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Sample records for experimental metastable lifetimes

  1. Electrically induced metastability in SI-GaAs studied by positron lifetime spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Luo, Y.L.; Beling, C.D.; Fung, S.; Ling, C.C.; Lui, M.K.; Mui, W.K.

    2001-01-01

    Recently, a room temperature electrically induced metastability in semi-insulating (SI)-GaAs has been reported in which the normally high resistance state of SI-GaAs converts into a low resistance state when breakdown electric fields are applied to the metal/Si-GaAs/metal system. The low resistance state persists when the electric field is lowered below the breakdown bias and as such may thus be considered as metastable state of the material. To clarify whether the high field breakdown has its origins in some atomic configurational change induced through high energy electron collisions we have employed positron lifetime spectroscopy. Lifetime spectra that have been taken at the same bias in both the high current and low current phases show that the positron lifetime in the metastable state has no change within the experimental error from that of the normal state, thus suggesting that the metastability is most likely of purely electronic origin. (orig.)

  2. Quantum-electrodynamic influences on the lifetime of metastable states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brenner, G.

    2007-01-01

    High-precision lifetime measurements of the metastable 1s 2 2s 2 2p 2 P 0 3/2 level in boronlike Ar XIV and the 3s 2 2p 2 P 0 3/2 level in aluminumlike Fe XIV were performed at the Heidelberg electron beam ion trap (HD-EBIT). The lifetimes were inferred by monitoring their optical decay curves resulting from the magnetic dipole (M1) transition 1s 2 2s 2 2p 2 P 0 3/2 - 2 P 0 1/2 and 3s 2 3p 2 P 0 3/2 - 2 P 0 1/2 to the ground state configuration with transition wavelengths of 441.256 nm and 530.29 nm, respectively. Possible systematic error sources were investigated by studying the dependence of the decay times of the curves on various trapping conditions with high statistical significance. A new trapping scheme for lifetime measurements at an EBIT has been applied and allowed to reach an unprecedented precision in the realm of lifetime determinations on highly charged ions. The results of 9.573(4)( +12 -5 ) ms (stat)(syst) for Ar XIV and 16.726(10)(+17) ms (stat)(syst) for Fe XIV with a relative accuracy of 0.14% and 0.13%, respectively, make these measurements for the first time sensitive to quantum electrodynamic effects like the electron anomalous magnetic moment (EAMM). The results, improving the accuracy of previous measurements by factors of 10 and 6, respectively, show a clear discrepancy of about 3σ and 4σ to the trend of existing theoretical models, which in almost all cases predict a shorter lifetime, when adjusted for the EAMM. The obvious disagreement between experimental results and the predictions points at the incompleteness of the theoretical models used. (orig.)

  3. Lifetimes of metastable levels of singly ionized titanium: theory and experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Palmeri, P; Quinet, P; Biemont, E; Gurell, J; Lundin, P; Royen, P; Mannervik, S; Norlin, L-O; Blagoev, K

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents new theoretical lifetimes of metastable levels in singly ionized titanium, Ti II. Along with the lifetimes, transition probabilities for several decay channels from these metastable levels are presented. The calculations are supported by experimental lifetime determinations of the 3d 3 b 2 D 5/2 and 3d 2 ( 3 P)4s b 2 P 3/2 levels along with revised values of the previously published lifetimes of the 3d 2 ( 3 P)4s b 4 P 5/2 and 3d 2 ( 3 P)4s b 2 P 1/2 levels originating partly from a reanalysis utilizing a recently developed method applied on the previously recorded data and partly from new measurements. The presented theoretical investigation of lifetimes of metastable levels in Ti II shows that the HFR calculations are in general compatible with measurements performed using the ion storage ring CRYRING of Stockholm University. The transition probabilities of forbidden lines derived from the new lifetime values will be useful for the diagnostics of low density laboratory or astrophysical plasmas, particularly those encountered in the strontium filament found in the ejecta of η Carinae

  4. Lifetime and kinetic energy release of metastable dications dissociation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alagia, M.; Candori, P.; Falcinelli, S.; Mundim, K.C.; Mundim, M.S.P.; Pirani, F.; Richter, R.; Stranges, S.; Vecchiocattivi, F.

    2012-01-01

    Graphical abstract: A statistical method is proposed for extracting dynamics information from coincidence data in double photoionization of molecules. Highlights: ► When a photon, with sufficient energy, hits a molecule, a doubly charged ion can be formed. This dication has often a large probability of dissociate in two positive singly charged ions. ► Experiments of photoelectron–photoion–photoion coincidence can provide valuable information about the dynamics of such dissociation processes. ► A statistical method is proposed for extracting such information from the coincidence data. - Abstract: A new method for the determination of dynamical features of the molecular dication dissociation processes, following the single photon double ionization, investigated by time-of-flight mass spectrometry technique has been developed. The method is based on an extension of the generalized simulated annealing statistical methodology, previously applied in other fields. Here it is described and applied, as an example, to the case of the dissociation of the CO 2 2+ dication giving CO + + O + ion fragments. The results are consistent with previous determination of the metastable lifetime of the dication, but the analysis also provides additional information about the dynamics of the reaction.

  5. Lifetime measurements in Crsub(I) by laser excitation from the metastable states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kwiatkowski, M.; Micali, G.; Werner, K.; Zimmermann, P.

    1981-01-01

    A combination of collisional and laser excitation was used to measure radiative lifetimes in Cr I. By a discharge an atomic beam of metastable atoms in the 3d 5 4sa 5 S, a 5 G, b 5 D, a 3 I, b 1 I and 3d 4 4s 2 a 5 D terms was produced. Spatially separated from the place of collisional excitation laser radiation selectively populated levels belonging to the 3d 5 4p z 5 P, y 5 P, u 5 F, u 5 D, x 3 I, y 1 I, 3d 5 5pz 5 G and 3d 4 4s4px 5 G terms. Time-resolved observation of the reemitted resonance fluorescence yielded the lifetimes of 28 levels. The values are compared with other experimental and theoretical results. (orig.)

  6. Lifetime of the metastable 23S1 state in stored Li+ ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knight, R.D.

    1979-04-01

    A laser-induced fluorescence technique combined with the observation of spontaneous magnetic dipole photons from the highly metastable 2 3 S 1 state of Li + was used to measure the radiative lifetime of this state. The ions are created by electron impact on a lithium atomic beam and are subsequently stored for periods of many seconds in an RF-quadrupole ion trap. A tunable dye laser excites the 2 3 S--2 3 P, transition at 5485A, and the intercombination electric dipole transition 2 3 P 1 --1 1 S 0 at 202A is observed. This process depletes the metastable population in a time tau/sub d/ 3 S 1 / and provides a measure of the total number of metastables. Comparison with the rate of 210A spontaneously emitted photons yields a measured value for the 2 3 S 1 radiative lifetime of tau/sub rad/ = 58.6 +- 12.9 sec, where the quoted error represents 95% confidence levels. The theoretical lifetime is tau/sub theory/ = 49.0 sec. The measured value includes data taken with both 6 Li + and 7 Li + isotopes and was corrected for the slightly different detector efficiencies at 202A and 210A. A careful study of nonradiative quenching of the metastable state was necessary to understand observed differences between tau/sub rad/ and tau/sub 3 S 1 /, the total metastable lifetime. Spatial density profiles of the ions within the trap, useful for determining the ion temperature, were obtained by scanning the laser beam horizontally across the ion trap while storing 2 3 P 1 -- 1 S 0 photon counts as a function of the laser beam's position. Agreement with a simple equilibrium model, including space charge effects, is satisfactory. A study of the optical pumping process is necessary to understand the laser-ion interaction, and observational and theoretical data are presented. 47 references

  7. Sequences by Metastable Attractors: Interweaving Dynamical Systems and Experimental Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Axel Hutt

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Metastable attractors and heteroclinic orbits are present in the dynamics of various complex systems. Although their occurrence is well-known, their identification and modeling is a challenging task. The present work reviews briefly the literature and proposes a novel combination of their identification in experimental data and their modeling by dynamical systems. This combination applies recurrence structure analysis permitting the derivation of an optimal symbolic representation of metastable states and their dynamical transitions. To derive heteroclinic sequences of metastable attractors in various experimental conditions, the work introduces a Hausdorff clustering algorithm for symbolic dynamics. The application to brain signals (event-related potentials utilizing neural field models illustrates the methodology.

  8. Highly charged ions trapping for lifetime measurements; Piegeage d'ions tres charges pour la mesure de duree de vie d'etats metastables

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attia, D

    2007-10-15

    A new experimental setup dedicated to highly charged ion trapping is presented in this work. The final goal is to perform lifetime measurement of metastable states produced by our ECR (Electron Cyclotron Resonance) ion source. Lifetimes to be measured are in the range of a few ms and more. We have measured the lifetimes of the M1 transitions of the metastable states of Ar{sup 9+}, Ar{sup 13+} and Ar{sup 14+}. These measurements are useful to test the N-body problem in the relativistic range. The trap we have built, was designed a few years ago at the Weizman Institute in Israel, it allows ions with an energy of several keV to be trapped for lifetimes of about 1 second. This trap was originally designed to study the dynamics of excited molecules. We have shown for the first time how the trap operates and that it can operate with highly charged ions. We have studied the beam dynamics of highly charged ions and the trap has been tested with various species of ions and different charge states: from O{sup +} to O{sup 6+}, from Ar{sup 8+} to Ar{sup 13+}, and from Kr{sup 13+} to Kr{sup 20+}.

  9. Quantum-electrodynamic influences on the lifetime of metastable states; Quantenelektrodynamische Einfluesse auf die Lebensdauer metastabiler Zustaende

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brenner, G.

    2007-07-17

    High-precision lifetime measurements of the metastable 1s{sup 2}2s{sup 2}2p{sup 2}P{sup 0}{sub 3/2} level in boronlike Ar XIV and the 3s{sup 2}2p {sup 2}P{sup 0}{sub 3/2} level in aluminumlike Fe XIV were performed at the Heidelberg electron beam ion trap (HD-EBIT). The lifetimes were inferred by monitoring their optical decay curves resulting from the magnetic dipole (M1) transition 1s{sup 2}2s{sup 2}2p{sup 2}P{sup 0}{sub 3/2}-{sup 2}P{sup 0}{sub 1/2} and 3s{sup 2}3p {sup 2}P{sup 0}{sub 3/2}-{sup 2}P{sup 0}{sub 1/2} to the ground state configuration with transition wavelengths of 441.256 nm and 530.29 nm, respectively. Possible systematic error sources were investigated by studying the dependence of the decay times of the curves on various trapping conditions with high statistical significance. A new trapping scheme for lifetime measurements at an EBIT has been applied and allowed to reach an unprecedented precision in the realm of lifetime determinations on highly charged ions. The results of 9.573(4)({sup +12}{sub -5}) ms (stat)(syst) for Ar XIV and 16.726(10)(+17) ms (stat)(syst) for Fe XIV with a relative accuracy of 0.14% and 0.13%, respectively, make these measurements for the first time sensitive to quantum electrodynamic effects like the electron anomalous magnetic moment (EAMM). The results, improving the accuracy of previous measurements by factors of 10 and 6, respectively, show a clear discrepancy of about 3{sigma} and 4{sigma} to the trend of existing theoretical models, which in almost all cases predict a shorter lifetime, when adjusted for the EAMM. The obvious disagreement between experimental results and the predictions points at the incompleteness of the theoretical models used. (orig.)

  10. Atomic approaches in metastable antiprotonic helium atoms. REPLY to 'analysis of the lifetimes and fractions of antiprotons trapped in metastable antiprotonic-helium states' by I. Shimamura and M. Kimura

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, Toshimitsu; Ohtsuki, Kazumasa.

    1994-08-01

    In the present note the authors clarify the purpose of YO and complement its essential points, thus showing that the criticisms of SK are inappropriate. The paper YO [1] was aimed at discussing some new aspects related to the metastability of hadronic helium atoms which had been discovered when negative kaons [2], negative pions [3] and antiprotons [4] were stopped in liquid helium. The delayed fraction, time spectrum shape and lifetimes were the observables. Further experimental studies are in progress [5], and as of today there is no successful explanation for these interesting phenomena. So, YO tried to give brief and rather qualitative estimates for the observations in an intuitive way, considering only the leading terms. The following problems are discussed in as simple a manner as possible, starting from the exotic-atom viewpoints of Condo [6] and Russell [7]: i)the atomic core polarization effect, ii)the structure and radiative lifetimes, iii)the non-statistical distribution of the angular momentum and an estimate of the delayed fraction, and iv)the isotope effect, though the title represents only i). To respond to the comments of SK, it is important to consider the correspondence between the atomic approach and the molecular approach for the metastable antiprotonic helium atom of Condo-Russell. We therefore begin this note with a discussion of this aspect. (author)

  11. Monitoring of atomic metastable state lifetimes by the laser-enhanced ionization technique--A new method for probing local stoichiometric combustive conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ljungberg, Peter; Malmsten, Yvonne; Axner, Ove

    1995-01-01

    The lifetimes of atomic metastable states in an acetylene/air flame have been investigated using the laser-enhanced ionization technique. The lifetimes were found to be several orders of magnitude less than the natural ones, which clearly shows that they are fully determined by the surrounding environment. The lifetime of a specific state has been investigated as a function of flame conditions. It was found that the lifetime is strongly dependent on the local flame composition, with a distinct maximum for stoichiometric conditions. For fuel-lean local conditions, the excess of O2 acts as an effective quencher of the metastable state, while for fuel-rich conditions the quenching is dominated by unburned fuel components. An acetylene/air flame has been probed both as a function of height in the flame, as well as a function of fuel/air composition fed to the burner. The experiments show clearly for which heights and fuel/air compositions that lean, stoichiometric or rich conditions prevail. This makes a monitoring of metastable state lifetimes a useful technique for combustion analysis

  12. Understanding metastable phase transformation during crystallization of RDX, HMX and CL-20: experimental and DFT studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghosh, Mrinal; Banerjee, Shaibal; Shafeeuulla Khan, Md Abdul; Sikder, Nirmala; Sikder, Arun Kanti

    2016-09-14

    Multiphase growth during crystallization severely affects deliverable output of explosive materials. Appearance and incomplete transformation of metastable phases are a major source of polymorphic impurities. This article presents a methodical and molecular level understanding of the metastable phase transformation mechanism during crystallization of cyclic nitramine explosives, viz. RDX, HMX and CL-20. Instantaneous reverse precipitation yielded metastable γ-HMX and β-CL-20 which undergo solution mediated transformation to the respective thermodynamic forms, β-HMX and ε-CL-20, following 'Ostwald's rule of stages'. However, no metastable phase, anticipated as β-RDX, was evidenced during precipitation of RDX, which rather directly yielded the thermodynamically stable α-phase. The γ→β-HMX and β→ε-CL-20 transformations took 20 and 60 minutes respectively, whereas formation of α-RDX was instantaneous. Density functional calculations were employed to identify the possible transition state conformations and to obtain activation barriers for transformations at wB97XD/6-311++G(d,p)(IEFPCM)//B3LYP/6-311G(d,p) level of theory. The computed activation barriers and lattice energies responsible for transformation of RDX, HMX and CL-20 metastable phases to thermodynamic ones conspicuously supported the experimentally observed order of phase stability. This precise result facilitated an understanding of the occurrence of a relatively more sensitive and less dense β-CL-20 phase in TNT based melt-cast explosive compositions, a persistent and critical problem unanswered in the literature. The crystalline material recovered from such compositions revealed a mixture of β- and ε-CL-20. However, similar compositions of RDX and HMX never showed any metastable phase. The relatively long stability with the highest activation barrier is believed to restrict complete β→ε-CL-20 transformation during processing. Therefore a method is suggested to overcome this issue.

  13. Experimental lifetimes for Mg-like chlorine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Engstroem, L.; Bengtsson, P.; Jupen, C.; Livingston, A.E.; Martinson, I.

    1995-01-01

    The results of beam-foil measurements of lifetimes for low-lying singlet levels in Mg-like chlorine, Cl VI, are presented. The decay curves were analyzed by means of the arbitrarily normalized decay curve method, combined with the recently developed CANYL code, which facilitates studies of decay chains. Cascade corrected data are presented for the levels 3s3p 1 P, 3p 2 1 S, 3p 2 1 D, and 3s3d 1 D, whereas less rigorous lifetime values, based on curve fits, were obtained for the 3p3d 1 D, 3p3d 1 F, and 3s4f 1 F levels. The data are in excellent agreement with recent theoretical values, and previous discrepancies between experiment and theory for short-lived states have been removed

  14. Evolution of metastable phases in silicon during nanoindentation: mechanism analysis and experimental verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mylvaganam, K [Centre for Advanced Materials Technology, University of Sydney, NSW 2006 (Australia); Zhang, L C [School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering, University of New South Wales, NSW 2052 (Australia); Eyben, P; Vandervorst, W [IMEC, Kapeldreef 75, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium); Mody, J, E-mail: k.mylvaganam@usyd.edu.a, E-mail: Liangchi.zhang@unsw.edu.a, E-mail: eyben@imec.b, E-mail: jamody@imec.b, E-mail: vdvorst@imec.b [KU Leuven, Electrical Engineering Department, INSYS, Kasteelpark Arenberg 10, B-3001 Leuven (Belgium)

    2009-07-29

    This paper explores the evolution mechanisms of metastable phases during the nanoindentation on monocrystalline silicon. Both the molecular dynamics (MD) and the in situ scanning spreading resistance microscopy (SSRM) analyses were carried out on Si(100) orientation, and for the first time, experimental verification was achieved quantitatively at the same nanoscopic scale. It was found that under equivalent indentation loads, the MD prediction agrees extremely well with the result experimentally measured using SSRM, in terms of the depth of the residual indentation marks and the onset, evolution and dimension variation of the metastable phases, such as {beta}-Sn. A new six-coordinated silicon phase, Si-XIII, transformed directly from Si-I was discovered. The investigation showed that there is a critical size of contact between the indenter and silicon, beyond which a crystal particle of distorted diamond structure will emerge in between the indenter and the amorphous phase upon unloading.

  15. Studies of Lifetimes in an Ion Storage Ring Using Laser Technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rostohar, Danijela; Derkatch, Anna; Hartman, Henrik; Norlin, Lars-Olov; Royen, Peder; Schef, Peter; Mannervik, Sven

    2003-01-01

    The laser-probing method for lifetime measurements of metastable levels, performed by applying the Fast Ion Beam Laser (FIBLAS) method to ions stored in a storage ring, has been developed by the Stockholm group. Recently, we have applied this method to lifetime measurements of close lying metastable levels. In this paper we discuss experimental studies of ions with complex structure and present the first experimentally obtained lifetimes of selected metastable levels in complex systems as Fe + , Eu + and La + .

  16. A novel experimental technique of nuclear lifetime measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yuminov, O.A.; D'Arrigo, A.; Giardina, G.; Taccone, A.; Vannini, G.; Moroni, A.; Ricci, R.A.; Vannucci, L.

    1995-01-01

    In the present paper a new experimental method to measure nuclear reaction time in the 10 -15 -10 -10 s region is presented. Measurements of the lifetimes of low-lying and long-lived states of 19 F and 20 Ne decaying via α-channel were carried out with the aim of checking the feasibility of the method. The results obtained in this way are compared with the lifetimes known from different techniques. ((orig.))

  17. Dynamical explanation for the experimentally observed μs lifetime for D3O

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McLoughlin, P.W.; Gellene, G.I.

    1990-01-01

    The minimum energy pathway (MEP) for H atom addition to H 2 O has been determined by ab initio calculations at the MP3 level using a large Rydberg basis set. In agreement with previous theoretical studies, a local minimum in a C 3v geometry was found lying about 18.4 kcal/mol above the energy of H 2 O + H, but separated from the products by a 3.9 kcal/mol barrier. The well depth is sufficient to contain a quasi-bound zero point level, however, tunneling lifetimes, estimated to be 10 -13 to 10 -12 s, contrast sharply with the experimental results of neutralized ion beam studies which indicate a ∼1 μs lifetime for D 3 O. Exploration of the region of the potential energy surface around the MEP, shows the pathway to preserve a symmetry plane containing the H fragment and bisecting the H 2 O fragment (i.e., C s symmetry) with the dissociation coordinate lying in the A' coordinate subspace. Vibrationally adiabatic potential curves correlating to H 2 O products with excitation in the asymmetric stretch are found to have increased dissociation barriers for increased excitation with ∼μs lifetimes occurring for v ≥ 3. The interpretation that the experimentally observed metastability of D 3 O arises from this essentially dynamical dissociation barrier makes the radical a remarkable example of a quasi-bound species, lasting ∼1 μs with 10.5 kcal/mol of internal energy in excess of the semiclassical dissociation barrier. Isotope effects on the magnitude of possible nonadiabatic kinetic and potential couplings are estimated and discussed in light of the experimental lifetime scaling D 3 16 O>D 3 18 O≥H 3 16 O

  18. Analysis of the experimental positron lifetime spectra by neural networks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Avdic, S.; Chakarova, R.; Pazsit, I.

    2003-01-01

    This paper deals with the analysis of experimental positron lifetime spectra in polymer materials by using various algorithms of neural networks. A method based on the use of artificial neural networks for unfolding the mean lifetime and intensity of the spectral components of simulated positron lifetime spectra was previously suggested and tested on simulated data [Pazsit et al., Applied Surface Science, 149 (1998), 97]. In this work, the applicability of the method to the analysis of experimental positron spectra has been verified in the case of spectra from polymer materials with three components. It has been demonstrated that the backpropagation neural network can determine the spectral parameters with a high accuracy and perform the decomposition of lifetimes which differ by 10% or more. The backpropagation network has not been suitable for the identification of both the parameters and the number of spectral components. Therefore, a separate artificial neural network module has been designed to solve the classification problem. Module types based on self-organizing map and learning vector quantization algorithms have been tested. The learning vector quantization algorithm was found to have better performance and reliability. A complete artificial neural network analysis tool of positron lifetime spectra has been constructed to include a spectra classification module and parameter evaluation modules for spectra with a different number of components. In this way, both flexibility and high resolution can be achieved. (author)

  19. Radiative lifetimes of the 2s2p2(4P) metastable levels of N III

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fang, Z.; Kwong, Victor H. S.; Parkinson, W. H.

    1993-01-01

    The radiative decay rates of N III 175 nm intersystem lines were measured in the laboratory by recording the time dependence of photon intensities emitted as the 2s2p2(4P) metastable term of N(2+) ions decay to the 2s22p(2P0) ground term. A cylindrical radio frequency ion trap was used to store the electron impact-produced N(2+) ions. The radiative decay signals were analyzed by multiexponential least-squares fits to the data. The measured radiative decay rates to the ground term are 1019(+/- 64)/s for 4P sub 1/2, 74.5(+/- 5.4)/s for 4P sub 3/2, and 308( +/- 22)/s for 4P sub 5/2. Comparisons of the measured values with theoretical values are presented.

  20. Experimental determination of the constitutive behaviour of a metastable austenitic stainless steel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Post, J.; Nolles, H.; Datta, K.; Datta, K.; Geijselaers, Hubertus J.M.

    2008-01-01

    This article presents measurements to describe the constitutive behaviour of a semi-austenitic precipitation hardenable stainless steel called Sandvik Nanoflex™, during metal forming and hardening. The material is metastable, which causes strain-induced transformation during forming. Depending on

  1. Design of an experimental apparatus for measurement of the surface tension of metastable fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vinš, V.; Hrubý, J.; Hykl, J.; Blaha, J.; Šmíd, B.

    2013-04-01

    A unique experimental apparatus for measurement of the surface tension of aqueous mixtures has been designed, manufactured, and tested in our laboratory. The novelty of the setup is that it allows measurement of surface tension by two different methods: a modified capillary elevation method in a long vertical capillary tube and a method inspired by the approach of Hacker (National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, Technical Note 2510, 1-20, 1951), i.e. in a short horizontal capillary tube. Functionality of all main components of the apparatus, e.g., glass chamber with the capillary tube, temperature control unit consisting of two thermostatic baths with special valves for rapid temperature jumps, helium distribution setup allowing pressure variation above the liquid meniscus inside the capillary tube, has been successfully tested. Preliminary results for the surface tension of the stable and metastable supercooled water measured by the capillary elevation method at atmospheric pressure are provided. The surface tension of water measured at temperatures between +26 °C and -11 °C is in good agreement with the extrapolated IAPWS correlation (IAPWS Release on Surface Tension of Ordinary Water Substance, September 1994); however it disagrees with data by Hacker.

  2. Direct Measurements of Quantum Kinetic Energy Tensor in Stable and Metastable Water near the Triple Point: An Experimental Benchmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreani, Carla; Romanelli, Giovanni; Senesi, Roberto

    2016-06-16

    This study presents the first direct and quantitative measurement of the nuclear momentum distribution anisotropy and the quantum kinetic energy tensor in stable and metastable (supercooled) water near its triple point, using deep inelastic neutron scattering (DINS). From the experimental spectra, accurate line shapes of the hydrogen momentum distributions are derived using an anisotropic Gaussian and a model-independent framework. The experimental results, benchmarked with those obtained for the solid phase, provide the state of the art directional values of the hydrogen mean kinetic energy in metastable water. The determinations of the direction kinetic energies in the supercooled phase, provide accurate and quantitative measurements of these dynamical observables in metastable and stable phases, that is, key insight in the physical mechanisms of the hydrogen quantum state in both disordered and polycrystalline systems. The remarkable findings of this study establish novel insight into further expand the capacity and accuracy of DINS investigations of the nuclear quantum effects in water and represent reference experimental values for theoretical investigations.

  3. Populations and lifetimes in the $v=n-l-1=2$ and 3 metastable cascades of $\\overline{p} He^{+}$ measured by pulsed and continuous antiproton beams

    CERN Document Server

    Hori, Masaki; Widmann, E; Yamazaki, T; Hayano, R S; Ishikawa, T; Torie, H A; Von Egidy, T; Hartmann, F; Ketzer, B; Maierl, C; Pohl, R; Kumakura, M; Morita, N; Horváth, D; Sugai, I

    2004-01-01

    Using the laser spectroscopy, the time evolution of the state population in the v equivalent n-l=2 and 3 metastable cascades of antiprotonic helium atoms were studied. The effects of the collision between antiprotonic helium and the ordinary helium atoms on the atomic cascade were also analyzed. The measurements were done using the pulsed and continuous types of antiproton beams supplied by the Low Energy Antiproton Ring. The studies revealed five phases in the life history of the metastable antiprotonic helium. (Edited abstract) 71 Refs.

  4. Experimental study of the spin density of metastable fcc ferromagnetic Fe-Cu alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bove, L. E.; Petrillo, C.; Sacchetti, F.; Mazzone, G.

    2000-01-01

    Magnetization density measurements on metastable Fe x Cu 1-x alloys at four compositions (x=20, 40, 50, and 60 at. %) and at 5 K temperature were carried out by means of polarized neutron diffraction. The samples were produced by high-energy ball milling and characterized by x-ray diffraction and fluorescence measurements. Additional bulk magnetization measurements were carried out on the two samples at high Fe concentration. Over the present concentration region, the Fe-Cu system is ferromagnetic and the four samples were found to be in the fcc phase. Fe-Cu is therefore a very suitable system to investigate the magnetic state of Fe in an fcc environment. Other than confirming that the Fe-Cu system is not a simple dilution alloy, the present results were compatible with a two-state model for fcc Fe--that is, two different coexisting electronic states associated with different magnetic moments and form factors

  5. Experimental study on the ( mu /sup 4/He)/sub 2S//sup +/ metastable system in helium gas

    CERN Document Server

    Bertin, A; Duclos, J; Gastaldi, Ugo; Gorini, G; Neri, G; Picard, J; Pitzurra, O; Placci, A; Polacco, E; Torelli, G; Vitale, A; Zavattini, E

    1975-01-01

    The authors report the results of an experimental investigation on the properties of the ( mu He)/sub 2S//sup +/ metastable muonic system, which was performed stopping negative muons in a pure helium target at pressures ranging from 10 to 50 atm, and observing the total yield and the differential time distribution of the X-rays released in delayed coincidence with the arrival of muons. At each pressure P, information was obtained on the following quantities: a) the total disappearance rate lambda /sub 2S, tot/(P) of the ( mu He)/sub 2S//sup +/ system, b) the disappearance rates lambda /sub A/(P) and lambda /sub St/(P) of the ( mu He)/sub 2S//sup +/ system for external Auger effect and Stark-mixing collisions. (35 refs).

  6. Theoretical and experimental study of carburisation and decarburisation of a meta-stable austenitic steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charles West

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available Metastable austenitic stainless steels are known to undergo a partial transformation of austenite to martensite as a consequence of plastic deformation. In the case of cyclic loading, a certain level of plastic strain must be exceeded, and phase formation takes place after an incubation period, during which the necessary amount of plastic deformation is accumulated. The susceptibility of the austenitic phase to deformation-induced martensite formation is strongly affected by the temperature of loading and the stability of austenite, which itself depends on the chemical composition. A key element in this regard is carbon which stabilizes the austenitic phase. It is shown in this study that the carbon concentration can be analysed systematically and reproducible by means of annealing treatments, if the parameters of these treatments are carefully defined on the basis of advanced theoretical thermodynamic and kinetic considerations. First results on the effect of carbon concentration and temperature of fatigue testing on the austenite/martensite transformation are presented, in order to illustrate the significance of these parameters on the martensite formation rate.

  7. Quantitative fluorescence lifetime spectroscopy in turbid media: comparison of theoretical, experimental and computational methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vishwanath, Karthik; Mycek, Mary-Ann; Pogue, Brian

    2002-01-01

    A Monte Carlo model developed to simulate time-resolved fluorescence propagation in a semi-infinite turbid medium was validated against previously reported theoretical and computational results. Model simulations were compared to experimental measurements of fluorescence spectra and lifetimes on tissue-simulating phantoms for single and dual fibre-optic probe geometries. Experiments and simulations using a single probe revealed that scattering-induced artefacts appeared in fluorescence emission spectra, while fluorescence lifetimes were unchanged. Although fluorescence lifetime measurements are generally more robust to scattering artefacts than are measurements of fluorescence spectra, in the dual-probe geometry scattering-induced changes in apparent lifetime were predicted both from diffusion theory and via Monte Carlo simulation, as well as measured experimentally. In all cases, the recovered apparent lifetime increased with increasing scattering and increasing source-detector separation. Diffusion theory consistently underestimated the magnitude of these increases in apparent lifetime (predicting a maximum increase of ∼15%), while Monte Carlo simulations and experiment were closely matched (showing increases as large as 30%). These results indicate that quantitative simulations of time-resolved fluorescence propagation in turbid media will be important for accurate recovery of fluorophore lifetimes in biological spectroscopy and imaging applications. (author)

  8. Metastable hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dose, V.

    1982-01-01

    This paper deals with the basic physical properties of the metastable 2 2 sub(1/2) state of atomic hydrogen. Applications relying on its special properties, including measurement of the Lamb shift, production of spin-polarized protons and the measurement of molecular electric moments, are discussed. (author)

  9. Experimental and Computer Modelling Studies of Metastability of Amorphous Silicon Based Solar Cells

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Munyeme, Geoffrey

    2003-01-01

    We present a combination of experimental and computer modelling studies of the light induced degradation in the performance of amorphous silicon based single junction solar cells. Of particular interest in this study is the degradation kinetics of different types of amorphous silicon single junction

  10. The FERRUM project: an extremely long radiative lifetime in Ti II measured in an ion storage ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hartman, H; Rostohar, D; Derkatch, A; Lundin, P; Schef, P; Johansson, S; Lundberg, H; Mannervik, S; Norlin, L-O; Royen, P

    2003-01-01

    We have extended the laser probing technique at the CRYRING storage ring to measurement of the extremely long lifetime (28 s) of the metastable 3d 2 ( 3 P)4s b 4 P 5/2 level in Ti II. The result obtained demonstrates the power of this method for investigation of such long-lived levels. This is the first experimental lifetime investigation of metastable states in Ti II. (letter to the editor)

  11. Laser-probing measurements and calculations of lifetimes of the 5d 2D3 at ∼sol∼ at 2 and 5d 2D5 at ∼sol∼ at 2 metastable levels in Ba II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gurell, J.; Lundin, P.; Mannervik, S.; Royen, P.; Schef, P.; Biemont, E.; Quinet, P.; Blagoev, K.; Fivet, V.; Norlin, L.-O.; Rostohar, D.

    2007-01-01

    The two metastable levels 5d 2 D 3 at ∼sol∼ at 2 and 5d 2 D 5 at ∼sol∼ at 2 in Ba II both show extremely long lifetimes of the order of several tens of seconds each. This has been found both by experiments and by theoretical predictions. The small transition probabilities associated with these two levels make them interesting and challenging for theoreticians as well as for experimentalists. Several calculations and measurements of these two lifetimes have been made previously but discrepancies between the results are present. This article presents values of τ=89.4±15.6 s for the 2 D 3 at ∼sol∼ at 2 level and τ=32.0±4.6 s for the 2 D 5 at ∼sol∼ at 2 level measured in a beam-laser experiment performed at the ion storage ring CRYRING. These values are supported by our new calculations resulting in τ=82.0 s for the 2 D 3 at ∼sol∼ at 2 level and τ=31.6 s for the 2 D 5 at ∼sol∼ at 2 level

  12. Experimental determination of neutron lifetimes through macroscopic neutron noise in the IPEN/MB-01 reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gonnelli, Eduardo; Diniz, Ricardo [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares - IPEN/CNEN-SP Travessa R-400, 05508-900, Cidade Universitaria, Sao Paulo (Brazil)

    2013-05-06

    The neutron lifetimes of the core, reflector, and global were experimentally obtained through macroscopic neutron noise in the IPEN/MB-01 reactor for five levels of subcriticality. The theoretical Auto Power Spectral Densities were derived by point kinetic equations taking the reflector effect into account, and one of the approaches consider an additional group of delayed neutrons.

  13. Experimental confirmation of photon-induced spin-flip transitions in helium via triplet metastable yield spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rubensson, Jan-Erik; Moise, Angelica; Richter, Robert; Mihelic, Andrej; Bucar, Klemen; Zitnik, Matjaz

    2010-01-01

    Doubly excited states below the N=2 ionization threshold are populated by exciting helium atoms in a supersonic beam with monochromatized synchrotron radiation. The fluorescence decay of these states triggers a radiative cascade back to the ground state with large probability to populate long lived singlet and triplet helium metastable states. The yield of metastables is measured using a multichannel plate detector after the beam has passed a singlet-quenching discharge lamp. The variation of the yield observed with the lamp switched on or off is related to the triplet-singlet mixing of the doubly excited states.

  14. Theoretical and experimental investigation of atomic radiative lifetimes and hyperfine structures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Joensson, Per.

    1992-01-01

    Atomic radiative lifetimes and hyperfine structures as well as other properties, such as total energy and specific mass shift, have been studied theoretically and experimentally. Computer programs to calculate hyperfine structure constants from non-relativistic multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock (MCHF) and relativistic multi-configuration Dirac-Fock (MCDF) wavefunctions have been written. Using these programs large-scale calculations of hyperfine structures in lithium and sodium have been performed. It is shown, that the MCHF method is able to predict hyperfine structures to an accuracy of a few per mille in lithium, whereas for the more complex hyperfine structures to an accuracy of a few per mille in lithium, whereas for the more complex sodium atom an accuracy of a few per cent is obtainable. For lithium convergence of the total energy, ionization energy, specific mass shift and hyperfine parameters has been studied with the MCHF method. Radiative lifetimes and hyperfine structures of excited states in sodium and silver have been experimentally determined using time-resolved laser spectroscopy. By recording the fluorescence light decay curves following VUV excitation, the radiative lifetimes and hyperfine structures of the 7p 2 P states in silver were measured. The delayed-coincidence technique has been used to make very accurate measurements of the radiative lifetimes and hyperfine structures of the lowest P states in sodium and silver

  15. Experimental verification of lifetime of bolting joints for WWER reactor pressure vessels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brumovsky, M.; Polachova, H.

    1992-01-01

    This paper presents results from experimental verification of cyclic lifetime of bolting joints of M 140x6 mm type used for WWER-440 MW reactor pressure vessels. Bolting joints or real dimensions were tested in a special testing equipment ZS 1000 in Skoda Concern. Stud bolts are made from 25Kh1MF or 38KhN3MFA type of steels. Tests were carried out at operating as well as at room temperatures with coefficient of asymmetry equal to 0.1; one tests was realized with given bending moment. Experimental results have been compared with calculated lifetimes according to ASME, Soviet and CMEA Codes. In all cases calculations give conservative assessments. (orig.)

  16. Metastable superconducting alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, W.L.

    1978-07-01

    The study of metastable metals and alloys has become one of the principal activities of specialists working in the field of superconducting materials. Metastable crystalline superconductors such as the A15-type materials have been given much attention. Non-crystalline superconductors were first studied over twenty years ago by Buckel and Hilsch using the technique of thin film evaporation on a cryogenic substrate. More recently, melt-quenching, sputtering, and ion implantation techniques have been employed to produce a variety of amorphous superconductors. The present article presents a brief review of experimental results and a survey of current work on these materials. The systematics of superconductivity in non-crystalline metals and alloys are described along with an analysis of the microscopic parameters which underlie the observed trends. The unique properties of these superconductors which arise from the high degree of structural disorder in the amorphous state are emphasized

  17. Beam experiments with state selected Ne (3P0, 3P2) metastable atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Verheijen, M.J.

    1984-01-01

    Metastable rare gas atoms play an important role in all types of plasmas and gas discharges, e.g. in fluorescent lamps and in laser discharges (helium-neon laser or excimer lasers). In this thesis, the metastable states of NeI are studied. First, the theory of excited neon atoms and diatomic molecules is introduced, as well as Penning ionisation. Next, some experimental facilities are described (e.g. the dye laser system). With these instruments, natural lifetime measurements of the 2p fine structure states of NeI are carried out. Results are reported. Finally, total Penning ionisation cross sections are calculated using the optical potential model. (Auth.)

  18. Metastability and Rydberg states of triatomic hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helm, H.

    1991-01-01

    The np,nd and nf Rydberg series of H 3 have been studied by one- or two-photon excitation from the lowest metastable state of H 3 :B2p 2 A 2 ''. The lifetime of the metastable state has been measured and the influence of an external electric field on the Rydberg states has been studied under both aspects of dynamics (field-ionization and field-induced predissociation) and structure (Strak effect)

  19. Experimental study of the lifetime and phase transition in neutron-rich Zr 98 ,100 ,102

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansari, S.; Régis, J.-M.; Jolie, J.; Saed-Samii, N.; Warr, N.; Korten, W.; Zielińska, M.; Salsac, M.-D.; Blanc, A.; Jentschel, M.; Köster, U.; Mutti, P.; Soldner, T.; Simpson, G. S.; Drouet, F.; Vancraeyenest, A.; de France, G.; Clément, E.; Stezowski, O.; Ur, C. A.; Urban, W.; Regan, P. H.; Podolyák, Zs.; Larijani, C.; Townsley, C.; Carroll, R.; Wilson, E.; Mach, H.; Fraile, L. M.; Paziy, V.; Olaizola, B.; Vedia, V.; Bruce, A. M.; Roberts, O. J.; Smith, J. F.; Scheck, M.; Kröll, T.; Hartig, A.-L.; Ignatov, A.; Ilieva, S.; Lalkovski, S.; Mǎrginean, N.; Otsuka, T.; Shimizu, N.; Togashi, T.; Tsunoda, Y.

    2017-11-01

    Rapid shape changes are observed for neutron-rich nuclei with A around 100. In particular, a sudden onset of ground-state deformation is observed in the Zr and Sr isotopic chains at N = 60: Low-lying states in N ≤58 nuclei are nearly spherical, while those with N ≥60 have a rotational character. Nuclear lifetimes as short as a few picoseconds can be measured using fast-timing techniques with LaBr3(Ce) scintillators, yielding a key ingredient in the systematic study of the shape evolution in this region. We used neutron-induced fission of 241Pu and 235U to study lifetimes of excited states in fission fragments in the A ˜100 region with the EXILL-FATIMA array located at the PF1B cold neutron beam line at the Institut Laue-Langevin. In particular, we applied the generalized centroid difference method to deduce lifetimes of low-lying states for the nuclei 98Zr (N = 58), 100Zr, and 102Zr (N ≥60 ). The results are discussed in the context of the presumed phase transition in the Zr chain by comparing the experimental transition strengths with the theoretical calculations using the interacting boson model and the Monte Carlo shell model.

  20. Muon Lifetime Measurement and Introduction to the use of FPGAs in Experimental Physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villasenor, L.

    2008-01-01

    During the laboratory sessions at the Workshop, the students used a simple experimental setup to measure the muon lifetime with a 10% statistical error. The muon detector consisted of a sealed container, filled with liquid scintillator, coupled to a 2.5'' photomultiplier (PMT). A personal computer (PC) was used to control a digital oscilloscope which directly measured the time interval between two consecutive PMT pulses in a time window of 20 μs. The students were also introduced to the use of root to analyze the muon data and to measure the muon lifetime. They were also presented with a basic introduction to the application of field-programmable gate arrays (FPGAs) in data acquisition (DAQ) systems by means of examples. We started with a brief introduction to the VHDL language and the software package used to program FPGAs and PROMs on a commercial FPGA development board. They learned to program FPGAs for handling data transfers using the RS-232 port of a PC. They were also introduced to the concepts of circular RAMs (Random Access Memory) and FIFO (First-In First-Out) memories in the context of fast and efficient DAQ systems. We emphasized the way in which inexpensive FPGA-based electronics replaces the use of traditionally used electronics modules, such as NIM, CAMAC, FASTBUS, VME, etc., to construct fast and powerful DAQ systems

  1. An experimental and theoretical investigation of phonons and lattice instabilities in metastable decompressed SrGeO sub 3 perovskite

    CERN Document Server

    Grzechnik, A; Wolf, G H; McMillan, P F

    1998-01-01

    We report detailed Raman and IR spectroscopic measurements for the decompressed high-pressure perovskite phase of SrGeO sub 3. The appearance of a first-order Raman spectrum and slight splittings in the infrared bands suggest that the symmetry of the recovered metastable perovskite phase is lowered from Pm3m. This interpretation is fully supported by first-principles LDA calculations using the LAPW method, which indicate a small tetragonal distortion. The static lattice energy is lowered by 3.3 meV (per formula unit) by allowing rotational relaxation of the GeO sub 6 octahedra. The calculations permit a reliable assignment of the zone centre phonon modes of SrGeO sub 3 perovskite. The calculated pressure dependence of the ferroic IR-active modes is in excellent agreement with our measured data and reveals an incipient soft-mode behaviour in the tension regime. Further calculations of the GeO sub 6 unit as a function of octahedral volume reveal instabilities to local off-centre Ge sup 4 sup + displacements as ...

  2. Topodynamics of metastable brains

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozzi, Arturo; Peters, James F.; Fingelkurts, Andrew A.; Fingelkurts, Alexander A.; Marijuán, Pedro C.

    2017-07-01

    The brain displays both the anatomical features of a vast amount of interconnected topological mappings as well as the functional features of a nonlinear, metastable system at the edge of chaos, equipped with a phase space where mental random walks tend towards lower energetic basins. Nevertheless, with the exception of some advanced neuro-anatomic descriptions and present-day connectomic research, very few studies have been addressing the topological path of a brain embedded or embodied in its external and internal environment. Herein, by using new formal tools derived from algebraic topology, we provide an account of the metastable brain, based on the neuro-scientific model of Operational Architectonics of brain-mind functioning. We introduce a ;topodynamic; description that shows how the relationships among the countless intertwined spatio-temporal levels of brain functioning can be assessed in terms of projections and mappings that take place on abstract structures, equipped with different dimensions, curvatures and energetic constraints. Such a topodynamical approach, apart from providing a biologically plausible model of brain function that can be operationalized, is also able to tackle the issue of a long-standing dichotomy: it throws indeed a bridge between the subjective, immediate datum of the naïve complex of sensations and mentations and the objective, quantitative, data extracted from experimental neuro-scientific procedures. Importantly, it opens the door to a series of new predictions and future directions of advancement for neuroscientific research.

  3. Stark--Zeeman effect of metastable hydrogen molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagann, R.H.

    1975-01-01

    The Stark effect of the N = 1 rotational level of orthohydrogen and the N = 2 rotational level of parahydrogen in the metastable c 3 PI/sub u/ electronic state has been measured using the molecular beam magnetic resonance method. The Stark effect of the metastable state is 10,000 times larger than that of the ground electronic state. The Stark effect of parahydrogen was found to be weakly dependent on static magnetic field strength, whereas the Stark effect of orthohydrogen was found to be more strongly dependent on the magnetic field strength. The Stark effect of orthohydrogen has been calculated using second-order perturbation theory with a pure Stark effect perturbation. The magnetic field dependence of the Stark effect was calculated using third-order perturbation theory with a mixed Stark--Zeeman effect double perturbation. A comparison of the experimental and theoretical values of α/sub perpendicular/ provides information on the electronic transition moment connecting the c 3 PI/sub u/ state to the a 3 Σ + /sub g/ state. The transition moment is needed to calculate the radiative lifetimes of the various vibrational levels of the c 3 PI/sub u/ state. The transition moment also enters the calculation of the quenching of this metastable state by an external electric field. There is a disagreement between theoretical predictions and the results of an experiment on the electric field quenching of the metastables. A test of the electronic transition moment may help shed light on this question. The experimental determination of the values of the transition moments allows one to test theory by comparing these values to those obtained by calculations employing ab initio wavefunctions

  4. Experimental investigation of atomic lifetimes for the 2p53l levels in Ne-like sulphur

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kirm, M.; Bengtsson, P.; Engstroem, L.

    1996-01-01

    This paper reports an experimental investigation of lifetimes of the 2p 5 3l levels in S VII, using the beam-foil method. Results are also given for some levels belonging to the 2p 5 4p, 4f and 5g configurations. All 3l lifetimes are obtained after extensive cascade corrections utilizing the non-linear ANDC technique along the decay chain 2p 6 -2p 5 3s-3p-3d-4f-5g. This work is the first investigation in the Ne-sequence to incorporate cascade corrections also for the 3d levels, and this is found to reduce the lifetimes by about 20% compared to previous experimental studies. For the very rapid 3s 1 P 1 decay, which is measured using the resonance transition at 72 A, we find that subtraction of the foil-position dependent background is important for a proper analysis and that this correction leads to a reduction in the evaluated lifetime by about 15%. With these experimental improvements all 3l lifetimes obtained are in good general agreement with recent theoretical predictions. (orig.)

  5. Decay of atomic metastable states in a plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kleiman, E.B.

    1985-01-01

    This paper discusses the influence of polarization plasma effects on the lifetime of metastable atomic levels. It is shown that plasma effects can also be important in the case when the distance between the metastable level and the closest emitting level exceeds the Langmuir frequency. The lifetime of the 2S level of a hydrogen atom in a rarefied plasma connected with the action of a longitudinal fluctuation field on the atom is estimated. It is found that this mechanism can determine the lifetime of the 2S level in a rarefied cosmic plasma

  6. Pathomorphological features of the skin and muscle tissue of experimental animals in the case of lifetime and postmortem damage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. V. Kis

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The problem of forensic medical diagnosis of tissue injury is currently the subject of numerous investigations. Pathomorphological changes of the skin and muscle tissue of experimental animals, resulting in the case of lifetime and postmortem traumatic injuries, depending on the time and temperature, were revealed by the author. Data obtained by the author is very necessary for improving the forensic medical diagnosis of traumatic soft tissue injuries.

  7. Two-photon polarization Fourier spectroscopy of metastable atomic hydrogen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncan, A.J.; Beyer, H.-J.; Kleinpoppen, H.; Sheikh, Z.A,; B-Z Univ., Multan

    1997-01-01

    A novel Fourier-transform spectroscopic method using two-photon polarization to determine the spectral distribution of the two photons emitted in the spontaneous decay of metastable atomic hydrogen is described. The method uses birefringent retardation plates and takes advantage of the subtle interplay between the spectral properties and the entangled polarization properties of the radiation emitted in the decay. Assuming the validity of the theoretical spectral distribution, it is shown that the experimental results agree well with theory. On the other hand, success in solving the inverse problem of determining the spectral distribution from the experimental results is limited by the small number of experimental points. However, making reasonable assumptions it is deduced that the observed spectrum is characterized by a broadband signal of width (0.43 ± 0.06) x 10 16 rad s -1 and centre angular frequency (0.77 ± 0.03) x 10 16 rad s -1 in good agreement with the predictions of 0.489 x 10 16 rad s -1 and 0.775 x 10 16 rad s -1 , respectively, obtained from the theoretical spectral distribution modified to take account of the absorption of the two-photon radiation in air. The values of 1.5 fs for the coherence time and 440 nm for the coherence length for single photons of the two-photon pair which are obtained from the measured bandwidth imply that, in the ideal case, these values are determined by the essentially zero lifetime of the virtual intermediate state of the decay process rather than the long lifetime of the metastable state which, it is suggested, determines the coherence time and coherence length appropriate to certain types of fourth-order interference experiments. (Author)

  8. Effect of the subgap conductance on the metastable states in a Josephson tunnel junction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cristiano, R.; Pagano, S.; Silvestrini, P.; Gray, K.E.; Liengme, O.

    1987-09-01

    An investigation of the decay rate of metastable states in Josephson tunnel junctions in presence of thermal noise is presented. We have observed that, in the extremely underdamped regime, there is an exponential temperature dependence of the best fit value for the shunt conductance. Such a dependence shows a close relation with the temperature dependence of the subgap conductance, suggesting that the effective conductance for the escape from the metastable states obeys to a quasi-particle thermal activation mechanism. The introduction of this effective conductance into the lifetime expression for the zero-voltage states leads to significant changes in the width of the switching current distributions. A comparisons of the experimental data with the proposed model is reported. 7 refs., 2 figs

  9. A novel experimental system of high stability and lifetime for the laser-desorption of biomolecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taherkhani, Mehran; Riese, Mikko; BenYezzar, Mohammed; Müller-Dethlefs, Klaus

    2010-06-01

    A novel laser desorption system, with improved signal stability and extraordinary long lifetime, is presented for the study of jet-cooled biomolecules in the gas phase using vibrationally resolved photoionization spectroscopy. As a test substance tryptophane is used to characterize this desorption source. A usable lifetime of above 1 month (for a laser desorption repetition rate of 20 Hz) has been observed by optimizing the pellets (graphite/tryptophane, 3 mm diameter and 6 mm length) from which the substance is laser-desorbed. Additionally, the stability and signal-to-noise ratio has been improved by averaging the signal over the entire sample pellet by synchronizing the data acquisition with the rotation of the sample rod. The results demonstrate how a combination of the above helps to produce stable and conclusive spectra of tryptophane using one-color and two-color resonant two-photon ionization studies.

  10. Experimental Estimation of the Lifetime of Atoms Formed by π+ and π- Mesons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Afanas'ev, L.G.; Gorchakov, O.E.; Chvyrov, A.S.

    1994-01-01

    Based on observation of 272±49 atoms formed by π + and π - mesons an estimation of the atom lifetime in the ground state is obtained: τ=(2.9 -2.1 +∞ )·10 -15 s or τ>0.6·10 -15 s at 90% confidence level. Atoms were produced in inclusive pTa interactions at 70 GeV. 18 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  11. Lifetime measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Poletti, A.R.

    1976-01-01

    Recent developments in experimental methods of measuring the lifetimes of excited nuclear states is reviewed in three main areas. (a) Doppler Shift Attenuation Measurements (DSAM) Times: 10 -14 - 10 -11 sec.; (b) Recoil Distance Measurements (RDM) Times: 10 -9 - 10 -12 sec.; (c) Direct Electronic Timing Times: down to 10 -10 sec.; A measurement of an excited state lifetime can answer a large number of different questions. Two examples are discussed: (a) The determination of the lifetime of an isomeric transition in 93 Tc and its use in determining an upper limit for the magnitude of the parity non-conserving matrix element - /Hsub(PN)/17/2 + >. (b) The dependence of the strength of M2 transitions on isospin in nuclei in the 1dsub(3/2) -1fsub(7/2) region. (author)

  12. International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER) divertor plate performance and lifetime considerations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattas, R.F.

    1990-03-01

    The ITER divertor plate performance during the technology phase of operation has been analyzed. High-Z materials, such as tungsten and tantalum, have been considered as plasma side materials, and refractory metal alloys, Ta-10W, TZM, Nb-1Zr, and V-15Cr-5Ti, plus copper alloys have been considered as the structural materials. The fatigue lifetime have been predicted for structural plates and for duplex plates with the plasma side material bonded to the structure. The results indicate that refractory alloys have a comparable or improved performance to copper alloys. Peak allowable heat fluxes for these analyses are in the range of 15--20 MW/m 2 for 2 mm thick structural plates and 7--11 MW/m 2 for 4 mm thick duplex plates. 4 refs., 55 figs., 6 tabs

  13. Metastable dark energy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo G. Landim

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available We build a model of metastable dark energy, in which the observed vacuum energy is the value of the scalar potential at the false vacuum. The scalar potential is given by a sum of even self-interactions up to order six. The deviation from the Minkowski vacuum is due to a term suppressed by the Planck scale. The decay time of the metastable vacuum can easily accommodate a mean life time compatible with the age of the universe. The metastable dark energy is also embedded into a model with SU(2R symmetry. The dark energy doublet and the dark matter doublet naturally interact with each other. A three-body decay of the dark energy particle into (cold and warm dark matter can be as long as large fraction of the age of the universe, if the mediator is massive enough, the lower bound being at intermediate energy level some orders below the grand unification scale. Such a decay shows a different form of interaction between dark matter and dark energy, and the model opens a new window to investigate the dark sector from the point-of-view of particle physics.

  14. Direct measurement of the concentration of metastable ions produced from neutral gas particles using laser-induced fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chu, Feng; Skiff, Fred; Berumen, Jorge; Mattingly, Sean; Hood, Ryan

    2017-10-01

    Extensive information can be obtained on wave-particle interactions and wave fields by direct measurement of perturbed ion distribution functions using laser-induced fluorescence (LIF). For practical purposes, LIF is frequently performed on metastables that are produced from neutral gas particles and existing ions in other electronic states. We numerically simulate the ion velocity distribution measurement and wave-detection process using a Lagrangian model for the LIF signal. The results show that under circumstances where the metastable ion population is coming directly from the ionization of neutrals (as opposed to the excitation of ground-state ions), the velocity distribution will only faithfully represent processes which act on the ion dynamics in a time shorter than the metastable lifetime. Therefore, it is important to know the ratio of metastable population coming from neutrals to that from existing ions to correct the LIF measurements of plasma ion temperature and electrostatic waves. In this paper, we experimentally investigate the ratio of these two populations by externally launching an ion acoustic wave and comparing the wave amplitudes that are measured with LIF and a Langmuir probe using a lock-in amplifier. DE-FG02-99ER54543.

  15. Detecting metastable staus and gravitinos at the ILC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martyn, H.U.

    2006-06-01

    A study of various SUSY scenarios is presented in which the lightest supersymmetric particle is the gravitino G and the next-to-lightest supersymmetric particle is a scalar tau τ with lifetimes ranging from seconds to years. Gravitinos are interesting dark matter candidates which can be produced in decays of heavier sparticles at the International Linear Collider (ILC), but remain undetected in direct searches of astrophysical experiments. We investigate the detection and measurement of metastable staus, which may be copiously produced at the ILC either directly or via cascade decays. A proper choice of the experimental conditions will allow one to stop large samples of τ's in the calorimeters of the ILC detector and to study the subsequent decays τ → τG. Detailed simulations show that the properties of the stau and the gravitino, such as τ mass and lifetime and G mass, can be accurately determined at a future ILC and may provide direct access to the gravitational coupling, respectively Planck scale. (Orig.)

  16. Experimental determination of an ionisation detector for measuring the nuclear lifetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tisserant, S.

    1982-06-01

    The proton or neutron decay signature needs a good measurement of the varied produced particle energy, together with a good identification of them. The lack of experimental data on electron and charged pion of low energy led to experiment two series of tests. This thesis study precise, from these tests, the performances of the detector that will be installed at Modane. Prototype performances are first studied, concerning the particle energy measurement (electron and charged pions) and their identification. To extrapolate these results to the final detector, simulation programs will be used. The application of such a program that Electron-Gamma-Shower to energies below 500 MeV/c 2 for electromagnetic showers will be verified. For the pions, a simulation program of pion-nucleus interactions at low energy will be checked out from the experimental test data. Scattering effects, charge exchange and absorption are particularly concerned. These simulations reproduce the prototype results; they will be applied to the expected decay modes of proton and neutron. It will be shown that a fine grain detector. Shows a comparable sensitivty for every mode without final neutrino. Triggering probability and decay sign probability will be studied particularly [fr

  17. Dimensional effects and scalability of Meta-Stable Dip (MSD) memory effect for 1T-DRAM SOI MOSFETs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubert, A.; Bawedin, M.; Cristoloveanu, S.; Ernst, T.

    2009-12-01

    The difficult scaling of bulk Dynamic Random Access Memories (DRAMs) has led to various concepts of capacitor-less single-transistor (1T) architectures based on SOI transistor floating-body effects. Amongst them, the Meta-Stable Dip RAM (MSDRAM), which is a double-gate Fully Depleted SOI transistor, exhibits attractive performances. The Meta-Stable Dip effect results from the reduced junction leakage current and the long carrier generation lifetime in thin silicon film transistors. In this study, various devices with different gate lengths, widths and silicon film thicknesses have been systematically explored, revealing the impact of transistor dimensions on the MSD effect. These experimental results are discussed and validated by two-dimensional numerical simulations. It is found that MSD is maintained for small dimensions even in standard SOI MOSFETs, although specific optimizations are expected to enhance MSDRAM performances.

  18. Experimental and first-principles calculation study of the pressure-induced transitions to a metastable phase in GaP O4 and in the solid solution AlP O4-GaP O4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Angot, E.; Huang, B.; Levelut, C.; Le Parc, R.; Hermet, P.; Pereira, A. S.; Aquilanti, G.; Frapper, G.; Cambon, O.; Haines, J.

    2017-08-01

    α -Quartz-type gallium phosphate and representative compositions in the AlP O4-GaP O4 solid solution were studied by x-ray powder diffraction and absorption spectroscopy, Raman scattering, and by first-principles calculations up to pressures of close to 30 GPa. A phase transition to a metastable orthorhombic high-pressure phase along with some of the stable orthorhombic C m c m CrV O4 -type material is found to occur beginning at 9 GPa at 320 ∘C in GaP O4 . In the case of the AlP O4-GaP O4 solid solution at room temperature, only the metastable orthorhombic phase was obtained above 10 GPa. The possible crystal structures of the high-pressure forms of GaP O4 were predicted from first-principles calculations and the evolutionary algorithm USPEX. A predicted orthorhombic structure with a P m n 21 space group with the gallium in sixfold and phosphorus in fourfold coordination was found to be in the best agreement with the combined experimental data from x-ray diffraction and absorption and Raman spectroscopy. This method is found to very powerful to better understand competition between different phase transition pathways at high pressure.

  19. Modeling of metastable phase formation diagrams for sputtered thin films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Keke; Music, Denis; To Baben, Moritz; Lange, Dennis; Bolvardi, Hamid; Schneider, Jochen M

    2016-01-01

    A method to model the metastable phase formation in the Cu-W system based on the critical surface diffusion distance has been developed. The driver for the formation of a second phase is the critical diffusion distance which is dependent on the solubility of W in Cu and on the solubility of Cu in W. Based on comparative theoretical and experimental data, we can describe the relationship between the solubilities and the critical diffusion distances in order to model the metastable phase formation. Metastable phase formation diagrams for Cu-W and Cu-V thin films are predicted and validated by combinatorial magnetron sputtering experiments. The correlative experimental and theoretical research strategy adopted here enables us to efficiently describe the relationship between the solubilities and the critical diffusion distances in order to model the metastable phase formation during magnetron sputtering.

  20. Metastable states in amorphous chalcogenide semiconductors

    CERN Document Server

    Mikla, Victor I

    2009-01-01

    This book addresses an interesting and technologically important class of materials, the amorphous chalcogenide semiconductors. Experimental results on the structural and electronic metastable states in Se-rich chalcogenides are presented. Special attention is paid to the states in the mobility gap and their sensitivity to various factors such as irradiation, annealing and composition. Photoinduced changes of structure and physical properties are also considered and structural transformation at photocrystallization is studied in detail. Finally, the authors discuss potential applications of th

  1. Investigation of metastable ions by mass spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Szilagyi, Z.

    1998-01-01

    Metastable decompositions of ions was studied by various methods. The results are summarized in three chapters in this thesis. The development of a method can be used for evaluation of experimental data is described in the first chapter; the second one presents an example for the application of the developed method; and the laser power dependence of MALDI-TOF PSD (matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight post-source decay) spectra is discussed in chapter three. (author)

  2. Desensitization of metastable intermolecular composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busse, James R [South Fork, CO; Dye, Robert C [Los Alamos, NM; Foley, Timothy J [Los Alamos, NM; Higa, Kelvin T [Ridgecrest, CA; Jorgensen, Betty S [Jemez Springs, NM; Sanders, Victor E [White Rock, NM; Son, Steven F [Los Alamos, NM

    2011-04-26

    A method to substantially desensitize a metastable intermolecular composite material to electrostatic discharge and friction comprising mixing the composite material with an organic diluent and removing enough organic diluent from the mixture to form a mixture with a substantially putty-like consistency, as well as a concomitant method of recovering the metastable intermolecular composite material.

  3. Complexity, Metastability and Nonextensivity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beck, C.; Benedek, G.; Rapisarda, A.; Tsallis, C.

    Work and heat fluctuations in systems with deterministic and stochastic forces / E. G. D. Cohen and R. Van Zon -- Is the entropy S[symbol] extensive or nonextensive? / C. Tsallis -- Superstatistics: recent developments and applications / C. Beck -- Two stories outside Boltzmann-Gibbs statistics: Mori's Q-phase transitions and glassy dynamics at the onset of chaos / A. Robledo, F. Baldovin and E. Mayoral -- Time-averages and the heat theorem / A. Carati -- Fundamental formulae and numerical evidences for the central limit theorem in Tsallis statistics / H. Suyari -- Generalizing the Planck distribution / A. M. C. Soma and C. Tsallis -- The physical roots of complexity: renewal or modulation? / P. Grigolini -- Nonequivalent ensembles and metastability / H. Touchette and R. S. Ellis -- Statistical physics for cosmic structures / L. Pietronero and F. Sylos Labini -- Metastability and anomalous behavior in the HMF model: connections to nonextensive thermodynamics and glassy dynamics / A. Pluchino, A. Rapisarda and V. Latora -- Vlasov analysis of relaxation and meta-equilibrium / C. Anteneodo and R. O. Vallejos -- Weak chaos in large conservative systems - infinite-range coupled standard maps / L. G. Moyano, A. P. Majtey and C. Tsallis -- Deterministc aging / E. Barkai -- Edge of chaos of the classical kicked top map: sensitivity to initial conditions / S. M. Duarte Queirós and C. Tsallis -- What entropy at the edge of chaos? / M. Lissia, M. Coraddu and R. Tonelli -- Fractal growth of carbon schwarzites / G. Benedek ... [et al.] -- Clustering and interface propagation in interacting particle dynamics / A. Provata and V. K. Noussiou -- Resonant activation and noise enhanced stability in Josephson junctions / A. L. Pankratov and B. Spagnolo -- Symmetry breaking induced directed motions / C.-H. Chang and T. Y. Tsong -- General theory of Galilean-invariant entropic lattic Boltzmann models / B. M. Boghosian -- Unifying approach to the jamming transition in granular media and

  4. Photodetachment of metastable He-

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thompson, J.S.; Dellwo, J.; Compton, R.N.

    1990-01-01

    A crossed-beams apparatus has been used to measure angular distributions and cross sections for photoelectron detachment from metastable He - . Energy- and angle-resolved electron spectroscopy was used to investigate the spectral dependences of the angular distribution of the photoelectrons. The angular distributions along with photoelectron yield measurements were used to determine the cross sections for photodetachment of He - (2 4 P) via the energy resolved He(2 3 P) and He(2 3 S) exit channels. The precision of the cross section measurements was enhanced by exploiting the kinematic effects associated with detachment from a fast beam source. Calculated cross sections for the photodetachment of H - were used to establish an absolute scale for the He - cross section measurements

  5. On Metastability in FPU

    CERN Document Server

    Bambusi, D

    2005-01-01

    We present an analytical study of the Fermi--Pasta--Ulam (FPU) $\\alpha$--model with periodic boundary conditions. We analyze the dynamics corresponding to initial data with some low frequency Fourier modes excited. We show that, correspondignly, a pair of KdV equations constitute the resonant normal form of the system. We also use such a normal form in order to prove the existence of a metastability phenomenon. More precisely, we show that the time average of the modal energy spectrum rapidly attains a well defined distribution corresponding to a packet of low frequencies modes. Subsequently, the distribution remains unchanged up to the time scales of validity of our approximation. The phenomenon is controlled by the specific energy.

  6. Metastable gravity on classical defects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ringeval, Christophe; Rombouts, Jan-Willem

    2005-01-01

    We discuss the realization of metastable gravity on classical defects in infinite-volume extra dimensions. In dilatonic Einstein gravity, it is found that the existence of metastable gravity on the defect core requires violation of the dominant energy condition for codimension N c =2 defects. This is illustrated with a detailed analysis of a six-dimensional hyperstring minimally coupled to dilaton gravity. We present the general conditions under which a codimension N c >2 defect admits metastable modes, and find that they differ from lower codimensional models in that, under certain conditions, they do not require violation of energy conditions to support quasilocalized gravity

  7. Nuclear lifetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Caraca, J.M.G.

    1976-01-01

    The importance of the results obtained in experiments of measurement of lifetimes for a detailed knowledge of nuclear structure is referred. Direct methods of measurement of nuclear lifetimes are described, namely, electronic methods, recoil-distance method, doppler shift atenuation method and blocking-method. A brief reference is made to indirect methods for measurement of life-times

  8. Experimental determination of the lifetimes and parities of the Yrast states of 60Ni. Study of shape

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moyat, M.-G.

    1978-01-01

    The two methods used to measure the lifetimes of the Yrast states of 60 Ni are described: the Doppler attenuation method (line deformation) and the recoil range method. The lifetimes obtained for the levels at 2505, 4262, 5345 and 6807 keV are given, together with the transition probabilities inferred. The parities of the 60 Ni high-spin levels measured by the linear polarization method are also given. Finally the recent theoretical approaches relating to the shapes of the nuclei are outlined: K. Kuman's deformed quasi-particle model and the interaction boson approximation of A. Arima and F. Iachello [fr

  9. Lifetime measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fossan, D.B.; Warburton, E.K.

    1974-01-01

    Lifetime measurements are discussed, concentrating on the electronic technique, the recoil distance method (RDM), and the Doppler shift attenuation method (DSAM). A brief review of several indirect timing techniques is given, and their specific advantages and applicability are considered. The relationship between lifetimes of nuclear states and the nuclear structure information obtained from them is examined. A short discussion of channeling and microwave methods of lifetime measurement is presented. (23 figures, 171 references) (U.S.)

  10. Contribution to the experimental survey of the nuclear isomerism. Application of the deferred coincidences method to research and to the survey of metastable states of short period; Contribution a l'etude experimentale de l'isomerie nucleaire. Application de la methode des coincidences differees a la recherche et a l'etude d'etats metastables de periode courte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ballini, R [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1953-06-15

    Various methods of the physics brought many informations on the nuclear elements which one can arrange some ponderable quantities, what is the case of the steady elements and some, unsteady elements, as most of natural radioelements. On the other hand, elements of shorter life duration, and notably those that are carried to an excited state, are more badly known, and one can get information to their consideration that by the mediator of the properties of the transitions that they undergo, when they give birth has best-known nuclear cash: among these transitions represent the isomeric transitions. The goal of this work is the survey of the isomeric transitions from metastable states of short period, included in the domain of the microsecond to some milliseconds. The method of the deferred coincidences has been put to the point and applied in this goal while using the advantages of the selectors to several channels, under two main aspects where the device to several channels was either a selector of time, either a selector of amplitudes. This method served to study the working of Geiger-Muller counter and to measure with precision the period of {sup 181}Ta{sup *} in of the varied experimental conditions. The adopted value is 17,2 {+-}0,2 {mu}s. This work also found an immediate practical application to the setting in evidence of very weak quantities of hafnium in zirconium, of which it constitutes a tenacious and difficult impurity to analyze by the ordinary ways. (M.B.) [French] Les diverses methodes de la physique ont apporte de nombreux renseignements sur les especes nucleaires dont on peut disposer en quantites ponderables, ce qui est le cas des especes stables et de certaines especes instables, comme la plupart des radioelements naturels. Par contre, les noyaux de duree de vie plus courte, et notamment ceux qui sont portes a un etat excite, sont plus mal connus, et on ne peut obtenir de renseignements a leur egard que par l'intermediaire des proprietes des

  11. Ionization current in N2 gas. Part 7. ; Diffusion and reflection of metastable particles. N2 gas chu ni okeru denri denryu. 7. ; Jun antei reiki ryushi no kakusan to hansha

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, S.; Ito, H.; Sekizawa, H. (Chiba Inst. of Technology, Chiba (Japan)); Ikuta, N. (Tokushima Univ., Tokushima (Japan))

    1993-06-20

    The energy loss process in quenching of excited particles by collision to other ones and solid surfaces was investigated with metastable excited particles formed in weakly ionized gases. The measured lifetime of N2 metastable particles in N2, N2/CO, N2/CH3 gases during Townsent discharge did not agree with the Molnar's theoretical value which was obtained by solving diffusion equations using the boundary condition that assumes the density of excited particles to be zero at electrodes and tube walls. Strange behavior was observed too, that is, coefficients of diffusion and reaction rate determined by the theoretical lifetime change systematically with the distance between electrodes. Then, the novel boundary condition that takes reflection coefficient into account was applied to solve diffusion equations. The results obtained could account for experimental results without any discrepancy. The analysis of results clarified the dependence of various parameters of metastable excited particles on the reflection coefficient. The increase of reflection coefficient decreases the surface quenching of excited particles at electrodes and elongs effectively excited lifetime and increases the number of collisional quenching in gas phases. 16 refs., 8 figs.

  12. Interaction of rare gas metastable atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, A.Z.F.

    1977-11-01

    The physical and chemical properties of metastable rare gas atoms are discussed and summarized. This is followed by a detailed examination of the various possible pathways whereby the metastable's excess electronic energy can be dissipated. The phenomenon of chemi-ionization is given special emphasis, and a theoretical treatment based on the use of complex (optical) potential is presented. This is followed by a discussion on the unique advantages offered by elastic differential cross section measurements in the apprehension of the fundamental forces governing the ionization process. The methodology generally adopted to extract information about the interaction potential for scattering data is also systematically outlined. Two widely studied chemi-ionization systems are then closely examined in the light of accurate differential cross section measurements obtained in this work. The first system is He(2 3 S) + Ar for which one can obtain an interaction potential which is in good harmony with the experimental results of other investigators. The validity of using the first-order semiclassical approximation for the phase shifts calculation in the presence of significant opacities is also discussed. The second reaction studied is He*+D 2 for which measurements were made on both spin states of the metastable helium. A self-consistent interaction potential is obtained for the triplet system, and reasons are given for not being able to do likewise for the singlet system. The anomalous hump proposed by a number of laboratories is analyzed. Total elastic and ionization cross sections as well as rate constants are calculated for the triplet case. Good agreement with experimental data is found. Finally, the construction and operation of a high power repetitively pulsed nitrogen laser pumped dye laser system is described in great details. Details for the construction and operation of a flashlamp pumped dye laser are likewise given

  13. Transient cognitive dynamics, metastability, and decision making.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikhail I Rabinovich

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available The idea that cognitive activity can be understood using nonlinear dynamics has been intensively discussed at length for the last 15 years. One of the popular points of view is that metastable states play a key role in the execution of cognitive functions. Experimental and modeling studies suggest that most of these functions are the result of transient activity of large-scale brain networks in the presence of noise. Such transients may consist of a sequential switching between different metastable cognitive states. The main problem faced when using dynamical theory to describe transient cognitive processes is the fundamental contradiction between reproducibility and flexibility of transient behavior. In this paper, we propose a theoretical description of transient cognitive dynamics based on the interaction of functionally dependent metastable cognitive states. The mathematical image of such transient activity is a stable heteroclinic channel, i.e., a set of trajectories in the vicinity of a heteroclinic skeleton that consists of saddles and unstable separatrices that connect their surroundings. We suggest a basic mathematical model, a strongly dissipative dynamical system, and formulate the conditions for the robustness and reproducibility of cognitive transients that satisfy the competing requirements for stability and flexibility. Based on this approach, we describe here an effective solution for the problem of sequential decision making, represented as a fixed time game: a player takes sequential actions in a changing noisy environment so as to maximize a cumulative reward. As we predict and verify in computer simulations, noise plays an important role in optimizing the gain.

  14. A metastable helium trap for atomic collision physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Colla, M.; Gulley, R.; Uhlmann, L.; Hoogerland, M.D.; Baldwin, K.G.H.; Buckman, S.J.

    1999-01-01

    Full text: Metastable helium in the 2 3 S state is an important species for atom optics and atomic collision physics. Because of its large internal energy (20eV), long lifetime (∼8000s) and large collision cross section for a range of processes, metastable helium plays an important role in atmospheric physics, plasma discharges and gas laser physics. We have embarked on a program of studies on atom-atom and electron-atom collision processes involving cold metastable helium. We confine metastable helium atoms in a magneto-optic trap (MOT), which is loaded by a transversely collimated, slowed and 2-D focussed atomic beam. We employ diode laser tuned to the 1083 nm (2 3 S 1 - 2 3 P2 1 ) transition to generate laser cooling forces in both the loading beam and the trap. Approximately 10 million helium atoms are trapped at temperatures of ∼ 1mK. We use phase modulation spectroscopy to measure the trapped atomic density. The cold, trapped atoms can collide to produce either atomic He + or molecular He 2 + ions by Penning Ionisation (PI) or Associative Ionisation (AI). The rate of formation of these ions is dependant upon the detuning of the trapping laser from resonance. A further laser can be used to connect the 2 3 S 1 state to another higher lying excited state, and variation of the probe laser detuning used to measure interatomic collision potential. Electron-atom collision processes are studied using a monochromatic electron beam with a well defined spatial current distribution. The total trap loss due to electron collisions is measured as a function of electron energy. Results will be presented for these atomic collision physics measurements involving cold, trapped metastable helium atoms. Copyright (1999) Australian Optical Society

  15. Metastability at the Yield-Stress Transition in Soft Glasses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lulli, Matteo; Benzi, Roberto; Sbragaglia, Mauro

    2018-04-01

    We study the solid-to-liquid transition in a two-dimensional fully periodic soft-glassy model with an imposed spatially heterogeneous stress. The model we consider consists of droplets of a dispersed phase jammed together in a continuous phase. When the peak value of the stress gets close to the yield stress of the material, we find that the whole system intermittently tunnels to a metastable "fluidized" state, which relaxes back to a metastable "solid" state by means of an elastic-wave dissipation. This macroscopic scenario is studied through the microscopic displacement field of the droplets, whose time statistics displays a remarkable bimodality. Metastability is rooted in the existence, in a given stress range, of two distinct stable rheological branches, as well as long-range correlations (e.g., large dynamic heterogeneity) developed in the system. Finally, we show that a similar behavior holds for a pressure-driven flow, thus suggesting possible experimental tests.

  16. Experimental observation of an extremely high electron lifetime with the ICARUS-T600 LAr-TPC

    CERN Document Server

    Antonello, M; Benetti, P; Boffelli, F; Bubak, A; Calligarich, E; Centro, S; Cesana, A; Cieslik, K; Cline, D B; Cocco, A G; Dabrowska, A; Dermenev, A; Dolfini, R; Falcone, A; Farnese, C; Fava, A; Ferrari, A; Fiorillo, G; Gibin, D; Gninenko, S; Guglielmi, A; Haranczyk, M; Holeczek, J; Kirsanov, M; Kisiel, J; Kochanek, I; Lagoda, J; Mania, S; Menegolli, A; Meng, G; Montanari, C; Otwinowski, S; Picchi, P; Pietropaolo, F; Plonski, P; Rappoldi, A; Raselli, G L; Rossella, M; Rubbia, C; Sala, P; Scaramelli, A; Segreto, E; Sergiampietri, F; Stefan, D; Sulej, R; Szarska, M; Terrani, M; Torti, M; Varanini, F; Ventura, S; Vignoli, C; Wang, H; Yang, X; Zalewska, A; Zani, A; Zaremba, K

    2014-01-01

    The ICARUS T600 detector, the largest liquid Argon Time Projection Chamber (LAr-TPC) realized after many years of RD activities, was installed and successfully operated for 3 years at the INFN Gran Sasso underground Laboratory. One of the most important issues was the need of an extremely low residual electronegative impurity content in the liquid Argon, in order to transport the free electrons created by the ionizing particles with a very small attenuation along the drift path. The solutions adopted for the Argon re-circulation and purification systems have permitted to reach impressive results in terms of Argon purity and a free electron lifetime exceeding 15 ms, corresponding to about 20 parts per trillion of equivalent O2 contamination, a milestone for any future project involving LAr-TPC's and the development of higher detector mass scales.

  17. Collisional interaction between metastable neon atoms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drunen, Wouter Johannes van

    2008-07-07

    In this thesis, the study of cold gases of neon atoms in different metastable states is described. It contains measurements of the collisional parameters for both the 3s[3/2]{sub 2} and the 3s'[1/2]{sub 0} metastable state and the dependence of the inelastic loss on external fields. Furthermore, the investigation of frequency dependent laser-induced collisions, and the possibility to excite photoassociation resonances is presented. For the measurements described here, neon atoms have been confined in a magnetooptical trap, in a magnetostatic trap, or in an optical dipole trap, respectively. By laser cooling inside the magnetic trap, atomic samples with more than 95 percent occupation of the magnetic substate m{sub J} = +2 could be prepared. They have a typical temperature of 0.5 mK, central densities up to 10{sup 11} cm{sup -3}, and a central phase-space density of up to 2.2.10{sup -7}. After loading the optical dipole trap from the magnetic trap, 2.5.10{sup 6} atoms with typical temperatures of 0.1 mK, and central densities up to 5.10{sup 10} cm{sup -3} were trapped. By evaporative cooling of the atoms in the magnetic trap we could increase the phase-space density by a factor of 200 to 5.10{sup -5}. Investigating the frequency dependence of laser-induced collisions did not reveal an experimental signature for the excitation of photoassociation resonances. For the {sup 3}D{sub 3} line a frequency dependence of laser enhanced Penning ionization was observed. Measurement of the two-body loss coefficient as function of the magnetic field showed a field dependence of the inelastic loss. These losses increase towards both small and large offset fields. The implementation of an optical dipole trap allowed us to trap the {sup 3}P{sub 0} metastable state. From the trap loss measurements we determined the two-body loss coefficient of the {sup 3}P{sub 0} metastable state for both bosonic isotopes {sup 20}Ne and {sup 22}Ne. For {sup 20}Ne we obtained {beta}=6{sup +5}{sub

  18. Collisional interaction between metastable neon atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Drunen, Wouter Johannes van

    2008-01-01

    In this thesis, the study of cold gases of neon atoms in different metastable states is described. It contains measurements of the collisional parameters for both the 3s[3/2] 2 and the 3s'[1/2] 0 metastable state and the dependence of the inelastic loss on external fields. Furthermore, the investigation of frequency dependent laser-induced collisions, and the possibility to excite photoassociation resonances is presented. For the measurements described here, neon atoms have been confined in a magnetooptical trap, in a magnetostatic trap, or in an optical dipole trap, respectively. By laser cooling inside the magnetic trap, atomic samples with more than 95 percent occupation of the magnetic substate m J = +2 could be prepared. They have a typical temperature of 0.5 mK, central densities up to 10 11 cm -3 , and a central phase-space density of up to 2.2.10 -7 . After loading the optical dipole trap from the magnetic trap, 2.5.10 6 atoms with typical temperatures of 0.1 mK, and central densities up to 5.10 10 cm -3 were trapped. By evaporative cooling of the atoms in the magnetic trap we could increase the phase-space density by a factor of 200 to 5.10 -5 . Investigating the frequency dependence of laser-induced collisions did not reveal an experimental signature for the excitation of photoassociation resonances. For the 3 D 3 line a frequency dependence of laser enhanced Penning ionization was observed. Measurement of the two-body loss coefficient as function of the magnetic field showed a field dependence of the inelastic loss. These losses increase towards both small and large offset fields. The implementation of an optical dipole trap allowed us to trap the 3 P 0 metastable state. From the trap loss measurements we determined the two-body loss coefficient of the 3 P 0 metastable state for both bosonic isotopes 20 Ne and 22 Ne. For 20 Ne we obtained β=6 +5 -4 .10 -10 cm 3 /s and for 22 Ne β = 11 +7 -6 .10 -10 cm 3 /s. (orig.)

  19. Lifetimes of heavy flavour particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forty, R.

    1994-01-01

    The lifetimes of heavy-flavour hadrons are reviewed. After a brief discussion of the theoretical predictions, the problem of averaging lifetime measurements is discussed. The various experimental measurements are then presented and suitable averages performed. Charmed meson lifetimes are now measured to the few percent level, better that theory can predict, whilst for charmed baryons the lifetime hierarchy has been established for the first time. For beauty hadrons the lifetimes are measured at the 6-10 % level, and are in reasonable agreement with theoretical expectations. Beauty baryon studies ar just beginning. (author)

  20. Charmed particle lifetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosner, J.L.

    1979-01-01

    Conventional estimates are reviewed for charmed particle lifetimes. Free-quark models give values of (a few) x 10 -13 sec to (a few) x 10 -12 sec. The shorter of these values also follows from an extrapolation based on D → Ke/sup nu/. Possible differences among the lifetimes and production rates of D 0 , D + , F + , C 0 + , the heavy lepton tau, and the fifth quark b are discussed. Extreme values of mixing angles in a six-quark model could extend charmed particle lifetimes by a factor of at most three from the above estimates, while shorter lifetimes than those predicted could occur for some species like D 0 or F + if their nonleptonic decays were enhanced. The predictions are discussed in the light of some current experimental results, and it is estimated that sigma(pp → charm) approx. = 10 μb at 400 GeV/c. 95 references

  1. Metastable beta limit in DIII-D

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    La Haye, R.J.; Callen, J.D.; Gianakon, T.A.

    1997-06-01

    The long-pulse, slowly evolving single-null divertor (SND) discharges in DIII-D with H-mode, ELMs, and sawteeth are found to be limited significantly below (factor of 2) the predicted ideal limit β N = 4l i by the onset of tearing modes. The tearing modes are metastable in that they are explained by the neoclassical bootstrap current (high β θ ) destabilization of a seed island which occurs even if Δ' θ , there is a region of the modified Rutherford equation such that dw/dt > 0 for w larger than a threshold value; the plasma is metastable, awaiting the critical perturbation which is then amplified to the much larger saturated island. Experimental results from a large number of tokamaks indicate that the high beta operational envelope of the tokamak is well defined by ideal magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) theory. The highest beta values achieved have historically been obtained in fairly short pulse discharges, often <1-2 sawteeth periods and < 1-2 energy replacement times. The maximum operational beta in single-null divertor (SND), long-pulse discharges in DIII-D with a cross-sectional shape similar to the proposed ITER tokamak is found to be limited significantly below the threshold for ideal instabilities by the onset of resistive MHD instabilities

  2. Metastable states in magnetic nanorings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Castaño, F. J.; Ross, C. A.; Frandsen, Cathrine

    2003-01-01

    Magnetization states and hysteresis behavior of small ferromagnetic rings, of diameters 180-520 nm, have been investigated using magnetic force microscopy. In addition to the expected bi-domain ("onion") and flux-closed ("vortex") magnetization states, a metastable state has been found. This "twi......Magnetization states and hysteresis behavior of small ferromagnetic rings, of diameters 180-520 nm, have been investigated using magnetic force microscopy. In addition to the expected bi-domain ("onion") and flux-closed ("vortex") magnetization states, a metastable state has been found....... This "twisted" state contains a 360degrees domain wall which can exist over a wide range of applied fields. Four possible configurations of the twisted state are possible. Micromagnetic modeling shows that the twisted state is stabilised in small diameter, narrow rings. Additionally, more complex configurations...

  3. Instability of colliding metastable strings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiramatsu, Takashi [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Yukawa Inst. for Theoretical Physics; Eto, Minoru [Yamagata Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Kamada, Kohei [Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron (DESY), Hamburg (Germany); Kobayashi, Tatsuo [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Ookouchi, Yutaka [Kyoto Univ. (Japan). Dept. of Physics; Kyoto Univ. (Japan). The Hakubi Center for Advanced Research

    2013-04-15

    We investigate the collision dynamics of two metastable strings which can be viewed as tube-like domain walls with winding numbers interpolating a false vacuum and a true vacuum. We find that depending on the relative angle and speed of two strings, instability of strings increases and the false vacuum is filled out by rapid expansion of the strings or of a remnant of the collision.

  4. Instability of colliding metastable strings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hiramatsu, Takashi; Kobayashi, Tatsuo; Ookouchi, Yutaka; Kyoto Univ.

    2013-04-01

    We investigate the collision dynamics of two metastable strings which can be viewed as tube-like domain walls with winding numbers interpolating a false vacuum and a true vacuum. We find that depending on the relative angle and speed of two strings, instability of strings increases and the false vacuum is filled out by rapid expansion of the strings or of a remnant of the collision.

  5. Metastable modular metastructures for on-demand reconfiguration of band structures and nonreciprocal wave propagation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Z.; Zheng, Y.; Wang, K. W.

    2018-02-01

    We present an approach to achieve adaptable band structures and nonreciprocal wave propagation by exploring and exploiting the concept of metastable modular metastructures. Through studying the dynamics of wave propagation in a chain composed of finite metastable modules, we provide experimental and analytical results on nonreciprocal wave propagation and unveil the underlying mechanisms that facilitate such unidirectional energy transmission. In addition, we demonstrate that via transitioning among the numerous metastable states, the proposed metastructure is endowed with a large number of bandgap reconfiguration possibilities. As a result, we illustrate that unprecedented adaptable nonreciprocal wave propagation can be realized using the metastable modular metastructure. Overall, this research elucidates the rich dynamics attainable through the combinations of periodicity, nonlinearity, spatial asymmetry, and metastability and creates a class of adaptive structural and material systems capable of realizing tunable bandgaps and nonreciprocal wave transmissions.

  6. Mercury reduces avian reproductive success and imposes selection: an experimental study with adult- or lifetime-exposure in zebra finch.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claire W Varian-Ramos

    Full Text Available Mercury is a global pollutant that biomagnifies in food webs, placing wildlife at risk of reduced reproductive fitness and survival. Songbirds are the most diverse branch of the avian evolutionary tree; many are suffering persistent and serious population declines and we know that songbirds are frequently exposed to mercury pollution. Our objective was to determine the effects of environmentally relevant doses of mercury on reproductive success of songbirds exposed throughout their lives or only as adults. The two modes of exposure simulated philopatric species versus dispersive species, and are particularly relevant because of the heightened mercury-sensitivity of developing nervous systems. We performed a dosing study with dietary methylmercury in a model songbird species, the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata, at doses from 0.3 - 2.4 parts per million. Birds were exposed to mercury either as adults only or throughout their lives. All doses of mercury reduced reproductive success, with the lowest dose reducing the number of independent offspring produced in one year by 16% and the highest dose, representing approximately half the lethal dose for this species, causing a 50% reduction. While mercury did not affect clutch size or survivorship, it had the most consistent effect on the proportion of chicks that fledged from the nest, regardless of mode of exposure. Among birds exposed as adults, mercury caused a steep increase in the latency to re-nest after loss of a clutch. Birds exposed for their entire lifetimes, which were necessarily the offspring of dosed parents, had up to 50% lower reproductive success than adult-exposed birds at low doses of methylmercury, but increased reproductive success at high doses, suggesting selection for mercury tolerance at the highest level of exposure. Our results indicate that mercury levels in prey items at contaminated sites pose a significant threat to populations of songbirds through reduced reproductive

  7. Mercury Reduces Avian Reproductive Success and Imposes Selection: An Experimental Study with Adult- or Lifetime-Exposure in Zebra Finch

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varian-Ramos, Claire W.; Swaddle, John P.; Cristol, Daniel A.

    2014-01-01

    Mercury is a global pollutant that biomagnifies in food webs, placing wildlife at risk of reduced reproductive fitness and survival. Songbirds are the most diverse branch of the avian evolutionary tree; many are suffering persistent and serious population declines and we know that songbirds are frequently exposed to mercury pollution. Our objective was to determine the effects of environmentally relevant doses of mercury on reproductive success of songbirds exposed throughout their lives or only as adults. The two modes of exposure simulated philopatric species versus dispersive species, and are particularly relevant because of the heightened mercury-sensitivity of developing nervous systems. We performed a dosing study with dietary methylmercury in a model songbird species, the zebra finch (Taeniopygia guttata), at doses from 0.3 – 2.4 parts per million. Birds were exposed to mercury either as adults only or throughout their lives. All doses of mercury reduced reproductive success, with the lowest dose reducing the number of independent offspring produced in one year by 16% and the highest dose, representing approximately half the lethal dose for this species, causing a 50% reduction. While mercury did not affect clutch size or survivorship, it had the most consistent effect on the proportion of chicks that fledged from the nest, regardless of mode of exposure. Among birds exposed as adults, mercury caused a steep increase in the latency to re-nest after loss of a clutch. Birds exposed for their entire lifetimes, which were necessarily the offspring of dosed parents, had up to 50% lower reproductive success than adult-exposed birds at low doses of methylmercury, but increased reproductive success at high doses, suggesting selection for mercury tolerance at the highest level of exposure. Our results indicate that mercury levels in prey items at contaminated sites pose a significant threat to populations of songbirds through reduced reproductive success. PMID

  8. Experiments on state selection and Penning ionisation with fast metastable rare gas atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kroon, J.P.C.

    1985-01-01

    This thesis describes experiments with metastable He/Ne atoms. The experiments are performed in a crossed beam machine. Two different sources are used for the production of metastable atoms: a source for the production of metastable atoms in the thermal energy range and a hollow cathode arc for the production of metastable atoms in the superthermal energy range (1-7 eV). The progress made in the use of the hollow cathode arc is described as well as the experimental set-up. The rare gas energy-level diagram is characterized by two metastable levels. By optical pumping it is possible to select a single metastable level, both for He and Ne. For the case of He this is done by a recently built He quenchlamp which selectively quenches the metastable 2 1 S level population. In the thermal energy range the quenching is complete; in the superthermal energy range the 2 1 S level population is only partly quenched. For the optical pumping of Ne* atoms a cw dye laser is used. New experiments have been started on the measurement, in a crossed beam machine, of the fluorescence caused by inelastic collisions where metastable atoms are involved. The He* + Ne system is used as a pilot study for these experiments. The He-Ne laser is based on this collision system. (Auth.)

  9. Vacuum metastability with black holes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burda, Philipp [Centre for Particle Theory, Durham University,South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Gregory, Ruth [Centre for Particle Theory, Durham University,South Road, Durham, DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Perimeter Institute, 31 Caroline Street North,Waterloo, ON, N2L 2Y5 (Canada); Moss, Ian G. annd [School of Mathematics and Statistics, Newcastle University,Newcastle Upon Tyne, NE1 7RU (United Kingdom)

    2015-08-24

    We consider the possibility that small black holes can act as nucleation seeds for the decay of a metastable vacuum, focussing particularly on the Higgs potential. Using a thin-wall bubble approximation for the nucleation process, which is possible when generic quantum gravity corrections are added to the Higgs potential, we show that primordial black holes can stimulate vacuum decay. We demonstrate that for suitable parameter ranges, the vacuum decay process dominates over the Hawking evaporation process. Finally, we comment on the application of these results to vacuum decay seeded by black holes produced in particle collisions.

  10. Vacuum metastability with black holes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burda, Philipp; Gregory, Ruth; Moss, Ian G. annd

    2015-01-01

    We consider the possibility that small black holes can act as nucleation seeds for the decay of a metastable vacuum, focussing particularly on the Higgs potential. Using a thin-wall bubble approximation for the nucleation process, which is possible when generic quantum gravity corrections are added to the Higgs potential, we show that primordial black holes can stimulate vacuum decay. We demonstrate that for suitable parameter ranges, the vacuum decay process dominates over the Hawking evaporation process. Finally, we comment on the application of these results to vacuum decay seeded by black holes produced in particle collisions.

  11. Geometrically induced metastability and holography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aganagic, Mina; Aganagic, Mina; Beem, Christopher; Seo, Jihye; Vafa, Cumrun

    2006-10-23

    We construct metastable configurations of branes and anti-branes wrapping 2-spheres inside local Calabi-Yau manifolds and study their large N duals. These duals are Calabi-Yau manifolds in which the wrapped 2-spheres have been replaced by 3-spheres with flux through them, and supersymmetry is spontaneously broken. The geometry of the non-supersymmetric vacuum is exactly calculable to all orders of the't Hooft parameter, and to the leading order in 1/N. The computation utilizes the same matrix model techniques that were used in the supersymmetric context. This provides a novel mechanism for breaking supersymmetry in the context of flux compactifications.

  12. Negative pion trapping by metastable state in liquid helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakamura, S.N.; Iwasaki, M.; Outa, H.

    1991-11-01

    We found long-lived metastable states of stopped π - 's in liquid helium by measuring time spectra of two different delayed products: 1) protons emitted after π - absorption by 4 He nuclei and 2) 70-MeV electrons originating from free π - → e - (ν e )-bar decay. The lifetime and fraction of delayed π - absorption obtained by emitted protons are 7.26±0.12 nsec and 1.66±0.05%, respectively. The free-decay fraction was calculated to be 0.64±0.03% from this result, which is consistent with the observed free-decay fraction of π e2 decay. These results imply that 2.30±0.07% of stopped π - are trapped in metastable states which have an overall lifetime of 10.1±0.2 nsec. The same experiment and analysis were performed for stopped π - in liquid neon. No evidence for trapping was found in liquid neon. (author)

  13. Dependence of stability of metastable superconductors on copper fraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elrod, S.A.; Lue, J.W.; Miller, J.R.; Dresner, L.

    1980-12-01

    The stability of composite superconductors operating in the metastable regime depends upon such factors as matrix resistivity, cooled surface dimensions, fraction of critical current, and volume fraction of stabilizer. By assuming constant thermophysical properties, we developed analytic expressions for the energy and voltage of the minimum propagating zone (MPZ). With other factors held constant, these expressions have been used to predict composite superconductor stability as a function of copper fraction: lower copper fractions lead to higher MPZ energies. MPZ voltages have been measured for three NbTi/Cu composites having different copper fractions and different critical current densities for several magnetic fields and transport currents. Experimental MPZ voltages have been used to calculate an effective heat transfer coefficient, which is subsequently used to calculate the MPZ energy. The experimental MPZ energies support the theoretical expectation that lower copper fractions lead to higher stability in the metastable regime

  14. Metastable Supersymmetry Breaking in a Cooling Universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaplunovsky, Vadim S.

    2007-01-01

    I put metastable supersymmetry breaking in a cosmological context. I argue that under reasonable assumptions, the cooling down early Universe favors metastable SUSY-breaking vacua over the stable supersymmetric vacua. To illustrate the general argument, I analyze the early-Universe history of the Intriligator-Seiberg-Shih model

  15. Desensitization and recovery of metastable intermolecular composites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Busse, James R [South Fork, CO; Dye, Robert C [Los Alamos, NM; Foley, Timothy J [Los Alamos, NM; Higa, Kelvin T [Ridgecrest, CA; Jorgensen, Betty S [Jemez Springs, NM; Sanders, Victor E [White Rock, NM; Son, Steven F [Los Alamos, NM

    2010-09-07

    A method to substantially desensitize a metastable intermolecular composite material to electrostatic discharge and friction comprising mixing the composite material with an organic diluent and removing enough organic diluent from the mixture to form a mixture with a substantially putty-like consistency, as well as a concomitant method of recovering the metastable intermolecular composite material.

  16. High-scale validity of a two-Higgs-doublet scenario: metastability included

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakrabarty, Nabarun; Mukhopadhyaya, Biswarup [Harish-Chandra Research Institute, Regional Centre for Accelerator-based Particle Physics, Allahabad (India)

    2017-03-15

    We identify regions in a Type-II two-Higgs-doublet model which correspond to a metastable electroweak vacuum with lifetime larger than the age of the universe. We analyse scenarios which retain perturbative unitarity up to grand unification and Planck scales. Each point in the parameter space is restricted using data from the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) as well as flavour and precision electroweak constraints. We find that substantial regions of the parameter space are thus identified as corresponding to metastability, which complement the allowed regions for absolute stability, for top quark mass at the high as well as low end of its currently allowed range. Thus, a two-Higgs-doublet scenario with the electroweak vacuum, either stable or metastable, can sail through all the way up to the Planck scale without facing any contradiction. (orig.)

  17. Stored ions in the Paul trap. Preliminary investigations on life-time measurement of the metastable 6D3/2 state of 226Ra+, storage properties of 138Ba+ and 28N2+ at variation of the buffer-gas pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Leuthner, Heiko

    2011-01-01

    Paul-traps are a widely used tool in scientific research and play an important role in atomic physics and mass spectrometry. (1) From the earth-alkaline ions only spectroscopic data of Ra + are lacking. Those are important for the test of theoretical models and for a future atomic parity violation experiment. The first part of this work describes the setting up of a Paul-trap based Laser-experiment for measuring the lifetime of the 6D 3/2 state of 226 Ra + . Basic tests with 138 Ba + ions are presented. (2) Damping and space charge effects on resonances in the stability region strongly affect the use of Paul-traps in mass spectrometry and analysis of reaction products. The second part of this work presents detailed investigations on the storage of big, buffer-gas-cooled ion clouds in two different Paul-trap experiments; the first of them uses 138 Ba + ions detected continuously by electronic and optical detection systems, the second one uses N 2 + molecular ions and an automated destructive time-of-flight-detection method. A high precision measurement with N 2 + of the first stability region of the trap not only gives the possibility of direct comparison of experimental and theoretical resonances but also provides absolute ion numbers over the whole region for the first time. Unlike previous measurements, the investigations on nonlinear resonances where done on the superimposed stability regions of 4 simultaneously stored ion species. The nonlinear resonances were studied by varying buffer gas pressure and ion number and showed collective resonances without external excitation. By varying the buffer gas pressure the spatial distribution of a Ba + -ion cloud was investigated as well as the change of the optimal storing parameters using N 2 + -ions. Optimum Pressures for catching and trapping of ions turned out to be unequal. Shape and position of externally excited collective and individual resonances were studied under variation of ion number, buffer-gas pressure

  18. Metastable Amyloid Phases and their Conversion to Mature Fibrils

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muschol, Martin; Miti, Tatiana; Mulaj, Mentor; Schmit, Jeremy

    Self-assembly of proteins into amyloid fibrils plays a key role in both functional biological responses and pathogenic disorders which include Alzheimer's disease and type II diabetes. Amyloid fibril assembly frequently generates compact oligomeric and curvilinear polymeric intermediates which are implicated to be toxic to cells. Yet, the relation between these early-stage oligomeric aggregates and late-stage rigid fibrils, which are the hallmark structure of amyloid plaques, has remained unclear. Our measurements indicate that lysozyme amyloid oligomers and their curvilinear fibrils only form after crossing a salt and protein concentration dependent threshold. These oligomeric aggregates are structurally distinct from rigid fibrils and are metastable against nucleation and growth of rigid fibrils. Our experimental transition boundaries match well with colloidal model predictions accounting for salt-modulated charge repulsion. We also report our preliminary findings on the mechanism by which these metastable oligomeric phases are converted into stable amyloid fibrils.

  19. Metastability in spin polarised Fermi gases and quasiparticle decays

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sadeghzadeh, Kayvan; Bruun, Georg; Lobo, Carlos

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the metastability associated with the first order transition from normal to superfluid phases in the phase diagram of two-component polarised Fermi gases.We begin by detailing the dominant decay processes of single quasiparticles.Having determined the momentum thresholds of each...... the interaction strength at which a polarised phase of molecules becomes the groundstate, to the one at which the single quasiparticle groundstate changes character from polaronic to molecular. Our argument in terms of a Fermi sea of polarons naturally suggests their use as an experimental probe. We propose...... experiments to observe the threshold of the predicted region of metastability, the interaction strength at which the quasiparticle groundstate changes character, and the decay rate of polarons....

  20. Metastable vacuum decay and θ dependence in gauge theory. Deformed QCD as a toy model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bhoonah, Amit; Thomas, Evan, E-mail: zucchini@phas.ubc.ca; Zhitnitsky, Ariel R., E-mail: arz@phas.ubc.ca

    2015-01-15

    We study a number of different ingredients related to the θ dependence, metastable excited vacuum states and other related subjects using a simplified version of QCD, the so-called “deformed QCD”. This model is a weakly coupled gauge theory, which, however, preserves all the relevant essential elements allowing us to study hard and nontrivial features which are known to be present in real strongly coupled QCD. Our main focus in this work is to test the ideas related to the metastable vacuum states (which are known to be present in strongly coupled QCD in large N limit) in a theoretically controllable manner using the “deformed QCD” as a toy model. We explicitly show how the metastable states emerge in the system, why their lifetime is large, and why these metastable states must be present in the system for the self-consistency of the entire picture of the QCD vacuum. We also speculate on possible relevance of the metastable vacuum states in explanation of the violation of local P and CP symmetries in heavy ion collisions.

  1. Metastable vacuum decay and θ dependence in gauge theory. Deformed QCD as a toy model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhoonah, Amit; Thomas, Evan; Zhitnitsky, Ariel R.

    2015-01-01

    We study a number of different ingredients related to the θ dependence, metastable excited vacuum states and other related subjects using a simplified version of QCD, the so-called “deformed QCD”. This model is a weakly coupled gauge theory, which, however, preserves all the relevant essential elements allowing us to study hard and nontrivial features which are known to be present in real strongly coupled QCD. Our main focus in this work is to test the ideas related to the metastable vacuum states (which are known to be present in strongly coupled QCD in large N limit) in a theoretically controllable manner using the “deformed QCD” as a toy model. We explicitly show how the metastable states emerge in the system, why their lifetime is large, and why these metastable states must be present in the system for the self-consistency of the entire picture of the QCD vacuum. We also speculate on possible relevance of the metastable vacuum states in explanation of the violation of local P and CP symmetries in heavy ion collisions

  2. Behavior of 23S metastable state He atoms in low-temperature recombining plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kajita, Shin; Tsujihara, Tadashi; Aramaki, Mitsutoshi; van der Meiden, Hennie; Oshima, Hiroshi; Ohno, Noriyasu; Tanaka, Hirohiko; Yasuhara, Ryo; Akiyama, Tsuyoshi; Fujii, Keisuke; Shikama, Taiichi

    2017-07-01

    We measured the electron density and temperature using laser Thomson scattering and metastable state (23S) of He atoms by laser absorption spectroscopy in the detached recombining plasmas in the divertor simulator NAGDIS-II. Using the measured electron density and temperature combined with the particle trajectory trace simulation, we discussed the behavior of the metastable state He atoms based on comparisons with the experimental results. It is shown that the metastable state atoms are mainly produced in the peripheral region of the plasma column, where the temperature is lower than the central part, and diffused in the vacuum vessel. It was shown that the 0D model is not valid and the transport of the metastable states is to be taken into account for the population distribution of He atoms in the detached plasmas.

  3. Review of charm and beauty lifetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheung, Harry W. K.

    1999-01-01

    A review of the latest experimental results on charm and beauty particle lifetimes is presented together with a brief summary of measurement methods used for beauty particle lifetime measurements. There have been significant updates to the D s + /D 0 , B + /B d 0 and Λ b 0 /B d 0 lifetime ratios which have some theoretical implications. However more precise measurements are still needed before one can make conclusive statements about the theory used to calculate the particle lifetimes

  4. Constitutive modeling of metastable austenitic stainless steel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perdahcioglu, Emin Semih; Geijselaers, Hubertus J.M.; Huetink, Han; Khan, A.

    2010-01-01

    A physically based, macroscale constitutive model has been developed that can describe the complex mechanical behavior of metastable austenitic stainless steels. In the developed model a generalized model for the mechanically induced martensitic transformation is introduced. Mechanical tests have

  5. Consitutive modeling of metastable austenitic stainless steel

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perdahcioglu, Emin Semih; Perdahcioglu, Emin Semih

    2008-01-01

    Metastable austenitic stainless steels combine high formability and high strength, which are generally opposing properties in materials. This property is a consequence of the martensitic phase transformation that takes place during deformation. This transformation is purely mechanically induced

  6. On a metastable vacuum burning phenomenon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berezin, V.A.; Tkachev, I.I.; Kuzmin, V.A.; AN SSSR, Moscow. Inst. Yadernykh Issledovanij)

    1983-02-01

    Equations of motion of an interface between two phases with arbitrary equations of state are obtained. It is found that there may take place a process of metastable vacuum burning. It is shown that under some conditions the process of the new phase bubble expansion is described by the detonation wave equations. Possible cosmological consequences of the metastable phase burning effect are briefly discussed. (author)

  7. Metastability and coherence of repulsive polarons in a strongly interacting Fermi mixture

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kohstall, Cristoph; Zaccanti, Mattheo; Jag, Matthias

    2012-01-01

    show that a well-defined quasiparticle exists for strongly repulsive interactions. We measure the energy and the lifetime of this ‘repulsive polaron’9, 12, 13, and probe its coherence properties by measuring the quasiparticle residue. The results are well described by a theoretical approach that takes...... into account the finite effective range of the interaction in our system. We find that when the effective range is of the order of the interparticle spacing, there is a substantial increase in the lifetime of the quasiparticles. The existence of such a long-lived, metastable many-body state offers intriguing...

  8. Stable, metastable, and kinetically trapped amyloid aggregate phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miti, Tatiana; Mulaj, Mentor; Schmit, Jeremy D; Muschol, Martin

    2015-01-12

    Self-assembly of proteins into amyloid fibrils plays a key role in a multitude of human disorders that range from Alzheimer's disease to type II diabetes. Compact oligomeric species, observed early during amyloid formation, are reported as the molecular entities responsible for the toxic effects of amyloid self-assembly. However, the relation between early-stage oligomeric aggregates and late-stage rigid fibrils, which are the hallmark structure of amyloid plaques, has remained unclear. We show that these different structures occupy well-defined regions in a peculiar phase diagram. Lysozyme amyloid oligomers and their curvilinear fibrils only form after they cross a salt and protein concentration-dependent threshold. We also determine a boundary for the onset of amyloid oligomer precipitation. The oligomeric aggregates are structurally distinct from rigid fibrils and are metastable against nucleation and growth of rigid fibrils. These experimentally determined boundaries match well with colloidal model predictions that account for salt-modulated charge repulsion. The model also incorporates the metastable and kinetic character of oligomer phases. Similarities and differences of amyloid oligomer assembly to metastable liquid-liquid phase separation of proteins and to surfactant aggregation are discussed.

  9. Metastability at the Yield-Stress Transition in Soft Glasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matteo Lulli

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available We study the solid-to-liquid transition in a two-dimensional fully periodic soft-glassy model with an imposed spatially heterogeneous stress. The model we consider consists of droplets of a dispersed phase jammed together in a continuous phase. When the peak value of the stress gets close to the yield stress of the material, we find that the whole system intermittently tunnels to a metastable “fluidized” state, which relaxes back to a metastable “solid” state by means of an elastic-wave dissipation. This macroscopic scenario is studied through the microscopic displacement field of the droplets, whose time statistics displays a remarkable bimodality. Metastability is rooted in the existence, in a given stress range, of two distinct stable rheological branches, as well as long-range correlations (e.g., large dynamic heterogeneity developed in the system. Finally, we show that a similar behavior holds for a pressure-driven flow, thus suggesting possible experimental tests.

  10. Study of the experimental conditions of measurement of the μ capture ratio in liquid hydrogen by mean of the lifetime method. Application to a total capture in lithium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martino, Jacques.

    1977-01-01

    The method comparing μ+ and μ - lifetimes is shown to be a possible interesting method for measuring the capture rate of μ - in liquid hydrogen. The first part of the report is dealing with a study of the initial state of the μp system and a calculation of the capture rate, then with the μp system interaction with impurities, and the interest lying in a comparative study of neutron capture. The second part is dealing with the experimental unit: target, electron counters and neutron detectors. The total capture rates in two lithium isotopes were obtained by the method. The values obtained are 4678 +- 104 s -1 with 6 Li and 2260 +- 104s -1 for 7 Li. The interest of the method envisaged lies in the fact that it involves only time measurements on the nuon decay electrons and positrons. No precise knowledge of the neutron detector efficiency is required (an essential limitation to previous measurements). The 3% accuracy obtained for the capture rate is an important improvement. The initial condition investigation allowed the permissible impurity contaminations in liquid hydrogen to be determined, in the event of a measurement beginning 1.5 μs after the end of the beam pulse. Nitrogen and rare gases must not, overcome 8.10 -9 concentration (Pd filter). The deuterium concentration must be lower than 3.10 -6 (use of very pure hydrogen 'protium'). The system measured is the pμp molecule the event of an ortho-para transition of this molecule being badly known, a measurement of the time distribution of the capture neutrons makes the phenomenon clearer, without the neutron detector efficiency being accurately known [fr

  11. B Lifetimes and Mixing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evans, Harold G.

    2009-01-01

    The Tevatron experiments, CDF and D0, have produced a wealth of new B-physics results since the start of Run II in 2001. We've observed new B-hadrons, seen new effects, and increased many-fold the precision with which we know the properties of b-quark systems. In these proceedings, we will discuss two of the most fruitful areas in the Tevatron B-physics program: lifetimes and mixing. We'll examine the experimental issues driving these analyses, present a summary of the latest results, and discuss prospects for the future.

  12. Isotopic effect of the mean lifetimes of the NeAr2+ doubly charged rare-gas dimer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ben-Itzhak, I.; Bouhnik, J.P.; Chen, Z.; Gertner, I.; Heinemann, C.; Koch, W.; Lin, C.D.; Rosner, B.

    1995-01-01

    It has been suggested recently by Chen et al. [Phys. Rev. A 49, 3472 (1994)] that the measured long-lived NeAr 2+ formed in fast NeAr + + Ar charge-stripping collisions is mostly in its v=12 vibrational state bound to the electronic ground state, and that this molecular ion decays by tunneling through the potential barrier. Such a decay rate is expected to depend strongly on the reduced mass of the molecular ion leading to large isotopic effects. We have measured the mean lifetimes of the 20 Ne 40 Ar 2+ and 22 Ne 40 Ar 2+ isotopes in order to see this isotopic effect. Surprisingly, the mean lifetimes of both isotopes are similar to each other. Thus, it is suggested that the observed NeAr 2+ molecular ions do not decay via a tunneling mechanism, which would indicate that they reside in the metastable electronic ground state. Rather, electronic transitions from bound or metastable excited states into other repulsive states are the origin for the experimentally observed decay. Qualitative estimates for the shapes and ordering of these states in the electronic spectrum of NeAr 2+ are given

  13. B meson lifetime measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Piccolo, M.

    1989-01-01

    The lifetime of hadrons containing b-quark has been the subject of extensive experimental work and theoretical speculation; its importance is due to implications on some of the fundamental parameters of the Standard Model, such as the top quark mass and the mixing angles. Since the pioneer measurements of the MAC and MARK II collaborations at PEP in 1983 the progress has been impressive; but many issues still remain open and await further study. In this paper the field's present status is discussed. An overview of the theoretical motivations for this measurements in the Standard Model framework is done. Then the experimental techniques used are reviewed, emphasizing the most recent measurements. A comparison of the results obtained is done and systematic errors are discussed. In conclusion there are some remarks on the further developments foreseen in the near future

  14. Entropy-driven metastable defects in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamilton, B.; Peaker, A.R.; Pantelides, S.T.

    1989-01-01

    The known metastable defects are usually describable by a configuration coordinate diagram in which two energy minima are separated by a barrier. This diagram does not change with temperature and each configuration is stable over some temperature range. Here we report the observation of a novel metastability: A configuration change occurs spontaneously and abruptly at a critical temperature, giving rise to a discontinuous DLTS (deep level transient spectroscopy) spectrum. We propose that this phenomenon is a manifestation of entropy variations in the configurational space. (author) 12 refs., 4 figs

  15. Chalcogenides Metastability and Phase Change Phenomena

    CERN Document Server

    Kolobov, Alexander V

    2012-01-01

    A state-of-the-art description of metastability observed in chalcogenide alloys is presented with the accent on the underlying physics. A comparison is made between sulphur(selenium)-based chalcogenide glasses, where numerous photo-induced phenomena take place entirely within the amorphous phase, and tellurides where a reversible crystal-to-amorphous phase-change transformation is a major effect. Applications of metastability in devices¿optical memories and nonvolatile electronic phase-change random-access memories among others are discussed, including the latest trends. Background material essential for understanding current research in the field is also provided.

  16. Investigating the Metastability of Clathrate Hydrates for Energy Storage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koh, Carolyn Ann [Colorado School of Mines, Golden, CO (United States)

    2014-11-18

    Important breakthrough discoveries have been achieved from the DOE award on the key processes controlling the synthesis and structure-property relations of clathrate hydrates, which are critical to the development of clathrate hydrates as energy storage materials. Key achievements include: (i) the discovery of key clathrate hydrate building blocks (stable and metastable) leading to clathrate hydrate nucleation and growth; (ii) development of a rapid clathrate hydrate synthesis route via a seeding mechanism; (iii) synthesis-structure relations of H2 + CH4/CO2 binary hydrates to control thermodynamic requirements for energy storage and sequestration applications; (iv) discovery of a new metastable phase present during clathrate hydrate structural transitions. The success of our research to-date is demonstrated by the significant papers we have published in high impact journals, including Science, Angewandte Chemie, J. Am. Chem. Soc. Intellectual Merits of Project Accomplishments: The intellectual merits of the project accomplishments are significant and transformative, in which the fundamental coupled computational and experimental program has provided new and critical understanding on the key processes controlling the nucleation, growth, and thermodynamics of clathrate hydrates containing hydrogen, methane, carbon dioxide, and other guest molecules for energy storage. Key examples of the intellectual merits of the accomplishments include: the first discovery of the nucleation pathways and dominant stable and metastable structures leading to clathrate hydrate formation; the discovery and experimental confirmation of new metastable clathrate hydrate structures; the development of new synthesis methods for controlling clathrate hydrate formation and enclathration of molecular hydrogen. Broader Impacts of Project Accomplishments: The molecular investigations performed in this project on the synthesis (nucleation & growth)-structure-stability relations of clathrate

  17. Inelastic collision rates of trapped metastable hydrogen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Landhuis, D; Matos, L; Moss, SC; Steinberger, JK; Vant, K; Willmann, L; Greytak, TJ; Kleppner, D

    We report the first detailed decay studies of trapped metastable (2S) hydrogen. By two-photon excitation of ultracold H samples, we have produced clouds of at least 5x10(7) magnetically trapped 2S atoms at densities greater than 4x10(10) cm(-3) and temperatures below 100 muK. At these densities and

  18. Modelling the material behaviour of metastable stainless

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Datta, K.; Geijselaers, Hubertus J.M.; Post, J.; Beyer, J.; Huetink, Han; Cesar de Sa, Jose M.A.; Santos, Abel D.

    2007-01-01

    Metastable austenitic stainless steels are designed to be thermodynamically unstable such that deformation even at room temperatures can bring about a change in the phase of face centred cubic austenite to either hexagonal close packed martensite and/or to body centred cubic martensite. This solid

  19. Inflating metastable quark-gluon plasma universe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jenkovszky, L.L.; Kaempfer, B.; Sysoev, V.M.

    1990-01-01

    We show within the Friedmann model with the equation of state p(T)=aT 4 -AT that our universe has expanded exponentially when it was in a metastable quark-gluon plasma state. The scale factor during that epoch increased by many orders of magnitude. 13 refs.; 5 figs

  20. Metastable and bistable defects in silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mukashev, Bulat N; Abdullin, Kh A; Gorelkinskii, Yurii V

    2000-01-01

    Existing data on the properties and structure of metastable and bistable defects in silicon are analyzed. Primary radiation-induced defects (vacancies, self-interstitial atoms, and Frenkel pairs), complexes of oxygen, carbon, hydrogen, and other impurity atoms and defects with negative correlation energy are considered. (reviews of topical problems)

  1. Modeling and optimization of membrane lifetime in dead-end ultra filtration

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zondervan, E.; Roffel, B.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper, a membrane lifetime model is developed and experimentally validated. The lifetime model is based on the Weibull probability density function. The lifetime model can be used to determine an unambiguous characteristic membrane lifetime. Experimental results showed that membrane lifetime

  2. Growth kinetics of metastable (331) nanofacet on Au and Pt(110) surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ndongmouo, U.T.; Houngninou, E.; Hontinfinde, F.

    2006-12-01

    A theoretical epitaxial growth model with realistic barriers for surface diffusion is investigated by means of kinetic Monte Carlo simulations to study the growth modes of metastable (331) nanofacets on Au and Pt(110) surfaces. The results show that under experimental atomic fluxes, the (331) nanofacets grow by 2D nucleation at low temperature in the submonolayer regime. A metastable growth phase diagram that can be useful to experimentalists is presented and looks similar to the one found for the stationary growth of the bcc(001) surface in the kinetic 6-vertex model. (author)

  3. Preparation and characterization of thick metastable sputter deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, R.P.; Dahlgren, S.D.; Merz, M.D.

    1975-01-01

    High-rate dc supported-discharge sputtering techniques were developed and used to prepare 0.1 mm to 5.0 mm-thick deposits of a variety of metastable materials including amorphous alloys representing more than 15 different rare-earth-transition metal systems and a wide range of compositions and deposition conditions. The ability to prepare thick, homogeneous deposits has made it possible for the first time to investigate the structure, properties, and annealing behavior of these unique sputtered alloys using neutron diffraction, ultrasonic, and other experimental techniques that are difficult or impractical for thin films. More importantly, these characterization studies show that the structure and properties of the massive sputter deposits are independent of thickness and can be reproduced from deposit to deposit. Other advantages and applications of this metastable materials preparation technique include the possibility of varying structure and properties by control of the deposition parameters and the ability to deposit even reactive alloys with a very low impurity content

  4. A Note on Scenarios of Metastable Water

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jirsák, Jan; Nezbeda, Ivo

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 75, č. 5 (2010), s. 593-605 ISSN 0010-0765 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400720802; GA AV ČR IAA200760905; GA AV ČR IAA400720710 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : metastable water * spinodal * scenarios Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 0.853, year: 2010

  5. Metastability in Field Theory and Statistical Mechanics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carvalho, C.A. de.

    1984-01-01

    After a phase transition analysis which can occur in the framework of a scalar field theory, at finite temperature and in presence of a external field, possibles metastable situations are studied and also how is their relationship with the transitions. In both cases it is used a semiclassical approximation to the theory which, in Statistical Mechanics, corresponds to the droplet-bubble model. (L.C.) [pt

  6. Metastability of Queuing Networks with Mobile Servers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baccelli, F.; Rybko, A.; Shlosman, S.; Vladimirov, A.

    2018-04-01

    We study symmetric queuing networks with moving servers and FIFO service discipline. The mean-field limit dynamics demonstrates unexpected behavior which we attribute to the metastability phenomenon. Large enough finite symmetric networks on regular graphs are proved to be transient for arbitrarily small inflow rates. However, the limiting non-linear Markov process possesses at least two stationary solutions. The proof of transience is based on martingale techniques.

  7. Enol tautomers of Watson-Crick base pair models are metastable because of nuclear quantum effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Alejandro; Tuckerman, Mark E; Hjalmarson, Harold P; von Lilienfeld, O Anatole

    2010-08-25

    Intermolecular enol tautomers of Watson-Crick base pairs could emerge spontaneously via interbase double proton transfer. It has been hypothesized that their formation could be facilitated by thermal fluctuations and proton tunneling, and possibly be relevant to DNA damage. Theoretical and computational studies, assuming classical nuclei, have confirmed the dynamic stability of these rare tautomers. However, by accounting for nuclear quantum effects explicitly through Car-Parrinello path integral molecular dynamics calculations, we find the tautomeric enol form to be dynamically metastable, with lifetimes too insignificant to be implicated in DNA damage.

  8. Trapping of negative kaons by metastable states during the atomic cascade in liquid helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamazaki, T.; Aoki, M.; Iwasaki, M.; Hayano, R.S.; Ishikawa, T.; Outa, H.; Takada, E.; Tamura, H.; Sakaguchi, A.

    1989-06-01

    We observed two distinct peaks, 205 MeV/cπ - and 235 MeV/cμ - , associated with K π2 - and K μ2 - decays at rest, respectively, from negative kaons stopped in liquid helium. These peaks were found to be delayed with respect to the stopping K - , showing that stopped K - mesons of about 2% fraction are trapped in metastable states with an overall lifetime of about 40 nsec. This observation provides a direct evidence for Condo's trapping hypothesis for the at-rest decay components of K - and π - in liquid helium. (author)

  9. First observation of laser-induced resonant annihilation in metastable antiprotonic helium atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morita, N.; Kumakura, M.; Yamazaki, T.

    1993-11-01

    We have observed the first laser-induced resonant transitions in antiprotonic helium atoms. These occur between metastable states and Auger dominated short lived states, and show that the anomalous longevity of antiprotons previously observed in helium media results from the formation of high-n high-l atomic states of p-barHe + . The observed transition with vacuum wavelength 597.259 ± 0.002 nm and lower-state lifetime 15 ± 1 ns is tentatively assigned to (n,l) = (39,35) → (38,34). (author)

  10. Detonation of Meta-stable Clusters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuhl, Allen; Kuhl, Allen L.; Fried, Laurence E.; Howard, W. Michael; Seizew, Michael R.; Bell, John B.; Beckner, Vincent; Grcar, Joseph F.

    2008-05-31

    We consider the energy accumulation in meta-stable clusters. This energy can be much larger than the typical chemical bond energy (~;;1 ev/atom). For example, polymeric nitrogen can accumulate 4 ev/atom in the N8 (fcc) structure, while helium can accumulate 9 ev/atom in the excited triplet state He2* . They release their energy by cluster fission: N8 -> 4N2 and He2* -> 2He. We study the locus of states in thermodynamic state space for the detonation of such meta-stable clusters. In particular, the equilibrium isentrope, starting at the Chapman-Jouguet state, and expanding down to 1 atmosphere was calculated with the Cheetah code. Large detonation pressures (3 and 16 Mbar), temperatures (12 and 34 kilo-K) and velocities (20 and 43 km/s) are a consequence of the large heats of detonation (6.6 and 50 kilo-cal/g) for nitrogen and helium clusters respectively. If such meta-stable clusters could be synthesized, they offer the potential for large increases in the energy density of materials.

  11. Solid state photochemistry. Subpanel A-2(b): Metastability in hydrogenated amorphous silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlson, D. [Solarex Corporation, Newton, PA (United States)

    1996-09-01

    All device quality amorphous silicon based materials exhibit degradation in electronic properties when exposed to sunlight. The photo-induced defects are associated with Si dangling bonds that are created by the recombination and/or trapping of photogenerated carriers. The defects are metastable and can be annealed out at temperatures of about 150 to 200 degrees Centigrade. The density of metastable defects is larger in films that are contaminated with > 10{sup 19} per cubic cm of impurities such as oxygen, carbon and nitrogen. However, recent experimental results indicate that some metastable defects are still present in films with very low impurity concentrations. The photo-induced defects typically saturate after 100 to 1000 hours of exposure to one sun illumination depending on the deposition conditions. There is also experimental evidence that photo-induced structural changes are occurring in the amorphous silicon based materials and that hydrogen may be playing an important role in both the photo-induced structural changes and in the creation of metastable defects.

  12. Theoretical calculations of positron lifetimes for metal oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mizuno, Masataka; Araki, Hideki; Shirai, Yasuharu

    2004-01-01

    Our recent positron lifetime measurements for metal oxides suggest that positron lifetimes of bulk state in metal oxides are shorter than previously reported values. We have performed theoretical calculations of positron lifetimes for bulk and vacancy states in MgO and ZnO using first-principles electronic structure calculations and discuss the validity of positron lifetime calculations for insulators. By comparing the calculated positron lifetimes to the experimental values, it wa found that the semiconductor model well reproduces the experimental positron lifetime. The longer positron lifetime previously reported can be considered to arise from not only the bulk but also from the vacancy induced by impurities. In the case of cation vacancy, the calculated positron lifetime based on semiconductor model is shorter than the experimental value, which suggests that the inward relaxation occurs around the cation vacancy trapping the positron. (author)

  13. Metastable decay of photoionized niobium clusters: Evaporation vs fission fragmentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cole, S.K.; Liu, K.; Riley, S.J.

    1986-01-01

    The metastable decay of photoionized niobium clusters (Nb/sub n/ + ) has been observed in a newly constructed cluster beam machine. The decay manifests itself in the time-of-flight (TOF) mass spectrum as an asymmetric broadening of daughter ion peaks. Pulsed ion extraction has been used to measure the decay rate constants and to establish the mechanism of the fragmentation, evaporation and/or fission of the photoionized clusters. It is found that within the experimental time window evaporation dominates for the smaller clusters (n 6 sec -1 . The average kinetic energy release is also determined and is found to be on the order of 5 MeV. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  14. Fundamentals of metastability exchange optical pumping in helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batz, M; Nacher, P-J; Tastevin, G

    2011-01-01

    Advances in metastability exchange optical pumping (MEOP) at high laser powers, but also at high gas pressures and high magnetic field strengths, has provided strong motivation for revisiting the understanding of the limitations of this powerful technique. A comprehensive model has been developed for improved description of the combined effects of OP, ME, and relaxation, and of detailed MEOP features observed over the broad range of operating conditions. A brief description is provided, with illustrative comparisons of computed and experimental results. This improved tool is used to explain the excellent photon efficiency of OP obtained at all field strengths. It is combined with an angular momentum budget approach to quantitatively investigate the newly discovered strong OP-enhanced polarisation losses that currently limits MEOP performance.

  15. Fundamentals of metastability exchange optical pumping in helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batz, M.; Nacher, P.-J.; Tastevin, G.

    2011-06-01

    Advances in metastability exchange optical pumping (MEOP) at high laser powers, but also at high gas pressures and high magnetic field strengths, has provided strong motivation for revisiting the understanding of the limitations of this powerful technique. A comprehensive model has been developed for improved description of the combined effects of OP, ME, and relaxation, and of detailed MEOP features observed over the broad range of operating conditions. A brief description is provided, with illustrative comparisons of computed and experimental results. This improved tool is used to explain the excellent photon efficiency of OP obtained at all field strengths. It is combined with an angular momentum budget approach to quantitatively investigate the newly discovered strong OP-enhanced polarisation losses that currently limits MEOP performance.

  16. Metastable He (n=2) - Ne potential interaction calculation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahal, H.

    1983-10-01

    Diabatic potential terms corresponding to He (2 1 S)-Ne and He (2 3 S)-Ne interactions are calculated. These potentials reproduce the experimental results thermal metastable atom elastic scattering on Ne target. A model which reduces the interaction to a one-electron problem is proposed: the He excited electron. Its interaction with the He + center is reproduced by a ''l'' dependent potential model with a 1/2 behaviour at short range. The electron interaction facing the Ne is described by a l-dependent pseudopotential reproducing with accuracy the electron elastic scattering on a Ne atom. The importance of the corrective term related to the Ne polarizations by the electron and the He + ion is showed in this work. In the modelling problems, the accuracy cannot be better than 0.1 MeV [fr

  17. Metastable self-trapping of positrons in MgO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monge, M. A.; Pareja, R.; González, R.; Chen, Y.

    1997-01-01

    Low-temperature positron annihilation measurements have been performed on MgO single crystals containing either cation or anion vacancies. The temperature dependence of the S parameter is explained in terms of metastable self-trapped positrons which thermally hop through the crystal lattice. The experimental results are analyzed using a three-state trapping model assuming transitions from both delocalized and self-trapped states to deep trapped states at vacancies. The energy level of the self-trapped state was determined to be (62+/-5) meV above the delocalized state. The activation enthalpy for the hopping process of self-trapped positrons appears to depend on the kind of defect present in the crystals.

  18. Nuclear lifetime measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guillaume, Georges

    Three direct techniques of lifetime measurement are emphasized: electronic methods and two methods based on the Doppler effect (the recoil distance methods or RDM, the Doppler shift attenuation methods or DSAM). Said direct methods are concerned with the direct measurement of the radioactive decay constants of nuclear excited states. They allow lifetimes of nucleus bound states whose deexcitations occur by electromagnetic transitions, to be determined. Other methods for measuring lifetimes are also examined: microwave techniques and those involving the blocking effect in crystals (direct methods) and also various indirect methods of obtaining lifetimes (γ resonance scattering, capture reactions, inelastic electron and nucleus scattering, and Coulomb deexcitation) [fr

  19. Quantum decay of metastable current states in rf squids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dmitrenko, I.M.; Khlus, V.A.; Tsoj, C.M.; Shnyrkov, V.I.

    1985-01-01

    Quantum decay of metastable current states in a rf SQUID superconducting ring of a hysteresis mode are considered. Point contacts are used as a Josephson weak link. The first derivative of rf IVC, dVsub(T)/dIsub(RF), is measured which gives the dependence of the density of decay probability on the amplitude of magnetic flux oscillations in the ring. The temperature dependence of probability distribution width between 4.2 and 0.5 K suggests that for most of high-ohmic contacts Nb-Nb, Nb-Ag-Nb the quantum mechanisms of decay become dominant beginning with the temperature of about 2 K. The experimental parameters of distribution of decay probability in the quantum limit are compared to those calculated by the theory of macroscopic quantum tunneling in the limit of high and low dissipation. The experimental values of probability density distribution width and characteristic quantum temperature are higher than the theoretical ones, the fact can be attributed to the deviation of current-phase relation of contact from a sinusoidal one. Besides, some contacts seem to correspond to the case of an intermediate value of dissipation. As the frequency of rf oscillations varies from 30 to 6 MHz, the distribution width remains unchanged in accordance with the theory of quantum tunneling decay of metastable current state in the ring in the limit of high damping. At low temperatures (T approximately 0.5 K), and rather small damping coefficient, the density of probability displays anomalous peaks when the amplitude of rf oscillations is lower considerably than the critical vaiue of magnetic flux in the ring

  20. Metastable structure formation during high velocity grinding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Samarin, A.N.; Klyuev, M.M.

    1984-01-01

    Metastable structures in surface layers of samples are; investigated during force high-velocity abrasive grinding. Samples of martensitic (40Kh13), austenitic (12Kh18N10T), ferritic (05Kh23Yu5) steels and some alloys, in particular KhN77TYuR (EhI437B), were grinded for one pass at treatment depth from 0.17 up to 2.6 mm. It is established that processes of homogenizing, recrystallization and coagulation are; developed during force high-velocity grinding along with polymorphic transformations in the zone of thermomechanical effect, that leads to changes of physical and mechanical properties of the surface

  1. Bitopic Ligands and Metastable Binding Sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fronik, Philipp; Gaiser, Birgit I; Sejer Pedersen, Daniel

    2017-01-01

    of orthosteric binding sites. Bitopic ligands have been employed to address the selectivity problem by combining (linking) an orthosteric ligand with an allosteric modulator, theoretically leading to high-affinity subtype selective ligands. However, it remains a challenge to identify suitable allosteric binding...... that have been reported to date, this type of bitopic ligands would be composed of two identical pharmacophores. Herein, we outline the concept of bitopic ligands, review metastable binding sites, and discuss their potential as a new source of allosteric binding sites....

  2. Lifetime of organic photovoltaics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corazza, Michael; Krebs, Frederik C; Gevorgyan, Suren A.

    2015-01-01

    tests. Comparison of the indoor and outdoor lifetimes was performed by means of the o-diagram, which constitutes the initial steps towards establishing a method for predicting the lifetime of an organic photovoltaic device under real operational conditions based on a selection of accelerated indoor...

  3. Coherent and non coherent atom optics experiment with an ultra-narrow beam of metastable rare gas atoms; Experiences d'optique atomique coherente ou non avec un jet superfin d'atomes metastables de gaz rares

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grucker, J

    2007-12-15

    In this thesis, we present a new type of atomic source: an ultra-narrow beam of metastable atoms produced by resonant metastability exchange inside a supersonic beam of rare gas atoms. We used the coherence properties of this beam to observe the diffraction of metastable helium, argon and neon atoms by a nano-transmission grating and by micro-reflection-gratings. Then, we evidenced transitions between Zeeman sublevels of neon metastable {sup 3}P{sub 2} state due to the quadrupolar part of Van der Waals potential. After we showed experimental proofs of the observation of this phenomenon, we calculated the transition probabilities in the Landau - Zener model. We discussed the interest of Van der Waals - Zeeman transitions for atom interferometry. Last, we described the Zeeman cooling of the supersonic metastable argon beam ({sup 3}P{sub 2}). We have succeeded in slowing down atoms to speeds below 100 m/s. We gave experimental details and showed the first time-of-flight measurements of slowed atoms.

  4. A study on metastable superconducting magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Koyama, Kenichi

    1976-01-01

    It is important to construct superconducting magnets as cheap as possible. One of the methods to achieve such a purpose is to save the superconducting material and operate the magnets at a high current density. Therefore it is useful to investigate the requirements for the operation of metastable superconducting magnets which can work at a current higher than the recovery current. Using the theory of flux jump, we introduce a ''stable current'' below which no flux jump can occur. On a rough approximation, it is given by I sub(s) =√A P sub(i) H sub(e) T sub(o) f(x)/rho where A : cross-section of the composite conductor. P sub(i) : total perimeter of all the superconducting cores. h sub(e) : effective heat transfer coefficient to the liquid helium through the stabilizer. T sub(o) : a characteristic temperature of the superconducting cores. f(x) : a characteristic function for the relative core radius x. rho : effective resistivity of the composite. Then it is shown that superconducting magnets can operate without unexpected normal transitions in the region enclosed by the two curves of I sub(s) and I sub(c). Next, we discuss the characteristics of our saddle shaped superconducting magnet for an one-KW MHD generator. We found that, 1) the magnet does safely operate in the metastable state; 2) the characteristics of the magnet are consistent with our theoretical results. (auth.)

  5. Fast neutron spectroscopy with tensioned metastable fluid detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimes, T.F.; Taleyarkhan, R.P., E-mail: rusi@purdue.edu

    2016-09-11

    This paper describes research into development of a rapid-turnaround, neutron-spectroscopy capable (gamma-beta blind), high intrinsic efficiency sensor system utilizing the tensioned metastable fluid detector (TMFD) architecture. The inability of prevailing theoretical models (developed successfully for the classical bubble chamber) to adequately predict detection thresholds for tensioned metastable fluid conditions is described. Techniques are presented to overcome these inherent shortcomings, leading thereafter, to allow successful neutron spectroscopy using TMFDs – via the newly developed Single Atom Spectroscopy (SAS) approach. SAS also allows for a unique means for rapidly determining neutron energy thresholds with TMFDs. This is accomplished by simplifying the problem of determining Cavitation Detection Events (CDEs) arising from neutron interactions with one in which several recoiling atom species contribute to CDEs, to one in which only one dominant recoil atom need be considered. The chosen fluid is Heptane (C{sub 7}H{sub 16}) for which only recoiling C atoms contribute to CDEs. Using the SAS approach, the threshold curve for Heptane was derived using isotope neutron source data, and then validated against experiments with mono-energetic (2.45/14 MeV) neutrons from D-D and D-T accelerators. Thereafter the threshold curves were used to produce the response matrix for various geometries. The response matrices were in turn combined with experimental data to recover the continuous spectra of fission (Cf-252) and (α,n) Pu–Be isotopic neutron sources via an unfolding algorithm. A generalized algorithm is also presented for performing neutron spectroscopy using any other TMFD fluid that meets the SAS approach assumptions.

  6. Coherent and non coherent atom optics experiment with an ultra-narrow beam of metastable rare gas atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grucker, J.

    2007-12-01

    In this thesis, we present a new type of atomic source: an ultra-narrow beam of metastable atoms produced by resonant metastability exchange inside a supersonic beam of rare gas atoms. We used the coherence properties of this beam to observe the diffraction of metastable helium, argon and neon atoms by a nano-transmission grating and by micro-reflection-gratings. Then, we evidenced transitions between Zeeman sublevels of neon metastable 3 P 2 state due to the quadrupolar part of Van der Waals potential. After we showed experimental proofs of the observation of this phenomenon, we calculated the transition probabilities in the Landau - Zener model. We discussed the interest of Van der Waals - Zeeman transitions for atom interferometry. Last, we described the Zeeman cooling of the supersonic metastable argon beam ( 3 P 2 ). We have succeeded in slowing down atoms to speeds below 100 m/s. We gave experimental details and showed the first time-of-flight measurements of slowed atoms

  7. Hadronization, spin and lifetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grossman, Yuval; Nachshon, Itay

    2008-01-01

    Measurements of lifetimes can be done in two ways. For very short lived particles, the width can be measured. For long lived ones, the lifetime can be directly measured, for example, using a displaced vertex. Practically, the lifetime cannot be extracted for particles with intermediate lifetimes. We show that for such cases information about the lifetime can be extracted for heavy colored particles that can be produced with known polarization. For example, a t-like particle with intermediate lifetime hadronizes into a superposition of the lowest two hadronic states, T* and T (the equivalent of B* and B). Depolarization effects are governed by time scales that are much longer than the hadronization time scale, Λ QCD -1 . After a time of order 1/Δm, with Δm≡m(T*)-m(T), half of the initial polarization is lost. The polarization is totally lost after a time of order 1/Γ γ , with Γ γ = Γ(T* → Tγ). Thus, by comparing the initial and final polarization, we get information on the particle's lifetime.

  8. Models for Battery Reliability and Lifetime

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, K.; Wood, E.; Santhanagopalan, S.; Kim, G. H.; Neubauer, J.; Pesaran, A.

    2014-03-01

    Models describing battery degradation physics are needed to more accurately understand how battery usage and next-generation battery designs can be optimized for performance and lifetime. Such lifetime models may also reduce the cost of battery aging experiments and shorten the time required to validate battery lifetime. Models for chemical degradation and mechanical stress are reviewed. Experimental analysis of aging data from a commercial iron-phosphate lithium-ion (Li-ion) cell elucidates the relative importance of several mechanical stress-induced degradation mechanisms.

  9. The measurement of subnanosecond nuclear lifetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    White, D.C.S.

    1974-01-01

    This research dealt with the measurement of subnanosecond nuclear lifetimes using the pulsed beam delayed-coincidence technique. Measurements were performed on isotopes in the f7/2 shell and specifically the isotopes of titanium and vanadium. Experimental investigations were also pursued in 59 Ni and 65 Zn. Several new lifetimes were determined and confirmation was obtained for some previous values which were measured with different techniques. More information was also obtained on certain levels where previous results are in disagreement. (author)

  10. Metastability in the formation of an experimental traffic jam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nakayama, Akihiro; Fukui, Minoru; Kikuchi, Macoto; Hasebe, Katsuya; Nishinari, Katsuhiro; Sugiyama, Yuki; Tadaki, Shin-ichi; Yukawa, Satoshi

    2009-01-01

    We show detailed data about the process of jam formation in a traffic experiment on a circuit without any bottlenecks. The experiment was carried out using a circular road on a flat ground. At the initial stage, vehicles are running homogeneously distributed on the circuit with the same velocity, but roughly 10 min later a traffic jam emerges spontaneously on the circuit. In the process of the jam formation, we found a homogeneous flow with large velocity is temporarily realized before a jam cluster appears. The instability of such a homogeneous flow is the key to understanding jam formation.

  11. The metastable dynamo model of stellar rotational evolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brown, Timothy M.

    2014-01-01

    This paper introduces a new empirical model for the rotational evolution of Sun-like stars—those with surface convection zones and non-convective interior regions. Previous models do not match the morphology of observed (rotation period)-color diagrams, notably the existence of a relatively long-lived 'C-sequence' of fast rotators first identified by Barnes. This failure motivates the Metastable Dynamo Model (MDM) described here. The MDM posits that stars are born with their magnetic dynamos operating in a mode that couples very weakly to the stellar wind, so their (initially very short) rotation periods at first change little with time. At some point, this mode spontaneously and randomly changes to a strongly coupled mode, the transition occurring with a mass-dependent lifetime that is of the order of 100 Myr. I show that with this assumption, one can obtain good fits to observations of young clusters, particularly for ages of 150-200 Myr. Previous models and the MDM both give qualitative agreement with the morphology of the slower-rotating 'I-sequence' stars, but none of them have been shown to accurately reproduce the stellar-mass-dependent evolution of the I-sequence stars, especially for clusters older than a few hundred million years. I discuss observational experiments that can test aspects of the MDM, and speculate that the physics underlying the MDM may be related to other situations described in the literature, in which stellar dynamos may have a multi-modal character.

  12. From materials control to astrophysics: metastable superconductors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waysand, G.

    1984-01-01

    The basic properties of metastable superconducting materials are reviewed: superheated domain, size of the granules, reading of the change of state. In the case of superheating, the phase transition can occur following two paths: a) increase of temperature (thermal nucleation) which allows an analysis of the calorimetric behavior for particle detection; b) increase of the applied magnetic field which allows the evaluation of surface defects promoting the nucleation of the normal state, and, more generally, the study of the superheated material as a disordered system. The thermal nucleation is useful for X-ray detection in non-destructive control as well as for the solar neutrino detection in real time. The magnetic nucleation is the basis for a proposal of detection of magnetic monopoles by induction [fr

  13. Metastable electroweak vacuum. Implications for inflation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebedev, Oleg; Westphal, Alexander [DESY Theory Group, Hamburg (Germany)

    2012-10-15

    Within the Standard Model, the current Higgs and top quark data favor metastability of the electroweak vacuum, although the uncertainties are still significant. The true vacuum is many orders of magnitude deeper than ours and the barrier separating the two is tiny compared to the depth of the well. This raises a cosmological question: how did the Higgs field get trapped in the shallow minimum and why did it stay there during inflation? The Higgs initial conditions before inflation must be fine-tuned to about one part in 10{sup 8} in order for the Higgs field to end up in the right vacuum. In this note, we show that these problems can be resolved if there is a small positive coupling between the Higgs and the inflaton.

  14. Transition Manifolds of Complex Metastable Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittracher, Andreas; Koltai, Péter; Klus, Stefan; Banisch, Ralf; Dellnitz, Michael; Schütte, Christof

    2018-04-01

    We consider complex dynamical systems showing metastable behavior, but no local separation of fast and slow time scales. The article raises the question of whether such systems exhibit a low-dimensional manifold supporting its effective dynamics. For answering this question, we aim at finding nonlinear coordinates, called reaction coordinates, such that the projection of the dynamics onto these coordinates preserves the dominant time scales of the dynamics. We show that, based on a specific reducibility property, the existence of good low-dimensional reaction coordinates preserving the dominant time scales is guaranteed. Based on this theoretical framework, we develop and test a novel numerical approach for computing good reaction coordinates. The proposed algorithmic approach is fully local and thus not prone to the curse of dimension with respect to the state space of the dynamics. Hence, it is a promising method for data-based model reduction of complex dynamical systems such as molecular dynamics.

  15. Metastable cosmic strings in realistic models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holman, R.

    1992-01-01

    The stability of the electroweak Z-string is investigated at high temperatures. The results show that, while finite temperature corrections can improve the stability of the Z-string, their effect is not strong enough to stabilize the Z-string in the standard electroweak model. Consequently, the Z-string will be unstable even under the conditions present during the electroweak phase transition. Phenomenologically viable models based on the gauge group SU(2) L x SU(2) R x U(1) B-L are then considered, and it is shown that metastable strings exist and are stable to small perturbations for a large region of the parameter space for these models. It is also shown that these strings are superconducting with bosonic charge carriers. The string superconductivity may be able to stabilize segments and loops against dynamical contraction. Possible implications of these strings for cosmology are discussed

  16. Metastable electroweak vacuum. Implications for inflation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lebedev, Oleg; Westphal, Alexander

    2012-10-01

    Within the Standard Model, the current Higgs and top quark data favor metastability of the electroweak vacuum, although the uncertainties are still significant. The true vacuum is many orders of magnitude deeper than ours and the barrier separating the two is tiny compared to the depth of the well. This raises a cosmological question: how did the Higgs field get trapped in the shallow minimum and why did it stay there during inflation? The Higgs initial conditions before inflation must be fine-tuned to about one part in 10 8 in order for the Higgs field to end up in the right vacuum. In this note, we show that these problems can be resolved if there is a small positive coupling between the Higgs and the inflaton.

  17. Influence of relaxation processes on the evaluation of the metastable defect density in Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maciaszek, M.; Zabierowski, P. [Faculty of Physics, Warsaw University of Technology, Koszykowa 75, Warszawa 00 662 (Poland)

    2016-06-07

    In this contribution, we investigated by means of numerical simulations the influence of relaxation processes related to metastable defects on electrical characteristics of Cu(In,Ga)Se{sub 2}. In particular, we analyzed the relaxation of a metastable state induced by illumination at a fixed temperature as well as the dependence of the hole concentration on the temperature during cooling. The knowledge of these two relaxation processes is crucial in the evaluation of the hole concentration in the relaxed state and after light soaking. We have shown that the distribution of the metastable defects can be considered frozen below 200 K. The hole capture cross section was estimated as ∼3 × 10{sup −15} cm{sup 2}. It was shown that the usually used cooling rates may lead to relevant changes of the hole concentration. We calculated the lower limit of the hole concentration after cooling, and we presented how it depends on densities of shallow acceptors and metastable defects. Moreover, we proposed a method which allows for the evaluation of shallow acceptor and metastable defect densities from two capacitance-voltage profiles measured in the relaxed and light soaking states. Finally, we indicated experimental conditions in which the influence of relaxation processes on the accuracy of this method is the smallest.

  18. Lifetimes of charm and beauty hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bellini, G.; Dornan, P.J.

    1997-01-01

    Major breakthroughs have been achieved in the determination of the lifetimes of charm and beauty hadrons. Much larger data samples than previously have become available and new experimental devices and techniques have been developed and employed. The lifetimes of all weakly decaying singly charmed hadrons have been measured, some with an accuracy of a few percent. The difference in the shortest lifetime - τ(Ω c ) - and the longest one - τ(D + ) - is given by a factor of close to ten. The experimental status of beauty lifetimes, while less complete, has still reached a new level of quality and is now better than 5% for the commoner states. New theoretical tools, based mainly on heavy quark expansions, have been developed; they incorporate as well as transcend earlier phenomenological descriptions. The observed pattern in the charm lifetime ratios is reproduced in a semi-quantitative manner as well as could be expected; as far as the beauty lifetime ratios are concerned some problems may well be emerging. The maturity level achieved in the measurements bodes quite well for future challenges where reliable and efficient tracking of the decay vertices will be crucial. (orig.)

  19. High-frequency magneto-impedance in metastable metallic materials: An overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vinai, F.; Coisson, M.; Tiberto, P.

    2006-01-01

    The giant magneto-impedance effect (GMI) is a common feature of a wide class of metastable ferromagnetic alloys. This effect can be enhanced by submitting the as-prepared materials to suitable thermal treatments. Recently, a remarkably high magneto-impedance response has been observed in the GHz region for several systems. The increase in miniaturization of telecommunication devices dramatically increases the working frequencies; as a consequence, the interest in studying magneto-impedance effect leads to microwave region. In this paper, analogies and differences among the magneto-transport effect observed in ferromagnetic metastable alloys will be highlighted and discussed from the experimental point of view in a wide range of frequencies

  20. The liquid metastable miscibility gap in Cu-based systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Curiotto, S.; Greco, R.; Pryds, Nini

    2007-01-01

    Some Cu-based alloys, like Cu–Co, Cu–Fe and Cu–Co–Fe, display a liquid metastable miscibility gap. When the melt is undercooled below a certain temperature depending on the alloy composition, they present a separation in two liquid phases, followed by coagulation before dendritic solidification....... In order to predict the phase equilibria and the mechanisms of microstructure formation, a determination of the metastable monotectics in the phase diagrams is essential. This paper focuses on the up-to-date findings on the Cu–Co, Cu–Fe and Cu–Co–Fe metastable miscibility gap in the liquid phase...

  1. Quantum mechanical metastability: When and why?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boyanovsky, D.; Willey, R.; Holman, R.

    1992-01-01

    We study quantum mechanical metastability with an eye towards false vacuum decay. We point out some technical and conceptual problems with the familiar bounce treatment of this process. We illustrate with simple quantum mechanical examples that the bounce formalism fails to account for the correct boundary conditions. It is also shown, that the bounce approach overestimates the time scales for tunneling of localized packets in typical (slightly) biased double well potentials. We present a thorough WKB analysis with particular attention to semiclassical trajectories corresponding to complex saddle points. We point out that the boundary conditions determine the proper choice of saddle points and the bounce approach fails to account for semiclassical trajectories in many physically relevant cases. We recognize that these saddle points account for the matching conditions of the WKB wave functions beyond the barriers and restore unitarity and reality of eigenvalues for self-adjoint boundary conditions. We provide a novel approach to the semiclassical analysis of out of equilibrium decay in real time in quantum statistical mechanics. (orig.)

  2. Constitutive modeling of metastable austenitic stainless steel (CD-rom)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Perdahcioglu, Emin Semih; Geijselaers, Hubertus J.M.; Huetink, Han; Boisse, P.

    2008-01-01

    A stress-update algorithm is developed for austenitic metastable steels which undergo phase evolution during deformation. The material initially comprises only the soft and ductile austenite phase which due to the phenomenon of mechanically induced martensitic transformation, transforms completely

  3. Investigation of systematic errors of metastable "atomic pair" number

    CERN Document Server

    Yazkov, V

    2015-01-01

    Sources of systematic errors in analysis of data, collected in 2012, are analysed. Esti- mations of systematic errors in a number of “atomic pairs” fr om metastable π + π − atoms are presented.

  4. Precision lifetime measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanner, C.E.

    1994-01-01

    Precision measurements of atomic lifetimes provide important information necessary for testing atomic theory. The authors employ resonant laser excitation of a fast atomic beam to measure excited state lifetimes by observing the decay-in-flight of the emitted fluorescence. A similar technique was used by Gaupp, et al., who reported measurements with precisions of less than 0.2%. Their program includes lifetime measurements of the low lying p states in alkali and alkali like systems. Motivation for this work comes from a need to test the atomic many-body-perturbation theory (MBPT) that is necessary for interpretation of parity nonconservation experiments in atomic cesium. The authors have measured the cesium 6p 2 P 1/2 and 6p 2 P 3/2 state lifetimes to be 34.934±0.094 ns and 30.499±0.070 ns respectively. With minor changes to the apparatus, they have extended their measurements to include the lithium 2p 2 P 1/2 and 2p 2 P 3/2 states

  5. Lifetime for the Ti X spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, Jagjit; Jha, A K S; Mohan, M

    2010-01-01

    We present configuration interaction calculations for the lifetime of 294 fine-structure levels of the Ti X spectrum in the LSJ coupling scheme. The calculations include all the major correlation effects. The relativistic effects are included by adding the mass correction term, Darwin term and spin-orbit interaction term to the non-relativistic Hamiltonian in the Breit-Pauli approximation. The calculated lifetime values are in very close agreement with other available experimental and theoretical results. We have predicted new lifetime results for levels belonging to 3p 2 3d, 3s 2 4p, 3s3p4s, 3s3p4p and various other configurations of Ti X, where no other theoretical and experimental results are available.

  6. Extension of equilibrium formation criteria to metastable microalloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaufmann, E.N.; Vianden, R.; Chelikowsky, J.R.; Phillips, J.C.

    1977-01-01

    Metastable microalloys of 25 metallic elements with beryllium have been prepared by ion implantation. The injected atoms have been found to occupy one of three sites available in the solvent lattice. A modified Laudau-Ginsburg expansion using bulk alloy variables proposed by Miedema is completely successful in predicting the observed metastable-site preferences and indicates a broader applicability of these variables than was heretofore anticipated

  7. High Cycle Fatigue of Metastable Austenitic Stainless Steels

    OpenAIRE

    Fargas Ribas, Gemma; Zapata Dederle, Ana Cristina; Anglada Gomila, Marcos Juan; Mateo García, Antonio Manuel

    2009-01-01

    Metastable austenitic stainless steels are currently used in applications where severe forming operations are required, such as automotive bodies, due to its excellent ductility. They are also gaining interest for its combination of high strength and formability after forming. The biggest disadvantage is the difficulty to predict the mechanical response, which depends heavily on the amount of martensite formed. The martensitic transformation in metastable stainless steels can b...

  8. Metastable enhancement of C+ and O+ capture reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, E.W.

    1992-01-01

    The project is devoted to the study of charge transfer neutralization of Carbon and oxygen ions in H and H 2 gases at energies from 10 to 500 eV. A major motivation was to provide cross section data to support analysis of edge plasmas in Tokamak Fusion devices. The first objective was to measure cross sections for metastable excited singly charged ions separately from the cross sections for ground state ions. Previously published values are confusing because the beams used included unknown fractions of metastables and these metastables have cross sections greatly different from the ground states. The program was fully accomplished, metastable cross sections were found to be over an order of magnitude greater than ones for the ground state and existing discrepancies in the literature were resolved. Considerable effort was devoted to the design and operation of ion source configurations were the metastable content of the ion beam was known. Subsequently study progressed to the neutralization of multiply charged C and 0 ions in the same targets. First there has been a need to develop ion sources which can produce useful beams of multiply charged species. This has now been accomplished. The intent is to use these sources for the measurement of cross sections with again an attempt to differentiate between the behavior of ground and metastably excited species

  9. Stability limit of liquid water in metastable equilibrium with subsaturated vapors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wheeler, Tobias D; Stroock, Abraham D

    2009-07-07

    A pure liquid can reach metastable equilibrium with its subsaturated vapor across an appropriate membrane. This situation is analogous to osmotic equilibrium: the reduced chemical potential of the dilute phase (the subsaturated vapor) is compensated by a difference in pressure between the phases. To equilibrate with subsaturated vapor, the liquid phase assumes a pressure that is lower than its standard vapor pressure, such that the liquid phase is metastable with respect to the vapor phase. For sufficiently subsaturated vapors, the liquid phase can even assume negative pressures. The appropriate membrane for this metastable equilibrium must provide the necessary mechanical support to sustain the difference in pressure between the two phases, limit nonhomogeneous mechanisms of cavitation, and resist the entry of the dilutant (gases) into the pure phase (liquid). In this article, we present a study of the limit of stability of liquid water--the degree of subsaturation at which the liquid cavitates--in this metastable state within microscale voids embedded in hydrogel membranes. We refer to these structures as vapor-coupled voids (VCVs). In these VCVs, we observed that liquid water cavitated when placed in equilibrium with vapors of activity aw,vapairhumiditynucleation theory or molecular simulations (Pcav=-140 to -180 MPa). To determine the cause of the disparity between the observed and predicted stability limit, we examine experimentally the likelihood of several nonhomogeneous mechanisms of nucleation: (i) heterogeneous nucleation caused by hydrophobic patches on void walls, (ii) nucleation caused by the presence of dissolved solute, (iii) nucleation caused by the presence of pre-existing vapor nuclei, and (iv) invasion of air through the hydrogel membrane into the voids. We conclude that, of these possibilities, (i) and (ii) cannot be discounted, whereas (iii) and (iv) are unlikely to play a role in determining the stability limit.

  10. Chemi-ionization in the metastable neon--metastable argon system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neynaber, R.N.; Tang, S.Y.

    1980-01-01

    Studies were made by a merging-beams technique of the associative ionization (AI) reaction (1) Ne/sup asterisk/+Ar/sup asterisk/→NeAr + +e and the Penning ionization (PI) reactions (2) Ne/sup asterisk/+Ar/sup asterisk/→Ne+Ar + +e and (3) Ne/sup asterisk/+Ar/sup asterisk/→Ne + +Ar+e. The relative kinetic energy of the reactants was varied from 0.01 to 10 eV. The Ne/sup asterisk/ and Ar/sup asterisk/ each represents a composite of the metastable 0 P/sub 2,0/ states. There is a complication in the present investigation which arises because AI and PI occur in collisions of Ne/sup asterisk/ with ground-state Ar. Since the reactant beams consist of metastable as well as ground-state species, the measurements are composites of chemi-ionization in both the Ne/sup asterisk/--Ar/sup asterisk/ and Ne/sup asterisk/--Ar systems. Information on AI and PI for the Ne/sup asterisk/--Ar/sup asterisk/ system is obtained by subtracting from these composite measurements known contributions of the Ne/sup asterisk/--Ar system. From such information it appears that the molecular states of the reactants are different for reactions (2) and

  11. Lifetime measurements of the rare earths

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stahnke, H.J.

    1981-01-01

    The lifetime of excited energy levels of Praseodymium, Neodymium, Gadolinium, Holmium and Erbium are measured. The measurements were done on atomic beams excited by laser radiation. The experimental results allow an interpretation of the electronic structure of the rare earths. (BEF)

  12. Filter replacement lifetime prediction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamann, Hendrik F.; Klein, Levente I.; Manzer, Dennis G.; Marianno, Fernando J.

    2017-10-25

    Methods and systems for predicting a filter lifetime include building a filter effectiveness history based on contaminant sensor information associated with a filter; determining a rate of filter consumption with a processor based on the filter effectiveness history; and determining a remaining filter lifetime based on the determined rate of filter consumption. Methods and systems for increasing filter economy include measuring contaminants in an internal and an external environment; determining a cost of a corrosion rate increase if unfiltered external air intake is increased for cooling; determining a cost of increased air pressure to filter external air; and if the cost of filtering external air exceeds the cost of the corrosion rate increase, increasing an intake of unfiltered external air.

  13. Uncertainties in the proton lifetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, J.; Nanopoulos, D.V.; Rudaz, S.; Gaillard, M.K.

    1980-04-01

    We discuss the masses of the leptoquark bosons m(x) and the proton lifetime in Grand Unified Theories based principally on SU(5). It is emphasized that estimates of m(x) based on the QCD coupling and the fine structure constant are probably more reliable than those using the experimental value of sin 2 theta(w). Uncertainties in the QCD Λ parameter and the correct value of α are discussed. We estimate higher order effects on the evolution of coupling constants in a momentum space renormalization scheme. It is shown that increasing the number of generations of fermions beyond the minimal three increases m(X) by almost a factor of 2 per generation. Additional uncertainties exist for each generation of technifermions that may exist. We discuss and discount the possibility that proton decay could be 'Cabibbo-rotated' away, and a speculation that Lorentz invariance may be violated in proton decay at a detectable level. We estimate that in the absence of any substantial new physics beyond that in the minimal SU(5) model the proton lifetimes is 8 x 10 30+-2 years

  14. Extended Neural Metastability in an Embodied Model of Sensorimotor Coupling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Aguilera

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The hypothesis that brain organization is based on mechanisms of metastable synchronization in neural assemblies has been popularized during the last decades of neuroscientific research. Nevertheless, the role of body and environment for understanding the functioning of metastable assemblies is frequently dismissed. The main goal of this paper is to investigate the contribution of sensorimotor coupling to neural and behavioural metastability using a minimal computational model of plastic neural ensembles embedded in a robotic agent in a behavioural preference task. Our hypothesis is that, under some conditions, the metastability of the system is not restricted to the brain but extends to the system composed by the interaction of brain, body and environment. We test this idea, comparing an agent in continuous interaction with its environment in a task demanding behavioural flexibility with an equivalent model from the point of view of 'internalist neuroscience'. A statistical characterization of our model and tools from information theory allows us to show how (1 the bidirectional coupling between agent and environment brings the system closer to a regime of criticality and triggers the emergence of additional metastable states which are not found in the brain in isolation but extended to the whole system of sensorimotor interaction, (2 the synaptic plasticity of the agent is fundamental to sustain open structures in the neural controller of the agent flexibly engaging and disengaging different behavioural patterns that sustain sensorimotor metastable states, and (3 these extended metastable states emerge when the agent generates an asymmetrical circular loop of causal interaction with its environment, in which the agent responds to variability of the environment at fast timescales while acting over the environment at slow timescales, suggesting the constitution of the agent as an autonomous entity actively modulating its sensorimotor coupling

  15. Extended Neural Metastability in an Embodied Model of Sensorimotor Coupling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguilera, Miguel; Bedia, Manuel G; Barandiaran, Xabier E

    2016-01-01

    The hypothesis that brain organization is based on mechanisms of metastable synchronization in neural assemblies has been popularized during the last decades of neuroscientific research. Nevertheless, the role of body and environment for understanding the functioning of metastable assemblies is frequently dismissed. The main goal of this paper is to investigate the contribution of sensorimotor coupling to neural and behavioral metastability using a minimal computational model of plastic neural ensembles embedded in a robotic agent in a behavioral preference task. Our hypothesis is that, under some conditions, the metastability of the system is not restricted to the brain but extends to the system composed by the interaction of brain, body and environment. We test this idea, comparing an agent in continuous interaction with its environment in a task demanding behavioral flexibility with an equivalent model from the point of view of "internalist neuroscience." A statistical characterization of our model and tools from information theory allow us to show how (1) the bidirectional coupling between agent and environment brings the system closer to a regime of criticality and triggers the emergence of additional metastable states which are not found in the brain in isolation but extended to the whole system of sensorimotor interaction, (2) the synaptic plasticity of the agent is fundamental to sustain open structures in the neural controller of the agent flexibly engaging and disengaging different behavioral patterns that sustain sensorimotor metastable states, and (3) these extended metastable states emerge when the agent generates an asymmetrical circular loop of causal interaction with its environment, in which the agent responds to variability of the environment at fast timescales while acting over the environment at slow timescales, suggesting the constitution of the agent as an autonomous entity actively modulating its sensorimotor coupling with the world. We

  16. Quantum system lifetimes and measurement perturbations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Najakov, E.

    1977-05-01

    The recently proposed description of quantum system decay in terms of repeated measurement perturbations is modified. The possibility of retarded reductions to a unique quantum state, due to ineffective localization of the decay products at initial time measurements, is simply taken into account. The exponential decay law is verified again. A modified equation giving the observed lifetime in terms of unperturbed quantum decay law, measurement frequency and reduction law is derived. It predicts deviations of the observed lifetime from the umperturbed one, together with a dependence on experimental procedures. The influence of different model unperturbed decay laws and reduction laws on this effect is studied

  17. Metastability of a-SiO{sub x}:H thin films for c-Si surface passivation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Serenelli, L., E-mail: luca.serenelli@enea.it [ENEA Research centre “Casaccia”, via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Rome (Italy); DIET University of Rome “Sapienza”, via Eudossiana 18, 00184 Rome (Italy); Martini, L. [DIET University of Rome “Sapienza”, via Eudossiana 18, 00184 Rome (Italy); Imbimbo, L. [ENEA Research centre “Casaccia”, via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Rome (Italy); DIET University of Rome “Sapienza”, via Eudossiana 18, 00184 Rome (Italy); Asquini, R. [DIET University of Rome “Sapienza”, via Eudossiana 18, 00184 Rome (Italy); Menchini, F.; Izzi, M.; Tucci, M. [ENEA Research centre “Casaccia”, via Anguillarese 301, 00123 Rome (Italy)

    2017-01-15

    Highlights: • a-SiO{sub x}:H film deposition by RF-PECVD is optimized from SiH{sub 4}, CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2} gas mixture. • Metastability of a-SiO{sub x}:H/c-Si passivation is investigated under thermal annealing and UV exposure. • A correlation between passivation metastability and Si−H bonds is found by FTIR spectra. • A metastability model is proposed. - Abstract: The adoption of a-SiO{sub x}:H films obtained by PECVD in heterojunction solar cells is a key to further increase their efficiency, because of its transparency in the UV with respect to the commonly used a-Si:H. At the same time this layer must guarantee high surface passivation of the c-Si to be suitable in high efficiency solar cell manufacturing. On the other hand the application of amorphous materials like a-Si:H and SiN{sub x} on the cell frontside expose them to the mostly energetic part of the sun spectrum, leading to a metastability of their passivation properties. Moreover as for amorphous silicon, thermal annealing procedures are considered as valuable steps to enhance and stabilize thin film properties, when performed at opportune temperature. In this work we explored the reliability of a-SiO{sub x}:H thin film layers surface passivation on c-Si substrates under UV exposition, in combination with thermal annealing steps. Both p- and n-type doped c-Si substrates were considered. To understand the effect of UV light soaking we monitored the minority carriers lifetime and Si−H and Si−O bonding, by FTIR spectra, after different exposure times to light coming from a deuterium lamp, filtered to UV-A region, and focused on the sample to obtain a power density of 50 μW/cm{sup 2}. We found a certain lifetime decrease after UV light soaking in both p- and n-type c-Si passivated wafers according to a a-SiO{sub x}:H/c-Si/a-SiO{sub x}:H structure. The role of a thermal annealing, which usually enhances the as-deposited SiO{sub x} passivation properties, was furthermore considered. In

  18. Fine-structure energy levels, oscillator strengths and lifetimes of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    with the experimental results compiled in the NIST Data Base. Many new ... Keywords. Relativistic fine-structure levels; oscillator strengths; lifetimes. ... have calculated oscillator strengths and lifetimes using the Briet–Pauli R-Matrix ..... [2] The Opacity Project Team, The Opacity Project (Institute of Physics Publishing,. Bristol ...

  19. Level lifetimes of Au52+ in Au plasma

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Bo; Zhu Zhiyan; Jiang Gang; Zhu Zhenghe

    2003-01-01

    Based on the extended relativistic multiconfiguration Dirac-Fock theory, the level lifetimes, level widths and wavelengths of Au 52+ have been calculated using the General-purpose Relativistic Atomic Structure Program. The wavelengths obtained are in good agreement with the experimental data available. The relationship between the level lifetimes and the level widths satisfies the Heisenberg uncertainty principle

  20. A few proofs for nonexistence of the metastable states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blazjevski, Atanas

    2007-01-01

    This paper is the bigger part of one until now unpublished author's work, whose title is 'A few proofs for nonexistence of the metastable states'. Because of a big volume of the work, the problems of supersaturated (metastable) steam which appears at the following of slightly, superheated, saturated or wet steam in the convergent and Laval nozzles will be discussed in the main. This steam is mentioned in the literature as one between of the strongest proofs for existence of metastable states in the substances. In this work the steam is not one -phase gaseous metastable steam, as it was thought until now, but yat it is nonequilibrium wet steam in which during the expanding process in the nozzles extreme small particles condensate, consisted of two, three or only few agglomerated molecules are formed which stay in heat, mechanical and internal nonequilibrium with the rest of the expanding gaseous phase of the steam. It means, that this steam, which is called a supersaturated or metastable steam, in fact does not exist in reality because it is nothing else but only nonequilibrium wet steam consisted of tho phases: the expanding gaseous phase of the steam in the nozzle and the mentioned small and nonequilibrium particles condensate which are formed there...

  1. A metastable liquid melted from a crystalline solid under decompression

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Chuanlong; Smith, Jesse S.; Sinogeikin, Stanislav V.; Kono, Yoshio; Park, Changyong; Kenney-Benson, Curtis; Shen, Guoyin

    2017-01-01

    A metastable liquid may exist under supercooling, sustaining the liquid below the melting point such as supercooled water and silicon. It may also exist as a transient state in solid-solid transitions, as demonstrated in recent studies of colloidal particles and glass-forming metallic systems. One important question is whether a crystalline solid may directly melt into a sustainable metastable liquid. By thermal heating, a crystalline solid will always melt into a liquid above the melting point. Here we report that a high-pressure crystalline phase of bismuth can melt into a metastable liquid below the melting line through a decompression process. The decompression-induced metastable liquid can be maintained for hours in static conditions, and transform to crystalline phases when external perturbations, such as heating and cooling, are applied. It occurs in the pressure-temperature region similar to where the supercooled liquid Bi is observed. Akin to supercooled liquid, the pressure-induced metastable liquid may be more ubiquitous than we thought.

  2. Positron lifetime studies of electron irradiated copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hadnagy, T.D.

    1976-01-01

    Single-crystal copper was irradiated with 4.5-MeV electrons producing simple Frenkel defects as well as a significant concentration of divacancies. Mean positron lifetime characteristics, which are sensitive to the presence of vacancies and multivacancies in copper, was monitored after isochronal anneals between 80 and 800 0 K to determine the relative change of characteristic mean lifetimes and their associated intensities. Also a study of the dependence of the mean positron lifetime on the total electron fluence was made and compared with existing theories relating these lifetimes to vacancy or multivacancy concentrations. Numerical data from curve fitting procedures using a conventional trapping model for defect-induced changes in positron lifetimes indicate that upon irradiation with 4.5-MeV electrons at 80 0 K, about 8 percent of the defects produced are divacancy units. Divacancy units appear to be several times more effective in trapping positrons than are monovacancies. Further, the experimental data suggest that the stage III annealing processes in electron-irradiated copper most probably involve the motion and removal of both monovacancies and divacancies. A conglomerate (multivacancy) unit appears to exist as a stable entity even after annealing procedures are carried out at temperatures slightly above the stage III region. Such a stable unit could serve as a nucleation center for the appearance of voids

  3. Masses of charmed particles, decay modes and lifetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vajsenberg, A.O.

    1982-01-01

    Basic characteristics of charmed particles obtained up to the middle of 1981 are discussed in the survey. Stated in brief are main predictions of the theory on charmed particles properties. Experimental data on masses, decay modes and lifetimes of D and F mesons as well as charmed baryons are considered. Basic experiments are described. It is pointed out that in the experiments single and pair production events as well as charmed particle decay have been observed. The charmed particles lifetime lies within the limits of 10 -12 - 10 -13 C. The lifetime of D +- mesons is approximately three times longer than the D 0 mesons lifetime. The lifetime of F mesons and Λsub(e) baryons is close to D 0 mesons lifetime [ru

  4. Metastability and reliability of CdTe solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Da; Brinkman, Daniel; Shaik, Abdul R.; Ringhofer, Christian; Vasileska, Dragica

    2018-04-01

    Thin-film modules of all technologies often suffer from performance degradation over time. Some of the performance changes are reversible and some are not, which makes deployment, testing, and energy-yield prediction more challenging. Manufacturers devote significant empirical efforts to study these phenomena and to improve semiconductor device stability. Still, understanding the underlying reasons of these instabilities remains clouded due to the lack of ability to characterize materials at atomistic levels and the lack of interpretation from the most fundamental material science. The most commonly alleged causes of metastability in CdTe devices, such as ‘migration of Cu’, have been investigated rigorously over the past fifteen years. Still, the discussion often ended prematurely with stating observed correlations between stress conditions and changes in atomic profiles of impurities or CV doping concentration. Multiple hypotheses suggesting degradation of CdTe solar cell devices due to interaction and evolution of point defects and complexes were proposed, and none of them received strong theoretical or experimental confirmation. It should be noted that atomic impurity profiles in CdTe provide very little intelligence on active doping concentrations. The same elements could form different energy states, which could be either donors or acceptors, depending on their position in crystalline lattice. Defects interact with other extrinsic and intrinsic defects; for example, changing the state of an impurity from an interstitial donor to a substitutional acceptor often is accompanied by generation of a compensating intrinsic interstitial donor defect. Moreover, all defects, intrinsic and extrinsic, interact with the electrical potential and free carriers so that charged defects may drift in the electric field and the local electrical potential affects the formation energy of the point defects. Such complexity of interactions in CdTe makes understanding of temporal

  5. Classification of knotted tori in 2-metastable dimension

    KAUST Repository

    Cencelj, Matija

    2012-11-30

    This paper is devoted to the classical Knotting Problem: for a given manifold N and number m describe the set of isotopy classes of embeddings N → Sm. We study the specific case of knotted tori, that is, the embeddings Sp × Sq → Sm. The classification of knotted tori up to isotopy in the metastable dimension range m > p + 3 2 q + 2, p 6 q, was given by Haefliger, Zeeman and A. Skopenkov. We consider the dimensions below the metastable range and give an explicit criterion for the finiteness of this set of isotopy classes in the 2-metastable dimension: Theorem. Assume that p+ 4 3 q +2 < mp+ 3 2 q +2 and m > 2p+q +2. Then the set of isotopy classes of smooth embeddings Sp × Sq → Sm is infinite if and only if either q + 1 or p + q + 1 is divisible by 4. © 2012 RAS(DoM) and LMS.

  6. Classification of knotted tori in 2-metastable dimension

    KAUST Repository

    Cencelj, Matija; Repovš, Dušan; Skopenkov, Mikhail

    2012-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the classical Knotting Problem: for a given manifold N and number m describe the set of isotopy classes of embeddings N → Sm. We study the specific case of knotted tori, that is, the embeddings Sp × Sq → Sm. The classification of knotted tori up to isotopy in the metastable dimension range m > p + 3 2 q + 2, p 6 q, was given by Haefliger, Zeeman and A. Skopenkov. We consider the dimensions below the metastable range and give an explicit criterion for the finiteness of this set of isotopy classes in the 2-metastable dimension: Theorem. Assume that p+ 4 3 q +2 < mp+ 3 2 q +2 and m > 2p+q +2. Then the set of isotopy classes of smooth embeddings Sp × Sq → Sm is infinite if and only if either q + 1 or p + q + 1 is divisible by 4. © 2012 RAS(DoM) and LMS.

  7. Metastable enhancement of C+ and O+ capture reactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, E.W.; Moran, T.F.

    1990-09-01

    Single electron capture by 10- to 500-eV singly charged C and O ions traversing targets of H 2 and H was studied with emphasis on comparing cross sections for metastable species with those for the ground state. For an H 2 target cross sections are of the order 10 Angstrom and 20 to 30 times larger than for ground state species. Electron impact ion sources typically produce 5 to 30% of their output in the metastable state. Previous published work has largely ignored (or failed to detect) the presence of metastables and is incorrect by as much as an order of magnitude. Discrepancies between data sets have been resolved, and a reliable data set is provided for energies from 10 to 10 5 eV. Similar experiments for an atomic H target are underway. It is proposed to extend the program to similar studies with multiply charged projectile species

  8. Dynamical SUSY breaking in meta-stable vacua

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intriligator, Kenneth; Seiberg, Nathan; Shih, David

    2006-01-01

    Dynamical supersymmetry breaking in a long-lived meta-stable vacuum is a phenomenologically viable possibility. This relatively unexplored avenue leads to many new models of dynamical supersymmetry breaking. Here, we present a surprisingly simple class of models with meta-stable dynamical supersymmetry breaking: N = 1 supersymmetric QCD, with massive flavors. Though these theories are strongly coupled, we definitively demonstrate the existence of meta-stable vacua by using the free-magnetic dual. Model building challenges, such as large flavor symmetries and the absence of an R-symmetry, are easily accommodated in these theories. Their simplicity also suggests that broken supersymmetry is generic in supersymmetric field theory and in the landscape of string vacua

  9. Metastable Structures in Cluster Catalysis from First-Principles: Structural Ensemble in Reaction Conditions and Metastability Triggered Reactivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Geng; Sautet, Philippe

    2018-02-28

    Reactivity studies on catalytic transition metal clusters are usually performed on a single global minimum structure. With the example of a Pt 13 cluster under a pressure of hydrogen, we show from first-principle calculations that low energy metastable structures of the cluster can play a major role for catalytic reactivity and that hence consideration of the global minimum structure alone can severely underestimate the activity. The catalyst is fluxional with an ensemble of metastable structures energetically accessible at reaction conditions. A modified genetic algorithm is proposed to comprehensively search for the low energy metastable ensemble (LEME) structures instead of merely the global minimum structure. In order to reduce the computational cost of density functional calculations, a high dimensional neural network potential is employed to accelerate the exploration. The presence and influence of LEME structures during catalysis is discussed by the example of H covered Pt 13 clusters for two reactions of major importance: hydrogen evolution reaction and methane activation. The results demonstrate that although the number of accessible metastable structures is reduced under reaction condition for Pt 13 clusters, these metastable structures can exhibit high activity and dominate the observed activity due to their unique electronic or structural properties. This underlines the necessity of thoroughly exploring the LEME structures in catalysis simulations. The approach enables one to systematically address the impact of isomers in catalysis studies, taking into account the high adsorbate coverage induced by reaction conditions.

  10. Fluorescence lifetime based bioassays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meyer-Almes, Franz-Josef

    2017-12-01

    Fluorescence lifetime (FLT) is a robust intrinsic property and material constant of fluorescent matter. Measuring this important physical indicator has evolved from a laboratory curiosity to a powerful and established technique for a variety of applications in drug discovery, medical diagnostics and basic biological research. This distinct trend was mainly driven by improved and meanwhile affordable laser and detection instrumentation on the one hand, and the development of suitable FLT probes and biological assays on the other. In this process two essential working approaches emerged. The first one is primarily focused on high throughput applications employing biochemical in vitro assays with no requirement for high spatial resolution. The second even more dynamic trend is the significant expansion of assay methods combining highly time and spatially resolved fluorescence data by fluorescence lifetime imaging. The latter approach is currently pursued to enable not only the investigation of immortal tumor cell lines, but also specific tissues or even organs in living animals. This review tries to give an actual overview about the current status of FLT based bioassays and the wide range of application opportunities in biomedical and life science areas. In addition, future trends of FLT technologies will be discussed.

  11. Energetic Metastable Oxygen and Nitrogen Atoms in the Terrestrial Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharchenko, Vasili; Dalgarno, A.

    2005-01-01

    This report summarizes our research performed under NASA Grant NAG5-11857. The three-year grant have been supported by the Geospace Sciences SR&T program. We have investigated the energetic metastable oxygen and nitrogen atoms in the terrestrial stratosphere, mesosphere and thermosphere. Hot atoms in the atmosphere are produced by solar radiation, the solar wind and various ionic reactions. Nascent hot atoms arise in ground and excited electronic states, and their translational energies are larger by two - three orders of magnitude than the thermal energies of the ambient gas. The relaxation kinetics of hot atoms determines the rate of atmospheric heating, the intensities of aeronomic reactions, and the rate of atom escape from the planet. Modeling of the non-Maxwellian energy distributions of metastable oxygen and nitrogen atoms have been focused on the determination of their impact on the energetics and chemistry of the terrestrial atmosphere between 25 and 250 km . At this altitudes, we have calculated the energy distribution functions of metastable O and N atoms and computed non-equilibrium rates of important aeronomic reactions, such as destruction of the water molecules by O(1D) atoms and production of highly excited nitric oxide molecules. In the upper atmosphere, the metastable O(lD) and N(2D) play important role in formation of the upward atomic fluxes. We have computed the upward fluxes of the metastable and ground state oxygen atoms in the upper atmosphere above 250 km. The accurate distributions of the metastable atoms have been evaluated for the day and night-time conditions.

  12. Stabilization of metastable tetragonal zirconia nanocrystallites by surface modification

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mette Skovgaard; Almdal, Kristoffer; Lelieveld, A. van

    2011-01-01

    Metastable tetragonal zirconia nanocrystallites were studied in humid air and in water at room temperature (RT). A stabilizing effect of different surfactants on the tetragonal phase was observed. Furthermore, the phase stability of silanized metastable tetragonal zirconia nanocrystallites was te...... exposure to humidity. Only silanes and phosphate esters of these were able to stabilize the tetragonal phase in water. Even as small amounts of silanes as 0.25 silane molecule per nm2 are able to stabilize the tetragonal phase in water at RT. Aminopropyl trimethoxy silane and γ...

  13. Metastable states of plasma particles close to a charged surface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shavlov, A. V., E-mail: shavlov@ikz.ru [The Institute of the Earth Cryosphere, RAS Siberian branch, 625000, P.O. 1230, Tyumen (Russian Federation); Tyumen State Oil and Gas University, 38, Volodarskogo St., 625000, Tyumen (Russian Federation); Dzhumandzhi, V. A. [The Institute of the Earth Cryosphere, RAS Siberian branch, 625000, P.O. 1230, Tyumen (Russian Federation)

    2015-09-15

    The free energy of the plasma particles and the charged surface that form an electroneutral system is calculated on the basis of the Poisson-Boltzmann equation. It is shown that, owing to correlation of light plasma particles near the charged surface and close to heavy particles of high charge, there can be metastable states in plasma. The corresponding phase charts of metastable states of the separate components of plasma, and plasma as a whole, are constructed. These charts depend on temperature, the charge magnitude, the size of the particles, and the share of the charge of the light carriers out of the total charge of the plasma particles.

  14. State-selective electron capture in collisions of ground and metastable O2+ ions with H(1s)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabello, C N; Errea, L F; Fernandez, L; Mendez, L; Macias, A; Rabadan, I; Riera, A

    2003-01-01

    An ab initio calculation of the electron capture cross sections for collisions of ground and metastable states of O 2+ with H(1s) is presented. For impact energies between 0.125 and 3.4 keV amu -1 , we find good agreement between the cross sections from the ground state ion with the mixed beam experimental data of Phaneuf et al (Phaneuf A, Alvarez I, Meyer F W and Crandall D H 1982 Phys. Rev. A 26 1892)

  15. Structural Properties and Thermodynamic Stability of Metastable Phases in the Zr-Nb and Ti-V Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurelio, Gabriela

    2003-01-01

    The structural properties and relative stability of metastable phases have been studied in the Zr-Nb and Ti-V systems.The first part of this Thesis is connected to a previous work performed in our Group (G. Grad, PhD Thesis, Instituto Balseiro, Argentina, 1999).It presents a phenomenological analysis of the systematics of interatomic distances in the omega (Ω ) and bcc (β) phases of the transition metals, which concerns a parameter entering into Pauling's resonating-valence- bond-theory and the structural and bonding properties of the Ω and β phases.Neutron diffraction experiments in Zr-Nb and Ti-V alloys are reported, aimed at studying possible atomic ordering in the Ω phase and the composition dependence of its interatomic distances.An extensive neutron diffraction study was performed on a series of Zr-Nb and Ti-V alloys quenched from high temperatures, where β is the stable phase.Upon quenching, three metastable structures are formed, viz., the hcp (∝ q ) phase, the Ω q phase, and the untransformed β q phase.The structural properties of these metastable phases were determined as a function of the Nb and V contents to generate a reliable experimental database.With such data, a series of issues are discussed related to the structure, relative stability, and phase relations in the alloys and its constitutive elements.The effect of composition upon the lattice parameters of the metastable β q and Ω q phases was combined in a consistent way with a critical analysis of structural and thermophysical data on the metastable phases of Ti and Zr.The relative stability of the metastable ∝ q , Ω q and β q phases in Zr-Nb alloys, and its evolution towards thermodynamic equilibrium, were studied combining neutron thermodiffraction and analytical electron microscopy techniques.During isothermal heat treatments performed at high temperature, the structural properties of the alloys were determined as a function of temperature, time and composition.A method of

  16. Dynamic lifetimes of cagelike water clusters immersed in liquid water and their implications for hydrate nucleation studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, G.J.; Zhang, Y.G.; Li, M.; Wu, C.H. [Chinese Academy of Sciences, Inst. of Geology and Geophysics, Beijing (China). Key Laboratory of the Study of Earth' s Deep Interior

    2008-07-01

    In hydrate research fields, the hydrate nucleation mechanism still remains as an unsolved question. The static lifetimes of cagelike water clusters (CLWC) immersed in bulk liquid water have recently been measured by performing molecular dynamics simulations in the methane-water system, during which the member-water molecules of CLWCs are not allowed to exchange with their surrounding water molecules. This paper presented a study that measured the dynamic lifetimes of CLWCs permitting such water exchanges. The study involved re-analysis of previous simulation data that were used to study the effect of methane adsorption on the static lifetimes of a dodecahedral water cluster (DWC). The dynamic lifetimes of the DWC were calculated. The results of lifetime measurements of DWC in different systems were provided. The implications of this study for hydrate nucleation were also discussed. It was found that the dynamic lifetimes of CLWCs were not less than the static lifetimes previously obtained, and their ratio increased with the lifetime values. The results strengthened that CLWCs are metastable structures in liquid water and the occurrence probability of long-lived CLWCs will increase if one uses the dynamic lifetimes instead of the static lifetimes. 13 refs., 1 tab., 3 figs.

  17. Metastable defect response in CZTSSe from admittance spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koeper, Mark J.; Hages, Charles J.; Li, Jian V.; Levi, Dean; Agrawal, Rakesh

    2017-10-02

    Admittance spectroscopy is a useful tool used to study defects in semiconductor materials. However, metastable defect responses in non-ideal semiconductors can greatly impact the measurement and therefore the interpretation of results. Here, admittance spectroscopy was performed on Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 where metastable defect response is illustrated due to the trapping of injected carriers into a deep defect state. To investigate the metastable response, admittance measurements were performed under electrically and optically relaxed conditions in comparison to a device following a low level carrier-injection pretreatment. The relaxed measurement demonstrates a single capacitance signature while two capacitance signatures are observed for the device measured following carrier-injection. The deeper level signature, typically reported for kesterites, is activated by charge trapping following carrier injection. Both signatures are attributed to bulk level defects. The significant metastable response observed on kesterites due to charge trapping obscures accurate interpretation of defect levels from admittance spectroscopy and indicates that great care must be taken when performing and interpreting this measurement on non-ideal devices.

  18. Metastable Behavior in Uniaxial Ferroelectrics TGS and TGSe near TC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fernández del Castillo, J.R.; Przeslawski, J.; Iglesias, T.; Noheda, B.; Gonzalo, J.A.

    1998-01-01

    High resolution hysteresis loops measurements in triglycine sulfate (ordinary critical point) and in triglycine selenate (tricritical point) allow the approximate characterization of the behavior in the metastable region (E < 0, P > 0, or vice versa) at T ≤ TC. The coercive field may be assumed to

  19. Metastability of Reversible Random Walks in Potential Fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landim, C.; Misturini, R.; Tsunoda, K.

    2015-09-01

    Let be an open and bounded subset of , and let be a twice continuously differentiable function. Denote by the discretization of , , and denote by the continuous-time, nearest-neighbor, random walk on which jumps from to at rate . We examine in this article the metastable behavior of among the wells of the potential F.

  20. Atom diffraction with a 'natural' metastable atom nozzle beam

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Karam, J-C; Wipf, N; Grucker, J; Perales, F; Boustimi, M; Vassilev, G; Bocvarski, V; Mainos, C; Baudon, J; Robert, J

    2005-01-01

    The resonant metastability-exchange process is used to obtain a metastable atom beam with intrinsic properties close to those of a ground-state atom nozzle beam (small angular aperture, narrow velocity distribution). The estimated effective source diameter (15 μm) is small enough to provide at a distance of 597 mm a transverse coherence radius of about 873 nm for argon, 1236 nm for neon and 1660 nm for helium. It is demonstrated both by experiment and numerical calculations with He*, Ne* and Ar* metastable atoms, that this beam gives rise to diffraction effects on the transmitted angular pattern of a silicon-nitride nano-slit grating (period 100 nm). Observed patterns are in good agreement with previous measurements with He* and Ne* metastable atoms. For argon, a calculation taking into account the angular aperture of the beam (0.35 mrad) and the effect of the van der Waals interaction-the van der Waals constant C 3 1.83 +0.1 -0.15 au being derived from spectroscopic data-leads to a good agreement with experiment

  1. Cyclic cosmology, conformal symmetry and the metastability of the Higgs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bars, Itzhak [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Southern California, Los Angeles, CA 90089-0484 (United States); Steinhardt, Paul J., E-mail: steinh@princeton.edu [California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91125 (United States); Department of Physics and Princeton Center for Theoretical Physics, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544 (United States); Turok, Neil [Perimeter Institute for Theoretical Physics, Waterloo, ON N2L 2Y5 (Canada)

    2013-10-07

    Recent measurements at the LHC suggest that the current Higgs vacuum could be metastable with a modest barrier (height (10{sup 10–12} GeV){sup 4}) separating it from a ground state with negative vacuum density of order the Planck scale. We note that metastability is problematic for standard bang cosmology but is essential for cyclic cosmology in order to end one cycle, bounce, and begin the next. In this Letter, motivated by the approximate scaling symmetry of the standard model of particle physics and the primordial large-scale structure of the universe, we use our recent formulation of the Weyl-invariant version of the standard model coupled to gravity to track the evolution of the Higgs in a regularly bouncing cosmology. We find a band of solutions in which the Higgs field escapes from the metastable phase during each big crunch, passes through the bang into an expanding phase, and returns to the metastable vacuum, cycle after cycle after cycle. We show that, due to the effect of the Higgs, the infinitely cycling universe is geodesically complete, in contrast to inflation.

  2. Cyclic cosmology, conformal symmetry and the metastability of the Higgs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bars, Itzhak; Steinhardt, Paul J.; Turok, Neil

    2013-10-01

    Recent measurements at the LHC suggest that the current Higgs vacuum could be metastable with a modest barrier (height ( GeV)4) separating it from a ground state with negative vacuum density of order the Planck scale. We note that metastability is problematic for standard bang cosmology but is essential for cyclic cosmology in order to end one cycle, bounce, and begin the next. In this Letter, motivated by the approximate scaling symmetry of the standard model of particle physics and the primordial large-scale structure of the universe, we use our recent formulation of the Weyl-invariant version of the standard model coupled to gravity to track the evolution of the Higgs in a regularly bouncing cosmology. We find a band of solutions in which the Higgs field escapes from the metastable phase during each big crunch, passes through the bang into an expanding phase, and returns to the metastable vacuum, cycle after cycle after cycle. We show that, due to the effect of the Higgs, the infinitely cycling universe is geodesically complete, in contrast to inflation.

  3. Cyclic cosmology, conformal symmetry and the metastability of the Higgs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bars, Itzhak; Steinhardt, Paul J.; Turok, Neil

    2013-01-01

    Recent measurements at the LHC suggest that the current Higgs vacuum could be metastable with a modest barrier (height (10 10–12 GeV) 4 ) separating it from a ground state with negative vacuum density of order the Planck scale. We note that metastability is problematic for standard bang cosmology but is essential for cyclic cosmology in order to end one cycle, bounce, and begin the next. In this Letter, motivated by the approximate scaling symmetry of the standard model of particle physics and the primordial large-scale structure of the universe, we use our recent formulation of the Weyl-invariant version of the standard model coupled to gravity to track the evolution of the Higgs in a regularly bouncing cosmology. We find a band of solutions in which the Higgs field escapes from the metastable phase during each big crunch, passes through the bang into an expanding phase, and returns to the metastable vacuum, cycle after cycle after cycle. We show that, due to the effect of the Higgs, the infinitely cycling universe is geodesically complete, in contrast to inflation

  4. Tumor ocular metastásico Metastatic ocular tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martha G Domínguez Expósito

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available El carcinoma metastásico del ojo es considerado la neoplasia maligna que más frecuente se encuentra de forma intraocular. Solo cerca del 10 % de las personas que tienen una o más lesiones metastásicas intraoculares son detectadas clínicamente antes de la muerte. A menudo, el carcinoma metastásico ocular es diagnosticado por el oftalmólogo ante la presencia de síntomas oculares. Las lesiones están localizadas con preferencia en coroides. Nos motivo a realizar la presentación de este caso la presencia de lesiones intraoculares múltiples tumorales metastásicos en un paciente cuyo síntoma de presentación fue la disminución de la agudeza visualThe eye metastatic carcinoma is considered the most frequently found intraocular malignant neoplasia. Only 10 % of the persons with one or more metastatic intraocular injuries are clinically detected before death. The metastatic ocular carcinoma is often diagnosed by the ophthalmologist in the presence of ocular symptoms. The injuries are preferably located in the choroid. The appearance of multiple metastatic intraaocular tumoral injuries in a patient whose chief complaint was the reduction of visual acuity motivated us to presente this case

  5. Colour chemistry - a study of metastable multiquark molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, H.-M.; Fukugita, M.; Hansson, T.H.; Hoffman, H.J.; Konishi, K.; Hoegaasen, H.; Tsou, S.T.

    1978-03-01

    A framework is proposed for treating metastable multiquark states in general, borrowing some of the chemist's concepts and terminology. Lists of 'ions' and 'bonds' are are compiled which allow one in principle to construct models of complex 'molecules' and to predict their masses and decays. (author)

  6. 235U isotope enrichment in the metastable levels of UI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gagne, J.M.; Demers, Y.; Dreze, C.; Pianarosa, P.

    1983-01-01

    We have used optical pumping to produce a substantial 235 U enrichment in the metastable levels of UI in the discharge afterglow of a hollow-cathode vapor generator. The measured isotope-enrichment factor for the level at 3800 cm -1 is approximately 20

  7. Magneto-optical trap for metastable helium at 389 nm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelemeij, J.C.J.; Stas, R.J.W.; Hogervorst, W.; Vassen, W.

    2003-01-01

    We have constructed a magneto-optical trap (MOT) for metastable triplet helium atoms utilizing the 2 S-3(1)-->3 P-3(2) line at 389 nm as the trapping and cooling transition. The far-red-detuned MOT (detuning Delta=-41 MHz) typically contains few times 10(7) atoms at a relatively high (similar

  8. Metastability Thresholds for Anisotropic Bootstrap Percolation in Three Dimensions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Enter, Aernout C.D. van; Fey, Anne

    In this paper we analyze several anisotropic bootstrap percolation models in three dimensions. We present the order of magnitude for the metastability thresholds for a fairly general class of models. In our proofs, we use an adaptation of the technique of dimensional reduction. We find that the

  9. Polymorphism in Elemental Silicon: Probabilistic Interpretation of the Realizability of Metastable Structures

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevanovic, Vladan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Jones, Eric [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-11-03

    With few systems of technological interest having been studied as extensively as elemental silicon, there currently exists a wide disparity between the number of predicted low-energy silicon polymorphs and those that have been experimentally realized as metastable at ambient conditions. We put forward an explanation for this disparity wherein the likelihood of formation of a given polymorph under near-equilibrium conditions can be estimated on the basis of mean-field isothermal-isobaric (N,p,T) ensemble statistics. The probability that a polymorph will be experimentally realized is shown to depend upon both the hypervolume of that structure's potential energy basin of attraction and a Boltzmann factor weight containing the polymorph's potential enthalpy per particle. Both attributes are calculated using density functional theory relaxations of randomly generated initial structures. We find that the metastable polymorphism displayed by silicon can be accounted for using this framework to the exclusion of a very large number of other low-energy structures.

  10. Low energy collisions of spin-polarized metastable argon atoms with ground state argon atoms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taillandier-Loize, T.; Perales, F.; Baudon, J.; Hamamda, M.; Bocvarski, V.; Ducloy, M.; Correia, F.; Fabre, N.; Dutier, G.

    2018-04-01

    The collision between a spin-polarized metastable argon atom in Ar* (3p54s, 3P2, M = +2) state slightly decelerated by the Zeeman slower-laser technique and a co-propagating thermal ground state argon atom Ar (3p6, 1S0), both merged from the same supersonic beam, but coming through adjacent slots of a rotating disk, is investigated at the center of mass energies ranging from 1 to 10 meV. The duration of the laser pulse synchronised with the disk allows the tuning of the relative velocity and thus the collision energy. At these sub-thermal energies, the ‘resonant metastability transfer’ signal is too small to be evidenced. The explored energy range requires using indiscernibility amplitudes for identical isotopes to have a correct interpretation of the experimental results. Nevertheless, excitation transfers are expected to increase significantly at much lower energies as suggested by previous theoretical predictions of potentials 2g(3P2) and 2u(3P2). Limits at ultra-low collisional energies of the order of 1 mK (0.086 μeV) or less, where gigantic elastic cross sections are expected, will also be discussed. The experimental method is versatile and could be applied using different isotopes of Argon like 36Ar combined with 40Ar, as well as other rare gases among which Krypton should be of great interest thanks to the available numerous isotopes present in a natural gas mixture.

  11. Energy transfers between N_2(A"3Σ) nitrogen metastable molecules and oxygen atoms and molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    De Souza, Antonio Rogerio

    1985-01-01

    This research thesis aims at determining reaction coefficients for energy transfers between nitrogen in its metastable status and oxygen atoms and molecules, the variation of these coefficients with respect to temperature (mainly in the 200-400 K range), products formed and more particularly branching rates of O("1S) oxygen and of NO_2. Reaction coefficients are experimentally determined by using the technique of post-discharge in flow. The experimental set-up is described and the study of the best operating conditions is reported. In the next part, the author reports the study of the energy transfer between nitrogen in its metastable status N_2(A) and oxygen molecules. Reaction coefficients are determined for the first three vibrational levels. The author then reports the study of the transfer of N_2(A) molecules on oxygen atoms in their fundamental status. Reactions coefficients and their variations are determined for the three first vibrational levels. The author describes the dissociation method and the method of detection of atomic oxygen. A kinetic model is proposed for the analysis of formed products during a post-discharge in flow, and the branching rate for the formation of O("1S) oxygen between 190 and 365 K is determined. The author finally discusses publications on the role of these reactions in the interpretation of some atmospheric phenomena

  12. Mining the bulk positron lifetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aourag, H.; Guittom, A.

    2009-01-01

    We introduce a new approach to investigate the bulk positron lifetimes of new systems based on data-mining techniques. Through data mining of bulk positron lifetimes, we demonstrate the ability to predict the positron lifetimes of new semiconductors on the basis of available semiconductor data already studied. Informatics techniques have been applied to bulk positron lifetimes for different tetrahedrally bounded semiconductors in order to discover computational design rules. (copyright 2009 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  13. Energy Savings Lifetimes and Persistence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffman, Ian M. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schiller, Steven R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Todd, Annika [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Billingsley, Megan A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Goldman, Charles A. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Schwartz, Lisa C. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2016-02-01

    This technical brief explains the concepts of energy savings lifetimes and savings persistence and discusses how program administrators use these factors to calculate savings for efficiency measures, programs and portfolios. Savings lifetime is the length of time that one or more energy efficiency measures or activities save energy, and savings persistence is the change in savings throughout the functional life of a given efficiency measure or activity. Savings lifetimes are essential for assessing the lifecycle benefits and cost effectiveness of efficiency activities and for forecasting loads in resource planning. The brief also provides estimates of savings lifetimes derived from a national collection of costs and savings for electric efficiency programs and portfolios.

  14. Positron lifetimes in deformed copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hinode, Kenji; Tanigawa, Shoichiro; Doyama, Masao

    1976-01-01

    Positron lifetime measurements were performed for Cu samples with different densities of lattice defects. The lifetime spectra were successfully resolved into two components with the help of the well established analysis program. Obtained results were quite consistent with those expected from the trapping model. The positron trapping mechanism from free to trapped states and the initial condition of the model were especially checked. Deduced values obtained for tau sub(c) (lifetime of free positrons) and tau sub(t) (lifetime of trapped positrons) were 122+-5 psec and 176+-5 psec, respectively. (auth.)

  15. Nucleation of metastable aragonite CaCO3 in seawater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wenhao; Jayaraman, Saivenkataraman; Chen, Wei; Persson, Kristin A; Ceder, Gerbrand

    2015-03-17

    Predicting the conditions in which a compound adopts a metastable structure when it crystallizes out of solution is an unsolved and fundamental problem in materials synthesis, and one which, if understood and harnessed, could enable the rational design of synthesis pathways toward or away from metastable structures. Crystallization of metastable phases is particularly accessible via low-temperature solution-based routes, such as chimie douce and hydrothermal synthesis, but although the chemistry of the solution plays a crucial role in governing which polymorph forms, how it does so is poorly understood. Here, we demonstrate an ab initio technique to quantify thermodynamic parameters of surfaces and bulks in equilibrium with an aqueous environment, enabling the calculation of nucleation barriers of competing polymorphs as a function of solution chemistry, thereby predicting the solution conditions governing polymorph selection. We apply this approach to resolve the long-standing "calcite-aragonite problem"--the observation that calcium carbonate precipitates as the metastable aragonite polymorph in marine environments, rather than the stable phase calcite--which is of tremendous relevance to biomineralization, carbon sequestration, paleogeochemistry, and the vulnerability of marine life to ocean acidification. We identify a direct relationship between the calcite surface energy and solution Mg:Ca [corrected] ion concentrations, showing that the calcite nucleation barrier surpasses that of metastable aragonite in solutions with Mg:Ca ratios consistent with modern seawater, allowing aragonite to dominate the kinetics of nucleation. Our ability to quantify how solution parameters distinguish between polymorphs marks an important step toward the ab initio prediction of materials synthesis pathways in solution.

  16. Growth of metastable fcc Mn thin film on GaAs(001) and its electronic structure studied by photoemission with synchrotron radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Yan; Dong Guosheng; Zhang Ming

    1995-01-01

    The epitaxial growth of metastable fcc Mn thin films on GaAs(001) surface has been achieved at a substrate temperature of 400 K. The development of the fcc Mn thin films as a function of coverage is studied by photoemission with synchrotron radiation. The electron density of states below the Fermi edge of the fcc Mn phase is measured. A significant difference of the electronic structures is observed between the metastable fcc Mn phase and the thermodynamically stable α-Mn phase. Possible mechanisms are proposed to interpret the experimental result

  17. Performance and Metastability of CdTe Solar Cells with a Te Back-Contact Buffer Layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Andrew

    Te device performance to experimental values. The Te layer improves performance is attributed to a reduction in the downward energy band bending between the CdTe and typical contact metals. The stability, or rather the metastability, of CdTe solar cells was also studied with a focus on the Te back contact. A metastable device has a series of quasi-stable local energy-minimuma which the device may transition among. This work primarily focused on changes, both beneficial and detrimental, caused by diffusion and drift of atoms in the CdTe lattice. As atoms moved and/or became ionized their defect states were shifted, which resulted in changes in the CdTe doping and recombination. Changes in performance for devices in equilibrium and under stress conditions were analyzed by electrical and material characterization. Mobile impurities and mechanisms responsible for the changes were identified--primarily the migration of interstitial Cu and Cl. The stability of CdTe solar cells with different back contacts were compared. It was found that any contact that included the Te layer was almost always more stable than the traditional contact used at CSU, most likely because of less sensitivity to the impurity profiles in the CdTe. Moreover, the Te contact configuration that introduced the least amount of Cu into the CdTe was discovered to be the most stable, both in storage and under stress conditions.

  18. Determination of the D mesons lifetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Josa Mutuberria, M.I.

    1990-01-01

    The results from the experiment NA27, performed in the North Area of the Super Proton Synchrotron at CERN are presented. The experimental set up was the small, high resolution, rapid cyling bubble chamber LEBC coupled with the European Hybrid Spectrometer (EHS). More than 2 millions pictures were taken, with 1015000 in teractions in hydrogen. The stastistical sensitivity of the experiment was 38.5 events/μb. A clean sample of 700 charm particle decays was obtained. Estimators with minimal systematic and statistical errors are developed for the determination of the lifetimes of short-lived particles whose individual momenta are unknown. These estimators make use of the measured decay lengths and the a priori known production characteristics. In this way, it is possible to include identified but not fully reconstructed charm decays in the sample to determine their lifetime. The properties of these estimators were extensively studied by means of Montecarlo simulation. The detection of the short-lived particles through the impact parameter of their charged decay products leads to additional complications which are taken into account. The biases and statistical errors inherent in using simpler approximate lifetime estimators are also discussed. These estimators are applied to determine the lifetime of the D o and D +- mesons using the charm data sample from NA27. (Author)

  19. ''LIFETIME'': a computer program for analyzing Doppler-shift recoil-distance nuclear lifetime data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wells, J.C.; Fewell, M.P.; Johnson, N.R.

    1985-10-01

    The program LIFETIME is designed to extract lifetimes of nuclear levels from Doppler-shift recoil-distance experiments by performing a least-square fit to the experimental data (shifted and unshifted photopeak intensities and branching ratios). Initial populations of levels and transition rates between levels are treated as variable parameters. In terms of these parameters the population of each level as a function of time is determined by the Bateman equations, and the shifted and unshifted intensities are calculated. 19 refs., 5 figs

  20. Lifetime of Mechanical Equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leland, K.

    1999-07-01

    The gas plant at Kaarstoe was built as part of the Statpipe gas transport system and went on stream in 1985. In 1993 another line was routed from the Sleipner field to carry condensate, and the plant was extended accordingly. Today heavy additional supply- and export lines are under construction, and the plant is extended more than ever. The main role of the factory is to separate the raw gas into commercial products and to pump or ship it to the markets. The site covers a large number of well-known mechanical equipment. This presentation deals with piping, mechanical and structural disciplines. The lifetime of mechanical equipment is often difficult to predict as it depends on many factors, and the subject is complex. Mechanical equipment has been kept in-house, which provides detailed knowledge of the stages from a new to a 14 years old plant. The production regularity has always been very high, as required. The standard of the equipment is well kept, support systems are efficient, and human improvisation is extremely valuable.

  1. Metastable Structural Phases of Metals in Columns IVB to Vib, and Rows 4 TO 6 OF the Periodic Table

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nnolim, Neme; Tyson, Trevor

    2002-03-01

    Total energy calculations as a function of strain along the direction have been carried out for the bcc metals V, Nb, Ta, Cr, Mo and W, and the hcp metals Ti, Zr and Hf, all in the block of the periodic table defined by columns IVB to VIB, and rows 4 to 6. Since strain along the direction corresponds to variation of the c lattice constant with respect to the a lattice constant, the total energy per unit cell has being calculated as a function of the c/a ratio. The highly accurate FP-LAPW (Full Potential Linearized Augmented Plane Wave) band structure method in the DFT (Density Functional Theory) formalism has been used for the calculations. In all cases except for the hcp column IVB elements, Zr, Hf and Ti, a metastable state was predicted from the calculations. Electronic properties are computed for all structures and are correlated with electrical and mechanical properties of metastable phases that have been observed experimentally. Properties of metastable phases, which were predicted in this work but which as of yet have not been observed experimentally, have also been predicted. Special attention is paid to the phases of tantalum and calculated transport properties are used to show that the observed high resistivity of the beta phase of tantalum relative to the alpha bcc phase cannot be explained solely by simple tetragonal distortions of the bcc phase.

  2. Formation and annealing of metastable (interstitial oxygen)-(interstitial carbon) complexes in n- and p-type silicon

    CERN Document Server

    Makarenko, L F; Lastovskii, S B; Murin, L I; Moll, M; Pintilie, I

    2014-01-01

    It is shown experimentally that, in contrast to the stable configuration of (interstitial carbon)-(interstitial oxygen) complexes (CiOi), the corresponding metastable configuration (CiOi{*}) cannot be found in n-Si based structures by the method of capacitance spectroscopy. The rates of transformation CiOi{*} -> CiOi are practically the same for both n- and p-Si with a concentration of charge carriers of no higher than 10(13) cm(-3). It is established that the probabilities of the simultaneous formation of stable and metastable configurations of the complex under study in the case of the addition of an atom of interstitial carbon to an atom of interstitial oxygen is close to 50\\%. This is caused by the orientation dependence of the interaction potential of an atom of interstitial oxygen with an interstitial carbon atom, which diffuses to this oxygen atom.

  3. Final report on reliability and lifetime prediction.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gillen, Kenneth T; Wise, Jonathan; Jones, Gary D.; Causa, Al G.; Terrill, Edward R.; Borowczak, Marc

    2012-12-01

    This document highlights the important results obtained from the subtask of the Goodyear CRADA devoted to better understanding reliability of tires and to developing better lifetime prediction methods. The overall objective was to establish the chemical and physical basis for the degradation of tires using standard as well as unique models and experimental techniques. Of particular interest was the potential application of our unique modulus profiling apparatus for assessing tire properties and for following tire degradation. During the course of this complex investigation, extensive relevant information was generated, including experimental results, data analyses and development of models and instruments. Detailed descriptions of the findings are included in this report.

  4. Lifetime Improvement by Battery Scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Schmitt, Jens B.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    The use of mobile devices is often limited by the lifetime of their batteries. For devices that have multiple batteries or that have the option to connect an extra battery, battery scheduling, thereby exploiting the recovery properties of the batteries, can help to extend the system lifetime. Due to

  5. Lifetime improvement by battery scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.

    The use of mobile devices is often limited by the lifetime of its battery. For devices that have multiple batteries or that have the option to connect an extra battery, battery scheduling, thereby exploiting the recovery properties of the batteries, can help to extend the system lifetime. Due to the

  6. Carbon in palladium catalysts: A metastable carbide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seriani, Nicola; Mittendorfer, Florian; Kresse, Georg

    2010-01-01

    The catalytic activity of palladium towards selective hydrogenation of hydrocarbons depends on the partial pressure of hydrogen. It has been suggested that the reaction proceeds selectively towards partial hydrogenation only when a carbon-rich film is present at the metal surface. On the basis of first-principles simulations, we show that carbon can dissolve into the metal because graphite formation is delayed by the large critical nucleus necessary for graphite nucleation. A bulk carbide Pd 6 C with a hexagonal 6-layer fcc-like supercell forms. The structure is characterized by core level shifts of 0.66-0.70 eV in the core states of Pd, in agreement with experimental x-ray photoemission spectra. Moreover, this phase traps bulk-dissolved hydrogen, suppressing the total hydrogenation reaction channel and fostering partial hydrogenation. (author)

  7. Metastability bounds on flavour-violating trilinear soft terms in the MSSM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jae-hyeon

    2010-11-15

    The vacuum stability bounds on flavour-violating trilinear soft terms are revisited from the view-point that one should not ban a standard-model-like false vacuum as long as it is long-lived on a cosmological timescale. The vacuum transition rate is evaluated numerically by searching for the bounce configuration. Like stability, a metastability bound does not decouple even if sfermion masses grow. Apart from being more generous than stability, the new bounds are largely independent of Yukawa couplings except for the stop trilinears. With vacuum longevity imposed on otherwise arbitrary LR insertions, it is found that a super flavour factory has the potential to probe sparticle masses up to a few TeV through B and {tau} physics whereas the MEG experiment might cover a far wider range. In the stop sector, metastability is more restrictive than any existing experimental constraint such as from electroweak precision data. Also discussed are dependency on other parameters and reliability under radiative corrections. (orig.)

  8. Metastability bounds on flavour-violating trilinear soft terms in the MSSM

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jae-hyeon

    2010-11-01

    The vacuum stability bounds on flavour-violating trilinear soft terms are revisited from the view-point that one should not ban a standard-model-like false vacuum as long as it is long-lived on a cosmological timescale. The vacuum transition rate is evaluated numerically by searching for the bounce configuration. Like stability, a metastability bound does not decouple even if sfermion masses grow. Apart from being more generous than stability, the new bounds are largely independent of Yukawa couplings except for the stop trilinears. With vacuum longevity imposed on otherwise arbitrary LR insertions, it is found that a super flavour factory has the potential to probe sparticle masses up to a few TeV through B and τ physics whereas the MEG experiment might cover a far wider range. In the stop sector, metastability is more restrictive than any existing experimental constraint such as from electroweak precision data. Also discussed are dependency on other parameters and reliability under radiative corrections. (orig.)

  9. Stabilizing effect of driving and dissipation on quantum metastable states

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valenti, Davide; Carollo, Angelo; Spagnolo, Bernardo

    2018-04-01

    We investigate how the combined effects of strong Ohmic dissipation and monochromatic driving affect the stability of a quantum system with a metastable state. We find that, by increasing the coupling with the environment, the escape time makes a transition from a regime in which it is substantially controlled by the driving, displaying resonant peaks and dips, to a regime of frequency-independent escape time with a peak followed by a steep falloff. The escape time from the metastable state has a nonmonotonic behavior as a function of the thermal-bath coupling, the temperature, and the frequency of the driving. The quantum noise-enhanced stability phenomenon is observed in the investigated system.

  10. Cooperative photoinduced metastable phase control in strained manganite films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jingdi; Tan, Xuelian; Liu, Mengkun; Teitelbaum, S. W.; Post, K. W.; Jin, Feng; Nelson, K. A.; Basov, D. N.; Wu, Wenbin; Averitt, R. D.

    2016-09-01

    A major challenge in condensed-matter physics is active control of quantum phases. Dynamic control with pulsed electromagnetic fields can overcome energetic barriers, enabling access to transient or metastable states that are not thermally accessible. Here we demonstrate strain-engineered tuning of La2/3Ca1/3MnO3 into an emergent charge-ordered insulating phase with extreme photo-susceptibility, where even a single optical pulse can initiate a transition to a long-lived metastable hidden metallic phase. Comprehensive single-shot pulsed excitation measurements demonstrate that the transition is cooperative and ultrafast, requiring a critical absorbed photon density to activate local charge excitations that mediate magnetic-lattice coupling that, in turn, stabilize the metallic phase. These results reveal that strain engineering can tune emergent functionality towards proximal macroscopic states to enable dynamic ultrafast optical phase switching and control.

  11. Fast production of Bose-Einstein condensates of metastable helium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouton, Q.; Chang, R.; Hoendervanger, A. L.; Nogrette, F.; Aspect, A.; Westbrook, C. I.; Clément, D.

    2015-06-01

    We report on the Bose-Einstein condensation of metastable 4He atoms using a hybrid approach, consisting of a magnetic quadrupole and an optical dipole trap. In our setup we cross the phase transition with 2 ×106 atoms, and we obtain pure condensates of 5 ×105 atoms in the optical trap. This approach to cooling 4He provides enhanced cycle stability, large optical access to the atoms and results in the production of a condensate every 6 s—a factor 2 faster than the state of the art. This speed-up will significantly reduce the data acquisition time needed for the measurement of many particle correlations, made possible by the ability of metastable helium atoms to be detected individually.

  12. Planktic foraminifera form their shells via metastable carbonate phases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, D E; Wirth, R; Agbaje, O B A; Branson, O; Eggins, S M

    2017-11-02

    The calcium carbonate shells of planktic foraminifera provide our most valuable geochemical archive of ocean surface conditions and climate spanning the last 100 million years, and play an important role in the ocean carbon cycle. These shells are preserved in marine sediments as calcite, the stable polymorph of calcium carbonate. Here, we show that shells of living planktic foraminifers Orbulina universa and Neogloboquadrina dutertrei originally form from the unstable calcium carbonate polymorph vaterite, implying a non-classical crystallisation pathway involving metastable phases that transform ultimately to calcite. The current understanding of how planktic foraminifer shells record climate, and how they will fare in a future high-CO 2 world is underpinned by analogy to the precipitation and dissolution of inorganic calcite. Our findings require a re-evaluation of this paradigm to consider the formation and transformation of metastable phases, which could exert an influence on the geochemistry and solubility of the biomineral calcite.

  13. Lifetime costs of cerebral palsy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kruse, Marie; Michelsen, Susan Ishøy; Flachs, Esben Meulengracht

    2009-01-01

    This study quantified the lifetime costs of cerebral palsy (CP) in a register-based setting. It was the first study outside the US to assess the lifetime costs of CP. The lifetime costs attributable to CP were divided into three categories: health care costs, productivity costs, and social costs....... social care costs and productivity costs associated with CP point to a potential gain from labour market interventions that benefit individuals with CP.......This study quantified the lifetime costs of cerebral palsy (CP) in a register-based setting. It was the first study outside the US to assess the lifetime costs of CP. The lifetime costs attributable to CP were divided into three categories: health care costs, productivity costs, and social costs...... in 2000. The prevalence of CP in eastern Denmark was approximately 1.7 per 1000. Information on productivity and the use of health care was retrieved from registers. The lifetime cost of CP was about euro860 000 for men and about euro800 000 for women. The largest component was social care costs...

  14. Measuring upconversion nanoparticles photoluminescence lifetime with FastFLIM and phasor plots

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Yuansheng; Lee, Hsien-Ming; Qiu, Hailin; Liao, Shih-Chu Jeff; Coskun, Ulas; Barbieri, Beniamino

    2018-02-01

    Photon upconversion is a nonlinear process in which the sequential of absorption of two or more photons leads to the anti-stoke emission. Different than the conventional multiphoton excitation process, upconversion can be efficiently performed at low excitation densities. Recent developments in lanthanide-doped upconversion nanoparticles (UCNPs) have led to a diversity of applications, including detecting and sensing of biomolecules, imaging of live cells, tissues and animals, cancer diagnostic and therapy, etc. Measuring the upconversion lifetime provides a new dimension of its imaging and opens a new window for its applications. Due to the long metastable intermediate excited state, UCNP typically has a long excited state lifetime ranging from sub-microseconds to milliseconds. Here, we present a novel development using the FastFLIM technique to measure UCNP lifetime by laser scanning confocal microscopy. FastFLIM is capable of measuring lifetime from 100 ps to 100 ms and features the high data collection efficiency (up to 140-million counts per second). Other than the traditional nonlinear least-square fitting analysis, the raw data acquired by FastFLIM can be directly processed by the model-free phasor plots approach for instant and unbiased lifetime results, providing the ideal routine for the UCNP photoluminescence lifetime microscopy imaging.

  15. Decadal variability and metastability in the Southern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Kane, Terence; Risbey, James; Franzke, Christian; Horenko, Illia; Monselesan, Didier

    2014-05-01

    An examination of systematic changes in the metastability of the southern hemisphere 500hPa circulation is performed using both cluster analysis techniques and split flow blocking indices. The cluster methodology is a purely data-driven approach for parametrisation whereby a multi-scale approximation to non-stationary dynamical processes is achieved through optimal sequences of locally stationary fast Vector Auto-Regressive Factor (VARX) processes and some slow (or persistent) hidden process switching between them. Comparison is made with blocking indices commonly used in weather forecasting and climate analysis to identify dynamically relevant metastable regimes in the 500hPa circulation in both reanalysis and AMIP model data sets. Our analysis characterises the metastable regime in both reanalysis and model data sets prior to 1978 as positive and negative phases of a hemispheric mid-latitude blocking state with the Southern Annular Mode (SAM) associated with a transition state. Post 1978, SAM emerges as a true metastable state replacing the negative phase of the hemispheric blocking pattern. The hidden state frequency of occurrences exhibits strong trends. The blocking pattern dominates in the early 1980s then gradually decreases. There is a corresponding increase in the SAM frequency of occurrence. This trend is largely evident in the reanalysis summer and spring but was not evident in the AMIP data set. Non-stationary cluster analysis was then further used to identify the Southern Oceans response to the systematic changes in the mid-latitude atmospheric circulation and identify dynamical regimes associated with subsurface thermocline anomalies which were found to teleconnect the Pacific and Atlantic regions of the Antarctic Circumpolar Current (ACC).

  16. flu, a metastable gene controlling surface properties of Escherichia coli.

    OpenAIRE

    Diderichsen, B

    1980-01-01

    flu, a gene of Escherichia coli K-12, was discovered and mapped between his and shiA. It is shown that flu is a metastable gene that changes frequently between the flu+ and flu states. flu+ variants give stable homogeneous suspensions, are piliated, and form glossy colonies. flu variants aggregate, fluff and sediment from suspensions, are nonpiliated, and form frizzy colonies. flu+ and flu variants can be isolated from most strains. Implications of these observations are discussed, and it is ...

  17. Automatic acquisition and shape analysis of metastable peaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maendli, H.; Robbiani, R.; Kuster, Th.; Seibl, J.

    1979-01-01

    A method for automatic acquisition and evaluation of metastable peaks due to transitions in the first field-free region of a double focussing mass spectrometer is presented. The data are acquired by computer-controlled repetitive scanning of the accelerating voltage and concomitant accumulation, the evaluation made by a mathematical derivatization of the resulting curve. Examples for application of the method are given. (Auth.)

  18. A study of lifetime within the -12 sec range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorobantu, V.

    1977-01-01

    Lifetimes of excited nuclear states are studied with a particular emphasis on the determination of nuclear lifetimes by means of the Doppler shift decomposition attenuation method - DSAM - which is based on the mathematical theory of stochastic processes; by its own nature, the emission of recoil nuclei, their motion through an amorphous medium and the detection of gamma rays resulting from these nuclei are all stochastic processes as well. Measurements of lifetimes together with other measurements can supply nuclear structure data, as well as information on the slowing-down process of an energetic ion through a certain material. The experimental tests have been carried out on the Tandem accelerator - IFIN, Bucharest. (author)

  19. Positron lifetime spectroscopy of internally oxidised Ag-In alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wegner, D.; Lieb, K.P.

    1989-01-01

    The effects of In 2 O 3 precipitates on positron lifetimes after internal oxidation of α-Ag-In alloys have been investigated. A positron trap associated with the lifetime τ 205(3) ps was detected. On the basis of the experimental results obtained for different oxidation kinetics parameters, a trapping model is proposed according to which positrons thermalised in a dislocation field around oxide precipitates are trapped at the oxide/metal phase boundary. The transition from internal to external oxidation of Ag-In was also studied. The positron lifetime in In 2 O 3 was measured to be τ = 263(8) ps. (author)

  20. Electricite de France: Lifetime Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combes, Jean-Pierre

    1991-01-01

    Electricite de France produces almost 80% of its electricity by means of standardized PWR nuclear power stations. Starting in 1986, therefore, a project known as the 'Lifetime Project' was developed, whose aim was initially to ensure that the lifetime defined at design stage (40 years in general) could be attained without major difficulty (follow up of the aging process). It then became apparent that it would be useful to know just how far it would be technically and economically possible to go. As a result, the project is now working towards increasing the lifetime of power stations. (author)

  1. Examination of the metastable and stable pitting corrosion of aluminum modified with carbon by ion beam techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lensch, O.; Enders, B.; Knecht, J.; Ensinger, W.

    2001-01-01

    It is well known that aluminum and aluminum alloys are sensitive to pitting corrosion when exposed to aqueous solutions containing aggressive anions like halides. The destructive nature of pitting is due to its high local dissolution rates at electrode potentials above the so-called pitting potential U p . Recently, it has been realized that also at potentials below U p , in the passive and cathodic regions and around the free corrosion potential, anodic current transients appear which have been attributed to metastable pitting events. For the purpose of full characterization of the pitting behavior, a program routine has been developed where the occurrence frequency, lifetime and rate of metastable pitting events are extracted from potentiostatic current/time-measurements depending on the electrode potential. The routine has been applied to measurements of carbon modified pure aluminum. Carbon modifications were done with carbon evaporation and carbon sputtering under concurrent argon ion bombardment. The results are discussed in terms of the applied modification technique, their parameters and their effects on the corrosion protection ability of aluminum modified by carbon

  2. Metastable growth of pure wurtzite InGaAs microstructures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ng, Kar Wei; Ko, Wai Son; Lu, Fanglu; Chang-Hasnain, Connie J

    2014-08-13

    III-V compound semiconductors can exist in two major crystal phases, namely, zincblende (ZB) and wurtzite (WZ). While ZB is thermodynamically favorable in conventional III-V epitaxy, the pure WZ phase can be stable in nanowires with diameters smaller than certain critical values. However, thin nanowires are more vulnerable to surface recombination, and this can ultimately limit their performances as practical devices. In this work, we study a metastable growth mechanism that can yield purely WZ-phased InGaAs microstructures on silicon. InGaAs nucleates as sharp nanoneedles and expand along both axial and radial directions simultaneously in a core-shell fashion. While the base can scale from tens of nanometers to over a micron, the tip can remain sharp over the entire growth. The sharpness maintains a high local surface-to-volume ratio, favoring hexagonal lattice to grow axially. These unique features lead to the formation of microsized pure WZ InGaAs structures on silicon. To verify that the WZ microstructures are truly metastable, we demonstrate, for the first time, the in situ transformation from WZ to the energy-favorable ZB phase inside a transmission electron microscope. This unconventional core-shell growth mechanism can potentially be applied to other III-V materials systems, enabling the effective utilization of the extraordinary properties of the metastable wurtzite crystals.

  3. Weighted oscillator strengths and lifetimes for the S VII spectrum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, F.O.; Cavalcanti, G.H.; Trigueiros, A.G.; Jupen, C.

    2004-01-01

    The weighted oscillator strengths (gf) and the lifetimes presented in this work were carried out in a multiconfiguration Hartree-Fock relativistic approach. In this calculation, the electrostatic parameters were optimized by a least-squares procedure, in order to improve the adjustment to experimental energy levels. This method produces gf-values that are in better agreement with intensity observations and lifetime values that are closer to the experimental ones. In this work, we presented all the experimentally known electric dipole S VII spectral lines

  4. Experimental positions and lifetimes of Be-like 1s23lnl'(n=3 to 5) states of O4+ and Ne6+ ions investigated by high resolution electron spectroscopy: test of calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bordenave-Montesquieu, A.; Moretto-Capelle, P.; Bordenave-Montesquieu, D.

    1999-01-01

    Using high resolution electron spectroscopy, positions and lifetimes of many Be-like singlet states of the 1s 2 3lnl' Rydberg series (n = 3 to 5) of oxygen and neon have been measured for the first time. This was achieved by a fitting procedure which takes into account an accurate definition of the post-collisional electron lineshapes. These states are produced after a double electron capture by multicharged ions has occurred in O 6+ (1s 2 )+He, H 2 and Ne 8+ (1s 2 )+He collisions at about 4 keV/amu collision energy. (orig.)

  5. Positron lifetime calculation for defects and defect clusters in graphite

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Onitsuka, T.; Ohkubo, H.; Takenaka, M.; Tsukuda, N.; Kuramoto, E.

    2000-01-01

    Calculations of positron lifetime have been made for vacancy type defects in graphite and compared with experimental results. Defect structures were obtained in a model graphite lattice after including relaxation of whole lattice as determined by the molecular dynamics method, where the interatomic potential given by Pablo Andribet, Dominguez-Vazguez, Mari Carmen Perez-Martin, Alonso, Jimenez-Rodriguez [Nucl. Instrum. and Meth. 115 (1996) 501] was used. For the defect structures obtained via lattice relaxation positron lifetime was calculated under the so-called atomic superposition method. Positron lifetimes 204 and 222 ps were obtained for the graphite matrix and a single vacancy, respectively, which can be compared with the experimental results 208 and 233 ps. For planar vacancy clusters, e.g., vacancy loops, lifetime calculation was also made and indicated that lifetime increases with the number of vacancies in a cluster. This is consistent with the experimental result in the region of higher annealing temperature (above 1200 deg. C), where the increase of positron lifetime is seen, probably corresponding to the clustering of mobile vacancies

  6. Measurement of Charm Meson Lifetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonvicini, G.; Cinabro, D.; Greene, R.; Perera, L.P.; Zhou, G.J.; Chan, S.; Eigen, G.; Lipeles, E.; Schmidtler, M.; Shapiro, A.; Sun, W.M.; Urheim, J.; Weinstein, A.J.; Wuerthwein, F.; Jaffe, D.E.; Masek, G.; Paar, H.P.; Potter, E.M.; Prell, S.; Sharma, V.; Asner, D.M.; Eppich, A.; Gronberg, J.; Hill, T.S.; Korte, C.M.; Lange, D.J.; Morrison, R.J.; Nelson, H.N.; Nelson, T.K.; Roberts, D.; Tajima, H.; Behrens, B.H.; Ford, W.T.; Gritsan, A.; Krieg, H.; Roy, J.; Smith, J.G.; Alexander, J.P.; Baker, R.; Bebek, C.; Berger, B.E.; Berkelman, K.; Boisvert, V.; Cassel, D.G.; Crowcroft, D.S.; Dickson, M.; Dombrowski, S. von; Drell, P.S.; Dumas, D.J.; Ecklund, K.M.; Ehrlich, R.; Foland, A.D.; Gaidarev, P.; Gibbons, L.; Gittelman, B.; Gray, S.W.; Hartill, D.L.; Heltsley, B.K.; Henderson, S.; Hopman, P.I.; Katayama, N.; Kreinick, D.L.; Lee, T.; Liu, Y.; Meyer, T.O.; Mistry, N.B.; Ng, C.R.; Nordberg, E.; Ogg, M.; Patterson, J.R.; Peterson, D.; Riley, D.; Soffer, A.; Thayer, J.G.; Thies, P.G.; Valant-Spaight, B.; Warburton, A.; Ward, C.; Athanas, M.; Avery, P.; Jones, C.D.; Lohner, M.; Prescott, C.; Rubiera, A.I.; Yelton, J.; Zheng, J.; Brandenburg, G.; Briere, R.A.; Ershov, A.; Gao, Y.S.; Kim, D.Y.; Wilson, R.; Browder, T.E.; Li, Y.; Rodriguez, J.L.; Yamamoto, H.; Bergfeld, T.; Eisenstein, B.I.; Ernst, J.; Gladding, G.E.; Gollin, G.D

    1999-01-01

    We report measurements of the D 0 , D + , and D + s meson lifetimes using 3.7 fb -1 of e + e - annihilation data collected near the Υ(4S) resonance with the CLEO detector. The measured lifetimes of the D 0 , D + , and D + s mesons are 408.5±4.1 +3.5 -3.4 fs , 1033.6±22.1 +9.9 -12.7 fs , and 486.3±15.0 +4.9 -5.1 fs . The precision of these lifetimes are comparable to those of the best previous measurements, and the systematic errors are very different. In a single experiment we find that the ratio of the D + s and D 0 lifetimes is 1.19±0.04 . copyright 1999 The American Physical Society

  7. Deconvolution of Positrons' Lifetime spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calderin Hidalgo, L.; Ortega Villafuerte, Y.

    1996-01-01

    In this paper, we explain the iterative method previously develop for the deconvolution of Doppler broadening spectra using the mathematical optimization theory. Also, we start the adaptation and application of this method to the deconvolution of positrons' lifetime annihilation spectra

  8. Plasma-activation of tap water using DBD for agronomy applications: Identification and quantification of long lifetime chemical species and production/consumption mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judée, F; Simon, S; Bailly, C; Dufour, T

    2018-04-15

    Cold atmospheric plasmas are weakly ionized gases that can be generated in ambient air. They produce energetic species (e.g. electrons, metastables) as well as reactive oxygen species, reactive nitrogen species, UV radiations and local electric field. Their interaction with a liquid such as tap water can hence change its chemical composition. The resulting "plasma-activated liquid" can meet many applications, including medicine and agriculture. Consequently, a complete experimental set of analytical techniques dedicated to the characterization of long lifetime chemical species has been implemented to characterize tap water treated using cold atmospheric plasma process and intended to agronomy applications. For that purpose, colorimetry and acid titrations are performed, considering acid-base equilibria, pH and temperature variations induced during plasma activation. 16 species are quantified and monitored: hydroxide and hydronium ions, ammonia and ammonium ions, orthophosphates, carbonate ions, nitrite and nitrate ions and hydrogen peroxide. The related consumption/production mechanisms are discussed. In parallel, a chemical model of electrical conductivity based on Kohlrausch's law has been developed to simulate the electrical conductivity of the plasma-activated tap water (PATW). Comparing its predictions with experimental measurements leads to a narrow fitting, hence supporting the self-sufficiency of the experimental set, I.e. the fact that all long lifetime radicals of interest present in PATW are characterized. Finally, to evaluate the potential of cold atmospheric plasmas for agriculture applications, tap water has been daily plasma-treated to irrigate lentils seeds. Then, seedlings lengths have been measured and compared with untreated tap water, showing an increase as high as 34.0% and 128.4% after 3 days and 6 days of activation respectively. The interaction mechanisms between plasma and tap water are discussed as well as their positive synergy on

  9. Size-tunable phosphorescence in colloidal metastable gamma-Ga2O3 nanocrystals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ting; Farvid, Shokouh S; Abulikemu, Mutalifu; Radovanovic, Pavle V

    2010-07-14

    We report a colloidal synthesis of gallium oxide (Ga(2)O(3)) nanocrystals having metastable cubic crystal structure (gamma phase) and uniform size distribution. Using the synthesized nanocrystal size series we demonstrate for the first time a size-tunable photoluminescence in Ga(2)O(3) from ultraviolet to blue, with the emission shifting to lower energies with increasing nanocrystal size. The observed photoluminescence is dominated by defect-based donor-acceptor pair recombination and has a lifetime of several milliseconds. Importantly, the decay of this phosphorescence is also size dependent. The phosphorescence energy and the decay rate increase with decreasing nanocrystal size, owing to a reduced donor-acceptor separation. These results allow for a rational and predictable tuning of the optical properties of this technologically important material and demonstrate the possibility of manipulating the localized defect interactions via nanocrystal size. Furthermore, the same defect states, particularly donors, are also implicated in electrical conductivity rendering monodispersed Ga(2)O(3) nanocrystals a promising material for multifunctional optoelectronic structures and devices.

  10. Cross sections of electron excitation out of metastable helium levels with a fast metastable target product produced via charge exchange

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lagus, M.E.; Boffard, J.B.; Anderson, L.W.; Lin, C.C.

    1996-01-01

    Absolute direct cross sections for electron excitation out of the 2 3 S level and into the 3 3 D, 4 3 D, and 3 3 S levels of the helium atom from threshold to 500 eV and into the 3 3 P level over a more limited energy range have been measured using a fast metastable atomic beam target. We produce the metastable atoms via near-resonant charge exchange between a 1.6-keV He + ion beam and Cs vapor. Because this reaction is highly nonresonant with the ground state of helium, the charge-transfer process yields a primarily metastable beam. We use a thermal detector which we calibrate with ions to measure absolutely the neutral beam flux. The atomic beam is crossed by an electron beam, and we collect the resulting fluorescence at right angles to both the electron and atomic beams. We obtain the cross sections for excitation out of the 2 3 S level into the various excited levels by monitoring the emission out of the excited level of interest. copyright 1996 The American Physical Society

  11. Signatures of a Nonthermal Metastable State in Copropagating Quantum Hall Edge Channels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Itoh, Kosuke; Nakazawa, Ryo; Ota, Tomoaki; Hashisaka, Masayuki; Muraki, Koji; Fujisawa, Toshimasa

    2018-05-01

    A Tomonaga-Luttinger (TL) liquid is known as an integrable system, in which a nonequilibrium many-body state survives without relaxing to a thermalized state. This intriguing characteristic is tested experimentally in copropagating quantum Hall edge channels at bulk filling factor ν =2 . The unidirectional transport allows us to investigate the time evolution by measuring the spatial evolution of the electronic states. The initial state is prepared with a biased quantum point contact, and its spatial evolution is measured with a quantum-dot energy spectrometer. We find strong evidence for a nonthermal metastable state in agreement with the TL theory before the system relaxes to thermal equilibrium with coupling to the environment.

  12. NATO Advanced Research Workshop on Metastable Systems under Pressure: Platform for New Technologies and Environmental Applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rzoska, Sylwester; Mazur, Victor

    2010-01-01

    The fundamental insight and the technological & environmental relevance of metastable systems have given a strong impetus from the last decade development of extreme pressures experimental techniques, from the GPa region to the challenging negative pressures domain. The ultimate verification of theoretical models and reliable equations for portraying basic properties for such systems seems to be possible only when including temperature and pressure paths. This volume presents a set of papers related to novel findings on the glass transition phenomenon, phase transitions in liquid crystals, critical mixtures, bioliquids, geophysical system which can reveal surprising "secret" features only when using extreme pressures. This can be illustrated by the link between colloidal and molecular glassformers, the universal onset of the non-trivial dynamics in glasses, demistification of the secondary relaxation or novel findings associated with liquid - liquid near critical transitions in critical mixture, liquid cr...

  13. Kinetics of aging of metastable, zirconium-dioxide-based solid electrolytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlasov, A.N.; Inozemtsev, M.V.

    1985-01-01

    The kinetics of aging of zirconium-dioxide-based metastable solid oxide electrolytes stabilized with 8 to 10 mole % of yttrium, holmium, or scandium oxide were studied over the temperature range from 1200 to 1373 0 K. Kinetic equations were proposed which describe the conduction behavior of two-phase solid electrolytes in a wide time range. The processes were found to occur independently at the initial stage of aging in the cubic solution, viz., an increase in the number of nuclei of the new phase, and a growth in volume of nuclei of the new phase. After a long time the former process ceases, and the kinetics of aging of the electrolyte only are determined by the kinetics of volume growth of the inclusions of new phase. The time-dependent behavior of two-phase solid solutions is discussed theoretically and examined experimentally

  14. Anomalous evolution of Ar metastable density with electron density in high density Ar discharge

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Min; Chang, Hong-Young; You, Shin-Jae; Kim, Jung-Hyung; Shin, Yong-Hyeon

    2011-01-01

    Recently, an anomalous evolution of argon metastable density with plasma discharge power (electron density) was reported [A. M. Daltrini, S. A. Moshkalev, T. J. Morgan, R. B. Piejak, and W. G. Graham, Appl. Phys. Lett. 92, 061504 (2008)]. Although the importance of the metastable atom and its density has been reported in a lot of literature, however, a basic physics behind the anomalous evolution of metastable density has not been clearly understood yet. In this study, we investigated a simple global model to elucidate the underlying physics of the anomalous evolution of argon metastable density with the electron density. On the basis of the proposed simple model, we reproduced the anomalous evolution of the metastable density and disclosed the detailed physics for the anomalous result. Drastic changes of dominant mechanisms for the population and depopulation processes of Ar metastable atoms with electron density, which take place even in relatively low electron density regime, is the clue to understand the result.

  15. Lifetime measurements in the picosecond range: Achievements and Perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruecken, Reiner

    1999-01-01

    This contribution will review the recoil distance method (RDM), its current range of applications as well as future perspectives for the measurement of lifetimes in the picosecond range of excited nuclear levels. Recent Doppler-shift lifetime experiments with large gamma-ray spectrometers have achieved a new level of precision and sensitivity, providing new insights into nuclear structure physics. High precision RDM measurements of near-yrast states in various mass regions have revealed dynamic shape effects beyond the framework of collective models and have also allowed to study the interaction between coexisting shapes. The measurement of lifetimes in superdeformed bands has shown that lifetimes can be measured for nuclear excitations, which are only populated with a few percent of the production cross-section of a nucleus. These experiments have also enabled us to study the mechanism of the decay-out of superdeformed bands. Another example for the need of precise lifetime measurements is the recent verifications of the concept of 'magnetic rotation' in nuclei by the experimental observation of the characteristic drop of B(M1) values as a function of angular momentum. These recent breakthroughs have also opened new perspectives for the use of the RDM technique for more exotic regions of nuclei and nuclear excitations. Here the measurement of lifetimes in neutron rich nuclei, which are not accessible with conventional nuclear reactions using stable beams and targets, is of special interest. Possible experimental approaches and simple estimates for the feasibility of such experiments will be presented. (author)

  16. Combined transmission electron microscope and ion channeling study of metastable metal alloys formed by ion implantation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cullis, A.G.; Borders, J.A.; Hirvonen, J.K.; Poate, J.M.

    1977-01-01

    Recently, ion implantation has been used to produce metastable alloy layers with a range of structures from crystalline substitutional solid solutions to amorphous. The technique offers the possibility of producing metastable metal layers with unique physical properties. Its application in the formation of alloys exhibiting different although complementary types of metastability is described. The metal combinations chosen (Ag-Cu and Ta-Cu) show little mutual solubility under equilibrium conditions

  17. Occupational risk and lifetime exposure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lapp, R.E.

    1991-01-01

    Any lowering of annual radiation limits for occupational exposure should be based on industry experience with lifetime doses and not on a worst case career exposure of 47 years. Two decades of experience show a lifetime accumulation of less than 1.5 rem for workers with measurable exposure. This is 5% of the normal lifetime exposure of Americans to natural and medical radiation. Any epidemiology of the US nuclear power workforce's two decade long exposure would have to focus on excess leukemia. Application of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki cancer mortality shows that too few leukemias would be expressed to permit a feasible epidemiology. Ionizing radiation appears to be a mild carcinogen as compared to physical and chemical agents presented in the occupational environment. A realistic factor in determining any change in occupational exposure limits for ionizing radiation should take into account the past performance of the licensee and potential health effects applicable to the workplace. Specifically, the lifetime exposure data for workers at nuclear power plants and naval shipyards should be considered. The nuclear industry and the US Navy have detailed data on the annual exposure of workers with a combined collective exposure approaching 1 million worker-rem. The lifetime dose for naval personnel and shipyard workers averages 1.1 rem J 1990. Shipyard workers have an annual dose of 0.28 rem per work-year and a mean exposure time of 4.4 years. The data apply to workers with measurable dose

  18. Metastable Features of Economic Networks and Responses to Exogenous Shocks.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali Hosseiny

    Full Text Available It is well known that a network structure plays an important role in addressing a collective behavior. In this paper we study a network of firms and corporations for addressing metastable features in an Ising based model. In our model we observe that if in a recession the government imposes a demand shock to stimulate the network, metastable features shape its response. Actually we find that there exists a minimum bound where any demand shock with a size below it is unable to trigger the market out of recession. We then investigate the impact of network characteristics on this minimum bound. We surprisingly observe that in a Watts-Strogatz network, although the minimum bound depends on the average of the degrees, when translated into the language of economics, such a bound is independent of the average degrees. This bound is about 0.44ΔGDP, where ΔGDP is the gap of GDP between recession and expansion. We examine our suggestions for the cases of the United States and the European Union in the recent recession, and compare them with the imposed stimulations. While the stimulation in the US has been above our threshold, in the EU it has been far below our threshold. Beside providing a minimum bound for a successful stimulation, our study on the metastable features suggests that in the time of crisis there is a "golden time passage" in which the minimum bound for successful stimulation can be much lower. Hence, our study strongly suggests stimulations to arise within this time passage.

  19. A statistical physics of stationary and metastable states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cabo, A; González, A; Curilef, S; Cabo-Bizet, N G; Vera, C A

    2011-01-01

    We present a generalization of Gibbs statistical mechanics designed to describe a general class of stationary and metastable equilibrium states. It is assumed that the physical system maximizes the entropy functional S subject to the standard conditions plus an extra conserved constraint function F, imposed to force the system to remain in the metastable configuration. After requiring additivity for two quasi-independent subsystems, and the commutation of the new constraint with the density matrix ρ, it is argued that F should be a homogeneous function of ρ, at least for systems in which the spectrum is sufficiently dense to be considered as continuous. Therefore, surprisingly, the analytic form of F turns out to be of the kind F(p i ) = p i q , where the p i are the eigenvalues of the density matrix and q is a real number to be determined. Thus, the discussion identifies the physical relevance of Lagrange multiplier constraints of the Tsallis kind and their q parameter, as enforced by the additivity of the constraint F which fixes the metastable state. An approximate analytic solution for the probability density is found for q close to unity. The procedure is applied to describe the results from the plasma experiment of Huang and Driscoll. For small and medium values of the radial distance, the measured density is predicted with a precision similar to that achieved by minimal enstrophy and Tsallis procedures. Also, the particle density is predicted at all the radial positions. Thus, the discussion gives a solution to the conceptual difficulties of the two above mentioned approaches as applied to this problem, which both predict a non-analytic abrupt vanishing of the density above a critical radial distance

  20. Positron annihilation lifetime study of low temperature irradiated metals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuramoto, Eiichi [Kyushu Univ., Kasuga, Fukuoka (Japan). Research Inst. for Applied Mechanics

    1997-11-01

    Positron annihilation lifetime measurements have been made for electron and neutron irradiated Fe, Fe-Cr, Fe-Cu, Fe-Si, Fe-16Cr-17Ni specimens, and isochronal annealing behaviors were obtained for these metals and alloys. It was found that vacancies start to migrate at about 200 K in Fe and form microvoids, but by the addition of small amount of alloying elements this behavior was changed depending on the alloying elements. Positron lifetime calculations were made to explain the experimental results using EAM (embedded atom method) type potential for the lattice relaxation and the atomic superposition method for the lifetime calculation. Fairly good agreements were obtained for the positron lifetime in a vacancy in Fe and other alloys. (author)

  1. Positron lifetime calculation for the elements of the periodic table.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campillo Robles, J M; Ogando, E; Plazaola, F

    2007-04-30

    Theoretical positron lifetime values have been calculated systematically for most of the elements of the periodic table. Self-consistent and non-self-consistent schemes have been used for the calculation of the electronic structure in the solid, as well as different parametrizations for the positron enhancement factor and correlation energy. The results obtained have been studied and compared with experimental data, confirming the theoretical trends. As is known, positron lifetimes in bulk show a periodic behaviour with atomic number. These calculations also confirm that monovacancy lifetimes follow the same behaviour. The effects of enhancement factors used in calculations have been commented upon. Finally, we have analysed the effects that f and d electrons have on positron lifetimes.

  2. Positron lifetime calculation for the elements of the periodic table

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Robles, J M Campillo; Ogando, E; Plazaola, F

    2007-01-01

    Theoretical positron lifetime values have been calculated systematically for most of the elements of the periodic table. Self-consistent and non-self-consistent schemes have been used for the calculation of the electronic structure in the solid, as well as different parametrizations for the positron enhancement factor and correlation energy. The results obtained have been studied and compared with experimental data, confirming the theoretical trends. As is known, positron lifetimes in bulk show a periodic behaviour with atomic number. These calculations also confirm that monovacancy lifetimes follow the same behaviour. The effects of enhancement factors used in calculations have been commented upon. Finally, we have analysed the effects that f and d electrons have on positron lifetimes

  3. Resonances in the potential scattering and decay of metastable states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batsch, J.

    1975-04-01

    The analytic properties of the S-matrix in the complex energy plane are reviewed for potential scattering with particular attention to resonance scattering and decay of metastable states. For a one dimensional model potential with a potential barrier and a repulsive core exact formulas are derived for the energy and width of a resonance in terms of the scattering amplitudes of the barrier and the repulsive core alone. For narrow resonances simple and intuitive results are obtained, which are applied to semiclassical cases where the WKB approximation is valid. (orig.) [de

  4. Metastable carbon in two chondritic porous interplanetary dust particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rietmeijer, F.J.M.; Mackinnon, I.D.R.

    1987-01-01

    An analytical electron microscope study is presented on carbonaceous material in two chondritic porous aggregates, W7029* A and W7010* A2, from the Johnson Space Center Cosmic Dust Collection. The finding of well-ordered carbon-2H (lonsdaleite) in the two aggregates suggests that a record of hydrocarbon carbonization may be preserved in these materials. This carbon is a metastable phase resulting from hydrous pyrolysis below 300-350 0 C and may be a precursor to poorly graphitized carbons in primitive extra terrestrial materials. (UK)

  5. Light-induced metastable structural changes in hydrogenated amorphous silicon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fritzsche, H. [Univ. of Chicago, IL (United States)

    1996-09-01

    Light-induced defects (LID) in hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) and its alloys limit the ultimate efficiency of solar panels made with these materials. This paper reviews a variety of attempts to find the origin of and to eliminate the processes that give rise to LIDs. These attempts include novel deposition processes and the reduction of impurities. Material improvements achieved over the past decade are associated more with the material`s microstructure than with eliminating LIDs. We conclude that metastable LIDs are a natural by-product of structural changes which are generally associated with non-radiative electron-hole recombination in amorphous semiconductors.

  6. Simple model for the dynamics towards metastable states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Meijer, P.H.E.; Keskin, M.; Bodegom, E.

    1986-01-01

    Circumstances under which a quenched system will freeze in a metastable state are studied in simple systems with long-range order. The model used is the time-dependent pair approximation, based on the most probable path (MPP) method. The time dependence of the solution is shown by means of flow diagrams. The fixed points and other features of the differential equations in time are independent of the choice of the rate constants. It is explained qualitatively how the system behaves under varying descending temperatures: the role of the initial conditions, the dependence on the quenching rate, and the response to precooling

  7. Spin dynamics in tunneling decay of a metastable state

    OpenAIRE

    Ban, Yue; Sherman, E. Ya.

    2012-01-01

    We analyze spin dynamics in the tunneling decay of a metastable localized state in the presence of spin-orbit coupling. We find that the spin polarization at short time scales is affected by the initial state while at long time scales both the probability- and the spin density exhibit diffraction-in-time phenomenon. We find that in addition to the tunneling time the tunneling in general can be characterized by a new parameter, the tunneling length. Although the tunneling length is independent...

  8. Direct gauge mediation of uplifted metastable supersymmetry breaking in supergravity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maru, Nobuhito

    2010-01-01

    We propose a direct gauge mediation model based on an uplifted metastable supersymmetry (SUSY) breaking coupled to supergravity. A constant superpotential plays an essential role to fix the moduli as well as breaking SUSY and R symmetry and the cancellation of the cosmological constant. Gaugino masses are generated at leading order of SUSY breaking scale, and comparable to the sfermion masses as in the ordinary gauge mediation. The Landau pole problem for QCD coupling can be easily solved since more than half of messengers become superheavy, which are heavier than the grand unified theory (GUT) scale.

  9. Enhanced atom mobility on the surface of a metastable film.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picone, A; Riva, M; Fratesi, G; Brambilla, A; Bussetti, G; Finazzi, M; Duò, L; Ciccacci, F

    2014-07-25

    A remarkable enhancement of atomic diffusion is highlighted by scanning tunneling microscopy performed on ultrathin metastable body-centered tetragonal Co films grown on Fe(001). The films follow a nearly perfect layer-by-layer growth mode with a saturation island density strongly dependent on the layer on which the nucleation occurs, indicating a lowering of the diffusion barrier. Density functional theory calculations reveal that this phenomenon is driven by the increasing capability of the film to accommodate large deformations as the thickness approaches the limit at which a structural transition occurs. These results disclose the possibility of tuning surface diffusion dynamics and controlling cluster nucleation and self-organization.

  10. Evolution of metastable state molecules N2(A3Σu+) in a nanosecond pulsed discharge: A particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo collisions simulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Liang; Sun Jizhong; Feng Chunlei; Bai Jing; Ding Hongbin

    2012-01-01

    A particle-in-cell plus Monte Carlo collisions method has been employed to investigate the nitrogen discharge driven by a nanosecond pulse power source. To assess whether the production of the metastable state N 2 (A 3 Σ u + ) can be efficiently enhanced in a nanosecond pulsed discharge, the evolutions of metastable state N 2 (A 3 Σ u + ) density and electron energy distribution function have been examined in detail. The simulation results indicate that the ultra short pulse can modulate the electron energy effectively: during the early pulse-on time, high energy electrons give rise to quick electron avalanche and rapid growth of the metastable state N 2 (A 3 Σ u + ) density. It is estimated that for a single pulse with amplitude of -9 kV and pulse width 30 ns, the metastable state N 2 (A 3 Σ u + ) density can achieve a value in the order of 10 9 cm -3 . The N 2 (A 3 Σ u + ) density at such a value could be easily detected by laser-based experimental methods.

  11. Multicritical phase diagrams of the Blume-Emery-Griffiths model with repulsive biquadratic coupling including metastable phases: the pair approximation and the path probability method with pair distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keskin, Mustafa; Erdinc, Ahmet

    2004-01-01

    As a continuation of the previously published work, the pair approximation of the cluster variation method is applied to study the temperature dependences of the order parameters of the Blume-Emery-Griffiths model with repulsive biquadratic coupling on a body centered cubic lattice. We obtain metastable and unstable branches of the order parameters besides the stable branches and phase transitions of these branches are investigated extensively. We study the dynamics of the model by the path probability method with pair distribution in order to make sure that we find and define the metastable and unstable branches of the order parameters completely and correctly. We present the metastable phase diagram in addition to the equilibrium phase diagram and also the first-order phase transition line for the unstable branches of the quadrupole order parameter is superimposed on the phase diagrams. It is found that the metastable phase diagram and the first-order phase boundary for the unstable quadrupole order parameter always exist at the low temperatures which are consistent with experimental and theoretical works

  12. Evolution of metastable state molecules N2(A3 Σu+) in a nanosecond pulsed discharge: A particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo collisions simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Liang; Sun, Jizhong; Feng, Chunlei; Bai, Jing; Ding, Hongbin

    2012-01-01

    A particle-in-cell plus Monte Carlo collisions method has been employed to investigate the nitrogen discharge driven by a nanosecond pulse power source. To assess whether the production of the metastable state N2(A3 Σu+) can be efficiently enhanced in a nanosecond pulsed discharge, the evolutions of metastable state N2(A3 Σu+) density and electron energy distribution function have been examined in detail. The simulation results indicate that the ultra short pulse can modulate the electron energy effectively: during the early pulse-on time, high energy electrons give rise to quick electron avalanche and rapid growth of the metastable state N2(A3 Σu+) density. It is estimated that for a single pulse with amplitude of -9 kV and pulse width 30 ns, the metastable state N2(A3 Σu+) density can achieve a value in the order of 109 cm-3. The N2(A3 Σu+) density at such a value could be easily detected by laser-based experimental methods.

  13. Collisional effects on metastable atom population in vapour generated by electron beam heating

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dikshit, B; Majumder, A; Bhatia, M S; Mago, V K

    2008-01-01

    The metastable atom population distribution in a free expanding uranium vapour generated by electron beam (e-beam) heating is expected to depart from its original value near the source due to atom-atom collisions and interaction with electrons of the e-beam generated plasma co-expanding with the vapour. To investigate the dynamics of the electron-atom and atom-atom interactions at different e-beam powers (or source temperatures), probing of the atomic population in ground (0 cm -1 ) and 620 cm -1 metastable states of uranium was carried out by the absorption technique using a hollow cathode discharge lamp. The excitation temperature of vapour at a distance ∼30 cm from the source was calculated on the basis of the measured ratio of populations in 620 to 0 cm -1 states and it was found to be much lower than both the source temperature and estimated translational temperature of the vapour that is cooled by adiabatic free expansion. This indicated relaxation of the metastable atoms by collisions with low energy plasma electrons was so significant that it brings the excitation temperature below the translational temperature of the vapour. So, with increase in e-beam power and hence atom density, frequent atom-atom collisions are expected to establish equilibrium between the excitation and translational temperatures, resulting in an increase in the excitation temperature (i.e. heating of vapour). This has been confirmed by analysing the experimentally observed growth pattern of the curve for excitation temperature with e-beam power. From the observed excitation temperature at low e-beam power when atom-atom collisions can be neglected, the total de-excitation cross section for relaxation of the 620 cm -1 state by interaction with low energy electrons was estimated and was found to be ∼10 -14 cm 2 . Finally using this value of cross section, the extent of excitational cooling and heating by electron-atom and atom-atom collisions are described at higher e-beam powers

  14. Lifetime results from heavy quark systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Papadimitriou, V.

    1997-11-01

    We present the latest measurements of weakly decaying b-hadrons from experiments at e + e - and p anti p colliders. These measurements include the average lifetime of b-hadrons, lifetimes of the B - , B 0 and B 0 s mesons, the average lifetime of b-baryons and lifetimes of the Λ b and Ξ b baryons

  15. Novel criterion for formation of metastable phase from undercooled melt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuribayashi, Kazuhiko; Nagashio, Kosuke; Niwata, Kenji; Kumar, M.S. Vijaya; Hibiya, Taketoshi

    2007-01-01

    Undercooling a melt facilitates the preferential nucleation of a metastable phase. In the present study, the formation of metastable phases from undercooled melts was considered from the viewpoint of the competitive nucleation criterion. The classical nucleation theory shows us that the most critical factor for forming a critical nucleus is the interface free energy σ. Furthermore, Spaepen's negentropic model on σ generated the role of the scaling factor α that depends on the polyhedral order in the liquid and solid phases prominent in simple liquids such as the melt of monoatomic metals. In ionic materials such as oxides, however, in which oxygen polyhedrons including a cation at their center are the structural units both in the solid and liquid phases, the entropy of fusion, rather than α, can be expected to become dominant in the determination of σ. In accordance with this idea, using REFeO 3 as the model material (where RE denotes rare-earth elements) the entropy-undercooling regime criterion was proposed and verified

  16. Isothermal α″ formation in β metastable titanium alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aeby-Gautier, E.; Settefrati, A.; Bruneseaux, F.; Appolaire, B.; Denand, B.; Dehmas, M.; Geandier, G.; Boulet, P.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: ► Isothermal kinetics of orthorhombic α″ formation is characterized by HEXRD. ► Cell parameters of parent and product phases are obtained. ► Partitioning of solutes during the transformation and the ageing is discussed. -- Abstract: Thanks to time resolved high energy X-ray diffraction, isothermal decomposition of β metastable phase was studied, directly after solution treatment in the β temperature range, for temperatures ranging from 300 to 450 °C for two beta metastable alloys (Ti 17 and Ti 5553). The formation of an orthorhombic α″ phase is clearly identified at the beginning of the transformation whatever the alloy studied. If transformation occurs at the higher temperature an evolution of α″ is observed toward the hexagonal α phase. The phase amounts and the mean cell parameters of each phase were quantified by the Rietveld refinement method. The obtained cell parameters evolutions and the orthorhombicity of α″ are discussed. Moreover, the orthorhombicity of α″ compared to that obtained for stress induced martensite may indicate a slight partitioning of solutes in isothermal α″

  17. Isothermal α″ formation in β metastable titanium alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aeby-Gautier, E., E-mail: Elisabeth.Gautier@mines.inpl-nancy.fr [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR CNRS Nancy Université, UPVM 7198, Nancy (France); Settefrati, A. [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR CNRS Nancy Université, UPVM 7198, Nancy (France); Airbus Operations, Materials and Processes, Toulouse (France); Bruneseaux, F. [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR CNRS Nancy Université, UPVM 7198, Nancy (France); Appolaire, B. [Laboratoire d’Etudes des Microstructures ONERA – CNRS Chatillon (France); Denand, B.; Dehmas, M.; Geandier, G.; Boulet, P. [Institut Jean Lamour, UMR CNRS Nancy Université, UPVM 7198, Nancy (France)

    2013-11-15

    Highlights: ► Isothermal kinetics of orthorhombic α″ formation is characterized by HEXRD. ► Cell parameters of parent and product phases are obtained. ► Partitioning of solutes during the transformation and the ageing is discussed. -- Abstract: Thanks to time resolved high energy X-ray diffraction, isothermal decomposition of β metastable phase was studied, directly after solution treatment in the β temperature range, for temperatures ranging from 300 to 450 °C for two beta metastable alloys (Ti 17 and Ti 5553). The formation of an orthorhombic α″ phase is clearly identified at the beginning of the transformation whatever the alloy studied. If transformation occurs at the higher temperature an evolution of α″ is observed toward the hexagonal α phase. The phase amounts and the mean cell parameters of each phase were quantified by the Rietveld refinement method. The obtained cell parameters evolutions and the orthorhombicity of α″ are discussed. Moreover, the orthorhombicity of α″ compared to that obtained for stress induced martensite may indicate a slight partitioning of solutes in isothermal α″.

  18. Fluxes, hierarchies, and metastable vacua in supersymmetric field theories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bruemmer, F.

    2008-01-01

    This thesis concerns topics both in low-energy effective field theories from type IIB superstring flux compactifications and in four-dimensional, rigidly supersymmetric gauge theories. We introduce flux compactifications with so-called ''warped throat'' regions, which lead to large hierarchies of scales in the effective four-dimensional theory. The correspondence between a particular such throat and a five-dimensional Randall-Sundrum-like model is established. We shown how certain string-theoretic features of the compactification, such as moduli stabilization by fluxes or the presence of an unstabilized Kaehler modulus, are incorporated in the five-dimensional picture. The KKLT construction for metastable de Sitter vacua is reviewed, as well as some possible modifications involving spontaneous F-term supersymmetry breaking. For KKLT-like models with their hidden sector localized inside a throat, the mediation of supersymmetry breaking to the visible sector is investigated. We review the mechanism of mixed modulus-anomaly mediation, and show that there can be additional equally important gravity-mediated contributions. We finally turn to the ISS model of metastable dynamical supersymmetry breaking in four dimensions, and present a renormalizable extension which generates a large hierarchy naturally. We also recapitulate how the ISS model may be obtained from a type IIB superstring model. (orig.)

  19. Fluxes, hierarchies, and metastable vacua in supersymmetric field theories

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruemmer, F.

    2008-02-06

    This thesis concerns topics both in low-energy effective field theories from type IIB superstring flux compactifications and in four-dimensional, rigidly supersymmetric gauge theories. We introduce flux compactifications with so-called ''warped throat'' regions, which lead to large hierarchies of scales in the effective four-dimensional theory. The correspondence between a particular such throat and a five-dimensional Randall-Sundrum-like model is established. We shown how certain string-theoretic features of the compactification, such as moduli stabilization by fluxes or the presence of an unstabilized Kaehler modulus, are incorporated in the five-dimensional picture. The KKLT construction for metastable de Sitter vacua is reviewed, as well as some possible modifications involving spontaneous F-term supersymmetry breaking. For KKLT-like models with their hidden sector localized inside a throat, the mediation of supersymmetry breaking to the visible sector is investigated. We review the mechanism of mixed modulus-anomaly mediation, and show that there can be additional equally important gravity-mediated contributions. We finally turn to the ISS model of metastable dynamical supersymmetry breaking in four dimensions, and present a renormalizable extension which generates a large hierarchy naturally. We also recapitulate how the ISS model may be obtained from a type IIB superstring model. (orig.)

  20. Metastability and avalanche dynamics in strongly correlated gases with long-range interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hruby, Lorenz; Dogra, Nishant; Landini, Manuele; Donner, Tobias; Esslinger, Tilman

    2018-03-01

    We experimentally study the stability of a bosonic Mott insulator against the formation of a density wave induced by long-range interactions and characterize the intrinsic dynamics between these two states. The Mott insulator is created in a quantum degenerate gas of 87-Rubidium atoms, trapped in a 3D optical lattice. The gas is located inside and globally coupled to an optical cavity. This causes interactions of global range, mediated by photons dispersively scattered between a transverse lattice and the cavity. The scattering comes with an atomic density modulation, which is measured by the photon flux leaking from the cavity. We initialize the system in a Mott-insulating state and then rapidly increase the global coupling strength. We observe that the system falls into either of two distinct final states. One is characterized by a low photon flux, signaling a Mott insulator, and the other is characterized by a high photon flux, which we associate with a density wave. Ramping the global coupling slowly, we observe a hysteresis loop between the two states—a further signature of metastability. A comparison with a theoretical model confirms that the metastability originates in the competition between short- and global-range interactions. From the increasing photon flux monitored during the switching process, we find that several thousand atoms tunnel to a neighboring site on the timescale of the single-particle dynamics. We argue that a density modulation, initially forming in the compressible surface of the trapped gas, triggers an avalanche tunneling process in the Mott-insulating region.

  1. Lifetime value in business process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Souček

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper focuses on lifetime value assessment and its implementation and application in business processes. The lifetime value is closely connected to customer relationship management. The paper presents results of three consecutive researches devoted to issues of customer relationship management. The first two from 2008 and 2010 were conducted as quantitative ones; the one from 2009 had qualitative nature. The respondents were representatives of particular companies. The means for data collection was provided by ReLa system. We will focus on individual attributes of lifetime value of a customer, and relate them to approaches of authors mentioned in introduction. Based on the qualitative research data, the paper focuses on individual customer lifetime value parameters. These parameters include: the cost to the customer relationship acquisition and maintenance, profit generated from a particular customer, customer awareness value, the level of preparedness to adopt new products, the value of references and customer loyalty level. For each of these parameters, the paper provides specific recommendations. Moreover, it is possible to learn about the nature of these parameter assessments in the Czech environment.

  2. Lifetime of heavy flavour particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lueth, V.

    1985-10-01

    Recent measurements of the lifetime of the tau leptons and charm and beauty hadrons are reviewed and their significance for the couplings of the charged weak current, flavour mixing, and models relating quarks to hadron decay are discussed. 70 refs., 17 figs., 5 tabs

  3. An improved $\\pi$K atom lifetime measurement

    CERN Document Server

    Yazkov, V

    2016-01-01

    This note describes details of analysis of data samples collected by DIRAC experiment on a Pt target in 2007 and Ni targets in 2008–2010 in order to estimate the lifetime of πK atoms. Experimental results consist of eight distinct data samples: both charge combinations ( π + K − and K + π − atoms) obtained in different experimental conditions corresponding to each year of data taking. Estimations of systematic errors are presented. Taking into account both statistical and systematic uncertainties, the lifetime of πK atoms is estimated by the maximum likelihood method. The above sample comprises the total statistics, available for the analysis, thus the improvement over the previous estimation [1,3] of the πK atom lifetime is achieved.

  4. Heritability of lifetime ecstasy use.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verweij, Karin J H; Treur, Jorien L; Vreeker, Annabel; Brunt, Tibor M; Willemsen, Gonneke; Boomsma, Dorret I; Vink, Jacqueline M

    2017-09-01

    Ecstasy is a widely used psychoactive drug that users often take because they experience positive effects such as increased euphoria, sociability, elevated mood, and heightened sensations. Ecstasy use is not harmless and several immediate and long term side effects have been identified. Lifetime ecstasy use is likely to be partly influenced by genetic factors, but no twin study has determined the heritability. Here, we apply a classical twin design to a large sample of twins and siblings to estimate the heritability of lifetime ecstasy use. The sample comprised 8500 twins and siblings aged between 18 and 45 years from 5402 families registered at the Netherlands Twin Registry. In 2013-2014 participants filled out a questionnaire including a question whether they had ever used ecstasy. We used the classical twin design to partition the individual differences in liability to ecstasy use into that due to genetic, shared environmental, and residual components. Overall, 10.4% of the sample had used ecstasy during their lifetime, with a somewhat higher prevalence in males than females. Twin modelling indicated that individual differences in liability to lifetime ecstasy use are for 74% due to genetic differences between individuals, whereas shared environmental and residual factors explain a small proportion of its liability (5% and 21%, respectively). Although heritability estimates appeared to be higher for females than males, this difference was not significant. Lifetime ecstasy use is a highly heritable trait, which indicates that some people are genetically more vulnerable to start using ecstasy than others. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  5. c, b, and tau lifetime measurements in e+e- interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaros, J.A.

    1983-01-01

    Experiments at e + e - storage rings have successfully measured the tau and D 0 lifetimes and set interesting limits on the B lifetime. So far, the conventional wisdom has prevailed. The tau lifetime is consistent with prediction; there is no sign (but little sensitivity) of a violation of universality. The charmed particle lifetimes are roughly as expected, but richer in their phenomenology than anticipated. The B lifetime is still unknown. The experimental art is developing rapidly. Several experiments have by now installed vertex detectors. Measurements of charmed particle lifetimes from e + e - experiments will complement the work that has been done at fixed target machines. Measurements of tau and B lifetimes may be the exclusive province of e + e - experiments for the next few years

  6. Lifetime measurements of the strange beauty meson and beauty baryons at LEP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, A.

    1994-01-01

    Last experimental results on the lifetimes of B s 0 mesons and beauty baryons from the LEP experiments ALEPH, DELPHI and OPAL are presented. LEP averages for the lifetimes of B s 0 and Λ b are compared to lifetimes of B d 0 and B + and to the average b hadron lifetime. The precision of these measurements begins to be suitable to test the theoretical predictions of 10-15% differences between the lifetimes of b baryons and mesons, but does not allow a test of the few percent difference expected between B d 0 and B + lifetimes. The data show a significant evidence (3 σ) for lifetime differences between b mesons and b baryons. (author). 4 refs., 9 figs

  7. Lifetime and quenching of CO /a super 3 pi/ produced by recombination of CO2 ions in a helium afterglow.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wauchop, T. S.; Broida, H. P.

    1972-01-01

    Demonstration that rapid dissociative recombination of CO2(+) in a flowing, helium afterglow is an efficient source of CO in the a super 3 pi metastable state. Ions produced by mixing CO2 with He(2 super 3 S) recombine to produce a CO metastable afterglow with a number density as great as 10 to the 9th per sq cm. Monitoring of the (a super 3 pi-X super 1 sigma) Cameron transition in CO was used to study the lifetime and quenching of CO (a super 3 pi) by CO2, N2, NO, and He. Recombination of CO2(+) also produces CO in the d super 3 delta and a' super 3 sigma states.

  8. On the fermion pair production in the process of metastable vacuum decay

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lavrelashvili, G.V.; Rubakov, V.A.; Tinyakov, P.G.

    1985-01-01

    Production of fermion pairs during the tunneling process leading to the decay of metastable vacuum is considered. The technique based on non-unitary Bogolyubov transformations is developed and formulae for fermionic spectrum are obtained. As an example, the spectrum of fermionic pairs produced during the homogeneous decay of metastable vacuum is evaluated

  9. Gas–liquid nucleation at large metastability: unusual features and a new formalism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Santra, Mantu; Singh, Rakesh S; Bagchi, Biman

    2011-01-01

    Nucleation at large metastability is still largely an unsolved problem, even though it is a problem of tremendous current interest, with wide-ranging practical value, from atmospheric research to materials science. It is now well accepted that the classical nucleation theory (CNT) fails to provide a qualitative picture and gives incorrect quantitative values for such quantities as activation-free energy barrier and supersaturation dependence of nucleation rate, especially at large metastability. In this paper, we present an alternative formalism to treat nucleation at large supersaturation by introducing an extended set of order parameters in terms of the kth largest liquid-like clusters, where k = 1 is the largest cluster in the system, k = 2 is the second largest cluster and so on. At low supersaturation, the size of the largest liquid-like cluster acts as a suitable order parameter. At large supersaturation, the free energy barrier for the largest liquid-like cluster disappears. We identify this supersaturation as the one at the onset of kinetic spinodal. The kinetic spinodal is system-size-dependent. Beyond kinetic spinodal many clusters grow simultaneously and competitively and hence the nucleation and growth become collective. In order to describe collective growth, we need to consider the full set of order parameters. We derive an analytic expression for the free energy of formation of the kth largest cluster. The expression predicts that, at large metastability (beyond kinetic spinodal), the barrier of growth for several largest liquid-like clusters disappears, and all these clusters grow simultaneously. The approach to the critical size occurs by barrierless diffusion in the cluster size space. The expression for the rate of barrier crossing predicts weaker supersaturation dependence than what is predicted by CNT at large metastability. Such a crossover behavior has indeed been observed in recent experiments (but eluded an explanation till now). In order

  10. Gas-liquid nucleation at large metastability: unusual features and a new formalism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santra, Mantu; Singh, Rakesh S.; Bagchi, Biman

    2011-03-01

    Nucleation at large metastability is still largely an unsolved problem, even though it is a problem of tremendous current interest, with wide-ranging practical value, from atmospheric research to materials science. It is now well accepted that the classical nucleation theory (CNT) fails to provide a qualitative picture and gives incorrect quantitative values for such quantities as activation-free energy barrier and supersaturation dependence of nucleation rate, especially at large metastability. In this paper, we present an alternative formalism to treat nucleation at large supersaturation by introducing an extended set of order parameters in terms of the kth largest liquid-like clusters, where k = 1 is the largest cluster in the system, k = 2 is the second largest cluster and so on. At low supersaturation, the size of the largest liquid-like cluster acts as a suitable order parameter. At large supersaturation, the free energy barrier for the largest liquid-like cluster disappears. We identify this supersaturation as the one at the onset of kinetic spinodal. The kinetic spinodal is system-size-dependent. Beyond kinetic spinodal many clusters grow simultaneously and competitively and hence the nucleation and growth become collective. In order to describe collective growth, we need to consider the full set of order parameters. We derive an analytic expression for the free energy of formation of the kth largest cluster. The expression predicts that, at large metastability (beyond kinetic spinodal), the barrier of growth for several largest liquid-like clusters disappears, and all these clusters grow simultaneously. The approach to the critical size occurs by barrierless diffusion in the cluster size space. The expression for the rate of barrier crossing predicts weaker supersaturation dependence than what is predicted by CNT at large metastability. Such a crossover behavior has indeed been observed in recent experiments (but eluded an explanation till now). In order

  11. Precision lifetime measurements of Ar II 4p doublet levels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marger, D.; Schmoranzer, H.

    1990-01-01

    The lifetimes of the Ar II 4p doublet fine-structure levels 4p 2 D 0 5/2 , 4p' 2 F 0 5/2 and 4p' 2 F 0 7/2 were measured by beam-dye laser spectroscopy. The experimental uncertainty was reduced to below 1%. (orig.)

  12. Beam lifetime measurement and analysis in Indus-2 electron ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In this paper, the beam lifetime measurement and its theoretical analysis are presented using measured vacuum pressure and applied radio frequency (RF) cavity voltage in Indus-2 electron storage ring at 2 GeV beam energy. Experimental studies of the effect of RF cavity voltage and bunched beam filling pattern on beam ...

  13. Excitation into 3p55p levels from the metastable levels of Ar

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, R. O.; Boffard, John B.; Anderson, L. W.; Lin, Chun C.

    2007-01-01

    Measurements of cross sections for electron-impact excitation out of the J=0 and J=2 3p 5 4s metastable levels of argon into nine of the ten levels of the 3p 5 5p manifold are presented in the energy range from threshold to 10 eV. A mixed target of atoms in both metastable levels was created by a hollow cathode discharge. Laser quenching was used to depopulate either one of the metastable levels, allowing separate measurements of the cross sections from each of the two metastable levels. Unlike the metastable excitation cross sections into 3p 5 4p levels, the cross sections into the 3p 5 5p levels are not found to be proportional to optical oscillator strengths

  14. Lifetime evaluation for thermal fatigue: application at the first wall of a tokamak fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Merola, M.; Biggio, M.

    1989-01-01

    Thermal fatigue seems to be the most lifetime limiting phenomenon for the first wall of the next generation Tokamak fusion reactors. This work deals with the problem of the thermal fatigue in relation to the lifetime prediction of the fusion reactor first wall. The aim is to compare different lifetime methodologies among them and with experimental results. To fulfil this purpose, it has been necessary to develop a new numerical methodology, called reduced-3D, especially suitable for thermal fatigue problems

  15. The orthopositronium lifetime puzzle and its final solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu Feng; Wu Jianda; Zhan Liang; Ye Bangjiao

    2004-01-01

    The ortho-positronium (o-Ps), which consists of an electron and positron, is a pure lepton bound system. The o-Ps lifetime can be calculated accurately by quantum electrodynamics, but there is a long-standing discrepancy between the theoretical calculations and the experimental results. Theoretical and experimental physicists have worked hard for a long time to solve the problem, and recently finally solved this lifetime puzzle. The authors briefly outline the discrepancy between the theoretical calculations of the o-Ps annihilation decay rate and some of the experimental measurements, as well as recent developments of experimental techniques, and its final solution. In particular, the final results of the Tokyo and michigan groups are discussed

  16. Lifetime of a black hole

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carlitz, R.D.; Willey, R.S.

    1987-01-01

    We study the constraints placed by quantum mechanics upon the lifetime of a black hole. In the context of a moving-mirror analog model for the Hawking radiation process, we conclude that the period of Hawking radiation must be followed by a much longer period during which the remnant mass (of order m/sub P/) may be radiated away. We are able to place a lower bound on the time required for this radiation process, which translates into a lower bound for the lifetime of the black hole. Particles which are emitted during the decay of the remnant, like the particles which comprise the Hawking flux, may be uncorrelated with each other. But each particle emitted from the decaying remnant is correlated with one particle emitted as Hawking radiation. The state which results after the remnant has evaporated is one which locally appears to be thermal, but which on a much larger scale is marked by extensive correlations

  17. Luminosity lifetime in the Tevatron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, G.; Finley, D.; Johnson, R.P.; Kerns, Q.; McCarthy, J.; Siemann, R.; Zhang, P.

    1988-01-01

    Since the inauguration of colliding proton-antiproton operations in 1987, the Tevatron has exhibited luminosity lifetimes shorter than expected. During a typical colliding beam storage period, called a store, luminosity is calculated periodically by measuring the charge and emittances of each bunch. The growth of the transverse bunch emittances is the dominant cause of luminosity deterioration. Throughout, this period, the position spectrum of the bunches exhibited betatron signals larger than expected from Schottky noise. A model assuming externally driven betatron oscillations explains both the betatron signals and the emittance growth. A program is underway to improve the Tevatron luminosity lifetime. The abort kickers have been identified as sources of emittance growth, and some quadrupole power supplies are further candidates. Because the horizontal dispersion through the RF cavities is nonzero, RF phase noise has been investigated. Noise in the main dipole regulation circuit has also been studied. 13 refs., 4 figs

  18. Angular distributions as lifetime probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dror, Jeff Asaf; Grossman, Yuval [Department of Physics, LEPP, Cornell University,Ithaca, NY 14853 (United States)

    2014-06-27

    If new TeV scale particles are discovered, it will be important to determine their width. There is, however, a problematic region, where the width is too small to be determined directly, and too large to generate a secondary vertex. For a collection of colored, spin polarized particles, hadronization depolarizes the particles prior to their decay. The amount of depolarization can be used to probe the lifetime in the problematic region. In this paper we apply this method to a realistic scenario of a top-like particle that can be produced at the LHC. We study how depolarization affects the angular distributions of the decay products and derive an equation for the distributions that is sensitive to the lifetime.

  19. Radiation-sustained nanocluster metastability in oxide dispersion strengthened materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ribis, J.; Bordas, E.; Trocellier, P.; Serruys, Y.; de Carlan, Y.; Legris, A.

    2015-12-01

    ODS materials constitute a new promising class of structural materials for advanced fission and fusion energy application. These Fe-Cr based ferritic steels contain ultra-high density of dispersion-strengthening nanoclusters conferring excellent mechanical properties to the alloy. Hence, guarantee the nanocluster stability under irradiation remain a critical issue. Nanoclusters are non-equilibrium multicomponent compounds (YTiCrO) forming through a complex nucleation pathway during the elaboration process. In this paper, it is proposed to observe the response of these nanoclusters when the system is placed far from equilibrium by means of ion beam. The results indicate that the Y, Ti, O and Cr atoms self-organized so that nanoclusters coarsened but maintain their non-equilibrium chemical composition. It is discussed that the radiation-sustained nanocluster metastability emerges from cooperative effects: radiation-induced Ostwald ripening, permanent creation of vacancies in the clusters, and fast Cr diffusion mediated by interstitials.

  20. Raman studies of methane-ethane hydrate metastability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Hiroshi; Strobel, Timothy A; Dec, Steven F; Sloan, E Dendy; Koh, Carolyn A

    2009-03-05

    The interconversion of methane-ethane hydrate from metastable to stable structures was studied using Raman spectroscopy. sI and sII hydrates were synthesized from methane-ethane gas mixtures of 65% or 93% methane in ethane and water, both with and without the kinetic hydrate inhibitor, poly(N-vinylcaprolactam). The observed faster structural conversion rate in the higher methane concentration atmosphere can be explained in terms of the differences in driving force (difference in chemical potential of water in sI and sII hydrates) and kinetics (mass transfer of gas and water rearrangement). The kinetic hydrate inhibitor increased the conversion rate at 65% methane in ethane (sI is thermodynamically stable) but retards the rate at 93% methane in ethane (sII is thermodynamically stable), implying there is a complex interaction between the polymer, water, and hydrate guests at crystal surfaces.

  1. The easy way to metastability tunnelling time and critical configurations

    CERN Document Server

    Manzo, F; Olivieri, E; Scoppola, E

    2003-01-01

    for given energy function $H$ and symmetric Markov kernel $q$. We propose a simple approach to determine the asymptotic behavior, for large $\\beta$, of the first hitting time to the ground state starting from a particular class of local minima for $H$ called metastable states. We separate the asymptotic behavior of the transition time from the determination of the tube of typical paths realizing the transition. This approach turns out to be useful when the determination of the tube of typical paths is too difficult, as for instance in the case of conservative dynamics. We analyze the structure of the saddles introducing the notion of ``essentiality" and describing essential saddles in terms of ``gates". As an example we discuss the case of the 2D Ising Model in the degenerate case of integer $2J\\over h$.

  2. Supersymmetry breaking metastable vacua in runaway quiver gauge theories

    CERN Document Server

    Garcia-Etxebarria, Inaki; Uranga, Angel M

    2007-01-01

    In this paper we consider quiver gauge theories with fractional branes whose infrared dynamics removes the classical supersymmetric vacua (DSB branes). We show that addition of flavors to these theories (via additional non-compact branes) leads to local meta-stable supersymmetry breaking minima, closely related to those of SQCD with massive flavors. We simplify the study of the one-loop lifting of the accidental classical flat directions by direct computation of the pseudomoduli masses via Feynman diagrams. This new approach allows to obtain analytic results for all these theories. This work extends the results for the $dP_1$ theory in hep-th/0607218. The new approach allows to generalize the computation to general examples of DSB branes, and for arbitrary values of the superpotential couplings.

  3. Metastability and thermophysical properties of metallic bulk glass forming alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wunderlich, R.K.; Fecht, H.J.

    1998-01-01

    The absence of crystallization over a wide time/temperature window can be used to produce bulk metallic glass by relatively slow cooling of the melt. For a number of alloys, including several multicomponent Zr-based alloys, the relevant thermodynamic and thermomechanical properties of the metastable glassy and undercooled liquid states have been measured below and above the glass transition temperature. These measurements include specific heat, viscosity, volume, and elastic properties as a function of temperature. As a result, it becomes obvious that the maximum undercooling for these alloys is given by an isentropic condition before an enthalpic or isochoric instability is reached. Alternatively, these glasses can also be produced by mechanical alloying, thus replacing the thermal disorder by static disorder and resulting in the same thermodynamic glass state. During heating through the undercooled liquid, a nanoscale phase separation occurs for most glasses as a precursor of crystallization

  4. Metastable and unstable cellular solidification of colloidal suspensions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deville, Sylvain; Maire, Eric; Bernard-Granger, Guillaume; Lasalle, Audrey; Bogner, Agnès; Gauthier, Catherine; Leloup, Jérôme; Guizard, Christian

    2009-12-01

    Colloidal particles are often seen as big atoms that can be directly observed in real space. They are therefore becoming increasingly important as model systems to study processes of interest in condensed-matter physics such as melting, freezing and glass transitions. The solidification of colloidal suspensions has long been a puzzling phenomenon with many unexplained features. Here, we demonstrate and rationalize the existence of instability and metastability domains in cellular solidification of colloidal suspensions, by direct in situ high-resolution X-ray radiography and tomography observations. We explain such interface instabilities by a partial Brownian diffusion of the particles leading to constitutional supercooling situations. Processing under unstable conditions leads to localized and global kinetic instabilities of the solid/liquid interface, affecting the crystal morphology and particle redistribution behaviour.

  5. Radiation-sustained nanocluster metastability in oxide dispersion strengthened materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ribis, J.; Bordas, E.; Trocellier, P.; Serruys, Y.; Carlan, Y. de; Legris, A.

    2015-01-01

    ODS materials constitute a new promising class of structural materials for advanced fission and fusion energy application. These Fe–Cr based ferritic steels contain ultra-high density of dispersion-strengthening nanoclusters conferring excellent mechanical properties to the alloy. Hence, guarantee the nanocluster stability under irradiation remain a critical issue. Nanoclusters are non-equilibrium multicomponent compounds (YTiCrO) forming through a complex nucleation pathway during the elaboration process. In this paper, it is proposed to observe the response of these nanoclusters when the system is placed far from equilibrium by means of ion beam. The results indicate that the Y, Ti, O and Cr atoms self-organized so that nanoclusters coarsened but maintain their non-equilibrium chemical composition. It is discussed that the radiation-sustained nanocluster metastability emerges from cooperative effects: radiation-induced Ostwald ripening, permanent creation of vacancies in the clusters, and fast Cr diffusion mediated by interstitials.

  6. Isotopic and continuous realizability of maps in the metastable range

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Melikhov, Sergey A

    2004-01-01

    A continuous map f of a compact n-polyhedron into an orientable piecewise linear m-manifold, m-n≥3, is discretely (isotopically) realizable if it is the uniform limit of a sequence of embeddings g k , k element of N (respectively, of an isotopy g t , t element of [0,∞)), and is continuously realizable if any embedding sufficiently close to f can be included in an arbitrarily small such isotopy. It was shown by the author that for m=2n+1, n≠1, all maps are continuously realizable, but for m=3, n=6 there are maps that are discretely realizable, but not isotopically. The first obstruction o(f) to the isotopic realizability of a discretely realizable map f lies in the kernel K f of the canonical epimorphism between the Steenrod and Cech (2n-m)-dimensional homologies of the singular set of f. It is known that for m=2n, n≥4, this obstruction is complete and f is continuously realizable if and only if the group K f is trivial. In the present paper it is established that f is continuously realizable if and only if K f is trivial even in the metastable range, that is, for m≥3(n+1)/2, n≠1. The proof uses higher cohomology operations. On the other hand, for each n≥9 a map S n →R 2n-5 is constructed that is discretely realizable and has zero obstruction o(f) to the isotopic realizability, but is not isotopically realizable, which fact is detected by the Steenrod square. Thus, in order to determine whether a discretely realizable map in the metastable range is isotopically realizable one cannot avoid using the complete obstruction in the group of Koschorke-Akhmet'ev bordisms.

  7. Photoionization cross section of the 4p55d[7/2] J=4 state and radiative lifetimes of three states of Kr I

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cannon, B.D.; Glab, W.L.; Ogorzalek-Loo, R.

    1993-01-01

    Three states in Kr I were studied in a pure Kr discharge at pressures ≤15 mTorr. Two-photon excitation from the metastable 4p 5 5s[3/2] J=2 state produced the 4p 5 5d[7/2] J=4 state whose photoionization cross section and lifetime were measured. The photoionization cross section at λ=1064 nm is 32±5 Mb, and the radiative lifetime is 142±12 ns. One-photon excitation produced the 4p 5 5p[5/2] J=2 and J=3 states of Kr I, whose radiative lifetimes were measured. In contrast to previous lifetime measurements of these two 5p states, this work used both state-specific excitation and low pressures. The pressures were low enough that collisional transfer between these two states was negligible. In a very clean 8-mm-diam cell, the 5p[5/2] J=3 lifetime increased with Kr pressure. This increase is attributed to radiation trapping on the 5s[3/2] J=2 to 5p[5/2] J=3 transition. This radiation trapping by the metastable first excited state of Kr I was observed in a pure Kr discharge at pressures below 4 mTorr

  8. Lifetime measurements of excited states in 196Pt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bolotin, H.H.; Katayama, Ichiro; Sakai, Hideyuki; Fujita, Yoshitaka; Fujiwara, Mamoru

    1979-01-01

    The lifetimes of six excited states in 196 Pt up to an excitation energy of 1525 keV were measured by the recoil-distance method (RDM). These levels were populated by Coulomb excitation using both 90 MeV 20 Ne and 220 MeV 58 Ni ion beams. The measured lifetimes of the 2 1 + , 4 1 + , 6 1 + , 2 2 + , 4 2 + and 0 2 + states and the B(E2) values inferred for the depopulating transitions from these levels are presented. With the exception of the 2 1 + state, the meanlives of all other levels are the first such direct experimental determinations to be reported. (author)

  9. High Efficiency Polymer Solar Cells with Long Operating Lifetimes

    KAUST Repository

    Peters, Craig H.; Sachs-Quintana, I. T.; Kastrop, John P.; Beaupré , Serge; Leclerc, Mario; McGehee, Michael D.

    2011-01-01

    Organic bulk-heterojunction solar cells comprising poly[N-9'-hepta-decanyl- 2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4',7'-di-2-thienyl-2', 1',3'-benzothiadiazole) (PCDTBT) are systematically aged and demonstrate lifetimes approaching seven years, which is the longest reported lifetime for polymer solar cells. An experimental set-up is described that is capable of testing large numbers of solar cells, holding each device at its maximum power point while controlling and monitoring the temperature and light intensity. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. High Efficiency Polymer Solar Cells with Long Operating Lifetimes

    KAUST Repository

    Peters, Craig H.

    2011-04-20

    Organic bulk-heterojunction solar cells comprising poly[N-9\\'-hepta-decanyl- 2,7-carbazole-alt-5,5-(4\\',7\\'-di-2-thienyl-2\\', 1\\',3\\'-benzothiadiazole) (PCDTBT) are systematically aged and demonstrate lifetimes approaching seven years, which is the longest reported lifetime for polymer solar cells. An experimental set-up is described that is capable of testing large numbers of solar cells, holding each device at its maximum power point while controlling and monitoring the temperature and light intensity. © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  11. Multicritical phase diagrams of the ferromagnetic spin-3/2 Blume-Emery-Griffiths model with repulsive biquadratic coupling including metastable phases: The cluster variation method and the path probability method with the point distribution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keskin, Mustafa [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)], E-mail: keskin@erciyes.edu.tr; Canko, Osman [Department of Physics, Erciyes University, 38039 Kayseri (Turkey)

    2008-01-15

    We study the thermal variations of the ferromagnetic spin-3/2 Blume-Emery-Griffiths (BEG) model with repulsive biquadratic coupling by using the lowest approximation of the cluster variation method (LACVM) in the absence and presence of the external magnetic field. We obtain metastable and unstable branches of the order parameters besides the stable branches and phase transitions of these branches are investigated extensively. The classification of the stable, metastable and unstable states is made by comparing the free energy values of these states. We also study the dynamics of the model by using the path probability method (PPM) with the point distribution in order to make sure that we find and define the metastable and unstable branches of the order parameters completely and correctly. We present the metastable phase diagrams in addition to the equilibrium phase diagrams in the (kT/J, K/J) and (kT/J, D/J) planes. It is found that the metastable phase diagrams always exist at the low temperatures, which are consistent with experimental and theoretical works.

  12. Multicritical phase diagrams of the ferromagnetic spin-3/2 Blume-Emery-Griffiths model with repulsive biquadratic coupling including metastable phases: The cluster variation method and the path probability method with the point distribution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keskin, Mustafa; Canko, Osman

    2008-01-01

    We study the thermal variations of the ferromagnetic spin-3/2 Blume-Emery-Griffiths (BEG) model with repulsive biquadratic coupling by using the lowest approximation of the cluster variation method (LACVM) in the absence and presence of the external magnetic field. We obtain metastable and unstable branches of the order parameters besides the stable branches and phase transitions of these branches are investigated extensively. The classification of the stable, metastable and unstable states is made by comparing the free energy values of these states. We also study the dynamics of the model by using the path probability method (PPM) with the point distribution in order to make sure that we find and define the metastable and unstable branches of the order parameters completely and correctly. We present the metastable phase diagrams in addition to the equilibrium phase diagrams in the (kT/J, K/J) and (kT/J, D/J) planes. It is found that the metastable phase diagrams always exist at the low temperatures, which are consistent with experimental and theoretical works

  13. Maintenance engineering of lifetime management programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hervia Ruperez, F.

    1997-01-01

    The complexity of nuclear power plants obliges to stablish the adecuated management of its lifetime. This article describes the methodologies and the improvement the evaluation of lifetime programs and specially in Garona and Vandellos II Nuclear Power Plants. (Author)

  14. Monte Carlo simulation of induction time and metastable zone width; stochastic or deterministic?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubota, Noriaki

    2018-03-01

    The induction time and metastable zone width (MSZW) measured for small samples (say 1 mL or less) both scatter widely. Thus, these two are observed as stochastic quantities. Whereas, for large samples (say 1000 mL or more), the induction time and MSZW are observed as deterministic quantities. The reason for such experimental differences is investigated with Monte Carlo simulation. In the simulation, the time (under isothermal condition) and supercooling (under polythermal condition) at which a first single crystal is detected are defined as the induction time t and the MSZW ΔT for small samples, respectively. The number of crystals just at the moment of t and ΔT is unity. A first crystal emerges at random due to the intrinsic nature of nucleation, accordingly t and ΔT become stochastic. For large samples, the time and supercooling at which the number density of crystals N/V reaches a detector sensitivity (N/V)det are defined as t and ΔT for isothermal and polythermal conditions, respectively. The points of t and ΔT are those of which a large number of crystals have accumulated. Consequently, t and ΔT become deterministic according to the law of large numbers. Whether t and ΔT may stochastic or deterministic in actual experiments should not be attributed to change in nucleation mechanisms in molecular level. It could be just a problem caused by differences in the experimental definition of t and ΔT.

  15. Studies on production of metastable core-excited atoms by laser-produced x-rays. Final report, 1 October 1984-30 September 1985

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harris, S.E.; Young, J.F.

    1986-04-01

    The overall objective of the work on this program was to study methods for production of core-excited metastable atoms by laser-generated x-rays. We are interested in the spectroscopy of these levels, their autoionizing and radiative rates, and their metastability in the presence of hot electrons and ions. The concept of using x-rays emitted from a laser-produced plasma to excite large densities of energetic excited levels in atoms and ions has been thoroughly experimentally investigated using modest, 100 mJ, plasma-producing lasers. One of the objectives of this work was to verify that these techniques could be scaled up to higher energies, such as 20 J. Thus a major effort this year has been devoted to the design and construction of the high energy (20 J) 1064 nm plasma-forming laser system and the tunable probe/transfer laser

  16. Spectroscopy and lifetime of bottom and charm hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    F. Ukegawa

    2000-01-01

    There are several motivations for studying masses and lifetimes of the hadrons containing a heavy quark, either the bottom or the charm quark. First, the mass and the lifetime are fundamental properties of an elementary particle. Second, the spectroscopy of hadrons gives insights into the QCD potential between quarks. In particular, a symmetry exists for heavy hadrons when the heavy quark mass is taken to be infinite, providing a powerful tool to predict and understand properties of those heavy hadrons. Third, studies of the lifetimes of heavy hadrons probe their decay mechanisms. A measurement of the lifetime, or the total decay width, is necessary when the authors extract magnitudes of elements of the Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix. Again, in the limit of an infinite heavy quark mass things become simple and decay of a heavy hadron should be the decay of the heavy quark Q. This leads to a prediction that all hadrons containing the heavy quark Q should have the same lifetime, that of the quark Q. This is far from reality in the case of charm hadrons, where the D + meson lifetime is about 2.5 times longer than the D 0 meson lifetime. Perhaps the charm quark is not heavy enough. The simple quark decay picture should be a better approximation for the bottom hadrons because of the larger b quark mass. On the experimental side, the measurements and knowledge of the heavy hadrons (in particular bottom hadrons) have significantly improved over the last decade, thanks to high statistics data accumulated by various experiments. The authors shall review recent developments in these studies in the remainder of this manuscript

  17. On luminescence lifetimes in quartz

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chithambo, M.L.; Galloway, R.B.

    2000-01-01

    In this paper we present results of investigations concerning the time dependence of luminescence emission relative to the time of stimulation in quartz. Measurements of time-resolved spectra were performed on a new versatile pulsed light emitting diode system using 525 nm stimulation, an 11 μs duration pulse, a repetition rate of 11 kHz and a 64 μs dynamic range. Effects on luminescence lifetime resulting from sample treatments such as optical stimulation, irradiation, and preheating, are reported

  18. Lifetime measurement in 144Gd

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jensen, H.J.; Gast, W.; Georgiev, A.; Jaeger, H.M.; Lieder, R.M.; Utzelmann, S.; Gierlik, M.; Morek, T.; Przestrzelska, K.; Rzaca-Urban, T.; Dewald, A.; Kuehn, R.; Meier, C.; Ender, C.; Haertlein, T.

    1996-01-01

    The lifetime measurements of excited states in 144 Gd were carried out using the Koeln RDM-plunger together with the 2 x 3 CLUSTER detector setup in Heidelberg. The nucleus was populated in the 100 Mo( 48 Ti,4n) 144 Gd reaction at a beam energy of 205 MeV giving a recoil velocity of v/c = 2.6 %. Three and higher fold γ-ray coincidences were measured at 12 target-stopper distances ranged from 0 to 400 μm. Both the dipole and quadrupole bands in 144 Gd have been observed. The analysis is in progress

  19. Lifetime of superheated steam components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stoklossa, K.H.; Oude-Hengel, H.H.; Kraechter, H.J.

    1974-01-01

    The current evaluation schemes in use for judging the lifetime expectations of superheated steam components are compared with each other. The influence of pressure and temperature fluctuations, the differences in the strength of the wall, and the spread band of constant-strainrates are critically investigated. The distribution of these contributory effects are demonstrated in the hight of numerous measuring results. As an important supplement to these evaluation schemes a newly developed technique is introduced which is designed to calculate failure probabilities. (orig./RW) [de

  20. The mass-lifetime relation

    Science.gov (United States)

    LoPresto, Michael C.

    2018-05-01

    In a recent "AstroNote," I described a simple exercise on the mass-luminosity relation for main sequence stars as an example of exposing students in a general education science course of lower mathematical level to the use of quantitative skills such as collecting and analyzing data. Here I present another attempt at a meaningful experience for such students that again involves both the gathering and analysis of numerical data and comparison with accepted result, this time on the relationship of the mass and lifetimes of main sequence stars. This experiment can stand alone or be used as an extension of the previous mass-luminosity relationship experiment.

  1. The puzzle of neutron lifetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, Stephan

    2009-01-01

    In this paper we review the role of the neutron lifetime and discuss the present status of measurements. In view of the large discrepancy observed by the two most precise individual measurements so far we describe the different techniques and point out the principle strengths and weaknesses. In particular we discuss the estimation of systematic uncertainties and its correlation to the statistical ones. In order to solve the present puzzle, many new experiments are either ongoing or being proposed. An overview on their possible contribution to this field will be given.

  2. Personality, IQ, and Lifetime Earnings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gensowski, Miriam

    2018-01-01

    This paper estimates the effects of personality traits and IQ on lifetime earnings of the men and women of the Terman study, a high-IQ U.S. sample. Age-by-age earnings profiles allow a study of when personality traits affect earnings most, and for whom the effects are strongest. I document...... a concave life-cycle pattern in the payoffs to personality traits, with the largest effects between the ages of 40 and 60. An interaction of traits with education reveals that personality matters most for highly educated men. The largest effects are found for Conscientiousness, Extraversion...

  3. Lifetime measurement in 136Pm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toney, D.; Zhong, Q.; De Angelis, G.

    2005-01-01

    The aim of the present work is to investigate the electromagnetic transition probabilities in the doublet bands of 136 Pm. These two bands have been observed up to Iπ = (21 + ). Contrary to the case of 134 Pr, the B(M1)/B(E2) ratios take similar values within the error bars in 136 Pm. This is a strong indication that there is considerable difference between the two nuclei. However, a lifetime measurement in 136 Pm is needed to shed light on the scale and the origin of the difference

  4. Two-dimensional fluorescence lifetime correlation spectroscopy. 2. Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Kunihiko; Tahara, Tahei

    2013-10-03

    In the preceding article, we introduced the theoretical framework of two-dimensional fluorescence lifetime correlation spectroscopy (2D FLCS). In this article, we report the experimental implementation of 2D FLCS. In this method, two-dimensional emission-delay correlation maps are constructed from the photon data obtained with the time-correlated single photon counting (TCSPC), and then they are converted to 2D lifetime correlation maps by the inverse Laplace transform. We develop a numerical method to realize reliable transformation, employing the maximum entropy method (MEM). We apply the developed actual 2D FLCS to two real systems, a dye mixture and a DNA hairpin. For the dye mixture, we show that 2D FLCS is experimentally feasible and that it can identify different species in an inhomogeneous sample without any prior knowledge. The application to the DNA hairpin demonstrates that 2D FLCS can disclose microsecond spontaneous dynamics of biological molecules in a visually comprehensible manner, through identifying species as unique lifetime distributions. A FRET pair is attached to the both ends of the DNA hairpin, and the different structures of the DNA hairpin are distinguished as different fluorescence lifetimes in 2D FLCS. By constructing the 2D correlation maps of the fluorescence lifetime of the FRET donor, the equilibrium dynamics between the open and the closed forms of the DNA hairpin is clearly observed as the appearance of the cross peaks between the corresponding fluorescence lifetimes. This equilibrium dynamics of the DNA hairpin is clearly separated from the acceptor-missing DNA that appears as an isolated diagonal peak in the 2D maps. The present study clearly shows that newly developed 2D FLCS can disclose spontaneous structural dynamics of biological molecules with microsecond time resolution.

  5. Numerical transfer-matrix study of a model with competing metastable states

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiig, T.; Gorman, B.M.; Rikvold, P.A.

    1994-01-01

    transition. A recently developed transfer-matrix formalism is applied to the model to obtain complex-valued ''constrained'' free-energy densities f(alpha). For particular eigenvectors of the transfer matrix, the f(alpha) exhibit finite-rangescaling behavior in agreement with the analytically continued...... 'metastable free-energy density This transfer-matrix approach gives a free-energy cost of nucleation that supports the proportionality relation for the decay rate of the metastable phase T proportional to\\Imf alpha\\, even in cases where two metastable states compete. The picture that emerges from this study...

  6. Metastable State Diamond Growth and its Applications to Electronic Devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jeng, David Guang-Kai

    Diamond which consists of a dense array of carbon atoms joined by strong covalent bonds and formed into a tetrahedral crystal structure has remarkable mechanical, thermal, optical and electrical properties suitable for many industrial applications. With a proper type of doping, diamond is also an ideal semiconductor for high performance electronic devices. Unfortunately, natural diamond is rare and limited by its size and cost, it is not surprising that people continuously look for a synthetic replacement. It was believed for long time that graphite, another form of carbon, may be converted into diamond under high pressure and temperature. However, the exact condition of conversion was not clear. In 1939, O. I. Leipunsky developed an equilibrium phase diagram between graphite and diamond based on thermodynamic considerations. In the phase diagram, there is a low temperature (below 1000^ circC) and low pressure (below 1 atm) region in which diamond is metastable and graphite is stable, therefore establishes the conditions for the coexistence of the two species. Leipunsky's pioneer work opened the door for diamond synthesis. In 1955, the General Electric company (GE) was able to produce artificial diamond at 55k atm pressure and a temperature of 2000^ circC. Contrary to GE, B. Derjaguin and B. V. Spitzyn in Soviet Union, developed a method of growing diamonds at 1000^circC and at a much lower pressure in 1956. Since then, researchers, particularly in Soviet Union, are continuously looking for methods to grow diamond and diamond film at lower temperatures and pressures with slow but steady progress. It was only in the early 80's that the importance of growing diamond films had attracted the attentions of researchers in the Western world and in Japan. Recent progress in plasma physics and chemical vapor deposition techniques in integrated electronics technology have pushed the diamond growth in its metastable states into a new era. In this research, a microwave plasma

  7. Surface mediated assembly of small, metastable gold nanoclusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pettibone, John M.; Osborn, William A.; Rykaczewski, Konrad; Talin, A. Alec; Bonevich, John E.; Hudgens, Jeffrey W.; Allendorf, Mark D.

    2013-06-01

    The unique properties of metallic nanoclusters are attractive for numerous commercial and industrial applications but are generally less stable than nanocrystals. Thus, developing methodologies for stabilizing nanoclusters and retaining their enhanced functionality is of great interest. We report the assembly of PPh3-protected Au9 clusters from a heterogeneous mixture into films consisting of sub 3 nm nanocluster assemblies. The depositing nanoclusters are metastable in solution, but the resulting nanocluster assemblies are stabilized indefinitely in air or fresh solvent. The films exhibit distinct structure from Au nanoparticles observed by X-ray diffraction, and film dissolution data support the preservation of small nanoclusters. UV-Vis spectroscopy, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and electron microscopy are used to elucidate information regarding the nanocluster formation and assembly mechanism. Preferential deposition of nanocluster assemblies can be achieved on multiple substrates, including polymer, Cr, Si, SiO2, SiNx, and metal-organic frameworks (MOFs). Unlike other vapor phase coating processes, nanocluster assembly on the MIL-68(In) MOF crystal is capable of preferentially coating the external surface and stabilizing the crystal structure in hydrothermal conditions, which should enhance their storage, separation and delivery capabilities.The unique properties of metallic nanoclusters are attractive for numerous commercial and industrial applications but are generally less stable than nanocrystals. Thus, developing methodologies for stabilizing nanoclusters and retaining their enhanced functionality is of great interest. We report the assembly of PPh3-protected Au9 clusters from a heterogeneous mixture into films consisting of sub 3 nm nanocluster assemblies. The depositing nanoclusters are metastable in solution, but the resulting nanocluster assemblies are stabilized indefinitely in air or fresh solvent. The

  8. Chemically exfoliated Mo S2 layers: Spectroscopic evidence for the semiconducting nature of the dominant trigonal metastable phase

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, Banabir; Singh, Anjali; Sharada, G.; Mahale, Pratibha; Kumar, Abhinav; Thirupathaiah, S.; Sezen, H.; Amati, M.; Gregoratti, Luca; Waghmare, Umesh V.; Sarma, D. D.

    2017-11-01

    A metastable trigonal phase, existing only as small patches on a chemically exfoliated few-layered, thermodynamically stable 1 H phase of Mo S2 , is believed to critically influence the properties of Mo S2 -based devices. The electronic structure of this metastable phase is little understood in the absence of a direct experimental investigation of its electronic properties, complicated further by conflicting claims from theoretical investigations. We address this issue by investigating the electronic structure of this minority phase in chemically exfoliated Mo S2 few-layered systems by enhancing its contributions with the use of highly spatially resolved (≤120 nm resolution) photoemission spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy in conjunction with state-of-the-art electronic structure calculations. Based on these results, we establish that the ground state of this phase, arrived at by the chemical exfoliation of Mo S2 using the usual Li intercalation technique, is a small gap (˜90 ±40 meV ) semiconductor in contrast to most claims in the literature; we also identify the specific trigonal structure it has among many suggested ones.

  9. Search for metastable heavy charged particles with large ionisation energy loss in $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV using the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Aad, Georges; Abdallah, Jalal; Abdinov, Ovsat; Aben, Rosemarie; Abolins, Maris; AbouZeid, Ossama; Abramowicz, Halina; Abreu, Henso; Abreu, Ricardo; Abulaiti, Yiming; Acharya, Bobby Samir; Adamczyk, Leszek; Adams, David; Adelman, Jahred; Adomeit, Stefanie; Adye, Tim; Affolder, Tony; Agatonovic-Jovin, Tatjana; Agricola, Johannes; Aguilar-Saavedra, Juan Antonio; Ahlen, Steven; Ahmadov, Faig; Aielli, Giulio; Akerstedt, Henrik; Åkesson, Torsten Paul Ake; Akimov, Andrei; Alberghi, Gian Luigi; Albert, Justin; Albrand, Solveig; Alconada Verzini, Maria Josefina; Aleksa, Martin; Aleksandrov, Igor; Alexa, Calin; Alexander, Gideon; Alexopoulos, Theodoros; Alhroob, Muhammad; Alimonti, Gianluca; Alio, Lion; Alison, John; Alkire, Steven Patrick; Allbrooke, Benedict; Allport, Phillip; Aloisio, Alberto; Alonso, Alejandro; Alonso, Francisco; Alpigiani, Cristiano; Altheimer, Andrew David; Alvarez Gonzalez, Barbara; Άlvarez Piqueras, Damián; Alviggi, Mariagrazia; Amadio, Brian Thomas; Amako, Katsuya; Amaral Coutinho, Yara; Amelung, Christoph; Amidei, Dante; Amor Dos Santos, Susana Patricia; Amorim, Antonio; Amoroso, Simone; Amram, Nir; Amundsen, Glenn; Anastopoulos, Christos; Ancu, Lucian Stefan; Andari, Nansi; Andeen, Timothy; Anders, Christoph Falk; Anders, Gabriel; Anders, John Kenneth; Anderson, Kelby; Andreazza, Attilio; Andrei, George Victor; Angelidakis, Stylianos; Angelozzi, Ivan; Anger, Philipp; Angerami, Aaron; Anghinolfi, Francis; Anisenkov, Alexey; Anjos, Nuno; Annovi, Alberto; Antonelli, Mario; Antonov, Alexey; Antos, Jaroslav; Anulli, Fabio; Aoki, Masato; Aperio Bella, Ludovica; Arabidze, Giorgi; Arai, Yasuo; Araque, Juan Pedro; Arce, Ayana; Arduh, Francisco Anuar; Arguin, Jean-Francois; Argyropoulos, Spyridon; Arik, Metin; Armbruster, Aaron James; Arnaez, Olivier; Arnal, Vanessa; Arnold, Hannah; Arratia, Miguel; Arslan, Ozan; Artamonov, Andrei; Artoni, Giacomo; Asai, Shoji; Asbah, Nedaa; Ashkenazi, Adi; Åsman, Barbro; Asquith, Lily; Assamagan, Ketevi; Astalos, Robert; Atkinson, Markus; Atlay, Naim Bora; Augsten, Kamil; Aurousseau, Mathieu; Avolio, Giuseppe; Axen, Bradley; Ayoub, Mohamad Kassem; Azuelos, Georges; Baak, Max; Baas, Alessandra; Baca, Matthew John; Bacci, Cesare; Bachacou, Henri; Bachas, Konstantinos; Backes, Moritz; Backhaus, Malte; Bagiacchi, Paolo; Bagnaia, Paolo; Bai, Yu; Bain, Travis; Baines, John; Baker, Oliver Keith; Baldin, Evgenii; Balek, Petr; Balestri, Thomas; Balli, Fabrice; Banas, Elzbieta; Banerjee, Swagato; Bannoura, Arwa A E; Bansil, Hardeep Singh; Barak, Liron; Barberio, Elisabetta Luigia; Barberis, Dario; Barbero, Marlon; Barillari, Teresa; Barisonzi, Marcello; Barklow, Timothy; Barlow, Nick; Barnes, Sarah Louise; Barnett, Bruce; Barnett, Michael; Barnovska, Zuzana; Baroncelli, Antonio; Barone, Gaetano; Barr, Alan; Barreiro, Fernando; Barreiro Guimarães da Costa, João; Bartoldus, Rainer; Barton, Adam Edward; Bartos, Pavol; Basalaev, Artem; Bassalat, Ahmed; Basye, Austin; Bates, Richard; Batista, Santiago Juan; Batley, Richard; Battaglia, Marco; Bauce, Matteo; Bauer, Florian; Bawa, Harinder Singh; Beacham, James Baker; Beattie, Michael David; Beau, Tristan; Beauchemin, Pierre-Hugues; Beccherle, Roberto; Bechtle, Philip; Beck, Hans Peter; Becker, Anne Kathrin; Becker, Maurice; Becker, Sebastian; Beckingham, Matthew; Becot, Cyril; Beddall, Andrew; Beddall, Ayda; Bednyakov, Vadim; Bee, Christopher; Beemster, Lars; Beermann, Thomas; Begel, Michael; Behr, Janna Katharina; Belanger-Champagne, Camille; Bell, William; Bella, Gideon; Bellagamba, Lorenzo; Bellerive, Alain; Bellomo, Massimiliano; Belotskiy, Konstantin; Beltramello, Olga; Benary, Odette; Benchekroun, Driss; Bender, Michael; Bendtz, Katarina; Benekos, Nektarios; Benhammou, Yan; Benhar Noccioli, Eleonora; Benitez Garcia, Jorge-Armando; Benjamin, Douglas; Bensinger, James; Bentvelsen, Stan; Beresford, Lydia; Beretta, Matteo; Berge, David; Bergeaas Kuutmann, Elin; Berger, Nicolas; Berghaus, Frank; Beringer, Jürg; Bernard, Clare; Bernard, Nathan Rogers; Bernius, Catrin; Bernlochner, Florian Urs; Berry, Tracey; Berta, Peter; Bertella, Claudia; Bertoli, Gabriele; Bertolucci, Federico; Bertsche, Carolyn; Bertsche, David; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Besjes, Geert-Jan; Bessidskaia Bylund, Olga; Bessner, Martin Florian; Besson, Nathalie; Betancourt, Christopher; Bethke, Siegfried; Bevan, Adrian John; Bhimji, Wahid; Bianchi, Riccardo-Maria; Bianchini, Louis; Bianco, Michele; Biebel, Otmar; Biedermann, Dustin; Bieniek, Stephen Paul; Biglietti, Michela; Bilbao De Mendizabal, Javier; Bilokon, Halina; Bindi, Marcello; Binet, Sebastien; Bingul, Ahmet; Bini, Cesare; Biondi, Silvia; Black, Curtis; Black, James; Black, Kevin; Blackburn, Daniel; Blair, Robert; Blanchard, Jean-Baptiste; Blanco, Jacobo Ezequiel; Blazek, Tomas; Bloch, Ingo; Blocker, Craig; Blum, Walter; Blumenschein, Ulrike; Bobbink, Gerjan; Bobrovnikov, Victor; Bocchetta, Simona Serena; Bocci, Andrea; Bock, Christopher; Boehler, Michael; Bogaerts, Joannes Andreas; Bogavac, Danijela; Bogdanchikov, Alexander; Bohm, Christian; Boisvert, Veronique; Bold, Tomasz; Boldea, Venera; Boldyrev, Alexey; Bomben, Marco; Bona, Marcella; Boonekamp, Maarten; Borisov, Anatoly; Borissov, Guennadi; Borroni, Sara; Bortfeldt, Jonathan; Bortolotto, Valerio; Bos, Kors; Boscherini, Davide; Bosman, Martine; Boudreau, Joseph; Bouffard, Julian; Bouhova-Thacker, Evelina Vassileva; Boumediene, Djamel Eddine; Bourdarios, Claire; Bousson, Nicolas; Boveia, Antonio; Boyd, James; Boyko, Igor; Bozic, Ivan; Bracinik, Juraj; Brandt, Andrew; Brandt, Gerhard; Brandt, Oleg; Bratzler, Uwe; Brau, Benjamin; Brau, James; Braun, Helmut; Brazzale, Simone Federico; Breaden Madden, William Dmitri; Brendlinger, Kurt; Brennan, Amelia Jean; Brenner, Lydia; Brenner, Richard; Bressler, Shikma; Bristow, Kieran; Bristow, Timothy Michael; Britton, Dave; Britzger, Daniel; Brochu, Frederic; Brock, Ian; Brock, Raymond; Bronner, Johanna; Brooijmans, Gustaaf; Brooks, Timothy; Brooks, William; Brosamer, Jacquelyn; Brost, Elizabeth; Brown, Jonathan; Bruckman de Renstrom, Pawel; Bruncko, Dusan; Bruneliere, Renaud; Bruni, Alessia; Bruni, Graziano; Bruschi, Marco; Bruscino, Nello; Bryngemark, Lene; Buanes, Trygve; Buat, Quentin; Buchholz, Peter; Buckley, Andrew; Buda, Stelian Ioan; Budagov, Ioulian; Buehrer, Felix; Bugge, Lars; Bugge, Magnar Kopangen; Bulekov, Oleg; Bullock, Daniel; Burckhart, Helfried; Burdin, Sergey; Burgard, Carsten Daniel; Burghgrave, Blake; Burke, Stephen; Burmeister, Ingo; Busato, Emmanuel; Büscher, Daniel; Büscher, Volker; Bussey, Peter; Butler, John; Butt, Aatif Imtiaz; Buttar, Craig; Butterworth, Jonathan; Butti, Pierfrancesco; Buttinger, William; Buzatu, Adrian; Buzykaev, Aleksey; Cabrera Urbán, Susana; Caforio, Davide; Cairo, Valentina; Cakir, Orhan; Calace, Noemi; Calafiura, Paolo; Calandri, Alessandro; Calderini, Giovanni; Calfayan, Philippe; Caloba, Luiz; Calvet, David; Calvet, Samuel; Camacho Toro, Reina; Camarda, Stefano; Camarri, Paolo; Cameron, David; Caminal Armadans, Roger; Campana, Simone; Campanelli, Mario; Campoverde, Angel; Canale, Vincenzo; Canepa, Anadi; Cano Bret, Marc; Cantero, Josu; Cantrill, Robert; Cao, Tingting; Capeans Garrido, Maria Del Mar; Caprini, Irinel; Caprini, Mihai; Capua, Marcella; Caputo, Regina; Cardarelli, Roberto; Cardillo, Fabio; Carli, Tancredi; Carlino, Gianpaolo; Carminati, Leonardo; Caron, Sascha; Carquin, Edson; Carrillo-Montoya, German D; Carter, Janet; Carvalho, João; Casadei, Diego; Casado, Maria Pilar; Casolino, Mirkoantonio; Castaneda-Miranda, Elizabeth; Castelli, Angelantonio; Castillo Gimenez, Victoria; Castro, Nuno Filipe; Catastini, Pierluigi; Catinaccio, Andrea; Catmore, James; Cattai, Ariella; Caudron, Julien; Cavaliere, Viviana; Cavalli, Donatella; Cavalli-Sforza, Matteo; Cavasinni, Vincenzo; Ceradini, Filippo; Cerio, Benjamin; Cerny, Karel; Santiago Cerqueira, Augusto; Cerri, Alessandro; Cerrito, Lucio; Cerutti, Fabio; Cerv, Matevz; Cervelli, Alberto; Cetin, Serkant Ali; Chafaq, Aziz; Chakraborty, Dhiman; Chalupkova, Ina; Chang, Philip; Chapman, John Derek; Charlton, Dave; Chau, Chav Chhiv; Chavez Barajas, Carlos Alberto; Cheatham, Susan; Chegwidden, Andrew; Chekanov, Sergei; Chekulaev, Sergey; Chelkov, Gueorgui; Chelstowska, Magda Anna; Chen, Chunhui; Chen, Hucheng; Chen, Karen; Chen, Liming; Chen, Shenjian; Chen, Xin; Chen, Ye; Cheng, Hok Chuen; Cheng, Yangyang; Cheplakov, Alexander; Cheremushkina, Evgenia; Cherkaoui El Moursli, Rajaa; Chernyatin, Valeriy; Cheu, Elliott; Chevalier, Laurent; Chiarella, Vitaliano; Chiarelli, Giorgio; Childers, John Taylor; Chiodini, Gabriele; Chisholm, Andrew; Chislett, Rebecca Thalatta; Chitan, Adrian; Chizhov, Mihail; Choi, Kyungeon; Chouridou, Sofia; Chow, Bonnie Kar Bo; Christodoulou, Valentinos; Chromek-Burckhart, Doris; Chudoba, Jiri; Chuinard, Annabelle Julia; Chwastowski, Janusz; Chytka, Ladislav; Ciapetti, Guido; Ciftci, Abbas Kenan; Cinca, Diane; Cindro, Vladimir; Cioara, Irina Antonela; Ciocio, Alessandra; Citron, Zvi Hirsh; Ciubancan, Mihai; Clark, Allan G; Clark, Brian Lee; Clark, Philip James; Clarke, Robert; Cleland, Bill; Clement, Christophe; Coadou, Yann; Cobal, Marina; Coccaro, Andrea; Cochran, James H; Coffey, Laurel; Cogan, Joshua Godfrey; Colasurdo, Luca; Cole, Brian; Cole, Stephen; Colijn, Auke-Pieter; Collot, Johann; Colombo, Tommaso; Compostella, Gabriele; Conde Muiño, Patricia; Coniavitis, Elias; Connell, Simon Henry; Connelly, Ian; Consonni, Sofia Maria; Consorti, Valerio; Constantinescu, Serban; Conta, Claudio; Conti, Geraldine; Conventi, Francesco; Cooke, Mark; Cooper, Ben; Cooper-Sarkar, Amanda; Cornelissen, Thijs; Corradi, Massimo; Corriveau, Francois; Corso-Radu, Alina; Cortes-Gonzalez, Arely; Cortiana, Giorgio; Costa, Giuseppe; Costa, María José; Costanzo, Davide; Côté, David; Cottin, Giovanna; Cowan, Glen; Cox, Brian; Cranmer, Kyle; Cree, Graham; Crépé-Renaudin, Sabine; Crescioli, Francesco; Cribbs, Wayne Allen; Crispin Ortuzar, Mireia; Cristinziani, Markus; Croft, Vince; Crosetti, Giovanni; Cuhadar Donszelmann, Tulay; Cummings, Jane; Curatolo, Maria; Cuthbert, Cameron; Czirr, Hendrik; Czodrowski, Patrick; D'Auria, Saverio; D'Onofrio, Monica; Da Cunha Sargedas De Sousa, Mario Jose; Da Via, Cinzia; Dabrowski, Wladyslaw; Dafinca, Alexandru; Dai, Tiesheng; Dale, Orjan; Dallaire, Frederick; Dallapiccola, Carlo; Dam, Mogens; Dandoy, Jeffrey Rogers; Dang, Nguyen Phuong; Daniells, Andrew Christopher; Danninger, Matthias; Dano Hoffmann, Maria; Dao, Valerio; Darbo, Giovanni; Darmora, Smita; Dassoulas, James; Dattagupta, Aparajita; Davey, Will; David, Claire; Davidek, Tomas; Davies, Eleanor; Davies, Merlin; Davison, Peter; Davygora, Yuriy; Dawe, Edmund; Dawson, Ian; Daya-Ishmukhametova, Rozmin; De, Kaushik; de Asmundis, Riccardo; De Benedetti, Abraham; De Castro, Stefano; De Cecco, Sandro; De Groot, Nicolo; de Jong, Paul; De la Torre, Hector; De Lorenzi, Francesco; De Nooij, Lucie; De Pedis, Daniele; De Salvo, Alessandro; De Sanctis, Umberto; De Santo, Antonella; De Vivie De Regie, Jean-Baptiste; Dearnaley, William James; Debbe, Ramiro; Debenedetti, Chiara; Dedovich, Dmitri; Deigaard, Ingrid; Del Peso, Jose; Del Prete, Tarcisio; Delgove, David; Deliot, Frederic; Delitzsch, Chris Malena; Deliyergiyev, Maksym; Dell'Acqua, Andrea; Dell'Asta, Lidia; Dell'Orso, Mauro; Della Pietra, Massimo; della Volpe, Domenico; Delmastro, Marco; Delsart, Pierre-Antoine; Deluca, Carolina; DeMarco, David; Demers, Sarah; Demichev, Mikhail; Demilly, Aurelien; Denisov, Sergey; Derendarz, Dominik; Derkaoui, Jamal Eddine; Derue, Frederic; Dervan, Paul; Desch, Klaus Kurt; Deterre, Cecile; Deviveiros, Pier-Olivier; Dewhurst, Alastair; Dhaliwal, Saminder; Di Ciaccio, Anna; Di Ciaccio, Lucia; Di Domenico, Antonio; Di Donato, Camilla; Di Girolamo, Alessandro; Di Girolamo, Beniamino; Di Mattia, Alessandro; Di Micco, Biagio; Di Nardo, Roberto; Di Simone, Andrea; Di Sipio, Riccardo; Di Valentino, David; Diaconu, Cristinel; Diamond, Miriam; Dias, Flavia; Diaz, Marco Aurelio; Diehl, Edward; Dietrich, Janet; Diglio, Sara; Dimitrievska, Aleksandra; Dingfelder, Jochen; Dita, Petre; Dita, Sanda; Dittus, Fridolin; Djama, Fares; Djobava, Tamar; Djuvsland, Julia Isabell; Barros do Vale, Maria Aline; Dobos, Daniel; Dobre, Monica; Doglioni, Caterina; Dohmae, Takeshi; Dolejsi, Jiri; Dolezal, Zdenek; Dolgoshein, Boris; Donadelli, Marisilvia; Donati, Simone; Dondero, Paolo; Donini, Julien; Dopke, Jens; Doria, Alessandra; Dova, Maria-Teresa; Doyle, Tony; Drechsler, Eric; Dris, Manolis; Dubreuil, Emmanuelle; Duchovni, Ehud; Duckeck, Guenter; Ducu, Otilia Anamaria; Duda, Dominik; Dudarev, Alexey; Duflot, Laurent; Duguid, Liam; Dührssen, Michael; Dunford, Monica; Duran Yildiz, Hatice; Düren, Michael; Durglishvili, Archil; Duschinger, Dirk; Dyndal, Mateusz; Eckardt, Christoph; Ecker, Katharina Maria; Edgar, Ryan Christopher; Edson, William; Edwards, Nicholas Charles; Ehrenfeld, Wolfgang; Eifert, Till; Eigen, Gerald; Einsweiler, Kevin; Ekelof, Tord; El Kacimi, Mohamed; Ellert, Mattias; Elles, Sabine; Ellinghaus, Frank; Elliot, Alison; Ellis, Nicolas; Elmsheuser, Johannes; Elsing, Markus; Emeliyanov, Dmitry; Enari, Yuji; Endner, Oliver Chris; Endo, Masaki; Erdmann, Johannes; Ereditato, Antonio; Ernis, Gunar; Ernst, Jesse; Ernst, Michael; Errede, Steven; Ertel, Eugen; Escalier, Marc; Esch, Hendrik; Escobar, Carlos; Esposito, Bellisario; Etienvre, Anne-Isabelle; Etzion, Erez; Evans, Hal; Ezhilov, Alexey; Fabbri, Laura; Facini, Gabriel; Fakhrutdinov, Rinat; Falciano, Speranza; Falla, Rebecca Jane; Faltova, Jana; Fang, Yaquan; Fanti, Marcello; Farbin, Amir; Farilla, Addolorata; Farooque, Trisha; Farrell, Steven; Farrington, Sinead; Farthouat, Philippe; Fassi, Farida; Fassnacht, Patrick; Fassouliotis, Dimitrios; Faucci Giannelli, Michele; Favareto, Andrea; Fayard, Louis; Federic, Pavol; Fedin, Oleg; Fedorko, Wojciech; Feigl, Simon; Feligioni, Lorenzo; Feng, Cunfeng; Feng, Eric; Feng, Haolu; Fenyuk, Alexander; Feremenga, Last; Fernandez Martinez, Patricia; Fernandez Perez, Sonia; Ferrando, James; Ferrari, Arnaud; Ferrari, Pamela; Ferrari, Roberto; Ferreira de Lima, Danilo Enoque; Ferrer, Antonio; Ferrere, Didier; Ferretti, Claudio; Ferretto Parodi, Andrea; Fiascaris, Maria; Fiedler, Frank; Filipčič, Andrej; Filipuzzi, Marco; Filthaut, Frank; Fincke-Keeler, Margret; Finelli, Kevin Daniel; Fiolhais, Miguel; Fiorini, Luca; Firan, Ana; Fischer, Adam; Fischer, Cora; Fischer, Julia; Fisher, Wade Cameron; Fitzgerald, Eric Andrew; Flaschel, Nils; Fleck, Ivor; Fleischmann, Philipp; Fleischmann, Sebastian; Fletcher, Gareth Thomas; Fletcher, Gregory; Fletcher, Rob Roy MacGregor; Flick, Tobias; Floderus, Anders; Flores Castillo, Luis; Flowerdew, Michael; Formica, Andrea; Forti, Alessandra; Fournier, Daniel; Fox, Harald; Fracchia, Silvia; Francavilla, Paolo; Franchini, Matteo; Francis, David; Franconi, Laura; Franklin, Melissa; Frate, Meghan; Fraternali, Marco; Freeborn, David; French, Sky; Friedrich, Felix; Froidevaux, Daniel; Frost, James; Fukunaga, Chikara; Fullana Torregrosa, Esteban; Fulsom, Bryan Gregory; Fusayasu, Takahiro; Fuster, Juan; Gabaldon, Carolina; Gabizon, Ofir; Gabrielli, Alessandro; Gabrielli, Andrea; Gach, Grzegorz; Gadatsch, Stefan; Gadomski, Szymon; Gagliardi, Guido; Gagnon, Pauline; Galea, Cristina; Galhardo, Bruno; Gallas, Elizabeth; Gallop, Bruce; Gallus, Petr; Galster, Gorm Aske Gram Krohn; Gan, KK; Gao, Jun; Gao, Yanyan; Gao, Yongsheng; Garay Walls, Francisca; Garberson, Ford; García, Carmen; García Navarro, José Enrique; Garcia-Sciveres, Maurice; Gardner, Robert; Garelli, Nicoletta; Garonne, Vincent; Gatti, Claudio; Gaudiello, Andrea; Gaudio, Gabriella; Gaur, Bakul; Gauthier, Lea; Gauzzi, Paolo; Gavrilenko, Igor; Gay, Colin; Gaycken, Goetz; Gazis, Evangelos; Ge, Peng; Gecse, Zoltan; Gee, Norman; Geerts, Daniël Alphonsus Adrianus; Geich-Gimbel, Christoph; Geisler, Manuel Patrice; Gemme, Claudia; Genest, Marie-Hélène; Gentile, Simonetta; George, Matthias; George, Simon; Gerbaudo, Davide; Gershon, Avi; Ghasemi, Sara; Ghazlane, Hamid; Giacobbe, Benedetto; Giagu, Stefano; Giangiobbe, Vincent; Giannetti, Paola; Gibbard, Bruce; Gibson, Stephen; Gilchriese, Murdock; Gillam, Thomas; Gillberg, Dag; Gilles, Geoffrey; Gingrich, Douglas; Giokaris, Nikos; Giordani, MarioPaolo; Giorgi, Filippo Maria; Giorgi, Francesco Michelangelo; Giraud, Pierre-Francois; Giromini, Paolo; Giugni, Danilo; Giuliani, Claudia; Giulini, Maddalena; Gjelsten, Børge Kile; Gkaitatzis, Stamatios; Gkialas, Ioannis; Gkougkousis, Evangelos Leonidas; Gladilin, Leonid; Glasman, Claudia; Glatzer, Julian; Glaysher, Paul; Glazov, Alexandre; Goblirsch-Kolb, Maximilian; Goddard, Jack Robert; Godlewski, Jan; Goldfarb, Steven; Golling, Tobias; Golubkov, Dmitry; Gomes, Agostinho; Gonçalo, Ricardo; Goncalves Pinto Firmino Da Costa, Joao; Gonella, Laura; González de la Hoz, Santiago; Gonzalez Parra, Garoe; Gonzalez-Sevilla, Sergio; Goossens, Luc; Gorbounov, Petr Andreevich; Gordon, Howard; Gorelov, Igor; Gorini, Benedetto; Gorini, Edoardo; Gorišek, Andrej; Gornicki, Edward; Goshaw, Alfred; Gössling, Claus; Gostkin, Mikhail Ivanovitch; Goujdami, Driss; Goussiou, Anna; Govender, Nicolin; Gozani, Eitan; Grabas, Herve Marie Xavier; Graber, Lars; Grabowska-Bold, Iwona; Gradin, Per Olov Joakim; Grafström, Per; Grahn, Karl-Johan; Gramling, Johanna; Gramstad, Eirik; Grancagnolo, Sergio; Gratchev, Vadim; Gray, Heather; Graziani, Enrico; Greenwood, Zeno Dixon; Gregersen, Kristian; Gregor, Ingrid-Maria; Grenier, Philippe; Griffiths, Justin; Grillo, Alexander; Grimm, Kathryn; Grinstein, Sebastian; Gris, Philippe Luc Yves; Grivaz, Jean-Francois; Grohs, Johannes Philipp; Grohsjean, Alexander; Gross, Eilam; Grosse-Knetter, Joern; Grossi, Giulio Cornelio; Grout, Zara Jane; Guan, Liang; Guenther, Jaroslav; Guescini, Francesco; Guest, Daniel; Gueta, Orel; Guido, Elisa; Guillemin, Thibault; Guindon, Stefan; Gul, Umar; Gumpert, Christian; Guo, Jun; Guo, Yicheng; Gupta, Shaun; Gustavino, Giuliano; Gutierrez, Phillip; Gutierrez Ortiz, Nicolas Gilberto; Gutschow, Christian; Guyot, Claude; Gwenlan, Claire; Gwilliam, Carl; Haas, Andy; Haber, Carl; Hadavand, Haleh Khani; Haddad, Nacim; Haefner, Petra; Hageböck, Stephan; Hajduk, Zbigniew; Hakobyan, Hrachya; Haleem, Mahsana; Haley, Joseph; Hall, David; Halladjian, Garabed; Hallewell, Gregory David; Hamacher, Klaus; Hamal, Petr; Hamano, Kenji; Hamilton, Andrew; Hamity, Guillermo Nicolas; Hamnett, Phillip George; Han, Liang; Hanagaki, Kazunori; Hanawa, Keita; Hance, Michael; Hanke, Paul; Hanna, Remie; Hansen, Jørgen Beck; Hansen, Jorn Dines; Hansen, Maike Christina; Hansen, Peter Henrik; Hara, Kazuhiko; Hard, Andrew; Harenberg, Torsten; Hariri, Faten; Harkusha, Siarhei; Harrington, Robert; Harrison, Paul Fraser; Hartjes, Fred; Hasegawa, Makoto; Hasegawa, Satoshi; Hasegawa, Yoji; Hasib, A; Hassani, Samira; Haug, Sigve; Hauser, Reiner; Hauswald, Lorenz; Havranek, Miroslav; Hawkes, Christopher; Hawkings, Richard John; Hawkins, Anthony David; Hayashi, Takayasu; Hayden, Daniel; Hays, Chris; Hays, Jonathan Michael; Hayward, Helen; Haywood, Stephen; Head, Simon; Heck, Tobias; Hedberg, Vincent; Heelan, Louise; Heim, Sarah; Heim, Timon; Heinemann, Beate; Heinrich, Lukas; Hejbal, Jiri; Helary, Louis; Hellman, Sten; Hellmich, Dennis; Helsens, Clement; Henderson, James; Henderson, Robert; Heng, Yang; Hengler, Christopher; Henrichs, Anna; Henriques Correia, Ana Maria; Henrot-Versille, Sophie; Herbert, Geoffrey Henry; Hernández Jiménez, Yesenia; Herrberg-Schubert, Ruth; Herten, Gregor; Hertenberger, Ralf; Hervas, Luis; Hesketh, Gavin Grant; Hessey, Nigel; Hetherly, Jeffrey Wayne; Hickling, Robert; Higón-Rodriguez, Emilio; Hill, Ewan; Hill, John; Hiller, Karl Heinz; Hillier, Stephen; Hinchliffe, Ian; Hines, Elizabeth; Hinman, Rachel Reisner; Hirose, Minoru; Hirschbuehl, Dominic; Hobbs, John; Hod, Noam; Hodgkinson, Mark; Hodgson, Paul; Hoecker, Andreas; Hoeferkamp, Martin; Hoenig, Friedrich; Hohlfeld, Marc; Hohn, David; Holmes, Tova Ray; Homann, Michael; Hong, Tae Min; Hooft van Huysduynen, Loek; Hopkins, Walter; Horii, Yasuyuki; Horton, Arthur James; Hostachy, Jean-Yves; Hou, Suen; Hoummada, Abdeslam; Howard, Jacob; Howarth, James; Hrabovsky, Miroslav; Hristova, Ivana; Hrivnac, Julius; Hryn'ova, Tetiana; Hrynevich, Aliaksei; Hsu, Catherine; Hsu, Pai-hsien Jennifer; Hsu, Shih-Chieh; Hu, Diedi; Hu, Qipeng; Hu, Xueye; Huang, Yanping; Hubacek, Zdenek; Hubaut, Fabrice; Huegging, Fabian; Huffman, Todd Brian; Hughes, Emlyn; Hughes, Gareth; Huhtinen, Mika; Hülsing, Tobias Alexander; Huseynov, Nazim; Huston, Joey; Huth, John; Iacobucci, Giuseppe; Iakovidis, Georgios; Ibragimov, Iskander; Iconomidou-Fayard, Lydia; Ideal, Emma; Idrissi, Zineb; Iengo, Paolo; Igonkina, Olga; Iizawa, Tomoya; Ikegami, Yoichi; Ikematsu, Katsumasa; Ikeno, Masahiro; Ilchenko, Iurii; Iliadis, Dimitrios; Ilic, Nikolina; Ince, Tayfun; Introzzi, Gianluca; Ioannou, Pavlos; Iodice, Mauro; Iordanidou, Kalliopi; Ippolito, Valerio; Irles Quiles, Adrian; Isaksson, Charlie; Ishino, Masaya; Ishitsuka, Masaki; Ishmukhametov, Renat; Issever, Cigdem; Istin, Serhat; Iturbe Ponce, Julia Mariana; Iuppa, Roberto; Ivarsson, Jenny; Iwanski, Wieslaw; Iwasaki, Hiroyuki; Izen, Joseph; Izzo, Vincenzo; Jabbar, Samina; Jackson, Brett; Jackson, Matthew; Jackson, Paul; Jaekel, Martin; Jain, Vivek; Jakobs, Karl; Jakobsen, Sune; Jakoubek, Tomas; Jakubek, Jan; Jamin, David Olivier; Jana, Dilip; Jansen, Eric; Jansky, Roland; Janssen, Jens; Janus, Michel; Jarlskog, Göran; Javadov, Namig; Javůrek, Tomáš; Jeanty, Laura; Jejelava, Juansher; Jeng, Geng-yuan; Jennens, David; Jenni, Peter; Jentzsch, Jennifer; Jeske, Carl; Jézéquel, Stéphane; Ji, Haoshuang; Jia, Jiangyong; Jiang, Yi; Jiggins, Stephen; Jimenez Pena, Javier; Jin, Shan; Jinaru, Adam; Jinnouchi, Osamu; Joergensen, Morten Dam; Johansson, Per; Johns, Kenneth; Jon-And, Kerstin; Jones, Graham; Jones, Roger; Jones, Tim; Jongmanns, Jan; Jorge, Pedro; Joshi, Kiran Daniel; Jovicevic, Jelena; Ju, Xiangyang; Jung, Christian; Jussel, Patrick; Juste Rozas, Aurelio; Kaci, Mohammed; Kaczmarska, Anna; Kado, Marumi; Kagan, Harris; Kagan, Michael; Kahn, Sebastien Jonathan; Kajomovitz, Enrique; Kalderon, Charles William; Kama, Sami; Kamenshchikov, Andrey; Kanaya, Naoko; Kaneti, Steven; Kantserov, Vadim; Kanzaki, Junichi; Kaplan, Benjamin; Kaplan, Laser Seymour; Kapliy, Anton; Kar, Deepak; Karakostas, Konstantinos; Karamaoun, Andrew; Karastathis, Nikolaos; Kareem, Mohammad Jawad; Karnevskiy, Mikhail; Karpov, Sergey; Karpova, Zoya; Karthik, Krishnaiyengar; Kartvelishvili, Vakhtang; Karyukhin, Andrey; Kashif, Lashkar; Kass, Richard; Kastanas, Alex; Kataoka, Yousuke; Kato, Chikuma; Katre, Akshay; Katzy, Judith; Kawagoe, Kiyotomo; Kawamoto, Tatsuo; Kawamura, Gen; Kazama, Shingo; Kazanin, Vassili; Keeler, Richard; Kehoe, Robert; Keller, John; Kempster, Jacob Julian; Keoshkerian, Houry; Kepka, Oldrich; Kerševan, Borut Paul; Kersten, Susanne; Keyes, Robert; Khalil-zada, Farkhad; Khandanyan, Hovhannes; Khanov, Alexander; Kharlamov, Alexey; Khoo, Teng Jian; Khovanskiy, Valery; Khramov, Evgeniy; Khubua, Jemal; Kido, Shogo; Kim, Hee Yeun; Kim, Shinhong; Kim, Young-Kee; Kimura, Naoki; Kind, Oliver Maria; King, Barry; King, Matthew; King, Samuel Burton; Kirk, Julie; Kiryunin, Andrey; Kishimoto, Tomoe; Kisielewska, Danuta; Kiss, Florian; Kiuchi, Kenji; Kivernyk, Oleh; Kladiva, Eduard; Klein, Matthew Henry; Klein, Max; Klein, Uta; Kleinknecht, Konrad; Klimek, Pawel; Klimentov, Alexei; Klingenberg, Reiner; Klinger, Joel Alexander; Klioutchnikova, Tatiana; Kluge, Eike-Erik; Kluit, Peter; Kluth, Stefan; Knapik, Joanna; Kneringer, Emmerich; Knoops, Edith; Knue, Andrea; Kobayashi, Aine; Kobayashi, Dai; Kobayashi, Tomio; Kobel, Michael; Kocian, Martin; Kodys, Peter; Koffas, Thomas; Koffeman, Els; Kogan, Lucy Anne; Kohlmann, Simon; Kohout, Zdenek; Kohriki, Takashi; Koi, Tatsumi; Kolanoski, Hermann; Koletsou, Iro; Komar, Aston; Komori, Yuto; Kondo, Takahiko; Kondrashova, Nataliia; Köneke, Karsten; König, Adriaan; Kono, Takanori; Konoplich, Rostislav; Konstantinidis, Nikolaos; Kopeliansky, Revital; Koperny, Stefan; Köpke, Lutz; Kopp, Anna Katharina; Korcyl, Krzysztof; Kordas, Kostantinos; Korn, Andreas; Korol, Aleksandr; Korolkov, Ilya; Korolkova, Elena; Kortner, Oliver; Kortner, Sandra; Kosek, Tomas; Kostyukhin, Vadim; Kotov, Vladislav; Kotwal, Ashutosh; Kourkoumeli-Charalampidi, Athina; Kourkoumelis, Christine; Kouskoura, Vasiliki; Koutsman, Alex; Kowalewski, Robert Victor; Kowalski, Tadeusz; Kozanecki, Witold; Kozhin, Anatoly; Kramarenko, Viktor; Kramberger, Gregor; Krasnopevtsev, Dimitriy; Krasny, Mieczyslaw Witold; Krasznahorkay, Attila; Kraus, Jana; Kravchenko, Anton; Kreiss, Sven; Kretz, Moritz; Kretzschmar, Jan; Kreutzfeldt, Kristof; Krieger, Peter; Krizka, Karol; Kroeninger, Kevin; Kroha, Hubert; Kroll, Joe; Kroseberg, Juergen; Krstic, Jelena; Kruchonak, Uladzimir; Krüger, Hans; Krumnack, Nils; Kruse, Amanda; Kruse, Mark; Kruskal, Michael; Kubota, Takashi; Kucuk, Hilal; Kuday, Sinan; Kuehn, Susanne; Kugel, Andreas; Kuger, Fabian; Kuhl, Andrew; Kuhl, Thorsten; Kukhtin, Victor; Kulchitsky, Yuri; Kuleshov, Sergey; Kuna, Marine; Kunigo, Takuto; Kupco, Alexander; Kurashige, Hisaya; Kurochkin, Yurii; Kus, Vlastimil; Kuwertz, Emma Sian; Kuze, Masahiro; Kvita, Jiri; Kwan, Tony; Kyriazopoulos, Dimitrios; La Rosa, Alessandro; La Rosa Navarro, Jose Luis; La Rotonda, Laura; Lacasta, Carlos; Lacava, Francesco; Lacey, James; Lacker, Heiko; Lacour, Didier; Lacuesta, Vicente Ramón; Ladygin, Evgueni; Lafaye, Remi; Laforge, Bertrand; Lagouri, Theodota; Lai, Stanley; Lambourne, Luke; Lammers, Sabine; Lampen, Caleb; Lampl, Walter; Lançon, Eric; Landgraf, Ulrich; Landon, Murrough; Lang, Valerie Susanne; Lange, J örn Christian; Lankford, Andrew; Lanni, Francesco; Lantzsch, Kerstin; Lanza, Agostino; Laplace, Sandrine; Lapoire, Cecile; Laporte, Jean-Francois; Lari, Tommaso; Lasagni Manghi, Federico; Lassnig, Mario; Laurelli, Paolo; Lavrijsen, Wim; Law, Alexander; Laycock, Paul; Lazovich, Tomo; Le Dortz, Olivier; Le Guirriec, Emmanuel; Le Menedeu, Eve; LeBlanc, Matthew Edgar; LeCompte, Thomas; Ledroit-Guillon, Fabienne Agnes Marie; Lee, Claire Alexandra; Lee, Shih-Chang; Lee, Lawrence; Lefebvre, Guillaume; Lefebvre, Michel; Legger, Federica; Leggett, Charles; Lehan, Allan; Lehmann Miotto, Giovanna; Lei, Xiaowen; Leight, William Axel; Leisos, Antonios; Leister, Andrew Gerard; Leite, Marco Aurelio Lisboa; Leitner, Rupert; Lellouch, Daniel; Lemmer, Boris; Leney, Katharine; Lenz, Tatjana; Lenzi, Bruno; Leone, Robert; Leone, Sandra; Leonidopoulos, Christos; Leontsinis, Stefanos; Leroy, Claude; Lester, Christopher; Levchenko, Mikhail; Levêque, Jessica; Levin, Daniel; Levinson, Lorne; Levy, Mark; Lewis, Adrian; Leyko, Agnieszka; Leyton, Michael; Li, Bing; Li, Haifeng; Li, Ho Ling; Li, Lei; Li, Liang; Li, Shu; Li, Yichen; Liang, Zhijun; Liao, Hongbo; Liberti, Barbara; Liblong, Aaron; Lichard, Peter; Lie, Ki; Liebal, Jessica; Liebig, Wolfgang; Limbach, Christian; Limosani, Antonio; Lin, Simon; Lin, Tai-Hua; Linde, Frank; Lindquist, Brian Edward; Linnemann, James; Lipeles, Elliot; Lipniacka, Anna; Lisovyi, Mykhailo; Liss, Tony; Lissauer, David; Lister, Alison; Litke, Alan; Liu, Bo; Liu, Dong; Liu, Hao; Liu, Jian; Liu, Jianbei; Liu, Kun; Liu, Lulu; Liu, Miaoyuan; Liu, Minghui; Liu, Yanwen; Livan, Michele; Lleres, Annick; Llorente Merino, Javier; Lloyd, Stephen; Lo Sterzo, Francesco; Lobodzinska, Ewelina; Loch, Peter; Lockman, William; Loebinger, Fred; Loevschall-Jensen, Ask Emil; Loginov, Andrey; Lohse, Thomas; Lohwasser, Kristin; Lokajicek, Milos; Long, Brian Alexander; Long, Jonathan; Long, Robin Eamonn; Looper, Kristina Anne; Lopes, Lourenco; Lopez Mateos, David; Lopez Paredes, Brais; Lopez Paz, Ivan; Lorenz, Jeanette; Lorenzo Martinez, Narei; Losada, Marta; Loscutoff, Peter; Lösel, Philipp Jonathan; Lou, XinChou; Lounis, Abdenour; Love, Jeremy; Love, Peter; Lu, Nan; Lubatti, Henry; Luci, Claudio; Lucotte, Arnaud; Luehring, Frederick; Lukas, Wolfgang; Luminari, Lamberto; Lundberg, Olof; Lund-Jensen, Bengt; Lynn, David; Lysak, Roman; Lytken, Else; Ma, Hong; Ma, Lian Liang; Maccarrone, Giovanni; Macchiolo, Anna; Macdonald, Calum Michael; Maček, Boštjan; Machado Miguens, Joana; Macina, Daniela; Madaffari, Daniele; Madar, Romain; Maddocks, Harvey Jonathan; Mader, Wolfgang; Madsen, Alexander; Maeda, Junpei; Maeland, Steffen; Maeno, Tadashi; Maevskiy, Artem; Magradze, Erekle; Mahboubi, Kambiz; Mahlstedt, Joern; Maiani, Camilla; Maidantchik, Carmen; Maier, Andreas Alexander; Maier, Thomas; Maio, Amélia; Majewski, Stephanie; Makida, Yasuhiro; Makovec, Nikola; Malaescu, Bogdan; Malecki, Pawel; Maleev, Victor; Malek, Fairouz; Mallik, Usha; Malon, David; Malone, Caitlin; Maltezos, Stavros; Malyshev, Vladimir; Malyukov, Sergei; Mamuzic, Judita; Mancini, Giada; Mandelli, Beatrice; Mandelli, Luciano; Mandić, Igor; Mandrysch, Rocco; Maneira, José; Manfredini, Alessandro; Manhaes de Andrade Filho, Luciano; Manjarres Ramos, Joany; Mann, Alexander; Manousakis-Katsikakis, Arkadios; Mansoulie, Bruno; Mantifel, Rodger; Mantoani, Matteo; Mapelli, Livio; March, Luis; Marchiori, Giovanni; Marcisovsky, Michal; Marino, Christopher; Marjanovic, Marija; Marley, Daniel; Marroquim, Fernando; Marsden, Stephen Philip; Marshall, Zach; Marti, Lukas Fritz; Marti-Garcia, Salvador; Martin, Brian Thomas; Martin, Tim; Martin, Victoria Jane; Martin dit Latour, Bertrand; Martinez, Mario; Martin-Haugh, Stewart; Martoiu, Victor Sorin; Martyniuk, Alex; Marx, Marilyn; Marzano, Francesco; Marzin, Antoine; Masetti, Lucia; Mashimo, Tetsuro; Mashinistov, Ruslan; Masik, Jiri; Maslennikov, Alexey; Massa, Ignazio; Massa, Lorenzo; Massol, Nicolas; Mastrandrea, Paolo; Mastroberardino, Anna; Masubuchi, Tatsuya; Mättig, Peter; Mattmann, Johannes; Maurer, Julien; Maxfield, Stephen; Maximov, Dmitriy; Mazini, Rachid; Mazza, Simone Michele; Mazzaferro, Luca; Mc Goldrick, Garrin; Mc Kee, Shawn Patrick; McCarn, Allison; McCarthy, Robert; McCarthy, Tom; McCubbin, Norman; McFarlane, Kenneth; Mcfayden, Josh; Mchedlidze, Gvantsa; McMahon, Steve; McPherson, Robert; Medinnis, Michael; Meehan, Samuel; Mehlhase, Sascha; Mehta, Andrew; Meier, Karlheinz; Meineck, Christian; Meirose, Bernhard; Mellado Garcia, Bruce Rafael; Meloni, Federico; Mengarelli, Alberto; Menke, Sven; Meoni, Evelin; Mercurio, Kevin Michael; Mergelmeyer, Sebastian; Mermod, Philippe; Merola, Leonardo; Meroni, Chiara; Merritt, Frank; Messina, Andrea; Metcalfe, Jessica; Mete, Alaettin Serhan; Meyer, Carsten; Meyer, Christopher; Meyer, Jean-Pierre; Meyer, Jochen; Meyer Zu Theenhausen, Hanno; Middleton, Robin; Miglioranzi, Silvia; Mijović, Liza; Mikenberg, Giora; Mikestikova, Marcela; Mikuž, Marko; Milesi, Marco; Milic, Adriana; Miller, David; Mills, Corrinne; Milov, Alexander; Milstead, David; Minaenko, Andrey; Minami, Yuto; Minashvili, Irakli; Mincer, Allen; Mindur, Bartosz; Mineev, Mikhail; Ming, Yao; Mir, Lluisa-Maria; Mitani, Takashi; Mitrevski, Jovan; Mitsou, Vasiliki A; Miucci, Antonio; Miyagawa, Paul; Mjörnmark, Jan-Ulf; Moa, Torbjoern; Mochizuki, Kazuya; Mohapatra, Soumya; Mohr, Wolfgang; Molander, Simon; Moles-Valls, Regina; Mönig, Klaus; Monini, Caterina; Monk, James; Monnier, Emmanuel; Montejo Berlingen, Javier; Monticelli, Fernando; Monzani, Simone; Moore, Roger; Morange, Nicolas; Moreno, Deywis; Moreno Llácer, María; Morettini, Paolo; Morgenstern, Marcus; Mori, Daniel; Morii, Masahiro; Morinaga, Masahiro; Morisbak, Vanja; Moritz, Sebastian; Morley, Anthony Keith; Mornacchi, Giuseppe; Morris, John; Mortensen, Simon Stark; Morton, Alexander; Morvaj, Ljiljana; Mosidze, Maia; Moss, Josh; Motohashi, Kazuki; Mount, Richard; Mountricha, Eleni; Mouraviev, Sergei; Moyse, Edward; Muanza, Steve; Mudd, Richard; Mueller, Felix; Mueller, James; Mueller, Ralph Soeren Peter; Mueller, Thibaut; Muenstermann, Daniel; Mullen, Paul; Mullier, Geoffrey; Murillo Quijada, Javier Alberto; Murray, Bill; Musheghyan, Haykuhi; Musto, Elisa; Myagkov, Alexey; Myska, Miroslav; Nachman, Benjamin Philip; Nackenhorst, Olaf; Nadal, Jordi; Nagai, Koichi; Nagai, Ryo; Nagai, Yoshikazu; Nagano, Kunihiro; Nagarkar, Advait; Nagasaka, Yasushi; Nagata, Kazuki; Nagel, Martin; Nagy, Elemer; Nairz, Armin Michael; Nakahama, Yu; Nakamura, Koji; Nakamura, Tomoaki; Nakano, Itsuo; Namasivayam, Harisankar; Naranjo Garcia, Roger Felipe; Narayan, Rohin; Naumann, Thomas; Navarro, Gabriela; Nayyar, Ruchika; Neal, Homer; Nechaeva, Polina; Neep, Thomas James; Nef, Pascal Daniel; Negri, Andrea; Negrini, Matteo; Nektarijevic, Snezana; Nellist, Clara; Nelson, Andrew; Nemecek, Stanislav; Nemethy, Peter; Nepomuceno, Andre Asevedo; Nessi, Marzio; Neubauer, Mark; Neumann, Manuel; Neves, Ricardo; Nevski, Pavel; Newman, Paul; Nguyen, Duong Hai; Nickerson, Richard; Nicolaidou, Rosy; Nicquevert, Bertrand; Nielsen, Jason; Nikiforou, Nikiforos; Nikiforov, Andriy; Nikolaenko, Vladimir; Nikolic-Audit, Irena; Nikolopoulos, Konstantinos; Nilsen, Jon Kerr; Nilsson, Paul; Ninomiya, Yoichi; Nisati, Aleandro; Nisius, Richard; Nobe, Takuya; Nomachi, Masaharu; Nomidis, Ioannis; Nooney, Tamsin; Norberg, Scarlet; Nordberg, Markus; Novgorodova, Olga; Nowak, Sebastian; Nozaki, Mitsuaki; Nozka, Libor; Ntekas, Konstantinos; Nunes Hanninger, Guilherme; Nunnemann, Thomas; Nurse, Emily; Nuti, Francesco; O'Brien, Brendan Joseph; O'grady, Fionnbarr; O'Neil, Dugan; O'Shea, Val; Oakham, Gerald; Oberlack, Horst; Obermann, Theresa; Ocariz, Jose; Ochi, Atsuhiko; Ochoa, Ines; Ochoa-Ricoux, Juan Pedro; Oda, Susumu; Odaka, Shigeru; Ogren, Harold; Oh, Alexander; Oh, Seog; Ohm, Christian; Ohman, Henrik; Oide, Hideyuki; Okamura, Wataru; Okawa, Hideki; Okumura, Yasuyuki; Okuyama, Toyonobu; Olariu, Albert; Olivares Pino, Sebastian Andres; Oliveira Damazio, Denis; Oliver Garcia, Elena; Olszewski, Andrzej; Olszowska, Jolanta; Onofre, António; Onyisi, Peter; Oram, Christopher; Oreglia, Mark; Oren, Yona; Orestano, Domizia; Orlando, Nicola; Oropeza Barrera, Cristina; Orr, Robert; Osculati, Bianca; Ospanov, Rustem; Otero y Garzon, Gustavo; Otono, Hidetoshi; Ouchrif, Mohamed; Ouellette, Eric; Ould-Saada, Farid; Ouraou, Ahmimed; Oussoren, Koen Pieter; Ouyang, Qun; Ovcharova, Ana; Owen, Mark; Owen, Rhys Edward; Ozcan, Veysi Erkcan; Ozturk, Nurcan; Pachal, Katherine; Pacheco Pages, Andres; Padilla Aranda, Cristobal; Pagáčová, Martina; Pagan Griso, Simone; Paganis, Efstathios; Paige, Frank; Pais, Preema; Pajchel, Katarina; Palacino, Gabriel; Palestini, Sandro; Palka, Marek; Pallin, Dominique; Palma, Alberto; Pan, Yibin; Panagiotopoulou, Evgenia; Pandini, Carlo Enrico; Panduro Vazquez, William; Pani, Priscilla; Panitkin, Sergey; Pantea, Dan; Paolozzi, Lorenzo; Papadopoulou, Theodora; Papageorgiou, Konstantinos; Paramonov, Alexander; Paredes Hernandez, Daniela; Parker, Michael Andrew; Parker, Kerry Ann; Parodi, Fabrizio; Parsons, John; Parzefall, Ulrich; Pasqualucci, Enrico; Passaggio, Stefano; Pastore, Fernanda; Pastore, Francesca; Pásztor, Gabriella; Pataraia, Sophio; Patel, Nikhul; Pater, Joleen; Pauly, Thilo; Pearce, James; Pearson, Benjamin; Pedersen, Lars Egholm; Pedersen, Maiken; Pedraza Lopez, Sebastian; Pedro, Rute; Peleganchuk, Sergey; Pelikan, Daniel; Penc, Ondrej; Peng, Cong; Peng, Haiping; Penning, Bjoern; Penwell, John; Perepelitsa, Dennis; Perez Codina, Estel; Pérez García-Estañ, María Teresa; Perini, Laura; Pernegger, Heinz; Perrella, Sabrina; Peschke, Richard; Peshekhonov, Vladimir; Peters, Krisztian; Peters, Yvonne; Petersen, Brian; Petersen, Troels; Petit, Elisabeth; Petridis, Andreas; Petridou, Chariclia; Petroff, Pierre; Petrolo, Emilio; Petrucci, Fabrizio; Pettersson, Nora Emilia; Pezoa, Raquel; Phillips, Peter William; Piacquadio, Giacinto; Pianori, Elisabetta; Picazio, Attilio; Piccaro, Elisa; Piccinini, Maurizio; Pickering, Mark Andrew; Piegaia, Ricardo; Pignotti, David; Pilcher, James; Pilkington, Andrew; Pina, João Antonio; Pinamonti, Michele; Pinfold, James; Pingel, Almut; Pinto, Belmiro; Pires, Sylvestre; Pirumov, Hayk; Pitt, Michael; Pizio, Caterina; Plazak, Lukas; Pleier, Marc-Andre; Pleskot, Vojtech; Plotnikova, Elena; Plucinski, Pawel; Pluth, Daniel; Poettgen, Ruth; Poggioli, Luc; Pohl, David-leon; Polesello, Giacomo; Poley, Anne-luise; Policicchio, Antonio; Polifka, Richard; Polini, Alessandro; Pollard, Christopher Samuel; Polychronakos, Venetios; Pommès, Kathy; Pontecorvo, Ludovico; Pope, Bernard; Popeneciu, Gabriel Alexandru; Popovic, Dragan; Poppleton, Alan; Pospisil, Stanislav; Potamianos, Karolos; Potrap, Igor; Potter, Christina; Potter, Christopher; Poulard, Gilbert; Poveda, Joaquin; Pozdnyakov, Valery; Pralavorio, Pascal; Pranko, Aliaksandr; Prasad, Srivas; Prell, Soeren; Price, Darren; Price, Lawrence; Primavera, Margherita; Prince, Sebastien; Proissl, Manuel; Prokofiev, Kirill; Prokoshin, Fedor; Protopapadaki, Eftychia-sofia; Protopopescu, Serban; Proudfoot, James; Przybycien, Mariusz; Ptacek, Elizabeth; Puddu, Daniele; Pueschel, Elisa; Puldon, David; Purohit, Milind; Puzo, Patrick; Qian, Jianming; Qin, Gang; Qin, Yang; Quadt, Arnulf; Quarrie, David; Quayle, William; Queitsch-Maitland, Michaela; Quilty, Donnchadha; Raddum, Silje; Radeka, Veljko; Radescu, Voica; Radhakrishnan, Sooraj Krishnan; Radloff, Peter; Rados, Pere; Ragusa, Francesco; Rahal, Ghita; Rajagopalan, Srinivasan; Rammensee, Michael; Rangel-Smith, Camila; Rauscher, Felix; Rave, Stefan; Ravenscroft, Thomas; Raymond, Michel; Read, Alexander Lincoln; Readioff, Nathan Peter; Rebuzzi, Daniela; Redelbach, Andreas; Redlinger, George; Reece, Ryan; Reeves, Kendall; Rehnisch, Laura; Reisin, Hernan; Relich, Matthew; Rembser, Christoph; Ren, Huan; Renaud, Adrien; Rescigno, Marco; Resconi, Silvia; Rezanova, Olga; Reznicek, Pavel; Rezvani, Reyhaneh; Richter, Robert; Richter, Stefan; Richter-Was, Elzbieta; Ricken, Oliver; Ridel, Melissa; Rieck, Patrick; Riegel, Christian Johann; Rieger, Julia; Rijssenbeek, Michael; Rimoldi, Adele; Rinaldi, Lorenzo; Ristić, Branislav; Ritsch, Elmar; Riu, Imma; Rizatdinova, Flera; Rizvi, Eram; Robertson, Steven; Robichaud-Veronneau, Andree; Robinson, Dave; Robinson, James; Robson, Aidan; Roda, Chiara; Roe, Shaun; Røhne, Ole; Rolli, Simona; Romaniouk, Anatoli; Romano, Marino; Romano Saez, Silvestre Marino; Romero Adam, Elena; Rompotis, Nikolaos; Ronzani, Manfredi; Roos, Lydia; Ros, Eduardo; Rosati, Stefano; Rosbach, Kilian; Rose, Peyton; Rosendahl, Peter Lundgaard; Rosenthal, Oliver; Rossetti, Valerio; Rossi, Elvira; Rossi, Leonardo Paolo; Rosten, Rachel; Rotaru, Marina; Roth, Itamar; Rothberg, Joseph; Rousseau, David; Royon, Christophe; Rozanov, Alexandre; Rozen, Yoram; Ruan, Xifeng; Rubbo, Francesco; Rubinskiy, Igor; Rud, Viacheslav; Rudolph, Christian; Rudolph, Matthew Scott; Rühr, Frederik; Ruiz-Martinez, Aranzazu; Rurikova, Zuzana; Rusakovich, Nikolai; Ruschke, Alexander; Russell, Heather; Rutherfoord, John; Ruthmann, Nils; Ryabov, Yury; Rybar, Martin; Rybkin, Grigori; Ryder, Nick; Saavedra, Aldo; Sabato, Gabriele; Sacerdoti, Sabrina; Saddique, Asif; Sadrozinski, Hartmut; Sadykov, Renat; Safai Tehrani, Francesco; Sahinsoy, Merve; Saimpert, Matthias; Saito, Tomoyuki; Sakamoto, Hiroshi; Sakurai, Yuki; Salamanna, Giuseppe; Salamon, Andrea; Saleem, Muhammad; Salek, David; Sales De Bruin, Pedro Henrique; Salihagic, Denis; Salnikov, Andrei; Salt, José; Salvatore, Daniela; Salvatore, Pasquale Fabrizio; Salvucci, Antonio; Salzburger, Andreas; Sammel, Dirk; Sampsonidis, Dimitrios; Sanchez, Arturo; Sánchez, Javier; Sanchez Martinez, Victoria; Sandaker, Heidi; Sandbach, Ruth Laura; Sander, Heinz Georg; Sanders, Michiel; Sandhoff, Marisa; Sandoval, Carlos; Sandstroem, Rikard; Sankey, Dave; Sannino, Mario; Sansoni, Andrea; Santoni, Claudio; Santonico, Rinaldo; Santos, Helena; Santoyo Castillo, Itzebelt; Sapp, Kevin; Sapronov, Andrey; Saraiva, João; Sarrazin, Bjorn; Sasaki, Osamu; Sasaki, Yuichi; Sato, Koji; Sauvage, Gilles; Sauvan, Emmanuel; Savage, Graham; Savard, Pierre; Sawyer, Craig; Sawyer, Lee; Saxon, James; Sbarra, Carla; Sbrizzi, Antonio; Scanlon, Tim; Scannicchio, Diana; Scarcella, Mark; Scarfone, Valerio; Schaarschmidt, Jana; Schacht, Peter; Schaefer, Douglas; Schaefer, Ralph; Schaeffer, Jan; Schaepe, Steffen; Schaetzel, Sebastian; Schäfer, Uli; Schaffer, Arthur; Schaile, Dorothee; Schamberger, R Dean; Scharf, Veit; Schegelsky, Valery; Scheirich, Daniel; Schernau, Michael; Schiavi, Carlo; Schillo, Christian; Schioppa, Marco; Schlenker, Stefan; Schmidt, Evelyn; Schmieden, Kristof; Schmitt, Christian; Schmitt, Sebastian; Schmitt, Stefan; Schneider, Basil; Schnellbach, Yan Jie; Schnoor, Ulrike; Schoeffel, Laurent; Schoening, Andre; Schoenrock, Bradley Daniel; Schopf, Elisabeth; Schorlemmer, Andre Lukas; Schott, Matthias; Schouten, Doug; Schovancova, Jaroslava; Schramm, Steven; Schreyer, Manuel; Schroeder, Christian; Schuh, Natascha; Schultens, Martin Johannes; Schultz-Coulon, Hans-Christian; Schulz, Holger; Schumacher, Markus; Schumm, Bruce; Schune, Philippe; Schwanenberger, Christian; Schwartzman, Ariel; Schwarz, Thomas Andrew; Schwegler, Philipp; Schweiger, Hansdieter; Schwemling, Philippe; Schwienhorst, Reinhard; Schwindling, Jerome; Schwindt, Thomas; Sciacca, Gianfranco; Scifo, Estelle; Sciolla, Gabriella; Scuri, Fabrizio; Scutti, Federico; Searcy, Jacob; Sedov, George; Sedykh, Evgeny; Seema, Pienpen; Seidel, Sally; Seiden, Abraham; Seifert, Frank; Seixas, José; Sekhniaidze, Givi; Sekhon, Karishma; Sekula, Stephen; Seliverstov, Dmitry; Semprini-Cesari, Nicola; Serfon, Cedric; Serin, Laurent; Serkin, Leonid; Serre, Thomas; Sessa, Marco; Seuster, Rolf; Severini, Horst; Sfiligoj, Tina; Sforza, Federico; Sfyrla, Anna; Shabalina, Elizaveta; Shamim, Mansoora; Shan, Lianyou; Shang, Ruo-yu; Shank, James; Shapiro, Marjorie; Shatalov, Pavel; Shaw, Kate; Shaw, Savanna Marie; Shcherbakova, Anna; Shehu, Ciwake Yusufu; Sherwood, Peter; Shi, Liaoshan; Shimizu, Shima; Shimmin, Chase Owen; Shimojima, Makoto; Shiyakova, Mariya; Shmeleva, Alevtina; Shoaleh Saadi, Diane; Shochet, Mel; Shojaii, Seyedruhollah; Shrestha, Suyog; Shulga, Evgeny; Shupe, Michael; Shushkevich, Stanislav; Sicho, Petr; Sidebo, Per Edvin; Sidiropoulou, Ourania; Sidorov, Dmitri; Sidoti, Antonio; Siegert, Frank; Sijacki, Djordje; Silva, José; Silver, Yiftah; Silverstein, Samuel; Simak, Vladislav; Simard, Olivier; Simic, Ljiljana; Simion, Stefan; Simioni, Eduard; Simmons, Brinick; Simon, Dorian; Simoniello, Rosa; Sinervo, Pekka; Sinev, Nikolai; Siragusa, Giovanni; Sisakyan, Alexei; Sivoklokov, Serguei; Sjölin, Jörgen; Sjursen, Therese; Skinner, Malcolm Bruce; Skottowe, Hugh Philip; Skubic, Patrick; Slater, Mark; Slavicek, Tomas; Slawinska, Magdalena; Sliwa, Krzysztof; Smakhtin, Vladimir; Smart, Ben; Smestad, Lillian; Smirnov, Sergei; Smirnov, Yury; Smirnova, Lidia; Smirnova, Oxana; Smith, Matthew; Smith, Russell; Smizanska, Maria; Smolek, Karel; Snesarev, Andrei; Snidero, Giacomo; Snyder, Scott; Sobie, Randall; Socher, Felix; Soffer, Abner; Soh, Dart-yin; Solans, Carlos; Solar, Michael; Solc, Jaroslav; Soldatov, Evgeny; Soldevila, Urmila; Solodkov, Alexander; Soloshenko, Alexei; Solovyanov, Oleg; Solovyev, Victor; Sommer, Philip; Song, Hong Ye; Soni, Nitesh; Sood, Alexander; Sopczak, Andre; Sopko, Bruno; Sopko, Vit; Sorin, Veronica; Sosa, David; Sosebee, Mark; Sotiropoulou, Calliope Louisa; Soualah, Rachik; Soukharev, Andrey; South, David; Sowden, Benjamin; Spagnolo, Stefania; Spalla, Margherita; Spanò, Francesco; Spearman, William Robert; Sperlich, Dennis; Spettel, Fabian; Spighi, Roberto; Spigo, Giancarlo; Spiller, Laurence Anthony; Spousta, Martin; Spreitzer, Teresa; St Denis, Richard Dante; Staerz, Steffen; Stahlman, Jonathan; Stamen, Rainer; Stamm, Soren; Stanecka, Ewa; Stanescu, Cristian; Stanescu-Bellu, Madalina; Stanitzki, Marcel Michael; Stapnes, Steinar; Starchenko, Evgeny; Stark, Jan; Staroba, Pavel; Starovoitov, Pavel; Staszewski, Rafal; Stavina, Pavel; Steinberg, Peter; Stelzer, Bernd; Stelzer, Harald Joerg; Stelzer-Chilton, Oliver; Stenzel, Hasko; Stewart, Graeme; Stillings, Jan Andre; Stockton, Mark; Stoebe, Michael; Stoicea, Gabriel; Stolte, Philipp; Stonjek, Stefan; Stradling, Alden; Straessner, Arno; Stramaglia, Maria Elena; Strandberg, Jonas; Strandberg, Sara; Strandlie, Are; Strauss, Emanuel; Strauss, Michael; Strizenec, Pavol; Ströhmer, Raimund; Strom, David; Stroynowski, Ryszard; Strubig, Antonia; Stucci, Stefania Antonia; Stugu, Bjarne; Styles, Nicholas Adam; Su, Dong; Su, Jun; Subramaniam, Rajivalochan; Succurro, Antonella; Sugaya, Yorihito; Suhr, Chad; Suk, Michal; Sulin, Vladimir; Sultansoy, Saleh; Sumida, Toshi; Sun, Siyuan; Sun, Xiaohu; Sundermann, Jan Erik; Suruliz, Kerim; Susinno, Giancarlo; Sutton, Mark; Suzuki, Shota; Svatos, Michal; Swiatlowski, Maximilian; Sykora, Ivan; Sykora, Tomas; Ta, Duc; Taccini, Cecilia; Tackmann, Kerstin; Taenzer, Joe; Taffard, Anyes; Tafirout, Reda; Taiblum, Nimrod; Takai, Helio; Takashima, Ryuichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Takeshita, Tohru; Takubo, Yosuke; Talby, Mossadek; Talyshev, Alexey; Tam, Jason; Tan, Kong Guan; Tanaka, Junichi; Tanaka, Reisaburo; Tanaka, Shuji; Tannenwald, Benjamin Bordy; Tannoury, Nancy; Tapprogge, Stefan; Tarem, Shlomit; Tarrade, Fabien; Tartarelli, Giuseppe Francesco; Tas, Petr; Tasevsky, Marek; Tashiro, Takuya; Tassi, Enrico; Tavares Delgado, Ademar; Tayalati, Yahya; Taylor, Frank; Taylor, Geoffrey; Taylor, Wendy; Teischinger, Florian Alfred; Teixeira Dias Castanheira, Matilde; Teixeira-Dias, Pedro; Temming, Kim Katrin; Ten Kate, Herman; Teng, Ping-Kun; Teoh, Jia Jian; Tepel, Fabian-Phillipp; Terada, Susumu; Terashi, Koji; Terron, Juan; Terzo, Stefano; Testa, Marianna; Teuscher, Richard; Theveneaux-Pelzer, Timothée; Thomas, Juergen; Thomas-Wilsker, Joshuha; Thompson, Emily; Thompson, Paul; Thompson, Ray; Thompson, Stan; Thomsen, Lotte Ansgaard; Thomson, Evelyn; Thomson, Mark; Thun, Rudolf; Tibbetts, Mark James; Ticse Torres, Royer Edson; Tikhomirov, Vladimir; Tikhonov, Yury; Timoshenko, Sergey; Tiouchichine, Elodie; Tipton, Paul; Tisserant, Sylvain; Todome, Kazuki; Todorov, Theodore; Todorova-Nova, Sharka; Tojo, Junji; Tokár, Stanislav; Tokushuku, Katsuo; Tollefson, Kirsten; Tolley, Emma; Tomlinson, Lee; Tomoto, Makoto; Tompkins, Lauren; Toms, Konstantin; Torrence, Eric; Torres, Heberth; Torró Pastor, Emma; Toth, Jozsef; Touchard, Francois; Tovey, Daniel; Trefzger, Thomas; Tremblet, Louis; Tricoli, Alessandro; Trigger, Isabel Marian; Trincaz-Duvoid, Sophie; Tripiana, Martin; Trischuk, William; Trocmé, Benjamin; Troncon, Clara; Trottier-McDonald, Michel; Trovatelli, Monica; True, Patrick; Truong, Loan; Trzebinski, Maciej; Trzupek, Adam; Tsarouchas, Charilaos; Tseng, Jeffrey; Tsiareshka, Pavel; Tsionou, Dimitra; Tsipolitis, Georgios; Tsirintanis, Nikolaos; Tsiskaridze, Shota; Tsiskaridze, Vakhtang; Tskhadadze, Edisher; Tsukerman, Ilya; Tsulaia, Vakhtang; Tsuno, Soshi; Tsybychev, Dmitri; Tudorache, Alexandra; Tudorache, Valentina; Tuna, Alexander Naip; Tupputi, Salvatore; Turchikhin, Semen; Turecek, Daniel; Turra, Ruggero; Turvey, Andrew John; Tuts, Michael; Tykhonov, Andrii; Tylmad, Maja; Tyndel, Mike; Ueda, Ikuo; Ueno, Ryuichi; Ughetto, Michael; Ugland, Maren; Ukegawa, Fumihiko; Unal, Guillaume; Undrus, Alexander; Unel, Gokhan; Ungaro, Francesca; Unno, Yoshinobu; Unverdorben, Christopher; Urban, Jozef; Urquijo, Phillip; Urrejola, Pedro; Usai, Giulio; Usanova, Anna; Vacavant, Laurent; Vacek, Vaclav; Vachon, Brigitte; Valderanis, Chrysostomos; Valencic, Nika; Valentinetti, Sara; Valero, Alberto; Valery, Loic; Valkar, Stefan; Valladolid Gallego, Eva; Vallecorsa, Sofia; Valls Ferrer, Juan Antonio; Van Den Wollenberg, Wouter; Van Der Deijl, Pieter; van der Geer, Rogier; van der Graaf, Harry; Van Der Leeuw, Robin; van Eldik, Niels; van Gemmeren, Peter; Van Nieuwkoop, Jacobus; van Vulpen, Ivo; van Woerden, Marius Cornelis; Vanadia, Marco; Vandelli, Wainer; Vanguri, Rami; Vaniachine, Alexandre; Vannucci, Francois; Vardanyan, Gagik; Vari, Riccardo; Varnes, Erich; Varol, Tulin; Varouchas, Dimitris; Vartapetian, Armen; Varvell, Kevin; Vazeille, Francois; Vazquez Schroeder, Tamara; Veatch, Jason; Veloce, Laurelle Maria; Veloso, Filipe; Velz, Thomas; Veneziano, Stefano; Ventura, Andrea; Ventura, Daniel; Venturi, Manuela; Venturi, Nicola; Venturini, Alessio; Vercesi, Valerio; Verducci, Monica; Verkerke, Wouter; Vermeulen, Jos; Vest, Anja; Vetterli, Michel; Viazlo, Oleksandr; Vichou, Irene; Vickey, Trevor; Vickey Boeriu, Oana Elena; Viehhauser, Georg; Viel, Simon; Vigne, Ralph; Villa, Mauro; Villaplana Perez, Miguel; Vilucchi, Elisabetta; Vincter, Manuella; Vinogradov, Vladimir; Vivarelli, Iacopo; Vives Vaque, Francesc; Vlachos, Sotirios; Vladoiu, Dan; Vlasak, Michal; Vogel, Marcelo; Vokac, Petr; Volpi, Guido; Volpi, Matteo; von der Schmitt, Hans; von Radziewski, Holger; von Toerne, Eckhard; Vorobel, Vit; Vorobev, Konstantin; Vos, Marcel; Voss, Rudiger; Vossebeld, Joost; Vranjes, Nenad; Vranjes Milosavljevic, Marija; Vrba, Vaclav; Vreeswijk, Marcel; Vuillermet, Raphael; Vukotic, Ilija; Vykydal, Zdenek; Wagner, Peter; Wagner, Wolfgang; Wahlberg, Hernan; Wahrmund, Sebastian; Wakabayashi, Jun; Walder, James; Walker, Rodney; Walkowiak, Wolfgang; Wang, Chao; Wang, Fuquan; Wang, Haichen; Wang, Hulin; Wang, Jike; Wang, Jin; Wang, Kuhan; Wang, Rui; Wang, Song-Ming; Wang, Tan; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Wanotayaroj, Chaowaroj; Warburton, Andreas; Ward, Patricia; Wardrope, David Robert; Washbrook, Andrew; Wasicki, Christoph; Watkins, Peter; Watson, Alan; Watson, Ian; Watson, Miriam; Watts, Gordon; Watts, Stephen; Waugh, Ben; Webb, Samuel; Weber, Michele; Weber, Stefan Wolf; Webster, Jordan S; Weidberg, Anthony; Weinert, Benjamin; Weingarten, Jens; Weiser, Christian; Weits, Hartger; Wells, Phillippa; Wenaus, Torre; Wengler, Thorsten; Wenig, Siegfried; Wermes, Norbert; Werner, Matthias; Werner, Per; Wessels, Martin; Wetter, Jeffrey; Whalen, Kathleen; Wharton, Andrew Mark; White, Andrew; White, Martin; White, Ryan; White, Sebastian; Whiteson, Daniel; Wickens, Fred; Wiedenmann, Werner; Wielers, Monika; Wienemann, Peter; Wiglesworth, Craig; Wiik-Fuchs, Liv Antje Mari; Wildauer, Andreas; Wilkens, Henric George; Williams, Hugh; Williams, Sarah; Willis, Christopher; Willocq, Stephane; Wilson, Alan; Wilson, John; Wingerter-Seez, Isabelle; Winklmeier, Frank; Winter, Benedict Tobias; Wittgen, Matthias; Wittkowski, Josephine; Wollstadt, Simon Jakob; Wolter, Marcin Wladyslaw; Wolters, Helmut; Wosiek, Barbara; Wotschack, Jorg; Woudstra, Martin; Wozniak, Krzysztof; Wu, Mengqing; Wu, Miles; Wu, Sau Lan; Wu, Xin; Wu, Yusheng; Wyatt, Terry Richard; Wynne, Benjamin; Xella, Stefania; Xu, Da; Xu, Lailin; Yabsley, Bruce; Yacoob, Sahal; Yakabe, Ryota; Yamada, Miho; Yamaguchi, Yohei; Yamamoto, Akira; Yamamoto, Shimpei; Yamanaka, Takashi; Yamauchi, Katsuya; Yamazaki, Yuji; Yan, Zhen; Yang, Haijun; Yang, Hongtao; Yang, Yi; Yao, Weiming; Yasu, Yoshiji; Yatsenko, Elena; Yau Wong, Kaven Henry; Ye, Jingbo; Ye, Shuwei; Yeletskikh, Ivan; Yen, Andy L; Yildirim, Eda; Yorita, Kohei; Yoshida, Rikutaro; Yoshihara, Keisuke; Young, Charles; Young, Christopher John; Youssef, Saul; Yu, David Ren-Hwa; Yu, Jaehoon; Yu, Jiaming; Yu, Jie; Yuan, Li; Yuen, Stephanie P; Yurkewicz, Adam; Yusuff, Imran; Zabinski, Bartlomiej; Zaidan, Remi; Zaitsev, Alexander; Zalieckas, Justas; Zaman, Aungshuman; Zambito, Stefano; Zanello, Lucia; Zanzi, Daniele; Zeitnitz, Christian; Zeman, Martin; Zemla, Andrzej; Zengel, Keith; Zenin, Oleg; Ženiš, Tibor; Zerwas, Dirk; Zhang, Dongliang; Zhang, Fangzhou; Zhang, Huijun; Zhang, Jinlong; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Ruiqi; Zhang, Xueyao; Zhang, Zhiqing; Zhao, Xiandong; Zhao, Yongke; Zhao, Zhengguo; Zhemchugov, Alexey; Zhong, Jiahang; Zhou, Bing; Zhou, Chen; Zhou, Lei; Zhou, Li; Zhou, Ning; Zhu, Cheng Guang; Zhu, Hongbo; Zhu, Junjie; Zhu, Yingchun; Zhuang, Xuai; Zhukov, Konstantin; Zibell, Andre; Zieminska, Daria; Zimine, Nikolai; Zimmermann, Christoph; Zimmermann, Stephanie; Zinonos, Zinonas; Zinser, Markus; Ziolkowski, Michael; Živković, Lidija; Zobernig, Georg; Zoccoli, Antonio; zur Nedden, Martin; Zurzolo, Giovanni; Zwalinski, Lukasz

    2015-09-03

    Many extensions of the Standard Model predict the existence of charged heavy long-lived particles, such as $R$-hadrons or charginos. These particles, if produced at the Large Hadron Collider, should be moving non-relativistically and are therefore identifiable through the measurement of an anomalously large specific energy loss in the ATLAS pixel detector. Measuring heavy long-lived particles through their track parameters in the vicinity of the interaction vertex provides sensitivity to metastable particles with lifetimes from 0.6 ns to 30 ns. A search for such particles with the ATLAS detector at the Large Hadron Collider is presented, based on a data sample corresponding to an integrated luminosity of 18.4 fb$^{-1}$ of $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt{s}$ = 8 TeV. No significant deviation from the Standard Model background expectation is observed, and lifetime-dependent upper limits on $R$-hadrons and chargino production are set. Gluino $R$-hadrons with 10 ns lifetime and masses up to 1185 GeV are excluded at 95%...

  10. Fast metastable hydrogen atoms from H2 molecules: twin atoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Trimèche A.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available It is a difficult task to obtain “twin atoms”, i.e. pairs of massive particles such that one can perform experiments in the same fashion that is routinely done with “twin photons”. One possible route to obtain such pairs is by dissociating homonuclear diatomic molecules. We address this possibility by investigating the production of metastable H(2s atoms coming from the dissociation of cold H2 molecules produced in a Campargue nozzle beam crossing an electron beam from a high intensity pulsed electron gun. Dissociation by electron impact was chosen to avoid limitations of target molecular excited states due to selection rules. Detectors placed several centimeters away from the collision center, and aligned with respect to possible common molecular dissociation channel, analyze the neutral fragments as a function of their time-of-flight (TOF through Lyman-α detection. Evidence for the first time observed coincidence of pairs of H(2s atoms obtained this way is presented.

  11. Cosmic strings in a braneworld theory with metastable gravitons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lue, Arthur

    2002-01-01

    If the graviton possesses an arbitrarily small (but nonvanishing) mass, perturbation theory implies that cosmic strings have a nonzero Newtonian potential. Nevertheless in Einstein gravity, where the graviton is strictly massless, the Newtonian potential of a cosmic string vanishes. This discrepancy is an example of the van Dam-Veltman-Zakharov (VDVZ) discontinuity. We present a solution for the metric around a cosmic string in a braneworld theory with a graviton metastable on the brane. This theory possesses those features that yield a VDVZ discontinuity in massive gravity, but nevertheless is generally covariant and classically self-consistent. Although the cosmic string in this theory supports a nontrivial Newtonian potential far from the source, one can recover the Einstein solution in a region near the cosmic string. That latter region grows as the graviton's effective linewidth vanishes (analogous to a vanishing graviton mass), suggesting the lack of a VDVZ discontinuity in this theory. Moreover, the presence of scale dependent structure in the metric may have consequences for the search for cosmic strings through gravitational lensing techniques

  12. Phase Transformation of Metastable Austenite in Steel during Nano indentation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ahn, Taehong; Lee, Sung Bo; Han, Heung Nam; Park, Kyungtae

    2013-01-01

    These can produce geometrical softening accompanied by a sudden displacement excursion during load-controlled nanoindentation, which referred to in the literature as a pop-in. In this study, phase transformation of metastable austenite to stress-induced ε martensite which causes pop-ins during nanoindentation of steel will be reported and discussed. This study investigated the relationship between pop-in behavior of austenite in the early stage of nanoindentation and formation of ε martensite based on microstructural analyses. The load-displacement curve obtained from nanoindentation revealed stepwise pop-ins in the early stage of plastic deformation. From analyses of high resolution TEM images, a cluster of banded structure under the indent turned out a juxtaposition of (111) planes of γ austenite and (0001) planes of ε martensite. The calculation of displacement along indentation axis for (111) slip system by formation of ε martensite showed that geometrical softening can also occur by ε martensite formation when considering that the stress-induced ε martensite transformation is the predominant deformation mode in the early stage of plastic deformation and its monopartial nature as well. These microstructural investigations strongly suggest that the pop-in behavior in the early stage of plastic deformation of austenite is closely related to the formation of ε martensite

  13. Phase Transformation of Metastable Austenite in Steel during Nano indentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, Taehong [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sung Bo; Han, Heung Nam [Seoul National Univ., Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Kyungtae [Hanbat National Univ., Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2013-05-15

    These can produce geometrical softening accompanied by a sudden displacement excursion during load-controlled nanoindentation, which referred to in the literature as a pop-in. In this study, phase transformation of metastable austenite to stress-induced ε martensite which causes pop-ins during nanoindentation of steel will be reported and discussed. This study investigated the relationship between pop-in behavior of austenite in the early stage of nanoindentation and formation of ε martensite based on microstructural analyses. The load-displacement curve obtained from nanoindentation revealed stepwise pop-ins in the early stage of plastic deformation. From analyses of high resolution TEM images, a cluster of banded structure under the indent turned out a juxtaposition of (111) planes of γ austenite and (0001) planes of ε martensite. The calculation of displacement along indentation axis for (111) slip system by formation of ε martensite showed that geometrical softening can also occur by ε martensite formation when considering that the stress-induced ε martensite transformation is the predominant deformation mode in the early stage of plastic deformation and its monopartial nature as well. These microstructural investigations strongly suggest that the pop-in behavior in the early stage of plastic deformation of austenite is closely related to the formation of ε martensite.

  14. The role of the Pauli principle in metastability exchange collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pinard, M.; Laloe, F.

    1980-01-01

    In optical pumping experiments, metastability exchange collisions are used to transfer orientation, alignment, ... between different atomic levels. This article studies the effect of such collisions on the atom internal variables density operator by a method used in a previous publication for spin exchange collisions. The calculations are valid when the nuclei of the two atoms are distinguishable as well as when they are identical particles, wich allows a detailed discussion of nuclear identity effects (apparent magnetic field, etc...). Two cases are successively studied: no depolarization of the electronic angular momentum (He*-He collisions) and partial depolarization (Ne*-Ne collisions for example). The nuclear identity effects should be observable in low temperature optical pumping experiments with noble gases. In an Appendix, another particle identity effect is studied, which can be observed in atomic beam experiments: during the collision of two 3 He atoms, both in the ground state, the spin state of the atoms scattered in a particular direction can be changed by nuclear indistinguishability effects

  15. Finding metastabilities in reversible Markov chains based on incomplete sampling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fackeldey Konstantin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to fully characterize the state-transition behaviour of finite Markov chains one needs to provide the corresponding transition matrix P. In many applications such as molecular simulation and drug design, the entries of the transition matrix P are estimated by generating realizations of the Markov chain and determining the one-step conditional probability Pij for a transition from one state i to state j. This sampling can be computational very demanding. Therefore, it is a good idea to reduce the sampling effort. The main purpose of this paper is to design a sampling strategy, which provides a partial sampling of only a subset of the rows of such a matrix P. Our proposed approach fits very well to stochastic processes stemming from simulation of molecular systems or random walks on graphs and it is different from the matrix completion approaches which try to approximate the transition matrix by using a low-rank-assumption. It will be shown how Markov chains can be analyzed on the basis of a partial sampling. More precisely. First, we will estimate the stationary distribution from a partially given matrix P. Second, we will estimate the infinitesimal generator Q of P on the basis of this stationary distribution. Third, from the generator we will compute the leading invariant subspace, which should be identical to the leading invariant subspace of P. Forth, we will apply Robust Perron Cluster Analysis (PCCA+ in order to identify metastabilities using this subspace.

  16. Large strain cyclic behavior of metastable austenic stainless steel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geijselaers, H.J.M.; Hilkhuijsen, P.; Bor, T.C.; Boogaard, A.H. van den

    2015-01-01

    Metastable austenitic stainless steel will transform to martensite when subjected to mechanical working. In this research an austenitic stainless steel has been subjected to large amplitude strain paths containing a strain reversal. During the tests, apart from the stress and the strain also magnetic induction was measured. From the in situ magnetic induction measurements an estimate of the stress partitioning among the phases is determined. When the strain path reversal is applied at low strains, a classical Bauschinger effect is observed. When the strain reversal is applied at higher strains, a higher flow stress is measured after the reversal compared to the flow stress before reversal. Also a stagnation of the transformation is observed, meaning that a higher strain as well as a higher stress than before the strain path change is required to restart the transformation after reversal. The observed behavior can be explained by a model in which for the martensitic transformation a stress induced transformation model is used. The constitutive behavior of both the austenite phase and the martensite is described by a Chaboche model to account for the Bauschinger effect. Mean-field homogenization of the material behavior of the individual phases is employed to obtain a constitutive behavior of the two-phase composite. The overall applied stress, the stress in the martensite phase and the observed transformation behavior during cyclic shear are very well reproduced by the model simulations

  17. Effect of shot peening on metastable austenitic stainless steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fargas, G., E-mail: gemma.fargas@upc.edu [CIEFMA - Departament de Ciència dels Materials i Enginyeria Metallúrgica, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); CRnE, Centre de Recerca en Nanoenginyeria, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); Roa, J.J.; Mateo, A. [CIEFMA - Departament de Ciència dels Materials i Enginyeria Metallúrgica, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, 08028 Barcelona (Spain); CRnE, Centre de Recerca en Nanoenginyeria, Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, 08028 Barcelona (Spain)

    2015-08-12

    In this work, shot peening was performed in a metastable austenitic stainless steel EN 1.4318 (AISI 301LN) in order to evaluate its effect on austenite to martensite phase transformation and also the influence on the fatigue limit. Two different steel conditions were considered: annealed, i.e., with a fully austenitic microstructure, and cold rolled, consisting of a mixture of austenite and martensite. X-ray diffraction, electron back-scattered diffraction and focus ion beam, as well as nanoindentation techniques, were used to elucidate deformation mechanisms activated during shot peening and correlate with fatigue response. Results pointed out that extensive plastic deformation and phase transformation developed in annealed specimens as a consequence of shot peening. However, the increase of roughness and the generation of microcracks led to a limited fatigue limit improvement. In contrast, shot peened cold rolled specimens exhibited enhanced fatigue limit. In the latter case, the main factor that determined the influence on the fatigue response was the distance from the injector, followed successively by the exit speed of the shots and the coverage factor.

  18. Large strain cyclic behavior of metastable austenic stainless steel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Geijselaers, H.J.M., E-mail: h.j.m.geijselaers@utwente.nl; Hilkhuijsen, P.; Bor, T.C.; Boogaard, A.H. van den

    2015-04-17

    Metastable austenitic stainless steel will transform to martensite when subjected to mechanical working. In this research an austenitic stainless steel has been subjected to large amplitude strain paths containing a strain reversal. During the tests, apart from the stress and the strain also magnetic induction was measured. From the in situ magnetic induction measurements an estimate of the stress partitioning among the phases is determined. When the strain path reversal is applied at low strains, a classical Bauschinger effect is observed. When the strain reversal is applied at higher strains, a higher flow stress is measured after the reversal compared to the flow stress before reversal. Also a stagnation of the transformation is observed, meaning that a higher strain as well as a higher stress than before the strain path change is required to restart the transformation after reversal. The observed behavior can be explained by a model in which for the martensitic transformation a stress induced transformation model is used. The constitutive behavior of both the austenite phase and the martensite is described by a Chaboche model to account for the Bauschinger effect. Mean-field homogenization of the material behavior of the individual phases is employed to obtain a constitutive behavior of the two-phase composite. The overall applied stress, the stress in the martensite phase and the observed transformation behavior during cyclic shear are very well reproduced by the model simulations.

  19. Multilevel control of the metastable states in a manganite film

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Feng; Feng, Qiyuan; Guo, Zhuang; Lan, Da; Chen, Binbin; Xu, Haoran; Wang, Ze; Wang, Lingfei; Gao, Guanyin; Chen, Feng; Lu, Qingyou; Wu, Wenbin

    2017-06-01

    For high density memory applications, the dynamic switching between multilevel resistance states per cell is highly desirable, and for oxide-based memory devices, the multistate operation has been actively explored. We have previously shown that for La2/3Ca1/3MnO3 films, the antiferromagnetic charge-ordered-insulator (COI) phase can be induced via the anisotropic epitaxial strain, and it competes with the doping-determined ferromagnetic-metal (FMM) ground state in a wide temperature range. Here, we show that for the phase competitions, in various magnetic fields and/or thermal cycling, the reappearance of the COI phase and thus the resistance and magnetization can be manipulated and quantified in a multilevel manner at lower temperatures. Furthermore, by using a high-field magnetic force microscope, we image the COI/FMM domain structures in accordance with the transport measurements, and find that the evolving domains or the phase fraction ratios do underline the metastability of the reappeared COI droplets, possibly protected by the energy barriers due to accommodation strain. These results may add new insights into the design and fabrication of future multilevel memory cells.

  20. Localization of metastable atom beams with optical standing waves: nanolithography at the heisenberg limit

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson; Thywissen; Dekker; Berggren; Chu; Younkin; Prentiss

    1998-06-05

    The spatially dependent de-excitation of a beam of metastable argon atoms, traveling through an optical standing wave, produced a periodic array of localized metastable atoms with position and momentum spreads approaching the limit stated by the Heisenberg uncertainty principle. Silicon and silicon dioxide substrates placed in the path of the atom beam were patterned by the metastable atoms. The de-excitation of metastable atoms upon collision with the surface promoted the deposition of a carbonaceous film from a vapor-phase hydrocarbon precursor. The resulting patterns were imaged both directly and after chemical etching. Thus, quantum-mechanical steady-state atom distributions can be used for sub-0.1-micrometer lithography.

  1. Spectrum Fatigue Lifetime and Residual Strength for Fiberglass Laminates; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    WAHL, NEIL K.; MANDELL, JOHN F.; SAMBORSKY, DANIEL D.

    2002-01-01

    This report addresses the effects of spectrum loading on lifetime and residual strength of a typical fiberglass laminate configuration used in wind turbine blade construction. Over 1100 tests have been run on laboratory specimens under a variety of load sequences. Repeated block loading at two or more load levels, either tensile-tensile, compressive-compressive, or reversing, as well as more random standard spectra have been studied. Data have been obtained for residual strength at various stages of the lifetime. Several lifetime prediction theories have been applied to the results. The repeated block loading data show lifetimes that are usually shorter than predicted by the most widely used linear damage accumulation theory, Miner's sum. Actual lifetimes are in the range of 10 to 20 percent of predicted lifetime in many cases. Linear and nonlinear residual strength models tend to fit the data better than Miner's sum, with the nonlinear providing a better fit of the two. Direct tests of residual strength at various fractions of the lifetime are consistent with the residual strength models. Load sequencing effects are found to be insignificant. The more a spectrum deviates from constant amplitude, the more sensitive predictions are to the damage law used. The nonlinear model provided improved correlation with test data for a modified standard wind turbine spectrum. When a single, relatively high load cycle was removed, all models provided similar, though somewhat non-conservative correlation with the experimental results. Predictions for the full spectrum, including tensile and compressive loads were slightly non-conservative relative to the experimental data, and accurately captured the trend with varying maximum load. The nonlinear residual strength based prediction with a power law S-N curve extrapolation provided the best fit to the data in most cases. The selection of the constant amplitude fatigue regression model becomes important at the lower stress, higher

  2. Italian Physical Society Search for metastable heavy charged particles with large ionisation energy loss in $pp$ collisions at $\\sqrt s = 13$ TeV using the ATLAS experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Gaudiello, A

    2017-01-01

    Many extensions of the Standard Model predict the existence of charged and heavy long-lived particles, such as R-hadrons. These particles, if produced at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC), should be non-relativistic and are therefore identifiable through the measurement of an anomalously large energy loss in the ATLAS Pixel Detector. The search for heavy long-lived particles using track information in the vicinity of the interaction vertex is sensitive for values of their lifetime in the nanosecond range. The research of metastable and stable R-hadrons with the ATLAS detector using 2015 LHC data is here reported.

  3. A metastable HCP intermetallic phase in Cu-Al bilayer films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cha, Limei

    2006-07-01

    For the present study, three kinds of layered Cu/Al films have been fabricated. The first kind of samples were multilayered Cu/Al films deposited by sputtering on (001)Si. The individual layer thicknesses were 100 nm, 200 nm and 400 nm, while the total film thickness of 800 nm was kept constant, thus leading to multilayer systems with 8, 4 and 2 layers, respectively. The second type of samples were Cu/Al bilayer films grown on (0001) sapphire by sputtering, with individual layer thicknesses of 400 nm. The third type of samples were bilayer films (100 nm Cu and 100 nm Al) deposited on (0001)sapphire by MBE at room temperature. Applying conventional transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction, different epitaxial growth behaviors were found in these films. All multilayer films from the first type were polycrystalline. The second type of films show a (111) FCC texture and possess intermetallic phases at the interfaces. HRTEM investigations displayed that along [111]FCC, the atomic structure of the interlayer has an ABAB stacking sequence, which is identical with a hexagonal close-packed (HCP) structure in [0001] direction, but not with the ABCABC stacking sequence of Cu and Al in [111]FCC. The lattice parameters of the HCP structure at the interlayer were determined from a model which gave the best agreement between the experimental and simulated images. The parameters are: a=b=0.256 nm, c=0.419 nm, ?=120 , with the space group of P6m2. Furthermore, lattice distortion analysis revealed that the lattice parameters of the HCP phase are increasing from the near-Cu-side to the near-Al-side. The chemical composition of the interlayer was investigated by energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). EDS linescans were performed from pure Al to pure Cu layers. In order to examine the stability of this HCP phase, in-situ heating experiments were performed in the HRTEM at {proportional_to}600 C. Ex-situ heating experiments were performed at different temperatures to

  4. Nonmesonic decays and lifetimes of hypernuclei

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Itonaga, K.; Ueda, T.; Motoba, T.

    2002-01-01

    The nonmesonic decay rates and the lifetimes of hypernuclei of mass A=4-209 are extensively calculated based on the 1π, correlated-2π, and 1ω exchange potentials. Two types of new hyperon-nucleon potentials have been constructed in which the two pions are correlated and coupled to ρ and/or σ in the exchange process. The roles of these potentials and 1ω exchange potential are discussed. The theoretical decay rates are consistent with the existing data for s-shell and p-shell hypernuclei within the present model. The calculated decay rate increases gradually up to A≅60 and then tends to be almost constant for A(greater-or-similar sign)60. The A-dependent behavior of the hypernuclear lifetimes tends to be constant over the mass region A>30 of hypernuclei in our model. It is most remarkable that the cooperative effect of the correlated-2π and 1ω exchanges enhances the neutron-stimulated decay rate Γ n (proton-stimulated one Γ p ) by 400-450 % (20-30 %) with respect to the standard 1π-exchange estimate for A>5. As a result the Γ n /Γ p ratios for light-to-heavy hypernuclei are calculated to be 0.4-0.5, which values are several times larger than the 1π-exchange estimate. Although the experimental ratios seem still about two times larger than these theoretical values, it has revealed that the representative 2π-exchange and 1ω exchange mechanisms give rise to a clear improvement on the Γ n /Γ p ratios

  5. Thermal stability and phase transformation of metastable phases in Zr-Nb

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aurelio, G.; Fernandez Guillermet, Armando

    2003-01-01

    The lattice parameters of the bcc (β) and (Ω) phases occurring metastability in a series of Zr-rich Zr-Nb alloys have been determined at and above room temperature (TR) using neutron diffraction techniques. In the first place, the effect of temperature changes upon the lattice parameters of the β and Ω phases in alloys with 10 and 18 at. % Nb was monitored using neutron thermo-diffraction. A method of analysis is applied to the data, which involve a confrontation between the observed structural properties and an idealized -or 'reference'- behavior (RB) which admits a simple mathematical description. A generalized form of the law of Vegard is adopted as RB for the β phase, whereas a specific RB is proposed for the Ω structure. The experimental data are well accounted for by this interpretation scheme, leading to a picture of the isothermal reactions occurring at high temperature, which involves the transfer of Nb from the Ω to the β phase. Finally, the neutron diffraction data on the Ω phase is combined with an electron microscopy study for the alloy with 10 at. % Nb aged at 773 K, which provides information on the composition of this phase and its evolution towards thermodynamic equilibrium. (author)

  6. Energy barriers between metastable states in first-order quantum phase transitions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wald, Sascha; Timpanaro, André M.; Cormick, Cecilia; Landi, Gabriel T.

    2018-02-01

    A system of neutral atoms trapped in an optical lattice and dispersively coupled to the field of an optical cavity can realize a variation of the Bose-Hubbard model with infinite-range interactions. This model exhibits a first-order quantum phase transition between a Mott insulator and a charge density wave, with spontaneous symmetry breaking between even and odd sites, as was recently observed experimentally [Landig et al., Nature (London) 532, 476 (2016), 10.1038/nature17409]. In the present paper, we approach the analysis of this transition using a variational model which allows us to establish the notion of an energy barrier separating the two phases. Using a discrete WKB method, we then show that the local tunneling of atoms between adjacent sites lowers this energy barrier and hence facilitates the transition. Within our simplified description, we are thus able to augment the phase diagram of the model with information concerning the height of the barrier separating the metastable minima from the global minimum in each phase, which is an essential aspect for the understanding of the reconfiguration dynamics induced by a quench across a quantum critical point.

  7. Metastability, spectrum, and eigencurrents of the Lennard-Jones-38 network

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cameron, Maria K.

    2014-01-01

    We develop computational tools for spectral analysis of stochastic networks representing energy landscapes of atomic and molecular clusters. Physical meaning and some properties of eigenvalues, left and right eigenvectors, and eigencurrents are discussed. We propose an approach to compute a collection of eigenpairs and corresponding eigencurrents describing the most important relaxation processes taking place in the system on its way to the equilibrium. It is suitable for large and complex stochastic networks where pairwise transition rates, given by the Arrhenius law, vary by orders of magnitude. The proposed methodology is applied to the network representing the Lennard-Jones-38 cluster created by Wales's group. Its energy landscape has a double funnel structure with a deep and narrow face-centered cubic funnel and a shallower and wider icosahedral funnel. However, the complete spectrum of the generator matrix of the Lennard-Jones-38 network has no appreciable spectral gap separating the eigenvalue corresponding to the escape from the icosahedral funnel. We provide a detailed description of the escape process from the icosahedral funnel using the eigencurrent and demonstrate a superexponential growth of the corresponding eigenvalue. The proposed spectral approach is compared to the methodology of the Transition Path Theory. Finally, we discuss whether the Lennard-Jones-38 cluster is metastable from the points of view of a mathematician and a chemical physicist, and make a connection with experimental works

  8. Metastable honeycomb SrTiO_3/SrIrO_3 heterostructures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderson, T. J.; Ryu, S.; Podkaminer, J. P.; Ma, Y.; Eom, C. B.; Zhou, H.; Xie, L.; Irwin, J.; Rzchowski, M. S.; Pan, X. Q.

    2016-01-01

    Recent theory predictions of exotic band topologies in (111) honeycomb perovskite SrIrO_3 layers sandwiched between SrTiO_3 have garnered much attention in the condensed matter physics and materials communities. However, perovskite SrIrO_3 film growth in the (111) direction remains unreported, as efforts to synthesize pure SrIrO_3 on (111) perovskite substrates have yielded films with monoclinic symmetry rather than the perovskite structure required by theory predictions. In this study, we report the synthesis of ultra-thin metastable perovskite SrIrO_3 films capped with SrTiO_3 grown on (111) SrTiO_3 substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The atomic structure of the ultra-thin films was examined with scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM), which suggests a perovskite layering distinct from the bulk SrIrO_3 monoclinic phase. In-plane 3-fold symmetry for the entire heterostructure was confirmed using synchrotron surface X-ray diffraction to measure symmetry equivalent crystal truncation rods. Our findings demonstrate the ability to stabilize (111) honeycomb perovskite SrIrO_3, which provides an experimental avenue to probe the phenomena predicted for this material system.

  9. Primary populations of metastable antiprotonic $^{4}He$ and $^{3}He$ atoms

    CERN Document Server

    Hori, Masaki; Hayano, R S; Ishikawa, T; Sakuguchi, J; Tasaki, T; Widmann, E; Yamaguchi, H; Torii, H A; Juhász, B; Horváth, D; Yamazaki, T

    2002-01-01

    Initial population distributions of metastable antiprotonic **4He and **3He atoms over principal and angular momentum quantum numbers were investigated using laser spectroscopy. The total fractions of antiprotons captured into the metastable states of the atoms were deduced. Cascade calculations were performed using the measure populations to reproduce the delayed annihilation time spectrum. Results showed agreement between the simulated and measured spectra. (Edited abstract) 30 Refs.

  10. The measurement of argon metastable atoms in the barrier discharge plasma

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghildina, Anna R.; Mikheyev, Pavel Anatolyevich; Chernyshov, Aleksandr Konstantinovich; Lunev, Nikolai Nikolaevich; Azyazov, Valeriy Nikolaevich

    2018-04-01

    The mandatory condition for efficient operation of an optically-pumped all-rare-gas laser (OPRGL) is the presence of rare gas metastable atoms in the discharge plasma with number density of the order of 1012-1013 cm-3. This requirement mainly depends on the choice of a discharge system. In this study the number density values of argon metastable atoms were obtained in the condition of the dielectric-barrier discharge (DBD) at an atmospheric pressure.

  11. Phase transition in metastable perovskite Pb(AlNb)0,5O3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhabko, T.E.; Olekhnovich, N.M.; Shilin, A.D.

    1987-01-01

    Dielectric properties of metastable perovskite Pb(AlNb) 0.5 O 3 and X-ray temperature investigations of both perovskite and pyrochlore modifications of the given compound are studied. Samples with the perovskite structure are prepared from the pyrochlorephase at 4-5 GPa pressure and 1170-1270 K. Ferroelectric phase transition is shown to occur in the metastable perovskite phase Pb(AlNb) 0.5 O 3 at 170 K

  12. Radiative lifetime measurements of rubidium Rydberg states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Branden, D B; Juhasz, T; Mahlokozera, T; Vesa, C; Wilson, R O; Zheng, M; Tate, D A; Kortyna, A

    2010-01-01

    We have measured the radiative lifetimes of ns, np and nd Rydberg states of rubidium in the range 28 ≤ n ≤ 45. To enable long-lived states to be measured, our experiment uses slow-moving (∼100 μK) 85 Rb atoms in a magneto-optical trap (MOT). Two experimental techniques have been adopted to reduce random and systematic errors. First, a narrow-bandwidth pulsed laser is used to excite the target nl Rydberg state, resulting in minimal shot-to-shot variation in the initial state population. Second, we monitor the target state population as a function of time delay from the laser pulse using a short-duration, millimetre-wave pulse that is resonant with a one- or two-photon transition to a higher energy 'monitor state', n'l'. We then selectively field ionize the monitor state, and detect the resulting electrons with a micro-channel plate. This signal is an accurate mirror of the nl target state population, and is uncontaminated by contributions from other states which are populated by black body radiation. Our results are generally consistent with other recent experimental results obtained using a method which is more prone to systematic error, and are also in excellent agreement with theory.

  13. High p-type doping, mobility, and photocarrier lifetime in arsenic-doped CdTe single crystals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaoka, Akira; Kuciauskas, Darius; McCoy, Jedidiah; Scarpulla, Michael A.

    2018-05-01

    Group-V element doping is promising for simultaneously maximizing the hole concentration and minority carrier lifetime in CdTe for thin film solar cells, but there are roadblocks concerning point defects including the possibility of self-compensation by AX metastability. Herein, we report on doping, lifetime, and mobility of CdTe single crystals doped with As between 1016 and 1020 cm-3 grown from the Cd solvent by the travelling heater method. Evidence consistent with AX instability as a major contributor to compensation in samples doped below 1017 cm-3 is presented, while for higher-doped samples, precipitation of a second phase on planar structural defects is also observed and may explain spatial variation in properties such as lifetime. Rapid cooling after crystal growth increases doping efficiency and mobility for times up to 20-30 days at room temperature with the highest efficiencies observed close to 45% and a hole mobility of 70 cm2/Vs at room temperature. A doping limit in the low 1017/cm3 range is observed for samples quenched at 200-300 °C/h. Bulk minority carrier lifetimes exceeding 20 ns are observed for samples doped near 1016 cm-3 relaxed in the dark and for unintentionally doped samples, while a lifetime of nearly 5 ns is observed for 1018 cm-3 As doping. These results help us to establish limits on properties expected for group-V doped CdTe polycrystalline thin films for use in photovoltaics.

  14. Personality, IQ, and Lifetime Earnings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gensowski, Miriam

    2014-01-01

    Talented individuals are seen as drivers of long-term growth, but how do they realize their full potential? In this paper, I show that lifetime earnings of high-IQ men and women are substantially influenced by their personality traits, in addition to intelligence and education. Personality traits......, as identified in a factor model, significantly affect earnings, but not for young workers. The effects are furthermore heterogeneous by educational attainment. For women, personality traits do not affect family earnings in the same way as own earnings. Personality and IQ also influence earnings indirectly...... through education, which has sizeable positive rates of return for men in this sample. Women’s returns to education past a bachelor’s degree are lowered through worse marriage prospects, which offset gains to education in terms of own earnings. The causal effect of education is identified through matching...

  15. Measurement of the BS lifetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Siccama, I.

    1996-01-01

    This thesis presents a measurement of the B s lifetime using 3 million hadronic Z decays collected by the DELPHI detector at LEP from 1991 to 1994. Decays of B s mesons are tagged by the reconstruction of a D s - →φπ - or D s - →K *0 K - decay (including the charge conjugated states of these decay modes). The decay time is obtained by reconstructing both the B s momentum and the B s flight distance. The combined result for the D s -lepton and D s -hadron samples is: τ(B s )=1.54±0.31±0.15 ps where the first error is statistical and the second is systematic. (orig./HSI)

  16. Constraints representing a meta-stable régime facilitate exploration during practice and transfer of learning in a complex multi-articular task.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orth, Dominic; Davids, Keith; Seifert, Ludovic

    2018-02-01

    Previous investigations have shown that inducing meta-stability in behavior can be achieved by overlapping affordances through constraint manipulation, allowing cooperative and competitive tendencies to functionally coexist. The purpose of this paper was to test a number of conditions applying these design principles on performance during skills practice and transfer. Of additional interest, was whether the existing skill level interacted with the environmental properties of the experimental tasks (varying indoor climbing routes). Two skill groups practised on three routes per session over four separate sessions. At the end of the final session, climbers undertook a transfer test. Routes, matched for difficulty, were manipulated in terms of hand-hold design. Route-1 and Route-2 were designed with holds with a single graspable edge, aligned entirely parallel or perpendicular to the ground plane respectively. Route-3 had at each hold, two graspable edges (one parallel and one perpendicular to the ground plane). Behavioral exploration at the hip and hands were largest under the metastable condition (Route-3). Skill level also interacted with route properties during practice and influenced transfer. Data suggest meta-stability induces exploratory behaviors. Less skilled individuals explore both hand and hip levels, whereas, more experienced climbers explore at the hip level. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Combining density functional theory (DFT) and pair distribution function (PDF) analysis to solve the structure of metastable materials: the case of metakaolin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Claire E; Provis, John L; Proffen, Thomas; Riley, Daniel P; van Deventer, Jannie S J

    2010-04-07

    Understanding the atomic structure of complex metastable (including glassy) materials is of great importance in research and industry, however, such materials resist solution by most standard techniques. Here, a novel technique combining thermodynamics and local structure is presented to solve the structure of the metastable aluminosilicate material metakaolin (calcined kaolinite) without the use of chemical constraints. The structure is elucidated by iterating between least-squares real-space refinement using neutron pair distribution function data, and geometry optimisation using density functional modelling. The resulting structural representation is both energetically feasible and in excellent agreement with experimental data. This accurate structural representation of metakaolin provides new insight into the local environment of the aluminium atoms, with evidence of the existence of tri-coordinated aluminium. By the availability of this detailed chemically feasible atomic description, without the need to artificially impose constraints during the refinement process, there exists the opportunity to tailor chemical and mechanical processes involving metakaolin and other complex metastable materials at the atomic level to obtain optimal performance at the macro-scale.

  18. A method of measurement of lifetimes of excited ion levels, using orientation transfer by Penning collisions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hamel, J.; Barrat, J.-P.

    1978-01-01

    A method for measuring the lifetimes of ionic excited levels is described. This method uses the transfer of coherence in a Penning collision using metastable optically oriented He 2 3 S 1 atoms. If R.F. transitions are induced in the (2 3 S 1 )He level, a transverse component of the magnetic moment of this level is created, which precesses coherently at the angular frequency ω of the R.F. field. The helium transverse orientation is partially transferred to the ions produced by Penning collisions. After the collision, the orientation transferred precesses around the external magnetic field at the Larmor frequency ω 0 ' of the ion excited level. The degree of orientation of the excited ion level depends, in the stationary state, on the average phase shift, during the lifetime tau prime of this level, between the Larmor precession at angular frequency ω 0 ' and the forced precession of helium (at angular frequency ω). The orientation of the ions is monitored by the modulation of the light emitted during their radiative decay. It is possible to determine the lifetime tau prime by measuring the degree of modulation of the reemitted light as a function of ω [fr

  19. Mean lifetime in 55Mn, 56Fe and 59Co

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elenkov, D.V.; Lefterov, D.P.; Tumbev, G.Kh.

    1985-01-01

    For the first time the DSA method following the reaction (n,n'γ) with fast reactor neutrons and simultaneous measurement of two targets was used in measuring the lifetimes of the excited states in the nuclei in the mass region A = 50-60. An indispensable prerequisite for plotting a satisfactory structural scheme of a nucleus is the availability of a complete set of structural parameters, in patricular transition probabilities, quadrupole momenta and deformation parameters. These can be obtained from the lifetimes, provided the multipole and branching ratios are known exactly. These data on the investigated nuclei are known only in a few cases (excited states). This greatly impedes the construction of a satisfactory structural model, as there are no experimental results by means of which it can be checked. Experimental investigations of these nuclei should obviously continue in the future, especially in the excitation region above 3 MeV

  20. Hot ion buildup and lifetime in LITE. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-09-01

    An experimental investigation of hot ion buildup and lifetime in a small scale mirror device (LITE) is described. Hot ions were produced by 27 kV neutral beam injection into laser produced LiH plasmas and H plasmas produced by a washer gun. Hot H ion (12 kV) densities of approx. = 10 12 cm -3 were produced with the LiH target plasmas and densities an order of magnitude lower were produced with the washer gun target plasmas. Hot ion dominant plasmas were not achieved in LITE. The experimental measurements and subsequent analysis using numerical models of the plasma buildup indicate that in small, unshielded mirror plasmas, careful control must be maintained over the transient background gas density in the vicinity of the plasma surface. The hot ion lifetime in LITE was set by the transient cold neutral background resulting from the washer gun of reflux from the target plasma striking the adjacent surfaces

  1. Mathematical model to analyze the dissolution behavior of metastable crystals or amorphous drug accompanied with a solid-liquid interface reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Daiki; Iwao, Yasunori; Kimura, Shin-Ichiro; Noguchi, Shuji; Itai, Shigeru

    2017-04-30

    Metastable crystals and the amorphous state of poorly water-soluble drugs in solid dispersions (SDs), are subject to a solid-liquid interface reaction upon exposure to a solvent. The dissolution behavior during the solid-liquid interface reaction often shows that the concentration of drugs is supersaturated, with a high initial drug concentration compared with the solubility of stable crystals but finally approaching the latter solubility with time. However, a method for measuring the precipitation rate of stable crystals and/or the potential solubility of metastable crystals or amorphous drugs has not been established. In this study, a novel mathematical model that can represent the dissolution behavior of the solid-liquid interface reaction for metastable crystals or amorphous drug was developed and its validity was evaluated. The theory for this model was based on the Noyes-Whitney equation and assumes that the precipitation of stable crystals at the solid-liquid interface occurs through a first-order reaction. Moreover, two models were developed, one assuming that the surface area of the drug remains constant because of the presence of excess drug in the bulk and the other that the surface area changes in time-dependency because of agglomeration of the drug. SDs of Ibuprofen (IB)/polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) were prepared and their dissolution behaviors under non-sink conditions were fitted by the models to evaluate improvements in solubility. The model assuming time-dependent surface area showed good agreement with experimental values. Furthermore, by applying the model to the dissolution profile, parameters such as the precipitation rate and the potential solubility of the amorphous drug were successfully calculated. In addition, it was shown that the improvement in solubility with supersaturation was able to be evaluated quantitatively using this model. Therefore, this mathematical model would be a useful tool to quantitatively determine the supersaturation

  2. Lifetime measurements of odd-parity high-excitation levels of Sn I by time-resolved laser spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, Wei; Feng, Yanyan; Xu, Jiaxin; Dai, Zhenwen; Palmeri, Patrick; Quinet, Pascal; Biemont, Emile

    2010-01-01

    Natural radiative lifetimes of 38 odd-parity highly excited levels in neutral tin in the energy range from 43 682.737 to 56 838.68 cm -1 have been measured by a time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence technique in an atomic beam produced by laser ablation on a solid tin sample. All the levels were excited from the metastable 3 P 1, 2 and 1 D 2 levels in the ground configuration. The second and third harmonics of a dye laser were adopted as the tunable exciting source (207-250 nm). The lifetime results obtained in this paper are in the range from 4.6 to 292 ns and will be useful in extending the set of oscillator strengths available in Sn I.

  3. Lifetime measurements of odd-parity high-excitation levels of Sn I by time-resolved laser spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wei; Feng, Yanyan; Xu, Jiaxin; Dai, Zhenwen [College of Physics, Jilin University and Key Lab of Coherent Light, Atomic and Molecular Spectroscopy, Ministry of Education, Changchun 130021 (China); Palmeri, Patrick; Quinet, Pascal; Biemont, Emile, E-mail: dai@jlu.edu.c [Astrophysique et Spectroscopie, Universite de Mons-UMONS, B-7000 Mons (Belgium)

    2010-10-28

    Natural radiative lifetimes of 38 odd-parity highly excited levels in neutral tin in the energy range from 43 682.737 to 56 838.68 cm{sup -1} have been measured by a time-resolved laser-induced fluorescence technique in an atomic beam produced by laser ablation on a solid tin sample. All the levels were excited from the metastable {sup 3}P{sub 1,} {sub 2} and {sup 1}D{sub 2} levels in the ground configuration. The second and third harmonics of a dye laser were adopted as the tunable exciting source (207-250 nm). The lifetime results obtained in this paper are in the range from 4.6 to 292 ns and will be useful in extending the set of oscillator strengths available in Sn I.

  4. Doping properties of cadmium-rich arsenic-doped CdTe single crystals: Evidence of metastable AX behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaoka, Akira; Kuciauskas, Darius; Scarpulla, Michael A.

    2017-12-01

    Cd-rich composition and group-V element doping are of interest for simultaneously maximizing the hole concentration and minority carrier lifetime in CdTe, but the critical details concerning point defects are not yet fully established. Herein, we report on the properties of arsenic doped CdTe single crystals grown from Cd solvent by the travelling heater method. The photoluminescence spectra and activation energy of 74 ± 2 meV derived from the temperature-dependent Hall effect are consistent with AsTe as the dominant acceptor. Doping in the 1016 to 1017/cm3 range is achieved for measured As concentrations between 1016 and 1020/cm3 with the highest doping efficiency of 40% occurring near 1017 As/cm3. We observe persistent photoconductivity, a hallmark of light-induced metastable configuration changes consistent with AX behavior. Additionally, quenching experiments reveal at least two mechanisms of increased p-type doping in the dark, one decaying over 2-3 weeks and the other persisting for at least 2 months. These results provide essential insights for the application of As-doped CdTe in thin film solar cells.

  5. Lifetime of Organic Photovoltaics: Status and Predictions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gevorgyan, Suren; Madsen, Morten Vesterager; Roth, Bérenger

    2016-01-01

    The results of a meta-analysis conducted on organic photovoltaics (OPV) lifetime data reported in the literature is presented through the compilation of an extensive OPV lifetime database based on a large number of articles, followed by analysis of the large body of data. We fully reveal the prog......The results of a meta-analysis conducted on organic photovoltaics (OPV) lifetime data reported in the literature is presented through the compilation of an extensive OPV lifetime database based on a large number of articles, followed by analysis of the large body of data. We fully reveal...... the progress of reported OPV lifetimes. Furthermore, a generic lifetime marker has been defi ned, which helps with gauging and comparing the performance of different architectures and materials from the perspective of device stability. Based on the analysis, conclusions are drawn on the bottlenecks...

  6. Beam-foil level lifetimes in krypton III

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coetzer, F.J.; Kotze, P.B.; Westhuizen, P. van der

    1982-01-01

    The radiative lifetimes of levels in doubly-ionized Krypton have been measured after foil excitation of a beam of Krypton particles in the wavelength range 120-500 nm. The results are compared with the experimental values obtained by Fink et al., as well as theoretical values resulting from Coulomb (C.A.) and single configuration Hartree-Fock (H.F.) calculations. (orig.)

  7. Lifetime statistics of quantum chaos studied by a multiscale analysis

    KAUST Repository

    Di Falco, A.

    2012-04-30

    In a series of pump and probe experiments, we study the lifetime statistics of a quantum chaotic resonator when the number of open channels is greater than one. Our design embeds a stadium billiard into a two dimensional photonic crystal realized on a silicon-on-insulator substrate. We calculate resonances through a multiscale procedure that combines energy landscape analysis and wavelet transforms. Experimental data is found to follow the universal predictions arising from random matrix theory with an excellent level of agreement.

  8. Metastable structures and size effects in small group dynamics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lauro Grotto, Rosapia; Guazzini, Andrea; Bagnoli, Franco

    2014-01-01

    In his seminal works on group dynamics Bion defined a specific therapeutic setting allowing psychoanalytic observations on group phenomena. In describing the setting he proposed that the group was where his voice arrived. This physical limit was later made operative by assuming that the natural dimension of a therapeutic group is around 12 people. Bion introduced a theory of the group aspects of the mind in which proto-mental individual states spontaneously evolve into shared psychological states that are characterized by a series of features: (1) they emerge as a consequence of the natural tendency of (both conscious and unconscious) emotions to combine into structured group patterns; (2) they have a certain degree of stability in time; (3) they tend to alternate so that the dissolution of one is rapidly followed by the emergence of another; (4) they can be described in qualitative terms according to the nature of the emotional mix that dominates the state, in structural terms by a kind of typical "leadership" pattern, and in "cognitive" terms by a set of implicit expectations that are helpful in explaining the group behavior (i.e., the group behaves "as if" it was assuming that). Here we adopt a formal approach derived from Socio-physics in order to explore some of the structural and dynamic properties of this small group dynamics. We will described data from an analytic DS model simulating small group interactions of agents endowed with a very simplified emotional and cognitive dynamic in order to assess the following main points: (1) are metastable collective states allowed to emerge in the model and if so, under which conditions in the parameter space? (2) can these states be differentiated in structural terms? (3) to what extent are the emergent dynamic features of the systems dependent of the system size? We will finally discuss possible future applications of the quantitative descriptions of the interaction structure in the small group clinical setting.

  9. Surviving in a metastable de Sitter space-time

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kashyap, Sitender Pratap; Mondal, Swapnamay; Sen, Ashoke; Verma, Mritunjay

    2015-01-01

    In a metastable de Sitter space any object has a finite life expectancy beyond which it undergoes vacuum decay. However, by spreading into different parts of the universe which will fall out of causal contact of each other in future, a civilization can increase its collective life expectancy, defined as the average time after which the last settlement disappears due to vacuum decay. We study in detail the collective life expectancy of two comoving objects in de Sitter space as a function of the initial separation, the horizon radius and the vacuum decay rate. We find that even with a modest initial separation, the collective life expectancy can reach a value close to the maximum possible value of 1.5 times that of the individual object if the decay rate is less than 1% of the expansion rate. Our analysis can be generalized to any number of objects, general trajectories not necessarily at rest in the comoving coordinates and general FRW space-time. As part of our analysis we find that in the current state of the universe dominated by matter and cosmological constant, the vacuum decay rate is increasing as a function of time due to accelerated expansion of the volume of the past light cone. Present decay rate is about 3.7 times larger than the average decay rate in the past and the final decay rate in the cosmological constant dominated epoch will be about 56 times larger than the average decay rate in the past. This considerably weakens the lower bound on the half-life of our universe based on its current age.

  10. Metastable structures and size effects in small group dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosapia eLauro Grotto

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available In his seminal works on group dynamics Bion defined a specific therapeutic setting allowing psychoanalytic observations on group phenomena. In describing the setting he proposed that the group was where his voice arrived. This physical limit was later made operative by assuming that the natural dimension of a therapeutic group is around 12 people. Bion introduced a theory of the group aspects of the mind in which proto-mental individual states spontaneously evolve into shared psychological states that are characterized by a series of features: 1 they emerge as a consequence of the natural tendency of (both conscious and unconscious emotions to combine into structured group patterns; 2 they have a certain degree of stability in time; 3 they tend to alternate so that the dissolution of one is rapidly followed by the emergence of another; 4 they can be described in qualitative terms according to the nature of the emotional mix that dominates the state, in structural terms by a kind of typical 'leadership’ pattern, and in 'cognitive’ terms by a set of implicit expectations that are helpful in explaining the group behavior (i.e. the group behaves 'as if’ it was assuming that…. Here we adopt a formal approach derived from Socio-physics in order to explore some of the structural and dynamic properties of this small group dynamics. We will described data from an analytic DS model simulating small group interactions of agents endowed with a very simplified emotional and cognitive dynamic in order to assess the following main points: 1 are metastable collective states allowed to emerge in the model and if so, under which conditions in the parameter space? 3 can these states be differentiated in structural terms? 3 to what extent are the emergent dynamic features of the systems dependent of the system size? We will finally discuss possible future applications of the quantitative descriptions of the interaction structure in the small group clinical

  11. Surviving in a metastable de Sitter space-time

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kashyap, Sitender Pratap; Mondal, Swapnamay [Harish-Chandra Research Institute,Chhatnag Road, Jhusi, Allahabad 211019 (India); Sen, Ashoke [Harish-Chandra Research Institute,Chhatnag Road, Jhusi, Allahabad 211019 (India); School of Physics, Korea Institute for Advanced Study,Seoul 130-722 (Korea, Republic of); Verma, Mritunjay [Harish-Chandra Research Institute,Chhatnag Road, Jhusi, Allahabad 211019 (India); International Centre for Theoretical Sciences,Malleshwaram, Bengaluru 560 012 (India)

    2015-09-21

    In a metastable de Sitter space any object has a finite life expectancy beyond which it undergoes vacuum decay. However, by spreading into different parts of the universe which will fall out of causal contact of each other in future, a civilization can increase its collective life expectancy, defined as the average time after which the last settlement disappears due to vacuum decay. We study in detail the collective life expectancy of two comoving objects in de Sitter space as a function of the initial separation, the horizon radius and the vacuum decay rate. We find that even with a modest initial separation, the collective life expectancy can reach a value close to the maximum possible value of 1.5 times that of the individual object if the decay rate is less than 1% of the expansion rate. Our analysis can be generalized to any number of objects, general trajectories not necessarily at rest in the comoving coordinates and general FRW space-time. As part of our analysis we find that in the current state of the universe dominated by matter and cosmological constant, the vacuum decay rate is increasing as a function of time due to accelerated expansion of the volume of the past light cone. Present decay rate is about 3.7 times larger than the average decay rate in the past and the final decay rate in the cosmological constant dominated epoch will be about 56 times larger than the average decay rate in the past. This considerably weakens the lower bound on the half-life of our universe based on its current age.

  12. Thermal effects on decays of a metastable brane configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nakai, Yuichiro, E-mail: ynakai@physics.harvard.edu [Department of Physics, Harvard University, Cambridge, MA 02138 (United States); Ookouchi, Yutaka [Faculty of Arts and Science & Department of Physics, Kyushu University, Fukuoka 819-0395 (Japan)

    2016-11-10

    We study thermal effects on a decay process of a false vacuum in type IIA string theory. At finite temperature, the potential of the theory is corrected and also thermally excited modes enhance the decay rate. The false vacuum can accommodate a string-like object. This cosmic string makes the bubble creation rate much larger and causes an inhomogeneous vacuum decay. We investigate thermal corrections to the DBI action for the bubble/string bound state and discuss a thermally assisted tunneling process. We show that thermally excited states enhance the tunneling rate of the decay process, which makes the life-time of the false vacuum much shorter.

  13. The Susquehanna plant lifetime excellence program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McNamara, R.W.

    1988-01-01

    This paper discusses how the Susquehanna plant lifetime excellence program (SPLEX) blends many of the objectives of a new managing for excellence program with plant life extension objectives to achieve excellence in the lifetime operation and availability of the two-unit Susquehanna steam electric station. Investments in lifetime excellence improvements will provide near-term, as well as plant life extension, benefits. A high-quality lifetime experience record, together with extensive, periodic technical assessments and cost-benefit analyses, will provide conclusive justification for future extensions of the unit operating licenses

  14. Fluorescence lifetime imaging of skin cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patalay, Rakesh; Talbot, Clifford; Munro, Ian; Breunig, Hans Georg; König, Karsten; Alexandrov, Yuri; Warren, Sean; Neil, Mark A. A.; French, Paul M. W.; Chu, Anthony; Stamp, Gordon W.; Dunsby, Chris

    2011-03-01

    Fluorescence intensity imaging and fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) using two photon microscopy (TPM) have been used to study tissue autofluorescence in ex vivo skin cancer samples. A commercially available system (DermaInspect®) was modified to collect fluorescence intensity and lifetimes in two spectral channels using time correlated single photon counting and depth-resolved steady state measurements of the fluorescence emission spectrum. Uniquely, image segmentation has been used to allow fluorescence lifetimes to be calculated for each cell. An analysis of lifetime values obtained from a range of pigmented and non-pigmented lesions will be presented.

  15. Exploration of the phase diagram of liquid water in the low-temperature metastable region using synthetic fluid inclusions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qiu, Chen; Krüger, Yves; Wilke, Max

    2016-01-01

    water with a density of 0.921 kg/m3 remains in a homogeneous state during cooling down to the temperaure of −30.5 °C, where it is transformed into ice whose density corresponds to zero pressure. iii) ice melting. Ice melting temperatures of up to 6.8 °C were measured in absence of the vapour bubble, i......We present new experimental data of the low-temperature metastable region of liquid water derived from high-density synthetic fluid inclusions (996−916 kg/m3) in quartz. Microthermometric measurements include: i) Prograde (upon heating) and retrograde (upon cooling) liquid-vapour homogenisation. We...

  16. Annealing Kinetic Model Using Fast and Slow Metastable Defects for Hydrogenated-Amorphous-Silicon-Based Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung Yeop Myong

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The two-component kinetic model employing “fast” and “slow” metastable defects for the annealing behaviors in pin-type hydrogenated-amorphous-silicon- (a-Si:H- based solar cells is simulated using a normalized fill factor. Reported annealing data on pin-type a-Si:H-based solar cells are revisited and fitted using the model to confirm its validity. It is verified that the two-component model is suitable for fitting the various experimental phenomena. In addition, the activation energy for annealing of the solar cells depends on the definition of the recovery time. From the thermally activated and high electric field annealing behaviors, the plausible microscopic mechanism on the defect removal process is discussed.

  17. Metastable Innershell Molecular State (MIMS II: K-shell X-ray satellites in heavy ion impact on solids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young K. Bae

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Metastable Innershell Molecular State (MIMS, an innershell-bound ultra-high-energy molecule, was previously proposed to explain a ∼40% efficiency of soft-X-ray generation in ∼0.05 keV/amu nanoparticle impact on solids. Here, the MIMS model has been extended and applied to interpreting the experimental K-shell X-ray satellite spectra for more than 40 years in keV-MeV/amu heavy-ion impact on solids. The binding energies of the K-shell MIMS of elements from Al to Ti were determined to be 80–200 eV. The successful extension of the model to the K-shell MIMS confirms that all elements in the periodic table and their combinations are subjected to the MIMS formation.

  18. Ferromagnetism and nonmetallic transport of thin-film α-FeSi(2): a stabilized metastable material.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cao, Guixin; Singh, D J; Zhang, X-G; Samolyuk, German; Qiao, Liang; Parish, Chad; Jin, Ke; Zhang, Yanwen; Guo, Hangwen; Tang, Siwei; Wang, Wenbin; Yi, Jieyu; Cantoni, Claudia; Siemons, Wolter; Payzant, E Andrew; Biegalski, Michael; Ward, T Z; Mandrus, David; Stocks, G M; Gai, Zheng

    2015-04-10

    A metastable phase α-FeSi_{2} was epitaxially stabilized on a silicon substrate using pulsed laser deposition. Nonmetallic and ferromagnetic behaviors are tailored on α-FeSi_{2} (111) thin films, while the bulk material of α-FeSi_{2} is metallic and nonmagnetic. The transport property of the films renders two different conducting states with a strong crossover at 50 K, which is accompanied by the onset of a ferromagnetic transition as well as a substantial magnetoresistance. These experimental results are discussed in terms of the unusual electronic structure of α-FeSi_{2} obtained within density functional calculations and Boltzmann transport calculations with and without strain. Our finding sheds light on achieving ferromagnetic semiconductors through both their structure and doping tailoring, and provides an example of a tailored material with rich functionalities for both basic research and practical applications.

  19. Metastable liquid-liquid transition in a molecular model of water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmer, Jeremy C.; Martelli, Fausto; Liu, Yang; Car, Roberto; Panagiotopoulos, Athanassios Z.; Debenedetti, Pablo G.

    2014-06-01

    Liquid water's isothermal compressibility and isobaric heat capacity, and the magnitude of its thermal expansion coefficient, increase sharply on cooling below the equilibrium freezing point. Many experimental, theoretical and computational studies have sought to understand the molecular origin and implications of this anomalous behaviour. Of the different theoretical scenarios put forward, one posits the existence of a first-order phase transition that involves two forms of liquid water and terminates at a critical point located at deeply supercooled conditions. Some experimental evidence is consistent with this hypothesis, but no definitive proof of a liquid-liquid transition in water has been obtained to date: rapid ice crystallization has so far prevented decisive measurements on deeply supercooled water, although this challenge has been overcome recently. Computer simulations are therefore crucial for exploring water's structure and behaviour in this regime, and have shown that some water models exhibit liquid-liquid transitions and others do not. However, recent work has argued that the liquid-liquid transition has been mistakenly interpreted, and is in fact a liquid-crystal transition in all atomistic models of water. Here we show, by studying the liquid-liquid transition in the ST2 model of water with the use of six advanced sampling methods to compute the free-energy surface, that two metastable liquid phases and a stable crystal phase exist at the same deeply supercooled thermodynamic condition, and that the transition between the two liquids satisfies the thermodynamic criteria of a first-order transition. We follow the rearrangement of water's coordination shell and topological ring structure along a thermodynamically reversible path from the low-density liquid to cubic ice. We also show that the system fluctuates freely between the two liquid phases rather than crystallizing. These findings provide unambiguous evidence for a liquid-liquid transition in

  20. Ionizing collisions: a new diagnostic for Bose-Einstein condensates of metastable helium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sirjean, O.

    2003-06-01

    At this writing, metastable helium (23S1) is the only example of Bose-Einstein condensation of an atom in an excited electronic state. The corresponding internal energy permits efficient and fast electronic detection of the atoms using a micro-channel plate detector (MCP). Moreover, this energy is responsible for ionizing collisions inside the magnetically trapped cloud (Penning ionization). These ions are also easily detected by the MCP. This thesis begins by describing the characteristics of the MCP detector. Next, the experimental procedure to achieve Bose-Einstein condensation is presented. These preliminaries are followed by a description of the experiments performed in order to determine the origin of the ions produced and by a presentation of some of the new experimental possibilities provided by the ion signal. For clouds with a low enough density, ions are mainly produced by collisions with the residual gas, and the signal is proportional to the number of trapped atoms. For clouds with a sufficiently high density, for example close to the condensation threshold, ions are mainly produced by 2- and 3-body collisions. In this case, the ion signal is also related to the density of the cloud. Depending on the density, the signal gives a real-time and 'non-destructive' measurement of these different characteristics. In particular, we have shown it is a valuable indicator of the onset of condensation, because it signals the sudden increase of density which then occurs. By studying the ion rate versus the density and the number of atoms for pure condensates and for thermal clouds at critical temperature, we have measured the collision rate constants for these ionizing processes. Our results are in agreement with theoretical predictions. (author)

  1. Positron annihilation lifetime study of oxide dispersion strengthened steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krsjak, V.; Szaraz, Z.; Hähner, P.

    2012-01-01

    A comparative positron annihilation lifetime study has been performed on various commercial ferritic and ferritic/martensitic oxide dispersion strengthened (ODS) steels. Both as-extruded and recrystallized materials were investigated. In the materials with recrystallized coarse-grained microstructures, only the positron trapping at small vacancy clusters and yttria nanofeatures was observed. Materials which had not undergone recrystallization treatment clearly showed additional positron trapping which is associated with dislocations. Dislocation densities were calculated from a two-component decomposition of the positron lifetime spectra by assuming the first component to be a superposition of the bulk controlled annihilation rate and the dislocation controlled trapping rate. The second component (which translates into lifetimes of 240–260 ps) was found to be well separated in all those ODS materials. This paper presents the potentialities and limitations of the positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy, and discusses the results of the experimental determination of the defect concentrations and sensitivity of this technique to the material degradation due to thermally induced precipitation of chromium-rich α′ phases.

  2. Fusion-component lifetime analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mattas, R.F.

    1982-09-01

    A one-dimensional computer code has been developed to examine the lifetime of first-wall and impurity-control components. The code incorporates the operating and design parameters, the material characteristics, and the appropriate failure criteria for the individual components. The major emphasis of the modeling effort has been to calculate the temperature-stress-strain-radiation effects history of a component so that the synergystic effects between sputtering erosion, swelling, creep, fatigue, and crack growth can be examined. The general forms of the property equations are the same for all materials in order to provide the greatest flexibility for materials selection in the code. The individual coefficients within the equations are different for each material. The code is capable of determining the behavior of a plate, composed of either a single or dual material structure, that is either totally constrained or constrained from bending but not from expansion. The code has been utilized to analyze the first walls for FED/INTOR and DEMO and to analyze the limiter for FED/INTOR

  3. Aspects of silicon bulk lifetimes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landsberg, P. T.

    1985-01-01

    The best lifetimes attained for bulk crytalline silicon as a function of doping concentrations are analyzed. It is assumed that the dopants which set the Fermi level do not contribute to the recombination traffic which is due to the unknown defect. This defect is assumed to have two charge states: neutral and negative, the neutral defect concentration is frozen-in at some temperature T sub f. The higher doping concentrations should include the band-band Auger effect by using a generalization of the Shockley-Read-Hall (SRH) mechanism. The generalization of the SRH mechanism is discussed. This formulation gives a straightforward procedure for incorporating both band-band and band-trap Auger effects in the SRH procedure. Two related questions arise in this context: (1) it may sometimes be useful to write the steady-state occupation probability of the traps implied by SRH procedure in a form which approximates to the Fermi-Dirac distribution; and (2) the effect on the SRH mechanism of spreading N sub t levels at one energy uniformly over a range of energies is discussed.

  4. Measurement of Beauty Particle Lifetimes and Hadroproduction Cross-Section

    CERN Multimedia

    2002-01-01

    We propose an experimental search for beauty particles produced in fixed target hadronic interactions. The essential feature of the proposed experimental technique is the use of two specially designed pieces of hardware~-~a high precision ``decay detector'' and a fast secondary vertex trigger processor. If these devices perform to our expectations, we should be able to obtain sufficient data sample to address several important physics issues, including measurements of the lifetimes of charged and neutral B~mesons, the B~hadroproduction cross-section, and possibly B$^0$- $ \\bar{B} ^0 $ mixing.

  5. Baselines for Lifetime of Organic Solar Cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gevorgyan, Suren; Espinosa Martinez, Nieves; Ciammaruchi, Laura

    2016-01-01

    The process of accurately gauging lifetime improvements in organic photovoltaics (OPVs) or other similar emerging technologies, such as perovskites solar cells is still a major challenge. The presented work is part of a larger effort of developing a worldwide database of lifetimes that can help...

  6. Maximizing System Lifetime by Battery Scheduling

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jongerden, M.R.; Haverkort, Boudewijn R.H.M.; Bohnenkamp, H.C.; Katoen, Joost P.

    2009-01-01

    The use of mobile devices is limited by the battery lifetime. Some devices have the option to connect an extra battery, or to use smart battery-packs with multiple cells to extend the lifetime. In these cases, scheduling the batteries over the load to exploit recovery properties usually extends the

  7. FUNDUS AUTOFLUORESCENCE LIFETIMES AND CENTRAL SEROUS CHORIORETINOPATHY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dysli, Chantal; Berger, Lieselotte; Wolf, Sebastian; Zinkernagel, Martin S

    2017-11-01

    To quantify retinal fluorescence lifetimes in patients with central serous chorioretinopathy (CSC) and to identify disease specific lifetime characteristics over the course of disease. Forty-seven participants were included in this study. Patients with central serous chorioretinopathy were imaged with fundus photography, fundus autofluorescence, optical coherence tomography, and fluorescence lifetime imaging ophthalmoscopy (FLIO) and compared with age-matched controls. Retinal autofluorescence was excited using a 473-nm blue laser light and emitted fluorescence light was detected in 2 distinct wavelengths channels (498-560 nm and 560-720 nm). Clinical features, mean retinal autofluorescence lifetimes, autofluorescence intensity, and corresponding optical coherence tomography (OCT) images were further analyzed. Thirty-five central serous chorioretinopathy patients with a mean visual acuity of 78 ETDRS letters (range, 50-90; mean Snellen equivalent: 20/32) and 12 age-matched controls were included. In the acute stage of central serous chorioretinopathy, retinal fluorescence lifetimes were shortened by 15% and 17% in the respective wavelength channels. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that fluorescence lifetimes were significantly influenced by the disease duration (P autofluorescence lifetimes, particularly in eyes with retinal pigment epithelial atrophy, were associated with poor visual acuity. This study establishes that autofluorescence lifetime changes occurring in central serous chorioretinopathy exhibit explicit patterns which can be used to estimate perturbations of the outer retinal layers with a high degree of statistical significance.

  8. Fluorescence lifetime imaging using light emitting diodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kennedy, Gordon T; Munro, Ian; Poher, Vincent; French, Paul M W; Neil, Mark A A [Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Elson, Daniel S [Institute of Biomedical Engineering, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, London SW7 2AZ (United Kingdom); Hares, Jonathan D [Kentech Instruments Ltd, Unit 9, Hall Farm Workshops, South Moreton, Didcot, Oxfordshire, OX11 9AG (United Kingdom)], E-mail: gordon.kennedy@imperial.ac.uk

    2008-05-07

    We demonstrate flexible use of low cost, high-power light emitting diodes as illumination sources for fluorescence lifetime imaging (FLIM). Both time-domain and frequency-domain techniques have been implemented at wavelengths spanning the range 450-640 nm. Additionally, we demonstrate optically sectioned fluorescence lifetime imaging by combining structured illumination with frequency-domain FLIM.

  9. Formation of Kinetically Trapped Nanoscopic Unilamellar Vesicles from Metastable Nanodiscs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieh, Mu-Ping [Univ. of Connecticut, Storrs, CT (United States). Inst. of Materials Science, Dept. of Chemical, Materials & Biomolecular Engineering; Dolinar, Paul [Univ. of Ottawa, ON (Canada); Kucerka, Norbert [National Research Council, Chalk River, ON (Canada). Chalk River Lab., Canadian Neutron Beam Centre; Comenius Univ., Bratislava (Slovakia). Dept. of Physical Chemistry of Drugs; Kline, Steven R. [National Inst. of Standards and Technology (NIST), Gaithersburg, MD (United States); Debeer-Schmitt, Lisa M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Neutron Scattering Science Division; Littrell, Kenneth C. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Neutron Scattering Science Division; Katsaras, John [National Research Council, Chalk River, ON (Canada). Chalk River Lab., Canadian Neutron Beam Centre; Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States). Neutron Scattering Science Division; Brock Univ., St. Catharines, ON (Canada). Dept. of Physics; Univ. of Guelph, ON (Canada). Guelph-Waterloo Physics Inst.

    2011-09-27

    Zwitterionic long-chain lipids (e.g., dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine, DMPC) spontaneously form onion-like, thermodynamically stable structures in aqueous solutions (commonly known as multilamellar vesicles, or MLVs). It has also been reported that the addition of zwitterionic short-chain (i.e., dihexanoyl phosphatidylcholine, DHPC) and charged long-chain (i.e., dimyristoyl phosphatidylglycerol, DMPG) lipids to zwitterionic long-chain lipid solutions results in the formation of unilamellar vesicles (ULVs). Here, we report a kinetic study on lipid mixtures composed of DMPC, DHPC, and DMPG. Two membrane charge densities (i.e., [DMPG]/[DMPC] = 0.01 and 0.001) and two solution salinities (i.e., [NaCl] = 0 and 0.2 M) are investigated. Upon dilution of the high-concentration samples at 50 °C, thermodynamically stable MLVs are formed, in the case of both weakly charged and high salinity solution mixtures, implying that the electrostatic interactions between bilayers are insufficient to cause MLVs to unbind. Importantly, in the case of these samples small angle neutron scattering (SANS) data show that, initially, nanodiscs (also known as bicelles) or bilayered ribbons form at low temperatures (i.e., 10 °C), but transform into uniform size, nanoscopic ULVs after incubation at 10 °C for 20 h, indicating that the nanodisc is a metastable structure. The instability of nanodiscs may be attributed to low membrane rigidity due to a reduced charge density and high salinity. Moreover, the uniform-sized ULVs persist even after being heated to 50 °C, where thermodynamically stable MLVs are observed. This result clearly demonstrates that these ULVs are kinetically trapped, and that the mechanical properties (e.g., bending rigidity) of 10 C nanodiscs favor the formation of nanoscopic ULVs over that of MLVs. From a practical point of view, this method of forming uniform-sized ULVs may lend itself to their mass production, thus making them economically feasible for medical

  10. Formation of Kinetically Trapped Nanoscopic Unilamellar Vesicles from Metastable Nanodiscs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nieh, Mu-Ping; Dolinar, Paul; Kucerka, Norbert; Kline, Steven R.; Debeer-Schmitt, Lisa M.; Littrell, Ken; Katsaras, John

    2011-01-01

    Zwitterionic long-chain lipids (e.g., dimyristoyl phosphatidylcholine, DMPC) spontaneously form onion-like, thermodynamically stable structures in aqueous solutions (commonly known as multilamellar vesicles, or MLVs). It has also been reported that the addition of zwitterionic short-chain (i.e., dihexanoyl phosphatidylcholine, DHPC) and charged long-chain (i.e., dimyristoyl phosphatidylglycerol, DMPG) lipids to zwitterionic long-chain lipid solutions results in the formation of unilamellar vesicles (ULVs). Here, we report a kinetic study on lipid mixtures composed of DMPC, DHPC, and DMPG. Two membrane charge densities (i.e., (DMPG)/(DMPC) = 0.01 and 0.001) and two solution salinities (i.e., (NaCl) = 0 and 0.2 M) are investigated. Upon dilution of the high-concentration samples at 50 C, thermodynamically stable MLVs are formed, in the case of both weakly charged and high salinity solution mixtures, implying that the electrostatic interactions between bilayers are insufficient to cause MLVs to unbind. Importantly, in the case of these samples small angle neutron scattering (SANS) data show that, initially, nanodiscs (also known as bicelles) or bilayered ribbons form at low temperatures (i.e., 10 C), but transform into uniform size, nanoscopic ULVs after incubation at 10 C for 20 h, indicating that the nanodisc is a metastable structure. The instability of nanodiscs may be attributed to low membrane rigidity due to a reduced charge density and high salinity. Moreover, the uniform-sized ULVs persist even after being heated to 50 C, where thermodynamically stable MLVs are observed. This result clearly demonstrates that these ULVs are kinetically trapped, and that the mechanical properties (e.g., bending rigidity) of 10 C nanodiscs favor the formation of nanoscopic ULVs over that of MLVs. From a practical point of view, this method of forming uniform-sized ULVs may lend itself to their mass production, thus making them economically feasible for medical applications that

  11. Centrifugal Tensioned Metastable Fluid Detectors for Trace Radiation Sources: Experimental Verification and Military Employment

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-06-01

    tube PSD pulse shape discrimination Pu plutonium SF spontaneous fission SNM special nuclear material STP standard temperature and pressure U...independent terrorist organization that is able to purchase a nuclear weapon on the black market and smuggle it into the United States. The...can travel up to a few feet in air at STP [6]. Beta particles, as with other forms of ionizing radiation, can also cause damage to certain living

  12. Evolution of metastable state molecules N{sub 2}(A{sup 3}{Sigma}{sub u}{sup +}) in a nanosecond pulsed discharge: A particle-in-cell/Monte Carlo collisions simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao Liang; Sun Jizhong; Feng Chunlei; Bai Jing; Ding Hongbin [School of Physics and Optical Electronic Technology, Key Laboratory of Materials Modification by Laser, Ion, and Electron Beams, Chinese Ministry of Education, Dalian University of Technology, Dalian 116024 (China)

    2012-01-15

    A particle-in-cell plus Monte Carlo collisions method has been employed to investigate the nitrogen discharge driven by a nanosecond pulse power source. To assess whether the production of the metastable state N{sub 2}(A{sup 3}{Sigma}{sub u}{sup +}) can be efficiently enhanced in a nanosecond pulsed discharge, the evolutions of metastable state N{sub 2}(A{sup 3}{Sigma}{sub u}{sup +}) density and electron energy distribution function have been examined in detail. The simulation results indicate that the ultra short pulse can modulate the electron energy effectively: during the early pulse-on time, high energy electrons give rise to quick electron avalanche and rapid growth of the metastable state N{sub 2}(A{sup 3}{Sigma}{sub u}{sup +}) density. It is estimated that for a single pulse with amplitude of -9 kV and pulse width 30 ns, the metastable state N{sub 2}(A{sup 3}{Sigma}{sub u}{sup +}) density can achieve a value in the order of 10{sup 9} cm{sup -3}. The N{sub 2}(A{sup 3}{Sigma}{sub u}{sup +}) density at such a value could be easily detected by laser-based experimental methods.

  13. An investigation into the role of metastable states on excited populations of weakly ionized argon plasmas, with applications for optical diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arnold, Nicholas; Loch, Stuart; Ballance, Connor; Thomas, Ed

    2017-10-01

    Low temperature plasmas (Te ADAS) code suite to calculate a level-resolved, generalized collisional-radiative (GCR) model for line emission in low temperature argon plasmas. By combining our theoretical model with experimental electron temperature, density, and spectral measurements from the Auburn Linear eXperiment for Instability Studies (ALEXIS), we have developed diagnostic techniques to measure metastable fraction, electron temperature, and electron density. In the future we hope to refine our methods, and extend our model to plasmas other than ALEXIS. Supported by the U.S. Department of Energy. Grant Number: DE-FG02-00ER54476.

  14. Modelling of fluid flow through short tube orifices under metastable conditions: A new numerical validation approach for evaluating the mass flow rate with refrigerant mixtures (HFC-407C and HFC-410A)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    García-Valladares, O.; Santoyo, E.

    2014-01-01

    In a previous work, one-dimensional numerical modelling of fluid-flow inside short tube orifices was performed, and successfully validated against a wide range of mass flow rate measurements reported for the refrigerant HFC-134a. Governing equations of continuity, momentum, energy and entropy were solved for describing the fluid flow under a wide variety of thermodynamic transitions (e.g., subcooled liquid region, metastable liquid region, metastable two-phase region and equilibrium two-phase region), including sudden contraction and enlargement. In this new study, a comprehensive comparison analysis between numerical simulation data and experimental measurements obtained for HFC-407C and HFC-410A refrigerants (N o  = 241) to extend the applicability of the same mathematical model was carried out. Using a widespread statistical analysis, based on weighted linear regressions with an outlier detection/rejection module at 95% of confidence level, the prediction performance of the mathematical model was again assessed. Linear regressions between predicted mass flow rate data and experimental measurements were computed, and used them as a statistical comparison criterion. A statistical comparison between predicted simulation results and mass flow rate experimental data are reported. Average deviation errors of ±11.1% (for the refrigerant HFC-407C) and ±7.3% (for refrigerant HFC-410A) were found between numerical model and experimental data. These results demonstrate a new and robust application of the model to predict reliably the mass flow rate through short tube orifices under metastable conditions, which enable this tool to be reliably used for the design of short tube orifices. - Highlights: •A modelling for evaluating short tube orifice was developed for refrigerant mixtures. •The numerical model applied considered metastable regions and choke flow. •The model was validated against experimental data for HFC-407C and HFC-410A. •Statistical analysis based

  15. Measuring and sorting cell populations expressing isospectral fluorescent proteins with different fluorescence lifetimes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryan Sands

    Full Text Available Study of signal transduction in live cells benefits from the ability to visualize and quantify light emitted by fluorescent proteins (XFPs fused to different signaling proteins. However, because cell signaling proteins are often present in small numbers, and because the XFPs themselves are poor fluorophores, the amount of emitted light, and the observable signal in these studies, is often small. An XFP's fluorescence lifetime contains additional information about the immediate environment of the fluorophore that can augment the information from its weak light signal. Here, we constructed and expressed in Saccharomyces cerevisiae variants of Teal Fluorescent Protein (TFP and Citrine that were isospectral but had shorter fluorescence lifetimes, ∼ 1.5 ns vs ∼ 3 ns. We modified microscopic and flow cytometric instruments to measure fluorescence lifetimes in live cells. We developed digital hardware and a measure of lifetime called a "pseudophasor" that we could compute quickly enough to permit sorting by lifetime in flow. We used these abilities to sort mixtures of cells expressing TFP and the short-lifetime TFP variant into subpopulations that were respectively 97% and 94% pure. This work demonstrates the feasibility of using information about fluorescence lifetime to help quantify cell signaling in living cells at the high throughput provided by flow cytometry. Moreover, it demonstrates the feasibility of isolating and recovering subpopulations of cells with different XFP lifetimes for subsequent experimentation.

  16. Robust D-optimal designs under correlated error, applicable invariantly for some lifetime distributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Das, Rabindra Nath; Kim, Jinseog; Park, Jeong-Soo

    2015-01-01

    In quality engineering, the most commonly used lifetime distributions are log-normal, exponential, gamma and Weibull. Experimental designs are useful for predicting the optimal operating conditions of the process in lifetime improvement experiments. In the present article, invariant robust first-order D-optimal designs are derived for correlated lifetime responses having the above four distributions. Robust designs are developed for some correlated error structures. It is shown that robust first-order D-optimal designs for these lifetime distributions are always robust rotatable but the converse is not true. Moreover, it is observed that these designs depend on the respective error covariance structure but are invariant to the above four lifetime distributions. This article generalizes the results of Das and Lin [7] for the above four lifetime distributions with general (intra-class, inter-class, compound symmetry, and tri-diagonal) correlated error structures. - Highlights: • This paper presents invariant robust first-order D-optimal designs under correlated lifetime responses. • The results of Das and Lin [7] are extended for the four lifetime (log-normal, exponential, gamma and Weibull) distributions. • This paper also generalizes the results of Das and Lin [7] to more general correlated error structures

  17. Positron lifetime technique with applications in materials science

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vries, J. de.

    1987-01-01

    This thesis deals with the positron lifetime technique as a method to measure extremely low concentrations of extremely small cavities in materials. The method is based upon the fact that the positron lieftime decreases as the electron density increases and upon the fact that a positron preferably annihilates in cavity-like defects in lattices. The theory of positron behaviour in materials and technical aspects of measuring positron liefetimes are described in ch.'s 2 and 3 respectively. Three methods for increasing the time resolution are discussed and some positron sources are described (ch.4). Some applications of the positron lifetime technique and experimental results are shown in chapter 5. 125 refs.; 61 figs.; 18 tabs

  18. Lifetime measurement in {sup 74}Kr and {sup 76}Kr

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goergen, A.; Clement, E.; Chatillon, A.; Korten, W.; Le Coz, Y.; Theisen, Ch. [DAPNIA/SPhN, CEA Saclay, Gif-sur-Yvette Cedex (France); Dewald, A.; Melon, B.; Moeller, O.; Zell, K.O. [Universitaet zu Koeln, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Koeln (Germany); Marginean, N.; Tonev, D. [INFN-Laboratori Nazionali di Legnaro, Legnaro (Padova) (Italy); Menegazzo, R.; Ur, C.A. [Universita di Padova and INFN Sezione di Padova, Dipartimento di Fisica, Padova (Italy)

    2005-11-01

    Lifetimes of excited states in the ground-state bands of {sup 74}Kr and {sup 76}Kr were measured using the recoil-distance Doppler-shift and the differential decay curve methods. The states were populated in the {sup 40}Ca({sup 40}Ca,{alpha}2p) and {sup 40}Ca({sup 40}Ca,4p) reactions. Gamma rays were detected with the GASP array which was coupled to the Cologne Plunger device. The results resolve discrepancies between earlier lifetime measurements and a recent Coulomb excitation experiment. Experimental transition rates are compared to theoretical calculations. The results support a strong mixing between prolate and oblate configurations for the low-spin states, and represent an important basis for the interpretation and understanding of the shape coexistence phenomenon in this mass region. (orig.)

  19. Lifetime measurements in the picosecond range: achievements and perspectives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kruecken, R.

    2000-01-01

    Recent developments in the measurement of lifetimes in the picosecond range using the recoil distance method (RDM) are reviewed. Results from recent RDM experiments on superdeformed bands in the mass-190 region, shears, bands in the neutron deficient lead isotopes, and ground state bands in the mass-130 region are presented. New experimental devices for lifetime experiments at Yale, such as the New Yale Plunger Device (N.Y.P.D.), the SPEctrometer for Doppler-shift Experiments at Yale (SPEEDY) and the plans for the gas-filled recoil separator SASSYER are presented. Perspectives for the use of the RDM technique in the study of exotic nuclei and its potential use with radioactive beams are discussed. (author)

  20. Beam-foil lifetimes of highly ionized silicon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traebert, E.; Heckmann, P.H.; Buttlar, H. v.

    1977-01-01

    Electronically excited states of Si ions are created by passing a 20 MeV Si 5+ beam through a thin carbon foil. The EUV-radiation (lambda = 13-61 nm) emitted by the beam is analyzed using a grazing-incidence spectrometer. From the decay curves, lifetimes of 24 low lying levels in Si VIII to Si XII and of the 4f and 5g levels of Si XI and Si XII are derived. Cascades from doubly excited states turn out to be an important contribution to the radiation observed. The lifetime values of this work are compared to theoretical data mainly of Wiese, Sinanoglu and Dankwort/Trefftz. Most experimental values agree with at least one of the theoretical values. The decay time 560 ps of the 2s2p 3 3 D 0 3 state of Si IX is clearly longer than the theoretical prediction (highest value 455 ps by Sinanoglu). (orig.) [de

  1. Dynamical SUSY Breaking at Meta-Stable Minima from D-branes at Obstructed Geometries

    CERN Document Server

    Franco, S; Franco, Sebastian; Uranga, Angel M .

    2006-01-01

    We study the existence of long-lived meta-stable supersymmetry breaking vacua in gauge theories with massless quarks, upon the addition of extra massive flavors. A simple realization is provided by a modified version of SQCD with N_{f,0} < N_c massless flavors, N_{f,1} massive flavors and additional singlet chiral fields. This theory has local meta-stable minima separated from a runaway behavior at infinity by a potential barrier. We find further examples of such meta-stable minima in flavored versions of quiver gauge theories on fractional branes at singularities with obstructed complex deformations, and study the case of the dP_1 theory in detail. Finally, we provide an explicit String Theory construction of such theories. The additional flavors arise from D7-branes on non-compact 4-cycles of the singularity, for which we find a new efficient description using dimer techniques.

  2. Nuclear Power Plant Lifetime Management Study (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sung Yull; Jeong, Ill Seok; Jang, Chang Heui; Song, Taek Ho; Song, Woo Young [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Tae Eun [Korea Power Engineering Company Consulting and Architecture Engineers, (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Woo Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1997-12-31

    As the operation-year of nuclear power plant increases and finding sites for new nuclear power plant becomes harder, a comprehensive and systematic nuclear plant lifetime management(PLIM) program including life extension has to be established for stable and safe supply of electricity. A feasibility study was conducted to systematically evaluate technical, economic and regulatory aspect of plant lifetime managements and plant life extension for Kori-1 nuclear power plant. For technical evaluation of nuclear power plant, 13 major components were selected for lifetime evaluation by screening system. structure, and components(SSCs) of the plant. It was found that except reactor pressure vessel, which needs detailed integrity analysis, and low pressure turbine, which is scheduled to be replaced, 11 out of 13 major components have sufficient service life, for more than 40 years. Because domestic rules and regulations related to license renewal has not yet been written, review on the regulatory aspect of life extensions was conducted using US NRC rules and regulations. A cooperative effort with nuclear regulatory body is needed for early completion of license renewal rules and regulations. For economic evaluation of plant lifetime extension, a computer program was developed and used. It was found that 10 to 20 year of extension operation of Kori-1 nuclear power plant was proved. Based on the results, next phase of plant lifetime management program for detailed lifetime evaluation and presenting detailed implementation schedule for plant refurbishment for lifetime extension should be followed. (author). 74 refs., figs.

  3. Three-dimensional fluorescence lifetime tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Godavarty, Anuradha; Sevick-Muraca, Eva M.; Eppstein, Margaret J.

    2005-01-01

    Near-infrared fluorescence tomography using molecularly targeted lifetime-sensitive, fluorescent contrast agents have applications for early-stage cancer diagnostics. Yet, although the measurement of fluorescent lifetime imaging microscopy (FLIM) is extensively used in microscopy and spectroscopy applications, demonstration of fluorescence lifetime tomography for medical imaging is limited to two-dimensional studies. Herein, the feasibility of three-dimensional fluorescence-lifetime tomography on clinically relevant phantom volumes is established, using (i) a gain-modulated intensified charge coupled device (CCD) and modulated laser diode imaging system, (ii) two fluorescent contrast agents, e.g., Indocyanine green and 3-3'-Diethylthiatricarbocyanine iodide differing in their fluorescence lifetime by 0.62 ns, and (iii) a two stage approximate extended Kalman filter reconstruction algorithm. Fluorescence measurements of phase and amplitude were acquired on the phantom surface under different target to background fluorescence absorption (70:1, 100:1) and fluorescence lifetime (1:1, 2.1:1) contrasts at target depths of 1.4-2 cm. The Bayesian tomography algorithm was employed to obtain three-dimensional images of lifetime and absorption owing to the fluorophores

  4. Nuclear Power Plant Lifetime Management Study (I)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sung Yull; Jeong, Ill Seok; Jang, Chang Heui; Song, Taek Ho; Song, Woo Young [Korea Electric Power Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of); Jin, Tae Eun [Korea Power Engineering Company Consulting and Architecture Engineers, (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Woo Chul [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-12-31

    As the operation-year of nuclear power plant increases and finding sites for new nuclear power plant becomes harder, a comprehensive and systematic nuclear plant lifetime management(PLIM) program including life extension has to be established for stable and safe supply of electricity. A feasibility study was conducted to systematically evaluate technical, economic and regulatory aspect of plant lifetime managements and plant life extension for Kori-1 nuclear power plant. For technical evaluation of nuclear power plant, 13 major components were selected for lifetime evaluation by screening system. structure, and components(SSCs) of the plant. It was found that except reactor pressure vessel, which needs detailed integrity analysis, and low pressure turbine, which is scheduled to be replaced, 11 out of 13 major components have sufficient service life, for more than 40 years. Because domestic rules and regulations related to license renewal has not yet been written, review on the regulatory aspect of life extensions was conducted using US NRC rules and regulations. A cooperative effort with nuclear regulatory body is needed for early completion of license renewal rules and regulations. For economic evaluation of plant lifetime extension, a computer program was developed and used. It was found that 10 to 20 year of extension operation of Kori-1 nuclear power plant was proved. Based on the results, next phase of plant lifetime management program for detailed lifetime evaluation and presenting detailed implementation schedule for plant refurbishment for lifetime extension should be followed. (author). 74 refs., figs.

  5. Factors controlling metal fuel lifetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Porter, D.L.; Hofman, G.L.; Seidel, B.R.; Walters, L.C.

    1986-01-01

    The reliability of metal fuel elements is determined by a fuel burnup at which a statistically predicted number of fuel breaches would occur, the number of breaches determined by the amount of free fission gas which a particular reactor design can tolerate. The reliability is therefore measured using experimentally determined breach statistics, or by modelling fuel element behavior and those factors which contribute to cladding breach. The factors are fuel/cladding mechanical and chemical interactions, fission gas pressure, fuel phase transformations involving volume changes, and fission product effects on cladding integrity. Experimental data for EBR-II fuel elements has shown that the primary, and perhaps the only significant factor affecting metal fuel reliability, is the pressure-induced stresses caused by fission gas release. Other metal fuel/cladding systems may perform similarly

  6. Lifetime spectroscopy a method of defect characterization in silicon for photovoltaic applications

    CERN Document Server

    Rein, Stefan

    2005-01-01

    Lifetime spectroscopy is one of the most sensitive diagnostic tools for the identification and analysis of impurities in semiconductors. Since it is based on the recombination process, it provides insight into precisely those defects that are relevant to semiconductor devices such as solar cells. This book introduces a transparent modeling procedure that allows a detailed theoretical evaluation of the spectroscopic potential of the different lifetime spectroscopic techniques. The various theoretical predictions are verified experimentally with the context of a comprehensive study on different metal impurities. The quality and consistency of the spectroscopic results, as explained here, confirms the excellent performance of lifetime spectroscopy.

  7. Analysis of positron lifetime spectra using quantified maximum entropy and a general linear filter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shukla, A.; Peter, M.; Hoffmann, L.

    1993-01-01

    Two new approaches are used to analyze positron annihilation lifetime spectra. A general linear filter is designed to filter the noise from lifetime data. The quantified maximum entropy method is used to solve the inverse problem of finding the lifetimes and intensities present in data. We determine optimal values of parameters needed for fitting using Bayesian methods. Estimates of errors are provided. We present results on simulated and experimental data with extensive tests to show the utility of this method and compare it with other existing methods. (orig.)

  8. Optimum lifetime structuring in silicon power diodes by means of various irradiation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hazdra, P.; Vobecky, J.; Brand, K.

    2002-01-01

    Application of radiation defects for adjustment of power diode parameters is demonstrated. Local lifetime control (LLC) by proton and alpha-particle irradiation with energies 1.8-12.1 MeV is compared with uniform lifetime killing by 4.5 MeV electrons. The influence of both the techniques on static and dynamic parameters of modified diodes is experimentally established and explained by means of state-of-the-art simulation system. Optimization means and limits of lifetime control by irradiation techniques are discussed, as well

  9. Detailed investigation of current transients from metastable pitting events on stainless steel - the transition to stability

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pistorius, P.C.; Burstein, G.T.

    1992-01-01

    Current transients which result from metastable pitting events (on Type 304 stainless steel in an acidic solution containing 1 M Cl - ) are presented. A criterion for the stable growth of open hemispherical pits is developed; the criterion states that the product of current density and pit depth must exceed a certain minimum value, to sustain rapid dissolution. Analysis of the transients from metastable pits shows that these pits fall short of this minimum, as do stable pits initially. The growth of these pits thus requires the presence of another barrier to diffusion, which is thought to be a remnant of the passive film; this forms a flawed cover over the pit mouth. When this cover ruptures under the influence of osmotic pressure, the pit repassivates. Pits growing at higher current densities approach the minimum requirement for stable growth more closely. A ''pitting potential'' results from the effect that metastable pits formed at more positive potentials grow at higher current densities, and are thus more likely to grow into stable pits. The effect of potential on the current density does not result from either activation control or ohmic control; rather, the pits grow under diffusion control. A change, with potential, of the type of pit site which can be activated, causes the potential dependence of the distribution of current densities in metastable pits. Although the distribution of current densities changes with potential, each metastable pit grows under diffusion control with a current density which is independent of the potential; this is confirmed by polarisation tests on growing metastable pits

  10. Lifetime measurement of ATF damping ring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Okugi, T.; Hayano, H.; Kubo, K.; Naito, T.; Terunuma, N.; Urakawa, J.; Zimmermann, F.

    1998-06-01

    The purpose of the ATF damping ring is the development of technologies for producing a low emittance beam required in future linear colliders such as JLC. The lifetime of the damping ring is very short (typically a few minutes). It is limited by elastic beam-gas scattering along with a small dynamic aperture, and by single intra-beam scattering (Touschek effect). The Touschek lifetime strongly depends upon the charge density of the beam, especially, the size of the vertical emittance. In this paper, the authors report the results of beam lifetime measurements in the ATF damping ring and the estimation of the vertical emittance from these measurements

  11. Lifetime of B hadrons from CDF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miao, Ting.

    1996-08-01

    A review of the lifetimes of B hadrons measured by the CDF collaboration at Fermilab is presented. The data corresponds to 110 pb -1 of p anti p collisions at √s = 1.8 TeV. The inclusive B hadron lifetime is measured using a high statistics sample of B → J/ΨΧ decays. Species specific lifetimes of the B + , B 0 , B 0 s , and Λ 0 b are determined using both fully reconstructed decays and partially reconstructed decays consisting of a lepton associated with a charm hadron

  12. Statistical Models and Methods for Lifetime Data

    CERN Document Server

    Lawless, Jerald F

    2011-01-01

    Praise for the First Edition"An indispensable addition to any serious collection on lifetime data analysis and . . . a valuable contribution to the statistical literature. Highly recommended . . ."-Choice"This is an important book, which will appeal to statisticians working on survival analysis problems."-Biometrics"A thorough, unified treatment of statistical models and methods used in the analysis of lifetime data . . . this is a highly competent and agreeable statistical textbook."-Statistics in MedicineThe statistical analysis of lifetime or response time data is a key tool in engineering,

  13. Study on lifetime of C stripping foils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hongbin; Lu Ziwei; Zhao Yongtao; Li Zhankui; Xu Hushan; Xiao Guoqing; Wang Yuyu; Zhang Ling; Li Longcai; Fang Yan

    2007-01-01

    The carbon stripping foils can be prepared with the AC and DC arc discharge methods, or even sandwiched with AC-DC alternative layers. The lifetime of the carbon stripping foils of 19 μg/cm 2 prepared with different methods and/or structures was measured. The factors affecting the bombarding lifetime of the carbon stripping foils, especially the method of the foil preparation and the structure of the carbon stripping foils, were discussed. It is observed that the foils prepared with the DC arc discharge method have a longer bombarding lifetime than those prepared with the AC arc discharge method. (authors)

  14. Formation of metastable tetragonal zirconia nanoparticles: Competitive influence of the dopants and surface state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorban, Oksana, E-mail: matscidep@aim.com [Donetsk Institute for Physics and Engineering named after A.A. Galkin of the NAS of Ukraine, Nauki av. 46, Kyiv 03680 (Ukraine); Synyakina, Susanna; Volkova, Galina; Gorban, Sergey; Konstantiova, Tetyana [Donetsk Institute for Physics and Engineering named after A.A. Galkin of the NAS of Ukraine, Nauki av. 46, Kyiv 03680 (Ukraine); Lyubchik, Svetlana, E-mail: s_lyubchik@yahoo.com [REQUIMTE, Universida de Nova de Lisboa, 2829-516 Caparica (Portugal)

    2015-12-15

    The effect of the surface modification of the nanoparticles of amorphous and crystalline partially stabilized zirconia by fluoride ions on stability of the metastable tetragonal phase was investigated. Based on the DSC, titrimetry and FTIR spectroscopy data it was proven that surface modification of the xerogel resulted from an exchange of the fluoride ions with the basic OH groups. The effect of the powder pre-calcination temperature before modification on the formation of metastable tetragonal phase in partially stabilized zirconia was investigated. It was shown that the main factor of tetragonal zirconia stabilization is the state of nanoparticles surface at pre-crystallization temperatures.

  15. Accelerated Recombination in Cold Dense Plasmas with Metastable Ions due to Resonant Deexcitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ralchenko, Yu.V.; Maron, M.

    2001-01-01

    In a recombining plasma the metastable states are known to accumulate population thereby slowing down the recombination process. We show that a proper account of the doubly-excited autoionizing states, populated through collisional 3-body recombination of metastable ions, results in a significant acceleration of recombination. 3-body recombination followed by collisional (de)excitations and autoionization effectively produces deexcitation via the following chain of elementary events: A fully time-dependent collisional-radiative (CR) modeling for stripped ions of carbon recombining in a cold dense plasma demonstrates an order of magnitude faster recombination of He-like ions. The CR model used in calculations is discussed in details

  16. Field Induced Magnetic Moments in a Metastable Iron-Mercury Alloy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, M.S.; Mørup, Steen; Linderoth, Søren

    1996-01-01

    The magnetic properties of a metastable iron-mercury alloy have been investigated in the temperature range from 5 to 200 K by Mossbauer spectroscopy and magnetization measurements. At low temperature the magnetic moment per iron atom is larger than af alpha-Fe. The effective spontaneous magnetic ....... It was found that the field-induced increase of the magnetic moment in the metastable iron-mecury alloy was about 0.06 Bohr magnetons per iron atom in the temperature range from 5 to 200 K for a field change from 6 to 12 T....

  17. Theory of hollow cathode arc discharges. II. Metastable state balance inside the cathode. Application to argon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferreira, C.M.; Delcroix, J.L.

    1975-01-01

    In the hollow cathode the metastable species are created by fast electrons, which are emitted by the cathode wall and injected in the plasma across a space-charge sheath, and destroyed by Maxwellian electrons. A detailed analysis of the different electronic destruction mechanisms in argon shows that the re-excitation up to 3p 5 4p states plays a very important role. Solutions of the metastable balance equation were obtained in a wide range of variation of the discharge parameters displaying the best conditions of operation to obtain high concentrations [fr

  18. The effect of grain size on the mechanical response of a metastable austenitic stainless steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sinclair C.W.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available The combination of high environmental resistance and excellent strength, elongation and energy absorption make austenitic stainless steels potentially attractive for transportation applications. In the case of metastable grades that undergo a strain induced martensitic transformation it is possible to significantly change the mechanical properties simply by changing the austenite grain size. Predicting such behaviour using physically based models is, however, extremely challenging. Here, some recent work on the coupling between grain size and mechanical response will be presented for a metastable AISI 301 LN stainless steel. Successes and continuing challenges will be highlighted.

  19. Electron-impact excitation out of the metastable levels of Krypton

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jung, R.O.; Stone, Tom E.; Boffard, John B.; Anderson, L.W.; Lin, Chun C.

    2005-01-01

    We have measured the electron-impact excitation cross sections out of the two metastable levels of Kr into the ten levels of the 4p 5 5p configuration. For a common 4p 5 5p final level, the peak excitation cross sections out of the two individual 4p 5 5s metastable levels are found to differ by 1 to 2 orders of magnitude. This is explained by the special features of the electronic structure of the two configurations involved. The peak cross sections are 10 to 1600 times larger than the corresponding peak cross sections out of the ground state

  20. Weighted oscillator strengths and lifetimes for the S IX and S X spectra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borges, F.O.; Cavalcanti, G.H.; Trigueiros, A.G.

    2003-01-01

    The weighted oscillator strengths (gf) and the lifetimes presented in this work were carried out in a multi configuration Hartree-Fock relativistic (HFR) approach. In this calculation, the electrostatic parameters were optimized by a least-squares procedure, in order to improve the adjustment to experimental energy levels. This method produces gf-values that are in better agreement with intensity observations and lifetime values that are closer to the experimental ones. In this work, we presented all the experimentally known electric dipole S IX and S X spectral lines

  1. Low cycle lifetime assessment of Al2024 alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Khan, Shehzad Saleem

    2012-07-01

    The 2024-T351 aluminium alloy is extensively used for fabricating aircraft parts. This alloy shows a relatively low ductility at room temperature and is generally heat treated in various conditions to suit particular applications. The present study experimentally and numerically analyses the damage mechanism of the aforementioned alloy subjected to multi-axial stress states. The purpose of this work is to predict the cyclic lifetime of the considered alloy, based on the local approach of damage evolution using continuum damage modelling (CDM). The experimental program involves different kinds of specimens and loading conditions. According to the experimental observations, the material response of Al2024 is highly direction-dependent showing a material behaviour between ductile and brittle. In particular, in its corresponding (small transversal) S-direction, the material behaviour can be characterised as quasi-brittle. For the modelling of such a mechanical response, a novel, fully coupled isotropic ductile-brittle continuum damage mechanics model is proposed. Since the resulting model shows a large number of material parameters, an efficient, hybrid parameter identification strategy is discussed. Within this strategy, as many parameters as possible have been determined a priori by exploiting analogies to established theories (like Paris law), while the remaining free unknowns are computed by solving an optimisation problem. Comparisons between the experimentally observed and the numerically simulated lifetimes reveal the prediction capability of the proposed model. (orig.)

  2. NEW APPROACHES: Measurement of the mean lifetime of cosmic ray muons in the A-level laboratory

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dunne, Peter; Costich, David; O'Sullivan, Sean

    1998-09-01

    The Turning Points in Physics module from the NEAB A-level Modular Physics syllabus requires students to have an understanding of relativistic time dilation and offers the measurement of the mean lifetime of cosmic ray muons as an example of supporting experimental evidence. This article describes a direct measurement of muon lifetime carried out in the A-level laboratory.

  3. RDM lifetime measurements in 187Tl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chamoli, S.K.; Joshi, P.; Kumar, A.; Govil, I.M.; Mukherjee, G.; Singh, R.P.; Muralithar, S.; Bhowmik, R.K.

    2003-01-01

    The present work is an attempt to study the shape changes in 187 Tl through a measurement of electromagnetic transition probabilities of the high spin states. The Doppler shifted recoil distance technique was used to measure the lifetimes

  4. Improved b lifetime measurement from MAC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ford, W.T.

    1984-03-01

    Two recent publications, from the MAC and Mark II collaborations, have reported the somewhat surprising result that the lifetime of particles made up of b quarks is in the 1 to 2 picosecond range, or somewhat longer than the lifetimes of charm particles. Although the charm decays are favored transitions while those of b particles depend upon off-diagonal elements of the weak flavor mixing matrix, the smallness of the b decay rates in face of the large available phase space indicates that the off-diagonal elements are indeed very small. The possibility for complete determination of the mixing matrix was brought significantly nearer by the availability of the lifetime information; what is needed now is to reduce the uncertainty of the measurements, which was about 33% for both experiments. We describe here an extension of the b lifetime study with the MAC detector, incorporating some new data and improvements in the analysis. 12 references

  5. Lifetime measurements of excited Co I levels

    CERN Document Server

    Klotz, W D; Gobel, L H

    1977-01-01

    In the region of 3500 AA the lifetimes of eight excited Cobalt I levels have been measured by means of the zero field level crossing method. The measured lifetimes belong to the odd configurations 3d/sup 7/4s4p and 3d/sup 8/4p and are of the accuracy of about 5%. The hyperfine structure of levels with I not=J has to be taken into account in evaluating lifetimes from level crossing data, because the nuclear spin of the natural isotope /sup 59/Co is I=7/2. Therefore the influence of the line profile of the exciting resonance lines on the lifetimes has been investigated. The results are compared with those of other authors. Furthermore absolute oscillator strengths were calculated with known branching ratios and a new absolute scale has been established. (23 refs).

  6. Quantum lifetime in electron storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, A.W.

    1977-02-01

    One of the mechanisms which contribute to beam lifetime in electron storage rings is the quantum emission of energetic photons causing particles to be lost from the rf bucket. This quantum lifetime is among other things important in defining the required aperture in a storage ring. An approximate expression of quantum lifetime, predicted by a one-dimensional model which takes into account only the betatron motion, has been used in most storage ring designs. If the beam is aperture-limited at a position with nonzero dispersion, both the betatron and synchrotron motions have to be included and a two-dimensional model must be used. An exact expression of quantum lifetime for the one-dimensional case and an approximate expression for the two-dimensional case are given

  7. Quantum lifetime in electron storage rings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chao, A.W.

    1977-01-01

    One of the mechanisms which contributes to beam lifetime in electron storage rings is the quantum emission of energetic photons causing particles to be lost from the rf bucket. This quantum lifetime is among other things important in defining the required aperture in a storage ring. An approximate expression of quantum lifetime, predicted by a one-dimensional model which takes into account only the betatron motion, has been used in most storage ring designs. If the beam is aperture-limited at a position with nonzero dispersion, both the betatron and synchrotron motions have to be included, and a two-dimensional model must be used. An exact expression of quantum lifetime for the one-dimensional case and an approximate expression for the two-dimensional case are given

  8. Remote UV Fluorescence Lifetime Spectrometer, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The goal of this project is to develop, demonstrate, and deliver to NASA an innovative, portable, and power efficient Remote UV Fluorescence Lifetime Spectrometer...

  9. Lifetime measurements of hadrons containing heavy quarks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Forden, G.E.

    1985-01-01

    Recent lifetime measurements of heavy particles at PETRA and PEP are reviewed. A comparison of the methods used is given. The world averages for the lifetimes of the D 0 and D +- mesons are found to be (tau/dub D/ 0 ) - 3.97 +/- 0.3 x 10 -13 sec and (tau/dub D +-/) = 8.6 +/- 0.7 x 10 -13 sec. This difference in lifetimes is discussed in light of recent information about exclusive decays. The world average for the lifetime of bottom hadrons is determined to be (tau/sub b/) = 11.0 +/- 1.5 x 10 -13 sec and new estimates for the b quark mixing elements, absolute value V/sub bu/ and absolute value V/sub bc/, are given

  10. Study of total ionization by {alpha} particles, in pure gases and gaseous mixtures containing metastable atoms, as a function of temperature; Etude de l'ionisation totale par les paricules {alpha}, dans les gaz purs et les melanges gazeux contenant des atomes metastables, en fonction de la temperature

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bristeau, P [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1969-07-01

    Experiments have been carried out on the total ionization by alpha particles, in pure gases and gaseous mixtures containing metastable atoms, as a function of temperature. Using a different experimental method, the results for the mean ionization energy at 300 K given by Jesse in 1953 have been confirmed to within 1 per cent. It is established that in pure gases the mean energy W required to form a pair of ions remains constant as the temperature varies from 77 to 300 K. It is shown that there is a temperature effect for W in binary gas mixtures of the type A-B containing meta-stable atoms A{sup *} and an 'impurity' B. A systematic study is made of the change {delta}W in W as a function of the temperature and of the B 'impurity' concentration in the mixtures Ne - Ar, Ne - Kr, Ne - H{sub 2}, Ne - N{sub 2}, Ne - CH{sub 4} and He - Ar. Experiments have been carried out on a ternary gas mixture of the type A - B - C, where C is a second ionizable 'impurity' added to the binary mixture A - B; they show the existence of excited atoms B{sup *} formed from the 'impurity' B. Finally, it is shown that the amount of metastable atoms formed in a pure gas must be very close to the number N{sub 0} of ion pairs, and that there must exist a correlation between the number N{sub 0} of ion pairs and the number {approx_equal} N{sub 0} of metastable atoms created in the pure rare gases. (author) [French] On realise des experiences sur l'ionisation totale par les particules alpha, dans les gaz purs et les melanges gazeux contenant des atomes metastables, en fonction de la temperature. Avec une methode experimentale differente, on retrouve a mieux que 1 pour cent pres les valeurs de l'energie moyenne d'ionisation que JESSE a obtenues en 1953 et a 300 K. On etablit que dans les gaz purs, l'energie moyenne W pour creer une paire d'ions demeure constante, quand la temperature varie entre 77 et 300 K. On met en evidence un effet de temperature sur W, dans les melanges gazeux binaires du type

  11. Lifetime measurement in {sup 195}Po

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grahn, T.; Page, R.D. [University of Liverpool, Department of Physics, Oliver Lodge Laboratory, Liverpool (United Kingdom); Dewald, A.; Jolie, J.; Melon, B.; Pissulla, T. [Universitaet zu Koeln, Institut fuer Kernphysik, Koeln (Germany); Greenlees, P.T.; Jakobsson, U.; Jones, P.; Julin, R.; Juutinen, S.; Ketelhut, S.; Leino, M.; Nyman, M.; Peura, P.; Rahkila, P.; Saren, J.; Scholey, C.; Sorri, J.; Uusitalo, J. [University of Jyvaeskylae, Department of Physics, P.O. Box 35, Jyvaeskylae (Finland); Kroell, T.; Kruecken, R.; Maierbeck, P. [TU Muenchen, Physik-Department E12, Garching (Germany)

    2009-03-15

    The lifetime of the 17/2{sup +} yrast state in {sup 195}Po has been measured using the recoil distance Doppler-shift technique to be {tau}=43(11) ps. The lifetime was extracted from the singles {gamma}-ray spectra obtained by using the recoil-decay tagging method. The present work provides more information of the coupling schemes, shapes and configuration mixing in neutron-deficient odd-mass Po nuclei. (orig.)

  12. Masses and lifetimes of B hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kkkroll, I.J.

    1996-02-01

    The latest measurements of the masses and lifetimes of weakly decaying B hadrons from experiments at e + e - and p bar p colliders are presented. These measurements include the lifetimes of the bar B o , bar B o s , B - and b baryons, as well as searches for the B c meson. The observation of B*, p-wave B mesons (B**), and excited b baryons using inclusive and exclusive B hadron reconstruction are discussed. Results on b quark flavour tagging are given

  13. Fluorescence lifetime measurement of radical ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ichinose, Nobuyuki; Kinugasa, Jun-ichiro; Hagiri, Masahide; Nakayama, Toshihiro; Murakami, Hiroshi; Kishimoto, Maki; Daido, Hiroyuki

    2004-01-01

    One-photonic excitation of a charge transfer complex of hexamethoxybenzene (HMB) and nitrosonium tetrafluoroborate (NO + BF 4 - ) in acetonitrile afforded fluorescences emission from excited radical cation of HMB (HMB + *). Lifetime of the excited radical ion species was measured to be 7 ps by the pump-probe transient absorption technique. The lifetime was much shorter than that of free radical ion (63 ps), indicating the presence of an interaction between HMB + * and NO in the excited complex. (author)

  14. Λc photoproduction and lifetime measurement

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amendolia, S.R.; Bagliesi, G.; Batignani, G.; Bertolucci, E.; Bettoni, D.; Bizetti, A.; Bosisio, L.; Bottigli, U.; Bradaschia, C.; Dell'Orso, M.; Fidecaro, F.; Foa, L.; Focardi, E.; Giannetti, P.; Giorgi, M.A.; Marrocchesi, P.S.; Menzione, A.; Raso, G.; Ristori, L.; Scribano, A.; Stefanini, A.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Triggiani, G.; Beck, G.A.; Bologna, G.; D'Ettorre Piazzoli, B.; Picchi, P.; Budinich, M.; Liello, F.; Milotti, E.; Rolandi, L.; Carter, J.; Green, M.G.; Landon, M.P.J.; March, P.V.; Sacks, L.; Sanjari, A.H.; Strong, J.A.; Ciocci, M.A.; Enorini, M.; Fabbri, F.L.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Simonelli, L.; Spillantini, P.; Zallo, A.

    1987-01-01

    A measurement of the lifetime of the Λ c baryon photoproduced coherently of a germanium-silicon target is presented. A signal of Λ c → ΔΚ * → pKππ 0 has been observed and the two different decay diagrams for this process are compared. A sample of 9 Λ c decays give a lifetime of 1.1(+0.8-0.4)10 13 s. (orig.)

  15. Measurement of the Omega0(c) lifetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iori, M.

    2007-01-01

    The authors report a precise measurement of the (Omega) c 0 lifetime. The data were taken by the SELEX (E781) experiment using 600 GeV/c Σ - , π - and p beams. The measurement has been made using 83 ± 19 reconstructed (Omega) c 0 in the (Omega) - π - π + π + and (Omega) - π + decay modes. The lifetime of the (Omega) c 0 is measured to be 65 ± 13(stat) ± 9(sys) fs

  16. The total lifetime costs of smoking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, S.R.; Prescott, E.; Sørensen, T.I.A.

    2004-01-01

    Net costs of smoking in a lifetime perspective and, hence, the economic interests in antismoking policies have been questioned. It has been proposed that the health-related costs of smoking are balanced by smaller expenditure due to shorter life expectancy.......Net costs of smoking in a lifetime perspective and, hence, the economic interests in antismoking policies have been questioned. It has been proposed that the health-related costs of smoking are balanced by smaller expenditure due to shorter life expectancy....

  17. Positron lifetime studies on thorium oxide powders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Upadhyaya, D.D.; Muraleedharan, R.V.; Sharma, B.D.

    1982-01-01

    Positron lifetime spectra have been studied for ThO 2 powders, calcined at different temperatures and having different particle sizes. Three lifetime components could be resolved, the longest component being of low intensity. An observed strong dependence on the particle size of the annihilation process and the variation of positronium diffusion constant is explained on the basis of defect density variations in these powders. (author)

  18. Measurements of heavy quark and lepton lifetimes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaros, J.A.

    1985-02-01

    The PEP/PETRA energy range has proved to be well-suited for the study of the lifetimes of hadrons containing the b and c quarks and the tau lepton for several reasons. First, these states comprise a large fraction of the total interaction rate in e + e - annihilation and can be cleanly identified. Second, the storage rings have operated at high luminosity and so produced these exotic states copiously. And finally, thanks to the interplay of the Fermi coupling strength, the quark and lepton masses, and the beam energy, the expected decay lengths are in the 1/2 mm range and so are comparatively easy to measure. This pleasant coincidence of cleanly identified and abundant signal with potentially large effects has made possible the first measurements of two fundamental weak couplings, tau → nu/sub tau/W and b → cW. These measurements have provided a sharp test of the standard model and allowed, for the first time, the full determination of the magnitudes of the quark mixing matrix. This paper reviews the lifetime studies made at PEP during the past year. It begins with a brief review of the three detectors, DELCO, MAC and MARK II, which have reported lifetime measurements. Next it discusses two new measurements of the tau lifetime, and briefly reviews a measurement of the D 0 lifetime. Finally, it turns to measurements of the B lifetime, which are discussed in some detail. 18 references, 14 figures, 1 table

  19. Persistence of metastable vortex lattice domains in MgB2 in the presence of vortex motion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rastovski, C; Schlesinger, K J; Gannon, W J; Dewhurst, C D; DeBeer-Schmitt, L; Zhigadlo, N D; Karpinski, J; Eskildsen, M R

    2013-09-06

    Recently, extensive vortex lattice metastability was reported in MgB2 in connection with a second-order rotational phase transition. However, the mechanism responsible for these well-ordered metastable vortex lattice phases is not well understood. Using small-angle neutron scattering, we studied the vortex lattice in MgB2 as it was driven from a metastable to the ground state through a series of small changes in the applied magnetic field. Our results show that metastable vortex lattice domains persist in the presence of substantial vortex motion and directly demonstrate that the metastability is not due to vortex pinning. Instead, we propose that it is due to the jamming of counterrotated vortex lattice domains which prevents a rotation to the ground state orientation.

  20. A Statistical Study on the Effect of Hydrostatic Pressure on Metastable Pitting Corrosion of X70 Pipeline Steel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Zixuan; Kan, Bo; Li, Jinxu; Qiao, Lijie; Volinsky, Alex A; Su, Yanjing

    2017-11-14

    Hydrostatic pressure effects on pitting initiation and propagation in X70 steel are investigated by evaluating metastable pitting probability using electrochemical methods and immersion corrosion tests in containing chlorine ion solution. Potentiodynamic tests indicated that hydrostatic pressure can decrease the breakdown potential and lead to a reduced transpassivity region. Metastable test results revealed that hydrostatic pressure can increase metastable pitting formation frequency and promote stabilization of metastable pitting growth. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) results indicate that Hydrostatic pressure decreases the charge transfer resistance and increases the dissolution rate within the cavities. Corrosion test results also indicated that pitting initiation and propagation are accelerated by hydrostatic pressure. Result validity was verified by evaluating metastable pitting to predict pitting corrosion resistance.

  1. Influence of cycle number, temperature and manufacturing process on deformation-induced martensite in meta-stable austenitic stainless steels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kalkhof, D.; Niffenegger, M.; Grosse, M.; Bart, G.

    2002-01-01

    During cyclic loading of austenitic stainless steel, microstructural changes occur, which affect both the mechanical and the physical properties. Typical features are the rearrangement of dislocations and, in some cases, a deformation-induced martensitic phase transformation. In our investigation martensite formation was used as an indication for material degradation due to fatigue. Knowledge about mechanisms and influencing parameters of the martensitic transformation process is essential for the application in a lifetime monitoring system. The investigations showed that for a given meta-stable austenitic stainless steel the deformation-induced martensite depends on the applied strain amplitude, the cycle number (accumulated plastic strain) and the temperature. It was demonstrated that the volume fraction of martensite continuously increases with the cycle number. Therefore, martensite content could be used for indication of the fatigue usage. According to the Coffin-Manson relation the dependence of the martensite content on the cycle number could be described with a power law. The exponent was determined to be equal to 0.5 for the applied loading and temperature conditions. The influence of temperature on deformation-induced martensite was considered by means of a thermodynamic relation. Furthermore, the initial material state (initial defect density) played an important role for the martensite formation rate. Material properties and microstructures were characterised by metallography, neutron diffraction, and advanced magnetic non-destructive techniques. In order to investigate the correlation between the martensite content in the austenitic matrix and magnetic properties, the magnetic susceptibility was determined. Furthermore, a high sensitive Giant Magneto Resistant sensor was used to visualize the martensite distribution at the surface of the fatigue specimens. All applied techniques, neutron diffraction and advanced magnetic methods allowed the detection

  2. Lifetime measurements of charmed mesons with high resolution silicon detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rijk, G.A.F. de.

    1986-01-01

    In this thesis an experiment is described to measure the lifetimes of pseudoscalar charmed mesons. The experiment uses a negatively charged unseparated hadron beam of 200 GeV. The experiment is carried out with a magnetic spectrometer preceded by a beam telescope, an active target and a vertex telescope, all consisting of Si microstrip detectors. The spectrometer consists of two spectrometer magnets, 48 planes of drift chambers and 3 Cerenkov hodoscopes for the determination and identification of charged secondaries. The lifetimes of the charmed mesons are determined by measuring the length of their flight path, their momentum and their mass. The results, which are described in the thesis, are based on the analysis of part of the collected data. The production rates in the K - beam and in the π - beam are found to be in the same order of magnitude within the x F range covered. Previous experimental data on the lifetimes of charmed particles are reviewed. A theoretical interpretation is presented of the measured decay properties. (Auth.)

  3. Quantum mechanical look at the radioactive-like decay of metastable dark energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Szydlowski, Marek [Jagiellonian University, Astronomical Observatory, Krakow (Poland); Jagiellonian University, Mark Kac Complex Systems Research Centre, Krakow (Poland); Stachowski, Aleksander [Jagiellonian University, Astronomical Observatory, Krakow (Poland); Urbanowski, Krzysztof [University of Zielona Gora, Institute of Physics, Zielona Gora (Poland)

    2017-12-15

    We derive the Shafieloo, Hazra, Sahni and Starobinsky (SHSS) phenomenological formula for the radioactive-like decay of metastable dark energy directly from the principles of quantum mechanics. To this aim we use the Fock-Krylov theory of quantum unstable states. We obtain deeper insight on the decay process as having three basic phases: the phase of radioactive decay, the next phase of damping oscillations, and finally the phase of power-law decay. We consider the cosmological model with matter and dark energy in the form of decaying metastable dark energy and study its dynamics in the framework of non-conservative cosmology with an interacting term determined by the running cosmological parameter. We study the cosmological implications of metastable dark energy and estimate the characteristic time of ending of the radioactive-like decay epoch to be 2.2 x 10{sup 4} of the present age of the Universe. We also confront the model with astronomical data which show that the model is in good agreement with the observations. Our general conclusion is that we are living in the epoch of the radioactive-like decay of metastable dark energy which is a relict of the quantum age of the Universe. (orig.)

  4. Decay of Metastable State with Account of Agglomeration and Relaxation Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Victor Kurasov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Theoretical description of the metastable phase decay kinetics in the presence of specific connections between the embryos of small sizes has been given. The theory of the decay kinetics in the presence of relaxation processes is constructed in analytical manner. The m-mers nucleation is investigated and the global kinetics of decay is also constructed in this case analytically.

  5. Correction for Metastability in the Quantification of PID in Thin-film Module Testing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hacke, Peter; Spataru, Sergiu; Johnston, Steve

    2017-01-01

    A fundamental change in the analysis for the accelerated stress testing of thin-film modules is proposed, whereby power changes due to metastability and other effects that may occur due to the thermal history are removed from the power measurement that we obtain as a function of the applied stres...

  6. Metastable states in antiprotonic helium atoms an island stability in a sea of continuum

    CERN Document Server

    Korobov, V I

    2002-01-01

    In this contribution we consider a phenomenon of metastable states in antiprotonic helium atoms, precise spectroscopy of these states and a present-day study of the electromagnetic properties of antiprotons. Calculation of nonrelativistic energies, relativistic and QED corrections as well as the fine and hyperfine structure and the magnetic moment of an antiproton are the main parts of this study. Refs. 22 (nevyjel)

  7. Magnetic helices as metastable states of finite XY ferromagnetic chains: An analytical study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Popov, Alexander P.; Pini, Maria Gloria

    2018-04-01

    We investigated a simple but non trivial model, consisting of a chain of N classical XY spins with nearest neighbor ferromagnetic interaction, where each of the two end-point spins is assumed to be exchange-coupled to a fully-pinned fictitious spin. In the mean field approximation, the system might be representative of a soft ferromagnetic film sandwiched between two magnetically hard layers. We show that, while the ground state is ferromagnetic and collinear, the system can attain non-collinear metastable states in the form of magnetic helices. The helical solutions and their stability were studied analytically in the absence of an external magnetic field. There are four possible classes of solutions. Only one class is metastable, and its helical states contain an integer number of turns. Among the remaining unstable classes, there is a class of helices which contain an integer number of turns. Therefore, an integer number of turns in a helical configuration is a necessary, but not a sufficient, condition for metastability. These results may be useful to devise future applications of metastable magnetic helices as energy-storing elements.

  8. Relaxation height in energy landscapes : an application to multiple metastable states

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cirillo, E.N.M.; Nardi, F.R.

    2012-01-01

    The study of systems with multiple (not necessarily degenerate) metastable states presents subtle difficulties from the mathematical point of view related to the variational problem that has to be solved in these cases. We introduce the notion of relaxation height in a general energy landscape and

  9. Fragmentations and rearrangements of metastable [C2H5OS]+ ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Marcel; Oudman, D; Weringa, WD

    1992-01-01

    Several [C2H5OS]+ ions with different structures were generated from the appropriate precursors and their metastable ion spectra were determined. Deuterium labelled analogues of some of the [C2H5OS]+ ions were used to elucidate the nature of the observed fragmentations and their mechanisms.

  10. An ultracold, optically trapped mixture of 87Rb and metastable 4He atoms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flores, A.S.; Mishra, H.P.; Vassen, Wim; Knoop, S.

    2017-01-01

    We report on the realization of an ultracold (<25 μK) mixture of rubidium (87Rb) and metastable triplet helium (4He) in an optical dipole trap. Our scheme involves laser cooling in a dual-species magneto-optical trap, simultaneous MW- and RF-induced forced evaporative cooling in a quadrupole

  11. Metal-atom fluorescence from the quenching of metastable rare gases by metal carbonyls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollingsworth, W.E.

    1982-11-01

    A flowing afterglow apparatus was used to study the metal fluorescence resulting from the quenching of metastable rare-gas states by metal carbonyls. The data from the quenching or argon, neon, and helium by iron and nickel carbonyl agreed well with a restricted degree of freedom model indicating a concerted bond-breaking dissociation

  12. Capability of X-ray diffraction for the study of microstructure of metastable thin films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Rafaja

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Metastable phases are often used to design materials with outstanding properties, which cannot be achieved with thermodynamically stable compounds. In many cases, the metastable phases are employed as precursors for controlled formation of nanocomposites. This contribution shows how the microstructure of crystalline metastable phases and the formation of nanocomposites can be concluded from X-ray diffraction experiments by taking advantage of the high sensitivity of X-ray diffraction to macroscopic and microscopic lattice deformations and to the dependence of the lattice deformations on the crystallographic direction. The lattice deformations were determined from the positions and from the widths of the diffraction lines, the dependence of the lattice deformations on the crystallographic direction from the anisotropy of the line shift and the line broadening. As an example of the metastable system, the supersaturated solid solution of titanium nitride and aluminium nitride was investigated, which was prepared in the form of thin films by using cathodic arc evaporation of titanium and aluminium in a nitrogen atmosphere. The microstructure of the (Ti,AlN samples under study was tailored by modifying the [Al]/[Ti] ratio in the thin films and the surface mobility of the deposited species.

  13. Metastability-exchange optical pumping of 3He for neutron polarizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gentile, T.R.; Thompson, A.K.; Snow, W.M.

    1995-01-01

    Research is underway at NIST and IU to develop neutron polarizers that are based on polarized 3 He. Such polarizers rely on the strong spin dependence of the cross section for neutron capture by polarized 3 He. Two methods can produce the high density of polarized 3 He gas (10 19 -10 20 cm -3 ) required for an effective neutron polarizer: spin-exchange optical pumping, which is performed directly at high pressure (1-10 bar), and metastability-exchange optical pumping, in which the gas is polarized at low pressure (1 mbar) and then compressed. While we are pursuing both methods, progress in the metastable method will be discussed. The features of the metastable method are the high rate at which the gas can be polarized and the inherent separation of the optical pumping and target cells. In a landmark achievement, researchers at the Univ. of Mainz have developed a piston compressor that can fill a 130 cm 3 cell to a pressure of 7 bar of 45% polarized 3 He gas in 2 hours. We plan to develop a compressor and test it at the NIST Cold Neutron Research Facility. We have constructed a metastable-pumping apparatus at NIST and have obtained 76% polarization with a pumping rate of 1.2 x 10 18 atoms/sec in a 0.4 mbar, 270 cm 3 cell

  14. Thermal decay rate of a metastable state with two degrees of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    I I Gontchar

    2017-06-01

    Jun 1, 2017 ... expected to agree with the long time limit of the escape rate obtained using ..... distribution with zero averages and variances equal to 2. Although in the fission ... Here (t) is the probability that the metastable state has ..... the (kt)−1/2 dependence and has been adjusted to εR at some intermediate points.

  15. High-power frequency-stabilized laser for laser cooling of metastable helium at 389 nm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koelemeij, J.C.J.; Hogervorst, W.; Vassen, W.

    2005-01-01

    A high-power, frequency-stabilized laser for cooling of metastable helium atoms using the 2 S13 →3 P23 transition at 389 nm has been developed. The 389 nm light is generated by frequency doubling of a titanium:sapphire laser in an external enhancement cavity containing a lithium-triborate nonlinear

  16. Metastability in reversible diffusion processes II. Precise asymptotics for small eigenvalues

    CERN Document Server

    Bovier, A; Klein, M

    2002-01-01

    We continue the analysis of the problem of metastability for reversible diffusion processes, initiated in \\cite{BEGK3}, with a precise analysis of the low-lying spectrum of the generator. Recall that we are considering processes with generators of the form $-\\e \\Delta +\

  17. Metastability exchange optical pumping in 3He gas up to 30 mT. Efficiency measurements and evidence of laser-induced nuclear relaxation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Batz, Marion

    2011-01-01

    Advances in metastability exchange optical pumping (MEOP) of 3 He at high laser powers, with its various applications, but also at high gas pressures p 3 and high magnetic field strengths B, have provided strong motivation for revisiting the understanding and for investigating the limitations of this powerful technique. For this purpose, we present systematic experimental and theoretical studies of efficiency and of relaxation mechanisms in B≤30 mT and p 3 =0.63-2.45 mbar. 3 He nuclear polarisation is measured by light absorption in longitudinal configuration where weak light beams at 1083 nm parallel to magnetic field and cell axis with opposite circular polarisations are used to probe the distribution of populations in the metastable state. This method is systematically tested to evaluate potential systematic biases and is shown to be reliable for the study of OP dynamics despite the redistribution of populations by OP light. Nuclear polarisation loss associated to the emission of polarised light by the plasma discharge used for MEOP is found to decrease above 10 mT, as expected, due to hyperfine decoupling in highly excited states. However, this does not lead to improved MEOP efficiency at high laser power. We find clear evidence of additional laser-induced relaxation instead. The strong OP-enhanced polarisation losses, currently limiting MEOP performances, are quantitatively investigated using an angular momentum budget approach and a recently developed comprehensive model that describes the combined effects of OP, ME and relaxation, validated by comparison to experimental results.

  18. Theoretical investigation of existence of meta-stability in iron and cobalt clusters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Habte Dulla; Zhang, Qinfang; Wang, Baolin

    2018-03-01

    Nowadays considerable attention has been given for researches on magnetic properties of transition metal clusters (specifically FeN and CoN). This is because these clusters offer big hopes for the possibility of presenting significant magnetic anisotropy energy which is critical for technological applications. This study intends to find out the causes for the existence of the two states (ground and meta-stable) in Iron and Cobalt clusters. The study also explains the role of valence electrons for the existence of magnetism in the two states by using the concept of ionization potential, electron dipole polarizabilities, chemical hardness and softness of the clusters. Assuming that, when all itinerant electrons are at s-level and also at the d-level (ns = n andns → 0.) the ground state and meta-stable state energies with distinct energy minima are (Egs = l / 2 n +εc n - 2μB hn andEms =εd n - gμB hn) respectively. The findings also showed that polarizability of small cluster of the specified elements are increased compared with the bulk value, which means that there is an effective increase in the cluster radius due to the spilling out of the electronic charge. Furthermore, it is obvious that 4s electrons are more delocalized than the 3d electrons so that they spill out more than the 3d electrons. This leads to the conclusion that 4s electrons are primarily responsible for the enhanced polarizabilities and for shell structure effects. This indicates that polarizability at the meta-stable state is less than that of the ground state i.e. the meta-stable state loses its s electron. Therefore the two minima represent a ground state of configuration 3 d↑5 3 d↓ 2 + δ 4s 2 - δ with energy Egs and meta-stable state of configuration 3 d↑5 3 d↓ 3 + δ 4s 1 - δ with energy Ems for Co clusters and a ground state configuration 3 d↑5 3 d↓ 1 + δ 4s 2 - δ with energy Egs an meta-stable state of configuration 3 d↑5 3 d↓ 2 + δ 4s 1 - δ with energy Ems for

  19. Electron Beam Polarization Measurement Using Touschek Lifetime Technique

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sun, Changchun; /Duke U., DFELL; Li, Jingyi; /Duke U., DFELL; Mikhailov, Stepan; /Duke U., DFELL; Popov, Victor; /Duke U., DFELL; Wu, Wenzhong; /Duke U., DFELL; Wu, Ying; /Duke U., DFELL; Chao, Alex; /SLAC; Xu, Hong-liang; /Hefei, NSRL; Zhang, Jian-feng; /Hefei, NSRL

    2012-08-24

    Electron beam loss due to intra-beam scattering, the Touschek effect, in a storage ring depends on the electron beam polarization. The polarization of an electron beam can be determined from the difference in the Touschek lifetime compared with an unpolarized beam. In this paper, we report on a systematic experimental procedure recently developed at Duke FEL laboratory to study the radiative polarization of a stored electron beam. Using this technique, we have successfully observed the radiative polarization build-up of an electron beam in the Duke storage ring, and determined the equilibrium degree of polarization and the time constant of the polarization build-up process.

  20. First wall lifetime of the near term fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matera, R.; Botti, S.; Cerrai, G.

    1985-01-01

    A sensitivity analysis of the influence of the operating conditions and of the design parameters over the first wall lifetime was performed by means of the computer program smile. In the range of operating conditions typical of an experimental fusion reactor like NET/INTOR and for a type AISI 316 stainless steel structural material, fatigue damage and fatigue crack growth are the limiting failure mechanisms of the first wall. The analysis shows in graphical form the limits of the allowable range of operating conditions or of design parameters

  1. Corrosion strength monitoring of NPP component residual lifetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Denisov, V.G.; Belous, V.N.; Arzhaev, A.I.; Shuvalov, V.A.

    1994-01-01

    Importance of corrosion and fatigue monitoring; types of corrosion determine the NPP equipment life; why automated on-line corrosion and fatigue monitoring is preferable; major stages of lifetime monitoring system development; major groups of sensors for corrosion and strength monitoring system; high temperature on-line monitoring of water chemistry and corrosion; the RBMK-1000 NPP unit automatic water chemistry and corrosion monitoring scheme; examples of pitting, crevice and general corrosion forecast calculations on the basis of corrosion monitoring data; scheme of an experimental facility for water chemistry and corrosion monitoring sensor testing. 2 figs., 4 tabs

  2. INTERSTELLAR METASTABLE HELIUM ABSORPTION AS A PROBE OF THE COSMIC-RAY IONIZATION RATE

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Indriolo, Nick; McCall, Benjamin J.; Hobbs, L. M.; Hinkle, K. H.

    2009-01-01

    The ionization rate of interstellar material by cosmic rays has been a major source of controversy, with different estimates varying by three orders of magnitude. Observational constraints of this rate have all depended on analyzing the chemistry of various molecules that are produced following cosmic-ray ionization, and in many cases these analyses contain significant uncertainties. Even in the simplest case (H + 3 ), the derived ionization rate depends on an (uncertain) estimate of the absorption path length. In this paper, we examine the feasibility of inferring the cosmic-ray ionization rate using the 10830 A absorption line of metastable helium. Observations through the diffuse clouds toward HD 183143 are presented, but yield only an upper limit on the metastable helium column density. A thorough investigation of He + chemistry reveals that only a small fraction of He + will recombine into the triplet state and populate the metastable level. In addition, excitation to the triplet manifold of helium by secondary electrons must be accounted for as it is the dominant mechanism which produces He* in some environments. Incorporating these various formation and destruction pathways, we derive new equations for the steady state abundance of metastable helium. Using these equations in concert with our observations, we find ζ He -15 s -1 , an upper limit about 5 times larger than the ionization rate previously inferred for this sight line using H + 3 . While observations of interstellar He* are extremely difficult at present, and the background chemistry is not nearly as simple as previously thought, potential future observations of metastable helium would provide an independent check on the cosmic-ray ionization rate derived from H + 3 in diffuse molecular clouds, and, perhaps more importantly, allow the first direct measurements of the ionization rate in diffuse atomic clouds.

  3. Numerical simulation and experimental validation of coiled adiabatic capillary tubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcia-Valladares, O. [Centro de Investigacion en Energia, Universidad Nacional Autonoma de Mexico (UNAM), Apdo. Postal 34, 62580 Temixco, Morelos (Mexico)

    2007-04-15

    The objective of this study is to extend and validate the model developed and presented in previous works [O. Garcia-Valladares, C.D. Perez-Segarra, A. Oliva, Numerical simulation of capillary tube expansion devices behaviour with pure and mixed refrigerants considering metastable region. Part I: mathematical formulation and numerical model, Applied Thermal Engineering 22 (2) (2002) 173-182; O. Garcia-Valladares, C.D. Perez-Segarra, A. Oliva, Numerical simulation of capillary tube expansion devices behaviour with pure and mixed refrigerants considering metastable region. Part II: experimental validation and parametric studies, Applied Thermal Engineering 22 (4) (2002) 379-391] to coiled adiabatic capillary tube expansion devices working with pure and mixed refrigerants. The discretized governing equations are coupled using an implicit step by step method. A special treatment has been implemented in order to consider transitions (subcooled liquid region, metastable liquid region, metastable two-phase region and equilibrium two-phase region). All the flow variables (enthalpies, temperatures, pressures, vapor qualities, velocities, heat fluxes, etc.) together with the thermophysical properties are evaluated at each point of the grid in which the domain is discretized. The numerical model allows analysis of aspects such as geometry, type of fluid (pure substances and mixtures), critical or non-critical flow conditions, metastable regions, and transient aspects. Comparison of the numerical simulation with a wide range of experimental data presented in the technical literature will be shown in the present article in order to validate the model developed. (author)

  4. Metastable equilibrium for the quaternary system containing with lithium+potassium+magnesium+chloride in aqueous solution at 323K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yu, Xudong; Yin, Qinghong; Jiang, Dongbo; Zeng, Ying [Chengdu University of Technology, Chengdu (China)

    2014-06-15

    The metastable equilibrium of the system contained with lithium, potassium, magnesium, and chloride in aqueous system was investigated at 323 K using an isothermal evaporation method. The isothermal experimental data and physicochemical properties, such as density and refractive index of the equilibrated solution, were determined. With the experimental results, the stereo phase diagram, the projected phase diagram, the water content diagram and the physicochemical properties versus composition diagrams were constructed. The projected phase diagram consists of three invariant points, seven univariant curves and five crystallization fields corresponding to single salts potassium chloride (KCl), lithium chloride monohydrate (LiCl·H{sub 2}O), bischofite (MgCl{sub 2}·6H{sub 2}O) and two double salts lithium carnallite (LiCl·MgCl{sub 2}·7H{sub 2}O) and potassium carnallite (KCl·MgCl{sub 2}·6H{sub 2}O). Salt KCl has the largest crystallization region; it contains almost 95% of the general crystallization field.

  5. Plant lifetime management at Jose Cabrera NPP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin, Jorge; Garcia, Piedad

    1998-01-01

    This paper presents the results obtained during the development and implementation of the Jose Cabrera NPP Lifetime Management Program according to the methodology applied in the Plant. The implementation of the Lifetime Management Program began in 1995 with the elaboration of the annual revision document 'Lifetime Management Plan', which describes the level of development of the Lifetime Management activities, the results that have been obtained during the implementation of the Program, and the schedule of the upcoming activities. The drawing up of a weighted list of 135 important components and the elaboration of 17 dossiers integrating the ageing mechanisms analysis and its corresponding evaluation, control and mitigation methods, were the result of the activities completed during 1996. A group of 62 component/degradation phenomena pairs with a high degradation risk classification has been considered within the scope of the activity 'Assessment of Maintenance Practices. Improvement Proposal', performed by the plant during 1997 and the first term of 1998 in parallel with other Lifetime Management related activities. The results obtained within this activity have revealed for the components included in the scope of the assessment that the associated degradation phenomena are practically covered by the current maintenance, inspection and testing practices. Recommendations and improvements of the maintenance practices have been particularly proposed from a technical, supporting, proceeding and documentary point of view, and currently an analysis is being made in relation to the feasibility of implementing them at the Jose Cabrera NPP. (author)

  6. Effects of Lifetime Occupational Pesticide Exposure on Postural Control Among Farmworkers and Non-Farmworkers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunwook, Kim; Nussbaum, Maury A; Quandt, Sara A; Laurienti, Paul J; Arcury, Thomas A

    2016-02-01

    The aim of the study was to assess potential chronic effects of pesticide exposure on postural control, by examining postural balance of farmworkers and non-farmworkers diverse self-reported lifetime exposures. Balance was assessed during quiet upright stance under four experimental conditions (2 visual × 2 cognitive difficulty). Significant differences in baseline balance performance (eyes open without cognitive task) between occupational groups were apparent in postural sway complexity. When adding a cognitive task to the eyes open condition, the influence of lifetime exposure on complexity ratios appeared different between occupational groups. Removing visual information revealed a negative association of lifetime exposure with complexity ratios. Farmworkers and non-farmworkers may use different postural control strategies even when controlling for the level of lifetime pesticide exposure. Long-term exposure can affect somatosensory/vestibular sensory systems and the central processing of sensory information for postural control.

  7. The Decay of Optically Thick Helium Plasmas, Taking into Account Ionizing Collisions between Metastable Atoms or Molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stevefelt, J

    1970-11-15

    The effective recombination rate of a helium afterglow plasma, which is optically thick towards the resonance lines, is calculated from the coupled rate equations for the number densities of free electrons and of metastable atoms or molecules. The model employed is a neutral plasma, consisting of one kind of ions and one kind of metastables. The ions are lost by electron-ion recombination only, with subsequent formation of metastables, which are then deactivated in collisions with free electrons or with other metastables: in the latter case one electron is regained to the free state. When the rate constants for these various processes are time-independent, it is found that after a certain transition time a transient equilibrium between the number densities of electrons and metastables is attained. In a dense afterglow plasma, where the recombination coefficient may be large, the transient equilibrium density of metastables may become significantly higher than the qua si-equilibrium value obtained by equating the time derivative of the metastable density to zero, and the effective recombination coefficient may be reduced by much more than a factor of two

  8. The Decay of Optically Thick Helium Plasmas, Taking into Account Ionizing Collisions between Metastable Atoms or Molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevefelt, J.

    1970-11-01

    The effective recombination rate of a helium afterglow plasma, which is optically thick towards the resonance lines, is calculated from the coupled rate equations for the number densities of free electrons and of metastable atoms or molecules. The model employed is a neutral plasma, consisting of one kind of ions and one kind of metastables. The ions are lost by electron-ion recombination only, with subsequent formation of metastables, which are then deactivated in collisions with free electrons or with other metastables: in the latter case one electron is regained to the free state. When the rate constants for these various processes are time-independent, it is found that after a certain transition time a transient equilibrium between the number densities of electrons and metastables is attained. In a dense afterglow plasma, where the recombination coefficient may be large, the transient equilibrium density of metastables may become significantly higher than the qua si-equilibrium value obtained by equating the time derivative of the metastable density to zero, and the effective recombination coefficient may be reduced by much more than a factor of two

  9. Improved lifetime of microchannel-plate PMTs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lehmann, A., E-mail: lehmann@physik.uni-erlangen.de [Physikalisches Institut IV, Friedrich Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen (Germany); Britting, A.; Eyrich, W.; Uhlig, F. [Physikalisches Institut IV, Friedrich Alexander-University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, Erlangen (Germany); Dzhygadlo, R.; Gerhardt, A.; Götzen, K.; Höhler, R.; Kalicy, G.; Kumawat, H.; Lehmann, D.; Lewandowski, B.; Patsyuk, M.; Peters, K.; Schepers, G.; Schmitt, L.; Schwarz, C.; Schwiening, J.; Traxler, M.; Zühlsdorf, M. [GSI Helmholtzzentrum für Schwerionenforschung GmbH, Darmstadt (Germany); and others

    2014-12-01

    The charged particle identification at the PANDA experiment will be mainly performed with DIRC detectors. Because of their advantageous properties the preferred photon sensors are MCP-PMTs. However, until recently these devices showed serious aging problems which resulted in a diminishing quantum efficiency (QE) of the photo cathode. By applying innovative countermeasures against the aging causes, the manufacturers recently succeeded in drastically improving the lifetime of MCP-PMTs. Especially the application of an ALD coating technique to seal the material of the micro-channels proves very powerful and results in a lifetime of ≈6C/cm{sup 2} integrated anode charge without a substantial QE degradation for the latest PHOTONIS XP85112. This paper will present a comparative measurement of the lifetime of several older and recent MCP-PMTs demonstrating this progress.

  10. Measurement of the $\\tau$ lepton lifetime

    CERN Document Server

    Buskulic, Damir; De Bonis, I; Décamp, D; Ghez, P; Goy, C; Lees, J P; Lucotte, A; Minard, M N; Odier, P; Pietrzyk, B; Ariztizabal, F; Chmeissani, M; Crespo, J M; Efthymiopoulos, I; Fernández, E; Fernández-Bosman, M; Gaitan, V; Garrido, L; Martínez, M; Orteu, S; Pacheco, A; Padilla, C; Palla, Fabrizio; Pascual, A; Perlas, J A; Sánchez, F; Teubert, F; Colaleo, A; Creanza, D; De Palma, M; Farilla, A; Gelao, G; Girone, M; Iaselli, Giuseppe; Maggi, G; Maggi, M; Marinelli, N; Natali, S; Nuzzo, S; Ranieri, A; Raso, G; Romano, F; Ruggieri, F; Selvaggi, G; Silvestris, L; Tempesta, P; Zito, G; Huang, X; Lin, J; Ouyang, Q; Wang, T; Xie, Y; Xu, R; Xue, S; Zhang, J; Zhang, L; Zhao, W; Bonvicini, G; Cattaneo, M; Comas, P; Coyle, P; Drevermann, H; Engelhardt, A; Forty, Roger W; Frank, M; Hagelberg, R; Harvey, J; Jacobsen, R; Janot, P; Jost, B; Kneringer, E; Knobloch, J; Lehraus, Ivan; Markou, C; Martin, E B; Mato, P; Minten, Adolf G; Miquel, R; Oest, T; Palazzi, P; Pater, J R; Pusztaszeri, J F; Ranjard, F; Rensing, P E; Rolandi, Luigi; Schlatter, W D; Schmelling, M; Schneider, O; Tejessy, W; Tomalin, I R; Venturi, A; Wachsmuth, H W; Wiedenmann, W; Wildish, T; Witzeling, W; Wotschack, J; Ajaltouni, Ziad J; Bardadin-Otwinowska, Maria; Barrès, A; Boyer, C; Falvard, A; Gay, P; Guicheney, C; Henrard, P; Jousset, J; Michel, B; Monteil, S; Pallin, D; Perret, P; Podlyski, F; Proriol, J; Rossignol, J M; Saadi, F; Fearnley, Tom; Hansen, J B; Hansen, J D; Hansen, J R; Hansen, P H; Nilsson, B S; Kyriakis, A; Simopoulou, Errietta; Siotis, I; Vayaki, Anna; Zachariadou, K; Blondel, A; Bonneaud, G R; Brient, J C; Bourdon, P; Passalacqua, L; Rougé, A; Rumpf, M; Tanaka, R; Valassi, Andrea; Verderi, M; Videau, H L; Candlin, D J; Parsons, M I; Focardi, E; Parrini, G; Corden, M; Delfino, M C; Georgiopoulos, C H; Jaffe, D E; Antonelli, A; Bencivenni, G; Bologna, G; Bossi, F; Campana, P; Capon, G; Chiarella, V; Felici, G; Laurelli, P; Mannocchi, G; Murtas, F; Murtas, G P; Pepé-Altarelli, M; Dorris, S J; Halley, A W; ten Have, I; Knowles, I G; Lynch, J G; Morton, W T; O'Shea, V; Raine, C; Reeves, P; Scarr, J M; Smith, K; Smith, M G; Thompson, A S; Thomson, F; Thorn, S; Turnbull, R M; Becker, U; Braun, O; Geweniger, C; Graefe, G; Hanke, P; Hepp, V; Kluge, E E; Putzer, A; Rensch, B; Schmidt, M; Sommer, J; Stenzel, H; Tittel, K; Werner, S; Wunsch, M; Beuselinck, R; Binnie, David M; Cameron, W; Colling, D J; Dornan, Peter J; Konstantinidis, N P; Moneta, L; Moutoussi, A; Nash, J; San Martin, G; Sedgbeer, J K; Stacey, A M; Dissertori, G; Girtler, P; Kuhn, D; Rudolph, G; Bowdery, C K; Brodbeck, T J; Colrain, P; Crawford, G; Finch, A J; Foster, F; Hughes, G; Sloan, Terence; Whelan, E P; Williams, M I; Galla, A; Greene, A M; Kleinknecht, K; Quast, G; Raab, J; Renk, B; Sander, H G; Wanke, R; Van Gemmeren, P; Zeitnitz, C; Aubert, Jean-Jacques; Bencheikh, A M; Benchouk, C; Bonissent, A; Bujosa, G; Calvet, D; Carr, J; Diaconu, C A; Etienne, F; Thulasidas, M; Nicod, D; Payre, P; Rousseau, D; Talby, M; Abt, I; Assmann, R W; Bauer, C; Blum, Walter; Brown, D; Dietl, H; Dydak, Friedrich; Ganis, G; Gotzhein, C; Jakobs, K; Kroha, H; Lütjens, G; Lutz, Gerhard; Männer, W; Moser, H G; Richter, R H; Rosado-Schlosser, A; Schael, S; Settles, Ronald; Seywerd, H C J; Saint-Denis, R; Wolf, G; Alemany, R; Boucrot, J; Callot, O; Cordier, A; Courault, F; Davier, M; Duflot, L; Grivaz, J F; Heusse, P; Jacquet, M; Kim, D W; Le Diberder, F R; Lefrançois, J; Lutz, A M; Musolino, G; Nikolic, I A; Park, H J; Park, I C; Schune, M H; Simion, S; Veillet, J J; Videau, I; Abbaneo, D; Azzurri, P; Bagliesi, G; Batignani, G; Bettarini, S; Bozzi, C; Calderini, G; Carpinelli, M; Ciocci, M A; Ciulli, V; Dell'Orso, R; Fantechi, R; Ferrante, I; Fidecaro, F; Foà, L; Forti, F; Giassi, A; Giorgi, M A; Gregorio, A; Ligabue, F; Lusiani, A; Marrocchesi, P S; Messineo, A; Rizzo, G; Sanguinetti, G; Sciabà, A; Spagnolo, P; Steinberger, Jack; Tenchini, Roberto; Tonelli, G; Triggiani, G; Vannini, C; Verdini, P G; Walsh, J; Betteridge, A P; Blair, G A; Bryant, L M; Cerutti, F; Gao, Y; Green, M G; Johnson, D L; Medcalf, T; Mir, L M; Perrodo, P; Strong, J A; Bertin, V; Botterill, David R; Clifft, R W; Edgecock, T R; Haywood, S; Edwards, M; Maley, P; Norton, P R; Thompson, J C; Bloch-Devaux, B; Colas, P; Emery, S; Kozanecki, Witold; Lançon, E; Lemaire, M C; Locci, E; Marx, B; Pérez, P; Rander, J; Renardy, J F; Roussarie, A; Schuller, J P; Schwindling, J; Trabelsi, A; Vallage, B; Johnson, R P; Kim, H Y; Litke, A M; McNeil, M A; Taylor, G; Beddall, A; Booth, C N; Boswell, R; Cartwright, S L; Combley, F; Dawson, I; Köksal, A; Letho, M; Newton, W M; Rankin, C; Thompson, L F; Böhrer, A; Brandt, S; Cowan, G D; Feigl, E; Grupen, Claus; Lutters, G; Minguet-Rodríguez, J A; Rivera, F; Saraiva, P; Smolik, L; Stephan, F; Apollonio, M; Bosisio, L; Della Marina, R; Giannini, G; Gobbo, B; Ragusa, F; Rothberg, J E; Wasserbaech, S R; Armstrong, S R; Bellantoni, L; Elmer, P; Feng, Z; Ferguson, D P S; Gao, Y S; González, S; Grahl, J; Harton, J L; Hayes, O J; Hu, H; McNamara, P A; Nachtman, J M; Orejudos, W; Pan, Y B; Saadi, Y; Schmitt, M; Scott, I J; Sharma, V; Turk, J; Walsh, A M; Wu Sau Lan; Wu, X; Yamartino, J M; Zheng, M; Zobernig, G

    1996-01-01

    The mean lifetime of the \\tau lepton is measured in a sample of 25700 \\tau pairs collected in 1992 with the ALEPH detector at LEP. A new analysis of the 1-1 topology events is introduced. In this analysis, the dependence of the impact parameter sum distribution on the daughter track momenta is taken into account, yielding improved precision compared to other impact parameter sum methods. Three other analyses of the one- and three-prong \\tau decays are updated with increased statistics. The measured lifetime is 293.5 \\pm 3.1 \\pm 1.7 \\fs. Including previous (1989--1991) ALEPH measurements, the combined \\tau lifetime is 293.7 \\pm 2.7 \\pm 1.6 \\fs.

  11. The neutron lifetime experiment PENeLOPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schreyer, Wolfgang [Technische Universitaet Muenchen (Germany); Collaboration: PENeLOPE-Collaboration

    2015-07-01

    The neutron lifetime τ{sub n}=880.3±1.1 s is an important parameter in the Standard Model of particle physics and in Big Bang cosmology. Several systematic corrections of previously published results reduced the PDG world average by several σ in the last years and call for a new experiment with complementary systematics. The experiment PENeLOPE, currently under construction at the Physik-Department of Technische Universitaet Muenchen, aims to determine the neutron lifetime with a precision of 0.1 s. It will trap ultra-cold neutrons in a magneto-gravitational trap using a large superconducting magnet and will measure their lifetime by both neutron counting and online proton detection. This presentation gives an overview over the latest developments of the experiment.

  12. High p-Type Doping, Mobility, and Photocarrier Lifetime in Arsenic-Doped CdTe Single Crystals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuciauskas, Darius [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Nagaoka, Akira [Kyoto University; University of Utah; McCoy, Jedidiah [Washington State University; Scarpulla, Michael A. [University of Utah

    2018-05-08

    Group-V element doping is promising for simultaneously maximizing the hole concentration and minority carrier lifetime in CdTe for thin film solar cells, but there are roadblocks concerning point defects including the possibility of self-compensation by AX metastability. Herein, we report on doping, lifetime, and mobility of CdTe single crystals doped with As between 10^16 and 10^20 cm-3 grown from the Cd solvent by the travelling heater method. Evidence consistent with AX instability as a major contributor to compensation in samples doped below 10^17 cm-3 is presented, while for higher-doped samples, precipitation of a second phase on planar structural defects is also observed and may explain spatial variation in properties such as lifetime. Rapid cooling after crystal growth increases doping efficiency and mobility for times up to 20-30 days at room temperature with the highest efficiencies observed close to 45% and a hole mobility of 70 cm2/Vs at room temperature. A doping limit in the low 10^17/cm3 range is observed for samples quenched at 200-300 degrees C/h. Bulk minority carrier lifetimes exceeding 20 ns are observed for samples doped near 10^16 cm-3 relaxed in the dark and for unintentionally doped samples, while a lifetime of nearly 5 ns is observed for 10^18 cm-3 As doping. These results help us to establish limits on properties expected for group-V doped CdTe polycrystalline thin films for use in photovoltaics.

  13. Vibrational lifetimes of protein amide modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Peterson, K.A.; Rella, C.A.

    1995-01-01

    Measurement of the lifetimes of vibrational modes in proteins has been achieved with a single frequency infrared pump-probe technique using the Stanford Picosecond Free-electron Laser, These are the first direct measurements of vibrational dynamics in the polyamide structure of proteins. In this study, modes associated with the protein backbone are investigated. Results for the amide I band, which consists mainly of the stretching motion of the carbonyl unit of the amide linkage, show that relaxation from the first vibrational excited level (v=1) to the vibrational ground state (v=0) occurs within 1.5 picoseconds with apparent first order kinetics. Comparison of lifetimes for myoglobin and azurin, which have differing secondary structures, show a small but significant difference. The lifetime for the amide I band of myoglobin is 300 femtoseconds shorter than for azurin. Further measurements are in progress on other backbone vibrational modes and on the temperature dependence of the lifetimes. Comparison of vibrational dynamics for proteins with differing secondary structure and for different vibrational modes within a protein will lead to a greater understanding of energy transfer and dissipation in biological systems. In addition, these results have relevance to tissue ablation studies which have been conducted with pulsed infrared lasers. Vibrational lifetimes are necessary for calculating the rate at which the energy from absorbed infrared photons is converted to equilibrium thermal energy within the irradiated volume. The very fast vibrational lifetimes measured here indicate that mechanisms which involve direct vibrational up-pumping of the amide modes with consecutive laser pulses, leading to bond breakage or weakening, are not valid

  14. Characterization of the austenitic stability of metastable austenitic stainless steel with regard to its formability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Matthias; Liewald, Mathias

    2018-05-01

    During the last decade, the stainless steel market showed a growing volume of 3-5% p.a.. The austenitic grades are losing market shares to ferritic or 200-series grades due to the high nickel price, but still playing the most important role within the stainless steel market. Austenitic stainless steel is characterized by the strain-induced martensite formation, causing the TRIP-effect (Transformation Induced Plasticity) which is responsible for good formability and high strength. The TRIP-effect itself is highly dependent on the forming temperature, the strain as well as the chemical composition which has a direct influence on the stability of the austenite. Today the austenitic stability is usually characterized by the so called Md30-temperature, which was introduced by Angel and enhanced by several researches, particularly Nohara. It is an empirical formula based on the chemical composition and the grain size of a given material, calculating the temperature which is necessary to gain a 50 % martensite formation after 30 % of elongation in a tensile test. A higher Md30-temperature indicates a lower stability and therefore a higher tendency towards martensite formation. The main disadvantage of Md30 -temperature is the fact that it is not based on forming parameters and only describes a single point instead of the whole forming process. In this paper, an experimental set up for measuring martensite and temperature evolution in a non-isothermal tensile test is presented, which is based on works of Hänsel and Schmid. With this set up, the martensite formation rate for different steels of the steel grade EN 1.4301 and EN 1.4310 is measured. Based on these results a new austenitic stability criterion is defined. This criterion and the determined Md30-temperatures are related to the stretch formability of the materials. The results show that the new IFU criterion is with regard to the formability a much more useful characteristic number for metastable austenitic steels

  15. Unified Numerical Solver for Device Metastabilities in CdTe Thin-Film PV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vasileska, Dragica [Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (United States)

    2017-08-17

    Thin-film modules of all technologies often suffer from performance degradation over time. Some of the performance changes are reversible and some are not, which makes deployment, testing, and energy-yield prediction more challenging. Manufacturers de-vote significant empirical efforts to study these phenomena and to improve semiconduc-tor device stability. Still, understanding the underlying reasons of these instabilities re-mains clouded due to the lack of ability to characterize materials at atomistic levels and the lack of interpretation from the most fundamental material science. The most com-monly alleged causes of metastability in CdTe device, such as “migration of Cu,” have been investigated rigorously over the past fifteen years. Still, the discussion often ended prematurely with stating observed correlations between stress conditions and changes in atomic profiles of impurities or CV doping concentration. Multiple hypotheses sug-gesting degradation of CdTe solar cell devices due to interaction and evolution of point defects and complexes were proposed, and none of them received strong theoretical or experimental confirmation. It should be noted that atomic impurity profiles in CdTe pro-vide very little intelligence on active doping concentrations. The same elements could form different energy states, which could be either donors or acceptors, depending on their position in crystalline lattice. Defects interact with other extrinsic and intrinsic de-fects; for example, changing the state of an impurity from an interstitial donor to a sub-stitutional acceptor often is accompanied by generation of a compensating intrinsic in-terstitial donor defect. Moreover, all defects, intrinsic and extrinsic, interact with the elec-trical potential and free carriers so that charged defects may drift in the electric field and the local electrical potential affects the formation energy of the point defects. Such complexity of interactions in CdTe makes understanding of

  16. Metastable Equilibrium Solubility Distribution of Carbonated Apatite as a Function of Solution Composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chhettry; Wang; Hsu; Fox; Baig; Barry; Zhuang; Otsuka; Higuchi

    1999-10-01

    Previous studies have shown that carbonated apatites (CAPs) exhibit the phenomenon of metastable equilibrium solubility (MES) in weak acid media. The purpose of the present investigation was to examine two questions: first, whether the MES concept is applicable to a broader range of solution conditions and, second, whether a driving force function associated with a surface complex having a constant stoichiometry governs the dissolution of CAP and, if so, what is this stoichiometry. CAP preparations with carbonate contents of 1.8-5.7 wt% (synthesized by hydrolysis of dicalcium phosphate anhydrate in solutions of varying bicarbonate levels or by direct precipitation from supersaturated calcium/phosphate/carbonate solutions) were studied as follows. MES distributions for each of the CAP preparations were determined by equilibrating the CAP under stirred conditions in a series of acetate buffers (0.10 M) containing various levels of calcium and phosphate in the pH range 4.5-6.5 and a solution calcium/phosphate ratio in the range 0.1-10. The amount dissolved in each instance was regarded as the fraction of the CAP possessing an MES value greater than that corresponding to the ion activity product (IAP) of the equilibrating solution. The solution IAPs were calculated from the solution compositions using plausible calcium phosphate stoichiometries, viz., dicalcium phosphate dihydrate, octacalcium phosphate, tricalcium phosphate, hydroxyapatite, carbonated apatite (based on the bulk composition of the particular CAP involved in the experiment), and tetracalcium phosphate. The fraction of CAP dissolved was plotted against the solution IAPs for each experimental set using each of the six assumed stoichiometries for the surface complex. The results demonstrated that the MES concept was applicable to all of the CAP preparations in media of various solution compositions and different pH levels. The most important new outcome of this study was that MES profiles for each of the

  17. Permeability log using new lifetime measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dowling, D.J.; Boyd, J.F.; Fuchs, J.A.

    1975-01-01

    Comparative measurements of thermal neutron decay time are obtained for a formation after irradiation with a pulsed neutron source. Chloride ions in formation fluids are concentrated by the electrosmosis effect using charged poles on a well logging sonde. The formation is irradiated with fast neutrons and a first comparative measure of the thermal neutron decay time or neutron lifetime is taken. The chloride ions are then dispersed by acoustic pumping with a magnetostrictive transducer. The formation is then again irradiated with fast neutrons and a comparative measure of neutron lifetime is taken. The comparison is a function of the variation in chloride concentration between the two measurements which is related to formation permeability

  18. An approach for longer lifetime MCFCs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsumoto, Masaru; Tatsumi, Masahiko; Hayano, Takuro [MCFC Research Association, Tokyo (Japan)] [and others

    1996-12-31

    For entering into commercialization of MCFC power plants in the beginning of the 21st century, we will devote to research for increasing lifetime as long as 40,000 hours with cell performance decay rate of 0.25 %/1000hrs as the target in FY 1999. This paper will discuss on our approach for longer lifetime MCFCs through electrolyte-loss management and NiO precipitation management as well as micro-structural control of electrodes and matrix plates. Cell voltage decay rate will be estimated by simulation through series of experiments on accelerated conditions.

  19. Lifetimes of some b-flavored hadrons

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stone, S.

    2014-06-01

    Recent measurements of lifetimes of some b-flavored hadrons are presented and interpreted in the context of theoretical models, especially the Heavy Quark Expansion. Decay widths and decay width differences in the B s 0 - B-bar s 0 system are discussed from the studies of decays into the final states J/ψK + K - , J/ψπ + π - , D s + D s - , K + K - and D s ± π ± . Lifetime measurements of the baryons Λ b 0 , Ξ b - , Ξ b 0 , and Ω b - are also shown. (author)

  20. Positron lifetime in vanadium oxide bronzes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dryzek, J.; Dryzek, E.

    2003-01-01

    The positron lifetime (PL) and Doppler broadening (DB) of annihilation line measurements have been performed in vanadium oxide bronzes M x V 2 O 5 . The dependence of these annihilation characteristics on the kind and concentration of the metal M donor has been observed. In the PL spectrum only one lifetime component has been detected in all studied bronzes. The results indicate the positron localization in the structural tunnels present in the crystalline lattice of the vanadium oxide bronzes. (copyright 2003 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  1. Extension of the nuclear power plant lifetime

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keramsi, Alain

    2011-01-01

    After a presentation of the French nuclear context (history of the reactor fleet, choice of reactor type, PWR operation principle, competitiveness, environmental performance), this Power Point presentation addresses the context and challenges of the operation lifetime (average fleet age in different countries, examples of extensions, case of the United States, what is at stake with lifetime extension, decennial visits, EDF strategy), discusses the EDF's safety objectives (definition of the three main safety functions, impact of the operation duration and of the coexistence of two generations for the safety functions), discusses how to manage the ageing phenomenon for replaceable and non-replaceable components

  2. Lifetime, money and cost-benefit analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bengtsson, G.

    1984-01-01

    The paper describes briefly many methods for explicit or implicit valuation of the loss of lifetime expectancy due to radiation exposures or other hazards. The health gain from investment in protection is compared with the health gain from a general increase in wealth. It is concluded that in many instances lifetime is valued at 1 to 10 times the gross national product produced in this time. This seems to be reasonable for rich countries whereas it may be questionable for poorer countries. Here, any investment that raises the level of living of the poorer segment of the population may have a greater effect on life expectancy. (author)

  3. Lifetimes for some excited states of sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thomas, P.; Campos, J.

    1979-01-01

    The lifetimes of some s,p and d levels of sodium have been measured by the delayed coincidence method, using a single-photon counting technique. The results are compared with the calculated values of the present work, and with other results. The lifetimes of the ns, np, and levels up to n10; of the nf levels up to n-9;and of the ng, nh,n1 and nk levels up to n-8, have been calculated and the transition probabilities of lines with origin in these levels are given. (Author) 38 refs

  4. Magnon lifetimes in terbium at low temperatures

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bjerrum Moeller, H.; Mackintosh, A.R.

    1979-01-01

    The lifetimes of magnons propagating in the c-direction of Tb at 4.2 K have been measured by inelastic neutron scattering. In contrast to the behaviour at higher temperatures, where magnon-magnon scattering predominates, the broadening of the magnons increases towards the boundary of the single Brillouin zone, both in the acoustic and optical branches. This suggests that the scattering of the magnons by conduction electrons is important, and the observed lifetimes are consistent with a recent estimate of the magnitude of this effect. The acoustic magnons of very long wavelength behave anomalously, presumably due to dipolar interactions

  5. Measurement of the Bs0 lifetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buskulic, D.; de Bonis, I.; Decamp, D.; Ghez, P.; Goy, C.; Lees, J.-P.; Minard, M.-N.; Odier, P.; Pietrzyk, B.; Ariztizabal, F.; Comas, P.; Crespo, J. M.; Efthymiopoulos, I.; Fernandez, E.; Fernandez-Bosman, M.; Gaitan, V.; Garrido, Ll.; Martinez, M.; Mattison, T.; Orteu, S.; Pacheco, A.; Padilla, C.; Pascual, A.; Creanza, D.; de Palma, M.; Farilla, A.; Iaselli, G.; Maggi, G.; Marinelli, N.; Natali, S.; Nuzzo, S.; Ranieri, A.; Raso, G.; Romano, F.; Ruggieri, F.; Selvaggi, G.; Silvestris, L.; Tempesta, P.; Zito, G.; Chai, Y.; Hu, H.; Huang, D.; Huang, X.; Lin, J.; Wang, T.; Xie, Y.; Xu, D.; Xu, R.; Zhang, J.; Zhang, L.; Zhao, W.; Bonvicini, G.; Boudreau, J.; Casper, D.; Drevermann, H.; Forty, R. W.; Ganis, G.; Gay, C.; Girone, M.; Hagelberg, R.; Harvey, J.; Hilgart, J.; Jacobsen, R.; Jost, B.; Knobloch, J.; Lehraus, I.; Maggi, M.; Markou, C.; Mato, P.; Meinhard, H.; Minten, A.; Miquel, R.; Moser, H.-G.; Palazzi, P.; Pater, J. R.; Perlas, J. A.; Perrodo, P.; Pusztaszeri, J.-F.; Ranjard, F.; Rolandi, L.; Rothberg, J.; Ruan, T.; Saich, M.; Schlatter, D.; Schmelling, M.; Sefkow, F.; Tejessy, W.; Tomalin, I. R.; Veenhof, R.; Wachsmuth, H.; Wasserbaech, S.; Wiedenmann, W.; Wildish, T.; Witzeling, W.; Wotschack, J.; Ajaltouni, Z.; Bardadin-Otwinowska, M.; Barres, A.; Boyer, C.; Falvard, A.; Gay, P.; Guicheney, C.; Henrard, P.; Jousset, J.; Michel, B.; Montret, J.-C.; Pallin, D.; Perret, P.; Podlyski, F.; Proriol, J.; Saadi, F.; Fearnley, T.; Hansen, J. B.; Hansen, J. D.; Hansen, J. R.; Hansen, P. H.; Johnson, S. D.; Møllerud, R.; Nilsson, B. S.; Kyriakis, A.; Simopoulou, E.; Siotis, I.; Vayaki, A.; Zachariadou, K.; Badier, J.; Blondel, A.; Bonneaud, G.; Brient, J. C.; Bourdon, P.; Fouque, G.; Passalacqua, L.; Rougé, A.; Rumpf, M.; Tanaka, R.; Verderi, M.; Videau, H.; Candlin, D. J.; Parsons, M. I.; Veitch, E.; Focardi, E.; Moneta, L.; Parrini, G.; Corden, M.; Delfino, M.; Georgiopoulos, C.; Jaffe, D. E.; Levinthal, D.; Antonelli, A.; Bencivenni, G.; Bologna, G.; Bossi, F.; Campana, P.; Capon, G.; Cerutti, F.; Chiarella, V.; Felici, G.; Laurelli, P.; Mannocchi, G.; Murtas, F.; Murtas, G. P.; Pepe-Altarelli, M.; Salomone, S.; Colrain, P.; Ten Have, I.; Knowles, I. G.; Lynch, J. G.; Maitland, W.; Morton, W. T.; Raine, C.; Reeves, P.; Scarr, J. M.; Smith, K.; Smith, M. G.; Thompson, A. S.; Thorn, S.; Turnbull, R. M.; Brandl, B.; Braun, O.; Geweniger, C.; Graefe, G.; Hanke, P.; Hepp, V.; Karger, C.; Kluge, E. E.; Maumary, Y.; Putzer, A.; Rensch, B.; Stahl, A.; Tittel, K.; Wunsch, M.; Beuselinck, R.; Binnie, D. M.; Cameron, W.; Cattaneo, M.; Colling, D. J.; Dornan, P. J.; Hassard, J. F.; Lieske, N. M.; Moutoussi, A.; Nash, J.; Patton, S.; Payne, D. G.; Phillips, M. J.; San Martin, G.; Sedgbeer, J. K.; Wright, A. G.; Girtler, P.; Kuhn, D.; Rudolph, G.; Vogl, R.; Bowdery, C. K.; Brodbeck, T. J.; Finch, A. J.; Foster, F.; Hughes, G.; Jackson, D.; Keemer, N. R.; Nuttall, M.; Patel, A.; Sloan, T.; Snow, S. W.; Whelan, E. P.; Galla, A.; Greene, A. M.; Kleinknecht, K.; Raab, J.; Renk, B.; Sander, H.-G.; Schmidt, H.; Walther, S. M.; Wanke, R.; Wolf, B.; Bencheikh, A. M.; Benchouk, C.; Bonissent, A.; Calvet, D.; Carr, J.; Coyle, P.; Diaconu, C.; Drinkard, J.; Etienne, F.; Nicod, D.; Payre, P.; Ross, L.; Rousseau, D.; Schwemling, P.; Talby, M.; Adlung, S.; Assmann, R.; Bauer, C.; Blum, W.; Brown, D.; Cattaneo, P.; Dehning, B.; Dietl, H.; Dydak, F.; Frank, M.; Halley, A. W.; Jakobs, K.; Lauber, J.; Lütjens, G.; Lutz, G.; Männer, W.; Richter, R.; Schröder, J.; Schwarz, A. S.; Settles, R.; Seywerd, H.; Stierlin, U.; Stiegler, U.; Denis, R. St.; Wolf, G.; Alemany, R.; Boucrot, J.; Callot, O.; Cordier, A.; Davier, M.; Duflot, L.; Grivaz, J.-F.; Heusse, Ph.; Janot, P.; Kimfn 19, D. W.; Le Diberder, F.; Lefrançois, J.; Lutz, A.-M.; Musolino, G.; Schune, M.-H.; Veillet, J.-J.; Videau, I.; Abbaneo, D.; Bagliesi, G.; Batignani, G.; Bottigli, U.; Bozzi, C.; Calderini, G.; Carpinelli, M.; Ciocci, M. A.; Ciulli, V.; Dell'Orso, R.; Ferrante, I.; Fidecaro, F.; Foà, L.; Forti, F.; Giassi, A.; Giorgi, M. A.; Gregorio, A.; Ligabue, F.; Lusiani, A.; Mannelli, E. B.; Marrocchesi, P. S.; Messineo, A.; Palla, F.; Rizzo, G.; Sanguinetti, G.; Spagnolo, P.; Steinberger, J.; Tenchini, R.; Tonelli, G.; Triggiani, G.; Valassi, A.; Vannini, C.; Venturi, A.; Verdini, P. G.; Walsh, J.; Betteridge, A. P.; Gao, Y.; Green, M. G.; Johnson, D. L.; March, P. V.; Medcalf, T.; Mir, Ll. M.; Quazi, I. S.; Strong, J. A.; Bertin, V.; Botterill, D. R.; Clifft, R. W.; Edgecock, T. R.; Haywood, S.; Edwards, M.; Norton, P. R.; Thompson, J. C.; Bloch-Devaux, B.; Colas, P.; Duarte, H.; Emery, S.; Kozanecki, W.; Lançon, E.; Lemaire, M. C.; Locci, E.; Marx, B.; Perez, P.; Rander, J.; Renardy, J.-F.; Rosowsky, A.; Roussarie, A.; Schuller, J.-P.; Schwindling, J.; Si Mohand, D.; Vallage, B.; Johnson, R. P.; Litke, A. M.; Taylor, G.; Wear, J.; Babbage, W.; Booth, C. N.; Buttar, C.; Cartwright, S.; Combley, F.; Dawson, I.; Thompson, L. F.; Barberio, E.; Böhrer, A.; Brandt, S.; Cowan, G.; Grupen, C.; Lutters, G.; Rivera, F.; Schäfer, U.; Smolik, L.; Bosisio, L.; Della Marina, R.; Giannini, G.; Gobbo, B.; Pitis, L.; Ragusa, F.; Bellantoni, L.; Chen, W.; Conway, J. S.; Feng, Z.; Ferguson, D. P. S.; Gao, Y. S.; Grahl, J.; Harton, J. L.; Hayes, O. J.; Nachtman, J. M.; Pan, Y. B.; Saadi, Y.; Schmitt, M.; Scott, I.; Sharma, V.; Shi, Z. H.; Turk, J. D.; Walsh, A. M.; Weber, F. V.; Lan Wu, Sau; Wu, X.; Zheng, M.; Zobernig, G.; Aleph Collaboration

    1994-02-01

    The lifetime of the Bs0 has been measured in a data sample of 8890000 hadronic events recorded with the ALEPH detector at LEP. After background subtraction 30.8 ± 6.9 events are attributed to the semileptonic decay of the Bs0 to a Ds- and an opposite-sign lepton. A maximum-likelihood fit to the distribution of the proper times of these events yields a Bs0 lifetime of τBs = 1.92 -0.35+0.45 ± 0.04 ps.

  6. Prompt Neutron Lifetime for the NBSR Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanson, A.L.; Diamond, D.

    2012-06-24

    In preparation for the proposed conversion of the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) research reactor (NBSR) from high-enriched uranium (HEU) to low-enriched uranium (LEU) fuel, certain point kinetics parameters must be calculated. We report here values of the prompt neutron lifetime that have been calculated using three independent methods. All three sets of calculations demonstrate that the prompt neutron lifetime is shorter for the LEU fuel when compared to the HEU fuel and longer for the equilibrium end-of-cycle (EOC) condition when compared to the equilibrium startup (SU) condition for both the HEU and LEU fuels.

  7. X-ray laser implementation by means of a strong source of high-spin metastable atoms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helman, J.S.; Rau, C.; Bunge, C.F.

    1983-01-01

    High-spin metastable atomic beams of high density and extremely small divergence can be produced by electron capture during grazing-angle scattering of ion beams at ferromagnetic surfaces. This can be used to generate a long-lived reservoir of Li 1s2s2p 4 P/sub 5/2//sup ts0/ with enough density of metastables so that after laser-induced transfer to Li 1s2p/sup ts2/P strong lasing at 207 A should occur. This novel technique can also be used to produce a variety of other metastables known as potential candidates for lasing at shorter wavelengths

  8. Energy levels, lifetimes and radiative data of W LV

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Xiao-bin; Sun, Rui; Koike, Fumihiro; Murakami, Izumi; Kato, Daiji; Sakaue, Hiroyuki A.; Nakamura, Nobuyuki; Dong, Chen-zhong

    2018-01-01

    Calculations of energy levels, radiative data and lifetimes are reported for tungsten Ca-like ion (W LV) by using multi-configuration Dirac-Fock (MCDF) method. The GRASP2K package is adopted to carry out a large-scale systematic computation with a restricted active space treatment; the Breit interaction and QED effects are included in subsequent relativistic configuration interaction calculations. The energies and lifetimes of the lowest 119 levels are listed; the main leading configuration of the levels is of the ground state configuration [Ne]3s23p63d2 and the first excited configuration [Ne]3s23p53d3. The wavelengths, radiative rates and oscillator strengths for relatively strong E1, E2, M1, and M2 transitions are listed. Comparisons with earlier experimental and theoretical values are made. The average relative deviations of energy levels from the NIST results and E1 transition wavelengths from the EBIT experimental results have turned to be only 0.20% and 0.13%, respectively. The other present results are in reasonable agreement with available data. These agreements confirm the reliability and accuracy of the current results. The present datasets may help us with the investigation of the electron-electron correlation effects in complex multi-electron highly charged heavy ions and of the diagnosis of tungsten impurity plasmas in fusion science.

  9. Influence of instrument design on neutron lifetime measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Youmans, A.H.; Hopkinson, E.C.

    1975-01-01

    Commercially available logging services provide a measurement of the lifetime of thermal neutrons in formations adjacent to a borehole. This lifetime provides a measure of the macroscopic thermal neutron-capture cross-section Σ of the formation, which in turn is functionally related to the abundance and constituency of the rock matrix and contained fluids. Because the measurement is extremely sensitive to an abundance of trace elements like boron and gadolinium, it is very difficult to find rock formations with an accurately known value of Σ, which is required for the accuracy of the measuring system to be experimentally tested. Various theoretical studies published suggest that errors in the determination of Σ may occur because of the influence of borehole parameters and the effects of neutron diffusion. Experimental results are reported that demonstrate that the design of the instrument is crucial to the validity of any theoretical treatment of the subject. The influence of neutron diffusion and borehole effects can be overcome by optimal selection of spacing and shielding parameters

  10. Ionization current in N2 gas. 11. Three dimensional analysis for loss processes of metastable particles affected by the reflection at the boundary; N2 gas chu ni okeru denri denryu. 11. Kyokai deno hansha wo koryoshita jun`antei reiki ryushi sonshitsu katei no sanjigen kaiseki

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suzuki, S.; Ito, H.; Sekizawa, H.; Ikuta, N. [Chiba Institute of Technology, Chiba (Japan)

    1998-10-01

    Loss processes of the nitrogen metastable molecule N2(A{sup 3}{Sigma}u{sup +}) in plane parallel electrodes have been investigated by us previously by solving the diffusion equation. Our procedure is based on an analysis using the third kind of boundary condition which can take account of finite values for the density of N2(A{sup 3}{Sigma}u{sup +}) at the electrode surfaces. The values of the effective lifetime of N2(A{sup 3}{Sigma}u{sup +}) calculated from this analysis were reasonably consistent with our experiments. This paper describes the behavior of the effective lifetimes of N2(A{sup 3}{Sigma}u{sup +}) in a cylindrical cavity. The analytical treatment of the diffusion equation for N2(A{sup 3}{Sigma}u{sup +}) proposed by us is extended to the three dimensional space. We report the nature of the effective lifetimes of metastable molecule in the cylindrical cavity systematically. 16 refs., 9 figs.

  11. Thermal dependence of luminescence lifetimes and radioluminescence in quartz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pagonis, V., E-mail: vpagonis@mcdaniel.edu [McDaniel College, Physics Department, Westminster, MD 21157 (United States); Chithambo, M.L. [Department of Physics and Electronics, Rhodes University, PO BOX 94, Grahamstown 6140 (South Africa); Chen, R. [Raymond and Beverly Sackler School of Physics and Astronomy, Tel-Aviv University, Tel-Aviv 69978 (Israel); Chruścińska, A. [Institute of Physics, Nicholas Copernicus University, 87-100 Toruń (Poland); Fasoli, M. [Department of Materials Science, University of Milano-Bicocca, Via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Li, S.H. [Department of Earth Sciences, The University of Hong Kong (Hong Kong); Martini, M. [Department of Materials Science, University of Milano-Bicocca, Via Cozzi 53, 20125 Milano (Italy); Ramseyer, K. [Institut für Geologie, Baltzerstrasse 1-3, 3012 Bern (Switzerland)

    2014-01-15

    During time-resolved optical stimulation experiments (TR-OSL), one uses short light pulses to separate the stimulation and emission of luminescence in time. Experimental TR-OSL results show that the luminescence lifetime in quartz of sedimentary origin is independent of annealing temperature below 500 °C, but decreases monotonically thereafter. These results have been interpreted previously empirically on the basis of the existence of two separate luminescence centers L{sub H} and L{sub L} in quartz, each with its own distinct luminescence lifetime. Additional experimental evidence also supports the presence of a non-luminescent hole reservoir R, which plays a critical role in the predose effect in this material. This paper extends a recently published analytical model for thermal quenching in quartz, to include the two luminescence centers L{sub H} and L{sub L}, as well as the hole reservoir R. The new extended model involves localized electronic transitions between energy states within the two luminescence centers, and is described by a system of differential equations based on the Mott–Seitz mechanism of thermal quenching. It is shown that by using simplifying physical assumptions, one can obtain analytical solutions for the intensity of the light during a TR-OSL experiment carried out with previously annealed samples. These analytical expressions are found to be in good agreement with the numerical solutions of the equations. The results from the model are shown to be in quantitative agreement with published experimental data for commercially available quartz samples. Specifically the model describes the variation of the luminescence lifetimes with (a) annealing temperatures between room temperature and 900 °C, and (b) with stimulation temperatures between 20 and 200 °C. This paper also reports new radioluminescence (RL) measurements carried out using the same commercially available quartz samples. Gaussian deconvolution of the RL emission spectra was

  12. On the metastability of the Standard Model vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isidori, Gino; Ridolfi, Giovanni; Strumia, Alessandro

    2001-01-01

    If the Higgs mass m H is as low as suggested by present experimental information, the Standard Model ground state might not be absolutely stable. We present a detailed analysis of the lower bounds on m H imposed by the requirement that the electroweak vacuum be sufficiently long-lived. We perform a complete one-loop calculation of the tunnelling probability at zero temperature, and we improve it by means of two-loop renormalization-group equations. We find that, for m H =115 GeV, the Higgs potential develops an instability below the Planck scale for m t >(166±2) GeV, but the electroweak vacuum is sufficiently long-lived for m t <(175±2) GeV

  13. On the metastability of the Standard Model vacuum

    CERN Document Server

    Isidori, Gino; Strumia, A; Isidori, Gino; Ridolfi, Giovanni; Strumia, Alessandro

    2001-01-01

    If the Higgs mass $m_H$ is as low as suggested by present experimental information, the Standard Model ground state might not be absolutely stable. We present a detailed analysis of the lower bounds on $m_H$ imposed by the requirement that the electroweak vacuum be sufficiently long-lived. We perform a complete one-loop calculation of the tunnelling probability at zero temperature, and we improve it by means of two-loop renormalization-group equations. We find that, for $m_H=115$ GeV, the Higgs potential develops an instability below the Planck scale for $m_t>(166\\pm 2) \\GeV$, but the electroweak vacuum is sufficiently long-lived for $m_t > (175\\pm 2) \\GeV$.

  14. On the metastability of the standard model vacuum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Isidori, G.; Strumia, A.

    2001-03-01

    If the Higgs mass m H is as low as suggested by present experimental information, the Standard Model ground state might not be absolutely stable. It is presented a detailed analysis of the lower bounds on m H imposed by the requirement that the electroweak vacuum be sufficiently long-lived. It is performed a complete one-loop calculation of the tunnelling probability at zero temperature, and it is improved by means of two-loop renormalization-group equations. It has been found that, for m H = 115 GeV, the Higgs potential develops an instability below the Planck scale for m t > (166 ±2) GeV, but the electroweak vacuum is sufficiently long-lived for m t < (175 ±2) GeV

  15. On the metastability of the standard model vacuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Isidori, G. [Conseil Europeen pour la Recherche Nucleaire, Geneve (Switzerland); Ridolfi, G. [Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Laboratori Nazionali di Frascati, Frascati, RM (Italy)]|[Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sect. Genoa, Genoa (Italy); Strumia, A. [Pisa Univ., Pisa (Italy). Dipt. di Fisica]|[Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare, Sect. Pisa (Italy)

    2001-03-01

    If the Higgs mass m{sub H} is as low as suggested by present experimental information, the Standard Model ground state might not be absolutely stable. It is presented a detailed analysis of the lower bounds on m{sub H} imposed by the requirement that the electroweak vacuum be sufficiently long-lived. It is performed a complete one-loop calculation of the tunnelling probability at zero temperature, and it is improved by means of two-loop renormalization-group equations. It has been found that, for m{sub H} = 115 GeV, the Higgs potential develops an instability below the Planck scale for m{sub t} > (166 {+-}2) GeV, but the electroweak vacuum is sufficiently long-lived for m{sub t} < (175 {+-}2) GeV.

  16. Thermo-kinetic prediction of metastable and stable phase precipitation in Al–Zn–Mg series aluminium alloys during non-isothermal DSC analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lang, Peter; Wojcik, Tomasz; Povoden-Karadeniz, Erwin; Falahati, Ahmad; Kozeschnik, Ernst

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • Comparison of laboratory Al–Zn–Mg alloy to industrial Al 7xxx series. • Heat flow evolution during non-isothermal DSC analysis is calculated. • TEM investigations of laboratory Al–Zn–Mg alloy at three pronounced temperatures. • Simulation and modelling of precipitation sequence. • Calculation and prediction of heat flow curves of Al 7xxx series. - Abstract: The technological properties of heat treatable Al–Zn–Mg alloys originate in the morphology and distribution of metastable particles. Starting from the solution-annealed condition, this paper describes the precipitate evolution during non-isothermal temperature changes, namely continuous heating differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis. The distribution and the morphology of the metastable and stable precipitates and the heat flow accompanying the precipitation process is investigated experimentally and calculated by numerical thermo-kinetic simulations. The computer simulation results of the sizes and distributions are confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The theoretical background and the results of the investigations are discussed

  17. Thermo-kinetic prediction of metastable and stable phase precipitation in Al–Zn–Mg series aluminium alloys during non-isothermal DSC analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lang, Peter, E-mail: pl404@cam.ac.uk [Department of Materials Science and Metallurgy, University of Cambridge, Charles Babbage Road 27, Cambridge CB3 0FS (United Kingdom); Wojcik, Tomasz [Institute of Materials Science and Technology, Vienna University of Technology, Favoritenstraße 9-11, Vienna 1040 (Austria); Povoden-Karadeniz, Erwin [Institute of Materials Science and Technology, Vienna University of Technology, Favoritenstraße 9-11, Vienna 1040 (Austria); Christian Doppler Laboratory “Early Stages of Precipitation”, Institute of Materials Science and Technology, Vienna University of Technology, Favoritenstraße 9-11, Vienna 1040 (Austria); Falahati, Ahmad [Institute of Materials Science and Technology, Vienna University of Technology, Favoritenstraße 9-11, Vienna 1040 (Austria); Kozeschnik, Ernst [Institute of Materials Science and Technology, Vienna University of Technology, Favoritenstraße 9-11, Vienna 1040 (Austria); Christian Doppler Laboratory “Early Stages of Precipitation”, Institute of Materials Science and Technology, Vienna University of Technology, Favoritenstraße 9-11, Vienna 1040 (Austria)

    2014-10-01

    Highlights: • Comparison of laboratory Al–Zn–Mg alloy to industrial Al 7xxx series. • Heat flow evolution during non-isothermal DSC analysis is calculated. • TEM investigations of laboratory Al–Zn–Mg alloy at three pronounced temperatures. • Simulation and modelling of precipitation sequence. • Calculation and prediction of heat flow curves of Al 7xxx series. - Abstract: The technological properties of heat treatable Al–Zn–Mg alloys originate in the morphology and distribution of metastable particles. Starting from the solution-annealed condition, this paper describes the precipitate evolution during non-isothermal temperature changes, namely continuous heating differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) analysis. The distribution and the morphology of the metastable and stable precipitates and the heat flow accompanying the precipitation process is investigated experimentally and calculated by numerical thermo-kinetic simulations. The computer simulation results of the sizes and distributions are confirmed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The theoretical background and the results of the investigations are discussed.

  18. Dissociative electron attachment to methyl chloride: A quasi-diatomic potential curve for the fragmentation of the metastable CH3Cl- anion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mach, P.; Urban, J.; Staemmler, V.

    2009-01-01

    Potential energy curves have been calculated for the dissociation of the neutral CH 3 Cl molecule and its negative ion into CH 3 + Cl and CH 3 +Cl - , respectively. The neutral molecule and the anion could be treated by means of standard wave function based quantum chemical ab initio methods for C-Cl distances larger than about 2.4 A, where CH 3 Cl - is a stable anion. In the present calculation MP3 and CCSD(T) were employed. At shorter C-Cl distances the CH 3 Cl - anion is only metastable and cannot be treated by such methods. We have applied a stabilization scheme, first proposed by Nestmann and Peyerimhoff, to stabilize the metastable anion by adding extra positive charges to the molecule. By this trick it was possible to generate the resonance energy E res and width Γ as functions of the C-Cl distance in the resonance regime between 1.5 and 2.5 A. The calculated values for the threshold energy E thresh and the exothermicity ΔE 0 of the DEA (dissociative electron attachment) process are in very good agreement with experiment; the vertical attachment energy (VAE) is smaller than its experimental counterpart

  19. Lifetime Reliability Assessment of Concrete Slab Bridges

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thoft-Christensen, Palle

    A procedure for lifetime assesment of the reliability of short concrete slab bridges is presented in the paper. Corrosion of the reinforcement is the deterioration mechanism used for estimating the reliability profiles for such bridges. The importance of using sensitivity measures is stressed....... Finally the produce is illustrated on 6 existing UK bridges....

  20. SIRTF thermal design modifications to increase lifetime

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrick, S. W.

    1993-01-01

    An effort was made to increase the predicted lifetime of the SIRTF dewar by lowering the exterior shell temperature, increasing the radiated energy from the vapor cooled shields and reconfiguring the vapor cooled shields. The lifetime increases can be used to increase the scientific return from the mission and as a trade-off against mass and cost. This paper describes the configurations studied, the steady state thermal model used, the analytical methods and the results of the analysis. Much of the heat input to the outside dewar shell is radiative heat transfer from the solar panel. To lower the shell temperature, radiative cooled shields were placed between the solar panel and the dewar shell and between the bus and the dewar shell. Analysis showed that placing a radiator on the outer vapor cooled shield had a significant effect on lifetime. Lengthening the distance between the outer shell and the point where the vapor cooled shields are attached to the support straps also improved lifetime.