Sample records for experimental mechanics limerick

  1. Limerick Clare Energy Plan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Dubuisson, Xavier


    at a national level, but they need to be supplemented by local plans also, since the most successful renewable energy projects to date are at a local level. For example, it is evident from the transition to renewable energy in Denmark, that 100% renewable energy systems can already be implemented at a local...... level. Hence, by initiating local action, national targets can be met and exceeded, while also creating a template for a wider transition to renewable energy. Accordingly, the primary goal of the project is: To develop a local energy plan for Limerick and Clare which is based on a quantified assessment...

  2. Limerick Clare Energy Plan

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Connolly, David; Mathiesen, Brian Vad; Dubuisson, Xavier


    worldwide are facing a new challenge, to transition to low-carbon sustainable forms of energy and therefore, the LCR has the opportunity to become a leading innovator within the energy sector once again. This study investigates how the LCR can begin the transition to a sustainable energy system by outlining......The Limerick-Clare Region (LCR) has a long history of innovation within the energy sector in Ireland, which includes the construction of Ireland’s largest hydro plant, Ardnacrusha, in the late 1920’s as well as Ireland’s largest power plant, Moneypoint, in the 1980’s. Currently, energy systems...... some key actions between now and 2020. Furthermore, a long-term vision is also presented to illustrate how these actions contribute to the final objective of a low-carbon 100% renewable energy system....

  3. English Is Crazy. Limericks and Tongue Twisters for Short Vowels. (United States)

    Keller, Rosanne

    Limericks and tongue twisters for learning short vowel sounds in English are presented in this illustrated booklet for speakers with limited English proficiency. After proclaiming that "English is so crazy it makes you want to cry," the book presents first the sounds of the English alphabet, then long and short vowels, a limerick for…

  4. From inventivity in Limerick to creativity in Aveiro: lessons learnt

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Wong, W


    Full Text Available This paper describes the key lessons from an earlier HCI Educators’ conference, held in Limerick in 2006, the outcomes of which led to the theme of HCIEd 2007 – Creativity: Experiencing to Educate and Design. The paper discusses the lessons leant...

  5. Edward Lear, Limericks, and Nonsense: A Little Nonsense. [Lesson Plan]. (United States)


    British poet Edward Lear (1812-1888) is widely recognized as the father of the limerick form of poetry and is well known for his nonsense poems. In the first lesson for grades 3-5, which focuses on Lear's nonsense poem "The Owl and the Pussy Cat," students learn about nonsense poetry as well as the various poetic techniques and devices…

  6. The use of limericks to engage student interest and promote active learning in an undergraduate course in functional anatomy. (United States)

    Carnegie, Jacqueline A


    The study of anatomy is a content-dense discipline with a challenging vocabulary. A mnemonic is a series of letters, a word, a phrase, or a rhyme that students can use when studying to facilitate recall. This project was designed to promote active learning in undergraduate students studying anatomy and physiology by asking them to create limericks based on course content and then to evaluate the limericks written by their peers for learning value, accuracy, style, and adherence to limerick characteristics. Students (278 and 288, respectively, in the 2009 and 2010 sections of ANP1107) worked in groups of three to create a total of 242 limericks. Peer evaluation was accomplished in two stages using a 20-point marking rubric. In Stage 1, students were randomly divided into 10 groups (n = 23 ± 2 students) with each group member evaluating the same 12 ± 1 limericks. In Stage 2, the top 19% of limericks were reevaluated by all students so that the best three could be chosen. In each of the two years, 60% of students completed all parts of the assignment. Higher percentages (75-80%) participated in limerick writing and one of the two assessment stages. A positive association was noted between level of student participation in the limerick assignment and final course marks. Limerick creation and evaluation can be used to promote active learning by encouraging students to review functional-anatomy-based content to create limericks with good learning value and to provide valid assessments of limericks written by their peers. Copyright © 2012 American Association of Anatomists.

  7. Ashlawn House Nursing Home, Limerick Road, Nenagh, Tipperary.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Donohoe, Claire L


    Abstract Background There is a well established link between obesity and cancer. Emerging research is characterising this relationship further and delineating the specific role of excess visceral adiposity, as opposed to simple obesity, in promoting tumorigenesis. This review summarises the evidence from an epidemiological and pathophysiological perspective. Methods Relevant medical literature was identified from searches of PubMed and references cited in appropriate articles identified. Selection of articles was based on peer review, journal and relevance. Results Numerous epidemiological studies consistently identify increased risk of developing carcinoma in the obese. Adipose tissue, particularly viscerally located fat, is metabolically active and exerts systemic endocrine effects. Putative pathophysiological mechanisms linking obesity and carcinogenesis include the paracrine effects of adipose tissue and systemic alterations associated with obesity. Systemic changes in the obese state include chronic inflammation and alterations in adipokines and sex steroids. Insulin and the insulin-like growth factor axis influence tumorigenesis and also have a complex relationship with adiposity. There is evidence to suggest that insulin and the IGF axis play an important role in mediating obesity associated malignancy. Conclusions There is much evidence to support a role for obesity in cancer progression, however further research is warranted to determine the specific effect of excess visceral adipose tissue on tumorigenesis. Investigation of the potential mechanisms underpinning the association, including the role of insulin and the IGF axis, will improve understanding of the obesity and cancer link and may uncover targets for intervention.

  8. Corbally House Nursing Home, Mill Road, Corbally, Limerick.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Mahony, David


    Abstract Background Bifidobacteria and lactobacilli are among the early and important colonizers of the gastrointestinal tract and are generally considered to be part of a normal, healthy microbiota. It is believed that specific strains within the microbiota can influence host immune-reactivity and may play a role in protection from infection and aberrant inflammatory activity. One such strain, Bifidobacterium animalis AHC7, has been previously shown to protect against Salmonella typhimurium infection in mice and helps resolve acute idiopathic diarrhea in dogs. The aim of this study was to investigate the potential molecular and cellular mechanisms underpinning the Bifidobacterium animalis AHC7 protective effect. Results Following 4 hours of infection with Salmonella typhimurium, NF-κB activation was significantly elevated in vivo in placebo and Enterococcus faecium-fed animals while Bifidobacterium animalis AHC7 consumption significantly attenuated the NF-κB response. In vitro anti-CD3\\/CD28 stimulated Peyer\\'s patch cells secreted significantly less TNF-α and IFN-γ following Bifidobacterium animalis AHC7 consumption. Stimulated cells released more IL-12p70 but this difference did not reach statistical significance. No alteration in mucosal IL-6, IL-10 or MCP-1 levels were observed. No statistically significant change in the cytokine profile of mesenteric lymph node cells was noted. In vitro, Bifidobacterium animalis AHC7 was bound by dendritic cells and induced secretion of both IL-10 and IL-12p70. In addition, co-culture of CD4+ T cells with Bifidobacterium animalis AHC7-stimulated dendritic cells resulted in a significant increase in CD25+Foxp3+ T cell numbers. Conclusion Bifidobacterium animalis AHC7 exerts an anti-inflammatory effect via the attenuation of pro-inflammatory transcription factor activation in response to an infectious insult associated with modulation of pro-inflammatory cytokine production within the mucosa. The cellular mechanism

  9. Tensegrity structures - Computational and experimental tensegrity mechanics (United States)

    Kuhl, Detlef; Lim, Yi Chung; Long, David S.


    The present paper deals with tensegrity structures. We review the definition of tensegrity structures, and describe both experimental and computational form finding methods. Also described are the numerical methods for the simulation of prestress induced stiffness, and the static and dynamic structural analyses. Furthermore, we present laboratory models and measurement methods for identifying the realized geometry and prestress state. Finally, computationally and experimentally obtained geometries and prestress states are compared, a representative realization of a real world tensegrity tower is shown and the modeling of biological cells as tensegrity structures is adressed.

  10. Experimental determination of mechanical parameters in sensorless ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)


    11]. Several methods have been reported in literature to measure and/or estimate the mechanical parameters for servo-motor drives and permanent magnet synchronous machine. (PMSM)-based drives [1, 10–15]. Retardation test has been.

  11. experimental evaluation of mechanical dehydration of nigerian

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr Obe

    mechanical dehydration" and this paper reports the laboratory studies ... vegetable marrow. It is attached directly to the trunk of its tree, and when ripe for harvest is either completely orange in colour or orange with streaks of green. A cocoa pod ...

  12. 2014 Annual Conference on Experimental and Applied Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Korach, Chad; Zavattieri, Pablo; Prorok, Barton; Grande-Allen, K; Carroll, Jay; Daly, Samantha; Qi, H; Antoun, Bonnie; Hall, Richard; Lu, Hongbing; Arzoumanidis, Alex; Silberstein, Meredith; Furmanski, Jevan; Amirkhizi, Alireza; Gonzalez-Gutierrez, Joamin; Jin, Helena; Sciammarella, Cesar; Yoshida, Sanichiro; Lamberti, Luciano; Sottos, Nancy; Rowlands, Robert; Dannemann, Kathryn; Tandon, Gyaneshwar; Song, Bo; Casem, Daniel; Kimberley, Jamie; Starman, LaVern; Hay, Jennifer; Shaw, Gordon


    Proceedings of the 2014 Annual Conference on Experimental and Applied Mechanics, the seventh volume of eight from the Conference, brings together contributions to this important area of research and engineering.  The collection presents early findings and case studies on a wide range of areas, including: Soft Tissues Mechanics Natural Materials & Bio-Inspiration Tissue Engineering Cells Mechanics

  13. 2012 Annual Conference on Experimental and Applied Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Crone, Wendy; Jin, Helena; Sciammarella, Cesar; Furlong, Cosme; Furlong, Cosme; Chalivendra, Vijay; Song, Bo; Casem, Daniel; Antoun, Bonnie; Qi, H; Hall, Richard; Tandon, GP; Lu, Hongbing; Lu, Charles; Yoshida, Sanichiro; Shaw, Gordon; Prorok, Barton; Barthelat, François; Korach, Chad; Grande-Allen, K; Lipke, Elizabeth; Lykofatitits, George; Zavattieri, Pablo; Starman, LaVern; Patterson, Eann; Backman, David; Cloud, Gary; Vol.1 Dynamic Behavior of Materials; Vol.2 Challenges in Mechanics of Time-Dependent Materials and Processes in Conventional and Multifunctional Materials; Vol.3 Imaging Methods for Novel Materials and Challenging Applications; Vol.4 Experimental and Applied Mechanics; Vol.5 Mechanics of Biological Systems and Materials; Vol.6 MEMS and Nanotechnology; Vol.7 Composite Materials and Joining Technologies for Composites


    Experimental and Applied Mechanics, Volume 4: Proceedings of the 2012 Annual Conference on Experimental and Applied Mechanics, the fourth volume of seven from the Conference, brings together 54 contributions to this important area of research and engineering. The collection presents early findings and case studies on fundamental and applied aspects of Experimental and Applied Mechanics, including papers on:  Fracture & Fatigue Microscale & Microstructural Effects in Fatigue & Fracture Material Applications Composite Characterization Using Digital Image Correlation Techniques Multi-Scale Simulation and Testing of Composites Residual Stress Inverse Problems/Hybrid Methods Nano-Composites Microstructure Material Characterization Modeling and Uncertainty Quantification Impact Behavior of Composites.

  14. Experimental Investigation of Thrust Fault Rupture Mechanics (United States)

    Gabuchian, Vahe

    hanging wall. Fault opening rates indicate that the hanging and foot walls detach near the earth surface, a phenomenon promoted by a decrease in magnitude of far-field tectonic loads. Subsequent shutting of the fault sends an opening pulse back down-dip. In case of a sub-Rayleigh earthquake, feedback from the reflected S wave re-ruptures the locked fault at super-shear speeds, providing another mechanism of super-shear transition.

  15. Techniques in Experimental Mechanics Applicable to Forest Products Research (United States)

    Leslie H. Groom; Audrey G. Zink


    The title of this publication-Techniques in Experimental Mechanics Applicable to Forest Products Research-is the theme of this plenary session from the 1994 Annual Meeting of the Forest Products Society (FPS). Although this session focused on experimental techniques that can be of assistance to researchers in the field of forest products, it is hoped that the...

  16. 2016 Annual Conference on Experimental and Applied Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Lamberson, Leslie; Kimberley, Jamie; Korach, Chad; Tekalur, Srinivasan; Zavattieri, Pablo; Yoshida, Sanichiro; Lamberti, Luciano; Sciammarella, Cesar; Ralph, W; Singh, Raman; Tandon, Gyaneshwar; Thakre, Piyush; Zavattieri, Pablo; Zhu, Yong; Zehnder, Alan; Zehnder, Alan; Carroll, Jay; Hazeli, Kavan; Berke, Ryan; Pataky, Garrett; Cavalli, Matthew; Beese, Alison; Xia, Shuman; Starman, La; Hay, Jennifer; Karanjgaokar, Nikhil; Quinn, Simon; Balandraud, Xavier; Cloud, Gary; Patterson, Eann; Backman, David


    Dynamic Behavior of Materials, Volume 1 of the Proceedings of the 2016 SEM Annual Conference& Exposition on Experimental and Applied Mechanics, the first volume of ten from the Conference, brings together contributions to this important area of research and engineering. The collection presents early findings and case studies on fundamental and applied aspects of Experimental Mechanics, including papers on: Quantitative Visualization Fracture & Fragmentation Dynamic Behavior of Low Impedance Materials Shock & Blast Dynamic Behavior of Composites Novel Testing Techniques Hybrid Experimental & Computational Methods Dynamic Behavior of Geo-materials General Material Behavior.

  17. Experimental and mechanical analysis of cement–nanotube ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Carbon nanotubes; cement; nanocomposites; finite-element method; modal analysis. 1. Introduction Researchers have attempted to estimate the mechanical properties of multi- and single-walled nanotubes (MWNTs and SWNTs, respectively) in manyways, including experimental, molecular dynamics (MD) and elastic ...

  18. Mechanical properties of jennite: A theoretical and experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moon, Juhyuk, E-mail: [Civil Engineering Program, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Stony Brook University, NY 11794 (United States); Yoon, Seyoon [School of Engineering, Kings College, University of Aberdeen, Aberdeen AB24 3UE (United Kingdom); Monteiro, Paulo J.M. [Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)


    The objective of this study is to determine the mechanical properties of jennite. To date, several hypotheses have been proposed to predict the structural properties of jennite. For the first time as reported herein, the isothermal bulk modulus of jennite was measured experimentally. Synchrotron-based high-pressure x-ray diffraction experiments were performed to observe the variation of lattice parameters under pressure. First-principles calculations were applied to compare with the experimental results and predict additional structural properties. Accurately measured isothermal bulk modulus herein (K{sub 0} = 64(2) GPa) and the statistical assessment on experimental and theoretical results suggest reliable mechanical properties of shear and Young's modulus, Poisson's ratio, and elastic tensor coefficients. Determination of these fundamental structural properties is the first step toward greater understanding of calcium–silicate–hydrate, as well as provides a sound foundation for forthcoming atomic level simulations.

  19. Biofilms and mechanics: a review of experimental techniques and findings (United States)

    Gordon, Vernita D.; Davis-Fields, Megan; Kovach, Kristin; Rodesney, Christopher A.


    Biofilms are developmentally-dynamic communities of sessile microbes that adhere to each other and, often, to other structures in their environment. The cohesive mechanical forces binding microbes to each other confer mechanical and structural stability on the biofilm and give rise to biofilm viscoelasticity. The adhesive mechanical forces binding microbes to other structures in their environment can promote biofilm initiation and mechanosensing that leads to changes in biological activity. Thus, physical mechanics is intrinsic to characteristics that distinguish biofilms from free-swimming or free-floating microbes in liquid culture. However, very little is known about the specifics of what mechanical traits characterize different types of biofilms at different stages of development. Even less is known about how mechanical inputs impact microbial biology and how microbes can adjust their mechanical coupling to, and interaction with, their environment. These knowledge gaps arise, in part, from the challenges associated with experimental measurements of microbial and biofilm biomechanics. Here, we review extant experimental techniques and their most-salient findings to date. At the end of this review we indicate areas where significant advances in the state-of-the art are heading.

  20. Models, simulation, and experimental issues in structural mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Maceri, Franco; Vairo, Giuseppe


    The reader aware in Structural Mechanics will find in this book a source of fruitful knowledge and effective tools useful for imagining, creating, and promoting novel and challenging developments. It addresses a wide range of topics, such as mechanics and geotechnics, vibration and damping, damage and friction, experimental methods, and advanced structural materials. It also discusses analytical, experimental and numerical findings, focusing on theoretical and practical issues, and leading to innovations in the field. Collecting some of the latest results from the Lagrange Laboratory, a European scientific research group, mainly consisting of Italian and French engineers, mechanicians and mathematicians, the book presents the most recent example of the long-term scientific cooperation between well-established French and Italian Mechanics, Mathematics and Engineering Schools. .

  1. Applications of Digital Image Analysis in Experimental Mechanics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyngbye, J. : Ph.D.

    The present thesis "Application of Digital Image Analysis in Experimental Mechanics" has been prepared as a part of Janus Lyngbyes Ph.D. study during the period December 1988 to June 1992 at the Department of Building technology and Structural Engineering, University of Aalborg, Denmark....... In this thesis attention will be focused on optimal use and analysis of the information of digital images. This is realized during investigation and application of parametric methods in digital image analysis. The parametric methods will be implemented in applications representative for the area of experimental...

  2. Applications of Digital Image Analysis in Experimental Mechanics


    Lyngbye, J. : Ph.D.


    The present thesis "Application of Digital Image Analysis in Experimental Mechanics" has been prepared as a part of Janus Lyngbyes Ph.D. study during the period December 1988 to June 1992 at the Department of Building technology and Structural Engineering, University of Aalborg, Denmark. In this thesis attention will be focused on optimal use and analysis of the information of digital images. This is realized during investigation and application of parametric methods in digital image analysis...

  3. Multiscale experimental mechanics of hierarchical carbon-based materials. (United States)

    Espinosa, Horacio D; Filleter, Tobin; Naraghi, Mohammad


    Investigation of the mechanics of natural materials, such as spider silk, abalone shells, and bone, has provided great insight into the design of materials that can simultaneously achieve high specific strength and toughness. Research has shown that their emergent mechanical properties are owed in part to their specific self-organization in hierarchical molecular structures, from nanoscale to macroscale, as well as their mixing and bonding. To apply these findings to manmade materials, researchers have devoted significant efforts in developing a fundamental understanding of multiscale mechanics of materials and its application to the design of novel materials with superior mechanical performance. These efforts included the utilization of some of the most promising carbon-based nanomaterials, such as carbon nanotubes, carbon nanofibers, and graphene, together with a variety of matrix materials. At the core of these efforts lies the need to characterize material mechanical behavior across multiple length scales starting from nanoscale characterization of constituents and their interactions to emerging micro- and macroscale properties. In this report, progress made in experimental tools and methods currently used for material characterization across multiple length scales is reviewed, as well as a discussion of how they have impacted our current understanding of the mechanics of hierarchical carbon-based materials. In addition, insight is provided into strategies for bridging experiments across length scales, which are essential in establishing a multiscale characterization approach. While the focus of this progress report is in experimental methods, their concerted use with theoretical-computational approaches towards the establishment of a robust material by design methodology is also discussed, which can pave the way for the development of novel materials possessing unprecedented mechanical properties. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. A cyber-physical approach to experimental fluid mechanics (United States)

    Mackowski, Andrew Williams

    This Thesis documents the design, implementation, and use of a novel type of experimental apparatus, termed Cyber-Physical Fluid Dynamics (CPFD). Unlike traditional fluid mechanics experiments, CPFD is a general-purpose technique that allows one to impose arbitrary forces on an object submerged in a fluid. By combining fluid mechanics with robotics, we can perform experiments that would otherwise be incredibly difficult or time-consuming. More generally, CPFD allows a high degree of automation and control of the experimental process, allowing for much more efficient use of experimental facilities. Examples of CPFD's capabilites include imposing a gravitational force in the horizontal direction (allowing a test object to "fall" sideways in a water channel), simulating nonlinear springs for a vibrating fluid-structure system, or allowing a self-propelled body to move forward under its own force. Because experimental parameters (including forces and even the mass of the test object) are defined in software, one can define entire ensembles of experiments to run autonomously. CPFD additionally integrates related systems such as water channel speed control, LDV flow speed measurements, and PIV flowfield measurements. The end result is a general-purpose experimental system that opens the door to a vast array of fluid-structure interaction problems. We begin by describing the design and implementation of CPFD, the heart of which is a high-performance force-feedback control system. Precise measurement of time-varying forces (including removing effects of the test object's inertia) is more critical here than in typical robotic force-feedback applications. CPFD is based on an integration of ideas from control theory, fluid dynamics, computer science, electrical engineering, and solid mechanics. We also describe experiments using the CPFD experimental apparatus to study vortex-induced vibration (VIV) and oscillating-airfoil propulsion. We show how CPFD can be used to simulate

  5. Experimental demonstration of an inertial collimation mechanism in nested outflows. (United States)

    Yurchak, R; Ravasio, A; Pelka, A; Pikuz, S; Falize, E; Vinci, T; Koenig, M; Loupias, B; Benuzzi-Mounaix, A; Fatenejad, M; Tzeferacos, P; Lamb, D Q; Blackman, E G


    Interaction between a central outflow and a surrounding wind is common in astrophysical sources powered by accretion. Understanding how the interaction might help to collimate the inner central outflow is of interest for assessing astrophysical jet formation paradigms. In this context, we studied the interaction between two nested supersonic plasma flows generated by focusing a long-pulse high-energy laser beam onto a solid target. A nested geometry was created by shaping the energy distribution at the focal spot with a dedicated phase plate. Optical and x-ray diagnostics were used to study the interacting flows. Experimental results and numerical hydrodynamic simulations indeed show the formation of strongly collimated jets. Our work experimentally confirms the "shock-focused inertial confinement" mechanism proposed in previous theoretical astrophysics investigations.

  6. Elucidating Grinding Mechanism by Theoretical and Experimental Investigations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AMM Sharif Ullah


    Full Text Available Grinding is one of the essential manufacturing processes for producing brittle or hard materials-based precision parts (e.g., optical lenses. In grinding, a grinding wheel removes the desired amount of material by passing the same area on the workpiece surface multiple times. How the topography of a workpiece surface evolves with these passes is thus an important research issue, which has not yet been addressed elaborately. The present paper tackles this issue from both the theoretical and the experimental points of view. In particular, this paper presents the results of experimental and theoretical investigations on the multi-pass surface grinding operations where the workpiece surface is made of glass and the grinding wheel consists of cBN abrasive grains. Both investigations confirm that a great deal of stochasticity is involved in the grinding mechanism, and the complexity of the workpiece surface gradually increases along with the number of passes.

  7. 2013 Annual Conference on Experimental and Applied Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Casem, Dan; Kimberley, Jamie; Barthelat, François; Zavattieri, Pablo; Antoun, Bonnie; Qi, H; Hall, Richard; Tandon, G; Lu, Hongbing; Lu, Charles; Furmanski, Jevan; Amirkhizi, Alireza; Korach, Chad; Prorok, Barton; Grande-Allen, K; III, Gordon; Prorok, Barton; Starman, LaVern; Furlong, Cosme; Tandon, G; Tekalur, Srinivasan; Ralph, Carter; Sottos, Nancy; Blaiszik, Benjamin; Jay, Carroll; Rossi, Marco; Sasso, Marco; Connesson, Nathanael; Singh, Raman; DeWald, Adrian; Backman, David; Gloeckner, Paul; Jin, Helena; Sciammarella, Cesar; Yoshida, Sanichiro; Lamberti, Luciano; Vol.1 Dynamic Behavior of Materials; Vol.2 Challenges In Mechanics of Time-Dependent Materials and Processes in Conventional and Multifunctional Materials; Vol.3 Advancement of Optical Methods in Experimental Mechanics; Vol.4 Mechanics of Biological Systems and Materials; Vol.5 MEMS and Nanotechnology; Vol.6 Experimental Mechanics of Composite, Hybrid, and Multifunctional Materials; Vol.7 Fracture and Fatigue; Vol.8 Residual Stress, Thermomechanics & Infrared Imaging, Hybrid Techniques and Inverse Problems; SEM 2013


    This critical collection examines a range of topics in fracture and fatigue, including environmental and loading effects in fracture and fatigue and DIC and fracture, as presented in early findings and case studies from the Proceedings of the 2013 Annual Conference on Experimental and Applied Mechanics. The collection includes papers in the following general technical research areas: • Microstructural Effects in Fatigue & Fracture • Fracture of Interfaces • Fracture of Composites and Interface Cracks • Fatigue & Fracture: Environmental & Loading Eff ects • Fracture & Digital Image Correlation Fracture and Fatigue

  8. FY15 Status Report: CIRFT Testing of Spent Nuclear Fuel Rods from Boiler Water Reactor Limerick

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Jy-An John [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Wang, Hong [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Jiang, Hao [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)


    The objective of this project is to perform a systematic study of used nuclear fuel (UNF, also known as spent nuclear fuel [SNF]) integrity under simulated transportation environments using the Cyclic Integrated Reversible-Bending Fatigue Tester (CIRFT) hot-cell testing technology developed at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) in August 2013. Under Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) sponsorship, ORNL completed four benchmark tests, four static tests, and twelve dynamic or cycle tests on H. B. Robinson (HBR) high burn-up (HBU) fuel. The clad of the HBR fuels was made of Zircaloy-4. Testing was continued in fiscal year (FY) 2014 using Department of Energy (DOE) funds. The additional CIRFT was conducted on three HBR rods (R3, R4, and R5) in which two specimens failed and one specimen was tested to over 2.23 10⁷ cycles without failing. The data analysis on all the HBR UNF rods demonstrated that it is necessary to characterize the fatigue life of the UNF rods in terms of (1) the curvature amplitude and (2) the maximum absolute of curvature extremes. The maximum extremes are significant because they signify the maximum of tensile stress for the outer fiber of the bending rod. CIRFT testing has also addressed a large variation in hydrogen content on the HBR rods. While the load amplitude is the dominant factor that controls the fatigue life of bending rods, the hydrogen content also has an important effect on the lifetime attained at each load range tested. In FY 15, ten SNF rod segments from BWR Limerick were tested using ORNL CIRFT, with one under static and nine dynamic loading conditions. Under static unidirectional loading, a moment of 85 N·m was obtained at maximum curvature 4.0 m⁻¹. The specimen did not show any sign of failure in three repeated loading cycles to almost same maximum curvature. Ten cyclic tests were conducted with amplitude varying from 15.2 to 7.1 N·m. Failure was observed in nine of the tested rod specimens. The cycles to failure were

  9. Triggering the mechanical (slip) instability in laboratory experimental model (United States)

    Devidze, M.; Chelidze, T.; Varamashvili, N.


    Recent laboratory experiments testify possibility of significant influence of elastic and electromagnetic (EM) fields to affect (hamper or initiate) slip. This work focuses on experimental test of possibility of triggering the mechanical instability of system, which is close to the critical state, by electromagnetic pulses. The mechanical system consisted of two pieces of rock (basalt).This system is driven close to the critical state, namely by placing the rock plate on the inclined supporting sample at the slope angle less than, but close to the critical slip angle. In this state the triggering of mechanical instability by some weak impact such as electrical pulse became more probable. It has been found that when the EM field is nearly parallel to the slip plane the EM impact initiates the slip with the probability at the voltage and with the probability at . On the other hand, if the EM field is normal to the slip surface, application of EM pulse hampers the slip. The slope of support in experiment is analogue of tectonic stress in natural conditions. We conclude that our laboratory experiments give a sound principal basis for the interpretation of the field data on the control of seismic regime by relatively weak natural or artificial perturbations; of course, in the earth crust the detailed physical mechanisms of coupling between tectonic forces and superimposed perturbations may be different.

  10. Just Jocking? An Exploration of how 10-12 year old Children Experience an Equine Assisted Learning Programme, in a DEIS School, in Limerick city.


    Jones, Kate Bronwyn


    Throughout Irish history, the horse has had many uses. In modern Ireland, some communities have harnessed the power of the horse to deliver a range of social interventions. However, at present, there is little published research about equine assisted programmes in Ireland. The main intention of this research project is to explore how 10-12 year old children, from a DEIS primary school in Limerick city, experience an Equine Assisted Learning (EAL) programme facilitated by the local Garda Youth...

  11. Experimental study on mechanical properties of aircraft honeycomb sandwich structures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Talebi Mazraehshahi H.


    Full Text Available Mechanical behaviour of sandwich panels under different conditions have been exprimentally studied in this research to increase the knowledge of aircraft sandwich panel structures and facilitate design criteria for aircraft structures. Tests were concentrated on the honeycomb sandwich structures under different loads including flexural, insert shear, flat wise tension and compression loads. Furthermore, effect of core density and face material on mechanical behavior of different samples were investigated and compared with analytical and FEM method. Effects of skin thickness on strength of honycomb sandwhich panels under shear pull out and moments have also been considerd in this study. According to this investigation, insert strength and flexural test under different load conditions is strongly affected by face thickness, but compression and tearoff (falt wise tensile properties of a sandwich panel depends on core material. The study concludes that the correlation between experimental results and the analytical predictions will enable the designer to predict the mechanical behaviour and strength of a sandwich beam; however, applied formula may lead engineers to unreliable results for shear modulus.

  12. Mechanisms of Osteoarthritic Pain. Studies in Humans and Experimental Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annett Eitner


    Full Text Available Pain due to osteoarthritis (OA is one of the most frequent causes of chronic pain. However, the mechanisms of OA pain are poorly understood. This review addresses the mechanisms which are thought to be involved in OA pain, derived from studies on pain mechanisms in humans and in experimental models of OA. Three areas will be considered, namely local processes in the joint associated with OA pain, neuronal mechanisms involved in OA pain, and general factors which influence OA pain. Except the cartilage all structures of the joints are innervated by nociceptors. Although the hallmark of OA is the degradation of the cartilage, OA joints show multiple structural alterations of cartilage, bone and synovial tissue. In particular synovitis and bone marrow lesions have been proposed to determine OA pain whereas the contribution of the other pathologies to pain generation has been studied less. Concerning the peripheral neuronal mechanisms of OA pain, peripheral nociceptive sensitization was shown, and neuropathic mechanisms may be involved at some stages. Structural changes of joint innervation such as local loss and/or sprouting of nerve fibers were shown. In addition, central sensitization, reduction of descending inhibition, descending excitation and cortical atrophies were observed in OA. The combination of different neuronal mechanisms may define the particular pain phenotype in an OA patient. Among mediators involved in OA pain, nerve growth factor (NGF is in the focus because antibodies against NGF significantly reduce OA pain. Several studies show that neutralization of interleukin-1β and TNF may reduce OA pain. Many patients with OA exhibit comorbidities such as obesity, low grade systemic inflammation and diabetes mellitus. These comorbidities can significantly influence the course of OA, and pain research just began to study the significance of such factors in pain generation. In addition, psychologic and socioeconomic factors may aggravate

  13. Understanding organometallic reaction mechanisms and catalysis experimental and computational tools computational and experimental tools

    CERN Document Server

    Ananikov, Valentin P


    Exploring and highlighting the new horizons in the studies of reaction mechanisms that open joint application of experimental studies and theoretical calculations is the goal of this book. The latest insights and developments in the mechanistic studies of organometallic reactions and catalytic processes are presented and reviewed. The book adopts a unique approach, exemplifying how to use experiments, spectroscopy measurements, and computational methods to reveal reaction pathways and molecular structures of catalysts, rather than concentrating solely on one discipline. The result is a deeper

  14. Experimental progress toward single phonon creation in a mechanical resonator (United States)

    O'Connell, Aaron; Ansmann, M.; Bialczak, R. C.; Hofheinz, M.; Lucero, E.; Neeley, M.; Sank, D.; Wang, H.; Wenner, J.; Martinis, J. M.; Cleland, A. N.


    Coupling a high frequency (˜6 GHz) mechanical resonator to a Josephson phase qubit may enable the creation and manipulation of single phonons. Previously, we have shown the creation of arbitrary photon states in a superconducting coplanar waveguide (CPW) resonator coupled to a phase qubit (Max Hofheinz et al., Nature 454, 310-314, 2008). That experiment illustrated the capability of the phase qubit to controllably create and measure quantum states in a capacitively coupled resonator. By replacing the CPW resonator with a film bulk acoustic resonator (FBAR) we can potentially transfer the quantum state of the phase qubit to a vibrational mode of the FBAR. This talk will focus on our experimental progress to date in realizing this aim.

  15. Intermediate eXperimental Vehicle Jettison Mechanism Engineering and Test (United States)

    Caldirola, L.; Schmid, B.


    The IXV (Intermediate eXperimental Vehicle) is a project of the European Space Agency that aims to develop an autonomous atmospheric re-entry system. A flight model has been launched on a Vega rocket on the 11th of February 2015 and after descending from an altitude of 420km splashed down in the Pacific Ocean. In the frame of this project RUAG space has developed the entire cold structure and the mechanisms able to eject the panels closing the parachute and floatation balloons bays. Panels ejection allows respectively parachutes deployment, reducing the IXV re-entry speed from Mach 1.5 to few meters per second just before the splash down, and buoyancy balloons inflation which let the vehicle float on the sea surface until arrival of the recovery ship.Such panels and the relevant mechanisms had to be designed not only to guarantee the correct external aerodynamic shape needed for the flight performance, but also to provide enough stiffness and strength to the IXV structure, being capable of transfer high shear loads.Moreover the floatation doors design enclosed both the hold down and release mechanism, based on a non- explosive separation nut, and the jettison springs, therefore particular attention had to be put to prevent any damage to the panel during the release which could have potentially led to jamming of the panel itself which jeopardise the floatation balloon deployment. The chosen design was therefore based on a spherical joint, so that shear load can be withstand and bending moment on the jettison-able panels limited at the same time.Test activities have been performed at mechanism level for environmental and preliminary functional qualification, subsystem level, including dummy panel jettison and full scale IXV drop test, to complete the functional qualification and system level test to close qualification campaign.The purpose of this paper is to present the mechanism design and the activities performed to qualify at component and sub-system level the

  16. Annular tautomerism: experimental observations and quantum mechanics calculations (United States)

    Cruz-Cabeza, Aurora J.; Schreyer, Adrian; Pitt, William R.


    The use of MP2 level quantum mechanical (QM) calculations on isolated heteroaromatic ring systems for the prediction of the tautomeric propensities of whole molecules in a crystalline environment was examined. A Polarisable Continuum Model was used in the calculations to account for environment effects on the tautomeric relative stabilities. The calculated relative energies of tautomers were compared to relative abundances within the Cambridge Structural Database (CSD) and the Protein Data Bank (PDB). The work was focussed on 84 annular tautomeric forms of 34 common ring systems. Good agreement was found between the calculations and the experimental data even if the quantity of these data was limited in many cases. The QM results were compared to those produced by much faster semiempirical calculations. In a search for other sources of the useful experimental data, the relative numbers of known compounds in which prototropic positions were often substituted by heavy atoms were also analysed. A scheme which groups all annular tautomeric transformations into 10 classes was developed. The scheme was designed to encompass a comprehensive set of known and theoretically possible tautomeric ring systems generated as part of a previous study. General trends across analogous ring systems were detected as a result. The calculations and statistics collected on crystallographic data as well as the general trends observed should be useful for the better modelling of annular tautomerism in the applications such as computer-aided drug design, small molecule crystal structure prediction, the naming of compounds and the interpretation of protein—small molecule crystal structures.

  17. Evaluation of advanced materials through experimental mechanics and modelling (United States)

    Yang, Yii-Ching


    Composite materials have been frequently used in aerospace vehicles. Very often defects are inherited during the manufacture and damages are inherited during the construction and services. It becomes critical to understand the mechanical behavior of such composite structure before it can be further used. One good example of these composite structures is the cylindrical bottle of solid rocket motor case with accidental impact damages. Since the replacement of this cylindrical bottle is expensive, it is valuable to know how the damages affects the material, and how it can be repaired. To reach this goal, the damage must be characterized and the stress/strain field must be carefully analyzed. First the damage area, due to impact, is surveyed and identified with a shearography technique which uses the principle of speckle shearing interferometry to measure displacement gradient. Within the damage area of a composite laminate, such as the bottle of solid rocket motor case, all layers are considered to be degraded. Once a lamina being degraded the stiffness as well as strength will be drastically decreased. It becomes a critical area of failure to the whole bottle. And hence the stress/strain field within and around a damage should be accurately evaluated for failure prediction. To investigate the stress/strain field around damages a Hybrid-Numerical method which combines experimental measurement and finite element analysis is used. It is known the stress or strain at the singular point can not be accurately measured by an experimental technique. Nevertheless, if the location is far away from the singular spot, the displacement can be found accurately. Since it reflects the true displacement field locally regardless of the boundary conditions, it is an excellent input data for a finite element analysis to replace the usually assumed boundary conditions. Therefore, the Hybrid-Numerical method is chosen to avoid the difficulty and to take advantage of both experimental

  18. The mechanics of intermediate and deep focus earthquakes: experimental evidences (United States)

    Schubnel, A.; Hilairet, N.; Ferrand, T. P.; Incel, S.; Labrousse, L.; Renner, J.; Gasc, J.; Wang, Y.; Green, H. W., II


    At least part of the subducting slab seismic activity could be triggered by phase transformations and mineral reactions. However, the way mineral reactions can modify the deformation regime of deep rocks, from ductile to brittle (embrittlement) is still poorly understood and remains one of the outstanding unsolved problems of geophysics and rock mechanics. Here, we provide experimental evidence that, under differential stress at high pressure and temperature conditions (3-5GPa/800-1000°C), shear fractures nucleate and propagate at the onset of the olivine -> spinel transition in the Mg2GeO4 analogue system. The propagation of these fractures is sufficiently rapid to radiate energy in the form of intense acoustic emissions (AEs). Using a similar set-up, a second set of experiments demonstrates that glaucophane and lawsonite mixtures, two of the principal mineral water carriers in the subducted oceanic crust, undergo dynamic fracture instabilities when deformed within the eclogite field (3GPa/400-800°C). This time, AEs are observed due respectively to the glaucophane breakdown into jadeite and talc under low temperature and lawsonite dehydration under higher temperature. Finally, deformation experiments performed on partially serpentinized peridotites at 2-4GPa, 500-700°C, demonstrate that 5% serpentine in sufficient to trigger dehydration embrittlement of the peridotite body. In this case, low serpentine contents may favor initiation of mechanical failure of the olivine "load bearing" network. In all these three cases, various post-mortem microstructural observations techniques (SEM, TEM, Raman, Microprobe, X-ray tomography) reveals that samples deformed under stress almost systematically present high presure (HP) faulting, to the contrary of samples transformed under isostatic conditions. In addition, AEs correspond to acoustic waves radiated by dynamic HP transformational faulting and follow the Gutenberg-Richter law over sometimes more than 4 orders of moment

  19. Molecular Mechanisms of Curcumin Renoprotection in Experimental Acute Renal Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youling Fan


    Full Text Available As a highly perfused organ, the kidney is especially sensitive to ischemia and reperfusion. Ischemia-reperfusion (IR-induced acute kidney injury (AKI has a high incidence during the perioperative period in the clinic and is an important link in ischemic acute renal failure (IARF. Therefore, IR-induced AKI has important clinical significance and it is necessary to explore to develop drugs to prevent and alleviate IR-induced AKI. Curcumin [diferuloylmethane, 1,7-bis(4-hydroxy-3-methoxiphenyl-1,6-heptadiene-3,5-dione] is a polyphenol compound derived from Curcuma longa (turmeric and was shown to have a renoprotective effect on ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI in a previous study. However, the specific mechanisms underlying the protective role of curcumin in IR-induced AKI are not completely understood. APPL1 is a protein coding gene that has been shown to be involved in the crosstalk between the adiponectin-signaling and insulin-signaling pathways. In the study, to investigate the molecular mechanisms of curcumin effects in kidney ischemia/reperfusion model, we observed the effect of curcumin in experimental models of IR-induced AKI and we found that curcumin treatment significantly increased the expression of APPL1 and inhibited the activation of Akt after IR treatment in the kidney. Our in vitro results showed that apoptosis of renal tubular epithelial cells was exacerbated with hypoxia-reoxygenation (HR treatment compared to sham control cells. Curcumin significantly decreased the rate of apoptosis in renal tubular epithelial cells with HR treatment. Moreover, knockdown of APPL1 activated Akt and subsequently aggravated apoptosis in HR-treated renal tubular epithelial cells. Conversely, inhibition of Akt directly reversed the effects of APPL1 knockdown. In summary, our study demonstrated that curcumin mediated upregulation of APPL1 protects against ischemia reperfusion induced AKI by inhibiting Akt phosphorylation.

  20. Mechanisms of blast induced brain injuries, experimental studies in rats. (United States)

    Risling, M; Plantman, S; Angeria, M; Rostami, E; Bellander, B-M; Kirkegaard, M; Arborelius, U; Davidsson, J


    Traumatic brain injuries (TBI) potentially induced by blast waves from detonations result in significant diagnostic problems. It may be assumed that several mechanisms contribute to the injury. This study is an attempt to characterize the presumed components of the blast induced TBI. Our experimental models include a blast tube in which an anesthetized rat can be exposed to controlled detonations of explosives that result in a pressure wave with a magnitude between 130 and 260 kPa. In this model, the animal is fixed with a metal net to avoid head acceleration forces. The second model is a controlled penetration of a 2mm thick needle. In the third model the animal is subjected to a high-speed sagittal rotation angular acceleration. Immunohistochemical labeling for amyloid precursor protein revealed signs of diffuse axonal injury (DAI) in the penetration and rotation models. Signs of punctuate inflammation were observed after focal and rotation injury. Exposure in the blast tube did not induce DAI or detectable cell death, but functional changes. Affymetrix Gene arrays showed changes in the expression in a large number of gene families including cell death, inflammation and neurotransmitters in the hippocampus after both acceleration and penetration injuries. Exposure to the primary blast wave induced limited shifts in gene expression in the hippocampus. The most interesting findings were a downregulation of genes involved in neurogenesis and synaptic transmission. These experiments indicate that rotational acceleration may be a critical factor for DAI and other acute changes after blast TBI. The further exploration of the mechanisms of blast TBI will have to include a search for long-term effects. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Experimental forearm immobilization in humans induces cold and mechanical hyperalgesia. (United States)

    Terkelsen, Astrid J; Bach, Flemming W; Jensen, Troels S


    Complex regional pain syndrome is a painful condition of unknown etiology. Clinical and experimental observations suggest that limb immobilization may induce symptoms and signs characteristic of complex regional pain syndrome. This study examined the effect of forearm immobilization on regional sensory and autonomic functions in healthy subjects. Thermal and mechanical sensitivity, skin temperature, and vasoconstrictor responses were measured in 30 healthy subjects before and 0, 3, and 28 days after scaphoid cast immobilization. Fifteen subjects served as nonimmobilized controls. At cast removal, 27 subjects experienced pain at joint movement. Cast immobilization induced cold hyperalgesia in glabrous and hairy skin on the immobilized hand and induced significant skin temperature differences between the control and the immobilized hand at cast removal and after 3 days. Immobilization also reduced pain threshold at skin fold testing at all time points after cast removal. All measures except pain threshold at skin fold testing were normalized after 28 days. Immobilization did not affect thermal detection, heat pain, and pressure pain thresholds; resting skin perfusion; or vasoconstrictor responses induced by mental stress or deep inspirations. Four weeks of forearm immobilization caused transient changes in skin temperature, mechanosensitivity, and thermosensitivity, without alteration in the sympathetically mediated vascular tone.

  2. Numerical and experimental investigation of bump foil mechanical behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jon Steffen; Cerda Varela, Alejandro Javier; Santos, Ilmar


    Corrugated foils are utilized in air foil bearings to introduce compliance and damping thus accurate mathematical predictions are important. A corrugated foil behaviour is investigated experimentally as well as theoretically. The experimental investigation is performed by compressing the foil...

  3. Recent experimental developments concerning the mechanisms underlying dust emission (United States)

    McKenna Neuman, C. L.; Sanderson, R. S.; O'Brien, P.


    product (nickel slag) examined in our experiments. The vertical pressure differential generated, which is highly correlated with depth and the velocity of the airflow directly above the surface, drives the wind pumping phenomena similar to that described in the early work of Kimball & Lemon (1972). Because of limitations in attaining full temporal and spatial resolution with existing technology, we are as yet unable to demonstrate experimentally that such pressure fluctuations are linked directly to the exhaustion of dust particles. However, DustTrak ™ measurements obtained during our wind tunnel experiments clearly show that low concentrations of such dust can be emitted from source materials buried under clean (washed) gravel sized elements at depths up to 3 cm or more. While this mechanism has received little to no attention in the literature on wind erosion, it is one that over the long term may be globally important in the context of the expansive areas of desert pavement known to exist in arid and semi-arid regions. References: Gordon, M. and C. McKenna Neuman (2009), A comparison of collisions of saltating grains with loose and consolidated silt surfaces, J. Geophys. Res. , 114, F04015, doi:10.1029/2009JF001330. Kimball, B. A. and E. R. Lemon (1972) Theory of soil air movement due to pressure fluctuations, Agricultural Meteorology, 9, 163-181.

  4. Mechanical behaviour of the heel pad: experimental and numerical approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matteoli, Sara; Fontanella, C. G.; Virga, A.

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the stress relaxation phenomena of the heel pad region under different loading conditions. A 31-year-old healthy female was enrolled in this study and her left foot underwent both MRI and experimental compression tests. Experimental results were...

  5. Experimental econophysics properties and mechanisms of laboratory markets

    CERN Document Server

    Huang, Ji-Ping


    Experimental Econophysics describes the method of controlled human experiments, which is developed by physicists to study some problems in economics or finance, namely, stylized facts, fluctuation phenomena, herd behavior, contrarian behavior, hedge behavior, cooperation, business cycles, partial information, risk management, and stock prediction. Experimental econophysics together with empirical econophysics are two branches of the field of econophysics. The latter one has been extensively discussed in the existing books, while the former one has been seldom touched. In this book, the author will focus on the branch of experimental econophysics. Empirical econophysics is based on the analysis of data in real markets by using some statistical tools borrowed from traditional statistical physics. Differently, inspired by the role of controlled experiments and system modelling (for computer simulations and/or analytical theory) in developing modern physics, experimental econophysics specially relies on controlle...

  6. Experimental study of mechanical properties of friction welded AISI ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Friction welding is widely used as a mass production method in various industries. In the present study, an experimental set-up was designed in order to achieve friction welding of plastically deformed AISI 1021 steels. In this study, low alloy steel (AISI 1021) was welded under different welding parameters and afterwards ...

  7. Experimental study of mechanical properties of friction welded AISI ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. Friction welding is widely used as a mass production method in vari- ous industries. In the present study, an experimental set-up was designed in order to achieve friction welding of plastically deformed AISI 1021 steels. In this study, low alloy steel (AISI 1021) was welded under different welding parameters and ...

  8. Investigating the mechanisms of hoarding from an experimental perspective. (United States)

    Preston, Stephanie D; Muroff, Jordana R; Wengrovitz, Steven M


    Acquiring and discarding objects are routine decision processes for most people. Despite the ubiquitous need to make such decisions, little is known about how they are made and what goes wrong when individuals acquire and fail to discard so many items that many areas of their home become unlivable (i.e., clinical hoarding). We hypothesize that clinical hoarding reflects a normal variation in the tendency to acquire and retain objects, only just at a more extreme level. To test this hypothesis, we examined 89 nonclinical, undergraduate students' performance on a novel experimental paradigm that measures decisions about acquiring and discarding everyday objects. To test our hypothesis, and validate our task as a possible research tool for studying hoarding, we related decisions on the task to a variety of measures known to correlate with clinical hoarding. The paradigm was sensitive to individual differences, as subjects varied widely in the quantity of objects they chose to acquire and retain under an increasing pressure to discard. In addition, we replicated expected relationships from the clinical hoarding literature between acquisition and retention tendencies and self-report measures of hoarding, indecisiveness, and obsessive-compulsive behavior. Our data suggest that decisions about objects, even in a nonclinical undergraduate population, vary widely and are influenced by the same variables that influence clinical hoarding, but to a less extreme degree. Future research with this experimental task can separately investigate the role of acquisition, retention, impulsivity, and sensitivity to constraints in clinical hoarding to inform our understanding of this disorder.

  9. Experimental research on mechanism of phase noise of laser amplifier (United States)

    Liu, Lei; Liu, Yang; Zhang, Kun; Tang, Xiao-jun; Wang, Chao; Zhao, Hong


    Coherent combination of multiple laser amplifier is an important technique for high power and high beam quality laser. Laser amplifier uses master oscillator power amplifier (MOPA) configuration for narrow bandwidth and high beam quality laser. Then active phase control is used to make multiple laser amplifier phase synchronization for coherent spot in the far field. The center spot is N times brighter than the one of incoherent combination. At present, researchers have used this method to achieve 1.56kW coherent combination of nine fiber lasers and 105kW of seven slab lasers. The phase noise of the laser amplifier is an important factor affecting the coherent combination. There are two key technologies in the coherent combination. The one is fill factor of multiple laser spatial distribution, which determines main lobe energy of coherent spot. And the other is the phase noise of the laser amplifier, which decides stability of the coherent combination. The phase noise of laser amplifier is caused by many factors, mainly thermal disturbance and mechanical vibration. Due to the complexity of the phase noise generation, the research on phase noise is generally concentrated in the qualitative analysis. The phase noise is generally considered the time phase noise. It is phase dithering from variation refractive index by external disturbance. A variety of factors, such as temperature changes, mechanical vibrations, the pump power, affect phase noise. We establish an externally imposed discrete disturbance source on fiber laser amplifier and then analyze above-mentioned factors independently and quantitatively by the method. The experiments demonstrate space phase noise, dithering of beam direction, is simultaneously induced by either mechanical vibration or thermal disturbance. This experiment is significant for understanding mechanism of the phase noise and suppression of phase noise.

  10. Immunological mechanisms in atopic dermatitis : clinical and experimental studies


    Tengvall Linder, Maria


    The aim of the study was to investigate immunological mechanisms in atopic dermatitis. Serum IgE levels are elevated in 80% of atopic dermatitis patients and CD4+ T cells and environmental allergens are known to be of importance in the pathogenesis of the disease. It was therefore of interest to further elucidate the role of these factors in atopic dermatitis. Cyclosporin A (CSA) was used as a tool for exploring the pathogenesis of atopic dermatitis, with emphasis on the...

  11. Experimental evaluation of air distribution in mechanically ventilated residential rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tomasi, R.; Krajčík, M.; Simone, A.


    The effect of low ventilation rates (1 or 0.5 air change per hour) on thermal comfort and ventilation effectiveness was experimentally studied in a simulated residential room equipped with radiant floor heating/cooling and mixing ventilation systems. The tests were performed for various positions...... removal effectiveness (CRE) and local air change index was measured in order to characterize ventilation effectiveness in the occupied zone. Acceptable thermal comfort was found in most experiments; however, air temperature differences higher than 3 °C occurred when floor cooling was combined...... with unconditioned outdoor air supply, i.e. at the supply air temperatures higher than the room air temperature. Moreover, low floor temperatures were needed to maintain the desired reference temperature in the stratified thermal environment. Mainly in cooling conditions the ventilation effectiveness depended...

  12. Experimental Evidence of Mechanical Isotropy in Porcine Lung Parenchyma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin Weed


    Full Text Available Pulmonary injuries are a major source of morbidity and mortality associated with trauma. Trauma includes injuries associated with accidents and falls as well as blast injuries caused by explosives. The prevalence and mortality of these injuries has made research of pulmonary injury a major priority. Lungs have a complex structure, with multiple types of tissues necessary to allow successful respiration. The soft, porous parenchyma is the component of the lung which contains the alveoli responsible for gas exchange. Parenchyma is also the portion which is most susceptible to traumatic injury. Finite element simulations are an important tool for studying traumatic injury to the human body. These simulations rely on material properties to accurately recreate real world mechanical behaviors. Previous studies have explored the mechanical properties of lung tissues, specifically parenchyma. These studies have assumed material isotropy but, to our knowledge, no study has thoroughly tested and quantified this assumption. This study presents a novel methodology for assessing isotropy in a tissue, and applies these methods to porcine lung parenchyma. Briefly, lung parenchyma samples were dissected so as to be aligned with one of the three anatomical planes, sagittal, frontal, and transverse, and then subjected to compressive mechanical testing. Stress-strain curves from these tests were statistically compared by a novel method for differences in stresses and strains at percentages of the curve. Histological samples aligned with the anatomical planes were also examined by qualitative and quantitative methods to determine any differences in the microstructural morphology. Our study showed significant evidence to support the hypothesis that lung parenchyma behaves isotropically.

  13. Mechanical behavior of nanotwinned materials – experimental and computational approaches

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yavas, Hakan [Iowa State Univ., Ames, IA (United States)


    Nanotwinned materials exhibit high strength combined with excellent thermal stability, making them potentially attractive for numerous applications. When deposited on cold substrates at high rates, for example, silver films can be prepared with a high-density of growth twins with an average twin boundary spacing of less than 10 nm. These films show a very strong {111} texture, with the twin boundaries being perpendicular to the growth direction. The origins of superior mechanical and thermal properties of nanotwinned materials, however, are not yet fully understood and need further improvements.

  14. Regenerating CNS myelin - from mechanisms to experimental medicines. (United States)

    Franklin, Robin J M; Ffrench-Constant, Charles


    Although the core concept of remyelination - based on the activation, migration, proliferation and differentiation of CNS progenitors - has not changed over the past 20 years, our understanding of the detailed mechanisms that underlie this process has developed considerably. We can now decorate the central events of remyelination with a host of pathways, molecules, mediators and cells, revealing a complex and precisely orchestrated process. These advances have led to recent drug-based and cell-based clinical trials for myelin diseases and have opened up hitherto unrecognized opportunities for drug-based approaches to therapeutically enhance remyelination.

  15. Experimental study on dynamic mechanical behaviors of polycarbonate (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Gao, Yubo; Ye, Nan; Huang, Wei; Li, Dacheng


    Polycarbonate (PC) is a widely used engineering material in aerospace field, since it has excellent mechanical and optical property. In present study, both compressive and tensile tests of PC were conducted at high strain rates by using a split Hopkinson pressure bar. The high-speed camera and 2D Digital Image Correlation method (DIC) were used to analyze the dynamic deformation behavior of PC. Meanwhile, the plate impact experiment was carried out to measure the equation of state of PC in a single-stage gas gun, which consists of asymmetric impact technology, manganin gauges, PVDF, electromagnetic particle velocity gauges. The results indicate that the yield stress of PC increased with the strain rates in both dynamic compression and tension tests. The same phenomenon was similar to elasticity modulus at different strain rate. A constitutive model was used to describe the mechanical behaviors of PC accurately in different strain rates by contrast with the results of 2D-DIC. At last, The D-u Hugoniot curve of polycarbonate in high pressure was fitted by the least square method.

  16. Experimental study of admixture on soil's physical and mechanical characteristics (United States)

    Guo, Zihong; Li, Tangyong; Yu, Dongke; Tang, Hua; Zhang, Yang; Li, Zhaochen; He, Dan


    Earth building is a traditional architectural form. With respect to environment protection, low cost, convenient advantages, its practical value is recognizing carefully. Due to poor mechanical properties and durability of earth, the development of earth building has been prevented. This experiment selects two kinds of soil. Sawdust and straw serve as admixture. More than 300 specimens have been performed to verify the effects of various factors on soil's physical and mechanical characteristics. Some useful characteristics are acquired by the experiment, such as soil's optimal moisture content, maximum dry density, optimal length of straw and contraction ratio. Testing the influence of admixture on soil's strength and deformation, this experiment shows that mixing straw and sawdust reduce soil's compressive and tensile strength. However, it may reduce soil's contraction ratio. Considering the influence of admixture on soil's contraction and strength, when soil 1 mixes with 0.1% sawdust, its contraction ratio decreases obviously and strength decreases slightly. It is a good choice according to the experiments.

  17. Experimental approach on the collapse mechanism of CFRP composite tubes (United States)

    Kim, Y. N.; Im, K. H.; Park, J. W.; Yang, I. Y.


    This study is to investigate the energy absorption characteristics of CFRP(Carbon-Fiber Reinforced Plastics) tubes on static and dynamic tests. Axial static compression tests have been carried out using the static testing machine(Shin-gang buckling testing machine) and dynamic compression tests have been utilized using an vertical crushing testing machine. When such tubes are subjected to crushing loads, the response is complex and depends on the interaction between the different mechanisms that could control the crushing process. The collapse characteristics and energy absorption have been examined for various tubes. Energy absorption of the tubes are increased as changes in the lay-up which may increase the modulus of tubes. The results have been varied significantly as a function of ply orientation and interlaminar number. In general, the stacking sequence [0/90] CFRP tubes absorbed more energy than the [15/-15] CFRP tubes.

  18. Mechanical properties and experimental researches of new CSIPs sandwich panels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Du Wenfeng


    Full Text Available The advantages of glass fiber reinforced composites (FRP and SIPs (structural insulated panels are combined, and a new type of sandwich panel called composite structural insulated panels (CSIPs is proposed. Through the adhesive bonding, CSIPs are made of FRP as face sheets and expanded polyethylene foam (EPS as a core. To master the mechanical characteristics of CSIPs, firstly, adopting the large deflection theory of Reissener in this paper derived the calculation formula of displacement and the stability critical load of CSIPs. Then, ANSYS software was used to carry on the analysis of finite element simulation. Finally, a testing piece of CSIP with length 1000mm and breath 1000mm was made and a test was done. The results show that the theoretical analysis results, finite element simulation results and test results are basically coincide. So the calculating formula of deformation and bearing capacity of CSIPs are correct. And CSIPs have the outstanding advantages of light weight and high strength.

  19. Experimental Investigation of Flow trough a Mechanical Heart Valve (United States)

    Haji-Esmaeili, Farida; Oshkai, Peter


    Turbulent flow trough a model of a mechanical heart valve is investigated using digital particle image velocimetry. The valve leaflets are represented by flat plates mounted in a duct. The emphasis is on the effect of the valve design on the platelet activation state associated with the resulting flow field. Global quantitative images corresponding to multiple planes of data acquisition provide insight into the three-dimensional nature of the flow. Turbulent flow structures including jet-like regions and shed vortices are characterized in terms of patterns of instantaneous and time-averaged velocity, vorticity, and streamline topology. Potential of bileaflet heart valves for being thrombogenic is assessed by quantitative comparison of the associated flow fields in terms of maximum values of turbulent stresses and platelet activation states.

  20. Manual versus mechanical cardiopulmonary resuscitation. An experimental study in pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wohlfart Björn


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Optimal manual closed chest compressions are difficult to give. A mechanical compression/decompression device, named LUCAS, is programmed to give compression according to the latest international guidelines (2005 for cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR. The aim of the present study was to compare manual CPR with LUCAS-CPR. Methods 30 kg pigs were anesthetized and intubated. After a base-line period and five minutes of ventricular fibrillation, manual CPR (n = 8 or LUCAS-CPR (n = 8 was started and run for 20 minutes. Professional paramedics gave manual chest compression's alternating in 2-minute periods. Ventilation, one breath for each 10 compressions, was given to all animals. Defibrillation and, if needed, adrenaline were given to obtain a return of spontaneous circulation (ROSC. Results The mean coronary perfusion pressure was significantly (p Conclusions LUCAS-CPR gave significantly higher coronary perfusion pressure and significantly fewer rib fractures than manual CPR in this porcine model.

  1. Psychological and neural mechanisms of experimental extinction: a selective review. (United States)

    Delamater, Andrew R; Westbrook, R Frederick


    The present review examines key psychological concepts in the study of experimental extinction and implications these have for an understanding of the underlying neurobiology of extinction learning. We suggest that many of the signature characteristics of extinction learning (spontaneous recovery, renewal, reinstatement, rapid reacquisition) can be accommodated by the standard associative learning theory assumption that extinction results in partial erasure of the original learning together with new inhibitory learning. Moreover, we consider recent behavioral and neural evidence that supports the partial erasure view of extinction, but also note shortcomings in our understanding of extinction circuits as these relate to the negative prediction error concept. Recent work suggests that common prediction error and stimulus-specific prediction error terms both may be required to explain neural plasticity both in acquisition and extinction learning. In addition, we suggest that many issues in the content of extinction learning have not been fully addressed in current research, but that neurobiological approaches should be especially helpful in addressing such issues. These include questions about the nature of extinction learning (excitatory CS-No US, inhibitory CS-US learning, occasion setting processes), especially as this relates to studies of the micro-circuitry of extinction, as well as its representational content (sensory, motivational, response). An additional understudied problem in extinction research is the role played by attention processes and their underlying neural networks, although some research and theory converge on the idea that extinction is accompanied by attention decrements (i.e., habituation-like processes). Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Experimental and computational investigation of temperature effects on soot mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bi Xiaojie


    Full Text Available Effects of initial ambient temperatures on combustion and soot emission characteristics of diesel fuel were investigated through experiment conducted in optical constant volume chamber and simulation using phenomenological soot model. There are four difference initial ambient temperatures adopted in our research: 1000 K, 900 K, 800 K and 700 K. In order to obtain a better prediction of soot behavior, phenomenological soot model was revised to take into account the soot oxidation feedback on soot number density and good agreement was observed in the comparison of soot measurement and prediction. Results indicated that ignition delay prolonged with the decrease of initial ambient temperature. The heat release rate demonstrated the transition from mixing controlled combustion at high ambient temperature to premixed combustion mode at low ambient temperature. At lower ambient temperature, soot formation and oxidation mechanism were both suppressed. But finally soot mass concentration reduced with decreasing initial ambient temperature. Although the drop in ambient temperature did not cool the mean in-cylinder temperature during the combustion, it did shrink the total area of local high equivalence ratio, in which soot usually generated fast. At 700 K initial ambient temperature, soot emissions were almost negligible, which indicates that sootless combustion might be achieved at super low initial temperature operation conditions.

  3. Experimental research on the ultrasonic attenuation mechanism of coal (United States)

    Liu, Guanhua; Liu, Zhentang; Feng, Junjun; Song, Zuokun; Liu, Zhenjing


    We studied the ultrasound velocity and attenuation coefficient in coal on the basis of acoustic emission analysis in the time and frequency domains. We also analyzed the mechanism of ultrasound attenuation in coal from a microscopic point of view. Previous research has indicated that the ultrasound velocity and the attenuation coefficient in coal correlate positively and negatively, respectively, with the coal density. In the present study, we found that the acoustic emission characteristics in the time and frequency domain are influenced by the quality of the coal and the fundamental frequency of the ultrasound. For example, the decay time was longer and the amplitude of the received signal was greater in anthracite than in fat coal. Moreover, with increasing fundamental frequency, the decay time decreased and the energy distribution in the transmitted wave became more concentrated around the fundamental frequency. In terms of energy dissipation, coal matrix deformation resulted in a pulling force and caused shear distortion owing to friction, the ultrasonic attenuation in coal is positively affected by the stress induced by ultrasonic waves, which means that a larger strain amplitude would lead to more energy dissipated in coal and an increase of the attenuation coefficient. This was the main cause of ultrasonic attenuation.

  4. Experimental study on the dynamic mechanical behaviors of polycarbonate (United States)

    Zhang, Wei; Gao, Yubo; Cai, Xuanming; Ye, Nan; Huang, Wei; Hypervelocity Impact Research Center Team


    Polycarbonate (PC) is a widely used engineering material in aerospace field, since it has excellent mechanical and optical property. In present study, both compress and tensile tests of PC were conducted at high strain rates by using a split Hopkinson pressure bar. The high-speed camera and 2D digital speckle correlation method (DIC) were used to analyze the dynamic deformation behavior of PC. Meanwhile, the plate impact experiment was carried out to measure the equation of state of PC in a single-stage gas gun, which consists of asymmetric impact technology, manganin gauges, PVDF, electromagnetic particle velocity gauges. The results indicate that the yield stress of PC increased with the strain rates. The strain softening occurred when the stress over yield point except the tensile tests in the strain rates of 1076s-1 and 1279s-1. The ZWT model can describe the constitutive behaviors of PC accurately in different strain rates by contrast with the results of 2D-DIC. At last, The D-u Hugoniot curve of polycarbonate in high pressure was fitted by the least square method. And the final results showed more closely to Cater and Mash than other previous data.

  5. An Experimental Evaluation of Mechanical Properties of Hybrid Reinforcements (United States)

    Sai Kumar, A.; Ganesan, G.; Karthikeyan, K.


    This paper presents the mechanical properties of unidirectional hybrid reinforcements formed from continuous fibres impregnated with a fibre binding material which are used for reinforcing the concrete. Recently FRP (Fibre Reinforced Polymer) manufacturers and suppliers have been increased all over the world because of the superior performance of FRP products in the construction industry. Its non-corrosive nature has turned the attention of many researchers to make several studies on different type of FRP products. Through a vast research, several standards also have been formulated. In this regard a new combination of FRP materials is tried in this paper and its properties have been derived. Carbon fibre and glass fibres fuse in this study to form a new hybrid rebar. The design properties such as tensile strength, tensile modulus, and compressive strength have been studied as per ASTM standards and it has been identified that the Hybrid rebar show a superior performance in comparison with GFRP (Glass FRP) and Steel rebars. This extraordinary performance of hybrid composite material increases the extensive engineering applications such as transport industry, aeronautics, naval, automotive industries.

  6. Bhomian Mechanics vs. Standard Quantum Mechanics: a Difference in Experimental Predictions


    Szczepanski, Artur


    Standard Quantum Mechanics (QM) predicts an anti-intuitive fenomenon here referred to as "quantum autoscattering", which is excluded by Bhomian Mechanics. The scheme of a gedanken experiment testing the QM prediction is briefly discussed.

  7. Car safety seat usage and selection among families attending University Hospital Limerick

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Scully, P


    The safest way for children to travel within a car is by provision of a weight-appropriate safety-seat. To investigate this, we conducted a cross-sectional study of adult parents who had children under 12 years, and collected information related to: car use, safety-seat legislation, and type of safety-seat employed. Data were reviewed on 120 children from 60 respondents. Ninety-eight (81.7%) children were transported daily by car. Forty-eight (81.4%) respondents were aware that current safety-seat legislation is based on the weight of the child. One hundred and seven (89.9%) children were restrained during travel using a car safety-seat. One hundred and two (96.2%) safety seats were newly purchased, installed in 82.3% (88) cases by family members with installation instructions fully read in 58 (55.2%) cases. Ninety-nine (83.2%) children were restrained using an appropriate safety-seat for their weight. The results show that four out of five families are employing the most appropriate safety-seat for their child, so providing an effective mechanism to reduce car-related injury. However, the majority of safety-seats are installed by family members, which may have child safety consequences.

  8. Experimental characterization of the dominant multiple nodes charge collection mechanism in metal oxide-semiconductor transistors (United States)

    Song, Ruiqiang; Chen, Shuming; Chi, Yaqing; Wu, Zhenyu; Liang, Bin; Chen, Jianjun; Xu, Jingyan; Hao, Peipei; Yu, Junting


    We propose an experimental method to investigate the dominant multiple node charge collection mechanism. A transistor array-based test structure is used to distinguish charge collection owing to the drift-diffusion and parasitic bipolar amplification effect. Heavy ion experimental results confirm that drift-diffusion dominates multiple node charge collection at low linear energy transfer (LET). However, the parasitic bipolar amplification effect dominates it at high LET. We also propose simple equations to determine the critical LET which may change the dominant multiple node charge collection mechanism. The calculated LET value is consistent with the heavy ion experimental results.

  9. Symposium on Recent Advances in Experimental Mechanics : in honor of Isaac M. Daniel

    CERN Document Server


    This book contains 71 papers presented at the symposium on “Recent Advances in Experimental Mechanics” which was organized in honor of Professor Isaac M. Daniel. The symposium took place at Virginia Polytechnic Institute and State University on th June 23-28, 2002, in conjunction with the 14 US National Congress of Applied Mechanics. The book is a tribute to Isaac Daniel, a pioneer of experimental mechanics and composite materials, in recognition of his continuous, original, diversified and outstanding contributions for half a century. The book consists of invited papers written by leading experts in the field. It contains original contributions concerning the latest developments in experimental mechanics. It covers a wide range of subjects, including optical methods of stress analysis (photoelasticity, moiré, etc.), composite materials, sandwich construction, fracture mechanics, fatigue and damage, nondestructive evaluation, dynamic problems, fiber optic sensors, speckle metrology, digital image process...

  10. Experimental study of the mechanical behavior of self-compacting concrete based on fracture mechanics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Considering the physical nonlinearity of concrete and the fundamentals of fracture mechanics for quasi-brittle materials, the objective of this study was to determine the fracture energy and the length of the fracture process zone (FPZ as well as the modulus of elasticity, the tensile strength and the compressive strength of self-compacting concrete (SCC to characterize its mechanical behavior. A series of tests, including a three-point bending test of SCC and conventional vibrated concrete (CVC specimens, with a notch at mid-span, and tensile and compressive tests were performed. The mechanical parameters obtained from the CVC specimens were considered as a comparative reference. The effect of the following variables was evaluated and considered at two levels: compressive strength (30 and 50 MPa, granular composition (fine and coarse particle size and maximum diameter of the aggregate (12 and 20 mm. The effect of these variables on the mechanical behaviors of the SCC specimens was evaluated based on the test results of specimens of four types of concrete, which were obtained from the combination of the variables. The bending tests were performed according to the RILEM TC 89-FMT recommendations, which are based on the size-effect method.

  11. Modelling Mechanical Wave Propagation: Guidelines and Experimentation of a Teaching-Learning Sequence (United States)

    Fazio, Claudio; Guastella, Ivan; Sperandeo-Mineo, Rosa Maria; Tarantino, Giovanni


    The present paper reports the design process and the experimentation of a teaching-learning sequence about the concept of mechanical wave propagation and the role played by media where waves are propagating. The sequence focuses on the central issue of the relationships between observable phenomena, like macroscopic behaviours of waves, and their…

  12. Mechanism of the Hydrosilylation Reaction of Alkenes at Porous Silicon: Experimental and Computational Deuterium Labeling Studies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Smet, de L.C.P.M.; Zuilhof, H.; Sudhölter, E.J.R.; Lie, L.H.; Houlton, A.; Horrocks, B.R.


    The mechanism of the formation of Si-C bonded monolayers on silicon by reaction of 1-alkenes with hydrogen-terminated porous silicon surfaces has been studied by both experimental and computational means. We propose that monolayer formation occurs via the same radical chain process as at

  13. Experimental and numerical study on mechanical properties of aluminum alloy under uniaxial tensile test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Daghfas


    Full Text Available The main objective is to model the behavior of 7075 aluminum alloy and built an experimental database to identify the model parameters. The first part of the paper presents an experimental database on 7075 aluminum alloy. Thus, uniaxial tensile tests are carried in three loading directions relative to the rolling direction, knowing that the fatigue of aircraft structures is traditionally managed based on the assumption of uniaxial loads. From experimental database, the mechanical properties are extracted, particularly the various fractures owing to pronounced anisotropy relating to material. In second part, plastic anisotropy is then modeled using the identification strategy which depends on yield criteria, hardening law and evolution law. In third part, a comparison with experimental data shows that behavior model can successfully describe the anisotropy of the Lankford coefficient.

  14. Temporal evolution of mechanical properties of skeletal tissue regeneration in rabbits. An experimental study

    CERN Document Server

    Mokoko, Didier; Chabrand, Patrick


    Various mathematical models represent the effects of local mechanical environment on the regulation of skeletal regeneration. Their relevance relies on an accurate description of the evolving mechanical properties of the regenerating tissue. The object of this study was to develop an experimental model which made it possible to characterize the temporal evolution of the structural and mechanical properties during unloaded enchondral osteogenesis in the New Zealand rabbit, a standard animal model for studies of osteogenesis and chondrogenesis. A 25mm segment of tibial diaphysis was removed sub-periosteally from rabbits. The defect was repaired by the preserved periosteum. An external fixator was applied to prevent mechanical loading during osteogenesis. The regenerated skeletal tissues were studied by CT scan, histology and mechanical tests. The traction tests between 7 to 21 days post-surgery were done on formaldehyde-fixated tissue allowing to obtain force/displacement curves. The viscoelastic properties of ...

  15. Experimental study on the mechanical properties of simulated columnar jointed rock masses (United States)

    Xiao, Wei-min; Deng, Rong-gui; Zhong, Zhi-bin; Fu, Xiao-min; Wang, Cong-yan


    Columnar jointed rock mass is a kind of structural rock mass commonly encountered in igneous rocks. Due to the effects of columnar joint networks, anisotropy is the typical mechanical property of columnar jointed rock mass, i.e. deformation and strength varying with loading direction. Correct understanding of the mechanical anisotropy of columnar jointed rock mass is a key problem that should be solved for demonstration and design of large scale rock mass projects such as dams and underground cavern excavations constructed in it. Plaster simulated columnar jointed rock mass specimens at dip angles varying from 0° to 90° with respect to the axial stress were tested under uniaxial compression conditions to investigate the mechanical anisotropy and failure modes. Based on analyses of experimental results, it was found that the strength and deformation of columnar jointed rock masses had pronounced ‘U-shaped’ anisotropy. In the anisotropic curves, the maximum and minimum values occurred at β = 90° and β = 45°, respectively. It was also shown that the lateral strain ratio was relatively high, especially when the dip angle was close to (45° - φj/2), where φj was the joint friction angle. An empirical expression was adopted to predict the ‘U-shaped’ anisotropy of deformation and strength and the predicted anisotropic curves agreed reasonably well with experimental data. Furthermore, four types of failure modes were summarized based on experimental results and corresponding mechanisms were also discussed.

  16. Experimental Investigation on Mechanical Properties of Magnetorheological Elastomer with Circular Honeycomb Holes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miao eYu


    Full Text Available In order to enhance adjustable mechanical properties of a specific magnetorheological elastomer (MRE, this study presents a new exterior structure of MRE by punching circular honeycomb holes on the MRE samples. Seven silicone rubber MRE samples with the same component are fabricated and then punched holes with different numbers and diameters. The influence of different porosities on the mechanical properties of MRE under various magnetic fields is experimentally investigated by using a rheometer with electromagnetic suite. It is shown from experimental investigation that the porosity of MRE samples has a significant impact on the performance of MRE; the shear storage modulus (MR effect and the loss factor is greatly increased. It is also observed that all the field-induced mechanical properties of the samples attain their respective maximum performance when the porosity increases to a critical value. The experimental results presented in this work directly indicate that high performances of the field-dependent mechanical and rheological properties can be achieved by means of external alternative structures such as honeycomb holes.

  17. Experimental study of the irrational phase synchronization of coupled nonidentical mechanical metronomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiwen Song

    Full Text Available It has recently been observed in numerical simulations that the phases of two coupled nonlinear oscillators can become locked into an irrational ratio, exhibiting the phenomenon of irrational phase synchronization (IPS [Phys. Rev. E 69, 056228 (2004]. Here, using two coupled nonidentical periodic mechanical metronomes, we revisit this interesting phenomenon through experimental studies. It is demonstrated that under suitable couplings, the phases of the metronomes indeed can become locked into irrational ratios. Numerical simulations confirm the experimental observations and also reveal that in the IPS state, the system dynamics are chaotic. Our studies provide a solid step toward further studies of IPS.

  18. Understanding flocculation mechanism of graphene oxide for organic dyes from water: Experimental and molecular dynamics simulation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Liu


    Full Text Available Flocculation treatment processes play an important role in water and wastewater pretreatment. Here we investigate experimentally and theoretically the possibility of using graphene oxide (GO as a flocculant to remove methylene blue (MB from water. Experimental results show that GO can remove almost all MB from aqueous solutions at its optimal dosages and molecular dynamics simulations indicate that MB cations quickly congregate around GO in water. Furthermore, PIXEL energy contribution analysis reveals that most of the strong interactions between GO and MB are of a van der Waals (London dispersion character. These results offer new insights for shedding light on the molecular mechanism of interaction between GO and organic pollutants.

  19. 5th International Symposium on Experimental Mechanics (5-ISEM) and 9th Symposium on Optics in Industry

    CERN Document Server

    Furlong, Cosme; Barrientos, Bernardino; Pryputniewicz, Ryszard


    This book contains papers of the 5th International Symposium on Experimental Mechanics (5-ISEM) and the 9th Symposium on Optics in Industry (9-SOI), whose general theme is Emerging Challenges for Experimental Mechanics in Energy and Environmental Applications. These symposia are organized by Centro de Investigaciones en Optica (CIO) and Mexican Academy for Optics (AMO), under the sponsorship of the Society of Experimental Mechanics (SEM) and other national and international Organizations; Symposia are interdisciplinary forums for engineers, technicians, researchers and managers involved in all fields of Optics, Opto-mechatronics, Mechanics and Mechanical Engineering. · Addresses a broad readership including graduate and postgraduate students, researchers, and engineers working in experimental mechanics and in the application of optical methods · Covers a broad spectrum of topics highlighting the use of optical methods in experimental mechanics, energy, and in the environment.

  20. [Interactions of DNA bases with individual water molecules. Molecular mechanics and quantum mechanics computation results vs. experimental data]. (United States)

    Gonzalez, E; Lino, J; Deriabina, A; Herrera, J N F; Poltev, V I


    To elucidate details of the DNA-water interactions we performed the calculations and systemaitic search for minima of interaction energy of the systems consisting of one of DNA bases and one or two water molecules. The results of calculations using two force fields of molecular mechanics (MM) and correlated ab initio method MP2/6-31G(d, p) of quantum mechanics (QM) have been compared with one another and with experimental data. The calculations demonstrated a qualitative agreement between geometry characteristics of the most of local energy minima obtained via different methods. The deepest minima revealed by MM and QM methods correspond to water molecule position between two neighbor hydrophilic centers of the base and to the formation by water molecule of hydrogen bonds with them. Nevertheless, the relative depth of some minima and peculiarities of mutual water-base positions in' these minima depend on the method used. The analysis revealed insignificance of some differences in the results of calculations performed via different methods and the importance of other ones for the description of DNA hydration. The calculations via MM methods enable us to reproduce quantitatively all the experimental data on the enthalpies of complex formation of single water molecule with the set of mono-, di-, and trimethylated bases, as well as on water molecule locations near base hydrophilic atoms in the crystals of DNA duplex fragments, while some of these data cannot be rationalized by QM calculations.

  1. Experimental evaluation and design of unfilled and concrete-filled FRP composite piles, task 1 - mechanical properties of FRP piles. (United States)


    The overall goal of this project is the experimental evaluation and design of unfilled and concrete-filled FRP : composite piles for load-bearing in bridges. This report covers Task 1, Mechanical Properties of FRP Piles. : Mechanical and geotechnic...

  2. IFE thick liquid wall chamber dynamics: Governing mechanisms andmodeling and experimental capabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raffray, A.R.; Meier, W.; Abdel-Khalik, S.; Bonazza, R.; Calderoni, P.; Debonnel, C.S.; Dragojlovic, Z.; El-Guebaly, L.; Haynes,D.; Latkowski, J.; Olson, C.; Peterson, P.F.; Reyes, S.; Sharpe, P.; Tillack, M.S.; Zaghloul, M.


    For thick liquid wall concepts, it is important to understand the different mechanisms affecting the chamber dynamics and the state of the chamber prior to each shot a compared with requirements from the driver and target. These include ablation mechanisms, vapor transport and control, possible aerosol formation, as well as protective jet behavior. This paper was motivated by a town meeting on this subject which helped identify the major issues, assess the latest results, review the capabilities of existing modeling and experimental facilities with respect to addressing remaining issues, and helping guide future analysis and R&D efforts; the paper covers these exact points.

  3. Mechanism and Experimental Observability of Global Switching Between Reactive and Nonreactive Coordinates at High Total Energies. (United States)

    Teramoto, Hiroshi; Toda, Mikito; Takahashi, Masahiko; Kono, Hirohiko; Komatsuzaki, Tamiki


    We present a mechanism of global reaction coordinate switching, namely, a phenomenon in which the reaction coordinate dynamically switches to another coordinate as the total energy of the system increases. The mechanism is based on global changes in the underlying phase space geometry caused by a switching of dominant unstable modes from the original reactive mode to another nonreactive mode in systems with more than 2 degrees of freedom. We demonstrate an experimental observability to detect a reaction coordinate switching in an ionization reaction of a hydrogen atom in crossed electric and magnetic fields. For this reaction, the reaction coordinate is a coordinate along which electrons escape and its switching changes the escaping direction from the direction of the electric field to that of the magnetic field and, thus, the switching can be detected experimentally by measuring the angle-resolved momentum distribution of escaping electrons.

  4. Material response mechanisms are needed to obtain highly accurate experimental shock wave data (United States)

    Forbes, Jerry W.


    The field of shock wave compression of matter has provided a simple set of equations relating thermodynamic and kinematic parameters that describe the conservation of mass, momentum and energy across a steady plane shock wave with one-dimensional flow. Well-known condensed matter shock wave experimental results will be reviewed to see whether the assumptions required for deriving these simple R-H equations are satisfied. Note that the material compression model is not required for deriving the 1-D conservation flow equations across a steady plane shock front. However, this statement is misleading from a practical experimental viewpoint since obtaining small systematic errors in shock wave measured parameters requires the material compression and release mechanisms to be known. A review will be presented on errors in shock wave data from common experimental techniques for elastic-plastic solids. Issues related to time scales of experiments, steady waves with long rise times and detonations will also be discussed

  5. The mechanical and microstructural behaviour of calcite-dolomite composites: An experimental investigation


    Kushnir, Alexandra R. l.; Kennedy, L. A.; Misra, Santanu; Benson, Philip; White, J. C.


    The styles and mechanisms of deformation associated with many variably dolomitized limestone shear systems are strongly controlled by strain partitioning between dolomite and calcite. Here, we present experimental results from the deformation of four composite materials designed to address the role of dolomite on the strength of limestone. Composites were synthesized by hot isostatic pressing mixtures of dolomite (Dm) and calcite powders (% Dm: 25%-Dm, 35%-Dm, 51%-Dm, and 75%-Dm). In all comp...

  6. Experimental Analyses for The Mechanical Behavior of Pressed All-Ceramic Molar Crowns with Anatomical Design


    Porojan Liliana; Porojan Sorin; Rusu Lucian; Boloş Adrian; Savencu Cristina


    Ceramic restorations show considerable variation in strength and structural reliability regarding to the type of material, and design characteristics. The fracture of ceramics occurs with little or no plastic deformation, with cracks propagated in an unstable manner under applied tensile stresses. The aim of the study was to assess experimental analyses of pressed monolithic ceramic crowns with anatomical design used in the posterior areas in order to understand their mechanical behavior befo...

  7. Experimental study of thermal effects on the mechanical behaviour of a clay (United States)

    Cekerevac, Cane; Laloui, Lyesse


    The paper presents the results of an experimental study of thermal effects on the mechanical behaviour of a saturated clay. The study was performed on CM clay (Kaolin) using a temperature-controlled triaxial apparatus. Applied temperatures were between 22 and 90°C. A comprehensive experimental program was carried out, including: (i) triaxial shear tests at ambient and high temperatures for different initial overconsolidation ratios; (ii) consolidation tests at ambient and high temperatures; and (iii) drained thermal heating for different initial overconsolidation ratios. The obtained results provide observations concerning a wide scope of the thermo-mechanical behaviour of clays. Test results obtained at 90°C were compared with tests performed at ambient temperature. Based on these comparisons, thermal effects on a variety of features of behaviour are presented and discussed. Focus is made on: (i) induced thermal volume change during drained heating; (ii) experimental evidence of temperature influence on preconsolidation pressure and on compressibility index; (iii) thermal effects on shear strength and critical state; and (iv) thermal effects on elastic modulus. Thermal yielding is discussed and yield limit evolution with temperature is presented. The directions of the induced plastic strains are also discussed. Several remarks on the difference in the mechanical behaviour at ambient and high temperatures conclude the paper. Copyright

  8. Experimental study of the pH influence on the transport mechanisms of phenols in soil. (United States)

    Fiore, Silvia; Zanetti, Maria Chiara; Genon, Giuseppe


    The study of the transport mechanisms connected to solid-liquid interactions is fundamental in the determination of the extension of the pollution of a site and in the evaluation of the best remediation process to be applied. The sorption of hydrophobic ionizable organic contaminants from the groundwaters is supervised not only by the physico-chemical properties of soil and pollutants, but also by the groundwaters pH, which deeply influences their solubility in the aqueous media, and consequently their transport mechanisms in the aquifer. In this work an experimental study of the sorption of phenol and 2-nitrophenol on two soils, different in particle-size distribution, CEC and organic carbon content, was realized. The sorption potential of the soils was evaluated by means of a physical, mineralogical and chemical characterization. The experimental data coming from some batch tests, performed at pH values equal to 4, 7 and 10 were fitted by means of linear, Freundlich and Langmuir isotherms models. The soil-contaminants interaction mechanisms that influence the isotherms shapes were then analyzed and discussed, and a comparison between the theoretical and experimental values of the partitioning coefficient KD was performed.

  9. Experimental Study and Mathematical Modeling of Asphaltene Deposition Mechanism in Core Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jafari Behbahani T.


    Full Text Available In this work, experimental studies were conducted to determine the effect of asphaltene deposition on the permeability reduction and porosity reduction of carbonate, sandstone and dolomite rock samples using an Iranian bottom hole live oil sample which is close to reservoir conditions, whereas in the majority of previous work, a mixture of recombined oil (a mixture of dead oil and associated gas was injected into a core sample which is far from reservoir conditions. The effect of the oil injection rate on asphaltene deposition and permeability reduction was studied. The experimental results showed that an increase in the oil injection flow rate can result in an increase in asphaltene deposition and permeability reduction. Also, it can be observed that at lower injection flow rates, a monotonic decrease in permeability of the rock samples can be attained upon increasing the injection flow rate, while at higher injection rates, after a decrease in rock permeability, an increasing trend is observed before a steady-state condition can be reached. The experimental results also showed that the rock type can affect the amount of asphaltene deposition, and the asphaltene deposition has different mechanisms in sandstone and carbonate core samples. It can be seen that the adsorption and plugging mechanisms have a more important role in asphaltene deposition in carbonate core samples than sandstone core samples. From the results, it can be observed that the pore volumes of the injected crude oil are higher for sandstone cores compared with the carbonate cores. Also, it can be inferred that three depositional types may take place during the crude oil injection, i.e., continuous deposition for low-permeability cores, slow, steady plugging for high-permeability cores and steady deposition for medium-permeability cores. It can be seen from the experimental results that damage to the core samples was found to increase when the production pressures were

  10. Some experimental observations of crack-tip mechanics with displacement data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mokhtari


    Full Text Available In the past two decades, crack-tip mechanics has been increasingly studied with full-field techniques. Within these techniques, Digital Image Correlation (DIC has been most widely used due to its many advantages, to extract important crack-tip information, including Stress Intensity Factor (SIF, Crack Opening Displacement, J-integral, T-stress, closure level, plastic zone size, etc. However, little information is given in the literature about the experimental setup that provides best estimations for the different parameters. The current work aims at understanding how the experimental conditions used in DIC influence the crack-tip information extracted experimentally. The influence of parameters such as magnification factor, size of the images, position of the images with respect the crack-tip and size of the subset used in the correlation is studied. The influence is studied in terms of SIF and T-stress by using Williams’ model. The concept of determination of the K-dominance zone from experimental data has also explored. In this regard, cyclic loading on a fatigue crack in a compact tension (CT specimen, made of aluminium 2024-T351 alloy, has been applied and the surface deformation ahead of the crack tip has been examined. The comparison between theoretical and experimental values of KI showed that the effect of subset size on the measured KI is negligible compared to the effect of size of the image.

  11. International Congress on Experimental Mechanics, 6th, Portland, OR, June 6-10, 1988, Proceedings. Volumes 1 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    The present conference on experimental mechanics discusses topics in the fields of structural testing methods, such optical characterization methods for mechanics as moire and caustics, materials-testing methods, the determination of fracture parameters, nonlinear test methods, composite mechanics characterizations, medical and sports biomechanics, shearographic and interferometric methods, strain gage techniques, residual stress phenomena, photoelasticity techniques, thermoelastic emissions, and the integration of PC hardware with experimental mechanics test apparatus. Also treated are short-crack phenomena, mechanics image processing methods, the time-dependent properties of composites, experimental mechanics in high-temperature environments, hybrid methods in experimental mechanics, the relationship of fatigue phenomena to dynamics, industrial applications of photoelasticity, speckle metrology, and the nature of dynamic systems.

  12. A Theoretical and Experimental Investigation of Mechanical Damage to Rodent Sperm Generated by Microscale Ice Formation. (United States)

    Han, X; Critser, J K

      BACKGROUND: Rodent sperm cryopreservation is of critical importance for the maintenance of lines or strains of genetically engineered mice and rats. However, rodent sperm are extremely mechanically sensitive due to their unusual morphology, and are severely damaged using current methods of cryopreservation. Those methods result in poor post thaw motility (PTM) for mouse. To investigate the mechanism of mechanical damage introduced to rodent sperm during freezing, a micro-mechanical model was established to analyze the sperm radial and axial thermal stresses generated by microscale extracellular ice formation. PTM of mouse sperm cryopreserved in capillaries of different radii (100, 200, 344, 526, 775µm) was measured using a standard computer-assisted sperm analysis system. The model predicts that when one of the inner dimensions of the containers (the inner diameter of plastic straws or straw capillaries) is on the same order of magnitude of sperm length, axial stress is significantly increased. The experimental results showed that the value of PTM was decreased from 38 ± 8 % in the larger (775µm) capillaries to 0 ± 0 % in the smaller (100 µm) ones. Theoretical analysis based on the established model were experimentally validated and can be used to guide the design of novel devices to improve the efficiency of rodent sperm cryopreservation.

  13. Mechanical Degradation of Graphite/PVDF Composite Electrodes: A Model-Experimental Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, K; Higa, K; Mair, S; Chintapalli, M; Balsara, N; Srinivasan, V


    Mechanical failure modes of a graphite/polyvinylidene difluoride (PVDF) composite electrode for lithium-ion batteries were investigated by combining realistic stress-stain tests and mathematical model predictions. Samples of PVDF mixed with conductive additive were prepared in a similar way to graphite electrodes and tested while submerged in electrolyte solution. Young's modulus and tensile strength values of wet samples were found to be approximately one-fifth and one-half of those measured for dry samples. Simulations of graphite particles surrounded by binder layers given the measured material property values suggest that the particles are unlikely to experience mechanical damage during cycling, but that the fate of the surrounding composite of PVDF and conductive additive depends completely upon the conditions under which its mechanical properties were obtained. Simulations using realistic property values produced results that were consistent with earlier experimental observations.

  14. Compressive damage mechanism of GFRP composites under off-axis loading: Experimental and numerical investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhou, H.W.; Li, H.Y.; Gui, L.L.


    Experimental and computational studies of the microscale mechanisms of damage formation and evolution in unidirectional glass fiber reinforced polymer composites (GFRP) under axial and off-axis compressive loading are carried out. A series of compressive testing of the composites with different....... With increasing the angle between the fiber and applied loading, failure of glass fibers is mainly controlled by shear cracking. For the computational analysis of the damage mechanisms, 3D multifiber unit cell models of GFRP composites and X-FEM approach to the fracture modeling were used. The computational...... angles between the loading vector and fiber direction were carried out under scanning electron microscopy (SEM) in situ observation. The damage mechanisms as well as stress strain curves were obtained in the experiments. It was shown that the compressive strength of composites drastically reduces when...

  15. Model-based respiratory mechanics to titrate PEEP and monitor disease state for experimental ARDS subjects. (United States)

    van Drunen, Erwin J; Chiew, Yeong Shiong; Chase, J Geoffrey; Lambermont, Bernard; Janssen, Nathalie; Desaive, Thomas


    Modelling the respiratory mechanics of mechanically ventilated (MV) patients can provide useful information to guide MV therapy. Two model-based methods were evaluated based on data from three experimental acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS) induced piglets and validated against values available from ventilators. A single compartment lung model with integral-based parameter identification was found to be effective in capturing fundamental respiratory mechanics during inspiration. The trends matched clinical expectation and provided better resolution than clinically derived linear model metrics. An expiration time constant model also captured the same trend in respiratory elastance. However, the assumption of constant resistance and a slightly higher fitting error results in less insight than the single compartment model. Further research is required to confirm its application in titrating to optimal MV settings.

  16. Neutron interferometry lessons in experimental quantum mechanics, wave-particle duality, and entanglement

    CERN Document Server

    Rauch, Helmut


    The quantum interference of de Broglie matter waves is probably one of the most startling and fundamental aspects of quantum mechanics. It continues to tax our imaginations and leads us to new experimental windows on nature. Quantum interference phenomena are vividly displayed in the wide assembly of neutron interferometry experiments, which have been carried out since the first demonstration of a perfect silicon crystal interferometer in 1974. Since the neutron experiences all four fundamental forces of nature (strong, weak, electromagnetic, and gravitational), interferometry with neutrons provides a fertile testing ground for theory and precision measurements. Many Gedanken experiments of quantum mechanics have become real due to neutron interferometry. Quantum mechanics is a part of physics where experiment and theory are inseparably intertwined. This general theme permeates the second edition of this book. It discusses more than 40 neutron interferometry experiments along with their theoretical motivation...

  17. Experimental verification of the energetic model of the dry mechanical reclamation process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Dańko


    Full Text Available The experimental results of the dry mechanical reclamation process, which constituted the bases for the verification of the energetic model of this process, developed by the author on the grounds of the Rittinger’s deterministic hypothesis of the crushing process, are presented in the paper. Used foundry sands with bentonite, with water-glass from the floster technology and used sands with furan FL 105 resin were used in the reclamation tests. In the mechanical and mechanical-cryogenic reclamation a wide range of time variations and reclamation conditions influencing intensity of the reclamation process – covering all possible parameters used in industrial devices - were applied. The developed theoretical model constitutes a new tool allowing selecting optimal times for the reclamation treatment of the given spent foundry sand at the assumed process intensity realized in rotor reclaimers - with leaves or rods as grinding elements mounted horizontally on the rotor axis.

  18. Characterization of the anisotropic mechanical behaviour of colonic tissues: experimental activity and constitutive formulation. (United States)

    Carniel, E L; Gramigna, V; Fontanella, C G; Frigo, A; Stefanini, C; Rubini, A; Natali, A N


    The aim was to investigate the biomechanical behaviour of colonic tissues by a coupled experimental and numerical approach. The wall of the colon is composed of different tissue layers. Within each layer, different fibre families are distributed according to specific spatial orientations, which lead to a strongly anisotropic configuration. Accounting for the complex histology of the tissues, mechanical tests must be planned and designed to evaluate the behaviour of the colonic wall in different directions. Uni-axial tensile tests were performed on tissue specimens from 15 fresh pig colons, accounting for six different loading directions (five specimens for each loading direction). The next step of the investigation was to define an appropriate constitutive framework and develop a procedure for identification of the constitutive parameters. A specific hyperelastic formulation was developed that accounted for the multilayered conformation of the colonic wall and the fibre-reinforced configuration of the tissues. The parameters were identified by inverse analyses of the mechanical tests. The comparison of model results with experimental data, together with the evaluation of satisfaction of material thermomechanics principles, confirmed the reliability of the analysis developed. This work forms the basis for more comprehensive activities that aim to provide computational tools for the interpretation of surgical procedures that involve the gastrointestinal tract, considering the specific biomedical devices adopted. © 2014 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2014 The Physiological Society.

  19. Interpretations of Probability in Quantum Mechanics: A Case of "Experimental Metaphysics" (United States)

    Hellman, Geoffrey

    After reviewing paradigmatic cases of "experimental metaphysics" basing inferences against local realism and determinism on experimental tests of Bells theorem (and successors), we concentrate on clarifying the meaning and status of "objective probability" in quantum mechanics. The terms "objective" and "subjective" are found ambiguous and inadequate, masking crucial differences turning on the question of what the numerical values of probability functions measure vs. the question of the nature of the "events" on which such functions are defined. This leads naturally to a 2×2 matrix of types of interpretations, which are then illustrated with salient examples. (Of independent interest are the splitting of "Copenhagen interpretation" into "objective" and "subjective" varieties in one of the dimensions and the splitting of Bohmian hidden variables from (other) modal interpretations along that same dimension.) It is then explained why Everett interpretations are difficult to categorize in these terms. Finally, we argue that Bohmian mechanics does not seriously threaten the experimental-metaphysical case for ultimate randomness and purely physical probabilities.

  20. Interpretations of Probability in Quantum Mechanics: A Case of ``Experimental Metaphysics'' (United States)

    Hellman, Geoffrey

    After reviewing paradigmatic cases of “experimental metaphysics” basing inferences against local realism and determinism on experimental tests of Bells theorem (and successors), we concentrate on clarifying the meaning and status of “objective probability” in quantum mechanics. The terms “objective” and “subjective” are found ambiguous and inadequate, masking crucial differences turning on the question of what the numerical values of probability functions measure vs. the question of the nature of the “events” on which such functions are defined. This leads naturally to a 2×2 matrix of types of interpretations, which are then illustrated with salient examples. (Of independent interest are the splitting of “Copenhagen interpretation” into “objective” and “subjective” varieties in one of the dimensions and the splitting of Bohmian hidden variables from (other) modal interpretations along that same dimension.) It is then explained why Everett interpretations are difficult to categorize in these terms. Finally, we argue that Bohmian mechanics does not seriously threaten the experimental-metaphysical case for ultimate randomness and purely physical probabilities.

  1. An analytical and experimental investigation of high-speed mechanisms fabricated with composite laminates (United States)

    Thompson, B. S.; Sung, C. K.


    The articulating members of linkage machinery must be designed and manufactured with high stiffness-to-weight ratios in order that these machine systems operate successfully in a high-speed mode. One approach to satisfying this criterion is to exploit the high specific stiffnesses of polymeric fibrous composite laminates. In this paper, results of mechanical tests of candidate materials are presented and the material constitutive behaviour classified. A variational theorem is then derived by using the Stieltjes convolution notation which enables the equations governing the geometrically-non-linear dynamic response of linkages fabricated in linear viscoelastic composite materials to be systematically established. The formulation includes inertial terms which couple the kinematic deformations of the link material with the kinematics governing the gross motion of the linkage being analyzed. This variational principle provides the basis for a finite element formulation in which the properties of the heterogeneous, two-constituent laminates are represented by a continuum model for a homogeneous single-constituent material. The predictive capability of this model is evaluated by simulating the vibrational response of both experimental four-bar linkages and also slider-crank mechanisms fabricated with simple link geometries, prior to comparing the computer results with experimental data from these laboratory mechanisms.

  2. Experimental verification of contrast mechanism in Magnetic Resonance Electrical Impedance Tomography (MREIT). (United States)

    Kim, Young Tae; Oh, Tong In; Woo, Eung Je


    Magnetic Resonance Electrical Impedance Tomography (MREIT) aims to produce cross-sectional images of a conductivity distribution inside the human body with a spatial resolution of a few millimeters. Injecting currents into an imaging object at different directions, we measure induced internal magnetic flux densities using an MRI scanner. Conductivity images are reconstructed based on the relation between the induced magnetic flux density and conductivity. Though there have been theoretical and experimental MREIT studies to explain and validate its imaging method, understanding the contrast mechanism in MREIT could be difficult due to the complexity in associated mathematical expressions. In this paper, we explain the contrast mechanism by performing and analyzing a series of imaging experiments of stable conductivity phantoms. Placing a thin and hollow cylinder with holes around its side inside a saline tank, we could construct a conductivity phantom with a stable conductivity contrast between two regions inside and outside the cylinder. Images of induced magnetic flux densities show ramp structures of which slopes are determined by conductivity contrasts. From the experimental results, we summarize the contrast mechanism in MREIT for better designs of MREIT pulse sequences and data processing methods.

  3. Experimental and numerical study of smoke propagation through a vent separating two mechanically ventilated rooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Audouin, Laurent; Pretrel, Hugues; Vaux, Samuel [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)


    The paper presents an experimental and numerical study about smoke propagation through a horizontal opening between two superposed compartments, as can be encountered in nuclear installations, in case of a fire taking place in the lower room. The experimental configuration proposed in this study consists in two rooms mechanically ventilated and connected each other by a horizontal opening. The fire source is simulated by a propane burner located in the lower room. The inlet ventilation duct is located in the lower room and the exhaust ventilation duct is located in the upper room. For such experimental configuration, several flow regimes at the horizontal opening connecting the two rooms can be encountered depending on the fire power, the opening size (diameter, depth) and the ventilation set-up (location of inlet/outlet ducts, flow rate). Indeed, flow at the opening is governed by buoyant forces due to the hot gases produced by the fire, the inertia effect due to the forced ventilation and the momentum effect due to smoke flow nearby the horizontal opening (for instance, ceiling jet or thermal plume from fire). Consequently, such complex mixed (natural/ forced) convective flows are still a challenge for CFD fire codes to make properly calculations of these experimental scenarios. The objective of this paper is to assess the capability of ISIS code (CFD) to simulate the behaviour of smoke propagation inside these two superposed compartments. Results of this study are presented with details (especially, thermal stratification and flow rates through the horizontal vent) and are discussed thoroughly.

  4. The strength of plants: theory and experimental methods to measure the mechanical properties of stems. (United States)

    Shah, Darshil U; Reynolds, Thomas P S; Ramage, Michael H


    From the stems of agricultural crops to the structural trunks of trees, studying the mechanical behaviour of plant stems is critical for both commerce and science. Plant scientists are also increasingly relying on mechanical test data for plant phenotyping. Yet there are neither standardized methods nor systematic reviews of current methods for the testing of herbaceous stems. We discuss the architecture of plant stems and highlight important micro- and macrostructural parameters that need to be controlled and accounted for when designing test methodologies, or that need to be understood in order to explain observed mechanical behaviour. Then, we critically evaluate various methods to test structural properties of stems, including flexural bending (two-, three-, and four-point bending) and axial loading (tensile, compressive, and buckling) tests. Recommendations are made on best practices. This review is relevant to fundamental studies exploring plant biomechanics, mechanical phenotyping of plants, and the determinants of mechanical properties in cell walls, as well as to application-focused studies, such as in agro-breeding and forest management projects, aiming to understand deformation processes of stem structures. The methods explored here can also be extended to other elongated, rod-shaped organs (e.g. petioles, midribs, and even roots). © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Society for Experimental Biology. All rights reserved. For permissions, please email:

  5. CISM-Course on Modern Optical Methods in Experimental Solid Mechanics

    CERN Document Server


    The book covers the theories and physics of advanced new optical measuring methods and problems of experimental performance, recent achievements in the basic interferometric methods holography, speckle-interferometry, shearography as well as linear/non-linear photoelasticity and photoviscoelasticity, Moiré- and grid-techniques. It deals with theory and application of digital image processing, methods of data recording, data processing and -visualisation, with mathematical/numerical procedures for final evaluation of digitised measured data and the principle of hybrid techniques. It introduces into the new perceptions of methods in experimental solid mechanics and it should encourage scientists to deal intensively with the theories for further developments, and enables practitioners, to understand theory and physics of the new achievements at least and to apply the methods in research als well as in developments in practice.

  6. Experimental Tests of Quantum Mechanics: Pauli Exclusion Principle and Spontaneous Collapse Models

    CERN Document Server

    Petrascu, Catalina Curceanu; Bragadireanu, Mario; Clozza, Alberto; Guaraldo, Carlo; Iliescu, Mihai; Rizzo, Alessandro; Vidal, Antonio Romero; Scordo, Alessandro; Sirghi, Diana Laura; Sirghi, Florin; Sperandio, Laura; Doce, Oton Vazquez; Bassi, Angelo; Donadi, Sandro; Milotti, Edoardo; Laubenstein, Matthias; Bertolucci, Sergio; Bragadireanu, Mario; Curceanu, Catalina; Pietreanu, Dorel; Ponta, Titus; Cargnelli, Michael; Ishiwatari, Tomoichi; Marton, Johann; Widmann, Eberhard; Zmeskal, Johann; Matteo, Sergio di; Egger, Jean Pierre


    The Pauli exclusion principle (PEP), as a consequence or the spin-statistics connection, is one of the basic principles of the modern physics. Being at the very basis of our understanding of matter, it spurs a lively debate on its possible limits, deeply rooted as it is in the very foundations of Quantum Field Theory. The VIP (VIolation of the Pauli exclusion principle) experiment is searching for a possible small violation of the PEP for electrons, using the method of searching for Pauli Exclusion Principle forbidden atomic transitions in copper. We describe the experimental method and the obtained results; we briefly present future plans to go beyond the actual limit by upgrading the experiment using vetoed new spectroscopic fast Silicon Drift Detectors. We also mention the possibility of using a similar experimental technique to search for possible X-rays generated in the spontaneous collapse models of quantum mechanics.

  7. Experimental evaluation of mechanical heart support system based on viscous friction disc pump

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. M. Chernyavskiy


    Full Text Available Aim. Experimental evaluation of the viscous friction disk pump efficiency, studying the relationship between inter-disk clearance and sizes of input and output ports and pump performance parameters.Materials and methods. To assess the characteristics and to optimize the disk friction pump design the pump model and experimental stand were created. Pump dimensions were set on the basis of medical and biological requirements for mechanical heart support systems and with due consideration of the experimental studies of our colleagues from Pennsylvania. Flow volume of the working fluid was measured by float rotameter Krohne VA-40 with measurement error of not more than 1%. The pressure values in the hydrodynamic circuit were measured using a monitor manufactured by Biosoft-M. Expansion device allowed changing the flow resistance of the system simulating the total peripheral resistance of the circulatory system.Results. Linear direct correlation between the pump performance and the pressure drop of liquid being created at the inlet and outlet of the pump was obtained. The required flow rate (5–7 l/min and pressure (90–100 mmHg were reached when the rotor speed was in the range of 2500–3000 rev/min. It has been shown that the increase of the inlet diameter to 15 mm has not resulted in a significant increase in the pump performance, and that the highest efficiency values can be obtained for the magnitude of inter-disk gap of 0.4–0.5 mm.Conclusion. Designed and manufactured experimental disc pump model for pumping fluid has showed the fundamental possibility to use this model as a system for mechanical support of the heart.

  8. Theoretical and experimental study on FBG accelerometer based on multi-flexible hinge mechanism (United States)

    Qiu, Lei; Liang, Lei; Li, Dongxu; Xu, Gang


    For vibration monitoring, the accelerometers with wider measuring range and greater sensitivity are required. In order to achieve the goal, a novel FBG accelerometer based on three mass blocks and four flexible hinges have been proposed. Then the mechanical model and dynamics equations, the resonant frequency, sensitivity and cross interferences have been investigated. It is observed that the theoretical and experimental data are consistent, the measuring range and the sensitivity of the proposed accelerometer are about 50-800 Hz and 29 pm/g, respectively.

  9. Experimental and numerical study of the micro-mechanical failure in composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashouri Vajari, Danial; Martyniuk, Karolina; Sørensen, Bent F.


    and by numerical modeling by means of the finite element analysis. Two fibers embedded in the matrix are subjected to a remote transverse tensile load (see Fig. 1a). The trapezoidal cohesive zone model proposed by Tvergaard and Hutchinson [14] is used to model the fracture of the fiber-matrix interfaces......The fibre/matrix interfacial debonding is found to be the first microscale failure mechanism leading to subsequent macroscale transverse cracks in composite materials under tensile load. In this paper, the micromechanical interface failure in fiber-reinforced composites is studied experimentally...

  10. [Progress of experimental studies on the underlying mechanism of acupuncture treatment of migraine]. (United States)

    Deng, Zhu-Qing; Zhao, Ling; Li, Ying


    Migraine is a common problem in clinic, characterized by bilateral impulsive severe headache with some autonomic and neurological symptoms. Acupuncture is effective for relieving headache. In the present paper, the authors review recent development of experimental researches on the mechanism underlying acupuncture-induced improvement of migraine from: 1) inhibiting neurogenic inflammation, 2) improving cerebro-microcirculation, and 3) regulating vasoactive substances. The authors also point out that the theory of voltage-gated ion channel has provided a new reference for further study about the effect of acupuncture on voltage-gated ion channel of migraine animal models.

  11. Digital image correlation in experimental mechanics and image registration in computer vision: Similarities, differences and complements (United States)

    Wang, Zhaoyang; Kieu, Hien; Nguyen, Hieu; Le, Minh


    Digital image correlation and image registration or matching are among the most widely used techniques in the fields of experimental mechanics and computer vision, respectively. Despite their applications in separate fields, both techniques primarily involve detecting the same physical points in two or more images. In this paper, a brief technical comparison of the two techniques is reviewed, and their similarities and differences as well as complements are presented. It is shown that some concepts from the image registration or matching technique can be applied to the digital image correlation technique to substantially enhance its performance, which can help broaden the applications of digital image correlation in scientific research and engineering practice.

  12. The dynamical integrity concept for interpreting/ predicting experimental behaviour: from macro- to nano-mechanics. (United States)

    Lenci, Stefano; Rega, Giuseppe; Ruzziconi, Laura


    The dynamical integrity, a new concept proposed by J.M.T. Thompson, and developed by the authors, is used to interpret experimental results. After reviewing the main issues involved in this analysis, including the proposal of a new integrity measure able to capture in an easy way the safe part of basins, attention is dedicated to two experiments, a rotating pendulum and a micro-electro-mechanical system, where the theoretical predictions are not fulfilled. These mechanical systems, the former at the macro-scale and the latter at the micro-scale, permit a comparative analysis of different mechanical and dynamical behaviours. The fact that in both cases the dynamical integrity permits one to justify the difference between experimental and theoretical results, which is the main achievement of this paper, shows the effectiveness of this new approach and suggests its use in practical situations. The men of experiment are like the ant, they only collect and use; the reasoners resemble spiders, who make cobwebs out of their own substance. But the bee takes the middle course: it gathers its material from the flowers of the garden and field, but transforms and digests it by a power of its own. Not unlike this is the true business of philosophy (science); for it neither relies solely or chiefly on the powers of the mind, nor does it take the matter which it gathers from natural history and mechanical experiments and lay up in the memory whole, as it finds it, but lays it up in the understanding altered and digested. Therefore, from a closer and purer league between these two faculties, the experimental and the rational (such as has never been made), much may be hoped. (Francis Bacon 1561-1626) But are we sure of our observational facts? Scientific men are rather fond of saying pontifically that one ought to be quite sure of one's observational facts before embarking on theory. Fortunately those who give this advice do not practice what they preach. Observation and theory get

  13. Experimental analysis of mechanical response of stabilized occipitocervical junction by 3D mark tracking technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brémand F.


    Full Text Available This study is about a biomechanical comparison of some stabilization solutions for the occipitocervical junction. Four kinds of occipito-cervical fixations are analysed in this work: lateral plates fixed by two kinds of screws, lateral plates fixed by hooks and median plate. To study mechanical rigidity of each one, tests have been performed on human skulls by applying loadings and by studying mechanical response of fixations and bone. For this experimental analysis, a specific setup has been developed to impose a load corresponding to the flexion-extension physiological movements. 3D mark tracking technique is employed to measure 3D displacement fields on the bone and on the fixations. Observations of displacement evolution on the bone according to the fixation show different rigidities given by each solution.

  14. Experimental Investigation on Mechanical Properties of Hemp/E-Glass Fabric Reinforced Polyester Hybrid Composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available This research work has been focusing on Hemp fibers has an alternative reinforcement for fiber reinforced polymer composites due to its eco-friendly and biodegradable characteristics. This work has been carried out to evaluate the mechanical properties of hemp/E-glass fabrics reinforced polyester hybrid composites. Vacuum bagging method was used for the preparation of six different kinds of hemp/glass fabrics reinforced polyester composite laminates as per layering sequences. The tensile, flexural, impact and water absorption tests of these hybrid composites were carried out experimentally according to ASTM standards. It reveals that an addition of E-glass fabrics with hemp fabrics can increase the mechanical properties of composites and decrease the water absorption of the hybrid composites.

  15. Preface to special issue of selected papers from Theoretical, Experimental, and Computational Mechanics (TECM)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jabbari, Masoud; Sarlak Chivaee, Hamid; Hattel, Jesper Henri


    We are pleased to introduce this special issue of the Applied Mathematical Modelling journal with highlights from theTheoretical, Experimental, and Computational Mechanics Symposium (TECM-2015). This special issue consists of four rigorouslyselected papers originally presented at TECM-2015...... various fields and application. The symposium did an excellent job of outlining the current landscape of computational mechanics and its capabilities in solving complex industrial problems in the process industries, and we agree with the editor-in-chief of the journal that it is certainly worthwhile......, and were subjected to the rigorous APM review process. We wish to thank the authors for their hard work in turning the original conference papers into top quality full journal articles. We also wish to thank our international reviewers who kindly agreed to review the articles to ensure that the quality...

  16. Numerical and Experimental Investigations on Mechanical Behavior of Composite Corrugated Core (United States)

    Dayyani, Iman; Ziaei-Rad, Saeed; Salehi, Hamid


    Tensile and flexural characteristics of corrugated laminate panels were studied using numerical and analytical methods and compared with experimental data. Prepreg laminates of glass fiber plain woven cloth were hand-laid by use of a heat gun to ease the creation of the panel. The corrugated panels were then manufactured by using a trapezoidal machined aluminium mould. First, a series of simple tension tests were performed on standard samples to evaluate the material characteristics. Next, the corrugated panels were subjected to tensile and three-point bending tests. The force-displacement graphs were recorded. Numerical and analytical solutions were proposed to simulate the mechanical behavior of the panels. In order to model the energy dissipation due to delamination phenomenon observed in tensile tests in all members of corrugated core, plastic behavior was assigned to the whole geometry, not only to the corner regions. Contrary to the literature, it is shown that the three-stage mechanical behavior of composite corrugated core is not confined to aramid reinforced corrugated laminates and can be observed in other types such as fiber glass. The results reveal that the mechanical behavior of the core in tension is sensitive to the variation of core height. In addition, for the first time, the behavior of composite corrugated core was studied and verified in bending. Finally, the analytical and numerical results were validated by comparing them with experimental data. A good degree of correlation was observed which showed the suitability of the finite element model for predicting the mechanical behavior of corrugated laminate panels.

  17. Comprehensive Mechanisms for Combustion Chemistry: An Experimental and Numerical Study with Emphasis on Applied Sensitivity Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dryer, Frederick L.


    This project was an integrated experimental/numerical effort to study pyrolysis and oxidation reactions and mechanisms for small-molecule hydrocarbon structures under conditions representative of combustion environments. The experimental aspects of the work were conducted in large-diameter flow reactors, at 0.3 to 18 atm pressure, 500 to 1100 K temperature, and 10-2 to 2 seconds reaction time. Experiments were also conducted to determine reference laminar flame speeds using a premixed laminar stagnation flame experiment and particle image velocimetry, as well as pressurized bomb experiments. Flow reactor data for oxidation experiments include: (1)adiabatic/isothermal species time-histories of a reaction under fixed initial pressure, temperature, and composition; to determine the species present after a fixed reaction time, initial pressure; (2)species distributions with varying initial reaction temperature; (3)perturbations of a well-defined reaction systems (e.g. CO/H2/O2 or H2/O2)by the addition of small amounts of an additive species. Radical scavenging techniques are applied to determine unimolecular decomposition rates from pyrolysis experiments. Laminar flame speed measurements are determined as a function of equivalence ratio, dilution, and unburned gas temperature at 1 atm pressure. Hierarchical, comprehensive mechanistic construction methods were applied to develop detailed kinetic mechanisms which describe the measurements and literature kinetic data. Modeling using well-defined and validated mechanisms for the CO/H2/Oxidant systems and perturbations of oxidation experiments by small amounts of additives were also used to derive absolute reaction rates and to investigate the compatibility of published elementary kinetic and thermochemical information. Numerical tools were developed and applied to assess the importance of individual elementary reactions to the predictive performance of the

  18. Cellular Mechanisms and Behavioral Outcomes in Blast-Induced Neurotrauma: Comparing Experimental Setups. (United States)

    Bailey, Zachary S; Hubbard, W Brad; VandeVord, Pamela J


    Blast-induced neurotrauma (BINT) has increased in incidence over the past decades and can result in cognitive issues that have debilitating consequences. The exact primary and secondary mechanisms of injury have not been elucidated and appearance of cellular injury can vary based on many factors, such as blast overpressure magnitude and duration. Many methodologies to study blast neurotrauma have been employed, ranging from open-field explosives to experimental shock tubes for producing free-field blast waves. While there are benefits to the various methods, certain specifications need to be accounted for in order to properly examine BINT. Primary cell injury mechanisms, occurring as a direct result of the blast wave, have been identified in several studies and include cerebral vascular damage, blood-brain barrier disruption, axonal injury, and cytoskeletal damage. Secondary cell injury mechanisms, triggered subsequent to the initial insult, result in the activation of several molecular cascades and can include, but are not limited to, neuroinflammation and oxidative stress. The collective result of these secondary injuries can lead to functional deficits. Behavioral measures examining motor function, anxiety traits, and cognition/memory problems have been utilized to determine the level of injury severity. While cellular injury mechanisms have been identified following blast exposure, the various experimental models present both concurrent and conflicting results. Furthermore, the temporal response and progression of pathology after blast exposure have yet to be detailed and remain unclear due to limited resemblance of methodologies. This chapter summarizes the current state of blast neuropathology and emphasizes the need for a standardized preclinical model of blast neurotrauma.

  19. Quantum Mechanical Calculations in Collaborations with Experimental Chemistry: The Theoretical Organic Chemistry Perspective (United States)

    Nguyen, Quynh Nhu Ngoc

    The results of quantum chemical calculations reveal that polyanionic gallium-based cages accelerate cyclization reactions of pentadienyl alcohols by significantly increasing basicity of the substrate hydroxyl group. The energy barrier for cyclization of the pentadienyl cation after water loss is already low in the background reaction and is altered fairly little by the cage. The calculations for other non-alcohol substrates also suggest that the cage increases the basicity of amine and phosphine groups, though to a lesser extend comparing to the alcohol substrate. Due to their twisting patterns, alpha-helical peptides are known to have overall "macrodipoles" along the principal axes as the result of the backbone carbonyl groups pointing toward the C-terminus. As the dipoles have implications in helical bundles, interactions with lipid bilayers, and distribution of charge, chemists have long been interested in employing the macrodipole in modifications of peptides' catalytic activities. In this studied, we examined the impact of both global and local noncovalent interactions between peptide catalysts and substrates in the first transesterification step, in hope of designing a better peptide catalysts to aid in ester metabolism. Quantum mechanical calculations helped predict whether the targeted medium-sized cyclic peptide products would more likely be the major products, before the experimental team invested extensive resources and time to carry out the syntheses. Many systems were found to favor the medium-sized cyclic peptides, whereas one system was predicted to result in polycyclic product, and the latter experimental observations agreed with these predictions. Naturally occurring cyclic peptides display various biological activities due to their diverse structures. Understanding the dominant structures of these peptides could help give insight into protein-protein interactions or substrate-protein binding. With the experimental NMR data obtained for the

  20. Experimental Evaluation of the Developmental Mechanism Underlying Fractures at the Adjacent Segment. (United States)

    Özkaya, Mustafa; Demir, Teyfik; Yaman, Onur; Yaman, Mesut Emre; Özalp, Hakan; Dalbayrak, Sedat


    Compression fractures at adjacent mobile segments have been reported as adjacent segment disease under trauma in several studies. In this study, the occurrence of fractures at the adjacent segment was evaluated experimentally under trauma. Static testing of different fixation systems was performed to show their biomechanical performances. The ovine vertebrae fixed with rigid, dynamic, and semirigid systems were used as test samples. The stiffness values of the systems were obtained by testing the vertebrectomy models under compression bending, lateral bending, and torsion tests. In addition, their effects on the adjacent segments were experimentally evaluated within a drop mechanism. A free-fall drop mechanism was designed and manufactured. Next, 3.5-kg, 5-kg, and 7-kg weights were released from 1 m above the test samples to generate compression fractures. The occurrence of compression fractures was observed with the use of radiograph of test samples, which were obtained before and after the drop test. Dynamic and semirigid systems have advantages compared with rigid systems as the result of their lower stiffness values. Radiographs showed that epiphysis fractures occurred at fixed and adjacent mobile segments, which were fixed with semirigid fixation. In addition, dynamic fixation well preserved the fixed and adjacent mobile segments under trauma. The dynamic system with a polyetheretherketone rod can better preserve both adjacent and fixed segments. However, because of the cantilever beam effect, the semirigid system exhibits a great disadvantage. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Thermal-mechanical modeling and experimental validation of weld solidification cracking in 6061-T6 aluminum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dike, J.J.; Brooks, J.A.; Bammann, D.J.; Li, M.


    Finite element simulation using an internal state variable constitutive model coupled with a void growth and damage model are used to study weld solidification cracking of 6061-T6 aluminum. Calculated results are compared with data from an experimental program determining the locations of failure as a function of weld process parameters and specimen geometry. Two types of weld solidification cracking specimen were studied. One specimen, in which cracking did not occur, was used to evaluate finite element simulations of the thermal response and calculations of average strain across the weld. The other specimen type was used to determine the location of crack initiation as a function of weld process parameters. This information was used to evaluate the finite element simulations of weld solidification cracking. A solidification model which includes dendrite tip and eutectic undercooling was used in both thermal and mechanical finite element analyses. A strain rate and temperature history dependent constitutive model is coupled with a ductile void growth damage model in the mechanical analyses. Stresses near the weld pool are examined to explain results obtained in the finite element analyses and correlated with experimental observations. Good agreement is obtained between simulation and experiment for locations of crack initiation and extent of cracking. Some effects of uncertainties in material parameters are discussed.

  2. Experimental Investigation on the Morphology and Adhesion Mechanism of Leech Posterior Suckers.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huashan Feng

    Full Text Available The posterior sucker of a leech represents a fascinating natural system that allows the leech to adhere to different terrains and substrates. However, the mechanism of adhesion and desorption has not yet to be elucidated. In order to better understand how the adhesion is performed, we analyzed the surface structure, adsorption movements, the muscles' distribution, physical characteristics, and the adsorption force of the leech posterior suckers by experimental investigation. Three conclusions can be drawn based on the obtained experimental results. First, the adhesion by the posterior sucker is wet adhesion, because the surface of the posterior sucker is smooth and the sealing can only be achieved on wet surfaces. Second, the deformation texture, consisting of soft collagen tissues and highly ductile epidermal tissues, plays a key role in adhering to rough surfaces. Finally, the adhesion and desorption is achieved by the synergetic operation of six muscle fibers working in different directions. Concrete saying, directional deformation of the collagen/epithermal interface driven by spatially-distributed muscle fibers facilitates the excretion of fluids in the sucker venter, thus allowing liquid sealing. Furthermore, we found that the adhesion strength is directly related to the size of the contact surface which is generated and affected by the sucker deformation. Such an underlying physical mechanism offers potential cues for developing innovative bio-inspired artificial adhesion systems.

  3. Experimental Investigation on the Morphology and Adhesion Mechanism of Leech Posterior Suckers. (United States)

    Feng, Huashan; Chai, Ningli; Dong, Wenhao


    The posterior sucker of a leech represents a fascinating natural system that allows the leech to adhere to different terrains and substrates. However, the mechanism of adhesion and desorption has not yet to be elucidated. In order to better understand how the adhesion is performed, we analyzed the surface structure, adsorption movements, the muscles' distribution, physical characteristics, and the adsorption force of the leech posterior suckers by experimental investigation. Three conclusions can be drawn based on the obtained experimental results. First, the adhesion by the posterior sucker is wet adhesion, because the surface of the posterior sucker is smooth and the sealing can only be achieved on wet surfaces. Second, the deformation texture, consisting of soft collagen tissues and highly ductile epidermal tissues, plays a key role in adhering to rough surfaces. Finally, the adhesion and desorption is achieved by the synergetic operation of six muscle fibers working in different directions. Concrete saying, directional deformation of the collagen/epithermal interface driven by spatially-distributed muscle fibers facilitates the excretion of fluids in the sucker venter, thus allowing liquid sealing. Furthermore, we found that the adhesion strength is directly related to the size of the contact surface which is generated and affected by the sucker deformation. Such an underlying physical mechanism offers potential cues for developing innovative bio-inspired artificial adhesion systems.

  4. Computer Game Play Reduces Intrusive Memories of Experimental Trauma via Reconsolidation-Update Mechanisms (United States)

    James, Ella L.; Bonsall, Michael B.; Hoppitt, Laura; Tunbridge, Elizabeth M.; Geddes, John R.; Milton, Amy L.


    Memory of a traumatic event becomes consolidated within hours. Intrusive memories can then flash back repeatedly into the mind’s eye and cause distress. We investigated whether reconsolidation—the process during which memories become malleable when recalled—can be blocked using a cognitive task and whether such an approach can reduce these unbidden intrusions. We predicted that reconsolidation of a reactivated visual memory of experimental trauma could be disrupted by engaging in a visuospatial task that would compete for visual working memory resources. We showed that intrusive memories were virtually abolished by playing the computer game Tetris following a memory-reactivation task 24 hr after initial exposure to experimental trauma. Furthermore, both memory reactivation and playing Tetris were required to reduce subsequent intrusions (Experiment 2), consistent with reconsolidation-update mechanisms. A simple, noninvasive cognitive-task procedure administered after emotional memory has already consolidated (i.e., > 24 hours after exposure to experimental trauma) may prevent the recurrence of intrusive memories of those emotional events. PMID:26133572

  5. Experimental tooth clenching. A model for studying mechanisms of muscle pain. (United States)

    Dawson, Andreas


    The overall goal of this thesis was to broaden knowledge of pain mechanisms in myofascial temporomandibular disorders (M-TMD). The specific aims were to: Develop a quality assessment tool for experimental bruxism studies (study I). Investigate proprioceptive allodynia after experimental tooth clenching exercises (study II). Evaluate the release of serotonin (5-HT), glutamate, pyruvate, and lactate in healthy subjects (study III) and in patients with M-TMD (study IV), after experimental tooth clenching exercises. In (I), tool development comprised 5 steps: (i) preliminary decisions, (ii) item generation, (iii) face-validity assessment, (iv) reliability and discriminative validity testing, and (v) instrument refinement. After preliminary decisions and a literature review, a list of 52 items to be considered for inclusion in the tool was generated. Eleven experts were invited to participate on the Delphi panel, of which 10 agreed. After four Delphi rounds, 8 items remained and were included in the Quality Assessment Tool for Experimental Bruxism Studies (Qu-ATEBS). Inter-observer reliability was acceptable (k = 0.77), and discriminative validity high (phi coefficient 0.79; P muscle blood flow. Two hours after the start of microdialysis, participants were randomized to a 20-min repetitive experimental tooth clenching task (50% of MVCF) or a control session (no clenching). Pain intensity was measured throughout the experiment. Substance levels and blood flow were unaltered at all time points between sessions, and between genders in each session. Pain intensity was significantly higher after clenching in the clenching session compared to the same time point in the control session. In (IV), 15 patients with M-TMD and 15 healthy controls participated in one session and the methodology described above was used. M-TMD patients had significantly higher levels of 5-HT and significantly lower blood flows than healthy controls. No significant differences for any substance at any

  6. Understanding the molecular mechanisms of cancer prevention by dietary phytochemicals: From experimental models to clinical trials. (United States)

    Maru, Girish B; Hudlikar, Rasika R; Kumar, Gaurav; Gandhi, Khushboo; Mahimkar, Manoj B


    Chemoprevention is one of the cancer prevention approaches wherein natural/synthetic agent(s) are prescribed with the aim to delay or disrupt multiple pathways and processes involved at multiple steps, i.e., initiation, promotion, and progression of cancer. Amongst environmental chemopreventive compounds, diet/beverage-derived components are under evaluation, because of their long history of exposure to humans, high tolerability, low toxicity, and reported biological activities. This compilation briefly covers and compares the available evidence on chemopreventive efficacy and probable mechanism of chemoprevention by selected dietary phytochemicals (capsaicin, curcumin, diallyl sulphide, genistein, green/black tea polyphenols, indoles, lycopene, phenethyl isocyanate, resveratrol, retinoids and tocopherols) in experimental systems and clinical trials. All the dietary phytochemicals covered in this review have demonstrated chemopreventive efficacy against spontaneous or carcinogen-induced experimental tumors and/or associated biomarkers and processes in rodents at several organ sites. The observed anti-initiating, anti-promoting and anti-progression activity of dietary phytochemicals in carcinogen-induced experimental models involve phytochemical-mediated redox changes, modulation of enzymes and signaling kinases resulting to effects on multiple genes and cell signaling pathways. Results from clinical trials using these compounds have not shown them to be chemopreventive. This may be due to our: (1) inability to reproduce the exposure conditions, i.e., levels, complexity, other host and lifestyle factors; and (2) lack of understanding about the mechanisms of action and agent-mediated toxicity in several organs and physiological processes in the host. Current research efforts in addressing the issues of exposure conditions, bioavailability, toxicity and the mode of action of dietary phytochemicals may help address the reason for observed mismatch that may ultimately

  7. An Experimental Study to Measure the Mechanical Properties of the Human Liver. (United States)

    Karimi, Alireza; Shojaei, Ahmad


    Since the liver is one of the most important organs of the body that can be injured during trauma, that is, during accidents like car crashes, understanding its mechanical properties is of great interest. Experimental data is needed to address the mechanical properties of the liver to be used for a variety of applications, such as the numerical simulations for medical purposes, including the virtual reality simulators, trauma research, diagnosis objectives, as well as injury biomechanics. However, the data on the mechanical properties of the liver capsule is limited to the animal models or confined to the tensile/compressive loading under single direction. Therefore, this study was aimed at experimentally measuring the axial and transversal mechanical properties of the human liver capsule under both the tensile and compressive loadings. To do that, 20 human cadavers were autopsied and their liver capsules were excised and histologically analyzed to extract the mean angle of a large fibers population (bundle of the fine collagen fibers). Thereafter, the samples were cut and subjected to a series of axial and transversal tensile/compressive loadings. The results revealed the tensile elastic modulus of 12.16 ± 1.20 (mean ± SD) and 7.17 ± 0.85 kPa under the axial and transversal loadings respectively. Correspondingly, the compressive elastic modulus of 196.54 ± 13.15 and 112.41 ± 8.98 kPa were observed under the axial and transversal loadings respectively. The compressive axial and transversal maximum/failure stress of the capsule were 32.54 and 37.30 times higher than that of the tensile ones respectively. The capsule showed a stiffer behavior under the compressive load compared to the tensile one. In addition, the axial elastic modulus of the capsule was found to be higher than that of the transversal one. The findings of the current study have implications not only for understanding the mechanical properties of the human capsule tissue under tensile

  8. An Experimental Study on Mechanical Modeling of Ceramics Based on Microstructure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Nan Zhang


    Full Text Available The actual grinding result of ceramics has not been well predicted by the present mechanical models. No allowance is made for direct effects of materials microstructure and almost all the mechanical models were obtained based on crystalline ceramics. In order to improve the mechanical models of ceramics, surface grinding experiments on crystalline ceramics and non-crystalline ceramics were conducted in this research. The normal and tangential grinding forces were measured to calculate single grit force and specific grinding energy. Grinding surfaces were observed. For crystalline alumina ceramics, the predictive modeling of normal force per grit fits well with the experimental result, when the maximum undeformed chip thickness is less than a critical depth, which turns out to be close to the grain size of alumina. Meanwhile, there is a negative correlation between the specific grinding energy and the maximum undeformed chip thickness. With the decreasing maximum undeformed chip thickness, the proportions of ductile removal and transgranular fracture increase. However, the grinding force models are not applicable for non-crystalline ceramic fused silica and the specific grinding energy fluctuates irregularly as a function of maximum undeformed chip thickness seen from the experiment.

  9. Experimental Investigations into the Mechanical Behaviour of the Breccias Around the Proposed Gibraltar Strait Tunnel (United States)

    Dong, W.; Pimentel, E.; Anagnostou, G.


    The proposed Gibraltar Strait tunnel will cross two zones with breccia consisting of a chaotic mixture of blocks and stones embedded in a clay matrix. The breccia is saturated, has a high porosity and exhibits poor mechanical properties in the range between hard soils and weak rocks. The overburden and high in situ pore pressures in combination with the low strength of the breccia may lead to heavy squeezing. The crossing of the breccia zones thus represents one of the key challenges in the construction of the tunnel. In order to improve our understanding of the mechanical behaviour of the breccias, a series of triaxial compressions tests were carried out. Standard rock mechanics test equipment was not adequate for this purpose, because it does not provide pore pressure control, which is important in the case of saturated porous materials. Pore pressure control is routine in soil mechanics tests, but standard soil mechanics equipment allows only for relatively low nominal loads and pressures. In addition, the low hydraulic conductivity of the breccias demands extremely low loading rates and a long test duration. For these reasons, we re-designed several components of the test apparatus to investigate the mechanical behaviour of the breccia by means of consolidated drained and undrained tests. The tests provided important results concerning the strength, volumetric behaviour, consolidation state and hydraulic conductivity of the breccias. The present paper describes the test equipment and procedures, provides an overview of the test results and discusses features of the mechanical behaviour of the breccias which make them qualitatively different from other weak rocks such as kakirites—a typical squeezing rock in alpine tunnelling. The paper also demonstrates the practical importance of the experimental findings for tunnelling in general. More specifically, it investigates the short-term ground response to tunnel excavation from the perspective of elasto

  10. Insights into the Lactonase Mechanism of Serum Paraoxonase 1 (PON1): Experimental and Quantum Mechanics/Molecular Mechanics (QM/MM) Studies. (United States)

    Le, Quang Anh Tuan; Kim, Seonghoon; Chang, Rakwoo; Kim, Yong Hwan


    Serum paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is a versatile enzyme for the hydrolysis of various substrates (e.g., lactones, phosphotriesters) and for the formation of a promising chemical platform γ-valerolactone. Elucidation of the PON1-catalyzed lactonase reaction mechanism is very important for understanding the enzyme function and for engineering this enzyme for specific applications. Kinetic study and hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) method were used to investigate the PON1-catalyzed lactonase reaction of γ-butyrolactone (GBL) and (R)-γ-valerolactone (GVL). The activation energies obtained from the QM/MM calculations were in good agreement with the experiments. Interestingly, the QM/MM energy barriers at MP2/3-21G(d,p) level for the lactonase of GVL and GBL were respectively 14.3-16.2 and 11.5-13.1 kcal/mol, consistent with the experimental values (15.57 and 14.73 kcal/mol derived from respective kcat values of 36.62 and 147.21 s(-1)). The QM/MM energy barriers at MP2/6-31G(d) and MP2/6-31G(d,p) levels were also in relatively good agreements with the experiments. Importantly, the difference in the QM/MM energy barriers at MP2 level with all investigated basis sets for the lactonase of GVL and GBL were in excellent agreement with the experiments (0.9-3.1 and 0.8 kcal/mol, respectively). A detailed mechanism for the PON1-catalyzed lactonase reaction was also proposed in this study.

  11. Experimental Observation of the Skeletal Adaptive Repair Mechanism and Bionic Topology Optimization Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaysar Rahman


    Full Text Available Bone adaptive repair theory considers that the external load is the direct source of bone remodeling; bone achieves its maintenance by remodeling some microscopic damages due to external load during the process. This paper firstly observes CT data from the whole self-repairing process in bone defects in rabbit femur. Experimental result shows that during self-repairing process there exists an interaction relationship between spongy bone and enamel bone volume changes of bone defect, that is when volume of spongy bone increases, enamel bone decreases, and when volume of spongy bone decreases, enamel bone increases. Secondly according to this feature a bone remodeling model based on cross-type reaction-diffusion system influenced by mechanical stress is proposed. Finally, this model coupled with finite element method by using the element adding and removing process is used to simulate the self-repairing process and engineering optimization problems by considering the idea of bionic topology optimization.

  12. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of the FRP Shear Mechanism for Concrete Sandwich Panels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hodicky, Kamil; Sopal, G.; Rizkalla, S.


    of this interface surface area. Test results also indicated that increasing the rigid foam thickness decreases the overall shear flow strength when compared with the same quantity of CFRP grid spacing. A nonlinear three-dimensional (3D) FEM analysis was performed to model the behavior of the tested segments......This paper investigates the composite action of 46 segments representing precast concrete sandwich panels (PCSPs) using a fiber-reinforced polymer [FRP; specifically, a carbon fiber-reinforced polymer (CFRP)] grid/rigid foam as a shear mechanism. The experimental aspect of the research reported...... reported in this paper indicated that increasing the spacing between vertical lines of CFRP grid increase the overall shear flow strengths due to the increase of the bonded contact area of the rigid foam to the concrete surface. However, the overall shear stresses were decreased due to the increase...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon Schleiter


    Full Text Available The determination of dynamic parameters are the central points of the system identification of civil engineering structures under dynamic loading. This paper first gives a brief summary of the recent developments of the system identification methods in civil engineering and describes mathematical models, which enable the identification of the necessary parameters using only stochastic input signals. Relevant methods for this identification use Frequency Domain Decomposition (FDD, Autoregressive Moving Average Models (ARMA and the Autoregressive Models with eXogenous input (ARX. In a first step an elasto-mechanical mdof-system is numerically modeled using FEM and afterwards tested numerically by above mentioned identification methods using stochastic signals. During the second campaign, dynamic measurements are conducted experimentally on a real 7-story RC-building with ambient signal input using sensors. The results are successfully for the relevant system identification methods.

  14. An experimental study on mechanical properties of GFRP braid-pultruded composite rods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available In this work, a conventional textile braiding machine was modified and added to a pultrusion line in order to produce glass fiber reinforced composite rods by braiding-pultrusion technique. Braid-pultruded (BP rods were produced with three braid roving linear densities and also with three different braid angles. To study the influence of overbraiding on mechanical properties of pultruded rods, unidirectional (UD rods, without braided fabric, were produced, as well. All rod types were subjected to tensile, bending and torsion tests. The experimental results showed that BP rods have considerably higher shear modulus, but lower tensile modulus and flexural rigidity than those of UD pultruded rods, when fiber volume fraction is kept constant. Moreover, rods produced with higher braid roving linear densities had better torsional, but lower tensile and flexural properties. The highest shear modulus was observed in BP rods with braid angle of 45°.

  15. Experimental evidence of EDGE turbulence driven by multiple mechanisms in ATF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hidalgo, C.


    The scaling properties of edge fluctuations have been investigated using Langmuir probes in the edge region of the Advance Toroidal Facility (ATF). Fluctuations in the ion saturation current (ls/ls) and transport inferred from the fluctuations increase with increasing density gradient, while keeping unchanged local electron temperature. The modification of the electron temperature in the range (10-50) eV, Keeping constant the density profile, does not have any significant influence on ls/ ls. In regions were Er/B =0, the poloidal phase velocity of the fluctuations is given by vph 2Te/LnB. More then one of any so far proposed mechanisms must be invoked to explain all the experimental observations. (Author) 14 refs.

  16. Experimental Investigation on Material Transfer Mechanism in WEDM of Pure Titanium (Grade-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anish Kumar


    Full Text Available This research work mainly focused on experimental investigation on material transfer mechanism in WEDM of pure titanium. The effects of machining parameters such as pulse on time, pulse off time, peak current, spark gap voltage, wire feed, and wire tension on the material removal rate (MRR, overcut, and surface roughness for pure titanium in WEDM process were explored. The selected machined samples were analyzed using energy dispersive X-ray analysis, scanning electron microscope, and X-ray diffraction techniques. It was observed from the results that a significant material transfer occurred from the dielectric, as well as tool, electrode on the work surface either in free form and/or in compound form. Also the multiresponse optimization of process parameters was done using desirability approach. The predictions from this model were validated by conducting experiments.

  17. Nonlinear magneto-electro-thermo-mechanical response of layered magnetoelectric composites: theoretical and experimental approach (United States)

    Subhani, Sk M.; Maniprakash, S.; Arockiarajan, A.


    Composite structures exhibiting magnetoelectric (ME) coupling behavior have applications in various fields such as energy harvesting, sensors and actuators. ME coupling behavior is considered to occur by transfer of strain through bonding of the constituent phases of the ME composite. Here, the influence of thermal environment on the constitutive behavior of ferroic phases was examined, firstly by conducting experiments at various temperatures. To mimic the constitutive behavior of ferroic phases, constitutive models were built based on a thermodynamic framework. In order to account for thermal effects, appropriate functions were introduced to the formulation. Model parameters were chosen based on experimental data and simulation studies were performed. The obtained results were found to be in agreement with the experiments. Additionally, an attempt was made to capture the mechanical, electrical, magnetic and ME coupling behavior of composites. To capture the response of ME composites, a homogenization technique was employed along with the proposed constitutive relation for the constituent phases of an ME composite.

  18. Experimental Investigation of Mechanical Properties of PVC Polymer under Different Heating and Cooling Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarkawt Rostam


    Full Text Available Due to a widely increasing usage of polymers in various industrial applications, there should be a continuous need in doing research investigations for better understanding of their properties. These applications require the usage of the polymer in different working environments subjecting the material to various temperature ranges. In this paper, an experimental investigation of mechanical properties of polyvinyl chloride (PVC polymer under heating and cooling conditions is presented. For this purpose standard samples are prepared and tested in laboratory using universal material testing apparatus. The samples are tested under different conditions including the room temperature environment, cooling in a refrigerator, and heating at different heating temperatures. It is observed that the strength of the tested samples decreases with the increasing of heating temperature and accordingly the material becomes softer. Meanwhile the cooling environments give a clear increasing to the strength of the material.

  19. Experimental and numerical determination of the mechanical response of teeth with reinforced posts. (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Triantafillos; Papadogiannis, Dimitris; Mouzakis, Dionysios E; Giannadakis, Konstantinos; Papanicolaou, George


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanical behavior of endodontically treated teeth restored with fiber reinforced composite posts versus titanium posts, by both experimental testing and numerical simulation (finite element analysis (FEA)). Forty maxillary central incisors were endodontically treated to a size 45 file and then obturated using gutta-percha points and sealer with the lateral condensation technique. The teeth were divided into four groups of ten teeth each. All the posts were of similar dimensions. The first group was restored using carbon fiber reinforced posts (CB), the second and third groups were restored using glass fiber reinforced posts (DP and FW, respectively), and the fourth group (control group) was restored using conventional titanium posts (PP). Half of the specimens of every group were submitted to hydrothermal cycling (2000 cycles, at 5 °C and 55 °C, respectively). All specimens were loaded until failure at a 45° angle with respect to the longitudinal axis at a cross head speed of 0.5 mm min(-1). A two-dimensional finite element model was designed in order to simulate the experimentally obtained results. Mechanical testing revealed that teeth restored with titanium posts exhibited the highest fracture strength. Debonding of the core was the main failure mode observed in glass fiber posts, whereas vertical root fractures were observed in the titanium posts. FEA revealed that the maximum stresses were developed at the interface between the post, dentin and the composite core critical regions in all three cases. Hydrothermal cycling had no significant effect on the fracture behavior of fiber reinforced composite posts.

  20. Effect and Mechanism of QiShenYiQi Pill on Experimental Autoimmune Myocarditis Rats (United States)

    Lv, Shichao; Wu, Meifang; Li, Meng; Wang, Qiang; Xu, Ling; Wang, Xiaojing; Zhang, Junping


    Background To observe the effect of QiShenYiQi pill (QSYQ) on experimental autoimmune myocarditis rats, and to explore its mechanism of action. Material/methods Lewis rats underwent the injection of myocardial myosin mixed with Freund’s complete adjuvant were randomized into 3 groups: model, valsartan, and QSYQ groups. Rats injected with phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) mixed with Freund’s complete adjuvant were used as the control group. Rats were euthanized at 4 and 8 weeks, and we weighed rat body mass, heart mass, and left ventricular mass. Myocardium sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and Masson trichrome. Myocardial TGF-β1 and CTGF protein expression was detected by immunohistochemistry, and myocardial TGF-β1 and CTGF mRNA expression was detected by real-time qPCR. Results QSYQ reduced HMI and LVMI, as well as the histological score of hearts and CVF, which further decreased over time, and its effect was significantly greater than that of valsartan at 4 and 8 weeks. After 4 weeks, QSYQ inhibited the protein and mRNA expression of TGF-β1 and CTGF, and its effect on lowering CTGF was significantly greater than that of valsartan. In addition, after 8 weeks, QSYQ also inhibited the protein and mRNA expression of CTGF, whereas there was no significant difference in the expression of myocardial TGF-β1. Conclusions This study provides evidence that QSYQ can improve cardiac remodeling of experimental autoimmune myocarditis rats. It also effectively improved the degree of myocardial fibrosis, which is related to the mechanism of regulation of TGF-β1 CTGF. PMID:26946470

  1. Influence of ionizing radiation on the mechanical properties of BisGMA/TEGDMA based experimental resin (United States)

    LMP, Campos; Boaro, LC; LKG, Santos; Parra, DF; Lugão, AB


    Dental restorative composites are activated by visible light and the polymerization process, known as direct technique, is initiated by absorbing light in a specific wavelength range (450-500 nm). However this technique presented some disadvantages. If light is not inserted correctly, layers uncured can cause countless damage to restoration, especially with regard to mechanical properties. A clinical alternative used to reduce the shortcomings of direct application is the use of composite resins for indirect application. These composites are adaptations of resins prepared for direct use, with differences mainly in the healing process. Besides the traditional photoactivation, indirect application composites may be submitted to particular curing conditions, such as a slow curing rate, heating, vacuum, and inert-gas pressure leading to an oxygen-free environment. However few studies have been conducted on the process of post-curing by ionizing radiation at low doses. On this sense the purpose of this study was to evaluate possible interactions of ionizing radiation in the post-curing process of the experimental composites based on BisGMA/TEGDMA filled with silica Aerosil OX-50 silanized. Characterization of the experimental composites was performed by thermogravimetry analysis, infrared spectroscopy, elastic modulus and flexural strength. Statistical analysis of results was calculated by one-way ANOVA/Tukey's test. Cross-linking of the polymeric matrix caused by ionizing radiation, influenced the thermal stability of irradiated specimens. FTIR analysis showed that the ionizing radiation induced a post-cure reaction in the specimens. The irradiation dose influenced directly the mechanical properties that showed a strong positive correlation between flexural strength and irradiation and between modulus strength and irradiation.

  2. Annulus fibrosus functional extrafibrillar and fibrous mechanical behaviour: experimental and computational characterisation. (United States)

    Mengoni, Marlène; Kayode, Oluwasegun; Sikora, Sebastien N F; Zapata-Cornelio, Fernando Y; Gregory, Diane E; Wilcox, Ruth K


    The development of current surgical treatments for intervertebral disc damage could benefit from virtual environment accounting for population variations. For such models to be reliable, a relevant description of the mechanical properties of the different tissues and their role in the functional mechanics of the disc is of major importance. The aims of this work were first to assess the physiological hoop strain in the annulus fibrosus in fresh conditions ( n  = 5) in order to extract a functional behaviour of the extrafibrillar matrix; then to reverse-engineer the annulus fibrosus fibrillar behaviour ( n  = 6). This was achieved by performing both direct and global controlled calibration of material parameters, accounting for the whole process of experimental design and in silico model methodology. Direct-controlled models are specimen-specific models representing controlled experimental conditions that can be replicated and directly comparing measurements. Validation was performed on another six specimens and a sensitivity study was performed. Hoop strains were measured as 17 ± 3% after 10 min relaxation and 21 ± 4% after 20-25 min relaxation, with no significant difference between the two measurements. The extrafibrillar matrix functional moduli were measured as 1.5 ± 0.7 MPa. Fibre-related material parameters showed large variability, with a variance above 0.28. Direct-controlled calibration and validation provides confidence that the model development methodology can capture the measurable variation within the population of tested specimens.

  3. Modelling and experimental contrast of the mechanical behaviour of structural laminated glass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanz-Ablanedo, E.


    Full Text Available This paper presents a numerical simulation of the mechanical behaviour of laminated glass plates (glass- PVB-glass and its experimental verification. The viscoelastic characterization of the intermediate layer of PVB has been done by means of stress relaxation tests at various temperatures. The consideration of PVB as a viscoelastic material permits to analyze the real response of the structural element of laminated glass under time variations of temperature, of application of loading, of stress state, etc. Displacements obtained with the numerical analysis have been verified experimentally with laminated glass plates under lateral load using close range photogrammetry and dial gauges indicators. The analysis of results confirms the time dependent behaviour of the glass-PVB-glass laminate and suggests the validity of the proposed model.

    Este trabajo presenta la simulación numérica del comportamiento mecánico de placas de vidrio laminado (vidrio-PVB-vidrio y su comprobación experimental. La caracterización viscoelástica de la lámina intermedia de PVB se ha realizado mediante ensayos de relajación de tensiones a diversas temperaturas. La consideración del PVB como material viscoelástico permite analizar la respuesta real del elemento estructural de vidrio laminado ante variaciones en el tiempo de la temperatura, de la velocidad de aplicación de las cargas, del estado tensional, etc. Los desplazamientos obtenidos numéricamente han sido contrastados experimentalmente en placas de vidrio laminado sometidas a carga lateral mediante fotogrametría de objeto cercano y relojes comparadores. Del análisis de los resultados se confirma el comportamiento variable en el tiempo del conjunto vidrio-PVB-vidrio y se deduce la validez de la modelización propuesta.

  4. A Combined Numerical and Experimental Analysis on Erythrocyte Damage Mechanism in Microscale Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Zhang


    Full Text Available An experimental system was designed and completed to realize the visualization of erythrocyte suspension microscale flow in microchannel and obtain the geometric parameters. The numerical simulation of the flow in the microchannel was accomplished to obtain the distribution of the physical parameters. Combined with the experimental data, the fitted curves of the physical parameters and geometric parameters on the axis were achieved. By analyzing the energy balance of the erythrocyte, the curve of the elasticity modulus of the erythrocyte membrane was obtained. The mechanism of the hemolysis caused by collision was expounded. Besides, the comparison among different cases was completed, illustrating the influence of the flow rate on hemolysis. The result shows that the predominant force of longitudinal compression is the pressure difference per erythrocyte. The curve of the elasticity modulus indicates that the membrane elasticity rapidly decreases as the erythrocyte approaches to the wall. The erythrocyte membrane loses elasticity, indicating that the contractile protein is fragile to the compressive loading, which increases significantly with a higher flow rate, making the erythrocyte membrane more likely to fracture.

  5. Development of Laboratory Experimental System to Clarify Solar Wind Charge Exchange Mechanism with TES Microcalorimeter (United States)

    Enoki, T.; Ishisaki, Y.; Akamatsu, H.; Ezoe, Y.; Ohashi, T.; Kanda, T.; Ishida, T.; Tanuma, H.; Ohashi, H.; Shinozaki, K.; Mitsuda, K.


    Significant fraction of the cosmic diffuse soft X-ray emission (0.1-1 keV) is caused by the Solar Wind Charge eXchange (SWCX) process between the solar wind ion (C q+, N q+, O q+ etc.) and the interplanetary neutral matter. It is difficult to identify spectral features of SWCX with the spectral resolution of existing X-ray astronomy satellites. We are developing a laboratory experimental system with transition edge sensor (TES) X-ray microcalorimeters, in order to clarify the SWCX mechanism. This experiment is designed to measure Charge eXchange (CX) X-rays using Electron Cyclotron Resonance Ion Source (ECRIS) that generates multi-charged ions. Emission lines (OVIII: 2p→1s; 654 eV) by CX between O8+ and neutral He atom is aimed to be measured with energy resolution better than 10 eV. The TES microcalorimeter is cooled by a double-stage adiabatic demagnetization refrigerator (DADR), however, our TES microcalorimeter are not working potentially due to magnetic field contamination. This paper reports our experimental system, present results, and future prospects.

  6. Experimental Investigation of a Mechanical Vapour Compression Chiller at Elevated Chilled Water Temperatures

    KAUST Repository

    Thu, Kyaw


    The performance of a Mechanical Vapour Compression (MVC) chiller is experimentally investigated under operating conditions suitable for sensible cooling. With the emergence of the energy efficient dehumidification systems, it is possible to decouple the latent load from the MVC chillers which can be operated at higher chilled water temperature for handling sensible cooling load. In this article, the performance of the chiller is evaluated at the elevated chilled water outlet temperatures (7 – 17° C) at various coolant temperatures (28 – 32° C) and flow rates (ΔT = 4 and 5° C) for both full- and part-load conditions. Keeping the performance at the AHRI standard as the baseline condition, the efficacy of the chiller in terms of compression ratio, cooling capacity and COP at aforementioned conditions is quantified experimentally. It is observed that for each one-degree Celsius increase in the chilled water temperature, the COP of the chiller improves by about 3.5% whilst the cooling capacity improvement is about 4%. For operation at 17° C chilled water outlet temperature, the improvements in COP and cooling capacity are between 37 – 40% and 40 – 45%, respectively, compared to the performance at the AHRI standards. The performance of the MVC chiller at the abovementioned operation conditions is mapped on the chiller performance characteristic chart.

  7. Experimental study of low amplitude, long-duration mechanical loading of reactive materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urtiew, P A; Forbes, J W


    Studies of the low amplitude, long-duration mechanical loading of reactive materials rely very heavily on the experimental data in general and in particular on the data obtained from gauges placed within the experimental test sample to measure accurately the local changes of parameters of the investigated material. For a complete description of these changes taking place in a dynamically loaded material one would like to know both the spatial and the temporal resolution of pressure, temperature, volume, wave and mass velocity. However, temperature and volume are not easily attainable. Therefore, most of the in-situ work is limited to measurements of pressure and both wave and mass velocities. Various types of these gauges will be discussed and their records will be illustrated. Some of these gauges have limitations but are better suited for particular applications than others. These aspects will also be discussed. Main limitation of most in-situ gauges is that they are built for one-dimensional application. However, some work is being done to develop two-dimensional gauges. This work will also be briefly discussed. While these experiments are necessary to validate theoretical models of the phenomenon, they can also provide sufficient amount of data to yield complete information on material characteristics such as its equation of state (EOS), its phase change under certain loads and its sensitivity to shock loading. Processing of these data to get important information on the behavior of both reactive and non-reactive materials will also be demonstrated.

  8. Experimental characterization of mechanical properties of the cement pasteaggregate interface in concrete (United States)

    Jebli, M.; Jamin, F.; Malachanne, E.; Garcia-Diaz, E.; El Youssoufi, M. S.


    Granular materials are extensively used in the field of civil engineering. These materials are either used in their dry state, or mixed with water or with a binder. In the case of concrete, the binder could be cement or mortar. For ordinary concretes, it is generally admitted that there is a thin heterogeneous zone of paste, with a thickness of about 15-60 μm, surrounding the aggregates surface. This zone, commonly named the Interfacial Transition Zone (ITZ), is characterized by a higher porosity than the bulk paste and a high concentration of the portlandite crystals. Some of these crystals react with the aggregates' surface (limestone aggregates), leading to a good adhesion. In this work, the mechanical properties of the cement paste and of the cement-aggregate interface are experimentally analyzed. Experimental tensile and shear tests are performed on parallelipipedic samples. These samples are made by linking limestone aggregates with Portland cement paste using a water / cement ratio of 0.5. The results show that the cement-aggregate interface is the weak zone in the composite.

  9. Experimental and Numerical Investigations on the Mechanical Characteristics of Carbon Fiber Sensors. (United States)

    Bashmal, Salem; Siddiqui, Mohammed; Arif, Abul Fazal M


    Carbon fiber-based materials possess excellent mechanical properties and show linear piezoresistive behavior, which make them good candidate materials for strain measurements. They have the potential to be used as sensors for various applications such as damage detection, stress analysis and monitoring of manufacturing processes and quality. In this paper, carbon fiber sensors are prepared to perform reliable strain measurements. Both experimental and computational studies were carried out on commercially available carbon fibers in order to understand the response of the carbon fiber sensors due to changes in the axial strain. Effects of parameters such as diameter, length, and epoxy-hardener ratio are discussed. The developed numerical model was calibrated using laboratory-based experimental data. The results of the current study show that sensors with shorter lengths have relatively better sensitivity. This is due to the fact short fibers have low initial resistance, which will increase the change of resistance over initial resistance. Carbon fibers with low number of filaments exhibit linear behavior while nonlinear behavior due to transverse resistance is significant in fibers with large number of filaments. This study will allow researchers to predict the behavior of the carbon fiber sensor in real life and it will serve as a basis for designing carbon fiber sensors to be used in different applications.

  10. RC Beams Strengthened with Mechanically Fastened Composites: Experimental Results and Numerical Modeling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enzo Martinelli


    Full Text Available The use of mechanically-fastened fiber-reinforced polymer (MF-FRP systems has recently emerged as a competitive solution for the flexural strengthening of reinforced concrete (RC beams and slabs. An overview of the experimental research has proven the effectiveness and the potentiality of the MF-FRP technique which is particularly suitable for emergency repairs or when the speed of installation and immediacy of use are imperative. A finite-element (FE model has been recently developed by the authors with the aim to simulate the behavior of RC beams strengthened in bending by MF-FRP laminates; such a model has also been validated by using a wide experimental database collected from the literature. By following the previous study, the FE model and the assembled database are considered herein with the aim of better exploring the influence of some specific aspects on the structural response of MF-FRP strengthened members, such as the bearing stress-slip relationship assumed for the FRP-concrete interface, the stress-strain law considered for reinforcing steel rebars and the cracking process in RC members resulting in the well-known tension stiffening effect. The considerations drawn from this study will be useful to researchers for the calibration of criteria and design rules for strengthening RC beams through MF-FRP laminates.

  11. An experimental study of the putative mechanism of a synthetic autonomous rotary DNA nanomotor. (United States)

    Dunn, K E; Leake, M C; Wollman, A J M; Trefzer, M A; Johnson, S; Tyrrell, A M


    DNA has been used to construct a wide variety of nanoscale molecular devices. Inspiration for such synthetic molecular machines is frequently drawn from protein motors, which are naturally occurring and ubiquitous. However, despite the fact that rotary motors such as ATP synthase and the bacterial flagellar motor play extremely important roles in nature, very few rotary devices have been constructed using DNA. This paper describes an experimental study of the putative mechanism of a rotary DNA nanomotor, which is based on strand displacement, the phenomenon that powers many synthetic linear DNA motors. Unlike other examples of rotary DNA machines, the device described here is designed to be capable of autonomous operation after it is triggered. The experimental results are consistent with operation of the motor as expected, and future work on an enhanced motor design may allow rotation to be observed at the single-molecule level. The rotary motor concept presented here has potential applications in molecular processing, DNA computing, biosensing and photonics.

  12. Experimental investigation of asphaltene deposition mechanism during oil flow in core samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papadimitriou, N.I.; Romanos, G.E.; Charalambopoulou, G.Ch.; Kainourgiakis, M.E.; Katsaros, F.K.; Stubos, A.K. [National Center for Scientific Research ' ' Demokritos' ' , Aghia Paraskevi, Attica, 15310 (Greece)


    Asphaltene deposition is an issue that has received much attention since it has been shown to be the cause of major production problems in enhanced oil recovery processes. Asphaltenes are heavy oil components which, under certain conditions, precipitate and the solid phase they form may deposit in the porous media of the oil reservoir. All proposed remediation techniques have proven costly and not highly effective, so prevention becomes the only way to counteract the problem. Revelation of the deposition mechanism and determination of the parameters they affect it are necessary in order to devise reliable prevention strategies. In this work, an experimental effort is made to investigate the deposition process in core samples, under simulant and realistic flow conditions. The main experimental tools utilized for this purpose are permeability measurements, analysis of asphaltene concentration, pore structure characterization techniques and Soxhlet extraction for the determination of the deposited asphaltenes. Both dead and reservoir oils are used as well as cores of various permeabilities and pore structure characteristics. (author)

  13. Mechanism and experimental research on ultra-precision grinding of ferrite (United States)

    Ban, Xinxing; Zhao, Huiying; Dong, Longchao; Zhu, Xueliang; Zhang, Chupeng; Gu, Yawen


    Ultra-precision grinding of ferrite is conducted to investigate the removal mechanism. Effect of the accuracy of machine tool key components on grinding surface quality is analyzed. The surface generation model of ferrite ultra-precision grinding machining is established. In order to reveal the surface formation mechanism of ferrite in the process of ultraprecision grinding, furthermore, the scientific and accurate of the calculation model are taken into account to verify the grinding surface roughness, which is proposed. Orthogonal experiment is designed using the high precision aerostatic turntable and aerostatic spindle for ferrite which is a typical hard brittle materials. Based on the experimental results, the influence factors and laws of ultra-precision grinding surface of ferrite are discussed through the analysis of the surface roughness. The results show that the quality of ferrite grinding surface is the optimal parameters, when the wheel speed of 20000r/mm, feed rate of 10mm/min, grinding depth of 0.005mm, and turntable rotary speed of 5r/min, the surface roughness Ra can up to 75nm.

  14. Experimental research on mechanical properties of high voltage transmission lines after the simulated wildfires

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wang Tianzheng


    Full Text Available In order to determine whether the mechanical performance after the fires of high voltage transmission lines meets the requirements of normal use, this article simulates the wildfire, and does the mechanical performance experiment of high voltage transmission lines(HVT lines after the simulated wildfires. The experiment studied the breaking force and elongation of each layer of 500kv HVT lines after the simulated wildfire. Experimental results show that, after fires, each layer of single aluminum wires of 500kv HVT lines have low breaking force which can be decreased obviously to half of that of new lines. For the steel core, decrease of breaking force is not obvious than aluminum wires, and with the increasing degree of wildfires, it increases gradually to a maximum of 35% of new steel lines’ breaking force. After wildfires, aluminum lines’ resistance ability of deformation decreases significantly, and its plastic deformation increases obviously during uniaxial tension. The steel core has little plastic deformation, and layers of aluminum become fluffy after fires. Therefore, the steel core main bearing load after wildfires.

  15. Experimental Analyses for The Mechanical Behavior of Pressed All-Ceramic Molar Crowns with Anatomical Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Porojan Liliana


    Full Text Available Ceramic restorations show considerable variation in strength and structural reliability regarding to the type of material, and design characteristics. The fracture of ceramics occurs with little or no plastic deformation, with cracks propagated in an unstable manner under applied tensile stresses. The aim of the study was to assess experimental analyses of pressed monolithic ceramic crowns with anatomical design used in the posterior areas in order to understand their mechanical behavior before following their clinical use. Experiments were conducted on a complete molar crown preparation. Experiments show different modes of fracture for the tested samples. Digital images from the fractured pieces of the crowns were used to verify the fragments in all cases final fracture occurred by splitting into two and often more parts. The graphically representation of the displacement depending on the load highlights a series of peaks that can be correlated with cracks occurred in crowns. The development of well-designed mechanical experiments could be useful to help to predict clinical survival of these new all-ceramic restorative techniques and materials. Because failure is often accompanied by complete cracking of the crowns, preliminary research should represents a compulsory goal.

  16. Effects of flunixin meglumine on experimental tendon wound healing: A histopathological and mechanical study in rabbits (United States)

    Behfar, Mehdi; Hobbenaghi, Rahim; Sarrafzadeh-Rezaei, Farshid


    Tendons are frequently targets of injury in sports and work. Whether nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have beneficial effects on tendon healing is still a matter of debate. This study was conducted to evaluate effects of flunixin meglumine (FM) on tendon healing after experimentally induced acute trauma. Twenty eight adult male New Zealand White rabbits were subjected to complete transection of deep digital flexor tendons followed by suture placement. Treatment group received intramuscular injection of FM for three days, and controls received placebo. Subsequently, cast immobilization was continued for two weeks. Animals were sacrificed four weeks after surgery and tissue samples were taken. The histological evaluations revealed improved structural characteristics of neotendon formation including fibrillar linearity, fibrillar continuity and neovascularization in treatment group compared to those of controls (p 0.05). Mechanical evaluation revealed significant increase in load-related material properties including ultimate load, yield load, energy absorption and ultimate stress in treatment group compared to those of control group (p 0.05). The present study showed that intramuscular injection of FM resulted in improved structural and mechanical properties of tendon repairs and it could be an effective treatment for acute tendon injuries like severance and laceration. PMID:25568677

  17. Effects of flunixin meglumine on experimental tendon wound healing: A histopathological and mechanical study in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Behfar


    Full Text Available Tendons are frequently targets of injury in sports and work. Whether nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs have beneficial effects on tendon healing is still a matter of debate. This study was conducted to evaluate effects of flunixin meglumine (FM on tendon healing after experimentally induced acute trauma. Twenty eight adult male New Zealand White rabbits were subjected to complete transection of deep digital flexor tendons followed by suture placement. Treatment group received intramuscular injection of FM for three days, and controls received placebo. Subsequently, cast immobilization was continued for two weeks. Animals were sacrificed four weeks after surgery and tissue samples were taken. The histological evaluations revealed improved structural characteristics of neotendon formation including fibrillar linearity, fibrillar continuity and neovascularization in treatment group compared to those of controls (p 0.05. Mechanical evaluation revealed significant increase in load-related material properties including ultimate load, yield load, energy absorption and ultimate stress in treatment group compared to those of control group (p 0.05. The present study showed that intramuscular injection of FM resulted in improved structural and mechanical properties of tendon repairs and it could be an effective treatment for acute tendon injuries like severance and laceration.

  18. Experimental Investigation on the Mechanical Behavior of Bovine Bone Using Digital Image Correlation Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuxi Chen


    Full Text Available In order to understand the fracture mechanisms of bone subjected to external force well, an experimental study has been performed on the bovine bone by carrying out the three-point bending test with 3D digital image correlation (DIC method, which provides a noncontact and full field of displacement measurement. The local strain and damage evolution of the bone has been recorded real time. The results show that the deflection measured by DIC agrees well with that obtained by the displacement sensor of the mechanical testing machine. The relationship between the deflection and the force is nearly linear prior to reaching the peak strength which is about 16 kN for the tested bovine tibia. The full-field strain contours of the bone show that the strain distribution depends on not only the force direction, but also the natural bone shape. The natural arched-shape bovine tibia bone could bear a large force, due to the tissue structure with high strength, and the fracture propagation process of the sample initiates at the inner side of the bone first and propagates along the force direction.

  19. Numerical and Experimental Study on Working Mechanics of Pear-Shaped Casing Swage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanhua Lin


    Full Text Available Pear-shaped casing swage (PCS repair technology is highly efficient in repairing deformed casing and the value of repairing force is a very important parameter for designing and optimizing the casing swage and structure parameters. A new three-dimensional simulation analysis of casing swage in the well and the finite element analysis (FEA model of 7′′ API deformed casing and PCS are established based on the elastic-plastic mechanics, the finite element theory, and application of numerical simulation analysis for the actual process of repairing deformed casing. According to the model, the repairing force required to repair the deformed casing is obtained; furthermore, the correlation between the repairing force and confining pressure is obtained. Meanwhile, the repairing test of deformed casing was performed by using PCS in the lab. Experimental results are consistent with simulation results. It indicated that the mechanical model can provide theoretical guidance for design and optimization of the structure of tool and reshaping technological parameters.

  20. Experimental monitoring of the hydro-mechanical state of a discontinuity using controlled source seismic method (United States)

    Place, Joachim; Blake, Oshaine; Rietbrock, Andreas; Faulkner, Dan


    Great earthquakes often occur in crystalline rocks, and basement rocks can host geothermal and hydrocarbon resources. In such rocks, the fluid storage and transfer properties depend mainly on the natural fault and fracture networks. Therefore, it is of primary importance to characterise the physical properties of the fault zones in order to better understand the seismogenic processes and how the resources can be exploited. Seismic waves are known to be sensitive to many parameters which evolve depending on the fault response to stresses and fluid type. Therefore seismic methods show a great potential to monitor the hydro-mechanical state of structures remotely, with no need for drilling through the structures. We developed a basic experimental approach at sample scale to monitor the mechanical coupling through a discontinuity between a granite sample in contact with a piece of steel, when the effective pressure (Peff) and the nature of the filling fluid vary. Piezoceramics utilised both as sources and sensors are located on the steel (in which the attenuation is assumed to be zero) and both generate and record the P and S wave fields reflected off the discontinuity at normal incidence. This permits the normal (Bn) and tangential (Bt) fracture compliances to be calculated after Schoenberg's linear slip theory from the measurement of P-P and S-S reflection coefficients. The roughness of the sample surface, as well as the effect of fluid type (air or water) and Peff were studied. Under dry conditions, it is observed that the poorer the contact area, the higher Bn and Bt, meaning that the seismic energy of P and S waves is less transmitted. Increasing the effective pressure decreases the compliances, which is interpreted as the effect of the closure of the voids at the interface; this permits more seismic energy to be transmitted through the interface. It is also observed that Bn is significantly higher than Bt at low Peff (energy of compressional waves through the

  1. Experimental Investigation of Mechanical Properties of Black Shales after CO2-Water-Rock Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiao Lyu


    Full Text Available The effects of CO2-water-rock interactions on the mechanical properties of shale are essential for estimating the possibility of sequestrating CO2 in shale reservoirs. In this study, uniaxial compressive strength (UCS tests together with an acoustic emission (AE system and SEM and EDS analysis were performed to investigate the mechanical properties and microstructural changes of black shales with different saturation times (10 days, 20 days and 30 days in water dissoluted with gaseous/super-critical CO2. According to the experimental results, the values of UCS, Young’s modulus and brittleness index decrease gradually with increasing saturation time in water with gaseous/super-critical CO2. Compared to samples without saturation, 30-day saturation causes reductions of 56.43% in UCS and 54.21% in Young’s modulus for gaseous saturated samples, and 66.05% in UCS and 56.32% in Young’s modulus for super-critical saturated samples, respectively. The brittleness index also decreases drastically from 84.3% for samples without saturation to 50.9% for samples saturated in water with gaseous CO2, to 47.9% for samples saturated in water with super-critical carbon dioxide (SC-CO2. SC-CO2 causes a greater reduction of shale’s mechanical properties. The crack propagation results obtained from the AE system show that longer saturation time produces higher peak cumulative AE energy. SEM images show that many pores occur when shale samples are saturated in water with gaseous/super-critical CO2. The EDS results show that CO2-water-rock interactions increase the percentages of C and Fe and decrease the percentages of Al and K on the surface of saturated samples when compared to samples without saturation.

  2. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Daughters of Charity Disability Support Services Ltd., Limerick

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dalimier, Eugénie


    Based on standard procedures used in optometry clinics, we compare measurements of visual acuity for 10 subjects (11 eyes tested) in the presence of natural ocular aberrations and different degrees of induced defocus, with the predictions given by a Bayesian model customized with aberrometric data of the eye. The absolute predictions of the model, without any adjustment, show good agreement with the experimental data, in terms of correlation and absolute error. The efficiency of the model is discussed in comparison with image quality metrics and other customized visual process models. An analysis of the importance and customization of each stage of the model is also given; it stresses the potential high predictive power from precise modeling of ocular and neural transfer functions.

  3. An experimental and numerical study of nitrogen oxide formation mechanisms in ammonia-hydrogen-air flames (United States)

    Kumar, Praveen

    The demand for sustainable alternative fuels is ever-increasing in the power generation, transportation, and energy sectors due to the inherent non-sustainable characteristics and political constraints of current energy resources. A number of alternative fuels derived from cellulosic biomass, algae, or waste are being considered, along with the conversion of electricity to non-carbon fuels such as hydrogen or ammonia (NH3). The latter is receiving attention recently because it is a non-carbon fuel that is readily produced in large quantities, stored and transported with current infrastructure, and is often a byproduct of biomass or waste conversion processes. However, pure or anhydrous ammonia combustion is severely challenging due to its high auto-ignition temperature (650 °C), low reactivity, and tendency to promote NOx formation. As such, the present study focuses on two major aspects of the ammonia combustion. The first is an applied investigation of the potential to achieve pure NH3 combustion with low levels of emissions in flames of practical interest. In this study, a swirl-stabilized flame typically used in fuel-oil home-heating systems is optimized for NH3 combustion, and measurements of NO and NH3 are collected for a wide range of operating conditions. The second major focus of this work is on fundamental investigation of NO x formation mechanisms in flames with high levels of NH3 in H2. For laminar premixed and diffusion jet flames, experimental measurements of flame speeds, exhaust-gas sampling, and in-situ NO measurements (NO PLIF) are compared with numerically predicted flames using complex chemical kinetics within CHEMKIN and reacting CFD codes i.e., UNICORN. From the preliminary testing of the NOx formation mechanisms, (1) Tian (2) Konnov and (3) GRI-Mech3.0 in laminar premixed H2/NH 3 flames, the Tian and Konnov mechanisms are found to capture the reduction in measured flame speeds with increasing NH3 in the fuel mixture, both qualitatively and

  4. Application of Imaging Techniques to Mechanics of Materials and Structures, Volume 4 : Proceedings of the 2010 Annual Conference on Experimental and Applied Mechanics

    CERN Document Server


    This the fourth volume of six from the Annual Conference of the Society for Experimental Mechanics, 2010, brings together 58 chapters on Application of Imaging Techniques to Mechanics of Materials and Structure. It presents findings from experimental and computational investigations involving a range of imaging techniques including Recovery of 3D Stress Intensity Factors From Surface Full-field Measurements, Identification of Cohesive-zone Laws From Crack-tip Deformation Fields, Application of High Speed Digital Image Correlation for Vibration Mode Shape Analysis, Characterization of Aluminum Alloys Using a 3D Full Field Measurement, and Low Strain Rate Measurements on Explosives Using DIC.

  5. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Daughters of Charity Disability Support Services Ltd., Limerick

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Irish, Muireann


    Abstract Background Decline in episodic memory is one of the hallmark features of Alzheimer\\'s disease (AD) and is also a defining feature of amnestic Mild Cognitive Impairment (MCI), which is posited as a potential prodrome of AD. While deficits in episodic memory are well documented in MCI, the nature of this impairment remains relatively under-researched, particularly for those domains with direct relevance and meaning for the patient\\'s daily life. In order to fully explore the impact of disruption to the episodic memory system on everyday memory in MCI, we examined participants\\' episodic memory capacity using a battery of experimental tasks with real-world relevance. We investigated episodic acquisition and delayed recall (story-memory), associative memory (face-name pairings), spatial memory (route learning and recall), and memory for everyday mundane events in 16 amnestic MCI and 18 control participants. Furthermore, we followed MCI participants longitudinally to gain preliminary evidence regarding the possible predictive efficacy of these real-world episodic memory tasks for subsequent conversion to AD. Results The most discriminating tests at baseline were measures of acquisition, delayed recall, and associative memory, followed by everyday memory, and spatial memory tasks, with MCI patients scoring significantly lower than controls. At follow-up (mean time elapsed: 22.4 months), 6 MCI cases had progressed to clinically probable AD. Exploratory logistic regression analyses revealed that delayed associative memory performance at baseline was a potential predictor of subsequent conversion to AD. Conclusions As a preliminary study, our findings suggest that simple associative memory paradigms with real-world relevance represent an important line of enquiry in future longitudinal studies charting MCI progression over time.

  6. Leukemia inhibitory factor protects axons in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis via an oligodendrocyte-independent mechanism.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa M Gresle

    Full Text Available Leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF and Ciliary Neurotrophic factor (CNTF are members of the interleukin-6 family of cytokines, defined by use of the gp130 molecule as an obligate receptor. In the murine experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE model, antagonism of LIF and genetic deletion of CNTF worsen disease. The potential mechanism of action of these cytokines in EAE is complex, as gp130 is expressed by all neural cells, and could involve immuno-modulation, reduction of oligodendrocyte injury, neuronal protection, or a combination of these actions. In this study we aim to investigate whether the beneficial effects of CNTF/LIF signalling in EAE are associated with axonal protection; and whether this requires signalling through oligodendrocytes. We induced MOG₃₅₋₅₅ EAE in CNTF, LIF and double knockout mice. On a CNTF null background, LIF knockout was associated with increased EAE severity (EAE grade 2.1±0.14 vs 2.6±0.19; P<0.05. These mice also showed increased axonal damage relative to LIF heterozygous mice, as indicated by decreased optic nerve parallel diffusivity on MRI (1540±207 µm²-/s vs 1310±175 µm²-/s; P<0.05, and optic nerve (-12.5% and spinal cord (-16% axon densities; and increased serum neurofilament-H levels (2.5 fold increase. No differences in inflammatory cell numbers or peripheral auto-immune T-cell priming were evident. Oligodendrocyte-targeted gp130 knockout mice showed that disruption of CNTF/LIF signalling in these cells has no effect on acute EAE severity. These studies demonstrate that endogenous CNTF and LIF act centrally to protect axons from acute inflammatory destruction via an oligodendrocyte-independent mechanism.

  7. An experimental study on mechanical properties of fiber-reinforced concrete of energy piles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songying Zhao


    Full Text Available The technology of energy piles for heat storage involves turning the concrete piles buried beneath the ground into a part of the ground-source heat pump system and burying the heat-transfer tubes in the foundation piles, which are regarded as heat transfer wells. The heat transfer tubes are embedded in the concrete foundation piles, destroying the mechanical bearing capacity of the piles and damaging the safety of the buildings. Thus, considering the structural stability and the degree of heat transfer of concrete piles, as well as the selection of material for the foundation piles, the mixing ratio of the material of the energy piles is experimentally studied by the orthogonal method. The optimum mixing ratio of the energy pile is thus obtained. A concrete test block is used to conduct a static load test and splitting test to verify the mixing ratio of the concrete of the energy pile. The results show that steel fiber can be used to enhance the bearing capacity of the storage pile as a reinforcement material. Under a reasonable ratio, the reinforced pile can absolutely meet the original design requirements. Ordinary Portland cement or composite Portland cement can be used as cementitious materials for energy piles. Through an experiment, it is proved that the composite Portland cement can better meet the requirements of the concrete foundation piles than the cementitious material. As thermal conductivity materials, the addition of industrial graphite and scrap copper slag can improve the thermal conductivity of the pile, but it can also reduce the mechanical properties of the pile. It is necessary to control it in a certain range and not to add a large amount of graphite just to improve the thermal conductivity.

  8. Experimental investigation of the mechanical properties of brain simulants used for cranial gunshot simulation. (United States)

    Lazarjan, Milad Soltanipour; Geoghegan, Patrick Henry; Jermy, Mark Christopher; Taylor, Michael


    The mechanical properties of the human brain at high strain rate were investigated to analyse the mechanisms that cause backspatter when a cranial gunshot wound occurs. Different concentrations of gelatine and a new material (M1) developed in this work were tested and compared to bovine brain samples. Kinetic energy absorption and expansion rate of the samples caused by the impact of a bullet from .22 air rifle (AR) (average velocity (uav) of 290m/s) and .22 long rifle (LR) (average velocity (uav) of 330m/s) were analysed using a high speed camera (24,000fps). The AR projectile had, in the region of interest, an average kinetic energy (Ek) of 42±1.3J. On average, the bovine brain absorbed 50±5% of Ek, and the simulants 46-58±5%. The Ek of the .22 LR was 141±3.7J. The bovine brain absorbed 27% of the .22LR Ek and the simulants 15-29%. The expansion of the sample, after penetration, was measured. The bovine brain experienced significant plastic deformation whereas the gelatine solution exhibited a principally elastic response. The permanent damage patterns in the M1 material were much closer to those in brain tissue, than were the damage patterns in the gelatine. The results provide a first step to developing a realistic experimental simulant for the human brain which can produce the same blood backspatter patterns as a human brain during a cranial gunshot. These results can also be used to improve the 3D models of human heads used in car crash and blast trauma injury research. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Experimental Research on the Mechanical Properties of Methane Hydrate-Ice Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Yu


    Full Text Available The mechanical properties of methane hydrate are important to the stability of borehole and methane extraction from a methane hydrate reservoir. In this study, a series of triaxial compression tests were carried out on laboratory-formed methane hydrate-ice mixtures with various methane hydrate contents. Axial loading was conducted at an axial strain rate of 1.33%/min and a constant temperature of −10 °C. The results indicate that: (1 the deformation behavior is strongly affected by confining pressure and methane hydrate content; (2 the failure strength significantly increases with confining pressure when confining pressure is less than 10 MPa, and decreases with methane hydrate content; (3 the cohesion decreases with methane hydrate content, while the internal friction angle increases with methane hydrate content; (4 the strength of ice specimens are higher than that of methane hydrate-ice mixture specimens; Based on the experimental data, the relationship among failure strength, confining pressure and methane hydrate content was obtained, and a modified Mohr-Coulomb criterion considering the influence of methane hydrate content on shear strength was proposed.

  10. Damping Characterization of Friction Energy Dissipation for Particle Systems Based on Powder Mechanics and Experimental Verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wangqiang XIAO


    Full Text Available We established a friction energy dissipation model for particle damping based on powder mechanics. We investigated the influence of geometric features of the damper on damping characteristics; and the geometric feature studied was the depth and length of the rectangular particle container. The work done by the frictional force between the particle layer and the effect of particle filling rate on the vibration damping characteristics was also explored. We analyzed the friction energy dissipation model, and the relationship between the particle filling rate and the vibration damping. The experimental results show good agreement with the friction energy dissipation model, which verifies the proposed simulation prediction. The results have shown that the particle damping technology can greatly consume the structure kinetic energy, and the vibration reduction effect of particle damping depends mainly on the interaction of the particles near the top. A proper filling rate of particle systems can result in an optimal effect on vibration reduction, which will provide the engineering applications with the theoretical guidance and design criteria.

  11. Impact of bisphenol a on the cardiovascular system - epidemiological and experimental evidence and molecular mechanisms. (United States)

    Gao, Xiaoqian; Wang, Hong-Sheng


    Bisphenol A (BPA) is a ubiquitous plasticizing agent used in the manufacturing of polycarbonate plastics and epoxy resins. There is well-documented and broad human exposure to BPA. The potential risk that BPA poses to the human health has attracted much attention from regulatory agencies and the general public, and has been extensively studied. An emerging and rapidly growing area in the study of BPA's toxicity is its impact on the cardiovascular (CV) system. Recent epidemiological studies have shown that higher urinary BPA concentration in humans is associated with various types of CV diseases, including angina, hypertension, heart attack and coronary and peripheral arterial disease. Experimental studies have demonstrated that acute BPA exposure promotes the development of arrhythmias in female rodent hearts. Chronic exposure to BPA has been shown to result in cardiac remodeling, atherosclerosis, and altered blood pressure in rodents. The underlying mechanisms may involve alteration of cardiac Ca2+ handling, ion channel inhibition/activation, oxidative stress, and genome/transcriptome modifications. In this review, we discuss these recent findings that point to the potential CV toxicity of BPA, and highlight the knowledge gaps in this growing research area.

  12. Experimental Identification of Smartphones Using Fingerprints of Built-In Micro-Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS). (United States)

    Baldini, Gianmarco; Steri, Gary; Dimc, Franc; Giuliani, Raimondo; Kamnik, Roman


    The correct identification of smartphones has various applications in the field of security or the fight against counterfeiting. As the level of sophistication in counterfeit electronics increases, detection procedures must become more accurate but also not destructive for the smartphone under testing. Some components of the smartphone are more likely to reveal their authenticity even without a physical inspection, since they are characterized by hardware fingerprints detectable by simply examining the data they provide. This is the case of MEMS (Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems) components like accelerometers and gyroscopes, where tiny differences and imprecisions in the manufacturing process determine unique patterns in the data output. In this paper, we present the experimental evaluation of the identification of smartphones through their built-in MEMS components. In our study, three different phones of the same model are subject to repeatable movements (composing a repeatable scenario) using an high precision robotic arm. The measurements from MEMS for each repeatable scenario are collected and analyzed. The identification algorithm is based on the extraction of the statistical features of the collected data for each scenario. The features are used in a support vector machine (SVM) classifier to identify the smartphone. The results of the evaluation are presented for different combinations of features and Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU) outputs, which show that detection accuracy of higher than 90% is achievable.

  13. Experimental Identification of Smartphones Using Fingerprints of Built-In Micro-Electro Mechanical Systems (MEMS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianmarco Baldini


    Full Text Available The correct identification of smartphones has various applications in the field of security or the fight against counterfeiting. As the level of sophistication in counterfeit electronics increases, detection procedures must become more accurate but also not destructive for the smartphone under testing. Some components of the smartphone are more likely to reveal their authenticity even without a physical inspection, since they are characterized by hardware fingerprints detectable by simply examining the data they provide. This is the case of MEMS (Micro Electro-Mechanical Systems components like accelerometers and gyroscopes, where tiny differences and imprecisions in the manufacturing process determine unique patterns in the data output. In this paper, we present the experimental evaluation of the identification of smartphones through their built-in MEMS components. In our study, three different phones of the same model are subject to repeatable movements (composing a repeatable scenario using an high precision robotic arm. The measurements from MEMS for each repeatable scenario are collected and analyzed. The identification algorithm is based on the extraction of the statistical features of the collected data for each scenario. The features are used in a support vector machine (SVM classifier to identify the smartphone. The results of the evaluation are presented for different combinations of features and Inertial Measurement Unit (IMU outputs, which show that detection accuracy of higher than 90% is achievable.

  14. Preparation of Antibacterial Polyvinylcholoride-Zno Nanocomposite with Improved Mechanical Properties Using Taguchi Experimental Design

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    Edris Kamelaei


    Full Text Available In this research, zinc oxide (ZnO nanoparticles were selected as reinforcing agent with the aim of improving antibacterial and mechanical properties of polyvinyl chloride (PVC. PVC-ZnO nanocomposite was prepared by dispersing ZnO nanoparticles into a PVC solution. Taguchi experimental design method was used to determine the optimal conditions for preparation of nanocomposite. The effects of five factors including ZnO weight percentage, kind of solvent, the addition method of ZnO, film drying temperature and stirring time were investigated on different levels. Optimal conditions were determined by using the signal/noise (S/N method. It was distinguished that, kind of solvent, the addition method of ZnO and ZnO weight percentage are three significant factors in the confidence level of 95%. Staphylo coccus aureus and Escherichi coli, two different types of bacteria (one gram-positive bacteria and one gram-negative bacteria were used in Mueller-Hinton broth for antimicrobial testing. This test confirmed the antibacterial property of the optimal nanocomposite in respect to pure polyvinyl chloride. A scanning electron microscope (SEM coupled with an energy dispersive X-ray system (EDX was used to characterize the composition and structure of the optimal nanocomposite film.

  15. Molecular mechanism of the protective effect of monomer polyvinylpyrrolidone on antioxidants - experimental and computational studies. (United States)

    Liu, W; Wang, J; Li, M; Tang, W; Han, J


    We previously developed a lutein-polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) complex with improved aqueous saturation solubility and stability, though the conjugation mechanism is still unclear. In this paper, experiments with astaxanthin-PVP complex and curcumin-PVP complex were carried out, which indicated that PVP could improve the solubility and stability of astaxanthin and curcumin. We aimed to construct a computational model capable of understanding the protective effect in complexes formed between PVP and antioxidants, through which the binding mode of PVP and antioxidants was investigated with molecular modelling in order to obtain the interactions, binding energy, binding site and surface area between PVP and antioxidants. Solubility enhancement was attributed to the H-bonds between PVP and antioxidants, and the saturation solubility was curcumin > lutein > astaxanthin. Binding energy, binding site and surface area were beneficial for the stability of complex, and the stability enhancement was lutein > astaxanthin > curcumin. The experimental results were in agreement with the computational results. Furthermore, we established a method for the exploration of a similar system with other polymer complexes. Additionally, the proposed PVP model could predict the interactions between PVP and various ligands, such as antioxidants and drugs.

  16. Voluntary Exercise Preconditioning Activates Multiple Antiapoptotic Mechanisms and Improves Neurological Recovery after Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury. (United States)

    Zhao, Zaorui; Sabirzhanov, Boris; Wu, Junfang; Faden, Alan I; Stoica, Bogdan A


    Physical activity can attenuate neuronal loss, reduce neuroinflammation, and facilitate recovery after brain injury. However, little is known about the mechanisms of exercise-induced neuroprotection after traumatic brain injury (TBI) or its modulation of post-traumatic neuronal cell death. Voluntary exercise, using a running wheel, was conducted for 4 weeks immediately preceding (preconditioning) moderate-level controlled cortical impact (CCI), a well-established experimental TBI model in mice. Compared to nonexercised controls, exercise preconditioning (pre-exercise) improved recovery of sensorimotor performance in the beam walk task, as well as cognitive/affective functions in the Morris water maze, novel object recognition, and tail-suspension tests. Further, pre-exercise reduced lesion size, attenuated neuronal loss in the hippocampus, cortex, and thalamus, and decreased microglial activation in the cortex. In addition, exercise preconditioning activated the brain-derived neurotrophic factor pathway before trauma and amplified the injury-dependent increase in heat shock protein 70 expression, thus attenuating key apoptotic pathways. The latter include reduction in CCI-induced up-regulation of proapoptotic B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2)-homology 3-only Bcl-2 family molecules (Bid, Puma), decreased mitochondria permeabilization with attenuated release of cytochrome c and apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF), reduced AIF translocation to the nucleus, and attenuated caspase activation. Given these neuroprotective actions, voluntary physical exercise may serve to limit the consequences of TBI.

  17. Quiet Clean Short-haul Experimental Engine (QCSEE). Ball spline pitch change mechanism design report (United States)


    Detailed design parameters are presented for a variable-pitch change mechanism. The mechanism is a mechanical system containing a ball screw/spline driving two counteracting master bevel gears meshing pinion gears attached to each of 18 fan blades.

  18. Experimental approach and micro-mechanical modeling of the mechanical behavior of irradiated zirconium alloys; Approche experimentale et modelisation micromecanique du comportement des alliages de zirconium irradies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Onimus, F


    Zirconium alloys cladding tubes containing nuclear fuel of the Pressurized Water Reactors constitute the first safety barrier against the dissemination of radioactive elements. Thus, it is essential to predict the mechanical behavior of the material in-reactor conditions. This study aims, on the one hand, to identify and characterize the mechanisms of the plastic deformation of irradiated zirconium alloys and, on the other hand, to propose a micro-mechanical modeling based on these mechanisms. The experimental analysis shows that, for the irradiated material, the plastic deformation occurs by dislocation channeling. For transverse tensile test and internal pressure test this channeling occurs in the basal planes. However, for axial tensile test, the study revealed that the plastic deformation also occurs by channeling but in the prismatic and pyramidal planes. In addition, the study of the macroscopic mechanical behavior, compared to the deformation mechanisms observed by TEM, suggested that the internal stress is higher in the case of irradiated material than in the case of non-irradiated material, because of the very heterogeneous character of the plastic deformation. This analysis led to a coherent interpretation of the mechanical behavior of irradiated materials, in terms of deformation mechanisms. The mechanical behavior of irradiated materials was finally modeled by applying homogenization methods for heterogeneous materials. This model is able to reproduce adequately the mechanical behavior of the irradiated material, in agreement with the TEM observations. (author)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. V. Osikov


    Full Text Available Disorders of immune state in desynchronosis may be associated with reduced concentrations of melatonin in blood, thus being a prerequisite for pharmacological correction of appropriate homeostatic changes. The purpose of this work was to explore some mechanisms of exogenous melatonin actions upon parameters of innate and adaptive immunity in experimental model of desynchronosis under the conditions of LED illumination. The study was performed with 196 adult guinea pigs. Light desynchronosis was produced by day-and-night illumination of the animals having been continued for 30 days. Melatonin was administered applied per os daily at the total dose of 30 mg/kg. A solution of melatonin in isotonic NaCl solution was prepared from the Melaxen drug (INN: melatonin, “Unipharm Inc.,” USA ex tempore. To study innate immunity of blood cells, we determined leukocyte numbers, WBC differential counts, and functional activity of phagocytes, as spontaneous and induced NBT test, as well as engulfment of polystyrene latex particles. Th1-specific immune response was studied according to degree of delayed type hypersensitivity reaction; Th2-dependent response was assessed as the numbers of antibody-forming cells in the spleen of the animals after immunization with allogeneic erythrocytes. Serum concentrations of interleukin 4 (IL-4, interferon-gamma (IFNγ, melatonin, and cortisol were measured by enzyme immunoassay, using the “Immulayt 2000” (USA with guinea pigspecific test systems. It was found that experimental desynchronosis was associated with leukocytosis, lymphoand monocytopenia, activation of oxygen-dependent metabolism of blood phagocytes, suppression of Th1-and Th2-dependent immune response. Desynchronosis was also accompanied by decreased concentrations of serum melatonin, IFNγ and IL-4, along with increased cortisol concentrations. Reduced IFNγ and IL-4 amounts was associated with decreased melatonin concentrations

  20. An experimental and theoretical investigation of the mechanics of the goldfish peripheral auditory system (United States)

    Finneran, James J.


    Despite the progress made in establishing the capabilities of the auditory system in several species of fish, significant questions remain regarding how sound reaches the ear and the nature of the coupling between the ear and various accessory structures. In this research, experimental measurements and theoretical modeling were used to examine the mechanical behavior of the peripheral auditory system of the goldfish (Carassius auratus). The experiments consisted of measuring the in vivo motion of the swimbladder, Weberian ossicles, and otoliths of an anesthetized and tethered fish, in response to an acoustic stimulus, using a noninvasive ultrasonic measurement system. The experimental results show strong coupling between the swimbladders, tripus, and saccule. At low frequencies, the swimbladders, Weberian ossicles, and otoliths move with the same amplitude and phase as the fish's body. At higher frequencies, multiple resonances occur in most swimbladder responses. The swimbladder resonance also appears in the sagitta response; the sagitta displacement ranges from 1 to 10 nm/Pa. The results of only a few tests indicate motion of the lagenar otolith, while no data show movement of the utricular otolith. The mathematical model of the dynamics of the goldfish peripheral auditory system is the first such model to include the swimbladder, Weberian apparatus, and saccule (including the hair cell ciliary bundles). The saccule model features only translation of the otolith in the direction of hair cell orientation. The model predicts the correct amplitude and phase relationships between the two swimbladder chambers and shows the coupling observed between the anterior swimbladder and the tripus. The model also predicts a high-pass filter effect due to the tunica externa compliance; however, the model low frequency cut-off seems insufficient to prevent a change in depth from overstimulating the Weberian apparatus. The model predicts a sagitta displacement on the order of 10

  1. Mechanisms underlying gas exchange alterations in an experimental model of pulmonary embolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J.H.T. Ferreira


    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to determine the ventilation/perfusion ratio that contributes to hypoxemia in pulmonary embolism by analyzing blood gases and volumetric capnography in a model of experimental acute pulmonary embolism. Pulmonary embolization with autologous blood clots was induced in seven pigs weighing 24.00 ± 0.6 kg, anesthetized and mechanically ventilated. Significant changes occurred from baseline to 20 min after embolization, such as reduction in oxygen partial pressures in arterial blood (from 87.71 ± 8.64 to 39.14 ± 6.77 mmHg and alveolar air (from 92.97 ± 2.14 to 63.91 ± 8.27 mmHg. The effective alveolar ventilation exhibited a significant reduction (from 199.62 ± 42.01 to 84.34 ± 44.13 consistent with the fall in alveolar gas volume that effectively participated in gas exchange. The relation between the alveolar ventilation that effectively participated in gas exchange and cardiac output (V Aeff/Q ratio also presented a significant reduction after embolization (from 0.96 ± 0.34 to 0.33 ± 0.17 fraction. The carbon dioxide partial pressure increased significantly in arterial blood (from 37.51 ± 1.71 to 60.76 ± 6.62 mmHg, but decreased significantly in exhaled air at the end of the respiratory cycle (from 35.57 ± 1.22 to 23.15 ± 8.24 mmHg. Exhaled air at the end of the respiratory cycle returned to baseline values 40 min after embolism. The arterial to alveolar carbon dioxide gradient increased significantly (from 1.94 ± 1.36 to 37.61 ± 12.79 mmHg, as also did the calculated alveolar (from 56.38 ± 22.47 to 178.09 ± 37.46 mL and physiological (from 0.37 ± 0.05 to 0.75 ± 0.10 fraction dead spaces. Based on our data, we conclude that the severe arterial hypoxemia observed in this experimental model may be attributed to the reduction of the V Aeff/Q ratio. We were also able to demonstrate that V Aeff/Q progressively improves after embolization, a fact attributed to the alveolar ventilation redistribution

  2. Numerical and experimental investigation on labyrinth seal mechanism for bypass flow reduction in prismatic VHTR core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoon, Su-Jong, E-mail: [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Daehak-Dong, Kwanak-Gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong-Hun [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Daehak-Dong, Kwanak-Gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Sang-Moon [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Inha University, 253 Yonghyun-Dong, Nam-Gu, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Tak, Nam-il; Kim, Min-Hwan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 150-1 Deokjin-Dong, 1045 Daedeokdaero, Yuseong, Daejeon 305-353 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Kwang-Yong [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Inha University, 253 Yonghyun-Dong, Nam-Gu, Incheon 402-751 (Korea, Republic of); Park, Goon-Cherl [Department of Nuclear Engineering, Seoul National University, San 56-1, Daehak-Dong, Kwanak-Gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)


    Highlights: • Bypass flow reduction method was developed by applying labyrinth seal mechanism. • Grooves on side walls of replaceable reflector block were made. • Design of the grooved wall of the reflector block was optimized by the RSA method. • The flow resistance of the bypass gap rose from 18.04 to 26.24 by the optimization. • The bypass ratios at the inlet and outlet were reduced by 36.19% and 14.66%, respectively. -- Abstract: Core bypass flow in block type very high temperature reactor (VHTR) occurs due to the inevitable gaps between the hexagonal core blocks for the block installation and refueling. Since the core bypass flow affects the reactor safety and efficiency, it should be minimized to enhance the core thermal margin. In this regard, the core bypass flow reduction method applying the labyrinth seal mechanism was developed and optimized by using the single-objective shape optimization method. Response surface approximation (RSA) method was adopted as the optimization method. Side wall of the replaceable reflector block was redesigned and response surface approximate model was adopted to optimize the shape of the reflector wall. Computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analyses were carried out not only to assess the limitation of existing method of bypass flow reduction, but also to optimize the design of a newly developed reduction method. The experiment with Seoul National University (SNU) multi-block experimental facility was performed to demonstrate the performance of the reduction method. It was found that the effect of the existing bypass flow reduction method by sealing the bypass gap exit was restricted nearby the lower region of the core. However, the flow resistance factor of the bypass gap increased from 18.04 to 26.24 by the optimized reduction method. The results of the performance test showed that the bypass flow distribution was reduced throughout the entire core regions. The bypass flow ratios at the inlet and the outlet were

  3. Experimental approach and modelling of the mechanical behaviour of graphite fuel elements subjected to compression pulses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Forquin P.


    Full Text Available Among the activities led by the Generation IV International Forum (GIF relative to the future nuclear systems, the improvement of recycling of fuel elements and their components is a major issue. One of the studied systems by the GIF is the graphite-moderated high-temperature gas cooled reactor (HTGR. The fuel elements are composed of fuel roads half-inch in diameter named compacts. The compacts contain spherical particles made of actinide kernels about 500 m in diameter coated with three layers of carbon and silicon carbide, each about 50 m thick, dispersed in a graphite matrix. Recycling of compacts requires first a separation of triso-particles from the graphite matrix and secondly, the separation of the triso-coating from the kernels. This aim may be achieved by using pulsed currents: the compacts are placed within a cell filled by water and exposed to high voltage between 200 – 500 kV and discharge currents from 10 to 20 kA during short laps of time (about 2 µs [1-2]. This repeated treatment leads to a progressive fragmentation of the graphite matrix and a disassembly of the compacts. In order to improve understanding of the fragmentation properties of compacts a series of quasi-static and dynamic experiments have been conducted with similar cylindrical samples containing 10% (volume fraction of SiC particles coated in a graphite matrix. First, quasi-static compression tests have been performed to identify the mechanical behaviour of the material at low strain-rates (Fig.1. The experiments reveal a complex elasto-visco-plastic behaviour before a brittle failure. The mechanical response is characterised by a low yield stress (about 1 MPa, a strong strain-hardening in the loading phase and marked hysteresis-loops during unloading-reloading stages. Brittle failure is observed for axial stress about 13 MPa. In parallel, a series of flexural tests have been performed with the aim to characterise the quasi-static tensile strength of the

  4. Venlafaxine involves nitric oxide modulatory mechanism in experimental model of chronic behavior despair in mice. (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Garg, Ruchika; Gaur, Vaibhav; Kumar, Puneet


    Present study has been designed to elucidate the nitric oxide modulatory mechanism of venlafaxine in experimental model of chronic behavior despair in mice. Animals (male albino laca mice) were forced to swim daily for 6 min test session for 7 days and immobility period of each animal was measured on every alternate days. Six minutes forced swimming test session for 7 days caused anxiety-like behavior (as assessed by mirror chamber and plus maze tests) and impairment in locomotor activity followed by oxidative damage (increased lipid peroxidation, nitrite concentration, depleted reduced glutathione and catalase activity) as compared to naïve animals. Seven days venlafaxine (5 and 10 mg/kg) treatment significantly caused anti-anxiety-like effect, improved locomotor activity and attenuated oxidative damage (reduced lipid peroxidation, nitrite concentration and caused restoration of reduce glutathione and catalase activity) as compared to control. Caffeine (10 mg/kg) pretreatment with venlfaxine (5 mg/kg) did not produce any significant effect on locomotor activity, immobility period and oxidative damage as compared to their effect per se. Further, L-NAME (5 mg/kg) and methylene blue (10 mg/kg) pretreatment with sub effective dose of venlafaxine (5 mg/kg) potentiated its protective effect which was significant as compared to their effect per se. However, L-arginine (100 mg/kg) pretreatment with venlafaxine (5 mg/kg) significantly reversed the protective effect of venlafaxine (P<0.05). Present study suggests that nitric oxide modulation might be involved in the protective effects of venlafaxine. Copyright 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Mechanism of Wound-Healing Activity of Hippophae rhamnoides L. Leaf Extract in Experimental Burns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nitin K. Upadhyay


    Full Text Available The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the healing efficacy of lyophilized aqueous leaf extract of Sea buckthorn (Hippophae rhamnoides L., family Elaeagnaceae (SBT and to explore its possible mechanism of action on experimental burn wounds in rats. The SBT extract, at various concentrations, was applied topically, twice daily for 7 days. Treatment with silver sulfadiazine (SSD ointment was used as reference control. The most effective concentration of the extract was found to be 5.0% (w/w for burn wound healing and this was further used for detailed study. The SBT-treated group showed faster reduction in wound area in comparison with control and SSD-treated groups. The topical application of SBT increased collagen synthesis and stabilization at the wound site, as evidenced by increase in hydroxyproline, hexosamine levels and up-regulated expression of collagen type-III. The histological examinations and matrix metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and -9 expression also confirmed the healing efficacy of SBT leaf extract. Furthermore, there was significant increase in levels of endogenous enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants and decrease in lipid peroxide levels in SBT-treated burn wound granulation tissue. The SBT also promoted angiogenesis as evidenced by an in vitro chick chorioallantoic membrane model and in vivo up-regulated vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF expression. The SBT leaf extract had no cytotoxic effect on BHK-21 cell line. In conclusion, SBT aqueous leaf extract possesses significant healing potential in burn wounds and has a positive influence on the different phases of wound repair.

  6. Mechanical behavior of a sandwich with corrugated GRP core: numerical modeling and experimental validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Tumino


    Full Text Available In this work the mechanical behaviour of a core reinforced composite sandwich structure is studied. The sandwich employs a Glass Reinforced Polymer (GRP orthotropic material for both the two external skins and the inner core web. In particular, the core is designed in order to cooperate with the GRP skins in membrane and flexural properties by means of the addition of a corrugated laminate into the foam core. An analytical model has been developed to replace a unit cell of this structure with an orthotropic equivalent thick plate that reproduces the in plane and out of plane behaviour of the original geometry. Different validation procedures have been implemented to verify the quality of the proposed method. At first a comparison has been performed between the analytical model and the original unit cell modelled with a Finite Element mesh. Elementary loading conditions are reproduced and results are compared. Once the reliability of the analytical model was assessed, this homogenised model was implemented within the formulation of a shell finite element. The goal of this step is to simplify the FE analysis of complex structures made of corrugated core sandwiches; in fact, by using the homogenised element, the global response of a real structure can be investigated only with the discretization of its mid-surface. Advantages are mainly in terms of time to solution saving and CAD modelling simplification. Last step is then the comparison between this FE model and experiments made on sandwich beams and panels whose skins and corrugated cores are made of orthotropic cross-ply GRP laminates. Good agreement between experimental and numerical results confirms the validity of the proposed model.

  7. Combining molecular modeling with experimental methodologies: mechanism of membrane permeation and accumulation of ofloxacin. (United States)

    Fresta, Massimo; Guccione, Salvatore; Beccari, Andrea R; Furneri, Pio M; Puglisi, Giovanni


    The interaction between ofloxacin, as a model drug of the fluoroquinolone class, and biomembranes was examined as the possible initial step in a transmembrane diffusion process. Dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine was used for the preparation of biomembrane models. The influence of environmental conditions and protonation on molecular physicochemical behavior, and hence on the membrane interaction, was investigated by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). This technique has been shown to be very effective in the interpretation of interactions of drug microspeciations with biomembranes. These findings suggest that the interaction occurred owing to ionic and hydrophobic forces showing how the passage through the membrane is mainly favored in the pH interval 6-7.4. It was demonstrated that a pH gradient through model membranes may be responsible for a poorly homogeneous distribution of ofloxacin (or other related fluoroquinolones), which justifies the in vivo accumulation properties of this drug. DSC experiments, which are in agreement with computational data, also showed that the complexing capability of ofloxacin with regard to Mg(++) or Ca(++) may govern the drug entrance into bacterial cells before the DNA Girase inhibition and could ensure the formation of hydrophobic and more fluid phospholipid domains on the surface of the model membrane. These regions are more permeable with regard to various solutes, as well as ofloxacin, allowing a so-called 'self-promoted entrance pathway'. The combination of experimental methodologies with computational data allowed a further rationalization of the results and opened new perspectives into the mechanism of action of ofloxacin, namely its interaction with lipid bilayers and drug-divalent cation complex formation, which might be extended to the entire fluoroquinolone class. Ofloxacin accumulation within Escherichia coli ATCC 25922 was measured as a function of time. Also in this example, the environmental conditions influenced

  8. Opto-mechanical modelling and experimental approach to the measurement of aerospace materials using shearography and thermal loading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krutul, E.C.; Groves, R.M.


    This paper is concerned with the modelling of the complete opto-mechanical measurement system, including shearography instrument, loading technique and the response of the object under test and the comparison of the simulation results with experimental results. To show the applicability of this

  9. Finite element modelling of the mechanics of discrete carbon nanotubes filled with ZnS and comparison with experimental observations

    KAUST Repository

    Monteiro, André O.


    The mechanical response to a uniaxial compressive force of a single carbon nanotube (CNT) filled (or partially-filled) with ZnS has been modelled. A semi-empirical approach based on the finite element method was used whereby modelling outcomes were closely matched to experimental observations. This is the first example of the use of the continuum approach to model the mechanical behaviour of discrete filled CNTs. In contrast to more computationally demanding methods such as density functional theory or molecular dynamics, our approach provides a viable and expedite alternative to model the mechanics of filled multi-walled CNTs. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

  10. Computational and experimental fluid mechanics. Progress report no. 5 for period January 1. to December 31. 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The general purpose of the program is the development of efficient algorithms, their implementation in codes of Computational Fluid Mechanics (CFD), and the experimental verification of these codes. Flows of both fundamental and applied nature will be investigated, including flows in industrial process equipment, about aerodynamics structures and ships, and flows over bed forms of importance for sediment transport. The experimental work will include the development of improved techniques, emphasizing optical methods. The objectives will be met through a coordinated experimental and theoretical/computational research program, organized in 7 specific projects: 1. CFD-methods and algorithms. 2. Spectral element simulation of ultrafiltration. 3. Turbulent swirling flows. 4. Near-wall models of turbulence. 5. Flow over bed forms. 6. Flow past ship hull. 7. Development of experimental techniques. (EG) 10 refs.

  11. Experimental and analytical investigation of inertial propulsion mechanisms and motion simulation of rigid multi-body mechanical systems (United States)

    Almesallmy, Mohammed

    Methodologies are developed for dynamic analysis of mechanical systems with emphasis on inertial propulsion systems. This work adopted the Lagrangian methodology. Lagrangian methodology is the most efficient classical computational technique, which we call Equations of Motion Code (EOMC). The EOMC is applied to several simple dynamic mechanical systems for easier understanding of the method and to aid other investigators in developing equations of motion of any dynamic system. In addition, it is applied to a rigid multibody system, such as Thomson IPS [Thomson 1986]. Furthermore, a simple symbolic algorithm is developed using Maple software, which can be used to convert any nonlinear n-order ordinary differential equation (ODE) systems into 1st-order ODE system in ready format to be used in Matlab software. A side issue, but equally important, we have started corresponding with the U.S. Patent office to persuade them that patent applications, claiming gross linear motion based on inertial propulsion systems should be automatically rejected. The precedent is rejection of patent applications involving perpetual motion machines.

  12. Experimental study and modelling of the effect of microstructure on friction and wear mechanisms of low alloy steel (United States)

    Trevisiol, C.; Jourani, A.; Bouvier, S.


    Few models are focused on the combined effects of microstructure and roughness on the tribological behavior of materials. Hardness is the material property mainly used in the tribological models which are usually at a macroscopic scale. For a dual-phase steel, experimental and predicted values of friction coefficients and specific wear resistances are compared. The investigated models are declined into two pressure distribution modes between the phases. Friction tests are performed between steel pins composed of a ferrite-martensite dual-phase microstructure against abrasive papers with various abrasive particle sizes ranging from 15 µm to 200 µm. By using heat treatments on a low alloy steel, dual-phase microstructures with various martensite volume fractions, ranging from 45% to 100%, are generated. As martensite volume fraction increases, the experimental and predicted results show that the specific wear resistance increases whereas the friction coefficient decreases. Furthermore, the latter evolutions depend on roughness. For a predominance of abrasive wear mechanisms generated by coarse abrasive particles (~200 µm), the experimental tribological parameters tend to follow the predicted ones associated to the mode characterized by equal pressures between the phases. Then, as the abrasive particle size decreases, abrasive wear mechanisms reduce whereas adhesive wear mechanisms increase and the experimental tribological parameters tend to follow the predicted ones associated to the mode characterized by equal wear rate between the phases.

  13. Implementing and Testing Risk Preference Induction Mechanisms in Experimental Sealed Bid Auctions


    Rietz, Thomas A.


    Risk preference inducing lottery procedures can serve as valuable tools for experimental economists. However, questioning their effectiveness, experimenters may avoid them even when predictions and conclusions depend crucially on risk preferences. Here, I review risk preference induction attempts in sealed bid auctions, discussing factors that promote or hinder success. Making the procedure very transparent and having subjects learn about it in simple environments promote success. Hysteresis ...

  14. Tempting To Tag: An Experimental Comparison Of Four Tagging Input Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mark Melenhorst


    Full Text Available Tagging helps achieve improved indexing and recommendation of resources (e.g., videos or pictures in large data collections. In order to reap the benefits of tagging, people must be persuaded to label the resources they consume. This paper reports on a study in which four different tagging input mechanisms and their effect on users' motivation to tag were compared. The mechanisms consisted of a standard tag input box, a chatbot-like environment, a bookmarking mechanism, and a "tag and vote" game. The results of our experiment show that the use of the nonstandard tagging input mechanisms does not affect users' motivation to tag. In some instances tagging mechanisms were found to distract users from their primary task: consuming resources. Persuading people to tag might be accomplished more effectively by using other motivating tagging mechanisms (e.g., tagging games, or motivation could be created by explaining the usefulness of tagging.

  15. Mechanical properties of mortar specimens prepared from experimentally burnt impure limestones: effect of raw material characteristics and burning conditions (United States)

    Kozlovcev, Petr; Triantafyllou, George; Prikryl, Richard; Soultana, Anthansia; Prikrylova, Jirina


    Recent study focused on the effect of raw material characteristics of impure carbonate rocks and of their burning conditions on physical / mechanical properties of experimentally burnt natural hydraulic lime / natural cement. Four types of limestone that were historically employed for production of inorganic binders were burnt at 1000, 1100, and/or 1200°C, keeping the peak temperature for 6 hours. Mortar specimens prepared from the experimentally prepared binders were cured in a climatic chamber for 7, 28, 90, and/or 180 days. Then, their mechanical properties (flexural and compressive strengths) were determined. In contrast to our expectations, no direct relationship between increasing content of non-carbonate fraction and burning conditions on improvement of mechanical properties was observed. This fact might be explained by additional effects such as differing microfabrics of the raw material, specifically of spatial distribution of carbonate and non-carbonate mineral phases, which controls formation of new phases during burning below sintering point and therefore influences overall hydraulic character of prepared binders. The study thus shows importance of detailed knowledge not only of chemistry, but also of mineralogy / rock microfabric of raw materials used for burning of inorganic binders below sintering point, and of physical / mechanical properties of experimental mortars for the final evaluation of specific types of limestones suitable for natural hydraulic lime and/or natural cement.

  16. Aluminum alloy weldability. Identification of weld solidification cracking mechanisms through novel experimental technique and model development

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coniglio, Nicolas


    et al. (2000) revealed that crack growth is controlled by local strain rate conditions. Finally, a simplified strain partition model provides a link between critical strain rates measured across the weld and predicted at grain boundaries within the mushy zone. Although based on simplified assumptions, predicted and measured critical strain rate values are of the same order of magnitude. However, because of a longer mushy zone experienced at higher 4043 filler dilution related to a reduction in cooling rate, these models predict a lower weldability with increasing filler dilution, in contradiction with experimental observations. Combining the crack initiation and growth models suggests that hydrogen and strain rate, respectively, determine crack formation. An hypothetical hydrogen - strain rate map defines conceptually the conditions for cracking, suggesting better weldability at low weld metal hydrogen content. With the aid of the modified varestraint test (MVT) and a controlled hydrogen contamination system, results, presented in the form of ram speed - hydrogen map, revealed that hydrogen has little effect on crack growth, providing support to the proposed cracking models. However, a drop in weldability corresponding to the peak in weld metal hydrogen supersaturation suggests a different solidification cracking mechanism, where cavitation supports crack growth. (orig.)

  17. Experimental Determination of Unknown Masses and Their Positions in a Mechanical Black Box (United States)

    Chakrabarti, Bhupati; Pathare, Shirish; Huli, Saurabhee; Nachane, Madhura


    An experiment with a mechanical black box containing unknown masses is presented. The experiment involves the determination of these masses and their locations by performing some nondestructive tests. The set-ups are inexpensive and easy to fabricate. They are very useful to gain an understanding of some well-known principles of mechanics.

  18. An Experimental Study of the Reputation Mechanism in a Business Game (United States)

    Greco, Marco; Branca, Antonio Maurizio; Morena, Gianfranco


    Reputation enables different parties to establish a trusting and cooperative relationship, a key factor in integrative negotiations referred to as "win-win" negotiations. Thus, a good reputation mechanism can bring simulations closer to reality. In this study, the authors review the reputation mechanisms applied to the online business game WIN WIN…

  19. On the mechanics of cerebral aneurysms: experimental research and numerical simulation (United States)

    Parshin, D. V.; Kuianova, I. O.; Yunoshev, A. S.; Ovsyannikov, K. S.; Dubovoy, A. V.


    This research extends existing experimental data for CA tissues [1, 2] and presents the preliminary results of numerical calculations. Experiments were performed to measure aneurysm wall stiffness and the data obtained was analyzed. To reconstruct the geometry of the CAs, DICOM images of real patients with aneurysms and ITK Snap [3] were used. In addition, numerical calculations were performed in ANSYS (commercial software, License of Lavrentyev Institute of Hydrodynamics). The results of these numerical calculations show a high level of agreement with experimental data from previous literature.

  20. The contribution of experimental in vivo models to understanding the mechanisms of adaptation to mechanical loading in bone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lee B Meakin


    Full Text Available Changing loading regimens by natural means such as exercise, with or without interference such as osteotomy, has provided useful information on the structure:function relationship in bone tissue. However, the greatest precision in defining those aspects of the overall strain environment that influence modeling and remodeling behavior has been achieved by relating quantified changes in bone architecture to quantified changes in bones’ strain environment produced by direct, controlled artificial bone loading.Jiri Heřt introduced the technique of artificial loading of bones in vivo with external devices in the 1960s using an electromechanical device to load rabbit tibiae through transfixing stainless steel pins. Quantifying natural bone strains during locomotion by attaching electrical resistance strain gauges to bone surfaces was introduced by Lanyon, also in the 1960s. These studies in a variety of bones in a number of species demonstrated remarkable uniformity in the peak strains and maximum strain rates experienced.Experiments combining strain gauge instrumentation with artificial loading in sheep, pigs, roosters, turkeys, rats and mice has yielded significant insight into the control of strain-related adaptive (remodeling. This diversity of approach has been largely superseded by non-invasive transcutaneous loading in rats and mice which is now the model of choice for many studies. Together such studies have demonstrated that; over the physiological strain range, bone’s mechanically-adaptive processes are responsive to dynamic but not static strains; the size and nature of the adaptive response controlling bone mass is linearly related to the peak loads encountered; the strain-related response is preferentially sensitive to high strain rates and unresponsive to static ones; is most responsive to unusual strain distributions; is maximized by remarkably few strain cycles and that these are most effective when interrupted by short periods of

  1. Mechanism of Antibacterial Activity via Morphology Change of α-AgVO3: Theoretical and Experimental Insights. (United States)

    de Oliveira, Regiane Cristina; de Foggi, Camila Cristina; Teixeira, Mayara Mondego; da Silva, Maya Dayana Penha; Assis, Marcelo; Francisco, Eric Mark; Pimentel, Bruna Natalia Alves da Silva; Pereira, Paula Fabiana Dos Santos; Vergani, Carlos Eduardo; Machado, Ana Lúcia; Andres, Juan; Gracia, Lourdes; Longo, Elson


    The electronic configuration, morphology, optical features, and antibacterial activity of metastable α-AgVO 3 crystals have been discussed by a conciliation and association of the results acquired by experimental procedures and first-principles calculations. The α-AgVO 3 powders were synthesized using a coprecipitation method at 10, 20, and 30 °C. By using a Wulff construction for all relevant low-index surfaces [(100), (010), (001), (110), (011), (101), and (111)], the fine-tuning of the desired morphologies can be achieved by controlling the values of the surface energies, thereby lending a microscopic understanding to the experimental results. The as-synthesized α-AgVO 3 crystals display a high antibacterial activity against methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus. The results obtained from the experimental and theoretical techniques allow us to propose a mechanism for understanding the relationship between the morphological changes and antimicrobial performance of α-AgVO 3 .

  2. Opto-mechanical modelling and experimental approach to the measurement of aerospace materials using shearography and thermal loading (United States)

    Corso Krutul, Eduardo; Groves, Roger M.


    This paper is concerned with the modelling of the complete opto-mechanical measurement system, including shearography instrument, loading technique and the response of the object under test and the comparison of the simulation results with experimental results. To show the applicability of this technique, the response of an aluminium flat plate sample under thermal load was analysed. First a finite element model of the plate was generated, using an experimentally measured temperature profile. The strain and displacement values obtained from the finite element model were used to simulate the phase-map in the optical part of the model. The simulated phase maps were then compared qualitatively with experimental phase maps measured using shearography. This approach is suitable to understand the response of components under load and to predict anomalies such as defects, thereby making the analysis of measured phase maps easier and less empirical.

  3. Experimental Identification of the Kink Instability as a Poloidal Flux Amplification Mechanism for Coaxial Gun Spheromak Formation


    Hsu, S. C.; Bellan, P. M.


    The magnetohydrodynamic kink instability is observed and identified experimentally as a poloidal flux amplification mechanism for coaxial gun spheromak formation. Plasmas in this experiment fall into three distinct regimes which depend on the peak gun current to magnetic flux ratio, with (I) low values resulting in a straight plasma column with helical magnetic field, (II) intermediate values leading to kinking of the column axis, and (III) high values leading immediately to a detached plasma...

  4. Pericyte migration - A novel mechanism of pericyte loss in experimental diabetic retinopathy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pfister, Frederick; Feng, Yuxi; Hagen, Franziska vom; Hoffmann, Sigrid; Molema, Grietje; Hillebrands, Jan-Luuk; Shani, Moshe; Deutsch, Urban; Hammes, Hans-Peter

    OBJECTIVE-The mechanism underlying pericyte loss during incipient diabetic retinopathy remains controversial. Hyperglycemia induces angiopoietin-2 (Ang-2) transcription, which modulates capillary pericyte coverage. In this study, we assessed loss of pericyte subgroups and the contribution of Ang-2

  5. Experimental and Analytical Development of a Health Management System for Electro-Mechanical Actuators (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Expanded deployment of Electro-Mechanical Actuators (EMAs) in critical applications has created much interest in EMA Prognostic Health Management (PHM), a key...

  6. Experimental Validation of a Prognostic Health Management System for Electro-Mechanical Actuators (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The work described herein is aimed to advance prognostic health management solutions for electro-mechanical actuators and, thus, increase their reliability and...

  7. Fatigue creep damage at the cement-bone interface: an experimental and a micro-mechanical finite element study (United States)

    Waanders, Daan; Janssen, Dennis; Miller, Mark A.; Mann, Kenneth A.; Verdonschot, Nico


    The goal of this study was to quantify the micromechanics of the cement-bone interface under tensile fatigue loading using finite element analysis (FEA) and to understand the underlying mechanisms that play a role in the fatigue behavior of this interface. Laboratory cement-bone specimens were subjected to a tensile fatigue load, while local displacements and crack growth on the specimen's surface were monitored. FEA models were created from these specimens based upon micro-computed tomography data. To accurately model interfacial gaps at the interface between the bone and cement, a custom-written erosion algorithm was applied to the bone model. A fatigue load was simulated in the FEA models while monitoring the local displacements and crack propagation. The results showed the FEA models were able to capture the general experimental creep damage behavior and creep stages of the interface. Consistent with the experiments, the majority of the deformation took place at the contact interface. Additionally, the FEA models predicted fatigue crack patterns similar to experimental findings. Experimental surface cracks correlated moderately with FEA surface cracks (r2=0.43), but did not correlate with the simulated crack volume fraction (r2=0.06). Although there was no relationship between experimental surface cracks and experimental creep damage displacement (r2=0.07), there was a strong relationship between the FEA crack volume fraction and the FEA creep damage displacement (r2=0.76). This study shows the additional value of FEA of the cement-bone interface relative to experimental studies and can therefore be used to optimize its mechanical properties. PMID:19682690

  8. Testing the theory of emissions trading : Experimental evidence on alternative mechanisms for global carbon trading

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klaassen, Ger; Nentjes, Andries; Smith, Mark


    Simulation models and theory prove that emission trading converges to market equilibrium. This paper sets out to test these results using experimental economics. Three experiments are conducted for the six largest carbon emitting industrialized regions. Two experiments use auctions, the first a

  9. Experimental investigation of terrain slugging: formation mechanism and potential mitigation methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiferli, W.; Hansen, J.H.; Brasjen, B.J.; Belfroid, S.P.C.


    An experimental study on terrain-induced slugging on shallow inclines (typically less than 3°) has been conducted, using three setups with a pipe diameter of around 1”, with incline lengths of 1 m, 3 m and 24 m. In addition to an extensive characterization of the formation and evolution of slugs as

  10. Influence of crosslinking on the mechanical behavior of 3D printed alginate scaffolds: Experimental and numerical approaches. (United States)

    Naghieh, Saman; Karamooz-Ravari, Mohammad Reza; Sarker, M D; Karki, Eva; Chen, Xiongbiao


    Tissue scaffolds fabricated by three-dimensional (3D) bioprinting are attracting considerable attention for tissue engineering applications. Because the mechanical properties of hydrogel scaffolds should match the damaged tissue, changing various parameters during 3D bioprinting has been studied to manipulate the mechanical behavior of the resulting scaffolds. Crosslinking scaffolds using a cation solution (such as CaCl 2 ) is also important for regulating the mechanical properties, but has not been well documented in the literature. Here, the effect of varied crosslinking agent volume and crosslinking time on the mechanical behavior of 3D bioplotted alginate scaffolds was evaluated using both experimental and numerical methods. Compression tests were used to measure the elastic modulus of each scaffold, then a finite element model was developed and a power model used to predict scaffold mechanical behavior. Results showed that crosslinking time and volume of crosslinker both play a decisive role in modulating the mechanical properties of 3D bioplotted scaffolds. Because mechanical properties of scaffolds can affect cell response, the findings of this study can be implemented to modulate the elastic modulus of scaffolds according to the intended application. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Coordination Mechanism in Fast Human Movements. Experimental and Modelling Studies. Volume 1. (United States)


    mechanisms due to local muscular fatigue induced by isometric exercise in the agonist and in the antagonist muscle groups; feasible training and...always • . unstable and leads to spastic oscillations, whereas a mixed angular-velocity and angular-position servo control is stable at sufficiently low...matical model for neuromotor coordination mechanisms in fast ballistic .. - movement could be tested. Traditional exercise regimens produce strength

  12. A Review of Dynamic Experimental Techniques and Mechanical Behaviour of Rock Materials (United States)

    Zhang, Q. B.; Zhao, J.


    The purpose of this review is to discuss the development and the state of the art in dynamic testing techniques and dynamic mechanical behaviour of rock materials. The review begins by briefly introducing the history of rock dynamics and explaining the significance of studying these issues. Loading techniques commonly used for both intermediate and high strain rate tests and measurement techniques for dynamic stress and deformation are critically assessed in Sects. 2 and 3. In Sect. 4, methods of dynamic testing and estimation to obtain stress-strain curves at high strain rate are summarized, followed by an in-depth description of various dynamic mechanical properties (e.g. uniaxial and triaxial compressive strength, tensile strength, shear strength and fracture toughness) and corresponding fracture behaviour. Some influencing rock structural features (i.e. microstructure, size and shape) and testing conditions (i.e. confining pressure, temperature and water saturation) are considered, ending with some popular semi-empirical rate-dependent equations for the enhancement of dynamic mechanical properties. Section 5 discusses physical mechanisms of strain rate effects. Section 6 describes phenomenological and mechanically based rate-dependent constitutive models established from the knowledge of the stress-strain behaviour and physical mechanisms. Section 7 presents dynamic fracture criteria for quasi-brittle materials. Finally, a brief summary and some aspects of prospective research are presented.

  13. Design and experimental study of joint torque balance mechanism of seed implantation articulated robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Yongde


    Full Text Available This article discusses several new mechanisms that may be used in prostate cancer seed implant robotics. We have developed relatively simple but effective mathematical models of multi-needle puncture prostate using nonlinear spring–damper model; based on Automatic Dynamic Analysis of Mechanical Systems or dynamics module, displacement simulation for prostate is performed, and simulation results indicate that the multi-needle puncture mechanism could reduce prostate displacement in the y- or z-direction. Then aiming at the limitation of human body structure space and seed implant needle insertion path, a revolute-revolute-translational-type prostate seed implantation robot with three-dimensional transrectal ultrasound navigation is designed. It is noteworthy that drive torque fluctuation is caused by the center of gravity change of revolute-revolute tandem cantilever structure; an elastic balance mechanism is designed to realize the complete balance of cantilever weight. Based on Automatic Dynamic Analysis of Mechanical Systems or dynamics module, static drive torque simulation of 2-revolute tandem cantilever structure is performed. Finally, we manufacture the robot prototype and make verification experiment to the cantilever balancing device, and the experiment results provide evidence that elastic balance mechanism can realize the complete balance of cantilever weight, improve the fluctuation in the amplitude value of driving torque, and increase its operation stationary of seed implantation robot system.

  14. Experimental Evolution of Diverse Strains as a Method for the Determination of Biochemical Mechanisms of Action for Novel Pyrrolizidinone Antibiotics. (United States)

    Beabout, Kathryn; McCurry, Megan D; Mehta, Heer; Shah, Akshay A; Pulukuri, Kiran Kumar; Rigol, Stephan; Wang, Yanping; Nicolaou, K C; Shamoo, Yousif


    The continuing rise of multidrug resistant pathogens has made it clear that in the absence of new antibiotics we are moving toward a "postantibiotic" world, in which even routine infections will become increasingly untreatable. There is a clear need for the development of new antibiotics with truly novel mechanisms of action to combat multidrug resistant pathogens. Experimental evolution to resistance can be a useful tactic for the characterization of the biochemical mechanism of action for antibiotics of interest. Herein, we demonstrate that the use of a diverse panel of strains with well-annotated reference genomes improves the success of using experimental evolution to characterize the mechanism of action of a novel pyrrolizidinone antibiotic analog. Importantly, we used experimental evolution under conditions that favor strongly polymorphic populations to adapt a panel of three substantially different Gram-positive species (lab strain Bacillus subtilis and clinical strains methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus MRSA131 and Enterococcus faecalis S613) to produce a sufficiently diverse set of evolutionary outcomes. Comparative whole genome sequencing (WGS) between the susceptible starting strain and the resistant strains was then used to identify the genetic changes within each species in response to the pyrrolizidinone. Taken together, the adaptive response across a range of organisms allowed us to develop a readily testable hypothesis for the mechanism of action of the CJ-16 264 analog. In conjunction with mitochondrial inhibition studies, we were able to elucidate that this novel pyrrolizidinone antibiotic is an electron transport chain (ETC) inhibitor. By studying evolution to resistance in a panel of different species of bacteria, we have developed an enhanced method for the characterization of new lead compounds for the discovery of new mechanisms of action.

  15. Numerical Modeling and Experimental Verification for High-Speed and Heavy-Load Planar Mechanism with Multiple Clearances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fangang Meng


    Full Text Available Transmission mechanism is one of the most important parts of the Ultra-High Voltage (UHV circuit breaker. It has specific characteristics such as fast response, high speed, and heavy load in the processes of open and close actions. This paper studies the effects of multiple clearances on the working characteristics of transmission mechanism system, especially the motion of its journal center path during operation. It builds a nonlinear kinetic model of transmission mechanism considering the system energy losses due to the impact and friction between the journal and bearing inside clearance joints. Also, an experimental platform is built to measure the displacement and velocity of the moving contact. The results show that the existence of 15 clearance joints in our mechanism system can cause hysteresis effects on the velocity and acceleration of the moving contact, as well as its acceleration fluctuation. Meanwhile, the increase of friction coefficient will stabilize the dynamic characteristic. In addition, both the experimental and simulation results indicate that the motion of the journal center, which is unevenly distributed along the circle, is characterized by three phases: free flight motion, contact motion, and impact motion.


    CERN Document Server

    Curceanu, C; Bragadireanu, M; Pietreanu, T; Sperandio, L; Marton, J; Sirghi, D L; Widmann, E; Ishiwatari, T; Zmeskal, J; Ponta, T; Laubenstein, M; Cargnelli, M; Milotti, E; Bartalucci, S; Iliescu, M; Guaraldo, C; Doce, O V; Bertolucci, S; Egger, J P; Vidal, A R; Sirghi, F; Di Matteo, S


    The Pauli exclusion principle (PEP) is one of the basic principles of modern physics. Being at the very basis of our understanding of matter, as many other fundamental principles it spurs, presently, a lively debate on its possible limits, deeply rooted in the very foundations of Quantum Field Theory. Therefore, it is extremely important to test the limits of its validity. Quon theory provides a suitable mathematical framework of possible violation of PEP, where the violation parameter q translates into a probability of violating PEP. Experimentally, setting a bound on PEP violation means confining the violation parameter to a value very close to either 1 (for bosons) or -1 (for fermions). The VIP (VIolation of the Pauli exclusion principle) experiment established a limit on the probability that PEP is violated by electrons, using the method of searching for PEP forbidden atomic transitions in copper. We describe the experimental method, the obtained results, both in terms of the q-parameter from quon theory ...

  17. Experimental investigation on dynamic characteristics and strengthening mechanism of laser-induced cavitation bubbles. (United States)

    Ren, X D; He, H; Tong, Y Q; Ren, Y P; Yuan, S Q; Liu, R; Zuo, C Y; Wu, K; Sui, S; Wang, D S


    The dynamic features of nanosecond laser-induced cavitation bubbles near the light alloy boundary were investigated with the high-speed photography. The shock-waves and the dynamic characteristics of the cavitation bubbles generated by the laser were detected using the hydrophone. The dynamic features and strengthening mechanism of cavitation bubbles were studied. The strengthening mechanisms of cavitation bubble were discussed when the relative distance parameter γ was within the range of 0.5-2.5. It showed that the strengthening mechanisms caused by liquid jet or shock-waves depended on γ much. The research results provided a new strengthening method based on laser-induced cavitation shotless peening (CSP). Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Experimental investigation on local mechanical response of superelastic NiTi shape memory alloy (United States)

    Xiao, Yao; Zeng, Pan; Lei, Liping


    In this paper, primary attention is paid to the local mechanical response of NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA) under uniaxial tension. With the help of in situ digital image correlation, sets of experiments are conducted to measure the local strain field at various thermomechanical conditions. Two types of mechanical responses of NiTi SMA are identified. The residual strain localization phenomena are observed, which can be attributed to the localized phase transformation (PT) and we affirm that most of the irreversibility is accumulated simultaneously during PT. It is found that temperature and PT play important roles in inducing delocalization of the reverse transformation. We conclude that forward transformation has more influence on the transition of mechanical response in NiTi SMA than reverse transformation in terms of the critical transition temperature for inducing delocalized reverse transformation.

  19. Experimental analysis on physical and mechanical properties of thermal shock damage of granite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Xiao


    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to explore the changes of mechanical and physical properties of granite under different thermal loading effects. Uniaxial compression experiments studying the rules of the influence of temperature load on mechanical properties of granite were carried out. After high-temperature heating at above 600 °C, granite tended to have stronger ductility and plasticity as well as declined peak stress and compressive strength. Thermogravimetry - differential scanning calorimetry (TG-DSC analysis results showed that, thermal load at different temperatures induced reactions such as water loss, oxidation and crystallization in the microstructure of granite, which led to physical changes of granite. Hence it is concluded that, heating can significantly weaken the mechanical performance of granite, which provides an important support for the optimization of heating assisted processing of granite. It also reveals that, heating assisted cutting technique can effectively lower energy consumption and improve processing efficiency.

  20. Experimental Study on Failure Mechanism of Single Lap-shear Bond Joint with Dissimilar Materials (United States)

    Chung, S. H.; Park, B. C.; Chun, H. J.; Park, J. C.


    The use of bond joints has increased recently, owing to a number of advantages they have over mechanical fasteners. However, most relevant studies have focused on bond joints with the same adherends. In this study, a quasi-static tensile test was conducted to investigate the failure mechanism of bond joints, considering different overlap lengths and dissimilar adherends. In the experiments, two modes of failure were observed: the interfacial and cohesive failure modes. The experiments showed that the length of separation of an overlap area through the interfacial failure was almost the same for different specimens.

  1. Experimental and Quantum-mechanical Investigation of the Vinylsilane-Iminium Ion Cyclization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kværnø, Lisbet; Norrby, Per-Ola; Tanner, David Ackland


    be obtained for iminium species derived from 7. Quantum-mechanical investigations of the general reaction mechanism underlined the lack of reactivity of ketiminium species and also convincingly explained the observed diastereoselectivities of aldiminium species. The calculations further revealed that (Z......)-vinylsilanes cyclize via a silicon-stabilized b-carbocation, and that any formal aza-Cope rearrangement of the starting material to an allylsilane-iminium species does not take place in a concerted fashion. However, the calculations show that the aza-Cope rearrangement precedes cyclization for the corresponding (E...

  2. Experimental-numerical analysis of the fracture mechanic in polymeric materials; Analisis numerico-experimental de la mecanica de la fractura en materiales polimeros

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltran Fernandez, Juan Alfonso; Hernandez Gomez, Luis H; Urriolagoitia Calderon, Guillermo; Villa y Rabasa, Gabriel; Rodriguez, Gustavo Ricardo; Mendoza Nunez, Maribel A [Instituto Politecnico Nacional, Zacatenco (Mexico)


    In this piece of work some fracture testings on specimens with a lateral fracture are made to analyze the resultant stress state around of the tip of the fracture and the way in which the strength of the material is modified to get the fracture toughness, to the load mode I. Also, it is explained the way in which mechanic properties were got in the Polymetil-Methacylate, (PMMA), such as: modulus of elasticity, maximum tensile stress, yielding stress and stress-unitary strain, stress-rate and strain-rate curves, throughout of the carry out of the tensile testing. With the objective to know the real mechanical behavior with the initial loading conditions established and different testing velocities. All and each one of the results are calculated experimental and numerically and validated throughout of the finite element method, using the software ANSYS 5.5.3. [Spanish] En este trabajo se efectuan pruebas de fractura en especimenes con una grieta lateral, para analizar el estado de esfuerzos resultantes alrededor de la punta de la grieta y la forma en que se afecta la resistencia del material a fin de obtener la tenacidad de fractura para el modo de carga I. Ademas, se explica la forma como se obtienen las propiedades mecanicas en el polimetil metacrilato (PMMA), tales como: modulo de elasticidad, esfuerzo normal maximo, esfuerzo de cadencia y las curvas esfuerzo-deformacion unitaria, esfuerzo-tiempo (stress-rate) y deformacion-tiempo (strain-rate), a traves de la realizacion de la prueba de tension. Se busca conocer el comportamiento mecanico real ante las condiciones de carga establecidas y a distintas velocidades de prueba. Todo y cada uno de los resultados se efectuan de manera experimental y son evaluados numericamente a traves del metodo del elemento finito, con el programa ANSYS 5.5.3.

  3. Stress analysis of fatigue cracks in mechanically fastened joints : An analytical and experimental investigation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Rijck, J.J.M.


    The two historical fuselage failures, Comet in 1954 and Aloha in 1988, illustrate that similar accidents must be avoided which requires a profound understanding of the fatigue mechanisms involved, including analytical models to predict the fatigue behavior of riveted joints of a fuselage structure.

  4. Characterization of the mechanical behavior of human knee ligaments: a numerical-experimental approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mommersteeg, T. J.; Blankevoort, L.; Huiskes, R.; Kooloos, J. G.; Kauer, J. M.


    During knee-joint motions, the fiber bundles of the knee ligaments are nonuniformly loaded in a recruitment pattern, which depends on successive relative orientations of the insertion sites. These fiber bundles vary with respect to length, orientation and mechanical properties. As a result, the

  5. Experimental observations elucidating the mechanisms of structural bcc-hcp transformations in ?-Ti alloys

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Bohemen, S.M.C.; Sietsma, J.; Van der Zwaag, S.


    The formation mechanisms of two hcp ? phase morphologies in Ti-4.5Fe-6.8Mo-1.5Al have been investigated by optical microscopy (OM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), electron probe microanalysis (EPMA) and dilatometry. At relatively high temperatures primary ? forms predominantly on prior bcc ? grain

  6. Characterization of mechanical behavior of woven fabrics: experimental methods and benchmark results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Cao, J.; Akkerman, Remko; Boisse, P.; Chen, J.; Cheng, H.S.; de Graaf, E.F.; Gorczyca, J.L.; Harrison, P.


    Textile composites made of woven fabrics have demonstrated excellent mechanical properties for the production of high specific-strength products. Research efforts in the woven fabric sheet forming are currently at a point where benchmarking will lead to major advances in understanding both the

  7. Cochlear Dummy Electrodes for Insertion Training and Research Purposes: Fabrication, Mechanical Characterization, and Experimental Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan-Philipp Kobler


    Full Text Available To develop skills sufficient for hearing preservation cochlear implant surgery, surgeons need to perform several electrode insertion trials in ex vivo temporal bones, thereby consuming relatively expensive electrode carriers. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the insertion characteristics of cochlear electrodes in a plastic scala tympani model and to fabricate radio opaque polymer filament dummy electrodes of equivalent mechanical properties. In addition, this study should aid the design and development of new cochlear electrodes. Automated insertion force measurement is a new technique to reproducibly analyze and evaluate the insertion dynamics and mechanical characteristics of an electrode. Mechanical properties of MED-EL’s FLEX28, FLEX24, and FLEX20 electrodes were assessed with the help of an automated insertion tool. Statistical analysis of the overall mechanical behavior of the electrodes and factors influencing the insertion force are discussed. Radio opaque dummy electrodes of comparable characteristics were fabricated based on insertion force measurements. The platinum-iridium wires were replaced by polymer filament to provide sufficient stiffness to the electrodes and to eradicate the metallic artifacts in X-ray and computed tomography (CT images. These low-cost dummy electrodes are cheap alternatives for surgical training and for in vitro, ex vivo, and in vivo research purposes.

  8. The mechanism of Zinc(II)-Mediated Vulcanization Uncovered; Theoretical and Experimental Evidence.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Nieuwenhuizen, P.J.; Ehlers, A.W.; Haasnoot, J.G.; Janse, S.R.; Reedijk, J.; Baerends, E.J.


    The mechanism of cross-link formation in sulfur vulcanization mediated by bis(dimethyldithiocarbamato)zinc(II), ZDMC, has been uncovered, utilizing a combination of Density-Functional calculations and model experiments. These studies have revealed that, in a three-stage process, ZDMC exhibits a

  9. Experimental study of the excitation mechanisms in Heq+-fullerene collisions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hadjar, O; Schlatholter, T; Hoekstra, R; Morgenstern, R


    In a recent study on Oq+ (1 less than or equal to q less than or equal to 7) collisions with C-60, We presented fragmentation patterns dominated by electron capture processes. We now investigate the remaining important interaction mechanisms: electronic excitation due to ion-electron interactions

  10. Experimental evidence for chemo-mechanical coupling during carbon mineralization in ultramafic rocks (United States)

    Lisabeth, H. P.; Zhu, W.; Kelemen, P. B.; Ilgen, A.


    Storing carbon dioxide in the subsurface as carbonate minerals has the benefit of long-term stability and immobility. Ultramafic rock formations have been suggested as a potential reservoir for this type of storage due to the availability of cations to react with dissolved carbon dioxide and the fast reaction rates associated with minerals common in ultramafic formations; however, the rapid reactions have the potential to couple with the mechanical and hydraulic behavior of the rocks and little is known about the extent and mechanisms of this coupling. In this study, we argue that the dissolution of primary minerals and the precipitation of secondary minerals along pre-existing fractures in samples lead to reductions in both the apparent Young's modulus and shear strength of aggregates, accompanied by reduction in permeability. Hydrostatic and triaxial deformation experiments were run on dunite samples saturated with de-ionized water and carbon dioxide-rich solutions while stress, strain, permeability and pore fluid chemistry were monitored. Sample microstructures were examined after reaction and deformation using scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The results show that channelized dissolution and carbonate mineral precipitation in the samples saturated with carbon dioxide-rich solutions modify the structure of grain boundaries, leading to the observed reductions in stiffness, strength and permeability. A geochemical model was run to help interpret fluid chemical data, and we find that the apparent reaction rates in our experiments are faster than rates calculated from powder reactors, suggesting mechanically enhanced reaction rates. In conclusion, we find that chemo-mechanical coupling during carbon mineralization in dunites leads to substantial modification of mechanical and hydraulic behavior that needs to be accounted for in future modeling efforts of in situ carbon mineralization projects.

  11. Structures under crash and impact continuum mechanics, discretization and experimental characterization

    CERN Document Server

    Hiermaier, Stefan


    Required reading for those in the relevant areas of work, this book examines the testing and modeling of materials and structures under dynamic loading conditions.Readers get an in-depth analysis of the current mathematical modeling and simulation tools available for a variety of materials, alongside discussions of the benefits and limitations these tools pose in industrial design.The models discussed are also available in commercial codes such as LS-DYNA and AOTODYN.Following a logical and well organized structure, this volume uniquely combines experimental procedures with numerical simulatio

  12. Mechanical-physical experimental tests on lime mortars and bricks reinforced with hemp (United States)

    Formisano, Antonio; Dessı, Enzo; Landolfo, Raffaele


    Hemp is an agricultural product used for various applications. In the Civil Engineering field, only a limited use of this natural material, called the "green pig" since exploitation of all its constituent parts is allowed, has been done. For this reason, in the paper an experimental activity on lime mortars and bricks reinforced with hemp components has been performed. Compression and bending tests have been carried out on specimens manufactured with hemp shives and fibres, respectively. The achieved results have shown that hemp products change the failure modes from brittle to ductile, leaving basically unaltered the strength capacity of reinforced specimens with respect to unreinforced ones.

  13. Charge transport mechanisms of graphene/semiconductor Schottky barriers: A theoretical and experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhong, Haijian; Liu, Zhenghui; Xu, Gengzhao; Shi, Lin; Fan, Yingmin; Yang, Hui [Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, CAS, Suzhou 215123 (China); Xu, Ke, E-mail:; Wang, Jianfeng; Ren, Guoqiang [Suzhou Institute of Nano-Tech and Nano-Bionics, CAS, Suzhou 215123 (China); Suzhou Nanowin Science and Technology Co., Ltd., Suzhou 215123 (China)


    Graphene has been proposed as a material for semiconductor electronic and optoelectronic devices. Understanding the charge transport mechanisms of graphene/semiconductor Schottky barriers will be crucial for future applications. Here, we report a theoretical model to describe the transport mechanisms at the interface of graphene and semiconductors based on conventional semiconductor Schottky theory and a floating Fermi level of graphene. The contact barrier heights can be estimated through this model and be close to the values obtained from the experiments, which are lower than those of the metal/semiconductor contacts. A detailed analysis reveals that the barrier heights are as the function of the interface separations and dielectric constants, and are influenced by the interfacial states of semiconductors. Our calculations show how this behavior of lowering barrier heights arises from the Fermi level shift of graphene induced by the charge transfer owing to the unique linear electronic structure.

  14. Virtual experimentation in electromagnetism, mechanics and optics: web-based learning (United States)

    Escobar, J. H.; Sánchez, H.; Beltrán, J. R.; De la Hoz, J.; González, J. D.


    This paper present novel virtual laboratories of electromagnetism, mechanics and optics to be used in the teaching of physic for the students as well as to the teacher in the classroom. The model used is friendly with the users and also is responsible for displaying data and its manipulation. The Vista/model, implements the behavior of the view to respond to user actions and expose model data in a way that is easy to use bindings, it is the mechanisms by which we can link the elements of the user interface objects containing the information to be displayed in the view. During the process of application of virtual laboratories the students shown a increasing ability to learn this specifics physics topics using a Web-based learning environment and a guide of work with the virtual laboratories framed in the meaningful learning pedagogical model.

  15. Experimental studies of the dynamic mechanical response of a single polymer chain

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thormann, Esben; Evans, Drew R.; Craig, Vincent S. J.


    The high-frequency and low-amplitude dynamic mechanical response from a single poly(vinyl alcohol) chain was investigated. Modification of a commercial atomic force microscope enabled high-frequency and low-amplitude periodic deformations of polymer chains during extension to be performed....... Such an experiment has previously been considered untenable due to hydrodynamic and viscous effects, but we introduce here a method to isolate the response of the polymer from the hydrodynamic response. For periodic deformations with frequencies of 400-2000 Hz and amplitudes of 0.55-16.9 nm, we find that the dynamic...... mechanical response from poly(vinyl alcohol) does not differ from its static response. This result is not unexpected as poly(vinyl alcohol) is a highly flexible polymer with intramolecular relaxation processes taking place on a short time scale. The choice of a polymer with a fast relaxation allows its...

  16. Assessment of micro-mechanical variations in experimental arteriovenous fistulae using atomic force microscopy. (United States)

    Laurito, Tyler; Sueiras, Vivian; Fernandez, Natasha; Escobar, Luis A; Martinez, Laisel; Andreopoulos, Fotios; Salman, Loay H; Vazquez-Padron, Roberto I; Ziebarth, Noël M


    This study presents a method to quantify micro-stiffness variations in experimental arteriovenous fistulae (AVF). AVF created by anastomosing the superficial epigastric vein to the femoral artery in Sprague-Dawley rats were allowed to remodel for 21 days before being harvested and preserved in culture medium. A custom atomic force microscope was used to measure microvascular stiffness (Young's modulus) in three areas of the AVF: the inflow artery, the juxta-anastomotic area, and the outflow vein. Morphometric measurements and collagen and elastin contents were also determined. Atomic force microscopy indentation revealed an increased stiffness in the juxta-anastomotic area of the AVF compared to the outflow vein and inflow artery. The juxta-anastomotic area was also significantly stiffer than the contralateral vein. The lack of elasticity (higher Young's modulus) of the juxta-anastomotic region was associated with a thicker vascular wall that was rich in collagen but poor in elastin. This study demonstrates for the first time the feasibility of using atomic force microscopy to measure local stiffness variations in experimental AVF. This technique could be instrumental in advancing our understanding of how micro-spatial organization of the AVF wall determines the overall biomechanical performance of this type of vascular access.

  17. The mechanism of ϕC31 integrase directionality: experimental analysis and computational modelling. (United States)

    Pokhilko, Alexandra; Zhao, Jia; Ebenhöh, Oliver; Smith, Margaret C M; Stark, W Marshall; Colloms, Sean D


    Serine integrases, DNA site-specific recombinases used by bacteriophages for integration and excision of their DNA to and from their host genomes, are increasingly being used as tools for programmed rearrangements of DNA molecules for biotechnology and synthetic biology. A useful feature of serine integrases is the simple regulation and unidirectionality of their reactions. Recombination between the phage attP and host attB sites is promoted by the serine integrase alone, giving recombinant attL and attR sites, whereas the 'reverse' reaction (between attL and attR) requires an additional protein, the recombination directionality factor (RDF). Here, we present new experimental data on the kinetics and regulation of recombination reactions mediated by ϕC31 integrase and its RDF, and use these data as the basis for a mathematical model of the reactions. The model accounts for the unidirectionality of the attP × attB and attL × attR reactions by hypothesizing the formation of structurally distinct, kinetically stable integrase-DNA product complexes, dependent on the presence or absence of RDF. The model accounts for all the available experimental data, and predicts how mutations of the proteins or alterations of reaction conditions might increase the conversion efficiency of recombination. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  18. Experimental Verification of a New Tool for Wood Mechanical Resistance Measurement


    Kloiber, M. (Michal); Tippner, J.; Hrivnák, J.; Praus, L.


    Many non-destructive methods for the assessment of wood incorporated in buildings are based on indirect measurement of density, which is closely related to the mechanical properties of wood determining the static condition of the construction. As the best methods for the determination of density, various resistance methods have been proved, which react well to changes in the material structure in contrast to methods that are totally noninvasive (e.g. ultrasound methods). The paper presents a ...

  19. Effect of Temperature on Mechanical Properties of Nanoclay Reinforced Polymeric Nanocomposites. Part 1. Experimental Results (United States)


    epoxy based nanoclay reinforced specimens Finally, epoxy ( EPON 828 ) specimens with 0%, 1%, 3%, 6% and 10% nanoclay reinforcement were subjected to...stress-strain curves of EPON 828 epoxy specimens with various nanoclay reinforcement percentages The average mechanical properties calculated from...the test results are also shown in Table 3. Table 3. Average material properties of EPON 828 epoxy specimens with 0%, 1%, 3%, 6% and 10% nanoclay

  20. Effects of Heat-treatments on the Mechanical Strength of Coated YSZ: An Experimental Assessment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Toftegaard, Helmuth Langmaack; Sørensen, Bent F.; Linderoth, Søren


    The mechanical strength of thin, symmetric sandwich specimens consisting of a dense yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) substrate coated with a porous NiO–YSZ layer at both major faces was investigated. Specimens were loaded in uniaxial tension to failure following heat treatments at various...... temperatures. In comparison with the YSZ material, the failure strength of coated specimens was found to increase for heat treatments at 1100°C, but decreased again with further increased heat-treatment temperatures....

  1. Experimental Evaluation of the Transport Mechanisms of PoIFN-α in Caco-2 Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xin Liu


    Full Text Available For the development of an efficient intestinal delivery system for Porcine interferon-α (PoIFN-α, the understanding of transport mechanisms of which in the intestinal cell is essential. In this study, we investigated the absorption mechanisms of PoIFN-α in intestine cells. Caco-2 cells and fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled (FITC-PoIFN-α were used to explore the whole transport process, including endocytosis, intracellular trafficking, exocytosis, and transcytosis. Via various techniques, the transport pathways of PoIFN-α in Caco-2 cells and the mechanisms were clarified. Firstly, the endocytosis of PoIFN-α by Caco-2 cells was time, concentration and temperature dependence. And the lipid raft/caveolae endocytosis was the most likely endocytic pathway for PoIFN-α. Secondly, both Golgi apparatus and lysosome were involved in the intracellular trafficking of PoIFN-α. Thirdly, the treatment of indomethacin resulted in a significant decrease of exocytosis of PoIFN-α, indicating the participation of cyclooxygenase. Finally, to evaluate the efficiency of PoIFN-α transport, the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER value was measured to investigate the tight junctional integrity of the cell monolayers. The fluorescence microscope results revealed that the transport of PoIFN-α across the Caco-2 cell monolayers was restricted. In conclusion, this study depicts a probable picture of PoIFN-α transport in Caco-2 cells characterized by non-specificity, partial energy-dependency and low transcytosis.

  2. Experimental evidence of a nonlinear loss mechanism in highly doped Yb:LuAG crystal. (United States)

    Pirri, Angela; Toci, Guido; Nikl, Martin; Babin, Vladimir; Vannini, Matteo


    We report a rigorous study of the spectroscopic, laser and thermal properties of a 10at.% and a 15at.% Yb:LuAG crystals. A loss mechanism is observed in the medium with the highest doping, pumped at 936 nm and 968 nm, as a sharp and dramatic decrease of the laser output power is measured at higher excitation densities. The nonlinearity of the loss mechanism is confirmed by the fluorescence data and by the thermal lens. In particular, the dioptric power of the thermal lens acquired at different pumping levels shows a strong deviation of the expected linear trend. Here we report the influence of both the concentration and the ion excitation density of Yb3+ on the output powers, the slope efficiencies and the thresholds. Conversely excellent results are achieved with the 10at.%, which does not show any loss mechanism as at 1046 nm it delivers 11.8 W with a slope efficiency of η(s) = 82%, which is, to the best of our knowledge, the highest value reported in literature for this material.

  3. Mechanical property analysis and experimental demonstration of zero Poisson’s ratio mixed cruciform honeycomb (United States)

    Zou, Tingting; Zhou, Li


    Out-of-plane bending stiffness of cruciform honeycomb is too low to hold the panel in a horizontal direction. In this regard, zero Poisson’s ratio mixed cruciform honeycomb, a novel structure with new topology, is proposed in this paper. Ribs were designed between monolayer core boards in cruciform honeycomb to restrict the displacement in the 1-direction (vertical to ribs) and enhance the stiffness in the 2-direction (parallel to ribs) simultaneously. Elastic constants, which characterize in-plane mechanical properties, were studied through theoretical calculation and numerical simulation. Experiments have also been performed to validate the analytic models, which showed good correlation with analytical formulas and excellent deformable capacity of the mixed cruciform honeycomb. The uniaxial deformability and out-of-plane bearing capacity of the new model improve obviously compared with cruciform honeycomb. By analyzing the relationship between mechanical properties and cell shape parameters, zero Poisson’s ratio mixed cruciform honeycomb can be optimized to meet the deform requirements. In addition, the limitation of compression deformability caused by shapes was analyzed to ensure the effectiveness of the structure, and the results that structural density varies with parameters were given as a design reference according to lightweight requirement. To show the superiority of the new model, a comparison between mixed cruciform honeycomb and hybrid cellular honeycomb was developed in terms of in-plane and out-of-plane mechanical properties.

  4. Mechanisms of acute kidney injury induced by experimental Lonomia obliqua envenomation. (United States)

    Berger, Markus; Santi, Lucélia; Beys-da-Silva, Walter O; Oliveira, Fabrício Marcus Silva; Caliari, Marcelo Vidigal; Yates, John R; Vieira, Maria Aparecida Ribeiro; Guimarães, Jorge Almeida


    Lonomia obliqua caterpillar envenomation causes acute kidney injury (AKI), which can be responsible for its deadly actions. This study evaluates the possible mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of renal dysfunction. To characterize L. obliqua venom effects, we subcutaneously injected rats and examined renal functional, morphological and biochemical parameters at several time points. We also performed discovery-based proteomic analysis to measure protein expression to identify molecular pathways of renal disease. L. obliqua envenomation causes acute tubular necrosis, which is associated with renal inflammation; formation of hematic casts, resulting from intravascular hemolysis; increase in vascular permeability and fibrosis. The dilation of Bowman's space and glomerular tuft is related to fluid leakage and intra-glomerular fibrin deposition, respectively, since tissue factor procoagulant activity increases in the kidney. Systemic hypotension also contributes to these alterations and to the sudden loss of basic renal functions, including filtration and excretion capacities, urinary concentration and maintenance of fluid homeostasis. In addition, envenomed kidneys increase the expression of proteins involved in cell stress, inflammation, tissue injury, heme-induced oxidative stress, coagulation and complement system activation. Finally, the localization of the venom in renal tissue agrees with morphological and functional alterations, suggesting also a direct nephrotoxic activity. In conclusion, the mechanisms of L. obliqua-induced AKI are complex involving mainly glomerular and tubular functional impairment and vascular alterations. These results are important to understand the mechanisms of renal injury and may suggest more efficient ways to prevent or attenuate the pathology of Lonomia's envenomation.

  5. Experimental and Numerical Investigation on the Bearing and Failure Mechanism of Multiple Pillars Under Overburden (United States)

    Zhou, Zilong; Chen, Lu; Zhao, Yuan; Zhao, Tongbin; Cai, Xin; Du, Xueming


    To reveal the mechanical response of a multi-pillar supporting system under external loads, compressive tests were carried out on single-pillar and double-pillar specimens. The digital speckle correlation method and acoustic emission technique were applied to record and analyse information of the deformation and failure processes. Numerical simulations with the software programme PFC2D were also conducted. In the compressive process of the double-pillar system, if both individual pillars have the same mechanical properties, each pillar deforms similarly and reaches the critical stable state almost simultaneously by sharing equal loads. If the two individual pillars have different mechanical properties, the pillar with higher elastic modulus or lower strength would be damaged and lose its bearing capacity firstly. The load would then be transferred to the other pillar under a load redistribution process. When the pillar with higher strength is strong enough, the load carried by the pillar system would increase again. However, the maximum bearing load of the double-pillar system is smaller than the sum of peak load of individual pillars. The study also indicates that the strength, elastic modulus, and load state of pillars all influence the supporting capacity of the pillar system. In underground space engineering, the appropriate choice of pillar dimensions and layout may play a great role in preventing the occurrence of cascading pillar failure.

  6. Experimental Evaluation of the Transport Mechanisms of PoIFN-α in Caco-2 Cells. (United States)

    Liu, Xin; Zheng, Sidi; Qin, Yue; Ding, Wenya; Tu, Yabin; Chen, Xingru; Wu, Yunzhou; Yanhua, Li; Cai, Xuehui


    For the development of an efficient intestinal delivery system for Porcine interferon-α (PoIFN-α), the understanding of transport mechanisms of which in the intestinal cell is essential. In this study, we investigated the absorption mechanisms of PoIFN-α in intestine cells. Caco-2 cells and fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled (FITC)-PoIFN-α were used to explore the whole transport process, including endocytosis, intracellular trafficking, exocytosis, and transcytosis. Via various techniques, the transport pathways of PoIFN-α in Caco-2 cells and the mechanisms were clarified. Firstly, the endocytosis of PoIFN-α by Caco-2 cells was time, concentration and temperature dependence. And the lipid raft/caveolae endocytosis was the most likely endocytic pathway for PoIFN-α. Secondly, both Golgi apparatus and lysosome were involved in the intracellular trafficking of PoIFN-α. Thirdly, the treatment of indomethacin resulted in a significant decrease of exocytosis of PoIFN-α, indicating the participation of cyclooxygenase. Finally, to evaluate the efficiency of PoIFN-α transport, the transepithelial electrical resistance (TEER) value was measured to investigate the tight junctional integrity of the cell monolayers. The fluorescence microscope results revealed that the transport of PoIFN-α across the Caco-2 cell monolayers was restricted. In conclusion, this study depicts a probable picture of PoIFN-α transport in Caco-2 cells characterized by non-specificity, partial energy-dependency and low transcytosis.

  7. Mechanisms of Acute Kidney Injury Induced by Experimental Lonomia obliqua Envenomation (United States)

    Berger, Markus; Santi, Lucélia; Beys-da-Silva, Walter O.; Oliveira, Fabrício Marcus Silva; Caliari, Marcelo Vidigal; Yates, John R.; Ribeiro, Maria Aparecida; Guimarães, Jorge Almeida


    Background Lonomia obliqua caterpillar envenomation causes acute kidney injury (AKI), which can be responsible for its deadly actions. This study evaluates the possible mechanisms involved in the pathogenesis of renal dysfunction. Methods To characterize L. obliqua venom effects we subcutaneously injected rats and examined renal functional, morphological and biochemical parameters at several time points. We also performed discovery based proteomic analysis to measure protein expression to identify molecular pathways of renal disease. Results L. obliqua envenomation causes acute tubular necrosis, which is associated with renal inflammation; formation of hematic casts, resulting from intravascular hemolysis; increase in vascular permeability and fibrosis. The dilation of Bowman’s space and glomerular tuft is related to fluid leakage and intra-glomerular fibrin deposition, respectively, since tissue factor procoagulant activity increases in the kidney. Systemic hypotension also contributes to these alterations and to the sudden loss of basic renal functions, including filtration and excretion capacities, urinary concentration and maintenance of fluid homeostasis. In addition, envenomed kidneys increases expression of proteins involved in cell stress, inflammation, tissue injury, heme-induced oxidative stress, coagulation and complement system activation. Finally, the localization of the venom in renal tissue agrees with morphological and functional alterations, suggesting also a direct nephrotoxic activity. Conclusions Mechanisms of L. obliqua-induced AKI are complex involving mainly glomerular and tubular functional impairment and vascular alterations. These results are important to understand the mechanisms of renal injury and may suggest more efficient ways to prevent or attenuate the pathology of Lonomia’s envenomation. PMID:24798088

  8. Experimental Investigation of the Mechanical and Durability Properties of Crumb Rubber Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanbing Liu


    Full Text Available Recycling waste tire rubber by incorporating it into concrete has become the preferred solution to dispose of waste tires. In this study, the effect of the volume content of crumb rubber and pretreatment methods on the performances of concrete was evaluated. Firstly, the fine aggregate and mixture were partly replaced by crumb rubber to produce crumb rubber concrete. Secondly, the mechanical and durability properties of crumb rubber concrete with different replacement forms and volume contents had been investigated. Finally, the crumb rubber after pretreatment by six modifiers was introduced into the concrete mixture. Corresponding tests were conducted to verify the effectiveness of pretreatment methods as compared to the concrete containing untreated crumb rubber. It was observed that the mechanical strength of crumb rubber concrete was reduced, while durability was improved with the increasing of crumb rubber content. 20% replacement of fine aggregate and 5% replacement of the total mixture exhibited acceptable properties for practical applications. In addition, the results indicated that the modifiers had a positive impact on the mechanical and durability properties of crumb rubber concrete. It avoided the disadvantage of crumb rubber concrete having lower strength and provides a reference for the production of modified crumb rubber concrete.

  9. Numerical Simulation and Experimental Investigation of the Viscoelastic Heating Mechanism in Ultrasonic Plasticizing of Amorphous Polymers for Micro Injection Molding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bingyan Jiang


    Full Text Available Ultrasonic plasticizing of polymers for micro-injection molding has been proposed and studied for its unique potential in materials and energy-saving. In our previous work, we have demonstrated the characteristics of the interfacial friction heating mechanism in ultrasonic plasticizing of polymer granulates. In this paper, the other important heating mechanism in ultrasonic plasticizing, i.e., viscoelastic heating for amorphous polymer, was studied by both theoretical modeling and experimentation. The influence mechanism of several parameters, such as the initial temperature of the polymer, the ultrasonic frequency, and the ultrasonic amplitude, was investigated. The results from both numerical simulation and experimentation indicate that the heat generation rate of viscoelastic heating can be significantly influenced by the initial temperature of polymer. The glass transition temperature was found to be a significant shifting point in viscoelastic heating. The heat generation rate is relatively low at the beginning and can have a steep increase after reaching glass transition temperature. In comparison with the ultrasonic frequency, the ultrasonic amplitude has much greater influence on the heat generation rate. In light of the quantitative difference in the viscoelastic heating rate, the limitation of the numerical simulation was discussed in the aspect of the assumptions and the applied mathematical models.

  10. The Open Lung Approach Improves Pulmonary Vascular Mechanics in an Experimental Model of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. (United States)

    Santos, Arnoldo; Lucchetta, Luca; Monge-Garcia, M Ignacio; Borges, Joao Batista; Tusman, Gerardo; Hedenstierna, Goran; Larsson, Anders; Suarez-Sipmann, Fernando


    To test whether positive end-expiratory pressure consistent with an open lung approach improves pulmonary vascular mechanics compared with higher or lower positive end-expiratory pressures in experimental acute respiratory distress syndrome. Experimental study. Animal research laboratory. Ten pigs, 35 ± 5.2 kg. Acute respiratory distress syndrome was induced combining saline lung lavages with injurious mechanical ventilation. The positive end-expiratory pressure level resulting in highest compliance during a decremental positive end-expiratory pressure trial after lung recruitment was determined. Thereafter, three positive end-expiratory pressure levels were applied in a random order: hyperinflation, 6 cm H2O above; open lung approach, 2 cm H2O above; and collapse, 6 cm H2O below the highest compliance level. High fidelity pressure and flow sensors were placed at the main pulmonary artery for measuring pulmonary artery resistance (Z0), effective arterial elastance, compliance, and reflected pressure waves. After inducing acute respiratory distress syndrome, Z0 and effective arterial elastance increased (from 218 ± 94 to 444 ± 115 and from 0.27 ± 0.14 to 0.62 ± 0.22 mm Hg/mL, respectively; p mechanics compared with higher or lower positive end-expiratory pressure settings.

  11. Investigation of the mechanical behaviour of the plantar soft tissue during gait cycle: Experimental and numerical activities. (United States)

    Fontanella, Chiara G; Forestiero, Antonella; Carniel, Emanuele L; Natali, Arturo N


    The aim of this work is to investigate the mechanical response of the plantar soft tissue from the heel strike to the midstance, developing both experimental and numerical activities. Using force plates and motion tracking system, the dynamic and kinematic data of 10 subjects are evaluated. The average kinematics data obtained from the experimental tests are assumed as boundary and loading conditions for the computational analyses. A three-dimensional virtual solid model of the foot is developed from the analysis of Digital Imaging and Communications in Medicine images from computed tomography and magnetic resonance. Constitutive formulations that interpret the mechanical response of the biological tissues are defined. Because of the major role of plantar soft tissue in the proposed analysis, a specific visco-hyperelastic constitutive formulation is provided considering the typical features of the tissue mechanics. The three-dimensional numerical model permits to evaluate the capability of the plantar soft tissue to redistribute the deformations, especially during the midstance, and to define quantitative aspects related to the energy absorption. The numerical results highlight the stress distribution from the heel strike to the midstance. The values of stress and strain reached are more intensive during the midstance, when there is a single support of the foot. © IMechE 2015.

  12. Comparative experimental study on fouling mechanisms in nano-porous membrane: cheese whey ultrafiltration as a case study. (United States)

    Torkamanzadeh, Mohammad; Jahanshahi, Mohsen; Peyravi, Majid; Shokuhi Rad, Ali


    Determination of fouling mechanisms and accurate quantitative prediction of nano-porous membrane behavior are of great interest in membrane processes. This work has focused on a comprehensive comparison of two classical and new fouling models. Different operational conditions were tested to analyze the level of agreement of these models with experimental observation. Whey solutions of 8, 0.8 and 0.5 g/L were ultrafiltered in transmembrane pressures (TMPs) of 300 and 500 KPa through a synthesized polyethersulfone/copolymer blend membrane. Fouling mechanisms and the effect of different combinations of TMPs and protein concentrations were determined and analyzed by fitting the experimental data to different models. Based on the results obtained from classical models, it was found that the predictions of the cake layer formation model were quite acceptable, followed by the intermediate blocking model. The new combined pore blockage-cake filtration model, however, was found to be very successful in predicting the flux decline over time for every operational condition tested, with all relative errors of prediction less than 5%. The latter also showed a good performance in the transition from the pore blockage mechanism to cake layer formation.

  13. Experimental and theoretical exploration of mechanical stability of Pt/NbO2 interfaces for thermoelectric applications (United States)

    Music, Denis; Schmidt, Paul; Saksena, Aparna


    Mechanical stability criteria for metallic contacts, namely a minimised thermal stress and an enhanced interfacial strength, have been appraised for sputtered, x-ray amorphous NbO2 thermoelectric thin films in contact with a polycrystalline Pt electrode utilising experimental and theoretical methods. Thermal stress built at these Pt/NbO2 interfaces with approximately 50 MPa is minute even at 800 °C, the maximum operation temperature. There are no coordination changes of Pt and its metallic character is only marginally altered upon the interface formation. In addition, Nb–O bonds at the interface sustain their covalent-ionic dioxide bonding nature. Hence, even though there are no considerable modifications in the electronic structure of the individual components at these interfaces, Pt/NbO2 interfacial bonds of metallic and partly covalent character are strong with a work of separation reaching 2 J m‑2. Based on the synergic experimental and theoretical results, it is therefore expected that these interfaces are mechanically stable during operation of these thermoelectric devices. This strategy is of general importance for designing mechanically stable electrical contacts.

  14. Mechanisms of resistance and susceptibility to experimental visceral leishmaniosis: BALB/c mouse versus Syrian hamster model. (United States)

    Nieto, Ana; Domínguez-Bernal, Gustavo; Orden, José A; De La Fuente, Ricardo; Madrid-Elena, Nadia; Carrión, Javier


    Several animal models have been established to study visceral leishmaniosis (VL), a worldwide vector-borne disease affecting humans and domestic animals that constitutes a serious public health problem. BALB/c mice and Syrian hamsters are the most widely used experimental models. In this paper, we summarize the advantages and disadvantages of these two experimental models and discuss the results obtained using these models in different studies of VL. Studies using the BALB/c mouse model have underscored differences between the liver and spleen in the course of VL, indicating that pathological evaluation of the visceral organs is essential for understanding the immune mechanisms induced by Leishmania infantum infection. The main goal of this review is to collate the relevant literature on Leishmania pathogenesis into a sequence of events, providing a schematic view of the main components of adaptive and innate immunity in the liver and spleen after experimental infection with L. infantum or L. donovani. This review also presents several viewpoints and reflections about some controversial aspects of Leishmania research, including the choice of experimental model, route of administration, inoculum size and the relevance of pathology (intimately linked to parasite persistence): a thorough understanding of which is essential for future VL research and the successful development of efficient control strategies for Leishmania spp.

  15. Mechanisms of resistance and susceptibility to experimental visceral leishmaniosis: BALB/c mouse versus syrian hamster model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nieto Ana


    Full Text Available Abstract Several animal models have been established to study visceral leishmaniosis (VL, a worldwide vector-borne disease affecting humans and domestic animals that constitutes a serious public health problem. BALB/c mice and Syrian hamsters are the most widely used experimental models. In this paper, we summarize the advantages and disadvantages of these two experimental models and discuss the results obtained using these models in different studies of VL. Studies using the BALB/c mouse model have underscored differences between the liver and spleen in the course of VL, indicating that pathological evaluation of the visceral organs is essential for understanding the immune mechanisms induced by Leishmania infantum infection. The main goal of this review is to collate the relevant literature on Leishmania pathogenesis into a sequence of events, providing a schematic view of the main components of adaptive and innate immunity in the liver and spleen after experimental infection with L. infantum or L. donovani. This review also presents several viewpoints and reflections about some controversial aspects of Leishmania research, including the choice of experimental model, route of administration, inoculum size and the relevance of pathology (intimately linked to parasite persistence: a thorough understanding of which is essential for future VL research and the successful development of efficient control strategies for Leishmania spp.

  16. Error Analysis and Experimental Study of a Bi-Planar Parallel Mechanism in a Pedicle Screw Robot System. (United States)

    Duan, Qingjuan; Du, Zhijiang; Yu, Hongjian; Wang, Yongfeng; Dong, Wei


    Due to the urgent need for high precision surgical equipment for minimally invasive spinal surgery, a novel robot-assistant system was developed for the accurate placement of pedicle screws in lumbar spinal surgeries. The structure of the robot was based on a macro-micro mechanism, which includes a serial mechanism (macro part) and a bi-planar 5R parallel mechanism (micro part). The macro part was used to achieve a large workspace, while the micro part was used to obtain high stiffness and accuracy. Based on the transfer function of dimension errors, the factors affecting the accuracy of the end effectors were analyzed. Then the manufacturing errors and joint angle error on the position-stance of the end effectors were investigated. Eventually, the mechanism of the strain energy produced by the deformation of linkage via forced assembly and displacements of the output point were calculated. The amount of the transfer errors was quantitatively analyzed by the simulation. Experimental tests show that the error of the bi-planar 5R mechanism can be controlled no more than 1 mm for translation and 1° for rotation, which satisfies the required absolute position accuracy of the robot.

  17. Error Analysis and Experimental Study of a Bi-Planar Parallel Mechanism in a Pedicle Screw Robot System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qingjuan Duan


    Full Text Available Due to the urgent need for high precision surgical equipment for minimally invasive spinal surgery, a novel robot-assistant system was developed for the accurate placement of pedicle screws in lumbar spinal surgeries. The structure of the robot was based on a macro-micro mechanism, which includes a serial mechanism (macro part and a bi-planar 5R parallel mechanism (micro part. The macro part was used to achieve a large workspace, while the micro part was used to obtain high stiffness and accuracy. Based on the transfer function of dimension errors, the factors affecting the accuracy of the end effectors were analyzed. Then the manufacturing errors and joint angle error on the position-stance of the end effectors were investigated. Eventually, the mechanism of the strain energy produced by the deformation of linkage via forced assembly and displacements of the output point were calculated. The amount of the transfer errors was quantitatively analyzed by the simulation. Experimental tests show that the error of the bi-planar 5R mechanism can be controlled no more than 1 mm for translation and 1° for rotation, which satisfies the required absolute position accuracy of the robot.

  18. Experimental study and numerical simulation on the structural and mechanical properties of Typha leaves through multimodal microscopy approaches. (United States)

    Liu, Jingjing; Zhang, Zhihui; Yu, Zhenglei; Liang, Yunhong; Li, Xiujuan; Ren, Luquan


    The Typha leaf, with special multi-level structure, low density and excellent mechanical properties, is an ideal bionic prototype utilized for lightweight design. In order to further study the relationship between the structure and mechanical properties, the three-dimensional macroscopic morphology of Typha leaves was characterized by micro computed tomography (Micro-CT) and its internal microstructure was observed by scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The combination of experimental and computational research was carried out in this paper, to reveal and verify the effect of multi-level structure on the mechanical properties. A universal testing machine and a self-developed mechanical testing apparatus with high precision and low load were used to measure the mechanical properties of the axial compression and lateral bending of the leaves, respectively. Three models with different internal structures were established based on the above-mentioned three-dimensional morphologies. The result demonstrated that the structure of partitions and diaphragms within the Typha leaf could form a reinforcement ribs structure which could provide multiple load paths and make the process of compression and bending difficult. The further nonlinear finite element analysis through LS-DYNA proved that internal structure could improve the ability of the models to resist compression and deformation. The investigation can be the reference for lightweight thin-walled structure design and inspire the application of the bionic structural materials. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Experimental studies in fluid mechanics and materials science using acoustic levitation (United States)

    Trinh, E. H.; Robey, J.; Arce, A.; Gaspar, M.


    Ground-based and short-duration low gravity experiments have been carried out with the use of ultrasonic levitators to study the dynamics of freely suspended liquid drops under the influence of predominantly capillary and acoustic radiation forces. Some of the effects of the levitating field on the shape as well as the fluid flow fields within the drop have been determined. The development and refinement of measurement techniques using levitated drops with size on the order of 2 mm in diameter have yielded methods having direct application to experiments in microgravity. In addition, containerless melting, undercooling, and freezing of organic materials as well as low melting metals have provided experimental data and observations on the application of acoustic positioning techniques to materials studies.

  20. Efficacy and mechanism of angiotensin II receptor blocker treatment in experimental abdominal aortic aneurysms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasunori Iida

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Despite the importance of the renin-angiotensin (Ang system in abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA pathogenesis, strategies targeting this system to prevent clinical aneurysm progression remain controversial and unproven. We compared the relative efficacy of two Ang II type 1 receptor blockers, telmisartan and irbesartan, in limiting experimental AAAs in distinct mouse models of aneurysm disease. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: AAAs were induced using either 1 Ang II subcutaneous infusion (1000 ng/kg/min for 28 days in male ApoE(-/- mice, or 2 transient intra-aortic porcine pancreatic elastase infusion in male C57BL/6 mice. One week prior to AAA creation, mice started to daily receive irbesartan (50 mg/kg, telmisartan (10 mg/kg, fluvastatin (40 mg/kg, bosentan (100 mg/kg, doxycycline (100 mg/kg or vehicle alone. Efficacy was determined via serial in vivo aortic diameter measurements, histopathology and gene expression analysis at sacrifice. Aortic aneurysms developed in 67% of Ang II-infused ApoE(-/- mice fed with standard chow and water alone (n = 15, and 40% died of rupture. Strikingly, no telmisartan-treated mouse developed an AAA (n = 14. Both telmisartan and irbesartan limited aneurysm enlargement, medial elastolysis, smooth muscle attenuation, macrophage infiltration, adventitial neocapillary formation, and the expression of proteinases and proinflammatory mediators. Doxycycline, fluvastatin and bosentan did not influence aneurysm progression. Telmisartan was also highly effective in intra-aortic porcine pancreatic elastase infusion-induced AAAs, a second AAA model that did not require exogenous Ang II infusion. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Telmisartan suppresses experimental aneurysms in a model-independent manner and may prove valuable in limiting clinical disease progression.

  1. Computational and experimental studies on the catalytic mechanism of biliverdin-IXbeta reductase. (United States)

    Smith, Liam J; Browne, Seamus; Mulholland, Adrian J; Mantle, Timothy J


    BVR-B (biliverdin-IXbeta reductase) also known as FR (flavin reductase) is a promiscuous enzyme catalysing the pyridine-nucleotide-dependent reduction of a variety of flavins, biliverdins, PQQ (pyrroloquinoline quinone) and ferric ion. Mechanistically it is a good model for BVR-A (biliverdin-IXalpha reductase), a potential pharmacological target for neonatal jaundice and also a potential target for adjunct therapy to maintain protective levels of biliverdin-IXalpha during organ transplantation. In a commentary on the structure of BVR-B it was noted that one outstanding issue remained: whether the mechanism was a concerted hydride transfer followed by protonation of a pyrrolic anion or protonation of the pyrrole followed by hydride transfer. In the present study we have attempted to address this question using QM/MM (quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics) calculations. QM/MM potential energy surfaces show that the lowest energy pathway proceeds with a positively charged pyrrole intermediate via two transition states. These initial calculations were performed with His(153) as the source of the proton. However site-directed mutagenesis studies with both the H153A and the H153N mutant reveal that His(153) is not required for catalytic activity. We have repeated the calculation with a solvent hydroxonium donor and obtain a similar energy landscape indicating that protonation of the pyrrole is the most likely first step followed by hydride transfer and that the required proton may come from bulk solvent. The implications of the present study for the design of inhibitors of BVR-A are discussed.

  2. Experimental observation of the blob-generation mechanism from interchange waves in a plasma. (United States)

    Furno, I; Labit, B; Podestà, M; Fasoli, A; Müller, S H; Poli, F M; Ricci, P; Theiler, C; Brunner, S; Diallo, A; Graves, J


    The mechanism for blob generation in a toroidal magnetized plasma is investigated using time-resolved measurements of two-dimensional structures of electron density, temperature, and plasma potential. The blobs are observed to form from a radially elongated structure that is sheared off by the E x B flow. The structure is generated by an interchange wave that increases in amplitude and extends radially in response to a decrease of the radial pressure scale length. The dependence of the blob amplitude upon the pressure radial scale length is discussed.

  3. Experimental Research on the Mechanical Properties of Methane Hydrate-Ice Mixtures


    Feng Yu; Yanghui Li; Weiguo Liu; Yongchen Song


    The mechanical properties of methane hydrate are important to the stability of borehole and methane extraction from a methane hydrate reservoir. In this study, a series of triaxial compression tests were carried out on laboratory-formed methane hydrate-ice mixtures with various methane hydrate contents. Axial loading was conducted at an axial strain rate of 1.33%/min and a constant temperature of −10 °C. The results indicate that: (1) the deformation behavior is strongly affected by confining...

  4. Absence of postzygotic isolating mechanisms: evidence from experimental hybridization between two species of tropical sea urchins* (United States)

    Rahman, M. Aminur; Uehara, Tsuyoshi; Arshad, Aziz; Yusoff, Fatimah Md.; Shamsudin, Mariana Nor


    Two reef margin species of tropical sea urchins, Echinometra sp. C (Ec) and Echinometra oblonga (Eo), occur sympatrically on Okinawa intertidal reefs in southern Japan. Hybridization between these species was examined through a series of cross-fertilization experiments. At limited sperm concentrations, where conspecific crosses reached near 100% fertilization, both heterospecific crosses showed high fertilization rates (81%–85%). The compatibility of the gametes demonstrated that if gamete recognition molecules are involved in fertilization of these species, they are not strongly species-specific. We found that conspecific crosses reached peak fertilization levels much faster than did heterospecific crosses, indicating the presence of a prezygotic barrier to hybridization in the gametes. Larval survival, metamorphosis, and juvenile and adult survival of hybrid groups were nearly identical to those of their parent species. Hybrids from crosses in both directions developed normally through larval stages to sexually mature adults, indicating that neither gametic incompatibility nor hybrid inviability appeared to maintain reproductive isolation between these species. In adults, Ec×Ec crosses gave the highest live weight, followed by Eo (ova)×Ec (sperm), Ec (ova)×Eo (sperm), and Eo×Eo. Other growth performance measures (viz., test size, Aristotle’s lantern length, and gonad index) of hybrid groups and their parental siblings showed the same trends. The phenotypic color patterns of the hybrids were closer to the maternal coloration, whereas spine length, tube-foot and gonad spicule characteristics, pedicellaria valve length, and gamete sizes showed intermediate features. Adult F1 hybrids were completely fertile and displayed high fertilization success in F1 backcrosses, eliminating the likelihood that hybrid sterility is a postzygotic mechanism of reproductive isolation. Conversely, intensive surveys failed to find hybrid individuals in the field, suggesting the

  5. Absence of postzygotic isolating mechanisms: evidence from experimental hybridization between two species of tropical sea urchins. (United States)

    Rahman, M Aminur; Uehara, Tsuyoshi; Arshad, Aziz; Yusoff, Fatimah Md; Shamsudin, Mariana Nor


    Two reef margin species of tropical sea urchins, Echinometra sp. C (Ec) and Echinometra oblonga (Eo), occur sympatrically on Okinawa intertidal reefs in southern Japan. Hybridization between these species was examined through a series of cross-fertilization experiments. At limited sperm concentrations, where conspecific crosses reached near 100% fertilization, both heterospecific crosses showed high fertilization rates (81%-85%). The compatibility of the gametes demonstrated that if gamete recognition molecules are involved in fertilization of these species, they are not strongly species-specific. We found that conspecific crosses reached peak fertilization levels much faster than did heterospecific crosses, indicating the presence of a prezygotic barrier to hybridization in the gametes. Larval survival, metamorphosis, and juvenile and adult survival of hybrid groups were nearly identical to those of their parent species. Hybrids from crosses in both directions developed normally through larval stages to sexually mature adults, indicating that neither gametic incompatibility nor hybrid inviability appeared to maintain reproductive isolation between these species. In adults, Ec×Ec crosses gave the highest live weight, followed by Eo (ova)×Ec (sperm), Ec (ova)×Eo (sperm), and Eo×Eo. Other growth performance measures (viz., test size, Aristotle's lantern length, and gonad index) of hybrid groups and their parental siblings showed the same trends. The phenotypic color patterns of the hybrids were closer to the maternal coloration, whereas spine length, tube-foot and gonad spicule characteristics, pedicellaria valve length, and gamete sizes showed intermediate features. Adult F(1) hybrids were completely fertile and displayed high fertilization success in F(1) backcrosses, eliminating the likelihood that hybrid sterility is a postzygotic mechanism of reproductive isolation. Conversely, intensive surveys failed to find hybrid individuals in the field, suggesting the

  6. Elevated-temperature Deformation Mechanisms in Ta2C: An Experimental Study (United States)


    of aluminum alloys, and brake liners [2–4]. An interesting attribute of the tantalum carbides is the duality in mechanical properties they exhibit. At...Sample fabrication The Ta2C test bars were produced by Exothermics, Inc. by mixing constituent TaC and Ta powder at the Fig. 1. (a) TaC rock salt...mounted in a conductive epoxy for handling. TEM foils were prepared by ultrasonically drilling 3 mm discs from the cross-sections using a Fischione

  7. Experimental study on the mechanical behaviour of a heat exchanger pile using physical modelling


    Yavari, Neda; Tang, Anh Minh; Pereira, Jean-Michel; Hassen, Ghazi


    This study aims to provide knowledge on the thermo-mechanical behaviour of heat exchanger piles, through a laboratory scale model. The model pile (20 mm in external diameter) was embedded in dry sand. The behaviour of the axially loaded pile under thermal cycles was investigated. After applying the axial load on the pile head, the pile's temperature was varied between 5 °C and 30 °C. Seven tests, corresponding to various axial loads ranging from 0 to 70 % of the pile estimated bearing capacit...

  8. Advantages of the experimental animal hollow organ mechanical testing system for the rat colon rupture pressure test. (United States)

    Ji, Chengdong; Guo, Xuan; Li, Zhen; Qian, Shuwen; Zheng, Feng; Qin, Haiqing


    Many studies have been conducted on colorectal anastomotic leakage to reduce the incidence of anastomotic leakage. However, how to precisely determine if the bowel can withstand the pressure of a colorectal anastomosis experiment, which is called anastomotic bursting pressure, has not been determined. A task force developed the experimental animal hollow organ mechanical testing system to provide precise measurement of the maximum pressure that an anastomotic colon can withstand, and to compare it with the commonly used method such as the mercury and air bag pressure manometer in a rat colon rupture pressure test. Forty-five male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into the manual ball manometry (H) group, the tracing machine manometry pressure gauge head (MP) group, and the experimental animal hollow organ mechanical testing system (ME) group. The rats in each group were subjected to a cut colon rupture pressure test after injecting anesthesia in the tail vein. Colonic end-to-end anastomosis was performed, and the rats were rested for 1 week before anastomotic bursting pressure was determined by one of the three methods. No differences were observed between the normal colon rupture pressure and colonic anastomotic bursting pressure, which were determined using the three manometry methods. However, several advantages, such as reduction in errors, were identified in the ME group. Different types of manometry methods can be applied to the normal rat colon, but the colonic anastomotic bursting pressure test using the experimental animal hollow organ mechanical testing system is superior to traditional methods. Copyright © 2013 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Atomic imaging using secondary electrons in a scanning transmission electron microscope: Experimental observations and possible mechanisms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inada, H. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Hitachi High Technologies Corp., Ibaraki (Japan); Su, D. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Egerton, R.F. [University of Alberta, Edmonton (Canada); Konno, M. [Hitachi High Technologies Corp., Ibaraki (Japan); Wu, L.; Ciston, J.; Wall, J. [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States); Zhu, Y., E-mail: [Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY 11973 (United States)


    We report detailed investigation of high-resolution imaging using secondary electrons (SE) with a sub-nanometer probe in an aberration-corrected transmission electron microscope, Hitachi HD2700C. This instrument also allows us to acquire the corresponding annular dark-field (ADF) images both simultaneously and separately. We demonstrate that atomic SE imaging is achievable for a wide range of elements, from uranium to carbon. Using the ADF images as a reference, we studied the SE image intensity and contrast as functions of applied bias, atomic number, crystal tilt, and thickness to shed light on the origin of the unexpected ultrahigh resolution in SE imaging. We have also demonstrated that the SE signal is sensitive to the terminating species at a crystal surface. A possible mechanism for atomic-scale SE imaging is proposed. The ability to image both the surface and bulk of a sample at atomic-scale is unprecedented, and can have important applications in the field of electron microscopy and materials characterization. -- Research highlights: {yields} Atomic imaging using secondary electrons in an aberration-corrected electron microscope. {yields} High-resolution secondary electron imaging mechanism. {yields} Image contrast quantification and as functions of imaging conditions. {yields} Simultaneous acquisition of atomic images from surface and bulk.

  10. [Tissular and mechanical effects observed with an experimental femtosecond laser microkeratome for corneal refractive surgery]. (United States)

    Touboul, D; Salin, F; Mortemousque, B; Courjaud, A; Chabassier, P; Mottay, E; Léger, F; Colin, J


    Despite progress in mechanical microkeratomes used in refractive surgery, mechanical complications during cutting of the cornea still occur. Cutting by laser could reduce these complications and to date, the femtosecond laser is the only potential candidate for this purpose. Our study reports preliminary results with a femtosecond microkeratome for cutting porcine corneas ex vivo. We first examined the fundamental principles of the interaction between the femtosecond laser and the corneal stroma, including the volume of tissue lesions, the laser breakdown threshold of the stroma and the laser ablation selectivity. We then analyzed the quality of cutting corneal flaps with the laser, focusing on collateral tissue effects and the roughness of the interfaces observed both histologically and with scanning electron microscopy. The photoablative and photodisruptive effects were very similar with the femtosecond laser. This characteristic is specific to ultrashort impulsion photodisruptor lasers and allows for a very precise surgical procedure. The laser-induced breakdown threshold of porcine corneal stroma was found to be 0.55 J/cm2. Collateral tissue lesions were on the submicrometer level. The roughness of the stromal bed was optimal for postage stamp cutting, providing very many contiguous points of impact which were as spherical as possible. Corneal photodisruption with a femtosecond laser is reproducible and extremely accurate. The optomechanical parameters involved with this technique require great technological skill and should be placed in experienced hands.

  11. Experimental Study of a Small Scale Hydraulic System for Mechanical Wind Energy Conversion into Heat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadas Zdankus


    Full Text Available Significant potential for reducing thermal energy consumption in buildings of moderate and cold climate countries lies within wind energy utilisation. Unlike solar irradiation, character of wind speeds in Central and Northern Europe correspond to the actual thermal energy demand in buildings. However, mechanical wind energy undergoes transformation into electrical energy before being actually used as thermal energy in most wind energy applications. The study presented in this paper deals with hydraulic systems, designed for small-scale applications to eliminate the intermediate energy transformation as it converts mechanical wind energy into heat directly. The prototype unit containing a pump, flow control valve, oil tank and piping was developed and tested under laboratory conditions. Results of the experiments showed that the prototype system is highly efficient and adjustable to a broad wind velocity range by modifying the definite hydraulic system resistance. Development of such small-scale replicable units has the potential to promote “bottom-up” solutions for the transition to a zero carbon society.

  12. Mechanisms underlying the sparing of masticatory versus limb muscle function in an experimental critical illness model. (United States)

    Aare, Sudhakar; Ochala, Julien; Norman, Holly S; Radell, Peter; Eriksson, Lars I; Göransson, Hanna; Chen, Yi-Wen; Hoffman, Eric P; Larsson, Lars


    Acute quadriplegic myopathy (AQM) is a common debilitating acquired disorder in critically ill intensive care unit (ICU) patients that is characterized by tetraplegia/generalized weakness of limb and trunk muscles. Masticatory muscles, on the other hand, are typically spared or less affected, yet the mechanisms underlying this striking muscle-specific difference remain unknown. This study aims to evaluate physiological parameters and the gene expression profiles of masticatory and limb muscles exposed to factors suggested to trigger AQM, such as mechanical ventilation, immobilization, neuromuscular blocking agents, corticosteroids (CS), and sepsis for 5 days by using a unique porcine model mimicking the ICU conditions. Single muscle fiber cross-sectional area and force-generating capacity, i.e., maximum force normalized to fiber cross-sectional area (specific force), revealed maintained masseter single muscle fiber cross-sectional area and specific-force after 5 days' exposure to all triggering factors. This is in sharp contrast to observations in limb and trunk muscles, showing a dramatic decline in specific force in response to 5 days' exposure to the triggering factors. Significant differences in gene expression were observed between craniofacial and limb muscles, indicating a highly complex and muscle-specific response involving transcription and growth factors, heat shock proteins, matrix metalloproteinase inhibitor, oxidative stress responsive elements, and sarcomeric proteins underlying the relative sparing of cranial vs. spinal nerve innervated muscles during exposure to the ICU intervention.

  13. Experimental investigation and mechanism of critical heat flux enhancement in pool boiling heat transfer with nanofluids (United States)

    Kamatchi, R.; Venkatachalapathy, S.; Nithya, C.


    In the present study, reduced graphene oxide (rGO) is synthesized from graphite using modified Hummer and chemical reduction methods. Various characterizations techniques are carried out to study the in-plane crystallite size, number of layers, presence of functional groups and surface morphology. Different concentrations of 0.01, 0.1, and 0.3 g/l of rGO/water nanofluids are prepared by dispersing the flakes in DI water. The colloidal stability of 0.3 g/l concentration is measured after 5 days using Zetasizer and found to be stable. The rGO/water nanofluids are then used to study the effect on the enhancement of critical heat flux (CHF) in pool boiling heat transfer. Results indicate an enhancement in CHF ranging from 145 to 245 % for the tested concentrations. The mechanisms of CHF enhancement are analyzed based on surface wettability, surface roughness, and porous layer thickness. The macrolayer dryout model sufficiently supports the mechanism of CHF enhancement of thin wire with rGO deposits, which is not reported yet.

  14. Experimental and Numerical Studies of Mechanically- and Convectively-Driven Turbulence in Planetary Interiors (United States)

    Grannan, Alexander Michael


    The energy for driving turbulent flows in planetary fluid layers comes from a combination of thermocompositional sources and the motion of the boundary in contact with the fluid through mechanisms like precessional, tidal, and librational forcing. Characterizing the resulting turbulent fluid motions are necessary for understanding many aspects of the planet's dynamics and evolution including the generation of magnetic fields in the electrically conducting fluid layers and dissipation in the oceans. Although such flows are strongly inertial they are also strongly influenced by the Coriolis force whose source is in the rotation of the body and tends to constrain the inertial effects and provide support for fluid instabilities that might in-turn generate turbulence. Furthermore, the magnetic fields generated by the electrically conducting fluids act back on the fluid through the Lorentz force that also tends to constrain the flow. The goal of this dissertation is to investigate the characteristics of turbulent flows under the influence of mechanical, convective, rotational and magnetic forcing. In order to investigate the response of the fluid to mechanical forcing, I have modified a unique set of laboratory experiments that allows me to quantify the generation of turbulence driven by the periodic oscillations of the fluid containing boundary through tides and libration. These laboratory experiments replicate the fundamental ingredients found in planetary environments and are necessary for the excitation of instabilities that drive the turbulent fluid motions. For librational forcing, a rigid ellipsoidal container and ellipsoidal shell of isothermal unstratified fluid is made to rotate with a superimposed oscillation while, for tidal forcing, an elastic ellipsoidal container of isothermal unstratified fluid is made to rotate while an independently rotating perturbance also flexes the elastic container. By varying the strength and frequencies of these oscillations the

  15. Experimental study of the mechanisms of steam reactivation of unreacted calcium-based sorbent for flue gas desulphurisation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aijun Wang; Zhongchao Tan; Haiying Qi; Xuchang Xu [University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (United States). Department of Agricultural and Biological Engineering


    This paper reports an experimental investigation of the mechanisms of steam reactivation of spent sorbent for flue gas desulphurisation. Sulphated lime samples were reactivated by using steam to increase the conversion rate of sorbent for flue gas desulphurisation. Samples were characterised using mercury porosimeter, XRD, and SEM. Reactivation temperatures were in the range of 200-800{sup o}C. Retention times were 5, 10, and 20 min. For the conditions within this work, it was found that sorbent particles broke down when reactivated at 200{sup o}C, and migration of trapped CaO outward was the main mechanism when reactivation temperature was greater than 300{sup o}C.

  16. Mechanism of Alkoxy Groups Substitution by Grignard Reagents on Aromatic Rings and Experimental Verification of Theoretical Predictions of Anomalous Reactions (United States)

    Jiménez-Osés, Gonzalo; Brockway, Anthony J.; Shaw, Jared T.; Houk, K. N.


    The mechanism of direct displacement of alkoxy groups in vinylogous and aromatic esters by Grignard reagents, a reaction that is not observed with expectedly better tosyloxy leaving groups, is elucidated computationally. The mechanism of this reaction has been determined to proceed through the inner-sphere attack of nucleophilic alkyl groups from magnesium to the reacting carbons via a metalaoxetane transition state. The formation of a strong magnesium chelate with the reacting alkoxy and carbonyl groups dictates the observed reactivity and selectivity. The influence of ester, ketone and aldehyde substituents was investigated. In some cases, the calculations predicted the formation of products different than those previously reported; these predictions were then verified experimentally. The importance of studying the actual system, and not simplified models as computational systems, is demonstrated. PMID:23601086

  17. Elucidation of possible mechanism of analgesic action of Valeriana wallichii DC chemotype (patchouli alcohol) in experimental animal models. (United States)

    Sah, Sangeeta Pilkhwal; Mathela, Chandra S; Chopra, Kanwaljit


    Valeriana wallichii (Family Valerianaceae), popularly named as Indian valerian, exists as three chemotypes. Aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of V. wallichii chemotype (patchouli alcohol) extract (DCME) and essential oil (VPAEO) on experimental models of nociception and to elucidate its possible mechanism of action. Analgesic effect was evaluated using acetic acid induced writhing and tail flick model. DCME and VPAEO (40 and 80 mg/kg, p.o.) significantly inhibited the number of writhings as compared to vehicle treated group. None of the doses of DCME and VPAEO exhibited any effect in tail flick model suggesting only peripheral analgesic activity. When studied for mechanism of action in acetic acid induced writhing, subeffective dose of essential oil significantly potentiated the effect of aspirin while no potentiation was seen in case of extract. These data suggest that essential oil VPAEO exerted peripheral analgesic via inhibition of prostaglandin synthesis.

  18. 1990 Volvo Award in experimental studies. The dependence of intervertebral disc mechanical properties on physiologic conditions. (United States)

    Keller, T S; Holm, S H; Hansson, T H; Spengler, D M


    In vivo creep-recovery and disc pressure measurements were performed on the lumbar spine of immature and mature swine. The creep-recovery measurements were performed using a custom materials testing apparatus designed to apply static or dynamic loads to the spine of anesthetized animals. A series of three separate experiments were performed to assess the effects of: (I) animal death, (II) graded injury to the disc anulus, and (III) respiratory mechanics on the biomechanical response of the porcine L1-L3 vertebral unit (VU). In Experiments I and II, creep rate, modulus, and viscosity parameters were computed using a three-parameter solid rheological analysis of the displacement-time response recorded during the application of a 300-N load. In Experiment III, the effects of respiratory volume and frequency changes on disc pressure were assessed in the unloaded, statically loaded, and immobilized porcine VU. Our results indicated that the adult VU tended to be stiffer, deform or creep more slowly, and had a significantly higher viscosity than the VU of immature pigs. The results of Experiment I demonstrated that the biomechanical response for the VU was significantly altered by the death of the animal; the VU of the living animal (adolescent or mature) was more compliant and deformed at a faster rate than the VU of the same animal after death. Disc injury produced changes in stiffness, viscosity, and creep rate analogous to that of aging, and on the basis of the graded injuries created in this study, it appears that a small defect in the annulus is just as deleterious as removing a large section of anular material. The results of Experiment III indicated that respiration plays an important role in the normal, in vivo mechanical and nutritional behavior of the porcine VU. Altogether, these results demonstrate that, in the absence of normal physiologic conditions, one may not be able to reliably predict the mechanical response of the lumbar spine, and suggest that

  19. Experimental identification of mechanisms controlling calcium isotopic fractionations by the vegetation. (United States)

    Cobert, Florian; Schimtt, Anne-Désirée.; Bourgeade, Pascale; Stille, Peter; Chabaux, François; Badot, Pierre-Marie; Jaegler, Thomas


    This study aims to better understand the role of vegetation on the Ca cycle at the level of the critical zone of the Earth, in order to specify the mechanisms controlling the Ca absorption by plants at the rock/plant interface. To do this, we performed experiments using hydroponic plant cultures in a way that we could control the co-occuring geochemical and physiological process and determine the impact of the nutritive solution on the Ca cycle within plants. A dicotyledon and calcicole plant with rapid growth, the French bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.), has been chosen to have access to one complete growth cycle. Several experiments have been conducted with two Ca concentrations, 6 (L) and 60 (H) ppm and two pH values (4 and 6) in the nutritive solution, for which the Ca concentration was maintained constant, so its Ca content is considered as infinite. A second experiment (non infinite L6) allowed Ca depletion in the solution through time; therefore, response effects on the Ca isotopic signatures in the plant organs and in the nutritive solution were observed. We determined Ca concentrations and isotopic ratios in the nutritive solution and in different organs (main roots, secondary roots, old and young stems, old and young leaves and fruits) at two different growth stages (10 days and 6 weeks). Preliminary results show that: (1) the roots (main and secondary) were enriched in the light isotope (40Ca) compared to the nutritive solution, and leaves were enriched in the heavy isotope (44Ca) compared to stems. These results are in accord with previously published field studies (Wigand et al., 2005; Page et al., 2008; Cenki-Tok et al., 2009; Holmden and Bélanger, 2010). Leaves and secondary roots were however enriched in the heavy isotope (44Ca) compared to bean pods, stems and main roots. These results could be related to kinetic fractionation processes occurring either during the Ca root uptake, or during the Ca transport within the plant, or physiological mechanisms

  20. Experimental investigation on the dynamic mechanical properties of soft magnetic entangled metallic wire material (United States)

    Ma, Yanhong; Zhang, Qicheng; Zhang, Dayi; Hu, Wenzhong; Hong, Jie


    This work describes the dynamic characteristics of a novel soft magnetic entangled metallic wire material(SM-EMWM) by the dynamic tests for the first time. The mechanical properties of three batches of SM-EMWMs with different porosities have been investigated under different dynamic loads in different magnetic field intensities. The result shows that its properties (storage modulus and loss factor) have commendably controllable magnetic responses in the magnetic field. In particular, the dynamic damping is more remarkable than its quasi-static performance, and the loss factor can be improved above 50% in the magnetic field of 500 mT. The results indicate that SM-EMWM as a magneto-sensitive smart material possesses a considerable application prospect for the active vibration control with variable stiffness and damping.

  1. submitter An experimental evaluation of the fully coupled hysteretic electro-mechanical behaviour of piezoelectric actuators

    CERN Document Server

    Butcher, Mark; Giustiniani, Alessandro; Masi, Alessandro


    Piezoelectrics are the most commonly used of the multifunctional smart materials in industrial applications, because of their relatively low cost and ease of use in electric and electronic oriented applications. Nevertheless, while datasheets usually give just small signal quasi-static parameters, their full potential can only be exploited only if a full characterization is available because the maximum stroke or the higher piezo coupling coefficients are available at different electro-mechanical biases, where often small signal analysis is not valid. In this paper a method to get the quasi-static fully coupled characterization is presented. The method is tested on a commercial piezo actuator but can be extended to similar devices.

  2. Experimental investigation of the detection mechanism in WSi nanowire superconducting single photon detectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gaudio, Rosalinda, E-mail:; Zhou, Zili; Fiore, Andrea [COBRA Research Institute, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600MB Eindhoven (Netherlands); Renema, Jelmer J.; Exter, Martin P. van; Dood, Michiel J. A. de [Huygens-Kamerlingh Onnes Laboratory, Leiden University, Niels Bohrweg 2, 2333CA Leiden (Netherlands); Verma, Varun B.; Lita, Adriana E.; Shainline, Jeffrey; Stevens, Martin J.; Mirin, Richard P.; Nam, Sae Woo [National Institute of Standards and Technology, 325 Broadway, Boulder, Colorado 80305 (United States)


    We use quantum detector tomography to investigate the detection mechanism in WSi nanowire superconducting single photon detectors. To this purpose, we fabricated a 250 nm wide and 250 nm long WSi nanowire and measured its response to impinging photons with wavelengths ranging from λ = 900 nm to λ = 1650 nm. Tomographic measurements show that the detector response depends on the total excitation energy only. Moreover, for total absorbed energies >0.8 eV the current–energy relation is linear, similar to what was observed in NbN nanowires, whereas the current–energy relation deviates from linear behavior for total energies below 0.8 eV.

  3. Shape Stability of the LHC Superconducting Dipole Mechanical Model and Experimental Investigations

    CERN Document Server

    La China, M; Scandale, Walter


    The aim of this work is the study of the geometry of the main superconducting dipole for the Large Hadron Collider from the manufacturing process throughout the pre-operative stages to predict the respect of the tight tolerance, imposed by the beam dynamic, in both nominal and chancy working conditions. Expected and unexpected situations have been approached through the development of dedicate models and tests with the purpose of evaluating their impact on magnet geometry. In our study we used structural models of different complexity for different purposes. For example we used analytical models in conjunction with the cold mass geometry database to simulate the overall effect of individual geometry corrections or to discriminate elastic from inelastic measured deformations. By means of finite element models, instead, we investigated the effect of mechanic loads as induced by road transport, or the effect of electro-magnetic forces arising in working conditions. As the assembly complexity prevents from deduci...

  4. Reactive nanolaminate pulsed-laser ignition mechanism: Modeling and experimental evidence of diffusion limited reactions (United States)

    Yarrington, C. D.; Abere, M. J.; Adams, D. P.; Hobbs, M. L.


    Al/Pt nanolaminates with a bilayer thickness (tb, width of an Al/Pt pair-layer) of 164 nm were irradiated with single laser pulses with durations of 10 ms and 0.5 ms at 189 W/cm2 and 1189 W/cm2, respectively. The time to ignition was measured for each pulse, and shorter ignition times were observed for the higher power/shorter pulse width. Videographic images of the irradiated area shortly after ignition show a non-uniform radial brightness for the longer pulse, while the shorter pulse shows uniform brightness. A diffusion-limited single step reaction mechanism was implemented in a finite element package to model the progress from reactants to products at both pulse widths. The model captures well both the observed ignition delay and qualitative observations regarding the non-uniform radial temperature.

  5. Mechanisms of experimental cancer cachexia. Local involvement of IL-1 in colon-26 tumor. (United States)

    Strassmann, G; Masui, Y; Chizzonite, R; Fong, M


    In the colon-26 (C-26) tumor model, the cytokine IL-6 is an important factor involved in experimental cancer cachexia. Recent in vitro data indicated that IL-1 plays a role in the interaction between host macrophages and C-26 cells that express IL-1R, resulting in the amplification of tumor IL-6 production. To investigate the role of IL-1 on the development of C-26 cachexia in vivo, the effect of specific blockade of the action of IL-1 with reagents against IL-1R was evaluated. Both IL-1R antagonist (IL-1RA) and the mAb 35F5 directed against IL-1R type I, prevented binding of radioactive IL-1, and inhibited IL-1-induced IL-6 synthesis by the C-26 cell line. Whereas a systemic administration of these reagents did not reverse weight loss in C-26-bearing mice, intratumoral injections of IL-1RA significantly reduced cachexia. Furthermore, body composition analysis confirmed that this treatment improved lean tissue and fat, as well as hypoglycemia and serum IL-6 level. The fact that the treatment did not change the tumor burden suggests that it affected the host directly. These results support the hypothesis that, at the microenvironment of the C-26 tumor, IL-1 is involved in the cachexia endured by the host.

  6. Experimental Investigation on Dilation Mechanisms of Land-Facies Karamay Oil Sand Reservoirs under Water Injection (United States)

    Lin, Botao; Jin, Yan; Pang, Huiwen; Cerato, Amy B.


    The success of steam-assisted gravity drainage (SAGD) is strongly dependent on the formation of a homogeneous and highly permeable zone in the land-facies Karamay oil sand reservoirs. To accomplish this, hydraulic fracturing is applied through controlled water injection to a pair of horizontal wells to create a dilation zone between the dual wells. The mechanical response of the reservoirs during this injection process, however, has remained unclear for the land-facies oil sand that has a loosely packed structure. This research conducted triaxial, permeability and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) tests on the field-collected oil sand samples. The tests evaluated the influences of the field temperature, confining stress and injection pressure on the dilation mechanisms as shear dilation and tensile parting during injection. To account for petrophysical heterogeneity, five reservoir rocks including regular oil sand, mud-rich oil sand, bitumen-rich oil sand, mudstone and sandstone were investigated. It was found that the permeability evolution in the oil sand samples subjected to shear dilation closely followed the porosity and microcrack evolutions in the shear bands. In contrast, the mudstone and sandstone samples developed distinct shear planes, which formed preferred permeation paths. Tensile parting expanded the pore space and increased the permeability of all the samples in various degrees. Based on this analysis, it is concluded that the range of injection propagation in the pay zone determines the overall quality of hydraulic fracturing, while the injection pressure must be carefully controlled. A region in a reservoir has little dilation upon injection if it remains unsaturated. Moreover, a cooling of the injected water can strengthen the dilation potential of a reservoir. Finally, it is suggested that the numerical modeling of water injection in the Karamay oil sand reservoirs must take into account the volumetric plastic strain in hydrostatic loading.

  7. Experimental evaluation of analyte excitation mechanisms in the inductively coupled plasma (United States)

    Lehn, Scott A.; Hieftje, Gary M.


    The inductively coupled plasma (ICP) is a justifiably popular source for atomic emission spectrometry. However, despite its popularity, the ICP is still only partially understood. Even the mechanisms of analyte excitation remain unclear; some energy levels are quite clearly populated by charge transfer while others might be populated by electron-ion recombination, by electron impact, or by Penning processes. Distinguishing among these alternatives is possible by means of a steady-state kinetics approach that examines correlations between the emission of a selected atom, ion, or level and the local number densities of species assumed to produce the excitation. In an earlier investigation, strong correlations were found between either calcium atom or ion emission and selected combinations of calcium atom or ion number densities and electron number densities in the plasma. However, all radially resolved data employed in the earlier study were produced from Abel inversion and from measurements that were crude by today's standards. Now, by means of tomographic imaging, laser-saturated atomic fluorescence, and Thomson and Rayleigh scattering, it is possible to measure the required radially resolved data without Abel inversion and with far greater fidelity. The correlations previously studied for calcium have been investigated with these more reliable data. Ion-electron recombination, either radiative or with argon as a third body, was determined to be the most likely excitation mechanism for calcium atom, while electron impact appeared to be the most important process to produce excite-state calcium ions. These results were consistent with the previous study. However, the present study suggests that collisional deactivation, rather than radiative decay, is the most likely mode of returning both calcium atoms and ions to the ground state.

  8. Mechanisms of tumor necrosis in photodynamic therapy with a chlorine photosensitizer: experimental studies (United States)

    Privalov, Valeriy A.; Lappa, Alexander V.; Bigbov, Elmir N.


    A photodynamic therapy experiment on 118 inbred white mice with transplanted Ehrlich's tumor (mouse mammary gland adenocarcinoma) is performed to reveal mechanisms of necrosis formation. In 7-10 days the tumor of 1-1.5 cm diameter is formed under skin at the injection point, and PDT procedure is applied. There were used a chlorine type photosensitizer RadachlorineTM and 662 nm wavelength diode laser. The drug is injected by intravenously at the dose of 40 mg/kg; the irradiation is executed in 2-2.5 hours at the surface dose of about 200 J/cm2. Each of the mice had a photochemical reaction in form of destructive changes at the irradiation region with subsequent development of dry coagulation necrosis. After rejection of the necrosis there occurred epithelization of defect tissues in a tumor place. Histological investigations were conducted in different follow-up periods, in 5 and 30 min, 1, 3, 6, and 12 hours, 1, 3, 7 and 28 days after irradiation. They included optical microscopy, immune marker analysis, morphometry with measurements of volume density of epithelium, tumor stroma and necroses, vascular bed. The investigations showed that an important role in damaging mechanisms of photodynamic action belongs to hypoxic injuries of tumor mediated by micro vascular disorders and blood circulatory disturbances. The injuries are formed in a few stages: microcirculation angiospasm causing vessel paresis, irreversible stases in capillaries, diapedetic hemorrhages, thromboses, and thrombovasculitis. It is marked mucoid swelling and fibrinoid necrosis of vascular tissue. Progressive vasculitises result in total vessel obliteration and tumor necrosis.

  9. Mechanics of blast loading on the head models in the study of traumatic brain injury using experimental and computational approaches. (United States)

    Ganpule, S; Alai, A; Plougonven, E; Chandra, N


    Blast waves generated by improvised explosive devices can cause mild, moderate to severe traumatic brain injury in soldiers and civilians. To understand the interactions of blast waves on the head and brain and to identify the mechanisms of injury, compression-driven air shock tubes are extensively used in laboratory settings to simulate the field conditions. The overall goal of this effort is to understand the mechanics of blast wave-head interactions as the blast wave traverses the head/brain continuum. Toward this goal, surrogate head model is subjected to well-controlled blast wave profile in the shock tube environment, and the results are analyzed using combined experimental and numerical approaches. The validated numerical models are then used to investigate the spatiotemporal distribution of stresses and pressure in the human skull and brain. By detailing the results from a series of careful experiments and numerical simulations, this paper demonstrates that: (1) Geometry of the head governs the flow dynamics around the head which in turn determines the net mechanical load on the head. (2) Biomechanical loading of the brain is governed by direct wave transmission, structural deformations, and wave reflections from tissue-material interfaces. (3) Deformation and stress analysis of the skull and brain show that skull flexure and tissue cavitation are possible mechanisms of blast-induced traumatic brain injury.

  10. Mechanisms of action of cannabidiol in adoptively transferred experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis. (United States)

    González-García, Coral; Torres, Irene Moreno; García-Hernández, Ruth; Campos-Ruíz, Lucía; Esparragoza, Luis Rodríguez; Coronado, María José; Grande, Aranzazu García; García-Merino, Antonio; Sánchez López, Antonio J


    Cannabidiol (CBD) is one of the most important compounds in Cannabis sativa, lacks psychotropic effects, and possesses a high number of therapeutic properties including the amelioration of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The aim of this study was to analyse the relative efficacy of CBD in adoptively transferred EAE (at-EAE), a model that allows better delineation of the effector phase of EAE. Splenocytes and lymph nodes from mice with actively induced EAE were cultured in the presence of MOG 35-55 and IL-12 and inoculated intraperitoneally in recipient female C57BL/6J mice. The effects of CBD were evaluated using clinical scores and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In the central nervous system, the extent of cell infiltration, axonal damage, demyelination, microglial activation and cannabinoid receptors expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Lymph cell viability, apoptosis, oxidative stress and IL-6 production were measured in vitro. Preventive intraperitoneal treatment with CBD ameliorated the clinical signs of at-EAE, and this improvement was accompanied by a reduction of the apparent diffusion coefficient in the subiculum area of the brain. Inflammatory infiltration, axonal damage, and demyelination were reduced, and cannabinoid receptor expression was modulated. Incubation with CBD decreased encephalitogenic cell viability, increasing early apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) and decreasing IL-6 production. The reduction in viability was not mediated by CB 1 , CB 2 or GPR55 receptors. CBD markedly improved the clinical signs of at-EAE and reduced infiltration, demyelination and axonal damage. The CBD-mediated decrease in the viability of encephalitogenic cells involves ROS generation, apoptosis and a decrease in IL-6 production and may contribute to the therapeutic effect of this compound. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Experimental and Analytical Analysis of Mechanical Response and Deformation Mode Selection in Balsa Wood (United States)

    Vural, Murat; Ravichandran, Guruswami

    This study investigates the influence of relative density and strain rate on the compressive response of balsa wood as a sandwich core material commonly used in naval structures. Compressive strength, plateau stress and densification strain of balsa wood along the grain direction is investigated over its entire density spectrum ranging from 55 to 380kg/m3 at both quasi-static (10-3 s-3) and dynamic (103 s-3) strain rates using a modified Kolsky (split Hopkinson) bar. Scanning electron microscopy is used on recovered specimens subjected to controlled loading histories to identify the failure mode selection as a function of density and strain rate. The results indicate that compressive strength of balsa wood increases with relative density though the rate of increase is significantly larger at high strain rates. The failure of low-density specimens is governed by elastic and/or plastic buckling, while kink band formation and end-cap collapse dominate in higher density balsa specimens. Based on the experimental results and observations, several analytical models are proposed to predict the quasi-static compressive strength of balsa wood under uniaxial loading conditions. Results also show that the initial failure stress is very sensitive to the rate of loading, and the degree of dynamic strength enhancement is different for buckling and kink band modes. Kinematics of deformation of the observed failure modes and associated micro-inertial effects are modeled to explain this different behavior. Specific energy dissipation capacity of balsa wood was computed and is found to be comparable with those of fiber-reinforced polymer composites.

  12. Cognitive mechanisms of change in delusions: an experimental investigation targeting reasoning to effect change in paranoia. (United States)

    Garety, Philippa; Waller, Helen; Emsley, Richard; Jolley, Suzanne; Kuipers, Elizabeth; Bebbington, Paul; Dunn, Graham; Fowler, David; Hardy, Amy; Freeman, Daniel


    Given the evidence that reasoning biases contribute to delusional persistence and change, several research groups have made systematic efforts to modify them. The current experiment tested the hypothesis that targeting reasoning biases would result in change in delusions. One hundred and one participants with current delusions and schizophrenia spectrum psychosis were randomly allocated to a brief computerized reasoning training intervention or to a control condition involving computer-based activities of similar duration. The primary hypotheses tested were that the reasoning training intervention, would improve (1) data gathering and belief flexibility and (2) delusional thinking, specifically paranoia. We then tested whether the changes in paranoia were mediated by changes in data gathering and flexibility, and whether working memory and negative symptoms moderated any intervention effects. On an intention-to-treat analysis, there were significant improvements in state paranoia and reasoning in the experimental compared with the control condition. There was evidence that changes in reasoning mediated changes in paranoia, although this effect fell just outside the conventional level of significance after adjustment for baseline confounders. Working memory and negative symptoms significantly moderated the effects of the intervention on reasoning. The study demonstrated the effectiveness of a brief reasoning intervention in improving both reasoning processes and paranoia. It thereby provides proof-of-concept evidence that reasoning is a promising intermediary target in interventions to ameliorate delusions, and thus supports the value of developing this approach as a longer therapeutic intervention. © The Author 2014. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Maryland Psychiatric Research Center.

  13. Antidiarrheal effect of Alpinia oxyphylla Miq. (Zingiberaceae) in experimental mice and its possible mechanism of action. (United States)

    Wang, Sheng; Zhao, Yang; Zhang, Junqing; Huang, Xiaoxing; Wang, Yifei; Xu, Xiaotao; Zheng, Bin; Zhou, Xue; Tian, Huajie; Liu, Li; Mei, Qibing


    The fructus Alpinia oxyphylla Miq. (AOM) has been used for treating diarrhea with spleen deficiency and gastralgia for thousands of years. A number of traditional Chinese medicine formulae provide AOM as an alternative herbal treatment for diarrhea, but the scientific basis for this usage has not been well defined. In this study, we tried to investigate the antidiarrheal activity and possible mechanisms of Fructus AOM, aiming to enrich our understanding to the scientific meanings and theoretical significance of Fructus AOM in clinical practice. The fructus of AOM collected from Hainan province in China were macerated in the 95% ethanol to obtain the crude 95% ethanol extract, followed by subjected to chromatographic separation over a Diaion HP20 column to obtain 90% and 50% ethanol eluted fractions. The activities of the crude extract and fractions on castor oil induced acute diarrhea, rhubarb induced chronic diarrhea, gastrointestinal transit (GIT) in mice, and contractions of isolated guinea-pig ileum were evaluated. Additionally, nitric oxide (NO), gastrointestinal peptides gastrin (GAS), motilin (MTL) and somatostatin (SS) levels that related to gastrointestinal motilities were detected to demonstrate the potential mechanisms. Ultimately, LC-MS/MS method was utilized to ensure the chemical consistency. The 95% ethanol extract and 90% ethanol eluted fraction significantly delayed the onset time and decreased the wet faeces proportion compared with control group in the castor oil induced acute diarrhea mice. In terms of further evaluation of antidiarrheal activity, the 95% ethanol extract and 90% ethanol elution displayed significant inhibition of the intestinal propulsion at the two highest oral doses of 20 g crude drug/kg and 1g/kg. Moreover the 95% ethanol extract (10 and 20 g crude drug/kg) and 90% ethanol elution (0.5 and 1g/kg) could significantly inhibit the GIT, which was partially attributed to the increase in NO and SS levels, and the decreased MTL. In

  14. Experimental and modelling studies on a laboratory scale anaerobic bioreactor treating mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste. (United States)

    Lakshmikanthan, P; Sughosh, P; White, James; Sivakumar Babu, G L


    The performance of an anaerobic bioreactor in treating mechanically biologically treated municipal solid waste was investigated using experimental and modelling techniques. The key parameters measured during the experimental test period included the gas yield, leachate generation and settlement under applied load. Modelling of the anaerobic bioreactor was carried out using the University of Southampton landfill degradation and transport model. The model was used to simulate the actual gas production and settlement. A sensitivity analysis showed that the most influential model parameters are the monod growth rate and moisture. In this case, pH had no effect on the total gas production and waste settlement, and only a small variation in the gas production was observed when the heat transfer coefficient of waste was varied from 20 to 100 kJ/(m d K)-1. The anaerobic bioreactor contained 1.9 kg (dry) of mechanically biologically treated waste producing 10 L of landfill gas over 125 days.

  15. Postulating hypotheses in experimental doctoral dissertations on Applied Linguistics: A qualitative investigation into rhetorical shifts and linguistic mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jason Miin-Hwa Lim


    Full Text Available The extent to which research hypotheses need to be incorporated in experimental studies often becomes a subject of discussion among academics supervising the writing of theses and dissertations. While writers are concerned about how hypotheses can be strategically linked with other elements in research reports to effectively present an introductory chapter, instructors are considering ways of guiding learners to use the appropriate language in postulating research hypotheses. Using an analytical framework developed by Swales (1990 & 2004 and specialist informants’ qualitative data, this largely qualitative investigation looks into a corpus of experimental doctoral dissertations submitted to 32 American universities from 2001 to 2009 in order to ascertain (i the degree to which research hypotheses need to be presented in dissertation introductions, (ii how hypotheses are strategically linked with other rhetorical segments, and (iii the salient linguistic mechanisms used to achieve the communicative functions. This study has revealed (i how writers shift from pertinent communicative moves to the postulation of hypotheses, and (ii the gamut of major language choices employed to postulate these hypotheses. The findings can be used to prepare teaching materials that help learners comprehend and employ the rhetorical strategies and linguistic mechanisms needed in postulating hypotheses in research reports.

  16. Experimental study of micro-milling mechanism and surface quality of a nickel-based single crystal superalloy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gao, Qi; Gong, Yadong; Zhou, Yun Guang; Wen, Xue Long [School of Mechanical Engineering and Automation, Northeastern University, Shenyang (China)


    Micro-milling is widely used as a method for machining of micro-parts with high precision and efficiency. Taking the nickel-based single-crystal superalloy DD98 as the research object, the crystal characteristics of single-crystal materials were analysed, and the removal mechanism of single-crystal micro-milled parts was described. Based on molecular dynamics, a simulation model for nickel-based single-crystal superalloy DD98 micro-milling was established. Based on the response surface method of central composite design, the influences of spindle speed, feed rate, and milling depth on the surface roughness were examined, and a second-order regression model of the DD98 surface roughness was established. Using analysis of variance and the residuals of the model, a significant influence on surface roughness was found in the following order from large to small: Feed rate, spindle speed, and milling depth. Comparisons were conducted between the micro-milling experimental values and the predicted model values for different process parameters. The results show that the model fit is relatively high, and the adaptability is good. Scanning electron microscopy analysis of the micro-milling surfaces was performed to verify the slip and the removal mechanism of single-crystal materials. These results offer a theoretical reference and experimental basis for micro-milling of single-crystal materials.

  17. Experimental Study and Computational Simulations of Key Pebble Bed Thermo-mechanics Issues for Design and Safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tokuhiro, Akira; Potirniche, Gabriel; Cogliati, Joshua; Ougouag, Abderrafi


    An experimental and computational study, consisting of modeling and simulation (M&S), of key thermal-mechanical issues affecting the design and safety of pebble-bed (PB) reactors was conducted. The objective was to broaden understanding and experimentally validate thermal-mechanic phenomena of nuclear grade graphite, specifically, spheres in frictional contact as anticipated in the bed under reactor relevant pressures and temperatures. The contact generates graphite dust particulates that can subsequently be transported into the flowing gaseous coolent. Under postulated depressurization transients and with the potential for leaked fission products to be adsorbed onto graphite 'dust', there is the potential for fission products to escape from the primary volume. This is a design safety concern. Furthermore, earlier safety assessment identified the distinct possibility for the dispersed dust to combust in contact with air if sufficient conditions are met. Both of these phenomena were noted as important to design review and containing uncertainty to warrant study. The team designed and conducted two separate effects tests to study and benchmark the potential dust-generation rate, as well as study the conditions under which a dust explosion may occure in a standardized, instrumented explosion chamber.

  18. Using experimental studies and theoretical calculations to analyze the molecular mechanism of coumarin, p-hydroxybenzoic acid, and cinnamic acid (United States)

    Hsieh, Tiane-Jye; Su, Chia-Ching; Chen, Chung-Yi; Liou, Chyong-Huey; Lu, Li-Hwa


    Three natural products, Coumarin ( 1), p-hydroxybenzoic acid ( 2), trans-cinnamic acid ( 3) were isolated from the natural plant of indigenous cinnamon and the structures including relative stereochemistry were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data and theoretical calculations. Their sterochemical structures were determined by NMR spectroscopy, mass spectroscopy, and X-ray crystallography. The p-hydroxybenzoic acid complex with water is reported to show the existence of two hydrogen bonds. The two hydrogen bonds are formed in the water molecule of two hydrogen-accepting oxygen of carbonyl group of the p-hydroxybenzoic acid. The intermolecular interaction two hydrogen bond of the model system of the water- p-hydroxybenzoic acid was investigated. An experimental study and a theoretical analysis using the B3LYP/6-31G* method in the GAUSSIAN-03 package program were conducted on the three natural products. The theoretical results are supplemented by experimental data. Optimal geometric structures of three compounds were also determined. The calculated molecular mechanics compared quite well with those obtained from the experimental data. The ionization potentials, highest occupied molecular orbital energy, lowest unoccupied molecular orbital energy, energy gaps, heat of formation, atomization energies, and vibration frequencies of the compounds were also calculated. The results of the calculations show that three natural products are stable molecules with high reactive and various other physical properties. The study also provided an explicit understanding of the sterochemical structure and thermodynamic properties of the three natural products.

  19. Approach to Operational Experimental Estimation of Static Stresses of Elements of Mechanical Structures (United States)

    Sedov, A. V.; Kalinchuk, V. V.; Bocharova, O. V.


    The evaluation of static stresses and strength of units and components is a crucial task for increasing reliability in the operation of vehicles and equipment, to prevent emergencies, especially in structures made of metal and composite materials. At the stage of creation and commissioning of structures to control the quality of manufacturing of individual elements and components, diagnostic control methods are widely used. They are acoustic, ultrasonic, X-ray, radiation methods and others. The using of these methods to control the residual life and the degree of static stresses of units and parts during operation is fraught with great difficulties both in methodology and in instrumentation. In this paper, the authors propose an effective approach of operative control of the degree of static stresses of units and parts of mechanical structures which are in working condition, based on recording the changing in the surface wave properties of a system consisting of a sensor and a controlled environment (unit, part). The proposed approach of low-frequency diagnostics of static stresses presupposes a new adaptive-spectral analysis of a surface wave created by external action (impact). It is possible to estimate implicit stresses of structures in the experiment due to this approach.

  20. Computational and experimental investigation into mechanical performances of Poly-L-Lactide Acid (PLLA) coronary stents. (United States)

    Wang, Qian; Fang, Gang; Zhao, Yinghong; Wang, Guohui; Cai, Tao


    Poly-L-lactide Acid (PLLA), as a credible biodegradable polymer-based material, can provide a promising amount of degradation time for vessel remodeling. Served as a sort of reliable intravascular implants, PLLA stents are expected to provide sufficient scaffolding to the target arteries without generating too much recoil after deployment. Besides, the stress and strain distribution should be as homogeneous as possible, and the stent conformability in fitting to the nature curvature of the vessels needs to be guaranteed. In the present study, mechanical performances of a stent made of PLLA material were investigated based on 3-D finite element method (FEM) and experiment verification. Simulations contained several deformation steps: crimping, spring-back after crimping, expanding and spring-back after expanding. The stent's deformation and stress/strain distributions were analyzed. Several indexes including the radial recoil ratio after crimping and expanding to different sizes, the radial properties including radial strength, the radial stiffness and the collapse pressure were established. In vitro static loading experiments of the stent were conducted as the verification of the FEM results, and a good agreement between them was obtained. Moreover, simulation of three-point bending was performed to assess the bending flexibility of the stent, and bending stiffness was defined as a measurement of structure resistance to the bending deformation. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans infection enhances apoptosis in vivo through a caspase-3-dependent mechanism in experimental periodontitis. (United States)

    Kang, Jun; de Brito Bezerra, Beatriz; Pacios, Sandra; Andriankaja, Oelisoa; Li, Yu; Tsiagbe, Vincent; Schreiner, Helen; Fine, Daniel H; Graves, Dana T


    The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis that diabetes aggravates periodontal destruction induced by Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans infection. Thirty-eight diabetic and 33 normal rats were inoculated with A. actinomycetemcomitans and euthanized at baseline and at 4, 5, and 6 weeks after inoculation. Bone loss and the infiltration of polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) in gingival epithelium were measured in hematoxylin-eosin-stained sections. The induction of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and of apoptotic cells by a TUNEL (terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated dUTP-biotin nick end labeling) assay. After A. actinomycetemcomitans infection, the bone loss in diabetic rats was 1.7-fold and the PMN infiltration 1.6-fold higher than in normoglycemic rats (P infection in gingival epithelium and connective tissue (P periodontal destruction in rats by significantly increasing the inflammatory response, leading to increased bone loss and enhancing apoptosis of gingival epithelial and connective tissue cells through a caspase-3-dependent mechanism. Antibiotics had a more pronounced effect on many of these parameters in diabetic than in normoglycemic rats, suggesting a deficiency in the capacity of diabetic animals to resist infection.

  2. Mechanisms of human cerebellar dysmetria: experimental evidence and current conceptual bases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manto Mario


    Full Text Available Abstract The human cerebellum contains more neurons than any other region in the brain and is a major actor in motor control. Cerebellar circuitry is unique by its stereotyped architecture and its modular organization. Understanding the motor codes underlying the organization of limb movement and the rules of signal processing applied by the cerebellar circuits remains a major challenge for the forthcoming decades. One of the cardinal deficits observed in cerebellar patients is dysmetria, designating the inability to perform accurate movements. Patients overshoot (hypermetria or undershoot (hypometria the aimed target during voluntary goal-directed tasks. The mechanisms of cerebellar dysmetria are reviewed, with an emphasis on the roles of cerebellar pathways in controlling fundamental aspects of movement control such as anticipation, timing of motor commands, sensorimotor synchronization, maintenance of sensorimotor associations and tuning of the magnitudes of muscle activities. An overview of recent advances in our understanding of the contribution of cerebellar circuitry in the elaboration and shaping of motor commands is provided, with a discussion on the relevant anatomy, the results of the neurophysiological studies, and the computational models which have been proposed to approach cerebellar function.

  3. Numerical Analysis and Experimental Study of Hard Roofs in Fully Mechanized Mining Faces under Sleeve Fracturing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhitao Zheng


    Full Text Available Sudden falls of large-area hard roofs in a mined area release a large amount of elastic energy, generate dynamic loads, and cause disasters such as impact ground pressure and gas outbursts. To address these problems, in this study, the sleeve fracturing method (SFM was applied to weaken a hard roof. The numerical simulation software FLAC3D was used to develop three models based on an analysis of the SFM working mechanism. These models were applied to an analysis of the fracturing effects of various factors such as the borehole diameter, hole spacing, and sleeve pressure. Finally, the results of a simulation were validated using experiments with similar models. Our research indicated the following: (1 The crack propagation directions in the models were affected by the maximum principal stress and hole spacing. When the borehole diameter was fixed, the fracturing pressure increased with increasing hole spacing. In contrast, when the fracturing pressure was fixed, the fracturing range increased with increasing borehole diameter; (2 The most ideal fracturing effect was found at a fracturing pressure of 17.6 MPa in the model with a borehole diameter of 40 mm and hole spacing of 400 mm. The results showed that it is possible to regulate the falls of hard roofs using the SFM. This research may provide a theoretical basis for controlling hard roofs in mining.

  4. Experimental Study on Longmaxi Shale Breaking Mechanism with Micro-PDC Bit (United States)

    Wang, Teng; Xiao, Xiaohua; Zhu, Haiyan; Zhao, Jingying; Li, Yuheng; Lu, Ming


    China has abundant shale gas resource, but its geological conditions are complicated. This work sought to find the shale breaking mechanism with the polycrystalline diamond compact (PDC) bit when drilling the shale that is rich in stratification. Therefore, a laboratory-scale drilling device based on a drilling machine is developed. The influences of Longmaxi shale stratification on drilling parameters in the drilling process with micro-PDC bit are investigated. Six groups of drilling experiments with six inclination angles ( β = 0°, 15°, 30°, 45°, 60° and 90°), total thirty-six groups, are carried out. The weight on bit reaches the maximum value at β = 30° and reaches the minimum value at β = 0°. The biggest torque value is at β = 30°, and the smaller torque values are at β = 15°, β = 45° and β = 60°. When the inclination angle is between 30° and 60°, the shale fragmentation volume is larger. The inclination angle β = 0° is beneficial, and β = 15° and β = 60° are detrimental to controlling the drilling direction in the Longmaxi shale gas formation.

  5. Resistance Training for Diabetes Prevention and Therapy: Experimental Findings and Molecular Mechanisms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Strasser


    Full Text Available Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2D is characterized by insulin resistance, impaired glycogen synthesis, lipid accumulation, and impaired mitochondrial function. Exercise training has received increasing recognition as a cornerstone in the prevention and treatment of T2D. Emerging research suggests that resistance training (RT has the power to combat metabolic dysfunction in patients with T2D and seems to be an effective measure to improve overall metabolic health and reduce metabolic risk factors in diabetic patients. However, there is limited mechanistic insight into how these adaptations occur. This review provides an overview of the intervention data on the impact of RT on glucose metabolism. In addition, the molecular mechanisms that lead to adaptation in skeletal muscle in response to RT and that are associated with possible beneficial metabolic responses are discussed. Some of the beneficial adaptations exerted by RT include increased GLUT4 translocation in skeletal muscle, increased insulin sensitivity and hence restored metabolic flexibility. Increased energy expenditure and excess postexercise oxygen consumption in response to RT may be other beneficial effects. RT is increasingly establishing itself as an effective measure to improve overall metabolic health and reduce metabolic risk factors in diabetic patients.

  6. An experimental study of the fluid mechanics associated with porous walls (United States)

    Ramachandran, N.; Heaman, J.; Smith, A.


    The fluid mechanics of air exiting from a porous material is investigated. The experiments are filter rating dependent, as porous walls with filter ratings differing by about three orders of magnitude are studied. The flow behavior is investigated for its spatial and temporal stability. The results from the investigation are related to jet behavior in at least one of the following categories: (1) jet coalescence effects with increasing flow rate; (2) jet field decay with increasing distance from the porous wall; (3) jet field temporal turbulence characteristics; and (4) single jet turbulence characteristics. The measurements show that coalescence effects cause jet development, and this development stage can be traced by measuring the pseudoturbulence (spatial velocity variations) at any flow rate. The pseudoturbulence variation with increasing mass flow reveals an initial increasing trend followed by a leveling trend, both of which are directly proportional to the filter rating. A critical velocity begins this leveling trend and represents the onset of fully developed jetting action in the flow field. A correlation is developed to predict the onset of fully developed jets in the flow emerging from a porous wall. The data further show that the fully developed jet dimensions are independent of the filter rating, thus providing a length scale for this type of flow field (1 mm). Individual jet characteristics provide another unifying trend with similar velocity decay behavior with distance; however, the respective turbulence magnitudes show vast differences between jets from the same sample. Measurements of the flow decay with distance from the porous wall show that the higher spatial frequency components of the jet field dissipate faster than the lower frequency components. Flow turbulence intensity measurements show an out of phase behavior with the velocity field and are generally found to increase as the distance from the wall is increased.

  7. Mechanisms of endothelium and internal organs dysfunction associated with exposure to cobalt chloride (experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.V. Gigolaeva


    Full Text Available Cobalt administration in the human body is a risk factor for developing pulmonary and cardiovascular health problems. In this paper we report the results of functional studies and biochemical mechanisms of endothelial dysfunction and pathology of internal organs in cobalt intoxication in experiment. System-organ nature of the activation of oxidative processes is identified according to the increase of MDA secondary product in erythrocytes and homogenates of internal organs as well as the participation of AOC imbalance in the development of lipid peroxidation, the peculiarities of the violations of NO release endothelial function and participation in this process of L-arginine and an analogue of endogenous inhibitor of expression eNOS -L–NC - arginine methyl ester (L-NAME or L-nitro-arginine-methilester with cobalt intoxication in conditions of activation of oxidative processes. Chronic cobalt intoxication in rats leads to the activation of oxidative processes, thus there is inhibition of superoxide dismutase activity and the concentration of catalase and ceruloplasmin increased. Cholesterol metabolism is disturbed, as well as impaired nitric oxide production and its bioavailability, which is accompanied by the change of the microcirculatory hemodynamics of the visceral organs. The evaluation of the internal organs’ functional state according to the activity of the Na+,K+-ATPase in homogenates is performed, as well as due to the activity of organ-specific and excretory enzymes in blood serum on the background of cobalt toxicity. The role of changes of cholesterol metabolism is established – as a risk factor of atherogenesis in violation of the bioavailability of nitric oxide. For the pathogenetic correction of violations we applied the method using the endogenous antioxidant coenzyme Q10 and regulators of the expression eNOS L-arginine, L-NAME and their combination with coenzyme Q10.

  8. Pomegranate-mediated chemoprevention of experimental hepatocarcinogenesis involves Nrf2-regulated antioxidant mechanisms (United States)

    Bishayee, Anupam; Bhatia, Deepak; Thoppil, Roslin J.; Darvesh, Altaf S.; Nevo, Eviatar; Lansky, Ephraim P.


    Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), one of the most prevalent and lethal cancers, has shown an alarming rise in the USA. Without effective therapy for HCC, novel chemopreventive strategies may effectively circumvent the current morbidity and mortality. Oxidative stress predisposes to hepatocarcinogenesis and is the major driving force of HCC. Pomegranate, an ancient fruit, is gaining tremendous attention due to its powerful antioxidant properties. Here, we examined mechanism-based chemopreventive potential of a pomegranate emulsion (PE) against dietary carcinogen diethylnitrosamine (DENA)-induced rat hepatocarcinogenesis that mimics human HCC. PE treatment (1 or 10 g/kg), started 4 weeks prior to the DENA challenge and continued for 18 weeks thereafter, showed striking chemopreventive activity demonstrated by reduced incidence, number, multiplicity, size and volume of hepatic nodules, precursors of HCC. Both doses of PE significantly attenuated the number and area of γ-glutamyl transpeptidase-positive hepatic foci compared with the DENA control. PE also attenuated DENA-induced hepatic lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation. Mechanistic studies revealed that PE elevated gene expression of an array of hepatic antioxidant and carcinogen detoxifying enzymes in DENA-exposed animals. PE elevated protein and messenger RNA expression of the hepatic nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2). Our results provide substantial evidence, for the first time, that pomegranate constituents afford chemoprevention of hepatocarcinogenesis possibly through potent antioxidant activity achieved by upregulation of several housekeeping genes under the control of Nrf2 without toxicity. The outcome of this study strongly supports the development of pomegranate-derived products in the prevention and treatment of human HCC, which remains a devastating disease. PMID:21389260

  9. Mechanisms of T-Lymphocyte Accumulation during Experimental Pleural Infection Induced by Mycobacterium bovis BCG▿ (United States)

    Souza, Mariana C.; Penido, Carmen; Costa, Maria F. S.; Henriques, Maria Graças


    Tuberculous pleurisy is a frequent extrapulmonary manifestation characterized by accumulation of fluid and inflammatory cells in the pleural space. Here, we investigated the mechanisms of T-lymphocyte accumulation in the pleural space by using a murine model of pleurisy induced by Mycobacterium bovis BCG. Intrathoracic (i.t.) injection of BCG (4.5 × 105 bacteria/cavity) induced accumulation of T lymphocytes in the pleural cavities of C57BL/6 mice. We observed the presence of CFU in pleural washes conducted 1, 2, 3, 7, and 15 days after pleurisy induction. Pretreatment with fucoidan inhibited T-lymphocyte accumulation at 1 day, but not at 15 days, after BCG-induced pleurisy. Accordingly, adoptive transfer of fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled blood mononuclear cells to infected mice showed that T lymphocytes migrated into the pleural cavity 1 day (but not 15 days) after BCG injection. Cell-free pleural wash fluids recovered from mice 1 day after BCG i.t. stimulation (day 1 BCG-PW), but not day 7 or day 15 BCG-PW, induced in vitro T-cell transmigration, which was dependent on L-, P-, and E-selectins. In contrast, day 7 BCG-PW (but not day 1 BCG-PW) induced in vitro T-lymphocyte proliferation via interleukin-2 (IL-2) and gamma interferon (IFN-γ). Accordingly, in vivo IL-2 or IFN-γ neutralization abolished T-lymphocyte accumulation 7 days after pleurisy induction. Our results demonstrate that pleural infection induced by BCG leads to T-lymphocyte accumulation in two waves. The acute phase depends on selectin-mediated migration, while the second wave of T-lymphocyte accumulation seems to depend on a local proliferation induced by cytokines produced in situ. PMID:18809659

  10. Experimental Investigation of Damage and Fracture Mechanisms Controlling the Performance of Full Aperture Easy Open Ends for Food Containers (United States)

    Taylor, D. L. P.; Nagy, G. T.; Owen, D. R. J.


    Can manufacturers produce hundreds of millions of cans annually, increasingly, food cans are being opened by lifting a tab on the can end that initiates a fracture, which then propagates around a circumferential score. The damage and fracture mechanisms that lead to crack initiation and propagation in the opening process, however, are not fully understood, therefore optimisation of easy open end scores is largely based on trial and error. This paper presents an experimental analysis that concentrates on the combined shear and bending forces as applied to the particular industrial method concerning full aperture easy open ends. The influence of a gradually increasing gap measured between the score and shear force location on traditional groove geometries and depths are examined for two different packaging steels. Earlier studies have shown that the complete opening cycle depends on fracture modes I, II & III as well as their combination. Experimental results for Modes I, II & III will be presented, however attention will focus on the behaviour of the initial fracture point, whereby prior investigations have shown it to be influenced primarily by mode II shearing. After initial specimen manufacture, where the score is formed by pressing a punch into a thin steel sheet the predeformed scored specimens are loaded in shear to simulate the local stress field found during the initial opening phase. Experiments have been completed using a novel Mode II experimental technique that has been designed for use in the majority of commercially available tensile test machines. Experimental results indicate that opening forces can change radically with different gap sizes and that there is considerable potential for the industrialised process of can end manufacture to be optimised through the efficient management and control of the can ends dimensional parameters.

  11. Exploring the effect and mechanism of Hibiscus sabdariffa on urinary tract infection and experimental renal inflammation. (United States)

    Chou, Shun-Ting; Lo, Hsin-Yi; Li, Chia-Cheng; Cheng, Lu-Chen; Chou, Pei-Chi; Lee, Yu-Chen; Ho, Tin-Yun; Hsiang, Chien-Yun


    Hibiscus sabdariffa Linn., also known as roselle, is used in folk medicine as an anti-inflammatory agent. Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a common problem in long-term care facilities. However, effects of roselle on UTI and renal inflammation remained to be analyzed. Here we surveyed the effect of roselle drink on the prevention of UTI in long-term care facilities and analyzed the anti-inflammatory potential of roselle on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced renal inflammation in mice. Survey questionnaires and clinical observation were applied to evaluate the use of roselle and the incidence of UTI in long-term care facilities. Mice were administrated roselle orally for 7 consecutive days and then challenged with LPS. Anti-renal inflammatory effects of roselle were analyzed by microarray and immunohistochemical staining. Clinical observation showed that taking roselle drink in residents with urinary catheters reduced the incidence of UTI in long-term care facilities. Renal inflammation is a key event of UTI. Roselle suppressed LPS-induced nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation in cells and LPS-induced interleukin-1β production in mice a dose-dependent manner. Immunohistochemical staining showed that roselle inhibited LPS-induced NF-κB activation and inflammatory cell infiltration in kidney. Gene expression profiling further showed that roselle suppressed the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokine genes and enzyme genes involved in the production of prostaglandin and nitric oxide. In addition, NF-κB was the main transcription factor involved in the regulation of roselle-regulated gene expression in kidney. This is the first report applying clinical observation-guided transcriptomic study to explore the application and mechanism of roselle on UTI. Our findings suggested that roselle drink ameliorated LPS-induced renal inflammation via downregulation of cytokine network, pro-inflammatory product production, and NF-κB pathway. Moreover, this report suggested the

  12. Mechanical ventilation guided by electrical impedance tomography in experimental acute lung injury. (United States)

    Wolf, Gerhard K; Gómez-Laberge, Camille; Rettig, Jordan S; Vargas, Sara O; Smallwood, Craig D; Prabhu, Sanjay P; Vitali, Sally H; Zurakowski, David; Arnold, John H


    To utilize real-time electrical impedance tomography to guide lung protective ventilation in an animal model of acute respiratory distress syndrome. Prospective animal study. Animal research center. Twelve Yorkshire swine (15 kg). Lung injury was induced with saline lavage and augmented using large tidal volumes. The control group (n = 6) was ventilated using ARDSnet guidelines, and the electrical impedance tomography-guided group (n = 6) was ventilated using guidance with real-time electrical impedance tomography lung imaging. Regional electrical impedance tomography-derived compliance was used to maximize the recruitment of dependent lung and minimize overdistension of nondependent lung areas. Tidal volume was 6 mL/kg in both groups. Computed tomography was performed in a subset of animals to define the anatomic correlates of electrical impedance tomography imaging (n = 5). Interleukin-8 was quantified in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage samples. Sections of dependent and nondependent regions of the lung were fixed in formalin for histopathologic analysis. Positive end-expiratory pressure levels were higher in the electrical impedance tomography-guided group (14.3 cm H₂O vs. 8.6 cm H₂O; p electrical impedance tomography-guided group (6.9 mL/cm H₂O vs. 4.7 mL/cm H₂O; p = 0.013). Regional electrical impedance tomography-derived compliance of the most dependent lung region was increased in the electrical impedance tomography group (1.78 mL/cm H₂O vs. 0.99 mL/cm H₂O; p = 0.001). Pao₂/FIO₂ ratio was higher and oxygenation index was lower in the electrical impedance tomography-guided group (Pao₂/FIO₂: 388 mm Hg vs. 113 mm Hg, p electrical impedance tomography-guided group (HMEIT 42% samples vs. HMCONTROL 67% samples, p electrical impedance tomography and computed tomography were ± 16%. Electrical impedance tomography-guided ventilation resulted in improved respiratory mechanics, improved gas exchange, and reduced histologic evidence of ventilator

  13. Experimental Investigation on the Fatigue Mechanical Properties of Intermittently Jointed Rock Models Under Cyclic Uniaxial Compression with Different Loading Parameters (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Dai, Feng; Dong, Lu; Xu, Nuwen; Feng, Peng


    Intermittently jointed rocks, widely existing in many mining and civil engineering structures, are quite susceptible to cyclic loading. Understanding the fatigue mechanism of jointed rocks is vital to the rational design and the long-term stability analysis of rock structures. In this study, the fatigue mechanical properties of synthetic jointed rock models under different cyclic conditions are systematically investigated in the laboratory, including four loading frequencies, four maximum stresses, and four amplitudes. Our experimental results reveal the influence of the three cyclic loading parameters on the mechanical properties of jointed rock models, regarding the fatigue deformation characteristics, the fatigue energy and damage evolution, and the fatigue failure and progressive failure behavior. Under lower loading frequency or higher maximum stress and amplitude, the jointed specimen is characterized by higher fatigue deformation moduli and higher dissipated hysteresis energy, resulting in higher cumulative damage and lower fatigue life. However, the fatigue failure modes of jointed specimens are independent of cyclic loading parameters; all tested jointed specimens exhibit a prominent tensile splitting failure mode. Three different crack coalescence patterns are classified between two adjacent joints. Furthermore, different from the progressive failure under static monotonic loading, the jointed rock specimens under cyclic compression fail more abruptly without evident preceding signs. The tensile cracks on the front surface of jointed specimens always initiate from the joint tips and then propagate at a certain angle with the joints toward the direction of maximum compression.

  14. Thermo-Mechanical Characterization of Friction Stir Spot Welded AA7050 Sheets by Means of Experimental and FEM Analyses. (United States)

    D'Urso, Gianluca; Giardini, Claudio


    The present study was carried out to evaluate how the friction stir spot welding (FSSW) process parameters affect the temperature distribution in the welding region, the welding forces and the mechanical properties of the joints. The experimental study was performed by means of a CNC machine tool obtaining FSSW lap joints on AA7050 aluminum alloy plates. Three thermocouples were inserted into the samples to measure the temperatures at different distance from the joint axis during the whole FSSW process. Experiments was repeated varying the process parameters, namely rotational speed, axial feed rate and plunging depth. Axial welding forces were measured during the tests using a piezoelectric load cell, while the mechanical properties of the joints were evaluated by executing shear tests on the specimens. The correlation found between process parameters and joints properties, allowed to identify the best technological window. The data collected during the experiments were used to validate a simulation model of the FSSW process, too. The model was set up using a 2D approach for the simulation of a 3D problem, in order to guarantee a very simple and practical solution for achieving results in a very short time. A specific external routine for the calculation of the thermal energy due to friction acting between pin and sheet was developed. An index for the prediction of the joint mechanical properties using the FEM simulations was finally presented and validated.

  15. Exploring the foundations of quantum mechanics using Monte Carlo simulations of the Freedman-Clauser experimental test of Bell's Inequality (United States)

    Foulkes, Stephen


    Monte Carlo simulations of the Freedman-Clauser experiment are used to test the Copenhagen interpretation and a local realistic interpretation of Quantum Mechanics. The simulated results are compared to the actual results of the experiment which confirmed the quantum mechanical calculation for nine different relative angles between the two polarization analyzers. For each simulation 5x10^7 total simulated photon pairs were generated at each relative angle. The Copenhagen interpretation model closely followed the general shape of the theoretical calculation but differed from the calculated values by 2.5% to 3.3% for angles less than or equal to π/8 and differed by 15.0% to 52.5% for angles greater than or equal to 3π/8. The local realistic interpretation model did not replicate the experimental results but was generally within 1% of a classical calculation for all analyzer angles. An alternative, ``fuzzy polarization'' interpretation wherein the photon polarization is not assumed to have a fixed value, yielded values within 1% of the quantum mechanical calculation.

  16. Thermo-Mechanical Characterization of Friction Stir Spot Welded AA7050 Sheets by Means of Experimental and FEM Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca D’Urso


    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to evaluate how the friction stir spot welding (FSSW process parameters affect the temperature distribution in the welding region, the welding forces and the mechanical properties of the joints. The experimental study was performed by means of a CNC machine tool obtaining FSSW lap joints on AA7050 aluminum alloy plates. Three thermocouples were inserted into the samples to measure the temperatures at different distance from the joint axis during the whole FSSW process. Experiments was repeated varying the process parameters, namely rotational speed, axial feed rate and plunging depth. Axial welding forces were measured during the tests using a piezoelectric load cell, while the mechanical properties of the joints were evaluated by executing shear tests on the specimens. The correlation found between process parameters and joints properties, allowed to identify the best technological window. The data collected during the experiments were used to validate a simulation model of the FSSW process, too. The model was set up using a 2D approach for the simulation of a 3D problem, in order to guarantee a very simple and practical solution for achieving results in a very short time. A specific external routine for the calculation of the thermal energy due to friction acting between pin and sheet was developed. An index for the prediction of the joint mechanical properties using the FEM simulations was finally presented and validated.

  17. Modelling and Experimental Evaluation of a Static Balancing Technique for a New Horizontally Mounted 3-UPU Parallel Mechanism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Banitalebi Dehkordi


    Full Text Available This paper presents the modelling and experimental evaluation of the gravity compensation of a horizontal 3-UPU parallel mechanism. The conventional Newton-Euler method for static analysis and balancing of mechanisms works for serial robots; however, it can become computationally expensive when applied to the analysis of parallel manipulators. To overcome this difficulty, in this paper we propose an approach, based on a Lagrangian method, that is more efficient in terms of computation time. The derivation of the gravity compensation model is based on the analytical computation of the total potential energy of the system at each position of the end-effector. In order to satisfy the gravity compensation condition, the total potential energy of the system should remain constant for all of the manipulator's configurations. Analytical and mechanical gravity compensation is taken into account, and the set of conditions and the system of springs are defined. Finally, employing a virtual reality environment, some experiments are carried out and the reliability and feasibility of the proposed model are evaluated in the presence and absence of the elastic components.

  18. Experimental Investigation and Discussion on the Mechanical Endurance Limit of Nafion Membrane Used in Proton Exchange Membrane Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Xiao


    Full Text Available As a solution of high efficiency and clean energy, fuel cell technologies, especially proton exchange membrane fuel cell (PEMFC, have caught extensive attention. However, after decades of development, the performances of PEMFCs are far from achieving the target from the Department of Energy (DOE. Thus, further understanding of the degradation mechanism is needed to overcome this obstacle. Due to the importance of proton exchange membrane in a PEMFC, the degradation of the membrane, such as hygrothermal aging effect on its properties, are particularly necessary. In this work, a thick membrane (Nafion N117, which is always used as an ionic polymer for the PEMFCs, has been analyzed. Experimental investigation is performed for understanding the mechanical endurance of the bare membranes under different loading conditions. Tensile tests are conducted to compare the mechanical property evolution of two kinds of bare-membrane specimens including the dog-bone and the deeply double edge notched (DDEN types. Both dog-bone and DDEN specimens were subjected to a series of degradation tests with different cycling times and wide humidity ranges. The tensile tests are repeated for both kinds of specimens to assess the strain-stress relations. Furthermore, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR, X-ray diffraction (XRD and Scanning electron microscope (SEM observation and water absorption measurement were conducted to speculate the cause of this variation. The initial cracks along with the increasing of bound water content were speculated as the primary cause.

  19. Effect and Mechanism of Virechana Karma (Therapeutic Purgation) Over Fructose-Induced Metabolic Syndrome: An Experimental Study. (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Ashutosh; Rao, Prasanna N; Kumar, M Ashvini; Ravishankar, B; Rao, Niranjan; Ravi, M


    Panchakarma (biopurification methods) is one of the modes of ayurveda to treat disorders of the body. Virechana karma (therapeutic purgation), one among the Panchakarma, is a purification process that is commonly used to treat metabolic disorders like obesity and diabetes mellitus. Hence this study was planned to provide evidence through animal experiments. Albino rats were subject to Virechana karma (therapeutic purgation) to evaluate the influence of therapy and its mechanism over fructose-induced metabolic syndrome. Results show that Virechana is effective in the management of the metabolic syndrome with decrease in the fecal fat content, fasting blood glucose, serum triglyceride, and reduced fatty changes in liver, heart, and kidney in comparison with the positive control group. Experimental evaluation showed decrease in fatty acid in the storage like liver, kidney, heart, and muscle adipose tissue can indirectly increase the insulin sensitivity in insulin receptor present at skeletal muscles. © The Author(s) 2015.

  20. Who fears the HPV vaccine, who doesn't, and why? an experimental study of the mechanisms of cultural cognition. (United States)

    Kahan, Dan M; Braman, Donald; Cohen, Geoffrey L; Gastil, John; Slovic, Paul


    The cultural cognition thesis holds that individuals form risk perceptions that reflect their commitments to contested views of the good society. We conducted a study that used the dispute over mandatory HPV vaccination to test the cultural cognition thesis. Although public health officials have recommended that all girls aged 11 or 12 be vaccinated for HPV-a sexually transmitted virus that causes cervical cancer-political controversy has blocked adoption of mandatory school-enrollment vaccination programs in all but one state. An experimental study of a large sample of American adults (N = 1,538) found that cultural cognition generates disagreement about the risks and benefits of the vaccine through two mechanisms: biased assimilation, and the credibility heuristic. We discuss theoretical and practical implications.

  1. Experimental identification of the kink instability as a poloidal flux amplification mechanism for coaxial gun spheromak formation. (United States)

    Hsu, S C; Bellan, P M


    The magnetohydrodynamic kink instability is observed and identified experimentally as a poloidal flux amplification mechanism for coaxial gun spheromak formation. Plasmas in this experiment fall into three distinct regimes which depend on the peak gun current to magnetic flux ratio, with (I) low values resulting in a straight plasma column with helical magnetic field, (II) intermediate values leading to kinking of the column axis, and (III) high values leading immediately to a detached plasma. Onset of column kinking agrees quantitatively with the Kruskal-Shafranov limit, and the kink acts as a dynamo which converts toroidal to poloidal flux. Regime II clearly leads to both poloidal flux amplification and the development of a spheromak configuration.

  2. Experimental Investigation and Analysis of Mechanical Properties of Palm fibre reinforced Epoxy composites and Sisal fibre reinforced Polyester composites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Muthu Chozha Rajan


    Full Text Available The objective of this paper was investigated to evaluate tensile, flexural and Impact properties of Palm fibre reinforced Epoxy composites (PFRP and compared with Sisal fibre reinforced Polyester composites (SFRP. Untreated chopped Palmyra Palm fruit fibre was used as reinforcement in Epoxy resin matrix and chopped sisal fibre was used as reinforcement in Polyester resin matrix. The chopped palm fibrereinforced composite were prepared in volume fractions (Vf such as 10 %, 20 % and 30 % of specimens by using Epoxy and the chopped sisalfibre reinforced composite were prepared in volume fractions (Vf such as 10 %, 20 % and 30 % of specimens by using Polyester. The specimens are tested for their mechanical Properties strictly as per ASTM procedures. Static analysis is performed by FEA based software ANSYS R15 with design constraints as Equivalent stress, Shear stress and deflection.The experimental result and analysis shows that the fibre volume fraction increases the tensile, flexural, Impact strength and modulus of the fibre reinforced composites

  3. Experimental and theoretical comparison of Sb, As, and P diffusion mechanisms and doping in CdTe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Colegrove, Eric; Yang, Ji-Hui; Harvey, Steven P.; Young, Matthew; Burst, James M.; Duenow, Joel N.; Albin, David S.; Wei, Su-Huai; Metzger, Wyatt


    Fundamental material doping challenges have limited CdTe electro-optical applications. In this work, the As atomistic diffusion mechanisms in CdTe are examined by spatially resolving dopant incorporation in both single-crystalline and polycrystalline CdTe over a range of experimental conditions. Density-functional theory calculations predict experimental activation energies and indicate As diffuses slowly through the Te sublattice and quickly along GBs similar to Sb. Because of its atomic size and associated defect chemistry, As does not have a fast interstitial diffusion component similar to P. Experiments to incorporate and activate P, As, and Sb in polycrystalline CdTe are conducted to examine if ex-situ Group V doping can overcome historic polycrystalline doping limits. The distinct P, As, and Sb diffusion characteristics create different strategies for increasing hole density. Because fast interstitial diffusion is prominent for P, less aggressive diffusion conditions followed by Cd overpressure to relocate the Group V element to the Te lattice site is effective. For larger atoms, slower diffusion through the Te sublattice requires more aggressive diffusion, however further activation is not always necessary. Based on the new physical understanding, we have obtained greater than 10^16 cm^-3 hole density in polycrystalline CdTe films by As and P diffusion.

  4. An experimental and theoretical investigation of the mechanical behavior of multilayer initially curved microplates under electrostatic actuation

    KAUST Repository

    Saghir, Shahid


    We investigate the static and dynamic behavior of a multilayer clamped-free-clamped-free (CFCF) microplate, which is made of polyimide, gold, chromium, and nickel. The microplate is slightly curved away from a stationary electrode and is electrostatically actuated. The free and forced vibrations of the microplate are examined. First, we experimentally investigate the variation of the first natural frequency under the electrostatic DC load. Then, the forced dynamic behavior is investigated by applying a harmonic AC voltage superimposed to a DC voltage. Results are shown demonstrating the transition of the dynamic response of the microplate from hardening to softening as the DC voltage is changed as well the dynamic pull-in phenomenon. For theoretical model, we adopt a dynamic analog of the von-Karman governing equations accounting for initial curvature imperfection. These equations are then used to develop a reduced order model based on the Galerkin procedure to simulate the mechanical behavior of the microplate. We compare the theoretical results with experimental data and show excellent agreement among the results. We also examine the effect of the initial rise on the natural frequencies of first three symmetric-symmetric modes of the plate.

  5. Experimental and theoretical comparison of Sb, As, and P diffusion mechanisms and doping in CdTe (United States)

    Colegrove, E.; Yang, J.-H.; Harvey, S. P.; Young, M. R.; Burst, J. M.; Duenow, J. N.; Albin, D. S.; Wei, S.-H.; Metzger, W. K.


    Fundamental material doping challenges have limited CdTe electro-optical applications. In this work, the As atomistic diffusion mechanisms in CdTe are examined by spatially resolving dopant incorporation in both single-crystalline and polycrystalline CdTe over a range of experimental conditions. Density-functional theory calculations predict experimental activation energies and indicate that As diffuses slowly through the Te sublattice and quickly along GBs similar to Sb. Because of its atomic size and associated defect chemistry, As does not have a fast interstitial diffusion component similar to P. Experiments to incorporate and activate P, As, and Sb in polycrystalline CdTe are conducted to examine if ex situ Group V doping can overcome historic polycrystalline doping limits. The distinct P, As, and Sb diffusion characteristics create different strategies for increasing hole density. Because fast interstitial diffusion is prominent for P, less aggressive diffusion conditions followed by Cd overpressure to relocate the Group V element to the Te lattice site is effective. For larger atoms, slower diffusion through the Te sublattice requires more aggressive diffusion, however further activation is not always necessary. Based on the new physical understanding, we have obtained greater than 1016 cm‑3 hole density in polycrystalline CdTe films by As and P diffusion.

  6. Experimental Research on the Dam-Break Mechanisms of the Jiadanwan Landslide Dam Triggered by the Wenchuan Earthquake in China (United States)

    Xu, Fu-gang; Yang, Xing-guo; Hao, Ming-hui


    Dam breaks of landslide dams are always accompanied by large numbers of casualties, a large loss of property, and negative influences on the downstream ecology and environment. This study uses the Jiadanwan landslide dam, created by the Wenchuan earthquake, as a case study example. Several laboratory experiments are carried out to analyse the dam-break mechanism of the landslide dam. The different factors that impact the dam-break process include upstream flow, the boulder effect, dam size, and channel discharge. The development of the discharge channel and the failure of the landslide dam are monitored by digital video and still cameras. Experimental results show that the upstream inflow and the dam size are the main factors that impact the dam-break process. An excavated discharge channel, especially a trapezoidal discharge channel, has a positive effect on reducing peak flow. The depth of the discharge channel also has a significant impact on the dam-break process. The experimental results are significant for landslide dam management and flood disaster prevention and mitigation. PMID:23844387

  7. Studies on the mechanisms responsible for inhibition of experimental metastasis of B16-F10 murine melanoma by pentoxifylline. (United States)

    Gude, R P; Binda, M M; Presas, H L; Klein-Szanto, A J; Bonfil, R D


    Pentoxifylline (PTX), a methylxanthine derivative widely used as a hemorheological agent in the treatment of peripheral vascular disease, was studied to unveil the mechanisms responsible for its inhibitory action on B16-F10 experimental metastasis. In vitro pretreatment of B16-F10 cells with noncytotoxic concentrations of PTX significantly inhibited their adhesion to reconstituted basement membrane Matrigel(R) and type IV collagen as well as the relative activity of secreted 92 kD metalloproteinase. However, PTX pretreatment of B16-F10 cells did not affect their in vitro invasiveness. Heterotypic organ adhesion assays carried out with B16-F10 cells and suspended organ tissues demonstrated that pretreatment with noncytotoxic concentrations of PTX of both, tumor cells or lung tissue, brought about a dose-dependent inhibition of melanoma cell adhesion to lung. Immunohistochemical studies using antibodies against CD31 adhesion molecule (PECAM-1) revealed that B16-F10 cells adhere to lung endothelial cells. Our results suggest that PTX may exert its inhibitory effect on tumor lodgment, and as a consequence of that on experimental metastases, through an inhibitory action on cell adhesion molecules.

  8. Systematic Design Method and Experimental Validation of a 2-DOF Compliant Parallel Mechanism with Excellent Input and Output Decoupling Performances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yao Jiang


    Full Text Available The output and input coupling characteristics of the compliant parallel mechanism (CPM bring difficulty in the motion control and challenge its high performance and operational safety. This paper presents a systematic design method for a 2-degrees-of-freedom (DOFs CPM with excellent decoupling performance. A symmetric kinematic structure can guarantee a CPM with a complete output decoupling characteristic; input coupling is reduced by resorting to a flexure-based decoupler. This work discusses the stiffness design requirement of the decoupler and proposes a compound flexure hinge as its basic structure. Analytical methods have been derived to assess the mechanical performances of the CPM in terms of input and output stiffness, motion stroke, input coupling degree, and natural frequency. The CPM’s geometric parameters were optimized to minimize the input coupling while ensuring key performance indicators at the same time. The optimized CPM’s performances were then evaluated by using a finite element analysis. Finally, a prototype was constructed and experimental validations were carried out to test the performance of the CPM and verify the effectiveness of the design method. The design procedure proposed in this paper is systematic and can be extended to design the CPMs with other types of motion.

  9. Experimental study on quasi-static tensile mechanical properties of TC11 titanium alloy at room temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiulin NIU


    Full Text Available According to the tensile properties of typical aerospace material TC11 titanium alloy, the stress-strain relationship is studied using the quasi-static tensile test at different strain rates, and the tensile fracture morphology is analyzed with SEM. The experimental results show that TC11 titanium alloy has certain strain rate sensitivity, and both tensile strength and yield strength are affected by strain rate. During quasi-static tension test, TC11 titanium alloy specimen has the phenomenon of neck shrinkage. The section of the specimen is cuppy, and there is smooth shear lip zone and grey fiber area in the sample fracture. The fracture of the samples belongs to ductile fracture, but its toughness is poor. The tensile fracture morphology of TC11 titanium alloy is mainly the dimple with different sizes, but with the increase of strain rate, the size and the depth of dimple at the tensile fracture are smaller, and the fracture surface produces a small number of tearing edges and quasi-cleavage plane, and the fracture mechanism of the specimen is mainly ductile fracture and quasi-cleavage fracture. Therefore, the mechanical behavior of TC11 titanium alloy is related to strain rate under quasi-static tensile condition.

  10. Dynamicimagestoaddressconceptualnodes about mechanical waves: Example materials and preliminary results of the experimentation of the teacher training module IMAGONDE (United States)

    Testa, I.; Lombardi, S.; Monroy, G.; Sassi, E.


    In the framework of the 2002-03 project “Fisica per la Formazione Culturale - FORMazione Insegnanti" funded by Italy ministry of Education, a set of training materials, focused on mechanical waves, has been developed. The core of the materials is represented by animated images purposely designed in order to: 1) address intrinsically dynamic aspects of one-dimensional impulses/waves propagation on a string; 2) have the trainees reflect upon students' difficulties in reading/interpreting static images (as the ones which are featured in common textbooks) and animations. In this paper we discuss example materials concerning transversal impulses on strings to address conceptual nodes such as: 1) configuration of the string at a given time and its aaabstract representation; 2) displacement vs. time graph of a string element and its aaabstract representation; 3) relationships between the two aaabstract representations; 4) modelization of mechanical wave propagation in one dimension. Moreover the results of the experimentation of the training materials in the framework of the Post Graduate School to Became Physics Teacher in Secondary Schools are presented and commented.

  11. Modeling and experimental investigation of thermal-mechanical-electric coupling dynamics in a standing wave ultrasonic motor (United States)

    Li, Xiang; Yao, Zhiyuan; He, Yigang; Dai, Shichao


    Ultrasonic motor operation relies on high-frequency vibration of a piezoelectric vibrator and interface friction between the stator and rotor/slider, which can cause temperature rise of the motor under continuous operation, and can affect motor parameters and performance in turn. In this paper, an integral model is developed to study the thermal-mechanical-electric coupling dynamics in a typical standing wave ultrasonic motor. Stick-slip motion at the contact interface and the temperature dependence of material parameters of the stator are taken into account in this model. The elastic, piezoelectric and dielectric material coefficients of the piezoelectric ceramic, as a function of temperature, are determined experimentally using a resonance method. The critical parameters in the model are identified via measured results. The resulting model can be used to evaluate the variation in output characteristics of the motor caused by the thermal-mechanical-electric coupling effects. Furthermore, the dynamic temperature rise of the motor can be accurately predicted under different input parameters using the developed model, which will contribute to improving the reliable life of a motor for long-term running.

  12. Protective Effect of Flos Lonicerae against Experimental Gastric Ulcers in Rats: Mechanisms of Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung-Woo Kang


    Full Text Available Flos Lonicerae is one of the oldest and most commonly prescribed herbs in Eastern traditional medicine to treat various inflammatory diseases. In the present study, we investigated the effects of ethyl acetate fraction of Flos Lonicerae (GC-7101 on experimental gastric ulcer models and its mechanisms of action in gastric ulcer healing. The pharmacological activity of GC-7101 was investigated in rats on HCl/EtOH, indomethacin, water immersion restraint stress induced acute gastric ulcer, and acetic-acid-induced subchronic gastric ulcer. To determine its gastroprotective mechanisms, gastric wall mucus secretion, mucosal PGE2, mucosal NO content, nuclear translocation of NF-κB, mRNA expression of inflammatory cytokines, lipid peroxidation and glutathione content, and superoxide dismutase and catalase activities were measured. GC-7101 significantly attenuated development of acute gastric ulcer and accelerated the healing of acetic-acid-induced subchronic gastric ulcer. In HCl/EtOH-induced gastric ulcer, GC-7101 markedly enhanced gastric wall mucus content which was accompanied by increased mucosal PGE2 and NO production. Furthermore, treatment of GC-7101 exhibited anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities as evidenced by decreased myeloperoxidase activity, NF-κB translocation, inflammatory cytokines mRNA expression, and lipid peroxidation and increased glutathione content and superoxide dismutase and catalase activities. These results demonstrated that GC-7101 possesses strong antiulcerogenic effect by modulating oxidative stress and proinflammatory mediators.

  13. Experimental investigations on the fluid-mechanics of an electrospun heart valve by means of particle image velocimetry. (United States)

    Del Gaudio, Costantino; Gasbarroni, Pier Luca; Romano, Giovanni Paolo


    End-stage failing heart valves are currently replaced by mechanical or biological prostheses. Both types positively contribute to restore the physiological function of native valves, but a number of drawbacks limits the expected performances. In order to improve the outcome, tissue engineering can offer an alternative approach to design and fabricate innovative heart valves capable to support the requested function and to promote the formation of a novel, viable and correctly operating physiological structure. This potential result is particularly critical if referred to the aortic valve, being the one mainly exposed to structural and functional degeneration. In this regard, the here proposed study presents the fabrication and in vitro characterization of a bioresorbable electrospun heart valve prosthesis using the particle image velocimetry technique either in physiological and pathological fluid dynamic conditions. The scaffold was designed to reproduce the aortic valve geometry, also mimicking the fibrous structure of the natural extracellular matrix. To evaluate its performances for possible implantation, the flow fields downstream the valve were accurately investigated and compared. The experimental results showed a correct functionality of the device, supported by the formation of vortex structures at the edge of the three cusps, with Reynolds stress values below the threshold for the risk of hemolysis (which can be comprised in the range 400-4000N/m(2) depending on the exposure period), and a good structural resistance to the mechanical loads generated by the driving pressure difference. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Defect production in non-equilibrium phase transitions: experimental investigation of the Kibble-Zurek mechanism in a two-qubit quantum simulator (United States)

    Zhang, Jingfu; Cucchietti, Fernando M.; Laflamme, Raymond; Suter, Dieter


    Systems passing through quantum critical points at finite rates have a finite probability of undergoing transitions between different eigenstates of the instantaneous Hamiltonian. This mechanism was proposed by Kibble as the underlying mechanism for the formation of topological defects in the early universe and by Zurek for condensed matter systems. Here, we use a system of nuclear spins as an experimental quantum simulator undergoing a non-equilibrium quantum phase transition. The experimental data confirm the validity of the Kibble-Zurek mechanism of defect formation.

  15. Experimental and theoretical investigations of the kinetics and mechanism of the Cl + 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone reaction (United States)

    Aslan, L.; Priya, A. Mano; Sleiman, C.; Zeineddine, M. N.; Coddeville, P.; Fittschen, C.; Ballesteros, B.; Canosa, A.; Senthilkumar, L.; El Dib, G.; Tomas, A.


    The reaction of 4-hydroxy-4-methyl-2-pentanone (4H4M2P) with Cl atoms was studied for the first time experimentally and theoretically. Relative kinetic measurements were carried out at room temperature and 1 bar of synthetic air/N2 in two different environmental chambers: a 300 L Teflon bag and a 16 L borosilicate glass cell. Reactants, reference compounds and products were monitored either by IR absorption or by GC-FID. Theoretical calculations were performed using the density functional theory method at BH&HLYP level of theory for twelve hydrogen abstraction pathways. The individual rate coefficients for the most favorable H-abstraction pathways were calculated by canonical variational theory using small curvature tunneling method at 298 K. An average experimental rate coefficient of (7.4 ± 0.6) × 10-11 cm3 molecule-1 s-1 was obtained at 298 K, in good agreement with the theoretical rate coefficient. The branching ratios for each reaction channel were evaluated theoretically from the individual rate coefficients of the identified channels. The H-atom abstracted on the -CH2 group appeared to be the dominant channel with a small barrier height. Formaldehyde, acetic acid, HCl, CO2 and CO were identified by IR as the major primary products. The obtained results are presented and discussed in terms of structure-reactivity relationships. A mechanism is suggested for the formation of the observed products. The atmospheric implications of the studied reaction are presented and more particularly, the lifetime of 4H4M2P towards Cl atoms is evaluated to be about 3 days.

  16. Experimental Study on the Mechanical Properties of CH4 and CO2 Hydrate Remodeling Cores in Qilian Mountain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tingting Luo


    Full Text Available The CH4-CO2 replacement method has attracted global attention as a new promising method for methane hydrate exploitation. In the replacement process, the mechanical stabilities of CH4 and CO2 hydrate-bearing sediments have become problems requiring attention. In this paper, considering the hydrate characteristics and burial conditions of hydrate-bearing cores, sediments matrices were formed by a mixture of kaolin clay and quartz sand, and an experimental study was focused on the failure strength of CH4 and CO2 hydrate-bearing sediments under different conditions to verify the mechanical reliability of CH4-CO2 replacement in permafrost-associated natural gas deposits. A series of triaxial shear tests were conducted on the CH4 and CO2 hydrate-bearing sediments under temperatures of −20, −10, and −5 °C, confining pressures of 2.5, 3.75, 5, 7.5, and 10 MPa, and a strain rate of 1.0 mm/min. The results indicated that the failure strength of the CO2 hydrate-bearing sediments was higher than that of the CH4 hydrate-bearing sediments under different confining pressures and temperatures; the failure strength of the CH4 and CO2 hydrate-bearing sediments increased with an increase in confining pressure at a low confining pressure state. Besides that, the failure strength of all hydrate-bearing sediments decreased with an increase in temperature; all the failure strengths of the CO2 hydrate-bearing sediments were higher than those of the CH4 hydrate-bearing sediments in different sediment matrices. The experiments proved that the hydrate-bearing sediments would be more stable than that before CH4-CO2 replacement.

  17. Experimental study on thermal effect on infiltration mechanisms of glycerol into ZSM-5 zeolite under cyclic loadings (United States)

    Zhang, Yafei; Li, Na; Luo, Rui; Zhang, Yifeng; Zhou, Qulan; Chen, Xi


    Understanding the fundamental infiltration mechanisms under thermal response is of crucial importance to design and develop nanoporous energy systems. In this work, a glycerol/ZSM-5 zeolite-based pressure-driven energy absorption system was built, while the temperature-dependent intrusion of glycerol molecules into lyophobic nanopores of ZSM-5 zeolite and the underlying mechanisms were experimentally studied. By changing the system temperature, the correlations of infiltration pressure with the infiltration and defiltration percentages of the liquid phase under thermal response were explored. It turns out that lifting the system temperature will reduce the critical infiltration pressure barriers and change the system’s wettability. The equivalent surface tension and contact angle are calculated to elucidate the thermal dependence of the system’s wettability. Elevating system temperature can also help enlarge the entry area of the nanochannels and trigger more glycerol molecules to flow out of the nanochannels, which means an increase of the infiltration and defiltration percentages. Weakened hydrogen bonding interaction, temperature sensitivity of glycerol viscosity, and the inherent gas phase in the nanoporous channels may contribute to the infiltration and outflow process at a higher temperature level. Cyclic loadings were applied under each working condition to test the recoverability of the built system. Results showed that the system’s throughput shrank in the first three/four cycles and became stable afterwards. Lifting the system temperature could enhance both intrusion and extrusion processes, thus helping the system reach a faster throughput balance, which is beneficial in establishing a recoverable and reusable energy absorption/storage/conversion system.

  18. Structural and mechanical properties of Al―Mg―B films: Experimental study and first-principles calculations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ivashchenko, V.I.; Scrynskyy, P.L. [Frantsevych Institute for Problems of Material Science, NAS of Ukraine, 3, Krzhyzhanovsky Str., 03142 Kyiv (Ukraine); Dub, S.N. [Bakul Institute for Superhard Materials, NAS of Ukraine, 2, Avtozavodska Str., 04074 Kyiv (Ukraine); Butenko, O.O.; Kozak, A.O.; Sinelnichenko, O.K. [Frantsevych Institute for Problems of Material Science, NAS of Ukraine, 3, Krzhyzhanovsky Str., 03142 Kyiv (Ukraine)


    The Al―Mg―B films were deposited on silicon substrates by direct current magnetron sputtering from the AlMgB{sub 14} target at low discharge power and at substrate temperature ranging from 100 to 500 °C. The deposited films have been annealed at 1000 °C in vacuum, and characterized by X-ray diffraction, atomic force microscopy, Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy, nano- and micro-indentation, and scratch testing. The films exhibit lower hardness than the bulk AlMgB{sub 14} material, which is due to their amorphous structure in which the strong intra-icosahedron B―B bonds are almost lacking and the weaker B―O bonds are predominant. After the annealing, a reduction of a number of B―O bonds and a formation of crystallites in the films lead to an increase in the nanohardness and elastic modulus. The as-deposited films exhibit a low coefficient of friction of 0.08–0.12. First-principles studies show that the icosahedra in amorphous AlMgB{sub 14}-based materials are not fully developed, which is the reason of their lower mechanical performance. - Highlights: • Al―Mg―B films were deposited at different substrate temperatures. • The as-deposited films were amorphous, whereas the annealed ones were nanostructured. • Mechanical properties were analyzed as functions of substrate and annealing temperatures. • Ab-initio MD simulations of AlMgB{sub 14}-based materials were carried out. • Both experimental and theoretical investigations enabled one to explain film properties.

  19. Mechanisms by which Stress Affects the Experimental and Clinical Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD): Role of Brain-Gut Axis. (United States)

    Brzozowski, Bartosz; Mazur-Bialy, Agnieszka; Pajdo, Robert; Kwiecien, Slawomir; Bilski, Jan; Zwolinska-Wcislo, Malgorzata; Mach, Tomasz; Brzozowski, Tomasz


    Stress of different origin is known to alter so called "braingut axis" and contributes to a broad array of gastrointestinal disorders including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) and other functional gastrointestinal diseases. The stressful situations and various stressors including psychosocial events, heat, hypo- and hyperthermia may worsen the course of IBD via unknown mechanism. The aims of this paper were to provide an overview of experimental and clinical evidences that stress activates the brain-gut axis which results in a mucosal mast cells activation and an increase in the production of proinflammatory cytokines and other endocrine and humoral mediators. Research and online content related to effects of stress on lower bowel disorders are reviewed and most important mechanisms are delineated. Brain conveys the neural, endocrine and circulatory messages to the gut via brain-gut axis reflecting changes in corticotrophin releasing hormone, mast cells activity, neurotransmission at the autonomic nerves system and intestinal barrier function all affecting the pathogenesis of animal colitis and human IBD. Stress triggers the hypothalamus-pituitary axis and the activation of the autonomic nervous system, an increase in cortisol levels and proinflammatory cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-8, interleukin-1beta and interleukin-6. The acute or chronic stress enhances the intestinal permeability weakening of the tight junctions and increasing bacterial translocation into the intestinal wall. An increased microbial load in the colonic tissue, excessive cytokine release and a partially blunted immune reactivity in response to stress result in its negative impact on IBD.

  20. Experimental Study of Hydraulic Control Rod Drive Mechanism for Passive IN-core Cooling System of Nuclear Power Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, In Guk; Kim, Kyung Mo; Jeong, Yeong Shin; Bang, In Cheol [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)


    CAREM 25 (27 MWe safety systems using hydraulic control rod drives (CRD) studied critical issues that were rod drops with interrupted flow [3]. Hydraulic control rod drive suggested fast shutdown condition using a large gap between piston and cylinder in order to fast drop of neutron absorbing rods. A Passive IN-core Cooling system (PINCs) was suggested for safety enhancement of pressurized water reactors (PWR), small modular reactor (SMR), sodium fast reactor (SFR) in UNIST. PINCs consist of hydraulic control rod drive mechanism (Hydraulic CRDM) and hybrid control rod assembly with heat pipe combined with control rod. The schematic diagram of the hydraulic CRDM for PINCs is shown in Fig. 1. The experimental results show the steady state and transient behavior of the upper cylinder at a low pressure and low temperature. The influence of the working fluid temperature and cylinder mass are investigated. Finally, the heat removal between evaporator section and condenser section is compared with or without the hybrid control rod. Heat removal test of the hybrid heat pipe with hydraulic CRDM system showed the heat transfer coefficient of the bundle hybrid control rod and its effect on evaporator pool. The preliminary test both hydraulic CRDM and heat removal system was conducted, which showed the possibility of the in-core hydraulic drive system for application of PINCs.

  1. Scaffold microstructure effects on functional and mechanical performance: Integration of theoretical and experimental approaches for bone tissue engineering applications. (United States)

    Cavo, Marta; Scaglione, Silvia


    The really nontrivial goal of tissue engineering is combining all scaffold micro-architectural features, affecting both fluid-dynamical and mechanical performance, to obtain a fully functional implant. In this work we identified an optimal geometrical pattern for bone tissue engineering applications, best balancing several graft needs which correspond to competing design goals. In particular, we investigated the occurred changes in graft behavior by varying pore size (300μm, 600μm, 900μm), interpore distance (equal to pore size or 300μm fixed) and pores interconnection (absent, 45°-oriented, 90°-oriented). Mathematical considerations and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tools, here combined in a complete theoretical model, were carried out to this aim. Poly-lactic acid (PLA) based samples were realized by 3D printing, basing on the modeled architectures. A collagen (COL) coating was also realized on grafts surface and the interaction between PLA and COL, besides the protein contribution to graft bioactivity, was evaluated. Scaffolds were extensively characterized; human articular cells were used to test their biocompatibility and to evaluate the theoretical model predictions. Grafts fulfilled both the chemical and physical requirements. Finally, a good agreement was found between the theoretical model predictions and the experimental data, making these prototypes good candidates for bone graft replacements. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. A time-dependent numerical analysis of flow in a mechanical heart valve: Comparison with experimental results (United States)

    Gkanis, Vasileios; Housiadas, Christos


    There is a great need to fabricate heart valves that have similar haemodynamic properties with the natural ones. Towards this goal, we examine the dynamics of fluid flow in a mechanical heart valve with one leaflet. The fluid is incompressible and Newtonian and the leaflet is a neo-Hookean material. The Arbitrary Lagrangian Eulerian method is used to model the fluid-leaflet interaction, and the system of equations is solved using the Finite Element method. The pseudo solid approach along with a set of algebraic equations are used to deform the mesh, while care is taken to avoid remeshing of the domain, at the moment of valve closure. The computational results are compared against the experimental results, and we find an excellent agreement for the time period of valve closure, the time the valve is fully opened, and the value of the maximum valve opening angle. This study indicates that the present model is capable of describing the valve dynamics in physiological geometries.

  3. Single-cell mechanics--An experimental-computational method for quantifying the membrane-cytoskeleton elasticity of cells. (United States)

    Tartibi, M; Liu, Y X; Liu, G-Y; Komvopoulos, K


    The membrane-cytoskeleton system plays a major role in cell adhesion, growth, migration, and differentiation. F-actin filaments, cross-linkers, binding proteins that bundle F-actin filaments to form the actin cytoskeleton, and integrins that connect the actin cytoskeleton network to the cell plasma membrane and extracellular matrix are major cytoskeleton constituents. Thus, the cell cytoskeleton is a complex composite that can assume different shapes. Atomic force microscopy (AFM)-based techniques have been used to measure cytoskeleton material properties without much attention to cell shape. A recently developed surface chemical patterning method for long-term single-cell culture was used to seed individual cells on circular patterns. A continuum-based cell model, which uses as input the force-displacement response obtained with a modified AFM setup and relates the membrane-cytoskeleton elastic behavior to the cell geometry, while treating all other subcellular components suspended in the cytoplasmic liquid (gel) as an incompressible fluid, is presented and validated by experimental results. The developed analytical-experimental methodology establishes a framework for quantifying the membrane-cytoskeleton elasticity of live cells. This capability may have immense implications in cell biology, particularly in studies seeking to establish correlations between membrane-cytoskeleton elasticity and cell disease, mortality, differentiation, and migration, and provide insight into cell infiltration through nonwoven fibrous scaffolds. The present method can be further extended to analyze membrane-cytoskeleton viscoelasticity, examine the role of other subcellular components (e.g., nucleus envelope) in cell elasticity, and elucidate the effects of mechanical stimuli on cell differentiation and motility. This is the first study to decouple the membrane-cytoskeleton elasticity from cell stiffness and introduce an effective approach for measuring the elastic modulus. The

  4. The Effects of Short-Term Propofol and Dexmedetomidine on Lung Mechanics, Histology, and Biological Markers in Experimental Obesity. (United States)

    Heil, Luciana Boavista Barros; Santos, Cíntia L; Santos, Raquel S; Samary, Cynthia S; Cavalcanti, Vinicius C M; Araújo, Mariana M P N; Poggio, Hananda; Maia, Lígia de A; Trevenzoli, Isis Hara; Pelosi, Paolo; Fernandes, Fatima C; Villela, Nivaldo R; Silva, Pedro L; Rocco, Patricia R M


    Administering anesthetics to the obese population requires caution because of a variety of reasons including possible interactions with the inflammatory process observed in obese patients. Propofol and dexmedetomidine have protective effects on pulmonary function and are widely used in short- and long-term sedation, particularly in intensive care unit settings in lean and obese subjects. However, the functional and biological effects of these drugs in obesity require further elucidation. In a model of diet-induced obesity, we compared the short-term effects of dexmedetomidine versus propofol on lung mechanics and histology, as well as biological markers of inflammation and oxidative stress modulation in obesity. Wistar rats (n = 56) were randomly fed a standard diet (lean) or experimental diet (obese) for 12 weeks. After this period, obese animals received sodium thiopental intraperitoneally and were randomly allocated into 4 subgroups: (1) nonventilated (n = 4) for molecular biology analysis only (control); (2) sodium thiopental (n = 8); (3) propofol (n = 8); and (4) dexmedetomidine (n = 8), which received continuous IV administration of the corresponding agents and were mechanically ventilated (tidal volume = 6 mL/kg body weight, fraction of inspired oxygen = 0.4, positive end-expiratory pressure = 3 cm H2O) for 1 hour. Compared with lean animals, obese rats did not present increased body weight but had higher total body and trunk fat percentages, airway resistance, and interleukin-6 levels in the lung tissue (P = 0.02, P = 0.0027, and P = 0.01, respectively). In obese rats, propofol, but not dexmedetomidine, yielded increased airway resistance, bronchoconstriction index (P = 0.016, P = 0.02, respectively), tumor necrosis factor-α, and interleukin-6 levels, as well as lower levels of nuclear factor-erythroid 2-related factor-2 and glutathione peroxidase (P = 0.001, Bonferroni-corrected t test). In this model of diet-induced obesity, a 1-hour propofol infusion

  5. Caracterización mecánica experimental de un hormigón ligero estructural = Experimental mechanical characterisation of a structural lightweight aggregate concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. I. Olmedo


    The self load of the structure is usually similar even bigger than any other load load which a structure carries. Due to this fact a number of structure are inefficient. The replacement in concrete of normal aggregate by lightweight aggregate reaches a markedly reduction of the concrete weight. The mechanical behavior of a lightweight aggregate concrete is analyzed in this paper. A number of tests have been done at different ages. These results have been compared with the predicted mechanical values of some regulation.

  6. Effects of hecogenin and its possible mechanism of action on experimental models of gastric ulcer in mice. (United States)

    Santos Cerqueira, Gilberto; dos Santos e Silva, Gabriela; Rios Vasconcelos, Emiliano; Fragoso de Freitas, Ana Paula; Arcanjo Moura, Brinell; Silveira Macedo, Danielle; Lopes Souto, Augusto; Barbosa Filho, José Maria; de Almeida Leal, Luzia Kalyne; de Castro Brito, Gerly Anne; Souccar, Caden; de Barros Viana, Glauce Socorro


    This study investigates the gastroprotective effects of hecogenin, a steroid saponin isolated from Agave sisalana, on experimental models of gastric ulcer. Male Swiss mice were used in the models of ethanol- and indometacin-induced gastric ulcer. To clarify the hecogenin mechanism of action, the roles of nitric oxide (NO), sulfhydryls (GSH), K⁺(ATP) channels and prostaglandins were also investigated, and measurements of lipid peroxidation (TBARS assay) and nitrite levels in the stomach of hecogenin-treated and untreated animals were performed. Furthermore, the effects of hecogenin on myeloperoxidase (MPO) release from human neutrophils were assessed in vitro. Our results showed that hecogenin (3.1, 7.5, 15, 30, 60 and 90 mg/kg, p.o.) acutely administered, before ethanol or indomethacin, exhibited a potent gastroprotective effect. Although the pretreatments with L-NAME, an iNOS inhibitor, and capsazepine, a TRPV1 receptor agonist, were not able to reverse the hecogenin effect, this was reversed by glibenclamide, a K⁺(ATP) blocker, and indomethacin in the model of ethanol-induced gastric lesions. The hecogenin pretreatment normalized GSH levels and significantly reduced lipid peroxidation and nitrite levels in the stomach, as evaluated by the ethanol-induced gastric lesion model. The drug alone increased COX-2 expression and this effect was further enhanced in the presence of ethanol. It also decreased MPO release and significantly protected the gastric mucosa. In conclusion, we showed that hecogenin presents a significant gastroprotective effect that seems to be mediated by K⁺(ATP) channels opening and the COX-2/PG pathway. In addition, its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties may play a role in the gastroprotective drug effect. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Experimental study of plasma focusing in erosion plasma accelerators. V. Mechanism of plasma focusing in a magnetoplasma compressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlov, N.P.; Protasov, Y.S.


    Experimental results are reported from a study of the dynamics, microscopic structure, and stability of successive developmental stages of high-current plasmodynamic discharges in magnetoplasma compressors of the erosion type under conditions of intense radiation transport. Particular attention was given to the transient stage of plasma focusing behind the cutoff of the accelerating channel, and to secondary pinching processes in the second half-period of the discharge current and methods for analyzing them when limited diagnostic facilities are available. It is shown that thermal instabilities, which dominate during the stages of formation and quasisteady flow in the compressed zone, do not cause the nonideal discharge plasma to have anomalous thermodynamic and transport properties; the accelerated plasma, which is thermalized in the compressed zone, is macroscopically stable when the current shell interacts with the relatively cold vapor (this interaction is accompanied by development of an intense shock-wave structure and power instabilities in various modes). It is demonstrated that either an inertial + Hall mechanism of plasma focusing or two-stage inertial compression of the plasma is possible, regardless of the chemical composition and ionization state of the electric discharge plasma. In the two-stage method of plasma compression, the plasma is compressed toward the central anode in the accelerating channel by the Hall effect and as a result of additional pinching in the outgoing Z currents; when energy is input to the MHD compression zone in a self-consistent manner, this makes it possible to control the dimensions and the dynamic and energy characteristics of the plasma stream.

  8. Ginkgo biloba L. leaf extract offers multiple mechanisms in bridling N-methylnitrosourea - mediated experimental colorectal cancer. (United States)

    Ahmed, Hanaa H; El-Abhar, Hanan S; Hassanin, Elsayed Abdul Khalik; Abdelkader, Noha F; Shalaby, Mohamed B


    In Egypt, colorectal cancer (CRC) is the 6th cancer in both gender and CRC rates are high in subjects under 40 years of age. This study goaled to determine the development of CRC using relevant biochemical markers and to elucidate the potent mechanism of Ginkgo biloba L. leaf extract in retrogression of experimental CRC. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered N-methylnitrosourea (N-MNU; 2mg in 0.5ml water/rat) intrarectally thrice a week for five weeks to induce CRC, followed by treatment with either 5-fluorouracil (5-FU; 12.5mg/kg, i.p.) or Ginkgo biloba L. leaf extract in a dose of 0.675 and 1.35g/kg, p.o. respectively. The developed tumor enhanced plasma TGF-β, and Bcl 2 , serum EGF, CEA, CCSA, and MMP-7 significantly. Also, gene expression analysis showed significant upregulation of colonic β-Catenin, K-ras and C-myc genes. Besides, immunohistochemical findings revealed significant increase in COX-2, cyclin D1 and survivin content in colon tissue. These data were further supported by the histological observations. Ginkgo biloba L. leaf extract-treated rats; particularly those treated with dose of 1.35g/kg, exhibited significant reduction in the aforementioned parameters and improvement in the histological organization of the colon tissue. The therapeutic effect of Ginkgo biloba L. leaf extract was comparable with that mediated by 5-FU. The current research proved that Ginkgo biloba L. leaf extract could suppress tumor cell proliferation, promote apoptosis, and mitigat inflammation in vivo. The amelioration of these key events might be linked with the inhibition of Wnt/β-Catenin signaling module. The outcomes of the present investigation encourage the use of Ginkgo biloba L. leaf extract as a complementary and alternative therapeutic approach to abate CRC. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  9. Experimental identification of the lateral human-structure interaction mechanism and assessment of the inverted-pendulum biomechanical model (United States)

    Carroll, S. P.; Owen, J. S.; Hussein, M. F. M.


    Within the context of crowd-induced lateral bridge vibration, human-structure interaction (HSI) is a widely studied phenomenon. Central to this study is the self-excited component of the ground reaction force (GRF). This force harmonic, induced by a walking pedestrian, resonates with lateral deck motion, irrespective of the pedestrian's pacing frequency. Its presence can lead to positive feedback between pedestrian GRFs and structural motion. Characterisation of the self-excited force as equivalent structural mass and damping has greatly improved the understanding of HSI and its role in developing lateral dynamic instability. However, despite this evolving understanding, a key question has remained unanswered; what are the features of a pedestrian's balance response to base motion that gives rise to the self-excited force? The majority of the literature has focussed on the effects of HSI with the underlying mechanism receiving comparatively little attention. This paper presents data from experimental testing in which 10 subjects walked individually on a laterally oscillating treadmill. Lateral deck motion as well as the GRFs imposed by the subject was recorded. Three-dimensional motion capture equipment was used to track the position of visual markers mounted on the subject. Thus whole body response to base motion was captured in addition to the GRFs generated. The data presented herein supports the authors' previous findings that the self-excited force is a frequency sideband harmonic resulting from amplitude modulation of the lateral GRF. The gait behaviour responsible for this amplitude modulation is a periodic modulation of stride width in response to a sinusoidally varying inertia force induced by deck motion. In a separate analysis the validity of the passive inverted pendulum model, stabilised by active control of support placement was confirmed. This was established through comparison of simulated and observed frontal plane CoM motion. Despite the relative

  10. Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Hartog, J P Den


    First published over 40 years ago, this work has achieved the status of a classic among introductory texts on mechanics. Den Hartog is known for his lively, discursive and often witty presentations of all the fundamental material of both statics and dynamics (and considerable more advanced material) in new, original ways that provide students with insights into mechanical relationships that other books do not always succeed in conveying. On the other hand, the work is so replete with engineering applications and actual design problems that it is as valuable as a reference to the practicing e

  11. Computational and experimental fluid mechanics. Draft version of annex to final report for period January 1st 1993 to December 31st 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The general purpose of the program has been the development of efficient algorithms, their implementation in codes of Computational Fluid Mechanics (CFD), and the experimental verification of these codes. Flows of both fundamental and applied nature has been investigated, including flows in industrial process equipment, about aerodynamics structures and ships, and flows over bed forms of importance for sediment transport. The experimental work has included the development of improved techniques, emphasizing optical methods. The objectives were realized through a coordinated experimental and theoretical/computation research program, organized in 6 specific projects: 1. CFD-methods and algorithms. 2. Special element simulation of ultrafiltration. 3. Turbulent swirling flows; 4. Near-wall models of turbulence and development of experimental techniques. 5. Flow over bed forms. 6. Flow past ship hull. (au)

  12. A combined experimental atomic force microscopy-based nanoindentation and computational modeling approach to unravel the key contributors to the time-dependent mechanical behavior of single cells. (United States)

    Florea, Cristina; Tanska, Petri; Mononen, Mika E; Qu, Chengjuan; Lammi, Mikko J; Laasanen, Mikko S; Korhonen, Rami K


    Cellular responses to mechanical stimuli are influenced by the mechanical properties of cells and the surrounding tissue matrix. Cells exhibit viscoelastic behavior in response to an applied stress. This has been attributed to fluid flow-dependent and flow-independent mechanisms. However, the particular mechanism that controls the local time-dependent behavior of cells is unknown. Here, a combined approach of experimental AFM nanoindentation with computational modeling is proposed, taking into account complex material behavior. Three constitutive models (porohyperelastic, viscohyperelastic, poroviscohyperelastic) in tandem with optimization algorithms were employed to capture the experimental stress relaxation data of chondrocytes at 5 % strain. The poroviscohyperelastic models with and without fluid flow allowed through the cell membrane provided excellent description of the experimental time-dependent cell responses (normalized mean squared error (NMSE) of 0.003 between the model and experiments). The viscohyperelastic model without fluid could not follow the entire experimental data that well (NMSE = 0.005), while the porohyperelastic model could not capture it at all (NMSE = 0.383). We also show by parametric analysis that the fluid flow has a small, but essential effect on the loading phase and short-term cell relaxation response, while the solid viscoelasticity controls the longer-term responses. We suggest that the local time-dependent cell mechanical response is determined by the combined effects of intrinsic viscoelasticity of the cytoskeleton and fluid flow redistribution in the cells, although the contribution of fluid flow is smaller when using a nanosized probe and moderate indentation rate. The present approach provides new insights into viscoelastic responses of chondrocytes, important for further understanding cell mechanobiological mechanisms in health and disease.

  13. Experimental characterization of the hydro-mechanical behaviour of Meuse/Haute-Marne argilites; Caracterisation experimentale du comportement hydromecanique des argilites de Meuse/Haute-Marne

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Escoffier, S


    Within the framework of a feasibility study of underground radioactive waste repository the experimental characterization of the coupled behavior of the host layer is of first importance. This work concerns the experimental characterization in laboratory of the poro-elastic behavior of argillite which constitutes the host layer of the future underground laboratory of ANDRA located at the limit of the Meuse/Haute-Marne. The theoretical approach is the Mechanics of Porous Media defined by Coussy [1991] which has the advantage of providing a formulation of the behavior laws using measurable parameters in laboratory. The difficulties or the feasibility of the characterization tests of these rocks coupled behavior are related to their very low permeability which requires an adaptation of the experimental devices initially used on more permeable rocks. Initially a synthesis on the knowledge of the poro-elastic parameters of Meuse/Haute-Marne argillite is given. Thereafter a first approach of the use of the studies of sensitivity as tools of decision-making aid is proposed. The experimental difficulties encountered by the various experimenters are illustrated by the diversity of the experimental choices, the test duration or by the results disparity. Because of economic, political and ecological stake, the studies of sensitivity could make it possible to direct the experimental efforts by giving indications on the dominating parameters in the coupled behavior of a rock. In the second time after the presentation of the test results of physical characterization 3 types of tests are described: permeability test (pulse test), determination of Biot coefficient under odometric loading and isotropic drained test. The complexity of these tests is related to the attack of the experimental limits. They are presented in detail: theoretical recalls, experimental set up, experimental protocol, unfolding and test results. (author)

  14. An Experimental and Theoretical Study of the Mechanism of Stannylcupration of α,β-Acetylenic Ketones and Esters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ahlquist, Mårten Sten Gösta; Nielsen, Thomas Eiland; Le Quement, Sebastian


    The title reaction has been investigated by experimental and computational (DFT) techniques, and subsequently compared to the corresponding carbocupration reaction, with particular emphasis on the stereoselectivity. For stannylcupration of an ynone substrate, only the anti-addition product is obs...

  15. Experimental Investigation of Cell Membrane Nano-mechanics and Plasma Membrane-Cytoskeletal Interactions Using Optical Tweezers


    Khatibzadeh, Nima


    The mechanical properties of the cell components, cell plasma membrane and cytoskeleton, as well as membrane-cytoskeleton associations, determine the mechanical properties of the whole cell which is important in cellular shape change behavior and mechanical signal transduction in living cells. Examples of biologically important processes involving cellular shape changes are deformation of erythrocytes in capillaries, cell division, phagocytosis, pseudopodium and dendritic spine formation, and...

  16. Experimental research and use of finite elements method on mechanical behaviors of honeycomb structures assembled with epoxy-based adhesives reinforced with nanoparticles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akkus, Harun [Technical Sciences Vocational School, Amasya University, Amasya (Turkmenistan); Duzcukoglu, Hayrettin; Sahin, Omer Sinan [Mechanical Engineering Department, Selcuk University, Selcuk (Turkmenistan)


    This study utilized experimental and finite element methods to investigate the mechanical behavior of aluminum honeycomb structures under compression. Aluminum honeycomb composite structures were subjected to pressing experiments according to the standard ASTM C365. Resistive forces in response to compression and maximum compressive force values were measured. Structural damage was observed. In the honeycomb structure, the cell width decreased as the compressive force increased. Results obtained with finite element models generated using ANSYS Workbench 15 were validated. Experimental results paralleled the finite element modeling results. The ANSYS results were approximately 85 % reliable.

  17. Mechanics

    CERN Document Server

    Chester, W


    When I began to write this book, I originally had in mind the needs of university students in their first year. May aim was to keep the mathematics simple. No advanced techniques are used and there are no complicated applications. The emphasis is on an understanding of the basic ideas and problems which require expertise but do not contribute to this understanding are not discussed. How­ ever, the presentation is more sophisticated than might be considered appropri­ ate for someone with no previous knowledge of the subject so that, although it is developed from the beginning, some previous acquaintance with the elements of the subject would be an advantage. In addition, some familiarity with element­ ary calculus is assumed but not with the elementary theory of differential equations, although knowledge of the latter would again be an advantage. It is my opinion that mechanics is best introduced through the motion of a particle, with rigid body problems left until the subject is more fully developed. Howev...

  18. Experimental Investigation of the Anisotropic Mechanical Properties of a Columnar Jointed Rock Mass: Observations from Laboratory-Based Physical Modelling (United States)

    Ji, H.; Zhang, J. C.; Xu, W. Y.; Wang, R. B.; Wang, H. L.; Yan, L.; Lin, Z. N.


    Because of the complex geological structure, determination of the field mechanical parameters of the columnar jointed rock mass (CJRM) was a challenging task in the design and construction of the Baihetan hydropower plant. To model the mechanical behaviour of the CJRM, uniaxial compression tests were conducted on artificial CJRM specimens with geological structure similar to that found in the actual CJRM. Based on the test results, the anisotropic deformation and strength were mainly analysed. The empirical correlations of evaluating the field mechanical parameters were derived based on the joint factor approach and the modulus reduction factor method. The findings of the physical model tests were then used to estimate the field moduli and unconfined compressive strengths of the Baihetan CJRM. The results predicted by physical model tests were compared with those obtained from the field tests and the RMR classification system. It is concluded that physical model tests were capable of providing valuable estimations on the field mechanical parameters of the CJRM.

  19. Ultra-high performance fibre-reinforced concrete under impact: experimental analysis of the mechanical response in extreme conditions and modelling using the Pontiroli, Rouquand and Mazars model. (United States)

    Erzar, Benjamin; Pontiroli, Christophe; Buzaud, Eric


    To evaluate the vulnerability of ultra-high performance fibre-reinforced concrete (UHPFRC) infrastructure to rigid projectile penetration, over the last few years CEA-Gramat has led an experimental and numerical research programme in collaboration with French universities. During the penetration process, concrete is subjected to extreme conditions of pressure and strain rate. Plasticity mechanisms as well as dynamic tensile and/or shear damage are activated during the tunnelling phase and the cratering of the concrete target. Each mechanism has been investigated independently at the laboratory scale and the role of steel fibres especially has been analysed to understand their influence on the macroscopic behaviour. To extend the experimental results to the structural scale, penetration tests on UHPFRC slabs have been conducted by CEA-Gramat. The analysis of this dataset combined with material characterization experiments allows the role of steel fibres to be identified in the different plasticity and damage mechanisms occurring during penetration. In parallel, some improvements have been introduced into the concrete model developed by Pontiroli, Rouquand and Mazars (PRM model), especially to take into account the contribution made by the fibres in the tensile fracture process. After a primary phase of validation, the capabilities of the PRM model are illustrated by performing numerical simulations of projectile penetration into UHPFRC concrete structures.This article is part of the themed issue 'Experimental testing and modelling of brittle materials at high strain rates'. © 2016 The Author(s).

  20. Adare and District Nursing Home, Croagh, Limerick.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Whitford, David L


    BACKGROUND: There has been little development of the general practice consultation over the years, and many aspects of the present consultation do not serve communities with multiple health and social problems well. Many of the problems presenting to general practitioners in socio-economically disadvantaged areas are not amenable to a purely medical solution, and would particularly benefit from a multidisciplinary approach. Socio-economic deprivation is also associated with those very factors (more psychosocial problems, greater need for health promotion, more chronic diseases, more need for patient enablement) that longer consultations have been shown to address. This paper describes our study protocol, which aims to evaluate whether a lengthened multidisciplinary primary care team consultation with families in a socially deprived area can improve the psychological health of mothers in the families. METHODS\\/DESIGN: In a randomised controlled trial, families with a history of social problems, substance misuse or depression are randomly allocated to an intervention or control group. The study is based in three general practices in a highly deprived area of North Dublin. Primary health care teams will be trained in conducting a multidisciplinary lengthened consultation. Families in the intervention group will participate in the new style multidisciplinary consultation. Outcomes of families receiving the intervention will be compared to the control group who will receive only usual general practitioner care. The primary outcome is the psychological health of mothers of the families and secondary outcomes include general health status, quality of life measures and health service usage. DISCUSSION: The main aim of this study is to evaluate the effectiveness of a lengthened multidisciplinary team consultation in primary care. The embedded nature of this study in general practices in a highly deprived area ensures generalisability to other deprived communities, but more particularly it promises relevance to primary care. TRIAL REGISTRATION: Current Controlled Trials ISRCTN70578736.

  1. Cahermoyle House Nursing Home, Ardagh, Limerick.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Calpin, P


    We sought to compare the weight of patient’s medical records (MRW) to that of standardised surgical risk scoring systems in predicting postoperative hospital stay, morbidity, and mortality in patients with hip fracture. Patients admitted for surgical treatment of a newly diagnosed hip fracture over a 3-month period were enrolled. Patients with documented morbidity or mortality had significantly heavier medical records. The MRW was equivalent to the age-adjusted Charlson co-morbidity index and better than the American Society of Anaesthesiologists physical status score (ASA), the Physiological and Operative Severity Score for the enUmeration of Mortality and Morbidity (POSSUM,) and Portsmouth-POSSUM score (P-POSSUM) in correlation with length of hospital admission, p = .003, 95% CI [.15 to .65]. Using logistic regression analysis MRW was as good as, if not better, than the other scoring systems at predicting postoperative morbidity and 90-day mortality. Medical record weight is as good as, or better than, validated surgical risk scoring methods. Larger, multicentre studies are required to validate its use as a surgical risk prediction tool, and it may in future be supplanted by a digital measure of electronic record size. Given its ease of use and low cost, it could easily be used in trauma units globally.

  2. St Paul's Nursing Home, Dooradoyle, Limerick.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sermeus, Walter


    Abstract Background Current human resources planning models in nursing are unreliable and ineffective as they consider volumes, but ignore effects on quality in patient care. The project RN4CAST aims innovative forecasting methods by addressing not only volumes, but quality of nursing staff as well as quality of patient care. Methods\\/Design A multi-country, multilevel cross-sectional design is used to obtain important unmeasured factors in forecasting models including how features of hospital work environments impact on nurse recruitment, retention and patient outcomes. In each of the 12 participating European countries, at least 30 general acute hospitals were sampled. Data are gathered via four data sources (nurse, patient and organizational surveys and via routinely collected hospital discharge data). All staff nurses of a random selection of medical and surgical units (at least 2 per hospital) were surveyed. The nurse survey has the purpose to measure the experiences of nurses on their job (e.g. job satisfaction, burnout) as well as to allow the creation of aggregated hospital level measures of staffing and working conditions. The patient survey is organized in a sub-sample of countries and hospitals using a one-day census approach to measure the patient experiences with medical and nursing care. In addition to conducting a patient survey, hospital discharge abstract datasets will be used to calculate additional patient outcomes like in-hospital mortality and failure-to-rescue. Via the organizational survey, information about the organizational profile (e.g. bed size, types of technology available, teaching status) is collected to control the analyses for institutional differences. This information will be linked via common identifiers and the relationships between different aspects of the nursing work environment and patient and nurse outcomes will be studied by using multilevel regression type analyses. These results will be used to simulate the impact of changing different aspects of the nursing work environment on quality of care and satisfaction of the nursing workforce. Discussion RN4CAST is one of the largest nurse workforce studies ever conducted in Europe, will add to accuracy of forecasting models and generate new approaches to more effective management of nursing resources in Europe.

  3. Caherass Nursing Home, Caherass, Croom, Limerick.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gill, I


    Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders (FASDs) are one of the major causes of preventable developmental delay. There is no register of children with FASDs in Ireland. Up to 81% of Irish women report drinking alcohol during the periconceptual period or pregnancy. We aimed to evaluate self-reported knowledge and practice of doctors working in paediatrics in Ireland with regards to FASDs and alcohol consumption during pregnancy. We circulated a survey to all paediatric doctors in Ireland, either enrolled in specialist training or registered as trainers. Fifty-six respondents (31.3%) were unaware of the existence of FASDs. Sixty-two (34.6%) believed most patients with FASDs have dysmorphic features. Seventy-three respondents (40.8%) routinely ask about maternal alcohol consumption during pregnancy in the context of developmental delay. Thirty-one respondents (17.3%) stated that mild alcohol intake in the third trimester of pregnancy is safe. Our survey suggests prenatal alcohol exposure may not be routinely considered in the evaluation of children with developmental delay by paediatric doctors in Ireland.

  4. Cahermoyle House Nursing Home, Ardagh, Limerick.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Sills, Eric Scott


    The development of in vitro fertilisation (IVF) as a treatment for human infertilty was among the most controversial medical achievements of the modern era. In Ireland, the fate and status of supranumary (non-transferred) embryos derived from IVF brings challenges both for clinical practice and public health policy because there is no judicial or legislative framework in place to address the medical, scientific, or ethical uncertainties. Complex legal issues exist regarding informed consent and ownership of embryos, particularly the use of non-transferred embryos if a couple separates or divorces. But since case law is only beginning to emerge from outside Ireland and because legislation on IVF and human embryo status is entirely absent here, this matter is poised to raise contractual, constitutional and property law issues at the highest level. Our analysis examines this medico-legal challenge in an Irish context, and summarises key decisions on this issue rendered from other jurisdictions. The contractual issues raised by the Roche case regarding informed consent and the implications the initial judgment may have for future disputes over embryos are also discussed. Our research also considers a putative Constitutional \\'right to procreate\\' and the implications EU law may have for an Irish case concerning the fate of frozen embryos. Since current Medical Council guidelines are insufficient to ensure appropriate regulation of the advanced reproductive technologies in Ireland, the report of the Commission on Assisted Human Reproduction is most likely to influence embryo custody disputes. Public policy requires the establishment and implementation of a more comprehensive legislative framework within which assisted reproductive medical services are offered.

  5. St Ita's Community Hospital, Newcastlewest, Limerick.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Shi, Weifeng


    More and more nucleotide sequences of type A influenza virus are available in public databases. Although these sequences have been the focus of many molecular epidemiological and phylogenetic analyses, most studies only deal with a few representative sequences. In this paper, we present a complete analysis of all Haemagglutinin (HA) and Neuraminidase (NA) gene sequences available to allow large scale analyses of the evolution and epidemiology of type A influenza.

  6. St. Paul's Nursing Home, Dooradoyle, Limerick.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Boland, Karen


    The equitable provision of home enteral nutrition (HEN) in the community can have a transformative effect on patient experience and family life for adults and children alike. While optimising quality of life in HEN patients can be challenging, the initiation of HEN positively impacts this measure of healthcare provision.1 Quality of life scores have been shown to improve in the weeks after hospital discharge, and HEN is physically well tolerated. However, it may be associated with psychological distress, and sometimes reluctance among HEN patients to leave their homes.2 Globally, HEN can attenuate cumulative projected patient care costs through a reduction in hospital admission and complications including hospital acquired infections.3 In an era where the cost of disease related malnutrition and associated prolonged hospital stay is being tackled in our healthcare systems, the role of HEN is set to expand. This is a treatment which has clear clinical and social benefits, and may restore some independence to patients and their families. Rather than the indications for HEN being focused on specific diagnoses, the provision of months of quality life at home for patients is adequate justification for its prescription.4 Previously, a review of HEN service provision in 39 cases demonstrated that patients want structured follow-up after hospital discharge, and in particular, would like one point of contact for HEN education and discharge.5 Management structures, funding challenges and the need for further education, particularly within the primary care setting may limit optimal use of HEN. The Irish Society for Clinical Nutrition and Metabolism (IrSPEN) aims to develop a national guideline document, drawing on international best practice, forming a template and standards for local policy development in the area of HEN service provision, training and follow-up. The first step in guideline development was to investigate patient experience for adults and children alike. Care needs and supports may differ in these distinct populations. The unmet needs of carers of older adults on HEN have been documented,6 although multidisciplinary interventions and evolution of standards for successful discharge will benefit all affected patients and their families. The aim of this study, therefore, was to survey domiciliary HEN clients, to document and analyse user experience, attitudes and complications associated with HEN.

  7. St. Paul's Nursing Home, Dooradoyle, Limerick.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Dakna, Mohammed


    Abstract Background The purpose of this manuscript is to provide, based on an extensive analysis of a proteomic data set, suggestions for proper statistical analysis for the discovery of sets of clinically relevant biomarkers. As tractable example we define the measurable proteomic differences between apparently healthy adult males and females. We choose urine as body-fluid of interest and CE-MS, a thoroughly validated platform technology, allowing for routine analysis of a large number of samples. The second urine of the morning was collected from apparently healthy male and female volunteers (aged 21-40) in the course of the routine medical check-up before recruitment at the Hannover Medical School. Results We found that the Wilcoxon-test is best suited for the definition of potential biomarkers. Adjustment for multiple testing is necessary. Sample size estimation can be performed based on a small number of observations via resampling from pilot data. Machine learning algorithms appear ideally suited to generate classifiers. Assessment of any results in an independent test-set is essential. Conclusions Valid proteomic biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis only can be defined by applying proper statistical data mining procedures. In particular, a justification of the sample size should be part of the study design.

  8. St Paul's Nursing Home, Dooradoyle, Limerick.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)


    Recurrent sore throat for possible tonsillectomy is the commonest clinical entity referred to the ENT outpatient department. The numbers involved represent a large clinical burden on the service. Not all of these patients require surgical intervention. Patients who fit the criteria for tonsillectomy are faced with two stage obstacles; the long waiting time until assessed by the Otolaryngologist at OPD and the time spent on long operative waiting lists. The aim of this study was to analyze the percentage of referred patients with sore throats requiring tonsillectomy versus those not needing surgery, using the present HIQA guidelines for this operation.

  9. St. Gobnait's Nursing Home, Drewscourt, Ballyagran, Limerick.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Kamel Boulos, Maged N


    Abstract \\'Wikification of GIS by the masses\\' is a phrase-term first coined by Kamel Boulos in 2005, two years earlier than Goodchild\\'s term \\'Volunteered Geographic Information\\'. Six years later (2005-2011), OpenStreetMap and Google Earth (GE) are now full-fledged, crowdsourced \\'Wikipedias of the Earth\\' par excellence, with millions of users contributing their own layers to GE, attaching photos, videos, notes and even 3-D (three dimensional) models to locations in GE. From using Twitter in participatory sensing and bicycle-mounted sensors in pervasive environmental sensing, to creating a 100,000-sensor geo-mashup using Semantic Web technology, to the 3-D visualisation of indoor and outdoor surveillance data in real-time and the development of next-generation, collaborative natural user interfaces that will power the spatially-enabled public health and emergency situation rooms of the future, where sensor data and citizen reports can be triaged and acted upon in real-time by distributed teams of professionals, this paper offers a comprehensive state-of-the-art review of the overlapping domains of the Sensor Web, citizen sensing and \\'human-in-the-loop sensing\\' in the era of the Mobile and Social Web, and the roles these domains can play in environmental and public health surveillance and crisis\\/disaster informatics. We provide an in-depth review of the key issues and trends in these areas, the challenges faced when reasoning and making decisions with real-time crowdsourced data (such as issues of information overload, "noise", misinformation, bias and trust), the core technologies and Open Geospatial Consortium (OGC) standards involved (Sensor Web Enablement and Open GeoSMS), as well as a few outstanding project implementation examples from around the world.

  10. St. Ita's Hospital, Gortboy, Newcastlewest, Limerick.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Murray, Denis


    Issues and trends in relation to substance misuse normally develop in the transitional phase of adolescence, as young people begin looking towards their peers for direction and are less subject to parental authority. In relation to substance misuse it is observed that risk and protection factors exist in equal measure within different contexts, including within the individual, family, peer group, school and community settings. In response to problems relating to illicit drug use in Ireland the first adult treatment service was established in Dublin in 1969. As an approach to meeting the complex needs of an adolescent drug using population two designated out-patient treatment adolescent services were established in Dublin during the mid-1990s. Working closely with families, carers and significant others improves communication and mobilises resources in ways that enhances protection for young people especially in circumstances where there are a number of family members engaging in substance misuse.

  11. Experimental analysis of the mechanical behavior of the viscoelastic porcine pancreas and preliminary case study on the human pancreas. (United States)

    Wex, C; Fröhlich, M; Brandstädter, K; Bruns, C; Stoll, A


    The aim of this article is to study the mechanical properties of the pancreas. Up to now, the mechanical properties of the pancreas are not sufficiently characterized. The possibility of intraoperative mechanical testing of pathological pancreata will allow the classification of pancreatic diseases in the future. The application of mechanical parameters instead of the intraoperative frozen section analysis shortens waiting times in the operating room. This study proves the general applicability of shear rheology for the determination of the mechanical properties of pancreas and the assessment of graft quality for transplantation. Porcine and human pancreas samples were examined ex vivo and a nonlinear viscoelastic behavior was observed. Pancreas was found to be more viscous than liver but both abdominal organs showed a similar flow behavior. The shear deformation dependence of healthy human pancreas was similar to porcine pancreas. An increase in the post-mortem time led to an increase in the complex modulus for a post-mortem time up to 8.5 days. Histological investigations showed that an increased amount of collagen coincides with the stiffening of the pancreatic tissue. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. An experimental study on the impacts of inspiratory and expiratory muscles activities during mechanical ventilation in ARDS animal model (United States)

    Zhang, Xianming; Du, Juan; Wu, Weiliang; Zhu, Yongcheng; Jiang, Ying; Chen, Rongchang


    In spite of intensive investigations, the role of spontaneous breathing (SB) activity in ARDS has not been well defined yet and little has been known about the different contribution of inspiratory or expiratory muscles activities during mechanical ventilation in patients with ARDS. In present study, oleic acid-induced beagle dogs’ ARDS models were employed and ventilated with the same level of mean airway pressure. Respiratory mechanics, lung volume, gas exchange and inflammatory cytokines were measured during mechanical ventilation, and lung injury was determined histologically. As a result, for the comparable ventilator setting, preserved inspiratory muscles activity groups resulted in higher end-expiratory lung volume (EELV) and oxygenation index. In addition, less lung damage scores and lower levels of system inflammatory cytokines were revealed after 8 h of ventilation. In comparison, preserved expiratory muscles activity groups resulted in lower EELV and oxygenation index. Moreover, higher lung injury scores and inflammatory cytokines levels were observed after 8 h of ventilation. Our findings suggest that the activity of inspiratory muscles has beneficial effects, whereas that of expiratory muscles exerts adverse effects during mechanical ventilation in ARDS animal model. Therefore, for mechanically ventilated patients with ARDS, the demands for deep sedation or paralysis might be replaced by the strategy of expiratory muscles paralysis through epidural anesthesia. PMID:28230150

  13. Surface heterogeneity on hemispheres-in-cell model yields all experimentally-observed non-straining colloid retention mechanisms in porous media in the presence of energy barriers. (United States)

    Ma, Huilian; Pazmino, Eddy; Johnson, William P


    Many mechanisms of colloid retention in porous media under unfavorable conditions have been identified from experiments or theory, such as attachment at surface heterogeneities, wedging at grain to grain contacts, retention via secondary energy minimum association in zones of low flow drag, and straining in pore throats too small to pass. However, no previously published model is capable of representing all of these mechanisms of colloid retention. In this work, we demonstrate that incorporation of surface heterogeneity into our hemispheres-in-cell model yields all experimentally observed non-straining retention mechanisms in porous media under unfavorable conditions. We also demonstrate that the predominance of any given retention mechanism depends on the coupled colloid-collector-flow interactions that are governed by parameters such as the size and spatial frequency of heterogeneous attractive domains, colloid size, and solution ionic strength. The force/torque balance-simulated retention is shown to decrease gradually with decreasing solution ionic strength, in agreement with experimental observations. This gradual decrease stands in sharp contrast to predictions from mean field theory that does not account for discrete surface heterogeneity. © 2011 American Chemical Society

  14. Experimental Validation of Strategy for the Inverse Estimation of Mechanical Properties and Coefficient of Friction in Flat Rolling (United States)

    Yadav, Vinod; Singh, Arbind Kumar; Dixit, Uday Shanker


    Flat rolling is one of the most widely used metal forming processes. For proper control and optimization of the process, modelling of the process is essential. Modelling of the process requires input data about material properties and friction. In batch production mode of rolling with newer materials, it may be difficult to determine the input parameters offline. In view of it, in the present work, a methodology to determine these parameters online by the measurement of exit temperature and slip is verified experimentally. It is observed that the inverse prediction of input parameters could be done with a reasonable accuracy. It was also assessed experimentally that there is a correlation between micro-hardness and flow stress of the material; however the correlation between surface roughness and reduction is not that obvious.

  15. Combined experimental and theoretical study of the mechanism and enantioselectivity of palladium-catalyzed intermolecular Heck coupling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Signe Teuber; Norrby, Per-Ola; Kaukoranta, Päivi


    . The steric interactions in this transition state fully account for the enantioselectivity observed with the ligands studied. The calculations also predict relative reactivity and nonlinear mixing effects for the investigated ligands; these predictions are fully validated by experimental testing. Finally......The asymmetric Heck reaction using P,N-ligands has been studied by a combination of theoretical and experimental methods. The reaction follows Halpern-style selectivity; that is, the major isomer is produced from the least favored form of the pre-insertion intermediate. The initially formed Ph......, the low conversion observed with some catalysts was found to be caused by inactivation due to weak binding of the ligand to Pd(0). Adding monodentate PPh3 alleviated the precipitation problem without deteriorating the enantioselectivity and led to one of the most effective catalytic systems to date....

  16. Experimental study on quasi-static tensile mechanical properties of TC11 titanium alloy at room temperature


    Qiulin NIU; Ming CHEN; Ming, Weiwei


    According to the tensile properties of typical aerospace material TC11 titanium alloy, the stress-strain relationship is studied using the quasi-static tensile test at different strain rates, and the tensile fracture morphology is analyzed with SEM. The experimental results show that TC11 titanium alloy has certain strain rate sensitivity, and both tensile strength and yield strength are affected by strain rate. During quasi-static tension test, TC11 titanium alloy specimen has the phenomenon...

  17. Experimental Study on Oscillating Wing for Propulsor with Bending Mechanism Modeled on Caudal Muscle-Skeletal Structure of Tuna (United States)

    Morikawa, Hirohisa; Nakao, Seitaroh; Kobayashi, Shun-Ichi

    The purpose of our study is to investigate the effect of the caudal fin behavior resulting from the caudal muscle-skeletal structure of tuna on the propulsive force. A propulsion system by tuna-like fin stroke using two air rubber artificial muscles and a multi-joint bending mechanism (a tuna-like bending mechanism) modeled on the antagonism muscles and the caudal skeletal structure of tuna was developed. In order to realize instructed oscillation of a wing, a method of continuous path follow-up control of a wing in water was discussed in regard to the control of the internal pressure of the artificial muscles. It was found that the optimum control method for the tuna-like bending mechanism was the pressure control of the artificial muscles with both feedforward and pressure feedback compensations. The propulsion performance on a deformable wing using the propulsion system was discussed.

  18. Experimental Study On Lateral Load Capacity of Bamboo RC Beam Column Joints Strengthened By Bamboo Mechanical Anchors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Umniati B.


    Full Text Available In this paper, the prospective of bamboos which available abundantly especially in Indonesia as rebars and mechanical anchors are studied. And also the endurance of the bamboos mechanical anchors to withstand cyclic loading were observed. Nine classes of bamboos bar were evaluated: consist of 3 different anchors (0, 4 and 8 anchors and 3 different compressive strength (19.19 MPa, 29.61 MPa and 37.96 MPa means 3 × 3 parameters. The results show that the lateral load capacity increased significantly with the present of bamboo anchors specimens: 26.04 % for 4 anchors specimens (C2 and 25 % for the 8 anchors specimens (C3 compared to zero anchor specimens (C1. On the other hand, the compressive strength of concrete have no significant effects to the lateral load capacity. Overall it can be concluded that, bamboo can be used as mechanical anchorage to strengthen beam column joint.

  19. Mechanical characterization of a short fiber-reinforced polymer at room temperature: experimental setups evaluated by an optical measurement system (United States)

    Röhrig, C.; Scheffer, T.; Diebels, S.


    Composite materials are of great interest for industrial applications because of their outstanding properties. Each composite material has its own characteristics due to the large number of possible combinations of matrix and filler. As a result of their compounding, composites usually show a complex material behavior. This work is focused on the experimental testing of a short fiber-reinforced thermoplastic composite at room temperature. The characteristic behavior of this material class is often based on a superposition of typical material effects. The predicted characteristic material properties such as elasto-plasticity, damage and anisotropy of the investigated material are obtained from results of cyclic uniaxial tensile tests at constant strain rate. Concerning the manufacturing process as well as industrial applications, the experimental investigations are extended to multiaxial loading situations. Therefore, the composite material is examined with a setup close to a deep-drawing process, the Nakajima test (Nakazima et al. in Study on the formability of steel sheets. Yawate Technical Report No. 264, pp 8517-8530, 1968). The evaluation of the experimental investigations is provided by an optical analysis system using a digital image correlation software. Finally, based on the results of the uniaxial tensile tests, a one-dimensional macroscopic model is introduced and first results of the simulation are provided.

  20. Spinal histamine in attenuation of mechanical hypersensitivity in the spinal nerve ligation-induced model of experimental neuropathy. (United States)

    Wei, Hong; Viisanen, Hanna; You, Hao-Jun; Pertovaara, Antti


    Here we studied whether and through which mechanisms spinal administration of histamine dihydrochloride (histamine) attenuates pain behavior in neuropathic animals. Experiments were performed in rats with spinal nerve ligation-induced neuropathy and a chronic intrathecal catheter for spinal drug delivery. Mechanical hypersensitivity was assessed with monofilaments while radiant heat was used for assessing nociception. Ongoing neuropathic pain and its attenuation by histamine was assessed using conditioned place-preference test. Following spinal administration, histamine at doses 0.1-10µg produced a dose-related mechanical antihypersensitivity effect. With prolonged treatment (twice daily 10µg for five days), the antihypersensitivity effect of spinal histamine was reduced. In place-preference test, neuropathic animals preferred the chamber paired with histamine (10µg). Histamine (10µg) failed to influence heat nociception in neuropathic animals or mechanically induced pain behavior in a group of healthy control rats. Histamine-induced mechanical antihypersensitivity effect was prevented by spinal pretreatment with zolantidine (histamine H2 receptor antagonist), prazosine (α1-adrenoceptor antagonist) and bicuculline (γ-aminobutyric acid subtype A, GABA(A), receptor antagonist), but not by pyrilamine (histamine H1 receptor antagonist), atipamezole (α2-adrenoceptor antagonist), or raclopride (dopamine D2 receptor antagonist). A-960656, a histamine H3 receptor antagonist alone that presumably increased endogenous histamine levels reduced hypersensitivity. Additionally, histamine prevented central (presumably postsynaptically-induced) facilitation of hypersensitivity induced by N-methyl-d-aspartate. The results indicate that spinal histamine at the dose range of 0.1-10µg selectively attenuates mechanical hypersensitivity and ongoing pain in neuropathy. The spinal histamine-induced antihypersensitivity effect involves histamine H2 and GABA(A) receptors and

  1. A combination of experimental measurement, constitutive damage model, and diffusion tensor imaging to characterize the mechanical properties of the human brain. (United States)

    Karimi, Alireza; Rahmati, Seyed Mohammadali; Razaghi, Reza


    Understanding the mechanical properties of the human brain is deemed important as it may subject to various types of complex loadings during the Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). Although many studies so far have been conducted to quantify the mechanical properties of the brain, there is a paucity of knowledge on the mechanical properties of the human brain tissue and the damage of its axon fibers under the various types of complex loadings during the Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI). Although many studies so far have been conducted to quantify the mechanical properties of the brain, there is a paucity of knowledge on the mechanical properties of the human brain tissue and the damage of its axon fibers under the frontal lobe of the human brain. The constrained nonlinear minimization method was employed to identify the brain coefficients according to the axial and transversal compressive data. The pseudo-elastic damage model data was also well compared with that of the experimental data and it not only up to the primary loading but also the discontinuous softening could well address the mechanical behavior of the brain tissue.

  2. Biological and mechanical properties of an experimental glass-ionomer cement modified by partial replacement of CaO with MgO or ZnO. (United States)

    Kim, Dong-Ae; Abo-Mosallam, Hany; Lee, Hye-Young; Lee, Jung-Hwan; Kim, Hae-Won; Lee, Hae-Hyoung


    Some weaknesses of conventional glass ionomer cement (GIC) as dental materials, for instance the lack of bioactive potential and poor mechanical properties, remain unsolved.Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the partial replacement of CaO with MgO or ZnO on the mechanical and biological properties of the experimental glass ionomer cements.Material and Methods Calcium fluoro-alumino-silicate glass was prepared for an experimental glass ionomer cement by melt quenching technique. The glass composition was modified by partial replacement (10 mol%) of CaO with MgO or ZnO. Net setting time, compressive and flexural properties, and in vitrorat dental pulp stem cells (rDPSCs) viability were examined for the prepared GICs and compared to a commercial GIC.Results The experimental GICs set more slowly than the commercial product, but their extended setting times are still within the maximum limit (8 min) specified in ISO 9917-1. Compressive strength of the experimental GIC was not increased by the partial substitution of CaO with either MgO or ZnO, but was comparable to the commercial control. For flexural properties, although there was no significance between the base and the modified glass, all prepared GICs marked a statistically higher flexural strength (p<0.05) and comparable modulus to control. The modified cements showed increased cell viability for rDPSCs.Conclusions The experimental GICs modified with MgO or ZnO can be considered bioactive dental materials.

  3. Biological and mechanical properties of an experimental glass-ionomer cement modified by partial replacement of CaO with MgO or ZnO

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-Ae KIM


    Full Text Available AbstractSome weaknesses of conventional glass ionomer cement (GIC as dental materials, for instance the lack of bioactive potential and poor mechanical properties, remain unsolved.Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the partial replacement of CaO with MgO or ZnO on the mechanical and biological properties of the experimental glass ionomer cements.Material and Methods Calcium fluoro-alumino-silicate glass was prepared for an experimental glass ionomer cement by melt quenching technique. The glass composition was modified by partial replacement (10 mol% of CaO with MgO or ZnO. Net setting time, compressive and flexural properties, and in vitrorat dental pulp stem cells (rDPSCs viability were examined for the prepared GICs and compared to a commercial GIC.Results The experimental GICs set more slowly than the commercial product, but their extended setting times are still within the maximum limit (8 min specified in ISO 9917-1. Compressive strength of the experimental GIC was not increased by the partial substitution of CaO with either MgO or ZnO, but was comparable to the commercial control. For flexural properties, although there was no significance between the base and the modified glass, all prepared GICs marked a statistically higher flexural strength (p<0.05 and comparable modulus to control. The modified cements showed increased cell viability for rDPSCs.Conclusions The experimental GICs modified with MgO or ZnO can be considered bioactive dental materials.

  4. Biological and mechanical properties of an experimental glass-ionomer cement modified by partial replacement of CaO with MgO or ZnO (United States)

    Dong-Ae, KIM; Hany, ABO-MOSALLAM; Hye-Young, LEE; Jung-Hwan, LEE; Hae-Won, KIM; Hae-Hyoung, LEE


    Some weaknesses of conventional glass ionomer cement (GIC) as dental materials, for instance the lack of bioactive potential and poor mechanical properties, remain unsolved. Objective The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of the partial replacement of CaO with MgO or ZnO on the mechanical and biological properties of the experimental glass ionomer cements. Material and Methods Calcium fluoro-alumino-silicate glass was prepared for an experimental glass ionomer cement by melt quenching technique. The glass composition was modified by partial replacement (10 mol%) of CaO with MgO or ZnO. Net setting time, compressive and flexural properties, and in vitro rat dental pulp stem cells (rDPSCs) viability were examined for the prepared GICs and compared to a commercial GIC. Results The experimental GICs set more slowly than the commercial product, but their extended setting times are still within the maximum limit (8 min) specified in ISO 9917-1. Compressive strength of the experimental GIC was not increased by the partial substitution of CaO with either MgO or ZnO, but was comparable to the commercial control. For flexural properties, although there was no significance between the base and the modified glass, all prepared GICs marked a statistically higher flexural strength (p<0.05) and comparable modulus to control. The modified cements showed increased cell viability for rDPSCs. Conclusions The experimental GICs modified with MgO or ZnO can be considered bioactive dental materials. PMID:26398508

  5. Experimental investigation on the mechanical behavior of polyurethane PICCs after long-term conservation in in vivo-like conditions. (United States)

    Di Puccio, Francesca; Gallone, Giuseppe; Baù, Andrea; Calabrò, Emanuele M; Mainardi, Simona; Poli, Paolo; Scocca, Antonella


    In a previous paper, the authors investigated the mechanical behavior of several commercial polyurethane peripherally inserted central venous catheters (PICCs) in their 'brand new' condition. The present study represents a second step of the research activity and aims to investigate possible modifications of the PICC mechanical response, induced by long-term conservation in in vivo-like conditions, particularly when used to introduce oncologic drugs. Eight 5 Fr single-lumen catheters from as many different vendors, were examined. Several specimens were cut from each of them and kept in a bath at 37°C for 1, 2, 3 and 6 months. Two fluids were used to simulate in vivo-like conditions, i.e. ethanol and Ringer-lactate solutions, the first being chosen in order to reproduce a typical chemical environment of oncologic drugs. The test plan included swelling analyses, uniaxial tensile tests and dynamic mechanical thermal analysis (DMTA). All tested samples were chemically and mechanically stable in the studied conditions, as no significant weight variation was observed even after six months of immersion in ethanol solution. Uniaxial tensile tests confirmed such a response. For each PICC, very similar curves were obtained from samples tested after different immersion durations in the two fluid solutions, particularly for strains lower than 10%.

  6. Dynamic mechanical properties of 3D fiber-deposited PEOT/PBT scaffolds: An experimental and numerical analysis.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Moroni, Lorenzo; Poort, G.; van Keulen, F.; de Wijn, J.R.; van Blitterswijk, Clemens


    Mechanical properties of three-dimensional (3D) scaffolds can be appropriately modulated through novel fabrication techniques like 3D fiber deposition (3DF), by varying scaffold's pore size and shape. Dynamic stiffness, in particular, can be considered as an important property to optimize the

  7. Mechanical tolerances study through simulations and experimental characterization for a 1000X micro-concentrator CPV module (United States)

    Ritou, Arnaud; Voarino, Philippe; Goubault, Baptiste; David, Nadine; Bernardis, Sarah; Raccurt, Olivier; Baudrit, Mathieu


    Existing CPV technology markets are not compliant with a standard configuration. Concentrations vary from several suns to more than 1000 suns and the optical technology used could be very different. Nowadays, the market trends are moving toward more and more compact optical systems in order to exploit the Light Emitting Diode (LED) like approach. The aim is to increase the optical efficiency by using an ultra-short focal distance and to improve thermal management. Moreover the efficiency to weight ratio is increasing and the solar cell size becomes sub-millimetric. With these conditions, more stringent mechanical tolerances are essential to ensure an optimum optical alignment between cells and optics. A new process of micro-concentrator manufacturing is developed in this work. This process enables manufacturing and auto-alignment of Primary Optical Elements (POE) with Secondary Optical Elements (SOE) and solar cells with respect to certain mechanical tolerances. A 1000X micro-concentrator is manufactured with 0.6 x 0.6 mm² triple-junction cells and molded silicone optics. Mechanical alignment defects are studied by ray-tracing simulations and a prototype is characterized with respect to its mechanical behavior. An efficiency of 33.4% is measured with a Cell-to-Module ratio of 77.8%.

  8. Fatigue creep damage at the cement–bone interface: An experimental and a micro-mechanical finite element study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waanders, Daan; Janssen, Dennis; Miller, Mark A.; Mann, Kenneth A.; Verdonschot, Nicolaas Jacobus Joseph


    The goal of this study was to quantify the micromechanics of the cement–bone interface under tensile fatigue loading using finite element analysis (FEA) and to understand the underlying mechanisms that play a role in the fatigue behavior of this interface. Laboratory cement–bone specimens were

  9. Combined numerical and experimental mechanical characterization of a calcium phosphate ceramic using modified Brazilian disc and SCB specimen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elghazel, A., E-mail: [Laboratory of Industrial Chemistry, National School of Engineering, Box 1173, 3038 Sfax (Tunisia); Taktak, R. [Materials Engineering and Environment Laboratory (LGME), National School of Engineering, 3038 Sfax (Tunisia); Bouaziz, J. [Laboratory of Industrial Chemistry, National School of Engineering, Box 1173, 3038 Sfax (Tunisia)


    Ceramics and bioceramic composites are materials characterized with strong but quite low crack-resistance properties. Indeed, their application is hindered by their brittleness and low ability to deform. This paper presents an examination of the mechanical behavior of a commercial tricalcium phosphate (TCP) mixed with synthesized fluorapatite (Fap) powder. A new method called the semi-circular bending “SCB” method is developed for mode I fracture toughness determination. The samples were characterized by scanning electronic microscopy measurements and examined for mechanical properties, such as compressive strength, flexural strength, tensile strength, elastic modulus, Vickers hardness and fracture toughness under tensile and shear mode. The evolution of these mechanical properties and microstructure of TCP-Fap was studied. The performances of the composites increase with the addition of the Fap. The highest values of the composites of compressive strength (95 MPa), flexural strength (15 MPa), tensile strength (7 MPa) and fracture toughness (2.9 MPa m{sup 1/2}) were obtained after the sintering process with 33.16 wt% Fap at 1300° C. The increase of these performances is due to the formation of the liquid phase, which helps to fill the pores in the microstructure. Above 33.16 wt% Fap, the mechanical properties of the composites are hindered by the exaggerated grain growth formation.

  10. Experimental estimation of migration and transfer of organic substances from consumer articles to cotton wipes: Evaluation of underlying mechanisms

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Clausen, P.A.; Spaan, S.; Brouwer, D.H.; Marquart, H.; Feber, M. le; Engel, R.; Geerts, L.; Jensen, K.A.; Kofoed-Sørensen, V.; Hansen, B.; Brouwere, K. de


    The aim of this work was to identify the key mechanisms governing transport of organic chemical substances from consumer articles to cotton wipes. The results were used to establish a mechanistic model to improve assessment of dermal contact exposure. Four types of PVC flooring, 10 types of textiles

  11. Experimental and Computational Evidence for the Mechanism of Intradiol Catechol Dioxygenation by Non- Heme Iron(III) Complexes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jastrzebski, Robin; Quesne, Matthew G.; Weckhuysen, Bert M.; de Visser, Sam P.; Bruijnincx, Pieter C. A.


    Catechol intradiol dioxygenation is a unique reaction catalyzed by iron-dependent enzymes and nonheme iron(III) complexes. The mechanism by which these systems activate dioxygen in this important metabolic process remains controversial. Using a combination of kinetic measurements and computational

  12. CO{sub 2}-induced mechanical behaviour of Hawkesbury sandstone in the Gosford basin: An experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rathnaweera, T.D. [Department of Civil Engineering, Monash University, Building 60, Melbourne, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Ranjith, P.G., E-mail: [Department of Civil Engineering, Monash University, Building 60, Melbourne, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Perera, M.S.A.; Haque, A. [Department of Civil Engineering, Monash University, Building 60, Melbourne, Victoria 3800 (Australia); Lashin, A. [King Saud University, College of Engineering-Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering Department, P.O. Box 800, Riyadh 11421, Saudi Arabia. (Saudi Arabia); Benha University, Faculty of Science-Geology Department, P.O. Box 13518, Benha (Egypt); Al Arifi, N. [King Saud University, College of Science-Geology and Geophysics Department, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia. (Saudi Arabia); Chandrasekharam, D [King Saud University, College of Science-Geology and Geophysics Department, P.O. Box 2455, Riyadh 11451, Saudi Arabia. (Saudi Arabia); Department of Earth Sciences, Indian Institute of Technology Bombay, 400076 India (India); Yang, SQ [Department of Civil Engineering, Monash University, Building 60, Melbourne, Victoria 3800 (Australia); State Key Laboratory for Geomechanics and Deep Underground Engineering, China University of Mining and Technology, Xuzhou 221116 (China); Xu, T; Wang, SH [Center for Rock Instability & Seismicity Research, Northeastern University, Shenyang 110819 (China); Yasar, E [Iskenderun Technical University, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Dept. of Petroleum & Natural Gas Engineering, 31200 (Turkey)


    Carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) sequestered in saline aquifers undergoes a variety of chemically-coupled mechanical effects, which may cause CO{sub 2}-induced mechanical changes and time-dependent reservoir deformation. This paper investigates the mineralogical and microstructural changes that occur in reservoir rocks following injection of CO{sub 2} in deep saline aquifers and the manner in which these changes influence the mechanical properties of the reservoir rocks. In this study, cylindrical sandstone specimens, 38 mm in diameter and 76 mm high, obtained from the Gosford basin, were used to perform a series of unconfined compressive strength (UCS) tests. Different saturation conditions: dry, water- and brine-saturated sandstone samples with and without scCO{sub 2} (super-critical carbon dioxide) injection, were considered in the study to obtain a comprehensive understanding of the impact of scCO{sub 2} injection during the CO{sub 2} sequestration process on saline aquifer mechanical properties. An acoustic emission (AE) system was employed to identify the stress threshold values of crack closure, crack initiation and crack damage for each testing condition during the whole deformation process of the specimens. Finally, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyses were performed to evaluate the chemical and mineralogical changes that occur in reservoir rocks during CO{sub 2} injection. From the test results, it is clear that the CO{sub 2}-saturated samples possessed a lower peak strength compared to non-CO{sub 2} saturated samples. According to SEM, XRD and XRF analyses, considerable quartz mineral corrosion and dissolution of calcite and siderite were observed during the interactions of the CO{sub 2}/water/rock and CO{sub 2}/brine/rock systems, which implies that mineralogical and geochemical rock alterations affect rock mechanical properties by accelerating the collapse mechanisms of the pore matrix. AE results

  13. Experimental study of thermo-mechanical behavior of SiC composite tubing under high temperature gradient using solid surrogate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alva, Luis; Shapovalov, Kirill [University of South Carolina, Mechanical Engineering Department (United States); Jacobsen, George M.; Back, Christina A. [General Atomics (United States); Huang, Xinyu, E-mail: [University of South Carolina, Mechanical Engineering Department (United States)


    Nuclear grade silicon carbide fiber (SiC{sub f}) reinforced silicon carbide matrix (SiC{sub m}) composite is a promising candidate material for accident tolerance fuel (ATF) cladding. A major challenge is ensuring the mechanical robustness of the ceramic cladding under accident conditions. In this work the high temperature mechanical response of a SiC{sub f}–SiC{sub m} composite tubing is studied using a novel thermo-mechanical test method. A solid surrogate tube is placed within and bonded to the SiC{sub f}–SiC{sub m} sample tube using a ceramic adhesive. The bonded tube pair is heated from the center using a ceramic glower. During testing, the outer surface temperature of the SiC sample tube rises up to 1274 K, and a steep temperature gradient develops through the thickness of the tube pair. Due to CTE mismatch and the temperature gradient, the solid surrogate tube induces high tensile stress in the SiC sample. During testing, 3D digital image correlation (DIC) method is used to map the strains on the outer surface of the SiC-composite, and acoustic emissions (AE) are monitored to detect the onset and progress of material damage. The thermo-mechanical behavior of SiC-composite sample is compared with that of monolithic SiC samples. Finite element models are developed to estimate stress–strain distribution within the tube assembly. Model predicted surface strain matches the measured surface strain using the DIC method. AE activities indicated a progressive damage process for SiC{sub f}–SiC{sub m} composite samples. For the composites tested in this study, the threshold mechanical hoop strain for matrix micro-cracking to initiate in SiC{sub f}–SiC{sub m} sample is found to be ∼300 microstrain.

  14. Surface modification of carbon nanotubes using 3-aminopropyltriethoxysilane to improve mechanical properties of nanocomposite based polymer matrix: Experimental and Density functional theory study (United States)

    Hamed Mashhadzadeh, A.; Fereidoon, Ab.; Ghorbanzadeh Ahangari, M.


    In current study we combined theoretical and experimental studies to evaluate the effect of functionalization and silanization on mechanical behavior of polymer-based/CNT nanocomposites. Epoxy was selected as thermoset polymer, polypropylene and poly vinyl chloride were selected as thermoplastic polymers. The whole procedure is divided to two sections . At first we applied density functional theory (DFT) to analyze the effect of functionalization on equilibrium distance and adsorption energy of unmodified, functionalized by sbnd OH group and silanized epoxy/CNT, PP/CNT and PVC/CNT nanocomposites and the results showed that functionalization increased adsorption energy and reduced the equilibrium distance in all studied nanocomposites and silanization had higher effect comparing to OH functionalizing. Then we prepared experimental samples of all mentioned nanocomposites and tested their tensile and flexural strength properties. The obtained results showed that functionalization increased the studied mechanical properties in all evaluated nanocomposites. Finally we compared the results of experimental and theoretical sections with each other and estimated a suitable agreement between these parts.

  15. On the embryonic cell division beyond the contractile ring mechanism: experimental and computational investigation of effects of vitelline confinement, temperature and egg size

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Evgeny Gladilin


    Full Text Available Embryonic cell division is a mechanical process which is predominantly driven by contraction of the cleavage furrow and response of the remaining cellular matter. While most previous studies focused on contractile ring mechanisms of cytokinesis, effects of environmental factors such as pericellular vitelline membrane and temperature on the mechanics of dividing cells were rarely studied. Here, we apply a model-based analysis to the time-lapse imaging data of two species (Saccoglossus kowalevskii and Xenopus laevis with relatively large eggs, with the goal of revealing the effects of temperature and vitelline envelope on the mechanics of the first embryonic cell division. We constructed a numerical model of cytokinesis to estimate the effects of vitelline confinement on cellular deformation and to predict deformation of cellular contours. We used the deviations of our computational predictions from experimentally observed cell elongation to adjust variable parameters of the contractile ring model and to quantify the contribution of other factors (constitutive cell properties, spindle polarization that may influence the mechanics and shape of dividing cells. We find that temperature affects the size and rate of dilatation of the vitelline membrane surrounding fertilized eggs and show that in native (not artificially devitellinized egg cells the effects of temperature and vitelline envelope on mechanics of cell division are tightly interlinked. In particular, our results support the view that vitelline membrane fulfills an important role of micromechanical environment around the early embryo the absence or improper function of which under moderately elevated temperature impairs normal development. Furthermore, our findings suggest the existence of scale-dependent mechanisms that contribute to cytokinesis in species with different egg size, and challenge the view of mechanics of embryonic cell division as a scale-independent phenomenon.

  16. Experimental Studies on the Bonding Strength and Fracture Behavior of Incompatible Materials Bonded by Mechanical Adhesion in Multilayer Rotational Molding

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Löhner


    Full Text Available Rotational molding is a plastic processing method that allows for the production of seamless, hollow parts. Defined shaping of the polymeric material only takes place on the outer surface where contact to the tooling is given. The inner surface forms by surface tension effects. By sequential adding of materials, complex multilayer build-up is possible. Besides pure, single materials, filled, or multiphase systems can be processed as well. In this work, possibilities to generate bonding between supposedly incompatible materials by adding a mix-material interlayer are investigated. Interlock mechanisms on a microscale dimension occur and result in mechanical bonding between the used materials, polyethylene (PE and thermoplastic polyurethane (TPE-U. The bonding strength between the materials was investigated to reveal the correlations between processing parameters, resulting layer build-up, and bonding strength. The failure behavior was analyzed and inferences to the influence of the varied parameters were drawn.

  17. Insights into the activation mechanism of calcium ions on the sericite surface: A combined experimental and computational study (United States)

    Hu, Yuehua; He, Jianyong; Zhang, Chenhu; Zhang, Chenyang; Sun, Wei; Zhao, Dongbo; Chen, Pan; Han, Haisheng; Gao, Zhiyong; Liu, Runqing; Wang, Li


    The adsorption behaviors and the activation mechanism of calcium ions (Ca2+) on sericite surface have been investigated by Zeta potential measurements, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), Micro-flotation tests and First principle calculations. Zeta potential tests results show that the sericite surface potential increases due to the adsorption of calcium ions on the surface. Micro-flotation tests demonstrate that sericite recovery remarkably rise by 10% due to the calcium ions activation on sericite surface. However, the characteristic adsorption bands of calcium oleate do not appear in the FT-IR spectrum, suggesting that oleate ions just physically adsorb on the sericite surface. The first principle calculations based on the density functional theory (DFT) further reveals the microscopic adsorption mechanism of calcium ions on the sericite surface before and after hydration.

  18. An experimental investigation on the mechanical properties of the interface between large-sized graphene and a flexible substrate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Chaochen; Guo, Jiangang, E-mail:; Song, Haibin; Xie, Haimei [Tianjin Key Laboratory of Modern Engineering Mechanics, School of Mechanical Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Xue, Tao [Center for Analysis and Test, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China); Qin, Qinghua [Research School of Engineering, Australian National University, Acton, ACT 2601 (Australia); Wu, Sen [Key Lab of Precision Measurement Technology and Instruments, School of Precision Instrument and Opto-electronics Engineering, Tianjin University, Tianjin 300072 (China)


    In this paper, the interfacial mechanical properties of large-sized monolayer graphene attached to a flexible polyethylene terephthalate (PET) substrate are investigated. Using a micro-tensile test and Raman spectroscopy, in situ measurements are taken to obtain the full-field deformation of graphene subjected to a uniaxial tensile loading and unloading cycle. The results of the full-field deformation are subsequently used to identify the status of the interface between the graphene and the substrate as one of perfect adhesion, one showing slide or partial debonding, and one that is fully debonded. The interfacial stress/strain transfer and the evolution of the interface from one status to another during the loading and unloading processes are discussed and the mechanical parameters, such as interfacial strength and interfacial shear strength, are obtained quantitatively demonstrating a relatively weak interface between large-sized graphene and PET.

  19. Experimental investigation of the effect of latex solid/water ratio on latex modified co-matrix mechanical properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed M. Diab


    Full Text Available Numerous researches were performed on latex modified concretes and associated properties, however; some vital factors were not given attention in previous works. This study focus on new factor which significantly affects the properties of latex modified cement paste, mortar or concrete. This factor is termed as ‘latex solid/water ratio’ which is defined herein as the ratio of weight of solid latex to weight of total water content of cement composite including the water in latex itself. The effect of this factor on some properties of cement paste, mortar and concrete were experimentally evaluated. Properties of cement paste include the produced calcium hydroxide and ettringite content during hydration process, while those of cement mortar take account of absorption and effect of temperature on compressive strength. Furthermore, the effect of this factor on the compressive and flexural strengths, modulus of elasticity, water penetration depth and drying shrinkage of concrete were explored. Based on experimental evidences, and spite of using different cement contents, sources of latex, water–cement ratios and slump values, it can be generally concluded that the latex solid/water ratio is a dominant factor affecting different properties of latex modified mortars and concrete.

  20. Experimental Characterization and Modeling of the Non-linear Mechanical behavior of a Carbon Black Filled SBR (United States)

    Medvedev, Grigori; Bhattacharya, Aparajita; Caruthers, James


    Filled elastomers exhibit a number of peculiar features generally referred to as Mullins effect that include (i) large stress-softening (i.e. lower stress required to pull the sample to the same strain in second pull as compared to the first one), (ii) a dramatic drop in stress at the loading reversal point during the first cycle and, (iii) complete recovery of the virgin sample-like behavior when strain in second pull exceeds the previous maximum strain. Developing a constitutive model to describe these effects has proven a major challenge. One important reason for this, rectified by the present report, has been a dearth of experimental data performed on a well-characterized system where the potentially relevant parameters (temperature, deformation rate as well as the particulate loading, dispersion, particle size, surface area, and structure of carbon black) are systematically varied. We argue that the ``damage'' picture, which has been the only explanation for Mullins effect advanced in the literature, is inconsistent with the experimentally observed behavior.

  1. Small Crack Growth and Fatigue Life Predictions for High-Strength Aluminium Alloys. Part 1; Experimental and Fracture Mechanics Analysis (United States)

    Wu, X. R.; Newman, J. C.; Zhao, W.; Swain, M. H.; Ding, C. F.; Phillips, E. P.


    The small crack effect was investigated in two high-strength aluminium alloys: 7075-T6 bare and LC9cs clad alloy. Both experimental and analytical investigations were conducted to study crack initiation and growth of small cracks. In the experimental program, fatigue tests, small crack and large crack tests A,ere conducted under constant amplitude and Mini-TWIST spectrum loading conditions. A pronounced small crack effect was observed in both materials, especially for the negative stress ratios. For all loading conditions, most of the fatigue life of the SENT specimens was shown to be crack propagation from initial material defects or from the cladding layer. In the analysis program, three-dimensional finite element and A weight function methods were used to determine stress intensity factors and to develop SIF equations for surface and corner cracks at the notch in the SENT specimens. A plastisity-induced crack-closure model was used to correlate small and large crack data, and to make fatigue life predictions, Predicted crack-growth rates and fatigue lives agreed well with experiments. A total fatigue life prediction method for the aluminum alloys was developed and demonstrated using the crack-closure model.

  2. Experimental and numerical thermo-mechanical analysis of friction stir welding of high-strength alluminium alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veljić Darko M.


    Full Text Available This paper presents experimental and numerical analysis of the change of temperature and force in the vertical direction during the friction stir welding of high-strength aluminium alloy 2024 T3. This procedure confirmed the correctness of the numerical model, which is subsequently used for analysis of the temperature field in the welding zone, where it is different to determine the temperature experimentally. 3D finite element model is developed using the software package Abaqus; arbitrary Lagrangian-Eulerian formulation is applied. Johnson-Cook material law and Coulomb’s Law of friction are used for modelling the material behaviour. Temperature fields are symmetrical with respect to the welding line. The temperature values below the tool shoulder, i.e. in the welding zone, which are reached during the plunge stage, are approximately constant during the entire welding process and lie within the interval 430-502°C. The temperature of the material in the vicinity of the tool is about 500°C, while the values on the top surface of the welding plates (outside the welding zone, but close to the tool shoulder are about 400°C. The temperature difference between the top and bottom surface of the plates is small, 10-15°C. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 34018 and ON 174004

  3. Experimental and numerical approaches of the hydro-mechanical behaviour of a quasi-saturated compacted clayey soil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Zhong-Sen


    Full Text Available The present research is funded by the French National Project « TerreDurable », which is dedicated to the study of soils in quasi-saturated conditions (close to saturation for the analysis of stability and settlement of earth structures such as embankment, dams. A global presentation of the drying-wetting test shows the volume change, air entry and soil-water characteristics of the soil at slurry and oven-dried conditions. Unsaturated undrained triaxial test was carried out in order to investigate the variation of pore-water pressure from quasi-saturated domain to saturation. The experimental results of the triaxial test are then modeled using a two-dimensional explicit finite difference program (Flac 2D. A constitutive law developed in the TerreDurable project allows better understanding the behaviour of quasi-saturated soils using the water retention curve of quasi-saturated domain proposed by Boutonnier (2007, 2010. A simple effective stress model is used (Cam Clay by taking into account both the suction and the compressibility of equivalent fluid (water + air. The results from numerical calculation and experimental measurements are compared.

  4. Coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical experiment at Kamaishi mine. Technical note 15-99-02. Experimental results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chijimatsu, Masakazu; Sugita, Yutaka; Fujita, Tomoo [Tokai Works, Waste Management and Fuel Cycle Research Center, Waste Isolation Research Division, Barrier Performance Group, Japan Nuclear Cycle Development Inst., Tokai, Ibaraki (Japan); Amemiya, Kiyoshi [Hazama Corp., Tokyo (Japan)


    It is an important part of the near field performance assessment of nuclear waste disposal to evaluate coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical (T-H-M) phenomena, e.g., thermal effects on groundwater flow through rock matrix and water seepage into the buffer material, the generation of swelling pressure of the buffer material, and thermal stresses potentially affecting porosity and fracture apertures of the rock. An in-situ T-H-M experiment named Engineered Barrier Experiment' has been conducted at the Kamaishi Mine, of which host rock is granodiorite, in order to establish conceptual models of the coupled T-H-M processes and to build confidence in mathematical and computer codes. In 1995, fourteen boreholes were excavated in order to install the various sensors. After the hydraulic tests, mechanical tests were carried out to obtain the rock properties. After that, a test pit, 1.7 m in diameter and 5.0 m in depth, was excavated. During the excavation, the change of pore pressure, displacement and temperature of rock mass were measured. In 1996, the buffer material and heater were set up in the test pit, and then coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical test was started. The duration of heating phase was 250 days and that of cooling phase was 180 days. The heater surface was controlled to be 100degC during heating phase. Measurement was carried out by a number of sensors installed in both buffer and rock mass during the test. The field experiment leads to a better understanding of the behavior of the coupled thermo-hydro-mechanical phenomena in the near field. (author)

  5. Experimental analysis of perching in the European starling (Sturnus vulgaris: Passeriformes; Passeres), and the automatic perching mechanism of birds. (United States)

    Galton, Peter M; Shepherd, Jeffrey D


    The avian automatic perching mechanism (APM) involves the automatic digital flexor mechanism (ADFM) and the digital tendon-locking mechanism (DTLM). When birds squat on a perch to sleep, the increased tendon travel distance due to flexion of the knee and ankle supposedly causes the toes to grip the perch (ADFM) and engage the DTLM so perching while sleeping involves no muscular effort. However, the knees and ankles of sleeping European starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) are only slightly flexed and, except for occasional balancing adjustments, the distal two-thirds of the toes are not flexed to grip a 6-mm-diameter perch. The cranial ankle angle (CAA) is ∼120° and the foot forms an inverted "U" that, with the mostly unflexed toes, provides a saddle-like structure so the bird balances its weight over the central pad of the foot (during day weight further back and digits actively grasp perch). In the region of the pad, the tendon sheath of many birds is unribbed, or only very slightly so, and it is always separated from the tendon of the M. flexor digitorum longus by tendons of the other toe flexor muscles. Passive leg flexion produces no toe flexion in anesthetized Starlings and only after 15-20 min, at the onset of rigor mortis, in freshly sacrificed Starlings. Anesthetized Starlings could not remain perched upon becoming unconscious (ADFM, DTLM intact). Birds whose digital flexor tendons were severed or the locking mechanism eliminated surgically (no ADFM or DTLM), so without ability to flex their toes, slept on the perch in a manner similar to unoperated Starlings (except CAA ∼90°-110°). Consequently, there is no APM or ADFM and the DTLM, although involved in lots of other activities, only acts in perching with active contraction of the digital flexor muscles. © 2012 WILEY PERIODICALS, INC.

  6. Experimental investigations on thermo-hydro-mechanical properties of compacted GMZ01 bentonite-sand mixture using as buffer materials


    XU, L.; Ye, Wei-min; Chen, Bao; Chen, Yong-Gui; Cui, Yu-Jun


    Bentonite-sand mixture has been proposed as engineered barriers for high-level waste disposal in many countries. For investigation of the thermo-hydro-mechanical properties of compacted GMZ01 bentonite-sand mixture, swelling pressure, hydraulic thermal conductivity tests were conducted in this paper. Results show that addition of sand will increase the thermal conductivity of the mixture. However, depending on the dry density water content of the specimen, the increasing rate of thermal condu...

  7. Flippin' Fluid Mechanics - Quasi-experimental Pre-test and Post-test Comparison Using Two Groups (United States)

    Webster, D. R.; Majerich, D. M.; Luo, J.


    A flipped classroom approach has been implemented in an undergraduate fluid mechanics course. Students watch short on-line videos before class, participate in active in-class problem solving (in dyads), and complete individualized on-line quizzes weekly. In-class activities are designed to achieve a trifecta of: 1. developing problem solving skills, 2. learning subject content, and 3. developing inquiry skills. The instructor and assistants provide critical ``just-in-time tutoring'' during the in-class problem solving sessions. Comparisons are made with a simultaneous section offered in a traditional mode by a different instructor. Regression analysis was used to control for differences among students and to quantify the effect of the flipped fluid mechanics course. The dependent variable was the students' combined final examination and post-concept inventory scores and the independent variables were pre-concept inventory score, gender, major, course section, and (incoming) GPA. The R-square equaled 0.45 indicating that the included variables explain 45% of the variation in the dependent variable. The regression results indicated that if the student took the flipped fluid mechanics course, the dependent variable (i.e., combined final exam and post-concept inventory scores) was raised by 7.25 points. Interestingly, the comparison group reported significantly more often that their course emphasized memorization than did the flipped classroom group.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. P. Novoselov


    Full Text Available Periodic vibration in the form of distorted sine wave or other complex shapes are most common in the real moving objects, where the device can be exploited on the basis of flexible modules. This kind of exposure directly affects the reliability of the construction in general. The objective of the work was the creation of an experimental device for the study of mechanical vibrations and the dependencies of their impact on the operated device.Research of mechanical vibrations and the dependencies of their influence on the device will allow finding solutions to the problems of reliability of radio electronic devices. It developed an experimental device and automatic adaptive system for control own resonant frequency of the flexible module. As a result of the experiments has been identified according to mechanical influences on the output parameters of the devices. This will take into account and to apply this experience in the design and manufacture of devices with the use of flexible printed circuit boards. 

  9. Experimental study of a gas clearance phase regulation mechanism for a pneumatically-driven split-Stirling-cycle cryocooler (United States)

    Zhang, Cun-quan; Zhong, Cheng


    A concept for a new type of pneumatically-driven split-Stirling-cycle cryocooler with clearance-phase-adjustor has recently been described, along with a theoretical model for simulating its operation and performance (Zhang, in preparation, 2003). This paper describes experiments that have been carried out to systematically validate the model, and to characterize the performance of the cryocooler in several key areas. These include: oscillatory flow within the cooler, correlation between the compression piston and the free displacer, the impact of the cold-tip temperature and phase-adjusting clearance gaps on cooler performance. The minimum cold-tip temperature is used as primary gauge of refrigeration performance. Real-time measurements of gas pressures in different chambers, displacements of the compression piston and the free displacer have been performed to reveal the internal physical processes. The experimental results are found to be in good agreement with the simulated ones.

  10. Numerical and experimental studies of mechanisms underlying the effect of pulsed broadband terahertz radiation on nerve cells (United States)

    Duka, M. V.; Dvoretskaya, L. N.; Babelkin, N. S.; Khodzitskii, M. K.; Chivilikhin, S. A.; Smolyanskaya, O. A.


    We have studied the mechanisms underlying the effect of pulsed broadband terahertz radiation on the growth of neurites of sensory ganglia using a comparative analysis of measured reflection spectra of ganglion neurites (in the frequency range 0.1 - 2.0 THz) and spectra obtained by numerical simulation with CST Microwave Studio. The observed changes are shown to be mainly due to pulse energy absorption in the ganglion neurites. Of particular interest are the observed single resonance frequencies related to resonance size effects, which can be used to irradiate ganglia in order to activate their growth.

  11. Experimental investigations on the mechanisms of the warm prestress effect; Experimentelle Untersuchungen zu den Mechanismen des WPS-Effekts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roos, E.; Alsmann, U. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). Staatliche Materialpruefungsanstalt


    The Government-supported, joint project by IWW Freiburg, BAM Berlin, IWW Magdeburg, and MPA Stuttgart is intended to yield insight into the mechanisms underlying the WPS, warm prestress effect, and to derive on this basis a quantitative description of the WPS effect. (orig./CB) [Deutsch] Ziel eines durch das BMBF gefoerderten Gemeinschaftsprojekts von IWW Freiburg, BAM Berlin, IWW Magdeburg und MPA Stuttgart ist es, die Mechanismen des WPS-(warm prestress)-Effekts zu erklaeren und auf dieser Basis eine quantitative Beschreibung des WPS-Effekts zu ermoeglichen. (orig./MM)

  12. Final report for the year 2001 on experimental and theoretical investigations of irradiation effects on physical and mechanical properties of iron and RAFM steels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Singh, Bachu Narain


    Effects of neutron irradiation on defect accumulation and physical and mechanical properties have been studied both experimentally and theoretically. Specimens of pure iron and RAFM (reduced activation ferritic-martensic) steels were irradiated todifferent dose levels and at different irradiation......, self-interstitial atoms were found to accumulate in the form of glissile and sessile loops;at higher dose levels, these loops led to formation of rafts of loops. Irradiation led to an increase in the yield strength, a sudden drop in the yield stress, and, at higher doses, the initiation of plastic...

  13. Experimental Investigation of the Root Cause Mechanism and Effectiveness of Mitigating Actions for Axial Offset Anomaly in Pressurized Water Reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Said Abdel-Khalik


    Axial offset anomaly (AOA) in pressurized water reactors refers to the presence of a significantly larger measured negative axial offset deviation than predicted by core design calculations. The neutron flux depression in the upper half of high-power rods experiencing significant subcooled boiling is believed to be caused by the concentration of boron species within the crud layer formed on the cladding surface. Recent investigations of the root-cause mechanism for AOA [1,2] suggest that boron build-up on the fuel is caused by precipitation of lithium metaborate (LiBO2) within the crud in regions of subcooled boiling. Indirect evidence in support of this hypothesis was inferred from operating experience at Callaway, where lithium return and hide-out were, respectively, observed following power reductions and power increases when AOA was present. However, direct evidence of lithium metaborate precipitation within the crud has, heretofore, not been shown because of its retrograde solubility. To this end, this investigation has been undertaken in order to directly verify or refute the proposed root-cause mechanism of AOA, and examine the effectiveness of possible mitigating actions to limit its impact in high power PWR cores.

  14. Experimental study of plasma focusing in erosion plasma accelerators. V - Mechanism of plasma focusing in a magnetoplasma compressor (United States)

    Kozlov, N. P.; Protasov, Iu. S.


    The dynamics, microscopic structure, and stability of successive developmental stages of high-current plasmodynamic discharges in erosion type magnetoplasma compressors are investigated under conditions of intense radiation transport. It is found that thermal instabilities, which dominate during the stages of formation and quasi-steady flow in the compressed zone, do not cause the nonideal discharge plasma to have anomalous thermodynamic and transport properties; while the accelerated plasma, which is thermalized in the compressed zone, is macroscopically stable when the current shell interacts with the relatively cold vapor. It is demonstrated that either a combined inertial and Hall mechanism of plasma focusing or a two-stage inertial compression of the plasma is possible, regardless of the chemical composition and ionization state of the electric discharge plasma. In the two stage mechanism, the plasma is compressed toward the central anode in the accelerating channel by the Hall effect and as a result of additional pinching in the outgoing Z currents. The dimensions and the dynamic and energy characteristics of the plasma stream can be controlled by a self-consistent input of energy into the MHD compression zone.

  15. Experimental study on hydration damage mechanism of shale from the Longmaxi Formation in southern Sichuan Basin, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiangjun Liu


    Full Text Available As a serious problem in drilling operation, wellbore instability restricts efficient development of shale gas. The interaction between the drilling fluid and shale with hydration swelling property would have impact on the generation and propagation mechanism of cracks in shale formation, leading to wellbore instability. In order to investigate the influence of the hydration swelling on the crack propagation, mineral components and physicochemical properties of shale from the Lower Silurian Longmaxi Formation (LF were investigated by using the XRD analysis, cation exchange capabilities (CEC analysis, and SEM observation, and we researched the hydration mechanism of LF shale. Results show that quartz and clay mineral are dominated in mineral composition, and illite content averaged 67% in clay mineral. Meanwhile, CEC of the LF shale are 94.4 mmol/kg. The process of water intruding inside shale along microcracks was able to be observed through high power microscope, meanwhile, the hydration swelling stress would concentrate at the crack tip. The microcracks would propagate, bifurcate and connect with each other, with increase of water immersing time, and it would ultimately develop into macro-fracture. Moreover, the macrocracks extend and coalesce along the bedding, resulting in the rock failure into blocks. Hydration swelling is one of the major causes that lead to wellbore instability of the LF shale, and therefore improving sealing capacity and inhibition of drilling fluid system is an effective measure to stabilize a borehole.

  16. Experimental studies on the chemiluminescence reaction mechanism of carbonate/bicarbonate and hydrogen peroxide in the presence of cobalt(II). (United States)

    Liang, Shu-Xuan; Zhao, Li-Xia; Zhang, Bo-Tao; Lin, Jin-Ming


    Chemiluminescence (CL) phenomena of carbonates or bicarbonates of potassium, sodium, or ammonium with hydrogen peroxide in the presence of cobalt sulfate were reported. After cobalt(II) solution was injected into the mixture of carbonate/bicarbonate and hydrogen peroxide, a CL signal was given out briefly. The CL conditions of these systems were optimized. The CL reaction mechanisms were studied experimentally by examining the spectrum emitted by the CL system and the effect of various free radical scavengers on CL emission intensity. The results showed that the maximal emission wavelengths of the CO32--H2O2-Co2+ and HCO3--H2O2-Co2+ systems were 440 and 490 nm, respectively. As a result, a radical scavenger of ascorbic acid, thiourea, and superoxide dismutase exhibited different effects on these CL systems. The different CL mechanisms involving the carbon dioxide dimer and the oxygen dimer were revealed, respectively.

  17. Improved ethanol yield and reduced Minimum Ethanol Selling Price (MESP by modifying low severity dilute acid pretreatment with deacetylation and mechanical refining: 1 Experimental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Xiaowen


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Historically, acid pretreatment technology for the production of bio-ethanol from corn stover has required severe conditions to overcome biomass recalcitrance. However, the high usage of acid and steam at severe pretreatment conditions hinders the economic feasibility of the ethanol production from biomass. In addition, the amount of acetate and furfural produced during harsh pretreatment is in the range that strongly inhibits cell growth and impedes ethanol fermentation. The current work addresses these issues through pretreatment with lower acid concentrations and temperatures incorporated with deacetylation and mechanical refining. Results The results showed that deacetylation with 0.1 M NaOH before acid pretreatment improved the monomeric xylose yield in pretreatment by up to 20% while keeping the furfural yield under 2%. Deacetylation also improved the glucose yield by 10% and the xylose yield by 20% during low solids enzymatic hydrolysis. Mechanical refining using a PFI mill further improved sugar yields during both low- and high-solids enzymatic hydrolysis. Mechanical refining also allowed enzyme loadings to be reduced while maintaining high yields. Deacetylation and mechanical refining are shown to assist in achieving 90% cellulose yield in high-solids (20% enzymatic hydrolysis. When fermentations were performed under pH control to evaluate the effect of deacetylation and mechanical refining on the ethanol yields, glucose and xylose utilizations over 90% and ethanol yields over 90% were achieved. Overall ethanol yields were calculated based on experimental results for the base case and modified cases. One modified case that integrated deacetylation, mechanical refining, and washing was estimated to produce 88 gallons of ethanol per ton of biomass. Conclusion The current work developed a novel bio-ethanol process that features pretreatment with lower acid concentrations and temperatures incorporated with deacetylation

  18. Extensive risk analysis of mechanical failure for an epiphyseal hip prothesis: a combined numerical-experimental approach. (United States)

    Martelli, S; Taddei, F; Cristofolini, L; Gill, H S; Viceconti, M


    There has been recent renewed interest in proximal femur epiphyseal replacement as an alternative to conventional total hip replacement. In many branches of engineering, risk analysis has proved to be an efficient tool for avoiding premature failures of innovative devices. An extensive risk analysis procedure has been developed for epiphyseal hip prostheses and the predictions of this method have been compared to the known clinical outcomes of a well-established contemporary design, namely hip resurfacing devices. Clinical scenarios leading to revision (i.e. loosening, neck fracture and failure of the prosthetic component) were associated with potential failure modes (i.e. overload, fatigue, wear, fibrotic tissue differentiation and bone remodelling). Driving parameters of the corresponding failure mode were identified together with their safe thresholds. For each failure mode, a failure criterion was identified and studied under the most relevant physiological loading conditions. All failure modes were investigated with the most suitable investigation tool, either numerical or experimental. Results showed a low risk for each failure scenario either in the immediate postoperative period or in the long term. These findings are in agreement with those reported by the majority of clinical studies for correctly implanted devices. Although further work is needed to confirm the predictions of this method, it was concluded that the proposed risk analysis procedure has the potential to increase the efficacy of preclinical validation protocols for new epiphyseal replacement devices.

  19. Traffic jams without bottlenecks—experimental evidence for the physical mechanism of the formation of a jam (United States)

    Sugiyama, Yuki; Fukui, Minoru; Kikuchi, Macoto; Hasebe, Katsuya; Nakayama, Akihiro; Nishinari, Katsuhiro; Tadaki, Shin-ichi; Yukawa, Satoshi


    A traffic jam on a highway is a very familiar phenomenon. From the physical viewpoint, the system of vehicular flow is a non-equilibrium system of interacting particles (vehicles). The collective effect of the many-particle system induces the instability of a free flow state caused by the enhancement of fluctuations, and the transition to a jamming state occurs spontaneously if the average vehicle density exceeds a certain critical value. Thus, a bottleneck is only a trigger and not the essential origin of a traffic jam. In this paper, we present the first experimental evidence that the emergence of a traffic jam is a collective phenomenon like 'dynamical' phase transitions and pattern formation in a non-equilibrium system. We have performed an experiment on a circuit to show the emergence of a jam with no bottleneck. In the initial condition, all the vehicles are moving, homogeneously distributed on the circular road, with the same velocity. The average density of the vehicles is prepared for the onset of the instability. Even a tiny fluctuation grows larger and then the homogeneous movement cannot be maintained. Finally, a jam cluster appears and propagates backward like a solitary wave with the same speed as that of a jam cluster on a highway.

  20. Role of mechanical compression on bone regeneration around a particulate bone graft material: an experimental study in rabbit calvaria. (United States)

    Romanos, Georgios E; Delgado-Ruiz, Rafael A; Gómez-Moreno, Gerardo; López-López, Patricia J; Mate Sanchez de Val, Jose E; Calvo-Guirado, Jose Luis


    This experimental study was designed to analyze the effect of different compressive forces on the bone regeneration around a particulate bone graft material. Eighty 6-mm-diameter defects were created in the calvaria of 20 New Zealand rabbits (4 defects per rabbit calvaria). All the defects were filled with particles of synthetic bone. Two standardized compressive forces were then applied, 4.1 g to half the defects (Test A) and 8.2 g to the other half (Test B), all for 1 min. The graft sites were allowed to heal for 6 weeks, after which the rabbits were euthanized. The calvarium vault of each animal was extracted, radiographed, and prepared for histomorphometric analysis. The percentage of defect fill, bone density, new bone formation, and residual bone graft material were recorded, and the results were subjected to statistical analysis. Histological evaluation found that defect closure among the Test A (lower compression) group ranged from 38.34 (95% lower CI) to 55.8 (95% upper CI) (mean 47 ± 8.5%), while among the Test B group (higher compression), it ranged from 81.26 (95% lower CI) to 95.32 (mean 88 ± 7.3%). Significantly more closure was achieved for the Test B group (P particulate used to fill small defects created in rabbit calvaria appears to be beneficial. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  1. Experimental lung injury promotes alterations in energy metabolism and respiratory mechanics in the lungs of rats: prevention by exercise. (United States)

    da Cunha, Maira J; da Cunha, Aline A; Scherer, Emilene B S; Machado, Fernanda Rossato; Loureiro, Samanta O; Jaenisch, Rodrigo B; Guma, Fátima; Lago, Pedro Dal; Wyse, Angela T S


    In the present study we investigated the effects of lung injury on energy metabolism (succinate dehydrogenase, complex II, cytochrome c oxidase, and ATP levels), respiratory mechanics (dynamic and static compliance, elastance and respiratory system resistance) in the lungs of rats, as well as on phospholipids in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. The protective effect of physical exercise on the alterations caused by lung injury, including lung edema was also evaluated. Wistar rats were submitted to 2 months of physical exercise. After this period the lung injury was induced by intratracheal instillation of lipopolysaccharide. Adult Wistar rats were submitted to 2 months of physical exercise and after this period the lung injury was induced by intratracheal instillation of lipopolysaccharide in dose 100 μg/100 g body weight. The sham group received isotonic saline instillation. Twelve hours after the injury was performed the respiratory mechanical and after the rats were decapitated and samples were collected. The rats subjected to lung injury presented a decrease in activities of the enzymes of the electron transport chain and ATP levels in lung, as well as the formation of pulmonary edema. A decreased lung dynamic and static compliance, as well as an increase in respiratory system resistance, and a decrease in phospholipids content were observed. Physical exercise was able to totally prevent the decrease in succinate dehydrogenase and complex II activities and the formation of pulmonary edema. It also partially prevented the increase in respiratory system resistance, but did not prevent the decrease in dynamic and static compliance, as well as in phospholipids content. These findings suggest that the mitochondrial dysfunction may be one of the important contributors to lung damage and that physical exercise may be beneficial in this pathology, although it did not prevent all changes present in lung injury.

  2. Mechanisms of atrial fibrillation termination by rapidly unbinding Na+ channel blockers: insights from mathematical models and experimental correlates. (United States)

    Comtois, Philippe; Sakabe, Masao; Vigmond, Edward J; Munoz, Mauricio; Texier, Anne; Shiroshita-Takeshita, Akiko; Nattel, Stanley


    Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common sustained clinical arrhythmia and is a problem of growing proportions. Recent studies have increased interest in fast-unbinding Na(+) channel blockers like vernakalant (RSD1235) and ranolazine for AF therapy, but the mechanism of efficacy is poorly understood. To study how fast-unbinding I(Na) blockers affect AF, we developed realistic mathematical models of state-dependent Na(+) channel block, using a lidocaine model as a prototype, and studied the effects on simulated cholinergic AF in two- and three-dimensional atrial substrates. We then compared the results with in vivo effects of lidocaine on vagotonic AF in dogs. Lidocaine action was modeled with the Hondeghem-Katzung modulated-receptor theory and maximum affinity for activated Na(+) channels. Lidocaine produced frequency-dependent Na(+) channel blocking and conduction slowing effects and terminated AF in both two- and three-dimensional models with concentration-dependent efficacy (maximum approximately 89% at 60 microM). AF termination was not related to increases in wavelength, which tended to decrease with the drug, but rather to decreased source Na(+) current in the face of large ACh-sensitive K(+) current-related sinks, leading to the destabilization of primary generator rotors and a great reduction in wavebreak, which caused primary rotor annihilations in the absence of secondary rotors to resume generator activity. Lidocaine also reduced the variability and maximum values of the dominant frequency distribution during AF. Qualitatively similar results were obtained in vivo for lidocaine effects on vagal AF in dogs, with an efficacy of 86% at 2 mg/kg iv, as well as with simulations using the guarded-receptor model of lidocaine action. These results provide new insights into the mechanisms by which rapidly unbinding class I antiarrhythmic agents, a class including several novel compounds of considerable promise, terminate AF.

  3. A new kinetic model based on the remote control mechanism to fit experimental data in the selective oxidation of propene into acrolein on biphasic catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abdeldayem, H.M.; Ruiz, P.; Delmon, B. [Unite de Catalyse et Chimie des Materiaux Divises, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-La-Neuve (Belgium); Thyrion, F.C. [Unite des Procedes Faculte des Sciences Appliquees, Universite Catholique de Louvain, Louvain-La-Neuve (Belgium)


    A new kinetic model for a more accurate and detailed fitting of the experimental data is proposed. The model is based on the remote control mechanism (RCM). The RCM assumes that some oxides (called `donors`) are able to activate molecular oxygen transforming it to very active mobile species (spillover oxygen (O{sub OS})). O{sub OS} migrates onto the surface of the other oxide (called `acceptor`) where it creates and/or regenerates the active sites during the reaction. The model contains tow terms, one considering the creation of selective sites and the other the catalytic reaction at each site. The model has been tested in the selective oxidation of propene into acrolein (T=380, 400, 420 C; oxygen and propene partial pressures between 38 and 152 Torr). Catalysts were prepared as pure MoO{sub 3} (acceptor) and their mechanical mixtures with {alpha}-Sb{sub 2}O{sub 4} (donor) in different proportions. The presence of {alpha}-Sb{sub 2}O{sub 4} changes the reaction order, the activation energy of the reaction and the number of active sites of MoO{sub 3} produced by oxygen spillover. These changes are consistent with a modification in the degree of irrigation of the surface by oxygen spillover. The fitting of the model to experimental results shows that the number of sites created by O{sub SO} increases with the amount of {alpha}-Sb{sub 2}O{sub 4}. (orig.)

  4. A combined experimental and finite element approach to analyse the fretting mechanism of the head-stem taper junction in total hip replacement. (United States)

    Bitter, Thom; Khan, Imran; Marriott, Tim; Lovelady, Elaine; Verdonschot, Nico; Janssen, Dennis


    Fretting corrosion at the taper interface of modular hip implants has been implicated as a possible cause of implant failure. This study was set up to gain more insight in the taper mechanics that lead to fretting corrosion. The objectives of this study therefore were (1) to select experimental loading conditions to reproduce clinically relevant fretting corrosion features observed in retrieved components, (2) to develop a finite element model consistent with the fretting experiments and (3) to apply more complicated loading conditions of activities of daily living to the finite element model to study the taper mechanics. The experiments showed similar wear patterns on the taper surface as observed in retrievals. The finite element wear score based on Archard's law did not correlate well with the amount of material loss measured in the experiments. However, similar patterns were observed between the simulated micromotions and the experimental wear measurements. Although the finite element model could not be validated, the loading conditions based on activities of daily living demonstrate the importance of assembly load on the wear potential. These findings suggest that finite element models that do not incorporate geometry updates to account for wear loss may not be appropriate to predict wear volumes of taper connections.

  5. Experimental and Computational Interrogation of Fast SCR Mechanism and Active Sites on H-Form SSZ-13

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Sichi [Department; Zheng, Yang [Institute; Gao, Feng [Institute; Szanyi, Janos [Institute; Schneider, William F. [Department


    Experiment and density functional theory (DFT) models are combined to develop a unified, quantitative model of the mechanism and kinetics of fast selective catalytic reduction (SCR) of NO/NO2 mixtures over H-SSZ-13 zeolite. Rates, rate orders, and apparent activation energies collected under differential conditions reveal two distinct kinetic regimes. First-principles thermodynamics simulations are used to determine the relative coverages of free Brønsted sites, chemisorbed NH4+ and physisorbed NH3 as a function of reaction conditions. First-principles metadynamics calculations show that all three sites can contribute to the rate-limiting N-N bond forming step in fast SCR. The results are used to parameterize a kinetic model that encompasses the full range of reaction conditions and recovers observed rate orders and apparent activation energies. Observed kinetic regimes are related to changes in most-abundant surface intermediates. Financial support was provided by the National Science Foundation GAOLI program under award number 1258690-CBET. We thank the Center for Research Computing at Notre

  6. Mechanical Recanalization of Cerebral Artery Embolic Occlusion Using a Self-Expanding Stent: Experimental Analysis in Canine Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, Jin Woo; Kim, Snag Joon; Lee, Deok Hee; Suh, Dae Chul [Dept. of Radiology and Research Institute of Radiology, Asan Medical Center, Ulsan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    To evaluate the feasibility of a self-expanding stent for acute embolic occlusion, and recanalization mechanism by histologic examination. Five mongrel dogs were used as study subjects. Each vertebral artery was occluded, and a self-expanding stent was used for recanalization. We evaluated the technical success rate for the placement of the stent to the targeted vessel, the recanalization rate, and residual stenosis. We obtained two specimens of the stented vertebral arteries for histologic evaluation. One dog died of an unknown cause during the induction of anesthesia. In two dogs, only one side of the vertebral artery was used, whereas both vertebral arteries were used in the remaining dogs. A total of six vertebral arteries were successfully occluded. The technical success rate for stenting without complication was 66.7%. The immediate recanalization rate after stenting was 100%. The residual stenosis was 35.6 {+-} 18.6%. On microscopic examination, the stent concentrically displaced the clot and the clot was captured between the stent mesh and arterial wall. Self-expanding stents were effective in revascularizing the cerebrovascular embolic occlusion. The self-expanding stent seemed to achieve recanalization by pushing the clot to the arterial wall and capturing the clot between the stent mesh and arterial wall.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Ruzhich


    Full Text Available Field experiments were carried out using TRIBO, a specially designed testing stand including a concrete plate that can be moved at different rates. In our experiment, the plate served as an artificial allochtonous wing placed at the uneven surface of the segment of the Angarsky fault in Pribaikalie. Tribological effects of contact interaction of the uneven surfaces in the zone of sliding movements of the plate were recorded by strain gauges, linear displacement gauges and four Baikal-7HR seismic stations; such stations are commonly used for earthquake recording. The effect of shocks in initiation of seismic oscillation sources was studied with changes of the regimes of destruction of the uneven surfaces (underneath the base of the plate which differ in size and strength. The study was focused on stages in the process of friction at preparation to transition from quasi-regular decelerated sliding movement of the plate to its breakaway and occurrence of a high-energy seismic impulse.The applied method of large-scale modelling at natural objects in field provides new data that may prove useful for stu­dies of mechanisms causing seismicity, identification of stages in occurrence of earthquakes in fault zones and interpretation of seismic monitoring data. Results of such physical tests can contribute to the development of methods aimed at forecasting of rock shocks and earthquakes and also for the development of new physical models showing formation of earthquake foci of various scales in tectonic faults.

  8. Acid-catalysed chlorine transfer from N-chloramines to iodide ion: experimental evidence for a predicted change in mechanism. (United States)

    Calvo, Paula; Crugeiras, Juan; Ríos, Ana


    Rate constants for acid catalysis of the reactions of N-chlorodimethylamine (1), N-chloro-2,2,2-trifluoroethylamine (2) and N,N-dichlorotaurine (3) with iodide ion were determined in H(2)O at 25 degrees C and I = 0.5 (NaClO(4)). The failure to detect significant catalysis by general acids of chlorine transfer from 1 to the nucleophile, together with the observed inverse solvent deuterium isotope effect on the hydronium ion-catalysed reaction (k(H)/k(D) = 0.37), indicates that this process occurs by protonation of 1 in a fast equilibrium step, followed by rate determining chlorine transfer to iodide ion. The appearance of general acid catalysis for the reactions of 2 and 3 shows that increasing the leaving group ability leads to a change to a concerted mechanism, which is suggested to be enforced by the absence of a significant lifetime of the protonated chloramine intermediate in the presence of iodide ion.

  9. Methane oxidation in a boreal climate in an experimental landfill cover composed from mechanically-biologically treated waste. (United States)

    Einola, J-K M; Sormunen, K M; Rintala, J A


    The present study evaluated microbial methane (CH4) oxidation in a boreally located outdoor landfill lysimeter (volume 112 m3, height 3.9 m) filled with mechanically-biologically treated waste (MBT residual) and containing a cover layer made from the same MBT residual. The calculations based on gas emission and pore gas measurements showed that, between April and October 2005, a significant proportion (> 96%) of the methane produced (Methane was oxidized mainly at the depths of 35-75 cm, as indicated by the upward decrease both in the methane concentration and in the methane-to-carbon dioxide ratio in the pore gas. Lower methane oxidation (methane produced) was observed only during the coldest time of the year (January 2006), apparently due to the fall in temperature at the depths of 25-70 cm (from 9-25 degrees C during April to October to 2-9 degrees C in January). Unexpectedly, the highest methane oxidation potential (MOP) was observed in samples from the top layer where exposure to methane was low. Overall, the results show that MBT residual is a suitable support medium for methane oxidation in landfill covers in field conditions in a boreal climate.

  10. Experimental study on the Reynolds and viscous shear stress of bileaflet mechanical heart valves in a pneumatic ventricular assist device. (United States)

    Lee, Hwansung; Tatsumi, Eisuke; Taenaka, Yoshiyuki


    Our group is currently developing a pneumatic ventricular assist device (PVAD). In general, the major causes of hemolysis in a pulsatile VAD are cavitation, and Reynolds shear stress (RSS) in the mechanical heart valve (MHV). In a previous study, we investigated MHV cavitation. To select the optimal bileaflet valve for our PVAD, in the current study, we investigated RSS and viscous shear stress (VSS) downstream of three different types of commercial bileaflet valves by means of 2D particle image velocimetry (PIV). To carry out flow visualization inside the blood pump and near the valve, we designed a model pump with the same configuration as that of our PVAD. Three types of bileaflet valves (i.e., the ATS valve, the St. Jude valve, and the Sorin Bicarbon valve) were mounted at the aortic position of the model pump, and flow was visualized according to the PIV method. The maximum flow velocity and RSS of the Sorin Bicarbon valve were lower than those of the other two bileaflet valves. The maximum VSS was only 1% of the maximum RSS. Thus, the effect of VSS on blood cell trauma was neglected. The Sorin Bicarbon valve exhibited relatively low levels of RSS, and was therefore considered to be the best valve for our PVAD among the three valves tested.

  11. Experimental investigation of the flow field past a bileaflet mechanical heart valve in pulsatile flow within an anatomical aorta model (United States)

    Brown, Laura; Tavoularis, Stavros


    A bileaflet mechanical heart valve (BMHV) has been mounted at the inlet of an anatomical model of the human aorta, and placed within a mock circulation loop that simulates physiological flow conditions. The working fluid matches the refractive index of silicone, from which the aorta model and other parts of the test section are made, and the viscosity of blood. Flow characteristics past the BMHV are measured using stereoscopic and planar particle image velocimetry and laser Doppler velocimetry. In contrast to previous experiments, in which heart valves have been tested in simplified aortic geometries, this arrangement permits the study of the dependence of flow past the valve upon recirculation in the sinuses of Valsalva, the flow rate through the coronary arteries, and the aorta curvature. The effect of valve orientation will also be investigated with the objective to determine a hemodynamically optimal configuration with potential benefits to implantation procedures. The measured viscous shear stress distribution will be analyzed towards predicting the initiation of thrombosis in patients and identifying regions of stagnation, which could facilitate thrombus attachment.

  12. Experimental study on incident wave speed and the mechanisms of deflagration-to-detonation transition in a bent geometry (United States)

    Li, L.; Li, J.; Teo, C. J.; Chang, P. H.; Khoo, B. C.


    The study of deflagration-to-detonation transition (DDT) in bent tubes is important with many potential applications including fuel pipeline and mine tunnel designs for explosion prevention and detonation engines for propulsion. The aim of this study is to exploit low-speed incident shock waves for DDT using an S-shaped geometry and investigate its effectiveness as a DDT enhancement device. Experiments were conducted in a valveless detonation chamber using ethylene-air mixture at room temperature and pressure (303 K, 1 bar). High-speed Schlieren photography was employed to keep track of the wave dynamic evolution. Results showed that waves with velocity as low as 500 m/s can experience a successful DDT process through this S-shaped geometry. To better understand the mechanism, clear images of local explosion processes were captured in either the first curved section or the second curved section depending on the inlet wave velocity, thus proving that this S-shaped tube can act as a two-stage device for DDT. Owing to the curved wall structure, the passing wave was observed to undergo a continuous compression phase which could ignite the local unburnt mixture and finally lead to a local explosion and a detonation transition. Additionally, the phenomenon of shock-vortex interaction near the wave diffraction region was also found to play an important role in the whole process. It was recorded that this interaction could not only result in local head-on reflection of the reflected wave on the wall that could ignite the local mixture, and it could also contribute to the recoupling of the shock-flame complex when a detonation wave is successfully formed in the first curved section.

  13. Effects on Pulmonary Vascular Mechanics of Two Different Lung-Protective Ventilation Strategies in an Experimental Model of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome. (United States)

    Santos, Arnoldo; Gomez-Peñalver, Eva; Monge-Garcia, M Ignacio; Retamal, Jaime; Borges, João Batista; Tusman, Gerardo; Hedenstierna, Goran; Larsson, Anders; Suarez-Sipmann, Fernando


    To compare the effects of two lung-protective ventilation strategies on pulmonary vascular mechanics in early acute respiratory distress syndrome. Experimental study. University animal research laboratory. Twelve pigs (30.8 ± 2.5 kg). Acute respiratory distress syndrome was induced by repeated lung lavages and injurious mechanical ventilation. Thereafter, animals were randomized to 4 hours ventilation according to the Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network protocol or to an open lung approach strategy. Pressure and flow sensors placed at the pulmonary artery trunk allowed continuous assessment of pulmonary artery resistance, effective elastance, compliance, and reflected pressure waves. Respiratory mechanics and gas exchange data were collected. Acute respiratory distress syndrome led to pulmonary vascular mechanics deterioration. Four hours after randomization, pulmonary vascular mechanics was similar in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network and open lung approach: resistance (578 ± 252 vs 626 ± 153 dyn.s/cm; p = 0.714), effective elastance, (0.63 ± 0.22 vs 0.58 ± 0.17 mm Hg/mL; p = 0.710), compliance (1.19 ± 0.8 vs 1.50 ± 0.27 mL/mm Hg; p = 0.437), and reflection index (0.36 ± 0.04 vs 0.34 ± 0.09; p = 0.680). Open lung approach as compared to Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome Network was associated with improved dynamic respiratory compliance (17.3 ± 2.6 vs 10.5 ± 1.3 mL/cm H2O; p mechanics similarly. The use of higher positive end-expiratory pressures in the open lung approach strategy did not worsen pulmonary vascular mechanics, improved lung mechanics, and gas exchange but at the expense of a lower cardiac index.

  14. [Experimental investigation of mechanisms of forming RbH by irradiating a Rb+H2 mixture with laser light]. (United States)

    Shen, Xiao-Yan; Liu, Jing; Dai, Kang; Shen, Yi-Fan


    tuned to the X1sigma+ --> A1sigma+ line of RbH was also measured as a function of the H2 density. From these measurements we obtained the cross section of 4.02 x 10(-7) cm2 for the process Rb (5D) + H2 --> RbH + H. The cross section for Rb (5P3/2) + H2 (upsilon = 2) --> RbH + H is 1.00 x 10(-8) cm2. This experiment showed that under our experimental conditions, RbH molecules are not created by a direct interaction of Rb(5P) with H2 but through a two-step reaction.

  15. Experimental investigation of rates and mechanisms of isotope exchange (O, H) between volcanic ash and isotopically-labeled water (United States)

    Nolan, Gary S.; Bindeman, Ilya N.


    on the surface of ash particles that are getting lost with 24-48 h of drying to up to 200-300 °C, bound water in glass in a range of combining proportions of SiOH to H2O, and a small reservoir of residual, tightly held water. Experimentation with vacuum drying at 130-220 °C, and with TGA up to 1000 °C provides a set of simple relationships and recommendations for users. Ash loses 1-1.2 wt.% water with weight loss stabilizing after 48 h of vacuum drying at 130 °C. This ash drying removes molecular water over the hydroxyl group in a proportion of ˜80:20% resulting in relatively constant δ2H values of the remaining total water in native ash. This study demonstrates that δ2H in ash can be rapidly changed by minor diagenesis even at relatively low temperatures of 20 °C. A diagenetic history of ash is needed to interpret the D/H ratio, but the δ18O values of water in ash are more robust.

  16. Export Mechanisms of Persistent Toxic Substances (PTSs) in Urban Land Uses during Rainfall-Runoff Events: Experimental and Modeling Studies (United States)

    Zheng, Y.; Luo, X.; Lin, Z.


    The urban environment has a variety of Persistent Toxic Substances (PTS), such as Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) and mercury. Soil in pervious lands and dust deposited on impervious surfaces are two major sinks of PTSs in urbanized areas, which could contribute significant nonpoint source loadings of PTSs to adjacent waterbodies during rainfall-runoff events and therefore jeopardize aquatic ecosystems. However, PTSs have been much less understood regarding their export mechanisms in urban land uses, and efforts to model nonpoint source pollution processes of PTSs have been rare. We designed and performed in-lab rainfall-runoff simulation experiments to investigate transport of PAHs and mercury by runoff from urban soils. Organic petrology analysis (OPA) techniques were introduced to analyze the soil and sediment compositions. Our study revealed the limitation of the classic enrichment theory which attributes enrichment of pollutants in eroded sediment solely to the sediment's particle size distribution and adopts simple relationships between enrichment ratio and sediment flux. We found that carbonaceous materials (CMs) in soil are the direct and major sorbents for PAHs and mercury, and highly different in content, mobility and adsorption capacity for the PTSs. Anthropogenic CMs like black carbon components largely control the transport of soil PAHs, while humic substances have a dominant influence on the transport of soil mercury. A model was further developed to estimate the enrichment ratio of PAHs, which innovatively applies the fugacity concept.We also conducted field studies on export of PAHs by runoff from urban roads. A variable time-step model was developed to simulate the continuous cycles of PAH buildup and washoff on urban roads. The dependence of the pollution level on antecedent weather conditions was investigated and embodied in the model. The applicability of this approach and its value to environmental management was demonstrated by a case


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radisav D. Vidic


    The first part of this study evaluated the application of a versatile optical technique to study the adsorption and desorption of model adsorbates representative of volatile polar (acetone) and non-polar (propane) organic compounds on a model carbonaceous surface under ultra high vacuum (UHV) conditions. The results showed the strong correlation between optical differential reflectance (ODR) and adsorbate coverage determined by temperature programmed desorption (TPD). ODR technique was proved to be a powerful tool to investigate surface adsorption and desorption from UHV to high pressure conditions. The effects of chemical functionality and surface morphology on the adsorption/desorption behavior of acetone, propane and mercury were investigated for two model carbonaceous surfaces, namely air-cleaved highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) and plasma-oxidized HOPG. They can be removed by thermal treatment (> 500 K). The presence of these groups almost completely suppresses propane adsorption at 90K and removal of these groups leads to dramatic increase in adsorption capacity. The amount of acetone adsorbed is independent of surface heat treatment and depends only on total exposure. The effects of morphological heterogeneity is evident for plasma-oxidized HOPG as this substrate provides greater surface area, as well as higher energy binding sites. Mercury adsorption at 100 K on HOPG surfaces with and without chemical functionalities and topological heterogeneity created by plasma oxidation occurs through physisorption. The removal of chemical functionalities from HOPG surface enhances mercury physisorption. Plasma oxidation of HOPG provides additional surface area for mercury adsorption. Mercury adsorption by activated carbon at atmospheric pressure occurs through two distinct mechanisms, physisorption below 348 K and chemisorption above 348 K. No significant impact of oxygen functionalities was observed in the chemisorption region. The key findings of this study

  18. Experimental blunt chest trauma--cardiorespiratory effects of different mechanical ventilation strategies with high positive end-expiratory pressure: a randomized controlled study. (United States)

    Schreiter, Dierk; Carvalho, Nadja C; Katscher, Sebastian; Mende, Ludger; Reske, Alexander P; Spieth, Peter M; Carvalho, Alysson R; Beda, Alessandro; Lachmann, Burkhard; Amato, Marcelo B P; Wrigge, Hermann; Reske, Andreas W


    Uncertainty persists regarding the optimal ventilatory strategy in trauma patients developing acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS). This work aims to assess the effects of two mechanical ventilation strategies with high positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP) in experimental ARDS following blunt chest trauma. Twenty-six juvenile pigs were anesthetized, tracheotomized and mechanically ventilated. A contusion was applied to the right chest using a bolt-shot device. Ninety minutes after contusion, animals were randomized to two different ventilation modes, applied for 24 h: Twelve pigs received conventional pressure-controlled ventilation with moderately low tidal volumes (VT, 8 ml/kg) and empirically chosen high external PEEP (16 cmH2O) and are referred to as the HP-CMV-group. The other group (n = 14) underwent high-frequency inverse-ratio pressure-controlled ventilation (HFPPV) involving respiratory rate of 65 breaths · min(-1), inspiratory-to-expiratory-ratio 2:1, development of intrinsic PEEP and recruitment maneuvers, compatible with the rationale of the Open Lung Concept. Hemodynamics, gas exchange and respiratory mechanics were monitored during 24 h. Computed tomography and histology were analyzed in subgroups. Comparing changes which occurred from randomization (90 min after chest trauma) over the 24-h treatment period, groups differed statistically significantly (all P values for group effect ventilation improved respiratory function and fulfilled relevant ventilation endpoints for trauma patients, i.e. restoration of oxygenation and lung aeration while avoiding hypercapnia and respiratory acidosis.

  19. Integrated Experimental and Modeling Studies of Mineral Carbonation as a Mechanism for Permanent Carbon Sequestration in Mafic/Ultramafic Rocks

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhengrong [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Qiu, Lin [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Zhang, Shuang [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Bolton, Edward [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Bercovici, David [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Ague, Jay [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Karato, Shun-Ichiro [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Oristaglio, Michael [Yale Univ., New Haven, CT (United States); Zhu, Wen-Iu [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Lisabeth, Harry [Univ. of Maryland, College Park, MD (United States); Johnson, Kevin [Univ. of Hawaii, Honolulu, HI (United States)


    that could have been removed if the olivine initially present had fully dissolved and the cations released had subsequently precipitated in carbonate minerals. The carbonation fractions observed in batch experiments with olivine grains and powders varied significantly, from less than 0.01 (1%) to more than 0.5 (50%). Over time, the carbonation fractions reached an upper limit after about 24 to 72 hours of reaction, then stayed constant or decreased. The peak Final Scientific/Technical Report DE-FE0004275 | Mineral Carbonation | 4 coincided with the appearance of secondary magnesium-bearing silicate minerals, whose formation competes for magnesium ions in solution and can even promote conditions that dissolve magnesite. The highest carbonation fractions resulted from experiments with low ratios of concentrated solution to olivine, during which amorphous silica spheres or meshes formed, instead of secondary silicate minerals. The highest carbonation fractions appear to result from competing effects. Precipitation of silica layers on olivine reduces the reactive surface area and, thus, the rate of olivine dissolution (which ultimately limits the carbonation rate), but these same silica layers can also inhibit the formation of secondary silicate minerals that consume magnesite formed in earlier stages of carbonation. Simulation of these experiments with simple geochemical models using the software program EQ3/6 reproduces the general trends observed—especially the results for the carbonation fraction in short-run experiments. Although further experimentation and better models are needed, this study nevertheless provides a framework for understanding the optimal conditions for sequestering carbon dioxide by reacting CO2-bearing fluids with rocks containing olivine minerals. A series of experiments at the Rock Physics Laboratory at the University of Maryland studied the carbonation process during deformation of thermally cracked olivine-rich rock samples (dunite

  20. Development of small scale experimental protocol and a multi-physics model to predict the complex hygro-mechanical behavior of wood under varying climates (United States)

    Lagana, Rastislav

    The reliability of wood structures is strongly affected by duration of loading and environmental conditions. The goal of this study was to develop a simple method for measuring the mechano-sorptive character of the hygro-mechanical behavior of wood and to develop a model capable of predicting long term beam behavior under changing climates. The model predictions were compared with experimental results. Red spruce was the species selected for investigation. The mechano-sorptive properties were measured in tension and compression on thin specimens where moisture content variation within the material was minimal when exposed to a varying environment. The measured mechano-sorptive deformation in compression was significantly greater than that measured in tension (4 times higher at cumulative MC 60% than in tension). However, the developed compression protocol was less accurate, with a tendency to overestimate the magnitude of subsequent experimental creep behavior. A multi-physics model of hygro-mechanical uniaxial beam behavior was developed that rigorously couples spatially varying time-dependent moisture content with the uniaxial stress-strain relations. To verify the model and accuracy of the measured uniaxial mechano-sorptive characteristic of red spruce, the behavior of beams loaded by four point bending was measured in cyclically varying climate over 2.5 months. Although the model did not properly account for the immediate effect of moisture content change on mid-span deflection, as was observed in real beams, the overall trend of the predicted deflection was in good agreement with experimental results. An additional part of the thesis dealt with development of an analytical model to predict the hygro-mechanical behavior of multi-directional polymer matrix composite laminates which incorporate the mechano-sorptive effects of a phenol resorcinol formal-dehyde resin. E-glass/phenol resorcinol formaldehyde resin composite material parameters were used in the model

  1. A theoretical and non-destructive experimental approach for direct inclusion of measured collagen orientation and recruitment into mechanical models of the artery wall. (United States)

    Hill, Michael R; Duan, Xinjie; Gibson, Gregory A; Watkins, Simon; Robertson, Anne M


    Gradual collagen recruitment has been hypothesized as the underlying mechanism for the mechanical stiffening with increasing stress in arteries. In this work, we investigated this hypothesis in eight rabbit carotid arteries by directly measuring the distribution of collagen recruitment stretch under increasing circumferential loading using a custom uniaxial (UA) extension device combined with a multi-photon microscope (MPM). This approach allowed simultaneous mechanical testing and imaging of collagen fibers without traditional destructive fixation methods. Fiber recruitment was quantified from 3D rendered MPM images, and fiber orientation was measured in projected stacks of images. Collagen recruitment was observed to initiate at a finite strain, corresponding to a sharp increase in the measured mechanical stiffness, confirming the previous hypothesis and motivating the development of a new constitutive model to capture this response. Previous constitutive equations for the arterial wall have modeled the collagen contribution with either abrupt recruitment at zero strain, abrupt recruitment at finite strain or as gradual recruitment beginning at infinitesimal strain. Based on our experimental data, a new combined constitutive model was presented in which fiber recruitment begins at a finite strain with activation stretch represented by a probability distribution function. By directly including this recruitment data, the collagen contribution was modeled using a simple Neo-Hookean equation. As a result, only two phenomenological material constants were required from the fit to the stress stretch data. Three other models for the arterial wall were then compared with these results. The approach taken here was successful in combining stress-strain analysis with simultaneous microstructural imaging of collagen recruitment and orientation, providing a new approach by which underlying fiber architecture may be quantified and included in constitutive equations. Copyright

  2. Determining the mechanical constitutive properties of metals as a function of strain rate and temperature: A combined experimental and modeling approach

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    I. M. Robertson; A. Beaudoin; J. Lambros


    observation of specific mechanisms of micro-plasticity, as these will indicate the boundary value problem that should be addressed. This focus on the pre-yield region in the quasi-static effort (the elasto-plastic transition) is also a tractable one from an experimental and modeling viewpoint. In addition, our approach will minimize the need to fit model parameters to experimental data to obtain convergence. These are critical steps to reach the primary objective of simulating and modeling material performance under extreme loading conditions. In this annual report, we describe the progress made in the first year of this program.

  3. Simulation and experimental comparison of the thermo-mechanical history and 3D microstructure evolution of 304L stainless steel tubes manufactured using LENS (United States)

    Johnson, Kyle L.; Rodgers, Theron M.; Underwood, Olivia D.; Madison, Jonathan D.; Ford, Kurtis R.; Whetten, Shaun R.; Dagel, Daryl J.; Bishop, Joseph E.


    Additive manufacturing enables the production of previously unachievable designs in conjunction with time and cost savings. However, spatially and temporally fluctuating thermal histories can lead to residual stress states and microstructural variations that challenge conventional assumptions used to predict part performance. Numerical simulations offer a viable way to explore the root causes of these characteristics, and can provide insight into methods of controlling them. Here, the thermal history of a 304L stainless steel cylinder produced using the Laser Engineered Net Shape process is simulated using finite element analysis (FEA). The resultant thermal history is coupled to both a solid mechanics FEA simulation to predict residual stress and a kinetic Monte Carlo model to predict the three-dimensional grain structure evolution. Experimental EBSD measurements of grain structure and in-process infrared thermal data are compared to the predictions.

  4. Experimental Investigations on Dopamine Transmission Can Provide Clues on the Mechanism of the Therapeutic Effect of Amphetamine and Methylphenidate in ADHD (United States)

    Carboni, Ezio; Silvagni, Alessandra


    The aim of this review is to compare the experimental evidence obtained from in vitro studies on the effect of amphetamine and methylphenidate on dopamine transmission with the results obtained in animal models of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This comparison can extend the knowledge on the mechanism of action of the drugs used in the therapy of ADHD and provide insight into the etiology of ADHD. In particular, we considered the results obtained from in vitro methods, such as synaptosomes, cells in culture, and slices and from in vivo animal models of ADHD, such as spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR) and the Naples high-excitability (NHE) rat lines. The different experimental approaches produce consonant results and suggest that in SHR rats, in contrast to Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY), amphetamine and depolarization by high K+ might release different pools of dopamine-containing vesicles. The pool depleted by amphetamine might represent dopamine that is stored in large dense core vesicles, whereas dopamine released by high K+ might be contained in small synaptic vesicles (SSV). The sustained dopamine transmission observed in the nucleus accumbens of SHR but not WKY rats can be supported by an elevated synthesis and release, which also might explain the stronger effect of methylphenidate on dopamine release in SHR but not in WKY rats. This hypothesis might enlighten the common therapeutic effect of these drugs, although their action takes place at different levels in catecholaminergic transmission. PMID:15303307

  5. Experimental and Numerical Evaluation of the Mechanical Behavior of Strongly Anisotropic Light-Weight Metallic Fiber Structures under Static and Dynamic Compressive Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olaf Andersen


    Full Text Available Rigid metallic fiber structures made from a variety of different metals and alloys have been investigated mainly with regard to their functional properties such as heat transfer, pressure drop, or filtration characteristics. With the recent advent of aluminum and magnesium-based fiber structures, the application of such structures in light-weight crash absorbers has become conceivable. The present paper therefore elucidates the mechanical behavior of rigid sintered fiber structures under quasi-static and dynamic loading. Special attention is paid to the strongly anisotropic properties observed for different directions of loading in relation to the main fiber orientation. Basically, the structures show an orthotropic behavior; however, a finite thickness of the fiber slabs results in moderate deviations from a purely orthotropic behavior. The morphology of the tested specimens is examined by computed tomography, and experimental results for different directions of loading as well as different relative densities are presented. Numerical calculations were carried out using real structural data derived from the computed tomography data. Depending on the direction of loading, the fiber structures show a distinctively different deformation behavior both experimentally and numerically. Based on these results, the prevalent modes of deformation are discussed and a first comparison with an established polymer foam and an assessment of the applicability of aluminum fiber structures in crash protection devices is attempted.

  6. Experimental and theoretical investigation of the mechanism of flame propagation above the surface of combustible liquid moving under the action of an oxidant in microchannels (United States)

    Kabova, Yu O.; Kuznetsov, V. V.; Zamashchikov, V. V.; Chinnov, E. A.; Kabov, O. A.


    Flames propagating above the surface of n-butanol in mini and microchannels have been investigated experimentally. It was determined that when oxygen is used as an oxidant, the critical channel size is about 0.3 mm, and according to the estimates this corresponds to the critical size for a premixed homogeneous gas mixture. In order to understand the mechanism of flame propagation above the surface of liquid, in this study, we attempted to simulate the processes, occurring in liquid. The problem of “thermal wave” propagation in a horizontal rectangular channel, when the liquid film moves under the action of gas flow, was studied theoretically. The analysis was carried out taking into account evaporation, specific heat release, and radiation and absorption processes in the gas and on the free surface, as well as the formed zone of strong heating above the liquid film surface for low oxidant velocities in the channel. Based on data obtained, it can be concluded that at high concentration of oxygen and low oxidant velocities, the experimental value of velocity coincides with the calculated value with satisfactory accuracy.

  7. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Brothers of Charity Services Limerick, Limerick

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    O'Reilly, Ken


    There is a broad literature suggesting that cognitive difficulties are associated with violence across a variety of groups. Although neurocognitive and social cognitive deficits are core features of schizophrenia, evidence of a relationship between cognitive impairments and violence within this patient population has been mixed.

  8. A designated centre for people with disabilities operated by Brothers of Charity Services Limerick, Limerick

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Brenner, Maria


    There is an increasing number of children with complex care needs, however, there is limited evidence of the experience of families during the process of transitioning to becoming their child\\'s primary care giver. The aim of this study was to explore parents\\' perspectives of the transition to home of a child with complex respiratory health care needs.

  9. Coarse-grained/molecular mechanics of the TAS2R38 bitter taste receptor: experimentally-validated detailed structural prediction of agonist binding.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandro Marchiori

    Full Text Available Bitter molecules in humans are detected by ∼25 G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs. The lack of atomic resolution structure for any of them is complicating an in depth understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying bitter taste perception. Here, we investigate the molecular determinants of the interaction of the TAS2R38 bitter taste receptor with its agonists phenylthiocarbamide (PTC and propylthiouracil (PROP. We use the recently developed hybrid Molecular Mechanics/Coarse Grained (MM/CG method tailored specifically for GPCRs. The method, through an extensive exploration of the conformational space in the binding pocket, allows the identification of several residues important for agonist binding that would have been very difficult to capture from the standard bioinformatics/docking approach. Our calculations suggest that both agonists bind to Asn103, Phe197, Phe264 and Trp201, whilst they do not interact with the so-called extra cellular loop 2, involved in cis-retinal binding in the GPCR rhodopsin. These predictions are consistent with data sets based on more than 20 site-directed mutagenesis and functional calcium imaging experiments of TAS2R38. The method could be readily used for other GPCRs for which experimental information is currently lacking.

  10. Numerical and Experimental Study on Manufacture of a Novel High-Capacity Engine Oil Pan Subjected to Hydro-Mechanical Deep Drawing (United States)

    Chen, D. Y.; Xu, Y.; Zhang, S. H.; El-Aty, A. Abd; Ma, Y.


    The oil pan is equipped at the bottom of engine crankcase of the automobile to prevent impurity and collect the lubrication oil from the surfaces of the engine which is helpful for heat dissipation and oxidation prevention. The present study aims at manufacturing a novel high-capacity engine oil pan, which is considered as a complex shaped component with features of thin wall, large size and asymmetric deep cavity through both numerical and experimental methods. The result indicated that it is difficult to form the current part through the common deep drawing process. Accordingly, the hydro-mechanical deep drawing technology was conducted, which consisted of two steps, previous local drawing and the final integral deep drawing with hydraulic pressure. The finite element analysis (FEA) was carried out to investigate the influence of initial blank dimension and the key process parameters such as loading path, draw-bead force and fillet radius on the formability of the sheet blank. Compared with the common deep drawing, the limit drawing ratio by hydro-mechanical deep drawing can be increased from 2.34 to 2.77, while the reduction in blank wall thickness can be controlled in the range of 28%. The formability is greatly improved without any defects such as crack and wrinkle by means of parameters optimisation. The results gained from simulation keep a reasonable agreement with that obtained from experiment trials.

  11. Micromechanical finite-element modeling and experimental characterization of the compressive mechanical properties of polycaprolactone-hydroxyapatite composite scaffolds prepared by selective laser sintering for bone tissue engineering. (United States)

    Eshraghi, Shaun; Das, Suman


    Bioresorbable scaffolds with mechanical properties suitable for bone tissue engineering were fabricated from polycaprolactone (PCL) and hydroxyapatite (HA) by selective laser sintering (SLS) and modeled by finite-element analysis (FEA). Both solid gage parts and scaffolds having 1-D, 2-D and 3-D orthogonal, periodic porous architectures were made with 0, 10, 20 and 30 vol.% HA. PCL:HA scaffolds manufactured by SLS had nearly full density (99%) in the designed solid regions and had excellent geometric and dimensional control. Through optimization of the SLS process, the compressive moduli for our solid gage parts and scaffolds are the highest reported in the literature for additive manufacturing. The compressive moduli of solid gage parts were 299.3, 311.2, 415.5 and 498.3 MPa for PCL:HA loading at 100:0, 90:10, 80:20 and 70:30, respectively. The compressive effective stiffness tended to increase as the loading of HA was increased and the designed porosity was lowered. In the case of the most 3-D porous scaffold, the compressive modulus more than doubled from 14.9 to 36.2 MPa when changing the material from 100:0 to 70:30 PCL:HA. A micromechanical FEA model was developed to investigate the reinforcement effect of HA loading on the compressive modulus of the bulk material. Using a first-principles based approach, the random distribution of HA particles in a solidified PCL matrix was modeled for any HA loading to predict the bulk mechanical properties of the composites. The bulk mechanical properties were also used for FEA of the scaffold geometries. The results of the FEA were found to be in good agreement with experimental mechanical testing. The development of patient- and site-specific composite tissue-engineering constructs with tailored properties can be seen as a direct extension of this work on computational design, a priori modeling of mechanical properties and direct digital manufacturing. Copyright © 2012 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All

  12. Micromechanical finite element modeling and experimental characterization of the compressive mechanical properties of polycaprolactone:hydroxyapatite composite scaffolds prepared by selective laser sintering for bone tissue engineering (United States)

    Eshraghi, Shaun; Das, Suman


    Bioresorbable scaffolds with mechanical properties suitable for bone tissue engineering were fabricated from polycaprolactone (PCL) and hydroxyapatite (HA) by selective laser sintering (SLS) and modeled by finite element analysis (FEA). Both solid gage parts and scaffolds having 1-D, 2-D and 3-D orthogonal, periodic porous architectures were made with 0, 10, 20 and 30% HA by volume. PCL:HA scaffolds manufactured by SLS had nearly full density (99%) in the designed solid regions and had excellent geometric and dimensional control. Through optimization of the SLS process, the compressive moduli for our solid gage parts and scaffolds are the highest reported in the literature for additive manufacturing. The compressive moduli of solid gage parts were 299.3, 311.2, 415.5 and 498.3 MPa for PCL:HA loading at 100:0, 90:10, 80:20 and 70:30 respectively. The compressive effective stiffness tended to increase as the loading of HA was increased and the designed porosity was lowered. In the case of the most 3-D porous scaffold, the compressive modulus more than doubled from 14.9 MPa to 36.2 MPa when changing the material from 100:0 to 70:30 PCL:HA. A micromechanical finite element analysis (FEA) model was developed to investigate the reinforcement effect of HA loading on the compressive modulus of the bulk material. Using a first-principles based approach, the random distribution of HA particles in a solidified PCL matrix was modeled for any loading of HA to predict the bulk mechanical properties of the composites. The bulk mechanical properties were also used for FEA of the scaffold geometries. Results of the FEA were found to be in good agreement with experimental mechanical testing. The development of patient and site-specific composite tissue engineering constructs with tailored properties can be seen as a direct extension of this work on computational design, a priori modeling of mechanical properties and direct digital manufacturing. PMID:22522129

  13. New experimental evidence for mechanism of arrhythmogenic membrane potential alternans based on balance of electrogenic I(NCX)/I(Ca) currents. (United States)

    Wan, Xiaoping; Cutler, Michael; Song, Zhen; Karma, Alain; Matsuda, Toshio; Baba, Akemichi; Rosenbaum, David S


    Computer simulations have predicted that the balance of various electrogenic sarcolemmal ion currents may control the amplitude and phase of beat-to-beat alternans of membrane potential (V(m)). However, experimental evidence for the mechanism by which alternans of calcium transients produces alternation of V(m) (V(m)-ALT) is lacking. To provide experimental evidence that Ca-to-V(m) coupling during alternans is determined by the balanced influence of 2 Ca-sensitive electrogenic sarcolemmal ionic currents: I(NCX) and I(Ca). V(m)-ALT and Ca-ALT were measured simultaneously from isolated guinea pig myocytes (n = 41) by using perforated patch and Indo-1(AM) fluorescence, respectively. There were 3 study groups: (1) control, (2) I(NCX) predominance created by adenoviral-induced NCX overexpression, and (3) I(Ca) predominance created by I(NCX) inhibition (SEA-0400) or enhanced I(Ca) (As(2)O(3)). During alternans, 14 of 14 control myocytes demonstrated positive Ca-to-V(m) coupling, consistent with I(NCX), but not I(Ca), as the major electrogenic current in modulating action potential duration. Positive Ca-to-V(m) coupling was maintained during I(NCX) predominance in 8 of 8 experiments with concurrent increase in Ca-to-V(m) gain (P <.05), reaffirming the role of increased forward-mode electrogenic I(NCX). Conversely, I(Ca) predominance produced negative Ca-to-V(m) coupling in 14 of 19 myocytes (P < .05) and decreased Ca-to-V(m) gain compared with control (P <.05). Furthermore, computer simulation demonstrated that Ca-to-V(m) coupling changes from negative to positive because of a shift from I(Ca) to I(NCX) predominance with increasing pacing rate. These data provide the first direct experimental evidence that coupling in phase and magnitude of Ca-ALT to V(m)-ALT is strongly determined by the relative balance of the prominence of I(NCX) vs I(Ca) currents. Copyright © 2012 Heart Rhythm Society. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Experimental Investigation of the Influence of Joint Geometric Configurations on the Mechanical Properties of Intermittent Jointed Rock Models Under Cyclic Uniaxial Compression (United States)

    Liu, Yi; Dai, Feng; Fan, Pengxian; Xu, Nuwen; Dong, Lu


    Intermittent joints in rock mass are quite sensitive to cyclic loading conditions. Understanding the fatigue mechanical properties of jointed rocks is beneficial for rational design and stability analysis of rock engineering projects. This study experimentally investigated the influences of joint geometry (i.e., dip angle, persistency, density and spacing) on the fatigue mechanism of synthetic jointed rock models. Our results revealed that the stress-strain curve of jointed rock under cyclic loadings is dominated by its curve under monotonic uniaxial loadings; the terminal strain in fatigue curve is equal to the post-peak strain corresponding to the maximum cyclic stress in the monotonic stress-strain curve. The four joint geometrical parameters studied significantly affect the fatigue properties of jointed rocks, including the irreversible strains, the fatigue deformation modulus, the energy evolution, the damage variable and the crack coalescence patterns. The higher the values of the geometrical parameters, the lower the elastic energy stores in this jointed rock, the higher the fatigue damage accumulates in the first few cycles, and the lower the fatigue life. The elastic energy has certain storage limitation, at which the fatigue failure occurs. Two basic micro-cracks, i.e., tensile wing crack and shear crack, are observed in cyclic loading and unloading tests, which are controlled principally by joint dip angle and persistency. In general, shear cracks only occur in the jointed rock with higher dip angle or higher persistency, and the jointed rock is characterized by lower fatigue strength, larger damage variable and lower fatigue life.

  15. Matrix metalloproteinase-10 effectively reduces infarct size in experimental stroke by enhancing fibrinolysis via a thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor-mediated mechanism. (United States)

    Orbe, J; Barrenetxe, J; Rodriguez, J A; Vivien, D; Orset, C; Parks, W C; Birkland, T P; Serrano, R; Purroy, A; Martinez de Lizarrondo, S; Angles-Cano, E; Páramo, J A


    The fibrinolytic and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP) systems cooperate in thrombus dissolution and extracellular matrix proteolysis. The plasminogen/plasmin system activates MMPs, and some MMPs have been involved in the dissolution of fibrin by targeting fibrin(ogen) directly or by collaborating with plasmin. MMP-10 has been implicated in inflammatory/thrombotic processes and vascular integrity, but whether MMP-10 could have a profibrinolytic effect and represent a promising thrombolytic agent is unknown. The effect of MMP-10 on fibrinolysis was studied in vitro and in vivo, in MMP-10-null mice (Mmp10(-/-)), with the use of 2 different murine models of arterial thrombosis: laser-induced carotid injury and ischemic stroke. In vitro, we showed that MMP-10 was capable of enhancing tissue plasminogen activator-induced fibrinolysis via a thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor inactivation-mediated mechanism. In vivo, delayed fibrinolysis observed after photochemical carotid injury in Mmp10(-/-) mice was reversed by active recombinant human MMP-10. In a thrombin-induced stroke model, the reperfusion and the infarct size in sham or tissue plasminogen activator-treated animals were severely impaired in Mmp10(-/-) mice. In this model, administration of active MMP-10 to wild-type animals significantly reduced blood reperfusion time and infarct size to the same extent as tissue plasminogen activator and was associated with shorter bleeding time and no intracranial hemorrhage. This effect was not observed in thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor-deficient mice, suggesting thrombin-activatable fibrinolysis inhibitor inactivation as one of the mechanisms involved in the MMP-10 profibrinolytic effect. A novel profibrinolytic role for MMP-10 in experimental ischemic stroke is described, opening new pathways for innovative fibrinolytic strategies in arterial thrombosis.

  16. Modeling and high-throughput experimental data uncover the mechanisms underlying Fshb gene sensitivity to gonadotropin-releasing hormone pulse frequency. (United States)

    Stern, Estee; Ruf-Zamojski, Frederique; Zalepa-King, Lisa; Pincas, Hanna; Choi, Soon Gang; Peskin, Charles S; Hayot, Fernand; Turgeon, Judith L; Sealfon, Stuart C


    Neuroendocrine control of reproduction by brain-secreted pulses of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) represents a longstanding puzzle about extracellular signal decoding mechanisms. GnRH regulates the pituitary gonadotropin's follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH), both of which are heterodimers specified by unique β subunits (FSHβ/LHβ). Contrary to Lhb, Fshb gene induction has a preference for low-frequency GnRH pulses. To clarify the underlying regulatory mechanisms, we developed three biologically anchored mathematical models: 1) parallel activation of Fshb inhibitory factors (e.g. inhibin α and VGF nerve growth factor-inducible), 2) activation of a signaling component with a refractory period (e.g. G protein), and 3) inactivation of a factor needed for Fshb induction (e.g. growth differentiation factor 9). Simulations with all three models recapitulated the Fshb expression levels obtained in pituitary gonadotrope cells perifused with varying GnRH pulse frequencies. Notably, simulations altering average concentration, pulse duration, and pulse frequency revealed that the apparent frequency-dependent pattern of Fshb expression in model 1 actually resulted from variations in average GnRH concentration. In contrast, models 2 and 3 showed "true" pulse frequency sensing. To resolve which components of this GnRH signal induce Fshb, we developed a high-throughput parallel experimental system. We analyzed over 4,000 samples in experiments with varying near-physiological GnRH concentrations and pulse patterns. Whereas Egr1 and Fos genes responded only to variations in average GnRH concentration, Fshb levels were sensitive to both average concentration and true pulse frequency. These results provide a foundation for understanding the role of multiple regulatory factors in modulating Fshb gene activity. © 2017 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  17. Experimental study on a plasma focus in erosion plasma accelerators. Pt. 5. On the mechanism of a plasma focus formation in a magnetoplasma compressor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kozlov, N.P.; Protasov, Yu.S. (Moskovskoe Vysshee Tekhnicheskoe Uchilishche (USSR))


    The results of experimental investigation into dynamics, microstructure and stability of consequent stages of development of heavy-current plasma-dynamical discharges in erosion type magnetoplasma compressors under the conditions of intense radiation transfer are presented. Special attention is paid to sharply non-stationary stage of plasma focus formation outside the cut of the accelerating channel and processes of secondary pinching in the second half-period of discharge current, methods of their analysis at limited possibilities of diagnostics. It is shown that at the stages of formation and quasistationary flow in the compressed zone the dominating instabilities of superheating type do not result in appearance of anomalous thermodynamical and transfer properties of non-ideal discharge plasma; thermalized in compression zone and accelerated plasma is macroscopically stable during the interaction of current envelope with relatively cold vapor followed by formation of intense shock-wave structure and force instabilities of different modes. Irrespective of chemical and ionization composition of electric-discharge plasma shown is a possibility of exercising and inertial (in combination with Hall effect) mechanism of plasma focus formation or two-stage inertial subcompression of plasma-plasma compression at the expense of Hall effect to the central cathode in the accelerating channel and additional pinching in output zet-currents that permits to provide control of dimensions, dynamical and energy characteristics of plasma flow at self-coordinated introduction of energy in the zone of MHD compression.

  18. MD 2197: Experimental studies of Landau damping by means of Beam Transfer Function measurements in the presence of beam-beam interactions and diffusive mechanisms

    CERN Document Server

    Tambasco, Claudia; Barranco Garcia, Javier; Boccardi, Andrea; Buffat, Xavier; Bruce, Roderik; Gasior, Marek; Hostettler, Michi; Lefevre, Thibaut; Louro Alves, Diogo Miguel; Metral, Elias; Persson, Tobias Hakan Bjorn; Pieloni, Tatiana; Pojer, Mirko; Salvachua Ferrando, Belen Maria; Solfaroli Camillocci, Matteo; CERN. Geneva. ATS Department


    Beam Transfer Function (BTF) measurements are direct measurement of the stability diagrams that define the stability threshold of coherent beam instabilities driven by the impedance. At the LHC, some coherent instabilities at flat top energy are still not fully understood and the BTF measurements provide a method to experimentally probe the Landau damping of the proton beams. The BTF response is sensitive to the particle distribution changes and contain information about the transverse tune spread in the beams. The BTF system has been installed in the LHC in the 2015 in order to investigate the Landau damping at different stages of the operational cycle, machine configurations (different octupole currents, crossing angles, tunes etc...) and in presence of beam-beam excited resonances that may provoke diffusion mechanisms with a consequence change of Landau damping. Past MDs showed some difficulties for the reconstruction of the stability diagram from BTF measurements and several improvements on the BTF sy...

  19. Evaluation of antiulcer activity and mechanism of action of methanol stem bark extract of Lafoensia pacari A. St.-Hil. (Lytraceae) in experimental animals. (United States)

    Tamashiro Filho, Paulo; Sikiru Olaitan, Balogun; Tavares de Almeida, Danielle Ayr; Lima, Joaquim Corsino da Silva; Marson-Ascêncio, Poliana Guerino; Donizeti Ascêncio, Sérgio; Rios-Santos, Fabrício; Martins, Domingos Tabajara de Oliveira


    study showed that MELP possesses preventive and curative effects against gastric ulcer in experimental animals. These effects are partly dependent on its anti-oxidant, anti-secretory properties and inhibition of pro-inflammatory cytokines and independent of gastric/intestinal motility and mucus secretion. Ellagic acid, a compound of proven antiulcer activity, was found in MELP as the major component. These results confirmed the traditional use of MELP in Brazilian popular medicine for the treatment of gastric ulcers and shed some light on some of its mechanisms of action. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Effects of methylprednisolone and 4-chloro-3-hydroxyanthranilic acid in experimental spinal cord injury in the guinea pig appear to be mediated by different and potentially complementary mechanisms. (United States)

    Yates, J R; Gay, E A; Heyes, M P; Blight, A R


    Blinded, placebo-controlled, parallel treatment group studies of the effects of methylprednisolone (MP) or 4-chloro-3-hydroxyanthranilate (4-Cl-3-HAA) on behavioral outcome and quinolinic acid tissue levels from experimental thoracic spinal cord injury in adult guinea pigs. To compare the effects of treatment with high-dose MP, a corticosteroid, and 4-Cl-3-HAA, a compound that inhibits synthesis of the neurotoxin quinolinic acid (QUIN) by activated macrophages. To explore the effect of different times of treatment using these two approaches to ameliorating secondary tissue damage. Laboratory animal studies at the University of North Carolina, Chapel Hill, NC, USA. Standardized spinal cord injuries were produced in anesthetized guinea pigs, using lateral compression of the spinal cord. Behavioral impairment and recovery were measured by placing and toe-spread responses (motor function), cutaneus trunci muscle reflex receptive field areas and somatosensory-evoked potentials (sensory function). Tissue quinolinic acid levels were measured by gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry. The current experiments showed a reduction in delayed loss of motor and sensory function in the guinea pig with MP (150 mg kg(-1), intraperitoneally in split doses between 0.5 and 6 h), but no significant reduction in tissue QUIN. Improved sensory function was seen with a single dose of 60 mg kg(-1) MP intraperitoneally at 5 h after injury, but not at 10 h after injury. A single dose of 4-Cl-3-HAA at 5 h in the guinea pig did not produce the sensory and motor improvements seen in previous studies with 12 days of dosing, beginning at 5 h. These studies, together with earlier findings, indicate that both drugs can attenuate secondary pathologic damage after SCI, but through separate mechanisms. These are most likely an acute reduction by MP of oxidative processes and reduction by 4-Cl-3-HAA of QUIN synthesis.

  1. Investigation of the direct runoff generation mechanism for the analysis of the SCS-CN method applicability to a partial area experimental watershed

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. X. Soulis


    Full Text Available The Soil Conservation Service Curve Number (SCS-CN method is widely used for predicting direct runoff volume for a given rainfall event. The applicability of the SCS-CN method and the direct runoff generation mechanism were thoroughly analysed in a Mediterranean experimental watershed in Greece. The region is characterized by a Mediterranean semi-arid climate. A detailed land cover and soil survey using remote sensing and GIS techniques, showed that the watershed is dominated by coarse soils with high hydraulic conductivities, whereas a smaller part is covered with medium textured soils and impervious surfaces. The analysis indicated that the SCS-CN method fails to predict runoff for the storm events studied, and that there is a strong correlation between the CN values obtained from measured runoff and the rainfall depth. The hypothesis that this correlation could be attributed to the existence of an impermeable part in a very permeable watershed was examined in depth, by developing a numerical simulation water flow model for predicting surface runoff generated from each of the three soil types of the watershed. Numerical runs were performed using the HYDRUS-1D code. The results support the validity of this hypothesis for most of the events examined where the linear runoff formula provides better results than the SCS-CN method. The runoff coefficient of this formula can be taken equal to the percentage of the impervious area. However, the linear formula should be applied with caution in case of extreme events with very high rainfall intensities. In this case, the medium textured soils may significantly contribute to the total runoff and the linear formula may significantly underestimate the runoff produced.

  2. Human adipose tissue mesenchymal stromal cells and their extracellular vesicles act differentially on lung mechanics and inflammation in experimental allergic asthma. (United States)

    de Castro, Ligia Lins; Xisto, Debora Gonçalves; Kitoko, Jamil Zola; Cruz, Fernanda Ferreira; Olsen, Priscilla Christina; Redondo, Patricia Albuquerque Garcia; Ferreira, Tatiana Paula Teixeira; Weiss, Daniel Jay; Martins, Marco Aurélio; Morales, Marcelo Marcos; Rocco, Patricia Rieken Macedo


    Asthma is a chronic inflammatory disease that can be difficult to treat due to its complex pathophysiology. Most current drugs focus on controlling the inflammatory process, but are unable to revert the changes of tissue remodeling. Human mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) are effective at reducing inflammation and tissue remodeling; nevertheless, no study has evaluated the therapeutic effects of extracellular vesicles (EVs) obtained from human adipose tissue-derived MSCs (AD-MSC) on established airway remodeling in experimental allergic asthma. C57BL/6 female mice were sensitized and challenged with ovalbumin (OVA). Control (CTRL) animals received saline solution using the same protocol. One day after the last challenge, each group received saline, 10 5 human AD-MSCs, or EVs (released by 10 5  AD-MSCs). Seven days after treatment, animals were anesthetized for lung function assessment and subsequently euthanized. Bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF), lungs, thymus, and mediastinal lymph nodes were harvested for analysis of inflammation. Collagen fiber content of airways and lung parenchyma were also evaluated. In OVA animals, AD-MSCs and EVs acted differently on static lung elastance and on BALF regulatory T cells, CD3 + CD4 + T cells, and pro-inflammatory mediators (interleukin [IL]-4, IL-5, IL-13, and eotaxin), but similarly reduced eosinophils in lung tissue, collagen fiber content in airways and lung parenchyma, levels of transforming growth factor-β in lung tissue, and CD3 + CD4 + T cell counts in the thymus. No significant changes were observed in total cell count or percentage of CD3 + CD4 + T cells in the mediastinal lymph nodes. In this immunocompetent mouse model of allergic asthma, human AD-MSCs and EVs effectively reduced eosinophil counts in lung tissue and BALF and modulated airway remodeling, but their effects on T cells differed in lung and thymus. EVs may hold promise for asthma; however, further studies are required to elucidate the different

  3. Corrosion protection properties and interfacial adhesion mechanism of an epoxy/polyamide coating applied on the steel surface decorated with cerium oxide nanofilm: Complementary experimental, molecular dynamics (MD) and first principle quantum mechanics (QM) simulation methods (United States)

    Bahlakeh, Ghasem; Ramezanzadeh, Bahram; Saeb, Mohammad Reza; Terryn, Herman; Ghaffari, Mehdi


    The effect of cerium oxide treatment on the corrosion protection properties and interfacial interaction of steel/epoxy was studied by electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, (EIS) classical molecular dynamics (MD) and first principle quantum mechanics (QM) simulation methods X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to verify the chemical composition of the Ce film deposited on the steel. To probe the role of the curing agent in epoxy adsorption, computations were compared for an epoxy, aminoamide and aminoamide modified epoxy. Moreover, to study the influence of water on interfacial interactions the MD simulations were executed for poly (aminoamide)-cured epoxy resin in contact with the different crystallographic cerium dioxide (ceria, CeO2) surfaces including (100), (110), and (111) in the presence of water molecules. It was found that aminoamide-cured epoxy material was strongly adhered to all types of CeO2 substrates, so that binding to ceria surfaces followed the decreasing order CeO2 (111) > CeO2 (100) > CeO2 (110) in both dry and wet environments. Calculation of interaction energies noticed an enhanced adhesion to metal surface due to aminoamide curing of epoxy resin; where facets (100) and (111) revealed electrostatic and Lewis acid-base interactions, while an additional hydrogen bonding interaction was identified for CeO2 (110). Overall, MD simulations suggested decrement of adhesion to CeO2 in wet environment compared to dry conditions. Additionally, contact angle, pull-off test, cathodic delamination and salt spray analyses were used to confirm the simulation results. The experimental results in line with modeling results revealed that Ce layer deposited on steel enhanced substrate surface free energy, work of adhesion, and interfacial adhesion strength of the epoxy coating. Furthermore, decrement of adhesion of epoxy to CeO2 in presence of water was affirmed by experimental results. EIS results revealed remarkable enhancement of the corrosion

  4. Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Experimental Test Site (Site 300) Salinity Evaluation and Minimization Plan for Cooling Towers and Mechanical Equipment Discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daily III, W D


    This document was created to comply with the Central Valley Regional Water Quality Control Board (CVRWQCB) Waste Discharge Requirement (Order No. 98-148). This order established new requirements to assess the effect of and effort required to reduce salts in process water discharged to the subsurface. This includes the review of technical, operational, and management options available to reduce total dissolved solids (TDS) concentrations in cooling tower and mechanical equipment water discharges at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL's) Experimental Test Site (Site 300) facility. It was observed that for the six cooling towers currently in operation, the total volume of groundwater used as make up water is about 27 gallons per minute and the discharge to the subsurface via percolation pits is 13 gallons per minute. The extracted groundwater has a TDS concentration of 700 mg/L. The cooling tower discharge concentrations range from 700 to 1,400 mg/L. There is also a small volume of mechanical equipment effluent being discharged to percolation pits, with a TDS range from 400 to 3,300 mg/L. The cooling towers and mechanical equipment are maintained and operated in a satisfactory manner. No major leaks were identified. Currently, there are no re-use options being employed. Several approaches known to reduce the blow down flow rate and/or TDS concentration being discharged to the percolation pits and septic systems were reviewed for technical feasibility and cost efficiency. These options range from efforts as simple as eliminating leaks to implementing advanced and innovative treatment methods. The various options considered, and their anticipated effect on water consumption, discharge volumes, and reduced concentrations are listed and compared in this report. Based on the assessment, it was recommended that there is enough variability in equipment usage, chemistry, flow rate, and discharge configurations that each discharge location at Site 300

  5. Organization of experimental technological complex for serial manufacturing and testing products and semi-products of diamond-like and metal laminates for leading branches of mechanical engineering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilous, V.А.


    Full Text Available Experimental technological complex, which includes the following sections: coating with diamond-like nanostructured composites; manufacturing of radiation-protective and other types of layered metal composites; testing of radiation-protective characteristics of materials, has been created. The technological equipment and the diagnostic tester for material radiation-protective characteristics of have been upgraded. According to the developed experimental industrial methods the batch of diamond-like coated ring seals of large diameter and samples of Al-Pb multilayer composites were made. It is proved experimentally that radiation-protective efficiency of the composites is 30-40 % higher in comparison with aluminum.

  6. Investigation of mechanism of bone regeneration in a porous biodegradable calcium phosphate (CaP) scaffold by a combination of a multi-scale agent-based model and experimental optimization/validation (United States)

    Zhang, Le; Qiao, Minna; Gao, Hongjie; Hu, Bin; Tan, Hua; Zhou, Xiaobo; Li, Chang Ming


    Herein, we have developed a novel approach to investigate the mechanism of bone regeneration in a porous biodegradable calcium phosphate (CaP) scaffold by a combination of a multi-scale agent-based model, experimental optimization of key parameters and experimental data validation of the predictive power of the model. The advantages of this study are that the impact of mechanical stimulation on bone regeneration in a porous biodegradable CaP scaffold is considered, experimental design is used to investigate the optimal combination of growth factors loaded on the porous biodegradable CaP scaffold to promote bone regeneration and the training, testing and analysis of the model are carried out by using experimental data, a data-mining algorithm and related sensitivity analysis. The results reveal that mechanical stimulation has a great impact on bone regeneration in a porous biodegradable CaP scaffold and the optimal combination of growth factors that are encapsulated in nanospheres and loaded into porous biodegradable CaP scaffolds layer-by-layer can effectively promote bone regeneration. Furthermore, the model is robust and able to predict the development of bone regeneration under specified conditions.

  7. Experimental investigations for the qualitative and quantitative determination of the influence of different casting systems on the mechanical characteristics of dental alloys with a high gold content


    Kossel, Sandra


    With the development of casting systems it is to be made certain that the mechanical and physical characteristics of the cast piece correspond to the high requirements in the oral cavity. The aim of this present investigation was to examine the mechanical characteristics in dependency of the influence of different casting systems. Six samples off five different alloys were cast and compared with five different casting systems. The mechanical characteristics were determinated with the t...

  8. Mechanical Objects and the Engineering Learner: An Experimental Study of How the Presence of Objects Affects Students' Performance on Engineering Related Tasks (United States)

    Bairaktarova, Diana N.


    People display varying levels of interaction with the mechanical objects in their environment; engineers in particular as makers and users of these objects display a higher level of interaction with them. Investigating the educational potential of mechanical objects in stimulating and supporting learning in engineering is warranted by the fact…

  9. Mechanics of Granular Materials: Experimentation and Simulations for Determining the Compressive and Shear Behaviors of Sand at Granular and Meso Scales (United States)


    strains of the con- finement as a result of lateral expansion of sand during compression. The leads from the Wheatstone bridge were connected to Vishay...sampling rate) was used to acquire strain signals through a Wheatstone bridge and a Vishay 2310A signal conditioning amplifier. Details on the experimental

  10. Experimental flexor tendon healing without adhesion formation--a new concept of tendon nutrition and intrinsic healing mechanisms. A preliminary report. (United States)

    Lundborg, G


    An experimental model is presented enabling an analysis of the healing process of completely cut and re-sutured free segments of rabbit flexor tendons, kept avascular in a synovial milieu and completely isolated from adhesion formation. Under these conditions the cut tendons heal within a few weeks. It can be shown that this healing process is a result of intrinsic tendon cell activity only.

  11. The turbulent boundary layer on a porous plate: An experimental study of the fluid mechanics for adverse free stream pressure gradients (United States)

    Anderson, P. S.; Kays, W. M.; Moffat, R. J.


    An experimental investigation of transpired turbulent boundary layers in zero and adverse pressure gradients has been carried out. Profiles of: (1) the mean velocity, (2) the three intensities of the turbulent fluctuations, and (3) the Reynolds stress were obtained by hot-wire anemometry. The friction coefficients were measured by using an integrated form of the boundary layer equation to extrapolate the measured shear stress profiles to the wall.

  12. Theoretical and experimental analysis of the reaction mechanism of MrTPS2, a triquinane-forming sesquiterpene synthase from chamomile. (United States)

    Hong, Young J; Irmisch, Sandra; Wang, Selina C; Garms, Stefan; Gershenzon, Jonathan; Zu, Liansuo; Köllner, Tobias G; Tantillo, Dean J


    Terpene synthases, as key enzymes of terpene biosynthesis, have garnered the attention of chemists and biologists for many years. Their carbocationic reaction mechanisms are responsible for the huge variety of terpene structures in nature. These mechanisms are amenable to study by using classical biochemical approaches as well as computational analysis, and in this study we combine quantum-chemical calculations and deuterium-labeling experiments to elucidate the reaction mechanism of a triquinane forming sesquiterpene synthase from chamomile. Our results suggest that the reaction from farnesyl diphosphate to triquinanes proceeds through caryophyllyl and presilphiperfolanyl cations and involves the protonation of a stable (-)-(E)-β-caryophyllene intermediate. A tyrosine residue was identified that appears to be involved in the proton-transfer process. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Effects of lung protective mechanical ventilation associated with permissive respiratory acidosis on regional extra-pulmonary blood flow in experimental ARDS. (United States)

    Hering, Rudolf; Kreyer, Stefan; Putensen, Christian


    Lung protective mechanical ventilation with limited peak inspiratory pressure has been shown to affect cardiac output in patients with ARDS. However, little is known about the impact of lung protective mechanical ventilation on regional perfusion, especially when associated with moderate permissive respiratory acidosis. We hypothesized that lung protective mechanical ventilation with limited peak inspiratory pressure and moderate respiratory acidosis results in an increased cardiac output but unequal distribution of blood flow to the different organs of pigs with oleic-acid induced ARDS. Twelve pigs were enrolled, 3 died during instrumentation and induction of lung injury. Thus, 9 animals received pressure controlled mechanical ventilation with a PEEP of 5 cmH2O and limited peak inspiratory pressure (17 ± 4 cmH2O) versus increased peak inspiratory pressure (23 ± 6 cmH2O) in a crossover-randomized design and were analyzed. The sequence of limited versus increased peak inspiratory pressure was randomized using sealed envelopes. Systemic and regional hemodynamics were determined by double indicator dilution technique and colored microspheres, respectively. The paired student t-test and the Wilcoxon test were used to compare normally and not normally distributed data, respectively. Mechanical ventilation with limited inspiratory pressure resulted in moderate hypercapnia and respiratory acidosis (PaCO2 71 ± 12 vs. 46 ± 9 mmHg, and pH 7.27 ± 0.05 vs. 7.38 ± 0.04, p mechanical ventilation with limited peak inspiratory pressure resulting in moderate respiratory acidosis was associated with an increase in cardiac output. However, the better systemic blood flow was not uniformly directed to the different organs. This observation may be of clinical interest in patients, e.g. with cardiac, renal and cerebral pathologies.

  14. Experimental and Theoretical Studies of Moisture and Temperature Effects on the Mechanical Properties of Graphite/Epoxy Laminates and Neat Resins (United States)

    Sternstein, S. S.


    The properties of high performnce composites which are strongly dependent on the physical properties of the matrix resin were studied. Moisture adversely affect the properties of both neat epoxy resin and epoxy matrix composites. Inhomogeneous swelling as to the moisture degradation of mechanical properties, both in the neat resin and the composite. It is postulated that the postcuring process can change structure/moisture interactions and partially alleviate its adverse effects. The study is directed toward are understanding of the physical/mechanical/thermodynamic aspects of this problem.

  15. Deciphering Mechanical Regulation of Chondrogenesis in Fibrin–Polyurethane Composite Scaffolds Enriched with Human Mesenchymal Stem Cells: A Dual Computational and Experimental Approach (United States)

    Stoddart, Martin; Lezuo, Patrick; Forkmann, Christoph; Wimmmer, Markus A.; Alini, Mauro; Van Oosterwyck, Hans


    Fibrin–polyurethane composite scaffolds support chondrogenesis of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) derived from bone marrow and due to their robust mechanical properties allow mechanical loading in dynamic bioreactors, which has been shown to increase the chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs through the transforming growth factor beta pathway. The aim of this study was to use the finite element method, mechanical testing, and dynamic in vitro cell culture experiments on hMSC-enriched fibrin–polyurethane composite scaffolds to quantitatively decipher the mechanoregulation of chondrogenesis within these constructs. The study identified compressive principal strains as the key regulator of chondrogenesis in the constructs. Although dynamic uniaxial compression did not induce chondrogenesis, multiaxial loading by combined application of dynamic compression and interfacial shear induced significant chondrogenesis at locations where all the three principal strains were compressive and had a minimum magnitude of 10%. In contrast, no direct correlation was identified between the level of pore fluid velocity and chondrogenesis. Due to the high permeability of the constructs, the pore fluid pressures could not be increased sufficiently by mechanical loading, and instead, chondrogenesis was induced by triaxial compressive deformations of the matrix with a minimum magnitude of 10%. Thus, it can be concluded that dynamic triaxial compressive deformations of the matrix is sufficient to induce chondrogenesis in a threshold-dependent manner, even where the pore fluid pressure is negligible. PMID:24199606

  16. Estudio experimental de la conducción del calor en el maquinado de materiales endurecidos con altas velocidades de corte. // Experimental study of heat conduction in mechanization with high cutting speeds of hardened materials.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Cardoso Brandão


    Full Text Available El trabajo trata del estudio teórico-experimental de la conducción del calor en los materiales endurecidos, usados para laproducción de moldes y matrices, al maquinarlos con altas-velocidades del corte. Los materiales utilizados son los acerosAISI P20 y AISI D2. Los ensayos se realizaron con fresas de punta esférica (Ball Nose con revestimiento (TiAlN y lasprobetas para los ensayos tienen la forma de una ¼ parte de un tubo de 28 mm de diámetro con una longitud de 100 mm.Las pruebas realizadas demuestran la variación de la temperatura en función de los diferentes sistemas de refrigeración. Seutilizo aire comprimido y aire comprimido frío, comparándose las temperaturas de las probetas con el sistema sinrefrigeración de ningún tipo. Fueron también evaluadas las deformaciones sufridas por la superficie maquinada, debido alas variaciones de temperatura teniendo en cuenta la influencia de los sistemas de refrigeración empleados.Palabras claves: Temperatura; conducción del calor; alta velocidad de corte, moldes y matrices._________________________________________________________________________Abstract.This paper deals with the theoretical-experimental study of heat conduction in hardened materials for the production ofmolds and dies using high speed cutting. The employed materials were the AISI P20 and AISI D2 steels, being the testscarried out with (TiAlN coated ball nose in a work piece with the shape of a 1/4 tube with 28 mm diameter and 100 mmlength. This investigation demonstrates the variation of temperature as a function of different cooling systems, that is,compressed air and compressed cold air. Possible geometric deformation of the machined surfaces due to these variationsin temperature for distinct cooling systems was also evaluated.Keywords: Temperature, heat exchange; high cutting speed, dies.

  17. Effect of manufacturing and experimental conditions on the mechanical and surface properties of silicone elastomer scaffolds used in endothelial mechanobiological studies. (United States)

    Campeau, Marc-Antoine; Lortie, Audrey; Tremblay, Pierrick; Béliveau, Marc-Olivier; Dubé, Dominic; Langelier, Ève; Rouleau, Léonie


    Mechanobiological studies allow the characterization of cell response to mechanical stresses. Cells need to be supported by a material with properties similar to the physiological environment. Silicone elastomers have been used to produce various in vitro scaffolds of different geometries for endothelial cell studies given its relevant mechanical, optical and surface properties. However, obtaining defined and repeatable properties is a challenge as depending on the different manufacturing and processing steps, mechanical and surface properties may vary significantly between research groups. The impact of different manufacturing and processing methods on the mechanical and surface properties was assessed by measuring the Young's modulus and the contact angle. Silicone samples were produced using different curing temperatures and processed with different sterilization techniques and hydrophilization conditions. Different curing temperatures were used to obtain materials of different stiffness with a chosen silicone elastomer, i.e. Sylgard 184®. Sterilization by boiling had a tendency to stiffen samples cured at lower temperatures whereas UV and ethanol did not alter the material properties. Hydrophilization using sulphuric acid allowed to decrease surface hydrophobicity, however this effect was lost over time as hydrophobic recovery occurred. Extended contact with water maintained decreased hydrophobicity up to 7 days. Mechanobiological studies require complete cell coverage of the scaffolds used prior to mechanical stresses exposure. Different concentrations of fibronectin and collagen were used to coat the scaffolds and cell seeding density was varied to optimize cell coverage. This study highlights the potential bias introduced by manufacturing and processing conditions needed in the preparation of scaffolds used in mechanobiological studies involving endothelial cells. As manufacturing, processing and cell culture conditions are known to influence cell

  18. Analytical, numerical, and experimental investigations on effective mechanical properties and performances of carbon nanotubes and nanotube based nanocomposites with novel three dimensional nanostructures (United States)

    Askari, Davood

    The theoretical objectives and accomplishment of this work are the analytical and numerical investigation of material properties and mechanical behavior of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) and nanotube nanocomposites when they are subjected to various loading conditions. First, the finite element method is employed to investigate numerically the effective Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio of a single-walled CNT. Next, the effects of chirality on the effective Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio are investigated and then variations of their effective coefficient of thermal expansions and effective thermal conductivities are studied for CNTs with different structural configurations. To study the influence of small vacancy defects on mechanical properties of CNTs, finite element analyses are performed and the behavior of CNTs with various structural configurations having different types of vacancy defects is studied. It is frequently reported that nano-materials are excellent candidates as reinforcements in nanocomposites to change or enhance material properties of polymers and their nanocomposites. Second, the inclusion of nano-materials can considerably improve electrical, thermal, and mechanical properties of the bonding agent, i.e., resin. Note that, materials atomic and molecular level do not usually show isotropic behaviour, rather they have orthotropic properties. Therefore, two-phase and three-phase cylindrically orthotropic composite models consisting of different constituents with orthotropic properties are developed and introduced in this work to analytically predict the effective mechanical properties and mechanical behavior of such structures when they are subjected to various external loading conditions. To verify the analytically obtained exact solutions, finite element analyses of identical cylindrical structures are also performed and then results are compared with those obtained analytically, and excellent agreement is achieved. The third part of this

  19. Experimental investigation of amount of nano-Al2O3 on mechanical properties of Al-based nano-composites fabricated by powder metallurgy (PM) (United States)

    Razzaqi, A.; Liaghat, Gh.; Razmkhah, O.


    In this paper, mechanical properties of Aluminum (Al) matrix nano-composites, fabricated by Powder Metallurgy (PM) method, has been investigated. Alumina (Al2O3) nano particles were added in amounts of 0, 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 weight percentages (wt%). For this purpose, Al powder (particle size: 20 µm) and nano-Al2O3 (particle size: 20 nm) in various weight percentages were mixed and milled in a blade mixer for 15 minutes in 1500 rpm. Then, the obtained mixture, compacted by means of a two piece die and uniaxial cold press of about 600 MPa and cold iso-static press (CIP), required for different tests. After that, the samples sintered in 600°C for 90 minutes. Compression and three-point bending tests performed on samples and the results, led us to obtain the optimized particle size for achieving best mechanical properties.

  20. Photoluminescence mechanisms of color-tunable Sr2CeO4: Eu3+, Dy3+ phosphors based on experimental and first-principles investigation (United States)

    Li, Jie; Li, Xi; Hu, Shengliang; Li, Yingchun; Hao, Yuying


    We report single-phased color-tunable phosphors (Sr2CeO4: Eu3+, Dy3+) synthesized by a polymer-network gel method for UV-LED. The photoluminescence properties and possible energy transfer mechanisms of Eu3+ and Dy3+ in Sr2CeO4 were investigated by experiments and first principles calculations. The results show that the 5D0 → 7F2 emission of Eu3+ is enhanced by the increase in the amount of Eu3+ ions and Eu3+ substitution makes more stable defect than Dy3+ substitution does. The photoluminescence mechanism of Sr1.994-xEuxDy0.006CeO4 can be explained by the energy transfer model with the consideration of the defect conditions in the crystals.

  1. Experimental Investigation of Cavitation as a Possible Damage Mechanism in Blast-Induced Traumatic Brain Injury in Post-Mortem Human Subject Heads. (United States)

    Salzar, Robert S; Treichler, Derrick; Wardlaw, Andrew; Weiss, Greg; Goeller, Jacques


    The potential of blast-induced traumatic brain injury from the mechanism of localized cavitation of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) is investigated. While the mechanism and criteria for non-impact blast-induced traumatic brain injury is still unknown, this study demonstrates that local cavitation in the CSF layer of the cranial volume could contribute to these injuries. The cranial contents of three post-mortem human subject (PMHS) heads were replaced with both a normal saline solution and a ballistic gel mixture with a simulated CSF layer. Each were instrumented with multiple pressure transducers and placed inside identical shock tubes at two different research facilities. Sensor data indicates that cavitation may have occurred in the PMHS models at pressure levels below those for a 50% risk of blast lung injury. This study points to skull flexion, the result of the shock wave on the front of the skull leading to a negative pressure in the contrecoup, as a possible mechanism that contributes to the onset of cavitation. Based on observation of intracranial pressure transducer data from the PMHS model, cavitation onset is thought to occur from approximately a 140 kPa head-on incident blast.

  2. Experimental validation of concentration profiles in an HCCI engine, modelled by a multi-component kinetic mechanism: Outline for auto-ignition and emission control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Machrafi, Hatim, E-mail: hatim-machrafi@enscp.f [UPMC Universite Paris 06, Ecole Nationale Superieure de Chimie de Paris, 11, rue de Pierre et Marie Curie, 75005 Paris (France); Universite de Liege, Thermodynamique des Phenomenes Irreversibles, 17, Allee du Six-Aout, 4000 Liege (Belgium)


    In order to contribute to the auto-ignition and emission control for Homogeneous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI), a kinetic multi-component mechanism, containing 62 reactions and 49 species for mixtures of n-heptane, iso-octane and toluene is validated in this work, comparing for the concentration profiles of the fuel, the total hydrocarbons, O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, CO, acetaldehyde and iso-butene. These species are sampled during the combustion and quantified. For these measurements an automotive exhaust analyser, a gas chromatograph, coupled to a mass spectrometer and a flame ionisation detector are used, depending on the species to be measured. The fuel, total hydrocarbons, O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2}, iso-butene and acetaldehyde showed a satisfactory quantitative agreement between the mechanism and the experiments. Both the experiments and the modelling results showed the same formation behaviour of the different species. An example is shown of how such a validated mechanism can provide for a set of information of the behaviour of the auto-ignition process and the emission control as a function of engine parameters.

  3. An experimental investigation on morphological, mechanical and thermal properties of date palm particles reinforced polyurethane composites as new ecological insulating materials in building

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Oushabi


    Full Text Available The rigid polyurethane (PU with apparent density about 40 kg/m3 was prepared using commercial polyols and polyisocyanate. This reference petrochemical formulation was modified with natural and renewable components such as date palm particles (DPP. The goal of this investigation was to reduce the environmental impacts, and reduce the cost of the petroleum based polyurethane (PU by obtaining polyurethane/date palm particles (PU-DPP composites with the heat insulating and mechanical properties similar or better as in the case of the reference material (PU. The composites were prepared with different (DPP loading; 5%, 10%, and 20% (by weight. The results showed that heat insulating and mechanical properties of the (PU-DPP composites were comparable with those from reference petrochemical formulation (PU. On the other hand these mechanical and thermal performances are competitive with those of other insulating material available on the market. Hence the (PU-DPP is a good candidate for development of efficient, low cost, and safe insulating materials.

  4. A combined experimental and computational study of the mechanism of fructose dehydration to 5-hydroxymethylfurfural in dimethylsulfoxide using Amberlyst 70, PO43-/niobic acid, or sulfuric acid catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Jing [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Das, Anirban [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States); Assary, Rajeev S. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Curtiss, Larry A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Weitz, Eric [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States)


    We report on a combined experimental and theoretical study of the acid catalyzed dehydration of d-fructose in dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) using; Amberlyst 70, PO43-/niobic acid, and sulfuric acid as catalysts. The reaction has been studied and intermediates characterized using; 13C, 1H, and 17O NMR, and high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (HR ESI–MS). High level G4MP2 theory calculations are used to understand the thermodynamic landscape for the reaction mechanism in DMSO. We have experimentally identified two key intermediates in the dehydration of fructose to form HMF that were also identified, using theory, as local minima on the potential surface for reaction. A third intermediate, a species capable of undergoing keto–enol tautomerism, was also experimentally detected. However, it was not possible to experimentally distinguish between the keto and the enol forms. These data with different catalysts are consistent with common intermediates along the reaction pathway from fructose to HMF in DMSO. The role of oxygen in producing acidic species in reactions carried out in DMSO in presence of air is also discussed.

  5. Mechanically reliable thermoelectric (TE) nanocomposites by dispersing and embedding TE-nanostructures inside a tetragonal ZrO2 matrix: the concept and experimental demonstration in graphene oxide-3YSZ system. (United States)

    Estili, Mehdi; Wu, Wen-Wen; Khazaei, Mohammad; Sakka, Yoshio


    Novel low-dimensional thermoelectric (TE) materials suffer from poor mechanical reliability, which limits their applications, especially in mechanically harsh environments. Here, we propose a new concept, in which the novel, abundant, thermally stable TE-nanostructures are dispersed and then intimately embedded inside a protective, mechanically reliable tetragonal ZrO2 (TZP) ceramic matrix with a low thermal conductivity. We also demonstrate an experimental proof-of-principle verification of our concept in reduced-graphene oxide (GO)-3 mol% Y2O3-ZrO2 (3YSZ or 3Y-TZP) nanocomposite system. TE characterizations suggest that our protective TZP matrix does not degrade the intrinsic TE property of the reduced GO network. These preliminary results are promising and encouraging to start research on similar TZP-matrix TE-nanocomposites, which contain more effective TE-nanostructures with larger intrinsic power factors. In this regard, we propose a scalable approach for fabrication of similar dense TE-nanocomposites composed of other one-dimensional and/or two-dimensional TE-nanostructures, which involves an aqueous colloidal approach and a subsequent spark plasma sintering. These new TZP-matrix TE-nanocomposites could be used for sustainable clean power generation, especially in mechanically harsh environments with thermal/mechanical shocks and vibrations, where energy availability, reliability and durability are more important than the energy efficiency. Considering the excellent biocompatibility of TZP matrix, they could even be used inside the body to power implanted medical devices.

  6. [The role of changes in matrix metalloproteases and chitotriosidase in the mechanism of protective effect of atorvastatin in experimental murine lipemia]. (United States)

    Korolenko, T A; Cherkanova, M S; Savchenko, N G; Klishevich, M S


    The effect of atorvastatin on the activity of chitotriosidase (CTO) and total matrix metalloproteases (MMPs)-new markers of cardiovascular disorder-was studied on the model of murine lipemia induced by single administration of Triton WR 1339 in two doses, 500 mg/kg (mild lipemia) and 850 mg/kg (severe lipemia). A hypolipidemic effect of atorvastatin was observed in mice with mild lipemia, but not in those with severe lipemia. In both mild and severe lipemia cases, the serum CTO activity was increased upon the combined administration of atorvastatin and Triton WR 1339, correlating with cholesterol and triglyceride concentration. The total serum MMP activity decreased only in experiments with atorvastatin administration to intact mice. In mice with experimental lipemia induced by Triton WR 1339, the administration of atorvastatin also increased the ALT and AST activity in the blood serum.

  7. A theoretical and experimental exploration of the mechanism of microwave assisted 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition of pyridinium ylides to single walled carbon nanotubes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bayazit, Mustafa K., E-mail: [Department of Chemistry, University of Durham, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom); Celebi, Nihat [Department of Chemistry, Abant Izzet Baysal University, Bolu 14280 (Turkey); Coleman, Karl S. [Department of Chemistry, University of Durham, Durham DH1 3LE (United Kingdom)


    Cycloaddition reactions have widely been used for surface functionalization of single walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs). Here, 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition (1,3-DC) of two new pyridinium ylides, generated in-situ via the addition of triethylamine (NEt{sub 3}) to the Kröhnke salts N-(4-methyl sodium benzene sulfonate)-pyridinium bromide and N-(4-nitrobenzyl)-pyridinium bromide, to SWNTs under microwave conditions are assessed both theoretically using PM3 (RHF) type calculations and experimentally. Evidence of covalent surface modification is provided by FTIR, UV–vis–NIR and resonance Raman spectroscopy. Solubility of the modified SWNTs increases when compared to as-received SWNTs. Quantification of surface groups is performed via TGA-MS and XPS. 1,3-DC of pyridinium ylides with smaller HOMO–LUMO energy gap is found to be more selective to large diameter SWNTs. Theoretically predicted smaller energy gaps between HOMO{sub ylides} and LUMO{sub (8,8)} SWNT suggest that the charges are probably transferred from pyridinium ylides to SWNTs indicating HOMO{sub ylide}–LUMO{sub (8,8)} {sub SWNT} controlled 1,3-DC. Regioselectivity of second ylide addition as addendum to ylide–SWNT adduct is also discussed. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • PM3 (RHF) type calculations suggest that charges are probably transferred from HOMO of pyridinium ylides to LUMO of SWNTs. • Theoretical predictions indicate a HOMO{sub ylide}–LUMO{sub (8,8)} {sub SWNT} controlled 1,3-DC reaction (Type I). • Pyridinium ylides with smaller HOMO–LUMO energy gap is experimentally found to be more selective to large diameter SWNTs. • Reactivity of pyridinium ylide might be manipulated using strong electron withdrawing groups. • Graphe