zusammenhang zwischen der Knochendichte an verschiedenen Lokalisationen des proximalen Femurs und der maximalen Last bei der Entstehung von Schenkelhalsfrakturen (Bruchlast) untersucht. Methode: An 41 frisch entnommenen proximalen Leichenfemora wurde die trabekulaere Knochendichte mit Hilfe der Ein-Energie Quantitativen Computertomographie (SE-QCT) bei einer Schichtdicke von 10 mm in der Mitte der Schenkelhalsachse bestimmt. Erfasst wurden die maximale extrakortikale, zylinderfoermige Messregion im Hueftkopf, Schenkelhals und der Intertrochantaerregion sowie das 1 cm{sup 3} umfassende Zentrum dieser Regionen. Die Praeparate wurden unter Zweibeinstandbedingungen

  13. 1989 Volvo Award in biomechanics. Mechanical recruitment of low-back muscles. Theoretical predictions and experimental validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ladin, Z; Murthy, K R; De Luca, C J

    1989-09-01

    A biomechanical model for studying lumbar muscle load sharing for a class of physical tasks that involve gravitational loading (holding weights) of the upper body in an erect posture is presented. The model assumes that the lumbar muscles balance the externally applied flexion and lateral bending moments. The concept of a 'loading plane' whose axes are the two bending moments is introduced. Any point in the plane can be viewed as a 'loading-point' describing a combination of bending moments that are applied to the body. The study of lumbar-muscle load sharing revealed loading conditions that required activation or deactivation of a particular muscle. The loading plane thus could be divided into regions of activity and inactivity for each muscle, separated by a 'switching curve.' The concept of 'switching curves' proved very useful for examining previously described physiologic assumptions on the loading conditions of particular muscle groups, and for grouping the 22 muscles described in the model into ten functional units. Electromyographic validation studies were conducted and showed a high degree of correlation between the model predictions and actual measurements for the contralateral (with respect to the load) muscles and to a lesser degree of correlation for the ipsilateral muscles.

  14. [Experimental study on potential for cardiac assist by latissimus dorsi myograft--an importance of muscle ischemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morita, K; Koyanagi, K; Sakamoto, Y; Wakabayashi, K; Tanaka, K; Horikoshi, S; Matsui, M; Arai, T

    1991-03-01

    We have studied contractile property and fatigue rates of skeletal muscle ventricle (SMV) constructed using the latissimus dorsi muscles of 11 dogs. The role of early interruption of collateral blood supply in the prevention of muscle ischemia and SMV fatigue was evaluated. Systolic function of SMV was measured in a hydraulic test system; afterload was set at 70 mmHg and preload 15 or 25 mmHg. Control SMV (GI: N = 7), which was fashioned immediately after interruption of collateral blood supply, generated an initial SMV pressure of 222 +/- 50 mmHg and stroke volume of 15 +/- 7 ml/beat with muscle stimulation at a burst-frequency of 50 Hz, but could sustain flow for only 3.5 +/- 0.8 minutes. SMV subjected to a vascular delay (Group II: N = 4) demonstrated improvement of fatigue rates; duration of flow 32.4 +/- 14.0 and sufficient contractile property (initial SMV pressure 182 +/- 17 mmHg, stroke volume 1- +/- 2 ml/beat). Thermography surface temperature mapping revealed remarkable improvement of blood distribution in GII muscles. Flow rates of thoracodorsal artery were significantly greater in GII muscles compared to those in GI muscles (15.0 +/- 3.7 ml/min/LD 100 g, 10.1 +/- 3.1 ml/min/LD 100 g, p less than 0.05, respectively). Despite significant improvement of functional durability in GII muscles, the ratio of oxygen consumption to lactate output was not different between 2 groups. These results suggest that early interruption of collateral blood supply can minimize muscle ischemia, resulting in diminishing fatigue of latissimus dorsi muscles without changes in skeletal muscle metabolism.

  15. The equine neck and its function during movement and locomotion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zsoldos, Rebeka R; Licka, Theresia F

    2015-10-01

    During both locomotion and body movements at stance, the head and neck of the horse are a major craniocaudal and lateral balancing mechanism employing input from the visual, vestibular and proprioceptive systems. The function of the equine neck has recently become the focus of several research groups; this is probably also feeding on an increase of interest in the equine neck in equestrian sports, with a controversial discussion of specific neck positions such as maximum head and neck flexion. The aim of this review is to offer an overview of new findings on the structures and functions of the equine neck, illustrating their interplay. The movement of the neck is based on intervertebral motion, but it is also an integral part of locomotion; this is illustrated by the different neck conformations in the breeds of horses used for various types of work. The considerable effect of the neck movement and posture onto the whole trunk and even the limbs is transmitted via bony, ligamentous and muscular structures. Also, the fact that the neck position can easily be influenced by the rider and/or by the employment of training aids makes it an important avenue for training of new movements of the neck as well as the whole horse. Additionally, the neck position also affects the cervical spinal cord as well as the roots of the spinal nerves; besides the commonly encountered long-term neurological effects of cervical vertebral disorders, short-term changes of neural and muscular function have also been identified in the maximum flexion of the cranial neck and head position. During locomotion, the neck stores elastic energy within the passive tissues such as ligaments, joint capsules and fasciae. For adequate stabilisation, additional muscle activity is necessary; this is learned and requires constant muscle training as it is essential to prevent excessive wear and tear on the vertebral joints and also repetitive or single trauma to the spinal nerves and the spinal cord. The

  16. Effect of Propafenone on the Contractile Activity of Latissimus Dorsi Muscle Isolated in an Organ Chamber: Experimental Study in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Simões

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To study the effect of propafenone on the contractile function of latissimus dorsi muscle isolated from rats in an organ chamber. METHODS: We studied 20 latissimus dorsi muscles of Wistar rats and divided them into 2 groups: group I (n=10, or control group - we studied the feasibility of muscle contractility; group II (n=10, in which the contralateral muscles were grouped - we analyzed the effect of propafenone on muscle contractility. After building a muscle ring, 8 periods of sequential 2-minute baths were performed, with intervals of preprogrammed electrical stimulation using a pacemaker of 50 stimuli/min. In group II, propafenone, at the concentration of 9.8 µg/mL, was added to the bath in period 2 and withdrawn in period 4. RESULTS: In group I, no significant depression in muscle contraction occurred up to period 5 (p>0.05. In group II, a significant depression occurred in all periods, except between the last 2 periods (p0.05. CONCLUSION: Propafenone had a depressing effect on the contractile function of latissimus dorsi muscle isolated from rats and studied in an organ chamber.

  17. No effect of experimental occlusal interferences on pressure pain thresholds of the masseter and temporalis muscles in healthy women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michelotti, A; Farella, M; Steenks, MH; Gallo, LM; Palla, S

    It has been suggested that occlusal interferences may lead to pain and tenderness of the masticatory muscles. Tender jaw muscles are more sensitive to pressure pain, as assessed by means of pressure algometry. We tested the effects of occlusal interferences on the pressure pain threshold of the jaw

  18. From twitch to tetanus for human muscle : experimental data and model predictions for m-triceps surae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zandwijk, JP; Bobbert, MF; Harlaar, J; Hof, AL

    In models describing the excitation of muscle by the central nervous system, it is often assumed that excitation during a tetanic contraction can be obtained by the linear summation of responses to individual stimuli, from which the active state of the muscle is calculated. We investigate here the

  19. Are there two forms of isometric muscle action? Results of the experimental study support a distinction between a holding and a pushing isometric muscle function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Laura V; Bittmann, Frank N

    2017-01-01

    In isometric muscle function, there are subjectively two different modes of performance: one can either hold isometrically - thus resist an impacting force - or push isometrically - therefore work against a stable resistance. The purpose of this study is to investigate whether or not two different isometric muscle actions - the holding vs. pushing one (HIMA vs PIMA) - can be distinguished by objective parameters. Ten subjects performed two different measuring modes at 80% of MVC realized by a special pneumatic system. During HIMA the subject had to resist the defined impacting force of the pneumatic system in an isometric position, whereby the force of the cylinder works in direction of elbow flexion against the subject. During PIMA the subject worked isometrically in direction of elbow extension against a stable position of the system. The signals of pressure, force, acceleration and mechanomyography/-tendography (MMG/MTG) of the elbow extensor (MMGtri/MTGtri) and the abdominal muscle (MMGobl) were recorded and evaluated concerning the duration of maintaining the force level (force endurance) and the characteristics of MMG-/MTG-signals. Statistical group differences comparing HIMA vs. PIMA were estimated using SPSS. Significant differences between HIMA and PIMA were especially apparent regarding the force endurance: During HIMA the subjects showed a decisively shorter time of stable isometric position (19 ± 8 s) in comparison with PIMA (41 ± 24 s; p  = .005). In addition, during PIMA the longest isometric plateau amounted to 59.4% of the overall duration time of isometric measuring, during HIMA it lasted 31.6% ( p  = .000). The frequency of MMG/MTG did not show significant differences. The power in the frequency ranges of 8-15 Hz and 10-29 Hz was significantly higher in the MTGtri performing HIMA compared to PIMA (but not for the MMGs). The amplitude of MMG/MTG did not show any significant difference considering the whole measurement. However

  20. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... out more. Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans ... out more. Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans ...

  1. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ... Head and Neck Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed ...

  2. A new model of experimental fibrosis in hindlimb skeletal muscle of adult mdx mouse mimicking muscular dystrophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desguerre, Isabelle; Arnold, Ludovic; Vignaud, Alban; Cuvellier, Sylvain; Yacoub-Youssef, Houda; Gherardi, Romain K; Chelly, Jamel; Chretien, Fabrice; Mounier, Rémi; Ferry, Arnaud; Chazaud, Bénédicte

    2012-06-01

    Duchenne Muscular Dystrophy (DMD) is characterized by the lack of dystrophin that leads to severe myofiber degeneration. We have shown that endomysial fibrosis is correlated with age at ambulation loss in DMD patients. However, the dystrophin-deficient mdx mouse does not have fibrotic lesions in adult limb muscles. Here, we describe a model of chronic mechanical muscle injury that triggers chronic lesions in mdx hindlimb muscle. Micromechanical injuries were performed daily in tibialis anterior muscles for 2 weeks. Endomysial fibrosis appeared beginning 1 week post-injury, remained stable for 3 months and was associated with loss of specific maximal force. Fibrosis was associated with an increased expression of factors involved in fibrogenesis including α-smooth muscle actin, connective tissue growth factor, and lysyl oxidase, which colocalized with collagen deposits. This induced fibrotic dystrophic model may be useful to study mechanisms of fibrosis in dystrophinopathies and to evaluate antifibrotic treatments. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  3. Quality of life after neck dissection. Multicenter study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nibu, Ken-ichi; Onitsuka, Tetsuo; Kawabata, Kazuyoshi

    2010-01-01

    To assess the impact of modifications to radical neck dissection and radiotherapy on the postoperative quality of life, the study group 'Study on Standardization of Treatment for Lymph Node Metastasis of Head and Neck Cancer' performed a multicenter cross-sectional study using our self-administered neck dissection questionnaire and arm abduction test. While sparing levels IV and V improved most postoperative symptoms, such as stiffness and constriction of the neck were avoided as long as the sternocleidmastoid muscle (SCM) and the spinal accessory nerve were preserved. Resection of the SCM and spinal accessory nerve resulted in a drop shoulder and neck pain, respectively. Irradiation with a total dose of 50 Gy or more worsened stiffness of neck and shoulder. (author)

  4. Head and Neck Cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Head and neck cancer includes cancers of the mouth, nose, sinuses, salivary glands, throat, and lymph nodes ... swallowing A change or hoarseness in the voice Head and neck cancers are twice as common in ...

  5. Neck x-ray

    Science.gov (United States)

    X-ray - neck; Cervical spine x-ray; Lateral neck x-ray ... There is low radiation exposure. X-rays are monitored so that the lowest amount of radiation is used to produce the image. Pregnant women and ...

  6. Chronic Neck Pain Assessment using Multi-Frequency Bioimpedance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fener, Dilay Kesgin; Bartels, Else Marie; Elbrønd, Vibeke Sødring

    2016-01-01

    Scope: Chronic neck pain (CNP) is a disabling condition where the cause is often unknown, making treatment difficult. Muscle involvement is suspected in most cases, and assessment of muscle condition and changes following treatment may be possible with multi-frequency bioimpedance (mfBIA). Our aim...... involvement in chronic neck pain patients. AtlasBalans treatment did not show any clear indication as being an efficient form of treatment to relieve muscle tension in CNP patients....... was to test mfBIA as an assessment method of possible involvement of the neck, back and other related muscles in two CNP patients, prior to and following physiotherapy treatment with AtlasBalans. Methods: mfBIA measurements were carried out pre-treatment on m. sternocleidomastoideus, m. trapezius, upper back...

  7. The experimental type 2 diabetes therapy glycogen phosphorylase inhibition can impair aerobic muscle function during prolonged contraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, David J; Greenhaff, Paul L; MacInnes, Alan; Timmons, James A

    2006-06-01

    Glycogen phosphorylase inhibition represents a promising strategy to suppress inappropriate hepatic glucose output, while muscle glycogen is a major source of fuel during contraction. Glycogen phosphorylase inhibitors (GPi) currently being investigated for the treatment of type 2 diabetes do not demonstrate hepatic versus muscle glycogen phosphorylase isoform selectivity and may therefore impair patient aerobic exercise capabilities. Skeletal muscle energy metabolism and function are not impaired by GPi during high-intensity contraction in rat skeletal muscle; however, it is unknown whether glycogen phosphorylase inhibitors would impair function during prolonged lower-intensity contraction. Utilizing a novel red cell-perfused rodent gastrocnemius-plantaris-soleus system, muscle was pretreated for 60 min with either 3 micromol/l free drug GPi (n=8) or vehicle control (n=7). During 60 min of aerobic contraction, GPi treatment resulted in approximately 35% greater fatigue. Muscle glycogen phosphorylase a form (Pglycogen (121.8 +/- 16.1 vs. 168.3 +/- 8.5 mmol/kg dry muscle, Pglycogen plays an essential role during submaximal contraction. Given the critical role of exercise prescription in the treatment of type 2 diabetes, it will be important to monitor endurance capacity during the clinical evaluation of nonselective GPi. Alternatively, greater effort should be devoted toward the discovery of hepatic-selective GPi, hepatic-specific drug delivery strategies, and/or alternative strategies for controlling excess hepatic glucose production in type 2 diabetes.

  8. Influence of Gluteus Maximus Inhibition on Upper Trapezius Overactivity in Chronic Mechanical Neck Pain with Radiculopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ghada Mohamed Koura

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: Mechanical neck pain is the most common type of neck pain and commonly to accompany with radiculopathy. Patients of neck pain exhibit greater activation of accessory muscles, (sternocleidomastoid, anterior scalene, and upper trapezius muscles and may also show changed patterns of motor control of other postural muscles as pelvic muscles for reducing activation of painful muscles of neck. Aim of the study: To determine if there is an association between gluteus maximus inhibition and overactivity of upper fibres of trapezius in patients with chronic mechanical neck pain with radiculopathy. Materials and Methods: Forty female patients participated in this study diagnosed as chronic mechanical neck pain with radiculopathy. Amplitude and onset of muscle activation were assessed by using the surface electromyography (EMG during prone hip extension test. Results: The results of this study demonstrated that there is no correlation between the amplitude of EMG activity of right and left gluteus maximus and the amplitude of EMG activity of right and left upper trapezius (P<0.05. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the overactivity of the upper trapezius muscle in patients with chronic mechanical neck pain with radiculopathy is not related to the inhibition of the gluteus maximus muscle during prone hip extension test.

  9. Pediatric nontraumatic myositis ossificans of the neck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kokkosis, Angela A. [Stony Brook University Medical Center, Stony Brook University School of Medicine, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Balsam, Dvorah [Stony Brook University Medical Center, Department of Radiology, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Lee, Thomas K. [Stony Brook University Medical Center, Department of Pediatric Surgery, Stony Brook, NY (United States); Schreiber, Z.J. [Stony Brook University Medical Center, Department of Pathology, Stony Brook, NY (United States)

    2009-04-15

    Nontraumatic myositis ossificans circumscripta (MOC) is a rarely reported benign heterotopic ossification characterized by the aberrant formation of bone in extraskeletal soft tissues. Although a history of trauma can be elicited in 75% of MOC patients, the etiology is unclear in patients without inciting injury. MOC is associated with young male athletes, and is most often localized to the muscle groups of the extremities. Rare cases have been reported in children and adolescents of nontraumatic MOC in the neck. We present a 15-year-old adolescent with a rapidly growing, painful neck mass without traumatic stimulus. (orig.)

  10. The association between dry needling-induced twitch response and change in pain and muscle function in patients with low back pain: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koppenhaver, Shane L; Walker, Michael J; Rettig, Charles; Davis, Joel; Nelson, Chenae; Su, Jonathan; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, Cesar; Hebert, Jeffrey J

    2017-06-01

    To investigate the relationship between dry needling-induced twitch response and change in pain, disability, nociceptive sensitivity, and lumbar multifidus muscle function, in patients with low back pain (LBP). Quasi-experimental study. Department of Defense Academic Institution. Sixty-six patients with mechanical LBP (38 men, 28 women, age: 41.3 [9.2] years). Dry needling treatment to the lumbar multifidus muscles between L3 and L5 bilaterally. Examination procedures included numeric pain rating, the Modified Oswestry Disability Index, pressure algometry, and real-time ultrasound imaging assessment of lumbar multifidus muscle function before and after dry needling treatment. Pain pressure threshold (PPT) was used to measure nocioceptive sensitivity. The percent change in muscle thickness from rest to contraction was calculated to represent muscle function. Participants were dichotomized and compared based on whether or not they experienced at least one twitch response on the most painful side and spinal level during dry needling. Participants experiencing local twitch response during dry needling exhibited greater immediate improvement in lumbar multifidus muscle function than participants who did not experience a twitch (thickness change with twitch: 12.4 [6]%, thickness change without twitch: 5.7 [11]%, mean difference adjusted for baseline value, 95%CI: 4.4 [1 to 8]%). However, this difference was not present after 1-week, and there were no between-groups differences in disability, pain intensity, or nociceptive sensitivity. The twitch response during dry needling might be clinically relevant, but should not be considered necessary for successful treatment. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  11. Accessory nerve function after level 2b-preserving selective neck dissection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Celik, Bilge; Coskun, Hakan; Kumas, Ferda F; Irdesel, Jale; Zarifoglu, Mehmet; Erisen, Levent; Onart, Selcuk

    2009-11-01

    The aim of this prospective study was to evaluate the relationship between accessory nerve functions and level 2b-preserving selective neck dissection. Forty-one necks of 30 patients with laryngeal cancer who underwent unilateral or bilateral level 2b-preserving neck dissections, between February 2003 and July 2005, were evaluated. Neck and shoulder movements and muscle strengths were examined and electroneuromyography (ENMG) was performed preoperatively at the postoperative 21st day and 6th month. Pathological anatomical findings at the postoperative 6th month were also evaluated. All shoulder movements and muscle strengths were preserved. Neck extension, rotation movements, and flexion strengths were restricted. ENMG values were affected moderately in the early postoperative period and improved slightly in the late postoperative period. None of the patients developed shoulder syndrome or adhesive capsulitis. Preserving level 2b during selective neck dissection decreases trauma to the accessory nerve and improves functional results. (c) 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Head Neck, 2009.

  12. Autologous grafting of extraocular muscles: experimental study in rabbits Transplante autólogo de musculatura ocular extrínseca: estudo experimental em coelhos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Meireles-Teixeira

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the feasibility of autologous extraocular muscle grafting as a type of muscle expansion surgery. METHODS: The left superior rectus muscle of twenty-nine rabbits was resected and this fragment was attached to the endpoint of the respective right superior rectus (test group. Thereafter, the superior rectus of the left eye was reattached to the sclera (control group. Both groups were examined during different postoperative periods in order to assess their outcomes. RESULTS: The presence of hyperemia was slightly more frequent in the grafted group. Secretion and muscle atrophy were negligible in both groups. Fibrosis was greater in grafted animals. These muscles were weaker than the control muscles, although the force required to split muscular parts was always greater than the physiological one. CONCLUSIONS: This surgical technique was reliable and useful if one intends to achieve muscle expansion without the intrinsic risks of dealing with heterologous/artificial materials.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a viabilidade do uso de segmentos de músculos oculares extrínsecos como expansores de tendões musculares. MÉTODOS: Vinte e nove coelhos tiveram seu músculo reto superior esquerdo ressecado e o fragmento de cada um foi transplantado para o reto superior contralateral (grupo-teste. Então, o reto superior esquerdo foi reinserido na esclera (grupo-controle. Os animais foram então examinados em diversos períodos pós-operatórios, até os seus sacrifícios, para que se avaliasse o desenrolar dessa técnica cirúrgica. RESULTADOS: A hiperemia foi maior entre os testes. A secreção e a atrofia muscular foram mínimas nos dois grupos. Houve maior presença de fibrose no grupo-teste, mas não tão expressiva a ponto de inviabilizar os efeitos da cirurgia. Esses músculos também se romperam mais facilmente do que os do grupo-controle, porém, a força de rompimento foi sempre bem maior do que aquela presente numa contração muscular normal

  13. Upregulation of inducible NO synthase by exogenous adenosine in vascular smooth muscle cells activated by inflammatory stimuli in experimental diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nassi, Alberto; Malorgio, Francesca; Tedesco, Serena; Cignarella, Andrea; Gaion, Rosa Maria

    2016-02-16

    Adenosine has been shown to induce nitric oxide (NO) production via inducible NO synthase (iNOS) activation in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs). Although this is interpreted as a beneficial vasodilating pathway in vaso-occlusive disorders, iNOS is also involved in diabetic vascular dysfunction. Because the turnover of and the potential to modulate iNOS by adenosine in experimental diabetes have not been explored, we hypothesized that both the adenosine system and control of iNOS function are impaired in VSMCs from streptozotocin-diabetic rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with streptozotocin once to induce diabetes. Aortic VSMCs from diabetic and nondiabetic rats were isolated, cultured and exposed to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) plus a cytokine mix for 24 h in the presence or absence of (1) exogenous adenosine and related compounds, and/or (2) pharmacological agents affecting adenosine turnover. iNOS functional expression was determined by immunoblotting and NO metabolite assays. Concentrations of adenosine, related compounds and metabolites thereof were assayed by HPLC. Vasomotor responses to adenosine were determined in endothelium-deprived aortic rings. Treatment with adenosine-degrading enzymes or receptor antagonists increased iNOS formation in activated VSMCs from nondiabetic and diabetic rats. Following treatment with the adenosine transport inhibitor NBTI, iNOS levels increased in nondiabetic but decreased in diabetic VSMCs. The amount of secreted NO metabolites was uncoupled from iNOS levels in diabetic VSMCs. Addition of high concentrations of adenosine and its precursors or analogues enhanced iNOS formation solely in diabetic VSMCs. Exogenous adenosine and AMP were completely removed from the culture medium and converted into metabolites. A tendency towards elevated inosine generation was observed in diabetic VSMCs, which were also less sensitive to CD73 inhibition, but inosine supplementation did not affect iNOS levels. Pharmacological

  14. Effect of experimental muscle pain on the acquisition and retention of locomotor adaptation: different motor strategies for a similar performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouffard, Jason; Salomoni, Sauro Emerick; Mercier, Catherine; Tucker, Kylie J; Roy, Jean-Sebastien; van den Hoorn, Wolbert; Hodges, Paul W; Bouyer, Laurent J

    2018-01-24

    As individuals with musculoskeletal disorders often experience motor impairments, contemporary rehabilitation relies heavily on the use of motor learning principles. However, motor impairments are often associated with pain. While there is substantial evidence that muscle pain interferes with motor control, much less is known on its impact on motor learning, especially on locomotor learning. The objective of the present study was to assess the effects of muscle pain on locomotor learning. Two groups (Pain and Control) of healthy participants performed a locomotor adaptation task (robotized ankle-foot orthosis perturbing ankle movements during swing) on two consecutive days. On Day 1 (acquisition), hypertonic saline was injected in the Tibialis Anterior (TA) muscle of the Pain group participants, while Control group participants were pain-free. All participants were pain-free on Day 2 (retention). Changes in movement errors caused by the perturbation were assessed as an indicator of motor performance. Detailed analysis of kinematic and electromyographic data provided information about motor strategies. No between-group differences were observed on motor performance measured during the acquisition and retention phases. However, Pain group participants had a residual movement error later in the swing phase and smaller early TA activation than Control group participants, thereby suggesting a reduction in the use of anticipatory motor strategies to overcome the perturbation. Muscle pain did not interfere with global motor performance during locomotor adaptation. The different motor strategies used in the presence of muscle pain may reflect a diminished ability to anticipate the consequences of a perturbation.

  15. Rupture of the neck in nuclear fission

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davies, K.T.R.; Managan, R.A.; Nix, J.R.; Sierk, A.J.

    1977-01-01

    We introduce a degree of freedom to describe the rupture of the neck in nuclear fission and calculate the point at which the neck ruptures as the nucleus descends dynamically from its fission saddle point. This is done by mentally slicing the system into two portions at its minimum neck radius and calculating the force required to separate the two portions while keeping their shapes fixed. This force is obtained by differentiating with respect to separation the sum of the Coulomb and nuclear interaction energies between the two portions. For nuclei throughout the Periodic Table we calculate this force along dynamical paths leading from the fission saddle point. The force is initially attractive but becomes repulsive when the neck reaches a critical size. For actinide nuclei the neck radius at which rupture occurs is about 2 fm. This increases the calculated translational kinetic energy of the fission fragments at infinity relative to that calculated for scission occurring at zero neck radius. With the effect of neck rupture taken into account, we calculate and compare with experimental results fission-fragment kinetic energies for two types of nuclear dissipation: ordinary two-body viscosity and one-body dissipation

  16. Effectiveness of a tailored neck training program on neck strength, movement, and fatigue in under-19 male rugby players: a randomized controlled pilot study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barrett MD

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Matthew D Barrett,1 Terence F McLoughlin,2 Kieran R Gallagher,1 Don Gatherer,3 Michael TR Parratt,1 Jonathan R Perera,1 Tim WR Briggs1 1Royal National Orthopaedic Hospital, Stanmore, Middlesex, United Kingdom; 2Royal Liverpool University Hospital, Liverpool, Mersey Deanery, United Kingdom; 3The Gatherer Partnership, Aylesbury, United Kingdom Purpose: To investigate the effect of a tailored neck muscle conditioning program on neck muscle strength, neck muscle fatigue, and range of neck movement in 16–18-year-old male rugby players. Materials and methods: Thirty-four male rugby players were divided into forward and back playing positions and randomized within these groups. Seventeen players were randomly assigned to each group. The test group was given a tailored 6-week exercise regime based on their baseline measurements to be performed three times a week in addition to their normal training and playing. The control group trained and played as normal. The outcome measures used were cervical spine range of movement, neck strength, and neck muscle fatigability. Results: There were no clinically relevant statistically significant differences between the two groups. Trends identified between the two groups suggest that a tailored neck exercise program increases neck strength, particularly neck extension, and increases resistance to fatigue, as well as influencing right- and left-sided neck muscle balance. A reduction in range of movement was also demonstrated in the test group. There was a great deal of variability in range of movement and strength within this age group. No previously undiagnosed neck conditions were detected, and there were no adverse events reported. Conclusion: This study has shown that neck strength, range of movement, and susceptibility of the neck muscles to fatigue can be influenced using a focused neck training regime. It forms an important basis for a larger, multicenter study to ensure the neck is given due attention in

  17. Effects of nutritional supplementation with l-arginine on repair of injuries due to muscle strain: experimental study on rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lauren Izabel Medeiros Couto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTOBJECTIVE: To evaluate the influence of oral supplementation with arginine on regeneration of injuries due to straining of the anterior tibial muscle of rats. METHODS: Twenty-four Wistar rats of weight 492.5 ± 50.45 g were used. Injuries were induced through straining the anterior tibial muscles. The rats were separated into three groups of eight rats each. In the untreated group (UTG, after induction of injuries, the rats were observed for 24 h. In the simulation group (SG and the arginine group (AG respectively, the rats received isotonic saline solution and arginine solution via direct gavage, over a seven-day period. At the end of the period, blood samples were collected for serum evaluations of creatine kinase (CK, lactic dehydrogenase (LDH, aspartate aminotransferase (AST and C-reactive protein (CRP. The right and left anterior tibial muscles were resected for histopathological evaluations on the muscle injuries, investigating edema, hemorrhage and disorganization or morphometric alteration of the muscle fibers. The tissue repair was investigated in terms of proliferation of adipose tissue, angiogenesis and collagen fibers. The ANOVA and Student's tmethods were used and p≤ 0.05 was taken to be statistically significant. RESULTS: In the serum evaluations, the AG showed lower CK assay values and higher AST values. In the histopathological evaluation, the UTG presented edema and hemorrhage compatible with injuries due to strain; the SG presented edema and hemorrhage with proliferation of adipose tissue and collagen fibers; and the AG presented not only the findings of the SG but also, especially, intense angiogenesis. CONCLUSION: Oral supplementation with arginine did not cause any significant metabolic alterations that would contraindicate its use and it induced angiogenesis during the repair of muscles injured due to strain.

  18. Radiation-induced neck fibrosis in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Li Jian; Wang Rensheng; Gan Langge; Liu Wenqi; Zhang Yong

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the post-irradiation neck fibrosis in patients with nasopharyngeal carcinoma and its related factors. Methods: A total of 267 patients received conventional fractionated radiotherapy with D T 50-72 Gy on the neck a half year to 10 years ago were observed for the changes of cervical shape and functions. Results: Different degrees of post-irradiation neck fibrosis were seen in all patients. The rate of heavy degree of neck radiation fibrosis was 24.34 %, and it was 2.74% when received preventive dose on the neck. There was a very significant difference between patients who received late course of tangential irradiation on the neck and those who didn't receive (P=0.0001). The incidence of post-irradiation neck fibrosis didn't increase when patients received radiotherapy combined with chemotherapy (P=0.2678). The function of cervical muscles turned weak in patients received radiotherapy delivered by 6 MV accelerator in late course of tangential irradiation, whereas skin damage was severer in patients treated with 60 Co γ-rays. Conclusions: The incidence of heavy degree of post-irradiation neck fibrosis is high ,and is related closely to late course of tangential irradiation. The authors should avoid adopting this sort of irradiation on the neck. (authors)

  19. Effects of Remote Ischemic Conditioning Methods on Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Muscle Flaps: An Experimental Study in Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Durdane Keskin

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of remote ischemic conditioning on ischemia-reperfusion injury in rat muscle flaps histopathologically and biochemically. Methods Thirty albino rats were divided into 5 groups. No procedure was performed in the rats in group 1, and only blood samples were taken. A gracilis muscle flap was elevated in all the other groups. Microclamps were applied to the vascular pedicle for 4 hours in order to achieve tissue ischemia. In group 2, no additional procedure was performed. In groups 3, 4, and 5, the right hind limb was used and 3 cycles of ischemia-reperfusion for 5 minutes each (total, 30 minutes was applied with a latex tourniquet (remote ischemic conditioning. In group 3, this procedure was performed before flap elevation (remote ischemic preconditoning. In group 4, the procedure was performed 4 hours after flap ischemia (remote ischemic postconditioning. In group 5, the procedure was performed after the flap was elevated, during the muscle flap ischemia episode (remote ischemic perconditioning. Results The histopathological damage score in all remote conditioning ischemia groups was lower than in the ischemic-reperfusion group. The lowest histopathological damage score was observed in group 5 (remote ischemic perconditioning. Conclusions The nitric oxide levels were higher in the blood samples obtained from the remote ischemic perconditioning group. This study showed the effectiveness of remote ischemic conditioning procedures and compared their usefulness for preventing ischemia-reperfusion injury in muscle flaps.

  20. Effects of Remote Ischemic Conditioning Methods on Ischemia-Reperfusion Injury in Muscle Flaps: An Experimental Study in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keskin, Durdane; Unlu, Ramazan Erkin; Orhan, Erkan; Erkilinç, Gamze; Bogdaycioglu, Nihal; Yilmaz, Fatma Meric

    2017-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of remote ischemic conditioning on ischemia-reperfusion injury in rat muscle flaps histopathologically and biochemically. Thirty albino rats were divided into 5 groups. No procedure was performed in the rats in group 1, and only blood samples were taken. A gracilis muscle flap was elevated in all the other groups. Microclamps were applied to the vascular pedicle for 4 hours in order to achieve tissue ischemia. In group 2, no additional procedure was performed. In groups 3, 4, and 5, the right hind limb was used and 3 cycles of ischemia-reperfusion for 5 minutes each (total, 30 minutes) was applied with a latex tourniquet (remote ischemic conditioning). In group 3, this procedure was performed before flap elevation (remote ischemic preconditoning). In group 4, the procedure was performed 4 hours after flap ischemia (remote ischemic postconditioning). In group 5, the procedure was performed after the flap was elevated, during the muscle flap ischemia episode (remote ischemic perconditioning). The histopathological damage score in all remote conditioning ischemia groups was lower than in the ischemic-reperfusion group. The lowest histopathological damage score was observed in group 5 (remote ischemic perconditioning). The nitric oxide levels were higher in the blood samples obtained from the remote ischemic perconditioning group. This study showed the effectiveness of remote ischemic conditioning procedures and compared their usefulness for preventing ischemia-reperfusion injury in muscle flaps.

  1. Experimental low back pain decreased trunk muscle activity in currently asymptomatic recurrent low back pain patients during step tasks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Henrik; Hirata, Rogerio Pessoto; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    Low back pain (LBP) patients demonstrate reorganized trunk muscle activity but if similar changes are manifest in recurrent LBP patients (R-LBP) during asymptomatic periods remains unknown. In 26 healthy and 27 currently asymptomatic R-LBP participants electromyographic activity (EMG) was recorde...

  2. Head and Neck

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Højgaard, Liselotte; Berthelsen, Anne Kiil; Loft, Annika

    2014-01-01

    Positron emission tomography (PET)/computed tomography with FDG of the head and neck region is mainly used for the diagnosis of head and neck cancer, for staging, treatment evaluation, relapse, and planning of surgery and radio therapy. This article is a practical guide of imaging techniques......, including a detailed protocol for FDG PET in head and neck imaging, physiologic findings, and pitfalls in selected case stories....

  3. Neck pain with radiculopathy

    OpenAIRE

    Bhagawati, Dimpu; Gwilym, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Non-specific neck pain has a postural or mechanical basis, and affects about two-thirds of people at some stage, especially in middle age. Acute neck pain resolves within days or weeks, but becomes chronic in about 10% of people.Whiplash injuries follow sudden acceleration-deceleration of the neck, such as in road traffic or sporting accidents. Up to 40% of people continue to report symptoms 15 years after the accident.

  4. Analysis of deep tissue hypersensitivity to pressure pain in professional pianists with insidious mechanical neck pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linari-Melfi Marcela

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to investigate whether pressure pain hyperalgesia is a feature of professional pianists suffering from neck pain as their main playing-related musculoskeletal disorder. Methods Twenty-three active expert pianists, 6 males and 17 females (age: 36 ± 12 years with insidious neck pain and 23 pianists, 9 males and 14 females (age: 38 ± 10 years without neck pain the previous year were recruited. A numerical pain rate scale, Neck Disability Index, hand size and pressure pain thresholds (PPT were assessed bilaterally over the C5-C6 zygapophyseal joint, deltoid muscle, the second metacarpal and the tibialis anterior muscle in a blinded design. Results The results showed that PPT levels were significantly decreased bilaterally over the second metacarpal and tibialis anterior muscles (P 0.10, in pianists with neck pain as compared to healthy pianists. Pianists with neck pain had a smaller (P Conclusions Our findings revealed pressure pain hypersensitivity over distant non-symptomatic distant points but not over the symptomatic areas in pianists suffering from neck pain. In addition, pianists with neck pain also had smaller hand size than those without neck pain. Future studies are needed to further determine the relevance of these findings in the clinical course of neck pain as playing-related musculoskeletal disorder in professional pianists.

  5. Pocket atlas of head and neck MRI anatomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lufkin, R.B.; Hanafee, W.N.

    1989-01-01

    This pocket atlas depicts the anatomy of the head and neck as seen in magnetic resonance (MR) images. The collection of 140 high-resolution images covers all major areas - neck, larynx, oropharynx, tongue, nasopharynx, skull base, sinuses, and temporal bone - displayed in sagittal, axial, and coronal MR image planes. The images show maximum fat/muscle contrast for better visualization of fascial planes. In certain areas of the anatomy, such as the neck and temporal bone, surface coils were used to achieve significant advantages in image quality over standard head or body coils.

  6. Effects of unilateral and bilateral experimental low-back pain on trunk muscle activity during stair walking in healthy and recurrent low-back pain patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Henrik; Hirata, Rogerio Pessoto; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas

    with recurrent mild to moderate LBP were included. All participants completed questionnaires on personal and functional status and Oswestry disability index scoring (ODI). The participants performed maximal voluntary contraction (MVC) and series of 10 stair ascent and descent motor tasks, initiated...... by the dominant side foot. Bilateral footswitch data and electromyography (EMG) from the dominant side m. iliocostalis, m. multifidus, m. longissimus, m. rectus abdominis and externus and internus obliquus muscles were recorded before and during experimental unilateral and bilateral LBP were induced in randomized...

  7. Increased trunk muscle activity during gait after bilateral experimental pain induction in recurrent low back pain patients during a pain-free period

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Lars Henrik; Sørensen, Brian Østergaard; Brogner, Heidi Marie

    Introduction: Trunk muscle control is consistently altered in persistent low back pain patients during a variety of functions but the effect of experimental pain induction in recurrent low back pain patients during a pain-free period remains unknown. The aim of this study was to investigate...... activity during swing phases in patients compared with control participants indicated persistent sensorimotor changes in recurrent low back patients during a pain-free period. Acknowledgement: The study was supported by Center for Neuroplasticity and Pain (CNAP), SMI, Department of Health Science...

  8. Potential contribution of phenotypically modulated smooth muscle cells and related inflammation in the development of experimental obstructive pulmonary vasculopathy in rats.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoichiro Otsuki

    Full Text Available We tested the hypothesis that phenotypically modulated smooth muscle cells (SMCs and related inflammation are associated with the progression of experimental occlusive pulmonary vascular disease (PVD. Occlusive PVD was induced by combined exposure to a vascular endothelial growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitor Sugen 5416 and hypobaric hypoxia for 3 weeks in rats, which were then returned to ambient air. Hemodynamic, morphometric, and immunohistochemical studies, as well as gene expression analyses, were performed at 3, 5, 8, and 13 weeks after the initial treatment (n = 78. Experimental animals developed pulmonary hypertension and right ventricular hypertrophy, and exhibited a progressive increase in indices of PVD, including cellular intimal thickening and intimal fibrosis. Cellular intimal lesions comprised α smooth muscle actin (α SMA+, SM1+, SM2+/-, vimentin+ immature SMCs that were covered by endothelial monolayers, while fibrous intimal lesions typically included α SMA+, SM1+, SM2+, vimentin+/- mature SMCs. Plexiform lesions comprised α SMA+, vimentin+, SM1-, SM2- myofibroblasts covered by endothelial monolayers. Immature SMC-rich intimal and plexiform lesions were proliferative and were infiltrated by macrophages, while fibrous intimal lesions were characterized by lower proliferative abilities and were infiltrated by few macrophages. Compared with controls, the number of perivascular macrophages was already higher at 3 weeks and progressively increased during the experimental period; gene expression of pulmonary hypertension-related inflammatory molecules, including IL6, MCP1, MMP9, cathepsin-S, and RANTES, was persistently or progressively up-regulated in lungs of experimental animals. We concluded that phenotypically modulated SMCs and related inflammation are potentially associated with the progression of experimental obstructive PVD.

  9. Pain education combined with neck- and aerobic training is more effective at relieving chronic neck pain than pain education alone--A preliminary randomized controlled trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brage, K; Ris, I; Falla, D; Søgaard, K; Juul-Kristensen, B

    2015-10-01

    To evaluate the effect of training and pain education vs pain education alone, on neck pain, neck muscle activity and postural sway in patients with chronic neck pain. Twenty women with chronic neck pain were randomized to receive pain education and specific training (neck-shoulder exercises, balance and aerobic training) (INV), or pain education alone (CTRL). Effect on neck pain, function and Global Perceived Effect (GPE) were measured. Surface electromyography (EMG) was recorded from neck flexor and extensor muscles during performance of the Cranio-Cervical Flexion Test (CCFT) and three postural control tests (two-legged: eyes open and closed, one-legged: eyes open). Sway parameters were calculated. Fifteen participants (CTRL: eight; INV: seven) completed the study. Per protocol analyses showed a larger pain reduction (p = 0.002) for the INV group with tendencies for increased GPE (p = 0.06), reduced sternocleidomastoid activity during the CCFT (p = 0.09), reduced sway length (p = 0.09), and increased neck extensor activity (p = 0.02) during sway compared to the CTRL group. Pain education and specific training reduce neck pain more than pain education alone in patients with chronic neck pain. These results provide encouragement for a larger clinical trial to corroborate these observations. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Head and Neck Cancer Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... News Physician Resources Professions Site Index A-Z Head and Neck Cancer Treatment Head and neck cancer ... there any new developments in treating my disease? Head and neck cancer overview The way a particular ...

  11. American Head and Neck Society

    Science.gov (United States)

    American Head & Neck Society Mission Statement: Advance Education, Research, and Quality of Care for the head and neck oncology patient. American Head & Neck Society | AHNS The mission of the AHNS is to ...

  12. Effects of experimental muscle pain on force variability during task-related and three directional isometric force task

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mista, Christian Ariel; Graven-Nielsen, Thomas

    2013-01-01

    -dimensional force task during acute muscle pain. Twelve right-handed healthy volunteers participated in the experiment. Three-dimensional force signals were acquired during isometric elbow flexion at 5%, 15%, and 30% of the maximum voluntary contraction (MVC). The force components were represented by a circle...... was measured using sample entropy (SEn). Three-way repeated measures ANOVA with factors level of contraction, pain/control, and time were performed for the CV, the CoP, and the SEn of each component of the force. In the tangential forces, no significant effects were found for the 3D matching tasks. The ANOVA...... that the sample entropy was higher compare with the control session during muscle pain in the 1D tasks (Pmuscle pain only for the task-related contractions. This could be associated...

  13. An experimental study on the impacts of inspiratory and expiratory muscles activities during mechanical ventilation in ARDS animal model

    OpenAIRE

    Xianming Zhang; Juan Du; Weiliang Wu; Yongcheng Zhu; Ying Jiang; Rongchang Chen

    2017-01-01

    In spite of intensive investigations, the role of spontaneous breathing (SB) activity in ARDS has not been well defined yet and little has been known about the different contribution of inspiratory or expiratory muscles activities during mechanical ventilation in patients with ARDS. In present study, oleic acid-induced beagle dogs? ARDS models were employed and ventilated with the same level of mean airway pressure. Respiratory mechanics, lung volume, gas exchange and inflammatory cytokines w...

  14. Musculus gastrocnemius tetanus kinetics in alcohol-intoxicated rats with experimentally-induced hindlimb vascular ischemia under conditions of low-frequence muscle fatigue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. A. Melnychuk

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Alcohol intoxication and ischemic injury of skeletal muscles often accompany each other. It is shown that patients hospitalized with chronic alcoholism develop muscle fatigue. Skeletal muscle dysfunction in alcohol-dependent patients is caused by ethanol-associated myofibrillar atrophy and metabolic disbalance, while compression-ischemic lesions result from unconsciousness of the patient, in case of taking the critical alcohol dose. Therefore, the aim of this study is to discover typical m. gastrocnemius (cap. med. tetanic kinetics changes in alcohol intoxicated rats with experimentally induced vascular ischemia of hindlimb muscles under conditions of low-frequency progressive muscle fatigue. Experiments were carried out on 10 young male Wistar rats (149.5 ± 5.8 g kept under standard vivarium conditions and diet. The investigation was conducted in two phases: chronic (30 days and acute (3 hours experiment. All surgical procedures were carried out aseptically under general anesthesia. Ishemic m. gastrocnemius (cap. med. tetanic kinetic changes and force productivity in alcohol intoxicated rats were investigated in the isometric mode, with direct electrical stimulation. The fatigue of m. gastrocnemius (cap. med. was evaluated by three characteristic criteria: the first sag effect, the secondary force rise, the second sag effect. There have been 10 similar experiments: 5 series in each study group with 10 tetanic runs in each series. The highest amplitude of the native m. gastrocnemius (cap. med. tetanus relative to isoline was taken as 100% force response. The same pattern of m. gastrocnemius (cap. med. low-frequency fatigue development was found in both rat groups under study. It is evidenced by the absence of substantial m. gastrocnemius (cap. med. tetanus kinetics differences in alcohol intoxicated rats, compared with non-alcohol intoxicated rats during fatigue test. However, the appreciable m. gastrocnemius (cap. med. tetanic force reduction

  15. A comparison of one- versus two-stage surgery in an experimental model of functional muscle transfer with interposed nerve grafting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urso-Baiarda, F; Grobbelaar, A O

    2009-08-01

    Functional muscle transfer (FMT) combined with cross-facial nerve grafting (CFNG) is the gold standard treatment of chronic unilateral facial palsy, performed by most surgeons over two operative stages to minimise FMT denervation atrophy. Proponents of one-stage surgery cite shorter total recovery time, fewer operative procedures and a possible beneficial neurotrophic effect of muscle attachment. This study aimed to compare one- and two-stage surgery in terms of neural and muscle reinnervation and FMT force production. Forty New Zealand white rabbits underwent one- or two-stage rectus femoris FMT and interposed nerve grafting under different reinnervation conditions. For two-stage surgery, nerve grafting was followed by FMT after three months and by final experiments after a further six months, whereas one-stage groups experienced nerve grafting and FMT together and final experiments after nine months. Outcomes compared were nerve graft and rectus nerve morphometry, FMT reinnervation measured using PGP 9.5, and FMT force production. Statistical analysis was performed by means of the independent samples t-test or the Mann-Whitney Rank Sum test using Statistics Package for the Social Sciences version 11.0.4 for Mac OS X. Nerve graft reinnervation was similar for respective one- and two-stage surgery groups or favoured one-stage surgery. There was no significant difference between respective groups in terms of rectus nerve morphometry, muscle reinnervation, or absolute, weight-adjusted or weight- and control-adjusted tetanic force production. One-stage surgery offers potential advantages including a reduction in the number of surgical procedures, a shorter total recovery time and beneficial economic and healthcare delivery implications. This data supports previous clinical and experimental studies and questions the basis for performing facial reanimation by FMT combined with CFNG over two separate operative stages.

  16. Heritability of neck pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fejer, R; Hartvigsen, J; Kyvik, K O

    2006-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To determine the heritability of neck pain in a large population-based study of twins. METHODS: Data on lifetime prevalence of neck pain from a population-based cross-sectional survey of Danish twins were used. To assess twin similarity, the probandwise concordance rates, zygosity......-specific odds ratios and tetrachoric correlations were calculated and compared for monozygotic and dizygotic twins. Using biometric modelling (structural equation modelling), the genetic and environmental contributions of the liability to neck pain were estimated. RESULTS: A total of 33,794 twins (response rate...... 73%) answered the questions regarding neck pain. Probandwise concordance rates, zygosity-specific odds ratios and tetrachoric correlations showed a significant genetic effect on neck pain. An overall additive genetic component of 44% was found. The genetic effect decreased with age, accounting...

  17. The effects of acute experimental hip muscle pain on dynamic single-limb balance performance in healthy middle-aged adults.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hatton, Anna L; Hug, François; Chen, Sarah H; Reid, Christine; Sorensen, Nicole A; Tucker, Kylie

    2016-10-01

    Middle-aged adults with painful hip conditions show balance impairments that are consistent with an increased risk of falls. Pathological changes at the hip, accompanied by pain, may accelerate pre-existing age-related balance deficits present in midlife. To consider the influence of pain alone, we investigated the effects of acute experimental hip muscle pain on dynamic single-limb balance in middle-aged adults. Thirty-four healthy adults aged 40-60 years formed two groups (Group-1: n=16; Group-2: n=18). Participants performed four tasks: Reactive Sideways Stepping (ReactSide); Star Excursion Balance Test (SEBT); Step Test; Single-Limb Squat; before and after an injection of hypertonic saline into the right gluteus medius muscle (Group-1) or ∼5min rest (Group-2). Balance measures included the range and standard deviation of centre of pressure (CoP) movement in mediolateral and anterior-posterior directions, and CoP total path velocity (ReactSide, Squat); reach distance (SEBT); and number of completed steps (Step Test). Data were assessed using three-way analysis of variance. Motor outcomes were altered during the second repetition of tasks irrespective of exposure to experimental hip muscle pain or rest, with reduced SEBT anterior reach (-1.2±4.1cm, P=0.027); greater step number during Step Test (1.5±1.7 steps, PCoP velocity during Single-Limb Squat (-4.9±9.4mms -1 , P=0.024). Factors other than the presence of pain may play a greater role in balance impairments in middle-aged adults with hip pathologies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Progressive Muscle Atrophy and Weakness After Treatment by Mantle Field Radiotherapy in Hodgkin Lymphoma Survivors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leeuwen-Segarceanu, Elena M. van, E-mail: e.segarceanu@antoniusziekenhuis.nl [Department of Internal Medicine, St. Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Dorresteijn, Lucille D.A. [Department of Neurology, Medisch Spectrum Twente, Enschede (Netherlands); Pillen, Sigrid [Department of Neurology and Clinical Neurophysiology, Donders Center for Neuroscience, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands); Biesma, Douwe H. [Department of Internal Medicine, University Medical Center Utrecht (Netherlands); Vogels, Oscar J.M. [Department of Neurology and Clinical Neurophysiology, St. Antonius Hospital, Nieuwegein (Netherlands); Alfen, Nens van [Department of Neurology and Clinical Neurophysiology, Donders Center for Neuroscience, Radboud University Nijmegen Medical Center, Nijmegen (Netherlands)

    2012-02-01

    Purpose: To describe the damage to the muscles and propose a pathophysiologic mechanism for muscle atrophy and weakness after mantle field radiotherapy in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors. Methods and Materials: We examined 12 patients treated by mantle field radiotherapy between 1969 and 1998. Besides evaluation of their symptoms, the following tests were performed: dynamometry; ultrasound of the sternocleidomastoid, biceps, and antebrachial flexor muscles; and needle electromyography of the neck, deltoid, and ultrasonographically affected arm muscles. Results: Ten patients (83%) experienced neck complaints, mostly pain and muscle weakness. On clinical examination, neck flexors were more often affected than neck extensors. On ultrasound, the sternocleidomastoid was severely atrophic in 8 patients, but abnormal echo intensity was seen in only 3 patients. Electromyography of the neck muscles showed mostly myogenic changes, whereas the deltoid, biceps, and antebrachial flexor muscles seemed to have mostly neurogenic damage. Conclusions: Many patients previously treated by mantle field radiotherapy develop severe atrophy and weakness of the neck muscles. Neck muscles within the radiation field show mostly myogenic damage, and muscles outside the mantle field show mostly neurogenic damage. The discrepancy between echo intensity and atrophy suggests that muscle damage is most likely caused by an extrinsic factor such as progressive microvascular fibrosis. This is also presumed to cause damage to nerves within the radiated field, resulting in neurogenic damage of the deltoid and arm muscles.

  19. Progressive muscle atrophy and weakness after treatment by mantle field radiotherapy in Hodgkin lymphoma survivors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Leeuwen-Segarceanu, Elena M; Dorresteijn, Lucille D A; Pillen, Sigrid; Biesma, Douwe H; Vogels, Oscar J M; van Alfen, Nens

    2012-02-01

    To describe the damage to the muscles and propose a pathophysiologic mechanism for muscle atrophy and weakness after mantle field radiotherapy in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors. We examined 12 patients treated by mantle field radiotherapy between 1969 and 1998. Besides evaluation of their symptoms, the following tests were performed: dynamometry; ultrasound of the sternocleidomastoid, biceps, and antebrachial flexor muscles; and needle electromyography of the neck, deltoid, and ultrasonographically affected arm muscles. Ten patients (83%) experienced neck complaints, mostly pain and muscle weakness. On clinical examination, neck flexors were more often affected than neck extensors. On ultrasound, the sternocleidomastoid was severely atrophic in 8 patients, but abnormal echo intensity was seen in only 3 patients. Electromyography of the neck muscles showed mostly myogenic changes, whereas the deltoid, biceps, and antebrachial flexor muscles seemed to have mostly neurogenic damage. Many patients previously treated by mantle field radiotherapy develop severe atrophy and weakness of the neck muscles. Neck muscles within the radiation field show mostly myogenic damage, and muscles outside the mantle field show mostly neurogenic damage. The discrepancy between echo intensity and atrophy suggests that muscle damage is most likely caused by an extrinsic factor such as progressive microvascular fibrosis. This is also presumed to cause damage to nerves within the radiated field, resulting in neurogenic damage of the deltoid and arm muscles. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Progressive Muscle Atrophy and Weakness After Treatment by Mantle Field Radiotherapy in Hodgkin Lymphoma Survivors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leeuwen-Segarceanu, Elena M. van; Dorresteijn, Lucille D.A.; Pillen, Sigrid; Biesma, Douwe H.; Vogels, Oscar J.M.; Alfen, Nens van

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the damage to the muscles and propose a pathophysiologic mechanism for muscle atrophy and weakness after mantle field radiotherapy in Hodgkin lymphoma (HL) survivors. Methods and Materials: We examined 12 patients treated by mantle field radiotherapy between 1969 and 1998. Besides evaluation of their symptoms, the following tests were performed: dynamometry; ultrasound of the sternocleidomastoid, biceps, and antebrachial flexor muscles; and needle electromyography of the neck, deltoid, and ultrasonographically affected arm muscles. Results: Ten patients (83%) experienced neck complaints, mostly pain and muscle weakness. On clinical examination, neck flexors were more often affected than neck extensors. On ultrasound, the sternocleidomastoid was severely atrophic in 8 patients, but abnormal echo intensity was seen in only 3 patients. Electromyography of the neck muscles showed mostly myogenic changes, whereas the deltoid, biceps, and antebrachial flexor muscles seemed to have mostly neurogenic damage. Conclusions: Many patients previously treated by mantle field radiotherapy develop severe atrophy and weakness of the neck muscles. Neck muscles within the radiation field show mostly myogenic damage, and muscles outside the mantle field show mostly neurogenic damage. The discrepancy between echo intensity and atrophy suggests that muscle damage is most likely caused by an extrinsic factor such as progressive microvascular fibrosis. This is also presumed to cause damage to nerves within the radiated field, resulting in neurogenic damage of the deltoid and arm muscles.

  1. Stress Management as an Adjunct to Physical Therapy for Chronic Neck Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruflat, Angela K.; Balter, Jaclyn E.; McGuire, Denise; Fethke, Nathan B.

    2012-01-01

    Background and Purpose Chronic neck pain is prevalent in the workplace. Research suggests that psychosocial stress may contribute to the development of neck pain by causing excessive or prolonged muscle activity in some individuals. The purpose of this case report is to describe the rationale, development, and implementation of stress management as an adjunct to standard physical therapist management of chronic neck pain in a female office worker who responded to psychosocial stress with elevated muscle activity prior to treatment. Case Description A 44-year-old female office employee with an 8-year history of chronic neck pain participated in this case report. The patient was selected from a group of research participants who demonstrated elevated electromyographic (EMG) activity of the trapezius muscle in response to simulated occupational stressors. The multidisciplinary intervention consisted of 8 physical therapy sessions, supplemented by 8 stress management sessions that included EMG biofeedback and psychotherapy to facilitate muscle relaxation. Outcomes Neck disability decreased by 50%, trait anxiety decreased by 21%, and the duration of trapezius muscle rest in the workplace increased by 56% immediately after the 8-week intervention. These improvements were maintained 6 months after treatment, and the patient reported a complete absence of neck disability at the 2-year follow-up assessment. Discussion A sustained reduction in neck disability was observed for a patient with chronic neck pain after participating in a multidisciplinary intervention that combined physical therapy and stress management approaches to facilitate muscle relaxation in the workplace. Future clinical trials are needed to assess whether stress management is a useful adjunct therapy for patients with chronic neck pain who show elevated muscle activity in response to psychosocial stress. PMID:22700538

  2. Dynamic head-neck stabilization and modulation with perturbation bandwidth investigated using a multisegment neuromuscular model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Happee, R. (Riender); de Bruijn, E. (Edo); Forbes, P.A. (Patrick A.); F.C.T. van der Helm (Frans C.)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe human head-neck system requires continuous stabilization in the presence of gravity and trunk motion. We investigated contributions of the vestibulocollic reflex (VCR), the cervicocollic reflex (CCR), and neck muscle co-contraction to head-in-space and head-on-trunk stabilization,

  3. Dynamic head-neck stabilization and modulation with perturbation bandwidth investigated using a multisegment neuromuscular model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Happee, R.; de Bruijn, E.; Forbes, P.A.; van der Helm, F.C.T.

    2017-01-01

    The human head-neck system requires continuous stabilization in the presence of gravity and trunk motion. We investigated contributions of the vestibulocollic reflex (VCR), the cervicocollic reflex (CCR), and neck muscle co-contraction to head-in-space and head-on-trunk stabilization, and

  4. Rhabdomyoma of the head and neck demonstrated by prenatal magnetic resonance imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Callaghan, Mark G; House, Michael; Ebay, Sami; Bhadelia, Rafeeque

    2005-01-01

    A case of fetal rhabdomyoma (myxoid type) of the head and neck demonstrated on prenatal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is presented. This benign tumor of skeletal muscle is uncommon and should not be confused with its malignant counterpart-rhabdomyosarcoma. With the increasing use of ultrafast MRI, the radiologist is more likely to encounter head and neck masses in the fetus.

  5. Physical capacity in relation to low back, neck or shoulder pain in a working population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamberg-van Reenen, H.H.; Ariens, G.A.M.; Blatter, B.M.; Twisk, J.W.; van Mechelen, W.; Bongers, P.M.

    2006-01-01

    Aims: To investigate the longitudinal relation between physical capacity (isokinetic lifting strength, static endurance of the back, neck, and shoulder muscles, and mobility of the spine) and low back, neck, and shoulder pain. Methods: In this prospective cohort study, 1789 Dutch workers

  6. Physical capacity in relation to low back, neck, or shoulder pain in a working population

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamberg-van Rheenen, H.H.; Beek, A. J. van der; Blatter, B.M.; Mechelen, W. van; Bongers, P.M.

    2006-01-01

    In this prospective cohort study, 1789 Dutch workers participated. At baseline, isokinetic lifting strength, static endurance of the back, neck, and shoulder muscles, and mobility of the spine were measured, as well as potential confounders, including physical workload. Low back, neck,and shoulder

  7. Morbidity of the neck after head and neck cancer therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Wilgen, C.P.; Dijkstra, P.U.; van der Laan, B.F.; Plukker, J.T.; Roodenburg, J.L.

    Background. Studies on morbidity of the neck after head and neck cancer therapy are scarcely described. Methods. Patients who underwent surgery, including neck dissection, with and without radiation therapy at least 1 year before the study were asked to participate. We assessed neck pain, loss of

  8. Aortic endothelial and smooth muscle histamine metabolism. Relationship to aortic 125I-albumin accumulation in experimental diabetes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollis, T.M.; Gallik, S.G.; Orlidge, A.; Yost, J.C.

    1983-01-01

    We studied rat aortic endothelial and smooth muscle cell de novo histamine synthesis mediated by histidine decarboxylase (HD) and the effects of its inhibition by alpha-hydrazinohistidine on the intracellular histamine content and intraaortic albumin accumulation in streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Diabetes was induced by a single jugular vein injection of streptozotocin (60 mg/kg, pH 4.5, ether anesthesia), with animals held 4 weeks following the overt manifestation of diabetes. Additional diabetic and nondiabetic rats received alpha-hydrazinohistidine (25 mg/kg, i.p. every 12 hours) during the last week; this had no effect on the severity of diabetes in any animal receiving streptozotocin. Data indicate that the aortic endothelial (EC) HD activity was increased more than 130% in the untreated diabetic group but was similar to control values in the diabetic group receiving alpha-hydrazinohistidine; similarily, the EC histamine content from diabetic aortas increased 127% over control values, but in EC from diabetic animals receiving alpha-hydrazinohistidine it was comparable to control values. Similar trends were observed for the subjacent aortic smooth muscle. In untreated diabetic animals the aortic 125I-albumin mass transfer rate was increased 60% over control values, while in diabetic animals receiving alpha-hydrazinohistidine the 125I-albumin mass transfer rate was essentially identical to controls. These data indicate that in streptozotocin diabetes there is an expansion of the inducible aortic histamine pool, and that this expansion is intimately related to the increased aortic albumin accumulation

  9. Sex differences in heritability of neck Pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fejer, René; Hartvigsen, Jan; Kyvik, Kirsten Ohm

    2006-01-01

    Experimental studies have suggested biological factors as a possible explanation for gender disparities in perception of pain. Recently, heritability of liability to neck pain (NP) has been found to be statistically significantly larger in women compared to men. However, no studies have been...

  10. Pitfalls in neck imaging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gay, S.B.; Phillips, C.D.; Cornett, J.B.

    1991-01-01

    CT and MR imaging have become effective imaging modalities in the evaluation of primary head and neck neoplasms. As radiologists have gained experience in head and neck imaging, certain pitfalls have become evident. Identification of pathologic lymph nodes is the critical element in staging neoplasms of the head and neck. The diagnosis of cervical lymphadenopathy may be complicated by confusion with normal structures, inadequate contrast opacification of vascular structures, and poor scanning technique. This paper illustrates these potential problem areas on both CT and MR images and offers the authors' approach to further evaluation in problem cases

  11. Multidisciplinary treatment of the neck

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Bree, Remco; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Leemans, C. R.

    2016-01-01

    Since lymph node metastases are one of the most important prognostic factors, treatment of the neck is challenging. In clinically N0 neck, (super)selective neck dissection is indicated, whereas a more extensive neck dissection with preservation of important structures is performed in N2-N3 disease.

  12. Role of Muscle Relaxant (Tizanidine) In Painful Muscle Spasm ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    More prolonged or regular cramps may be treated with drugs. Tizanidine which is an agonist at á ... Inclusion criteria included all the patients suffering from painful muscle spasm in back, neck, shoulder, knee or other anatomical sites with onset not more than two days prior to presentation. The patients suffering from ...

  13. Usefulness of diagnostic ultrasound for detecting myofascial change of the hamstring muscles due to lmmobilization: Experimental study with caged rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Yoon Kyoo; Kim, Joo Hyun; Lee, Chang Hyung; Kim, Jung Ryul; Kim, Han Kyum [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    To evaluate the usefulness of diagnostic ultrasound in the localization of soft tissue changes in the region of clinically suspected myofascial pain syndrome and to investigate the ultrasonographic and pathologic differences of the hamstring muscles between caged and freely mobile rabbits. A total of eight caged rabbits were used in this study. Four rabbits (age; two were 3-4 months, and the other two were 8-9 months) were raised in a small cage (40 X 50 X 30 cm), and the other four rabbits (age; two were 3-4 months while the other two 8-9 months) raised in a yard where they were free to move around. First, clinically identified myofascial trigger point-taut band or nodule was identified followed by diagnostic ultrasound examination of the hamstring and gluteus muscles and injection of Indian ink of the band or nodule. Biopsies were performed to include the hyperechoic regions as well as clinically identified myofascial trigger points, and the obtained specimens were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and masson-trichrome. The analysis of the results of the ultrasound study and pathologic study found correlation between the pathologic identification of myofascial trigger point and diagnostic ultrasound, where palpable nodules of caged animal, older more than younger one should greater extent of increment of echogenicity and degenerative pathologic changes such as fatty changes and appearance of hyaline fibers. Diagnostic ultrasound could be applied to identify or observe soft tissue changes in the regions of clinically identified myofascial trigger points. A pattern has emerged where soft tissue changes were ore likely to be observed in the caged animal where their movements were restricted and prone to fixed position. Further study to investigate the reversibility of pathologic changes of caged animal should be carried out.

  14. Usefulness of diagnostic ultrasound for detecting myofascial change of the hamstring muscles due to lmmobilization: Experimental study with caged rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kang, Yoon Kyoo; Kim, Joo Hyun; Lee, Chang Hyung; Kim, Jung Ryul; Kim, Han Kyum

    2002-01-01

    To evaluate the usefulness of diagnostic ultrasound in the localization of soft tissue changes in the region of clinically suspected myofascial pain syndrome and to investigate the ultrasonographic and pathologic differences of the hamstring muscles between caged and freely mobile rabbits. A total of eight caged rabbits were used in this study. Four rabbits (age; two were 3-4 months, and the other two were 8-9 months) were raised in a small cage (40 X 50 X 30 cm), and the other four rabbits (age; two were 3-4 months while the other two 8-9 months) raised in a yard where they were free to move around. First, clinically identified myofascial trigger point-taut band or nodule was identified followed by diagnostic ultrasound examination of the hamstring and gluteus muscles and injection of Indian ink of the band or nodule. Biopsies were performed to include the hyperechoic regions as well as clinically identified myofascial trigger points, and the obtained specimens were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and masson-trichrome. The analysis of the results of the ultrasound study and pathologic study found correlation between the pathologic identification of myofascial trigger point and diagnostic ultrasound, where palpable nodules of caged animal, older more than younger one should greater extent of increment of echogenicity and degenerative pathologic changes such as fatty changes and appearance of hyaline fibers. Diagnostic ultrasound could be applied to identify or observe soft tissue changes in the regions of clinically identified myofascial trigger points. A pattern has emerged where soft tissue changes were ore likely to be observed in the caged animal where their movements were restricted and prone to fixed position. Further study to investigate the reversibility of pathologic changes of caged animal should be carried out.

  15. TCGA head Neck

    Science.gov (United States)

    Investigators with The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) Research Network have discovered genomic differences – with potentially important clinical implications – in head and neck cancers caused by infection with the human papillomavirus (HPV).

  16. Talar neck fractures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berlet, G C; Lee, T H; Massa, E G

    2001-01-01

    Clinical management of talar neck fractures is complex and fraught with complications. As Gaius Julius Caesar stated: "The die is cast"; often the outcome of a talar neck fracture is determined at the time of injury. The authors believe, however, that better results can be achieved by following some simple guidelines. The authors advocate prompt and precise anatomic surgical reduction, preferring the medial approach with secondary anterolateral approach. Preservation of blood supply can be achieved by a thorough understanding of vascular pathways and efforts to stay within appropriate surgical intervals. The authors advocate bone grafting of medial neck comminution (if present) to prevent varus malalignment and rigid internal fixation to allow for joint mobilization postoperatively. These guidelines may seem simple, but when dealing with the complexity of talar neck fractures, the foot and ankle surgeon needs to focus and rely on easily grasped concepts to reduce poor outcomes.

  17. Melanoma - neck (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    This melanoma on the neck is variously colored with a very darkly pigmented area found centrally. It has irregular ... be larger than 0.5 cm. Prognosis in melanoma is best defined by its depth on resection.

  18. Neck dissection - discharge

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... drain in your neck when you leave the hospital. The provider will tell you how to care for it. Healing time will depend on how much tissue was removed. Diet and Nutrition You can eat your regular foods ...

  19. The role of variable muscle adaptation to limb lengthening in the development of joint contractures: an experimental study in the goat.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makarov, Marina; Birch, John; Samchukov, Mikhail

    2009-03-01

    Muscle stiffness and joint contractures are currently regarded as the most common complications of limb lengthening. To better understand the mechanisms of joint contractures, architectural changes of all involved muscles were analyzed in 9 goats after 20% tibial lengthening with standard distraction protocol.All 13 muscles of the goat's tibia were found to be organized into an anterior compartment with 2 longitudinal and 4 pennate muscles and a posterior compartment with 1 longitudinal and 6 pennate muscles. Longitudinal muscles showed better compliance to distraction than pinnate muscles. Although muscle-to-bone lengthening ratio ranged widely (0-1.2), most of the muscles and especially those located in the posterior compartment showed much less lengthening than the bone. Muscular portions of the muscles lengthened more substantially (average, 17%) than their associated tendons (average, 7%). Muscle fiber length changes varied greatly between muscles (range, 0%-88%). Normalization of muscle fiber length revealed considerable elongation of anterior muscles fibers (25%) that was associated with an addition of new sarcomeres in series. Fiber length increase of all posterior muscles but one occurred by stretching of existing sarcomeres, with little addition or even dissolution of sarcomeres in series. This correlated with muscle mass changes showing significant muscle atrophy in the posterior compartment and better mass preservation in the anterior compartment.The study revealed striking difference in response to limb lengthening between individual muscles and muscles from antagonistic compartments in particular. Poor sarcomerogenesis in the posterior muscles leading to their insufficient length increase seems to play major role in the development of joint contractures.

  20. Neck Pain following Laminoplasty

    OpenAIRE

    Mesfin, Addisu; Park, Moon-Soo; Piyaskulkaew, Chaiwat; Chuntarapas, Tapanut; Song, Kwang Sup; Kim, Han Jo; Riew, K. Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Study Design?Retrospective evaluation of prospectively collected data. Objective?To compare preoperative and postoperative neck pain following laminoplasty using the Neck Disability Index (NDI). Methods?Seventy-two patients undergoing laminoplasty from 2006 to 2009 at a single institution were identified. Thirty-four patients with a minimum 1-year follow-up who completed preoperative, 6-week, and 1-year postoperative NDI questionnaires were enrolled. Demographic data and surgical data includi...

  1. Malignant haemangiopericytoma of the neck in a young Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction Haemangiopericytoma is a rare, soft-tissue tumor of vascular origin derived from pericyte that surrounds the smooth muscles of small blood vessels. The common sites are the musculatures of the lower extremities, head and neck. Computed tomographic angiography facilitates the diagnosis of vascular ...

  2. Recurrent neck mass after carotid body tumour excision: a case ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    We offered her a left CBT excision without prior embolisation or radiotherapy. The neck mass was approached through a longitudinal incision anterior to the sternocleidomastoid muscle and both proximal and distal control was attained. The CBT did not extend to the skull base but the ECA was totally encased by the tumour ...

  3. Exercise training as treatment of neck pain among fighter pilots

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murray, Mike; Lange, Britt; Andersen, Christoffer Højnicke

    Introduction Neck and shoulder pain is a common complaint among fighter pilots and a growing aero-medical concern. Unfortunately, previous intervention studies have been unsuccessful in relieving such pain within this occupational group. The aim of this study was to investigate if an exercise...... intervention could reduce the high prevalence of neck pain among fighter pilots. Methods F-16 pilots were randomized in a controlled intervention trial, to either an exercise-training-group (ET, n=27) or reference-group (REF, n=28). ET underwent 24 weeks of strength, endurance, and coordination training, 3...... times a week, targeting deep and superficial neck muscles (see: www.sdu.dk/f16pilots). REF received no training but was scheduled for corresponding training 6 months later. Main outcome: Three months prevalence of neck pain assessed on a ten point visual analog scale, VAS (0 corresponded to “no pain...

  4. An electromyographic evaluation of elastic band exercises targeting neck and shoulder pain among helm bearing military helicopter crew

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Lars Askær; Grøndberg, Thomas Stig; Murray, Mike

    sternocleidomastoideus between 38%-49% MVE indicating that this muscle has multiple functions of the cervical spine. Nevertheless, no exercise induced an activity >60% MVE of sternocleidomastoideus. The concentric phase induced significantly higher activity compared with the eccentric phase of muscle contraction...... exercises as they induced high muscle activity of both shoulder and neck muscles. These findings have practical implications for the choice of exercises for training programs targeting muscle specific pain and disorders. REFERENCES 1. Ang B, et al. Neck pain and related disability in helicopter pilots...

  5. The effect of a resistance-training program on muscle strength, physical workload, muscle fatigue and musculoskeletal discomfort: An experiment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hamberg-Reenen, H.H. van; Visser, B.; Beek, A.J. van der; Blatter, B.M.; Dieën, J.H. van; Mechelen, W. van

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effectiveness of a resistance-training program on muscle strength of the back and neck/shoulder muscles, relative physical workload, muscle fatigue and musculoskeletal discomfort during a simulated assembly and lifting task. Twenty-two workers were

  6. Endoscopic Surgery for Omohyoid Muscle Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Bin; Li, Kai; Li, Dan; Amin, Buhe; Zhang, Dongdong; Liu, Chen; Yin, Gang; Gong, Ke; Zhang, Nengwei

    2015-08-01

    Omohyoid muscle syndrome (OMS) (not omohyoid syndrome) is a rare clinical condition that has a characteristic feature of a protruding lateral neck mass during swallowing. The use of endoscopic surgery on the neck is now pretty well established for thyroid and parathyroid glands. Patients with OMS usually undergo simple surgical transection of the omohyoid muscle. The procedure leaves operative scars on the neck, and most patients worry about the cosmetic problems. We report here the first use of an endoscopic procedure instead of traditional surgery for treatment of OMS. We present a rare case of a 26-year-old Chinese man who noted a protruding mass involving the right side of his neck during the past 10 years. OMS was diagnosed. Laparoscopic simple transection of the omohyoid muscle by an ultrasonically activated scalpel was performed. After laparoscopic transection of the omohyoid muscle, the neck mass completely disappeared during swallowing, and there were no operative scars on the neck. To our knowledge, this is the first report of laparoscopy for treatment of OMS. We believe that the laparoscopic procedure is made acceptable for this unusual disease because of the cosmetic result.

  7. Finding the neck-trunk boundary in snakes: anteroposterior dissociation of myological characteristics in snakes and its implications for their neck and trunk body regionalization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuihiji, Takanobu; Kearney, Maureen; Rieppel, Olivier

    2012-09-01

    The neck and trunk regionalization of the presacral musculoskeletal system in snakes and other limb-reduced squamates was assessed based on observations on craniovertebral and body wall muscles. It was confirmed that myological features characterizing the neck in quadrupedal squamates (i.e., squamates with well-developed limbs) are retained in all examined snakes, contradicting the complete lack of the neck in snakes hypothesized in previous studies. However, the posterior-most origins of the craniovertebral muscles and the anterior-most bony attachments of the body wall muscles that are located at around the neck-trunk boundary in quadrupedal squamates were found to be dissociated anteroposteriorly in snakes. Together with results of a recent study that the anterior expression boundaries of Hox genes coinciding with the neck-trunk boundary in quadrupedal amniotes were dissociated anteroposteriorly in a colubrid snake, these observations support the hypothesis that structures usually associated with the neck-trunk boundary in quadrupedal squamates are displaced relative to one another in snakes. Whereas certain craniovertebral muscles are elongated in some snakes, results of optimization on an ophidian cladogram show that the most recent common ancestor of extant snakes would have had the longest craniovertebral muscle, M. rectus capitis anterior, that is elongated only by several segments compared with that of quadrupedal squamates. Therefore, even such a posteriorly displaced "cervical" characteristic plesiomorphically lies fairly anteriorly in the greatly elongated precloacal region of snakes, suggesting that the trunk, not the neck, would have contributed most to the elongation of the snake precloacal region. A similar dissociation of structures usually associated with the neck-trunk boundary in quadrupedal squamates is observed in limb-reduced squamates, suggesting that these forms and snakes may share a developmental mechanism producing modifications in the

  8. Pediatric Neck Mass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guilherme Machado de Carvalho

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction  Neck masses include a wide variety of diagnostic possibilities, with more than 60 etiologies that depend on clinical aspects such as age, location and time of disease progression. The interview and physical examination guide research that cross the neck masses in pediatric patients in 3 groups: infectious / inflammatory, and neoplastic embryonic remnants. The aim of this study was to present a protocol for evaluation of neck masses in the pediatric age group, based on a review of literature on the subject and experience of this service. Materials and Methods Survey of literature data from PubMed / Medline, Google Scholar and Scopus Database without language restriction, since 1980 sources, with the MeSH term "Pediatric neck mass".  Results Prepared flowchart guidelines to be followed according with diagnostic suspicions. Patients were divided into 3 groups according to the initial clinical manifestations and according to etiological hypotheses formulated recommend evaluations protocols.  Conclusion The standardization of the evaluation of neck masses in children proves valuable and can help in the differential diagnosis of different etiologies involved.

  9. Muscle Cramps

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muscle cramps are sudden, involuntary contractions or spasms in one or more of your muscles. They often occur after ... It is a very common muscle problem. Muscle cramps can be caused by nerves that malfunction. Sometimes ...

  10. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed with oral or ... Pathology Oral, Head and Neck Pathology Close to 49,750 Americans will be diagnosed with oral or ...

  11. Exercises for mechanical neck disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kay, Theresa M.; Gross, Anita; Goldsmith, Charles H.; Rutherford, Sherrill; Voth, Sandra; Hoving, Jan L.; Brønfort, Gert; Santaguida, Pasqualina L.

    2012-01-01

    Background Neck disorders are common, disabling and costly. The effectiveness of exercise as a physiotherapy intervention remains unclear. Objectives To improve pain, disability, function, patient satisfaction, quality of life and global perceived effect in adults with neck pain. Search methods

  12. Childhood Head and Neck Irradiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Thyroid Association ® www.thyroid.org Childhood Head & Neck Irradiation What is the thyroid gland? The thyroid gland ... Thyroid Association ® www.thyroid.org Childhood Head & Neck Irradiation Thyroid nodules (see Thyroid Nodule brochure) • Thyroid nodules ...

  13. Magnetic resonance imaging of facial muscles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrugia, M.E. [Department of Clinical Neurology, University of Oxford, Radcliffe Infirmary, Oxford (United Kingdom)], E-mail: m.e.farrugia@doctors.org.uk; Bydder, G.M. [Department of Radiology, University of California, San Diego, CA 92103-8226 (United States); Francis, J.M.; Robson, M.D. [OCMR, Department of Cardiovascular Medicine, University of Oxford, John Radcliffe Hospital, Oxford (United Kingdom)

    2007-11-15

    Facial and tongue muscles are commonly involved in patients with neuromuscular disorders. However, these muscles are not as easily accessible for biopsy and pathological examination as limb muscles. We have previously investigated myasthenia gravis patients with MuSK antibodies for facial and tongue muscle atrophy using different magnetic resonance imaging sequences, including ultrashort echo time techniques and image analysis tools that allowed us to obtain quantitative assessments of facial muscles. This imaging study had shown that facial muscle measurement is possible and that useful information can be obtained using a quantitative approach. In this paper we aim to review in detail the methods that we applied to our study, to enable clinicians to study these muscles within the domain of neuromuscular disease, oncological or head and neck specialties. Quantitative assessment of the facial musculature may be of value in improving the understanding of pathological processes occurring within facial muscles in certain neuromuscular disorders.

  14. Magnetic resonance imaging of facial muscles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrugia, M.E.; Bydder, G.M.; Francis, J.M.; Robson, M.D.

    2007-01-01

    Facial and tongue muscles are commonly involved in patients with neuromuscular disorders. However, these muscles are not as easily accessible for biopsy and pathological examination as limb muscles. We have previously investigated myasthenia gravis patients with MuSK antibodies for facial and tongue muscle atrophy using different magnetic resonance imaging sequences, including ultrashort echo time techniques and image analysis tools that allowed us to obtain quantitative assessments of facial muscles. This imaging study had shown that facial muscle measurement is possible and that useful information can be obtained using a quantitative approach. In this paper we aim to review in detail the methods that we applied to our study, to enable clinicians to study these muscles within the domain of neuromuscular disease, oncological or head and neck specialties. Quantitative assessment of the facial musculature may be of value in improving the understanding of pathological processes occurring within facial muscles in certain neuromuscular disorders

  15. Neurofibromatosis of the head and neck: classification and surgical management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, Kerry; Buchanan, Edward P; Suver, Daniel; Gruss, Joseph S

    2015-03-01

    Neurofibromatosis is common and presents with variable penetrance and manifestations in one in 2500 to one in 3000 live births. The management of these patients is often multidisciplinary because of the complexity of the disease. Plastic surgeons are frequently involved in the surgical management of patients with head and neck involvement. A 20-year retrospective review of patients treated surgically for head and neck neurofibroma was performed. Patients were identified according to International Classification of Diseases, Ninth Revision codes for neurofibromatosis and from the senior author's database. A total of 59 patients with head and neck neurofibroma were identified. These patients were categorized into five distinct, but not exclusive, categories to assist with diagnosis and surgical management. These categories included plexiform, cranioorbital, facial, neck, and parotid/auricular neurofibromatosis. A surgical classification system and clinical characteristics of head and neck neurofibromatosis is presented to assist practitioners with diagnosis and surgical management of this complex disease. The surgical management of the cranioorbital type is discussed in detail in 24 patients. The importance and safety of facial nerve dissection and preservation using intraoperative nerve monitoring were validated in 16 dissections in 15 patients. Massive involvement of the neck extending from the skull base to the mediastinum, frequently considered inoperable, has been safely resected by the use of access osteotomies of the clavicle and sternum, muscle takedown, and brachial plexus dissection and preservation using intraoperative nerve monitoring. Therapeutic, IV.

  16. Position of document holder and work related risk factors for neck pain among computer users: a narrative review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ambusam, S; Baharudin, O; Roslizawati, N; Leonard, J

    2015-01-01

    Document holder is used as a remedy to address occupational neck pain among computer users. An understanding on the effects of the document holder along with other work related risk factors while working in computer workstation requires attention. A comprehensive knowledge on the optimal location of the document holder in computer use and associated work related factors that may contribute to neck pain reviewed in this article. A literature search has been conducted over the past 14 years based on the published articles from January 1990 to January 2014 in both Science Direct and PubMed databases. Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) keywords for search were neck muscle OR head posture OR muscle tension' OR muscle activity OR work related disorders OR neck pain AND/OR document location OR document holder OR source document OR copy screen holder.Document holder placed lateral to the screen was most preferred to reduce neck discomfort among occupational typists. Document without a holder was placed flat on the surface is least preferred. The head posture and muscle activity increases when the document is placed flat on the surface compared to when placed on the document holder. Work related factors such as static posture, repetitive movement, prolong sitting and awkward positions were the risk factors for chronic neck pain. This review highlights the optimal location for document holder for computer users to reduce neck pain. Together, the importance of work related risk factors for to neck pain on occupational typist is emphasized for the clinical management.

  17. Migration into an in vitro experimental wound: a comparison of porcine aortic endothelial and smooth muscle cells and the effect of culture irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gotlieb, A.I.; Spector, W.

    1981-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the group-cell migration characteristics of endothelial cells (ECs) and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) derived from the same source, the porcine thoracic aorta, as they moved into an experimental in vitro wound. The authors characterized migration by measuring two aspects of the migrating cells: the number of free cells in the wound and the distance of migration of the sheet of cells at the wound edge. The quantitative data showed that ECs migrated into the wound as a sheet of cells, while SMCs migrated as free single cells. In addition, since irradiated cells have been used to study cell migration and since the irradiated cells do undergo some shape changes, the distribution of the cytoskeletal microfilament fibres was compared in migrating irradiated and nonirradiated cells in order to see whether this feature of cell migration was different. Irradiated and nonirradiated migrating ECs showed a strikingly different pattern in the orientation of microfilament bundles when studied by immunofluorescence microscopy with antiserums to myosin and tropomyosin.

  18. Influence of the experimental program of trainings in armsport on the power indexes of basic muscle groups of 16-17-years-old armwrestlers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kamaev O. I.

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The features of influence of the experimental program of trainings are considered in armsport. The program is developed taking into account age-dependent changes in the organism of young sportsmen, features of development of force and power endurance, structure of long-term preparation. The program is directed on development of force and static power endurance of basic muscle groups of sportsmen. In researches took part 30 sportsmen aged 16-17 years old. It is set that the stage of the specialized base training is foreseen by the increase of time on perfection of technique of fight at the table to 15 %. The special attention must be spared the special physical youth development. The block of the specialized training to send to development of explosive force, workings of weak corners, change of character of work is recommended. It is set that trainings with the static loadings are obligatory and in the general volume of loadings must make no less than 20 %. It is necessarily necessary to plan the block of the restoration training for physical and psychological renewal of sportsmen after the conducted setup time and appearance on competitions, exposure and comprehension of sufferet errors and search of methods of their removal.

  19. Organization of sensory input to the nociceptive-specific cutaneous trunk muscle reflex in rat, an effective experimental system for examining nociception and plasticity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petruska, Jeffrey C.; Barker, Darrell F.; Garraway, Sandra M.; Trainer, Robert; Fransen, James W.; Seidman, Peggy A.; Soto, Roy G.; Mendell, Lorne M.; Johnson, Richard D.

    2013-01-01

    Detailed characterization of neural circuitries furthers our understanding of how nervous systems perform specific functions and enables the use of those systems to test hypotheses. We have characterized the sensory input to the cutaneous trunk muscle (CTM; also cutaneus trunci (rat) or cutaneus maximus (mouse)) reflex (CTMR), which manifests as a puckering of the dorsal thoracolumbar skin and is selectively driven by noxious stimuli. CTM electromyography (EMG) and neurogram recordings in naïve rats revealed that CTMR responses were elicited by natural stimuli and electrical stimulation of all segments from C4 to L6, a much greater extent of segmental drive to the CTMR than previously described. Stimulation of some subcutaneous paraspinal tissue can also elicit this reflex. Using a selective neurotoxin, we also demonstrate differential drive of the CTMR by trkA-expressing and non-expressing small diameter afferents. These observations highlight aspects of the organization of the CTMR system which make it attractive for studies of nociception and anesthesiology and plasticity of primary afferents, motoneurons, and the propriospinal system. We use the CTMR system to qualitatively and quantitatively demonstrate that experimental pharmacological treatments can be compared to controls applied either to the contralateral side or to another segment, with the remaining segments providing controls for systemic or other treatment effects. These data indicate the potential for using the CTMR system as both an invasive and non-invasive quantitative assessment tool providing improved statistical power and reduced animal use. PMID:23983104

  20. [Effectiveness of an individualised physiotherapy program versus group therapy on neck pain and disability in patients with acute and subacute mechanical neck pain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antúnez Sánchez, Leonardo Gregorio; de la Casa Almeida, María; Rebollo Roldán, Jesús; Ramírez Manzano, Antonio; Martín Valero, Rocío; Suárez Serrano, Carmen

    To compare the efficacy in reducing neck pain and disability in an individualised physiotherapy treatment with group treatment in acute and subacute mechanical neck pain. Randomised clinical trial. Health Area of University Hospital Virgen del Rocío, Seville, Spain. A total of 90 patients diagnosed with mechanical neck pain of up to one month onset, distributed randomly into two groups: (i)individualised treatment; (ii)group treatment. The treatment consisted of 15 sessions of about 60minutes for both groups. Individual treatment consisted of 15minutes of infrared heat therapy, 17minutes of massage, and analytical passive stretching of the trapezius muscles and angle of the scapula. The group treatment consisted of a program of active mobilisation, isometric contractions, self-stretching, and postural recommendations. Pain was measured at the beginning and end of treatment pain using a Visual Analogue Scale (VAS) and an algometer applied on the trapezius muscles and angle of the scapula, and neck disability using the Neck Disability Index. Both treatments were statistically significant (P<.001) in improving all variables. Statistically significant differences (P<.001) were found for all of them in favour of individualised treatment compared to group treatment. Patients with acute or subacute mechanical neck pain experienced an improvement in pain and neck disability after receiving either of the physiotherapy treatments used in our study, with the individual treatment being more effective than collective. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  1. Neck/shoulder function in tension-type headache patients and the effect of strength training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Bjarne K; Søgaard, Karen; Andersen, Lars L.

    2018-01-01

    Introduction: Muscle pain has been associated with reduced maximal muscle strength, and reduced rate of force development (RFD). Strength training (ST) has shown an effect in not only normalizing muscle function but also reducing neck muscle pain. Aim: The aims of this study were to compare muscle...... and shoulder functions in TTH patients. Participants and methods: In all, 60 TTH patients and 30 sex- and age-matched healthy controls were included for a case–control comparison. The 60 patients with TTH were randomized into an ST and an ergonomic and posture correction (EP) control group. The ST group...

  2. Muscle Deoxygenation Causes Muscle Fatigue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murthy, G.; Hargens, A. R.; Lehman, S.; Rempel, D.

    1999-01-01

    Muscle fatigue is a common musculoskeletal disorder in the work place, and may be a harbinger for more disabling cumulative trauma disorders. Although the cause of fatigue is multifactorial, reduced blood flow and muscle oxygenation may be the primary factor in causing muscle fatigue during low intensity muscle exertion. Muscle fatigue is defined as a reduction in muscle force production, and also occurs among astronauts who are subjected to postural constraints while performing lengthy, repetitive tasks. The objectives of this research are to: 1) develop an objective tool to study the role of decreased muscle oxygenation on muscle force production, and 2) to evaluate muscle fatigue during prolonged glovebox work.

  3. Risk factors for neck pain in office workers: a prospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Refshauge Kathryn M

    2006-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Persisting neck pain is common in society. It has been reported that the prevalence of neck pain in office workers is much higher than in the general population. The costs to the worker, employer and society associated with work-related neck pain are known to be considerable and are escalating. The factors that place office workers at greater risk of developing neck pain are not understood. The aim of this study is to investigate the incidence and risk factors of work-related neck pain in Australian office workers. Methods/design We will conduct a prospective cohort study. A cohort of office workers without neck pain will be followed over a 12 month period, after baseline measurement of potential risk factors. The categories of risk factors being evaluated are physical (cervical spine posture, range of movement, muscle endurance and exercise frequency, demographic (age, sex, work environment (sitting duration, frequency of breaks and psychosocial (psychological distress and psychosocial work factors. Cox regression analysis will be used to identify risk factors associated with work-related neck pain, and will be expressed as hazard ratios with 95% confidence intervals. The data will also enable the incidence of neck pain in this population to be estimated. Discussion In addition to clarifying the magnitude of this occupational health problem these data could inform policy in workplaces and provide the basis for primary prevention of neck pain in office workers, targeting the identified risk factors.

  4. The Danish Head and Neck Cancer database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Overgaard J

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Jens Overgaard,1 Aleksandar Jovanovic,1 Christian Godballe,2,3 Jesper Grau Eriksen3 1Department of Experimental Clinical Oncology, Aarhus University Hospital, Aarhus, 2Department of ORL – Head and Neck Surgery, 3Department of Oncology, Odense University Hospital, Odense, Denmark Aim of the database: The Danish Head and Neck Cancer database is a nationwide clinical quality database that contains prospective data collected since the early 1960s. The overall aim of this study was to describe the outcome of the national strategy for multidisciplinary treatment of head and neck cancer in Denmark and to create a basis for clinical trials. Study population: The study population consisted of all Danish patients referred for treatment of squamous cell carcinoma of the larynx, pharynx, oral cavity, or neck nodes from unknown primary or any histopathological type (except lymphoma of cancer in the nasal sinuses, salivary glands, or thyroid gland (corresponding to the International Classification of Diseases, tenth revision, classifications C.01–C.11, C.30–C.32, C.73, and C.80. Main variables: The main variables used in the study were symptoms and the duration of the symptoms; etiological factors; pretreatment and diagnostic evaluation, including tumor–node–metastasis classification, imaging, histopathology, and laboratory tests; primary treatment with semidetailed information of radiotherapy, surgery, and medical treatment; follow-up registration of tumor status and side effects; registration of relapse and treatment thereof; and registration of death and cause of death. Main results: Data from >33,000 patients have been recorded during a period of >45 years. In this period, the outcome of treatment improved substantially, partly due to better treatment as a result of a series of continuous clinical trials and subsequent implementation in national guidelines. The database has furthermore been used to describe the effect of reduced waiting time

  5. Femoral Neck Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Lee

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available History of present illness: A 74-year-old male presented to the emergency department with left hip pain after falling off his bicycle. Pain is 3/10 in severity and exacerbated by movement. Patient denied head trauma. Exam showed left hip tenderness, 3/5 left lower extremity strength secondary to pain, and 5/5 right lower extremity strength. Sensation and pulses were intact in bilateral lower extremities. Left hip X-ray and pelvic CT revealed comminuted, impacted transcervical and subcapital fracture of the left femoral neck. Significant findings: In the anteroposterior view bilateral hip x-ray, there is an evident loss of Shenton’s line on the left (red line when compared to the normal right (white line, indicative of a fracture in the left femoral neck. This correlates with findings seen on pelvic CT, which reveals both a subcapital fracture (blue arrow and transcervical fracture (yellow arrow. The neck of the femur is displaced superiorly relative to the head of the femur while the head of the femur remains in its anatomical position within the acetabulum. Discussion: Femoral neck fractures are one of the most common types of hip fractures, accounting for 49.4% of all hip fractures.1 Diagnosing a femoral neck fracture can be made with plain x-ray, CT, or MRI. Plain film radiographs have been found to be at least 90% sensitive for hip fractures CT’s have been found to be 87%-100% sensitive and 100% specific for occult hip fractures in which plain radiographs were read as negative, but the patient still complained of hip pain Although MRI is currently the gold standard for detecting occult hip fractures (sensitivity and specificity = 100%, given MRI’s limited accessibility in the ED as well as the high sensitivity and specificity of CT scans for occult hip fractures, it is generally recommended to obtain CT scans for patients with suspected occult hip fractures as a first-line investigation

  6. Altered Pain Sensitivity in Elderly Women with Chronic Neck Pain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uthaikhup, Sureeporn; Prasert, Romchat; Paungmali, Aatit; Boontha, Kritsana

    2015-01-01

    Background Age-related changes occur in both the peripheral and central nervous system, yet little is known about the influence of chronic pain on pain sensitivity in older persons. The aim of this study was to investigate pain sensitivity in elders with chronic neck pain compared to healthy elders. Methods Thirty elderly women with chronic neck pain and 30 controls were recruited. Measures of pain sensitivity included pressure pain thresholds, heat/cold pain thresholds and suprathreshold heat pain responses. The pain measures were assessed over the cervical spine and at a remote site, the tibialis anterior muscle. Results Elders with chronic neck pain had lower pressure pain threshold over the articular pillar of C5-C6 and decreased cold pain thresholds over the cervical spine and tibialis anterior muscle when compared with controls (p pain thresholds and suprathreshold heat pain responses (p > 0.05). Conclusion The presence of pain hypersensitivity in elderly women with chronic neck pain appears to be dependent on types of painful stimuli. This may reflect changes in the peripheral and central nervous system with age. PMID:26039149

  7. Muscular Variation In The Neck Region With Narrowing Of The Minor And Major Supraclavicular Fossa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Humberto Ferreira Arquez

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The sternocleidomastoideus muscle is the most prominent landmarks of the surface anatomy of the neck, separates the anterior part of the neck (anterior triangle from the posterior part of the neck (posterior triangle. An accessory head of sternocleidomastoideus muscle may cause complications while trying to access vital neurovascular structures that are located in the minor and major supraclavicular fossa. The purpose of this study is to describe an anatomical variation of the sternocleidomastoideus muscle and clinical impact. Methods and Findings: The anatomical variations described were found during routine dissection conducted in the laboratory of Morphology of the University of Pamplona in two male cadavers of 47 and 75 years respectively. Measurements were taken using a Vernier caliper. Topographic details of the variations were examined, recorded and photographed. The morphological variations in the number of heads (three and four of origin of sternocleidomastoideus muscle was found in two male subjects in right and left neck, bilaterally.  The posterior cervical triangle was diminished. The bilateral narrowing of the minor and major supraclavicular fossa minimizing space needed for potential surgical access. The branching patterns of the spinal accessory nerve and arterial patterns were normal. Conclusions: The Knowledge of the presence of additional heads of sternocleidomastoideus muscle it might cause difficulties in subclavian or external jugular vein catheterization, and in surgical interventions involving structures lying under the sternocleidomastoideus muscle. These variations must be kept in mind while approaching the region to avoid complications as the classical anatomical landmarks might be misinterpreted and confuse.

  8. Influence of frequency and duration of strength training for effective management of neck and shoulder pain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Christoffer H; Andersen, Lars Louis; Gram, Bibi

    2012-01-01

    distributed. METHODS: A total of 447 office workers with and without neck and/or shoulder pain were randomly allocated at the cluster-level to one of four groups; 1×60 (1WS), 3×20 (3WS) or 9×7 (9WS) min a week of supervised high-intensity strength training for 20 weeks, or to a reference group without......BACKGROUND: Specific strength training can reduce neck and shoulder pain in office workers, but the optimal combination of exercise frequency and duration remains unknown. This study investigates how one weekly hour of strength training for the neck and shoulder muscles is most effectively...... training (REF). Primary outcome was self-reported neck and shoulder pain (scale 0-9) and secondary outcome work disability (Disability in Arms, Shoulders and Hands (DASH)). RESULTS: The intention-to-treat analysis showed reduced neck and right shoulder pain in the training groups after 20 weeks compared...

  9. The edema of fiddler's neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, J B

    1979-12-01

    Fiddler's neck is a dermatosis of violinists and violists. It characteristically presents as focal lichenification and pigmentation on the left side of the neck. Edema may also occur in the same area and lead to cosmetic concern or fear of malignancy. The edema apparently results from pressure on the patient's neck by the base of the violin or viola and is worsened by holding the instrument in a drooping position.

  10. The neck-tongue syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orrell, R W; Marsden, C D

    1994-01-01

    The neck-tongue syndrome, consisting of pain in the neck and altered sensation in the ipsilateral half of the tongue aggravated by neck movement, has been attributed to damage to lingual afferent fibres travelling in the hypoglossal nerve to the C2 spinal roots. The lingual afferents in the hypoglossal nerve are thought to be proprioceptive. Two further cases of the neck-tongue syndrome are described, the spectrum of its clinical manifestations is explored, and the phenomenon of lingual pseudoathetosis is illustrated as a result of the presumed lingual deafferentation. Images PMID:8158185

  11. Neck pain in different cephalalgias

    OpenAIRE

    E. A. Chechet; G. R. Tabeeva

    2014-01-01

    The paper reviews the literature related to the investigations of neck pain (cervicalgia) in patients with headache (cephalalgia). Neck pain is second to lower back pain as a reason for considerable socioeconomic damage to society. The prevalence of cervicalgia in the population ranges from 5.9 to 38%; the annual incidence is 10.4–21.3%; 14.2 to 71% of people report to have neck pain at some time in their lifetime. Neck pain is concurrent with cephalalgia in 70% of cases. In patients with cer...

  12. Large Plunging Ranula Presenting as Isolated Neck Swelling: Steps in Diagnosis and Surgical Steps in Management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilesh, Kumar; Malik, Neelima A; Patil, Pankaj; Chapi, Mouneshkumar Devendrappa

    2015-06-01

    Ranula is a salivary gland cyst which typically present as localized superficial swelling over the floor of mouth. Complex or plunging ranulas develop when the mucus extravasation extends through or around the mylohyoid muscle, deeper into the neck, and present with neck lump along with or without swelling over floor of mouth. We report a case of large plunging ranula presenting as an isolated large neck mass in a 38-year-old female patient. The steps in diagnosis and surgical steps in management of the pathology are systematically described.

  13. Muscle pain

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Key Summary Points. • Muscle pain, known as myalgia, can be in one targeted area or across many muscles, occurring with overexertion or overuse of these muscles. • Pain can be classified as acute or chronic pain and further categorized as nociceptive or neuropathic. • Causes of muscle pain include stress, physical ...

  14. Effect of Gender, Disease Duration and Treatment on Muscle Strength in Myasthenia Gravis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Citirak, Gülsenay; Cejvanovic, Sanja; Andersen, Henning

    2016-01-01

    assessed. METHODS: Muscle strength was tested in 8 muscle groups by manual muscle testing and by hand-held dynamometry in 107 patients with gMG and 89 healthy age- and gender-matched controls. Disease duration, severity and treatment history were reviewed and compared with muscle strength. RESULTS......, muscle strength did not correlate with disease duration and treatment intensity. CONCLUSIONS: The results of this study show that in patients with gMG; 1) there is significant muscle weakness, 2) muscle weakness is more pronounced in men than women, 3) shoulder abductors, hip flexors, and neck muscles...

  15. Comparison of the effectiveness of resistance training in women with chronic computer-related neck pain: a randomized controlled study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiao; Lin, Caina; Liu, Cuicui; Ke, Songjian; Wan, Qing; Luo, Haijie; Huang, Zhuxi; Xin, Wenjun; Ma, Chao; Wu, Shaoling

    2017-10-01

    Chronic computer-related neck pain is common among office workers. Studies have proposed neck strengthening exercise as a therapy to pain relieving and function improvement. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of different loading resistance trainings and we hypothesized that women with work-related neck pain could benefit more from progressive resistance training for pain and function recovery. A randomized controlled trial was conducted and subjects characterized by monotonous jobs were recruited. One hundred and nine employed women with chronic neck pain were randomly allocated into three groups, namely, progressive resistance training (PRT), fixed resistance training (FRT), and control group (CG). In PRT and FRT, four exercises for neck muscles with an elastic rubber band were performed on regular basis for 6 weeks. The therapeutic effectiveness was then evaluated at pretreatment, 2, 4, and 6 weeks during training period, and 3-month posttreatment. Assessment tools included visual analog scale (VAS), Neck Disability Index (NDI), pressure pain threshold (PPT), and maximal isometric neck strength. The outcomes were significantly better in PRT and FRT than those in CG at 6-week timepoint and 3-month follow-up (p = 0.000), in terms of VAS, NDI, PPT, and neck muscle strength. Besides, there were statistically significant decreases observed in VAS scores of PRT group compared with those in FRT at 4-, 6-week timepoints, and 3-month follow-up (p training was an effective method for pain relieving, mobility improving, pain threshold, and neck muscle strength enhancing in women with chronic computer-related neck pain. Thus, our study provided evidence that women with work-related neck pain might benefit more from PRT, which may have important implications for future clinical practice. The study was qualified and registered in the Chinese Clinical Trial Registry as ChiCTR-TRC-12002723.

  16. Favorable effects of skeletal muscle on bone are distinguished according to gender and skeletal sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kyoung Min Kim

    2017-03-01

    Conclusions: Higher RASM was significantly associated with lower risk for osteoporosis and the areas at the femur neck and total hip appeared to more likely be affected positively by muscle. Moreover, because males showed faster muscle loss with aging than females, the bones of males may be more prone to favorable effects of muscle.

  17. A rare variation of the digastric muscle

    Science.gov (United States)

    KALNIEV, MANOL; KRASTEV, DIMO; KRASTEV, NIKOLAY; VIDINOV, KALIN; VELTCHEV, LUDMIL; APOSTOLOV, ALEXANDER; MILEVA, MILKA

    2013-01-01

    The digastric muscle is composed by two muscle bellies: an anterior and a posterior, joined by an intermediate tendon. This muscle is situated in the anterior region of the neck. The region between the hyoid bone and the mandible is divided by an anterior belly into two triangles: the submandibular situated laterally and the submental triangle which is located medially. We found that the anatomical variations described in the literature relate mainly to the anterior belly and consist of differences in shape and attachment of the muscle. During routine dissection in February 2013 in the section hall of the Department of Anatomy and Histology in Medical University – Sofia we came across a very interesting variation of the digastric muscle. The digastric muscles that presented anatomical variations were photographed using a Sony Cyber-shot DSC-T1 camera, with a Carl Zeiss Vario-Tessar lens. We found out bilateral variation of the digastric muscle in one cadaver. The anterior bellies were very thin and insert to the hyoid bone. Two anterior bellies connect each other and thus they formed a loop. The anatomical variations observed of our study related only to the anterior belly, as previously described by other authors. It is very important to consider the occurrence of the above mentioned variations in the digastric muscle when surgical procedures are performed on the anterior region of the neck. PMID:26527971

  18. Exercises for mechanical neck disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kay, T. M.; Gross, A.; Goldsmith, C.; Santaguida, P. L.; Hoving, J.; Bronfort, G.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Neck disorders are common, limit function, and are costly to individuals and society. Exercise therapy is a commonly used treatment for neck pain. The effectiveness of exercise therapy remains unclear. OBJECTIVES: To assess the effectiveness of exercise therapy to relieve pain, or

  19. Exercises for mechanical neck disorders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gross, Anita; Kay, Theresa M.; Paquin, Jean-Philippe; Blanchette, Samuel; Lalonde, Patrick; Christie, Trevor; Dupont, Genevieve; Graham, Nadine; Burnie, Stephen J.; Gelley, Geoff; Goldsmith, Charles H.; Forget, Mario; Hoving, Jan L.; Bronfort, Gert; Santaguida, Pasqualina L.

    2015-01-01

    Background Neck pain is common, disabling and costly. Exercise is one treatment approach. Objectives To assess the effectiveness of exercises to improve pain, disability, function, patient satisfaction, quality of life and global perceived effect in adults with neck pain. Search methods We searched

  20. Biogeometry of femoral neck for implant placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patwa J

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Background : Treatment of fracture neck femur with three cannulated cancellous screws in an apex proximal configuration is practised in many parts of the world. Methods : Dimensions of femoral neck at the middle of transcervical neck using CT scan (live neck and vernier caliper (dry cadeveric neck in 20 subjects respectively were measured. Results : Inferior half of the neck is narrower than superior half. Conclusion : Biogeometry of the neck of femur does not accomodate two inferior screws and thus fixation of fracture neck femur with three canulated cancellous screws in an apex distal configuration is recommended.

  1. Neck length and mean arterial pressure in the sauropod dinosaurs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hughes, Stephen; Barry, John; Russell, Jeremy; Bell, Robert; Gurung, Som

    2016-04-15

    How blood was able to reach the heads of the long-necked sauropod dinosaurs has long been a matter of debate and several hypotheses have been presented. For example, it has been proposed that sauropods had exceptionally large hearts, multiple 'normal' sized hearts spaced at regular intervals up the neck or held their necks horizontal, or that the siphon effect was in operation. By means of an experimental model, we demonstrate that the siphon principle is able to explain how blood was able to adequately perfuse the sauropod brain. The return venous circulation may have been protected from complete collapse by a structure akin to the vertebral venous plexus. We derive an equation relating neck height and mean arterial pressure, which indicates that with a mean arterial pressure similar to that of the giraffe, the maximum safe vertical distance between heart and head would have been about 12 m. A hypothesis is presented that the maximum neck length in the fossil record is due to the siphon height limit. The equation indicates that to migrate over high ground, sauropods would have had to either significantly increase their mean arterial pressure or keep their necks below a certain height dependent on altitude. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  2. Simultaneous Bilateral Fracture of Femoral Neck in Korea: A Case Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Jai Hyung; Jeong, Hwa-Jae; Shin, Hun-Kyu; Kim, Eugene; Ko, Taeg Su; Choi, Young-Min

    2015-03-01

    Unilateral femoral neck factures are common and their incidence is increasing. However, simultaneous bilateral femoral neck fractures are rare. Although cases of simultaneous bilateral femoral neck fractures have been reported, most were caused by strong muscle contractions during electroconvulsive therapy. Simultaneous bilateral femoral neck fractures caused by a simple fall are an extremely rare injury; therefore, limited literature is available, and no case has been reported in Korea. We report herein a case of simultaneous bilateral femoral neck fractures caused by a simple fall. An 83-year-old woman visited the emergency department with bilateral hip joint pain and gait disturbance, which developed 1 day after a fall. Tenderness and severe limitation in left hip joint range of motion and mild limitation in right hip joint range of motion were observed on a physical examination. A Garden type IV femoral neck fracture in the left hip joint and a Garden type I femoral neck fracture in the right hip joint were observed on plain radiography. She underwent right screw fixation and left bipolar hemiarthroplasty 2 days after admission. The patient could walk using a walker 4 weeks postoperatively. Bone union in the right femoral neck was observed at the 3 month follow-up. No specific findings were observed at the left hip hemiarthroplasty site.

  3. Five-step neck lift: integrating anatomy with clinical practice to optimize results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narasimhan, Kailash; Stuzin, James M; Rohrich, Rod J

    2013-08-01

    A harmonious and youthful appearing neckline is arguably the most vital aspect of a successful facial rejuveation. Without sound principles, the neck appears skeletonized, tethered, and hollow. The anatomical studies that the authors have performed regarding the neck, jowl, and subplatysmal elements have influenced the techniques that they now use. The authors' approach modifies the classic techniques of the past, and seeks a nuanced approach to each patient by resuspension and reshaping of deeper neck elements. In this article, the authors apply their anatomical research and cadaveric studies to demonstrate and support their neck-lift techniques. The authors integrate their knowledge to describe how the technique of one of the senior authors (R.J.R.) has evolved over time. The main tenets of the authors' approach have evolved into a sequence that involves skin undermining over the neck and cheek, submental access to the neck, with possible excision of fat and midline plication of the platysma with release of the muscle inferiorly, platysmal window suspension laterally, precise release of the mandibular septum and ligament if needed, and finally redraping of the superficial musculoaponeurotic system (SMAS) by plication or SMASecomy. These five steps ensure correction of jowling, a smooth jawline, and a well-shaped neck. The five-step neck lift helps to optimize results in creating the ideal neck contour. The authors provide four points that should be considered in any neck-lift procedure. The end result is a well-defined, well-contoured neck, with an approach grounded in sound anatomical principles.

  4. Excessive anterior cervical muscle tone affects hyoid bone kinetics during swallowing in healthy individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yamazaki Y

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Yasuhiro Yamazaki, Haruka Tohara, Koji Hara, Ayako Nakane, Yoko Wakasugi, Kohei Yamaguchi, Shunsuke Minakuchi Department of Gerodontology, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, Japan Purpose: This study aimed to determine whether excessive neck muscle tone affects hyoid bone kinetics during swallowing using videofluorography (VF in an unnatural posture in healthy individuals. Subjects and methods: Subjects were 28 healthy adults (12 men, 16 women; mean age, 39.75±9.50 years without any history or present complaints of swallowing disorders. We first established the participant’s posture a reclining wheelchair that was adjusted to a 30-degree angle with the headrest (without excessive neck muscle tone or without headrest (with excessive neck muscle tone, used an electromyogram above the mylohyoid muscle to represent the suprahyoid muscles and above the sternohyoid muscle to represent the infrahyoid muscles to confirm neck muscle tone, and then conducted VF of swallowing measurements. Videofluorographic images were obtained when 5 mL of 50% (w/v barium sulfate was being swallowed, and hyoid bone coordinate (the resting position and the elevated position, extent of horizontal and vertical hyoid bone elevation, as well as duration and velocity of hyoid bone elevation were evaluated (x-axis and y-axis coordinates for the resting position of hyoid bone are referred to as Xr and Yr, respectively; those for the elevated hyoid bone position induced during swallowing are referred to as Xs and Ys, respectively. Results: In the resting position of the hyoid bone, the Yr coordinates in those with excessive neck muscle tone were significantly lower than in those without excessive neck muscle tone. Vertical hyoid bone elevation and hyoid bone elevation velocity were significantly higher with excessive neck muscle tone than without excessive neck muscle tone, whereas horizontal elevation showed no significant differences. Conclusion: Our findings

  5. Neck Kinematics and Electromyography While Wearing Head Supported Mass During Running.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, Matthew M; Sefton, JoEllen M; Oliver, Gretchen D

    2018-01-01

    Advanced combat helmets (ACH) coupled with night-vision goggles (NVG) are required for tactical athletes during training and service. Head and neck injuries due to head supported mass (HSM) are a common occurrence in military personnel. The current study aimed to investigate the effects of HSM on neck muscle fatigue that may lead to chronic stress and injury of the head and neck. Subjects wore an ACH and were affixed with electromagnetic sensors to obtain kinematic data, as well as EMG electrodes to obtain muscle activations of bilateral sternocleidomastoid, upper trapezius, and paraspinal muscles while running on a treadmill. Subjects performed a 2-min warmup at a walking pace, a 5-min warmup jog, running at a pace equal to 90% maximum heart rate until absolute fatigue, and lastly a 2-min cooldown at a walking pace. Kinematic and EMG data were collected over each 2-min interval. Days later, the same subjects wore the same ACH in addition to the NVG and performed the same protocol as the first session. This study showed significant differences in muscle activation of the right upper trapezius [F(1,31) = 10.100] and both sternocleidomastoid [F(1,31) = 12.280] muscles from pre-fatigue to absolute fatigue. There were no significant differences noted in the kinematic variables. This study suggests that HSM can fatigue bilateral neck flexors and rotators, as well as fatigue the neck extensors and rotators on the contralateral side of the mounted NVG.Hanks MM, Sefton JM, Oliver GD. Neck kinematics and electromyography while wearing head supported mass during running. Aerosp Med Hum Perform. 2018; 89(1):9-13.

  6. Head and Neck Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomita, Toshiki; Imanishi, Yorihisa

    2008-01-01

    The limitation of concurrent chemo-radiotherapy (CCRT) in head and neck cancer (HNC) as the primary treatment is described based on recent findings. Limits in the application/indication involve factors of age, performance status (PS) and renal function. The first is that, as deaths in >71 years old patients are derived from other causes (41%) than HNC, CCRT is only useful for younger population; the second, patients with PS 0-1 or Karnofsky performance score >60-70 can be indicated; and third, contraindicated are those with creatinine clearance (CCr) <60 mL/min as the key drug cisplatin in CCRT has a high renal toxicity. It should be recognized that completion rates of chemotherapy and RT are as low as 66-85% and 84-92%, respectively, in CCRT. CCRT has such limiting adverse events as mucitis, dry mouth, dysohagia, weight loss, neutropenia, sepsis, etc., which are most important in CCRT application. CCRT is recommended for the primary cancers of larynx and hypopharynx because they are significantly better conserved than middle pharyngeal, oral and upper jaw cancers. Evidence of CCRT is poor for cancers in paranasal sinuses. Planned neck dissection (PND) is for the cervical metastatic lymph nodes and conducted 6-12 weeks after CCRT regardless to its outcome. In fluorodeoxyglucose-positron emission tomography (FDG-PET) negative cases, PND can be omitted. Necessity of PND is possibly inversely proportional to CCRT intensity performed. For control of remote metastasis, CCRT has obvious limits and inductive chemotherapy before it is currently considered. Salvage surgery post CCRT does not always yield a relief because of complication. Patients with advanced laryngeal cancer can be selected either to surgery or CCRT depending on results of the inductive chemotherapy. To predict the sensitivity to CCRT, some biomarkers like HPV, EGFR and VEGF have been suggested to be useful by retrospective studies. Understanding the limitation is as important as knowing the usefulness in

  7. Single transverse extended incision for radical neck dissection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco Sales Chagas

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Objective: to assess the efficacy of the single transverse extended cervical incision in radical neck dissection. Method: we conducted a prospective study, from January 2008 to January 2009, with 18 patients undergoing surgical treatment of malignant tumors of the upper aero-digestive tract. The primary lesion was located in the oral cavity in eight cases, in the oropharynx in three, in the hypopharynx in three, in the larynx in two, in the maxillary sinus, and in one case, the primary injury was hidden. There were 29 neck dissections, eight bilateral and 10 unilateral (26 radical and three selective. Staging revealed nine patients with T4 tumor, one T3, six T2, one T1 and one Tx. Five patients were N0, nine N2b, one N2c and three N3. The average number of dissected lymph nodes was 34.25. We performed the neck dissection through a single incision located in the middle neck, coincident with the skinfold, with a length of about 2 to 3 cm behind the anterior edge of the trapezius muscle and 3 to 4 cm from the midline for the unilateral neck dissections. Results: as complications, there were myocutaneous flap necrosis in one patient with prior radiation therapy, one lymphatic fistula, one dehiscence of the tracheostomy, one cervical abscess, one salivary fistula and one suture dehiscence. Conclusions: the single extended incision provides adequate exposure of the neck structures, without compromising surgical time, even in bilateral dissections. It does not compromise the resection of all cervical lymph nodes; it has excellent aesthetic and functional results and is easily associated with other approaches to resection of the primary tumor.

  8. Productive performance of naked neck, frizzle and dwarf laying hens ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The productive performance of major genes for feather reduction (naked neck and frizzle) and body size reduction (dwarf) in a dual-purpose layer strain was evaluated in the subtropical coastal region of southeast Africa (Maputo, Mozambique). The experimental material consisted of ight different genetic groups, two diets ...

  9. The biomechanical demands of manual scaling on the shoulders & neck of dental hygienists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    La Delfa, Nicholas J; Grondin, Diane E; Cox, Jocelyn; Potvin, Jim R; Howarth, Samuel J

    2017-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the postural and muscular demands placed on the shoulders and neck of dental hygienists when performing a simulated manual scaling task. Nineteen healthy female dental hygienists performed 30-min of simulated manual scaling on a manikin head in a laboratory setting. Surface electromyography was used to monitor muscle activity from several neck and shoulder muscles, and neck and arm elevation kinematics were evaluated using motion capture. The simulated scaling task resulted in a large range of neck and arm elevation angles and excessive low-level muscular demands in the neck extensor and scapular stabilising muscles. The physical demands varied depending on the working position of the hygienists relative to the manikin head. These findings are valuable in guiding future ergonomics interventions aimed at reducing the physical exposures of dental hygiene work. Practitioner Summary: Given that this study evaluates the physical demands of manual scaling, a procedure that is fundamental to dental hygiene work, the findings are valuable to identify ergonomics interventions to reduce the prevalence of work-related injuries, disability and the potential for early retirement among this occupational group.

  10. Periodontal disease, atherosclerosis, adverse pregnancy outcomes, and head-and-neck cancer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Han, Y.W.; Houcken, W.; Loos, B.G.; Schenkein, H.A.; Tezal, M.

    2014-01-01

    Interrelationships between periodontal infection and systemic conditions such as cardiovascular disease, adverse pregnancy outcomes, and head-and-neck cancer have become increasingly appreciated in recent years. Periodontitis is associated with cardiovascular disease (CVD) and, experimentally, with

  11. A pain in the neck-Imaging in neck sepsis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyle, N.J.; Rutherford, E.E.; Batty, V.B.

    2011-01-01

    Deep neck infection has a high morbidity and mortality and the extent of infection is often difficult to estimate clinically. The complex anatomy and the communication between neck spaces means that infection can spread along fascial planes leading to life-threatening complications such as airway compromise, vascular erosion/thrombosis, neural dysfunction, and ultimately descending necrotizing mediastinitis. Imaging has an important role to play in identifying the extent of infection and the presence of complications.

  12. A pain in the neck-Imaging in neck sepsis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lyle, N.J., E-mail: nickylyle@doctors.org.uk [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton (United Kingdom); Rutherford, E.E.; Batty, V.B. [Department of Diagnostic Imaging, Southampton General Hospital, Southampton (United Kingdom)

    2011-09-15

    Deep neck infection has a high morbidity and mortality and the extent of infection is often difficult to estimate clinically. The complex anatomy and the communication between neck spaces means that infection can spread along fascial planes leading to life-threatening complications such as airway compromise, vascular erosion/thrombosis, neural dysfunction, and ultimately descending necrotizing mediastinitis. Imaging has an important role to play in identifying the extent of infection and the presence of complications.

  13. The effect of intra-operative transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on posterior neck pain following thyroidectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, C; Choi, J B; Lee, Y-S; Chang, H-S; Shin, C S; Kim, S; Han, D W

    2015-04-01

    Posterior neck pain following thyroidectomy is common because full neck extension is required during the procedure. We evaluated the effect of intra-operative transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation on postoperative neck pain in patients undergoing total thyroidectomy under general anaesthesia. One hundred patients were randomly assigned to one of two groups; 50 patients received transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation applied to the trapezius muscle and 50 patients acted as controls. Postoperative posterior neck pain and anterior wound pain were evaluated using an 11-point numerical rating scale at 30 min, 6 h, 24 h and 48 h following surgery. The numerical rating scale for posterior neck pain was significantly lower in the transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation group compared with the control group at all time points (p < 0.05). There were no significant differences in the numerical rating scale for anterior wound pain at any time point. No adverse effects related to transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation were observed. We conclude that intra-operative transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation applied to the trapezius muscle reduced posterior neck pain following thyroidectomy. © 2014 The Association of Anaesthetists of Great Britain and Ireland.

  14. Trismus following treatment of head and neck cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeremic, Goran; Venkatesan, Varagur; Hallock, Abhirami; Scott, Danielle; Hammond, Alexander; Read, Nancy; Franklin, Jason; Yoo, John; Fung, Kevin

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this preliminary study was to determine the prevalence of trismus in head and neck cancer patients treated with radiotherapy with or without concomitant chemotherapy and surgery. Patients with malignant lesions in the head and neck treated with curative intent were comprehensively evaluated for trismus using subjective and objective measures. A large proportion of the 70 patients recruited demonstrated moderate to severe subjective trismus (45.7%). Similarly, the vast majority of patients showed slight to severe trismus (91.4%) according to objective secondary outcome measures. Of these patients, 21 (65.6%) were also treated with concurrent chemoradiotherapy. When the radiation field involved the pterygoid muscles, 30 (93.8%) patients reported subjective trismus. Similarly, bilateral pterygoid muscle inclusion resulted in 28 (87.5%) patients with trismus. Trismus is a significantly prevalent consequence of treatment for head and neck cancer. Predictive factors include treatment with concurrent chemoradiotherapy and bilateral inclusion of the structures of mastication in the high-dose radiotherapy volume.

  15. Advances in the diagnosis and management of neck pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Steven P; Hooten, W Michael

    2017-08-14

    Neck pain imposes a considerable personal and socioeconomic burden-it is one of the top five chronic pain conditions in terms of prevalence and years lost to disability-yet it receives a fraction of the research funding given to low back pain. Although most acute episodes resolve spontaneously, more than a third of affected people still have low grade symptoms or recurrences more than one year later, with genetics and psychosocial factors being risk factors for persistence. Nearly half of people with chronic neck pain have mixed neuropathic-nociceptive symptoms or predominantly neuropathic symptoms. Few clinical trials are dedicated solely to neck pain. Muscle relaxants and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are effective for acute neck pain, and clinical practice is mostly guided by the results of studies performed for other chronic pain conditions. Among complementary and alternative treatments, the strongest evidence is for exercise, with weaker evidence supporting massage, acupuncture, yoga, and spinal manipulation in different contexts. For cervical radiculopathy and facet arthropathy, weak evidence supports epidural steroid injections and radiofrequency denervation, respectively. Surgery is more effective than conservative treatment in the short term but not in the long term for most of these patients, and clinical observation is a reasonable strategy before surgery. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  16. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Oral Surgeries Facial Cosmetic Surgery Facial Injury / Trauma Surgery Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Oral, Head and Neck Pathology TMJ and Facial Pain Wisdom Teeth Management Procedures Anesthesia Anesthesia Oral and maxillofacial surgeons are ...

  17. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Other Oral Surgeries Facial Cosmetic Surgery Facial Injury / Trauma Surgery Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Oral, Head and Neck Pathology TMJ and Facial Pain Wisdom Teeth Management Procedures Anesthesia Anesthesia Oral and maxillofacial surgeons ...

  18. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... can also invite bacteria that lead to gum disease. Click here to find out more. Who We ... Injury / Trauma Surgery Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Oral, Head and Neck Pathology TMJ ...

  19. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... teeth or become infected. It can also invite bacteria that lead to gum disease. Click here to find out ... and surgically treating cancer of the head, neck and mouth. The Oral Cancer Foundation estimates that close to ...

  20. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Neck Pathology Download Download the ebook for further information Your oral and maxillofacial surgeon (OMS) is the ... well be the key to complete recovery. The information provided here is not intended as a substitute ...

  1. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... disorders are not uncommon. Individuals with a TMJ disorder may experience a variety of symptoms, such as earaches, ... Obstructive Sleep Apnea (OSA) Oral, Head and Neck Pathology TMJ ...

  2. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... the head, neck and mouth. The Oral Cancer Foundation estimates that close to 42,000 Americans will ... cheek out to see its inside surface as well as the back of the gums Pull out ...

  3. Effect of transcutaneous electrical muscle stimulation on postoperative muscle mass and protein synthesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vinge, O; Edvardsen, L; Jensen, F

    1996-01-01

    In an experimental study, 13 patients undergoing major elective abdominal surgery were given postoperative transcutaneous electrical muscle stimulation (TEMS) to the quadriceps femoris muscle on one leg; the opposite leg served as control. Changes in cross-sectional area (CSA) and muscle protein ...... muscle protein synthesis and muscle mass after abdominal surgery and should be evaluated in other catabolic states with muscle wasting.......In an experimental study, 13 patients undergoing major elective abdominal surgery were given postoperative transcutaneous electrical muscle stimulation (TEMS) to the quadriceps femoris muscle on one leg; the opposite leg served as control. Changes in cross-sectional area (CSA) and muscle protein...... synthesis were assessed by computed tomography and ribosome analysis of percutaneous muscle biopsies before surgery and on the sixth postoperative day. The percentage of polyribosomes in the ribosome suspension decreased significantly (P

  4. Specific exercise training for reducing neck and shoulder pain among military helicopter pilots and crew members

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murray, Mike; Lange, Britt; Nørnberg, Bo Riebeling

    2015-01-01

    ) or a reference group (RG). Participants in the TG performed 20-weeks of physical exercise training divided into sessions of 3 × 20 min per week. Training was completed within working hours and consisted of specific exercise training for the neck and shoulder muscles based on the principles of "Intelligent...... was to investigate whether a specifically tailored exercise intervention would reduce the prevalence and incidence rate of neck/shoulder pain among helicopter pilots and crew members. METHOD: This study used a prospective, parallel group, single blinded, randomized controlled design. Participants were military....... Secondary outcomes included: postural balance, strength, stability, and rate of force development for neck and shoulder muscles. Measurements at baseline and follow-up were conducted at four air force bases in Denmark. Sixty-nine participants were individually randomized to either a training group (TG...

  5. Neck pain in different cephalalgias

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Chechet

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper reviews the literature related to the investigations of neck pain (cervicalgia in patients with headache (cephalalgia. Neck pain is second to lower back pain as a reason for considerable socioeconomic damage to society. The prevalence of cervicalgia in the population ranges from 5.9 to 38%; the annual incidence is 10.4–21.3%; 14.2 to 71% of people report to have neck pain at some time in their lifetime. Neck pain is concurrent with cephalalgia in 70% of cases. In patients with cervicalgia, the prevalence of headache is 20–40% higher than in those with musculoskeletal pain at another site. Neck pain is as a major risk factor for migraine and tension headache (TH. Neck pain in TH progresses with the increased intensity, frequency, and strength of headache. There is a direct relationship of the quality of life worsening associated withcervicalgia to the frequency of migraine attacks and the risk of its chronization. Neck pain is noted in cervicogenic headache belonging to secondary headaches. The identification of mixed headache in a patient with cervicalgia allows the prescription of a treatment option that may be effective in relieving both headache and neck pain. The paper discusses the causes and pathogenesis of cervicalgia in patients with headache, examination methods, and main approaches to drug and nondrug therapies in relation to the leading pathophysiological mechanism, as well as new possibilities for the effective and safe relief of pain syndrome in this category of patients. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, myorelaxants,and their combination are observed to be effective in treating patients with cervicalgia and cephalalgia.

  6. Functional Outcome After Successful Internal Fixation Versus Salvage Arthroplasty of Patients With a Femoral Neck Fracture

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zielinski, Stephanie M.; Keijsers, Noël L.; Praet, Stephan F. E.; Heetveld, Martin J.; Bhandari, Mohit; Wilssens, Jean Pierre; Patka, Peter; van Lieshout, Esther M. M.; Swiontkowski, Marc; Devereaux, Philip J.; Guyatt, Gordon; Jeray, Kyle; Liew, Susan; Schemitsch, Emil H.; Thabane, Lehana; Walter, Stephen; Sprague, Sheila; Scott, Taryn; Swinton, Marilyn; Viveiros, Helena; Heels-Ansdell, Diane; Zhou, Qi; Buckingham, Lisa; Duraikannan, Aravin; Maddock, Deborah; Agel, Julie; Rangan, Amar; Hanusch, Birgit; Della Rocca, Gregory J.; Haverlag, Robert; Slobogean, Gerard; Katz, Jeffrey; Gillespie, Brenda; Greendale, Gail A.; Guy, Pierre; Hartman, Curtis; Rubin, Craig; Waddell, James; McCormack, Robert; Apostle, Kelly; Boyer, Dory; Moola, Farhad; Perey, Bertrand; Stone, Trevor; Viskontas, Darius; Lemke, H. Michael; Zomar, Mauri; Moon, Karyn; Moon, Raely; Oatt, Amber; Buckley, Richard E.; Duffy, Paul; Korley, Robert; Puloski, Shannon; Johnston, Kelly; Powell, James; Carcary, Kimberly; Sanders, David; Lawendy, Abdel; Tiezer, Christina; Stephen, David; Kreder, Hans; Jenkinson, Richard; Nousiainene, Markku; Axelrod, Terry; Murnaghan, John; Nam, Diane; Richards, Robin; Rodriguez-Elizalde, Sebastian; Wadey, Veronica; Yee, Albert; Milner, Katrine; Kunz, Monica; Macnevin, Melanie; Cagaanan, Ria; Bicknell, Ryan; Yach, Jeff; Bardana, Davide; Wood, Gavin; Harrison, Mark; Yen, David; Lambert, Sue; Howells, Fiona; Ward, Angela; Coles, Chad; Leighton, Ross; Biddulph, Michael; Johnston, David; Glazebrook, Mark; Alexander, David; Coady, Cathy; Dunbar, Michael; Trask, Kelly; MacDonald, Shelley; Dobbin, Gwen; Ahn, Henry; Hall, Jeremy A.; McKee, Michael D.; Whelan, Daniel B.; Nauth, Aaron; Vicente, Milena; Wild, Lisa; Khan, Ryan; Hidy, Jennifer; Zalzal, Paul; Brien, Heather; Naumetz, V.; Weening, Brad; Simunovic, Nicole; Wai, Eugene K.; Papp, Steve; Gofton, Wade T.; Liew, Allen; Kingwell, Stephen P.; Roffey, Darren M.; Borsella, Vivian; Avram, Victoria; Oliver, Todd M.; Jones, Vicki; Jones, Clifford; Ringler, James; Endres, Terrence; Sietsema, Debra L.; Jeray, Kyle J.; Broderick, J. Scott; Goetz, David R.; Pace, Thomas B.; Schaller, Thomas M.; Porter, Scott E.; Tanner, Stephanie L.; Snider, Rebecca G.; Nastoff, Lauren A.; Bielby, Shea A.; Marcantonio, Andrew J.; Iorio, Richard; Garfi, John; Prayson, Michael J.; Laughlin, Richard; Rubino, Joseph; May, Jedediah; Rieser, Geoffrey Ryan; Dulaney-Cripe, Liz; Gayton, Chris; Switzer, Julie A.; Cole, Peter A.; Anderson, Sarah A.; Lafferty, Paul M.; Li, Mengnai; Ly, Thuan V.; Marston, Scott B.; Foley, Amy L.; Vang, Sandy; Wright, David M.; Vallier, Heather A.; Dolenc, Andrea; Robinson, Chalitha; Gorczyca, John T.; Gross, Jonathan M.; Humphrey, Catherine A.; Kates, Stephen; Noble, Krista; McIntyre, Allison W.; Pecorella, Kaili; Shaer, James; Schrickel, Tyson; Hileman, Barbara; Davis, Craig A.; Weinerman, Stewart; Weingarten, Peter; Stull, Philip; Lindenbaum, Stephen; Hewitt, Michael; Schwappach, John; Baker, Janell K.; Mehta, Samir; Esterhai, John; Ahn, Jaimo; Horan, Annamarie D.; McGinnis, Kelly; Kaminiski, Christine A.; Kowalski, Brynn N.; Cannada, Lisa K.; Karges, David; Hill, Leslie; Tarkin, Ivan; Siska, Peter; Gruen, Gary; Evans, Andrew; Farrell, Dana J.; Irrgang, James; Luther, Arlene; Keeve, Jonathan P.; Anderson, Christopher G.; McDonald, Michael D.; Hoffman, Jodi M.; Jenkins, Mark; Dumais, Jules; Romero, Amanda W.; Hsu, Joseph R.; Ficke, James; Charlton, Michael; Napierala, Matthew; Fan, Mary; Cross, William W.; Cass, Joseph R.; Sems, Stephen A.; Torchia, Michael E.; Scrabeck, Tyson; Sagebien, Carlos A.; Butler, Mark S.; Monica, James T.; Seuffert, Patricia; Brennan, Michael L.; Probe, Robert; Kile, Evelyn; Mills, Kelli; Clipper, Lydia; Yu, Michelle; Erwin, Katie; Tornetta, Paul; Carlisle, Hope; Silva, Heather; Archdeacon, Michael; Finnan, Ryan; Le, Toan; Wyrick, John; Hess, Shelley; McBeth, Jessica; Aurang, Kamran; Zohman, Gary; Peterson, Brett; Huff, Roger B.; Baele, Joseph; Weber, Timothy; Edison, Matt; Schmidt, Andrew H.; Westberg, Jerald R.; DePaolo, Charles J.; Alosky, Rachel; Shell, Leslie E.; Hampton, Lynne; Shepard, Stephanie; Nanney, Tracy; Cuento, Claudine; Shively, Karl; Ertl, Janos P.; Mullis, Brian; Parr, J. Andrew; Worman, Ripley; Frizzell, Valda; Moore, Molly M.; Tobias, Erin; Thomas, Emily; Cantu, Robert V.; Henderson, Eric R.; Eickhoff, Linda S.; Zamorano, David P.; Pourmand, Deeba; Lawson, Deanna; Hammerberg, E. Mark; Stahel, Philip; Hak, David; Mauffrey, Cyril; Gibula, Douglas; Gissel, Hannah; Henderson, Corey; Crist, Brett D.; Murtha, Yvonne M.; McPherson, Melinda; Anderson, Linda K.; Dohm, Michael P.; Linehan, Colleen; Pilling, Lindsey; Horwitz, Daniel; Strohecker, Kent; Lewis, Courtland G.; Caminiti, Stephanie; Sullivan, Raymond J.; Roper, Elizabeth; Obremsky, William; Kregor, Philip; Richards, Justin E.; Stringfellow, Kenya; Goslings, J. Carel; Ponsen, Jan; Bronkhorst, Maarten W. G. A.; Guicherit, Onno R.; Eversdijk, Martin G.; Peters, Rolf; den Hartog, Dennis; van Waes, Oscar J. F.; Oprel, Pim; de Rijcke, Piet A. R.; Koppert, Cees L.; Buijk, Steven E.; Groenendijk, Richard P. R.; Dawson, Imro; Tetteroo, Geert W. M.; Bruijninckx, Milko M. M.; Doornebosch, Pascal G.; de Graaf, Eelco J. R.; Visser, Gijs A.; Stockman, Heyn; Silvis, Rob; Snellen, Jaap P.; Rijbroek, Bram; Scheepers, Joris J. G.; Vermeulen, Erik G. J.; Siroen, Michel P. C.; Vuylsteke, Ronald; Brom, Hans L. F.; Rijna, Herman; Roukema, Gert R.; Josaputra, Hong; Keller, Paul; de Rooij, Peter D.; Kuiken, Hans; Boxma, Han; Clefken, Berry I.; Liem, Ronald; Rhemrev, Steven J.; Bosman, Coks H. R.; de Mol van Otterloo, Alexander; Hoogendoorn, Jochem; de Vries, Alexander C.; Meylaerts, Sven A. G.; Poolman, Rudolf W.; Simons, Maarten P.; van der Heijden, Frank H. W. M.; Willems, W. Jaap; de Meulemeester, Frank R. A. J.; van der Hart, Cor P.; Turckan, Kahn; Festen, Sebastiaan; de Nies, Frank; Out, Nico J. M.; Bosma, Jan; van der Elst, Maarten; van der Pol, Carmen C.; van't Riet, Martijne; Karsten, Tom M.; de Vries, Mark; Stassen, Laurents P. S.; Schep, Niels W. L.; Schmidt, G. Ben; Hoffman, W. H.; Segers, Michiel J. M.; Zijl, Jacco A. C.; Verhoeven, Bart; Smits, Anke B.; de Vries, Jean Paul P. M.; Fioole, Bram; Hoeven, Henk van der; Theunissen, Evert B. M.; de Vries Reilingh, Tammo S.; Govaert, Lonneke; Wittich, Philippe; de Brauw, Maurits; Wille, Jan; Go, Peter M. N. Y. M.; Ritchie, Ewan D.; Wessel, Ronald N.; Hammacher, Eric R.; Verhofstad, Michiel H. J.; Meijer, Joost; van Egmond, Teun; van der Brand, Igor; van der Vis, Harm; Campo, Martin; Verhagen, Ronald; Albers, Albert Robert; Zurcher, Arthur W.; von Kampen, Albert; Biert, Jan; van Vugt, Arie B.; Edwards, Michael J. R.; Blokhuis, Taco J.; Frölke, Jan Paul M.; Geeraedts, Leo M. G.; Gardeniers, Jean W. M.; Tan, Edward T. C. H.; Poelhekke, Lodewijk M. S. J.; de Waal Malefijt, Maarten C.; Schreurs, Bart; Simmermacher, Rogier K. J.; van Mulken, Jeroen; van Wessem, Karlijn; van Gaalen, Steven M.; Leenen, Luke P. H.; Bedi, Harvinder; Carr, Ashley; Chia, Andrew; Csongvay, Steven; Curry, Hamish; Doig, Stephen; Donohue, Craig; Edwards, Elton; Etherington, Greg; Gong, Andrew; Jain, Arvind; Li, Doug; Miller, Russell; Moaveni, Ash; Russ, Matthias; Ton, Lu; Wang, Otis; Murdoch, Zoe; Sage, Claire; Frihagen, Frede; Clarke-Jenssen, John; Hjorthaug, Geir; Ianssen, Torben; Amundsen, Asgeir; Brattgjerd, Jan Egil; Borch, Tor; Bøe, Berthe; Flatøy, Bernhard; Hasselund, Sondre; Haug, Knut Jørgen; Hemlock, Kim; Hoseth, Tor Magne; Jomaas, Geir; Kibsgård, Thomas; Kristiansen, Bjorn; Lona, Tarjei; Moatshe, Gilbert; Müller, Oliver; Molund, Marius; Nicolaisen, Tor; Nilsen, Fredrik; Rydinge, Jonas; Smedsrud, Morten; Stødle, Are; Trommer, Axel; Ugland, Stein; Vesterhus, Elise Berg; Brekke, Anne Christine; Sharma, Ateet; Sanghavi, Amir; Tetsworth, Kevin; Geoff, Donald; Weinrach, Patrick; yang, Steven; Halliday, Brett; Gervais, Trevor; Holt, Michael; Flynn, Annette; Prasad, Amal Shankar; Mishra, Vimlesh; Gupta, Ajay; Jain, Niraj; Bahatia, Mahesh; Arora, Vinod; Bhatia, Mahesh; Sundaresh, D. C.; Khanna, Angshuman; Rai, Anil; Pirpiris, Marinis; Love, David; Bucknill, Andrew; Farrugia, Richard J.; Dadi, Akhil; Palla, Naveen; Rai, B. Sachidananda; Rajakumar, Janakiraman; Cherian, Joe Joseph; Olakkengil, Davy J.; Sharma, Gaurav

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: To determine patient independency, health-related and disease-specific quality of life (QOL), gait pattern, and muscle strength in patients after salvage arthroplasty for failed internal fixation of a femoral neck fracture. Design: Secondary cohort study to a randomized controlled trial.

  7. A Novel Approach to Measuring Muscle Mechanics in Vehicle Collision Conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krašna, Simon; Đorđević, Srđan; Hribernik, Marija; Trajkovski, Ana

    2017-06-14

    The aim of the study was to evaluate a novel approach to measuring neck muscle load and activity in vehicle collision conditions. A series of sled tests were performed on 10 healthy volunteers at three severity levels to simulate low-severity frontal impacts. Electrical activity-electromyography (EMG)-and muscle mechanical tension was measured bilaterally on the upper trapezius. A novel mechanical contraction (MC) sensor was used to measure the tension on the muscle surface. The neck extensor loads were estimated based on the inverse dynamics approach. The results showed strong linear correlation (Pearson's coefficient = 0.821) between the estimated neck muscle load and the muscle tension measured with the MC sensor. The peak of the estimated neck muscle force delayed 0.2 ± 30.6 ms on average vs. the peak MC sensor signal compared to the average delay of 61.8 ± 37.4 ms vs. the peak EMG signal. The observed differences in EMG and MC sensor collected signals indicate that the MC sensor offers an additional insight into the analysis of the neck muscle load and activity in impact conditions. This approach enables a more detailed assessment of the muscle-tendon complex load of a vehicle occupant in pre-impact and impact conditions.

  8. A Novel Approach to Measuring Muscle Mechanics in Vehicle Collision Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Krašna

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to evaluate a novel approach to measuring neck muscle load and activity in vehicle collision conditions. A series of sled tests were performed on 10 healthy volunteers at three severity levels to simulate low-severity frontal impacts. Electrical activity—electromyography (EMG—and muscle mechanical tension was measured bilaterally on the upper trapezius. A novel mechanical contraction (MC sensor was used to measure the tension on the muscle surface. The neck extensor loads were estimated based on the inverse dynamics approach. The results showed strong linear correlation (Pearson’s coefficient = 0.821 between the estimated neck muscle load and the muscle tension measured with the MC sensor. The peak of the estimated neck muscle force delayed 0.2 ± 30.6 ms on average vs. the peak MC sensor signal compared to the average delay of 61.8 ± 37.4 ms vs. the peak EMG signal. The observed differences in EMG and MC sensor collected signals indicate that the MC sensor offers an additional insight into the analysis of the neck muscle load and activity in impact conditions. This approach enables a more detailed assessment of the muscle-tendon complex load of a vehicle occupant in pre-impact and impact conditions.

  9. Time-wise change in neck pain in response to rehabilitation with specific resistance training

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zebis, Mette Kreutzfeldt; Andersen, Christoffer H; Sundstrup, Emil

    2014-01-01

    Purpose To determine the time-wise effect of specific resistance training on neck pain among industrial technicians with frequent neck pain symptoms. Methods Secondary analysis of a parallel-group cluster randomized controlled trial of 20 weeks performed at two large industrial production units...... in Copenhagen, Denmark. Women with neck pain >30 mm VAS (N = 131) were included in the present analysis. The training group (N = 77) performed specific resistance training for the neck/shoulder muscles three times a week, and the control group (N = 54) received advice to stay active. Participants of both groups...... to 20). The time-wise change in pain showed three phases; a rapid decrease in the training group compared with the control group during the initial 7 weeks, a slower decrease in pain during the following weeks (week 8–15), and a plateau during the last weeks (week 16–20). Adherence to training followed...

  10. Femoral neck pseudoarthrosis in a polio patient treated with closed reduction and cell therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.A. Codesido

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Poliomyelitis disease affects the anterior horns cells of the spinal cord and certain motor nuclei of the brain stem. Paralysis type is flaccid and asymmetrical and result in muscular imbalance.Due to this, in case of having a hip muscles involvement, degenerative or posttraumatic, total hip arthroplasty is normally contraindicated because of the excessive risk of hip dislocation. In cases of subcapital femoral neck fractures the femoral head vascularization is a main concern, and in cases of neglected fracture with pseudoarthrosis the vascular status to the head must be investigated prior to further decisions.We report the case of a femoral neck fracture non-union after a missed femoral neck fracture in a polio affected leg treated with cannulated screws and percutaneous autologous injection of processed total nuclear cells (TNC mixed with putty demineralized bone matrix. Keywords: Pseudoarthrosis, Poliomyelitis, Cell therapy, Femoral neck

  11. Chronic neck pain patients with traumatic or non-traumatic onset

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ris Hansen, Inge; Juul-Kristensen, Birgit; Boyle, Eleanor

    2017-01-01

    Background and aims Patients with chronic neck pain can present with disability, low quality of life, psychological factors and clinical symptoms. It is unclear whether patients with a traumatic onset differ from those with a non-traumatic onset, by having more complex and severe symptoms....... The purpose of this study was to investigate the clinical presentation of chronic neck pain patients with and without traumatic onset by examining cervical mobility, sensorimotor function, cervical muscle performance and pressure pain threshold in addition to the following self-reported characteristics......: quality of life, neck pain and function, kinesiophobia, depression, and pain bothersomeness. Methods This cross-sectional study included 200 participants with chronic neck pain: 120 with traumatic onset and 80 with non-traumatic onset. Participants were recruited from physiotherapy clinics in primary...

  12. Self-administered physical exercise training as treatment of neck and shoulder pain among military helicopter pilots and crew

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murray, Mike; Lange, Britt; Nørnberg, Bo Riebeling

    2017-01-01

    -one pilots and thirty-eight crew-members were randomized to either an exercise-training-group (n = 35) or a reference-group (n = 34). The exercise-training-group received 20-weeks of specific neck/shoulder training. The reference-group received no training. PRIMARY OUTCOME: Intensity of neck pain previous 3......-months (scale 0-10). SECONDARY OUTCOMES: additional neck/shoulder pain intensity variables and pressure-pain-threshold in the trapezius muscle (TRA) and upper-neck-extensor muscles (UNE). Regular training adherence was defined as ≥1 training session a week. Statistical analyses performed were intention......-to-treat and per-protocol. Students t-test was performed (p training...

  13. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and training in surgical procedures involving skin, muscle, bone and cartilage finely attune the oral and maxillofacial ... and training in surgical procedures involving skin, muscle, bone and cartilage finely attune the oral and maxillofacial ...

  14. Modular neck prostheses in DDH patients: 11-year results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Traina, Francesco; De Fine, Marcello; Tassinari, Enrico; Sudanese, Alessandra; Calderoni, Pierina Paola; Toni, Aldo

    2011-01-01

    Total hip replacement in developmental dysplasia of the hip is a demanding procedure and usually requires dedicated devices and special surgical techniques. Nevertheless, the described techniques have shown variable outcomes. The aim of this study was to assess the 11-year outcomes of an off-the-shelf modular neck prosthesis in dysplastic patients and to evaluate the ability of the modular neck system to adequately restore femoral offset, abductor muscles lever arm and leg length. We retrospectively evaluated 61 modular neck prostheses implanted in 47 patients between June 1995 and March 2004. The preoperative diagnosis was developmental dysplasia of the hip in all cases. The clinical outcomes were assessed using the Harris hip score and the Western Ontario and McMaster Universities score. The femoral offset, abductor muscles lever arm, height and medialization of the hip center of rotation, and differences in leg length were evaluated on postoperative radiographs. Prosthesis survival was calculated according to the Kaplan-Meier method considering any reason for revision as failure. The average follow-up was 117.2 months (range 57-162 months). The cumulative survival at 11 years was 97.5%. One prosthesis failed 5 years after surgery because of a ceramic liner fracture due to an inappropriate obstetric maneuver during labour. At the latest follow-up the mean Harris hip score was 74.7 (range 23-91). Leg length discrepancy was avoided in the majority of cases; femoral offset was almost always restored. The results of this series support the use of modular neck prostheses as an effective alternative in the treatment of developmental dysplasia of the hip. The modularity was very efficient in restoring offset, leg length and maintaining stability with a good mid-long-term follow-up. Unlike other proposed surgical techniques, these good results are achievable by a standard surgical technique and with an off-the-shelf prosthesis.

  15. Effects of Pilates and yoga in patients with chronic neck pain: A sonographic study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naime Uluğ

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Various studies have shown the efficacy of conventional isometric, Pilates and yoga exercises. However, data on the effects and comparison of these specific exercises on the cervical muscle morphology are insufficient or lacking. Objective: To investigate the effects of different exercise treatments on neck muscles in patients with chronic neck pain. Design: A randomized study. Methods: Fifty-six patients with chronic neck pain were randomized into 3 groups as follows: Pilates group (n = 20, yoga group (n = 18 and isometric group (n = 18. Demographics and background information were recorded. The thickness and cross-sectional area of neck muscles were evaluated by ultrasound imaging. Cervical motions were measured with a goniometer. Pain severity was evaluated with the McGill Pain Scale, disability with the Neck Disability Index, quality of life with the Nottingham Health Profile, and emotional status with the Beck Depression Inventory. In addition to a conventional physio-therapy programme, 15 sessions of physical therapy, including hot pack, ultrasound, and transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS, were provided to all patients. All groups performed the exercises for 6 weeks. The aforementioned assessments were performed before and 6 weeks after the treatment. Results: Although pain, disability, depression and quality of life improved similarly within all groups (all p < 0.05, muscle thickness values as regards the semispinalis capitis were increased only in the Pilates group (p = 0.022. Study limitations: The lack of complex (progressive resistive exercise treatment protocols, short treatment duration and partial supervision. Conclusion: All 3 types of exercise had favourable effects on pain and functional scores, but no differences were found among the groups, except for the Pilates group, in which the semispinalis capitis muscle increased in thickness.

  16. Initial Experience of 3-Tesla Apparent Diffusion Coefficient Values in Characterizing Squamous Cell Carcinomas of the Head and Neck

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Srinivasan, A.; Dvorak, R.; Rohrer, S.; Mukherji, S.K. (Dept. of Radiology, Division of Neuroradiology, Univ. of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI (United States))

    2008-11-15

    Background: With the increased clinical use of 3-Tesla (3T) magnets, it becomes important to identify the potential applications of advanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging techniques such as diffusion-weighted imaging in head and neck pathologies. Purpose: To establish the 3T apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) values for normal neck structures, and to examine the utility of ADC values in distinguishing head and neck squamous cell carcinomas (HNSCC) from normal neck anatomy. Material and Methods: 3T diffusion-weighted imaging was performed on 10 normal volunteers and 10 patients with known HNSCC. In the volunteers, mean ADC was calculated in the parotid gland, submandibular gland, base of the tongue, pterygoid muscle, masseter muscle, paraspinal muscles, true vocal cord, thyroid gland, thyroid cartilage, cricoid cartilage, and lymph nodes. The mean tumor ADC value was calculated from the 10 patients with HNSCC and compared with the normal ADC values from various neck structures. Results: The mean ADC value measured in the HNSCC was 1.101 (+-0.214)x10-3mm2/s. This was significantly lower than ADC values of paraspinal muscles, pterygoid muscle, masseter muscle, thyroid gland, and base of the tongue (P=0.0006, 0.0002, 0.0001, 0.001, and 0.002, respectively). The tumor ADC values were not significantly different from ADC values of parotid and submandibular glands (P=0.057 and 0.14, respectively). Conclusion: 3T ADC values show potential for distinguishing HNSCC from normal extracranial head and neck structures

  17. Isolated neck-lifting procedure: isolated stork lift.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbarino, Sheila C; Wu, Allan Y; Morrow, David M

    2013-04-01

    Many patients desire cosmetic improvement of neck laxity when consulting with a plastic surgeon about their face. Neck laxity and loss of the cervicomental angle can be due to multiple components of aging such as skin quality/elasticity, loss of platysma muscle tone, and submental fat accumulation. Traditionally, the procedure of choice for patients with an aging lower face and neck is a cervicofacial rhytidectomy. However, occasionally, a patient wishes to have no other facial surgery than an improvement of their excessive skin of the anterior, lateral, and/or posterior neck. In other instances, a patient may present with having had a face/neck-lifting procedure that left objectionable vertical/diagonal lines at the lateral neck. In both these instances, a surgeon should consider an isolated stork lift (ISL) procedure. An ISL procedure avoids and/or corrects problematic vertical/diagonal lateral neck folds by "walking" the excess skin flaps around the posterior inferior occipital hairline bilaterally, bringing the flaps together at the lateral and posterior neck, which sometimes involves a midline posterior dart excision of the dog ear. A patient presenting with excessive skin of the neck (anterior, lateral, and/or posterior) and/or residual vertical/diagonal skin folds is an excellent candidate for the ISL. The ISL procedure was performed on 273 patients over a 2-year period at The Morrow Institute. Patients were included if they had excessive skin of the anterior, lateral, and/or posterior neck and/or diagonal/vertical lateral bands and did not desire a full face-lifting procedure. Patients were excluded from this study if they would not accept having longer hair in order to cover the scar along the posterior inferior occipital hairline or a midline T-flap skin closure scar at the base of the posterior midline neck. Under a combination of local anesthesia and IV sedation, a postauricular face-lift incision was made that was extended in a circumoccipital fashion

  18. Teaching Neuroimages: a pediatric patient with headache and neck stiffness.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeck, Adam R; Pergami, Paola

    2013-09-24

    A 14-year-old right-handed boy presented with sudden onset of severe headache and neck stiffness. Physical examination showed arm asymmetry with smaller size and muscle bulk (present since childhood) and increased deep tendon reflexes on the right, but normal strength. Brain CT and lumbar puncture ruled out subarachnoid hemorrhage or infection. MRI and angiography (figure) identified an unruptured type III spinal arteriovenous malformation at the C3-C4 level, supplied by the right vertebral artery.(1) Subtle physical examination findings can indicate underlying pathology and should not be overlooked in the proper context. Vascular studies should be considered for severe headache with negative initial workup.(2.)

  19. Why does necking ignore notches in dynamic tension?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rotbaum Y.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent experimental work has revealed that necking of tensile specimens, subjected to dynamic loading, is a deterministic phenomenon, governed by the applied boundary conditions. Furthermore it was shown that the potential sited, dictated by the boundary conditions, may prevail even in the presence of a notch, thus necking may occur away of the notched region. The present paper combines experimental and numerical work to address this issue. Specifically, it is shown that the dynamic tensile failure locus is dictated by both the applied velocity boundary condition and the material mechanical properties, specifically strain-rate sensitivity and strain-rate hardening. It is shown that at sufficiently high impact velocities, the flows stress in the notch vicinity becomes quite higher than in the rest of the specimen, so that while the former resists deformation, it transfers the load to the latter, resulting in the formation of a local neck and failure away from the notch. Small local perturbations in the material properties are shown to be sufficient to stabilize the structure under local failure until a neck forms elsewhere. While the physical observations are quite counterintuitive with respect to the engineering views of stress concentrator's effect, the present work rationalizes those observations and also provides information for the designers of dynamically tensioned structures that may contain notches or similar flaws.

  20. TO STUDY THE EFFECT OF PROPRIOCEPTIVE NEUROMUSCULAR FACILITATION ON BACK MUSCLE STRENGTH, PAIN AND QUALITY OF LIFE IN SUBJECTS WITH CHRONIC LOW BACK PAIN AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trupti Jadeja

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Back pain is a prevalent and expensive problem in society. 60-80% of people will suffer at least one episode of low back pain sometime in their lives and 30-40% of these will experience low back pain each year. Therefore the need of the following study is to see the effect of proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation on back muscle strength, pain and QOL in subjects with Chronic Low Back Pain. Methods: Ethical approval was taken before study. Forty patients with chronic low back pain (28 male, 12 female were included in the study and divided into two groups each containing 20 subjects. All the participants were signed written consent after being informed in detail about the study. Group A has been given the proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation exercises including Rhythmic Stabilization (RST and Combination of Isotonics (COI and Conventional back exercises. Group B was given conventional back exercises only. Outcome measures were taken at the end of one month i.e. after the treatment protocol. VAS, SF-36Questionnaire and Core stability gradation were taken in both groups. Results: There is significant improvement in VAS score in both groups but Group A was having more significant improvement than Group B. Also there is significant improvement in core stability grading and SF 36 score in Group A. Conclusion: It is concluded that proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation exercises on back is effective in reducing pain and improving core muscle strength in subjects with Chronic Low Back Pain.

  1. Preventive effects of stretching and stabilization exercises on muscle fatigue in mobile phone users.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Hye-Young; Yeun, Young-Ran; Kim, Sung-Joong

    2016-09-01

    [Purpose] The purpose of this study was to investigate the preventive effects of stretching and stabilization exercises on muscle fatigue of the neck erector spine and upper trapezius muscles. [Subjects and Methods] The subjects of this study were 26 healthy university students (14 males and 12 females). Each subject was assigned randomly to each of three study groups in order to prevent order effect. The three groups included in this study were the no-exercise, stretching exercise, and neck stabilization exercise groups. The median electromyographic frequency was used as a gauge of muscle fatigue. [Results] Decreased muscle fatigue was demonstrated by an increase in the median electromyographic frequency values in all the four muscle groups in the comparison between conditions 1 and 3. In particular, statistically significant differences were found between the two conditions in the right upper trapezius muscle group. [Conclusion] These findings suggest that the effect of stretching and stabilization exercises can reduce muscle fatigue in mobile phone users.

  2. Muscle biopsy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meola, G; Bugiardini, E; Cardani, R

    2012-04-01

    Muscle biopsy is required to provide a definitive diagnosis in many neuromuscular disorders. It can be performed through an open or needle technique under local anesthesia. The major limitations of the needle biopsy technique are the sample size, which is smaller than that obtained with open biopsy, and the impossibility of direct visualization of the sampling site. However, needle biopsy is a less invasive procedure than open biopsy and is particularly indicated for diagnosis of neuromuscular disease in infancy and childhood. The biopsied muscle should be one affected by the disease but not be too weak or too atrophic. Usually, in case of proximal muscle involvement, the quadriceps and the biceps are biopsied, while under suspicion of mitochondrial disorder, the deltoid is preferred. The samples must be immediately frozen or fixed after excision to prevent loss of enzymatic reactivity, DNA depletion or RNA degradation. A battery of stainings is performed on muscle sections from every frozen muscle biopsy arriving in the pathology laboratory. Histological, histochemical, and histoenzymatic stainings are performed to evaluate fiber atrophy, morphological, and structural changes and metabolic disorders. Moreover, immunohistochemistry and Western blotting analysis may be used for expression analysis of muscle proteins to obtain a specific diagnosis. There are myopathies that do not need muscle biopsy since a genetic test performed on a blood sample is enough for definitive diagnosis. Muscle biopsy is a useful technique which can make an enormous contribution in the field of neuromuscular disorders but should be considered and interpreted together with the patient's family and clinical history.

  3. Are neck flexion, neck rotation, and sitting at work risk factors for neck pain? Results of a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ariens, G.A.M.; Bongers, P.M.; Douwes, M.; Miedema, M.C.; Hoogendoorn, W.E.; van der Wal, G.; Bouter, L.M.; van Mechelen, W.

    2001-01-01

    Objective: To study the relation between neck pain and work related neck flexion, neck rotation, and sitting. Methods: A prospective cohort study was performed with a follow up of 3 years among 1334 workers from 34 companies. Work related physical load was assessed by analysing objectively measured

  4. Are neck flexion, neck rotation, and sitting at work risk factors for neck pain? : Results of a prospective cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ariëns, G A; Bongers, P M; Douwes, M; Miedema, M C; Hoogendoorn, W E; van der Wal, G; Bouter, L M; van Mechelen, W

    OBJECTIVE: To study the relation between neck pain and work related neck flexion, neck rotation, and sitting. METHODS: A prospective cohort study was performed with a follow up of 3 years among 1334 workers from 34 companies. Work related physical load was assessed by analysing objectively measured

  5. Multivariate analysis of ultrasound-recorded dorsal strain sequences: Investigation of dynamic neck extensions in women with chronic whiplash associated disorders

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peolsson, Anneli; Peterson, Gunnel; Trygg, Johan; Nilsson, David

    2016-08-01

    Whiplash Associated Disorders (WAD) refers to the multifaceted and chronic burden that is common after a whiplash injury. Tools to assist in the diagnosis of WAD and an increased understanding of neck muscle behaviour are needed. We examined the multilayer dorsal neck muscle behaviour in nine women with chronic WAD versus healthy controls during the entire sequence of a dynamic low-loaded neck extension exercise, which was recorded using real-time ultrasound movies with high frame rates. Principal component analysis and orthogonal partial least squares were used to analyse mechanical muscle strain (deformation in elongation and shortening). The WAD group showed more shortening during the neck extension phase in the trapezius muscle and during both the neck extension and the return to neutral phase in the multifidus muscle. For the first time, a novel non-invasive method is presented that is capable of detecting altered dorsal muscle strain in women with WAD during an entire exercise sequence. This method may be a breakthrough for the future diagnosis and treatment of WAD.

  6. The Danish Neck Disability Index

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lauridsen, Henrik H; O'Neill, Lotte Dyhrberg; Kongsted, Alice

    2017-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To (1) translate and culturally adapt and (2) determine the clinimetric properties of the Danish 8-item Neck Disability Index (NDI-8) in primary sector patients (PSPs) and secondary sector patients (SSPs). METHODS: Analyses included 326 patients with neck pain. Validity and reliability...... determined. RESULTS: The original Danish version of the NDI was not unidimensional. Omitting 2 items (pain, headache) revealed a 1-factor structure (NDI-8). Construct validity correctly predicted 88% of the hypotheses. Internal consistency (Cronbach's α) ranged between 0.88 and 0.89, and generalizability...

  7. Deep space infections of neck.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaluskar, S; Bajaj, P; Bane, P

    2007-03-01

    A retrospective study was performed on fourteen cases of deep cervical space infections in the neck admitted for diagnosis and treatment to the ENT Department, during a period of seven years from 1989-1997. Of the fourteen, four patients had Ludwig's angina and of the fourteen, one had a very serious complication resulting in death. Early diagnosis and adequate treatment were of paramount importance. The role of tracheostomy and management of airway in deep cervical space infections of the neck is discussed to gether with bacteriology, antibiotic treatment and surgical management.

  8. Neck pain or spasms -- self care

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/patientinstructions/000802.htm Neck pain or spasms - self care To use the sharing ... strengthening exercises and how to do them. Preventing Neck Pain If you work at a computer or a ...

  9. Can Measured Synergy Excitations Accurately Construct Unmeasured Muscle Excitations?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianco, Nicholas A; Patten, Carolynn; Fregly, Benjamin J

    2018-01-01

    Accurate prediction of muscle and joint contact forces during human movement could improve treatment planning for disorders such as osteoarthritis, stroke, Parkinson's disease, and cerebral palsy. Recent studies suggest that muscle synergies, a low-dimensional representation of a large set of muscle electromyographic (EMG) signals (henceforth called "muscle excitations"), may reduce the redundancy of muscle excitation solutions predicted by optimization methods. This study explores the feasibility of using muscle synergy information extracted from eight muscle EMG signals (henceforth called "included" muscle excitations) to accurately construct muscle excitations from up to 16 additional EMG signals (henceforth called "excluded" muscle excitations). Using treadmill walking data collected at multiple speeds from two subjects (one healthy, one poststroke), we performed muscle synergy analysis on all possible subsets of eight included muscle excitations and evaluated how well the calculated time-varying synergy excitations could construct the remaining excluded muscle excitations (henceforth called "synergy extrapolation"). We found that some, but not all, eight-muscle subsets yielded synergy excitations that achieved >90% extrapolation variance accounted for (VAF). Using the top 10% of subsets, we developed muscle selection heuristics to identify included muscle combinations whose synergy excitations achieved high extrapolation accuracy. For 3, 4, and 5 synergies, these heuristics yielded extrapolation VAF values approximately 5% lower than corresponding reconstruction VAF values for each associated eight-muscle subset. These results suggest that synergy excitations obtained from experimentally measured muscle excitations can accurately construct unmeasured muscle excitations, which could help limit muscle excitations predicted by muscle force optimizations.

  10. Synchrotron radiation as a tool in muscle physiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goody, R.S.; Holmes, K.C.

    1982-01-01

    The introduction of synchrotron sources has led to an enormous improvement in the quality of data obtained from X-ray scattering investigations of muscle contraction. Descriptions of the experimental requirements, the cameras and the detectors used are given. Experimental results are also presented for 1) the transition resting to active in frog muscle, 2) rapid length-step experiments on frog muscle, 3) structural studies of glycerinated insect muscle, 4) the active state in insect flight muscle, 5) X-ray control of muscle processing for electron microscopy and 6) time-dependent X-ray scattering experiments on molluscan muscle. (U.K.)

  11. Effects of Flotation-REST on Muscle Tension Pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anette Kjellgren

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to investigate whether the floating form of the restricted environmental stimulation technique (REST may be applied within the field of pain relief. Flotation-REST consists of a procedure whereby an individual is immersed in a tank filled with water of an extremely high salt concentration. Thirty-seven patients (14 men and 23 women suffering from chronic pain consisting of aching muscles in the neck and back area participated in the study. They were randomly assigned to either a control group (17 participants or an experimental group (20 participants. The experimental group received nine opportunities to use the flotation-REST technique in the water tank over a three-week period. The results indicated that the most severe perceived pain intensity was significantly reduced, whereas low perceived pain intensity was not influenced by the floating technique. Further, the results indicated that circulating levels of the noradrenaline metabolite 3-methoxy-4-hydroxyphenylethyleneglycol were reduced significantly in the experimental group but not in the control group following treatment, whereas endorphin levels were not affected by flotation. Flotation-REST treatment also elevated the participants' optimism and reduced the degree of anxiety or depression; at nighttime, patients who underwent flotation fell asleep more easily. The present findings describe possible changes, for the better, in patients presenting with chronic pain complaints.

  12. Psychosocial, Physical, and Neurophysiological Risk Factors for Chronic Neck Pain: A Prospective Inception Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shahidi, Bahar; Curran-Everett, Douglas; Maluf, Katrina S

    2015-12-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to identify modifiable risk factors for the development of first-onset chronic neck pain among an inception cohort of healthy individuals working in a high-risk occupation. Candidate risk factors identified from previous studies were categorized into psychosocial, physical, and neurophysiological domains, which were assessed concurrently in a baseline evaluation of 171 office workers within the first 3 months of hire. Participants completed monthly online surveys over the subsequent year to identify the presence of chronic interfering neck pain, defined as a Neck Disability Index score ≥5 points for 3 or more months. Data were analyzed using backward logistic regression to identify significant predictors within each domain, which were then entered into a multivariate regression model adjusted for age, sex, and body mass index. Development of chronic interfering neck pain was predicted by depressed mood (odds ratio [OR] = 3.36, 95% confidence interval [CI] = 1.10-10.31, P = .03), cervical extensor endurance (OR = .92, 95% CI, .87-.97, P = .001), and diffuse noxious inhibitory control (OR = .90, 95% CI, .83-.98, P = .02) at baseline. These findings provide the first evidence that individuals with preexisting impairments in mood and descending pain modulation may be at greater risk for developing chronic neck pain when exposed to peripheral nociceptive stimuli such as that produced during muscle fatigue. Depressed mood, poor muscle endurance, and impaired endogenous pain inhibition are predisposing factors for the development of new-onset chronic neck pain of nonspecific origin in office workers. These findings may assist with primary prevention by allowing clinicians to screen for individuals at risk of developing chronic neck pain. Copyright © 2015 American Pain Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Protocol for Shoulder function training reducing musculoskeletal pain in shoulder and neck: a randomized controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mortensen Ole S

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neck and shoulder complaints are common among employees in sedentary occupations characterized by intensive computer use. Such musculoskeletal pain - which is often associated with restricted range of motion and loss of muscle strength - is one of the most common conditions treated by physical therapists. The exact mechanism of neck pain is rarely revealed by clinical examination and the treatment has varied from passive rest to active treatments. Active treatments have often been divided into either training of the painful area or the surrounding musculature avoiding direct training of the painful area. Our study investigates the effect of the latter approach. Methods/Design A randomized controlled trial of 10 weeks duration is currently being conducted. Employed office workers with severe neck-shoulder pain are randomized to 3 × 20 min shoulder function training with training supervision or to a reference group receiving advice to stay physically active. Shoulder function training primarily focuses on the serratus anterior and lower trapezius muscle with only minimal activation the upper trapezius. An announcement was sent to the administrative section of the university including jobs characterized by intensive computer work. The first 100 positive replies entered the study. Among these inclusion criteria were pain intensity in the neck/shoulder of at least 3 on a 0-9 scale. Exclusion criteria were cardiovascular disease, trauma, hypertension, or serious chronic disease. Before and after the intervention period the participants replied to a questionnaire about musculoskeletal disorders and work disability, and underwent a standardized clinical examination of the neck and shoulder girdle. Further, on a weekly basis the participants log pain intensity of the neck and shoulder during the previous week. The primary outcome measure is pain in the neck and shoulders at week 10 based on the weekly pain registration and results

  14. Proposal for the delineation of the nodal CTV in the node-positive and the post-operative neck

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gregoire, Vincent; Eisbruch, Avraham; Hamoir, Marc; Levendag, Peter

    2006-01-01

    Background and purpose: In 2003, a panel of experts published a set of consensus guidelines regarding the delineation of the neck node levels (Radiother Oncol, 2003; 69: 227-36). These recommendations were applicable for the node-negative and the N1-neck, but were found too restrictive for the node-positive and the post-operative neck. Patients and methods: In this framework, using the previous recommendations as a backbone, new guidelines have been proposed taking into account the specificities of the node-positive and the post-operative neck. Results: Inclusion of the retrostyloid space cranially and the supra-clavicular fossa caudally is proposed in case of neck nodes (defined radiologically or on the surgical specimen) located in levels II, and IV or Vb, respectively. When extra-capsular rupture is suspected (on imaging) or demonstrated on the pathological specimen, adjacent muscles should also be included in the CTV. For node(s) located at the boundary between contiguous levels (e.g. levels II and Ib), these two levels should be delineated. In the post-operative setting, the entire 'surgical bed' should be included. Last, the retropharyngeal space should be delineated in case of positive neck from pharyngeal tumors. Conclusions: The objective of the manuscript is to give a comprehensive description of the new set of guidelines for CTV delineation in the node-positive neck and the post-operative neck, with a complementary atlas of the new anatomical structures to be included

  15. The effects of isometric contraction of shoulder muscles on cervical multifidus muscle dimensions in healthy office workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahnama, Leila; Rezasoltani, Asghar; Khalkhali Zavieh, Minoo; Noori Kochi, Farhang; Akbarzadeh Baghban, Alireza

    2014-07-01

    It is argued that cervical multifidus muscles (CMM) are responsible for providing neck stability. However, whether they are actually activated during the tasks performed by the upper extremities to the neck is still unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to examine the effects of isometric contraction of shoulder muscles on the dimensions of CMM. Twenty three healthy males voluntarily participated in this study. Ultrasonography imaging of CMM was conducted at rest and at 25%, 50%, 75%, and 100% of maximal voluntary contraction of shoulder muscles in 6 directions of shoulder movements. Anterior-posterior dimension (APD), lateral dimension (LD), shape ratio and multiplied linear dimension (MLD) of cervical multifidus were measured. The APD of CMM was increased while LD and shape ratio were decreased by shoulder muscles contraction (P < 0.01). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Acute neck pain in the ED: Consider longus colli calcific tendinitis vs meningitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Tyag K; Weis, James C

    2017-06-01

    Presented here is a rare cause of severe neck pain - acute longus colli calcific tendinitis - in a 54year old man who presented to the emergency department. The neck pain is due to inflammation caused by calcium hydroxyapatite crystal deposition in the tendons on the longus colli muscles. This is non-infectious. The gold standard for diagnosis is a CT neck which best shows the calcifications in the anterior vertebral column of C1-C4, where the tendons of these muscles insert bilaterally. Longus colli calcific tendinitis is not life-threatening and patients will make a full recovery after treatment with NSAIDs. However, this condition is often confused with life-threatening conditions such as infection (meningitis or retropharyngeal abscess), intracranial hemorrhage, trauma, herniation of cervical discs, or malignancy (Estimable et al. (2015) [1]). Symptoms associated with calcific tendinitis of the longus colli muscle are non-specific and include mild fever, moderate-severe headache, neck pain, and drastically reduced range of motion of the neck. More specific symptoms are the presence of dysphagia and odynophagia. Lab findings usually are significant for mild leukocytosis, and elevated ESR and CRP. Awareness of this condition by E.D. physicians can avoid unnecessary invasive interventions, increased costs, and delays that result from incorrect diagnosis and treatment. This is a unique case in which a patient who was afebrile with a normal ESR was worked up for meningitis and an intracranial process, and also empirically treated for meningitis before finally being diagnosed with acute calcific tendinitis of the longus colli muscle in the E.D. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Comparison of sympathetic nerve responses to neck and forearm isometric exercise

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, S. L. Jr; Ray, C. A.

    2000-01-01

    PURPOSE: Although the autonomic and cardiovascular responses to arm and leg exercise have been studied, the sympathetic adjustments to exercise of the neck have not. The purpose of the present study was twofold: 1) to determine sympathetic and cardiovascular responses to isometric contractions of the neck extensors and 2) to compare sympathetic and cardiovascular responses to isometric exercise of the neck and forearm. METHODS: Muscle sympathetic nerve activity (MSNA), mean arterial pressure (MAP), and heart rate were measured in nine healthy subjects while performing isometric neck extension (INE) and isometric handgrip (IHG) in the prone position. After a 3-min baseline period, subjects performed three intensities of INE for 2.5 min each: 1) unloaded (supporting head alone), 2) 10% maximal voluntary contraction (MVC), and 3) 30% MVC, then subjects performed two intensities (10% and 30% MVC) of IHG for 2.5 min. RESULTS: Supporting the head by itself did not significantly change any of the variables. During [NE, MAP significantly increased by 10 +/- 2 and 31 +/- 4 mm Hg and MSNA increased by 67 +/- 46 and 168 +/- 36 units/30 s for 10% and 30% MVC, respectively. IHG and INE evoked similar responses at 10% MVC, but IHG elicited higher peak MAP and MSNA at 30% MVC (37 +/- 7 mm Hg (P INE can elicit marked increases in MSNA and cardiovascular responses but that it evokes lower peak responses as compared to IHG. We speculate that possible differences in muscle fiber type composition, muscle mass, and/or muscle architecture of the neck and forearm are responsible for these differences in peak responses.

  18. Changes in neck mobility and pressure pain threshold levels following a cervical myofascial induction technique in pain-free healthy subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saíz-Llamosas, José R; Fernández-Pérez, Antonio M; Fajardo-Rodríguez, Manuel F; Pilat, Andrezj; Valenza-Demet, Gerald; Fernández-de-Las-Peñas, César

    2009-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate if the application of a cervical myofascial induction technique targeted to the ligamentum nuchae resulted in changes in cervical range of motion and pressure pain thresholds (PPT) in asymptomatic subjects. Thirty-five subjects, 8 men and 27 women (mean age, 21 +/- 4 years), without a current history of neck, shoulder, or arm pain participated. Participants were randomly divided into 2 groups: the experimental group, which received a real cervical myofascial induction technique, and the control group, which received a sham-manual procedure. Bilateral PPT levels over C5-C6 zygapophyseal joints and tibialis anterior muscles and neck mobility were assessed preintervention and 5 minutes postintervention by an assessor blinded to the treatment allocation of the subject. Separate mixed-model analyses of variance were used to examined the effects of the treatment on neck mobility and PPT levels as the dependent variable, with group (experimental or control) as the between-subjects variable and time (pre-post test) or side (dominant, nondominant) as the within-subjects variable. The hypothesis of interest was the group x time interaction at an a priori alpha level equal to .05. The group x time interaction was statistically significant for cervical flexion (F = 5.4; P = .03), extension (F = 3.3; P = .045), and left lateral-flexion (F = 4.6; P = .04), but not for right lateral-flexion (F = 2.5; P = .1), right rotation (F = 0.5; P = .5), and left rotation (F = 0.09; P = .2). Subjects receiving the real cervical myofascial induction technique experienced greater improvement in cervical mobility when compared with the control group. The group x time interaction did not reveal any significance for PPT in the C5-C6 zygapophyseal joints (F = 0.5; P = .5) and in the tibialis anterior muscle (F = 0.2; P = .8). The application of a cervical myofascial induction technique resulted in an increase in cervical flexion, extension, and left

  19. [Experimental models of diabetes mellitus of the 1st and 2nd types in rats: regulation of activity of glycogen synthase by peptides of the insulin superfamily and by epidermal growth factor in skeletal muscles].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsova, L A; Chistiakova, O V

    2012-01-01

    The regulatory effect of peptides of the insulin hyperfamily--insulin, insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1), and relaxin, as well as of epidermal growth factor (EGF) on activity of glycogen synthase (GS) in rat skeletal muscles was studied in norm and in experimental diabetes mellitus of the 1st and 2nd types (DM1, DM2). In norm, peptides in vitro stimulated maximally the GS activity at a concentration of 10-8 M. The row of efficiency of the peptide action was as follows: insulin > IGF-1 > relaxin. In DM1 the basal GS activity did not change, while effect of insulin in vitro was decreased more sharply as compared with action of IGF-1 and relaxin at the 30th day of development of diabetes, i. e., the efficiency row was as follows: IGF-1 = relaxin > insulin. Administration of insulin in vivo did not restore sensitivity of the enzyme to the action of hormone in DM1. In DM2, the GS activity (both the total and active form) decreased. while the stimulatory effect ofpeptides and EGF on the enzyme was absent. Insulin introduced in vitro did not lead to restoration of the enzyme reaction. The conclusion has been made that the insulin resistance affects the basal GS activity in rat skeletal muscles as well as the regulation of the enzyme by peptides of the insulin nature and by EGF, which is more obvious in DM2, than in DM1.

  20. Internal jugular vein patency and treatment methods after neck dissection in patients with oral cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Makiguchi, Takaya; Yokoo, Satoshi; Miyazaki, Hidetaka; Ogawa, Masaru; Takayama, Yu; Negishi, Akihide

    2014-01-01

    Stenosis and obstruction of the internal jugular vein (IJV) sometimes occur following modified radical neck dissection or selective neck dissection, in which the IJV is preserved. The objective of this study was to assess risk factors for stenosis or obstruction of the IJV following neck dissection. A total of 58 neck dissections performed in 51 patients by the same surgeon at Gunma University Hospital were retrospectively reviewed. The relationships of the patency of the IJV with gender, side of dissection, number of lymph node metastases, invasion out of the lymph node, radiotherapy, and reconstructive method were examined. The patency of the IJV was evaluated postoperatively using enhanced computed tomography. All cases with obstruction of the IJV received postoperative radiotherapy and neck dissection on the left side. Postoperative radiotherapy was a significant risk factor for obstruction of the IJV. Free flap reconstruction was not a risk factor for stenosis and obstruction. The rate of obstruction of the IJV was significantly decreased in cases with pectoral major musculocutaneous flap reconstruction or extended supraomohyoid neck dissection in which the muscle extensively covered the IJV. (author)

  1. The Association Between Neck Pain and Pulmonary Function: A Systematic Review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kahlaee, Amir Hossein; Ghamkhar, Leila; Arab, Amir Massoud

    2017-03-01

    The aim of this study was to systematically review the evidence on respiratory function changes in patients with chronic neck pain. MEDLINE, Elsevier, ProQuest, PubMed, Scopus, Springer, and Google scholar electronic databases were explored thorough December 2015. English-language studies investigating cervical musculoskeletal and respiratory parameters in patients with chronic neck pain were included. Characteristics of the patients, sampling method and size, musculoskeletal and respiratory parameters studied, and appropriateness of the statistical tests were considered. Studies were rated based on study design and performance. Of the 68 studies reviewed, 9 observational studies met our inclusion criteria. Significant difference in maximum inspiratory and expiratory pressures were reported in patients with chronic neck pain compared to asymptomatic subjects. Some of the respiratory volumes were found to be lower in patients with chronic neck pain. Muscle strength and endurance, cervical range of motion, and psychological states were found to be significantly correlated with respiratory parameters. Lower Pco2 in patients and significant relationship between chest expansion and neck pain were also shown. Respiratory retraining was found to be effective in improving some cervical musculoskeletal and respiratory impairment. Functional pulmonary impairments accompany chronic neck pain. Based on the observed association, investigation of the effectiveness of management of CNP on respiratory function is strongly suggested.

  2. Exercise training as treatment of neck pain among military helicopter pilots and crew members

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Murray, Mike; Lange, Britt; Nørnberg, Bo Riebeling

    Introduction: Neck pain is frequent among helicopter pilots and crew (1). The aim of this study was to investigate if an exercise intervention could reduce the prevalence of neck-pain among helicopter pilots and crew. Methods: Thirty-one pilots and thirty-eight crew members were randomized...... to an exercise-training-group ETG (n=35) or a reference-group REF (n=34). ETG underwent 20 weeks of strength-endurance and coordination training, targeting deep/superficial neck muscles. REF received no training. Primary outcome: Intensity of neck-pain the previous 3-months (11-point numeric box scale) (2......) and Pressure-Pain-Threshold (PPT) in the trapezius m. and upper neck extensors. Secondary outcome: Maximal-Voluntary-Contraction (MVC) for cervical flexion/extension and shoulder-elevation. Results: Neck-pain for ETG was (mean±SD) 1.9±1.7 at baseline and 1.8±2.1 at follow-up, and correspondingly for REF 2...

  3. Neck pain: causes, diagnosis, treatment

    OpenAIRE

    Aleksey Ivanovich Isaikin

    2011-01-01

    Neck pain is frequently encountered in clinical practice. In most cases, it is unassociated with a serious problem and ends with complete recovery. Nonspecific (mechanical, axial) pain is most common; posttraumatic pain associated with whiplash injury is less frequently encountered; compression (radicular and myelopathic) syndromes are much less frequent. Analysis of complaints and medical histories and neuroorthopedic and neurological examin...

  4. Intracranial hypertension following neck dissection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, W. A.; Balm, A. J.; Tiwari, R. M.

    1986-01-01

    A 51-year-old man developed prolonged papilloedema as a result of increased cerebrospinal fluid pressure following staged bilateral radical neck dissection. The patient recovered completely with no further specific therapy. Although the prognosis for vision is usually good in patients with

  5. Head, Neck, and Oral Cancer

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... cancer of the head, neck and mouth. The Oral Cancer Foundation estimates that close to 42,000 Americans ... diagnosed with oral or pharyngeal cancer this year. Oral cancer’s mortality is particularly high, not because it is ...

  6. Six heads of origin of sternocleidomastoid muscle: a rare case | Kaur ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A morphological variation in the origin of the right sternocleidomastoid muscle was encountered during routine dissection of the neck for undergraduate students. We found six heads of the sternocleidomastoid muscle, two sternal and four clavicular heads. The two sternal heads were lying side by side, while two clavicular ...

  7. Development of fatigue in trapezius muscle during light manual assembly work

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pikaar, R.N.; Koningsveld, E.A.P.; Settels, P.J.M.; Bosch, T.; Looze, M.P. de; Dieën, J.H. van

    2006-01-01

    Optimisation of the temporal aspects of the task design requires a better understanding of the development of muscle fatigue in the neck and shoulder region over time. Our objective was to investigate the development of muscle fatigue and to determine the relationship between objective and

  8. Changes in EMG activity in the upper trapezius muscle due to local vibration exposure

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Astrom, Charlotte; Lindkvist, Markus; Burstrom, Lage; Sundelin, Gunnevi; Karlsson, J. Stefan

    Exposure to vibration is suggested as a risk factor for developing neck and shoulder disorders in working life. Mechanical vibration applied to a muscle belly or a tendon can elicit a reflex muscle contraction, also called tonic vibration reflex, but the mechanisms behind how vibration could cause

  9. Neck control after definitive radiochemotherapy without planned neck dissection in node-positive head and neck cancers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jang, Na Young; Lee, Keun-Wook; Ahn, Soon-Hyun; Kim, Jae-Sung; Ah Kim, In

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate neck control outcomes after definitive radiochemotherapy without planned neck dissection in node-positive head and neck cancer. We retrospectively reviewed medical records of fifty patients with node-positive head and neck cancer who received definitive radiochemotherapy. Twelve patients subsequently underwent neck dissection for suspicious recurrent or persistent disease. A median dose of 70 Gy (range 60-70.6) was delivered to involved nodes. Response evaluation was performed at a median of 5 weeks after completion of radiotherapy. Neck failure was observed in 11 patients and the 3-year regional control (RC) rate was 77.1%. Neck dissection was performed in 10 of the 11 patients; seven of these cases were successfully salvaged, and the ultimate rate of neck control was 92%. The remaining two patients who received neck dissection had negative pathologic results. On univariate analysis, initial nodal size > 2 cm, a less-than-complete response at the primary site, post-radiotherapy nodal size > 1.5 cm, and post-radiotherapy nodal necrosis were associated with RC. On multivariate analysis, less-than-complete primary site response and post-radiotherapy nodal necrosis were identified as independent prognostic factors for RC. The neck failure rate after definitive radiochemotherapy without planned neck dissection was 22%. Two-thirds of these were successfully salvaged with neck dissection and the ultimate neck control rate was 92%. Our results suggest that planned neck dissection might not be necessary in patients with complete response of primary site, no evidence of residual lesion > 1.5 cm, or no necrotic lymph nodes at the 1-2 months follow-up evaluation after radiotherapy

  10. Getting Muscles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... re thinking about aren't possible for kids. Superheroes, of course, aren't real, and professional athletes ... can make you stronger. Why? Because you're using your muscles when you do it. Eat Strong ...

  11. Muscle cramps

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the lower leg/calf Back of the thigh (hamstrings) Front of the thigh (quadriceps) Cramps in the ... Names Cramps - muscle Images Chest stretch Groin stretch Hamstring stretch Hip stretch Thigh stretch Triceps stretch References ...

  12. Monte Carlo analysis of neck linker extension in kinesin molecular motors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matthew L Kutys

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Kinesin stepping is thought to involve both concerted conformational changes and diffusive movement, but the relative roles played by these two processes are not clear. The neck linker docking model is widely accepted in the field, but the remainder of the step--diffusion of the tethered head to the next binding site--is often assumed to occur rapidly with little mechanical resistance. Here, we investigate the effect of tethering by the neck linker on the diffusive movement of the kinesin head, and focus on the predicted behavior of motors with naturally or artificially extended neck linker domains. The kinesin chemomechanical cycle was modeled using a discrete-state Markov chain to describe chemical transitions. Brownian dynamics were used to model the tethered diffusion of the free head, incorporating resistive forces from the neck linker and a position-dependent microtubule binding rate. The Brownian dynamics and chemomechanical cycle were coupled to model processive runs consisting of many 8 nm steps. Three mechanical models of the neck linker were investigated: Constant Stiffness (a simple spring, Increasing Stiffness (analogous to a Worm-Like Chain, and Reflecting (negligible stiffness up to a limiting contour length. Motor velocities and run lengths from simulated paths were compared to experimental results from Kinesin-1 and a mutant containing an extended neck linker domain. When tethered by an increasingly stiff spring, the head is predicted to spend an unrealistically short amount of time within the binding zone, and extending the neck is predicted to increase both the velocity and processivity, contrary to experiments. These results suggest that the Worm-Like Chain is not an adequate model for the flexible neck linker domain. The model can be reconciled with experimental data if the neck linker is either much more compliant or much stiffer than generally assumed, or if weak kinesin-microtubule interactions stabilize the diffusing

  13. Biomechanical analysis of football neck collars.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowson, Steven; McNeely, David E; Brolinson, P Gunnar; Duma, Stefan M

    2008-07-01

    To determine the load-limiting capabilities of protective neck collars used in football through dynamic impact testing. A 50th-percentile male Hybrid III dummy was used in 48 dynamic impact tests comparing The Cowboy Collar, Bullock Collar, and Kerr Collar. A control and each collar were tested at two velocities (5 m/s and 7 m/s), three impact locations (front, top, and side of the helmet), and two shoulder pad positions (normal and raised). Research laboratory. None. None. Independent variables were the neck collars, impact velocity, and shoulder pad position. In addition to range of motion, upper and lower neck forces and moments were measured. With the top impact location, it was found that the Kerr Collar and Bullock Collar reduced head accelerations and force transmission through the neck. With the front impact location, all the collars reduced lower neck moment. The Kerr Collar was also capable of reducing the lower neck force and upper neck moment. With the side impact location, the Kerr Collar substantially reduced lower neck moment. These reductions in loads correlate with the degree to which each collar restricted the motion of the head and neck. By restricting the range of motion of the neck and redistributing load to the shoulders, neck loads can be effectively lowered.

  14. Theory and practice of laparoscopic surgery against omohyoid muscle syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhipeng; Zhu, Yubing; Zhang, Nengwei

    2017-08-01

    Omohyoid muscle syndrome (OMS) is a rare disease characterized as a protruding lateral neck mass feature during swallowing. Because there is a 5 cm scar after traditionally surgery, we designed a laparoscopic surgery procedure to meet the cosmetic needs of patients. From the year 2006 to 2016, there were 3 patients diagnosed as omohyoid muscle syndrome that underwent laparoscopic surgery. Operative and postoperative follow-up data were summarized. Average surgery time was 35 ± 13 min. Average blood loss was 3 ± 1 mL. No case converted to open surgery. No major vessel or nerve damage complications occurred. After the surgery, the neck mass completely disappeared during swallowing, and there were no operative scars on the neck. All patients were discharged within 2 days. During the follow-up of a year, no recurrence occurred. In conclusion, the endoscopic procedure is suitable for OMS. It's a safe, effective and cosmetic surgery.

  15. A novel method for neck coordination exercise – a pilot study on persons with chronic non-specific neck pain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Björklund Martin

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chronic neck pain is a common problem and is often associated with changes in sensorimotor functions, such as reduced proprioceptive acuity of the neck, altered coordination of the cervical muscles, and increased postural sway. In line with these findings there are studies supporting the efficacy of exercises targeting different aspects of sensorimotor function, for example training aimed at improving proprioception and muscle coordination. To further develop this type of exercises we have designed a novel device and method for neck coordination training. The aim of the study was to investigate the clinical applicability of the method and to obtain indications of preliminary effects on sensorimotor functions, symptoms and self-rated characteristics in non-specific chronic neck pain Methods The study was designed as an uncontrolled clinical trial including fourteen subjects with chronic non-specific neck pain. A new device was designed to allow for an open skills task with adjustable difficulty. With visual feedback, subjects had to control the movement of a metal ball on a flat surface with a rim strapped on the subjects' head. Eight training sessions were performed over a four week period. Skill acquisition was measured throughout the intervention period. After intervention subjects were interviewed about their experience of the exercise and pain and sensorimotor functions, including the fast and slow components of postural sway and jerkiness-, range-, position sense-, movement time- and velocity of cervical rotation, were measured. At six-month follow up, self-rated pain, health and functioning was collected. Results The subjects improved their skill to perform the exercise and were overall positive to the method. No residual negative side-effects due to the exercise were reported. After intervention the fast component of postural sway (p = 0.019 and jerkiness of cervical rotation (p = 0.032 were reduced. The follow up

  16. Cervico-ocular Reflex Is Increased in People With Nonspecific Neck Pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Jurryt; Ischebeck, Britta K; Voogt, Lennard P; Janssen, Malou; Frens, Maarten A; Kleinrensink, Gert-Jan; van der Geest, Jos N

    2016-08-01

    Neck