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Sample records for experimental measles therapeutic

  1. Measles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rota, Paul A; Moss, William J; Takeda, Makoto; de Swart, Rik L; Thompson, Kimberly M; Goodson, James L

    2016-07-14

    Measles is an infectious disease in humans caused by the measles virus (MeV). Before the introduction of an effective measles vaccine, virtually everyone experienced measles during childhood. Symptoms of measles include fever and maculopapular skin rash accompanied by cough, coryza and/or conjunctivitis. MeV causes immunosuppression, and severe sequelae of measles include pneumonia, gastroenteritis, blindness, measles inclusion body encephalitis and subacute sclerosing panencephalitis. Case confirmation depends on clinical presentation and results of laboratory tests, including the detection of anti-MeV IgM antibodies and/or viral RNA. All current measles vaccines contain a live attenuated strain of MeV, and great progress has been made to increase global vaccination coverage to drive down the incidence of measles. However, endemic transmission continues in many parts of the world. Measles remains a considerable cause of childhood mortality worldwide, with estimates that >100,000 fatal cases occur each year. Case fatality ratio estimates vary from 5% in developing countries. All six WHO regions have set goals to eliminate endemic transmission of MeV by achieving and maintaining high levels of vaccination coverage accompanied by a sensitive surveillance system. Because of the availability of a highly effective and relatively inexpensive vaccine, the monotypic nature of the virus and the lack of an animal reservoir, measles is considered a candidate for eradication.

  2. Measles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... or whose immune systems have been weakened by HIV/AIDS or other diseases. In populations with high levels of malnutrition, particularly vitamin A deficiency, and a lack of adequate health care, about 3–6%, of measles cases result in death, and in displaced groups, up to 30% of ...

  3. Measles

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... been eliminated in the United States. However, unvaccinated people who travel to other countries where measles is common have brought the disease back to the United States. This has led to ... groups of people who are unvaccinated. Some parents DO NOT let ...

  4. INTRALESIONAL MEASLES, MUMPS AND RUBELLA (MMR VACCINE-AN EFFECTIVE THERAPEUTIC TOOL IN THE TREATMENT OF WART

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raju

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Warts are common cutaneous viral infection. Various therapeutic modalities have been using in treatment of wart, but none of them are standardised. Immunotherapy is new current approach in the treatment of wart. AIMS: To know the efficacy and safety profile of Measles Mumps Rubella (MMR Vaccine in the treatment of wart. METHODS: MMR vaccine was injected into a largest single wart intralesionally and subsequent injections given every 2 weeks apart for about 3 to 5 times. Every month followup of patients was done to know the clearance of wart. RESULTS: Complete remission of warts seen in 70.4% of patients, partial remission seen in 22.2% and no response was seen in 7.4% of patients. No serious adverse side effects were seen in the current study. CONCLUSION: MMR vaccine can be considered as a safe, effective, inexpensive intralesional immunotherapeutic modality in the treatment of wart.

  5. Measles (lecture, continuing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shostakovych-Koretsraya L.R.

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The second part of the article discusses differential diagnosis during different measles periods. Routine and confirmatory laboratory diagnosis, including cytological, serological and molecular genetic methods is outlined. Criteria of suspected, probable and proved diagnosis of measles cases are provided. Principles of diagnosis formulation according to WHO criteria are described. Complications of measles ac¬cording to cause (viral and bacterial, by different systems and particularities in high risk patients are considered. Complications of measles from central nervous system are described in details. Therapeutic management of measles is described in details, including indications for hospital admission, etiotropic therapy, strict indications for steroids and immunoglobulins prescription, vitamin A in dosages, therapy of complications, indications for antibiotics usage and other pathogenetic therapy. Specific therapy of measles complications from central nervous system is outlined. Active and passive immunization, anti-epidemic activities, patient follow-up after episode of measles and disease prognosis are described. The literature reference list consists of 121 items, including Cyrillic, Latin articles and electronic resources.

  6. Measles (lecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shostakovych-Koretsraya L.R.

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The article provides comprehensive review of different aspects of measles. Definition of disease, historical overview, measles in the world epidemiology and in the countries bordering Ukraine over the recent years, particularities of measles epidemiology in Ukraine are given in details. Etiology of measles virus including known genomic structure and viral proteins list, genetic changeability of the virus. Particularities of measles epidemiological process are discussed, criteria of determination of morbidity level and contagiosity of the given disease are outlined. Detailed pathogenesis of measles in different periods of disease is provided, reciprocal influence of the disease and vitamin A metabolism is given. Particularities of humoral and cellular immunological response, including those in early-aged and in patients with immune deficiency are described. Possibility of development of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis is pointed out; currently accepted causes of this complication development, its immunological and virological particularities are summarized. Pathogenetic mechanisms of rash development, complications as well as morphological changes in different organs and systems are given. The article gives both international and different clinical classifications of measles. Clinical manifestations of typical and atypical measles course are described in details by syndromes and according to disease periods. Particularities of measles course at different premorbid conditions are described. The article provides colored photos which illustrate clinical mani¬festations of measles manifestation on the skin and mucosa at different disease periods.

  7. Major histocompatibility complex class I expression on neurons in subacute sclerosing panencephalitis and experimental subacute measles encephalitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gogate, N.; Yamabe, Toshio; Verma, L.; Dhib-Jalbut, S. [Univ. of Maryland, Baltimore, MD (United States)] [and others

    1996-04-01

    Lack of major histocompatibility class I antigens on neurons has been implicated as a possible mechanism for viral persistence in the brain since these antigens are required for cytotoxic T-lymphocyte recognition of infected cells. In subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE), measles virus (MV) persists in neurons, resulting in a fatal chronic infection. MHC class I mRNA expression was examined in formalin-fixed brain tissue from 6 SSPE patients by in situ hybridization. In addition MHC class I protein expression in MV-infected neurons was examined in experimental Subacute Measles Encephalitis (SME) by double immunohistochemistry. MHC class I mRNA expression was found to be upregulated in SSPE tissues studied, and in 5 out of 6 cases the expression was definitively seen on neurons. The percentage of neurons expressing MHC class I mRNA ranged between 20 to 84% in infected areas. There was no correlation between the degree of infection and expression of MHC class I molecules on neurons. Importantly, the number of neurons co-expressing MHC class I and MV antigens was markedly low, varying between 2 to 8%. Similar results were obtained in SME where 20 to 30% of the neurons expressed MHC class I but < 8% co-expressed MHC class I and MV antigens. Perivascular infiltrating cells in the infected regions in SME expressed IFN{gamma} immunoreactivity. The results suggest that MV may not be directly involved in the induction of MHC class I on neurons and that cytokines such as IFN{gamma} may play an important role. Furthermore, the paucity of neurons co-expressing MHC class I and MV antigens in SSPE and SME suggests that such cells are either rapidly cleared by cytotoxic T lymphocytes (CTL), or, alternatively, lack of co-expression of MHC class I on MV infected neurons favors MV persistence in these cells by escaping CTL recognition. 33 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  8. Facts about Measles for Adults

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... a Glance Adolescent Vaccination Recommendation: MMR About Measles Facts about Measles for Adults What is measles? Measles ... are pregnant or severely immunosuppressed. Disease and vaccine facts FACT: Measles can be prevented with a safe ...

  9. Proteasome inhibitors as experimental therapeutics of autoimmune diseases

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verbrugge, C.S.E.; Scheper, R.J.; Lems, W.F.; de Gruijl, T.D.; Jansen, G.

    2015-01-01

    Current treatment strategies for rheumatoid arthritis (RA) consisting of disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drugs or biological agents are not always effective, hence driving the demand for new experimental therapeutics. The antiproliferative capacity of proteasome inhibitors (PIs) has received

  10. Using an experimental model for the study of therapeutic touch.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Daniella Soares; Marta, Ilda Estéfani Ribeiro; Cárnio, Evelin Capellari; de Quadros, Andreza Urba; Cunha, Thiago Mattar; de Carvalho, Emilia Campos

    2013-02-01

    to verify whether the Paw Edema Model can be used in investigations about the effects of Therapeutic Touch on inflammation by measuring the variables pain, edema and neutrophil migration. this is a pilot and experimental study, involving ten male mice of the same genetic strain and divided into experimental and control group, submitted to the chemical induction of local inflammation in the right back paw. The experimental group received a daily administration of Therapeutic Touch for 15 minutes during three days. the data showed statistically significant differences in the nociceptive threshold and in the paw circumference of the animals from the experimental group on the second day of the experiment. the experiment model involving animals can contribute to study the effects of Therapeutic Touch on inflammation, and adjustments are suggested in the treatment duration, number of sessions and experiment duration.

  11. Measles: Information for Parents

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 20 million people get measles each year. When people with measles travel into the United States, they can spread the disease to unvaccinated people including children too young to be vaccinated. The ...

  12. A systematic review of prion therapeutics in experimental models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trevitt, Clare R; Collinge, John

    2006-09-01

    Prion diseases are transmissible, invariably fatal, neurodegenerative diseases which include Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease (CJD) in humans and bovine spongiform encephalopathy and scrapie in animals. A large number of putative treatments have been studied in experimental models over the past 30 years, with at best modest disease-modifying effects. The arrival of variant CJD in the UK in the 1990s has intensified the search for effective therapeutic agents, using an increasing number of animal, cellular and in vitro models with some recent promising proof of principle studies. Here, for the first time, we present a comprehensive systematic, rather than selective, review of published data on experimental approaches to prion therapeutics to provide a scientific resource for informing future therapeutics research, both in laboratory models and in clinical studies.

  13. Rubella (German Measles)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Preteen cold, ice Cold, Ice, and Snow Safety Rubella (German Measles) KidsHealth > For Parents > Rubella (German Measles) ... to Call the Doctor en español Rubéola About Rubella Rubella — commonly known as German measles or 3- ...

  14. EDITORIAL EMERGING ISSUES IN MEASLES Measles, an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    100000) and Guillain-Barre syndrome(12, 14). There have also been some suggestions of an association between measles vaccination and'Crohn's disease and autism, but the evidence is unconvincing and has been refuted by a large volume of strong research(12,15). Currently the diagnosis of measles is largely clinical,.

  15. Measles in Scotland, 2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollock, K; Potts, A; Love, J; Steedman, N; Donaghy, M

    2014-02-01

    In 2013, Wales and England experienced large outbreaks of measles, a disease that has been targeted by the World Health Organisation for European elimination by 2015. Unfortunately, measles-mumps-rubella vaccine uptake declined to less than 80% in Wales and England after the Wakefield publicity and this resulted in increased population susceptibility to measles. In Scotland, measles-mumps-rubella vaccine uptake dropped to 87% in 2003. Scottish public health efforts in response to this decline aimed to maximise uptake of MMR1 by two years; ensure at least 95% uptake of one dose of measles-mumps-rubella before starting school at age five; and maximise uptake of the second dose of measles-mumps-rubella by age six. Although Scotland has not had any large outbreaks reported to date, transmission of measles from healthcare workers to patients has occurred and reiterates the importance of all healthcare workers accurately knowing their immune status and, when needed, to be fully immunised.

  16. Therapeutic enhancement of protective immunity during experimental leishmaniasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Senad Divanovic

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis remains a significant cause of morbidity and mortality in the tropics. Available therapies are problematic due to toxicity, treatment duration and emerging drug resistance. Mouse models of leishmaniasis have demonstrated that disease outcome depends critically on the balance between effector and regulatory CD4(+ T cell responses, something mirrored in descriptive studies of human disease. Recombinant IL-2/diphtheria toxin fusion protein (rIL-2/DTx, a drug that is FDA-approved for the treatment of cutaneous T cell lymphoma, has been reported to deplete regulatory CD4(+ T cells.We investigated the potential efficacy of rIL-2/DTx as adjunctive therapy for experimental infection with Leishmania major. Treatment with rIL-2/DTx suppressed lesional regulatory T cell numbers and was associated with significantly increased antigen-specific IFN-γ production, enhanced lesion resolution and decreased parasite burden. Combined administration of rIL-2/DTx and sodium stibogluconate had additive biological and therapeutic effects, allowing for reduced duration or dose of sodium stibogluconate therapy.These data suggest that pharmacological suppression of immune counterregulation using a commercially available drug originally developed for cancer therapy may have practical therapeutic utility in leishmaniasis. Rational reinvestigation of the efficacy of drugs approved for other indications in experimental models of neglected tropical diseases has promise in providing new candidates to the drug discovery pipeline.

  17. The cornea in measles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    N.W.H.M. Dekkers (Nico)

    1981-01-01

    textabstractThe involvement of the cornea in the acute stage of measles is the subject of the present study. The best study on the measles-keratitis now available is still the one by Trantas in 1903. It seems wo.:thwhile therefore to study this self-limiting keratitis with the investigative tools

  18. The pathogenesis of measles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Vries, Rory D.; Mesman, Annelies W.; Geijtenbeek, Teunis B. H.; Duprex, W. Paul; de Swart, Rik L.

    2012-01-01

    Measles is an important cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in developing countries. Measles virus (MV) is transmitted via the respiratory route and causes systemic disease. Over the last decade, identification of new cellular receptors and studies in animal models have challenged the

  19. Therapeutic effect of ursolic acid in experimental visceral leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jéssica A. Jesus

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Leishmaniasis is an important neglected tropical disease, affecting more than 12 million people worldwide. The available treatments are not well tolerated and present diverse side effects in patients, justifying the search for new therapeutic compounds. In the present study, the therapeutic potential and toxicity of ursolic acid (UA, isolated from the leaves of Baccharis uncinella C. DC. (Asteraceae, were evaluated in experimental visceral leishmaniasis. To evaluate the therapeutic potential of UA, hamsters infected with L. (L. infantum were treated daily during 15 days with 1.0 or 2.0 mg UA/kg body weight, or with 5.0 mg amphotericin B/kg body weight by intraperitoneal route. Fifteen days after the last dose, the parasitism of the spleen and liver was stimated and the main histopathological alterations were recorded. The proliferation of splenic mononuclear cells was evaluated and IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-10 gene expressions were analyzed in spleen fragments. The toxicity of UA and amphotericin B were evaluated in healthy golden hamsters by histological analysis and biochemical parameters. Animals treated with UA had less parasites in the spleen and liver when compared with the infected control group, and they also showed preservation of white and red pulps, which correlate with a high rate of proliferation of splenic mononuclear cells, IFN-γ mRNA and iNOS production. Moreover, animals treated with UA did not present alterations in the levels of AST, ALT, creatinine and urea. Taken together, these findings indicate that UA is an interesting natural compound that should be considered for the development of prototype drugs against visceral leishmaniasis.

  20. Rubella (German Measles, Three-Day Measles) Photos

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search Form Controls Cancel Submit Search The CDC Rubella (German Measles, Three-Day Measles) Note: Javascript is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Rubella Home About Rubella Rubella in the U.S. Signs & ...

  1. Caloric intake and Alzheimer's disease. Experimental approaches and therapeutic implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasinetti, Giulio Maria; Zhao, Zhong; Qin, Weiping; Ho, Lap; Shrishailam, Yemul; Macgrogan, Donal; Ressmann, Wendy; Humala, Nelson; Liu, Xunxian; Romero, Carmen; Stetka, Breton; Chen, Linghong; Ksiezak-Reding, Hanna; Wang, Jun

    2007-01-01

    Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a rapidly growing public health concern with potentially devastating effects. Presently, there are no known cures or effective preventive strategies. While genetic factors are relevant in early-onset cases, they appear to play less of a role in late-onset sporadic AD cases, the most common form of AD. Due to the fact that the disease typically strikes very late in life, delaying symptoms could be as good as a cure for many people. For example, it is now widely accepted that if the onset of the disease could be delayed by even 5 years, the incidence could be cut in half. Both clinical and epidemiological evidence suggests that modification of lifestyle factors such as nutrition may prove crucial to AD management given the mounting experimental evidence suggesting that brain cells are remarkably responsive to "what somebody is doing". Among other nongenetic factors influencing AD, recent studies strongly support the evidence that caloric intake may play a role in the relative risk for AD clinical dementia. Indeed, the effect of diet in AD has been an area of research that has produced promising results, at least experimentally. Most importantly, as mechanistic pathways are defined and their biochemical functions scrutinized, the evidence supporting a direct link between nutrition and AD neuropathology continues to grow. Our work, as well as that of others, has recently resulted in the development of experimental dietary regimens that might promote, attenuate or even reverse features of AD. Most remarkably, while we found that high caloric intake based on saturated fat promotes AD type Beta-amyloidosis, conversely we found that dietary restriction based on reduced carbohydrate intake is able to prevent it. This evidence is very exciting and is, in part, consistent with current epidemiological studies suggesting that obesity and diabetes are associated with a >4-fold increased risk of developing AD. The clarification of the mechanisms

  2. Preventive and therapeutic euphol treatment attenuates experimental colitis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael C Dutra

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The tetracyclic triterpene euphol is the main constituent found in the sap of Euphorbia tirucalli. This plant is widely known in Brazilian traditional medicine for its use in the treatment of several kinds of cancer, including leukaemia, prostate and breast cancers. Here, we investigated the effect of euphol on experimental models of colitis and the underlying mechanisms involved in its action. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Colitis was induced in mice either with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS or with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS, and the effect of euphol (3, 10 and 30 mg/kg on colonic injury was assessed. Pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines were measured by immunohistochemistry, enzyme-Linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA, real time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR and flow cytometry. Preventive and therapeutic oral administration of euphol attenuated both DSS- and TNBS-induced acute colitis as observed by a significant reduction of the disease activity index (DAI, histological/microscopic damage score and myeloperoxidase (MPO activity in colonic tissue. Likewise, euphol treatment also inhibited colon tissue levels and expression of IL-1β, CXCL1/KC, MCP-1, MIP-2, TNF-α and IL-6, while reducing NOS2, VEGF and Ki67 expression in colonic tissue. This action seems to be likely associated with inhibition of activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB. In addition, euphol decreased LPS-induced MCP-1, TNF-α, IL-6 and IFN-γ, but increased IL-10 secretion from bone marrow-derived macrophages in vitro. Of note, euphol, at the same schedule of treatment, markedly inhibited both selectin (P- and E-selectin and integrin (ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and LFA-1 expression in colonic tissue. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: Together, these results clearly demonstrated that orally-administered euphol, both preventive or therapeutic treatment were effective in reducing the severity of colitis in two models of chemically-induced mouse colitis and suggest

  3. Preventive and Therapeutic Euphol Treatment Attenuates Experimental Colitis in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bento, Allisson F.; Marcon, Rodrigo; Schmidt, Éder C.; Bouzon, Zenilda L.; Pianowski, Luiz F.; Calixto, João B.

    2011-01-01

    Background The tetracyclic triterpene euphol is the main constituent found in the sap of Euphorbia tirucalli. This plant is widely known in Brazilian traditional medicine for its use in the treatment of several kinds of cancer, including leukaemia, prostate and breast cancers. Here, we investigated the effect of euphol on experimental models of colitis and the underlying mechanisms involved in its action. Methodology/Principal Findings Colitis was induced in mice either with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) or with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS), and the effect of euphol (3, 10 and 30 mg/kg) on colonic injury was assessed. Pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines were measured by immunohistochemistry, enzyme-Linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA), real time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and flow cytometry. Preventive and therapeutic oral administration of euphol attenuated both DSS- and TNBS-induced acute colitis as observed by a significant reduction of the disease activity index (DAI), histological/microscopic damage score and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in colonic tissue. Likewise, euphol treatment also inhibited colon tissue levels and expression of IL-1β, CXCL1/KC, MCP-1, MIP-2, TNF-α and IL-6, while reducing NOS2, VEGF and Ki67 expression in colonic tissue. This action seems to be likely associated with inhibition of activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). In addition, euphol decreased LPS-induced MCP-1, TNF-α, IL-6 and IFN-γ, but increased IL-10 secretion from bone marrow-derived macrophages in vitro. Of note, euphol, at the same schedule of treatment, markedly inhibited both selectin (P- and E-selectin) and integrin (ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and LFA-1) expression in colonic tissue. Conclusions/Significance Together, these results clearly demonstrated that orally-administered euphol, both preventive or therapeutic treatment were effective in reducing the severity of colitis in two models of chemically-induced mouse colitis and suggest this plant

  4. Effects of supplemental measles immunization on cases of measles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective: This study was carried out to assess the impact of the supplemental measles vaccinations on the cases of measles admitted ... Methods: Weretrospectivelylooked at therecords of cases of measles in children admitted to the Wesley Guild Hospital, Ile- sa over a ..... Byrne J.P Encyclopedia of Pestilence, Pandemics,.

  5. MEASLES IN INFANTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. N. Timchenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A clinical observation and treatment of 36 children between the ages of 5 months up to 3 years old with measles. In 34 persons. (94.4% diagnosed with typical moderate forms, from 2 people (5.6% — atypical (mitigirovannaya a mild form of the disease. All children are vaccinated against measles. Typical measles char-acterized by moderate forms of cyclical flow with the change of the classical period and the presence of characteristic clinical syndromes. Pathognomonic symptom found: spots Belsky — Filatov — Koplik (67.7%, stages a rash (100%, stages of pigmentation (100%. Causal therapy was VIFERON®. Revealed the rapid disappearance of intoxication and normalization of body temperature, the early decline in the severity and duration of catarrhal syndrome, reducing the severity and frequency of complications, no stratification of SARS.

  6. Measles, mumps, and rubella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, Sarah J; Boldt, Kristi L; Holditch, Sara J; Poland, Gregory A; Jacobson, Robert M

    2012-06-01

    Measles, mumps, and rubella are viral diseases that may adversely affect nonimmune pregnant women and their fetuses/neonates. Prevention of these diseases and their complications can be achieved through measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination before pregnancy. The vaccine is contraindicated during pregnancy, because it contains live, attenuated viruses that pose a theoretical risk to the fetus. However, accidental receipt of MMR vaccination is not known to cause maternal/fetal complications. MMR immunization is recommended to nonimmune obstetric patients upon completion or termination of pregnancy.

  7. Molecular epidemiology of measles virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rota, P A; Featherstone, D A; Bellini, W J

    2009-01-01

    Genetic characterization of wild-type measles viruses provides a means to study the transmission pathways of the virus and is an essential component of laboratory-based surveillance. Laboratory-based surveillance for measles and rubella, including genetic characterization of wild-type viruses, is performed throughout the world by the WHO Measles and Rubella Laboratory Network, which serves 166 countries in all WHO regions. In particular, the genetic data can help confirm the sources of virus or suggest a source for unknown-source cases as well as to establish links, or lack thereof, between various cases and outbreaks. Virologic surveillance has helped to document the interruption of transmission of endemic measles in some regions. Thus, molecular characterization of measles viruses has provided a valuable tool for measuring the effectiveness of measles control programs, and virologic surveillance needs to be expanded in all areas of the world and conducted during all phases of measles control.

  8. Experimental Approaches Toward Histone Acetyltransferase Inhibitors as Therapeutics

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekker, Frank; Tollefsbol, Trygve

    2016-01-01

    This chapter comprises the most recent developments with respect to the role of human histone acetyltransferases (HATs) in diseases and the potential therapeutic applications of HAT inhibitors. HATs form a diverse group of mainly nuclear enzymes that play an important role in the acetylation of

  9. A Review of Measles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dardis, Melissa R.

    2012-01-01

    Measles, once a common childhood illness that many older school nurses could recognize without difficulty, needs review again after reemerging from Europe and other continents. A highly contagious disease, which has been referenced since the seventh century, the virus can cause serious illness and death, despite the fact that it is vaccine…

  10. Biological feasibility of measles eradication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellini, William J; Rota, Paul A

    2011-12-01

    Because of the success of global measles control programs, the World Health Organization (WHO), along with its partner agencies, is once again considering the possibility of setting a target date for measles eradication. Measles would be the fourth viral agent to be eradicated joining the successful programs to eradicate smallpox and rinderpest virus, and the continuing effort to eradicate polio virus. A description of the recent progress toward measles eradication was recently published as a supplement in the Journal of Infectious Diseases (15 July, 2011, 204 (Suppl. 1)) and the reader is referred to this document for a detailed summary of the global status of measles control. This review will focus on the biologic and virologic aspects of measles eradication. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Huntington Disease: Linking Pathogenesis to the Development of Experimental Therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mestre, Tiago A; Sampaio, Cristina

    2017-02-01

    Huntington disease (HD) is an autosomal dominant neurodegenerative condition caused by a CAG trinucleotide expansion in the huntingtin gene. At present, the HD field is experiencing exciting times with the assessment for the first time in human subjects of interventions aimed at core disease mechanisms. Out of a portfolio of interventions that claim a potential disease-modifying effect in HD, the target huntingtin has more robust validation. In this review, we discuss the spectrum of huntingtin-lowering therapies that are currently being considered. We provide a critical appraisal of the validation of huntingtin as a drug target, describing the advantages, challenges, and limitations of the proposed therapeutic interventions. The development of these new therapies relies strongly on the knowledge of HD pathogenesis and the ability to translate this knowledge into validated pharmacodynamic biomarkers. Altogether, the goal is to support a rational drug development that is ethical and cost-effective. Among the pharmacodynamic biomarkers under development, the quantification of mutant huntingtin in the cerebral spinal fluid and PET imaging targeting huntingtin or phosphodiesterase 10A deserve special attention. Huntingtin-lowering therapeutics are eagerly awaited as the first interventions that may be able to change the course of HD in a meaningful way.

  12. Global distribution of measles genotypes and measles molecular epidemiology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rota, Paul A; Brown, Kevin; Mankertz, Annette; Santibanez, Sabine; Shulga, Sergey; Muller, Claude P; Hübschen, Judith M; Siqueira, Marilda; Beirnes, Jennifer; Ahmed, Hinda; Triki, Henda; Al-Busaidy, Suleiman; Dosseh, Annick; Byabamazima, Charles; Smit, Sheilagh; Akoua-Koffi, Chantal; Bwogi, Josephine; Bukenya, Henry; Wairagkar, Niteen; Ramamurty, Nalini; Incomserb, Patcha; Pattamadilok, Sirima; Jee, Youngmee; Lim, Wilina; Xu, Wenbo; Komase, Katsuhiro; Takeda, Makoto; Tran, Thomas; Castillo-Solorzano, Carlos; Chenoweth, Paul; Brown, David; Mulders, Mick N; Bellini, William J; Featherstone, David

    2011-07-01

    A critical component of laboratory surveillance for measles is the genetic characterization of circulating wild-type viruses. The World Health Organization (WHO) Measles and Rubella Laboratory Network (LabNet), provides for standardized testing in 183 countries and supports genetic characterization of currently circulating strains of measles viruses. The goal of this report is to describe the lessons learned from nearly 20 years of virologic surveillance for measles, to describe the global databases for measles sequences, and to provide regional updates about measles genotypes detected by recent surveillance activities. Virologic surveillance for measles is now well established in all of the WHO regions, and most countries have conducted at least some baseline surveillance. The WHO Global Genotype Database contains >7000 genotype reports, and the Measles Nucleotide Surveillance (MeaNS) contains >4000 entries. This sequence information has proven to be extremely useful for tracking global transmission patterns and for documenting the interruption of transmission in some countries. The future challenges will be to develop quality control programs for molecular methods and to continue to expand virologic surveillance activities in all regions. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2011.

  13. [The measles are here again].

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Opstelten, W.; Ruijs, W.L.M.; Warris, A.; Binnendijk, R.S. van; Wolfs, T.F.; Hahne, S.J.

    2013-01-01

    Since the vaccination of Dutch children against the measles through the National Immunisation Programme started in 1976, the incidence of measles has greatly decreased. Local epidemics do still occur, however; these are largely confined to minority groups of orthodox Protestants who object to

  14. Measles matters, but do parents know?

    OpenAIRE

    Blair, S.; Shave, N; McKay, J.

    1985-01-01

    Two hundred and one parents attending three child health clinics were questioned about both measles and immunisation against measles. Most parents were unaware of the symptoms and possible complications of measles and did not believe immunisation to be effective in preventing measles. They did not remember having talked to health professionals about immunisation.

  15. Measles vaccination: new strategies and formulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Vries, Rory D; Stittelaar, Koert J; Osterhaus, Albert D M E; de Swart, Rik L

    2008-10-01

    Measles is a highly contagious viral disease. With 1 million deaths reported in 1996, measles was the leading cause of vaccine-preventable deaths. However, in recent years, significant progress has been made in measles control, reducing deaths attributed to measles to 454,000 in 2004 and 242,000 in 2006. The main strategy behind this reduction has been the improvement of vaccination coverage and implementation of a second opportunity for immunization with the live-attenuated measles vaccine. The Measles Initiative, a partnership between the American Red Cross, CDC, UNICEF, WHO and UN Foundation, has had a significant role in this achievement. Here, we provide an overview of old and new vaccination strategies, and discuss changes in the route of administration of the existing live-attenuated vaccine, the development of new-generation nonreplicating measles virus vaccine candidates and attempts to use recombinant measles virus as a vector for vaccination against other pathogens.

  16. Vaccination against measles: a neverending story.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.J. Stittelaar (Koert); R.L. de Swart (Rik); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert)

    2002-01-01

    textabstractMeasles, a highly contagious viral disease, is a major childhood killer in developing countries, accounting for almost 1 million deaths every year globally. Measles virus normally does not cause a persistent infection, no animal reservoir for measles virus exists, no vector is involved

  17. 9 CFR 113.313 - Measles Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Measles Vaccine. 113.313 Section 113... Vaccines § 113.313 Measles Vaccine. Measles Vaccine shall be prepared from virus-bearing cell culture... for preparing the production seed virus for vaccine production. All serials of vaccine shall be...

  18. Measles control in the urbanising environment

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-04-20

    Apr 20, 1991 ... Taylor WR, Ruti-Kalisa, Ma-disa M, Weinman JM. Measles control efforts in urban Africa complicated by high incidence of measles in the first year of life. Am J Epidemiol 1988; 127: 788-794. 12. Fisher SA. Measles and poverty in Port Elizabeth. Paper presented at the. Second Carnegie Inquiry into Poverty ...

  19. Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis with Measles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ishrat Jahan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis is an inflammatory demyelinating illness usually associated with infections or antecedent immunization. Due to control of most vaccine preventable diseases in developed countries, most cases of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis occur in developing countries and are seen secondary to nonspecific upper respiratory tract infections. We report a case of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis associated with measles in a 2½-year-old male child despite having measles vaccination in infancy. The diagnosis was based on clinical findings and CT scan of brain. The patient was managed with high dose corticosteroids along with supportive measures. He recovered completely and follow-up for six months revealed no neurological deterioration.

  20. Effects of supplemental measles immunization on cases of measles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Measles is a highly contagious vaccine-preventable infection which continues to be a significant cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in developing countries particularly those with poor routine immunisation coverage. Supplemental immunisation activities (SIAs) were thus introduced to improve vaccine ...

  1. Measles outbreak reveals measles susceptibility among adults in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    5 Namibia Country Office, Center for Global Health, US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Windhoek, Namibia. 6 World Health Organization Field ... The wide age distribution of cases indicated measles-susceptible individuals accumulated over several decades prior to the start of the outbreak. S Afr Med J 2016 ...

  2. Development of the Global Measles Laboratory Network.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Featherstone, David; Brown, David; Sanders, Ray

    2003-05-15

    The routine reporting of suspected measles cases and laboratory testing of samples from these cases is the backbone of measles surveillance. The Global Measles Laboratory Network (GMLN) has developed standards for laboratory confirmation of measles and provides training resources for staff of network laboratories, reference materials and expertise for the development and quality control of testing procedures, and accurate information for the Measles Mortality Reduction and Regional Elimination Initiative. The GMLN was developed along the lines of the successful Global Polio Laboratory Network, and much of the polio laboratory infrastructure was utilized for measles. The GMLN has developed as countries focus on measles control activities following successful eradication of polio. Currently more than 100 laboratories are part of the global network and follow standardized testing and reporting procedures. A comprehensive laboratory accreditation process will be introduced in 2002 with six quality assurance and performance indicators.

  3. Measles from the Perspective of Rhazes and Traditional Iranian Medicine: a Narrative Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojdeh Khodabakhsh

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background Measles is a contagious illness with symptoms including fever, cough and rash. Although after the start of vaccination, its mortality rate has decreased significantly, but in some countries, the disease still leads to dangerous complications. Since infectious diseases such as measles has long been of interest to practitioners, in this study the perspective of Traditional Iranian Medicine (TIM scholars, especially Razi (Rhazes about measles was examined. Materials and Methods In the present study, we reviewed Rhazes’ viewpoint about symptoms and treatment of measles in the book entitled "Al jodari - Al hasbah", and other TIM books. In addition, using scientific online databases, the latest studies in this regard are investigated. Results Rhazes was the first physician who described measles scientifically in a separate book called "Al jodari - Al hasbah". In addition to the disease symptoms, its complications and treatment strategies that includes three areas of general recommendations, nutritional measures and topical treatments such as laxatives, foods, fruits, vegetables and herbs with cold nature (based on TIM, he also explained the prognosis of the measles according to the division of skin rashes. Some other Iranian medicine scholars such as Avicenna in addition to the mentioning other therapeutic strategies also pointed out the contagious nature of measles. Conclusion Given that some of the diagnostic, therapeutic and preventive perspectives in TIM textbooks, especially Rhazes’ "Al jodari - Al hasbah" have been supported by evidence of new studies, it seems that the opinion of these scientists in the field of infectious and contagious diseases such as measles can be helpful.

  4. Autophagy in Measles Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aurore Rozières

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Autophagy is a biological process that helps cells to recycle obsolete cellular components and which greatly contributes to maintaining cellular integrity in response to environmental stress factors. Autophagy is also among the first lines of cellular defense against invading microorganisms, including viruses. The autophagic destruction of invading pathogens, a process referred to as xenophagy, involves cytosolic autophagy receptors, such as p62/SQSTM1 (Sequestosome 1 or NDP52/CALCOCO2 (Nuclear Dot 52 KDa Protein/Calcium Binding And Coiled-Coil Domain 2, which bind to microbial components and target them towards growing autophagosomes for degradation. However, most, if not all, infectious viruses have evolved molecular tricks to escape from xenophagy. Many viruses even use autophagy, part of the autophagy pathway or some autophagy-associated proteins, to improve their infectious potential. In this regard, the measles virus, responsible for epidemic measles, has a unique interface with autophagy as the virus can induce multiple rounds of autophagy in the course of infection. These successive waves of autophagy result from distinct molecular pathways and seem associated with anti- and/or pro-measles virus consequences. In this review, we describe what the autophagy–measles virus interplay has taught us about both the biology of the virus and the mechanistic orchestration of autophagy.

  5. Unique Measles Virus in Canada

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2017-08-24

    Dr. Shelley Deeks, chief of communicable diseases at Public Health Ontario, discusses a measles outbreak in Canada.  Created: 8/24/2017 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/24/2017.

  6. Measles (Rubeola) Cases and Outbreaks

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the Field: Measles Outbreak at a United States Immigration and Customs Enforcement Facility — Arizona, May–June 2016 MMWR. May 26, ... May 25, 2016, a detainee at a U.S. Immigration and Customs Enforcement (ICE) detention center in Arizona who had been ...

  7. Progress toward measles elimination in kyrgyzstan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suvanbekov, Akbar; Kitarova, Gulzhan; Reyer, Joshua A; Hamajima, Nobuyuki

    2015-02-01

    Measles is one of the most severe infectious diseases of childhood, and one of the major causes of mortali-ty, especially in developing countries. Despite rare measles outbreaks in recent years, Kyrgyzstan seeks to show its commitment towards the global anti-measles campaign. The aim of this article is to summarize the scattered information on the recent status of measles, valid surveillance system, and measles elimination strategies in Kyrgyzstan, based on sources that include non-confidential but usually inaccessible governmental data. Infor-mation was extracted from the reports to the Ministry of Health and documents on the national surveillance system, in addition to outbreak cases extracted from the Republican Infectious Diseases Hospital's archive. To tackle the worsening measles situation in Kyrgyzstan, the Ministry of Health established the Republican Center for Immunoprophylaxis in 1994. Measles related death, which was rampant up until 1992, has not been registered since 2000 due to improved routine vaccination coverage, increasing from 88% in 1994 to 97% and over in 1997. The national surveillance system was modernized thanks to the World Health Organization, helping to detect measles cases and prevent major outbreaks. The system identified 222 cases in the outbreak of 2011, and the case cards in the hospital provided the findings of 69 admitted cases (42 infants, 22 children aged 1 to 14 years, and 5 aged 15 years or over), including 32 severe cases. This article provides a whole view on measles in Kyrgyzstan, which would be useful to control measles worldwide.

  8. Therapeutic effect of nucleoside analogs on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in dark agouti rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stojkov Danijela

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE is a commonly used animal model of the human neurological disorder multiple sclerosis. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the effect of combined treatment with two nucleoside analogs, ribavirin and tiazofurin, on development of EAE actively induced in highly susceptible dark agouti rats. The obtained results showed that ribavirin and tiazofurin applied either separately or in combination from the onset of the firstsymptoms of EAE after its induction (therapeutic treatment significantly suppressed EAE’s clinical symptoms. However, the most pronounced effect was gained with combined treatment, probably as a result of synergistic/additive action.

  9. Measles & rubella outbreaks in Maharashtra State, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Sunil R; Kamble, Madhukar B; Chowdhury, Deepika T; Kumbhar, Neelakshi S

    2016-02-01

    Under the outbreak-based measles surveillance in Maharashtra State the National Institute of Virology at Pune receives 3-5 serum samples from each outbreak and samples from the local hospitals in Pune for laboratory diagnosis. This report describes one year data on the measles and rubella serology, virus isolation and genotyping. Maharashtra State Health Agencies investigated 98 suspected outbreaks between January-December 2013 in the 20 districts. Altogether, 491 serum samples were received from 20 districts and 126 suspected cases from local hospitals. Samples were tested for the measles and rubella IgM antibodies by commercial enzyme immunoassay (EIA). To understand the diagnostic utility, a subset of serum samples (n=53) was tested by measles focus reduction neutralization test (FRNT). Further, 37 throat swabs and 32 urine specimens were tested by measles reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and positive products were sequenced. Virus isolation was performed in Vero hSLAM cells. Of the 98 suspected measles outbreaks, 61 were confirmed as measles, 12 as rubella and 21 confirmed as the mixed outbreaks. Four outbreaks remained unconfirmed. Of the 126 cases from the local hospitals, 91 were confirmed for measles and three for rubella. Overall, 93.6 per cent (383/409) confirmed measles cases were in the age group of 0-15 yr. Measles virus was detected in 18 of 38 specimens obtained from the suspected cases. Sequencing of PCR products revealed circulation of D4 (n=9) and D8 (n=9) strains. Four measles viruses (three D4 & one D8) were isolated. Altogether, 94 measles and rubella outbreaks were confirmed in 2013 in the State of Maharasthra indicating the necessity to increase measles vaccine coverage in the State.

  10. Effect of therapeutic chemical agents in vitro and on experimental meningoencephalitis due to Naegleria fowleri.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Hyun; Jung, Suk-Yul; Lee, Yang-Jin; Song, Kyoung-Ju; Kwon, Daeho; Kim, Kyongmin; Park, Sun; Im, Kyung-Il; Shin, Ho-Joon

    2008-11-01

    Naegleria fowleri is a ubiquitous, pathogenic free-living amoeba; it is the most virulent Naegleria species and causes primary amoebic meningoencephalitis (PAME) in laboratory animals and humans. Although amphotericin B is currently the only agent available for the treatment of PAME, it is a very toxic antibiotic and may cause many adverse effects on other organs. In order to find other potentially therapeutic agents for N. fowleri infection, the present study was undertaken to evaluate the in vitro and in vivo efficacies of miltefosine and chlorpromazine against pathogenic N. fowleri. The result showed that the growth of the amoeba was effectively inhibited by treatment with amphotericin B, miltefosine, and chlorpromazine. When N. fowleri trophozoites were treated with amphotericin B, miltefosine, and chlorpromazine, the MICs of the drug were 0.78, 25, and 12.5 microg/ml, respectively, on day 2. In experimental meningoencephalitis of mice that is caused by N. fowleri, the survival rates of mice treated with amphotericin B, miltefosine, and chlorpromazine were 40, 55, and 75%, respectively, during 1 month. The average mean time to death for the amphotericin B, miltefosine, and chlorpromazine treatments was 17.9 days. In this study, the effect of drugs was found to be optimal when 20 mg/kg was administered three times on days 3, 7, and 11. Finally, chlorpromazine had the best therapeutic activity against N. fowleri in vitro and in vivo. Therefore, it may be a more useful therapeutic agent for the treatment of PAME than amphotericin B.

  11. Phase 3 Oncology Clinical Trials in South Africa: Experimentation or Therapeutic Misconception?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malan, Tina; Moodley, Keymanthri

    2016-02-01

    Although clinical research in oncology is vital to improve current understanding of cancer and to validate new treatment options, voluntary informed consent is a critical component. Oncology research participants are a particularly vulnerable population; hence, therapeutic misconception often leads to ethical and legal challenges. We conducted a qualitative study administering semi-structured questionnaires on 29 adult, Phase 3, oncology clinical trial participants at three different private oncology clinical trial sites in South Africa. A descriptive content analysis was performed to identify perceptions of these participants regarding Phase 3 clinical trials. We found that most participants provided consent to be included in the trial for self-benefit. More than half of the participants had a poor understanding of Phase 3 clinical trials, and almost half the participants believed the clinical trial did not pose any significant risk to them. The word "hope" was used frequently by participants, displaying clear optimism with regard to the clinical trial and its outcome. This indicated that therapeutic misconception does occur in the South African oncology research setting and has the potential to lead to underestimation of the risks of a Phase 3 clinical trial. Emphasizing the experimental nature of a clinical trial during the consent process is critical to address therapeutic misconception in oncology research. © The Author(s) 2016.

  12. Different Therapeutic Outcomes of Benznidazole and VNI Treatments in Different Genders in Mouse Experimental Models of Trypanosoma cruzi Infection

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Guedes-da-Silva, F H; Batista, D G J; da Silva, C F; Meuser, M B; Simões-Silva, M R; de Araújo, J S; Ferreira, C G; Moreira, O C; Britto, C; Lepesheva, G I; Soeiro, Maria de Nazaré C

    2015-01-01

    ...) and with the potent experimental T. cruzi CYP51 inhibitor VNI in mouse models of Chagas disease by using different animal genders and parasite strains and employing distinct types of therapeutic schemes...

  13. Spotlight on measles 2010: An epidemiological overview of measles outbreaks in Poland in relation to the measles elimination goal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogalska, J; Santibanez, S; Mankertz, A; Makowka, A; Szenborn, L; Stefanoff, P

    2010-04-29

    The objective of this study was to describe transmission chains of measles observed in Poland during 2008-2009. A decade ago, the incidence of measles in Poland declined and approached one case per million inhabitants one of the World Health Organization's criteria for measles elimination. Following a period of very few reported measles cases (2003 to 2005), an increase in incidence was observed in 2006. Since then, the incidence has constantly exceeded one case per million inhabitants. Of 214 measles cases reported in 2008 and 2009 in Poland, 164 (77%) were linked to 19 distinct outbreaks, with 79% of cases belonging to the Roma ethnic group. Outbreaks in the non-Roma Polish population had different dynamics compared to those in the Roma population. On average, measles outbreaks in Roma communities involved 10 individuals, seven of whom were unvaccinated, while outbreaks in the non-Roma Polish population involved five individuals, half of whom were incompletely vaccinated. The majority of outbreaks in Roma communities were related to importation of virus from the United Kingdom. In six outbreaks, the epidemiologic investigation was confirmed by identification of genotype D4 closely related to measles viruses detected in the United Kingdom and Germany. Our data indicate that Poland is approaching measles elimination, but measles virus circulation is still sustained in a vulnerable population. More efforts are needed to integrate the Roma ethnic group into the Polish healthcare system and innovative measures to reach vulnerable groups should be explored.

  14. [Measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine. Resurgence of measles in Europe].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcés-Sánchez, María; Renales-Toboso, María; Bóveda-García, María; Díez-Domingo, Javier

    2015-12-01

    Measles is a rash illness of moderate severity and high risk of serious complications, with recovery in several weeks. It is a viral disease caused by one of the most infectious and contagious pathogens that exists, whose only known reservoir is human. In 1998, the European Region of the WHO set a target of eliminating measles by 2010. This goal has not been achieved. Furthermore, it has been observed the resurgence of the disease in some parts of Europe. We review the disease and its vaccines as well as the epidemiological and social factors that have so far prevented the total control of the disease. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. y Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  15. CARBOHYDRATE – BASED EXPERIMENTAL THERAPEUTICS FOR CANCER, HIV/AIDS AND OTHER DISEASES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, Steven B.; Alvarez, Maribel; Nnoli, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    SUMMARY This review, primarily for general readers, briefly presents experimental approaches to therapeutics of cancer, HIV/AIDS and various other diseases based on advances in glycobiology and glycochemistry. Experimental cancer and HIV/AIDS vaccines are being developed in attempts to overcome weak immunological responses to carbohydrate – rich surface antigens using carriers, adjuvants and novel carbohydrate antigen constructs. Current carbohydrate – based vaccines are used for typhus, pneumonia, meningitis and vaccines for anthrax, malaria and leishmaniasis are under development. The link between O– linked β-N-acetylglucosamine glycosylation and protein phosphorylation in diseases including diabetes and Alzheimer's disease is also explored. Carbohydrate – associated drugs that are in current use or under development such as heparan sulphate binders, lectins, acarbose, aminoglycosides, tamiflu, and heparin, and technologies using carbohydrate and lectin microarrays, that offer improved diagnostic and drug development possibilities, are described. Advances in carbohydrate synthesis, analysis, and manipulation through the emerging fields of glycochemistry and glycobiology, are providing new approaches to disease therapeutics. PMID:17963823

  16. Carbohydrate-based experimental therapeutics for cancer, HIV/AIDS and other diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oppenheimer, Steven B; Alvarez, Maribel; Nnoli, Jennifer

    2008-01-01

    This review, primarily for general readers, briefly presents experimental approaches to therapeutics of cancer, HIV/AIDS and various other diseases based on advances in glycobiology and glycochemistry. Experimental cancer and HIV/AIDS vaccines are being developed in attempts to overcome weak immunological responses to carbohydrate-rich surface antigens using carriers, adjuvants and novel carbohydrate antigen constructs. Current carbohydrate-based vaccines are used for typhus, pneumonia, meningitis; vaccines for anthrax, malaria and leishmaniasis are under development. The link between O-linked beta-N-acetylglucosamine glycosylation and protein phosphorylation in diseases including diabetes and Alzheimer's disease is also explored. Carbohydrate-associated drugs that are in current use or under development, such as heparan sulfate binders, lectins, acarbose, aminoglycosides, tamiflu and heparin, and technologies using carbohydrate and lectin microarrays that offer improved diagnostic and drug development possibilities, are described. Advances in carbohydrate synthesis, analysis and manipulation through the emerging fields of glycochemistry and glycobiology are providing new approaches to disease therapeutics.

  17. Effect of mass measles vaccination on numbers of measles cases: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background. Low measles vaccine coverage has been a characteristic of child health indices in Uganda. A countrywide mass measles vaccination of children from 6 months to 15 years old was undertaken in October 2003 and again in October 2006. Objective. To describe the effect of mass measles vaccination on the ...

  18. Effect of mass measles vaccination on numbers of measles cases: A ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measles is an exanthem, caused by an RNA virus of the genus. Morbillivirus and the family Paramyxovirus.1 Measles is one of the oldest childhood diseases; the first written record goes back to the 10th century.2 The introduction of an effective vaccine has brought measles under reasonable control in the many countries ...

  19. Acute Measles Encephalitis in Partially Vaccinated Adults

    OpenAIRE

    Fox, Annette; Than Manh Hung; Wertheim, Heiman; Le Nguyen Minh Hoa; Vincent, Angela; Lang, Bethan; Waters, Patrick; Nguyen Hong Ha; Nguyen Vu Trung; Farrar, Jeremy; Nguyen Van Kinh; Horby, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Background The pathogenesis of acute measles encephalitis (AME) is poorly understood. Treatment with immune-modulators is based on theories that post-infectious autoimmune responses cause demyelination. The clinical course and immunological parameters of AME were examined during an outbreak in Vietnam. Methods and Findings Fifteen measles IgM-positive patients with confusion or Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS) score below 13, and thirteen with uncomplicated measles were enrolled from 2008?2010. Stand...

  20. Therapeutic effects of four strains of probiotics on experimental colitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Lin Lin; Wang, Xue Hong; Cui, Yi; Lian, Guang Hui; Zhang, Jie; Ouyang, Chun Hui; Lu, Fang Gen

    2009-01-21

    To investigate the therapeutic effects of four strains of probiotics (E. feacalis, L. acidophilus, C. butyricum and B. adolescentis) on dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced experimental colitis in Balb/c mice. Eighty Balb/c mice were randomly divided into 8 groups. Weight-loss, fecal character, fecal occult blood and hematochezia were recorded daily. Disease activity index (DAI) scores were also evaluated everyday. Length of colon was measured and histological scores were evaluated on the 13th day. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity was detected. Interleukin-1 (IL-1) and IL-4 expression was detected by ELISA and RT-PCR. The four strains of probiotics relieved the inflammatory condition of DSS-induced experimental colitis in mice. Weight loss was slowed down in all probiotics-treated mice. Even weight gain was observed by the end of probiotics treatment. The DAI and histological scores of probiotics-treated mice were lower than those of mice in the control group (1.9 +/- 0.2 vs 8.6 +/- 0.4, P probiotics-treated mice was longer than that of mice in the control group (10.3 +/- 0.34 vs 8.65 +/- 0.77, P probiotics decreased the MP activity and the IL-1 expression, but increased the IL-4 expression. E. faecalis had a better effect on DSS-induced experimental colitis in mice than the other three strains. The four strains of probiotics have beneficial effects on experimental colitis in mice. E. faecalis has a better effect on DSS-induced experimental colitis in mice than the other three strains. Supplement of probiotics provides a new therapy for UC.

  1. Prostaglandin E2 Indicates Therapeutic Efficacy of Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Experimental Traumatic Brain Injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kota, Daniel J; Prabhakara, Karthik S; Toledano-Furman, Naama; Bhattarai, Deepa; Chen, Qingzheng; DiCarlo, Bryan; Smith, Philippa; Triolo, Fabio; Wenzel, Pamela L; Cox, Charles S; Olson, Scott D

    2017-05-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is soon predicted to become the third leading cause of death and disability worldwide. After the primary injury, a complex set of secondary injuries develops hours and days later with prolonged neuroinflammation playing a key role. TBI and other inflammatory conditions are currently being treated in preclinical and clinical trials by a number of cellular therapies. Mesenchymal stem cells (MSC) are of great interest due to their widespread usage, safety, and relative ease to isolate and culture. However, there has been a wide range in efficacy reported using MSC clinically and in preclinical models, likely due to differences in cell preparations and a significant amount of donor variability. In this study, we seek to find a correlation between in vitro activity and in vivo efficacy. We designed assays to explore the responsiveness of MSC to immunological cues to address the immunomodulatory properties of MSC, one of their primary modes of therapeutic activity in TBI. Our results showed intrinsic differences in the immunomodulatory capacity of MSC preparations from different bone marrow and amniotic fluid donors. This difference mirrored the therapeutic capacity of the MSC in an experimental model of TBI, an effect confirmed using siRNA knockdown of COX2 followed by overexpressing COX2. Among the immunomodulatory factors assessed, the therapeutic benefit correlated with the secretion of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2 ) by MSC prior to treatment, suggesting that measurement of PGE2 could be a very useful potency marker to create an index of predicted efficacy for preparations of MSC to treat TBI. Stem Cells 2017;35:1416-1430. © 2017 AlphaMed Press.

  2. Preclinical Studies Evaluating Subacute Toxicity and Therapeutic Efficacy of LQB-118 in Experimental Visceral Leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha-Júnior, Edézio Ferreira; Martins, Thiago Martino; Canto-Cavalheiro, Marilene Marcuzzo; Marques, Paulo Roberto; Portari, Elyzabeth Avvad; Coelho, Marsen Garcia Pinto; Netto, Chaquip Daher; Costa, Paulo Roberto Ribeiro; Sabino, Katia Costa de Carvalho; Torres-Santos, Eduardo Caio

    2016-06-01

    Visceral leishmaniasis (VL) is the most severe form of leishmaniasis and is the second major cause of death by parasites, after malaria. The arsenal of drugs against leishmaniasis is small, and each has a disadvantage in terms of toxicity, efficacy, price, or treatment regimen. Our group has focused on studying new drug candidates as alternatives to current treatments. The pterocarpanquinone LQB-118 was designed and synthesized based on molecular hybridization, and it exhibited antiprotozoal and anti-leukemic cell line activities. Our previous work demonstrated that LQB-118 was an effective treatment for experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis. In this study, we observed that treatment with 10 mg/kg of body weight/day LQB-118 orally inhibited the development of hepatosplenomegaly with a 99% reduction in parasite load. An in vivo toxicological analysis showed no change in the clinical, biochemical, or hematological parameters. Histologically, all of the analyzed organs were normal, with the exception of the liver, where focal points of necrosis with leukocytic infiltration were observed at treatment doses 5 times higher than the therapeutic dose; however, these changes were not accompanied by an increase in transaminases. Our findings indicate that LQB-118 is effective at treating different clinical forms of leishmaniasis and presents no relevant signs of toxicity at therapeutic doses; thus, this framework is demonstrated suitable for developing promising drug candidates for the oral treatment of leishmaniasis. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. A novel therapeutic strategy for experimental stroke using docosahexaenoic acid complexed to human albumin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belayev Ludmila

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Despite tremendous efforts in ischemic stroke research and significant improvements in patient care within the last decade, therapy is still insufficient. There is a compelling, urgent need for safe and effective neuroprotective strategies to limit brain injury, facilitate brain repair, and improve functional outcome. Recently, we reported that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA; 22:6, n-3 complexed to human albumin (DHA-Alb is highly neuroprotective after temporary middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo in young rats. This review highlights the potency of DHA-Alb therapy in permanent MCAo and aged rats and whether protection persists with chronic survival. We discovered that a novel therapy with DHA-Alb improved behavioral outcomes accompanied by attenuation of lesion volumes even when animals were allowed to survive three weeks after experimental stroke. This treatment might provide the basis for future therapeutics for patients suffering from ischemic stroke.

  4. Review of novel therapeutic targets for improving heart failure treatment based on experimental and clinical studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bonsu KO

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Kwadwo Osei Bonsu,1,2 Isaac Kofi Owusu,3 Kwame Ohene Buabeng,4 Daniel Diamond Reidpath,1 Amudha Kadirvelu1 1School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Monash University Sunway Campus, Jalan Lagoon Selatan, Bandar Sunway, Subang Jaya, Selangor, Malaysia; 2Accident and Emergency Directorate, Komfo Anokye Teaching Hospital, 3Department of Medicine, 4Department of Clinical and Social Pharmacy, College of Health Sciences, Kwame Nkrumah University of Science and Technology, Kumasi, Ghana Abstract: Heart failure (HF is a major public health priority due to its epidemiological transition and the world’s aging population. HF is typified by continuous loss of contractile function with reduced, normal, or preserved ejection fraction, elevated vascular resistance, fluid and autonomic imbalance, and ventricular dilatation. Despite considerable advances in the treatment of HF over the past few decades, mortality remains substantial. Pharmacological treatments including β-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, angiotensin receptor blockers, and aldosterone antagonists have been proven to prolong the survival of patients with HF. However, there are still instances where patients remain symptomatic, despite optimal use of existing therapeutic agents. This understanding that patients with chronic HF progress into advanced stages despite receiving optimal treatment has increased the quest for alternatives, exploring the roles of additional pathways that contribute to the development and progression of HF. Several pharmacological targets associated with pathogenesis of HF have been identified and novel therapies have emerged. In this work, we review recent evidence from proposed mechanisms to the outcomes of experimental and clinical studies of the novel pharmacological agents that have emerged for the treatment of HF. Keywords: novel treatment, experimental and clinical studies, therapeutic targets, heart failure

  5. Placental malaria and immunity to infant measles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Owens, S.; Harper, G.; Amuasi, J.; Offei-Larbi, G.; Ordi, J.; Brabin, B. J.

    2006-01-01

    The efficiency of transplacental transfer of measles specific antibody was assessed in relation to placental malaria. Infection at delivery was associated with a 30% decrease in expected cord measles antibody titres. Uninfected women who received anti-malarial drugs during pregnancy transmitted 30%

  6. Measles virus host invasion and pathogenesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B.M. Laksono (Brigitta); R.D. de Vries (Rory); S. McQuaid (Stephen); W.P. Duprex (Paul); R.L. de Swart (Rik)

    2016-01-01

    textabstractMeasles virus is a highly contagious negative strand RNA virus that is transmitted via the respiratory route and causes systemic disease in previously unexposed humans and non-human primates. Measles is characterised by fever and skin rash and usually associated with cough, coryza and

  7. Dermatological manifestations of measles infection in hospitalised ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of those serologically confirmed to have measles (N=38), 26.3% (95% CI 11.6 - 40.9%) conformed to the 'classic' dermatological picture. Therefore, a significant majority of these patients presented with what was considered in this study to be a 'non-classic' dermatological picture.Conclusions. Measles infection in a ...

  8. Spread of Measles Virus in Europe

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2011-10-06

    Dr. Paul Rota, team lead for the Measles Laboratory, Division of Viral Diseases, at CDC, talks about a measles virus survey in Europe, 2008-2011.  Created: 10/6/2011 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID) and National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD).   Date Released: 10/6/2011.

  9. Therapeutic effect of curcumin on experimental colitis mediated by inhibiting CD8+CD11c+ cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Hai-Mei; Han, Fei; Xu, Rong; Huang, Xiao-Ying; Cheng, Shao-Min; Huang, Min-Fang; Yue, Hai-Yang; Wang, Xin; Zou, Yong; Xu, Han-Lin; Liu, Duan-Yong

    2017-03-14

    To verify whether curcumin (Cur) can treat inflammatory bowel disease by regulating CD8+CD11c+ cells. We evaluated the suppressive effect of Cur on CD8+CD11c+ cells in spleen and Peyer's patches (PPs) in colitis induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid. Mice with colitis were treated by 200 mg/kg Cur for 7 d. On day 8, the therapeutic effect of Cur was evaluated by visual assessment and histological examination, while co-stimulatory molecules of CD8+CD11c+ cells in the spleen and PPs were measured by flow cytometry. The levels of interleukin (IL)-10, interferon (IFN)-γ and transforming growth factor (TGF)-β1 in spleen and colonic mucosa were determined by ELISA. The disease activity index, colon weight, weight index of colon and histological score of experimental colitis were obviously decreased after Cur treatment, while the body weight and colon length recovered. After treatment with Cur, CD8+CD11c+ cells were decreased in the spleen and PPs, and the expression of major histocompatibility complex II, CD205, CD40, CD40L and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 was inhibited. IL-10, IFN-γ and TGF-β1 levels were increased compared with those in mice with untreated colitis. Cur can effectively treat experimental colitis, which is realized by inhibiting CD8+CD11c+ cells.

  10. Preventative and Therapeutic Probiotic Use in Allergic Skin Conditions: Experimental and Clinical Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Öner; Göksu Erol, Azize Yasemin

    2013-01-01

    Probiotics are ingested live microbes that can modify intestinal microbial populations in a way that benefits the host. The interest in probiotic preventative/therapeutic potential in allergic diseases stemmed from the fact that probiotics have been shown to improve intestinal dysbiosis and permeability and to reduce inflammatory cytokines in human and murine experimental models. Enhanced presence of probiotic bacteria in the intestinal microbiota is found to correlate with protection against allergy. Therefore, many studies have been recently designed to examine the efficacy of probiotics, but the literature on the allergic skin disorders is still very scarce. Here, our objective is to summarize and evaluate the available knowledge from randomized or nonrandomized controlled trials of probiotic use in allergic skin conditions. Clinical improvement especially in IgE-sensitized eczema and experimental models such as atopic dermatitis-like lesions (trinitrochlorobenzene and picryl chloride sensitizations) and allergic contact dermatitis (dinitrofluorobenzene sensitization) has been reported. Although there is a very promising evidence to recommend the addition of probiotics into foods, probiotics do not have a proven role in the prevention or the therapy of allergic skin disorders. Thus, being aware of possible measures, such as probiotics use, to prevent/heal atopic diseases is essential for the practicing allergy specialist. PMID:24078929

  11. Therapeutic targets and limits of minocycline neuroprotection in experimental ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaneko Yuji

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Minocycline, a second-generation tetracycline with anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties, has been shown to promote therapeutic benefits in experimental stroke. However, equally compelling evidence demonstrates that the drug exerts variable and even detrimental effects in many neurological disease models. Assessment of the mechanism underlying minocycline neuroprotection should clarify the drug's clinical value in acute stroke setting. Results Here, we demonstrate that minocycline attenuates both in vitro (oxygen glucose deprivation and in vivo (middle cerebral artery occlusion experimentally induced ischemic deficits by direct inhibition of apoptotic-like neuronal cell death involving the anti-apoptotic Bcl-2/cytochrome c pathway. Such anti-apoptotic effect of minocycline is seen in neurons, but not apparent in astrocytes. Our data further indicate that the neuroprotection is dose-dependent, in that only low dose minocycline inhibits neuronal cell death cascades at the acute stroke phase, whereas the high dose exacerbates the ischemic injury. Conclusion The present study advises our community to proceed with caution to use the minimally invasive intravenous delivery of low dose minocycline in order to afford neuroprotection that is safe for stroke.

  12. Measles vaccination and prevention in big cities in China

    OpenAIRE

    Meina, Li; Xiaodong, Liu; Lulu, ZHANG

    2015-01-01

    Despite the tremendous progress in controlling measles in China, there was measles outbreak in Beijing which was a result of cluster of unvaccinated people or people failure to vaccinate. In order to accelerate measles control efforts and achieve and high levels of measles immunity, it is helpful to implement more targeted management strategy.

  13. Efeitos do ultrassom terapêutico em modelo experimental de ciatalgia Therapeutic ultrasound effects in a sciatica experimental model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Policam Ciena

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available A ciática possui grande prevalência geral e seu tratamento tende a resolver as causas de compressão nervosa. A fisioterapia objetiva reduzir os sintomas causados pela compressão. O presente estudo teve como objetivo avaliar a eficácia do ultrassom terapêutico sobre a dor, em animais submetidos a modelo experimental de ciatalgia. Foram usados 18 ratos neste estudo, divididos em três grupos: GS (n = 4, submetido a modelo de ciatalgia e tratados com ultrassom desligado; GUP (n = 7, submetido à ciatalgia e tratados com ultrassom pulsado 2W/cm² (SATP; 0,4 - SATA; e grupo GUC (n = 7, submetido à ciática e ultrassom contínuo (0,4W/cm². O nervo ciático do membro posterior direito foi exposto à compressão com fio categute em quatro pontos. No 3º dia pós-operatório (PO, iniciou-se tratamento indireto por quatro dias. No 9º dia PO, o tratamento direto começou sobre a área do procedimento cirúrgico, por cinco dias consecutivos. O tempo de elevação da pata, durante a marcha, foi avaliado antes e após a ciatalgia, no 3º, 6º, 9º e 13º PO. Os resultados demonstraram que a aplicação do ultrassom reduziu a dor com ambos os tratamentos efetivos e tendeu a ser mais eficaz na forma pulsada.The sciatica possesses great general population prevalence, and its treatment tends to solve the nervous compression causes. Physiotherapy aims to reduce the symptoms caused by compression. This study aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of therapeutic ultrasound on pain in animals subjected to sciatica experimental model. Eighteen rats were used and they were divided in 3 groups: group SG (n=4 submitted to the sciatica and treated with the ultrasound off, group PUG (n=7 submitted to the sciatica and treated with pulsed ultrasound 2 W/cm² (SATP; 0,4 - SATA and group CUG (n=7 submitted to the sciatica and treated with continuous ultrasound (0,4 W/cm². The sciatic nerve of the posterior right limb was exposed to the compression with Catgut wire in 4

  14. Treatment of medulloblastoma with oncolytic measles viruses expressing the angiogenesis inhibitors endostatin and angiostatin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutzen, Brian; Bid, Hemant Kumar; Houghton, Peter J; Pierson, Christopher R; Powell, Kimerly; Bratasz, Anna; Raffel, Corey; Studebaker, Adam W

    2014-03-19

    vessels and a trend for increased survival compared to mice treated with the control virus. These data suggest that oncolytic measles viruses encoding anti-angiogenic proteins may have therapeutic benefit against medulloblastoma and support ongoing efforts to target angiogenesis in medulloblastoma.

  15. Immune status of health care workers to measles virus: evaluation of protective titers in four measles IgG EIAs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dorigo-Zetsma, J.W.; Hall, M.A.; Vreeswijk, J.; Vries, J.J. de; Vossen, A.C.; Hulscher, H.I. Ten; Kerkhof, J.; Smits, G.P.; Ruijs, W.L.M.; Koopmans, M.P.; Binnendijk, R.S. van

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Following the recognition of a measles case in a hospital in The Netherlands, health care workers (HCW) from the premises were screened by a commercial enzyme immunoassay (EIA) for measles IgG to identify persons at risk for measles. At least 10% of the HCW were tested measles

  16. An Experimental Toxoplasma gondii Dose Response Challenge Model to Study Therapeutic or Vaccine Efficacy in Cats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cornelissen, Jan B. W. J.; van der Giessen, Joke W. B.; Takumi, Katsuhisa; Teunis, Peter F. M.; Wisselink, Henk J.

    2014-01-01

    High numbers of Toxoplasma gondii oocysts in the environment are a risk factor to humans. The environmental contamination might be reduced by vaccinating the definitive host, cats. An experimental challenge model is necessary to quantitatively assess the efficacy of a vaccine or drug treatment. Previous studies have indicated that bradyzoites are highly infectious for cats. To infect cats, tissue cysts were isolated from the brains of mice infected with oocysts of T. gondii M4 strain, and bradyzoites were released by pepsin digestion. Free bradyzoites were counted and graded doses (1000, 100, 50, 10), and 250 intact tissue cysts were inoculated orally into three cats each. Oocysts shed by these five groups of cats were collected from faeces by flotation techniques, counted microscopically and estimated by real time PCR. Additionally, the number of T. gondii in heart, tongue and brains were estimated, and serology for anti T. gondii antibodies was performed. A Beta-Poisson dose-response model was used to estimate the infectivity of single bradyzoites and linear regression was used to determine the relation between inoculated dose and numbers of oocyst shed. We found that real time PCR was more sensitive than microscopic detection of oocysts, and oocysts were detected by PCR in faeces of cats fed 10 bradyzoites but by microscopic examination. Real time PCR may only detect fragments of T. gondii DNA without the presence of oocysts in low doses. Prevalence of tissue cysts of T. gondii in tongue, heart and brains, and anti T. gondii antibody concentrations were all found to depend on the inoculated bradyzoite dose. The combination of the experimental challenge model and the dose response analysis provides a suitable reference for quantifying the potential reduction in human health risk due to a treatment of domestic cats by vaccination or by therapeutic drug application. PMID:25184619

  17. Experimental Models of Status Epilepticus and Neuronal Injury for Evaluation of Therapeutic Interventions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramkumar Kuruba

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available This article describes current experimental models of status epilepticus (SE and neuronal injury for use in the screening of new therapeutic agents. Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder characterized by recurrent unprovoked seizures. SE is an emergency condition associated with continuous seizures lasting more than 30 min. It causes significant mortality and morbidity. SE can cause devastating damage to the brain leading to cognitive impairment and increased risk of epilepsy. Benzodiazepines are the first-line drugs for the treatment of SE, however, many people exhibit partial or complete resistance due to a breakdown of GABA inhibition. Therefore, new drugs with neuroprotective effects against the SE-induced neuronal injury and degeneration are desirable. Animal models are used to study the pathophysiology of SE and for the discovery of newer anticonvulsants. In SE paradigms, seizures are induced in rodents by chemical agents or by electrical stimulation of brain structures. Electrical stimulation includes perforant path and self-sustaining stimulation models. Pharmacological models include kainic acid, pilocarpine, flurothyl, organophosphates and other convulsants that induce SE in rodents. Neuronal injury occurs within the initial SE episode, and animals exhibit cognitive dysfunction and spontaneous seizures several weeks after this precipitating event. Current SE models have potential applications but have some limitations. In general, the experimental SE model should be analogous to the human seizure state and it should share very similar neuropathological mechanisms. The pilocarpine and diisopropylfluorophosphate models are associated with prolonged, diazepam-insensitive seizures and neurodegeneration and therefore represent paradigms of refractory SE. Novel mechanism-based or clinically relevant models are essential to identify new therapies for SE and neuroprotective interventions.

  18. Measles Virus Host Invasion and Pathogenesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brigitta M. Laksono

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Measles virus is a highly contagious negative strand RNA virus that is transmitted via the respiratory route and causes systemic disease in previously unexposed humans and non-human primates. Measles is characterised by fever and skin rash and usually associated with cough, coryza and conjunctivitis. A hallmark of measles is the transient immune suppression, leading to increased susceptibility to opportunistic infections. At the same time, the disease is paradoxically associated with induction of a robust virus-specific immune response, resulting in lifelong immunity to measles. Identification of CD150 and nectin-4 as cellular receptors for measles virus has led to new perspectives on tropism and pathogenesis. In vivo studies in non-human primates have shown that the virus initially infects CD150+ lymphocytes and dendritic cells, both in circulation and in lymphoid tissues, followed by virus transmission to nectin-4 expressing epithelial cells. The abilities of the virus to cause systemic infection, to transmit to numerous new hosts via droplets or aerosols and to suppress the host immune response for several months or even years after infection make measles a remarkable disease. This review briefly highlights current topics in studies of measles virus host invasion and pathogenesis.

  19. Folklore therapeutic indigenous plants in periodontal disorders in India (review, experimental and clinical approach).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, V K; Venkatakrishna-Bhatt, H

    1988-04-01

    Though a number of plants and their parts are used for dental ailments among population in rural and urban areas of developing countries, in India however, the most common house-hold, road-side plants are mango (Mangifera indica), neem (Azadirachta indica; Melia azadirachta), ocimum (Ocimum basilicum), tea-dust (Camellia sinensis) and uncommonly murayya, i.e., currey leaf (Murayya koenigi) [Chopra et al. 1958, Kirtikar and Basu 1935, Nadakarni 1954, Satyavati 1984]. The leaves of these plants are folded and brushed (massage with teadust) against the teeth. Therefore, the present study is restricted only to the fleshy leaf extracts [Jindal et al. 1975] (except tea) of these plants inspite of certain limitations in the methodology and arbitrations in the microbial identification and isolation in the light of recent advances in folk dentistry. The investigation was carried out in two parts: 1) Experimental study: The efficacy of various dentifrices (commonly available in the market) and the potentiating effect of the leaf extract (LE) of the aforesaid indigenous plants when amalgamated with the tooth-paste against pathogens, were investigated. Further, the protection afforded by the said plant extracts (PE) over the conventional allopathic medicines on the human plaque cultures and gram negative bacteria from patients were studied. 2) Clinical study: The therapeutic effects of the said PE (individually) on clinical application among severely infected patients were examined.

  20. Experimental investigations into the therapeutic effect of griseofulvin in favus caused by Trichophyton schoenleinii*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grin, E. I.; Nadaždin, M.

    1965-01-01

    Experimental investigations have been carried out in 32 children on the therapeutic effect of griseofulvin in favus caused by Trichophyton schoenleinii and to determine the optimal treatment schedule. It was found that, while daily doses of 3.12 mg, 6.25 mg or 12.50 mg griseofulvin per kg of body-weight did bring about a measurable degree of inhibition of the fungal hyphae in infected hairs, a dose of 25 mg/kg daily for some 28 days was required to effect complete cure. The advantages of greater daily doses (50 mg/kg) were not sufficiently pronounced to justify the extra cost involved. Administration of doses under 50 mg/kg on alternate days is unsatisfactory, as it allows for the re-establishment of the hyphae in newly formed keratin. Another favourable schedule is the administration of 50 mg/kg daily for five days, thus setting up a stable and impenetrable griseofulvin barrier, followed for about 28 days by daily doses of 6.25 mg/kg that would otherwise be subtherapeutic but in this case prevent the reintroduction of infection from extrapilar fungi. ImagesFIG. 4FIG. 6 PMID:5294590

  1. A novel natural compound from garlic (Allium sativum L.) with therapeutic effects against experimental polymicrobial sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sung Kyun; Park, Yoo Jung; Ko, Min Jung; Wang, Ziyu; Lee, Ha Young; Choi, Young Whan; Bae, Yoe-Sik

    2015-08-28

    Sepsis is a serious, life-threatening, infectious disease. In this study, we demonstrate that sucrose methyl 3-formyl-4-methylpentanoate (SMFM), a novel natural compound isolated from garlic (Allium sativum L.), markedly enhances survival rates by inhibiting lung inflammation in a cecal ligation and puncture (CLP) experimental polymicrobial sepsis model. SMFM strongly reduced bacterial colony units from peritoneal fluid in CLP mice by stimulating the generation of reactive oxygen species. Lymphocyte apoptosis in spleens from CLP mice was also markedly decreased by SMFM administration. SMFM also significantly inhibited the production of proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-6, in CLP mice. Lipopolysaccharide-stimulated production of TNF-α and IL-6 were also strongly inhibited by SMFM in mouse bone marrow-derived macrophages. Taken together, our results indicate that SMFM has therapeutic effects against polymicrobial sepsis that are mediated by enhanced microbial killing and blockage of cytokine storm. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Measles outbreak reveals measles susceptibility among adults in Namibia, 2009 - 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ogbuanu, Ikechukwu U; Muroua, Clementine; Allies, Martiena; Chitala, Kennedy; Gerber, Sue; Shilunga, Primus; Mhata, Petrus; Kriss, Jennifer L; Caparos, Lucille; Smit, Sheilagh B; De Wee, Roselina J; Goodson, James L

    2016-06-17

    The World Health Organization, African Region, set the goal of achieving measles elimination by 2020. Namibia was one of seven African countries to implement an accelerated measles control strategy beginning in 1996. Following implementation of this strategy, measles incidence decreased; however, between 2009 and 2011 a major outbreak occurred in Namibia. Measles vaccination coverage data were analysed and a descriptive epidemiological analysis of the measles outbreak was conducted using measles case-based surveillance and laboratory data. During 1989 - 2008, MCV1 (the first routine dose of measles vaccine) coverage increased from 56% to 73% and five supplementary immunisation activities were implemented. During the outbreak (August 2009 - February 2011), 4 605 suspected measles cases were reported; of these, 3 256 were confirmed by laboratory testing or epidemiological linkage. Opuwo, a largely rural district in north-western Namibia with nomadic populations, had the highest confirmed measles incidence (16 427 cases per million). Infants aged ≤11 months had the highest cumulative age-specific incidence (9 252 cases per million) and comprised 22% of all confirmed cases; however, cases occurred across a wide age range, including adults aged ≥30 years. Among confirmed cases, 85% were unvaccinated or had unknown vaccination history. The predominantly detected measles virus genotype was B3, circulating in concurrent outbreaks in southern Africa, and B2, previously detected in Angola. A large-scale measles outbreak with sustained transmission over 18 months occurred in Namibia, probably caused by importation. The wide age distribution of cases indicated measles-susceptible individuals accumulated over several decades prior to the start of the outbreak.

  3. EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF THE EFFECTIVENESS OF THE JOINT THERAPEUTIC ACTION OF LACTOGLOBULIN AND SALLMONELLA BACTERIOPHAGE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Aleksanina

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The wide spread of drug-resistant forms of the pathogens, complicating prevention and treatment of acute intestinal infections, determines the feasibility of using bacteriophages and immune lactoglobulins for antibacterial therapy of these diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the antibacterial efficacy of the joint use of immune lactoglobulin and Salmonella bacteriophage in the treatment of experimental salmonellosis in mice. The experimental Salmonella infection was reproduced by means of a single intragastric administration of 2LD50 of daily agar culture of S.typhimurium. As a result, the development of Salmonella infection lasting up to 14 days was noted. The animals were divided into four groups according to the pattern of the treatment. The following preparations were used for the treatment of animals: «Lactoglobulin against opportunistic bacteria and Salmonella» dry cow, «Lactoglobulin» liquid, bacteriophage of Salmonella ABCDE groups, liquid. The preparations were daily administered to mice orally after the infection for 7 days. In the study of the joint therapeutic effect of the lactoglobulin and bacteriophage the special attention was paid to the terms of elimination of the pathogen from animal organs. Analysis of the data showed that in all four groups a positive dynamics of excretion of the pathogen of mice was revealed. In groups of animals that were treated with both drugs, the elimination of Salmonella out of organs occurred 1.5 times faster than in the control groups of mice. At the same time in the experimental groups on the third day of treatment with preparations the statistically significant decrease in the number of S.typhimurium in the contents of the large intestine of animal was revealed. The study found that immune lactoglobulin used simultaneously with Salmonella phage for 7 days reduced the severity and duration of the disease course and blocked the further development of the infectious process

  4. Morbidity in whooping cough and measles.

    OpenAIRE

    Conway, S.P.; Phillips, R R

    1989-01-01

    Parents of 99 children who were admitted to hospital with whooping cough or measles, and of 50 children with whooping cough or measles who were nursed at home, were interviewed to determine the extent of morbidity and its effects on the family. Children admitted with whooping cough or measles spent a mean of 12.6 and 5.8 days in hospital, respectively. Time to full recovery was 13.7 and 2.1 weeks, respectively. Over a third of the children who were admitted were emotionally upset during the a...

  5. Measles in a west African nomadic community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loutan, L; Paillard, S

    1992-01-01

    A serological survey was conducted among Tuareg nomads to determine their level of immunity to measles. More than half (57.9%) of the children under 10 years of age did not have detectable antibodies to measles, suggesting that transmission of the disease is low in this mobile population. Mothers' reports of their children's history of measles were accurate (positive predictive value 93.9% for under-5-year-olds). Nomads are a reservoir of susceptible individuals who require immunization strategies adapted to their particular life-styles. These can be implemented at relatively low cost.

  6. Global eradication of measles: Are we poised?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghavendra D Kulkarni

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Measles, a highly infectious viral disease is the next target for eradication following poliovirus. Decades of experience with highly effective vaccination has invigorated us to take on this virus. The task is not only Titanic but is laced with intricate issues. Recently, an outbreak of fever with rash occurred on a tertiary care teaching hospital campus and was confirmed serologically as measles outbreak by IgMELISA. Therefore, we searched the literature related to outbreaks, transmission of the measles virus, age groups involved, vaccination strategies, vaccination failure and epidemiological features of the disease and reviewed the possible reasons for such outbreaks and problems in the global eradication of the virus.

  7. Girls may have lower levels of maternal measles antibodies and higher risk of subclinical measles infection before the age of measles vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Cesario; Bale, Carlitos; Garly, May-Lill

    2009-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Previous studies have suggested that girls may have lower maternal measles antibody levels than boys. Girls might therefore be more likely to contract measles infection before the normal age of measles vaccination at 9 months of age. METHODS: In connection with a clinical trial...... of different measles vaccination strategies, we collected pre-measles vaccination blood samples at 4.5 months of age from two subgroups of children. Samples from these children were used to assess possible differences in maternal antibody levels for boys and girls. At 9 months of age another subgroup...... of children was sampled before the normal measles vaccination; these samples were used to assess the frequency of subclinical measles infection among boys and girls. RESULTS: We determined measles-specific antibody levels for 812 children at 4.5 months of age and for 896 children at 9 months of age. At 4...

  8. Measles to the Rescue: A Review of Oncolytic Measles Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sarah Aref

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Oncolytic virotherapeutic agents are likely to become serious contenders in cancer treatment. The vaccine strain of measles virus is an agent with an impressive range of oncolytic activity in pre-clinical trials with increasing evidence of safety and efficacy in early clinical trials. This paramyxovirus vaccine has a proven safety record and is amenable to careful genetic modification in the laboratory. Overexpression of the measles virus (MV receptor CD46 in many tumour cells may direct the virus to preferentially enter transformed cells and there is increasing awareness of the importance of nectin-4 and signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM in oncolysis. Successful attempts to retarget MV by inserting genes for tumour-specific ligands to antigens such as carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA, CD20, CD38, and by engineering the virus to express synthetic microRNA targeting sequences, and “blinding” the virus to the natural viral receptors are exciting measures to increase viral specificity and enhance the oncolytic effect. Sodium iodine symporter (NIS can also be expressed by MV, which enables in vivo tracking of MV infection. Radiovirotherapy using MV-NIS, chemo-virotherapy to convert prodrugs to their toxic metabolites, and immune-virotherapy including incorporating antibodies against immune checkpoint inhibitors can also increase the oncolytic potential. Anti-viral host immune responses are a recognized barrier to the success of MV, and approaches such as transporting MV to the tumour sites by carrier cells, are showing promise. MV Clinical trials are producing encouraging preliminary results in ovarian cancer, myeloma and cutaneous non-Hodgkin lymphoma, and the outcome of currently open trials in glioblastoma multiforme, mesothelioma and squamous cell carcinoma are eagerly anticipated.

  9. A general measles vaccination campaign in urban Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byberg, S.; Thysen, S. M.; Rodrigues, A.

    2017-01-01

    .15 (0.04–0.63)). Conclusions We found indications of strong beneficial non-specific effects of receiving measles vaccine during the 2012 campaign, especially for girls and children with previous routine measles vaccination. Measles vaccination campaigns may be an effective way of improving child......Background Measles vaccination campaigns targeting children aged 9–59 months are conducted every three years in Guinea-Bissau. Studies have demonstrated beneficial non-specific effects of measles vaccine. We compared mortality one year after the December 2012 measles vaccination campaign in Bissau...... city for children who received campaign measles vaccine with children who did not receive campaign measles vaccine. Methods Field workers from Bandim Health Project registered all children living in the Bandim Health Project's study area who received measles vaccination at the campaign posts. Children...

  10. MMR Vaccine (Measles, Mumps, and Rubella)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... jerking and staring), brain damage, and death. Mumps:Mumps virus causes fever, headache, muscle pain, loss of appetite, ... ovaries, and rarely sterility. Rubella (German Measles):Rubella virus causes rash, ... mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine can protect children (and ...

  11. Acute measles encephalitis in partially vaccinated adults.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annette Fox

    Full Text Available The pathogenesis of acute measles encephalitis (AME is poorly understood. Treatment with immune-modulators is based on theories that post-infectious autoimmune responses cause demyelination. The clinical course and immunological parameters of AME were examined during an outbreak in Vietnam.Fifteen measles IgM-positive patients with confusion or Glasgow Coma Scale (GCS score below 13, and thirteen with uncomplicated measles were enrolled from 2008-2010. Standardized clinical exams were performed and blood collected for lymphocyte and measles- and auto-antibody analysis. The median age of AME patients was 21 years, similar to controls. Eleven reported receiving measles vaccination when aged one year. Confusion developed a median of 4 days after rash. Six patients had GCS <8 and four required mechanical ventilation. CSF showed pleocytosis (64% and proteinorrhachia (71% but measles virus RNA was not detected. MRI revealed bilateral lesions in the cerebellum and brain stem in some patients. Most received dexamethasone +/- IVIG within 4 days of admission but symptoms persisted for ≥3 weeks in five. The concentration of voltage gated calcium channel-complex-reactive antibodies was 900 pM in one patient, and declined to 609 pM ∼ 3 months later. Measles-reactive IgG antibody avidity was high in AME patients born after vaccine coverage exceeded 50% (∼ 25 years earlier. AME patients had low CD4 (218/µl, p = 0.029 and CD8 (200/µl, p = 0.012 T-cell counts compared to controls.Young adults presenting with AME in Vietnam reported a history of one prior measles immunization, and those aged <25 years had high measles-reactive IgG avidity indicative of prior vaccination. This suggests that one-dose measles immunization is not sufficient to prevent AME in young adults and reinforces the importance of maintaining high coverage with a two-dose measles immunization schedule. Treatment with corticosteroids and IVIG is common practice, and should be

  12. Radioimmunoassay of measles virus antibodies in SSPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jankowski, M.A.; Gut, W.; Kantoch, M. (Department of Virology, National Institute of Hygiene, Warsaw (Poland))

    1982-12-01

    A sensitive radioimmunoassay (RIA) was introduced for detecting measles virus IgG and IgM antibodies. The hyperimmune response to the measles virus could be demonstrated more accurately by RIA than by haemagglutination inhibition (HI). The ratio between RIA and HI antibody titres was decidedly higher in sera and cerebrospinal fluids of patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis than in those of other groups tested.

  13. Allergic Disease and Atopic Sensitization in Children in Relation to Measles Vaccination and Measles Infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenlund, Helen; Bergstrom, Anna; Alm, Johan S.; Swartz, Jackie; Scheynius, Annika; van Hage, Marianne; Johansen, Kari; Brunekreef, Bert; von Mutius, Erika; Ege, Markus J.; Riedler, Josef; Braun-Fahrlaender, Charlotte; Waser, Marco; Pershagen, Goran

    OBJECTIVE. Our aim was to investigate the role of measles vaccination and measles infection in the development of allergic disease and atopic sensitization. METHODS. A total of 14 893 children were included from the cross-sectional, multicenter Prevention of Allergy-Risk Factors for Sensitization in

  14. Allergic disease and atopic sensitization in children in relation to measles vaccination and measles infection.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rosenlund, H.; Bergstrom, A.; Alm, J.; Swartz, J.; Scheynius, A.; van Hage, M.; Johansen, K.; Brunekreef, B.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/067548180; von Mutius, E.; Ege, M.; Riedler, J.; Braun-Fahrlander, C.; Waser, M.; Pershagen, G.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Our aim was to investigate the role of measles vaccination and measles infection in the development of allergic disease and atopic sensitization. METHODS: A total of 14 893 children were included from the cross-sectional, multicenter Prevention of Allergy-Risk Factors for Sensitization in

  15. Theoretical Evaluation and Experimental Validation of Localized Therapeutic Hypothermia Application to Preserve Residual Hearing After Cochlear Implantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamames, Ilmar; King, Curtis; Huang, Chin-Yuh; Telischi, Fred F; Hoffer, Michael E; Rajguru, Suhrud M

    2017-12-13

    Cochlear implantation surgery has been shown to result in trauma to inner ear sensory structures, resulting in loss of residual hearing. Localized therapeutic hypothermia has been shown in clinical care to be a neuroprotective intervention. Previously, we have shown in an experimental model that localized hypothermia protects cochlear hair cells and residual hearing function against surgical and cochlear implantation trauma. Using experimental temperature measurements carried out in human cadaver temporal bones and a finite element model of the inner ear, the present study examined the temperature distribution of a custom-designed hypothermia delivery system in the human inner ear organs. The efficacy of the hypothermia probe and resulting heat distribution across human cochlea and surrounding tissues were modeled in three-dimensional in COMSOL. The geometry and dimensions of inner ear and temporal bones were derived from computed tomographic and magnetic resonance imaging images. Model predictions were compared with experimental observations from five human temporal bones. In both the modeling and experimental studies, the cochlear temperature was lowered by 4 to 6 °C on the round window from a baseline of 37 °C within 16 to 18 minutes. The model simulations showed uniformly distributed cooling across the cochlea. This study provides insight for design, operation, and protocols for efficacious delivery of mild therapeutic hypothermia to the human cochlea that may significantly benefit patients undergoing surgical cochlear implantation by preserving residual hearing. There was a close correlation between the results of the numerical simulations and experimental observations in this study. Our custom-designed system is capable of effectively providing mild therapeutic hypothermia locally to the human cochlea. When combined with results from in vivo animal experiments, the present study suggests that the application of localized therapeutic hypothermia may hold

  16. Modified measles versus rubella versus atypical measles: One and same thing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Surender Nikhil Gupta

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In outbreak settings, more than one virus may be infecting the given population. In twin or triple outbreak of measles, German measles (rubella, and varicella in highly immunized hilly areas, maximal number of the case patients in all the hilly villages belonged to the older age group. It suggested an obvious shift to the higher age group, warranting second dose opportunity in such case scenario. The clinical presentations of viral diseases are too similar to differentiate. The aim is to clearly categorize the case patients of modified measles, rubella, and atypical measles in outbreak settings. Results: Four outbreaks are listed. In the first one, sixty case patients were identified from 1026 people in 5 villages. Of these, 41 were diagnosed by clinically, 8 were laboratory confirmed as measles and 11 were epidemiologically linked German measles case patients. Seventy percent of the cases were vaccinated for measles. In second case, we identified 29/35 measles and 6/35 were confirmed as epidemiologically linked unvaccinated chickenpox case patients. In third one, we identified 116 cases in eight villages (112/116 clinically and 04/116 laboratory confirmed. Majority of cases were immunized against measles, but only minor cases for rubella. In fourth case, we identified 505 case patients from mixed outbreaks of varicella, measles and rubella (30/505 clinically, 467/505 epidemiologically linked and 8/505 laboratory confirmed case patients from a study population of 3280. In all the four outbreaks, prima facie, the clinical presentations of both rubella and modified measles were difficult to differentiate. Discussion: On the basis of outbreak investigation and analytical inference, it has been observed that the symtomatology of modified measles and laboratory confirmed rubella case patients/epidemiologically linked cases are so similar placed that many a time, it becomes much difficult to line list the cases in one section of modified

  17. Use of fenbendazole-containing therapeutic diets for mice in experimental cancer therapy studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Duan, Qiwen; Liu, Yanfeng; Booth, Carmen J; Rockwell, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Pinworm infection (oxyuriasis) is a common problem in rodent colonies. Facility-wide prophylactic treatment of all mice with a diet containing therapeutic levels of fenbendazole for several weeks is often used to control pinworm outbreaks...

  18. Measles Outbreak among Previously Immunized Adult Healthcare Workers, China, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhengyi Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Measles is caused by measles virus belonging to genus Morbillivirus of the family Paramyxoviridae. Vaccination has played a critical role in controlling measles infection worldwide. However, in the recent years, outbreaks of measles infection still occur in many developing countries. Here, we report an outbreak of measles among healthcare workers and among the 60 measles infected patients 50 were healthcare workers including doctors, nurses, staff, and medics. Fifty-one patients (85% tested positive for IgM antibodies against the measles virus and 50 patients (83.3% tested positive for measles virus RNA. Surprisingly, 73.3% of the infected individuals had been previously immunized against measles. Since there is no infection division in our hospital, the fever clinics are located in the Emergency Division. In addition, the fever and rash were not recognized as measles symptoms at the beginning of the outbreak. These factors result in delay in isolation and early confirmation of the suspected patients and eventually a measles outbreak in the hospital. Our report highlights the importance of following a two-dose measles vaccine program in people including the healthcare workers. In addition, vigilant attention should be paid to medical staff with clinical fever and rash symptoms to avoid a possible nosocomial transmission of measles infection.

  19. Experimental Methodology used by Cell Cultures Laboratory from INRMFB to assess the therapeutic effect of natural factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Munteanu Constantin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The experimental study design on cell cultures allows the direct biological evaluation at the cellular level, of the therapeutic effect that natural factors can play over the organism.Techniques for obtaining cell cultures requires a complex and laborious task that starts from live tissue sampling, continuous with isolation of cells and their preparation for sowing a culture plate. This preparation involves mechanical and enzymatic action from the researcher on biological material. Derived cell cultures are monitored morphologically by high-performance inverted biological microscope, with video camera for image acquisition. In the final stage, the cells are scraped, and through biochemical and molecular techniques, the therapeutic efficiency hypothesis of the investigated natural factor is verified experimentally. The cell cultures can be crioconservated in special containers with liquid nitrogen.

  20. Frequently Asked Questions about Measles in the U.S.

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... cases and outbreaks. Q: What does “measles elimination” mean? A: CDC defines measles elimination as the absence ... Respiratory Diseases , Division of Viral Diseases Email Recommend Tweet YouTube Instagram Listen Watch RSS ABOUT About CDC ...

  1. Genotyping of measles virus in Canada: 1979-2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipples, Graham A; Gray, Michael; Garbutt, Michael; Rota, Paul A

    2004-05-01

    Genotyping is an important component of measles surveillance. In this study, we report the genotypes of 30 measles viruses from cases in Canada; 6 of these were collected between 1979 and 1996 and 24 were collected from 1997 through 2002. Many measles virus genotypes were found (C1, C2, D3, D4, D5, D6, D7, D8, E, and H1). These data indicate that the predominant measles virus genotypes detected from 1979 to 1997 in Canada are no longer commonly found. Since the implementation of a routine second dose of measles vaccine and catch-up campaigns in 1996-1997, the wide variety of measles virus genotypes found supports epidemiological data showing that importation of measles is the source of current measles cases in Canada.

  2. NLM Grantee's "HealthMap" Helps Uncover Measles Vaccination Gap

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... of NLM NLM Grantee's "HealthMap" Helps Uncover Measles Vaccination Gap Inadequate vaccine coverage is likely a driving ... stop this and future measles outbreaks is through vaccination." The research indicates that vaccine coverage among the ...

  3. The TLR4-PAR1 Axis Regulates Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stromal Cell Survival and Therapeutic Capacity in Experimental Bacterial Pneumonia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gupta, N; Sinha, R; Krasnodembskaya, A; Xu, X; Nizet, V; Matthay, M A; Griffin, J H

    2018-02-02

    Bone marrow derived mesenchymal stromal cells (BM-MSCs) have been shown to have significant therapeutic effects in experimental models of pneumonia and lung injury. The current study examined the roles of the toll like receptor 4 (TLR4) and protease activated receptor 1 (PAR1) pathways on MSC survival and therapeutic activity in a murine model of pneumonia. MSCs from TLR4 -/- and R41Q-PAR1 mutated mice were isolated to test the effect of mutating these specific pathways on MSC survival when exposed to cytotoxic stimuli in vitro. An E. coli pneumonia model was utilized to assess the effect of these specific pathways on MSC therapeutic activity in vivo. Our results showed that mutation of either the TLR4 or PAR1 pathways in MSCs impaired cell survival under conditions of inflammatory stress in vitro, and eliminated their therapeutic efficacy in vivo. Also, stimulation of the TLR4 pathway on MSCs led to secretion of low levels of prothrombin by MSCs, while disrupting the TLR4 pathway impaired canonical signaling through PAR1 in response to thrombin. Therefore, this study demonstrates that both TLR4 and PAR1 are required for MSC survival under inflammatory conditions in vitro and therapeutic capacity in vivo, and that the TLR4 pathway regulates signaling through PAR1 on MSCs. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. © 2018 AlphaMed Press.

  4. Therapeutic outcomes of transplantation of amniotic fluid-derived stem cells in experimental ischemic stroke

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naoki eTajiri

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Accumulating preclinical evidence suggests the use of amnion as a source of stem cells for investigations of basic science concepts related to developmental cell biology, but also for stem cells’ therapeutic applications in treating human disorders. We previously reported isolation of viable rat amniotic fluid-derived stem (AFS cells. Subsequently, we recently reported the therapeutic benefits of intravenous transplantation of AFS cells in a rodent model of ischemic stroke. Parallel lines of investiagtions have provided safety and efficacy of stem cell therapy for treating stroke and other neurological disorders. This review article highlights characterization of AFS cells’ phenotype and their transplant-mediated functional effects, the need for investigations of mechanisms underlying AFS cells’ therapeutic benefits and discusses lab-to-clinic translational gating items in an effort to optimize the clinical application of cell transplantation for stroke.

  5. The frailty hypothesis revisited: mainly weak children die of measles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaby, P; Whittle, H; Cisse, B; Samb, B; Jensen, H; Simondon, F

    2001-12-12

    It has been suggested that measles infection mainly kills frail children who are likely to die anyhow of other infections. If that were true, the proportion of frail children should increase after the introduction of measles vaccination and post-measles mortality compared with mortality in uninfected children should increase when the case fatality declines and frail children are no longer dying of measles. The latter deduction was investigated in Niakhar, Senegal, where the measles case fatality has declined markedly. Measles has been studied in Niakhar during 12 years from 1983 to 1994. We compared long-term mortality after measles infection in periods with both high and low case fatality. The acute measles case fatality rate (CFR) declined from 6.5% in 1983-1986 to 1.5% in 1987-1994, an age-adjusted decline of 66% (RR=0.34 (0.19-0.58)). Between 1983-1986 and 1987-1994, mortality in the first year after measles infection declined by 35% (RR=0.65 (0.37-1.16)), the pattern being the same in the second and third year after infection (RR=0.63 (0.33-1.21)). This reduction could not be related to introduction of immunization, treatment of measles with Vitamin A, or prophylactic use of antibiotics. Controlling for age, immunization, and season, the decline in post-measles mortality was similar to the fall in non-measles-related mortality between the two periods (mortality rate ratio=0.72 (0.64-0.80)). Since the mortality decline in survivors of measles was as large as the decline in mortality among uninfected children, reduction in acute measles mortality did not lead to accumulation of frail children. We doubt measles infection ever eliminated mainly weak children; it always killed a broad spectrum of children, most of whom were "fit to survive". Hence, it seems unlikely that measles vaccination has contributed to the survival of more frail children.

  6. Antecedent causes of a measles resurgence in the Democratic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Despite accelerated measles control efforts, a massive measles resurgence occurred in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC) starting in mid-2010, prompting an investigation into likely causes. Methods: We conducted a descriptive epidemiological analysis using measles immunization and surveillance ...

  7. Molecular detection of measles virus from children during a sporadic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: According to the World Health Organization (WHO), African region accounts for 36% of deaths caused by measles worldwide. Nigeria has, over the years, recorded the highest average annual measles incidence per 100,000 populations in Africa. Measles epidemics have consistently been reported in northern ...

  8. The impact of declining vaccination coverage on measles control: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Efforts at immunizing children against measles was intensified in Nigeria with nation-wide measles vaccination campaigns in 2005 - 2006, 2008 and 2011 targeting children between 9 and 59 months. However, there were measles outbreaks in 2010 and 2011in Abia state Nigeria. This study seeks to find out if ...

  9. Prolonged hospital stay in measles patients | Ashir | Sahel Medical ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Measles is still a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in Nigeria despite the availability of safe and effective vaccines. The burden of measles using length of hospital stay as a result of complications in hospitalised children with measles is reported. Methods: We carried out a two year retrospective ...

  10. Measles trends and vaccine effectiveness in Nairobi, Kenya | Borus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives: To determine morbidity and mortality from measles and to estimate measles vaccine effectiveness among children hospitalised with measles in two hospitals in Nairobi. Design: A review of hospital records (index cards). Setting: Kenyatta National Hospital and Mbagathi District Hospitals covering the years ...

  11. Unsustainability of a measles immunisation campaign - rise in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The 1990 national mass measles immunisation campaign resulted in a marked reduction in measles incidence in Natal/KwaZulu in the first 6 months after the campaign. Data from the measles ward admissions book at Clairwood Hospital were collated for the period 1 January 1989 to 31 May 1992 to assess the ...

  12. An evaluation of the 2012 measles mass vaccination campaign in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: To estimate the post-campaign level of measles vaccination coverage in Guinea. Method: Interview of parents and observation of measles vaccination cards of children aged 9 to 59 months during the mass measles campaign. A nationwide cluster randomized sample under health District stratification. Results: ...

  13. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis should be eliminated by measles vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei-Liang; He, Zhi-Xu; Li, Fang; He, Dian; Ai, Rong

    2017-09-02

    1 patient with SSPE at 4 y. He had had measles and measles encephalitis at 7.5 months. In China, the first and the second measles immunizations are recommended at 8 months and at 18-24 months, respectively. We recommend above immunizations should be given separately at 6 months and at 12-15 months.

  14. Measles elimination - Is it achievable? Lessons from an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    District measles coverage was highly positively correlated with diphtheria, pertussis and tetanus (DPT3) coverage (r = 0.960, P = 0.000). There was a strong negative correlation between ranked measles campaign coverage and routine measles immunisation coverage. Obstacles to immunisation accounted· for nearly half ...

  15. Measles Virus Fusion Protein: Structure, Function and Inhibition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philippe Plattet

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Measles virus (MeV, a highly contagious member of the Paramyxoviridae family, causes measles in humans. The Paramyxoviridae family of negative single-stranded enveloped viruses includes several important human and animal pathogens, with MeV causing approximately 120,000 deaths annually. MeV and canine distemper virus (CDV-mediated diseases can be prevented by vaccination. However, sub-optimal vaccine delivery continues to foster MeV outbreaks. Post-exposure prophylaxis with antivirals has been proposed as a novel strategy to complement vaccination programs by filling herd immunity gaps. Recent research has shown that membrane fusion induced by the morbillivirus glycoproteins is the first critical step for viral entry and infection, and determines cell pathology and disease outcome. Our molecular understanding of morbillivirus-associated membrane fusion has greatly progressed towards the feasibility to control this process by treating the fusion glycoprotein with inhibitory molecules. Current approaches to develop anti-membrane fusion drugs and our knowledge on drug resistance mechanisms strongly suggest that combined therapies will be a prerequisite. Thus, discovery of additional anti-fusion and/or anti-attachment protein small-molecule compounds may eventually translate into realistic therapeutic options.

  16. Measles Virus Fusion Protein: Structure, Function and Inhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plattet, Philippe; Alves, Lisa; Herren, Michael; Aguilar, Hector C.

    2016-01-01

    Measles virus (MeV), a highly contagious member of the Paramyxoviridae family, causes measles in humans. The Paramyxoviridae family of negative single-stranded enveloped viruses includes several important human and animal pathogens, with MeV causing approximately 120,000 deaths annually. MeV and canine distemper virus (CDV)-mediated diseases can be prevented by vaccination. However, sub-optimal vaccine delivery continues to foster MeV outbreaks. Post-exposure prophylaxis with antivirals has been proposed as a novel strategy to complement vaccination programs by filling herd immunity gaps. Recent research has shown that membrane fusion induced by the morbillivirus glycoproteins is the first critical step for viral entry and infection, and determines cell pathology and disease outcome. Our molecular understanding of morbillivirus-associated membrane fusion has greatly progressed towards the feasibility to control this process by treating the fusion glycoprotein with inhibitory molecules. Current approaches to develop anti-membrane fusion drugs and our knowledge on drug resistance mechanisms strongly suggest that combined therapies will be a prerequisite. Thus, discovery of additional anti-fusion and/or anti-attachment protein small-molecule compounds may eventually translate into realistic therapeutic options. PMID:27110811

  17. Mass measles rubella immunization campaign: Bhutan experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhakta R Giri

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Bhutan has attained universal child immunization since 1991. Since then, immunization coverage is maintained at high level through routine immunization, periodic National Immunization Days, and mop up campaigns. Despite high immunization coverage, every year, significant numbers of clinically suspected measles cases were reported. Objective: To assess the cause of continuing high "suspected measles cases" and take appropriate public health measures. Materials and Methods: Febrile rash outbreaks occurred in several districts in 2003. These episodes were investigated. Simultaneously, a retrospective data search revealed evidence of congenital rubella syndrome (CRS in the country. Results: Thirty five percent of the tested samples were positive for rubella but none for measles. There were evidences of the presence of CRS. This was discussed in the annual health conference 2004, amongst health policy makers and district heads who recommended that a possibility of inclusion of rubella as an antigen be looked into. A nationwide measles and rubella immunization campaign was conducted in 2006 followed by introduction of rubella vaccine in the immunization schedule. Conclusion: Febrile rash can be caused by a host of viral infections. Following universal measles immunization, it is pertinent that febrile rash be looked in the light of rubella infections. Following the introduction of rubella vaccination in the national immunization schedule, there has been significant reduction of febrile rash episodes, cases of rubella, and congenital rubella syndrome.

  18. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in South African children following the measles outbreak between 2009 and 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kija, Edward; Ndondo, Alvin; Spittal, Graeme; Hardie, Diana R; Eley, Brian; Wilmshurst, Jo M

    2015-09-14

    Between 2009 and 2011, there was an outbreak of measles throughout South Africa (SA). The largest age category infected was childrenpanencephalitis (SSPE). All were infected with measles during the period of the 2009-2011 outbreak in early infancy, at a time when their immune systems were immature and before they were vaccinated against the measles virus. One patient was immunocompromised, with vertically acquired HIV infection. All the children presented with cognitive and behavioural decline, abnormal movements and medically intractable myoclonic and atonic seizures. Outcome was poor in all and no reversibility was evident with standard therapeutic interventions. Optimal seizure control with carbamazepine is reported in patients with SSPE. Three of our patients who received carbamazepine experienced improved seizure control, but their neuroregression continued. Since submission of this case series, patient 1 (see Table 1) has died, and a further child has presented with the same clinical phenotype as described. On the basis of this clustering of patients in the Western Cape Province, SA, it is important to screen children admitted with acute cognitive decline and intractable seizures for SSPE, especially those who were infants during the measles outbreak.

  19. Patterns of measles transmission among airplane travelers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edelson, Paul J

    2012-09-01

    With advanced air handling systems on modern aircraft and the high level of measles immunity in many countries, measles infection in air travelers may be considered a low-risk event. However, introduction of measles into countries where transmission has been controlled or eliminated can have substantial consequences both for the use of public health resources and for those still susceptible. In an effort to balance the relatively low likelihood of disease transmission among largely immune travelers and the risk to the public health of the occurrence of secondary cases resulting from importations, criteria in the United States for contact investigations for measles exposures consider contacts to be those passengers who are seated within 2 rows of the index case. However, recent work has shown that cabin air flow may not be as reliable a barrier to the spread of measles virus as previously believed. Along with these new studies, several reports have described measles developing after travel in passengers seated some distance from the index case. To understand better the potential for measles virus to spread on an airplane, reports of apparent secondary cases occurring in co-travelers of passengers with infectious cases of measles were reviewed. Medline™ was searched for articles in all languages from 1946 to week 1 of March 2012, using the search terms "measles [human] or rubeola" and ("aircraft" or "airplane" or "aeroplane" or "aviation" or "travel" or "traveler" or "traveller"); 45 citations were returned. Embase™ was searched from 1988 to week 11 2012, using the same search strategy; 95 citations were returned. Papers were included in this review if they reported secondary cases of measles occurring in persons traveling on an airplane on which a person or persons with measles also flew, and which included the seating location of both the index case(s) and the secondary case(s) on the plane. Nine reports, including 13 index cases and 23 apparent secondary cases

  20. The potential for measles transmission in England

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fraser Graham

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Since the schools vaccination campaign in 1994, measles has been eliminated from England. Maintaining elimination requires low susceptibility levels to keep the effective reproduction number R below 1. Since 1995, however, MMR coverage in two year old children has decreased by more than 10%. Methods Quarterly MMR coverage data for children aged two and five years resident in each district health authority in England were used to estimate susceptibility to measles by age. The effective reproduction numbers for each district and strategic health authority were calculated and possible outbreak sizes estimated. Results In 2004/05, about 1.9 million school children and 300,000 pre-school children were recorded as incompletely vaccinated against measles in England, including more than 800,000 children completely unvaccinated. Based on this, approximately 1.3 million children aged 2–17 years were susceptible to measles. In 14 of the 99 districts, the level of susceptibility is sufficiently high for R to exceed 1, indicating the potential for sustained measles transmission. Eleven of these districts are in London. Our model suggests that the potential exists for an outbreak of up to 100,000 cases. These results are sensitive to the accuracy of reported vaccination coverage data. Conclusion Our analysis identified several districts with the potential for sustaining measles transmission. Many London areas remain at high risk even allowing for considerable under-reporting of coverage. Primary care trusts should ensure that accurate systems are in place to identify unimmunised children and to offer catch-up immunisation for those not up to date for MMR.

  1. Effect and Mechanism of Virechana Karma (Therapeutic Purgation) Over Fructose-Induced Metabolic Syndrome: An Experimental Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Ashutosh; Rao, Prasanna N; Kumar, M Ashvini; Ravishankar, B; Rao, Niranjan; Ravi, M

    2016-07-01

    Panchakarma (biopurification methods) is one of the modes of ayurveda to treat disorders of the body. Virechana karma (therapeutic purgation), one among the Panchakarma, is a purification process that is commonly used to treat metabolic disorders like obesity and diabetes mellitus. Hence this study was planned to provide evidence through animal experiments. Albino rats were subject to Virechana karma (therapeutic purgation) to evaluate the influence of therapy and its mechanism over fructose-induced metabolic syndrome. Results show that Virechana is effective in the management of the metabolic syndrome with decrease in the fecal fat content, fasting blood glucose, serum triglyceride, and reduced fatty changes in liver, heart, and kidney in comparison with the positive control group. Experimental evaluation showed decrease in fatty acid in the storage like liver, kidney, heart, and muscle adipose tissue can indirectly increase the insulin sensitivity in insulin receptor present at skeletal muscles. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. Different Therapeutic Outcomes of Benznidazole and VNI Treatments in Different Genders in Mouse Experimental Models of Trypanosoma cruzi Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes-da-Silva, F H; Batista, D G J; da Silva, C F; Meuser, M B; Simões-Silva, M R; de Araújo, J S; Ferreira, C G; Moreira, O C; Britto, C; Lepesheva, G I; Soeiro, Maria de Nazaré C

    2015-12-01

    The lack of translation between preclinical assays and clinical trials for novel therapies for Chagas disease (CD) indicates a need for more feasible and standardized protocols and experimental models. Here, we investigated the effects of treatment with benznidazole (Bz) and with the potent experimental T. cruzi CYP51 inhibitor VNI in mouse models of Chagas disease by using different animal genders and parasite strains and employing distinct types of therapeutic schemes. Our findings confirm that female mice are less vulnerable to the infection than males, show that male models are less susceptible to treatment with both Bz and VNI, and thus suggest that male models are much more suitable for selection of the most promising antichagasic agents. Additionally, we have found that preventive protocols (compound given at 1 dpi) result in higher treatment success rates, which also should be avoided during advanced steps of in vivo trials of novel anti-T. cruzi drug candidates. Another consideration is the relevance of immunosuppression methods in order to verify the therapeutic profile of novel compounds, besides the usefulness of molecular diagnostic tools (quantitative PCR) to ascertain compound efficacy in experimental animals. Our study aims to contribute to the development of more reliable methods and decision gates for in vivo assays of novel antiparasitic compounds in order to move them from preclinical to clinical trials for CD. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  3. Measles vaccination in the presence or absence of maternal measles antibody

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Martins, Cesário L; Garly, May-Lill

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Measles vaccine (MV) has a greater effect on child survival when administered in early infancy, when maternal antibody may still be present. METHODS: To test whether MV has a greater effect on overall survival if given in the presence of maternal measles antibody, we reanalyzed data...... mortality than children with no maternal antibody, the MRR being 0.22 (95% CI, .07-.64) between 4-6 months and 5 years. CONCLUSIONS: Child mortality in low-income countries may be reduced by vaccinating against measles in the presence of maternal antibody, using a 2-dose schedule with the first dose at 4...... from 2 previously published randomized trials of a 2-dose schedule with MV given at 4-6 months and at 9 months of age. In both trials antibody levels had been measured before early measles vaccination. RESULTS: In trial I (1993-1995), the mortality rate was 0.0 per 1000 person-years among children...

  4. Therapeutic vaccination with recombinant adenovirus reduces splenic parasite burden in experimental visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroof, Asher; Brown, Najmeeyah; Smith, Barbara; Hodgkinson, Michael R; Maxwell, Alice; Losch, Florian O; Fritz, Ulrike; Walden, Peter; Lacey, Charles N J; Smith, Deborah F; Aebischer, Toni; Kaye, Paul M

    2012-03-01

    Therapeutic vaccines, when used alone or in combination therapy with antileishmanial drugs, may have an important place in the control of a variety of forms of human leishmaniasis. Here, we describe the development of an adenovirus-based vaccine (Ad5-KH) comprising a synthetic haspb gene linked to a kmp11 gene via a viral 2A sequence. In nonvaccinated Leishmania donovani-infected BALB/c mice, HASPB- and KMP11-specific CD8(+) T cell responses were undetectable, although IgG1 and IgG2a antibodies were evident. After therapeutic vaccination, antibody responses were boosted, and IFNγ(+)CD8(+) T cell responses, particularly to HASPB, became apparent. A single vaccination with Ad5-KH inhibited splenic parasite growth by ∼66%, a level of efficacy comparable to that observed in early stage testing of clinically approved antileishmanial drugs in this model. These studies indicate the usefulness of adenoviral vectors to deliver leishmanial antigens in a potent and host protective manner to animals with existing L. donovani infection.

  5. Therapeutic effect of coenzyme Q10 against experimentally-induced hepatocellular carcinoma in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fouad, Amr A; Al-Mulhim, Abdulruhman S; Jresat, Iyad

    2013-01-01

    The therapeutic potential of coenzyme Q10 was investigated in rats with hepatocellular carcinoma induced by trichloroacetic acid (0.5g/kg/day, p.o., for five days). Coenzyme Q10 treatment (0.4mg/kg/day, i.p.) was applied for four weeks following trichloroacetic acid administration. Coenzyme Q10 significantly suppressed lipid peroxidation, prevented the depletion of reduced glutathione and superoxide dismutase activity, and decreased the elevations of tumor necrosis factor-α and nitric oxide in liver tissue of rats with hepatocellular carcinoma. Also, the histopathological dysplastic changes induced by trichloroacetic acid in liver tissue were ameliorated by coenzyme Q10. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that coenzyme Q10 significantly decreased the expression of hepPar-1, alpha-fetoprotein, inducible nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2 and nuclear factor-κB in liver tissue of rats with hepatocellular carcinoma. It was concluded that coenzyme Q10 may represent a potential therapeutic option for liver carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Therapeutic Vaccination With Recombinant Adenovirus Reduces Splenic Parasite Burden in Experimental Visceral Leishmaniasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maroof, Asher; Brown, Najmeeyah; Smith, Barbara; Hodgkinson, Michael R.; Maxwell, Alice; Losch, Florian O.; Fritz, Ulrike; Walden, Peter; Lacey, Charles N. J.; Smith, Deborah F.; Aebischer, Toni

    2012-01-01

    Therapeutic vaccines, when used alone or in combination therapy with antileishmanial drugs, may have an important place in the control of a variety of forms of human leishmaniasis. Here, we describe the development of an adenovirus-based vaccine (Ad5-KH) comprising a synthetic haspb gene linked to a kmp11 gene via a viral 2A sequence. In nonvaccinated Leishmania donovani–infected BALB/c mice, HASPB- and KMP11-specific CD8+ T cell responses were undetectable, although IgG1 and IgG2a antibodies were evident. After therapeutic vaccination, antibody responses were boosted, and IFNγ+CD8+ T cell responses, particularly to HASPB, became apparent. A single vaccination with Ad5-KH inhibited splenic parasite growth by ∼66%, a level of efficacy comparable to that observed in early stage testing of clinically approved antileishmanial drugs in this model. These studies indicate the usefulness of adenoviral vectors to deliver leishmanial antigens in a potent and host protective manner to animals with existing L. donovani infection. PMID:22301630

  7. Novel treatments in autism spectrum disorders: from synaptic dysfunction to experimental therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canitano, Roberto

    2013-08-15

    Recent discoveries and advances in genetics and neuroscience have provided deeper understanding of the complex neurobiology of ASD. The development of novel treatments is strictly dependent on these findings in order to design new strategies in the pharmacotherapy of ASD. At this time, therapeutics are limited to treating associated core, symptoms. Studies of single gene disorders, such as Phelan-McDermid syndrome, Fragile X and Tuberous Sclerosis, might be of significant help since the neurobiology of these disorders is clearer and clinical trials are already underway for these conditions. The pathogenesis paradigm shift of ASD towards synaptic abnormalities has led to current research of the pathways to disease, which involves multiple dynamic systems. Interest in oxytocin is growing as it has been recognized to be implicated in social development and affiliative behaviours. In the future, progress is expected in possible new options for therapeutics in ASD. Children and adolescents with ASD and their families can provide vital information about their experiences with new treatments, which should be a priority for future research. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Accuracy of parent-reported measles-containing vaccination status of children with measles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, G; Liao, Z; Xu, X; Liang, Y; Xiong, Y; Ni, J

    2017-03-01

    The validity of parent-reported measles-containing vaccination history in children with measles has not been assessed. This study evaluated the accuracy of parental recall of measles-containing vaccination histories in Shenzhen, China. A retrospective study was performed to compare the data from the electronic records with parental recall. The electronic records were regarded as accurate data about the children's measles-containing vaccination status. We collected data from the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System and the Immunization Program Information Management System in Shenzhen city, China. Between 2009 and 2014, there were 163 children with measles who had electronic vaccination records; the vaccination status of these cases was reported by the parents in the field epidemiological investigation. We validated parental recall with electronic records. The agreement between parental recall and electronic records was 78.7%. The kappa value was 0.57. The parent-reported measles-containing vaccination rate was higher than the electronic record (48.5% vs 41.7%, χ2 = 53.64, P vaccination rate, and the vaccination status recalled by parents was in moderate agreement with the electronic record. Copyright © 2016 The Royal Society for Public Health. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Measles, immune suppression and vaccination: direct and indirect nonspecific vaccine benefits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mina, Michael J

    2017-06-01

    The measles virus is among the most transmissible viruses known to infect humans. Prior to measles vaccination programs, measles infected over 95% of all children and was responsible for over 4 million deaths each year. Measles vaccination programs have been among the greatest public health achievements reducing, eliminating endemic measles in the whole of the Americas and across much of the globe. Where measles vaccines are introduced, unexpectedly large reductions in all-cause childhood mortality have been observed. These gains appear to derive in part from direct heterologous benefits of measles vaccines that enhance innate and adaptive immune responses. Additionally, by preventing measles infections, vaccination prevents measles-associated short- and long-term immunomodulating effects. Before vaccination, these invisible hallmarks of measles infections increased vulnerability to non-measles infections in nearly all children for weeks, months, or years following acute infections. By depleting measles incidence, vaccination has had important indirect benefits to reduce non-measles mortality. Delineating the relative importance of these two modes of survival benefits following measles vaccine introduction is of critical public health importance. While both support continued unwavering global commitments to measles vaccination programs until measles eradication is complete, direct heterologous benefits of measles vaccination further support continued commitment to measles vaccination programs indefinitely. We discuss what is known about direct and indirect nonspecific measles vaccine benefits, and their implications for continued measles vaccination programs. © 2017 The British Infection Association. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Measles Outbreak among Unvaccinated Children in Bajura

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Sitaula

    2010-12-01

    CFR of this outbreak is higher than the national CFR. Vaccine efficacy of 50% points towards the need for investigation of vaccine logistics and cold chain system. Moreover, this laboratory test confirmed an outbreak showing that the measles virus could be imported from an endemic region and rapidly spread through a susceptible population who were previously not immunized.

  11. Vaccination against Measles: evaluation of novel approaches

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    K.J. Stittelaar (Koert)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractMeasles, also called morbilli or rubeola, is a highly contagious disease of humans. After an incubation period of 9-11 days characteristic clinical signs develop like coryza, cervical lymphadenitis, so-called Koplik's spots in the mouth, conjunctivitis, photophobia, myalgia, malaise,

  12. Epidemic Models for SARS and Measles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozema, Edward

    2007-01-01

    Recent events have led to an increased interest in emerging infectious diseases. This article applies various deterministic models to the SARS epidemic of 2003 and a measles outbreak in the Netherlands in 1999-2000. We take a historical approach beginning with the well-known logistic curve and a lesser-known extension popularized by Pearl and Reed…

  13. Travelers to Europe Need Measles Protection: CDC

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... been reported in Europe. And 35 people across Europe have died from the highly contagious infection in the past year, the World Health Organization says. "Most measles cases in the United States are the result of international travel," said Dr. Gary Brunette, chief of the CDC's ...

  14. [Experimental and therapeutic neuromodulation of emotion and social cognition with non-invasive brain stimulation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mielacher, C; Scheele, D; Hurlemann, R

    2015-12-01

    Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) is not only a highly elegant method for basic neuroscientific research that employs transient lesions to explore the relationship between brain structure and function but in a clinical context it is also a very promising approach to augmentation therapy in middle to severe grade depressive episodes. This overview illustrates the methodological basis of TMS and illuminates its neuromodulatory potential with reference to findings from recent studies on emotion regulation and social cognition. Against this empirical background, it becomes clear that preclinical studies on healthy participants are extremely important to develop innovative stimulation protocols and define functionally relevant target regions to be tested in clinical studies for therapeutic efficacy. Finally, the perspectives and limitations of functionally guided, individualized TMS neuronavigation will be explored based on task-independent connectivity and task-dependent activity measurements.

  15. Measles seroprevalence, outbreaks, and vaccine coverage in Rwanda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seruyange, Eric; Gahutu, Jean-Bosco; Mambo Muvunyi, Claude; Uwimana, Zena G; Gatera, Maurice; Twagirumugabe, Theogene; Katare, Swaibu; Karenzi, Ben; Bergström, Tomas

    2016-01-01

    Measles outbreaks are reported after insufficient vaccine coverage, especially in countries recovering from natural disaster or conflict. We compared seroprevalence to measles in blood donors in Rwanda and Sweden and explored distribution of active cases of measles and vaccine coverage in Rwanda. 516 Rwandan and 215 Swedish blood donors were assayed for measles-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Data on vaccine coverage and acute cases in Rwanda from 1980 to 2014 were collected, and IgM on serum samples and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) on nasopharyngeal (NPH) swabs from suspected measles cases during 2010-2011 were analysed. The seroprevalence of measles IgG was significantly higher in Swedish blood donors (92.6%; 95% CI: 89.1-96.1%) compared to Rwandan subjects (71.5%; 95% CI: 67.6-75.4%) and more pronounced Rwandan blood donors as compared to Swedish subjects (p genocide. 76/544 serum samples were IgM positive and 21/31 NPH swabs were PCR positive for measles, determined by sequencing to be of genotype B3. Measles seroprevalence was lower in Rwandan blood donors compared to Swedish subjects. Despite this, the number of reported measles cases in Rwanda rapidly decreased during the study period, concomitant with increased vaccine coverage. Taken together, the circulation of measles was limited in Rwanda and vaccine coverage was favourable, but seroprevalence and IgG levels were low especially in younger age groups.

  16. Omega-Conotoxins as Experimental Tools and Therapeutics in Pain Management

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heidi E. Hannon

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Neuropathic pain afflicts a large percentage of the global population. This form of chronic, intractable pain arises when the peripheral or central nervous systems are damaged, either directly by lesion or indirectly through disease. The comorbidity of neuropathic pain with other diseases, including diabetes, cancer, and AIDS, contributes to a complex pathogenesis and symptom profile. Because most patients present with neuropathic pain refractory to current first-line therapeutics, pharmaceuticals with greater efficacy in pain management are highly desired. In this review we discuss the growing application of ω-conotoxins, small peptides isolated from Conus species, in the management of neuropathic pain. These toxins are synthesized by predatory cone snails as a component of paralytic venoms. The potency and selectivity with which ω-conotoxins inhibit their molecular targets, voltage-gated Ca2+ channels, is advantageous in the treatment of neuropathic pain states, in which Ca2+ channel activity is characteristically aberrant. Although ω-conotoxins demonstrate analgesic efficacy in animal models of neuropathic pain and in human clinical trials, there remains a critical need to improve the convenience of peptide drug delivery methods, and reduce the number and severity of adverse effects associated with ω-conotoxin-based therapies.

  17. Omega-Conotoxins as Experimental Tools and Therapeutics in Pain Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannon, Heidi E.; Atchison, William D.

    2013-01-01

    Neuropathic pain afflicts a large percentage of the global population. This form of chronic, intractable pain arises when the peripheral or central nervous systems are damaged, either directly by lesion or indirectly through disease. The comorbidity of neuropathic pain with other diseases, including diabetes, cancer, and AIDS, contributes to a complex pathogenesis and symptom profile. Because most patients present with neuropathic pain refractory to current first-line therapeutics, pharmaceuticals with greater efficacy in pain management are highly desired. In this review we discuss the growing application of ω-conotoxins, small peptides isolated from Conus species, in the management of neuropathic pain. These toxins are synthesized by predatory cone snails as a component of paralytic venoms. The potency and selectivity with which ω-conotoxins inhibit their molecular targets, voltage-gated Ca2+ channels, is advantageous in the treatment of neuropathic pain states, in which Ca2+ channel activity is characteristically aberrant. Although ω-conotoxins demonstrate analgesic efficacy in animal models of neuropathic pain and in human clinical trials, there remains a critical need to improve the convenience of peptide drug delivery methods, and reduce the number and severity of adverse effects associated with ω-conotoxin-based therapies. PMID:23470283

  18. Therapeutic Efficacy of E-64-d, a Selective Calpain Inhibitor, in Experimental Acute Spinal Cord Injury

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zifeng Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aims to investigate the therapeutic effect of calpain inhibitor E-64-d on SCI and to find a new approach to treat SCI. When an SCI rat model was established, it was immediately administered with E-64-d. RT-PCR and Western blotting were used to determine the protein and mRNA levels of calpain 1 and 68-kD NFP. TUNEL staining and NeuN labeling were performed to analyze neuronal apoptosis in the lesion. Immunohistochemistry assay was carried out to observe the expressions of calpain 1 and GFAP. Cyclooxygenase-2 activity was measured to show the immune response status. Locomotor function was evaluated by inclined plane test and Basso, Beattie, and Bresnahan locomotor rating scale. The results showed that calpain 1 was activated after SCI occurred. Treatment with E-64-d decreased expressions of calpain 1 and GFAP, alleviated neuronal apoptosis, inhibited cyclooxygenase-2 activity, and resulted in the promoted locomotor function. Furthermore, combination of E-64-d and MP had better efficacy than did E-64-d or MP alone. E-64-d is expected to be applied to treat SCI, and its alliance with MP may provide a valid strategy for SCI therapy.

  19. Ginsenoside rd in experimental stroke: superior neuroprotective efficacy with a wide therapeutic window.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ye, Ruidong; Kong, Xiangwei; Yang, Qianzi; Zhang, Yunxia; Han, Junliang; Li, Ping; Xiong, Lize; Zhao, Gang

    2011-07-01

    Ginsenoside Rd (Rd), one of the main active ingredients in Panax ginseng, has been demonstrated to protect against ischemic cerebral damage in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we aimed to further define the preclinical characteristics of Rd. We show that Rd passes the intact blood-brain barrier and exerts protection in both transient and permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats. In the dose-response study, Rd (10-50 mg/Kg) significantly reduced the infarct volume on postoperative days (PODs) 1, 3, and 7. This protection was associated with an improved neurological outcome for as many as 6 weeks after transient MCAO, as assessed by modified neurological severity score, modified sticky-tape test, and corner test. For comparison, Rd was significantly more effective than edaravone and slightly more effective than N-tert-butyl-alpha-phenylnitrone (PBN). In the therapeutic window study, Rd exhibited remarkable neuroprotection, even when administered for as many as 4 h after the recirculation of transient MCAO or after the onset of permanent MCAO. Furthermore, in female rats or 16-month-old male rats, the salutary effects of Rd were also observed. These findings suggest Rd is a promising neuroprotectant and provide support for future clinical studies to confirm whether Rd is beneficial in ischemic stroke.

  20. Experimental evidence of Migfilin as a new therapeutic target of hepatocellular carcinoma metastasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gkretsi, Vasiliki; Bogdanos, Dimitrios P

    2015-06-10

    Migfilin is a novel cell-matrix adhesion protein known to interact with Vasodilator Stimulated Phosphoprotein (VASP) and be localized both at cell-matrix and cell-cell adhesions. To date there is nothing known about its role in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). As matrix is important in metastasis, we aimed to investigate the Migfilin׳s role in HCC metastasis using two human HCC cell lines that differ in their metastatic potential; non-invasive Alexander cells and the highly invasive HepG2 cells. We silenced Migfilin by siRNA and studied its effect on signaling and metastasis-related cellular properties. We show that Migfilin׳s expression is elevated in HepG2 cells and its silencing leads to upregulation of actin reorganization-related proteins, namely phosphor-VASP (Ser157 and Ser239), Fascin-1 and Rho-kinase-1, promoting actin polymerization and inhibiting cell invasion. Phosphor-Akt (Ser473) is decreased contributing to the upregulation of free and phosphor-β-catenin (Ser33/37Thr41) and inducing proliferation. Migfilin elimination upregulates Extracellular Signal-regulated kinase, which increases cell adhesion in HepG2 and reduces invasiveness. This is the first study to reveal that Migfilin inhibition can halt HCC metastasis in vitro, providing the molecular mechanism involved and presenting Migfilin as potential therapeutic target against HCC metastasis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Evaluation of therapeutic potential of nanosilver particles synthesised using aloin in experimental murine mastitis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaitanya Kumar, Thota Venkata; Muralidhar, Yegireddy; Prasad, Pagadala Eswara; Prasad, Tollamadugu Naga Venkata Krishna Vara; Alpha Raj, Mekapogu

    2013-09-01

    Nanobiotechnology is an emerging biological branch of nanotechnology. Application of nanoparticles with specific size and shape in biology has already shown unforeseen and interesting results. A study was conducted to evaluate the therapeutic potential of phytogenically derived aloin mediated nanosilver particles (AAgNPs), prepared by reduction of silver nitrate with aloin, in Staphylococcus aureus induced murine mastitis. A total of 40 female mice were divided into five groups of eight animals each. Group I served as lactating control, groups II-V were inoculated with 20 μl of 24 h broth culture of S. aureus containing 4.0 × 105 cfu/quarter under ketamine anaesthesia. After 6 h post inoculation, groups III and IV received 20 μl of aloin nanosilver (AAgNPs) through intramammary and intraperitoneal routes, respectively. Group V received antibiotic cefepime at 1 mg/kg body weight through the intra-peritoneal route. After 18 h post-treatment, serum C reactive protein, weights of mammary glands, mammary gland bacterial load, thiobarbituric acid reactive substances content, reduced glutathione content, superoxide dismutase activity and catalase activity and histopathology were determined. The compound showed a minimum inhibitory concentration of 21.8 ng/ml against S. aureus. Significant reduction (98%) in poly-morpho nuclear cell infiltration was observed with AAgNPs than antibiotic (50%).

  2. Decline in measles case fatality ratio after the introduction of measles immunization in rural Senegal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samb, B; Aaby, P; Whittle, H; Seck, A M; Simondon, F

    1997-01-01

    The epidemiology of measles has been investigated in Niakhar, a rural area of Senegal, during two periods, 1983-1986 and 1987-1990. Following a major increase in immunization coverage beginning in 1987, the case fatality ratio for all ages declined fourfold from the first to the second period (relative risk (RR) = 0.24, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.13-0.46). The measles incidence for children under 10 years of age declined by 69% (95% CI 65-72) and the risk of dying of measles by 91% (95% CI 82-95). Vaccinated children who contracted measles had significantly lower case fatality ratio than unvaccinated children with measles (p = 0.038). Children infected by an immunized case tended to have lower case fatality ratio than those infected by an unimmunized index case (p = 0.104) and immunized index cases generated fewer secondary cases than unimmunized index cases (p < 0.001). Respiratory complications were more common in secondary cases infected by an index case with respiratory complications than by an index case without such complications (RR = 1.60, 95% CI 1.08-2.37), which suggests that severe cases give rise to further severe cases. As expected, there was a significant increase in the proportion of vaccinated cases in the second period (RR = 1.41, 95% CI 1.00-1.98). Mean age at infection increased from 4 to 7 years between the two periods and the change in age structure accounted for 20% of the decline in case fatality ratio. Measles immunization may contribute to lower mortality directly through reduced incidence and indirectly through increases in age at infection, less severe infection for immunized cases and changes in transmission patterns leading to reduced severity of measles.

  3. Perspective on Global Measles Epidemiology and Control and the Role of Novel Vaccination Strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Melissa M; Beck, Andrew S; Bankamp, Bettina; Rota, Paul A

    2017-01-19

    Measles is a highly contagious, vaccine preventable disease. Measles results in a systemic illness which causes profound immunosuppression often leading to severe complications. In 2010, the World Health Assembly declared that measles can and should be eradicated. Measles has been eliminated in the Region of the Americas, and the remaining five regions of the World Health Organization (WHO) have adopted measles elimination goals. Significant progress has been made through increased global coverage of first and second doses of measles-containing vaccine, leading to a decrease in global incidence of measles, and through improved case based surveillance supported by the WHO Global Measles and Rubella Laboratory Network. Improved vaccine delivery methods will likely play an important role in achieving measles elimination goals as these delivery methods circumvent many of the logistic issues associated with subcutaneous injection. This review highlights the status of global measles epidemiology, novel measles vaccination strategies, and describes the pathway toward measles elimination.

  4. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for liver metastasis: therapeutic efficacy in an experimental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pozzi, Emiliano C C; Cardoso, Jorge E; Colombo, Lucas L; Thorp, Silvia; Monti Hughes, Andrea; Molinari, Ana J; Garabalino, Marcela A; Heber, Elisa M; Miller, Marcelo; Itoiz, Maria E; Aromando, Romina F; Nigg, David W; Quintana, Jorge; Trivillin, Verónica A; Schwint, Amanda E

    2012-08-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) was proposed for untreatable colorectal liver metastases. The present study evaluates tumor control and potential radiotoxicity of BNCT in an experimental model of liver metastasis. BDIX rats were inoculated with syngeneic colon cancer cells DHD/K12/TRb. Tumor-bearing animals were divided into three groups: BPA-BNCT, boronophenylalanine (BPA) + neutron irradiation; Beam only, neutron irradiation; Sham, matched manipulation. The total absorbed dose administered with BPA-BNCT was 13 ± 3 Gy in tumor and 9 ± 2 Gy in healthy liver. Three weeks post-treatment, the tumor surface area post-treatment/pre-treatment ratio was 0.46 ± 0.20 for BPA-BNCT, 2.7 ± 1.8 for Beam only and 4.5 ± 3.1 for Sham. The pre-treatment tumor nodule mass of 48 ± 19 mg fell significantly to 19 ± 16 mg for BPA-BNCT, but rose significantly to 140 ± 106 mg for Beam only and to 346 ± 302 mg for Sham. For both end points, the differences between the BPA-BNCT group and each of the other groups were statistically significant (ANOVA). No clinical, macroscopic or histological normal liver radiotoxicity was observed. It is concluded that BPA-BNCT induced a significant remission of experimental colorectal tumor nodules in liver with no contributory liver toxicity.

  5. Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) for liver metastasis: therapeutic efficacy in an experimental model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David W. Nigg

    2012-08-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) was proposed for untreatable colorectal liver metastases. The present study evaluates tumor control and potential radiotoxicity of BNCT in an experimental model of liver metastasis. BDIX rats were inoculated with syngeneic colon cancer cells DHD/K12/TRb. Tumor-bearing animals were divided into three groups: BPA–BNCT, boronophenylalanine (BPA) ? neutron irradiation; Beam only, neutron irradiation; Sham, matched manipulation. The total absorbed dose administered with BPA–BNCT was 13 ± 3 Gy in tumor and 9 ± 2 Gy in healthy liver. Three weeks posttreatment, the tumor surface area post-treatment/pre-treatment ratio was 0.46 ± 0.20 for BPA–BNCT, 2.7 ± 1.8 for Beam only and 4.5 ± 3.1 for Sham. The pre-treatment tumor nodule mass of 48 ± 19 mgfell significantly to 19 ± 16 mg for BPA–BNCT, but rose significantly to 140 ± 106 mg for Beam only and to 346 ± 302 mg for Sham. For both end points, the differences between the BPA–BNCT group and each of the other groups were statistically significant (ANOVA). No clinical, macroscopic or histological normal liver radiotoxicity was observed. It is concluded that BPA– BNCT induced a significant remission of experimental colorectal tumor nodules in liver with no contributory liver toxicity.

  6. Genetic rodent models of brain disorders: Perspectives on experimental approaches and therapeutic strategies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGraw, Christopher M; Ward, Christopher S; Samaco, Rodney C

    2017-09-01

    Neurobehavioral disorders comprised of neurodegenerative, neurodevelopmental, and psychiatric disorders together represent leading causes of morbidity and mortality. Despite significant academic research and industry efforts to elucidate the disease mechanisms operative in these disorders and to develop mechanism-based therapies, our understanding remains incomplete and our access to tractable therapeutic interventions severely limited. The magnitude of these short-comings can be measured by the growing list of disappointing clinical trials based on initially promising compounds identified in genetic animal models. This review and commentary will explore why this may be so, focusing on the central role that genetic models of neurobehavioral disorders have come to occupy in current efforts to identify disease mechanisms and therapies. In particular, we will highlight the unique pitfalls and challenges that have hampered success in these models as compared to genetic models of non-neurological diseases as well as to symptom-based models of the early 20th century that led to the discovery of all major classes of psychoactive pharmaceutical compounds still used today. Using examples from specific genetic rodent models of human neurobehavioral disorders, we will highlight issues of reproducibility, construct validity, and translational relevance in the hopes that these examples will be instructive toward greater success in future endeavors. Lastly, we will champion a two-pronged approach toward identifying novel therapies for neurobehavioral disorders that makes greater use of the historically more successful symptom-based approaches in addition to more mechanism-based approaches. © 2017 The Authors. American Journal of Medical Genetics Part C Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  7. Therapeutic Role of Interleukin 22 in Experimental Intra-abdominal Klebsiella pneumoniae Infection in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Mingquan; Horne, William; McAleer, Jeremy P; Pociask, Derek; Eddens, Taylor; Good, Misty; Gao, Bin; Kolls, Jay K

    2016-01-04

    Interleukin 22 (IL-22) is an IL-10-related cytokine produced by T helper 17 (Th17) cells and other immune cells that signals via IL-22 receptor alpha 1 (IL-22Ra1), which is expressed on epithelial tissues, as well as hepatocytes. IL-22 has been shown to have hepatoprotective effects that are mediated by signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3) signaling. However, it is unclear whether IL-22 can directly regulate antimicrobial programs in the liver. To test this hypothesis, hepatocyte-specific IL-22Ra1 knockout (Il22Ra1(Hep-/-)) and Stat3 knockout (Stat3(Hep-/-)) mice were generated and subjected to intra-abdominal infection with Klebsiella pneumoniae, which results in liver injury and necrosis. We found that overexpression of IL-22 or therapeutic administration of recombinant IL-22 (rIL-22), given 2 h postinfection, significantly reduced the bacterial burden in both the liver and spleen. The antimicrobial activity of rIL-22 required hepatic Il22Ra1 and Stat3. Serum from rIL-22-treated mice showed potent bacteriostatic activity against K. pneumoniae, which was dependent on lipocalin 2 (LCN2). However, in vivo, rIL-22-induced antimicrobial activity was only partially reduced in LCN2-deficient mice. We found that rIL-22 also induced serum amyloid A2 (SAA2) and that SAA2 had anti-K. pneumoniae bactericidal activity in vitro. These results demonstrate that IL-22, through IL-22Ra1 and STAT3 singling, can induce intrinsic antimicrobial activity in the liver, which is due in part to LCN2 and SAA2. Therefore, IL-22 may be a useful adjunct in treating hepatic and intra-abdominal infections. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  8. A new therapeutic association to manage relapsing experimental colitis: Doxycycline plus Saccharomyces boulardii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido-Mesa, José; Algieri, Francesca; Rodriguez-Nogales, Alba; Utrilla, Maria Pilar; Rodriguez-Cabezas, Maria Elena; Zarzuelo, Antonio; Ocete, Maria Angeles; Garrido-Mesa, Natividad; Galvez, Julio

    2015-07-01

    Immunomodulatory antibiotics have been proposed for the treatment of multifactorial conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease. Probiotics are able to attenuate intestinal inflammation, being considered as safe when chronically administered. The aim of the study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of doxycycline, a tetracycline with immunomodulatory properties, alone and in association with the probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii CNCMI-745. Doxycycline was assayed both in vitro (Caco-2 epithelial cells and RAW 264.7 macrophages) and in vivo, in the trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) model of rat colitis and the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) model of mouse colitis. In addition, the anti-inflammatory effect of the association of doxycycline and the probiotic was evaluated in vitro and in vivo in a DSS model of reactivated colitis in mice. Doxycycline displayed immunomodulatory activity in vitro, reducing IL-8 production by intestinal epithelial cells and nitric oxide by macrophages. Doxycycline administration to TNBS-colitic rats (5, 10 and 25 mg/kg) ameliorated the intestinal inflammatory process, being its efficacy comparable to that previously showed by minocycline. Doxycycline treatment was also effective in reducing acute intestinal inflammation in the DSS model of mouse colitis. The association of doxycycline and S. boulardii helped managing colitis in a reactivated model of colitis, by reducing intestinal inflammation and accelerating the recovery and attenuating the relapse. This was evidenced by a reduced disease activity index, colonic tissue damage and expression of inflammatory mediators. This study confirms the intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of doxycycline and supports the potential use of its therapeutic association with S. boulardii for the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases, in which doxycycline is used to induce remission and long term probiotic administration helps to prevent the relapses. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All

  9. Immunoprotective effect of von Willebrand factor towards therapeutic factor VIII in experimental haemophilia A.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delignat, S; Repessé, Y; Navarrete, A-M; Meslier, Y; Gupta, N; Christophe, O D; Kaveri, S V; Lacroix-Desmazes, S

    2012-03-01

    The development of inhibitory anti-factor VIII (FVIII) antibodies in patients with haemophilia A following replacement therapy is associated with several types of risk factors. Among these, the purity of FVIII concentrates, and in particular the presence of von Willebrand factor (VWF), was controversially proposed to influence the immunogenicity of exogenous FVIII. We re-assessed in vivo and in vitro the immuno-protective effect of VWF towards FVIII. The immuno-protective effect of VWF towards FVIII was investigated in vivo, in a model of haemophilia A. We studied the endocytosis of FVIII by murine bone marrow-derived dendritic cells and evaluated the capacity of VWF to block the internalization of FVIII. We characterized the relevance of VWF for the accumulation of FVIII in the marginal zone of the spleen, a secondary lymphoid organ where the immune response to therapeutically administered FVIII initiates. Our results confirm that VWF reduces the immunogenicity of FVIII in FVIII-deficient mice. Paradoxically, VWF is important for the accumulation of FVIII in the marginal zone of the spleen. We propose that VWF exerts at least two non-mutually exclusive immunoprotective roles towards FVIII in haemophilic mice: VWF prevents the endocytosis of FVIII by professional antigen-presenting cells by blocking the interaction of FVIII with as yet unidentified endocytic receptor(s). Hypothetically, VWF, by virtue of increasing the half-life of FVIII in the circulation, may allow an increased contact time with tolerogenic marginal zone B cells in the spleen. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  10. Experimental therapeutic studies of Solanum aculeastrum Dunal. on Leishmania major infection in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laban, Linet T; Anjili, Christopher O; Mutiso, Joshua M; Ingonga, Johnstone; Kiige, Samuel G; Ngedzo, Mgala M; Gicheru, Michael M

    2015-01-01

    Solanum acueastrum Dunal. has been shown to have some chemotherapeutic value. Leaf and berry water and methanol compounds of S. acueastrum were evaluated for possible antileishmanial activity In vivo on BALB/c mice and in vitro against Leishmania major promastigotes, amastigotes and vero cells. Dry S. aculeastrum berry and leaf material were extracted in methanol and water. L. major parasites were exposed to different concentrations of S. aculeastrum fruit and leaf compounds and the IC50 on the promastigotes, percentage of infection rate of macrophages by amastigotes and the toxicological effect on vero cells were determined. BALB/c mice were infected subcutaneously with 1×10(6) promastigotes and kept for four weeks to allow for disease establishment. Infected mice were treated with fruit and leaf methanolic and water compounds, amphotericin B (AmB), and sterile phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Fruit methanol compound was most effective in inhibiting the growth of promastigotes with IC5078.62 μg/ml. Fruit water compound showed the best activity in inhibiting infection of macrophages by amastigotes. Fruit methanol compound was more toxic at Ld50=8.06 mg/ml to vero cells than amphotericin B. Analysis of variance computation indicated statistically significant difference in lesion sizes between experimental and control mice groups (P=0.0001). Splenic impression smears ANOVA indicated a highly significant difference in parasitic numbers between the experimental and the control groups (P=0.0001). The results demonstrate that compounds from S. aculeastrum have potential anti-leishmanial activities and the medicinal use of the plant poses considerable toxicity against dividing vero cells.

  11. The cardioprotector dexrazoxane augments therapeutic efficacy of mitoxantrone in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis

    Science.gov (United States)

    WEILBACH, F X; CHAN, A; TOYKA, K V; GOLD, R

    2004-01-01

    The present study investigates the immunological effects of a combination treatment of mitoxantrone and the cardioprotector dexrazoxane in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Mitoxantrone, an anthracycline-derived immunosuppressive drug has been approved recently for treatment of very active multiple sclerosis (MS). Its prolonged use is limited due to its cardiotoxic properties. Dexrazoxane (DZR (S)-(+)-1,2-bis (3,5.dioxopiperazinyl)propane, ICRF-187) is an iron III chelator which in animal models and in cancer patients reduces anthracycline and mitoxantrone induced cardiotoxicity when given immediately before these agents. We examined the immunological effects of dexrazoxane in combination with mitoxantrone in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) in Lewis rats. EAE was induced by active immunization with myelin basic protein (MBP) or by adoptive transfer of MBP specific T cells (AT-EAE). The clinical course, spinal cord pathology, activity of metalloproteinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) and T cell apoptosis were assessed. Monotherapy with DZR ameliorated slightly the course of actively induced EAE and AT-EAE. The combination of DZR and mitoxantrone was superior to mitoxantrone given alone. Clinical amelioration ran in parallel with the marked reduction of inflammatory infiltration which was nearly abolished by the combination treatment. DZR did not affect the activity of metalloproteinase 9 and did not increase the proportion of apoptotic lymph node cells ex vivo or T cells in situ. We conclude that in addition to its cardioprotective role, DZR augments mitoxantrone-mediated immunosuppressive effects in animal models of human central nervous system (CNS) autoimmune disease. Clinical trials in MS patients are warranted to evaluate the unexpected immunosuppressive efficacy of DZR as add-on treatment. PMID:14678264

  12. Reduced All-Cause Child Mortality After General Measles Vaccination Campaign in Rural Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Ane Bærent; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Martins, Cesario

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Randomised trials have shown that measles vaccine (MV) prevents non-measles deaths. MV-campaigns are conducted to eliminate measles infection.The overall mortality effect of MV-campaigns has not been studied. METHODS: Bandim Health Project (BHP) surveys children aged 0-4 years in rural...... by prevention of measles deaths. If MV-campaigns reduce non-measles related mortality the policies for measles vaccination should take this into account....

  13. A short clinical review of vaccination against measles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannous, Leen Khader; Barlow, Gavin; Metcalfe, Neil H

    2014-04-01

    Major epidemics of measles are again in the news across the UK because of our failure to maintain population herd immunity. This situation has occurred primarily because of a loss of public confidence in the measles, mumps and rubella (MMR) vaccine, which was never restored following the Wakefield debacle, and a lack of awareness of the potential morbidity and mortality associated with measles. This article provides healthcare professionals with a succinct overview of important clinical aspects of measles and also describes the history of measles vaccination in the UK. Restoration of herd immunity will require higher public acceptance of the MMR vaccine in the context of recognition that measles remains an important infection. While achievement of this appears to be challenging, recent UK-based research suggests that it can be ascertained.

  14. Molecular epidemiology of measles virus in Italy during 2008

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fabio Magurano

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION. In view of the goal of measles elimination, it is of great importance to assess the circulation of wild-type measles virus (MV. Genetic analysis is indispensable to understand the epidemiology of measles. A large measles outbreak occurred in Italy in 2008, with over 4000 cases reported to the enhanced measles surveillance system introduced in 2007, 37% of which were laboratory confirmed. METHODS. Urine and saliva samples were collected during 2008. A phylogenetic analysis of measles sequences was performed in order to understand the epidemiological situation of wild-type (MV circulation in that period. RESULT AND DISCUSSION. Data showed predominant circulation of the genotype D4. Genotypes A, D8, D9 and H1 were also detected in a small number of samples, probably representing imported cases.

  15. Investigation of a measles outbreak in Cordillera, northern Philippines, 2013

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paola Katrina Ching

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Measles is a highly infectious viral illness that remains one of the leading causes of death among children worldwide. In the Philippines, decreasing routine vaccination coverage from 2007 to 2011 led to local measles outbreaks. A team investigated a measles outbreak reported in Cordillera of the Philippines in May 2013. Methods: Measles case data with symptom onset from 2 February to 27 May 2013 were obtained from official sources and verified on site. Data included age, sex, residential address, signs and symptoms and vaccination status. Active case-findings were also conducted for contacts of these cases. The living environments of the cases were investigated. A survey was conducted with the cases and caregivers to understand their knowledge and attitudes about measles. Results: There were 50 measles cases identified with an age range from six months to 32 years (median: 16 years. Thirty-two were male (64%. Twenty (40% were hospitalized with one death. Thirty-two (64% cases were laboratory confirmed, and 36 (72% received a single dose of measles vaccine. Overcrowded living environments were observed among many cases. The majority of respondents (46/48, 96% knew about measles, but there were misconceptions about the cause of measles and how it can be prevented and managed. Conclusion: This measles outbreak occurred in an area with low immunization coverage. Achieving 95% measles immunization coverage and strengthening routine immunization strategies to address high-risk populations are recommended. Also, we recommend health education campaigns to include components that address misconceptions about measles.

  16. Measles virus genotypes circulating in India, 2011-2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vaidya, Sunil R; Chowdhury, Deepika T

    2017-05-01

    The Government of India is accepted to participate in the measles elimination and rubella control goal 2020, hence genetic characterization of measles viruses (MeV) becomes essential. At National Reference Laboratory (National Institute of Virology, Pune), the throat swabs/urine specimens (n = 380) or PCR products (n = 219) obtained from the suspected measles cases were referred for the molecular testing and subsequently, MeV nucleoprotein (N) gene sequencing/genotyping. In addition, 2,449 suspected measles cases, mainly from the Maharashtra state were referred for the laboratory diagnosis. A detailed study was performed on N gene sequences obtained during last two decades. Indian MeV sequences obtained during 2011-2015 were compared with 1996-2010 sequences and genetic divergence was studied. Circulation of measles genotypes B3 (n = 3), D4 (n = 49), and D8 (n = 351) strains were observed in 19 States and three Union Territories of India. In addition, 64 measles viruses were isolated from 253 throat swab or urine specimens obtained from the suspected measles cases. During 2011-2015, 67.9% (1,663/2,449) suspected measles cases were laboratory confirmed. Molecular studies showed circulation of measles genotype B3 in India along with prominently circulating genotypes D4 and D8 except D7 strains. The genetic diversion within Indian B3, D4, and D8 genotypes was 0.3%, 1.1%, and 2.1%, respectively. The genetic divergence of Indian B3, D4, and D8 measles strains with the WHO reference sequences was 2.5%, 2.6%, and 1.8%, respectively. It is crucial data for national immunization program. More measles/rubella genotyping studies are necessary to track transmission and to support measles elimination and rubella control. J. Med. Virol. 89:753-758, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  17. Measles among healthcare workers: a potential for nosocomial outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Botelho-Nevers, E; Cassir, N; Minodier, P; Laporte, R; Gautret, P; Badiaga, S; Thiberville, D J; Ninove, L; Charrel, R; Brouqui, P

    2011-01-13

    We report here 14 cases of measles among healthcare workers (HCWs) in Public Hospitals of Marseilles, France that occurred between April and November 2010. All cases but one were under 30 years of age. Following the identification of these cases, we checked the immune status among 154 HCWs who volunteered to take part in the study and showed that 93% and 88% were immune against measles and mumps respectively. HCWs non-immunised against measles were all under 30 years of age.

  18. Therapeutic effects of neurotrophic factors in experimental spinal cord injury models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enomoto M

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Mitsuhiro Enomoto1,21Department of Orthopaedic and Spinal Surgery, Graduate School, 2Hyperbaric Medical Center, Tokyo Medical and Dental University, Tokyo, JapanAbstract: Neurotrophic factors (NFs play important roles in regenerative medicine approaches to mitigate primary and secondary damage after spinal cord injury (SCI because their receptors are still present in the injured spinal cord even though the expression of the NFs themselves is decreased. Several reports have shown that NF administration increases regenerative signaling after SCI, particularly by stimulating axonal growth. However, few NFs cross the blood–brain barrier, and most of them show low stability and limited diffusion within the central nervous system. To overcome this problem, transplantation strategies using genetically modified NF-secreting Schwann cells, neural and glial progenitor cells, and mesenchymal stem cells have been applied to animal models of SCI. In particular, multifunctional NFs that bind to TrkB, TrkC, and p75NTR receptors have been discovered in the last decade and utilized in preclinical cell therapies for spinal cord repair. To achieve functional recovery after SCI, it is important to consider the different effects of each NF on axonal regeneration, and strategies should be established to specifically harness the multifunctional properties of NFs. This review provides an overview of multifunctional NFs combined with cell therapy in experimental SCI models and a proposal to implement their use as a clinically viable therapy.Keywords: spinal cord injury, neurotrophic factor, multineurotrophin, regeneration, cell transplantation

  19. EVALUATION OF THE THERAPEUTIC EFFICACY OF HIGH-INTENSITY PULSED-PERIODIC LASER RADIATION (CLINICAL AND EXPERIMENTAL OBSERVATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. V. Sokolov

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available From the experience of clinical observations, we have shown a high therapeutic effectiveness of the medical laser KULON-MED in: cosmetics, non-cancer inflammatory diseases of the gastrointestinal tract and cancer (cancer of the stomach and colon as at different wavelengths, and with different types of photosensitizers. In the area of anti-tumor photodynamic therapy (PDT, based on experimental studies, we have showed the high antitumor (sarcoma S‑37 effectiveness of the laser (with the inhibition of tumor growth of up to 100% for repetitively pulsed irradiation mode, and for mode fractionation doses laser radiation. In addition, significant differences are shown in the effectiveness of anticancer PDT methods in the application of high-intensity lasers, continuous and pulsed caused fundamental properties of laser radiation characteristics – time structure of the radiation pulses. Thus, for the first time we have shown that the time of high-intensity laser pulses structure significantly affects therapeutic efficacy laser system, and hence on the mechanisms of interaction of laser radiation with biological tissue.

  20. The therapeutic effects of MSc1 nanocomplex, synthesized by nanochelating technology, on experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitic C57/BL6 mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fakharzadeh, Saideh; Sahraian, Mohammad Ali; Hafizi, Maryam; Kalanaky, Somayeh; Masoumi, Zahra; Mahdavi, Mehdi; Kamalian, Nasser; Minagar, Alireza; Nazaran, Mohammad Hassan

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Currently approved therapies for multiple sclerosis (MS) at best only slow down its progression. Therefore, it is necessary to utilize novel technologies in order to synthesize smart multifunctional structures. In the present study, for the first time we evaluated the therapeutic potential of MSc1 nanocomplex, which was designed based on novel nanochelating technology. Materials and methods MSc1 cell-protection capacity, with and without iron bond, was evaluated against hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced oxidative stress in cultured rat pheochromocytoma-12 cells. The ability of MSc1 to maintain iron bond at pH ranges of 1–7 was evaluated. Nanocomplex toxicity was examined by estimating the intraperitoneal median lethal dose (LD50). Experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitic mice were injected with MSc1 14 days after disease induction, when the clinical symptoms appeared. The clinical score, body weight, and disease-induced mortality were monitored until day 54. In the end, after collecting blood samples for assessing hemoglobin and red blood cell count, the brains and livers of the mice were isolated for hematoxylin and eosin staining and analysis of iron content, respectively. Results The results showed that MSc1 prevented H2O2-induced cell death even after binding with iron, and it preserved its bond with iron constant at pH ranges 1–7. The nanocomplex intraperitoneal LD50 was 1,776.59 mg/kg. MSc1 prompted therapeutic behavior and improved the disabling features of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis, which was confirmed by decreased clinical scores versus increased body mass and 100% survival probability. It did not cause any adverse effects on hemoglobin or red blood cell count. Histopathological studies showed no neural loss or lymphocyte infiltration in MSc1-treated mice, while the hepatic iron content was also normal. Conclusion These results demonstrate that MSc1 could be a promising beneficial novel agent and has the capacity to be evaluated

  1. [Case-surveillance of measles in Aichi Prefecture in 2007].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuzuki, Masako; Hirose, Kaoru; Masui, Tsuneo; Minagawa, Hiroko

    2009-09-01

    Under the Japanese Infectious Disease Prevention Law, measles was monitored by the national epidemiological surveillance system through reports from sentinel clinical institutions until December 2007. In order to obtain rapid and precise information on measles outbreaks and take necessary actions, a case-surveillance system was introduced in Aichi Prefecture in February 2007. In this report, measles cases reported through the case-surveillance system were examined for characteristics of infection and the utility of the system. The case-surveillance system for measles started in Aichi in February 2007, all local medical institutions being requested to provide a set of information on every measles case immediately after the clinical diagnosis was made. Reported data were processed by ourselves and real-time surveillance results were shown in our web site. Data were analyzed and compared with measles data from the national epidemiological surveillance system, reported by the sentinel clinical institutions in Aichi. A total of 212 cases were registered through the case-surveillance from February to December 2007, including 123 (58.0%) adult cases (over 15 years old of age). In contrast, only 56 cases were registered in Aichi by the national epidemiological surveillance in 2007 including 11 adult cases (19.6%), indicating considerable under-representation of adult measles cases by the sentinel survey. Of the case-surveillance cases, 56 (26.4%) had an immunization history, 88 (41.5%) were without a history, and 68 (32.1%) were unknown, indicating that primary and/or secondary vaccine failure occurred in at least 26.4%. The results of the case-surveillance of measles in Aichi provided useful information on characteristics of measles infection and proved to be effective in detecting the occurrence of measles rapidly and accurately. In order to achieve the Japanese target of measles elimination by 2012, it will be necessary to further strengthen the monitoring system and

  2. Progress toward measles elimination—Philippines, 1998-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takashima, Yoshihiro; Schluter, W William; Mariano, Kayla Mae L; Diorditsa, Sergey; de Quiroz Castro, Maricel; Ou, Alan C; Ducusin, Maria Joyce U; Garcia, Luzviminda C; Elfa, Dulce C; Dabbagh, Alya; Rota, Paul; Goodson, James L

    2015-04-10

    In 2005, the Regional Committee for the World Health Organization (WHO) Western Pacific Region (WPR) established a goal to eliminate measles by 2012.The recommended elimination strategies in WPR include 1) ≥95% 2-dose coverage with measles-containing vaccine (MCV) through routine immunization services and supplementary immunization activities (SIAs); 2) high-quality case-based measles surveillance; 3) laboratory surveillance with timely and accurate testing of specimens to confirm or discard suspected cases and detect measles virus genotypes; and 4) measles outbreak preparedness, rapid response, and appropriate case management. In the WPR, the Philippines set a national goal in 1998 to eliminate measles by 2008. This report describes progress toward measles elimination in the Philippines during 1998-2014 and challenges remaining to achieve the goal. WHO-United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF)-estimated coverage with the routine first dose of MCV (MCV1) increased from 80% in 1998 to 90% in 2013, and coverage with the routine second dose of MCV (MCV2) increased from 10% after nationwide introduction in 2010 to 53% in 2013. After nationwide SIAs in 1998 and 2004, historic lows in the numbers and incidence of reported measles cases occurred in 2006. Despite nationwide SIAs in 2007 and 2011, the number of reported cases and incidence generally increased during 2007-2012, and large measles outbreaks occurred during 2013-2014 that affected infants, young children, older children, and young adults and that were prolonged by delayed and geographically limited outbreak response immunization activities during 2013-2014. For the goal of measles elimination in WPR to be achieved, sustained investments are required in the Philippines to strengthen health systems, implement the recommended elimination strategies, and develop additional strategies to identify and reduce measles susceptibility in specific geographic areas and older age groups.

  3. Euterpe oleracea Extract (Açaí) Is a Promising Novel Pharmacological Therapeutic Treatment for Experimental Endometriosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado, Daniel Escorsim; Rodrigues-Baptista, Karina Cristina; Alessandra-Perini, Jessica; Soares de Moura, Roberto; Santos, Thiago Alves Dos; Pereira, Kariny Gomes; Marinho da Silva, Yasmin; Souza, Pergentino José Cunha; Nasciutti, Luiz Eurico; Perini, Jamila Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the therapeutic potential of Euterpe oleracea extract (açaí) on the growth and survival of endometriotic lesions using an experimental model. Twenty female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into two groups after the implantation and establishment of autologous endometrium onto the peritoneum abdominal wall and treated with 200 mg/kg hydroalcoholic solution extract from açaí stone or vehicle via gastric tube for 30 consecutive days. Body weight, lesion surface areas, histological and immunohistochemistry analyses of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2), metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and F4-80 were performed. Levels of VEGF, VEGFR-2, MMP-9 and COX-2 mRNA were measured. Flow cytometry of F4-80 was performed, and ELISA immunoassays measured prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), VEGF and nitric oxide (NO) and concentrations. Macrophage cell line J774.G8 was treated with 10, 20, and 40 μg/mL of açaí for 24, 48 and 72 h, and cell viability was measured using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) assays. Açaí treatment significantly decreased the implant size, and histological examination indicated atrophy and regression. A reduction in immunostaining and mRNA expression of VEGF, MMP-9 and COX-2 was observed, and F4-80 was lower in the treated group than the control group. The treated group also exhibited lower concentrations of PGE2, VEGF and NO compared to the control group. Macrophages cells treated with 20 and 40 μg/ml of açaí reduced cell viability in about 50% after 24, 48 and 72 h. Our results suggest that açaí effectively suppressed the establishment and growth of endometriotic lesions, and this agent is a promising novel pharmacological therapeutic treatment for endometriosis.

  4. Euterpe oleracea Extract (Açaí Is a Promising Novel Pharmacological Therapeutic Treatment for Experimental Endometriosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Escorsim Machado

    Full Text Available This study investigated the therapeutic potential of Euterpe oleracea extract (açaí on the growth and survival of endometriotic lesions using an experimental model. Twenty female Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized into two groups after the implantation and establishment of autologous endometrium onto the peritoneum abdominal wall and treated with 200 mg/kg hydroalcoholic solution extract from açaí stone or vehicle via gastric tube for 30 consecutive days. Body weight, lesion surface areas, histological and immunohistochemistry analyses of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF, VEGF receptor-2 (VEGFR-2, metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9, cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2 and F4-80 were performed. Levels of VEGF, VEGFR-2, MMP-9 and COX-2 mRNA were measured. Flow cytometry of F4-80 was performed, and ELISA immunoassays measured prostaglandin E2 (PGE2, VEGF and nitric oxide (NO and concentrations. Macrophage cell line J774.G8 was treated with 10, 20, and 40 μg/mL of açaí for 24, 48 and 72 h, and cell viability was measured using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT assays. Açaí treatment significantly decreased the implant size, and histological examination indicated atrophy and regression. A reduction in immunostaining and mRNA expression of VEGF, MMP-9 and COX-2 was observed, and F4-80 was lower in the treated group than the control group. The treated group also exhibited lower concentrations of PGE2, VEGF and NO compared to the control group. Macrophages cells treated with 20 and 40 μg/ml of açaí reduced cell viability in about 50% after 24, 48 and 72 h. Our results suggest that açaí effectively suppressed the establishment and growth of endometriotic lesions, and this agent is a promising novel pharmacological therapeutic treatment for endometriosis.

  5. Therapeutic Efficacy of an ω-3-Fatty Acid-Containing 17-β Estradiol Nano-Delivery System against Experimental Atherosclerosis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipti Deshpande

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis and its consequences remain prevalent clinical challenges throughout the world. Initiation and progression of atherosclerosis involves a complex, dynamic interplay among inflammation, hyperlipidemia, and endothelial dysfunction. A multicomponent treatment approach targeted for delivery within diseased vessels could prove beneficial in treating atherosclerosis. This study was undertaken to evaluate the multimodal effects of a novel ω-3-fatty acid-rich, 17-β-estradiol (17-βE-loaded, CREKA-peptide-modified nanoemulsion system on experimental atherosclerosis. In vitro treatment of cultured human aortic endothelial cells (ECs with the 17-βE-loaded, CREKA-peptide-modified nanoemulsion system increased cellular nitrate/nitrite, indicating improved nitric oxide formation. In vivo, systemic administration of this nanoemulsion system to apolipoprotein-E knock out (ApoE-/- mice fed a high-fat diet significantly improved multiple parameters related to the etiology and development of occlusive atherosclerotic vasculopathy: lesion area, circulating plasma lipid levels, and expression of aortic-wall inflammatory markers. These salutary effects were attributed selectively to the 17-βE and/or ω-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid components of the nano-delivery system. At therapeutic doses, the 17-βE-loaded, CREKA-peptide modified nanoemulsion system appeared to be biocompatible in that it elicited no apparent adverse/toxic effects, as indexed by body weight, plasma alanine aminotransferase/aspartate aminotransferase levels, and liver and kidney histopathology. The study demonstrates the therapeutic potential of a novel, 17-βE-loaded, CREKA-peptide-modified nanoemulsion system against atherosclerosis in a multimodal fashion by reducing lesion size, lowering the levels of circulating plasma lipids and decreasing the gene expression of inflammatory markers associated with the disease.

  6. Epidemiology and clinical characteristics of the Measles outbreak in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Measles is a public health problem especially in South Asia and Africa. Nylon Health District has experienced two measles outbreaks over a period of three years. We hereby describe the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of the outbreak of February 2011. Methods: A retrospective descriptive cross ...

  7. Measles in Sudan: Diagnosis, Epidemiology and Humoral Immune Response

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.S. El Mubarak

    2004-01-01

    textabstractDespite the availability of safe and effective live attenuated vaccines, measles remains endemic in many developing countries. Little is known about the pathogenesis of measles virus (MV) infections in the areas of itsendemicity, largely due to the limited infrastructure and political

  8. Measles outbreak in a poorly vaccinated region in Cameroon

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ebutamanya

    2015-10-20

    Oct 20, 2015 ... Abstract. Measles is a highly contagious viral infection and still a leading cause of vaccine-preventable deaths in Africa; especially in unvaccinated populations. We reviewed the medical reports of the measles outbreak that occurred in Misaje, in the North west region of Cameroon from. 11/03/2015 to ...

  9. The influence of the school year on measles epidemics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Viggo

    The measles incidence record for Copenhagen 1880-1966 shows that the date of admission of new pupils has major impact on the structure of the epidemics, suggesting that measles transmission should be modelled in a way that accounts for the pulsed influx of new pupils. Assuming that the school year...

  10. Measles: The past, the present and the future | Abdulkarim | Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measles is one of the most infectious diseases known to affect man. It spreads rapidly from an index case to many susceptible individuals resulting in cycles of epidemics in different parts of the world especially in the African continent. The contribution of measles to childhood mortality and morbidity remains high because it ...

  11. Review of childhood measles admissions at the National Hospital ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The global disease burden from measles as a vaccine preventable disease remains high despite decades of interventions by various organs and agencies. To determine the prevalence and outcome of childhood cases of measles admitted into the children's emergency ward of the National hospital and highlight the ...

  12. Comparative Analysis of Measles Morbidigf and Mortalityin Calabar ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Comparative Analysis of Measles Morbidigf and. Mortalityin Calabar during the Eaqaanded Programme. ' on Immunization and the National Programme on. Immunization Eras. IS Etuk*, EE Ekanem'h", JJ Udo*. Summary. Etuk IS, Ekanem EE, UdoJJ. Comparative Analysis of Measles Morbidity and Mortality in Calabar ...

  13. Assessing the transmission dynamics of measles in Japan, 2016

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Nishiura

    2017-09-01

    Conclusions: Our results likely reflect the highly contagious nature of measles, indicating that Japan is at risk of observing multiple generations of measles transmission given imported cases. Considering that importation events may continue in the future, supplementary vaccination of adults needs to be considered.

  14. Measles outbreak in Simada District, South Gondar Zone, Amhara ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2mikitser

    2009-06-27

    Jun 27, 2009 ... Background: Recently measles outbreaks have been occurring in several areas of Ethiopia. ... The Ethiopian Ministry of Health (MOH) has started .... Ethiopia; 2004. 12. Talley L, Salama P. Assessing field vaccine efficacy for measles in famine affected rural Ethiopia. Am J. Trop med Hyg 2003;68: 545 546.

  15. Epidemiology and clinical characteristics of the Measles outbreak in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2012-11-26

    Nov 26, 2012 ... Abstract. Introduction. Measles is a public health problem especially in South Asia and Africa. Nylon Health District has experienced two measles outbreaks over a period of three years. We hereby describe the epidemiology and clinical characteristics of the outbreak of February 2011. Methods.

  16. Measles Control in Nigeria: the Case for a Two

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    with a transmissible latent virus, (c) only one serotype, and (d) availability of an effective vaccine. In spite of these, measles eradication seems elusive for now. It does appear that the dissimilarities between measles and smallpox, which tend to favour poor control of the former, play a more influential role in our environment.

  17. Measles - Educational Resources for Parents and Childcare Providers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... the power to protect their children with MMR vaccine. Protect Your Child from Measles Infographic highlights CDC’s routine measles vaccine ... and answers about vaccinating infants and young children Vaccines When Your Child Is Sick [2 pages] Explains that a child’s ...

  18. Measles Epidemic in Pakistan: In Search of Solutions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hanumantp

    Pakistan's immunization program is already a topic of much interest.[2] Measles is a highly contagious disease, mostly found in children, which was highly prevalent in the world until the introduction of its vaccine.[3] Epidemics of measles have become relatively uncommon since the introduction of its vaccine in the ...

  19. Antibody response to routine measles vaccination among a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    owner

    2013-02-08

    Feb 8, 2013 ... Abstract Background: Despite a global decline in mortality and morbidity from measles in the last decade, outbreaks continue to occur in some parts of the world including Nigeria. Objective: To determine antibody response to routine measles vacci- nation in Nigerian children and evaluate vaccine potency.

  20. Estimation Of Measles Sero-conversion in Children Vaccinated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study of seroconversion of 115 children between 9 months to 5 years vaccinated against measles was conducted in Oriowon local government area of Edo State. This has to establish the immune status of the children against measles after immunisation. Haemagglutination inhibition technique was used. Prevaccination ...

  1. The end of measles and congenital rubella: an achievable dream?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamo, G; Sturabotti, G; D'Andrea, E; Baccolini, V; Romano, F; Iannazzo, S; Marzuillo, C; Villari, P

    2017-01-01

    Despite substantial progress towards measles and rubella control, outbreaks continue to threaten elimination goals worldwide. This paper aims to document progress towards the global eradication of measles and rubella. In particular, it investigates the major challenges faced by Italy in reaching the elimination goals. A review of the most important literature was carried out. Furthermore, a systematic review of the scientific literature on measles and rubella in the Italian setting was performed for the period 2000-2016. In the National Plan 2010-2015, Italy renewed its commitment to eliminate measles and rubella by 2015. However, Italy recently experienced a high measles burden (2,205 cases in 2013, 1,694 in 2014). Between June 2015 and May 2016, 515 cases were reported, accounting for 28% all cases in Europe. Immunization coverage decreased in recent years, with no Region reaching the 95% target. The systematic review included a total of 175 papers, with an upward trend in the number of published articles, which demonstrates an increasing interest in the field of measles and rubella. The review highlights the need to improve the commitment of the Italian Regions to the elimination goals; to promote Supplementary Immunization Activities (SIAs); to improve the communication skills of health care workers; to improve the health literacy of citizens; and to enhance integrated measles and rubella surveillance. Elimination of measles and rubella in Italy will require a substantial improvement in both commitment of the 21 Regions and activity of the whole country towards the WHO goals.

  2. measles case-based surveillance and outbreak response in nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    INTRODUCTION. Measles outbreaks pose a continuing public health problem in Africa and other developing nations of the world1. Measles case fatality has been estimated to be between 3 to 5% in developing countries and may be as high as 10% during epidemics2. Despite the efforts made at increasing immunization, ...

  3. Antibody response to routine measles vaccination among a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Despite a global decline in mortality and morbidity from measles in the last decade, outbreaks continue to occur in some parts of the world including Nigeria. Objective: To determine antibody response to routine measles vaccination in Nigerian children and evaluate vaccine potency. Methods: A prospective ...

  4. Measles Epidemic in Pakistan: In Search of Solutions

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    hanumantp

    The recent outbreak of measles in different areas of Pakistan has raised questions over its immunization program once again. The number of cases of measles in 2012 was reported to be. 14,000 with 210 patients dying of it.[1] Unfortunately, due to a lack of proper surveillance infrastructure, the demographic statistics ...

  5. Therapeutic potency of IL2-caspase 3 targeted treatment in a murine experimental model of inflammatory bowel disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shteingart, S; Rapoport, M; Grodzovski, I; Sabag, O; Lichtenstein, M; Eavri, R; Lorberboum-Galski, H

    2009-06-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) comprises primarily the two disorders - ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease - that involve deregulated T cell responses. The ever-increasing incidence rate of Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis during recent decades, combined with the limited efficacy and potential adverse effects of current treatments, explain the real need for seeking more specific and selective methods for treating these diseases. To investigate the ability of interleukin 2 (IL2)-caspase 3 chimeric protein, designed to target activated T lymphocytes that express the high-affinity IL2 receptor, to ameliorate the clinical symptoms of acute murine experimental colitis, using a mouse model of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. Mice with DSS-induced colitis were treated with IL2-caspase 3 for 7 days and disease severity was assessed in parallel to control, non-treated mice, receiving only daily injections of phosphate-buffered saline. IL2-caspase 3 was tested both for its ability to prevent the development of colitis, and for its therapeutic potential to cure on-going, active acute disease. In addition, colon tissue samples were used for myeloperoxidase assays and RNA isolation followed by polymerase chain reaction to determine mRNA expression levels of specific genes. Treatment with IL2-caspase 3 dose-dependently ameliorated the disease activity index (DAI) of mice colitis. We achieved up to 78% improvement in DAI with intravenous injections of 15 microg/mouse/day. Furthermore, IL2-caspase 3 decreased neutrophil and macrophage infiltration to the inflamed tissue by up to 57%. IL2-caspase 3 was proven as a therapeutic reagent in another model, where treatment begins only after disease onset. Here we demonstrated a 70% decrease in DAI when compared to non-treated sick mice. A reduction in mRNA expression levels of both IL1 beta and tumour necrosis factor alpha was found in lysates of total colon tissue of treated mice, as compared to sick, untreated

  6. Measles in Italy, laboratory surveillance activity during 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Fortuna

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The European Regional Office of the World Health Organization (WHO/Europe developed a strategic approach to stop the indigenous transmission of measles in its 53 Member States by 2015. This study describes the measles laboratory surveillance activity performed by the National Reference Laboratory for Measles and Rubella at the Italian National Institute of Health (Istituto Superiore di Sanità during 2010. METHODS: Urine, oral fluid and capillary blood samples from 211 suspected measles cases arrived to the NRL from different regions of Italy for confirmation of the clinical diagnosis. Serological and/or molecular assays were performed; after molecular detection, positive samples were sequenced and genotyped. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: 85% (180/211 of the specimens were confirmed as measles cases and 139 of these were analyzed phylogenetically. The phylogenetic analysis revealed a co-circulation of D4 and D8 genotypes for the reviewed period.

  7. Analysis of a measles epidemic; possible role of vaccine failures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawls, W E; Rawls, M L; Chernesky, M A

    1975-11-22

    A measles epidemic occurred in the Greensville (Ont.) Unit schools during January and February 1975. There were 47 cases of measles in 403 students: 26 (55%) of the children had a history of being vaccinated and 18 (38%) had not been vaccinated. Among children known to have been vaccinated at less than 1 year of age 7 of 13 contracted measles, while among the 48 children who had not been vaccinated 18 contracted measles. The attack rate among vaccinees increased with increasing time since vaccination. The observations of this study as well as those of similar studies suggest that vaccine failures contributed to the genesis of the epidemic. It is recommended that all children initially vaccinated at less than 1 year of age should be revaccinated with live attenuated measles virus vaccine.

  8. An outbreak of adult measles by nosocomial transmission in a high vaccination coverage community

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fen-juan Wang

    2014-09-01

    Conclusions: Hospital exposure 1–2 weeks before infection with measles was the main cause of the measles outbreak. We must be fully aware of the possibility of nosocomial infection in an outbreak of measles; controlling nosocomial infections is a vital step in the prevention and control of the propagation of measles.

  9. Measles Epidemics Among Children in Vietnam: Genomic Characterization of Virus Responsible for Measles Outbreak in Ho Chi Minh City, 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Van H. Pham

    2014-12-01

    Conclusions: Measles viruses responsible for outbreaks in Southern Vietnam belonged to a genotype D8 variant group which had unique amino acid sequences in the N gene. Our report provides important genomic information about the virus for measles elimination in Southeast Asia.

  10. Therapeutic Efficacy of Topically Applied Antioxidant Medicinal Plant Extracts in a Mouse Model of Experimental Dry Eye

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jee Bum; Li, Ying; Choi, Ji Suk; Lee, Hyo Seok

    2016-01-01

    Purpose. To investigate the therapeutic effects of topical administration of antioxidant medicinal plant extracts in a mouse model of experimental dry eye (EDE). Methods. Eye drops containing balanced salt solution (BSS) or 0.001%, 0.01%, and 0.1% extracts were applied for the treatment of EDE. Tear volume, tear film break-up time (BUT), and corneal fluorescein staining scores were measured 10 days after desiccating stress. In addition, we evaluated the levels of interleukin- (IL-) 1β, tumor necrosis factor- (TNF-) α, IL-6, interferon- (IFN-) γ, and IFN-γ associated chemokines, percentage of CD4+C-X-C chemokine receptor type 3 positive (CXCR3+) T cells, goblet cell density, number of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4-HNE) positive cells, and extracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Results. Compared to the EDE and BSS control groups, the mice treated with topical application of the 0.1% extract showed significant improvements in all clinical parameters, IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ levels, percentage of CD4+CXCR3+ T cells, goblet cell density, number of 4-HNE-positive cells, and extracellular ROS production (P extracts improved clinical signs, decreased inflammation, and ameliorated oxidative stress marker and ROS production on the ocular surface of the EDE model mice. PMID:27313829

  11. Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis preceding measles exanthema.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nardone, Raffaele; Golaszewski, Stefan; Trinka, Eugen; Tezzon, Frediano; Zuccoli, Giulio

    2011-12-01

    We report a case of acute disseminated encephalomyelitis preceding measles virus infection. Brain magnetic resonance imaging revealed signal intensity abnormalities in the basal ganglia and cortex consistent with acute disseminated encephalomyelitis. Fever and the first Koplik spots appeared 8 and 10 days later, respectively. This case supports the hypothesis that the immune-mediated demyelinating process may occur before the symptomatic phase of a viral infection. Therefore, children without history of infectious disorders should also have acute disseminated encephalomyelitis included in the differential considerations.

  12. ENFERMEDAD DE HUNTINGTON: MODELOS EXPERIMENTALES Y PERSPECTIVAS TERAPÉUTICAS Huntington'disease: Experimentals Models and Therapeutic Perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TERESA SERRANO SÁNCHEZ

    to the disease which having lapsed 15 or 20 years advances inexorably, in a slow form, toward the total inability or death. This paper reviews the clinical and morphological characteristics of Huntington's disease as well as the experimental models more commonly used t study this disease, having as source the articles indexed in Medline data base, published in the last 20 years. Advantages and disadvantages of all experimental models to reproduce the disease as well as the perspectives to therapeutic assay have been also considered. The consent of outline reported about the toxic models, those induced by neurotoxins such as quinolinic acid, appears to be the most appropiate to reproduce the neuropathologic characteristic of the disease, an genetic models contributing with more evidence to the knowledge of the disease ethiology. Numerous treatments ameliorate clinical manifestations, but none of them has been able to stop or diminish the affectations derived from neuronal loss. At present time it is possible to reproduce, at least partially, the characteristics of the disease in experimentation animals that allow therapy evaluation in HD. From the treatment view point, the more promissory seems to be transplantation of no neuronal cells, taking into account ethical issues and factibility. On the other hand the new technology of interference RNA, emerges as a potential therapeutic tool for treatment in HD, and to respond basic questions on the development of the disease.

  13. Measles Outbreak in Pediatric Hematology and Oncology Patients in Shanghai, 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Yan-Ling Ge; Xiao-Wen Zhai; Yan-Feng Zhu; Xiang-Shi Wang; Ai-Mei Xia; Yue-Fang Li; Mei Zeng

    2017-01-01

    Background: Despite substantial progress toward measles control are making in China, measles outbreaks in immunocompromised population still pose a challenge to interrupt endemic transmission. This study aimed to investigate the features of measles in pediatric hematology and oncology patients and explore the reasons behind the outbreak. Methods: We collected demographic, epidemiological, and clinical data of immunocompromised measles children. All suspected measles cases were laboratory-conf...

  14. Ultra-som terapêutico contínuo térmico em modelo experimental de ciatalgia Continuous thermic therapeutic ultrasound in sciatica experimental model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Polican Ciena

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available O ultra-som é um recurso fisioterapêutico que pode atuar na redução dos sintomas da ciatalgia. O objetivo deste estudo foi verificar a eficácia do ultra-som terapêutico, no modo contínuo, em duas diferentes densidades de potência (0,5 W/cm² e 1 W/cm², na redução do quadro álgico em ratos submetidos a modelo experimental de ciatalgia. Foram utilizados 20 ratos, divididos em 3 grupos: G1 (n=6 submetido à ciatalgia e a tratamento placebo; G2 (n=7 submetido à ciatalgia e tratado com ultra-som com 0,5 W/cm²; e G3 (n=7 submetido à ciatalgia e tratado com ultra-som com 1 W/cm². A ciatalgia foi provocada por lesão cirúrgica de compressão do nervo no membro posterior direito de todos os animais. O tratamento na região do procedimento cirúrgico, iniciado no 3º dia pós-operatório, consistiu em 10 sessões diárias de 5 minutos. Verificou-se a dor pelo do tempo de elevação da pata (TEP durante a marcha, medido pré-cirurgia e em mais cinco momentos. Os resultados mostram aumentos no TEP em todos os grupos após a lesão; e, naqueles tratados com ultra-som terapêutico, houve diminuição significativa da TEP, restaurando-se os valores iniciais, sendo mais precoce e intensa em G2. Conclui-se que a entrega na forma continua do ultra-som terapêutico foi eficaz na redução da dor ciática.Therapeutic ultrasound is a physical therapy resource for relieving sciatic pain. The aim of this study was to assess the effectiveness of continuous therapeutic ultrasound in two different power densities (0,5 W/cm² and 1 W/cm², on reducing pain in rats submitted to a sciatica experimental model. Twenty rats were used, divided into 3 groups: G1 (n=6 submitted to sciatica and placebo treatment; G2 (n=7 submitted to sciatica and treated with 0.5 W/cm² ultrasound; and G3 (n=7, submitted to sciatica and treated with 1 W/cm² ultrasound. Sciatica was provoked by surgical nerve compression on the right posterior limb of all animals. Treatment on the

  15. Seroprevalence of transplacentally acquired measles antibodies in HIV-exposed versus HIV-unexposed infants at six months of age

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sneha Jain

    2017-01-01

    Interpretation & conclusions: Most HEI lacked measles antibodies at six months age and were, therefore, more vulnerable to measles than HUnI. Seroconversion in response to a single dose of measles vaccine administered at six months age was low in these infants, signifying the need of additional dose(s of measles/measles-containing vaccine.

  16. Detection of measles, mumps, and rubella viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipples, Graham; Hiebert, Joanne

    2011-01-01

    Measles, mumps, and rubella are infections caused by RNA viruses of the same name and are vaccine preventable. The vaccines are frequently administered in a trivalent form. Laboratory diagnostic methods can include indirect detection via antibody (IgM and IgG) detection methods and direct detection by viral culture or viral genome detection. There are challenges for the laboratory in areas with low prevalence due to high vaccine uptake. In those areas, routine serological methods such as IgM detection may have a reduced positive predictive value and thus require confirmation by other methods. Direct detection of viral genomic material using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) methodologies can play an important role for laboratory confirmation of acute infections. Furthermore, genotyping of these three viruses provides useful molecular epidemiological data for differentiating vaccine from wild-type strains, linking cases and outbreaks, and tracking geographic spread and elimination. The purpose of this chapter is to provide guidance for the laboratory diagnosis of measles, mumps, and rubella virus infections. Where assays are commercially available or previously published, the appropriate references are provided as well as brief comments on the interpretation of results. Detailed protocols are provided for the molecular assays which have been developed and more commonly applied in recent years.

  17. Genetic characterization of measles vaccine strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankamp, Bettina; Takeda, Makoto; Zhang, Yan; Xu, Wenbo; Rota, Paul A

    2011-07-01

    The complete genomic sequences of 9 measles vaccine strains were compared with the sequence of the Edmonston wild-type virus. AIK-C, Moraten, Rubeovax, Schwarz, and Zagreb are vaccine strains of the Edmonston lineage, whereas CAM-70, Changchun-47, Leningrad-4 and Shanghai-191 were derived from 4 different wild-type isolates. Nucleotide substitutions were found in the noncoding regions of the genomes as well as in all coding regions, leading to deduced amino acid substitutions in all 8 viral proteins. Although the precise mechanisms involved in the attenuation of individual measles vaccines remain to be elucidated, in vitro assays of viral protein functions and recombinant viruses with defined genetic modifications have been used to characterize the differences between vaccine and wild-type strains. Although almost every protein contributes to an attenuated phenotype, substitutions affecting host cell tropism, virus assembly, and the ability to inhibit cellular antiviral defense mechanisms play an especially important role in attenuation. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2011.

  18. Radioimmunoassay of measles virus hemagglutinin protein G

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lund, G.A.; Salmi, A.A. (Turku Univ. (Finland))

    1982-08-01

    Guinea pig and rabbit antisera from animals immunized with purified measles virus hemagglutinin (G) protein were used to establish a solid-phase four-layer radioimmunoassay for quantitative measurement of the G protein. The sensitivity of the assay was 2 ng of purified G protein, and 200 ..mu..g of protein from uninfected Vero cells neither decreased the sensitivity nor reacted non-specifically in the assay. Radioimmunoassay standard dose-response curves were established and unknown values interpolated from these using the logit program of a desktop computer. Using this procedure, a measles virus growth curve in infected Vero cells was determined by measurement of G protein production. Under these same conditions, hemagglutination was not sensitive enough to detect early hemagglutinin production. Viral antigens in canine distemper virus, Newcastle disease virus, parainfluenza viruses 1-4, simian virus 5, and respiratory syncytial virus-infected cell lysates did not cross-react in the radioimmunoassay. A small degree of cross-reactivity was detected with mumps viral antigens, both with Vero cell-derived (wild-type strain) and egg-derived (Enders strain) purified virus preparations and with a cell lysate antigen prepared from wild-type mumps virus-infected Vero cells.

  19. Citral: a monoterpene with prophylactic and therapeutic anti-nociceptive effects in experimental models of acute and chronic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nishijima, Catarine M; Ganev, Ellen G; Mazzardo-Martins, Leidiane; Martins, Daniel F; Rocha, Lúcia R M; Santos, Adair R S; Hiruma-Lima, Clelia A

    2014-08-05

    Citral (3,7-dimethyl-2,6-octadienal) is an open-chain monoterpenoid present in the essential oils of several medicinal plants. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of orally administered citral in experimental models of acute and chronic nociception, inflammation, and gastric ulcers caused by non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). Oral treatment with citral significantly inhibited the neurogenic and inflammatory pain responses induced by intra-plantar injection of formalin. Citral also had prophylactic and therapeutic anti-nociceptive effects against mechanical hyperalgesia in plantar incision surgery, chronic regional pain syndrome, and partial ligation of sciatic nerve models, without producing any significant motor dysfunction. In addition, citral markedly attenuated the pain response induced by intra-plantar injection of glutamate and phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, a protein kinase C activator), as well as by intrathecal (i.t.) injection of ionotropic and metabotropic glutamate receptor agonists (N-methyl-D-aspartic acid [NMDA] and 1-amino-1,3-dicarboxycyclopentane [trans-ACPD], respectively), substance P, and cytokine tumour necrosis factor-α. However, citral potentiated behaviours indicative of pain caused by i.t., but not intra-plantar, injection of a transient receptor potential vanilloid receptor type 1 (TRPV1) agonist. Finally, the anti-nociceptive action of citral was found to involve significant activation of the 5-HT2A serotonin receptor. The effect of citral was accompanied by a gastro-protective effect against NSAID-induced ulcers. Together, these results show the potential of citral as a new drug for the treatment of pain. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Therapeutic use of a cationic antimicrobial peptide from the spider Acanthoscurria gomesiana in the control of experimental candidiasis

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Antimicrobial peptides are present in animals, plants and microorganisms and play a fundamental role in the innate immune response. Gomesin is a cationic antimicrobial peptide purified from haemocytes of the spider Acanthoscurria gomesiana. It has a broad-spectrum of activity against bacteria, fungi, protozoa and tumour cells. Candida albicans is a commensal yeast that is part of the human microbiota. However, in immunocompromised patients, this fungus may cause skin, mucosal or systemic infections. The typical treatment for this mycosis comprises three major categories of antifungal drugs: polyenes, azoles and echinocandins; however cases of resistance to these drugs are frequently reported. With the emergence of microorganisms that are resistant to conventional antibiotics, the development of alternative treatments for candidiasis is important. In this study, we evaluate the efficacy of gomesin treatment on disseminated and vaginal candidiasis as well as its toxicity and biodistribution. Results Treatment with gomesin effectively reduced Candida albicans in the kidneys, spleen, liver and vagina of infected mice. The biodistribution of gomesin labelled with technetium-99 m showed that the peptide is captured in the kidneys, spleen and liver. Enhanced production of TNF-α, IFN-γ and IL-6 was detected in infected mice treated with gomesin, suggesting an immunomodulatory activity. Moreover, immunosuppressed and C. albicans-infected mice showed an increase in survival after treatment with gomesin and fluconazole. Systemic administration of gomesin was also not toxic to the mic Conclusions Gomesin proved to be effective against experimental Candida albicans infection. It can be used as an alternative therapy for candidiasis, either alone or in combination with fluconazole. Gomesin's mechanism is not fully understood, but we hypothesise that the peptide acts through the permeabilisation of the yeast membrane leading to death and/or releasing the yeast

  1. Cross-sectional study on factors hampering implementation of measles pre- and postexposure measures in Dutch hospitals during the 2013-2014 measles outbreak.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Fievez, L C R; Wong, A; Ruijs, W L M; Meerstadt-Rombach, F S; Timen, A

    2017-01-01

    This study examined adherence to national recommendations on measles pre- and postexposure measures, including immunization of health care workers (HCWs) in Dutch hospitals, during a national outbreak of measles in The Netherlands. This study also investigated which hospital characteristics and

  2. Comparative analysis of measles virus RNA by oligonucleotide fingerprinting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephenson, J.R.; Meulen, V. ter (Wuerzburg Univ. (Germany, F.R.))

    1982-01-01

    Isolates from two cases of acute measles, one case of acute measles encephalitis and three patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis were compared. This comparison was based upon the electrophoretic analysis of T/sub 1/ oligonucleotides from single-stranded, full-length RNA isolated from cytoplasmic nucleocapsids. Although all viruses have oligonucleotides in common, each isolate generated a unique pattern of oligonucleotides. However, no group of oligonucleotides was observed which would allow differentiation between viruses isolated from acute infections and those isolated from CNS diseases; indicating that probably all measles viruses differ in their nucleotide sequence, regardless of origin.

  3. Spotlight on measles 2010: measles outbreak in Ireland 2009-2010.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Gee, S

    2010-01-01

    Measles cases are increasing in Ireland, with 320 cases notified since August 2009. Nearly two-thirds of these cases (n=206) were unvaccinated. In the early stages of the outbreak a substantial number of cases were linked to the Traveller community with some cases also reported among the Roma community, other citizens from eastern Europe and children whose parents objected to vaccination. By February 2010, there had been considerable spread to the general population.

  4. Using an experimental model for the study of therapeutic touch Uso de un modelo experimental para estudio sobre el toque terapéutico Utilização de um modelo experimental para estudo sobre o toque terapêutico

    OpenAIRE

    Daniella Soares dos Santos; Ilda Estéfani Ribeiro Marta; Evelin Capellari Cárnio; Andreza Urba de Quadros; Thiago Mattar Cunha; Emilia Campos de Carvalho

    2013-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: to verify whether the Paw Edema Model can be used in investigations about the effects of Therapeutic Touch on inflammation by measuring the variables pain, edema and neutrophil migration. METHOD: this is a pilot and experimental study, involving ten male mice of the same genetic strain and divided into experimental and control group, submitted to the chemical induction of local inflammation in the right back paw. The experimental group received a daily administration of Therapeutic...

  5. Association between seroprevalence of measles and various social determinants in the year following a measles outbreak in Turkey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Emek, M; Islek, D; Atasoylu, G; Ozbek, O A; Ceylan, A; Acikgoz, A; Tay, Z; Demiral, Y; Oktem, M A; Unal, B

    2017-06-01

    Despite an ongoing measles elimination programme, a measles outbreak occurred in 2013 in Turkey. Population-based seroprevalence studies are needed to determine seronegativity and explore the reasons for this outbreak. This study aimed to explore the seroprevalence of measles and its association with various social determinants in a provincial population in Turkey in the year following a measles outbreak. Cross-sectional study. This study was conducted in Manisa Province in 2014 in a sample of 1740 people aged >2 years. The dependent variable was the seroprevalence of measles. Independent variables were sex, age, migration, household size, household density, income, education level, existence of chronic disease and occupational class. Blood samples were collected from participants at family health centres. The presence of specific measles antibodies in serum samples was determined using an anti-measles virus IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay test. Chi-squared test and logistic regression analysis were performed. Overall, data from 1250 people were analysed. The seroprevalence of measles in the whole study population was 82.2% (95% confidence interval 80.0-84.2). Seroprevalence was 55.4% among subjects aged 2-9 years, 48.7% among subjects aged 10-19 years, 74.1% among subjects aged 20-29 years and 93.6% among subjects aged 30-39 years (P 40 years was >95%. The lowest seroprevalence was found in primary school children (40.2%), followed by those below the age for primary education (69.8%) and secondary school graduates (75.1%). The prevalence of measles seronegativity was not associated with any of the social determinants when adjusted for age. The seroprevalence of measles was lower than expected in the study population and was particularly low in subjects aged <30 years of age despite previous vaccination. Seroprevalence was not associated with social determinants of health that confirmed either an even distribution of virus exposure or fair access to

  6. Measles outbreak--California, December 2014-February 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zipprich, Jennifer; Winter, Kathleen; Hacker, Jill; Xia, Dongxiang; Watt, James; Harriman, Kathleen

    2015-02-20

    On January 5, 2015, the California Department of Public Health (CDPH) was notified about a suspected measles case. The patient was a hospitalized, unvaccinated child, aged 11 years with rash onset on December 28. The only notable travel history during the exposure period was a visit to one of two adjacent Disney theme parks located in Orange County, California. On the same day, CDPH received reports of four additional suspected measles cases in California residents and two in Utah residents, all of whom reported visiting one or both Disney theme parks during December 17-20. By January 7,seven California measles cases had been confirmed, and CDPH issued a press release and an Epidemic Information Exchange (Epi-X) notification to other states regarding this outbreak. Measles transmission is ongoing.

  7. Measles: Make Sure Your Child Is Fully Immunized

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Emails Measles: Make Sure Your Child is Fully Immunized Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... his or her healthcare provider, or Visit the immunization scheduler for newborn to 6-year-old children. ...

  8. New measles virus genotype associated with outbreak, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Ding, Zhengrong; Wang, Huiling; Li, Liqun; Pang, Yankun; Brown, Kevin E; Xu, Songtao; Zhu, Zhen; Rota, Paul A; Featherstone, David; Xu, Wenbo

    2010-06-01

    To determine the origin of the virus associated with a measles outbreak in Menglian County, Yunnan Province, People's Republic of China, in 2009, we conducted genetic analyses. Phylogenetic analyses based on nucleoprotein (N) and hemagglutinin (H) gene sequences showed that these Menglian viruses were not closely related to sequences of any World Health Organization (WHO) reference strains representing the 23 currently recognized genotypes. The minimum nucleotide divergence between the Menglian viruses and the most closely related reference strain, genotype D7, was 3.3% for the N gene and 3.0% for the H gene. A search of the databases of GenBank, WHO, and the Health Protection Agency Measles Nucleotide Surveillance showed that the Menglian viruses, together with the 2 older non-Menglian viruses, could be members of a new proposed measles genotype, d11. The new genotype designation will allow for better description of measles transmission patterns, especially in the Southeast Asian and Western Pacific regions.

  9. Improving global virologic surveillance for measles and rubella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rota, Paul A; Brown, Kevin E; Hübschen, Judith M; Muller, Claude P; Icenogle, Joseph; Chen, Min-Hsin; Bankamp, Bettina; Kessler, Julia R; Brown, David W; Bellini, William J; Featherstone, David

    2011-07-01

    An important aspect of laboratory surveillance for measles and rubella is the genetic characterization of circulating wild-type viruses to support molecular epidemiologic studies and to track transmission pathways. Virologic surveillance that is sufficient to document the interruption of transmission of measles and rubella viruses will be an essential criterion for verification of elimination. Laboratories in the World Health Organization (WHO) Measles and Rubella Laboratory Network have worked to improve and expand virologic surveillance as many regions move toward elimination of measles and rubella/congenital rubella syndrome. As countries approach elimination, it will be necessary to obtain genetic information from as many chains of transmission as possible. In addition, baseline virologic surveillance, especially for rubella, needs to be improved in many countries. This report contains a summary of recent improvements to the methods used for virologic surveillance. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America 2011.

  10. RESEARCH South African measles outbreak 2009 - 2010 as ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The estimated level of population immunity needed to prevent measles outbreaks is ..... transfer fewer antibodies than mothers whose immunity followed wild-type .... Scott S, et al. HIV type 1 infection is a risk factor for mortality in hospitalized.

  11. Measles incidence and reporting trends in Germany, 2007–2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wichmann, Ole; Rieck, Thorsten; Matysiak-Klose, Dorothea

    2014-01-01

    Abstract Objective We aimed to quantify progress towards measles elimination in Germany from 2007 to 2011 and to estimate any potential underreporting over this period. Methods We determined the annual incidence of notified cases of measles – for each year – in northern, western, eastern and southern Germany and across the whole country. We then used measles-related health insurance claims to estimate the corresponding incidence. Findings In each year between 2007 and 2011, there were 6.9–19.6 (mean: 10.8) notified cases of measles per million population. Incidence decreased with age and showed geographical variation, with highest mean incidence – 20.3 cases per million – in southern Germany. Over the study period, incidence decreased by 10% (incidence rate ratio, IRR: 0.90; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.85–0.95) per year in western Germany but increased by 77% (IRR: 1.77; 95% CI: 1.62–1.93) per year in eastern Germany. Although the estimated incidence of measles based on insurance claims showed similar trends, these estimates were 2.0- to 4.8-fold higher than the incidence of notified cases. Comparisons between the data sets indicated that the underreporting increased with age and was generally less in years when measles incidence was high than in low-incidence years. Conclusion Germany is still far from achieving measles elimination. There is substantial regional variation in measles epidemiology and, therefore, a need for region-specific interventions. Our analysis indicates underreporting in the routine surveillance system between 2007 and 2011, especially among adults. PMID:25378728

  12. Measles incidence and reporting trends in Germany, 2007-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takla, Anja; Wichmann, Ole; Rieck, Thorsten; Matysiak-Klose, Dorothea

    2014-10-01

    We aimed to quantify progress towards measles elimination in Germany from 2007 to 2011 and to estimate any potential underreporting over this period. We determined the annual incidence of notified cases of measles - for each year - in northern, western, eastern and southern Germany and across the whole country. We then used measles-related health insurance claims to estimate the corresponding incidence. In each year between 2007 and 2011, there were 6.9-19.6 (mean: 10.8) notified cases of measles per million population. Incidence decreased with age and showed geographical variation, with highest mean incidence - 20.3 cases per million - in southern Germany. Over the study period, incidence decreased by 10% (incidence rate ratio, IRR: 0.90; 95% confidence interval, CI: 0.85-0.95) per year in western Germany but increased by 77% (IRR: 1.77; 95% CI: 1.62-1.93) per year in eastern Germany. Although the estimated incidence of measles based on insurance claims showed similar trends, these estimates were 2.0- to 4.8-fold higher than the incidence of notified cases. Comparisons between the data sets indicated that the underreporting increased with age and was generally less in years when measles incidence was high than in low-incidence years. Germany is still far from achieving measles elimination. There is substantial regional variation in measles epidemiology and, therefore, a need for region-specific interventions. Our analysis indicates underreporting in the routine surveillance system between 2007 and 2011, especially among adults.

  13. Is measles vaccination a risk factor for inflammatory bowel disease?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, N P; Montgomery, S M; Pounder, R E; Wakefield, A J

    1995-04-29

    Measles virus may persist in intestinal tissue, particularly that affected by Crohn's disease, and early exposure to measles may be a risk factor for the development of Crohn's disease. Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis occur in the same families and may share a common aetiology. In view of the rising incidence of inflammatory bowel disease (Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis), we examined the impact of measles vaccination upon these conditions. Prevalences of Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, coeliac disease, and peptic ulceration were determined in 3545 people who had received live measles vaccine in 1964 as part of a measles vaccine trial. A longitudinal birth cohort of 11,407 subjects was one unvaccinated comparison cohort, and 2541 partners of those vaccinated was another. Compared with the birth cohort, the relative risk of developing Crohn's disease in the vaccinated group was 3.01 (95% CI 1.45-6.23) and of developing ulcerative colitis was 2.53 (1.15-5.58). There was no significant difference between these two groups in coeliac disease prevalence. Increased prevalence of inflammatory bowel disease, but not coeliac disease or peptic ulceration, was found in the vaccinated cohort compared with their partners. These findings suggest that measles virus may play a part in the development not only of Crohn's disease but also of ulcerative colitis.

  14. Genotyping of circulating measles strains in Italy in 2010

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Melissa Baggieri

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The European Regional Office of the World Health Organization developed a strategic approach to stop the indigenous transmission of measles in its 53 Member States by 2015. In Italy, laboratory surveillance activity is implemented by the National Reference Laboratory for Measles and Rubella at the Italian National Institute of Health (Istituto Superiore di Sanità, Rome. The role of the National Reference Laboratory is to strengthen surveillance systems through rigorous case investigation and laboratory confirmation of suspected sporadic cases and outbreaks. Genetic characterization of wild-type measles virus is an essential component of the laboratory-based surveillance. This study describes the molecular characterization of measles virus strains isolated during 2010. METHODS: Dried blood spots, urine and oral fluid samples were collected from patients with a suspected measles infection. Serological tests were performed on capillary blood, and viral detection was performed on urine and oral fluid samples through molecular assay. Positive samples were sequenced and phylogenetically analysed. RESULTS AND DISCUSSION: The phylogenetic analysis showed a co-circulation of genotypes D4 and D8, and sporadic cases associated to genotypes D9 and B3. Then, molecular epidemiology of measles cases permitted to establish that D4 and D8 were the endemic genotypes in Italy during 2010.

  15. Do Australian immunoglobulin products meet international measles antibody titer standards?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Young, Megan K; Bertolini, Joseph; Kotharu, Pushpa; Maher, Darryl; Cripps, Allan W

    2017-03-04

    The effectiveness of passive immunisation post-exposure to measles appears subject to a dose-response effect. New Zealand and the United Kingdom have increased the recommended dose of polyclonal human immunoglobulin for post-exposure prophylaxis within the last decade in response to concerns about decreasing levels of measles antibodies in these products. This study used the plaque-reduction neutralization test (PRNT) to measure the titer of measles-specific antibodies in Australian immunoglobulin products for post-exposure prophylaxis and compared the utility of an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) to the PRNT in available Australian and international samples: Australian intramuscular (n = 10), Australian intravenous (n = 28), New Zealand intramuscular (n = 2), Hizentra (subcutaneous)(USA) (n = 3), and Privigen (intravenous)(USA) (n = 2). Measles titres in Australian IM and IV immunoglobulins ranged from 51 to 76 IU/mL and 6 to 24 IU/mL respectively, as measured by PRNT calibrated to the WHO 3 rd international standard. ELISA titres were variable but higher than PRNT titres in all tested samples. Measles antibody titres in Australian immunoglobulin products meet consensus-prescribed international thresholds. Development of a convenient, standardized, readily accessible assay for determination of measles titres in immunoglobulin products would be useful for future studies and facilitate international comparisons.

  16. Epidemic Realities of Measles in the Ternopil Region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Volianska

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Measles is an infection controlled by means of vaccination, which continues to be a great social and economic problem for the Ternopil region. The paper analyzed the materials of accounting documents of the Head Department of the State Sanitary and Epidemiological Service of Ukraine and pediatric infectious hospitals in the Ternopil region. The incidence of measles, which was registered during the time of independence, was much higher than the nationwide figures, had epidemiological rates typical for prevaccination period. In all analyzed peak periods, the school-age children were age group most vulnerable to measles. We have found a strong tendency to shifts in the incidence towards senior school age and adult population. Among patients, there was a high percentage of vaccinated individuals. The emergence of measles virus genotype D4 was laboratory-confirmed during the last outbreak in the region. Analysis of measles outbreaks reflects the need for deeper study of the characteristics of the formation of post-vaccination anti-measles immunity in the present conditions, taking into account the need to investigate specific immunological phenomena.

  17. Reactogenicity and immunogenicity of measles-rubella combined vaccine in school-entry-aged subjects with naturally acquired measles immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumagai, Takuji; Ihara, Toshiaki; Nakayama, Tetsuo; Nagata, Nobuo; Kamiya, Hitoshi

    2015-08-01

    The reintroduction of measles-rubella combined (MR) vaccination to Japan raised concerns about adverse events as well as immunogenicity related to booster immunization in subjects with naturally acquired immunity to measles or rubella. The time course of reactogenicity and antibody responses in recipients with pre-existing immunity to measles through natural infection was observed. Eighteen children aged 80-104 months received MR booster vaccination; 16 of them had had previous rubella vaccination. There were virtually no clinical reactions related to booster vaccination, and a highly significant antibody response to rubella antigen, whereas the antibody rise to measles was statistically significant but poor. Vaccination of individuals already immune is not harmful. Booster immunization to rubella for Japanese children is vitally important. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  18. Residual susceptibility to measles among young adults in Victoria, Australia following a national targeted measles-mumps-rubella vaccination campaign

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leydon Jennie A

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Past measles immunisation policies in Australia have resulted in a cohort of young adults who have been inadequately vaccinated, but who also have low levels of naturally acquired immunity because immunisation programs have decreased the circulation of wild virus. A measles-mumps-rubella (MMR immunisation campaign aimed at addressing this susceptibility to measles among young adults was conducted in Australia in 2001–2. By estimating age-specific immunity, we aimed to evaluate the success of this campaign in the state of Victoria. Methods We conducted serosurveys after the young adult MMR program at state and national levels to estimate immunity among young adults born between 1968–82. We compared results of the Victorian (state surveys with the Victorian component of the national surveys and compared both surveys with surveys conducted before the campaign. We also reviewed all laboratory confirmed measles cases in Victoria between 2000–4. Results The Victorian state serosurveys indicated no significant change in immunity of the cohort following the young adult MMR campaign (83.9% immune pre and 85.5% immune post campaign while the Victorian component of the national serosurvey indicated a significant decline in immunity (91.0% to 84.2%; p = 0.006. Both surveys indicated about 15% susceptibility to measles among young Victorian adults after the campaign. Measles outbreaks in Victoria between 2000–4 confirmed the susceptibility of young adults. Outbreaks involved a median of 2.5 cases with a median age of 24.5 years. Conclusion In Victoria, the young adult MMR program appears to have had no effect on residual susceptibility to measles among the 1968–82 birth cohort. Young adults in Victoria, as in other countries where past immunisation policies have left a residual susceptible cohort, represent a potential problem for the maintenance of measles elimination.

  19. An expensive adult measles outbreak and response in office buildings during the era of accelerated measles elimination, Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Rui; Lu, Li; Suo, Luodan; Li, Xiaomei; Yang, Fan; Zhou, Tao; Zhai, Lijun; Bai, Hongwei; Pang, Xinghuo

    2017-02-22

    Few measles outbreaks among adults are reported in China, and outbreak response costs are seldom documented. We report an adult measles outbreak and response in 4 linked office buildings in Beijing and its associated costs. The World Health Organization measles case definitions were used to determine suspected and confirmed measles cases. Surveillance data were used to describe the outbreak, and records and interviews of response staff were used to describe the response. Costs were determined by use of retrospective surveys of cases, review of records, and interviews of staff. The outbreak lasted 19days, and involved 22 cases aged 23-49years. Nineteen cases had a local household registration. All cases were employed by 8 companies in 4 linked office buildings. Among the 22 cases, 8 had temperature less than 38.5 degree, 18 had no Koplik spots and none had complications or hospitalizations. A total of 7930 contacts were identified, and of these, 6869 were employees in the office buildings. All the child contacts aged 8months-14years had been up-to-date for measles-containing vaccine (MCV); no adult could document their vaccination or measles history. Of contacts, about 96% were offered post-exposure vaccination. The total household costs were $13,298, or $605 per case. Control costs were $384,594, or $17,481 per case. Involved companies paid for 90.7% of control costs. Office buildings provide a mechanism for measles transmission. Timely control activities were challenged by the highly infectious nature of measles and mild presentations of cases. The outbreak response was very costly. Financial support by involved companies can provide needed resources for outbreak management. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Therapeutic effects of intra-articular ultra-purified low endotoxin alginate administration on an experimental canine osteoarthritis model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsukuda, Yukinori; Onodera, Tomohiro; Ito, Masayuki; Izumisawa, Yasuharu; Kasahara, Yasuhiko; Igarashi, Tatsuya; Ohzawa, Nobuo; Todoh, Masahiro; Tadano, Shigeru; Iwasaki, Norimasa

    2015-11-01

    This study aimed to elucidate the therapeutic effects of intra-articular administration of ultra-purified low endotoxin alginate (UPLE-alginate) on osteoarthritis (OA) using a canine anterior cruciate ligament transection (ACLT) model. We used 20 beagle dogs. ACLT was performed on the left knee of each dog and a sham operation was performed on the right knee as a control. All animals were randomly divided into the control (saline) and therapeutic (UPLE-alginate) groups. Animals in the control and therapeutic groups received weekly injections with 0.7 mL normal saline or 0.7 mL 0.5% UPLE-alginate, respectively, from 0 to 3 weeks after ACLT or sham operation. At 9 weeks after ACLT, the knee joints of all animals were observed using arthroscopy. All animals were euthanized at 14 weeks after ACLT and evaluated using morphologic assessment, histologic assessment, and biomechanical testing. Arthroscopic findings showed intact cartilage surface in both groups. Morphologic findings in the therapeutic group showed milder degeneration compared with those of the control group, but there were no significant differences between groups. Histologic scores of the medial femoral condyle (MFC) and lateral femoral condyle (LFC) were better in the therapeutic group than the control group (MFC: p = 0.009, LFC: p = 0.009). Joint lubrication did not differ significantly between groups. Intra-articular administration of UPLE-alginate in the early stage of OA slowed disease progression in canines. UPLE-alginate may have potential as a therapeutic agent for OA patients and reduce the number of patients who need to undergo total joint arthroplasty. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. Viral Oncolysis — Can Insights from Measles Be Transferred to Canine Distemper Virus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefanie Lapp

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Neoplastic diseases represent one of the most common causes of death among humans and animals. Currently available and applied therapeutic options often remain insufficient and unsatisfactory, therefore new and innovative strategies and approaches are highly needed. Periodically, oncolytic viruses have been in the center of interest since the first anecdotal description of their potential usefulness as an anti-tumor treatment concept. Though first reports referred to an incidental measles virus infection causing tumor regression in a patient suffering from lymphoma several decades ago, no final treatment concept has been developed since then. However, numerous viruses, such as herpes-, adeno- and paramyxoviruses, have been investigated, characterized, and modified with the aim to generate a new anti-cancer treatment option. Among the different viruses, measles virus still represents a highly interesting candidate for such an approach. Numerous different tumors of humans including malignant lymphoma, lung and colorectal adenocarcinoma, mesothelioma, and ovarian cancer, have been studied in vitro and in vivo as potential targets. Moreover, several concepts using different virus preparations are now in clinical trials in humans and may proceed to a new treatment option. Surprisingly, only few studies have investigated viral oncolysis in veterinary medicine. The close relationship between measles virus (MV and canine distemper virus (CDV, both are morbilliviruses, and the fact that numerous tumors in dogs exhibit similarities to their human counterpart, indicates that both the virus and species dog represent a highly interesting translational model for future research in viral oncolysis. Several recent studies support such an assumption. It is therefore the aim of the present communication to outline the mechanisms of morbillivirus-mediated oncolysis and to stimulate further research in this potentially expanding field of viral oncolysis in a highly

  2. Improving molecular tools for global surveillance of measles virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bankamp, Bettina; Byrd-Leotis, Lauren A; Lopareva, Elena N; Woo, Gibson K S; Liu, Chunyu; Jee, Youngmee; Ahmed, Hinda; Lim, Wilina W; Ramamurty, Nalini; Mulders, Mick N; Featherstone, David; Bellini, William J; Rota, Paul A

    2013-09-01

    The genetic characterization of wild-type measles viruses plays an important role in the description of viral transmission pathways and the verification of measles elimination. The 450 nucleotides that encode the carboxyl-terminus of the nucleoprotein (N-450) are routinely sequenced for genotype analysis. The objectives of this study were to develop improved primers and controls for RT-PCR reactions used for genotyping of measles samples and to develop a method to provide a convenient, safe, and inexpensive means to distribute measles RNA for RT-PCR assays and practice panels. A newly designed, genetically defined synthetic RNA and RNA isolated from cells infected with currently circulating genotypes were used to compare the sensitivity of primer pairs in RT-PCR and nested PCR. FTA® cards loaded with lysates of measles infected cells were tested for their ability to preserve viral RNA and destroy virus infectivity. A new primer pair, MeV216/MeV214, was able to amplify N-450 from viruses representing 10 currently circulating genotypes and a genotype A vaccine strain and demonstrated 100-fold increased sensitivity compared to the previously used primer set. A nested PCR assay further increased the sensitivity of detection from patient samples. A synthetic positive control RNA was developed that produced PCR products that are distinguishable by size from PCR products amplified from clinical samples. FTA® cards completely inactivated measles virus and stabilized RNA for at least six months. These improved molecular tools will advance molecular characterization of circulating measles viruses globally and provide enhanced quality control measures. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. A Measles Outbreak in an Underimmunized Amish Community in Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gastañaduy, Paul A; Budd, Jeremy; Fisher, Nicholas; Redd, Susan B; Fletcher, Jackie; Miller, Julie; McFadden, Dwight J; Rota, Jennifer; Rota, Paul A; Hickman, Carole; Fowler, Brian; Tatham, Lilith; Wallace, Gregory S; de Fijter, Sietske; Parker Fiebelkorn, Amy; DiOrio, Mary

    2016-10-06

    Although measles was eliminated in the United States in 2000, importations of the virus continue to cause outbreaks. We describe the epidemiologic features of an outbreak of measles that originated from two unvaccinated Amish men in whom measles was incubating at the time of their return to the United States from the Philippines and explore the effect of public health responses on limiting the spread of measles. We performed descriptive analyses of data on demographic characteristics, clinical and laboratory evaluations, and vaccination coverage. From March 24, 2014, through July 23, 2014, a total of 383 outbreak-related cases of measles were reported in nine counties in Ohio. The median age of case patients was 15 years (range, Amish households and more than 88% in the general (non-Amish) Ohio community. Containment efforts included isolation of case patients, quarantine of susceptible persons, and administration of the MMR vaccine to more than 10,000 persons. The spread of measles was limited almost exclusively to the Amish community (accounting for 99% of case patients) and affected only approximately 1% of the estimated 32,630 Amish persons in the settlement. The key epidemiologic features of a measles outbreak in the Amish community in Ohio were transmission primarily within households, the small proportion of Amish people affected, and the large number of people in the Amish community who sought vaccination. As a result of targeted containment efforts, and high baseline coverage in the general community, there was limited spread beyond the Amish community. (Funded by the Ohio Department of Health and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.).

  4. Measles in HIV-infected children in southern Africa | Sheikh | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    . Given the high human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) prevalence in the region, the particular features of measles in HIV-infected individuals are of interest to clinicians, especially as regards children, as are measles immunisation strategies for ...

  5. Short report: assessing field vaccine efficacy for measles in famine-affected rural Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talley, Leisel; Salama, Peter

    2003-05-01

    Measles is a major cause of mortality in complex emergencies. Both high vaccination coverage and vaccine efficacy are required to prevent major epidemics of measles in such situations. Evaluation of field vaccine efficacy is a critical but underutilized component of program monitoring in emergencies, and is particularly important in rural areas where the integrity of the cold chain is difficult to guarantee. In July 2000, we evaluated the field vaccine efficacy for measles vaccination by comparing the incidence of cases in vaccinated and unvaccinated groups during a two-stage cluster survey of 563 children in Ethiopia. Approximately 30% of the measles cases occurred in vaccinated children. Estimated field vaccine efficacy for measles was 66.9% in children 9-36 months old. The finding of a field vaccine efficacy for measles less than 80% warrants formal assessment of measles vaccine efficacy, particularly in famine emergencies where measles is associated with a high case fatality rate.

  6. Humoral immune response to measles and varicella vaccination in former very low birth weight preterm infants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolina Schlindwein Mariano Ferreira

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: Humoral responses to measles and varicella were similar between infants born prematurely and full-term infants. Measles antibody levels were negatively associated with antenatal corticosteroid use; varicella antibodies were positively associated with prolonged breastfeeding.

  7. An outbreak of adult measles by nosocomial transmission in a high vaccination coverage community.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fen-juan; Sun, Xiang-jue; Wang, Fu-liang; Jiang, Long-fang; Xu, Er-ping; Guo, Jian-feng

    2014-09-01

    The aims of this study were to determine the mechanism of an outbreak of measles in adults and to provide scientific measures for putting forward a measles elimination program. We performed a cross-sectional investigation during the measles outbreak to identify a possible communication link. From November 1, 2011 to January 26, 2012, the town reported 11 cases of measles in total. The case study identified an obvious propagation chain, which showed ordered and intimate exposure between cases. Hospital exposure 1-2 weeks before infection with measles was the main cause of the measles outbreak. We must be fully aware of the possibility of nosocomial infection in an outbreak of measles; controlling nosocomial infections is a vital step in the prevention and control of the propagation of measles. Copyright © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  8. Prevalence of measles antibodies among health care workers in Catalonia (Spain) in the elimination era

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Urbiztondo, Luis; Borràs, Eva; Costa, Josep; Broner, Sonia; Campins, Magda; Bayas, José María; Esteve, María; Domínguez, Angela

    2013-01-01

    Interruption of measles transmission was achieved in Catalonia (Spain) in 2000. Six years later, a measles outbreak occurred between August 2006 and June 2007 with 381 cases, 11 of whom were health care workers (HCW...

  9. Bioinformatic and immunological analysis reveals lack of support for measles virus related mimicry in Crohn's disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Polymeros, Dimitrios; Tsiamoulos, Zacharias P; Koutsoumpas, Andreas L; Smyk, Daniel S; Mytilinaiou, Maria G; Triantafyllou, Konstantinos; Bogdanos, Dimitrios P; Ladas, Spiros D

    2014-01-01

    A link between measles virus and Crohn's disease (CD) has been postulated. We assessed through bioinformatic and immunological approaches whether measles is implicated in CD induction, through molecular mimicry...

  10. Laboratory diagnosis of vaccine-associated measles in Zhejiang Province, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang-Ping Xu

    2017-10-01

    Conclusion: Vaccine-associated measles has been identified in Zhejiang. The developed allelic discrimination rRT-PCR assay is rapid and sensitive, which will facilitate the surveillance for vaccine-associated measles.

  11. Measles transmission among adults with spread to children during an outbreak: Implications for measles elimination in China, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Chao; Yan, Shaohong; Su, Qiru; Hao, Lixin; Tang, Shaopei; An, Zhijie; He, Yulong; Fan, Guangfei; Rodewald, Lance; Wang, Huaqing

    2016-12-12

    Following implementation of China's 2006-2012 Action Plan for measles elimination, which led to a nadir of measles in 2012, a resurgence started in 2013 that continued into 2014. Measles typically is a disease that mainly affects children. We investigated a community outbreak in 2014 with measles virus transmission among adults without children serving as virus reservoirs. Our investigation highlights adult susceptibility to measles. We conducted a retrospective active case search, and analyzed confirmed case data to describe person, place, and time characteristics of the outbreak. All individuals with measles with onset during the first 2 months of the outbreak were interviewed face-to-face to determine source(s) of infection and transmission route (from whom and to whom). Among the 280 cases, 220 (77.6%) were among ≥20-year-old adults, 24 (8.6%) were among 8-23 month olds, 22 (7.9%) were among old infants, and the remaining 14 (5.9%) were among 2-19 year olds. Of the 83 cases in the early stage of the outbreak, 41 (49.4%) were acquired in the community, 24 (28.9%) were acquired nosocomially, 13 (15.7%) were acquired by family contact, and 5 were imported. Among 44 clearly determined transmission linkages, 37 (84.1%) were adult to other age-group (these include 29 adult-to-adult, seven adult-to-child, and one adult-to-infant), six were from infants to adult and children, and one was child-to-child. Outbreak response immunization activities were implemented by non-selective supplementary immunization activities, with 51.3% of targeted 5-19-year-old children and adolescents, and 30.2% of targeted 20-49-year-old adults being vaccinated. Despite high population immunity among children and adolescents following three rounds of measles vaccine supplementary immunization activities, sustained measles virus transmission still occurred among adults in this community. Adult measles immunity gaps might threaten measles elimination, highlighting the importance targeting

  12. Wild-type Measles Virus in Brain Tissue of Children with Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barrero, Paola Roxana; Grippo, Jorge; Viegas, Mariana

    2003-01-01

    We studied eight children who had measles at 6 to 10 months of age during the 1998 Argentine measles outbreak and in whom subacute sclerosing panencephalitis developed 4 years later. We report the genetic characterization of brain tissue–associated measles virus samples from three patients. Phylogenetic relationships clustered these viruses with the wild-type D6 genotype isolated during the 1998 outbreak. The children received measles vaccine; however, vaccinal strains were not found. PMID:14609476

  13. Unacceptably high mortality related to measles epidemics in Niger, Nigeria, and Chad.

    OpenAIRE

    Grais, R.F.; Dubray, C; Gerstl, S.; J P Guthmann; Djibo, A; Nargaye, K. D.; Coker, J.; Alberti, K P; Cochet, A.; Ihekweazu, C.; Nathan, N.; Payne, L; Porten, K; Sauvageot, D; Schimmer, B.

    2007-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background. In most developed countries, measles is often now regarded as an uncommon and not very serious childhood illness. The situation in developing countries is totally different; many children get measles, and the consequences can be severe. The main factor accounting for this difference is the much greater availability of vaccination against measles in developed countries. Globally, approximately 410,000 children under the age of 5 y die of measles each year. In devel...

  14. Knowledge synthesis of benefits and adverse effects of measles vaccination: the Lasbela balance sheet

    OpenAIRE

    Andersson Neil; Fleming John; Ledogar Robert J

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background In preparation for a cluster-randomized controlled trial of a community intervention to increase the demand for measles vaccination in Lasbela district of Pakistan, a balance sheet summarized published evidence on benefits and possible adverse effects of measles vaccination. Methods The balance sheet listed: 1) major health conditions associated with measles; 2) the risk among the unvaccinated who contract measles; 3) the risk among the vaccinated; 4) the risk difference b...

  15. Epidemiologic and Clinical Features of Measles and Rubella in a Rural Area in China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youwang Yan

    2005-12-01

    Conclusion: Measles and rubella are 2 common communicable diseases in the children of Jingzhou District, with outbreaks being the main epidemic form. Some clinical features such as temperature, duration of the prodromal stage and exanthema are different in measles and rubella, and they can be useful in distinguishing between the 2 diseases. Accuracy in the clinical diagnosis of measles should be improved by enhancing serologic testing for measles and rubella, and by identifying patients' specific clinical characteristics.

  16. effect of measles antibodies in the breast milk and sera of mother on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Femi Olaleye

    And this could explain the role of mother - child factor as it affects measles seroconversion after vaccination. This study was therefore designed to determine the relationship between the measles antibody in the breast milk and sera of mothers and its effect on the seroconversion of their children after measles vaccination.

  17. Measles Outbreak in Pediatric Hematology and Oncology Patients in Shanghai, 2015

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan-Ling Ge

    2017-01-01

    Conclusions: The outcome of measles outbreak in previously vaccinated oncology and post-HSCT pediatric patients during chemotherapy and immunosuppressant medication was severe. Complete loss of protective immunity induced by measles vaccine during chemotherapy was the potential reason. Improved infection control practice was critical for the prevention of measles in malignancy patients and transplant recipients.

  18. Pre-and post-vaccine measles antibody status in infants using ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Despite the use of measles vaccine, measles incidence in Ethiopia remains a serious public health concern. Progress towards the control of measles requires a national capacity to measure programme effectiveness. This includes evaluation of vaccine effectiveness in infants attending the routine immunization. Objective: ...

  19. A novel, polymer-coated oncolytic measles virus overcomes immune suppression and induces robust antitumor activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaname Nosaki

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Although various therapies are available to treat cancers, including surgery, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy, cancer has been the leading cause of death in Japan for the last 30 years, and new therapeutic modalities are urgently needed. As a new modality, there has recently been great interest in oncolytic virotherapy, with measles virus being a candidate virus expected to show strong antitumor effects. The efficacy of virotherapy, however, was strongly limited by the host immune response in previous clinical trials. To enhance and prolong the antitumor activity of virotherapy, we combined the use of two newly developed tools: the genetically engineered measles virus (MV-NPL and the multilayer virus-coating method of layer-by-layer deposition of ionic polymers. We compared the oncolytic effects of this polymer-coated MV-NPL with the naked MV-NPL, both in vitro and in vivo. In the presence of anti-MV neutralizing antibodies, the polymer-coated virus showed more enhanced oncolytic activity than did the naked MV-NPL in vitro. We also examined antitumor activities in virus-treated mice. Complement-dependent cytotoxicity and antitumor activities were higher in mice treated with polymer-coated MV-NPL than in mice treated with the naked virus. This novel, polymer-coated MV-NPL is promising for clinical cancer therapy in the future.

  20. Measles vaccine: a 27-year follow-up.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Ramsay, M E

    1994-04-01

    In 1964, the Medical Research Council undertook a trial of measles vaccine in over 36,000 United Kingdom children; 9577 of whom received live vaccine, 10,625 received inactivated followed by live vaccines, and 16,328 acted as unvaccinated controls. Participants in this study have been followed to determine the long term protection from measles vaccine and follow-up data were available on 4194, 4638 and 274 respectively. During the 5-year period 1986-90, the protective efficacy of live measles vaccine has remained high at 87%, but the 95% confidence interval was wide (-43 to 99%) due to the small numbers of cases. Between 1976 and 1990, however, the overall efficacy of the live vaccine was 92% (95% confidence interval 86 to 95%) and there was no evidence of a decline in efficacy (P = 0.13) over the 15-year period. This study suggests that the protection from live measles vaccine persists for up to 27 years after vaccination, and that no change in the current United Kingdom measles immunization policy should be made on the grounds of waning immunity.

  1. Measles outbreak in young adults in Victoria, 1999.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lambert, S B; Morgan, M L; Riddell, M A; Andrews, R M; Kelly, H A; Leydon, J A; Catton, M C; Lynch, P A; Gercovich, D K; Lester, R A; Carnie, J A; Rouch, G J

    2000-11-06

    To describe an outbreak of measles in Victoria. Case series with cases identified through enhanced passive surveillance and outbreak-related active surveillance. State of Victoria, 1999. Number of cases; epidemiological links and patterns of transmission; patient demographic features and vaccination status; complications. 75 cases were identified (74 laboratory-confirmed; and one epidemiologically linked to a laboratory-confirmed case), with onset between 11 February and 2 May 1999. The first case was in a 21-year-old woman who had recently holidayed in Bali and worked at a large cinema complex in Melbourne. Sixteen cases occurred in people who had contact with the index case at the cinema on one evening. The outbreak spread to regional Victoria and South Australia. Median age of patients was 22 years; 64 (85%) were born between 1968 and 1981, with only one patient in the age group targeted by the primary school component of the 1998 Australian Measles Control Campaign; this child had not been vaccinated. More than a third of patients (28) were hospitalised (total, 97 inpatient days), and five were healthcare workers. This outbreak was caused by international importation of measles virus. It highlights the change in epidemiology of measles in Australia, from a disease of childhood to one predominantly affecting young adults. A strong two-dose childhood vaccination program, vigilant surveillance, and rapid response to outbreaks will continue to be the basis of measles control, but better protection for young adults should be considered.

  2. Performance Evaluation of the VIDAS® Measles IgG Assay and Its Diagnostic Value for Measuring IgG Antibody Avidity in Measles Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julia Dina

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study is primarily to compare the performance of the VIDAS® Measles immunoglobulin (IgG assay to that of two other serological assays using an immunoassay technique, Enzygnost® Anti-measles Virus/IgG (Siemens and Measles IgG CAPTURE EIA® (Microimmune. The sensitivity and the agreement of the VIDAS® Measles IgG assay compared to the Enzygnost® Anti-measles Virus/IgG assay and the Measles IgG CAPTURE EIA® assay are 100%, 97.2% and 99.0%, 98.4%, respectively. The very low number of negative sera for IgG antibodies does not allow calculation of specificity. As a secondary objective, we have evaluated the ability of the VIDAS® Measles IgG assay to measure anti-measles virus IgG antibody avidity with the help of the VIDAS® CMV IgG Avidity reagent, using 76 sera from subjects with measles and 238 other sera. Different groups of populations were analyzed. In the primary infection measles group, the mean IgG avidity index was 0.16 (range of 0.07 to 0.93 compared to 0.79 (range of 0.25 to 1 in the serum group positive for IgG antibodies and negative for IgM. These data allow to define a weak anti-measles virus IgG antibody avidity as an avidity index (AI < 0.3 and a strong avidity as an AI > 0.6. The VIDAS® Measles IgG assay has a performance equivalent to that of other available products. Its use, individual and quick, is well adapted to testing for anti-measles immunity in exposed subjects.

  3. Low mortality after mild measles infection compared to uninfected children in rural West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaby, Peter; Simondon, Francois; Samb, Badara; Cisse, Badara; Jensen, Henrik; Lisse, Ida Maria; Soumaré, Masserigne; Whittle, Hilton

    2002-11-22

    It has been assumed that measles infection may be associated with persistent immune suppression and long-term excess mortality. However, few community studies of mortality after measles infection have been carried out. We examined long-term mortality for measles cases, sub-clinical measles cases, and uninfected contacts after an epidemic in rural Senegal. The study was carried out in Niakhar, a rural area of Senegal. Index cases of measles were identified and children less than 7 years of age exposed to measles in the same compound had acute and convalescent blood samples collected. Clinically diagnosed measles cases were serologically confirmed. Children without clinical symptoms were classified as sub-clinical cases if they had a four-fold or greater change in antibody levels between samples collected at exposure and 1 month later and as uninfected if there was no or a two-fold change in antibody levels. There were 31 index cases, and among 184 exposed contacts, 35 (19%) children developed clinical measles. Among contacts that did not develop clinical measles, 45% had sub-clinical infection. Measles cases, sub-clinical cases, and uninfected contacts did not differ with respect to nutritional status. However, uninfected children without clinical symptoms and change in antibody level had higher initial measles specific IgG antibody levels and less intensive exposure to the index case. No index or secondary case of measles died in the acute phase of infection nor did any of the children exposed to measles die in the first 2 months after exposure. Exposed children developing clinical measles had lower age-adjusted mortality over the next 4 years than exposed children who did not develop clinical measles (P<0.05). Sub-clinical measles cases tended to have low mortality and compared with uninfected children, exposed children with clinical or sub-clinical measles had lower age-adjusted mortality (mortality ratio (MR)=0.20 (0.06-0.74)). Controlling for background factors

  4. Tumor blood vessel "normalization" improves the therapeutic efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in experimental oral cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. W. Nigg

    2012-01-01

    We previously demonstrated the efficacy of BNCT mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA) to treat tumors in a hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer with no normal tissue radiotoxicity and moderate, albeit reversible, mucositis in precancerous tissue around treated tumors. It is known that boron targeting of the largest possible proportion of tumor cells contributes to the success of BNCT and that tumor blood vessel normalization improves drug delivery to the tumor. Within this context, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of blood vessel normalization on the therapeutic efficacy and potential radiotoxicity of BNCT in the hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer.

  5. Randomized Trial of 2 Versus 1 Dose of Measles Vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brønd, Marie; Martins, Cesario L; Byberg, Stine

    2018-01-01

    Background: Two doses of measles vaccine (MV) might reduce the nonmeasles mortality rate more than 1 dose of MV does. The effect of 2 versus 1 dose on morbidity has not been examined. Within a randomized trial of the effect of 2 doses versus 1 dose of MV on mortality in Guinea-Bissau, we investig......Background: Two doses of measles vaccine (MV) might reduce the nonmeasles mortality rate more than 1 dose of MV does. The effect of 2 versus 1 dose on morbidity has not been examined. Within a randomized trial of the effect of 2 doses versus 1 dose of MV on mortality in Guinea-Bissau, we...... measles vaccination policy might reduce hospital admissions more than the current policy of providing the first MV at 9 months of age. Trial registration: ClinicalTrials.gov identifier NCT00168558....

  6. An assessment of measles vaccine effectiveness, Australia, 2006-2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexis Pillsbury

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Vaccine effectiveness analysis serves as a critical evaluation for immunization programmes and vaccination coverage. It also contributes to maintaining public confidence with the vaccine providers. This study estimated measles vaccine effectiveness at the population level using Australian national notifications data between 2006 and 2012. Methods: Notification data were obtained from the National Notifiable Diseases Surveillance System. Vaccination status was classified according to whether a case had received zero, one or two doses of measles-containing vaccine. Cases aged less than 1 year and those with unknown vaccination status were excluded. All children with disease onset between 1 January 2006 and 31 December 2012 who were born after 1996 were included. Cases were matched to controls extracted from the Australian Childhood Immunisation Register according to date of birth and jurisdiction of residence. Vaccine effectiveness was estimated by conditional logistic regression. Sensitivity analyses were conducted to test data robustness. Results: Vaccine effectiveness was estimated at 96.7% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 94.5–98.0% for one dose and 99.7% (95% CI: 99.2–99.9% for two doses of measles vaccine. For at least one dose, effectiveness was estimated at 98.7% (95% CI: 97.9–99.2%. Sensitivity analyses did not significantly alter the base estimates. Discussion: Vaccine effectiveness estimates suggested that the measles vaccine was protective at the population level between 2006 and 2012. However, vaccination coverage gaps may have contributed to recent measles outbreaks and may represent a serious barrier for Australia to maintain measles elimination status.

  7. Measles immune suppression: lessons from the macaque model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rory D de Vries

    Full Text Available Measles remains a significant childhood disease, and is associated with a transient immune suppression. Paradoxically, measles virus (MV infection also induces robust MV-specific immune responses. Current hypotheses for the mechanism underlying measles immune suppression focus on functional impairment of lymphocytes or antigen-presenting cells, caused by infection with or exposure to MV. We have generated stable recombinant MVs that express enhanced green fluorescent protein, and remain virulent in non-human primates. By performing a comprehensive study of virological, immunological, hematological and histopathological observations made in animals euthanized at different time points after MV infection, we developed a model explaining measles immune suppression which fits with the "measles paradox". Here we show that MV preferentially infects CD45RA(- memory T-lymphocytes and follicular B-lymphocytes, resulting in high infection levels in these populations. After the peak of viremia MV-infected lymphocytes were cleared within days, followed by immune activation and lymph node enlargement. During this period tuberculin-specific T-lymphocyte responses disappeared, whilst strong MV-specific T-lymphocyte responses emerged. Histopathological analysis of lymphoid tissues showed lymphocyte depletion in the B- and T-cell areas in the absence of apoptotic cells, paralleled by infiltration of T-lymphocytes into B-cell follicles and reappearance of proliferating cells. Our findings indicate an immune-mediated clearance of MV-infected CD45RA(- memory T-lymphocytes and follicular B-lymphocytes, which causes temporary immunological amnesia. The rapid oligoclonal expansion of MV-specific lymphocytes and bystander cells masks this depletion, explaining the short duration of measles lymphopenia yet long duration of immune suppression.

  8. [An experimental study on pyogenic osteomyelitis with special reference to the analysis of the therapeutic effects of antibiotics in vivo (author's transl)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayashi, R

    1979-06-01

    Experimental osteomyelitis was produced in mice by the Ueno's method for the purpose of evaluating therapeutic effects of the antibiotics. The results were as follows: 1) Experimental osteomyelitis produced with penicillin-G sensitive bacteria was completely cured by PC-G 1.8 mg per mouse a day, which provided maintenance of the concentration in serum more than 10 times of MIC for over 12 hours. The dosis of 0.18 mg per mouse per day was insufficient to bring a complete healing. 2) Experimental osteomyelitis produced with penicillin-G resistant bacteria did not heal completely, despite the administration of MPI-PC, a synthetic penicillin designed against penicillin resistant staphylococci, in a dosis of 5 mg twice a day, probably by the following reasons. Since MPI-PC is water-soluble, it is difficult to maintain the concentration in serum more than 10 times of MIC for over 1 hour. In other word, the bacteria was exposed to the effective antibiotic concentration for only one hour twice a day. 3) It was experimentally proved that earlier administration of antibiotics following inoculation provided quicker elimination of bacteria. 4) When bactericidal antibiotics were used, administration twice a day in half dosis gave better results compared with the full dosis once a day. 5) This experimental model of osteomyelitis proved quite useful for quantitative analysis of the effects of antibiotics, which would be applicable as a good method for evaluation of antibiotics to be developed in the future.

  9. Therapeutic Effects of Melatonin on Alveolar Bone Resorption After Experimental Periodontitis in Rats: A Biochemical and Immunohistochemical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arabacı, Taner; Kermen, Eda; Özkanlar, Seçkin; Köse, Oğuz; Kara, Adem; Kızıldağ, Alper; Duman, Şuayip Burak; Ibişoğlu, Ebru

    2015-07-01

    The present study aims to investigate the effects of systemic melatonin administration on alveolar bone resorption in experimental periodontitis in rats. Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups (control, experimental periodontitis [Ped], and experimental periodontitis treated with melatonin [Mel-Ped]). For periodontitis induction, first molars were ligatured submarginally for 4 weeks. After ligature removal, rats in the Mel-Ped group were treated with a daily single dose of 10 mg/kg body weight melatonin for 15 consecutive days. At the end of the study, intracardiac blood samples and mandible tissues were obtained for histologic, biochemical, and radiographic analysis. Serum markers related to bone turnover, calcium, phosphorus, bone alkaline phosphatase (b-ALP), and terminal C telopeptide of collagen Type I (CTX) were analyzed. Myeloperoxidase levels were determined in gingival tissue homogenates, and receptor activator of nuclear factor-kappa B ligand (RANKL) activation was analyzed in the mandible samples stereologically. Alveolar bone loss was also evaluated radiographically in the mandible samples of each group. Melatonin treatment decreased serum CTX levels and increased b-ALP levels. Serum calcium and phosphorus levels were not statistically different among groups (P >0.05). Alveolar bone resorption and myeloperoxidase activity were statistically higher in the Ped group compared to the Mel-Ped group (P periodontal healing in an experimental periodontitis rat model.

  10. A review of experimental studies of hydrogen as a new therapeutic agent in emergency and critical care medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Meihua; Zhang, Hongying; Yu, Congjun; Wang, Fan; Sun, Xuejun

    2014-01-01

    Hydrogen is the most abundant chemical element in the Universe, but is seldom regarded as a therapeutic agent. Recent evidence has shown that hydrogen is a potent antioxidative, antiapoptotic and anti-inflammatory agent and so may have potential medical applications in cells, tissues and organs. There are several methods to administer hydrogen, such as inhalation of hydrogen gas, aerosol inhalation of a hydrogen-rich solution, drinking hydrogen dissolved in water, injecting hydrogen-rich saline (HRS) and taking a hydrogen bath. Drinking hydrogen solution (saline/pure water/other solutions saturated with hydrogen) may be more practical in daily life and more suitable for daily consumption. This review summarizes the findings of recent studies on the use of hydrogen in emergency and critical care medicine using different disease models.

  11. Magnetic thermotherapy of breast tumors: an experimental therapeutic approach; Magnetische Thermotherapie von Tumoren der Brust: ein experimenteller Therapieansatz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hilger, I.; Kaiser, W.A. [Inst. fuer Diagnostische und Interventionelle Radiologie des Klinikums der Friedrich-Schiller-Univ. Jena (Germany); Andrae, W.; Hergt, R.; Hiergeist, R. [Inst. fuer Physikalische Hochtechnologie e.V., Jena (Germany)

    2005-04-01

    The therapeutic strategy for breast cancer is changing, especially for early tumor stages with good prognosis. One potential minimally invasive therapy modality consists in the accumulation of a well-tolerated magnetic material (iron oxides, particularly magnetite) in the target tissue. By applying an alternating magnetic field, energy is selectively absorbed and induces harmful heating of the tumor. The present review deals with the essential conditions and parameters as studied in vitro and in vivo in animal experiments. Extrapolations to the clinical situation are discussed, in particular, the heating potential of the magnetic material, the selection of the magnetic field parameters, the occurrence of eddy currents, the generation of localized heating spots and the expected temperature rises and their effects on the tumor area. (orig.)

  12. Effects of prophylactic and therapeutic teriflunomide in transcranial magnetic stimulation-induced motor-evoked potentials in the dark agouti rat model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iglesias-Bregna, Deborah; Hanak, Susan; Ji, Zhongqi; Petty, Margaret; Liu, Li; Zhang, Donghui; McMonagle-Strucko, Kathleen

    2013-10-01

    Teriflunomide is a once-daily oral immunomodulatory agent recently approved in the United States for the treatment of relapsing multiple sclerosis (RMS). This study investigated neurophysiological deficits in descending spinal cord motor tracts during experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE; a model of multiple sclerosis) and the functional effectiveness of prophylactic or therapeutic teriflunomide treatment in preventing the debilitating paralysis observed in this model. Relapsing-remitting EAE was induced in Dark Agouti rats using rat spinal cord homogenate. Animals were treated with oral teriflunomide (10 mg/kg daily) prophylactically, therapeutically, or with vehicle (control). Transcranial magnetic motor-evoked potentials were measured throughout the disease to provide quantitative assessment of the neurophysiological status of descending motor tracts. Axonal damage was quantified histologically by silver staining. Both prophylactic and therapeutic teriflunomide treatment significantly reduced maximum EAE disease scores (P teriflunomide treatment regimens prevented a delay in wave-form latency and a decrease in wave-form amplitude compared with that observed in vehicle-treated animals. A significant reduction in axonal loss was observed with both teriflunomide treatment regimens compared with vehicle (P teriflunomide can prevent the deficits observed in this animal model in descending spinal cord motor tracts. The mechanism behind reduced axonal loss and improved motor function may be primarily the reduced inflammation and consequent demyelination observed in these animals through the known effects of teriflunomide on impairing proliferation of stimulated T cells. These findings may have significant implications for patients with RMS.

  13. Development and Pre-Clinical Evaluation of Recombinant Human Myelin Basic Protein Nano Therapeutic Vaccine in Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis Mice Animal Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Ghobashy, Medhat A.; Elmeshad, Aliaa N.; Abdelsalam, Rania M.; Nooh, Mohammed M.; Al-Shorbagy, Muhammad; Laible, Götz

    2017-04-01

    Recombinant human myelin basic protein (rhMBP) was previously produced in the milk of transgenic cows. Differences in molecular recognition of either hMBP or rhMBP by surface-immobilized anti-hMBP antibodies were demonstrated. This indicated differences in immunological response between rhMBP and hMBP. Here, the activity of free and controlled release rhMBP poly(ε-caprolactone) nanoparticles (NPs), as a therapeutic vaccine against multiple sclerosis (MS) was demonstrated in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE) animal model. Following optimization of nanoformulation, discrete spherical, rough-surfaced rhMBP NPs with high entrapment efficiency and controlled release pattern were obtained. Results indicated that rhMBP was loaded into and electrostatically adsorbed onto the surface of NPs. Subcutaneous administration of free or rhMBP NPs before EAE-induction reduced the average behavioral score in EAE mice and showed only mild histological alterations and preservation of myelin sheath, with rhMBP NPs showing increased protection. Moreover, analysis of inflammatory cytokines (IFN-γ and IL-10) in mice brains revealed that pretreatment with free or rhMBP NPs significantly protected against induced inflammation. In conclusion: i) rhMBP ameliorated EAE symptoms in EAE animal model, ii) nanoformulation significantly enhanced efficacy of rhMBP as a therapeutic vaccine and iii) clinical investigations are required to demonstrate the activity of rhMBP NPs as a therapeutic vaccine for MS.

  14. Trial of high-dose Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine in Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Jensen, T G; Hansen, H L

    1988-01-01

    In a randomised study of 558 children in an urban African community, the protective effect of the Edmonston-Zagreb (EZ) measles vaccine given in a dose of 40,000 plaque forming units from the age of 4 months was compared with the effects of a standard dose (6000 tissue culture infectious units......) of Schwarz measles vaccine given from the age of 9 months. During two years of follow-up, all 14 clinical cases of measles occurred in the Schwarz group; 10 of the children contracted measles before vaccination and 4 after measles vaccination. Thus the EZ vaccine provided significant protection against...... measles both before and after the usual age of vaccination. Among the children who were exposed to measles at home, those given EZ vaccine were better protected than either unvaccinated children or those given the Schwarz vaccine....

  15. Monitoring progress toward measles elimination by genetic diversity analysis of measles viruses in China 2009-2010.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Y; Wang, H; Xu, S; Mao, N; Zhu, Z; Shi, J; Huang, G; Liu, C; Bo, F; Feng, D; Lu, P; Liu, Y; Wang, Y; Lei, Y; Chen, M; Chen, H; Wang, C; Fu, H; Li, C; He, J; Gao, H; Gu, S; Wang, S; Ling, H; Liu, Y; Ding, Z; Ba, Z; Feng, Y; Zheng, H; Tang, X; Lei, Y; Xiong, Y; Bellini, W J; Rota, P A; Jee, Y; Xu, W

    2014-09-01

    With the achievement of high coverage for routine immunization and supplementary immunization activities (SIAs), measles incidence in mainland China reached its lowest level in 2010. The proportion of measles cases in the vaccination-targeted population decreased during 2007-2010 after the SIAs. More than 60% of measles cases were in adults or infants, especially in the coastal and eastern provinces during 2009 and 2010. A total 567 isolates of measles virus were obtained from clinical specimens from 27 of 31 provinces in mainland China during 2009 and 2010. Except for two vaccine-associated cases, one genotype D4 strain, two genotype D9 strains, and four genotype D11 strains, the other 558 strains were genotype H1 cluster H1a. Genotype H1 has been the only endemic genotype detected in China since surveillance began in 1993. Only genotype H1 was found in mainland China during 1993-2008, except for one detection of genotype H2. More recently, multiple genotypes of imported measles were detected even with the background of endemic genetotype H1 viruses. Analysis of the 450-nucleotide sequencing window of the measles virus N gene showed that the overall genetic diversity of the recent geneotype H1 strains decreased between 2008 and 2010. The lower genetic diversity of H1 strains suggested that enhanced vaccination may have reduced the co-circulating lineages of endemic genotype H1 strains in mainland China. © 2014 The Authors Clinical Microbiology and Infection © 2014 European Society of Clinical Microbiology and Infectious Diseases.

  16. Therapeutic potentials of mesenchymal stem cells on the renal cortex of experimentally induced hypertensive albino rats: Relevant role of Nrf2.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohamed, Eman M; Samak, Mai A

    2017-04-01

    Bone marrow derived-mesenchymal stem cells (BM-MSCs) have brought great attention in regenerative medicine field, various experimental & clinical trials were held to investigate their therapeutic effects in different disorders. We designed a histological & immunohistochemical study to evaluate effectiveness of MSCs therapy in withhold of end-stage renal disease (ESRD) secondary to hypertension which has become a growing & striking public health problem. 30 adult male albino rats were utilized, 20 of them were exposed to experimental induction of hypertension, then divided equally to MSCs treated group (injected with 1×10 6 fluorescent labeled cell i.v./rat), while the second one was left without treatment. Renal specimens were subjected to histopathological, ultrastructural and immunohistochemical examination for Nrf2 in addition to biochemical estimation of serum urea & creatinine. Our results documented that BM-derived MSCs exerts considerable reversing effect of histopathologic and ultrastructural hypertensive nephropathy. Moreover, immunohistochemical results clearly pointed to relevant role of Nrf2 pathway in MSCs related renal therapeutic effects. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  17. Following in the footsteps of smallpox: can we achieve the global eradication of measles?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morgan Oliver WC

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although an effective measles vaccine has been available for almost 40 years, in 2000 there were about 30 million measles infections worldwide and 777,000 measles-related deaths. The history of smallpox suggests that achieving measles eradication depends on several factors; the biological characteristics of the organism; vaccine technology; surveillance and laboratory identification; effective delivery of vaccination programmes and international commitment to eradication. Discussion Like smallpox, measles virus has several biological characteristics that favour eradication. Humans are the only reservoir for the virus, which causes a visible illness and infection leading to life-long immunity. As the measles virus has only one genetic serotype which is relatively stable over time, the same basic vaccine can be used world-wide. Vaccination provides protection against measles infection for at least 15 years, although efficacy may be reduced due to host factors such as nutritional status. Measles vaccination may also confer other non-specific health benefits leading to reduced mortality. Accurate laboratory identification of measles cases enables enhanced surveillance to support elimination programmes. The "catch-up, keep-up, follow-up" vaccination programme implemented in the Americas has shown that measles elimination is possible using existing technologies. On 17th October 2003 the "Cape Town Measles Declaration" by the World Health Organisation and the United Nations Childrens Fund called on governments to intensify efforts to reduce measles mortality by supporting universal vaccination coverage and the development of more effective vaccination. Summary Although more difficult than for smallpox, recent experience in the Americas suggests that measles eradication is technically feasible. Growing international support to deliver these programmes means that measles, like smallpox, may very well become a curiosity of history.

  18. Therapeutic immunization with radio-attenuated Leishmania parasites through i.m. route revealed protection against the experimental murine visceral leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Sanchita; Manna, Madhumita; Khanra, Supriya; Ghosh, Moumita; Bhar, Radhaballav; Chakraborty, Anindita; Roy, Syamal

    2012-07-01

    After our promising results from prophylactic and therapeutic study (i.p. route) with the radio-attenuated Leishmania donovani parasites against experimental murine visceral leishmaniasis, we prompted to check their therapeutic efficacy through i.m route. BALB/c mice were infected with highly virulent L. donovani parasites. After 75 days, mice were treated with gamma (γ)-irradiated parasites. A second therapeutic immunization was given after 15 days of first immunization. The protection against kala-azar was estimated with the reduction of Leishman-Donovan unit from spleen and liver that scored up to 80% and 93%, respectively, while a twofold increase in nitric oxide (NO) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) productions has been observed in the immunized groups of animals. These groups of mice also showed disease regression by skewing Th2 cytokines (IL-10) towards Th1 cytokine (IFN-γ) bias along with the increased generation of NO and ROS, while the infected control group of mice without such treatment surrendered to the disease. Establishment of Th1 ambience in the treated groups has also been supported from the measured antileishmanial antibody IgG subsets (IgG2a and IgG1) with higher anti-soluble Leishmania antigen-specific IgG2a titer. As seen in our previous studies, doses of attenuation by γ-radiation should be taken into serious consideration. Attenuation of parasites at 50 Gy of absorbed dose of gamma rays has not worked well. Thus, therapeutic use of L. donovani parasites radio-attenuated at particular doses can be exploited as a promising vaccine agent. Absence of any adjuvant may increase its acceptability as vaccine candidate further.

  19. Measles, the media, and MMR: Impact of the 2014-15 measles outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cataldi, Jessica R; Dempsey, Amanda F; O'Leary, Sean T

    2016-12-07

    In late 2014, a measles outbreak beginning in California received significant media attention. To better understand the impact of this outbreak, we conducted a survey to assess and compare among vaccine hesitant and non-hesitant new mothers how this outbreak affected vaccine knowledge, attitudes, vaccination plans, and media use. A cross-sectional email survey of English-speaking women with a child ⩽1year old using a convenience sample of women from nine obstetrics and gynecology (OB/GYN) practices in Colorado assessed vaccine hesitancy, knowledge and attitudes about MMR vaccines and the outbreak, MMR vaccination plans before and after the outbreak, and use of and trust for media sources related to the outbreak. The response rate was 50% (351/701). Knowledge about the outbreak was high and vaccination attitudes were mostly favorable. Forty-eight percent of respondents thought MMR vaccine was more important after the outbreak. Online news (76%), television news (75%), and social media (68%) were the most frequently used media sources, yet were highly trusted by only 18%, 22%, and 1% of respondents respectively. Government websites (34%) and information from a doctor's office (34%) were infrequently used, but were highly trusted by 62% and 60% of respondents. Knowledge of the outbreak was lower among vaccine-hesitant respondents. Few mothers changed MMR vaccination plans after the outbreak. New mothers had high levels of knowledge and favorable attitudes about vaccination after the 2014-15 measles outbreak. Media sources used the most are not the most trusted. Communication about outbreaks of vaccine-preventable diseases should include spread of accurate information to new media sources and strengthening of existing trust in traditional media. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Trends in performance of the National Measles Case-Based ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Introduction: Since adoption of the measles case-based surveillance system in Zimbabwe in 1998, data has been routinely collected at all levels of the health delivery system and sent to national level with little or no documented evidence of use to identify risky populations, monitor impact of interventions and measure ...

  1. Some factors associated with non-acceptance of measles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data from a child health survey in Chikwawa District was used to investigate characteristics of non-acceptance of measles immunization. 9.3% of the children with vaccination cards had not been vaccinated. Distance to a static health centre and failure to attend a growth monitoring clinic were predictors of lack of ...

  2. How Safe Is Measles Immunization Of Sick Children? | Ogbonna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A prospective study to ascertain how safe is maeales immunization of sick children was carried out in Jos University Teaching Hospital, Family Health Centre. Out of 125 children who were vaccinated against measles 17(16%) were sick at the time of vaccination. Two (12%) of the sick children had post vaccination reaction.

  3. MEASLES IN ILORIN: AN EPIDEMIC IN THE MIDDLE OF ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Forty-one cases of measles were seen within 3 months period in Emergency Paediatric Unit (EPU) of the University of Ilorin Teaching Hospital (UITH) as against a recent report from the same center, which reported 52 cases over a 12 months period. More of the patients in this series needed hospitalization. Males were ...

  4. Measles outbreak in Simada District, South Gondar Zone, Amhara ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    2mikitser

    2009-06-27

    Jun 27, 2009 ... Abstract. Background: Recently measles outbreaks have been occurring in several areas of Ethiopia. Methods: Desk review of outbreak surveillance data was conducted to identify the susceptible subjects and highly affected groups of the community in Simada District, Amhara Region, May and June, 2009.

  5. Prevalence of measles neutralizing antibody in children under 15 ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The immune status of children under 15 years in the Southwestern region of Nigeria against measles virus was determined using the neutralization test with a view to assessing the herd immunity to the virus in these communities. A total of 256 serum samples collected from children were tested by the beta method of ...

  6. Measles Case-based Surveillance and Outbreak response in Nigeria

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Federal Ministry of Health recommendations for response during measles epidemics in Nigeria previously focused on case management using antibiotics and Vitamin. A supplements and did not include outbreak response immunization (ORI) campaigns. However, with the revision of the existing national technical ...

  7. An evaluation of the national measles vaccination campaign in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-04-20

    Apr 20, 1991 ... vaccination campaign in the new shanty areas. ofKhayelitsha. ' D. J. BERRY, D. YACH, M. H. J. ... attention at a national level but the national measles vaccination campaign implemented in 1990 represents a ..... The first question has been the subject of much debate. There is little doubt from the results of ...

  8. The impact of declining vaccination coverage on measles control: a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    abp

    2013-07-22

    Jul 22, 2013 ... descriptive analysis of the 2007 to 2011 Abia state measles case-based surveillance data supplied to Abia state World Health Organization office and Abia State Ministry of Health by the disease surveillance and notification officers. Results: .... diseases such as poor water supply, poor housing and sanitary.

  9. Measles vaccination coverage in high-incidence areas of the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A community survey was conducted in the Western Cape to assess measles vaccination coverage attained by routine and campaign services, in children ... were consecutively visited and requested to participate in the survey. Within each ... analysis, in order to provide a pre- and post-campaign profile. Children without an ...

  10. An evaluation of the national measles vaccination campaign in the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-04-20

    Apr 20, 1991 ... vaccination campaign in the new shanty areas. ofKhayelitsha. ' D. J. BERRY, D. YACH, M. H. J. HENNINK tt. Summary. A local component of the national measles vaccination cam- paign was evaluated in an area undergoing rapid urbanisation near Cape Town. Four serial cross-sectional cluster samples.

  11. Don't Let Measles Be Your Travel Souvenir

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Emails Don’t Let Measles Be Your Travel Souvenir Language: English (US) Español (Spanish) Recommend on Facebook ... your trip, you want to bring home fun souvenirs, a camera full of photos, and fantastic memories— ...

  12. Some factors associated with non-acceptance of measles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Data from a child health survey in Chikwawa District was used to investigate characteristics of non-acceptance of measles immu- nization. 9.3% of the children with vaccination cards had not been vaccinated. Distance to a static health centre and failure to attend a growth monitoring clinic were predictors of lack of immuniza-.

  13. Missed opportunities for measles immunisation in selected western ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-04-20

    Apr 20, 1991 ... Yes. 64. 10,2. No. No. 293. 46,7 t 1 record omitted owing to missing information on card avallablity. • x' = 105,4; 3 d~ p measles immunisation is currently given lower priority than many curative tasks. Some staff members.

  14. Temperature variability and outbreak of meningitis and measles in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The influence of temperature on temporal variations of outbreak of meningitis and measles in Yola, Nigeria was examined. Data on monthly maximum temperature and reported cases of the two diseases for a period of 13 years were collected and analysed. The report shows that the reported cases of the two diseases are ...

  15. The Aetiology of Pneumonia Associated with Measles in Bantu ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Antemortem and postmortem lung puncture aspiration was performed in Bantu children with pneumonia associated with measles. The superinfecting organisms were commonly Staphylococcus pyogenes, but from one-third of the patients Gramnegative organisms were cultured. These organisms were rarely sensitive to ...

  16. Measles outbreak in South Africa, 2003 - 2005 ORIGINAL ARTICLES

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    However, measles virus was introduced in July 2003 to. Mpumalanga and Gauteng provinces from Mozambique,. Malaria Branch, Division of Parasitic Diseases, National Center for Zoonotic, Vector-. Borne, and Enteric Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention and United. States Public Health Service, Atlanta, ...

  17. Evaluation of measles vaccine cold chain in Lagos State, Nigeria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The National (level 1), State (L2), and Local government vaccine cold stores (L3) as well as some vaccination centres (L4) were physically inspected in Lagos State, Nigeria and the potency of the live-attenuated measles vaccine was tested. Both the L1 and L2 storage facilities were formally adequately equipped and ...

  18. A stochastic modeling of recurrent measles epidemic | Kassem ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A simple stochastic mathematical model is developed and investigated for the dynamics of measles epidemic. The model, which is a multi-dimensional diffusion process, includes susceptible individuals, latent (exposed), infected and removed individuals. Stochastic effects are assumed to arise in the process of infection of ...

  19. The Ondersteport Canine distemper virus strain and measles ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Three groups of dogs aged three months each were used in an experiment to assess efficacy of imported Canine distemper vaccine (Ondersteport strain) and measles vaccine in protecting Nigerian dogs against local isolates of Canine distemper virus. Each group consisted of four randomly selected puppies. One group ...

  20. Bilateral pigmented paravenous retino-choroidal degeneration following measles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peduzzi, M; Guerrieri, F; Torlai, F; Prampolini, M L

    1984-01-01

    A 26-year-old female showed a bilateral ophthalmoscopic picture of pigmented paravenous retino-choroidal distrophy 19 years after neuro-retinitis following measles. Pigmentary disturbances in the fundus were not reported in 1963 clinical record; however functional tests are at present practically unchanged. Some debated aspects of this condition are discussed.

  1. Measles vaccination in humanitarian emergencies: a review of recent practice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Watson John

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The health needs of children and adolescents in humanitarian emergencies are critical to the success of relief efforts and reduction in mortality. Measles has been one of the major causes of child deaths in humanitarian emergencies and further contributes to mortality by exacerbating malnutrition and vitamin A deficiency. Here, we review measles vaccination activities in humanitarian emergencies as documented in published literature. Our main interest was to review the available evidence focusing on the target age range for mass vaccination campaigns either in response to a humanitarian emergency or in response to an outbreak of measles in a humanitarian context to determine whether the current guidance required revision based on recent experience. Methods We searched the published literature for articles published from January 1, 1998 to January 1, 2010 reporting on measles in emergencies. As definitions and concepts of emergencies vary and have changed over time, we chose to consider any context where an application for either a Consolidated Appeals Process or a Flash Appeal to the UN Central Emergency Revolving Fund (CERF occurred during the period examined. We included publications from countries irrespective of their progress in measles control as humanitarian emergencies may occur in any of these contexts and as such, guidance applies irrespective of measles control goals. Results Of the few well-documented epidemic descriptions in humanitarian emergencies, the age range of cases is not limited to under 5 year olds. Combining all data, both from preventive and outbreak response interventions, about 59% of cases in reports with sufficient data reviewed here remain in children under 5, 18% in 5-15 and 2% above 15 years. In instances where interventions targeted a reduced age range, several reports concluded that the age range should have been extended to 15 years, given that a significant proportion of cases occurred

  2. Tumor blood vessel "normalization" improves the therapeutic efficacy of boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in experimental oral cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Molinari, Ana J; Pozzi, Emiliano C C; Monti Hughes, Andrea; Heber, Elisa M; Garabalino, Marcela A; Thorp, Silvia I; Miller, Marcelo; Itoiz, Maria E; Aromando, Romina F; Nigg, David W; Trivillin, Verónica A; Schwint, Amanda E

    2012-01-01

    We previously demonstrated the efficacy of BNCT mediated by boronophenylalanine (BPA) to treat tumors in a hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer with no normal tissue radiotoxicity and moderate, albeit reversible, mucositis in precancerous tissue around treated tumors. It is known that boron targeting of the largest possible proportion of tumor cells contributes to the success of BNCT and that tumor blood vessel normalization improves drug delivery to the tumor. Within this context, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of blood vessel normalization on the therapeutic efficacy and potential radiotoxicity of BNCT in the hamster cheek pouch model of oral cancer. Blood vessel normalization was induced by two doses of thalidomide in tumor-bearing hamsters on 2 consecutive days. All studies in thalidomide-treated animals were performed 48 h after the first dose of thalidomide, previously established as the window of normalization. Biodistribution studies were performed with BPA at a dose of 15.5 mg (10)B/kg in thalidomide-treated (Th+) and untreated (Th-) tumor-bearing hamsters. The effect of blood vessel normalization prior to BPA administration on the efficacy of BNCT was assessed in in vivo BNCT studies at the RA-3 Nuclear Reactor in tumor-bearing hamsters. Group I was treated with BPA-BNCT after treatment with thalidomide (Th+ BPA-BNCT). Group II was treated with BPA-BNCT alone (Th- BPA-BNCT). Group III was treated with the beam only after treatment with thalidomide (Th+ BO), and Group IV was treated with the beam only (Th- BO). Groups I and II were given the same dose of BPA (15.5 mg (10)B/kg), and all groups (I-IV) were exposed to the same neutron fluence. Two additional groups were treated with the beam only at a higher dose to exacerbate mucositis in precancerous tissue and to explore the potential direct protective effect of thalidomide on radiation-induced mucositis in a scenario of more severe toxicity, i.e. Group V (Th+ hdBO) and Group

  3. Therapeutic effect of Cryptotanshinone on experimental rheumatoid arthritis through downregulating p300 mediated-STAT3 acetylation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ying; Zhou, Chun; Gao, Hui; Li, Cuixian; Li, Dong; Liu, Peiqing; Huang, Min; Shen, Xiaoyan; Liu, Liang

    2017-08-15

    The balance between T helper 17 (Th17) cells and regulatory T (Treg) cells, plays a critical role in rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The differentiation of Th17 cells requires the activation of STAT3, which determines the balance of Th17/Treg. Here, we investigated the therapeutic effect of Cryptotanshinone (CTS) on collagen induced mouse arthritis and explored the underlying mechanisms. Arthritis was induced in DBA/1 mice with bovine collagen type II and complete Freund's adjuvant. CTS was given at 20mgkg -1 d -1 or 60mgkg -1 d -1 by gavage for 6weeks. The immuno-inflammation and joint destruction were evaluated and the balance of Th17/Treg was determined. STAT3 acetylation and phosphorylation were detected by western blotting, and the involvement of p300 was investigated by siRNA and plasmid overexpression. CTS at a dose of 60mgkg -1 d -1 ameliorated the inflammation and joint destruction in CIA mice. It improved Th17/Treg imbalance, and inhibited both acetylation and phosphorylation of STAT3. CTS reduced p300 expression and its binding to STAT3, but increased phosphorylated AMPK. Knockdown of p300 mimicked the inhibitory effect of CTS on STAT3 acetylation and phosphorylation, which could be partially rescued by overexpression of p300-WT, but not p300-dominant negative (DN) construct. Our study suggested that the anti-arthritis effects of CTS were attained through suppression of p300-mediated STAT3 acetylation. Our data suggest that CTS might be a potential immune modulator for RA treatment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The therapeutic effect of nano-encapsulated and nano-emulsion forms of carvacrol on experimental liver fibrosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussein, Jihan; El-Banna, Mona; Mahmoud, Khaled F; Morsy, Safaa; Abdel Latif, Yasmin; Medhat, Dalia; Refaat, Eman; Farrag, Abdel Razik; El-Daly, Sherien M

    2017-06-01

    The present study aimed to compare the therapeutic efficiency of nano-encapsulated and nano-emulsion carvacrol administration on liver injury in thioacetamide (TAA) treated rats. To fulfill our target, we used sixty male albino rats classified into six groups as follow: control, nano-encapsulated carvacrol, nano-emulsion carvacrol, thioacetamide, treated nano-encapsulated carvacrol and treated nano-emulsion carvacrol groups. Blood samples were collected from all groups and the separated serum was used for analysis of the following biochemical parameters; aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), S100 B protein, alpha fetoprotein (AFP) and caspase-3. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), nitric oxide (NO), monocyte chemoattractant protein-1(MCP-1) and hydroxyproline content were all evaluated in liver tissue homogenate. Histopathological examinations for liver tissues were also performed. Thioacetamide induced hepatic damage in rats as revealed by the significant increase in the levels of serum ALT, AST and produced oxidative stress as displayed by the significant elevation in the levels of hepatic MDA and NO concomitant with a significant decrease in GSH. In addition, thioacetamide significantly increased serum S100B protein, alpha fetoprotein and caspase-3 along with hepatic MCP-1 and hydroxyproline; these results were confirmed by the histopathological investigation. In contrast, nano-encapsulated and nano-emulsion carvacrol were able to ameliorate these negative changes in the thioacetamide injected rats. However, the effect of the nano-encapsulated form of carvacrol was more prominent than the nano-emulsion form. Nano-encapsulated and nano-emulsion carvacrol can ameliorate thioacetamide induced liver injury. These results could be attributed to the potential anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and anti-apoptotic activities of carvacrol in addition to the effectiveness of the encapsulation technique that can protect

  5. Therapeutic effects of oral dimethyl fumarate on stroke induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion: An animal experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Safari, Anahid; Fazeli, Mehdi; Namavar, Mohammad Reza; Tanideh, Nader; Jafari, Peyman; Borhani-Haghighi, Afshin

    2017-01-01

    Dimethyl fumarate (DMF) has immune-modulatory and neuro-protective characteristics that can be used for treatment of acute ischemic stroke. To investigate the therapeutic effects of DMF on histological and functional recovery of rats after transient middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion. 22 Sprague-Dawley male rats weighing 275-300 g were randomized into three groups by block randomization. In the sham group (n = 7), the neck was opened, but neither MCA was occluded, nor any drug was administered.The control group (n = 7) was treated with vehicle (methocel) by gavage for 14 days after MCA occlusion. In the DMF-treated group (n = 8), treatment was performed with 15 mg/kg body weight dimethyl fumarate twice a day for 14 days after MCA occlusion. Transient occlusion of the right MCA was performed by intraluminal thread method in the DMF-treated and the control group. Neurological deficit score (NDS), pole test, and adhesive removal test were performed before the surgery, and on post-operative Days 0, 3, 5, 7, 10, and 14. After the final behaviour test, the animals' brains were perfused and removed. Brains were frozen and sectioned serially and coronally using a cryostat. Infract volume and brain volume were estimated by stereology. The percentage of infarct volume was significantly lower in DMF-treated animals (5.76%) than in the control group (22.39%) (P < 0.0001). Regarding behavioural tests, the DMF-treated group showed better function in NDS on Days 7 (P = 0.041) and 10 (P = 0.046), but not in pole and adhesive removal tests. There was no significant correlation between behavioural tests and histological results. Dimethyl fumarate could be beneficial as a potential neuroprotective agent in the treatment of stroke.

  6. Case-based surveillance enhanced with measles virus detection/genotyping is essential to maintain measles elimination in Aichi Prefecture, Japan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Minagawa, Hiroko; Yasui, Yoshihiro; Adachi, Hirokazu; Ito, Miyabi; Hirose, Emi; Nakamura, Noriko; Hata, Mami; Kobayashi, Shinichi; Yamashita, Teruo

    2015-11-09

    Japan was verified as having achieved measles elimination by the Measles Regional Verification Commission in the Western Pacific Region in March 2015. Verification of measles elimination implies the absence of continuous endemic transmission. After the last epidemic in 2007 with an estimated 18,000 cases, Japan introduced nationwide case-based measles surveillance in January 2008. Laboratory diagnosis for all suspected measles cases is essentially required by law, and virus detection tests are mostly performed by municipal public health institutes. Despite relatively high vaccination coverage and vigorous response to every case by the local health center staff, outbreak of measles is repeatedly observed in Aichi Prefecture, Japan. Measles virus N and H gene detection by nested double RT-PCR was performed with all specimens collected from suspected cases and transferred to our institute. Genotyping and further molecular epidemiological analyses were performed with the direct nucleotide sequence data of appropriate PCR products. Between 2010 and 2014, specimens from 389 patients suspected for measles were tested in our institute. Genotypes D9, D8, H1 and B3 were detected. Further molecular epidemiological analyses were helpful to establish links between patients, and sometimes useful to discriminate one outbreak from another. All virus-positive cases, including 49 cases involved in three outbreaks without any obvious epidemiological link with importation, were considered as import-related based on the nucleotide sequence information. Chain of transmission in the latest outbreak in 2014 terminated after the third generations, much earlier than the 2010-11 outbreak (6th generations). Since 2010, almost all measles cases reported in Aichi Prefecture are either import or import-related, based primarily on genotypes and nucleotide sequences of measles virus detected. In addition, genotyping and molecular epidemiological analyses are indispensable to prove the interruption

  7. Estimation of the Population Susceptibility Against Measles in Slovakia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zibolenová, Jana; Chladná, Zuzana; Švihrová, Viera; Baška, Tibor; Waczulíková, Iveta; Hudečková, Henrieta

    2017-03-01

    In Slovakia, thanks to a highly effective vaccination programme, no domestic cases of measles have been reported since 1999. However, there are several outbreaks of measles currently hitting some countries in Europe. Difficulties in reaching the goal of measles elimination make it necessary to monitor the status of the population susceptibility to prevent similar outbreaks in the future. We hypothesize that immunity wanes overtime, which can substantially impact the population susceptibility. This work introduces a model that estimates a proportion of individuals susceptible to measles in the Slovak population in 2015. Our analysis is based on an age-cohort model that incorporates waning immunity, vaccination schedule and changes in demographic structure. The inputs of the model are data on the vaccination coverage, last seroprevalence survey in 2002 and age structure of the population. In a short-term horizon, waning immunity does not affect the estimated proportion of the susceptible population. However, in a long-term horizon, the antibody titers can fall below the level of protection, which would result in a substantial transfer of initially immune individuals to the compartment of the susceptible ones. Incorporating of waning immunity in the cohort model has indicated that the most susceptible cohorts are not-vaccinated youngest children and cohorts born between 1969 and 1986. Applying the model to the current situation shows that people aged 30-45 years and unvaccinated infants represent the most susceptible groups. Model partially replaces missing seroprevalence survey, but, because the parameters of model and phenomenon of waning immunity are not exactly known, we suggest reintroducing the regular national serosurveys in order to empirically determine the level of susceptibility for measles in Slovakia.

  8. Measles among healthcare workers in a teaching hospital in central Italy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbadoro, Pamela; Marigliano, Anna; Di Tondo, Elena; De Paolis, Maria; Martini, Enrica; Prospero, Emilia; D'Errico, Marcello Mario

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this report is to describe a measles cluster involving health-care workers (HWCs) that occurred in a teaching hospital in central Italy during winter 2011 and the efforts made to promptly identify all the susceptible contacts in order to stop, as soon as possible, transmission of the infection within the hospital. An epidemiological investigation took place. The immunization status of all the exposed individuals was assessed by personal interviews (history of measles or measles vaccine). Serologie screening for personnel not immune to measles was performed. Four cases of measles infection in HCWs were identified; of the 72 HCWs tested for measles immunity, 50 reported a past history of measles, while 22 underwent serological screening, which showed that all were IgG positive except for one case, which was excluded from duty as recommended. Strict adherence to use of alcohol-based hand rub and rapid implementation of appropriate isolation precautions are essential but insufficient to prevent measles outbreaks in hospital settings. Vaccination is the only reliable protection against nosocomial spread of measles. Therefore, assessing the immunization status of HCW and implementing vaccination strategies are needed in order to virtually set to zero the risk of acquiring and spreading measles in healthcare settings.

  9. The Novel Genotype D8 of Measles Virus Detected in Indonesia in 2014

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subangkit Subangkit

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundMeasles is one of the most infectious human diseases and can cause serious illness, lifelong complications and death. Measles is still a public health problem since the measles outbreak still occurred throughout Indonesia. Virology surveillance following molecular epidemiology investigations has a major contribution to prevent measles outbreak. Previous studies have documented the presence of measles virus genotypes G2, G3 and D9 in Indonesia, and the other genotypes such as B3, D4, D5, D8 and H1 have been detected in neighboring countries. This study aims to characterize the measles virus that causing outbreak in Indonesia in 2014. MethodsSeventy four urine specimens were collected from eight provinces and examined by one step RT-PCR and Sanger sequencing method. Sequencing analysis were conducted using Bioedit 7.1; DNA Star 7.0 and MEGA 5.0 software. ResultsThe PCR results showed 34 out of 74 clinical specimens positive of measles virus. We found the genotype of 34 measles viruses belongs to genotype D8, D9 and G3. ConclusionThe first measles genotype D8 has been detected from Indonesia in 2014 although other measles genotype still can be found in Indonesia.

  10. Non-specific beneficial effect of measles immunisation: analysis of mortality studies from developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aaby, P.; Samb, B.; Simondon, F.; Seck, A. M.; Knudsen, K.; Whittle, H.

    1995-01-01

    OBJECTIVE--To examine whether the reduction in mortality after standard titre measles immunisation in developing countries can be explained simply by the prevention of acute measles and its long term consequences. DESIGN--An analysis of all studies comparing mortality of unimmunised children and children immunised with standard titre measles vaccine in developing countries. STUDIES--10 cohort and two case-control studies from Bangladesh, Benin, Burundi, Guinea-Bissau, Haiti, Senegal, and Zaire. MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES--Protective efficacy of standard titre measles immunisation against all cause mortality. Extent to which difference in mortality between immunised and unimmunised children could be explained by prevention of measles disease. RESULTS--Protective efficacy against death after measles immunisation ranged from 30% to 86%. Efficacy was highest in the studies with short follow up and when children were immunised in infancy (range 44-100%). Vaccine efficacy against death was much greater than the proportion of deaths attributed to acute measles disease. In four studies from Guinea-Bissau, Senegal, and Burundi vaccine efficacy against death remained almost unchanged when cases of measles were excluded from the analysis. Diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis and polio vaccinations were not associated with reduction in mortality. CONCLUSION--These observations suggest that standard titre measles vaccine may confer a beneficial effect which is unrelated to the specific protection against measles disease. PMID:7647643

  11. Seroepidemiology and phylogenetic characterisation of measles virus in Ireland, 2004-2013.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O' Riordan, Bernadette; Carr, Michael J; Connell, Jeff; Dunford, Linda; Hall, William W; Hassan, Jaythoon

    2014-08-01

    Ireland is classified as an area of high measles incidence. A World Health Organisation-European Region strategic plan exists for measles elimination by 2015. To retrospectively investigate measles outbreaks using all patient samples (sera and oral fluid) received for measles laboratory diagnosis and characterise the genetic diversity of circulating measles genotypes in Ireland. 704 cases of acute measles infection as determined by the presence of measles specific IgM in sera and oral fluids were confirmed at the National Virus Reference Laboratory. Measles positive samples (n=116) were examined by genotyping, sequence analysis and phylogenetic characterisation. Three measles outbreaks occurred over the study period: 2004, 2009/2010 and 2011. Measles IgM positivity ranged from 22-29% in outbreak years to 5-10% in the intervening years. Age profile analysis revealed that whereas individuals >10 years accounted for only 8% of cases in the 2004 outbreak, this increased to 33% and 29% in the 2009/2010 and 2011 outbreaks, respectively. The Ireland, with autochthonous transmission of diverse genotype D4 strains associated with large outbreaks across Europe. More recently, genotype D8 was identified and these were associated with importation events. This study provides a comprehensive genetic analysis of circulating measles genotypes in Ireland and discriminated between indigenous and imported viral strains. Notably, an increase in laboratory-confirmed measles cases in the greater than 10 years of age group was seen over the study period. This information is valuable to inform vaccination strategies with a focus on those populations who remain susceptible to measles infection. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of subclinical infection on maintaining immunity against measles in vaccinated children in West Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittle, H C; Aaby, P; Samb, B; Jensen, H; Bennett, J; Simondon, F

    1999-01-09

    Despite a high coverage with measles vaccines in parts of west Africa, epidemics of measles occur with reduced severity in an increasing proportion of older children who have been vaccinated. We examined the effect of exposure to natural measles on immunity in vaccinated children. Our study was carried out in 1992 during an epidemic of measles in Niakhar, a rural area of Senegal with about 27,000 inhabitants who mostly live in compounds that include several households; within each household people live in different huts. Vaccine coverage in Niakhar was 81% at the time of our study. We measured haemagglutinin-inhibiting antibody at exposure and twice thereafter (after 4-5 weeks and at 6 months) in 36 vaccinated and 87 unvaccinated children. The frequency of measles and subclinical measles--defined as a four-fold or greater rise in antibody titre without clinical signs or symptoms--was related to intensity of exposure according to whether the index case was in the same hut, household, or compound. Clinical measles occurred in 20 (56%) of 36 unvaccinated children and in one (1%) of 87 vaccinated children. Subclinical measles occurred in 39 (45%) of 86 vaccinated children who were exposed to measles and in four (25%) of 16 unvaccinated children. The frequency was inversely related to pre-exposure antibody concentration (p<0.001 for trend) and directly related to intensity of exposure (p=0.002 for trend). Antibody concentrations in subclinical cases increased on average by 45-fold and remained raised for at least 6 months. Increased antibody titre after subclinical measles may be common in vaccinated children in West Africa where the intensity of exposure is high. As measles vaccination coverage increases, the circulation of wild measles will decrease, and vaccine-induced antibody is less likely to be boosted. Thus, new epidemics, albeit milder in form, may occur in vaccinated areas which should be recognised in campaigns to eradicate measles.

  13. A new formulation of cannabidiol in cream shows therapeutic effects in a mouse model of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giacoppo, Sabrina; Galuppo, Maria; Pollastro, Federica; Grassi, Gianpaolo; Bramanti, Placido; Mazzon, Emanuela

    2015-10-21

    The present study was designed to investigate the efficacy of a new formulation of alone, purified cannabidiol (CBD) (>98 %), the main non-psychotropic cannabinoid of Cannabis sativa, as a topical treatment in an experimental model of autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), the most commonly used model for multiple sclerosis (MS). Particularly, we evaluated whether administration of a topical 1 % CBD-cream, given at the time of symptomatic disease onset, could affect the EAE progression and if this treatment could also recover paralysis of hind limbs, qualifying topical-CBD for the symptomatic treatment of MS. In order to have a preparation of 1 % of CBD-cream, pure CBD have been solubilized in propylene glycoland basic dense cream O/A. EAE was induced by immunization with myelin oligodendroglial glycoprotein peptide (MOG35-55) in C57BL/6 mice. After EAE onset, mice were allocated into several experimental groups (Naïve, EAE, EAE-1 % CBD-cream, EAE-vehicle cream, CTRL-1 % CBD-cream, CTRL-vehicle cream). Mice were observed daily for signs of EAE and weight loss. At the sacrifice of the animals, which occurred at the 28(th) day from EAE-induction, spinal cord and spleen tissues were collected in order to perform histological evaluation, immunohistochemistry and western blotting analysis. Achieved results surprisingly show that daily treatment with topical 1 % CBD-cream may exert neuroprotective effects against EAE, diminishing clinical disease score (mean of 5.0 in EAE mice vs 1.5 in EAE + CBD-cream), by recovering of paralysis of hind limbs and by ameliorating histological score typical of disease (lymphocytic infiltration and demyelination) in spinal cord tissues. Also, 1 % CBD-cream is able to counteract the EAE-induced damage reducing release of CD4 and CD8α T cells (spleen tissue localization was quantified about 10,69 % and 35,96 % of positive staining respectively in EAE mice) and expression of the main pro-inflammatory cytokines as well as several other

  14. Cardenolide-Induced Lysosomal Membrane Permeabilization Demonstrates Therapeutic Benefits in Experimental Human Non-Small Cell Lung Cancers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatjana Mijatovic

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Non-small cell lung cancers (NSCLCs are the leading cause of cancer deaths in most developed countries. Targeting heat shock protein 70 (Hsp70 expression and function, together with the induction of lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP, could overcome the multiple anti-cell death mechanisms evidenced in NSCLCs that are responsible for the failure of currently used chemotherapeutic drugs. Because cardenolides bind to the sodium pump, they affect multiple signaling pathways and thus have a number of marked effects on tumor cell behavior. The aim of the present study was to characterize in vitro and in vivo the antitumor effects of a new cardenolide (UNBS1450 on experimental human NSCLCs. UNBS1450 is a potent source of in vivo antitumor activity in the case of paclitaxeland oxaliplatin-resistant subcutaneous human NCIH727 and orthotopic A549 xenografts in nude mice. In vitro UNBS1450-mediated antitumor activity results from the induction of nonapoptotic cell death. UNBS1450 mediates the decrease of Hsp70 at both mRNA and protein levels, and this is at least partly due to UNBS1450-induced downregulation of NFAT5/ TonEBP (a factor responsible for the transcriptional control of Hsp70. These effects were paralleled by the induction of LMP, as evidenced by acridine orange staining and immunofluorescence analysis for cathepsin B accumulation.

  15. Tolerability of Early Measles-Mumps-Rubella Vaccination in Infants Aged 6-14 Months during a Measles Outbreak in the Netherlands in 2013-2014

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Der Maas, Nicoline A T; Woudenberg, T.; Hahń, S. J M; De Melker, H. E.

    2016-01-01

    Background. In 2013–2014, a measles outbreak spread through the Netherlands. To protect young infants, measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccination was offered to those aged 6–14 months in municipalities with routine first-dose MMR vaccine coverage of <90%. We assessed the tolerability of this early

  16. A Cyclic Altered Peptide Analogue Based on Myelin Basic Protein 87–99 Provides Lasting Prophylactic and Therapeutic Protection Against Acute Experimental Autoimmune Encephalomyelitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mary Emmanouil

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available In this report, amide-linked cyclic peptide analogues of the 87–99 myelin basic protein (MBP epitope, a candidate autoantigen in multiple sclerosis (MS, are tested for therapeutic efficacy in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE. Cyclic altered peptide analogues of MBP87–99 with substitutions at positions 91 and/or 96 were tested for protective effects when administered using prophylactic or early therapeutic protocols in MBP72–85-induced EAE in Lewis rats. The Lys91 and Pro96 of MBP87–99 are crucial T-cell receptor (TCR anchors and participate in the formation of trimolecular complex between the TCR-antigen (peptide-MHC (major histocompability complex for the stimulation of encephalitogenic T cells that are necessary for EAE induction and are implicated in MS. The cyclic peptides were synthesized using Solid Phase Peptide Synthesis (SPPS applied on the 9-fluorenylmethyloxycarboxyl/tert-butyl Fmoc/tBu methodology and combined with the 2-chlorotrityl chloride resin (CLTR-Cl. Cyclo(91–99[Ala96]MBP87–99, cyclo(87–99[Ala91,96]MBP87–99 and cyclo(87–99[Arg91, Ala96]MBP87–99, but not wild-type linear MBP87–99, strongly inhibited MBP72–85-induced EAE in Lewis rats when administered using prophylactic and early therapeutic vaccination protocols. In particular, cyclo(87–99[Arg91, Ala96]MBP87–99 was highly effective in preventing the onset and development of clinical symptoms and spinal cord pathology and providing lasting protection against EAE induction.

  17. Pregnancy-Associated Plasma Protein-A and its Role in Cardiovascular Disease. Biology, Experimental/Clinical Evidences and Potential Therapeutic Approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziviello, Francesca; Conte, Stefano; Cimmino, Giovanni; Sasso, Ferdinando Carlo; Trimarco, Bruno; Cirillo, Plinio

    2017-01-01

    Pregnancy-Associated Plasma Protein-A (PAPP-A) is a zinc-binding metalloproteinase protein produced by placental syncytio-trophoblasts and secreted into the maternal circulation where its concentration progressively increases until term. In recent years, PAPP-A has been studied for its potential involvement in cardiovascular (CV) disease. However, all those studies did not provide a clear view to identify the pathophysiological links between PAPP-A plasma levels and the occurrence of CV events. In this review, starting from a complete description of PAPP-A structure and biology, we present an updated overview of experimental as well as clinical evidence on the role of this metalloproteinase in CV disease. Finally, we discuss possible therapeutic approaches to antagonize its potential detrimental CV effects. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  18. New insights on therapeutic touch: a discussion of experimental methodology and design that resulted in significant effects on normal human cells and osteosarcoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monzillo, Eloise; Gronowicz, Gloria

    2011-01-01

    Our purpose is to discuss the study design and innovative approaches that led to finding significant effects of one energy medicine therapy, Therapeutic Touch (TT), on cells. In the original published studies, TT was shown to significantly increase human osteoblast DNA synthesis, differentiation, and mineralization; increase in a dose-dependent manner the growth of other human cell types; and decrease the differentiation and mineralization of a human osteosarcoma-derived cell line. A unique feature of the study's methodology and design that contributed to the success of the findings was that a basic level of skill and maturity of the TT practitioner was quantified for producing observable and replicable outcomes in a test administered to all TT practitioners. Only those practitioners that passed the test were selected for the study. (2) The practitioners were required to keep a journal, which appeared to promote their ability to stay centered and replicate their treatments over months of cell experimentation. (3) The origin of the cells that the practitioners were treating was explained to them, although they were blinded to cell type during the experiments. (4) Only early passage cells were used to maintain a stable cell phenotype. (5) Standard protocols for performing TT in the room were followed to ensure reproducible conditions. (6) Placebo controls and untreated controls were used for each experiment. (7) The principal investigator and technicians performing the assays were blinded as to the experimental groups, and all assays and procedures were well established in the laboratory prior to the start of the TT experiments. The absence of studies on the human biofield from mainstream scientific literature is also discussed by describing the difficulties encountered in publishing. These roadblocks contribute to our lack of understanding of the human biofield and energy medicine modalities in science. In conclusion, this report seeks to encourage well

  19. Experimental etch-and-rinse adhesives doped with bioactive calcium silicate-based micro-fillers to generate therapeutic resin-dentin interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Profeta, A C; Mannocci, F; Foxton, R; Watson, T F; Feitosa, V P; De Carlo, B; Mongiorgi, R; Valdré, G; Sauro, S

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed at evaluating the therapeutic bioactive effects on the bond strength of three experimental bonding agents containing modified Portland cement-based micro-fillers applied to acid-etched dentin and submitted to aging in simulated body fluid solution (SBS). Confocal laser (CLSM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) were also performed. A type-I ordinary Portland cement was tailored using different compounds such as sodium-calcium-aluminum-magnesium silicate hydroxide (HOPC), aluminum-magnesium-carbonate hydroxide hydrates (HCPMM) and titanium oxide (HPCTO) to create three bioactive micro-fillers. A resin blend mainly constituted by Bis-GMA, PMDM and HEMA was used as control (RES-Ctr) or mixed with each micro-filler to create three experimental bonding agents: (i) Res-HOPC, (ii) Res-HCPMM and (iii) Res-HPCTO. The bonding agents were applied onto 37% H3PO4-etched dentin and light-cured for 30s. After build-ups, they were prepared for micro-tensile bond strength (μTBS) and tested after 24h or 6 months of SBS storage. SEM analysis was performed after de-bonding, while CLSM was used to evaluate the ultra-morphology/nanoleakage and the mineral deposition at the resin-dentin interface. High μTBS values were achieved in all groups after 24h. Only Res-HOPC and Res-HCPMM showed stable μTBS after SBS storage (6 months). All the resin-dentin interfaces created using the bonding agents containing the bioactive micro-fillers tested in this study showed an evident reduction of nanoleakage and mineral deposition after SBS storage. Resin bonding systems containing specifically tailored Portland cement micro-fillers may promote a therapeutic mineral deposition within the hybrid layer and increase the durability of the resin-dentin bond. Copyright © 2013 Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Phylogenetic and epidemiological analysis of measles outbreaks in Denmark, 2013 to 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lasse Dam; Fonager, Jannik; Knudsen, Lisbet Krause

    2015-01-01

    Despite the introduction of safe, effective vaccines decades ago and joint global public health efforts to eliminate measles, this vaccine-preventable disease continues to pose threats to children's health worldwide. During 2013 and 2014, measles virus was introduced into Denmark through several...... independent importations. This resulted in a number of secondary cases (n = 7), with two clusters in 2013 and one in 2014. In total, there were 44 cases of measles. Most cases (n = 41) were laboratory confirmed by detection of measles virus genome by real-time reverse transcription (RT)-PCR and IgM antibodies....... The viruses from confirmed cases were genotyped by sequencing. Only one genotype circulated each year, i.e. D8 and B3, respectively. Sequencing of measles virus from different clinical specimens from the same patients revealed that sequence variants of measles viruses might co-exist and co-transmit during...

  1. Update on the global distribution of genotypes of wild type measles viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rota, Paul A; Bellini, William J

    2003-05-15

    Molecular characterization of measles viruses is an important component of measles surveillance because these studies enhance our ability to identify the source and transmission pathways of the virus. Molecular surveillance is most beneficial when it is possible to observe the change in virus genotypes over time in a particular region. Such information can help to document the interruption of transmission of measles virus and thus provide an important method for assessing the effectiveness of vaccination programs. It is recommended that virus surveillance be conducted during all phases of measles control and be expanded to give an accurate description of the global distribution of measles genotypes. This review provides updated information on the circulation patterns of measles genotypes and examples of the utility of virologic surveillance.

  2. Epidemiology of two large measles virus outbreaks in Catalonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torner, Núria; Anton, Andres; Barrabeig, Irene; Lafuente, Sara; Parron, Ignasi; Arias, César; Camps, Neus; Costa, Josep; Martínez, Ana; Torra, Roser; Godoy, Pere; Minguell, Sofia; Ferrús, Glòria; Cabezas, Carmen; Domínguez, Ángela; Elimination Program Surveillance Network of Spain, the Measles

    2013-01-01

    Measles cases in the European Region have been increasing in the last decade; this illustrates the challenge of what we are now encountering in the form of pediatric preventable diseases. In Catalonia, autochthonous measles was declared eliminated in the year 2000 as the result of high measles-mumps-rubella vaccine (MMR) coverage for first and second dose (15 mo and 4 y) since the mid-1990s. From then on, sporadic imported cases and small outbreaks appeared, until in 2006–2007 a large measles outbreak affecting mostly unvaccinated toddlers hit the Barcelona Health Region. Consequently, in January 2008, first dose administration of MMR was lowered from 15 to 12 mo of age. A new honeymoon period went by until the end of 2010, when several importations of cases triggered new sustained transmission of different wild measles virus genotypes, but this time striking young adults. The aim of this study is to show the effect of a change in MMR vaccination schedule policy, and the difference in age incidence and hospitalization rates of affected individuals between both outbreaks. Epidemiologic data were obtained by case interviews and review of medical records. Samples for virological confirmation and genotyping of cases were collected as established in the Measles Elimination plan guidelines. Incidence rate (IR), rate ratio (RR) and their 95% CI and hospitalization rate (HR) by age group were determined. Statistic z was used for comparing proportions. Total number of confirmed cases was 305 in the 2010 outbreak and 381 in the 2006–2007 outbreak; mean age 20 y (SD 14.8 y; 3 mo to 51 y) vs. 15 mo (SD 13.1 y; 1 mo to 50 y). Highest proportion of cases was set in ≥ 25 y (47%) vs. 24.2% in 2006 (p < 0.001). Differences in IR for ≤ 15 mo (49/100,000 vs. 278.2/100,000; RR: 3,9; 95%CI 2,9–5.4) and in overall HR 29.8% vs. 15.7% were all statistically significant (p < 0.001). The change of the month of age for the administration of the first MMR dose proved successful to

  3. Cell-Mediated Cytotoxicity Toward Measles Virus-Infected Target Cells in Randomly Bred Syrian Hamsters

    OpenAIRE

    Cremer, Natalie E.; O'Keefe, Beatrice; Hagens, Shirley J.; Diggs, Janice

    1982-01-01

    Cell-mediated cytotoxicity (CMC) toward measles virus-infected cells was studied by a 51Cr release assay with spleen cells from hamsters inoculated with measles virus (strain Lec) or control antigen and with spleen cells from normal hamsters. Spleen cells from measles virus-inoculated hamsters showed greater CMC toward infected than toward noninfected target cells (designated specific CMC). Specific CMC was maximal 7 days after virus inoculation and was declining by 9 to 10 days. Effector cel...

  4. Evolution and Use of Dynamic Transmission Models for Measles and Rubella Risk and Policy Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kimberly M

    2016-07-01

    The devastation caused by periodic measles outbreaks motivated efforts over more than a century to mathematically model measles disease and transmission. Following the identification of rubella, which similarly presents with fever and rash and causes congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) in infants born to women first infected with rubella early in pregnancy, modelers also began to characterize rubella disease and transmission. Despite the relatively large literature, no comprehensive review to date provides an overview of dynamic transmission models for measles and rubella developed to support risk and policy analysis. This systematic review of the literature identifies quantitative measles and/or rubella dynamic transmission models and characterizes key insights relevant for prospective modeling efforts. Overall, measles and rubella represent some of the relatively simplest viruses to model due to their ability to impact only humans and the apparent life-long immunity that follows survival of infection and/or protection by vaccination, although complexities arise due to maternal antibodies and heterogeneity in mixing and some models considered potential waning immunity and reinfection. This review finds significant underreporting of measles and rubella infections and widespread recognition of the importance of achieving and maintaining high population immunity to stop and prevent measles and rubella transmission. The significantly lower transmissibility of rubella compared to measles implies that all countries could eliminate rubella and CRS by using combination of measles- and rubella-containing vaccines (MRCVs) as they strive to meet regional measles elimination goals, which leads to the recommendation of changing the formulation of national measles-containing vaccines from measles only to MRCV as the standard of care. © 2016 Society for Risk Analysis.

  5. What Obstetric Health Care Providers Need to Know About Measles and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasmussen, Sonja A.; Jamieson, Denise J.

    2015-01-01

    From January 1 to April 3, 2015, 159 people from 18 states and the District of Columbia were reported as having measles. Most cases are part of an outbreak linked to a California amusement park. Because measles was eliminated in the United States in 2000, most U.S. clinicians are unfamiliar with the condition. We reviewed information on the current outbreak, measles manifestations, diagnostic methods, treatment, and infection-control recommendations. To identify information on measles and pregnancy, we reviewed reports with 20 or more measles cases during pregnancy that included data on effects on pregnant women or pregnancy outcomes. These reports were identified through MEDLINE from inception through February 2015 using the following strategy: (((pregnan*) AND measles) AND English[Language]) NOT review[Publication Type]. Reference lists also were reviewed to identify additional articles. Pregnant women infected with measles are more likely to be hospitalized, develop pneumonia, and die than nonpregnant women. Adverse pregnancy outcomes, including pregnancy loss, preterm birth, and low birth weight, are associated with maternal measles; however, the risk of congenital defects does not appear to be increased. No antiviral therapy is available; treatment is supportive. Early identification of possible cases is needed so that appropriate infection control can be instituted promptly. The recent measles outbreak highlights the role that obstetric health care providers play in vaccine-preventable illnesses; obstetrician–gynecologists should ensure that patients are up to date on all vaccines, including measles-containing vaccines, and should recommend and ideally offer a measles-containing vaccine to women without evidence of measles immunity before or after pregnancy. PMID:25899422

  6. Characterizing measles transmission in India: a dynamic modeling study using verbal autopsy data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verguet, Stéphane; Jones, Edward O; Johri, Mira; Morris, Shaun K; Suraweera, Wilson; Gauvreau, Cindy L; Jha, Prabhat; Jit, Mark

    2017-08-10

    Decreasing trends in measles mortality have been reported in recent years. However, such estimates of measles mortality have depended heavily on assumed regional measles case fatality risks (CFRs) and made little use of mortality data from low- and middle-income countries in general and India, the country with the highest measles burden globally, in particular. We constructed a dynamic model of measles transmission in India with parameters that were empirically inferred using spectral analysis from a time series of measles mortality extracted from the Million Death Study, an ongoing longitudinal study recording deaths across 2.4 million Indian households and attributing causes of death using verbal autopsy. The model was then used to estimate the measles CFR, the number of measles deaths, and the impact of vaccination in 2000-2015 among under-five children in India and in the states of Bihar and Uttar Pradesh (UP), two states with large populations and the highest numbers of measles deaths in India. We obtained the following estimated CFRs among under-five children for the year 2005: 0.63% (95% confidence interval (CI): 0.40-1.00%) for India as a whole, 0.62% (0.38-1.00%) for Bihar, and 1.19% (0.80-1.75%) for UP. During 2000-2015, we estimated that 607,000 (95% CI: 383,000-958,000) under-five deaths attributed to measles occurred in India as a whole. If no routine vaccination or supplemental immunization activities had occurred from 2000 to 2015, an additional 1.6 (1.0-2.6) million deaths for under-five children would have occurred across India. We developed a data- and model-driven estimation of the historical measles dynamics, CFR, and vaccination impact in India, extracting the periodicity of epidemics using spectral and coherence analysis, which allowed us to infer key parameters driving measles transmission dynamics and mortality.

  7. Epitope dampening monotypic measles virus hemagglutinin glycoprotein results in resistance to cocktail of monoclonal antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lech, Patrycja J; Tobin, Gregory J; Bushnell, Ruth; Gutschenritter, Emily; Pham, Linh D; Nace, Rebecca; Verhoeyen, Els; Cosset, François-Loïc; Muller, Claude P; Russell, Stephen J; Nara, Peter L

    2013-01-01

    The measles virus (MV) is serologically monotypic. Life-long immunity is conferred by a single attack of measles or following vaccination with the MV vaccine. This is contrary to viruses such as influenza, which readily develop resistance to the immune system and recur. A better understanding of factors that restrain MV to one serotype may allow us to predict if MV will remain monotypic in the future and influence the design of novel MV vaccines and therapeutics. MV hemagglutinin (H) glycoprotein, binds to cellular receptors and subsequently triggers the fusion (F) glycoprotein to fuse the virus into the cell. H is also the major target for neutralizing antibodies. To explore if MV remains monotypic due to a lack of plasticity of the H glycoprotein, we used the technology of Immune Dampening to generate viruses with rationally designed N-linked glycosylation sites and mutations in different epitopes and screened for viruses that escaped monoclonal antibodies (mAbs). We then combined rationally designed mutations with naturally selected mutations to generate a virus resistant to a cocktail of neutralizing mAbs targeting four different epitopes simultaneously. Two epitopes were protected by engineered N-linked glycosylations and two epitopes acquired escape mutations via two consecutive rounds of artificial selection in the presence of mAbs. Three of these epitopes were targeted by mAbs known to interfere with receptor binding. Results demonstrate that, within the epitopes analyzed, H can tolerate mutations in different residues and additional N-linked glycosylations to escape mAbs. Understanding the degree of change that H can tolerate is important as we follow its evolution in a host whose immunity is vaccine induced by genotype A strains instead of multiple genetically distinct wild-type MVs.

  8. MEASLES VIRUS IMMUNITY LEVEL STUDY IN PARTICULAR POPULATION GROUPS OF THE REPUBLIC OF GUINEA WITHIN THE FRAMEWORK OF GLOBAL MEASLES ELIMINATION PROGRAM. REPORT 2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Yu. Popova

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A goal for measles elimination globally by 2010–2020 was recognized as one of the priorities in the WHO program “Health for All in the 21st Century” (1998. However measles outbreaks occurred in 2010–2016 in countries with high level of measles vaccine coverage including USA and some European countries.Large measles outbreaks were also registered on the African continent and particular in the Republic of Guinea as a result of the decline of measles vaccine coverage due to the Ebola virus epidemic in the Republic of Guinea in 2014–2015. WHO recommends carrying out the routine measles vaccination as well as the supplemental immunization activities after the stop of the Ebola virus transmission. Effectiveness of the activities is definitely connected with the detection of the epidemically significant for the supplemental immunization age groups. The aim of the study was to evaluate the measles immunity level in different age groups of population in the Republic of Guinea. Materials and methods. Twenty five blood serum samples of healthy adult Guineans aged 28–66 and 121 blood serum samples of adolescences and adults admitted to hospital in the town of Kindia (Republic of Guinea for indoor treatment were tested by ELISA. The specific measles virus antibodies were detected using the following commercial ELISA test-systems produced by Euroimmun Medizinische Labordiagnostika AG Company (Germany: IgM-antibodies — by “Anti-Measles Virus ELISA (IgM”, IgG-antibodi es — by “Anti-Measles Virus ELISA (IgG”, IgG-avidity measles virus antibodies — by “Avidity: Anti-Measles Virus ELISA (IgG”. A part of sera was studied by “Vector-Best IgM-measles” and “Vector-Best IgG-measles” ELISA test-systems (Russia. Results and discussion. The comparative quantitative study of the measles immunity level (i.e. IgG-antibodies titers of the healthy adult Guineans in 2015 and 2016 revealed the lack of IgGantibodies in serum

  9. Experimental Investigations on Dopamine Transmission Can Provide Clues on the Mechanism of the Therapeutic Effect of Amphetamine and Methylphenidate in ADHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carboni, Ezio; Silvagni, Alessandra

    2004-01-01

    The aim of this review is to compare the experimental evidence obtained from in vitro studies on the effect of amphetamine and methylphenidate on dopamine transmission with the results obtained in animal models of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD). This comparison can extend the knowledge on the mechanism of action of the drugs used in the therapy of ADHD and provide insight into the etiology of ADHD. In particular, we considered the results obtained from in vitro methods, such as synaptosomes, cells in culture, and slices and from in vivo animal models of ADHD, such as spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR) and the Naples high-excitability (NHE) rat lines. The different experimental approaches produce consonant results and suggest that in SHR rats, in contrast to Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY), amphetamine and depolarization by high K+ might release different pools of dopamine-containing vesicles. The pool depleted by amphetamine might represent dopamine that is stored in large dense core vesicles, whereas dopamine released by high K+ might be contained in small synaptic vesicles (SSV). The sustained dopamine transmission observed in the nucleus accumbens of SHR but not WKY rats can be supported by an elevated synthesis and release, which also might explain the stronger effect of methylphenidate on dopamine release in SHR but not in WKY rats. This hypothesis might enlighten the common therapeutic effect of these drugs, although their action takes place at different levels in catecholaminergic transmission. PMID:15303307

  10. Cost-effectiveness of measles elimination in Latin America and the Caribbean: a prospective analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acharya, Arnab; Diaz-Ortega, Jose Luis; Tambini, Gina; de Quadros, Ciro; Arita, Isao

    2002-09-10

    In 1994, the Americas set a goal of interrupting indigenous measles transmission from the Western Hemisphere by 2000. To accomplish this goal, the Pan American Health Organization (PAHO) developed an enhanced measles vaccination strategy. Cost data was collected at PAHO for Latin American and Caribbean (LAC) countries covering 96% of the region's population on components of the routine programs, and the 'follow-up' activities from member countries. In order to interpret our findings we have compared the present scenario regarding measles with one that would have ensued if past trends continued. For the entire LAC population, estimated cost of elimination program will be US$ 571 million in present value terms. The vaccination strategy toward achieving elimination of measles costs USD 244 million, incremental from the cost of vaccination before the elimination program. Within 2000-2020, the current program will have prevented the occurrence of 3.2 million cases of measles and 16,000 deaths. Thus, vaccination strategy prevents a single case of measles at the cost of USD 71.75 and prevents a death due to measles at the cost of USD 15,000. The case fatality rate depends on a well functioning treatment program for measles cases. The vaccination strategy saves a total of USD 208 million in treatments costs due to reduced incidence of measles.

  11. The historical association between measles and pertussis: A case of immune suppression?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen Coleman

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: According to historical medical reports, many children with measles subsequently contracted pertussis, often with fatal results. The likelihood of a child contracting pertussis after a measles infection is increased by its immune-suppressing effects. This research aims to verify the historical reports. Methods: The analysis examines statistically the historical relationship between average measles and pertussis incidence rates in the United States from 1938 to 1954 at the state level and in average weekly rates. Analysis of incidence rates is cross-sectional at the state level using public health data. Results: The results show that, on average and over time, states with higher measles rates have higher pertussis rates, and the peaks and nadirs of average weekly incidence rates of pertussis lag measles by a delay of about 3–4 weeks, well within the duration of immune suppression. Measles and pertussis have similar geographical distributions. Conclusion: The research tentatively supports the hypothesis that because of its immune-suppressing effects, measles causes an increase in pertussis, but other factors may be involved. Epidemic models should give more attention to the possibility of immune suppression for diseases such as measles where that might be a risk factor. The findings reemphasize the importance of measles vaccination for the prevention of other diseases.

  12. The historical association between measles and pertussis: A case of immune suppression?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Stephen

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: According to historical medical reports, many children with measles subsequently contracted pertussis, often with fatal results. The likelihood of a child contracting pertussis after a measles infection is increased by its immune-suppressing effects. This research aims to verify the historical reports. Methods: The analysis examines statistically the historical relationship between average measles and pertussis incidence rates in the United States from 1938 to 1954 at the state level and in average weekly rates. Analysis of incidence rates is cross-sectional at the state level using public health data. Results: The results show that, on average and over time, states with higher measles rates have higher pertussis rates, and the peaks and nadirs of average weekly incidence rates of pertussis lag measles by a delay of about 3–4 weeks, well within the duration of immune suppression. Measles and pertussis have similar geographical distributions. Conclusion: The research tentatively supports the hypothesis that because of its immune-suppressing effects, measles causes an increase in pertussis, but other factors may be involved. Epidemic models should give more attention to the possibility of immune suppression for diseases such as measles where that might be a risk factor. The findings reemphasize the importance of measles vaccination for the prevention of other diseases. PMID:27092263

  13. Successful treatment of severe complicated measles with non-specific transfer factor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferrer-Argote, V E; Romero-Cabello, R; Hernández-Mendoza, L; Arista-Viveros, A; Rojo-Medina, J; Balseca-Olivera, F; Fierro, M; Gonzalez-Constandse, R

    1994-01-01

    Severe complicated measles has a high mortality rate and no specific treatment. Ten patients with complicated measles - 9 infants with respiratory failure and a 15 year old boy with encephalitis - received immunotherapy with Non-specific Transfer Factor (NTF). The patients had variable degrees of undernourishment and were severely ill when immunotherapy was started. 8/9 cases with respiratory failure were cured. One died of bronchoaspiration while recovering from the measles. The case with encephalitis showed no neurological sequelae two weeks after receiving the last dose of NTF. Treatment of complicated measles with NTF in these patients seemed very effective and deserves further trial.

  14. Risk factors for measles death: Kyegegwa District, western Uganda, February-September, 2015.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mafigiri, Richardson; Nsubuga, Fred; Ario, Alex Riolexus

    2017-07-03

    On 18 August 2015, Kyegegwa District reported eight deaths during a measles outbreak to the Uganda Ministry of Health (MoH). We investigated this death cluster to verify the cause, identify risk factors, and inform public health interventions. We defined a probable measles case as onset of fever and generalised rash in a Kyegegwa District resident from 1 February - 15 September 2015, plus ≥1 of the following: coryza, conjunctivitis, and cough. A confirmed measles case was a probable case with measles-specific IgM positivity. A measles death was a death of a probable or confirmed case-person. We conducted an active case-finding to identify measles patients who survived or died. In a case-control study, we compared risk factors between 16 measles patients who died (cases) and 48 who survived (controls), matched by age (±4 years) and village of residence. We identified 94 probable measles cases, 10 (11%) were confirmed by positive measles-specific IgM. Of the 64 probable measles patients aged ORM-H = 12; 95% CI = 1.6-104), while 56% (9/16) of case-persons and 67% (17/48) of controls (ORM-H = 2.3; 95% CI =0.74-7.4) did not receive vitamin A supplementation during illness. 63% (10/16) among the case-persons and 6.3% (3/48) of the controls (ORM-H = 33; 95% CI = 6.8-159) were not treated for measles illness at a health facility (a proxy for more appropriate treatment), while 38% (6/16) of the case-persons and 25% (12/48) of the controls (ORM-H = 2.5; 95% CI = 0.67-9.1) were malnourished. Lack of vaccination and no treatment in a health facility increased the risk for measles deaths. The one-dose measles vaccination currently in the national vaccination schedule had a protective effect against measles death. We recommended enhancing measles vaccination and adherence to measles treatment guidelines.

  15. Challenges in managing a school-based measles outbreak in Melbourne, Australia, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibney, Katherine B; Brahmi, Aicha; O'Hara, Miriam; Morey, Rosemary; Franklin, Lucinda

    2017-02-01

    To identify barriers to control of a Victorian primary school-based measles outbreak. Confirmed measles cases notified in Victoria in 2014 were reviewed. Surveillance data, correspondence, and investigation notes for the school-based outbreak were assessed regarding timeliness of diagnosis and notification, and adequacy of school-based immunisation records. Twenty-three (31%) of the 75 measles cases notified in 2014 were school-aged (5-18 years); three had documentation of measles vaccination, 17 were unvaccinated, and three had unknown vaccination history. Eight measles outbreaks were identified, including a primary school-based outbreak with ten cases. Of the six unvaccinated pupils in the affected school, five (83%) contracted measles. The proportion of the school's prep students with documented vaccination records, as required by law, ranged from 39% in 2013 to 97% in 2014. Inadequately vaccinated students constitute a vulnerable population and schools are a potential site for measles outbreaks. Inadequate enforcement of school-based immunisation records impact the management and control of school-based measles outbreaks. Implications for Public Health: There is a need to educate clinicians on measles diagnosis and notification, and schools on the requirement to maintain up-to-date vaccination records. School entry is an opportunity to review student vaccination history and offer immunisations. © 2016 The Authors.

  16. Measles, Mumps, and Rubella Titers in Air Force Recruits: Below Herd Immunity Thresholds?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Paul E; Burnett, Daniel G; Costello, Amy A; Olsen, Cara H; Tchandja, Juste N; Webber, Bryant J

    2015-11-01

    Preventable diseases like measles and mumps are occurring with increasing frequency in the U.S. despite the availability of an effective vaccine. Given concern that an outbreak may occur among military recruits, we compared serologic evidence of immunity to measles, mumps, and rubella among military recruits with known herd immunity thresholds and determined whether the current Department of Defense policy of presuming mumps immunity based on measles and rubella titers is reliable. Serum antibody levels for measles, mumps, and rubella were obtained from all new recruits upon arrival at Joint Base San Antonio-Lackland, Texas, from 25 April 2013 through 24 April 2014. Seroprevalence of each disease was assessed by age and sex, and concordance between mumps titers and measles and rubella titers was calculated. Data analysis was performed in 2014-2015. Among 32,502 recruits, seroprevalences for measles, mumps, and rubella antibodies were 81.6%, 80.3%, and 82.1%, respectively. Of the 22,878 recruits seropositive for both measles and rubella antibodies, 87.7% were also seropositive for mumps. Seroprevalences for measles, mumps, and rubella antibodies among a large cohort of recruits entering U.S. Air Force basic training were generally lower than levels required to maintain herd immunity. In order to reduce the incidence of mumps infections, the Department of Defense should consider obtaining antibody titers for measles, mumps, and rubella and vaccinating all individuals susceptible to one or more of the viruses. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  17. Towards measles elimination in Italy: Virological surveillance and genotypes trend (2013-2015).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magurano, Fabio; Baggieri, Melissa; Filia, Antonietta; Del Manso, Martina; Lazzarotto, Tiziana; Amendola, Antonella; D'Agaro, Pierlanfranco; Chironna, Maria; Ansaldi, Filippo; Iannazzo, Stefania; Bucci, Paola; Marchi, Antonella; Nicoletti, Loredana

    2017-05-15

    In accordance with the goal of the World Health Organization Regional Office for Europe, the Italian National Measles and Rubella Elimination Plan aimed to interrupt indigenous measles transmission in Italy by the end of 2015. However, from 2013 to 2015, Italy experienced high measles burden with 4902 measles cases (49.3% laboratory-confirmed) reported to the enhanced measles surveillance system (cumulative incidence in the triennium reference period: 2.4/100,000 population). The measles elimination goal was not reached. Laboratory surveillance of measles circulating genotypes is performed by the Measles and Rubella National Reference Laboratory (NRL) at the Italian National Institute of Health (Istituto Superiore di Sanità - ISS), in Rome. Samples received from 1 January 2013-31 December 2015 were analysed. Those positive for measles genome by molecular tests were sequenced and phylogenetically analysed. Phylogenetic analysis performed by NRL identified that genotypes D4 and D8 were endemic and co-circulated in 2011-2013: study results show that genotype D4 disappeared during 2013. Sporadic cases were associated to genotype B3 during 2011-2013, which became endemic in Italy during 2014 and co-circulated with D8 until 2015. Sporadic cases were found belonging to genotypes D9 and H1 all over the period in exam. Similar trend has been observed in European WHO Region. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. Mild measles and secondary vaccine failure during a sustained outbreak in a highly vaccinated population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edmonson, M B; Addiss, D G; McPherson, J T; Berg, J L; Circo, S R; Davis, J P

    1990-05-09

    A prolonged school-based outbreak of measles provided an opportunity to study "vaccine-modified" mild measles and secondary vaccine failure. Thirty-six (97%) of 37 unvaccinated patients had rash illnesses that met the Centers for Disease Control clinical case definition of measles, but 29 (15%) of 198 vaccinated patients did not, primarily because of low-grade or absent fever. Of 122 patients with seroconfirmed measles, 10 patients (all previously vaccinated) had no detectable measles-specific IgM and significantly milder illness than either vaccinated or unvaccinated patients with IgM-positive serum. Of 108 vaccinated patients with seroconfirmed measles, 17 patients (16%) had IgM-negative serology or rash illnesses that failed to meet the clinical case definition; their mean age (13 years), age at the time of vaccination, and time since vaccination did not differ from those of other vaccinated patients. The occurrence of secondary vaccine failure and vaccine-modified measles does not appear to be a major impediment to measles control in the United States but may lead to underreporting of measles cases and result in overestimation of vaccine efficacy in highly vaccinated populations.

  19. Measles outbreak in the Children’s Hospital in Saint-Petersburg, 2012

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. Bichurina

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Measles was imported to Saint-Petersburg from the Chechen Republic by the patient admitted to the Children’s Clinical Hospital where the measles focus out of 94 cases was formed within the period of January – March, 2012. The typical clinical form of infection was revealed for all measles cases. The general signs of the infection were fever, rash, cough, rhinitis, conjunctivitis. Children under 17 years old consisted three quarters of patients. Among measles patients 75% of cases were the non vaccinated children in the age of 5 months – 14 years. Measles was confirmed by detection of IgM antibodies to measles virus in ELISA in 93.6% of sera samples. Molecular studies of the biological samples from the patient who was the source of the infection as well as from the other patients revealed the measles virus genotype D4 “Iran 2010”. This genotype widely circulated in Iran, Uzbekistan and Kazakhstan as well as in some regions of Russia in 2010–2012. The later diagnostic and isolation of the first measles patient in this hospital facilitated the transmission of measles virus infection in the Hospital where the most part of the non vaccinated children were also treated.

  20. Assessing Measles Transmission in the United States Following a Large Outbreak in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blumberg, Seth; Worden, Lee; Enanoria, Wayne; Ackley, Sarah; Deiner, Michael; Liu, Fengchen; Gao, Daozhou; Lietman, Thomas; Porco, Travis

    2015-05-07

    The recent increase in measles cases in California may raise questions regarding the continuing success of measles control. To determine whether the dynamics of measles is qualitatively different in comparison to previous years, we assess whether the 2014-2015 measles outbreak associated with an Anaheim theme park is consistent with subcriticality by calculating maximum-likelihood estimates for the effective reproduction numbe given this year's outbreak, using the Galton-Watson branching process model. We find that the dynamics after the initial transmission event are consistent with prior transmission, but does not exclude the possibilty that the effective reproduction number has increased.

  1. Measles-vaccinated Israeli boy with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Har-Even, Ronly; Aichenbaum, Sergio; Rabey, Jose M; Livne, Amir; Bistritzer, Tzvy

    2011-06-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis is a rare neurologic disorder of childhood and adolescence. We describe a 16-year-old boy who manifested the disease despite proper vaccinations. He was hospitalized because of bedwetting, involuntary limb movements, abnormal speech, and balance disturbances. Immunoglobulin G antibodies against measles were strongly positive, with a high relative cerebrospinal fluid/serum ratio. Polymerase chain reaction for measles produced negative results. Electroencephalography registered slow activity with high voltage discharges every few seconds, and with triphasic complex morphology. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed diffuse white matter changes, mostly around the posterior regions and lateral ventricles. Treatment with valproic acid, levetiracetam, carbamazepine, and intravenous immunoglobulin G was ineffective. Inosiplex and interferon-β-1a were also administrated. The patient became comatose, with generalized myoclonic jerks, and died 1 year later. An autopsy was not performed. This patient illustrates that subacute sclerosing panencephalitis should be suspected among young vaccinated subjects. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Measles hectic in Pakistan; Upsurge versus the lurking vaccination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-02-01

    Measles has claimed more lives than anticipated, as the outbreaks hit Pakistan severely in 2013 as compared to 2012. Claiming 350 lives through the year 2013, Measles became a headache for the health agencies, authorities and common people. The sudden appearance of the virus in different parts of the country both rural and urban at the same time can be linked to more than one cause. The notable being corruption in health system, poor health infrastructure, destabilized routine immunization, shortage in number of vaccinators, negligence among parents, and floods. As a consequence of these causative factors, the unclear picture of immunization coverage can be presumed as the ultimate etiology of outbreaks in such numbers. Therefore, there is an urgent need to draw out the actual data of immunisation coverage and focus on elimination of hurdles in the road to success in fully coverage with vaccines.

  3. Facebook and Twitter vaccine sentiment in response to measles outbreaks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deiner, Michael S; Fathy, Cherie; Kim, Jessica; Niemeyer, Katherine; Ramirez, David; Ackley, Sarah F; Liu, Fengchen; Lietman, Thomas M; Porco, Travis C

    2017-11-01

    Social media posts regarding measles vaccination were classified as pro-vaccination, expressing vaccine hesitancy, uncertain, or irrelevant. Spearman correlations with Centers for Disease Control and Prevention-reported measles cases and differenced smoothed cumulative case counts over this period were reported (using time series bootstrap confidence intervals). A total of 58,078 Facebook posts and 82,993 tweets were identified from 4 January 2009 to 27 August 2016. Pro-vaccination posts were correlated with the US weekly reported cases (Facebook: Spearman correlation 0.22 (95% confidence interval: 0.09 to 0.34), Twitter: 0.21 (95% confidence interval: 0.06 to 0.34)). Vaccine-hesitant posts, however, were uncorrelated with measles cases in the United States (Facebook: 0.01 (95% confidence interval: -0.13 to 0.14), Twitter: 0.0011 (95% confidence interval: -0.12 to 0.12)). These findings may result from more consistent social media engagement by individuals expressing vaccine hesitancy, contrasted with media- or event-driven episodic interest on the part of individuals favoring current policy.

  4. Molecular epidemiology of measles viruses in China, 1995-2003.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Zhu, Zhen; Rota, Paul A; Jiang, Xiaohong; Hu, Jiayu; Wang, Jianguo; Tang, Wei; Zhang, Zhenying; Li, Congyong; Wang, Changyin; Wang, Tongzhan; Zheng, Lei; Tian, Hong; Ling, Hua; Zhao, Chunfang; Ma, Yan; Lin, Chunyan; He, Jilan; Tian, Jiang; Ma, Yan; Li, Ping; Guan, Ronghui; He, Weikuan; Zhou, Jianhui; Liu, Guiyan; Zhang, Hong; Yan, Xinge; Yang, Xuelei; Zhang, Jinlin; Lu, Yiyu; Zhou, Shunde; Ba, Zhuoma; Liu, Wei; Yang, Xiuhui; Ma, Yujie; Liang, Yong; Li, Yeqiang; Ji, Yixin; Featherstone, David; Bellini, William J; Xu, Songtao; Liang, Guodong; Xu, Wenbo

    2007-02-05

    This report describes the genetic characterization of 297 wild-type measles viruses that were isolated in 24 provinces of China between 1995 and 2003. Phylogenetic analysis of the N gene sequences showed that all of the isolates belonged to genotype H1 except 3 isolates, which were genotype A. The nucleotide sequence and predicted amino acid homologies of the 294-genotype H1 strains were 94.7%-100% and 93.3%-100%, respectively. The genotype H1 isolates were divided into 2 clusters, which differed by approximately 2.9% at the nucleotide level. Viruses from both clusters were distributed throughout China with no apparent geographic restriction and multiple co-circulating lineages were present in many provinces. Even though other measles genotypes have been detected in countries that border China, this report shows that genotype H1 is widely distributed throughout the country and that China has a single, endemic genotype. This important baseline data will help to monitor the progress of measles control in China.

  5. Molecular epidemiology of measles viruses in China, 1995–2003

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Zhu, Zhen; Rota, Paul A; Jiang, Xiaohong; Hu, Jiayu; Wang, Jianguo; Tang, Wei; Zhang, Zhenying; Li, Congyong; Wang, Changyin; Wang, Tongzhan; Zheng, Lei; Tian, Hong; Ling, Hua; Zhao, Chunfang; Ma, Yan; Lin, Chunyan; He, Jilan; Tian, Jiang; Ma, Yan; Li, Ping; Guan, Ronghui; He, Weikuan; Zhou, Jianhui; Liu, Guiyan; Zhang, Hong; Yan, Xinge; Yang, Xuelei; Zhang, Jinlin; Lu, Yiyu; Zhou, Shunde; Ba, Zhuoma; Liu, Wei; Yang , Xiuhui; Ma, Yujie; Liang, Yong; Li, Yeqiang; Ji, Yixin; Featherstone, David; Bellini, William J; Xu, Songtao; Liang, Guodong; Xu, Wenbo

    2007-01-01

    This report describes the genetic characterization of 297 wild-type measles viruses that were isolated in 24 provinces of China between 1995 and 2003. Phylogenetic analysis of the N gene sequences showed that all of the isolates belonged to genotype H1 except 3 isolates, which were genotype A. The nucleotide sequence and predicted amino acid homologies of the 294-genotype H1 strains were 94.7%–100% and 93.3%–100%, respectively. The genotype H1 isolates were divided into 2 clusters, which differed by approximately 2.9% at the nucleotide level. Viruses from both clusters were distributed throughout China with no apparent geographic restriction and multiple co-circulating lineages were present in many provinces. Even though other measles genotypes have been detected in countries that border China, this report shows that genotype H1 is widely distributed throughout the country and that China has a single, endemic genotype. This important baseline data will help to monitor the progress of measles control in China. PMID:17280609

  6. [Measles in rural workers: a methodological essay in social epidemiology].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pontes, R J

    1990-08-01

    The study of a measles epidemic in the Ribeirão Preto region, in 1984, showed a high proportion of cases occurring among people above 15 years of age. This finding led to the identification of a particular characteristic of the disease's distribution in the area, i.e. the high incidence among rural workers (especially those restricted to collective lodgings when working in agricultural and industrial activities related to sugar cane plantations). A methodological exercise of synthesis between the descriptive phase of the traditional epidemiology and the was carried out. This procedure aimed at incorporating some aspects of the social process of the area with a view to explaining this particular distribution of measles as a result to that social process (i.e. the pattern of the occurrence of measles among rural workers is understood as a historically determined social event). Finally, the need to consider the appearance of specific diseases in different human groups according to the social process into which they are inserted in disenssed in such a way that their history and specificity are taken into account.

  7. The Effect of Ursolic Acid on Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis Is Related to Programed Cell Death and Presents Therapeutic Potential in Experimental Cutaneous Leishmaniasis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo S Yamamoto

    Full Text Available Among neglected tropical diseases, leishmaniasis is one of the most important ones, affecting more than 12 million people worldwide. The available treatments are not well tolerated, and present diverse side effects, justifying the search for new therapeutic compounds. In the present study, the activity of ursolic acid (UA and oleanolic acid (OA were assayed in experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis (in vitro and in vivo. Promastigote forms of L. amazonensis were incubated with OA and UA for 24h, and effective concentration 50% (EC50 was estimated. Ultraestructural alterations in Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes after UA treatment were evaluated by transmission electron microscopy, and the possible mode of action was assayed through Annexin V and propidium iodide staining, caspase 3/7 activity, DNA fragmentation and transmembrane mitochondrial potential. The UA potential was evaluated in intracellular amastigotes, and its therapeutic potential was evaluated in L. amazonensis infected BALB/c mice. UA eliminated L. amazonensis promastigotes with an EC50 of 6.4 μg/mL, comparable with miltefosine, while OA presented only a marginal effect on promastigote forms at 100 μg/mL. The possible mechanism by which promastigotes were eliminated by UA was programmed cell death, independent of caspase 3/7, but it was highly dependent on mitochondria activity. UA was not toxic for peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c mice, and it was able to eliminate intracellular amastigotes, associated with nitric oxide (NO production. OA did not eliminate amastigotes nor trigger NO. L. amazonensis infected BALB/c mice submitted to UA treatment presented lesser lesion size and parasitism compared to control. This study showed, for the first time, that UA eliminate promastigote forms through a mechanism associated with programed cell death, and importantly, was effective in vivo. Therefore, UA can be considered an interesting candidate for future tests as a prototype drug for

  8. The Effect of Ursolic Acid on Leishmania (Leishmania) amazonensis Is Related to Programed Cell Death and Presents Therapeutic Potential in Experimental Cutaneous Leishmaniasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamamoto, Eduardo S; Campos, Bruno L S; Jesus, Jéssica A; Laurenti, Márcia D; Ribeiro, Susan P; Kallás, Esper G; Rafael-Fernandes, Mariana; Santos-Gomes, Gabriela; Silva, Marcelo S; Sessa, Deborah P; Lago, João H G; Levy, Débora; Passero, Luiz F D

    2015-01-01

    Among neglected tropical diseases, leishmaniasis is one of the most important ones, affecting more than 12 million people worldwide. The available treatments are not well tolerated, and present diverse side effects, justifying the search for new therapeutic compounds. In the present study, the activity of ursolic acid (UA) and oleanolic acid (OA) were assayed in experimental cutaneous leishmaniasis (in vitro and in vivo). Promastigote forms of L. amazonensis were incubated with OA and UA for 24h, and effective concentration 50% (EC50) was estimated. Ultraestructural alterations in Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes after UA treatment were evaluated by transmission electron microscopy, and the possible mode of action was assayed through Annexin V and propidium iodide staining, caspase 3/7 activity, DNA fragmentation and transmembrane mitochondrial potential. The UA potential was evaluated in intracellular amastigotes, and its therapeutic potential was evaluated in L. amazonensis infected BALB/c mice. UA eliminated L. amazonensis promastigotes with an EC50 of 6.4 μg/mL, comparable with miltefosine, while OA presented only a marginal effect on promastigote forms at 100 μg/mL. The possible mechanism by which promastigotes were eliminated by UA was programmed cell death, independent of caspase 3/7, but it was highly dependent on mitochondria activity. UA was not toxic for peritoneal macrophages from BALB/c mice, and it was able to eliminate intracellular amastigotes, associated with nitric oxide (NO) production. OA did not eliminate amastigotes nor trigger NO. L. amazonensis infected BALB/c mice submitted to UA treatment presented lesser lesion size and parasitism compared to control. This study showed, for the first time, that UA eliminate promastigote forms through a mechanism associated with programed cell death, and importantly, was effective in vivo. Therefore, UA can be considered an interesting candidate for future tests as a prototype drug for the treatment

  9. Reduced childhood mortality after standard measles vaccination at 4-8 months compared with 9-11 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Andersen, M; Sodemann, Morten

    1993-01-01

    To evaluate the impact on mortality of standard Schwarz measles immunisation before 9 months of age.......To evaluate the impact on mortality of standard Schwarz measles immunisation before 9 months of age....

  10. Bioinformatic and immunological analysis reveals lack of support for measles virus related mimicry in Crohn’s disease

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Polymeros, Dimitrios; Tsiamoulos, Zacharias P; Koutsoumpas, Andreas L; Smyk, Daniel S; Mytilinaiou, Maria G; Triantafyllou, Konstantinos; Bogdanos, Dimitrios P; Ladas, Spiros D

    2014-01-01

    A link between measles virus and Crohn?s disease (CD) has been postulated. We assessed through bioinformatic and immunological approaches whether measles is implicated in CD induction, through molecular mimicry...

  11. Positive predictive value and effectiveness of measles case-based surveillance in Uganda, 2012-2015.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fred Nsubuga

    Full Text Available Disease surveillance is a critical component in the control and elimination of vaccine preventable diseases. The Uganda National Expanded Program on Immunization strives to have a sensitive surveillance system within the Integrated Disease Surveillance and Response (IDSR framework. We analyzed measles surveillance data to determine the effectiveness of the measles case-based surveillance system and estimate its positive predictive value in order to inform policy and practice.An IDSR alert was defined as ≥1 suspected measles case reported by a district in a week, through the electronic Health Management Information System. We defined an alert in the measles case-based surveillance system (CBS as ≥1 suspected measles case with a blood sample collected for confirmation during the corresponding week in a particular district. Effectiveness of CBS was defined as having ≥80% of IDSR alerts with a blood sample collected for laboratory confirmation. Positive predictive value was defined as the proportion of measles case-patients who also had a positive measles serological result (IgM +. We reviewed case-based surveillance data with laboratory confirmation and measles surveillance data from the electronic Health Management Information System from 2012-2015.A total of 6,974 suspected measles case-persons were investigated by the measles case-based surveillance between 2012 and 2015. Of these, 943 (14% were measles specific IgM positive. The median age of measles case-persons between 2013 and 2015 was 4.0 years. Between 2013 and 2015, 72% of the IDSR alerts reported in the electronic Health Management Information System, had blood samples collected for laboratory confirmation. This was however less than the WHO recommended standard of ≥80%. The PPV of CBS between 2013 and 2015 was 8.6%.In conclusion, the effectiveness of measles case-based surveillance was sub-optimal, while the PPV showed that true measles cases have significantly reduced in Uganda

  12. Measles in a Tertiary Institution in Bida, Niger State, Nigeria: Prevalence, Immunization Status and Mortality Pattern

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullahi Usman

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Measles is a highly infectious immunizable disease with potential for eradication but is still responsible for high mortality among children, particularly in developing nations like Nigeria. This study aims to determine the hospital based prevalence of measles, describe the vaccination status of children managed for measles at the Federal Medical Centre, Bida, Niger state and to identify the parental disposition to measles vaccination.Methods: This is a cross-sectional study carried out over a period of 18 months beginning from July 2007. All children with a diagnosis of measles made clinically and reinforced with serological test in the WHO Measles, Rubella and Yellow Fever laboratory in Maitama District Hospital, Abuja were recruited. Informed consent was obtained from the parents/care givers. Structured questionnaire was used to obtain information and data analysis was by SPSS version 15.Results: One hundred and nine children were managed for measles, constituting 8�0of total admission over the study period. The male to female ratio was 1.2:1. Of the 109 children with measles, 90 (82�20did not receive measles vaccination. Eighty-eight (80�20of the parents or guardian felt vaccination was bad for various reasons. Of the 23 (21.1�20children whose parents or guardians were positively disposed to vaccination, one death was recorded while the remaining seven deaths were recorded among children whose parents were negatively disposed to vaccination. All the deaths were in the non-vaccinated group below 2 years of age.Conclusion: Measles is still a major health burden in our community. The majority of affected children were not vaccinated due to negative parental disposition. Continuous health education is required for change the disposition of the parents/guardian and improve vaccination coverage to minimize measles associated morbidity and mortality.

  13. Identification of different lineages of measles virus strains circulating in Uttar Pradesh, North India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shakya Akhalesh

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Genetic analysis of measles viruses associated with recent cases and outbreaks has proven to bridge information gaps in routine outbreak investigations and has made a substantial contribution to measles control efforts by helping to identify the transmission pathways of the virus. Materials and methods The present study describes the genetic characterization of wild type measles viruses from Uttar Pradesh, India isolated between January 2008 and January 2011. In the study, 526 suspected measles cases from 15 outbreaks were investigated. Blood samples were collected from suspected measles outbreaks and tested for the presence of measles specific IgM; throat swab and urine samples were collected for virus isolation and RT-PCR. Genotyping of circulating measles viruses in Uttar Pradesh was performed by sequencing a 450-bp region encompassing the nucleoprotein hypervariable region and phylogenetic analysis. Results and conclusion Based on serological results, all the outbreaks were confirmed as measles. Thirty eight strains were obtained. Genetic analysis of circulating measles strains (n = 38 in Uttar Pradesh from 235 cases of laboratory-confirmed cases from 526 suspected measles cases between 2008 and 2011 showed that all viruses responsible for outbreaks were within clade D and all were genotype D8. Analysis of this region showed that it is highly divergent (up to 3.4% divergence in the nucleotide sequence and 4.1% divergence in the amino acid sequence between most distant strains. Considerable genetic heterogeneity was observed in the MV genotype D8 viruses in North India and underscores the need for continued surveillance and in particular increases in vaccination levels to decrease morbidity and mortality attributable to measles.

  14. Identification of different lineages of measles virus strains circulating in Uttar Pradesh, North India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shakya, Akhalesh Kumar; Shukla, Vibha; Maan, Harjeet Singh; Dhole, Tapan N

    2012-10-16

    Genetic analysis of measles viruses associated with recent cases and outbreaks has proven to bridge information gaps in routine outbreak investigations and has made a substantial contribution to measles control efforts by helping to identify the transmission pathways of the virus. The present study describes the genetic characterization of wild type measles viruses from Uttar Pradesh, India isolated between January 2008 and January 2011. In the study, 526 suspected measles cases from 15 outbreaks were investigated. Blood samples were collected from suspected measles outbreaks and tested for the presence of measles specific IgM; throat swab and urine samples were collected for virus isolation and RT-PCR. Genotyping of circulating measles viruses in Uttar Pradesh was performed by sequencing a 450-bp region encompassing the nucleoprotein hypervariable region and phylogenetic analysis. Based on serological results, all the outbreaks were confirmed as measles. Thirty eight strains were obtained. Genetic analysis of circulating measles strains (n = 38) in Uttar Pradesh from 235 cases of laboratory-confirmed cases from 526 suspected measles cases between 2008 and 2011 showed that all viruses responsible for outbreaks were within clade D and all were genotype D8.Analysis of this region showed that it is highly divergent (up to 3.4% divergence in the nucleotide sequence and 4.1% divergence in the amino acid sequence between most distant strains). Considerable genetic heterogeneity was observed in the MV genotype D8 viruses in North India and underscores the need for continued surveillance and in particular increases in vaccination levels to decrease morbidity and mortality attributable to measles.

  15. MEASLES OUTBREAK IN THE NIŠAVA AND TOPLICA DISTRICTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zoran Veličković

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Measles are a highly contagious viral disease. Until the discovery of a vaccine, it was one of the most common diseases of children younger than 5 years. The aim of this paper was to present the measles outbreak in the territory of the Nišava and Toplica Districts in 2015. To detect outbreaks, the recommendations of the Commission for Infectious Diseases of the European Union (EU from 2012 were used. Analysis of blood serum was carried out in the reference laboratory of the Institute of Virology, Vaccines and Sera Torlak. From January to 31st of August 2015, 240 patients with measles were registered, of which 103 (42.9% men and 137 (57.1% women. The first sick person was detected on the 11th of January (six-year-old unvaccinated child from Niš. The largest number of patients was registered in April (71 and May (61. Of the total number of patients, 210 (87.5% were younger than 40 years. The largest number of patients was registered in the age of 1-4 years (n=55, 30-34 (n=20 and 35-39 (n=16. Only two (0.8% persons were vaccinated with two doses, 7 (2.9% had received one dose of vaccine, 127 (52.9% were unvaccinated and in 104 (43.3% patients vaccination status was not known. The diseases was laboratory confirmed in 120 (50% patients, 55 (22.9% were suspected cases in which the epidemiological link was established, in 40 clinically diagnosed cases serum was not taken. Twenty-five sera were negative. Complications were found in 57 (33.1% patients, of which 21 (36.8% had diarrhea, 8 (14.05 had pneumonia, and in 7 (12.3% cases malnutrition was registered. Before the introduction of vaccination in 1971, measles were the disease among the youngest population. After the introduction of vaccination, the structure of patients was altered - the number of patients younger than 5 years decreased, and the number of those older than 15 increased. In the present epidemic, the majority of cases were unvaccinated, and in the vaccinated population more than ten

  16. A general measles vaccination campaign in urban Guinea-Bissau: Comparing child mortality among participants and non-participants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byberg, S; Thysen, S M; Rodrigues, A; Martins, C; Cabral, C; Careme, M; Aaby, P; Benn, C S; Fisker, A B

    2017-01-03

    Measles vaccination campaigns targeting children aged 9-59months are conducted every three years in Guinea-Bissau. Studies have demonstrated beneficial non-specific effects of measles vaccine. We compared mortality one year after the December 2012 measles vaccination campaign in Bissau city for children who received campaign measles vaccine with children who did not receive campaign measles vaccine. Field workers from Bandim Health Project registered all children living in the Bandim Health Project's study area who received measles vaccination at the campaign posts. Children not seen during the campaign were visited at home and campaign participation status was assessed. We compared mortality rates of participants vs. non-participants in Cox regression models. 5633 children aged 9-59months (85%) received campaign measles vaccination and 1006 (15%) did not. During the subsequent year 16 children died. Adjusted for background factors, the hazard ratio (HR) comparing measles vaccinated versus unvaccinated was 0.28 (95% CI: 0.10-0.77). The benefit was larger for girls (HR: 0.17 (0.05-0.59)) and for children who had received routine measles vaccine before the campaign (HR: 0.15 (0.04-0.63)). We found indications of strong beneficial non-specific effects of receiving measles vaccine during the 2012 campaign, especially for girls and children with previous routine measles vaccination. Measles vaccination campaigns may be an effective way of improving child survival. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Effects of therapeutic touch on anxiety, vital signs, and cardiac dysrhythmia in a sample of Iranian women undergoing cardiac catheterization: a quasi-experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zolfaghari, Mitra; Eybpoosh, Sana; Hazrati, Maryam

    2012-12-01

    To investigate the effects of Therapeutic Touch (TT) on anxiety, vital signs, and cardiac dysrhythmia in women undergoing cardiac catheterization. It was a quasi-experimental study. The participants had no history of hallucination, anxiety, or other psychological problems. Participants had to be conscious and have attained at least sixth-grade literacy level. Participants were randomly assigned into an intervention group (n = 23; received 10-15 minutes TT), a placebo group (n = 23; received 10-15 minutes simulated touch), and a control group (n = 23; did not receive any therapy). Data were collected using Spielberger's anxiety test, cardiac dysrhythmia checklist, and vital signs recording sheet. Statistical analyses were considered to be significant at α = .05 levels. Sixty-nine women ranging in age from 35 to 65 years participated. TT significantly decreased state anxiety p < 0.0001 but not trait anxiety (p = .88), decreased the incidence of all cardiac dysrhythmias p < 0.0001 except premature ventricular contraction (p = .01), and regulated vital signs p < 0.0001 in the intervention group versus placebo and control group. TT is an effective approach for managing state anxiety, regulating vital signs, and decreasing the incidence of cardiac dysrhythmia during stressful situations, such as cardiac catheterization, in Iranian cardiac patients.

  18. Experimental study and nuclear model calculations on the 192Os(p,n)192Ir reaction: Comparison of reactor and cyclotron production of the therapeutic radionuclide 192Ir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilgers, K; Sudár, S; Qaim, S M

    2005-07-01

    In a search for an alternative route of production of the important therapeutic radionuclide (192)Ir (T(1/2)=78.83 d), the excitation function of the reaction (192)Os(p,n)(192)Ir was investigated from its threshold up to 20 MeV. Thin samples of enriched (192)Os were obtained by electrodeposition on Ni, and the conventional stacked-foil technique was used for cross section measurements. The experimental data were compared with the results of theoretical calculations using the codes EMPIRE-II and ALICE-IPPE. Good agreement was found with EMPIRE-II, but slightly less with the ALICE-IPPE calculations. The theoretical thick target yield of (192)Ir over the energy range E(p)=16-->8 MeV amounts to only 0.16MBq/muA.h. A comparison of the reactor and cyclotron production methods is given. In terms of yield and radionuclidic purity of (192)Ir the reactor method appears to be superior; the only advantage of the cyclotron method could be the higher specific activity of the product.

  19. Experimental study and nuclear model calculations on the $^{192}Os (p, n)^{192}$Ir reaction Comparison of reactor and cyclotron production of the therapeutic radionuclide $^{192}$Ir

    CERN Document Server

    Hilgers, K; Sudar, S; 10.1016/j.apradiso.2004.12.010

    2005-01-01

    In a search for an alternative route of production of the important therapeutic radionuclide /sup 192/Ir (T/sub 1/2/=78.83 d), the excitation function of the reaction /sup 192/Os(p, n)/sup 192/Ir was investigated from its threshold up to 20MeV. Thin samples of enriched /sup 192/Os were obtained by electrodeposition on Ni, and the conventional stacked-foil technique was used for cross section measurements. The experimental data were compared with the results of theoretical calculations using the codes EMPIRE-II and ALICE-IPPE. Good agreement was found with EMPIRE-II, but slightly less with the ALICE-IPPE calculations. The theoretical thick target yield of /sup 192/Ir over the energy range E/sub p/=16 to 8MeV amounts to only 0.16MBq/ mu A.h. A comparison of the reactor and cyclotron production methods is given. In terms of yield and radionuclidic purity of /sup 192/Ir the reactor method appears to be superior; the only advantage of the cyclotron method could be the higher specific activity of the product.

  20. Epidemiology of measles in Blantyre, Malawi: analyses of passive surveillance data from 1996 to 1998

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yamaguchi, S.; Dunga, A.; Broadhead, R. L.; Brabin, B. J.

    2002-01-01

    Measles surveillance data in Blantyre, Malawi were reviewed for 1996-8 to describe the epidemiology of infection and to estimate vaccine efficacy (VE) by the screening method. A total of 674 measles cases were reported to the Blantyre District Health Office during this period. Age distribution

  1. Lessons from worldwide measles out-breaks in 2011-2012 and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measles is a leading cause of under-five mortality among vaccine preventable diseases in today's developing world. In fact, Tanzania has been experiencing measles out-breaks almost every year. Since last year, the world has experienced several out-breaks in several areas including many developed countries with high ...

  2. A ten-year study of measles admissions in a Nigerian Teaching ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Measles remains a major cause of childhood morbidity and mortality in Nigeria despite the availability of safe and effective vaccines. The last report on measles from our center was about 15 years ago. A review of the current status is necessary in order to strengthen interventional strategies. Objectives: To ...

  3. Detection of measles IgM antibodies in children at Kaduna ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Measles virus IgM antibodies virus was assayed for in 270 sera from children aged 5 months to 8 years attending Yusuf Dantsoho Memorial Hospital, Kaduna, Northern Nigeria, using ELISA. Out of the 270 sera, 192(71.1%) tested positive to measles IgM and 78(28.9%) negative. The sample distribution was 137 from males, ...

  4. Measles outbreak in South Africa, 2003 - 2005 | McMorrow | South ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objectives. Measles was virtually eliminated in South Africa following control activities in 1996/7. However, from July 2003 to November 2005, 1 676 laboratory-confirmed measles cases were reported in South Africa. We investigated the outbreak's cause and the role of HIV. Design. We traced laboratory-confirmed ...

  5. Measles among migrants in the European Union and the European Economic Area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Williams, G.A.; Bacci, S.; Shadwick, R.; Tillmann, T.; Rechel, B.; Noori, T.; Suk, J.E.; Odone, A.; Ingleby, J.D.; Mladovsky, P.; McKee, M.

    2016-01-01

    Aims: Progress towards meeting the goal of measles elimination in the EU and the European Economic Area (EEA) by 2015 is being obstructed, as some children are either not immunized on time or never immunized. One group thought to be at increased risk of measles is migrants; however, the extent to

  6. Measles in Abakaliki – Current status: A need for review of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: To highlight the burden of measles infection in Abakaliki and to join in the call for review of vaccination strategies in Nigeria. Methods: Case files of patients admitted with measles into Ebonyi state university teaching hospital, Abakaliki, from January 2001 to December 2005 were reviewed and relevant data ...

  7. Long-term measles-induced immunomodulation increases overall childhood infectious disease mortality

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.J. Mina (Michael J.); C.J.E. Metcalf (C. Jessica E.); R.L. de Swart (Rik); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); B.T. Grenfell (Bryan)

    2015-01-01

    textabstractImmunosuppression after measles is known to predispose people to opportunistic infections for a period of several weeks to months. Using population-level data, we show that measles has a more prolonged effect on host resistance, extending over 2 to 3 years. We find that nonmeasles

  8. Clinical profile and outcomes of measles in south-western Nigerian ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Barely two years to the end-point of the count-down to 2015, measles still remains a major cause of morbidity and mortality in Nigerian children, despite being vaccine-preventable. Aims/objectives: We evaluated the spectrum of clinical morbidities and determinant of poor outcomes associated with measles in ...

  9. measles immunisation growing peri-urban area of a mass a rapidly ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A mass measles immunisation campaign, with a target coverage rate of 85 - 90%, was launched in Khayelitsha, a rapidly growing urban township in the Cape Town area. Cross-sectional surveys of the measles immunisation status of resident 6 - 23-month-old infants were conducted immediately before, immediately after, ...

  10. Evaluation of the World Health Organization global measles and rubella quality assurance program, 2001-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stambos, Vicki; Leydon, Jennie; Riddell, Michaela; Clothier, Hazel; Catton, Mike; Featherstone, David; Kelly, Heath

    2011-07-01

    During 2001-2008, the Victorian Infectious Diseases Reference Laboratory (VIDRL) prepared and provided a measles and rubella proficiency test panel for distribution to the World Health Organization (WHO) measles and rubella network laboratories as part of their annual laboratory accreditation assessment. Panel test results were forwarded to VIDRL, and results from 8 consecutive years were analyzed. We assessed the type of assays used and results achieved on the basis of the positive and negative interpretation of submitted results, by year and WHO region, for measles and rubella. Over time, there has been a noticeable increase in laboratory and WHO regional participation. For all panels, the proportion of laboratories in all WHO regions using the WHO-validated Dade Behring assay for measles and rubella-specific IgM antibodies ranged from 35% to 100% and 59% to 100%, respectively. For all regions and years, the proportion of laboratories obtaining a pass score ranged from 87% to 100% for measles and 93% to 100% for rubella. During 2001-2008, a large proportion of laboratories worldwide achieved and maintained a pass score for both measles and rubella. Measles and rubella proficiency testing is regarded as a major achievement for the WHO measles and rubella laboratory program. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved.

  11. Prevalence of Protective Measles Virus Antibody Levels in Umbilical Cord Blood Samples in Catalonia, Spain▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plans, Pedro; Costa, Josep; Domínguez, Angela; Torner, Núria; Borras, Eva; Plasència, Antoni

    2010-01-01

    The prevalence of protective antibody levels (>160 mIU/ml) in neonates was 98.5%. The mean measles virus antibody level was 3,406 mIU/ml and increased with maternal age. Measles vaccination was reported by 42% of pregnant women and decreased with age. PMID:20164254

  12. The effect of early measles vaccination on thymic size. A randomized study from Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Lone Damkjær; Eriksen, Helle Brander; Biering-Sørensen, Sofie

    2014-01-01

    In low-income countries early measles vaccine (MV) is associated with reduced child mortality which cannot be explained by prevention of measles. A large thymus gland in infancy is also associated with reduced mortality. We hypothesized that early MV is associated with increased thymic size. Within...

  13. Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis in Papua New Guinean Children: The Cost of Continuing Inadequate Measles Vaccine Coverage

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manning, Laurens; Laman, Moses; Edoni, Henry; Mueller, Ivo; Karunajeewa, Harin A.; Smith, David; Hwaiwhanje, Ilomo; Siba, Peter M.; Davis, Timothy M. E.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a late, rare and usually fatal complication of measles infection. Although a very high incidence of SSPE in Papua New Guinea (PNG) was first recognized 20 years ago, estimated measles vaccine coverage has remained at ≤70% since and a large measles epidemic occurred in 2002. We report a series of 22 SSPE cases presenting between November 2007 and July 2009 in Madang Province, PNG, including localized clusters with the highest ever reported annual incidence. Methodology/Principal Findings As part of a prospective observational study of severe childhood illness at Modilon Hospital, the provincial referral center, children presenting with evidence of meningo-encephalitis were assessed in detail including lumbar puncture in most cases. A diagnosis of SSPE was based on clinical features and presence of measles-specific IgG in cerebrospinal fluid and/or plasma. The estimated annual SSPE incidence in Madang province was 54/million population aged 100/million/year. The distribution of year of birth of the 22 children with SSPE closely matched the reported annual measles incidence in PNG, including a peak in 2002. Conclusions/Significance SSPE follows measles infections in very young PNG children. Because PNG children have known low seroconversion rates to the first measles vaccine given at 6 months of age, efforts such as supplementary measles immunisation programs should continue in order to reduce the pool of non-immune people surrounding the youngest and most vulnerable members of PNG communities. PMID:21245918

  14. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in a tertiary care centre in post measles vaccination era.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sonia, Malik; Lalit, Dar; Shobha, Broor; Sheffali, Gulati; Amandeep, Salhotra; Veena, Kalra; Madhuri, Behari

    2009-09-01

    This study was conducted to observe the impact of measles vaccination on the epidemiology of subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) in the post measles vaccination era. This is a retrospective study from a tertiary care hospital, covering a ten year period starting a decade after the introduction of the national measles immunization programme in India. We analyzed 458 serologically confirmed SSPE cases. These patients had a high cerebrospinal fluid: serum anti-measles antibody ratio. The male to female ratio in the present study was 4.4:1. The mean age at onset of SSPE was 13.3 years, showing an increase in mean age at onset of SSPE. Clinical and other demographic details, available from 72 in-patients, are discussed in this report. Of these, a history of measles could be elicited in 34 cases. Mean latent period between measles infection and onset of SSPE was 7.8 years. Six patients gave a history of measles vaccination. A sizable percentage (15.5 %) of the patients was > or = 18 years old and considered to have adult onset SSPE. The incidence of SSPE continues to be high and this report highlights the need for further strengthening routine measles immunization coverage.

  15. Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis in papua new guinean children: the cost of continuing inadequate measles vaccine coverage.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laurens Manning

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE is a late, rare and usually fatal complication of measles infection. Although a very high incidence of SSPE in Papua New Guinea (PNG was first recognized 20 years ago, estimated measles vaccine coverage has remained at ≤ 70% since and a large measles epidemic occurred in 2002. We report a series of 22 SSPE cases presenting between November 2007 and July 2009 in Madang Province, PNG, including localized clusters with the highest ever reported annual incidence.as part of a prospective observational study of severe childhood illness at Modilon Hospital, the provincial referral center, children presenting with evidence of meningo-encephalitis were assessed in detail including lumbar puncture in most cases. A diagnosis of SSPE was based on clinical features and presence of measles-specific IgG in cerebrospinal fluid and/or plasma. The estimated annual SSPE incidence in Madang province was 54/million population aged 100/million/year. The distribution of year of birth of the 22 children with SSPE closely matched the reported annual measles incidence in PNG, including a peak in 2002.SSPE follows measles infections in very young PNG children. Because PNG children have known low seroconversion rates to the first measles vaccine given at 6 months of age, efforts such as supplementary measles immunisation programs should continue in order to reduce the pool of non-immune people surrounding the youngest and most vulnerable members of PNG communities.

  16. Loss of maternal measles antibody in black South African infants in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Loss of maternal measles antibody in black South African infants in the first year of life implications for age of vaccination. ... Our data support the recent World Health Organisation recommendation to immunise children in developing countries at 6 months with the 'high titre' Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine, since most ...

  17. Measles resurgence associated with continued circulation of genotype H1 viruses in China, 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yixin; Zhang, Yan; Xu, Songtao; Zhu, Zhen; Zuo, Shuyan; Jiang, Xiaohong; Lu, Peishan; Wang, Changyin; Liang, Yong; Zheng, Huanying; Liu, Yang; Mao, Naiying; Liang, Xiaofeng; Featherstone, David Alexander; Rota, Paul A; Bellini, William J; Xu, Wenbo

    2009-09-08

    Measles morbidity and mortality decreased significantly after measles vaccine was introduced into China in 1965. From 1995 to 2004, average annual measles incidence decreased to 5.6 cases per 100,000 population following the establishment of a national two-dose regimen. Molecular characterization of wild-type measles viruses demonstrated that genotype H1 was endemic and widely distributed throughout the country in China during 1995-2004. A total of 124,865 cases and 55 deaths were reported from the National Notifiable Diseases Reporting System (NNDRS) in 2005, which represented a 69.05% increase compared with 2004. Over 16,000 serum samples obtained from 914 measles outbreaks and the measles IgM positive rate was 81%. 213 wild-type measles viruses were isolated from 18 of 31 provinces in China during 2005, and all of the isolates belonged to genotype H1. The ranges of the nucleotide sequence and predicted amino acid sequence homologies of the 213 genotype H1 strains were 93.4%-100% and 90.0%-100%, respectively. H1-associated cases and outbreaks caused the measles resurgence in China in 2005. H1 genotype has the most inner variation within genotype, it could be divided into 2 clusters, and cluster 1 viruses were predominant in China throughout 2005.

  18. Genetic characterization of wild-type measles viruses isolated in China, 2006-2007.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yixin; Xu, Songtao; Zhang, Yan; Zhu, Zhen; Mao, Naiying; Jiang, Xiaohong; Ma, Chao; Lu, Peishan; Wang, Changyin; Liang, Yong; Zheng, Huanying; Liu, Yang; Dai, Defang; Zheng, Lei; Zhou, Jianhui; Wang, Shuang; Zhang, Zhenying; Wu, Shengwei; Nan, Lijuan; Li, Li; Liang, Xiaofeng; Featherstone, David Alexander; Rota, Paul A; Bellini, William J; Xu, Wenbo

    2010-05-25

    Molecular characterization of wild-type measles viruses in China during 1995-2004 demonstrated that genotype H1 was endemic and widely distributed throughout the country. H1-associated cases and outbreaks caused a resurgence of measles beginning in 2005. A total of 210,094 measles cases and 101 deaths were reported by National Notifiable Diseases Reporting System (NNDRS) and Chinese Measles Laboratory Network (LabNet) from 2006 to 2007, and the incidences of measles were 6.8/100,000 population and 7.2/100,000 population in 2006 and 2007, respectively. Five hundred and sixty-five wild-type measles viruses were isolated from 24 of 31 provinces in mainland China during 2006 and 2007, and all of the wild type virus isolates belonged to cluster 1 of genotype H1. These results indicated that H1-cluster 1 viruses were the predominant viruses circulating in China from 2006 to 2007. This study contributes to previous efforts to generate critical baseline data about circulating wild-type measles viruses in China that will allow molecular epidemiologic studies to help measure the progress made toward China's goal of measles elimination by 2012.

  19. Age at first dose of measles vaccination in Ethiopia | Berhane | East ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Although measles vaccination is recommended to be given at nine months of age in Ethiopia and in most of sub-Saharan Africa, no information is available about the age at which children actually receive their first dose of measles vaccine. This has important implications in terms of preventing infection and ...

  20. Genetic characterization of wild-type measles viruses isolated in China, 2006-2007

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nan Lijuan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Molecular characterization of wild-type measles viruses in China during 1995-2004 demonstrated that genotype H1 was endemic and widely distributed throughout the country. H1-associated cases and outbreaks caused a resurgence of measles beginning in 2005. A total of 210,094 measles cases and 101 deaths were reported by National Notifiable Diseases Reporting System (NNDRS and Chinese Measles Laboratory Network (LabNet from 2006 to 2007, and the incidences of measles were 6.8/100,000 population and 7.2/100,000 population in 2006 and 2007, respectively. Five hundred and sixty-five wild-type measles viruses were isolated from 24 of 31 provinces in mainland China during 2006 and 2007, and all of the wild type virus isolates belonged to cluster 1 of genotype H1. These results indicated that H1-cluster 1 viruses were the predominant viruses circulating in China from 2006 to 2007. This study contributes to previous efforts to generate critical baseline data about circulating wild-type measles viruses in China that will allow molecular epidemiologic studies to help measure the progress made toward China's goal of measles elimination by 2012.

  1. Loss of maternal measles antibody in black South African infants in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-02-02

    Feb 2, 1991 ... Loss of maternal measles antibody in black South. African infants in the first year of life implications for age of vaccination. P. KIEPIELA,. P. COWARD,. H. M. COOVADIA, W. E. K. LOENING,. S. S. ABDOOL KARIM. Summary. In order to investigate the feasibility of measles vaccination before the age of 9 ...

  2. Measles Resurgence Associated with Continued Circulation of Genotype H1 Viruses in China, 2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Featherstone David

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Measles morbidity and mortality decreased significantly after measles vaccine was introduced into China in 1965. From 1995 to 2004, average annual measles incidence decreased to 5.6 cases per 100,000 population following the establishment of a national two-dose regimen. Molecular characterization of wild-type measles viruses demonstrated that genotype H1 was endemic and widely distributed throughout the country in China during 1995-2004. A total of 124,865 cases and 55 deaths were reported from the National Notifiable Diseases Reporting System (NNDRS in 2005, which represented a 69.05% increase compared with 2004. Over 16,000 serum samples obtained from 914 measles outbreaks and the measles IgM positive rate was 81%. 213 wild-type measles viruses were isolated from 18 of 31 provinces in China during 2005, and all of the isolates belonged to genotype H1. The ranges of the nucleotide sequence and predicted amino acid sequence homologies of the 213 genotype H1 strains were 93.4%-100% and 90.0%-100%, respectively. H1-associated cases and outbreaks caused the measles resurgence in China in 2005. H1 genotype has the most inner variation within genotype, it could be divided into 2 clusters, and cluster 1 viruses were predominant in China throughout 2005.

  3. Introduction of standard measles vaccination in an urban African community in 1979 and overall child survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Søren Wengel; Aaby, Peter; Smedman, Lars

    2016-01-01

    examination had significantly lower mortality in the following year (1980) compared with the children who had been present in the December 1978 examination but were not measles vaccinated. Among children still living in the community in December 1979, measles-vaccinated children aged 6-71 months had...

  4. Measles vaccine expressing the secreted form of West Nile virus envelope glycoprotein induces protective immunity in squirrel monkeys, a new model of West Nile virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandler, Samantha; Marianneau, Philippe; Loth, Philippe; Lacôte, Sandra; Combredet, Chantal; Frenkiel, Marie-Pascale; Desprès, Philippe; Contamin, Hugues; Tangy, Frédéric

    2012-07-15

    West Nile virus (WNV) is a mosquito-borne flavivirus that emerged in North America and caused numerous cases of human encephalitis, thus urging the development of a vaccine. We previously demonstrated the efficacy of a recombinant measles vaccine (MV) expressing the secreted form of the envelope glycoprotein from WNV to prevent WNV encephalitis in mice. In the present study, we investigated the capacity of this vaccine candidate to control WNV infection in a primate model. We first established experimental WNV infection of squirrel monkeys (Saimiri sciureus). A high titer of virus was detected in plasma on day 2 after infection, and viremia persisted for 5 days. A single immunization of recombinant MV-WNV vaccine elicited anti-WNV neutralizing antibodies that strongly reduced WNV viremia at challenge. This study demonstrates for the first time the capacity of a recombinant live attenuated measles vector to protect nonhuman primates from a heterologous infectious challenge.

  5. Measles Antibody Titres In 0-5 Years Children At Aligarh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kandpal S D

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: What is the level of measles antibodies in 0-5 year children? Objectives: 1.To assess the pattern of decline of maternal antibodies in 0-9 months infants. 2. To estimate the seropositivity for measles antibodies in vaccinated 9 months infants. Study design: Cross- sectional. Setting: Rural areas of District Aligarh, U.P. Participants: 456 children in the age group of 0-5 years. Statistical analysis: Percentages, correlation coefficient. Results: 1. In all the study subjects below 9 months of age, the transplacentally acquired maternal measles antibodies showed a linear decline with increase in age. Out of 202 study subjects who had been immunized against measles 195(96.50% were seropositive and 7(3.5% were seronegative for measles antibodies.

  6. Occurrence of measles genotype D8 during a 2014 outbreak in Banjarmasin, South Kalimantan, Indonesia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartoyo, Edi; Wiyatno, Ageng; Jaya, Ungke Anton; Ma'roef, Chairin Nisa; Monagin, Corina; Myint, Khin Saw; Safari, Dodi

    2017-01-01

    An outbreak of measles symptoms occurring in children in Banjarmasin, South Kalimantan, Indonesia in 2014 was investigated. Nasal swabs were collected from 23 children (median age 41 months) with fever and other symptoms of measles hospitalized in Ulin General Hospital and Islamic Hospital, Banjarmasin, South Kalimantan. Viral RNA was extracted for cDNA synthesis, followed by PCR and sequencing using paramyxovirus family consensus and N-gene primers. Sixteen measles-positive patients (70%) were identified. Fifteen virus strains belonged to genotype D8 and the remaining one strain was confirmed as belonging to genotype D9. Measles virus genotype D8 was detected in an outbreak of measles in South Kalimantan, Indonesia, in 2014. Copyright © 2016 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. A two-centre randomised trial of an additional early dose of measles vaccine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fisker, Ane B; Nebie, Eric; Schoeps, Anja

    2018-01-01

    Background: Besides protecting against measles, measles vaccine (MV) may have beneficial non-specific effects. We tested the effect of an additional early MV on mortality and measles antibody levels. Methods: Children aged 4-7 months in two rural health and demographic surveillance sites in Burkina...... Faso and Guinea-Bissau were randomised 1:1 to an extra early standard dose of MV (Edmonston-Zagreb strain) or no extra MV 4 weeks after the third diphtheria-tetanus-pertussis-hepatitis B-Haemophilus-influenzae-type-b vaccine. All children received routine MV at 9 months. We assessed mortality through......% (90/422) in Guinea-Bissau had protective measles antibody levels. By 9 months of age, no measles-unvaccinated/unexposed child had protective levels, while 92% (306/333) of early MV recipients had. At final follow-up, 98% (186/189) in the early MV group and 97% (196/202) in the control group had...

  8. Household experience and costs of seeking measles vaccination in rural Guinea-Bissau

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Byberg, Stine; Fisker, A B; Rodrigues, A.

    2017-01-01

    -11 months are present at the vaccination post. Consequently, mothers who bring their child for measles vaccination can be told to return another day. We aimed to describe the household experience and estimate household costs of seeking measles vaccination in rural Guinea-Bissau. METHODS: Within a national...... mothers of 1308 children of whom 1043 (80%) had sought measles vaccination at least once. Measles vaccination coverage was 70% (910/1308). Coverage decreased with increasing distance to the health centre. On average, mothers who had taken their child for vaccination took their child 1.4 times. Mean costs...... of achieving 70% coverage were 2.04 USD (SD 3.86) per child taken for vaccination. Half of the mothers spent more than 2 h seeking vaccination and 11% spent money on transportation. CONCLUSIONS: We found several indications of missed opportunities for measles vaccination resulting in suboptimal coverage...

  9. Measles incidence, vaccine efficacy, and mortality in two urban African areas with high vaccination coverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Knudsen, K; Jensen, T G

    1990-01-01

    Measles incidence, vaccine efficacy, and mortality were examined prospectively in two districts in Bissau where vaccine coverage for children aged 12-23 months was 81% (Bandim 1) and 61% (Bandim 2). There was little difference in cumulative measles incidence before 9 months of age (6.1% and 7.......6%, respectively). Between 9 months and 2 years of age, however, 6.1% contracted measles in Bandim 1 and 13.7% in Bandim 2. Even adjusting for vaccination status, incidence was significantly higher in Bandim 2 (relative risk 1.6, P = .04). Even though 95% of the children had measles antibodies after vaccination......, vaccine efficacy was not more than 68% (95% confidence interval [CI] 39%-84%) and was unrelated to age at vaccination. Unvaccinated children had a mortality hazard ratio of 3.0 compared with vaccinated children (P = .002), indicating a protective efficacy against death of 66% (CI 32%-83%) of measles...

  10. Phylogenetic and epidemiological analysis of measles outbreaks in Denmark, 2013 to 2014

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Lasse Dam; Fonager, Jannik; Knudsen, Lisbet Krause

    2015-01-01

    an outbreak. The majority of the cases were unvaccinated (n = 27) or recipients of one dose of measles-mumps-rubella (MMR) vaccine (n = 7). In addition, two fully vaccinated adult cases were reported in 2014. We demonstrate the transmission of measles virus in a population in which the two-dose MMR......Despite the introduction of safe, effective vaccines decades ago and joint global public health efforts to eliminate measles, this vaccine-preventable disease continues to pose threats to children's health worldwide. During 2013 and 2014, measles virus was introduced into Denmark through several...... vaccination coverage rate was 80% and how even vaccinated individuals may be at risk of contracting measles once transmission has been established....

  11. Boron delivery with liposomes for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT): biodistribution studies in an experimental model of oral cancer demonstrating therapeutic potential

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    David W. Nigg

    2012-05-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) combines selective accumulation of 10B carriers in tumor tissue with subsequent neutron irradiation. We previously demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of BNCT in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. Optimization of BNCT depends largely on improving boron targeting to tumor cells. Seeking to maximize the potential of BNCT for the treatment for head and neck cancer, the aim of the present study was to perform boron biodistribution studies in the oral cancer model employing two different liposome formulations that were previously tested for a different pathology, i.e., in experimental mammary carcinoma in BALB/c mice: (1) MAC: liposomes incorporating K[nido-7-CH3(CH2)15-7,8-C2B9H11] in the bilayer membrane and encapsulating a hypertonic buffer, administered intravenously at 6 mg B per kg body weight, and (2) MAC-TAC: liposomes incorporating K[nido-7-CH3(CH2)15-7,8-C2B9H11] in the bilayer membrane and encapsulating a concentrated aqueous solution of the hydrophilic species Na3 [ae-B20H17NH3], administered intravenously at 18 mg B per kg body weight. Samples of tumor, precancerous and normal pouch tissue, spleen, liver, kidney, and blood were taken at different times post-administration and processed to measure boron content by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. No ostensible clinical toxic effects were observed with the selected formulations. Both MAC and MAC-TAC delivered boron selectively to tumor tissue. Absolute tumor values for MAC-TAC peaked to 66.6 {+-} 16.1 ppm at 48 h and to 43.9 {+-} 17.6 ppm at 54 h with very favorable ratios of tumor boron relative to precancerous and normal tissue, making these protocols particularly worthy of radiobiological assessment. Boron concentration values obtained would result in therapeutic BNCT doses in tumor without exceeding radiotolerance in precancerous/normal tissue at the thermal neutron facility at RA-3.

  12. Boron delivery with liposomes for boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT): biodistribution studies in an experimental model of oral cancer demonstrating therapeutic potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heber, Elisa M; Kueffer, Peter J; Lee, Mark W; Hawthorne, M Frederick; Garabalino, Marcela A; Molinari, Ana J; Nigg, David W; Bauer, William; Hughes, Andrea Monti; Pozzi, Emiliano C C; Trivillin, Verónica A; Schwint, Amanda E

    2012-05-01

    Boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) combines selective accumulation of (10)B carriers in tumor tissue with subsequent neutron irradiation. We previously demonstrated the therapeutic efficacy of BNCT in the hamster cheek pouch oral cancer model. Optimization of BNCT depends largely on improving boron targeting to tumor cells. Seeking to maximize the potential of BNCT for the treatment for head and neck cancer, the aim of the present study was to perform boron biodistribution studies in the oral cancer model employing two different liposome formulations that were previously tested for a different pathology, i.e., in experimental mammary carcinoma in BALB/c mice: (1) MAC: liposomes incorporating K[nido-7-CH(3)(CH(2))(15)-7,8-C(2)B(9)H(11)] in the bilayer membrane and encapsulating a hypertonic buffer, administered intravenously at 6 mg B per kg body weight, and (2) MAC-TAC: liposomes incorporating K[nido-7-CH(3)(CH(2))(15)-7,8-C(2)B(9)H(11)] in the bilayer membrane and encapsulating a concentrated aqueous solution of the hydrophilic species Na(3) [ae-B(20)H(17)NH(3)], administered intravenously at 18 mg B per kg body weight. Samples of tumor, precancerous and normal pouch tissue, spleen, liver, kidney, and blood were taken at different times post-administration and processed to measure boron content by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. No ostensible clinical toxic effects were observed with the selected formulations. Both MAC and MAC-TAC delivered boron selectively to tumor tissue. Absolute tumor values for MAC-TAC peaked to 66.6 ± 16.1 ppm at 48 h and to 43.9 ± 17.6 ppm at 54 h with very favorable ratios of tumor boron relative to precancerous and normal tissue, making these protocols particularly worthy of radiobiological assessment. Boron concentration values obtained would result in therapeutic BNCT doses in tumor without exceeding radiotolerance in precancerous/normal tissue at the thermal neutron facility at RA-3.

  13. Reducing global disease burden of measles and rubella: Report of the WHO Steering Committee on research related to measles and rubella vaccines and vaccination, 2005

    OpenAIRE

    Muller, Claude P.; Best, Jennifer M.; Dourado, Maria Inês Costa; Triki, Henda; Reef, Susan

    2007-01-01

    RESTRITO The WHO Steering Committee reviewed and evaluated the progress towards global control of measles and rubella and provided guidelines for future research activities concerning both diseases during its meeting in New Delhi, in April 2005. Global measles vaccination coverage increased from 71% in 1999 to 76% in 2004 and indigenous transmission was interrupted or kept at very low levels in many countries. However, Africa and Southeast Asia continue to experience endemic trans...

  14. Paternal education status significantly influences infants’ measles vaccination uptake, independent of maternal education status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rammohan Anu

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Despite increased funding of measles vaccination programs by national governments and international aid agencies, structural factors encumber attainment of childhood measles immunisation to levels which may guarantee herd immunity. One of such factors is parental education status. Research on the links between parental education and vaccination has typically focused on the influence of maternal education status. This study aims to demonstrate the independent influence of paternal education status on measles immunisation. Methods Comparable nationally representative survey data were obtained from six countries with the highest numbers of children missing the measles vaccine in 2008. Logistic regression analysis was applied to examine the influence of paternal education on uptake of the first dose of measles vaccination, independent of maternal education, whilst controlling for confounding factors such as respondent’s age, urban/rural residence, province/state of residence, religion, wealth and occupation. Results The results of the analysis show that even if a mother is illiterate, having a father with an education of Secondary (high school schooling and above is statistically significant and positively correlated with the likelihood of a child being vaccinated for measles, in the six countries analysed. Paternal education of secondary or higher level was significantly and independently correlated with measles immunisation uptake after controlling for all potential confounders. Conclusions The influence of paternal education status on measles immunisation uptake was investigated and found to be statistically significant in six nations with the biggest gaps in measles immunisation coverage in 2008. This study underscores the imperative of utilising both maternal and paternal education as screening variables to identify children at risk of missing measles vaccination prospectively.

  15. Paternal education status significantly influences infants' measles vaccination uptake, independent of maternal education status.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rammohan, Anu; Awofeso, Niyi; Fernandez, Renae C

    2012-05-08

    Despite increased funding of measles vaccination programs by national governments and international aid agencies, structural factors encumber attainment of childhood measles immunisation to levels which may guarantee herd immunity. One of such factors is parental education status. Research on the links between parental education and vaccination has typically focused on the influence of maternal education status. This study aims to demonstrate the independent influence of paternal education status on measles immunisation. Comparable nationally representative survey data were obtained from six countries with the highest numbers of children missing the measles vaccine in 2008. Logistic regression analysis was applied to examine the influence of paternal education on uptake of the first dose of measles vaccination, independent of maternal education, whilst controlling for confounding factors such as respondent's age, urban/rural residence, province/state of residence, religion, wealth and occupation. The results of the analysis show that even if a mother is illiterate, having a father with an education of Secondary (high school) schooling and above is statistically significant and positively correlated with the likelihood of a child being vaccinated for measles, in the six countries analysed. Paternal education of secondary or higher level was significantly and independently correlated with measles immunisation uptake after controlling for all potential confounders. The influence of paternal education status on measles immunisation uptake was investigated and found to be statistically significant in six nations with the biggest gaps in measles immunisation coverage in 2008. This study underscores the imperative of utilising both maternal and paternal education as screening variables to identify children at risk of missing measles vaccination prospectively.

  16. [Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis cases diagnosed by increased CSF/serum measles antibody indices].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Samlıoğlu, Pınar; Unalp, Aycan; Gökçay, Ahmet; Altuğlu, Imre; Oztürk, Aysel; Zeytinoğlu, Ayşın

    2012-10-01

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) caused by persistent defective measles virus strains, is a progressive neurological disorder of children and adolescents. The aim of this letter was to share the data from SSPE-suspected cases who were definitely diagnosed by the detection of increased antibody index in serum and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) samples. A total of 11 patients (mean age: 14.3 years) with suspected SSPE between February 2006 to August 2008, were included in the study. Simultaneously obtained serum and CSF samples from patients were analyzed in terms of albumin, total IgG and measles-specific IgG levels (Measles Virus IgG ELISA for CSF Diagnostics, Euroimmun, Germany). The value of CSQrel (relative CSF/serum quotient) ≥ 1.5 was accepted indicative for intrathecal measles antibody synthesis. Seven (63.6%) of the 11 patients' diagnosis were confirmed with the demonstration of elevated CSF/serum indices (CSQrel range: 2.3-36.9; mean: 12.9). Mean age of those seven cases was 12.3 years (age range: 7-21) and four of them were male. The history of patients with high antibody indices indicated that three of four patients who had measles infection had not been vaccinated against measles. These three unvaccinated patients had measles infection at 3rd, 8th and 30th months of age, respectively, and the period of SSPE development were 15, 6 and 4.5 years, respectively. With this letter we would like to emphasize once more that effective measles vaccination is the only way for the prevention of measles and SSPE and the demonstration of increased measles antibody index in simultaneously obtained serum and CSF samples is crucial for the diagnosis of SSPE.

  17. Paternal education status significantly influences infants’ measles vaccination uptake, independent of maternal education status

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Despite increased funding of measles vaccination programs by national governments and international aid agencies, structural factors encumber attainment of childhood measles immunisation to levels which may guarantee herd immunity. One of such factors is parental education status. Research on the links between parental education and vaccination has typically focused on the influence of maternal education status. This study aims to demonstrate the independent influence of paternal education status on measles immunisation. Methods Comparable nationally representative survey data were obtained from six countries with the highest numbers of children missing the measles vaccine in 2008. Logistic regression analysis was applied to examine the influence of paternal education on uptake of the first dose of measles vaccination, independent of maternal education, whilst controlling for confounding factors such as respondent’s age, urban/rural residence, province/state of residence, religion, wealth and occupation. Results The results of the analysis show that even if a mother is illiterate, having a father with an education of Secondary (high school) schooling and above is statistically significant and positively correlated with the likelihood of a child being vaccinated for measles, in the six countries analysed. Paternal education of secondary or higher level was significantly and independently correlated with measles immunisation uptake after controlling for all potential confounders. Conclusions The influence of paternal education status on measles immunisation uptake was investigated and found to be statistically significant in six nations with the biggest gaps in measles immunisation coverage in 2008. This study underscores the imperative of utilising both maternal and paternal education as screening variables to identify children at risk of missing measles vaccination prospectively. PMID:22568861

  18. Reducing global disease burden of measles and rubella: report of the WHO Steering Committee on research related to measles and rubella vaccines and vaccination, 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Claude P; Kremer, Jacques R; Best, Jennifer M; Dourado, Ines; Triki, Henda; Reef, Susan

    2007-01-02

    The WHO Steering Committee reviewed and evaluated the progress towards global control of measles and rubella and provided guidelines for future research activities concerning both diseases during its meeting in New Delhi, in April 2005. Global measles vaccination coverage increased from 71% in 1999 to 76% in 2004 and indigenous transmission was interrupted or kept at very low levels in many countries. However, Africa and Southeast Asia continue to experience endemic transmission and high mortality rates, despite a global mortality reduction of 39% between 1999 and 2003. On the basis of reports from countries with continued indigenous measles virus transmission, future control strategies as well as advantages and potential drawbacks of global measles eradication were discussed. Similarly the burden of rubella and congenital rubella syndrome (CRS) as well as the cost-effectiveness of rubella vaccination was assessed using different methods in several countries without vaccination programs. As measles and rubella viruses continue to circulate surveillance and control strategies need further optimization. RT-PCR was considered as an alternative method for laboratory diagnosis of CRS. The value of dried blood spots and oral fluid as alternative samples for measles and rubella IgG and IgM detection and genotype determination was evaluated. However further validation of these methods in different settings is required before their routine use can be recommended.

  19. Effect of early measles vaccine on pneumococcal colonization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Nadja Skadkær; Byberg, Stine; Hervig Jacobsen, Lars

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Measles vaccine (MV) may have non-specific beneficial effects for child health and particularly seems to prevent respiratory infections. Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading cause of bacterial pneumonia among children worldwide, and nasopharyngeal colonization precedes infection....... OBJECTIVE: We investigated whether providing early MV at 18 weeks of age reduced pneumococcal colonization and/or density up to 9 months of age. METHOD: The study was conducted in 2013-2014 in Guinea-Bissau. Pneumococcal vaccine was not part of the vaccination program. Infants aged 18 weeks were block...

  20. Complementary therapeutic effects of dual delivery of insulin-like growth factor-1 and vascular endothelial growth factor by gelatin microspheres in experimental heart failure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cittadini, Antonio; Monti, Maria Gaia; Petrillo, Valentina; Esposito, Giovanni; Imparato, Giorgia; Luciani, Alessia; Urciuolo, Francesco; Bobbio, Emanuele; Natale, Carlo F; Saccà, Luigi; Netti, Paolo A

    2011-12-01

    Strategies to prevent adverse left ventricular (LV) remodelling after myocardial infarction have included several traditional approaches and novel cell-based or gene therapies. Delivery of growth factors in post-infarction heart failure has emerged as a valuable alternative strategy. Our aim was to investigate the effects of sequential release of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) from biodegradable gelatin microspheres in experimental heart failure. Gelatin hydrogel microspheres were known to guarantee a sustained release of encapsulated growth factors, characterized by an initial burst followed by a slower release. Rats with moderate myocardial infarction were randomized to receive empty microspheres (MI), microspheres loaded with IGF-1 or VEGF, or a combination thereof (DUAL). Myocardial injections of microspheres were performed at the time of surgery, and treatment lasted 4 weeks. Echocardiography, LV catheterization, morphometric histology and immunohistochemistry, and molecular assessment of downstream mediators [e.g. Akt, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), and sarco/endoplasmic reticulum calcium ATPase-2 (SERCA-2)] were assessed at the end of the treatment period. Infarct sizes were 33 ± 2, 28 ± 4, 24 ± 3, and 16 ± 3% in the MI, IGF-1, VEGF, and DUAL groups, respectively. IGF-1 attenuated LV remodelling, improved LV systolic and diastolic function, increased myocyte size, and reduced apoptotic deaths, capillary loss, and indexes of inflammation. VEGF-treated animals displayed a marked myocardial neoangiogenesis that led to the formation of mature vessels if combined with IGF-1 delivery. Downstream effects of IGF-1 were principally mediated by the Akt-mTOR (mammalian target of rapamycin)-dependent pathway, and both growth factors, particularly VEGF, induced a robust and sustained increase of eNOS. IGF-1 and VEGF exerted complementary therapeutic effects in post-infarction heart failure. Biodegradable

  1. Therapeutic Effect of Human Adipose Tissue-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells in Experimental Corneal Failure Due to Limbal Stem Cell Niche Damage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galindo, Sara; Herreras, José M; López-Paniagua, Marina; Rey, Esther; de la Mata, Ana; Plata-Cordero, María; Calonge, Margarita; Nieto-Miguel, Teresa

    2017-10-01

    Limbal stem cells are responsible for the continuous renewal of the corneal epithelium. The destruction or dysfunction of these stem cells or their niche induces limbal stem cell deficiency (LSCD) leading to visual loss, chronic pain, and inflammation of the ocular surface. To restore the ocular surface in cases of bilateral LSCD, an extraocular source of stem cells is needed to avoid dependence on allogeneic limbal stem cells that are difficult to obtain, isolate, and culture. The aim of this work was to test the tolerance and the efficacy of human adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells (hAT-MSCs) to regenerate the ocular surface in two experimental models of LSCD that closely resemble different severity grades of the human pathology. hAT-MSCs transplanted to the ocular surface of the partial and total LSCD models developed in rabbits were well tolerated, migrated to inflamed tissues, reduced inflammation, and restrained the evolution of corneal neovascularization and corneal opacity. The expression profile of the corneal epithelial cell markers CK3 and E-cadherin, and the limbal epithelial cell markers CK15 and p63 was lost in the LSCD models, but was partially recovered after hAT-MSC transplantation. For the first time, we demonstrated that hAT-MSCs improve corneal and limbal epithelial phenotypes in animal LSCD models. These results support the potential use of hAT-MSCs as a novel treatment of ocular surface failure due to LSCD. hAT-MSCs represent an available, non-immunogenic source of stem cells that may provide therapeutic benefits in addition to reduce health care expenses. Stem Cells 2017;35:2160-2174. © 2017 AlphaMed Press.

  2. The utility of measles and rubella IgM serology in an elimination setting, Ontario, Canada, 2009-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolotin, Shelly; Lim, Gillian; Dang, Vica; Crowcroft, Natasha; Gubbay, Jonathan; Mazzulli, Tony; Schabas, Richard

    2017-01-01

    In Canada, measles was eliminated in 1998 and rubella in 2000. Effective measles and rubella surveillance is vital in elimination settings, hinging on reliable laboratory methods. However, low-prevalence settings affect the predictive value of laboratory tests. We conducted an analysis to determine the performance of measles and rubella IgM testing in a jurisdiction where both infections are eliminated. 21,299 test results were extracted from the Public Health Ontario Laboratories database and 1,239 reports were extracted from the Ontario Integrated Public Health Information System (iPHIS) from 2008 and 2010 for measles and rubella, respectively, to 2014. Deterministic linkage resulted in 658 linked measles records (2009-2014) and 189 linked rubella records (2010-2014). Sixty-six iPHIS measles entries were classified as confirmed cases, of which 53 linked to laboratory data. Five iPHIS rubella entries were classified as confirmed, all linked to IgM results. The positive predictive value was 17.4% for measles and 3.6% for rubella. Sensitivity was 79.2% for measles and 100.0% for rubella. Specificity was 65.7% for measles and 25.8% for rubella. Our study confirms that a positive IgM alone does not confirm a measles case in elimination settings. This has important implications for countries that are working towards measles and rubella elimination.

  3. Prevalence of measles antibodies among health care workers in Catalonia (Spain) in the elimination era

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Interruption of measles transmission was achieved in Catalonia (Spain) in 2000. Six years later, a measles outbreak occurred between August 2006 and June 2007 with 381 cases, 11 of whom were health care workers (HCW). The objective was to estimate susceptibility to measles in HCW and related demographic and occupational characteristics. Methods A measles seroprevalence study was carried out in 639 HCW from six public tertiary hospitals and five primary healthcare areas. Antibodies were tested using the Vircell Measles ELISA IgG Kit. Data were analyzed according to age, sex, type of HCW, type of centre and vaccination history. The odds ratios (OR) and their 95% CI were calculated to determine the variables associated with antibody prevalence. OR were adjusted using logistic regression. Positive predictive values (PPV) and the 95% confidence intervals (CI) of having two documented doses of a measles containing vaccine (MCV) for the presence of measles antibodies and of reporting a history of measles infection were calculated. Results The prevalence of measles antibodies in HCW was 98% (95% CI 96.6-98.9), and was lower in HCW born in 1981 or later, after the introduction of systematic paediatric vaccination (94.4%; 95% CI 86.4-98.5) and higher in HCW born between 1965 and 1980 (99.0%; 95% CI 97.0-99.8). Significant differences were found for HCW born in 1965–1980 with respect to those born in 1981 and after (adjusted OR of 5.67; 95% CI: 1.24-25.91). A total of 187 HCW reported being vaccinated: the proportion of vaccinated HCW decreased with age. Of HCW who reported being vaccinated, vaccination was confirmed by the vaccination card in 49%. Vaccination with 2 doses was documented in only 50 HCW, of whom 48 had measles antibodies. 311 HCW reported a history of measles. The PPV of having received two documented doses of MCV was 96% (95% CI 86.3-99.5) and the PPV of reporting a history of measles was 98.7% (95% CI 96.7-99.6). Conclusions Screening to detect

  4. Review of the temporal and geographical distribution of measles virus genotypes in the prevaccine and postvaccine eras.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riddell, Michaela A; Rota, Jennifer S; Rota, Paul A

    2005-11-22

    Molecular epidemiological investigation of measles outbreaks can document the interruption of endemic measles transmission and is useful for establishing and clarifying epidemiological links between cases in geographically distinct clusters. To determine the distribution of measles virus genotypes in the prevaccine and postvaccine eras, a literature search of biomedical databases, measles surveillance websites and other electronic sources was conducted for English language reports of measles outbreaks or genetic characterization of measles virus isolates. Genotype assignments based on classification systems other than the currently accepted WHO nomenclature were reassigned using the current criteria. This review gives a comprehensive overview of the distribution of MV genotypes in the prevaccine and postvaccine eras and describes the geographically diverse distribution of some measles virus genotypes and the localized distributions of other genotypes.

  5. Review of the temporal and geographical distribution of measles virus genotypes in the prevaccine and postvaccine eras

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Riddell Michaela A

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Molecular epidemiological investigation of measles outbreaks can document the interruption of endemic measles transmission and is useful for establishing and clarifying epidemiological links between cases in geographically distinct clusters. To determine the distribution of measles virus genotypes in the prevaccine and postvaccine eras, a literature search of biomedical databases, measles surveillance websites and other electronic sources was conducted for English language reports of measles outbreaks or genetic characterization of measles virus isolates. Genotype assignments based on classification systems other than the currently accepted WHO nomenclature were reassigned using the current criteria. This review gives a comprehensive overview of the distribution of MV genotypes in the prevaccine and postvaccine eras and describes the geographically diverse distribution of some measles virus genotypes and the localized distributions of other genotypes.

  6. Measles re-emergence in Northern Italy: Pathways of measles virus genotype D8, 2013-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amendola, Antonella; Bianchi, Silvia; Lai, Alessia; Canuti, Marta; Piralla, Antonio; Baggieri, Melissa; Ranghiero, Alberto; Piatti, Alessandra; Tanzi, Elisabetta; Zehender, Gianguglielmo; Magurano, Fabio; Baldanti, Fausto

    2017-03-01

    Molecular surveillance and advanced phylogenetic methods are important tools to track the pathways of Measles virus (MV) genotypes, provide evidence for the interruption of endemic transmission and verify the elimination of the disease. The aims of this study were to describe the genetic profile of MV genotype D8 (D8-MV) strains circulating in Northern Italy (Lombardy Region) during the 2013-2014 period and to analyze the transmission chains and estimate the introduction time points using a phylogenetic approach. Forty-four strains of D8-MV identified from 12 outbreaks and 28 cases reported as sporadic were analyzed. Molecular analysis was performed by sequencing the highly variable 450nt region of the N gene of MV genome (N-450), as recommended by the WHO. Phylogenetic analyses and tree time-scaled reconstruction were performed with BEAST software. We could trace back the transmission pathways that resulted in three chains of transmission, two introductions with limited spread (two familiar outbreaks), and two single introductions (true sporadic cases). The D8-Taunton transmission chain, which was involved in 7 outbreaks and 13 sporadic cases, was endemic during the studied period. Furthermore, two novel local variants emerged independently in March 2014 and caused two transmission chains linked to at least 3 outbreaks. Overall, viral diversity was high and strains belonging to 5 different variants were identified. The results of this study clearly demonstrate that multiple lineages of D8-MV co-circulated in Northern Italy. Measles can be considered a re-emerging disease in Italy and additional efforts are necessary to achieve measles elimination goal. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Challenges in measuring measles case fatality ratios in settings without vital registration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nandy Robin

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Measles, a highly infectious vaccine-preventable viral disease, is potentially fatal. Historically, measles case-fatality ratios (CFRs have been reported to vary from 0.1% in the developed world to as high as 30% in emergency settings. Estimates of the global burden of mortality from measles, critical to prioritizing measles vaccination among other health interventions, are highly sensitive to the CFR estimates used in modeling; however, due to the lack of reliable, up-to-date data, considerable debate exists as to what CFR estimates are appropriate to use. To determine current measles CFRs in high-burden settings without vital registration we have conducted six retrospective measles mortality studies in such settings. This paper examines the methodological challenges of this work and our solutions to these challenges, including the integration of lessons from retrospective all-cause mortality studies into CFR studies, approaches to laboratory confirmation of outbreaks, and means of obtaining a representative sample of case-patients. Our experiences are relevant to those conducting retrospective CFR studies for measles or other diseases, and to those interested in all-cause mortality studies.

  8. Rubella and measles seroprevalence among women of childbearing age, Argentina, 2002.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dayan, G H; Panero, M S; Urquiza, A; Molina, M; Prieto, S; Del Carmen Perego, M; Scagliotti, G; Galimberti, D; Carroli, G; Wolff, C; Bi, D; Bellini, W; Icenogle, J; Reef, S

    2005-10-01

    To assess rubella and measles susceptibility among women of childbearing age we conducted a cross-sectional seroprevalence study in four cities and one rural area in Argentina. A convenience sample of women aged 15-49 years seeking care in public health-care institutions was selected (n=2804). Serum specimens were tested for rubella and measles IgG antibody titres. The overall susceptibility to rubella and measles was 8.8 and 12.5% respectively. Seroprevalence differences were found for both rubella (Por=40 years than in younger women (P=0.04). Measles seroprevalence tended to increase with age (P<0.001). Approximately 15% of women aged 15-29 years were not immune to measles. No risk factors were associated with rubella seronegativity; however, age (P<0.001) and having less than four pregnancies (P<0.001) were factors associated with measles seronegativity. Our findings support the introduction of supplemental immunization activities targeting adolescents and young adults to prevent congenital rubella syndrome and measles outbreaks over time.

  9. The Paramyxovirus Polymerase Complex as a Target for Next-Generation Anti-Paramyxovirus Therapeutics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard K Plemper

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The paramyxovirus family includes major human and animal pathogens, including measles virus, mumps virus, and human respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, as well as the emerging zoonotic Hendra and Nipah viruses. In the United States, RSV is the leading cause of infant hospitalizations due to viral infectious disease. Despite their clinical significance, effective drugs for the improved management of paramyxovirus disease are lacking. The development of novel anti-paramyxovirus therapeutics is therefore urgently needed. Paramyxoviruses contain RNA genomes of negative polarity, necessitating a virus-encoded RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp complex for replication and transcription. Since an equivalent enzymatic activity is absent in host cells, the RdRp complex represents an attractive druggable target, although structure-guided drug development campaigns are hampered by the lack of high-resolution RdRp crystal structures. Here, we review the current structural and functional insight into the paramyxovirus polymerase complex in conjunction with an evaluation of the mechanism of activity and developmental status of available experimental RdRp inhibitors. Our assessment spotlights the importance of the RdRp complex as a premier target for therapeutic intervention and examines how high-resolution insight into the organization of the complex will pave the path towards the structure-guided design and optimization of much-needed next-generation paramyxovirus RdRp blockers.

  10. Measles, social media and surveillance in Baltimore City.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, Katherine E; Wen, Leana S

    2017-09-01

    Baltimore City was faced with two potential measles outbreaks in 2015. Both cases occurred in the wake of national media attention paid to the Disneyland outbreaks of the same year. A comparative case study approach was used applying qualitative data to elicit best practices in infectious disease protocols in the age of social media. The research also used search engine data from Google Trends to track constituent engagement over time. Across the two case studies, the Baltimore City Health Department identified a number of best practices to inform the public via social media and minimize levels of misinformation and panic. These practices included clarity in messaging across platforms and public health jurisdictions; pre-emptor alerts of potential measles cases to control and shape the media messaging; and targeted, in-person outreach to engage groups in a culturally competent manner. The Baltimore City Health Department's response drew out a critical need for re-examining infectious disease protocols in the age of social media (e.g. contact notification, quarantine, media sensitivity) and anti-vaccination movements that pose new obstacles to government intervention. The benefits and challenges of greater connectivity between providers, patients, and public health officers are discussed.

  11. Measles outbreak in Andalusia, Spain, January to August 2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayoral Cortes, Jm; Perez Morilla, E; Gallardo Garcia, V; Navarro Mari, Jm; Perez Ruiz, M; Hermosilla, R; Diaz-Borrego, J; Rodriguez Romero, E; Ruiz Fernandez, J

    2012-10-18

    On 7 January 2011, a six year-old child living in a Roma community near Seville, southern Spain, was hospitalised with measles. Contact tracing identified a probable index case with onset of symptoms on 20 December 2011 and several unreported cases among children under the age of 15 years in the same town. The outbreak initially spread in districts in the city of Seville with a high proportion of Roma residents, and later to other cities and towns in Andalusia. While some towns experienced wide spread of the disease with significant clusters of cases, most of the affected locations saw non-clustered cases or very few secondary cases. The outbreak resulted in 1,759 confirmed or probable cases of which 393 (19%) required hospitalisation. Measles virus of genotype D4 was diagnosed in more than half of the cases. Significant differences (p<0.0001) by age group were found between clustered and non-clustered cases. The highest proportion of clustered cases occurred in the age group of 5-14 yearolds, while the highest proportion of non-clustered cases was seen in those older than 29 years. The last confirmed case related to this outbreak was reported on 20 August 2011.

  12. Wild type measles virus attenuation independent of type I IFN

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    Horvat Branka

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Measles virus attenuation has been historically performed by adaptation to cell culture. The current dogma is that attenuated virus strains induce more type I IFN and are more resistant to IFN-induced protection than wild type (wt. Results The adaptation of a measles virus isolate (G954-PBL by 13 passages in Vero cells induced a strong attenuation of this strain in vivo. The adapted virus (G954-V13 differs from its parental strain by only 5 amino acids (4 in P/V/C and 1 in the M gene. While a vaccine strain, Edmonston Zagreb, could replicate equally well in various primate cells, both G954 strains exhibited restriction to the specific cell type used initially for their propagation. Surprisingly, we observed that both G954 strains induced type I IFN, the wt strain inducing even more than the attenuated ones, particularly in human plasmacytoid Dendritic Cells. Type I IFN-induced protection from the infection of both G954 strains depended on the cell type analyzed, being less efficient in the cells used to grow the viral strain. Conclusion Thus, mutations in M and P/V/C proteins can critically affect MV pathogenicity, cellular tropism and lead to virus attenuation without interfering with the α/β IFN system.

  13. Measles epidemic in Switzerland and other parts of Europe

    CERN Multimedia

    TIS Commission

    2008-01-01

    There has been a measles epidemic in Switzerland since November 2006. By April 2008 the number of cases had reached almost 2500, with over 1300 since the beginning of the year alone. All cantons are affected but to varying degrees, the largest number of cases occurring in the north and east of the country. In all cases, the low vaccination coverage is responsible for the spread of this highly contagious disease. The contagious period starts 4 days before the rash appears and lasts until 4 days afterwards. In the event of infection, children must be kept away from school and measures must be taken to protect those who come into contact with them, which may include vaccination if the infection is less than 72 hours old. The Swiss and international health authorities recommend the following measures to prevent the spread of the disease: those who have already contracted the disease, received 2 doses of the vaccine (often in the form of the combined MMR - measles, mumps, rubella...

  14. Structural and mechanistic studies of measles virus illuminate paramyxovirus entry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard K Plemper

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Measles virus (MeV, a member of the paramyxovirus family of enveloped RNA viruses and one of the most infectious viral pathogens identified, accounts for major pediatric morbidity and mortality worldwide although coordinated efforts to achieve global measles control are in place. Target cell entry is mediated by two viral envelope glycoproteins, the attachment (H and fusion (F proteins, which form a complex that achieves merger of the envelope with target cell membranes. Despite continually expanding knowledge of the entry strategies employed by enveloped viruses, our molecular insight into the organization of functional paramyxovirus fusion complexes and the mechanisms by which the receptor binding by the attachment protein triggers the required conformational rearrangements of the fusion protein remain incomplete. Recently reported crystal structures of the MeV attachment protein in complex with its cellular receptors CD46 or SLAM and newly developed functional assays have now illuminated some of the fundamental principles that govern cell entry by this archetype member of the paramyxovirus family. Here, we review these advances in our molecular understanding of MeV entry in the context of diverse entry strategies employed by other members of the paramyxovirus family.

  15. Development of new therapy for canine mammary cancer with recombinant measles virus

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    Koichiro Shoji

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Oncolytic virotherapy is a promising treatment strategy for cancer. We previously generated a recombinant measles virus (rMV-SLAMblind that selectively uses a poliovirus receptor-related 4 (PVRL4/Nectin4 receptor, but not signaling lymphocyte activation molecule (SLAM. We demonstrated that the virus exerts therapeutic effects against human breast cancer cells. Here, we examined the applicability of rMV-SLAMblind to treating canine mammary cancers (CMCs. We found that the susceptibilities of host cells to rMV-SLAMblind were dependent on canine Nectin-4 expression. Nectin-4 was detected in four of nine CMC cell lines. The rMV-SLAMblind efficiently infected those four Nectin-4-positive cell lines and was cytotoxic for three of them (CF33, CHMm, and CTBm. In vivo experiment showed that the administration of rMV-SLAMblind greatly suppressed the progression of tumors in mice xenografted with a CMC cell line (CF33. Immunohistochemistry revealed that canine Nectin-4 was expressed in 45% of canine mammary tumors, and the tumor cells derived from one clinical specimen were efficiently infected with rMV-SLAMblind. These results suggest that rMV-SLAMblind infects CMC cells and displays antitumor activity in vitro, in xenografts, and ex vivo. Therefore, oncolytic virotherapy with rMV-SLAMblind can be a novel method for treating CMCs.

  16. Measles vaccination and inflammatory bowel disease: a national British Cohort Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, D L; Montgomery, S M; Thompson, N P; Ebrahim, S; Pounder, R E; Wakefield, A J

    2000-12-01

    Measles vaccination has been suggested as a risk for inflammatory bowel disease. Atypical age of measles infection has also been associated with Crohn's disease. This study was designed to examine the relationship of measles vaccination and age of measles vaccination with later inflammatory bowel disease. A prospective population-based national birth cohort was used, of those born in 1 wk in April 1970 in Great Britain. The data are from 7616 responding members of the 1970 British Cohort Study with complete vaccination data, who were traced at age 26 yr. A diagnosis of Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, and diabetes mellitus (a control disease) was obtained by survey at age 26 yr, and confirmed by physicians. Vaccination data were from survey at age 5 yr. Measles and mumps infection data were obtained from the survey at age 10 yr. Adjustment was made for sex, household crowding in childhood, and father's social class at birth. No statistically significant association was found between measles vaccination status at 5 yr and Crohn's disease (adjusted odds ratio [OR] 0.67, 95% confidence interval [CI] 0.27-1.63), ulcerative colitis (adjusted OR 0.57, 95% CI 0.20-1.61), or diabetes (adjusted OR 0.75, 95% CI 0.33-1.74). There was a statistically significant trend (p = 0.040) with increasing age of measles vaccination for risk of Crohn' s disease, although this was based on very few cases vaccinated after age 2 yr. In this cohort, monovalent measles vaccination status is not associated with inflammatory bowel disease by age 26 yr. Older age at measles vaccination needs to be examined in other studies to confirm whether it is a genuine risk for Crohn's disease.

  17. Geospatial characteristics of measles transmission in China during 2005-2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wan; Wen, Liang; Li, Shen-Long; Chen, Kai; Zhang, Wen-Yi; Shaman, Jeffrey

    2017-04-01

    Measles is a highly contagious and severe disease. Despite mass vaccination, it remains a leading cause of death in children in developing regions, killing 114,900 globally in 2014. In 2006, China committed to eliminating measles by 2012; to this end, the country enhanced its mandatory vaccination programs and achieved vaccination rates reported above 95% by 2008. However, in spite of these efforts, during the last 3 years (2013-2015) China documented 27,695, 52,656, and 42,874 confirmed measles cases. How measles manages to spread in China-the world's largest population-in the mass vaccination era remains poorly understood. To address this conundrum and provide insights for future public health efforts, we analyze the geospatial pattern of measles transmission across China during 2005-2014. We map measles incidence and incidence rates for each of the 344 cities in mainland China, identify the key socioeconomic and demographic features associated with high disease burden, and identify transmission clusters based on the synchrony of outbreak cycles. Using hierarchical cluster analysis, we identify 21 epidemic clusters, of which 12 were cross-regional. The cross-regional clusters included more underdeveloped cities with large numbers of emigrants than would be expected by chance (p = 0.011; bootstrap sampling), indicating that cities in these clusters were likely linked by internal worker migration in response to uneven economic development. In contrast, cities in regional clusters were more likely to have high rates of minorities and high natural growth rates than would be expected by chance (p = 0.074; bootstrap sampling). Our findings suggest that multiple highly connected foci of measles transmission coexist in China and that migrant workers likely facilitate the transmission of measles across regions. This complex connection renders eradication of measles challenging in China despite its high overall vaccination coverage. Future immunization programs should

  18. Subacute Sclerosing Panencephalitis: The Devastating Measles Complication That Might Be More Common Than Previously Estimated.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendorf, Kristen A; Winter, Kathleen; Zipprich, Jennifer; Schechter, Rob; Hacker, Jill K; Preas, Chris; Cherry, James D; Glaser, Carol; Harriman, Kathleen

    2017-07-15

    Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) is a fatal complication of measles. We reviewed California cases from 1998-2015 to understand risk factors for SPPE and estimate incidence. SSPE cases had clinically compatible symptoms and measles antibody detection in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) or medical record documentation of SSPE. Cases were identified though a state death certificate search, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention reports, or investigations for undiagnosed neurologic disease. Measles detection in CSF was performed by serology at the California Department of Public Health or at clinical laboratories. Seventeen SSPE cases were identified. Males outnumbered females 2.4:1. Twelve (71%) cases had a history of measles-like illness; all 12 had illness prior to 15 months of age. Eight (67%) children were exposed to measles in California. SSPE was diagnosed at a median age of 12 years (3-35 years), with a latency period of 9.5 years (2.5-34 years). Among measles cases reported to CDPH during 1988-1991, the incidence of SSPE was 1:1367 for children <5 years, and 1:609 for children <12 months at time of measles disease. SSPE cases in California occurred at a high rate among unvaccinated children, particularly those infected during infancy. Protection of unvaccinated infants requires avoidance of travel to endemic areas, or early vaccination prior to travel at age 6-11 months. Clinicians should be aware of SSPE in patients with compatible symptoms, even in older patients with no specific history of measles infection. SSPE demonstrates the high human cost of "natural" measles immunity.

  19. Geospatial characteristics of measles transmission in China during 2005-2014.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wan Yang

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available Measles is a highly contagious and severe disease. Despite mass vaccination, it remains a leading cause of death in children in developing regions, killing 114,900 globally in 2014. In 2006, China committed to eliminating measles by 2012; to this end, the country enhanced its mandatory vaccination programs and achieved vaccination rates reported above 95% by 2008. However, in spite of these efforts, during the last 3 years (2013-2015 China documented 27,695, 52,656, and 42,874 confirmed measles cases. How measles manages to spread in China-the world's largest population-in the mass vaccination era remains poorly understood. To address this conundrum and provide insights for future public health efforts, we analyze the geospatial pattern of measles transmission across China during 2005-2014. We map measles incidence and incidence rates for each of the 344 cities in mainland China, identify the key socioeconomic and demographic features associated with high disease burden, and identify transmission clusters based on the synchrony of outbreak cycles. Using hierarchical cluster analysis, we identify 21 epidemic clusters, of which 12 were cross-regional. The cross-regional clusters included more underdeveloped cities with large numbers of emigrants than would be expected by chance (p = 0.011; bootstrap sampling, indicating that cities in these clusters were likely linked by internal worker migration in response to uneven economic development. In contrast, cities in regional clusters were more likely to have high rates of minorities and high natural growth rates than would be expected by chance (p = 0.074; bootstrap sampling. Our findings suggest that multiple highly connected foci of measles transmission coexist in China and that migrant workers likely facilitate the transmission of measles across regions. This complex connection renders eradication of measles challenging in China despite its high overall vaccination coverage. Future immunization

  20. Progress towards Rapid Detection of Measles Vaccine Strains: a Tool To Inform Public Health Interventions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hacker, Jill K

    2017-03-01

    Rapid differentiation of vaccine from wild-type strains in suspect measles cases is a valuable epidemiological tool that informs the public health response to this highly infectious disease. Few public health laboratories sequence measles virus-positive specimens to determine genotype, and the vaccine-specific real-time reverse transcriptase PCR (rRT-PCR) assay described by F. Roy et al. (J. Clin. Microbiol. 55:735-743, 2017, https://doi.org/10.1128/JCM.01879-16) offers a rapid, easily adoptable method to identify measles vaccine strains in suspect cases. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  1. Historic of therapeutic efficacy of albendazol sulphoxide administered in different routes, dosages and treatment schemes, against Taenia saginata cysticercus in cattle experimentally infected.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopes, Welber Daniel Zanetti; Cruz, Breno Cayeiro; Soares, Vando Edésio; Nunes, Jorge Luis N; Teixeira, Weslen Fabricio Pires; Maciel, Willian Giquelin; Buzzulini, Carolina; Pereira, João Carlos Melo; Felippelli, Gustavo; Soccol, Vanette Thomaz; de Oliveira, Gilson Pereira; da Costa, Alvimar José

    2014-02-01

    method for evaluating the efficacy of the aforementioned formulations against T. saginata cysticercus, it is possible to observe that, amongst the few molecules used in the chemotherapic treatment against T. saginata larvae, ALB-SO, administered in varied routes, dosages and treatment schemes, the studies conducted in 2008, 2009, and 2010, have a low therapeutic efficacy against C. bovis in Brazil, while ALBZ had insignificant efficacy values against T. saginata larvae parasitizing experimentally infected bovines. However, future studies using molecular biology will be necessary to assess whether the difference on the efficacy of the ALB-SO can be related to strain or another specific factor. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Seroprevalence of measles, mumps and rubella among young adults, after 20 years of universal 2-dose MMR vaccination in Israel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Hagai; Zarka, Salman; Ankol, Omer E; Rozhavski, Vladi; Davidovitch, Nadav; Aboudy, Yair; Balicer, Ran D

    2015-01-01

    Evidence-based vaccination policy is important for the global and local efforts of achieving control over measles. In 2007, the first Israeli birth cohort to be twice vaccinated during childhood with Measles-Mumps-Rubella vaccine reached adulthood. In parallel, Israel experienced its largest measles outbreak since 1994. We aimed to assess the seroprevalence of measles IgG antibodies and concordance with rubella and mumps seroprevalence among young Israeli adults born 1988-9 in comparison to previous birth cohorts, in order to inform evidence based prevention policy. We conducted a seroprevalence study of IgG antibodies among 439 Israeli adults born in 1988-9, based on a representative sample of sera collected at age 18-19 upon recruitment to mandatory military service in 2007. In total, 85.7% were seropositive for measles as compared with 95.6% in the 1996 recruitment (P Rubella seropositivity among measles seropositives was 90.4%, significantly (P < 0.001) higher than 72.1% among measles seronegatives. Mumps seropositivity among measles seropositives was 87.0%, significantly (P < 0.001) higher than 62.3% among measles seronegatives. Results were similar for Israeli-born only. Our findings indicate that measles seroprevalence decreased after the last change in vaccination policy and reach sub-optimal level. Until global eradication is reached, a proactive vaccination program to supplement routine childhood vaccination program should be considered in Israel and in other countries.

  3. Measles antibody levels after vaccination with Edmonston-Zagreb and Schwarz measles vaccine at 9 months or at 9 and 18 months of age: a serological study within a randomised trial of different measles vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martins, Cesario; Garly, May-Lill; Bale, Carlitos; Rodrigues, Amabelia; Benn, Christine S; Whittle, Hilton; Aaby, Peter

    2013-11-19

    Standard-titre Schwarz (SW) and Edmonston-Zagreb (EZ) measles vaccines (MV) are both used in the routine immunisation programme. Within a trial of different strains of MV, we examined antibody responses in both one-dose and two-dose schedules when the first dose was administered at 9 months. The trial was conducted in an urban area in Guinea-Bissau where we have had a health and demographic surveillance system and studied strategies to prevent measles infection since 1978. In the present study, children were randomised to SW or EZ as the first MV and furthermore randomised to a second dose of the same MV or no vaccine at 18 months of age. We obtained blood samples from 996 children at baseline; post-vaccination blood samples were collected at 18 and 24 months of age to assess measles antibody levels after one or two doses of MV. At age 18 months all had responded to the first dose and only 1% (8/699) of the children had non-protective antibody levels irrespective of vaccine type. SW was associated with significantly higher levels of measles antibodies (geometric mean titre (GMT)=2114 mIU/mL (95%CI 1153-2412)) than EZ (GMT=807 mIU/mL (722-908)) (p=0.001). Antibody concentration was significantly higher in girls than in boys after EZ but not after SW. Antibody levels were higher in the rainy than the dry season. There was no clear indication that a booster dose at 18 months increased the antibody level at 24 months of age. Maternal antibody levels have declined significantly in recent years and 99% had protective levels of measles antibody following primary MV at 9 months of age. It is unlikely that measles prevention and child health will be improved by increasing the age of MV as currently recommended. Copyright © 2013 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  4. Using an experimental model for the study of therapeutic touch Uso de un modelo experimental para estudio sobre el toque terapéutico Utilização de um modelo experimental para estudo sobre o toque terapêutico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniella Soares dos Santos

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to verify whether the Paw Edema Model can be used in investigations about the effects of Therapeutic Touch on inflammation by measuring the variables pain, edema and neutrophil migration. METHOD: this is a pilot and experimental study, involving ten male mice of the same genetic strain and divided into experimental and control group, submitted to the chemical induction of local inflammation in the right back paw. The experimental group received a daily administration of Therapeutic Touch for 15 minutes during three days. RESULTS: the data showed statistically significant differences in the nociceptive threshold and in the paw circumference of the animals from the experimental group on the second day of the experiment. CONCLUSION: the experiment model involving animals can contribute to study the effects of Therapeutic Touch on inflammation, and adjustments are suggested in the treatment duration, number of sessions and experiment duration.OBJETIVO: verificar si el Modelo de Edema de Pata puede ser utilizado en las investigaciones acerca de los efectos del Toque Terapéutico sobre la inflamación, mensurándose las variables dolor, edema y migración de neutrófilos. MÉTODO: se trata de un estudio piloto, experimental, con 10 ratones machos del mismo linaje genético, divididos en grupo experimental y control, sometidos a inducción química de inflamación local en la pata derecha trasera. O grupo experimental recibió una aplicación diaria de Toque Terapéutico con duración de quince minutos, por tres días. RESULTADOS: Los datos evidenciaron diferencias estadísticamente significativas en el umbral de nocicepción y circunferencia de las patas de los animales del grupo experimental durante el segundo día del experimento. CONCLUSIÓN: El modelo de experimento con animal puede contribuir al estudio de los efectos del Toque Terapéutico sobre la inflamación: se sugiere ajuste en el tiempo de exposición, número de sesiones y

  5. MMR (measles, mumps, and rubella) vaccine - what you need to know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... jerking and staring), brain damage, and death. Mumps Mumps virus causes fever, headache, muscle pain, loss of appetite, ... ovaries, and rarely sterility. Rubella (German Measles) Rubella virus ... mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine can protect children (and ...

  6. MMR (Measles, Mumps and Rubella) Vaccine: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... jerking and staring), brain damage, and death. Mumps • Mumps virus causes fever, headache, muscle pain, loss of appetite, ... ovaries, and rarely sterility. Rubella (German Measles) • Rubella virus causes rash, ... mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine can protect children (and ...

  7. Routine vitamin A supplementation for the prevention of blindness due to measles infection in children

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bello, Segun; Meremikwu, Martin M; Ejemot-Nwadiaro, Regina I

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Reduced vitamin A concentration increases the risk of blindness in children infected with the measles virus. Promoting vitamin A supplementation in children with measles contributes to the control of blindness in children, which is a high priority within the World Health Organization...... (WHO) VISION 2020 The Right to Sight Program. OBJECTIVES: To assess the efficacy of vitamin A in preventing blindness in children with measles without prior clinical features of vitamin A deficiency. SEARCH METHODS: We searched CENTRAL 2015, Issue 11, MEDLINE (1950 to December week 3, 2015), Embase...... (1974 to December 2015) and LILACS (1985 to December 2015). SELECTION CRITERIA: Randomised controlled trials (RCTs) assessing the efficacy of vitamin A in preventing blindness in well-nourished children diagnosed with measles but with no prior clinical features of vitamin A deficiency. DATA COLLECTION...

  8. Nosocomial measles cluster in Denmark following an imported case, December 2008-January 2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, C; Bottiger, Be; Plesner, A

    2009-01-01

    A cluster of six confirmed cases with identical measles virus genotype was reported in Denmark between December 2008 and January 2009. The findings highlight the importance of vaccination before travelling and adherence to the routine vaccination schedule....

  9. Global and national laboratory networks support high quality surveillance for measles and rubella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Wenbo; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Huiling; Zhu, Zhen; Mao, Naiying; Mulders, Mick N; Rota, Paul A

    2017-05-01

    Laboratory networks are an essential component of disease surveillance systems because they provide accurate and timely confirmation of infection. WHO coordinates global laboratory surveillance of vaccine preventable diseases, including measles and rubella. The more than 700 laboratories within the WHO Global Measles and Rubella Laboratory Network (GMRLN) supports surveillance for measles, rubella and congenial rubella syndrome in 191 counties. This paper describes the overall structure and function of the GMRLN and highlights the largest of the national laboratory networks, the China Measles and Rubella Laboratory Network. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene 2017. This work is written by (a) US Government employee(s) and is in the public domain in the US.

  10. MMRV (Measles, Mumps, Rubella, and Varicella) Vaccine: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vaccine What You Need to Know (Measles, Mumps, Rubella and Varicella) Many Vaccine Information Statements are available ... Visite www. immunize. org/ vis 1 MVaeraicselellsa, Mumps, Rubella and M easles, M umps, R ubella, and ...

  11. Molecular evolution of measles viruses circulated in Taiwan 1992-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wen-Yueh; Lee, Lili; Rota, Paul A; Yang, Dustin Chen-Fu

    2009-12-10

    Genetic analyses of viral samples from 74 laboratory confirmed measles cases occurring in Taiwan during 1992-2008 identified six viral genotypes D3, D5, D9, G2, H1 and H2. The most frequently detected genotype, H1, was associated with outbreaks in 1994 and 2002, and was the likely indigenous genotype in 1992. In response to the outbreaks, two catch-up campaigns were launched and a routine second dose of measles, mumps, and rubella vaccine at entry to elementary school was introduced. The vaccination campaigns successfully reduced the number of measles cases in Taiwan, and many of the more recent cases can be traced to importations, primarily from other Asian countries. A number of measles genotypes which were associated with outbreaks in other Asian countries were detected among the more recent cases. The more recent genotype H1 viruses had sequences that were identical to those currently circulating in China or associated with international importation of virus.

  12. Genetic characterization of measles viruses isolated in Turkey during 2000 and 2001

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bellini William J

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Molecular epidemiologic studies have made significant contributions to measles surveillance activities by helping to identify source and transmission pathways of the virus. This report describes the genetic characterization of wild-type measles viruses isolated in Turkey in 2000 and 2001. Results Wild-type measles viruses were isolated from 24 cases from five provinces in Turkey during 2001. The viruses were analyzed using the standard genotyping protocols. All isolates were classified as genotype D6, the same genotype that was identified in Turkey in previous outbreaks during 1998. Conclusion Turkey has begun implementation of a national program to eliminate measles by 2010. Therefore, this baseline genotype data will provide a means to monitor the success of the elimination program.

  13. Genetic characterization of measles viruses that circulated in Thailand from 1998 to 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pattamadilok, Sirima; Incomserb, Patcha; Primsirikunawut, Athiwat; Lukebua, Atchariya; Rota, Paul A; Sawanpanyalert, Pathom

    2012-05-01

    During the period between 1998 and 2008, 48 representative measles viruses (MeVs) circulating in Thailand were subjected to genetic characterization. Three genotypes, G2, D5, and D9 were detected. The results suggested that measles genotype D5, which has been circulating since at least 1998, is the endemic genotype in Thailand. Genotype G2 was detected between 1998 and 2001. In addition, almost all of the MeVs detected throughout the country in 2008 were genotype D9. This is the first report of genotype D9 in Thailand. This report provides important baseline data about measles genotypes in Thailand and this information will be needed to help verify measles elimination in Thailand. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Genetic characterization of measles viruses isolated in Turkey during 2000 and 2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korukluoglu, Gulay; Liffick, Stephanie; Guris, Dalya; Kobune, Fumio; Rota, Paul A; Bellini, William J; Ceylan, Ali; Ertem, Meliksah

    2005-07-19

    Molecular epidemiologic studies have made significant contributions to measles surveillance activities by helping to identify source and transmission pathways of the virus. This report describes the genetic characterization of wild-type measles viruses isolated in Turkey in 2000 and 2001. Wild-type measles viruses were isolated from 24 cases from five provinces in Turkey during 2001. The viruses were analyzed using the standard genotyping protocols. All isolates were classified as genotype D6, the same genotype that was identified in Turkey in previous outbreaks during 1998. Turkey has begun implementation of a national program to eliminate measles by 2010. Therefore, this baseline genotype data will provide a means to monitor the success of the elimination program.

  15. Oral fluid, a substitute for serum to monitor measles IgG antibody?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goyal A

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available We have analyzed the suitability and potential of Oral Fluid (OF to substitute serum in estimating measles IgG antibodies, during community surveys, by comparing the Optical Density (OD of measles IgG antibodies in OF and serum of 100 apparently asymptomatic children. IgG antibody status was determined using commercially available - Measles IgG Capture ELISA. Sensitivity 89.5%, specificity 90.6% Concordance of 89%, coefficient of correlation r is equal to 0.97 (Karl Pearson′s and rho is equal to 0.86 (Spearman′s, was found between OD value of OF and serum. The study emphasizes the potential of OF to surrogate serum in estimating Measles IgG antibody among children. The OF collection is advantageous over blood as it is painless. It is suitable for non-technical staff, easy to transport and less bio-hazardous.

  16. [Reemergence of measles in vaccinated patients: report of 6 cases and proposals for prevention].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agut-Busquet, Eugènia; Gené Tous, Emili; Navarro, Gemma; González, Araceli

    2016-06-01

    A 2014 measles outbreak in Catalonia affected 131 persons. We describe a series of 6 cases diagnosed in our emergency department. All the patients were under 31 years of age and complained of flu-like symptoms, including high fever and rash. Five had been properly vaccinated and one was a health care worker. A firm diagnosis of measles need not be made in the emergency department, but a high level of suspicion is important for ruling out complications, isolating the patient, and protecting health care staff at high risk for exposure. We found that 6% of the staff of our emergency department had a low level of immunity to measles. Given our findings, we suggest that preventive treatment is necessary when health care staff have been exposed to measles and their vaccination status is unknown.

  17. Vaccination coverage for measles, mumps and rubella in anthroposophical schools in Gelderland, The Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, J.H.; Lier, A. van; Ruijs, W.L.M.

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Social clustering of unvaccinated children in anthroposophical schools occurs, as inferred from various measles outbreaks that can be traced to these schools. However, accurate vaccination coverage data of anthroposophical schools are not widely available. METHODS: In 2012, we performed

  18. Economic Benefits of a Routine Second Dose of Combined Measles, Mumps and Rubella Vaccine in Canada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marc Rivière

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the potential economic benefits of a program for a second routine dose of combined measles, mumps and rubella (MMR vaccine, administered to children in Canada.

  19. Measles-mumps-rubella vaccination and respiratory syncytial virus-associated hospital contact

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørup, Signe; Benn, Christine Stabell; Stensballe, Lone Graff

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The live measles vaccine has been associated with lower non-measles mortality and admissions in low-income countries. The live measles-mumps-rubella vaccine has also been associated with lower rate of admissions with any type of infection in Danish children; the association...... was strongest for admissions with lower respiratory infections. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccination was associated with reduced rate of hospital contact related to respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) in a high-income country. METHODS: Nationwide cohort study of laboratory......-confirmed RSV hospital contacts at age 14-23 months in all children born in Denmark 1997-2002 who had already received the vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis (acellular), polio, and Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTaP-IPV-Hib) at the recommended ages of 3, 5, and 12 months. RESULTS: The study...

  20. Clinical features of measles pneumonia in adults; Usefulness of computed tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanaka, Hiroshi; Honma, Shin-ichi; Yamagishi, Masahiko; Honda, Yasuhito; Abe, Shosaku (Sapporo Medical Coll. (Japan)); Igarashi, Tomofumi; Sekine, Kyuichiro

    1993-09-01

    The clinical features, chest radiographs and computed tomographic (CT) images were evaluated in 11 cases of serologically proved adult measles complicated with pneumonia (10 were previously healthy and one had sarcoidosis). Pneumonia appeared during the rash period in all cases. Respiratory symptoms were cough (9/11), dyspnea (3/11), and hypoxemia (10/11). Pneumonia manifestations were detected in only 4 cases by chest radiograph; on the other hand, they were seen in all cases by CT scan and consisted of ground-glass opacities (73%), nodular opacities (64%) and consolidation (27%). CT seems to be useful method to detect measles pneumonia if it is suspected. Measles pneumonia in previously healthy patients had a good prognosis, as the hypoxemia disappeared within 6 days in all cases. The sarcoidosis patient showed prolonged pneumonic shadows and period of hypoxemia. Measles pneumonia occurring in a host with cellular immunodeficiency may have a severe clinical course. (author).

  1. Loss of maternal measles antibody in black South African infants in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1991-02-02

    Zagreb measles vaccine, since most ... Department of Paediatrics and Child Health, University of. Natal, Durban. P. KIEPIELA, PH. .... and weight-for-height criteria of the US National Center for. Health Statistics (NCHS) standards, ...

  2. Nosocomial measles cluster in Denmark following an imported case, December 2008-January 2009

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Groth, C; Bottiger, Be; Plesner, A

    2009-01-01

    A cluster of six confirmed cases with identical measles virus genotype was reported in Denmark between December 2008 and January 2009. The findings highlight the importance of vaccination before travelling and adherence to the routine vaccination schedule.......A cluster of six confirmed cases with identical measles virus genotype was reported in Denmark between December 2008 and January 2009. The findings highlight the importance of vaccination before travelling and adherence to the routine vaccination schedule....

  3. Contagious Comments: What Was the Online Buzz About the 2011 Quebec Measles Outbreak?

    OpenAIRE

    Pereira, Jennifer A.; Susan Quach; Huy Hao Dao; Kwong, Jeffrey C.; Deeks, Shelley L.; Natasha S Crowcroft; Quan, Sherman D; Maryse Guay

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Although interruption of endemic measles was achieved in the Americas in 2002, Quebec experienced an outbreak in 2011 of 776 reported cases; 80% of these individuals had not been fully vaccinated. We analyzed readers' online responses to Canadian news articles regarding the outbreak to better understand public perceptions of measles and vaccination. METHODS: We searched Canadian online English and French news sites for articles posted between April 2011 and March 2012 containing t...

  4. [Surveillance Plan on Recent Outbreak of Measles and Rubella in Catalonia, Spain].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jané, Mireia; Torner, Nuria; Vidal, Ma José

    2015-01-01

    Measles and rubella are two immuno-preventive illnesses. In Catalonia, since 1988 all children are given two doses of measles and rubella vaccine with high levels of vaccination coverage. The measles elimination programme has been carried out since 1990 in Catalonia. This programme includes achieving and keeping high immunization levels among population with high vaccination coverage, intense epidemiological surveillance and an immediate response to the appearance of a case or outbreak. In 2014, the measles incidence rate was 1.9 cases/ 100,000 inhabitants. There were 4 recent outbreaks in 2006, 2011, 2013 and 2014 that affected 381, 289, 31 and 124 people respectively. All outbreaks were triggered by an imported case. In 2011 and 2014 measles outbreaks, 6% and 5.5% of affected people were health care workers. All outbreaks presented a great variety of measles genotypes. Concerning rubella elimination programme, since 2002, 68 cases of postnatal rubella and 5 cases of congenital rubella were confirmed. Regarding measles and rubella surveillance and control, in addition to strengthen vaccination coverage, it is essential immediate notification, within the first 24 hours since suspicion and laboratory confirmation. In addition there is a need to enforce vaccination among health care workers as well as in other susceptible and unvaccinated people. It is recommended to vaccinate all people who were born after 1966 and who have not been vaccinated with two doses of trivalent measles-mumps-rubella vaccine. Furthermore, we have to emphasize that the progress concerning genotypes study allows identifying various imported cases from other European countries with active outbreaks, aspect that makes easier the surveillance of these illnesses.

  5. Measles and Rubella Seroprevalence Among HIV-infected and Uninfected Zambian Youth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sutcliffe, Catherine G; Searle, Kelly; Matakala, Hellen K; Greenman, Michelle P; Rainwater-Lovett, Kaitlin; Thuma, Philip E; Moss, William J

    2017-03-01

    Measles and congenital rubella syndrome remain significant causes of morbidity and mortality despite available vaccines. HIV-infected youth may be at increased risk of measles because of greater waning immunity after vaccination. At a population level, they constitute a potentially large pool of susceptibles to measles and rubella. More data among HIV-infected youth in sub-Saharan Africa are needed to guide vaccination policy and control strategies. This cross-sectional study was nested within 2 ongoing studies of malaria and HIV in Zambia. Dried blood spot cards from youth (5-15 years) in these studies from 2009 to 2013 were tested for IgG antibodies to measles and rubella viruses. HIV-uninfected youth, HIV-infected treatment-naive youth and HIV-infected youth receiving antiretroviral therapy (ART) were compared. A total of 617 HIV-uninfected, 144 HIV-infected treatment-naive and 128 HIV-infected youth receiving ART were included in this study. The proportion seropositive for measles virus was significantly higher among HIV-uninfected youth (92.5%) compared with HIV-infected treatment-naive youth (74.1%) and HIV-infected youth receiving ART (71.9%). No differences by age were observed. The proportion seropositive for rubella virus was significantly higher among HIV-uninfected youth (54.7%) compared with HIV-infected treatment-naive youth (41.7%) and HIV-infected youth receiving ART (49.6%), with increases observed by age for all groups. Measles seroprevalence was lower among HIV-infected than uninfected youth, consistent with waning immunity after measles vaccination. HIV-infected youth would benefit from revaccination. Half of all youth in rural Zambia were susceptible to rubella and may need targeting for catch-up rubella campaigns when measles-rubella vaccine is introduced.

  6. Ongoing measles outbreak in Wallonia, Belgium, December 2016 to March 2017: characteristics and challenges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grammens, Tine; Schirvel, Carole; Leenen, Sylvie; Shodu, Nathalie; Hutse, Veronik; Mendes da Costa, Elise; Sabbe, Martine

    2017-04-27

    We describe characteristics of an ongoing measles outbreak in Wallonia, Belgium, and difficulties in control measures implementation. As at 12 March 2017, 177 measles cases were notified, of which 50% were 15 years and older, 49% female. Atypical clinical presentation and severe complications, mainly among adults, in combination with late notification, low or unknown vaccination coverage of contacts, infected healthcare workers and increased workload due to contact tracing, are the main concerns for outbreak management. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2017.

  7. Replacing the Measles Ten-Dose Vaccine Presentation with the Single-Dose Presentation in Thailand

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Bruce Y.; Assi, Tina-Marie; Rookkapan, Korngamon; Connor, Diana L.; Rajgopal, Jayant; Sornsrivichai, Vorasith; Brown, Shawn T.; Joel S. Welling; Bryan A. Norman; Chen, Sheng-I; Bailey, Rachel R; Wiringa, Ann E.; Wateska, Angela R.; Jana, Anirban; Willem G van Panhuis

    2011-01-01

    Introduced to minimize open vial wastage, single-dose vaccine vials require more storage space and therefore may affect vaccine supply chains (i.e., the series of steps and processes entailed to deliver vaccines from manufacturers to patients). We developed a computational model of Thailand’s Trang province vaccine supply chain to analyze the effects of switching from a ten-dose measles vaccine presentation to each of the following: a single-dose Measles-Mumps-Rubella vaccine (which Thailand ...

  8. Host-Pathogen Interactions in Measles Virus Replication and Anti-Viral Immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Yanliang; Qin, Yali; Chen, Mingzhou

    2016-11-16

    The measles virus (MeV) is a contagious pathogenic RNA virus of the family Paramyxoviridae, genus Morbillivirus, that can cause serious symptoms and even fetal complications. Here, we summarize current molecular advances in MeV research, and emphasize the connection between host cells and MeV replication. Although measles has reemerged recently, the potential for its eradication is promising with significant progress in our understanding of the molecular mechanisms of its replication and host-pathogen interactions.

  9. The role of travel in measles outbreaks in Australia - An enhanced surveillance study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacIntyre, C R; Karki, S; Sheikh, M; Zwar, N; Heywood, A E

    2016-08-17

    Many developed countries, like Australia, maintain a high population level immunity against measles, however, there remains a risk of acquisition of measles in non-immune travellers and subsequent importation into Australia leading to localised outbreaks. In this study, we estimate the incidence of measles and describe characteristics including immunisation and pre-travel health seeking behaviour of notified cases of measles in New South Wales and Victoria, Australia between February 2013 and January 2014. Cases were followed up by telephone interview using a questionnaire to collect information of demographic and travel characteristics. In NSW, the incidence was highest in age group 0-9years (20/million population) whereas in Victoria the highest incidence was observed in 10-19 (23/million population) years group. Out of 44 cases interviewed, 25 (56.8%) had history of travel outside of Australia during or immediately prior to the onset of measles. Holiday (60%) was the main reason for travel with 44% (11/25) reporting visiting friends and relatives (VFR) during the trip. The major reason described for not seeking prior medical advice before travel were "no perceived risk of diseases" (41%) and "previous overseas travel without any problem" (41%). Of the 25 measles cases with recent overseas travel during the incubation period, one reported a measles vaccine prior to their recent trip. Four cases were children of parents who refused vaccination. Twenty out of 25 (80.0%) had attended mass gathering events. Young adults and VFR travellers should be a high priority for preventive strategies in order to maintain measles elimination status. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  10. Effective vaccine communication during the disneyland measles outbreak.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broniatowski, David A; Hilyard, Karen M; Dredze, Mark

    2016-06-14

    Vaccine refusal rates have increased in recent years, highlighting the need for effective risk communication, especially over social media. Fuzzy-trace theory predicts that individuals encode bottom-line meaning ("gist") and statistical information ("verbatim") in parallel and those articles expressing a clear gist will be most compelling. We coded news articles (n=4581) collected during the 2014-2015 Disneyland measles for content including statistics, stories, or bottom-line gists regarding vaccines and vaccine-preventable illnesses. We measured the extent to which articles were compelling by how frequently they were shared on Facebook. The most widely shared articles expressed bottom-line gists, although articles containing statistics were also more likely to be shared than articles lacking statistics. Stories had limited impact on Facebook shares. Results support Fuzzy Trace Theory's predictions regarding the distinct yet parallel impact of categorical gist and statistical verbatim information on public health communication. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Measles Vaccine : A Study On Seroconversion And Side Effects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malik Abida

    1998-01-01

    Full Text Available Research Question: 1. What is the extent of immune response of Edmonston Zagreb Strain in children? 2. What are the side effects of this vaccine? Objectives: 1. To follow up children after Edmonston Zagreb strain vaccination for evaluation of seroconverstion. Study: Cross sectional Setting: Well Baby Clinic of pediatrics OPD at J.N. Medical College, A.M.U., Aigarh (U.P participants: Children between 9-15 months. Sample Size: 100 consecutive children coming for routine immunization. Study variable: Malnourished and poor socio-economic status Outcome variable: Extent of seroconversion with no statistical significant difference between malnourished and socio-economically poor children. 26% showed minor self-limiting post vaccination reactions in all age groups. Recommendations: Edmonston Zagreb measles vaccine is recommended since it has very good immunogenic activity and post vaccination reactions.

  12. Measles viral load may reflect SSPE disease progression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin L

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE is a rare, slowly progressive neurological disorder caused by the persistent infection with measles virus (MV. Despite much research into SSPE, its pathology remains obscure. We examined autopsy tissues of eight SSPE patients by real time quantitative PCR, immunohistochemistry and immunoblotting to determine viral load. MV N, M and H gene RNA could be detected in the central nervous system (CNS of all patients and in two non-CNS tissues of one patient. The viral burden between patients differed up to four-fold by quantitative PCR and corresponded with detection of MV protein. The level of both viral RNA and antigen in the brain may correlate with disease progression.

  13. Measles in a South African paediatric intensive care unit: again!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coetzee, Saskia; Morrow, Brenda M; Argent, Andrew C

    2014-05-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate the outcomes of children with measles-related disease (MRD) admitted to a paediatric intensive care unit (PICU) and the effect on PICU resources and elective surgery of a recent measles epidemic. This was a retrospective observational study of all patients admitted to the PICU of Red Cross War Memorial Children's Hospital, Cape Town, South Africa, with MRD from January to December 2010. Patient admission characteristics, duration of PICU admission and mortality were recorded. Costs were calculated using bed days utilised and estimated daily PICU admission cost. A total of 1274 children were admitted over the study period, 58 (4.6%) with MRD (median (interquartile range) age 7 (5-9) months). Pneumonia was the most common reason for admission (81%) and the main cause of mortality. Non-MRD mortality was 8.8% compared with MRD mortality of 31% (P < 0.0001). Standardised mortality for non-MRD was 0.7 versus 1.7 in MRD (P = 0.002). HIV comorbidity and being underweight for age were associated with increased mortality. Patients with MRD occupied 379 bed days with a median (interquartile range) duration of stay of 5.5 (3.0-9.0) days at an estimated overall cost of R4,813,300 (approximately $543,900). During the study period, 67 children booked for elective surgery, and 87 other referrals were refused PICU admission. MRD was associated with significant morbidity and mortality, and substantial strain on scarce PICU resources. © 2013 The Authors. Journal of Paediatrics and Child Health © 2013 Paediatrics and Child Health Division (Royal Australasian College of Physicians).

  14. Spatiotemporal analysis of infant measles using population attributable risk in Shandong province, 1999-2008.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuhui Zhu

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Reduction of measles incidence and mortality has been encouraging in China. However, it remains an important public health concern among infants. This study aimed to examine the space-time distribution pattern of infant measles occurrence for the period of 1999-2008 in Shandong, China. METHODS AND FINDINGS: Measles cases among infants aged younger than 1 year were obtained from the national infectious diseases reporting information system. A spatiotemporal analysis using population attributable risk percent (PAR% was used to distinguish between multiple geographic clusters of potential interest. The analysis detected 29 statistically significant space-time clusters with the most likely cluster in Zaozhuang City from 2006 to 2008. Of the 28 secondary clusters, 22 were found in 2008. The map of PAR%, relative risk (RR and space-time cluster analysis indicated that the clusters were generally unchanged, and were found south-west and north-west of Shandong. The Lanshan District in Linyi had the highest PAR%, while highest RR was in the Yicheng District in Zaozhuang. CONCLUSION: There were significant space-time clusters of infant measles in Shandong over the study period. PAR% is an effective way to analyze multiple clusters from their application like RR. Interrupting measles circulation and maintaining routine coverage over 95% may be the only effective strategy to achieve measles elimination.

  15. Factors affecting compliance with the measles vaccination schedule in a Brazilian city

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    Patricia Logullo

    Full Text Available CONTEXT AND OBJECTIVE: The success of vaccination campaigns depends on the degree of adherence to immunization initiatives and schedules. Risk factors associated with children's failure to receive the measles vaccine at the correct age were studied in the city of São Paulo, Brazil. DESIGN AND SETTING: Case-control and exploratory study, in the metropolitan area of São Paulo. METHODS: The caregivers of 122 children were interviewed regarding their perceptions and understanding about the measles vaccination and the disease. RESULTS: The results showed that age, region of residence, marital status and education level were unrelated to taking measles vaccines adequately. Most individuals remembered being informed about the last annual vaccination campaign by television, but no communication channel was significantly associated with vaccination status. The answers to questions about knowledge of the disease or the vaccine, when analyzed alone, were not associated with taking measles vaccinations at the time indicated by health agencies. The results showed that, when parents felt sorry for their children who were going to receive shots, they delayed the vaccination. Most of the children did not take the measles vaccination on the exactly recommended date, but delayed or anticipated the shots. CONCLUSION: It is clear that there is no compliance with the government's recommended measles vaccination schedule (i.e. first dose at nine and second at 15 months of age, as recommended in 1999 and 2000. Feeling sorry for the children receiving shots can delay vaccination taking.

  16. Rapid Identification of Measles Virus Vaccine Genotype by Real-Time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Felicia; Mendoza, Lillian; Hiebert, Joanne; McNall, Rebecca J; Bankamp, Bettina; Connolly, Sarah; Lüdde, Amy; Friedrich, Nicole; Mankertz, Annette; Rota, Paul A; Severini, Alberto

    2017-03-01

    During measles outbreaks, it is important to be able to rapidly distinguish between measles cases and vaccine reactions to avoid unnecessary outbreak response measures such as case isolation and contact investigations. We have developed a real-time reverse transcription-PCR (RT-PCR) method specific for genotype A measles virus (MeV) (MeVA RT-quantitative PCR [RT-qPCR]) that can identify measles vaccine strains rapidly, with high throughput, and without the need for sequencing to determine the genotype. We have evaluated the method independently in three measles reference laboratories using two platforms, the Roche LightCycler 480 system and the Applied Biosystems (ABI) 7500 real-time PCR system. In comparison to the standard real-time RT-PCR method, the MeVA RT-qPCR showed 99.5% specificity for genotype A and 94% sensitivity for both platforms. The new assay was able to detect RNA from five currently used vaccine strains, AIK-C, CAM-70, Edmonston-Zagreb, Moraten, and Shanghai-191. The MeVA RT-qPCR assay has been used successfully for measles surveillance in reference laboratories, and it could be readily deployed to national and subnational laboratories on a wide scale. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  17. Expansion of the global measles and rubella laboratory network 2005-09.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Featherstone, David A; Rota, Paul A; Icenogle, Joseph; Mulders, Mick N; Jee, Youngmee; Ahmed, Hinda; de Filippis, Ana Maria Bispo; Ramamurty, Nalini; Gavrilin, Eugene; Byabamazima, Charles; Dosseh, Annick; Xu, Wenbo; Komase, Katsuhiro; Tashiro, Masato; Brown, David; Bellini, William J; Strebel, Peter

    2011-07-01

    Enhancing measles surveillance with integration of epidemiologic and laboratory information is one of the key strategies for accelerated measles control and elimination. The World Health Organization (WHO) Global Measles and Rubella Laboratory Network (LabNet) has been developed since 2000 to currently include 690 laboratories serving 183 countries. The LabNet testing strategy follows well-validated, standardized procedures for confirming suspected cases and for monitoring measles and rubella virus transmission patterns. The strength of the LabNet is a strong quality assurance program that monitors the performance of all laboratories through annual proficiency testing and continuous assessment. In the 5-year period 2005-2009, the results of >1 million measles immunoglobulin M (IgM) tests have been reported by the LabNet and, in addition, sequence information on >7000 measles and 600 rubella viruses has been shared. Progress with the development of the LabNet during 2005-2009 is discussed. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved.

  18. Poor serologic responses five to seven years after immunization with high and standard titer measles vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whittle, H; Aaby, P; Samb, B; Cissé, B; Kanteh, F; Soumaré, M; Jensen, H; Bennett, J; Simondon, F

    1999-01-01

    Few data exist on the persistence of measles antibodies after vaccination of West African infants. Therefore we examined measles antibody titers 5 to 7 years after children in rural Senegal had received high titer Edmonston-Zagreb (EZ-HT), high titer Schwarz (SW-HT) or standard titer Schwarz (SW-STD) measles vaccines in infancy. Children had received either high titer vaccines at 5 months of age or standard titer at 10 months of age. Finger prick blood samples were tested for measles antibody 5 to 7 years later by the hemagglutinin inhibition test. Persistence of antibody after high titer vaccines was poor with the result that 39 and 50% of the EZ-HT and the SW-HT groups had low titers of hemagglutinin inhibition measles antibodies (125 mIU/ml) in West Africa. The role of subclinical boosting by exposure to natural measles and the possible role of malaria, which increases immunoglobulin turnover, in influencing long term antibody persistence after vaccination deserve further investigation.

  19. Modeling Measles Transmission in the North American Amish and Options for Outbreak Response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Kimberly M; Kisjes, Kasper H

    2016-07-01

    Measles outbreaks in the United States continue to occur in subpopulations with sufficient numbers of undervaccinated individuals, with a 2014 outbreak in Amish communities in Ohio pushing the annual cases to the highest national number reported in the last 20 years. We adapted an individual-based model developed to explore potential poliovirus transmission in the North American Amish to characterize a 1988 measles outbreak in the Pennsylvania Amish and the 2014 outbreak in the Ohio Amish. We explored the impact of the 2014 outbreak response compared to no or partial response. Measles can spread very rapidly in an underimmunized subpopulation like the North American Amish, with the potential for national spread within a year or so in the absence of outbreak response. Vaccination efforts significantly reduced the transmission of measles and the expected number of cases. Until global eradication, measles importations will continue to pose a threat to clusters of underimmunized individuals in the United States. Aggressive outbreak response efforts in Ohio probably prevented widespread transmission of measles within the entire North American Amish. © 2015 Society for Risk Analysis.

  20. Assessment for the impact of dust events on measles incidence in western China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Yuxia; Zhou, Jianding; Yang, Sixu; Zhao, Yuxin; Zheng, Xiaodong

    2017-05-01

    Dust events affect human health in both drylands and downwind environments. In this study, we used county-level data during the period of 1965-2005 to assess the impact of dust events on measles incidence in Gansu province in Western China. We used Fast Fourier Transform (FFT) to set up the cyclical regression model; in particular, we set the model to downwind direction for the typical cities in the Hexi Corridor as well as the capital city Lanzhou. The results showed that Spring measles incidence was the highest in the Hexi Corridor, where dust events occur the most frequently over Gansu province. Measles incidence declined on the pathway of dust storms from west to east due to the weakening of both intensity and duration in dust storms. Measles incidence was positively correlated with monthly wind speed and negatively correlated with rainfall amount, relative humidity, and air pressure. Measles incidence was significantly (p ≤ 0.01) positively correlated with daily coarse particles, e.g., TSP and PM10. According to the cyclical regression model, average monthly excess measles that is related to dust events was 39.1 (ranging from 17.3 to 87.6), 149.9 (ranging from 7.1 to 413.4), and 31.3 (ranging from 20.6 to 63.5) in Zhangye, Lanzhou, and Jiuquan, respectively.

  1. The changing epidemiology of measles in an era of elimination: lessons from health-care-setting transmissions of measles during an outbreak in New South Wales, Australia, 2012

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    Alexis Pillsbury

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: In countries where measles is rare, health-care-setting transmissions remain problematic. Australia experienced its largest measles outbreak in 15 years in 2012 with 199 cases reported nationally; 170 cases occurred in the state of New South Wales (NSW with symptom onset between 7 April and 29 November 2012. Methods: A descriptive study was conducted using measles case data obtained from metropolitan Sydney local health districts in NSW in 2012. Characteristics of measles source and secondary cases were described. Details of health-care presentations resulting and not resulting in measles transmission were also analysed. Results: There were 168 confirmed and two probable cases resulting in 405 documented health-care presentations. Thirty-four secondary cases acquired in health-care settings were identified, including 29 cases resulting from 14 source cases and 5 cases whose source could not be identified. Health-care-acquired cases accounted for 20% of all cases in this outbreak. Source cases were more likely to be of Pacific Islander descent (p = 0.009 and to have had more presentations before diagnosis (p = 0.012 compared to other cases. The percentage of presentations to emergency departments was higher for presentations that resulted in transmission compared to those that did not (71.4% and 37.6%, respectively, p = 0.028. There were no significant differences between transmission and non-transmission presentations with respect to presence of rash and infection control measures (p = 0.762 and p = 0.221, respectively, although the power to detect these differences was limited. Rash was reported at 66% of the presentations. Conclusion: Development of and adherence to protocols for the management of patients presenting to hospitals with fever and rash will minimize secondary transmission of measles.

  2. Summer music and arts festivals as hot spots for measles transmission: experience from England and Wales, June to October 2016.

    Science.gov (United States)

    le Polain de Waroux, Olivier; Saliba, Vanessa; Cottrell, Simon; Young, Nick; Perry, Malorie; Bukasa, Antoaneta; Ramsay, Mary; Brown, Kevin; Amirthalingam, Gayatri

    2016-11-03

    We report 52 cases of measles linked to music and arts festivals in England and Wales, between mid-June and mid-October 2016. Nearly half were aged 15 to 19 years. Several individuals who acquired measles at one festival subsequently attended another festival while infectious, resulting in multiple interlinked outbreaks. Transmission within festivals resulted in a geographical spread of cases nationally as well as internationally, which presents particular challenges for measles control. This article is copyright of The Authors, 2016.

  3. Measles and rubella vaccination coverage in Haiti, 2012: progress towards verifying and challenges to maintaining measles and rubella elimination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohme, Rania A.; François, Jeannot; Wannemuehler, Kathleen; Magloire, Roc; Danovaro-Holliday, M. Carolina; Flannery, Brendan; Cavallaro, Kathleen F.; Fitter, David L.; Purcell, Nora; Dismer, Amber; Tappero, Jordan W.; Vertefeuille, John F.; Hyde, Terri B.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives We conducted a nationwide survey to assess measles containing vaccine (MCV) coverage among children aged 1–9 years in Haiti and identify factors associated with vaccination before and during the 2012 nationwide supplementary immunisation activities (SIA). Methods Haiti was stratified into five geographic regions (Metropolitan Port-au-Prince, North, Centre, South and West), 40 clusters were randomly selected in each region, and 35 households were selected per cluster. Results Among the 7000 visited households, 75.8% had at least one child aged 1–9 years; of these, 5279 (99.5%) households consented to participate in the survey. Of 9883 children enrolled, 91% received MCV before and/or during the SIA; 31% received MR for the first time during the SIA, and 50.7% received two doses of MCV (one before and one during the 2012 SIA). Among the 1685 unvaccinated children during the SIA, the primary reason of non-vaccination was caregivers not being aware of the SIA (31.0%). Children aged 1–4 years had significantly lower MR SIA coverage than those aged 5–9 years (79.5% vs. 84.8%) (P < 0.0001). A higher proportion of children living in the West (12.3%) and Centre (11.2%) regions had never been vaccinated than in other regions (4.8–9.1%). Awareness, educational level of the mother and region were significantly associated with MR vaccination during and before the SIA (P < 0.001). Conclusions The 2012 SIA successfully increased MR coverage; however, to maintain measles and rubella elimination, coverage needs to be further increased among children aged 1–4 years and in regions with lower coverage. PMID:25041586

  4. Measles and rubella vaccination coverage in Haiti, 2012: progress towards verifying and challenges to maintaining measles and rubella elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tohme, Rania A; François, Jeannot; Wannemuehler, Kathleen; Magloire, Roc; Danovaro-Holliday, M Carolina; Flannery, Brendan; Cavallaro, Kathleen F; Fitter, David L; Purcell, Nora; Dismer, Amber; Tappero, Jordan W; Vertefeuille, John F; Hyde, Terri B

    2014-09-01

    We conducted a nationwide survey to assess measles containing vaccine (MCV) coverage among children aged 1-9 years in Haiti and identify factors associated with vaccination before and during the 2012 nationwide supplementary immunisation activities (SIA). Haiti was stratified into five geographic regions (Metropolitan Port-au-Prince, North, Centre, South and West), 40 clusters were randomly selected in each region, and 35 households were selected per cluster. Among the 7000 visited households, 75.8% had at least one child aged 1-9 years; of these, 5279 (99.5%) households consented to participate in the survey. Of 9883 children enrolled, 91% received MCV before and/or during the SIA; 31% received MR for the first time during the SIA, and 50.7% received two doses of MCV (one before and one during the 2012 SIA). Among the 1685 unvaccinated children during the SIA, the primary reason of non-vaccination was caregivers not being aware of the SIA (31.0%). Children aged 1-4 years had significantly lower MR SIA coverage than those aged 5-9 years (79.5% vs. 84.8%) (P < 0.0001). A higher proportion of children living in the West (12.3%) and Centre (11.2%) regions had never been vaccinated than in other regions (4.8-9.1%). Awareness, educational level of the mother and region were significantly associated with MR vaccination during and before the SIA (P < 0.001). The 2012 SIA successfully increased MR coverage; however, to maintain measles and rubella elimination, coverage needs to be further increased among children aged 1-4 years and in regions with lower coverage. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  5. The causal effect of childhood measles vaccination on educational attainment: A mother fixed-effects study in rural South Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anekwe, Tobenna D; Newell, Marie-Louise; Tanser, Frank; Pillay, Deenan; Bärnighausen, Till

    2015-09-11

    Because measles vaccination prevents acute measles disease and morbidities secondary to measles, such as undernutrition, blindness, and brain damage, the vaccination may also lead to higher educational attainment. However, there has been little evidence to support this hypothesis at the population level. In this study, we estimate the causal effect of childhood measles vaccination on educational attainment among children born between 1995 and 2000 in South Africa. We use longitudinal data on measles vaccination status and school grade attainment among 4783 children. The data were collected by the Wellcome Trust Africa Centre Demographic Information System (ACDIS), which is one of Africa's largest health and demographic surveillance systems. ACDIS is located in a poor, predominantly rural, Zulu-speaking community in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa. Using mother fixed-effects regression, we compare the school grade attainment of siblings who are discordant in their measles vaccination status but share the same mother and household. This fixed-effects approach controls for confounding due to both observed and unobserved factors that do not vary between siblings, including sibling-invariant mother and household characteristics such as attitudes toward risk, conscientiousness, and aspirations for children. We further control for a range of potential confounders that vary between siblings, such as sex of the child, year of birth, mother's age at child's birth, and birth order. We find that measles vaccination on average increases school grade attainment by 0.188 grades (95% confidence interval, 0.0424-0.334; p=0.011). Measles vaccination increased educational attainment in this poor, largely rural community in South Africa. For every five to seven children vaccinated against measles, one additional school grade was gained. The presence of a measles vaccination effect in this community is plausible because (i) measles vaccination prevents measles complications including

  6. Enrichment of measles virus-like RNA in the nucleocapsid fraction isolated from subacute sclerosing panencephalitis brains

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    Bedows, E.; Payne, F.E. (Michigan Univ., Ann Arbor (USA). School of Public Health); Kohne, D.E. (Center for Neurologic Study, San Diego, CA, USA); Tourtellotte, W.W. (Neurology Service, V.A. Wadsworth Hospital Center, Los Angeles, CA, USA)

    1982-02-01

    A procedure has been developed which facilitates the detection of measles virus RNA sequences in human brains. The procedure involves isolating subviral components (nucleocapsids) from brain tissues prior to RNA purification, followed by hybridization of these RNAs to cDNA synthesized from measles virus 50 S RNA template. Using these techniques we were able to obtain an RNA fraction which was manyfold enriched in measles virus-specific RNA, relative to unfractionated subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) brain RNAs. 70-100% of the measles virus-specific RNA present in these SSPE brain samples were recovered in this enriched fraction.

  7. Transscleral and indirect ophthalmoscope diode laser retinal photocoagulation: experimental quantification of the therapeutic range for their application in the treatment of retinopathy of prematurity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obana, A; Lorenz, B; Birngruber, R

    1993-07-01

    Laser indirect ophthalmoscope (LIO) photocoagulation and transscleral photocoagulation through the conjunctiva and subconjunctiva were performed in the fundus of chinchilla gray rabbits using various exposure times and powers, and the thresholds for retinal blanching and choroidal hemorrhage were determined. The therapeutic range was described for both applications as the ratio between energy values to produce grayish white lesions and hemorrhage at 50% probability. The therapeutic range appeared to remain almost constant with different exposure times. The mean ratio with LIO was 3.2 +/- 0.28, similar to that with slit-lamp delivery reported in our previous study. The mean ratio with transscleral photocoagulation through the conjunctiva and subconjunctiva were 2.48 +/- 0.28 and 2.38 +/- 0.26, respectively. The variability of LIO appeared to be a little lower than with transscleral photocoagulation. There was no significant difference between the variability with transscleral photocoagulation through the conjunctiva and subconjunctiva.

  8. Therapeutic trial in experimental tegumentary leishmaniasis caused by Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis. A comparative study between mefloquine and aminosidine Ensaio terapêutico na leishmaniose tegumentar experimental causada por Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis. Um estudo comparativo entre mefloquina e aminosidine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letícia Oba Galvão

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available One hundred and eighty-two male inbred C57/BL/6 mice were infected with 3 x 106 Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis promastigotes of the MHOM/BR/PH8 strain by means of a subcutaneous injection in the right ear. The animals were separated in three groups: 1 oral mefloquine hydrochloride treatment (16mg/kg/day/10 days, 2 intramuscular aminosidine (Paromomycin® treatment (20mg/kg/20 days and 3 control. Twenty six mice of each treated group were sacrificed, one at the end of treatment (nine weeks after inoculation, and one six weeks later (fifteen weeks after inoculation. Control Group animals were sacrificed at weeks six, nine and fifteen after inoculation. There was no significant difference between Group 1 (mefloquine and Group 3 (control subjects. Group 2 animals (aminosidine presented the smallest differences of all, both at the end of the treatment and six weeks later. The histopato-logical parameters have shown the following findings: a there was no significant difference between the mefloquine treated group and the control group; the group treated with aminosidine showed fewer of vacuolated macrophages than the control group, at week 9 (end of treatment. b both at the end of treatment and six weeks later, evaluation of tissue necrosis and tissue fibrosis revealed no differences between the treated groups. It was found that six weeks after the end of treatment, mice in the control group presented significantly more severe degrees of fibrosis than mice in the other groups. It can be concluded that mefloquine showed limited therapeutic effect in this experimental model, whereas aminosidine had a significant effect. Nevertheless, neither of them resulted in cure of the lesions.Foram utilizados 182 camundongos machos, isogênicos, da linhagem C57BL/6 inoculados na orelha direita com 3,0 x 10(6 formas promastigotas da cepa MHOM/BR/PH8 de Leishmania (Leishmania amazonensis. Os animais foram separados em três grupos: 1 52 animais tratados com

  9. [Extent and impact of the measles epidemics of 1846 and 1882 in Iceland].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gunnarsdottir, Sandra; Briem, Haraldur; Gottfredsson, Magnus

    2014-04-01

    Measles have increased in incidence in some parts of the developed world in the past 10-15 years. They can be fatal and lead to severe sequelae.Measles were infrequently introduced to Iceland in the 19th century and consequently, epidemics were few but associated with an extremely high mortality. The availability of 19th century church registries enables studies on the impact of measles on mortality. Historical accounts mention two major measles epidemics, starting mid-year 1846 and 1882. We analysed these two epidemics using contemporary historical sources, mainly original church registries. In the 1846 epidemic the data show a clear increase in mortality in June and reach a peak in July of 741 fatal cases total, a four-fold increase from expected baseline rate. The epidemic subsided in the ensuing five months. A cluster of measles was described in the eastern region of Iceland in 1869 but did not spread further. The epidemic of 1882 reached its peak in July, when 1084 individuals died, a five-fold increase from the expected rate. Excess mortality was highest in N-Isafjardarsysla county, 4,7 %, and none in A-Skaftafellssysla county where the illness was described 13 years previously. The highest numbers of fatal cases in the 1882 epidemic (64,6%) was among 0-4 year old children. The number of fatalities among women of child-bearing age was more than two-fold compared to men; the number of births 7-9 months following the 1882 peak dropped significantly by 50%. This study highlights the consequences of measles following introduction into a largely susceptible population and also documents the importance of herd immunity. Information can be identified on most individual fatalities during the 1846 and 1882 measles epidemics in Iceland.

  10. Contagious comments: what was the online buzz about the 2011 Quebec measles outbreak?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Jennifer A; Quach, Susan; Dao, Huy Hao; Kwong, Jeffrey C; Deeks, Shelley L; Crowcroft, Natasha S; Quan, Sherman D; Guay, Maryse

    2013-01-01

    Although interruption of endemic measles was achieved in the Americas in 2002, Quebec experienced an outbreak in 2011 of 776 reported cases; 80% of these individuals had not been fully vaccinated. We analyzed readers' online responses to Canadian news articles regarding the outbreak to better understand public perceptions of measles and vaccination. We searched Canadian online English and French news sites for articles posted between April 2011 and March 2012 containing the words "measles" and "Quebec". We included articles that i) concerned the outbreak or related vaccination strategies; and ii) generated at least ten comments. Two English and two bilingual researchers coded the unedited comments, categorizing codes to allow themes to emerge. We analyzed 448 comments from 188 individuals, in response to three French articles and six English articles; 112 individuals expressed positive perceptions of measles vaccination (2.2 comments/person), 38 were negative (4.2 comments/person), 11 had mixed feelings (1.5 comments/person), and 27 expressed no opinion (1.1 comments/person). Vaccine-supportive themes involved the success of vaccination in preventing disease spread, societal responsibility to vaccinate for herd immunity, and refutation of the autism link. Those against measles vaccination felt it was a personal rather than societal choice, and conveyed a distrust of vaccine manufacturers, believing that measles infection is not only safe but safer than vaccination. Commenters with mixed feelings expressed uncertainty of the infection's severity, and varied in support of all vaccines based on perceived risk/benefit ratios. The anti-vaccine minority's volume of comments translates to a disproportionately high representation on online boards. Public health messages should address concerns by emphasizing that immunization is always a personal choice in Canada, and that the pharmaceutical industry is strictly controlled. Illustrating the dangers of measles through

  11. A 16-year review of seroprevalence studies on measles and rubella.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimech, Wayne; Mulders, Mick N

    2016-07-29

    The determination of the seroprevalence of vaccine-preventable diseases is critical in monitoring the efficacy of vaccination programmes and to assess the gaps in population immunity but requires extensive organisation and is time and resource intensive. The results of the studies are frequently reported in peer-reviewed scientific, government and non-government publications. A review of scientific literature was undertaken to advise the development of WHO guidelines for the assessment of measles and rubella seroprevalence. A search of the National Library of Medicine's PubMed online publications using key words of 'measles', 'rubella', combined with 'serosurvey', 'seroprevalence', 'immunity' and 'population immunity' was conducted. A total of 97 articles published between January 1998 and June 2014 were retrieved, 68 describing serosurveys for measles and 58 serosurveys for rubella, conducted in 37 and 36 different countries respectively. Only 13 (19%) and 8 (14%) respectively were UN classified "least developed countries". The study sample varied markedly and included combinations of male and female infants, children, adolescents and adults. The study sizes also varied with 28% and 33% of measles and rubella studies respectively, having greater than 2000 participants. Microtitre plate enzyme immunoassays were used in 52 (76%) measles studies and 40 (69%) rubella studies. A total of 39 (57%) measles and 44 (76%) rubella studies reported quantitative test results. Seroprevalence ranged from 60.8% to 95.9% for measles and 53.0% to 99.3% for rubella studies. The review highlighted that infants lost maternally-acquired immunity within 9months of birth and were unprotected until vaccination. Two groups at higher risk of infection were identified: young adults between the ages of 15 and 30years and immigrants. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Anti-rubella, Mumps and Measles IgG Antibodies in Medical Students of Tehran University.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshavarz, Maryam; Nicknam, Mohammad Hossein; Tebyanian, Majid; Shahkarami, Mohammad Kazem; Izad, Maryam

    2016-06-01

    Measles, mumps and rubella are viral infectious diseases that may result in serious complications. Since the production of vaccines, the number of cases of these diseases has been dropped. Nevertheless, these infectious diseases are still one of the major health problems in developing countries. In this study, in order to evaluate the protective responses against measles, mumps and rubella, the level and avidity of virus-specific IgG antibodies were measured in 53 medical students of Tehran University, aged between 20-30 years. Except for mumps vaccine, all the students had been vaccinated against measles and rubella according to Iran's nationwide mass vaccination protocol for all persons aged 5-25 in 2003. Our results showed that 96.2% of the volunteers had a protective level (>15 IU/ml) of IgG against rubella, 79.2% had a protective level (>11 IU/ml) of IgG against measles and 64.16% had a protective level (>11 IU/ml) of IgG against mumps. Over ten years after nationwide measles-rubella vaccination campaign, most young adults aged 20-30 had protective levels of humoral immunity against measles and rubella. However, Iranian young population is still unvaccinated against mumps, and therefore relatively large number of young adults had no protective level of IgG against it. This finding may be due to reduction in circulating of wild strain. We recommend screening of medical students for immunity against infectious agents such as measles, mumps, rubella, because they are at a high risk of these infectious agents.

  13. Progress in the elimination of measles and congenital rubella in Central Italy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bechini, Angela; Levi, Miriam; Boccalini, Sara; Tiscione, Emilia; Panatto, Donatella; Amicizia, Daniela; Bonanni, Paolo

    2013-01-01

    Despite the launch of a WHO European Region strategic plan 2005–2010 for eliminating measles and rubella and preventing congenital rubella (CR) infection, measles and rubella are still circulating in Europe. Increased transmission and outbreaks of measles in Europe were still observed in 2011. In Italy, the objectives of the National Plan (2003–2007) for measles elimination have not yet been achieved. The goal of measles elimination and incidence reduction of CR cases has been postponed to 2015 by the Italian Ministry of Health through the implementation of the new National Plan 2010–2015 which will require (1) the achievement of more than 95% coverage with 1 dose and two doses of measles containing vaccine (MCV), respectively, within 24 mo and within 12 y of age; (2) supplementary vaccination activities aimed at susceptible populations including adolescents, young adults and those at risk (health care and educational workers, military, groups “hard to reach” like nomads); and in addition, (3) reduction to less than 5% in the proportion of susceptible women of childbearing age (especially immigrant women). Experiences at regional level, like in Tuscany, have shown promising results in order to create an integrated surveillance system between regional and local health authorities, university and laboratory and in the future, to validate elimination. Moreover, the evaluation of all preventive activities performed in Tuscany during the last decade, immunization coverage data, sero-epidemiological population profile and incidence of measles and rubella cases has highlighted critical points which should be improved and good practices already implemented which should be maintained in the future in order to reach the new goals. PMID:23292174

  14. Evolutionary genetics of genotype H1 measles viruses in China from 1993 to 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Songtao; Zhang, Yan; Rivailler, Pierre; Wang, Huiling; Ji, Yixin; Zhen, Zhu; Mao, Naiying; Li, Chongshan; Bellini, William J; Xu, Wenbo; Rota, Paul A

    2014-09-01

    Virologic surveillance is a critical component of measles management. One of the criteria for verification of elimination of endemic measles is genetic analysis of wild-type viruses to demonstrate lack of an indigenous genotype. Measles is yet to be eliminated in China, and genotype H1 has been detected continuously since virologic surveillance was initiated in 1993. Virologic surveillance has been very active in China, providing a unique opportunity to conduct a detailed study of the evolution of a single, endemic genotype over a timespan of nearly two decades. Phylogenetic analysis performed on the 450 nt coding sequence for the C-terminal 150 amino acids of the nucleoprotein (N-450), fusion (F) gene and haemagglutinin (H) gene confirmed the continued circulation of genotype H1 viruses for 19 years. No evidence of selective pressure for the H protein was found. The substitution rates ranged from 0.75×10(-3) substitutions site(-1) year(-1) for H to 1.65×10(-3) substitutions site(-1) year(-1) for N-450. The time of most recent common ancestor (TMRCA) for genotype H1 was estimated as approximately 1985 (95 % highest probability density, 1979-1989). Finally, the overall diversity of measles sequences from China decreased from 2005 to 2012, coincident with a substantial decrease in measles cases. The results suggest that detailed evolutionary analyses should facilitate the documentation of eventual measles elimination in China. Moreover, the molecular approaches used in this study can be applied in other countries approaching measles elimination.

  15. Measles, Rubella, Mumps and Hepatitis B Seroprevalence among the Female Medical Students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ruhusen Kutlu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY AIM: Measles, rubella, mumps and viral hepatitis is still a considerable health problem around the world. The risk of contamination of health care workers is higher related to occupational causes. The aim of the study was to research the measles, rubella, mumps and hepatitis B seroprevalence among the female students of Medical Faculty and to apply the vaccines whom need the vaccination. METHOD: This descriptive study was conducted among female students attending Meram Medical Faculty of Selcuk University. Age and sociodemographic characteristics of 351 female students who participated in the study were recorded on the prepared forms. Serum specific IgG levels for measles, rubella, mumps, HBsAg and anti HBs levels were measured in the serum patterns of the participants. Statistical analyses were perfor¬med using SPSS version 13.0. RESULTS: The mean age of the students was 20.5 years (min=16.0, max=29.0. Measles, rubella, and mumps seropositivity were 91.6%, 97.2% and 93.5% respectively. Of the students, 0.7% (n=2 had HBs Ag seropositivity, 42.4% (n=149 had antiHBs seronegativity. The rates of the measles, rubella, and mumps seropositivity were very high among the female students. Sixty two female students (17.7% required the measles mumps rubella vaccine (MMR. One hundred forty nine female students who have antiHBs seronegativity needed hepatitis B vaccination. CONCLUSION: In order to eradicate measles, mumps, rubella it is necessary that use of MMR vaccine should be expanded nationwide rapidly by the Ministry of Health; the regulation should be revised to include the children born before 2005. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(5.000: 549-556

  16. Contagious comments: what was the online buzz about the 2011 Quebec measles outbreak?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jennifer A Pereira

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Although interruption of endemic measles was achieved in the Americas in 2002, Quebec experienced an outbreak in 2011 of 776 reported cases; 80% of these individuals had not been fully vaccinated. We analyzed readers' online responses to Canadian news articles regarding the outbreak to better understand public perceptions of measles and vaccination. METHODS: We searched Canadian online English and French news sites for articles posted between April 2011 and March 2012 containing the words "measles" and "Quebec". We included articles that i concerned the outbreak or related vaccination strategies; and ii generated at least ten comments. Two English and two bilingual researchers coded the unedited comments, categorizing codes to allow themes to emerge. RESULTS: We analyzed 448 comments from 188 individuals, in response to three French articles and six English articles; 112 individuals expressed positive perceptions of measles vaccination (2.2 comments/person, 38 were negative (4.2 comments/person, 11 had mixed feelings (1.5 comments/person, and 27 expressed no opinion (1.1 comments/person. Vaccine-supportive themes involved the success of vaccination in preventing disease spread, societal responsibility to vaccinate for herd immunity, and refutation of the autism link. Those against measles vaccination felt it was a personal rather than societal choice, and conveyed a distrust of vaccine manufacturers, believing that measles infection is not only safe but safer than vaccination. Commenters with mixed feelings expressed uncertainty of the infection's severity, and varied in support of all vaccines based on perceived risk/benefit ratios. CONCLUSION: The anti-vaccine minority's volume of comments translates to a disproportionately high representation on online boards. Public health messages should address concerns by emphasizing that immunization is always a personal choice in Canada, and that the pharmaceutical industry is strictly

  17. Disease Detection or Public Opinion Reflection? Content Analysis of Tweets, Other Social Media, and Online Newspapers During the Measles Outbreak in the Netherlands in 2013

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Mollema, L; Harmsen, I.A; Broekhuizen, E; Clijnk, R; Melker, H. de; Paulussen, T.G.W.M; Kok, G.J; Ruiter, R.A.C; Das, H.H.J

    2015-01-01

    ...: Our aim was to compare the number of messages expressed on Twitter and other social media during the measles outbreak with the number of online news articles and the number of reported measles cases...

  18. Combination of reverse transcriptase PCR analysis and immunoglobulin M detection on filter paper blood samples allows diagnostic and epidemiological studies of measles.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.L. de Swart (Rik); Y. Nur; A. Abdallah (Amal); H. Kruining; H.S. El Mubarak; S.A. Ibrahim; J. Groen (Jan); A.D.M.E. Osterhaus (Albert); B.G. van den Hoogen (Bernadette)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractAs measles control and elimination campaigns progress, laboratory confirmation of clinically diagnosed measles cases becomes increasingly important. However, in many tropical countries collection and storage of clinical specimens for this purpose are logistically complicated. In this

  19. Innate immune defense defines susceptibility of sarcoma cells to measles vaccine virus-based oncolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berchtold, Susanne; Lampe, Johanna; Weiland, Timo; Smirnow, Irina; Schleicher, Sabine; Handgretinger, Rupert; Kopp, Hans-Georg; Reiser, Jeanette; Stubenrauch, Frank; Mayer, Nora; Malek, Nisar P; Bitzer, Michael; Lauer, Ulrich M

    2013-03-01

    The oncolytic potential of measles vaccine virus (MeV) has been demonstrated in several tumor entities. Here, we investigated the susceptibility of eight sarcoma cell lines to MeV-mediated oncolysis and found five to be susceptible, whereas three proved to be resistant. In the MeV-resistant cell lines, we often observed an inhibition of viral replication along with a strong upregulation of the intracellular virus-sensing molecule RIG-I and of the interferon (IFN)-stimulated gene IFIT1. Not only expression of IFIT1 but also phosphorylation of IFN-stimulated Stat1 took place rapidly and were found to be persistent over time. In contrast, susceptible cell lines showed a much weaker, delayed, or completely missing expression of IFIT1 as well as a delayed or only transient phosphorylation of Stat1, whereas exogenic stimulation with beta interferon (IFN-β) resulted in a comparable profound activation of Stat1 and expression of IFIT1 in all cell lines. Pretreatment with IFN-β rendered three of the susceptible cell lines more resistant to MeV-mediated oncolysis. These data suggest that differences in the innate immune defense often account for different degrees of susceptibility of sarcoma cell lines to MeV-mediated oncolysis. From a therapeutic perspective, we were able to overcome resistance to MeV by increasing the multiplicity of infection (MOI) and by addition of the prodrug 5-fluorocytosine (FC), thereby exploiting the suicide gene function of virotherapeutic vector MeV-SCD armed with the SCD fusion protein, which consists of yeast cytosine deaminase and yeast uracil phosphoribosyltransferase.

  20. Measles antibody levels after vaccination with Edmonston-Zagreb and Schwarz measles vaccine at 9 months or at 9 and 18 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Cesario; Garly, May-Lill; Bale, Carlitos

    2013-01-01

    Standard-titre Schwarz (SW) and Edmonston-Zagreb (EZ) measles vaccines (MV) are both used in the routine immunisation programme. Within a trial of different strains of MV, we examined antibody responses in both one-dose and two-dose schedules when the first dose was administered at 9 months....

  1. Does Measles Vaccination Reduce the Risk of Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI) and Diarrhea in Children: A Multi-Country Study?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bawankule, Rahul; Singh, Abhishek; Kumar, Kaushalendra; Shetye, Sadanand

    2017-01-01

    Pneumonia and diarrhea occur either as complications or secondary infections in measles affected children. So, the integrated Global Action Plan for Pneumonia and Diarrhea (GAPPD) by WHO and UNICEF includes measles vaccination as preventive measure in children. The objective of the study is to examine the effect of measles vaccination on Acute Respiratory Infection (ARI) and diarrhea in children in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, India, Nigeria, and Pakistan. We analyzed data from the most recent rounds of Demographic and Health Surveys (DHS) in the selected countries. We included children age 12-59 months in the analysis. We used multivariable binary logistic regression to examine the effect of measles vaccination on ARI and diarrhea in children. We also estimated Vaccination Effectiveness (VE). More than 60 percent of the children age 12-59 months were given measles vaccine before the survey in the Democratic Republic of Congo, Ethiopia, India and Pakistan. Children who were given the measles vaccine were less likely to suffer from ARI than unvaccinated children in India and Pakistan. Children who were given the measles vaccine had a lower risk of diarrhea than those who did not receive it in all the selected countries except Ethiopia. Measles vaccination was associated with reduction in ARI cases by 15-30 percent in India and Pakistan, and diarrhea cases by 12-22 percent in the Democratic Republic of Congo, India, Nigeria and Pakistan. The receipt of the measles vaccine was associated with decrease in ARI and diarrhea in children. The immunization program must ensure that each child gets the recommended doses of measles vaccine at the appropriate age. The measles vaccination should be given more attention as a preventive intervention under the Global Action Plan for Pneumonia and Diarrhea (GAPPD) in all low and middle-income countries.

  2. Molecular epidemiology of measles virus infection in Shanghai in 2000–2012: the first appearance of genotype D8

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shuhua Li

    Full Text Available Purpose:The purpose of this study was to identify measles virus in Shanghai in 2012 and study the genotype trend of measles virus epidemic strains during 2000–2012.Methods:Nose and throat swab specimens were collected from 34 suspected measles cases in Shanghai. Measles virus was isolated using Vero-SLAM cells (African green monkey kidney cells/lymphoid signal activating factor-transfected African green monkey kidney cells. The 450 bp of C terminus of the N gene and the entire hemagglutinin gene sequence was amplified using RT-PCR. Phylogenetic analysis was performed by comparing the seven measles strains in Shanghai with the reference strains for H1a, H1b and D8 genotypes, as well as the Chinese measles virus vaccine strain.Results:Seven measles viruses strains were isolated from the 34 throat swap specimens. Six strains were genotype H1a, which is the predominant strain in China and one strain was genotype D8, which is the first imported strain since 2000. All these seven strains maintained most of the glycosylation sites except subtype H1a, which lost one glycosylation site.Conclusion:Since 2000, measles virus strains in Shanghai are consistent with measles virus from other provinces in China with H1a being the predominant genotype. This study is also the first report of genotype D8 strain in Shanghai. All strains maintained their glycosylation sites except H1a that lost one glycosylation site. These strains could still be neutralized by the Chinese measles vaccine. We suggest that Shanghai Center for Disease Control laboratories should strengthen their approaches to monitor measles cases to prevent further spread of imported strains.

  3. Molecular epidemiology of measles virus infection in Shanghai in 2000-2012: the first appearance of genotype D8.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shuhua; Qian, Xiaohua; Yuan, Zhengan; Sun, Xiaodong; Li, Chongshan; Tang, Xian; Yang, Yanji; Gong, Xiangzhen; Cao, Guangwen

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to identify measles virus in Shanghai in 2012 and study the genotype trend of measles virus epidemic strains during 2000-2012. Nose and throat swab specimens were collected from 34 suspected measles cases in Shanghai. Measles virus was isolated using Vero-SLAM cells (African green monkey kidney cells/lymphoid signal activating factor-transfected African green monkey kidney cells). The 450 bp of C terminus of the N gene and the entire hemagglutinin gene sequence was amplified using RT-PCR. Phylogenetic analysis was performed by comparing the seven measles strains in Shanghai with the reference strains for H1a, H1b and D8 genotypes, as well as the Chinese measles virus vaccine strain. Seven measles viruses strains were isolated from the 34 throat swap specimens. Six strains were genotype H1a, which is the predominant strain in China and one strain was genotype D8, which is the first imported strain since 2000. All these seven strains maintained most of the glycosylation sites except subtype H1a, which lost one glycosylation site. Since 2000, measles virus strains in Shanghai are consistent with measles virus from other provinces in China with H1a being the predominant genotype. This study is also the first report of genotype D8 strain in Shanghai. All strains maintained their glycosylation sites except H1a that lost one glycosylation site. These strains could still be neutralized by the Chinese measles vaccine. We suggest that Shanghai Center for Disease Control laboratories should strengthen their approaches to monitor measles cases to prevent further spread of imported strains. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  4. The tragic 1824 journey of the Hawaiian king and queen to London: history of measles in Hawaii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shulman, Stanford T; Shulman, Deborah L; Sims, Ronald H

    2009-08-01

    The susceptibility of isolated island-based populations to acute infections like measles is well documented, most clearly in Fiji and the Faröe Islands. We review the remarkably tragic 1824 journey of King Kamehameha II and Queen Kamamalu of Hawaii to London and the later enormous impact of measles on Hawaii on first arrival in 1848. The young royalty came to seek an audience with King George IV to negotiate an alliance with England. Virtually the entire royal party developed measles within weeks of arrival, 7 to 10 days after visiting the Royal Military Asylum housing hundreds of soldiers' children. Within the month the king (27) and queen (22) succumbed to measles complications. Their bodies were transported to Hawaii by Right Honorable Lord Byron (Captain George Anson, the poet's cousin). Before 1848 measles was unknown in Hawaii. Several epidemics struck Hawaii in late 1848, beginning with measles and pertussis, then diarrhea and influenza. Measles arrived at this time from California, spreading from Hilo, Hawaii, through all the islands; 10% to 33% of the population died. Subsequent measles epidemics occurred in 1861, 1889 to 1890, 1898, and 1936 to 1937, the latter with 205 deaths. The imported epidemics of infections including measles diminished Hawaii's population from approximately 300,000 at Captain Cook's arrival in 1778 to 135,000 in 1820 and 53,900 in 1876. The measles deaths of the king and queen in London in 1824, likely acquired visiting a large children's home, was a harbinger of the devastating impact of measles upon Hawaiians 24 years later with its first arrival to the Sandwich (Hawaiian) Islands.

  5. Role of simvastatin and/or antioxidant vitamins in therapeutic angiogenesis in experimental diabetic hindlimb ischemia: effects on capillary density, angiogenesis markers, and oxidative stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Azab, Mona F; Hazem, Reem M; Moustafa, Yasser M

    2012-09-05

    Therapeutic angiogenesis has emerged as an attractive approach for the management of peripheral arterial disease in diabetic patients. Oxidative stress generated and aggravated by prolonged hyperglycemia may interfere with and destroy the newly formed blood vessels. Angiogenic effect of simvastatin has been reported; however, its exact mechanism is yet to be evaluated. In addition, the exact role of antioxidant vitamins in diabetic peripheral arterial disease is still controversial. The present study was undertaken to investigate the therapeutic potential of simvastatin and antioxidant vitamins (E and C) and their combined effects on angiogenesis in diabetic hind-limb ischemia. Streptozotocin diabetic rats were treated for 6 weeks with simvastatin either alone or in combination with vitamin E or vitamin C. Parameters of angiogenesis, nitric oxide, heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), and oxidative stress markers were evaluated. CD31 immunostaining revealed an increased capillary density in ischemic gastrocnemious tissue of diabetic rats treated with either simvastatin or its combination with vitamin C. This effect was accompanied by up-regulated plasma levels of HO-1, nitric oxide, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and its intra-muscular receptor type-2 (Flk-1). Tissue reduced glutathione and antioxidant enzymes activities were normalized in groups treated with antioxidant vitamins or their combination with simvastatin with concomitant blunting of lipid peroxidation. Vitamins E and C, through their antioxidant effects, evidently enhanced the angiogenic effect of simvastatin in ischemic diabetic muscle. Hence, the use of antioxidant vitamins combined with statins to induce therapeutic angiogenesis is a promising strategy in the management of diabetes-associated peripheral arterial disease. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A STUDY OF MEASLES VACCINATION COVERAGE BY LOT QUALITY ASSURANCE SAMPLING TECHNIQUE AND FACTORS RELATED TO NON-VACCINATION IN BELLARY DISTRICT

    OpenAIRE

    A Karinagannanavar; W Khan; Raghavendra, B; ARB Sameena; TG Goud

    2013-01-01

    Background: Measles is a leading cause of childhood morbidity and mortality accounting for nearly half the global burden of vaccine preventable deaths. In 2007, there were 197000 measles deaths globally nearly 540 deaths every day or 22 deaths per hour. According to NFHS-3 2005 – 06 total measles vaccination coverage in Karnataka was 72%. Objectives: 1) To find out measles vaccination coverage in Bellary District. 2) To know the reasons for non-vaccination. Material and Methods:   A Cross sec...

  7. Measles virus antibody responses in children randomly assigned to receive standard-titer edmonston-zagreb measles vaccine at 4.5 and 9 months of age, 9 months of age, or 9 and 18 months of age

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martins, Cesario; Garly, May-Lill; Bale, Carlitos

    2014-01-01

    The World Health Organization recommends administration of measles vaccine (MV) at age 9 months in low-income countries. We tested the measles virus antibody response at 4.5, 9, 18, and 24 months of age for children randomly assigned to receive standard-titer Edmonston-Zagreb MV at 4.5 and 9 months...

  8. The transcorneal electrical stimulation as a novel therapeutic strategy against retinal and optic neuropathy: a review of experimental and clinical trials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ye Tao

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Transcorneal electrical stimulation (TES is a novel therapeutic approach to activate the retina and related downstream structures. TES has multiple advantages over traditional treatments, such as being minimally invasive and readily applicable in a routine manner. Series of animal experiments have shown that TES protects the retinal neuron from traumatic or genetic induced degeneration. These laboratory evidences support its utilization in ophthalmological therapies against various retinal and optical diseases including retinitis pigmentosa (RP, traumatic optic neuropathy, anterior ischemic optic neuropathy (AION, and retinal artery occlusions (RAOs. Several pioneering explorations sought to clarify the functional mechanism underlying the neuroprotective effects of TES. It seems that the neuroprotective effects should not be attributed to a solitary pathway, on the contrary, multiple mechanisms might contribute collectively to maintain cellular homeostasis and promote cell survival in the retina. More precise evaluations via functional and morphological techniques would determine the exact mechanism underlying the remarkable neuroprotective effect of TES. Further studies to determine the optimal parameters and the long-term stability of TES are crucial to justify the clinical significance and to establish TES as a popularized therapeutic modality against retinal and optic neuropathy.

  9. Acute and long-term changes in T-lymphocyte subsets in response to clinical and subclinical measles. A community study from rural Senegal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisse, I; Samb, B; Whittle, H

    1998-01-01

    To investigate the possibility of long-term suppression of T-lymphocyte subsets, we examined children exposed to measles at home during an epidemic in rural Senegal, at time of exposure and 1 and 6 months later. The measles case fatality ratio was 1%. Subclinical measles was common among vaccinat...

  10. Record High US Measles Cases: Patient Vaccination, Clinical Assessment and Management

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-06-30

    This podcast is an overview of the Clinician Outreach and Communication Activity (COCA) Call: Record High US Measles Cases: Patient Vaccination, Clinical Assessment and Management. In May 2014, the United States recorded the largest number of reported measles cases since 1994 and the number continues to rise. Most cases reported have been acquired in the U.S. and are associated with importations from countries where measles is still common. This highly contagious, acute viral illness spreads quickly in unvaccinated populations once reaching the U.S. The recent measles outbreaks highlight the importance of maintaining high vaccination coverage in the U.S. and ensuring age-appropriate vaccination for international travelers. During this COCA call, clinicians will learn the status of measles in the U.S. and CDC vaccination recommendations and guidelines for patient assessment and management.  Created: 6/30/2014 by : National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases; Division of Viral Diseases; Healthcare Preparedness Activity (HPA); Office of Public Health Preparedness and Response (OPHPR).   Date Released: 6/30/2014.

  11. Cost-benefit analyses of supplementary measles immunisation in the highly immunized population of New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hayman, D T S; Marshall, J C; French, N P; Carpenter, T E; Roberts, M G; Kiedrzynski, T

    2017-09-05

    As endemic measles is eliminated from countries through increased immunisation, the economic benefits of enhanced immunisation programs may come into question. New Zealand has suffered from outbreaks after measles introductions from abroad and we use it as a model system to understand the benefits of catch up immunisation in highly immunised populations. We provide cost-benefit analyses for measles supplementary immunisation in New Zealand. We model outbreaks based on estimates of the basic reproduction number in the vaccinated population (Rv, the number of secondary infections in a partially immunised population), based on the number of immunologically-naïve people at district and national levels, considering both pre- and post-catch up vaccination scenarios. Our analyses suggest that measles Rv often includes or exceeds one (0.18-3.92) despite high levels of population immunity. We calculate the cost of the first 187 confirmed and probable measles cases in 2014 to be over NZ$1 million (∼US$864,200) due to earnings lost, case management and hospitalization costs. The benefit-cost ratio analyses suggest additional vaccination beyond routine childhood immunisation is economically efficient. Supplemental vaccination-related costs are required to exceed approximately US$66 to US$1877 per person, depending on different scenarios, before supplemental vaccination is economically inefficient. Thus, our analysis suggests additional immunisation beyond childhood programs to target naïve individuals is economically beneficial even when childhood immunisation rates are high. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Expression of defective measles virus genes in brain tissues of patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Baczko, K.; Liebert, U.G.; Billeter, M.; Cattaneo, R.; Budka, H.; Ter Meulen, V.

    1986-08-01

    The persistence of measles virus in selected areas of the brains of four patients with subacute sclerosing panencephalitis (SSPE) was characterized by immunohistological and biochemical techniques. The five measles virus structural proteins were never simultaneously detectable in any of the bran sections. Nucleocapsid proteins and phosphoproteins were found in every diseased brain area, whereas hemagglutinin protein was detected in two cases, fusion protein was detected in three cases, and matrix protein was detected in only one case. Also, it could be shown that the amounts of measles virus RNA in the brains differed from patient to patient and in the different regions investigated. In all patients, plus-strand RNAs specific for these five viral genes could be detected. However, the amounts of fusion and hemagglutinin mRNAs were low compared with the amounts in lytically infected cells. The presence of particular measles virus RNAs in SSPE-infected brains did not always correlate with mRNA activity. In in vitro translations, the matrix protein was produced in only one case, and the hemagglutinin protein was produced in none. These results indicate that measles virus persistence in SSPE is correlated with different defects of several genes which probably prevent assembly of viral particles in SSPE-infected brain tissue.

  13. Genetic characterization of Chinese measles vaccines by analysis of complete genomic sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yan; Zhou, Jianhui; Bellini, William J; Xu, Wenbo; Rota, Paul A

    2009-08-01

    The complete genomic sequences of two Chinese measles vaccine viruses, Shanghai-191 (S-191) and Changchun-47 (C-47), were determined and compared to the sequences of other measles vaccine strains as well as the prototype measles strain, Edmonston wild-type (Edwt). Compared to Edwt, S-191 and C-47 had 49 and 43 nucleotide changes, respectively. These differences were found at 52 nucleotide positions that were not found in other vaccine strains. Phylogenetic analysis of the all of the available genomic sequences for measles vaccines showed that S-191 and C-47 were most closely related to the Leningrad-4 strain. S-191 and C-47 shared conserved vaccine virus-specific amino acid changes in the phosphoprotein (P), V, C, matrix (M), and hemagglutinin (H) that could represent important targets for future studies aimed at understanding the molecular basis of attenuation. In addition, S-191 and C-47 had several unique amino acid changes including 13 positions that differed from Edwt. This is the first comparison of the complete genomic sequences of Chinese measles vaccines to the sequences of other vaccine strains. 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  14. Inhibition of measles virus infections in cell cultures by peptide-conjugated morpholino oligomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sleeman, Katrina; Stein, David A; Tamin, Azaibi; Reddish, Michael; Iversen, Patrick L; Rota, Paul A

    2009-03-01

    Measles virus (MeV) is a highly contagious human pathogen. Despite the success of measles vaccination programs, measles is still responsible for an estimated 245,000 deaths each year. There are currently no antiviral compounds available for the treatment of measles. Peptide-conjugated phosphorodiamidate morpholino oligomers (PPMO) are antisense compounds that enter cells readily and can interfere with mRNA function by steric blocking. A panel of PPMO was designed to target various sequences of MeV RNA that are known to be important for viral replication. Five PPMO, targeting MeV genomic RNA or mRNA, inhibited the replication of MeV, in a dose-responsive and sequence-specific manner in cultured cells. One of the highly active PPMO (PPMO 454), targeting a conserved sequence in the translation start site of the mRNA coding for the nucleocapsid protein, inhibited multiple genotypes of MeV. This report provides evidence that PPMO treatment represents a promising approach for developing antiviral agents against measles and other paramyxoviruses.

  15. Successful public health response to four cases of imported measles in Panama.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, Nestor; Guerra, Ilka; Abrego, Leyda; Cisneros, Julio; Castillo, Juan; Nieto-Guevara, Javier; Gálvez, Carlos; Moltó, Yadira; Smith, Rebecca E; Pascale, Juan Miguel

    2012-08-21

    In Panama, the last endemic cases of measles occurred in 1995. In this paper, we report four cases of imported measles in three girls and one boy after they returned from a trip to Poland and Israel between 28 April and 11 May 2011. The etiologic diagnosis of the four cases was confirmed by detection of IgM antibodies against measles virus and positive polymerase chain reaction using measles-specific primers. All cases had genotype D4 with close genetic similarity to virus reported from Poland. Public health interventions included isolation of the cases in their homes and an extensive search for and vaccination of contacts of the four cases, regardless of their vaccination status. A nationwide vaccination campaign was also implemented after the first case was identified. A total of 70,950 measles vaccine doses were administered in Panama in the two months following the identification of these cases. In addition, 94,179 persons were confirmed to have their immunization schedule up-to-date and did not receive the vaccine. No secondary cases were detected in Panama in the following six months.

  16. Measles supplementary immunization activities and GAVI funds as catalysts for improving injection safety in Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoekstra, Edward J; van den Ent, Maya M V X; Dao, Halima; Khalaf, Hala; Salovaara, Annika

    2011-07-01

    In 2000, reuse of disposable syringes and inadequately sterilized syringes resulted in 39% of all injections being unsafe, causing 22 million infections. We describe the contribution of measles supplemental immunization activities (SIAs) and Global Alliance for Vaccines and Immunisation (GAVI) funding in replacing disposable and sterilizable syringes with auto-disable (AD) syringes to improve injection safety in 39 African countries. We assessed trends in nationwide introduction of AD syringes against measles catch-up SIAs and GAVI funding using World Health Organization/United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF) Joint Reporting Form for Immunization and UNICEF supply data. In 19 (49%) of 39 countries, the measles program catalyzed the introduction of injection safety equipment, including AD syringes and safety boxes, training, and procurement of safety equipment during SIAs. GAVI was catalytic through financial support in 14 countries (36%) for including safe injection equipment in routine immunization. Additionally, GAVI funded 21 countries that had already introduced AD syringes in their national program. UNICEF AD syringe shipments to sub-Saharan Africa increased from 11 million to 461 million from 1997 to 2008. All 39 countries stopped using sterilizable syringes by 2004. The measles mortality reduction program and GAVI complemented each other in improving injection safety. All countries continued with AD syringes for immunization after measles catch-up SIAs and GAVI funding ended. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved.

  17. In vivo antimetastatic effects of uPAR retargeted measles virus in syngeneic and xenograft models of mammary cancer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jing, Yuqi; Bejarano, Marcela Toro; Zaias, Julia; Merchan, Jaime R.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The urokinase receptor (uPAR) plays a critical role in breast cancer (BC) progression and metastases, and is a validated target for novel therapies. The current study investigates the effects of MV-uPA, an oncolytic measles virus fully retargeted against uPAR in syngeneic and xenograft BC metastases models. Methods In vitro replication and cytotoxicity of MVs retargeted against human (MV-h-uPA) or mouse (MV-m-uPA) uPAR were assessed in human and murine cancer and non-cancer mammary epithelial cells. The in vivo effects of species-specific uPAR retargeted MVs were assessed in syngeneic and xenograft models of experimental metastases, established by intravenous administration of luciferase expressing 4T1 or MDA-MD-231 cells. Metastases progression was assessed by in vivo bioluminescence imaging. Tumor targeting was evaluated by qRT-PCR of MV-N, rescue of viable viral particles and immunostaining of MV particles in lungs from tumor bearing mice. Results In vitro, MV-h-uPA and MV-m-uPA selectively infected, replicated and induced cytotoxicity in cancer compared to non-cancer cells in a species-specific manner. In vivo, MV-m-uPA delayed 4T1 lung metastases progression and prolonged survival. These effects were associated with identification of viable viral particles, viral RNA and detection of MV-N by immunostaining from lung tissues in treated mice. In the human MDA-MB-231 metastases model, intravenous administration of MV-h-uPA markedly inhibited metastases progression and significantly improved survival, compared to controls. No significant treatment related toxicity was observed in treated mice. Conclusions The above preclinical findings strongly suggest that uPAR retargeted measles virotherapy is a novel and feasible systemic therapy strategy against metastatic breast cancer. PMID:25519042

  18. Membrane dynamics and interactions in measles virus dendritic cell infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avota, Elita; Koethe, Susanne; Schneider-Schaulies, Sibylle

    2013-02-01

    Viral entry, compartmentalization and transmission depend on the formation of membrane lipid/protein microdomains concentrating receptors and signalosomes. Dendritic cells (DCs) are prime targets for measles virus (MV) infection, and this interaction promotes immune activation and generalized immunosuppression, yet also MV transport to secondary lymphatics where transmission to T cells occurs. In addition to MV trapping, DC-SIGN interaction can enhance MV uptake by activating cellular sphingomyelinases and, thereby, vertical surface transport of its entry receptor CD150. To exploit DCs as Trojan horses for transport, MV promotes DC maturation accompanied by mobilization, and restrictions of viral replication in these cells may support this process. MV-infected DCs are unable to support formation of functional immune synapses with conjugating T cells and signalling via viral glycoproteins or repulsive ligands (such as semaphorins) plays a key role in the induction of T-cell paralysis. In the absence of antigen recognition, MV transmission from infected DCs to T cells most likely involves formation of polyconjugates which concentrate viral structural proteins, viral receptors and with components enhancing either viral uptake or conjugate stability. Because DCs barely support production of infectious MV particles, these organized interfaces are likely to represent virological synapses essential for MV transmission. © 2012 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  19. High incidence of subcutaneous emphysema in children in a Somali refugee cAMP during measles outbreak.

    OpenAIRE

    Moons, Peter; Thallinger, Monica

    2014-01-01

    During an outbreak of measles in a refugee camp in Ethiopia, 9 patients (age range 4 months to 18 years) were diagnosed with subcutaneous emphysema. Incidence of this rare complication of measles in this refugee camp was higher than previously reported. We hypothesize that the high incidence is most likely related to poor physical state of the refugee population with high rates of malnutrition.

  20. Transitioning Lessons Learned and Assets of the Global Polio Eradication Initiative to Global and Regional Measles and Rubella Elimination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kretsinger, Katrina; Strebel, Peter; Kezaala, Robert; Goodson, James L

    2017-07-01

    The Global Polio Eradication Initiative has built an extensive infrastructure with capabilities and resources that should be transitioned to measles and rubella elimination efforts. Measles continues to be a major cause of child mortality globally, and rubella continues to be the leading infectious cause of birth defects. Measles and rubella eradication is feasible and cost saving. The obvious similarities in strategies between polio elimination and measles and rubella elimination include the use of an extensive surveillance and laboratory network, outbreak preparedness and response, extensive communications and social mobilization networks, and the need for periodic supplementary immunization activities. Polio staff and resources are already connected with those of measles and rubella, and transitioning existing capabilities to measles and rubella elimination efforts allows for optimized use of resources and the best opportunity to incorporate important lessons learned from polio eradication, and polio resources are concentrated in the countries with the highest burden of measles and rubella. Measles and rubella elimination strategies rely heavily on achieving and maintaining high vaccination coverage through the routine immunization activity infrastructure, thus creating synergies with immunization systems approaches, in what is termed a "diagonal approach." © The Author 2017. Published by Oxford University Press for the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

  1. ‘The world is full of big bad wolves’: investigating the experimental therapeutic spaces of R.D. Laing and Aaron Esterson

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    In conjunction with the recent critical assessments of the life and work of R.D. Laing, this paper seeks to demonstrate what is revealed when Laing’s work on families and created spaces of mental health care are examined through a geographical lens. The paper begins with an exploration of Laing’s time at the Tavistock Clinic in London during the 1960s, and of the co-authored text with Aaron Esterson entitled, Sanity, Madness and the Family (1964). The study then seeks to demonstrate the importance Laing and his colleague placed on the time-space situatedness of patients and their worlds. Finally, an account is provided of Laing’s and Esterson’s spatial thinking in relation to their creation of both real and imagined spaces of therapeutic care. PMID:25114145

  2. 'The world is full of big bad wolves': investigating the experimental therapeutic spaces of R.D. Laing and Aaron Esterson.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGeachan, Cheryl

    2014-09-01

    In conjunction with the recent critical assessments of the life and work of R.D. Laing, this paper seeks to demonstrate what is revealed when Laing's work on families and created spaces of mental health care are examined through a geographical lens. The paper begins with an exploration of Laing's time at the Tavistock Clinic in London during the 1960s, and of the co-authored text with Aaron Esterson entitled, Sanity, Madness and the Family (1964). The study then seeks to demonstrate the importance Laing and his colleague placed on the time-space situatedness of patients and their worlds. Finally, an account is provided of Laing's and Esterson's spatial thinking in relation to their creation of both real and imagined spaces of therapeutic care. © The Author(s) 2014.

  3. Therapeutic Nanodevices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Stephen; Ruegsegger, Mark; Barnes, Philip; Smith, Bryan; Ferrari, Mauro

    Therapeutic nanotechnology offers minimally invasive therapies with high densities of function concentrated in small volumes, features that may reduce patient morbidity and mortality. Unlike other areas of nanotechnology, novel physical properties associated with nanoscale dimensionality are not the raison d'être of therapeutic nanotechnology, whereas the aggregation of multiple biochemical (or comparably precise) functions into controlled nanoarchitectures is. Multifunctionality is a hallmark of emerging nanotherapeutic devices, and multifunctionality can allow nanotherapeutic devices to perform multistep work processes, with each functional component contributing to one or more nanodevice subroutine such that, in aggregate, subroutines sum to a cogent work process. Cannonical nanotherapeutic subroutines include tethering (targeting) to sites of disease, dispensing measured doses of drug (or bioactive compound), detection of residual disease after therapy and communication with an external clinician/operator. Emerging nanotherapeutics thus blur the boundaries between medical devices and traditional pharmaceuticals. Assembly of therapeutic nanodevices generally exploits either (bio)material self-assembly properties or chemoselective bioconjugation techniques, or both. Given the complexity, composition, and the necessity for their tight chemical and structural definition inherent in the nature of nanotherapeutics, their cost of goods (COGs) might exceed that of (already expensive) biologics. Early therapeutic nanodevices will likely be applied to disease states which exhibit significant unmet patient need (cancer and cardiovascular disease), while application to other disease states well-served by conventional therapy may await perfection of nanotherapeutic design and assembly protocols.

  4. Live vaccine against measles, mumps, and rubella and the risk of hospital admissions for nontargeted infections

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørup, Signe; Benn, Christine Stabell; Poulsen, Anja

    2014-01-01

    IMPORTANCE: In low-income countries, live measles vaccine reduces mortality from causes other than measles infection. Such nonspecific effects of vaccines might also be important for the health of children in high-income settings. OBJECTIVE: To examine whether the live vaccine against measles......). Nationwide Danish registers provided data on vaccinations and hospital admissions. The recommended vaccination schedule was inactivated vaccine against diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio, and Haemophilus influenzae type b (DTaP-IPV-Hib) administered at ages 3, 5, and 12 months and MMR at age 15 months....... MAIN OUTCOMES AND MEASURES: Incidence rate ratios (IRRs) of hospital admissions for any infection, comparing receipt of MMR vs DTaP-IPV-Hib as the most recent vaccine. Risks, risk difference, and number needed to vaccinate were calculated for receiving MMR on time. RESULTS: The study included 495...

  5. Introduction of standard measles vaccination in an urban African community in 1979 and overall child survival

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mogensen, Søren Wengel; Aaby, Peter; Smedman, Lars

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To examine the effect of the first introduction of measles vaccine (MV) in Guinea-Bissau in 1979. SETTING: Urban community study of the anthropometric status of all children under 6 years of age. PARTICIPANTS: The study cohort included 1451 children in December 1978; 82% took part...... in the anthropometric survey. The cohort was followed for 2 years. INTERVENTION: In December 1979, the children were re-examined anthropometrically. The participating children, aged 6 months to 6 years, were offered MV if they did not have a history of measles infection. There were no routine vaccinations in 1979......-1980. PRIMARY AND SECONDARY OUTCOME MEASURES: Age-adjusted mortality rate ratios (MRRs) for measles vaccinated and not vaccinated children; changes in nutritional status. RESULTS: The nutritional status deteriorated significantly from 1978 to 1979. Nonetheless, children who received MV at the December 1979...

  6. Molecular Epidemiology of Measles Viruses in the United States, 1997–2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liffick, Stephanie L.; Rota, Jennifer S.; Katz, Russell S.; Redd, Susan; Papania, Mark; Bellini, William J.

    2002-01-01

    From 1997 to 2001, sequence data from 55 clinical specimens were obtained from confirmed measles cases in the United States, representing 21 outbreaks and 34 sporadic cases. Sequence analysis indicated the presence of 11 of the recognized genotypes. The most common genotypes detected were genotype D6, usually identified from imported cases from Europe, and genotype D5, associated with importations from Japan. A number of viruses belonging to genotype D4 were imported from India and Pakistan. Overall, viral genotypes were determined for 13 chains of transmission with an unknown source of virus, and seven different genotypes were identified. Therefore, the diversity of Measles virus genotypes observed in the United States from 1997 to 2001 reflected multiple imported sources of virus and indicated that no strain of measles is endemic in the United States. PMID:12194764

  7. Molecular epidemiology of measles viruses in the United States, 1997-2001.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rota, Paul A; Liffick, Stephanie L; Rota, Jennifer S; Katz, Russell S; Redd, Susan; Papania, Mark; Bellini, William J

    2002-09-01

    From 1997 to 2001, sequence data from 55 clinical specimens were obtained from confirmed measles cases in the United States, representing 21 outbreaks and 34 sporadic cases. Sequence analysis indicated the presence of 11 of the recognized genotypes. The most common genotypes detected were genotype D6, usually identified from imported cases from Europe, and genotype D5, associated with importations from Japan. A number of viruses belonging to genotype D4 were imported from India and Pakistan. Overall, viral genotypes were determined for 13 chains of transmission with an unknown source of virus, and seven different genotypes were identified. Therefore, the diversity of Measles virus genotypes observed in the United States from 1997 to 2001 reflected multiple imported sources of virus and indicated that no strain of measles is endemic in the United States.

  8. Long term impact of high titer Edmonston-Zagreb measles vaccine on T lymphocyte subsets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lisse, I M; Aaby, P; Knudsen, K

    1994-01-01

    conducted in Guinea-Bissau. To test for possible long term impact on the immune system, an investigation of T cell subsets was conducted among all children still residing in the community at 3 to 5 years of age. No differences were found between recipients of medium titer vaccine and controls. In the second......Several trials of high titer measles vaccine (> 10(4.7) plaque-forming unit) have found female recipients of Edmonston-Zagreb (EZ) vaccine to have lower survival than female recipients of standard measles vaccine. Two trials with medium and high titer EZ vaccine from the age of 4 months were...... unlikely to explain the reduced survival which has been associated with high titer EZ measles vaccination. In the 2 years after the investigation of T cell subsets, there was no increased mortality for recipients of EZ vaccine. Hence it is unlikely that high titer vaccine has an persistent adverse effect...

  9. Experimental measurements and nuclear model calculations on the excitation functions of $^{nat}Ce(^{3}He, xn)$ and $^{141}$therapeutic radionuclide $^{140}$Nd

    CERN Document Server

    Hilgers, K; Coenen, H H; Qaim, S M

    2005-01-01

    For production of the therapy related Auger electron emitting neutron deficient nuclide /sup 140/Nd (T/sub fraction 1/2/=3.37d) two routes were investigated: the nuclear reaction range from 15 to 36 MeV and the reaction /sup 141/Pr(p,2n)/sup 140isotopes, namely /sup 139/Nd and /sup 141/Nd, as well as to cerium(IV)-oxide and praseodymium (III)-oxide were obtained by sedimentation and the conventional stacked-foil technique was used for cross section measurements. All the experimental data obtained in this work were compared with the results of theoretical calculations using the exciton model code ALICE-IPPE as well as with literature experimental data, if available. In general, good agreement between experimental and theoretical results was found. The theoretical thick target yields of all the product nuclides were calculated from the measured excitation functions. The theoretical thick target yield of amounts to 12 MBq/mu Acenterdoth and over the energy range E/sub p/=30rightward arrow15 Me V to 210 MBq/mu; A...

  10. Descriptive analysis of measles cases seen in a tertiary health facility in Sokoto, Northwest Nigeria – implication of disease eradication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Yahaya

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Measles is a vaccine preventable viral disease that affects mostly children under-five years of age. It is highly contagious infection associated with high morbidity and mortality. Objective To describe the morbidity and mortality pattern of measles cases in person, place and time. Methods A health facility based study and cross sectional descriptive study design was used. All cases of measles that presented at the facility from January to June 2016 were profiled and their medical records reviewed. Representative blood samples were taken and analyzed using the Enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA method for the diagnosis of measles. Data was entered into MS Excel version 2016 and later analysed using Epi-info version 7. Results A total of 149 patients were seen over a period of 6 months. They represent 88 males and 61 females with a male to female ratio of 2:1. The median age of the cases was 30 months (range of 108 months to 9 month. The trend analysis shows a steady increased in number of cases from January with the month of March having the highest number of 46 cases, then there was steady decline for the subsequent months. Only 14 children, which accounted for 9.4% were reported to have being vaccinated against measles, while majority, 135 that represented 90.6% were not. Seven deaths were recorded; all were males and among cases that never received vaccine against measles, giving Case fatality rate (CFR of 5.0%. Measles specific immunoglobulin M (IgM was detected in all the blood samples that were sent for investigations. Conclusion Nearly all the cases did not receive measles vaccine and among the deaths recorded, none had been vaccinated against measles. Concerted efforts are required by all stakeholders to ensure every child is completely immunized in line with the global measles elimination strategy.

  11. Measles associated with international travel in the region of the Americas, Australia and Europe, 2001-2013: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jost, M; Luzi, D; Metzler, S; Miran, B; Mutsch, M

    2015-01-01

    Travel volumes are still increasing resulting in a more interconnected world and fostering the spread of infectious diseases. We aimed to evaluate the relevance of travel-related measles, a highly transmissible and vaccine-preventable disease. Between 2001 and 2013, surveillance and travel-related measles data were systematically reviewed according to the PRISMA guidelines with extraction of relevant articles from Medline, Embase, GoogleScholar and from public health authorities in the Region of the Americas, Europe and Australia. From a total of 960 records 44 articles were included and they comprised 2128 imported measles cases between 2001 and 2011. The proportion of imported cases in Europe was low at 1-2%, which reflects the situation in a measles-endemic region. In contrast, imported and import-related measles accounted for up to 100% of all cases in regions with interrupted endemic measles transmission. Eleven air-travel related reports described 132 measles index cases leading to 47 secondary cases. Secondary transmission was significantly more likely to occur if the index case was younger or when there were multiple infectious cases on board. Further spread to health care settings was found. Measles cases associated with cruise ship travel or mass gatherings were sporadically observed. Within both, endemic and non-endemic home countries, pretravel health advice should assess MMR immunity routinely to avoid measles spread by nonimmune travelers. To identify measles spread as well as to increase and sustain high vaccination coverages joint efforts of public health specialists, health care practitioners and travel medicine providers are needed. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Parental attitudes towards measles vaccination in the canton of Aargau, Switzerland: a latent class analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Carine; Schröpfer, Daniel; Merten, Sonja

    2016-08-11

    Despite the successes of routine national childhood vaccination programmes, measles remains a public health concern. The purpose of this paper is to investigate how patterns of parental attitudes are linked to the decision-making process for or against MMR vaccination. This exploratory study was designed to identify distinct patterns of attitudes towards or against measles vaccination through Latent Class Analysis (LCA) in a sub-sample of mothers living in the canton of Aargau in Switzerland. Parents of young children below 36 months of age were randomly selected through parents' counsellors' registries. Among other questions, respondents were asked to state their agreement in response to 14 belief statements regarding measles vaccination on a 5-point Likert scale. To identify groups of parents showing distinct patterns of attitudes and beliefs regarding measles vaccination, we used Latent Class Analysis (LCA). The LCA showed three classes of parents with different attitudes and believes towards measles vaccination: The biggest group (class 1) are those having positive attitudes towards immunisation, followed by the second biggest group (class 2) which is characterised by having fearful attitudes and by showing uncertainty about immunisation. The third group (class 3) shows distinct patterns of critical attitudes against immunisation. Within this group over 90 % agree or totally agree that immunisation is an artificial intrusion into the natural immune system and therefore want to vaccinate their children only if necessary. We find that parents in the Canton Aargau who hesitate to vaccinate their children against measles, mumps and rubella show distinct opinions and attitudes. Health professionals should be aware of these perceptions to tailor their messages accordingly and positively influence these parents to vaccinate their children. Special attention needs to be given to those parents who are planning to vaccinate their children but are not following the

  13. Measles Surveillance Attributes Assessment Based on The Puskesmas Surveilance Officers’ Perception in Surabaya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bilqis Elfira Maharani

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Measles is one of infectious diseases that potentially lead to death when complications occur. Based on the data from East Java Health Department, Surabaya is the area where the most measles cases occur in East Java and increase in the last three years. As one of measles controlling efforts, surveillance has been expected to provide qualified data and information as the basis for any decision making for a treatment or intervention. Therefore, an evaluation is needed in order to assure the effectiveness and efficiency of the surveillance application in achieving the goals. This study is a descriptive research aiming at evaluating the attributes of measles epidemiology surveillance system in Surabaya on 2012. The evaluation was done by assessing the attributes of surveillance then compared to Technical Guide for Measles Surveillance 2012, The Decree of The Health Ministry of The Republic of Indonesia No.1116/MENKES/SK/VIII/2003 On Guide for Conducting Surveillance System of Health Epidemiology and Guidelines for Evaluating Surveillance Systems from Center for Disease Control and Prevention 2001. The data collection method employed interview and observation or study documentation. The respondents of this study were 39 surveillance officers at 39 Puskesmas in Health Department Surabaya working area. The variabels of this study were simplicity, flexibility, data quality, acceptability, sensitivity, predictive value positive, representativeness, timeliness, and stability. The results of this study showed that the simplicity is complicated. The flexibility from CBMS is not flexible whereas the flexibility from EWARS is flexible. The data quality, acceptability, sensitivity and representativeness are low. The predictive value positive has not been able to be scored. The stability is high and the timeliness is punctual. Keywords: surveillance, evaluation, attribute, measles

  14. Measles-mumps-rubella and varicella vaccine responses in extremely preterm infants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    D'Angio, Carl T; Boohene, Paulina A; Mowrer, Anne; Audet, Susette; Menegus, Marilyn A; Schmid, D Scott; Beeler, Judy A

    2007-03-01

    Extremely preterm infants mount lower antibody responses than term infants to several vaccines. The objective of this study was to measure the immunogenicity of measles-mumps-rubella and varicella vaccines in preterm and term children. Immune status before immunization and immune response after immunization with measles-mumps-rubella and varicella vaccines at 15 months of age were compared in 32 infants, 16 of whom were preterm ( or = 37 weeks' gestation) at birth. Blood was drawn before vaccination and 3 to 6 weeks thereafter. Measles antibody was measured by plaque reduction neutralization assay. Mumps and rubella immunoglobulin G were measured in available sera by enzyme-linked fluorescent immunoassay. Varicella immunoglobulin G was measured in available sera by glycoprotein enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Values that were above or below the assay limits were assigned values double or half those limits, respectively. The primary outcome was the geometric mean antibody titer. Preterm children had lower mumps and rubella geometric mean titers than did term children before vaccine, and nearly all children were seronegative for each of the 4 vaccine antigens before immunization. Measles, mumps, rubella, and varicella geometric mean titers were similar between groups after vaccine. All children were seropositive for measles after vaccine, whereas 13 of 14 preterm and 11 of 13 term children were seropositive for mumps, 13 of 14 preterm and 13 of 13 term children were seropositive for rubella, and 11 of 16 preterm and 9 of 15 term children were seropositive for varicella. Preterm children mounted antibody responses that were similar to those of term children after measles-mumps-rubella and varicella vaccines at 15 months of age.

  15. Experimental, therapeutic and natural transmission of Plasmodium vivax tertian malaria: scientific and anecdotal data on the history of Dutch malaria studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verhave, Jan Peter

    2013-01-18

    When Plasmodium vivax tertian malaria was prevalent in The Netherlands, the use of therapeutic malaria for the treatment of neurosyphilis patients presented an opportunity for biological studies of the parasite's behaviour, in healthy volunteers. One unexplained phenomenon was the long latency between natural exposure to a single infected mosquito and the appearance of clinical signs (average 8 months). Dutch studies with volunteers and syphilis patients, suggested that hundreds of sporozoites transmitted by several mosquito bites were enough to provoke an early attack, known from tropical vivax-malaria. Sporozoites appeared to be programmed either to delay their pre-erythrocytic development or to proceed to an early attack within three weeks. The number of infectious bites also determined the relapse rate and the number of relapses after a primary attack. Analyses of primary cases and relapses from the previous year were used to predict the incidence for the next year. These historic findings fit well with recent studies on genotyping of blood stages during primary attacks and relapses. External factors (i.e. the milieu inside the human host) may trigger hypnozoites to reactivate, but predetermined periods of latency should also be considered.

  16. Protective and Therapeutic Effects of Chinese Medicine Formula Jiajian Yunvjian on Experimental Cardiac Remodeling after Myocardial Infarction Induced by Coronary Artery Ligation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Jun; Gu, Wei-Liang; Chen, Chang-Xun; Wang, Ying; Lv, Jian

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. This study was designed to explore the effect and mechanism of a classic Chinese medicine formula Jiajian Yunvjian (JJYNJ) on cardiac remodeling. Cardiac remodeling after myocardial infarction (MI) model was achieved by coronary artery ligation (CAL). Methodology. When dosed orally once daily, the effects of JJYNJ on hemodynamics, left ventricular weight index (LVWI), heart weight index (HWI), concentration, and gene expression of neuroendocrine factors as well as the histomorphological observation were determined. Results. After 4 weeks, mild cardiac remodeling in CAL group was characterized compared with sham group, but after 4 weeks of treatment of JJYNJ, hemodynamics improved, HWI reduced, and circulating angiotensin II (Ang II), endothelin-1 (ET-1), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and hydroxyproline (Hyp) concentrations as well as Ang II receptor type 1 (AT1R) mRNA, transforming growth factor β 1 (TGF-β 1) mRNA, and TNF-α mRNA levels in myocardium were lower than in CAL group. Decreased plasma aldosterone (ALD) concentration, cross-sectional area of cardiomyocyte, collagen volume fraction (CVF), collagen types I and III, perivascular collagen area (PVCA), and upregulated nitric oxide (NO) levels were observed at the same time. Conclusions. These findings suggest that JJYNJ may have a protective and therapeutic function on cardiac remodeling related to MI.

  17. Experimental, therapeutic and natural transmission of Plasmodium vivax tertian malaria: scientific and anecdotal data on the history of Dutch malaria studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Verhave Jan Peter

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract When Plasmodium vivax tertian malaria was prevalent in The Netherlands, the use of therapeutic malaria for the treatment of neurosyphilis patients presented an opportunity for biological studies of the parasite’s behaviour, in healthy volunteers. One unexplained phenomenon was the long latency between natural exposure to a single infected mosquito and the appearance of clinical signs (average 8 months. Dutch studies with volunteers and syphilis patients, suggested that hundreds of sporozoites transmitted by several mosquito bites were enough to provoke an early attack, known from tropical vivax-malaria. Sporozoites appeared to be programmed either to delay their pre-erythrocytic development or to proceed to an early attack within three weeks. The number of infectious bites also determined the relapse rate and the number of relapses after a primary attack. Analyses of primary cases and relapses from the previous year were used to predict the incidence for the next year. These historic findings fit well with recent studies on genotyping of blood stages during primary attacks and relapses. External factors (i.e. the milieu inside the human host may trigger hypnozoites to reactivate, but predetermined periods of latency should also be considered.

  18. Child mortality related to seroconversion or lack of seroconversion after measles vaccination

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aaby, Peter; Pedersen, I R; Knudsen, K

    1989-01-01

    children) were excluded from the analysis (P less than 0.01). The difference in mortality was particularly marked among children vaccinated in the age group 9 to 11 months. This as well as other community studies suggest that measles vaccination reduces child mortality from the age of vaccination......When blood samples were analyzed for seroconversion after measles vaccination, it was discovered that the vaccine had been ineffective for a certain period. During the 2 years between vaccination and the time of seroanalysis, nonseroconverters had a significantly higher mortality than...

  19. Measles severity and serum retinol (vitamin A) concentration among children in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butler, J C; Havens, P L; Sowell, A L; Huff, D L; Peterson, D E; Day, S E; Chusid, M J; Bennin, R A; Circo, R; Davis, J P

    1993-06-01

    Studies in developing countries have shown that children with measles have low serum retinol concentrations and that lower retinol levels are associated with measles-related mortality. Vitamin A therapy has been shown to reduce mortality among African children with acute measles. To determine whether serum retinol concentration is low among children with measles in the United States and to determine whether retinol concentration is associated with illness severity. Pediatric referral hospital and clinic in Milwaukee, WI, during the measles outbreak of 1989-1990. One hundred fourteen patients < or = 5 years of age evaluated for serologically confirmed measles with serum obtained within 5 days following rash onset. Serum retinol concentration was determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. Clinical data were collected by hospital record review. A modified Pediatric Risk of Mortality (PRISM) score was used to assess physiologic instability as a measure of illness severity. Retinol concentrations ranged from 0.25 to 1.18 mumol/L (median 0.58 mumol/L); 82 (72%) patients had low retinol concentration (< or = 0.70 mumol/L). Median retinol concentrations were lower among hospitalized patients (0.56 vs 0.70, P = .006) and patients with pneumonia (0.52 vs 0.64, P = .02) but higher among children with otitis media (0.63 vs 0.54, P = .01). Higher modified PRISM scores, reflecting greater physiologic instability, were associated with lower retinol concentration (beta coefficient -.0147, P = .025). In multivariate analysis, higher modified PRISM scores were associated with lower retinol concentration (beta coefficient -.0144, P = .025) even after controlling for hospitalization, presence of complications, race, age, receipt of Aid to Families With Dependent Children, gender, and interval from rash onset until serum was collected. Among these children with measles in an urban United States community, retinol concentrations were depressed, and the degree of depression

  20. Contribution of dendritic cells to measles virus induced immunosuppression.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coughlin, Melissa M; Bellini, William J; Rota, Paul A

    2013-03-01

    Measles virus (MV) remains an important pathogen in children worldwide. The morbidity and mortality of MV is associated with severe immune suppression. Dendritic cells (DCs) were identified as initial target cells in vivo, and DCs were efficiently infected by MV in vitro. MV infection of DCs likely contributes to functional deficiency in these cells; therefore playing a role in MV-induced immunosuppression. DCs appeared to mature phenotypically; however, the ability of infected cells to stimulate T cells was compromised. Phenotypic maturation of infected immature DCs was partially controlled by IFN production; however, infected DCs also maintained markers of an immature phenotype such as the continued uptake of antigen and lack of expression of chemokine receptor CCR7. Furthermore, mature DCs did not appear to maintain phenotypic maturation following infection demonstrated by decreased MHC and co-stimulatory molecule expression. Several mechanisms of MV-induced DC dysfunction have been suggested, each likely contributing to the immunosuppressive effect of MV-infected DCs. Infected DCs responded aberrantly to secondary maturation stimuli such as CD40L or TLR4 stimulation. MV infection resulted in apoptosis in DC/T-cell cocultures, which may contribute to a reduced T-cell response. Additionally, the immunological synapse between infected DCs and T cells was compromised resulting in reduced T-cell interaction times and activation signaling. The mechanisms of MV contribution to DC dysfunction appear multifaceted and central to MV-induced immunosuppression. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.