WorldWideScience

Sample records for experimental loop design

  1. Design and Experimental Evaluation of Modified Square Loop Feeding for UHF RFID Tags

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Rokunuzzaman, Md; Islam, Mohammad Tariqul; Arshad, Haslina; Jit Singh, Mandeep; Misran, Norbahiah

    2015-01-01

    This paper addresses the performance evaluation of a modified square loop antenna design for UHF RFID applications that is excited through a narrow feed line connected to a square loop, an impedance matching network...

  2. Design and experimental investigation of a neon cryogenic loop heat pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiang; Guo, Yuandong; Zhang, Hongxing; Miao, Jianyin; Wang, Lu; Lin, Guiping

    2017-11-01

    Next generation space infrared sensor and detector have pressing requirement for cryogenic heat transport technology in the temperature range of 30-40 K. Cryogenic loop heat pipe (CLHP) has excellent thermal performance and particular characteristics such as high flexibility transport lines and no moving parts, thus it is regarded as an ideal thermal control solution. A neon CLHP referring to infrared point-to-point heat transfer element in future space application has been designed and experimented. And it could realize supercritical startup successfully. Experimental results show that the supercritical startup were realized successfully at cases of 1.5 W secondary evaporator power, but the startup was failed when 0.5 and 1 W heat load applied to secondary evaporator. The maximum heat transport capability of primary evaporator is between 4.5 and 5 W with proper auxiliary heat load. Before startup, even the heat sink temperature decreased to 35 K, the primary evaporator can still maintain at almost 290 K; and the primary evaporator temperature increased at once when the powers were cut off, which indicated the CLHP has a perfect function of thermal switch. The CLHP could adapt to sudden changes of the primary evaporator power, and reach a new steady-state quickly. Besides, some failure phenomena were observed during the test, which indicated that proper secondary evaporator power and heat sink temperature play important roles on the normal operation.

  3. Design and experimental investigation of a neon cryogenic loop heat pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jiang; Guo, Yuandong; Zhang, Hongxing; Miao, Jianyin; Wang, Lu; Lin, Guiping

    2017-03-01

    Next generation space infrared sensor and detector have pressing requirement for cryogenic heat transport technology in the temperature range of 30-40 K. Cryogenic loop heat pipe (CLHP) has excellent thermal performance and particular characteristics such as high flexibility transport lines and no moving parts, thus it is regarded as an ideal thermal control solution. A neon CLHP referring to infrared point-to-point heat transfer element in future space application has been designed and experimented. And it could realize supercritical startup successfully. Experimental results show that the supercritical startup were realized successfully at cases of 1.5 W secondary evaporator power, but the startup was failed when 0.5 and 1 W heat load applied to secondary evaporator. The maximum heat transport capability of primary evaporator is between 4.5 and 5 W with proper auxiliary heat load. Before startup, even the heat sink temperature decreased to 35 K, the primary evaporator can still maintain at almost 290 K; and the primary evaporator temperature increased at once when the powers were cut off, which indicated the CLHP has a perfect function of thermal switch. The CLHP could adapt to sudden changes of the primary evaporator power, and reach a new steady-state quickly. Besides, some failure phenomena were observed during the test, which indicated that proper secondary evaporator power and heat sink temperature play important roles on the normal operation.

  4. Rational Design of Mixed-Metal Oxides for Chemical Looping Combustion of Coal via Coupled Computational-Experimental Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mishra, Amit; Li, Fanxing; Santiso, Erik

    2017-09-18

    Energy and global climate change are two grand challenges to the modern society. An urgent need exists for development of clean and efficient energy conversion processes. The chemical looping strategy, which utilizes regenerable oxygen carriers (OCs) to indirectly convert carbonaceous fuels via redox reactions, is considered to be one of the more promising approaches for CO2 capture by the U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE). To date, most long-term chemical looping operations were conducted using gaseous fuels, even though direct conversion of coal is more desirable from both economics and CO2 capture viewpoints. The main challenges for direct coal conversion reside in the stringent requirements on oxygen carrier performances. In addition, coal char and volatile compounds are more challenging to convert than gaseous fuels. A promising approach for direct conversion of coal is the so called chemical looping with oxygen uncoupling (CLOU) technique. In the CLOU process, a metal oxide that decomposes at the looping temperature, and releases oxygen to the gas phase is used as the OC. The overarching objective of this project was to discover the fundamental principles for rational design and optimization of oxygen carriers (OC) in coal chemical looping combustion (CLC) processes. It directly addresses Topic Area B of the funding opportunity announcement (FOA) in terms of “predictive description of the phase behavior and mechanical properties” of “mixed metal oxide” based OCs and rational development of new OC materials with superior functionality. This was achieved through studies exploring i) iron-containing mixed-oxide composites as oxygen carriers for CLOU, ii) Ca1-xAxMnO3-δ (A = Sr and Ba) as oxygen carriers for CLOU, iii) CaMn1-xBxO3-δ (B=Al, V, Fe, Co, and Ni) as oxygen carrier for CLOU and iv) vacancy creation energy in Mn-containing perovskites as an indicator chemical looping with oxygen uncoupling.

  5. Geothermal Loop Experimental Facility. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-04-01

    Research at the Geothermal Loop Experimental Facility was successfully concluded in September 1979. In 13,000 hours of operation over a three and one half year period, the nominal 10 megawatt electrical equivalent GLEF provided the opportunity to identify problems in working with highly saline geothermal fluids and to develop solutions that could be applied to a commercial geothermal power plant producing electricity. A seven and one half year period beginning in April 1972, with early well flow testing and ending in September 1979, with the completion of extensive facility and reservoir operations is covered. During this period, the facility was designed, constructed and operated in several configurations. A comprehensive reference document, addressing or referencing documentation of all the key areas investigated is presented.

  6. Conceptional design of test loop for FIV in fuel bundle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, W. G.; Yang, J. S.; Kim, S. W. [Hannam Univ., Taejeon (Korea)

    2001-01-01

    It is urgent to develop the analytical model for the structural/mechanical integrity of fuel rod. In general, it is not easy to develop a pure analytical model. Occasionally, experimental results have been utilized for the model. Because of this reason, it is required to design proper test loop. Using the optimized test loop, with the optimized test loop, the dynamic behaviour of the rod will be evaluated and the critical flow velocity, which the rod loses the stability in, will be measured for the design of the rod. To verify the integrity of the fuel rod, it is required to evaluate the dynamic behaviour and the critical flow velocity with the test loop. The test results will be utilized to the design of the rod. Generally, the rod has a ground vibration due to turbulence in wide range of flow velocity and the amplitude of vibration becomes larger by the resonance, in a range of the velocity where occurs vortex. The rod loses stability in critical flow velocity caused by fluid-elastic instability. For the purpose of the present work to perform the conceptional design of the test loop, it is necessary (1) to understand the mechanism of the flow-induced vibration and the related experimental coefficients, (2) to evaluate the existing test loops for improving the loop with design parameters and (3) to decide the design specifications of the major equipments of the loop. 35 refs., 23 figs., 2 tabs. (Author)

  7. Design Principles for Closed Loop Supply Chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.R. Krikke (Harold); C.P. Pappis (Costas); G.T. Tsoulfas; J.M. Bloemhof-Ruwaard (Jacqueline)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractIn this paper we study design principles for closed loop supply chains. Closed loop supply chains aim at closing material flows thereby limiting emission and residual waste, but also providing customer service at low cost. We study 'traditional' and 'new' design principles known in the

  8. Design configurations of the methanol synthesis loop

    OpenAIRE

    Bøhn, Kristian

    2011-01-01

    In recent years the chemical industry has undergone considerable changes due to increased environmental regulations and energy costs. This master thesis has evaluated three different design considerations of the methanol synthesis loop using Honeywell's general purpose process simulator UniSim Design (R380 Build 14027) combined with MathWorks programming language MATLAB. The three configurations are Lurgis methanol reactor loop as built on Tjeldbergodden, the use of interstage methanol remova...

  9. Phase locked loops design, simulation, and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Best, Roland E

    2007-01-01

    The Definitive Introduction to Phase-Locked Loops, Complete with Software for Designing Wireless Circuits! The Sixth Edition of Roland Best's classic Phase-Locked Loops has been updated to equip you with today's definitive introduction to PLL design, complete with powerful PLL design and simulation software written by the author. Filled with all the latest PLL advances, this celebrated sourcebook now includes new chapters on frequency synthesis…CAD for PLLs…mixed-signal PLLs…all-digital PLLs…and software PLLs_plus a new collection of sample communications applications. An essential tool for achieving cutting-edge PLL design, the Sixth Edition of Phase-Locked Loops features: A wealth of easy-to-use methods for designing phase-locked loops Over 200 detailed illustrations New to this edition: new chapters on frequency synthesis, including fractional-N PLL frequency synthesizers using sigma-delta modulators; CAD for PLLs, mixed-signal PLLs, all-digital PLLs, and software PLLs; new PLL communications ap...

  10. Experimental investigation of magnetically confined plasma loops

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tenfelde, Jan

    2012-12-11

    Arch-shaped magnetic flux tubes generated in a pulsed-power plasma experiment were investigated with a variety of diagnostics concerning their expansion properties. Specifically, the expansion velocity was of interest, which is observed as constant for a wide range of experimental parameters. An MHD transport mechanism is investigated as possible cause of a uniform arch cross section: Axial transport of poloidal magnetic flux along the plasma may cause a pinch force leading to a uniform diameter along the arch. Despite numerous experimental findings at a very similar experimental setup, no indication for the relevance of this process could be found. Instead, magnetic probe data showed that the plasma current in the apex region is constant. A constant expansion velocity was observed for considerably different experimental conditions. This included different plasma source designs with fundamentally different toroidal magnetic field topology and variation of the working gas, which lead to plasma densities lower by an order of magnitude. Inside the current channel of the arch, Alfven velocities were estimated. To this end, plasma density profiles obtained from interferometry were inverted to obtain local densities, which were in turn verified by means of Stark broadening of hydrogen Balmer lines. Furthermore, measurements of multiple components of the magnetic field of the plasma arch were performed. An estimate for the conductivity was obtained from Spitzer's formula for fully ionized plasma using electron temperatures obtained from elementary optical emission spectroscopy. From the presented data of ccd imaging, magnetic field probes, and to lesser extent, interferometry, the underlying assumption of residual plasma (and considerable plasma currents through it) below the actual arch structure is very plausible. Rough estimates of the electric field strength along the arch and results of the magnetic field measurements showed, that the detected expansion

  11. Validation of the generalized model of two-phase thermosyphon loop based on experimental measurements of volumetric flow rate

    OpenAIRE

    Bieliński Henryk

    2016-01-01

    The current paper presents the experimental validation of the generalized model of the two-phase thermosyphon loop. The generalized model is based on mass, momentum, and energy balances in the evaporators, rising tube, condensers and the falling tube. The theoretical analysis and the experimental data have been obtained for a new designed variant. The variant refers to a thermosyphon loop with both minichannels and conventional tubes. The thermosyphon loop consists of an evaporator on the low...

  12. Detail design of test loop for FIV in fuel bundle and preliminary test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sim, Woo Gunl; Lee, Wan Young; Kim, Sung Won [Hannam University, Taejeon (Korea)

    2002-04-01

    It is urgent to develop the analytical model for the structural/mechanical integrity of fuel rod. In general, it is not easy to develop a pure analytical model. Occasionally, experimental results have been utilized for the model.Because of this reason, it is required to design proper test loop. Using the optimized test loop, With the optimized test loop, the dynamic behaviour of the rod will be evaluated and the critical flow velocity, which the rod loses the stability in, will be measured for the design of the rod. To verify the integrity of the fuel rod, it is required to evaluate the dynamic behaviour and the critical flow velocity with the test loop. The test results will be utilized to the design of the rod. Generally, the rod has a ground vibration due to turbulence in wide range of flow velocity and the amplitude of vibration becomes larger by the resonance, in a range of the velocity where occurs vortex. The rod loses stability in critical flow velocity caused by fluid-elastic instability. For the purpose of the present work to perform the conceptional design of the test loop, it is necessary (1) to understand the mechanism of the flow-induced vibration and the related experimental coefficients, (2) to evaluate the existing test loops for improving the loop with design parameters and (3) to decide the design specifications of the major equipments of the loop. 35 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs. (Author)

  13. CFD and experimental data of closed-loop wind tunnel flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John Kaiser Calautit

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The data presented in this article were the basis for the study reported in the research articles entitled ‘A validated design methodology for a closed loop subsonic wind tunnel’ (Calautit et al., 2014 [1], which presented a systematic investigation into the design, simulation and analysis of flow parameters in a wind tunnel using Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD. The authors evaluated the accuracy of replicating the flow characteristics for which the wind tunnel was designed using numerical simulation. Here, we detail the numerical and experimental set-up for the analysis of the closed-loop subsonic wind tunnel with an empty test section.

  14. Rational Design of Nanobody80 Loop Peptidomimetics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Martin, Charlotte; Moors, Samuel L C; Danielsen, Mia

    2017-01-01

    G protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs) play an important role in many cellular responses; as such, their mechanism of action is of utmost interest. To gain insight into the active conformation of GPCRs, the X-ray crystal structures of nanobody (Nb)-stabilized β2 -adrenergic receptor (β2 AR) have been...... that peptidomimetics of the CDR3 loop might be sufficient for binding to the receptor, inhibiting the interaction of β2 AR with intracellular GPCR interacting proteins (e.g., G proteins). Based on previous crystallographic data, a set of peptidomimetics were synthesized that, similar to the Nb80 CDR3 loop, adopt a β...

  15. Experimental Design Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book presents a new, multidisciplinary perspective on and paradigm for integrative experimental design research. It addresses various perspectives on methods, analysis and overall research approach, and how they can be synthesized to advance understanding of design. It explores the foundations...... of experimental approaches and their utility in this domain, and brings together analytical approaches to promote an integrated understanding. The book also investigates where these approaches lead to and how they link design research more fully with other disciplines (e.g. psychology, cognition, sociology......, computer science, management). Above all, the book emphasizes the integrative nature of design research in terms of the methods, theories, and units of study—from the individual to the organizational level. Although this approach offers many advantages, it has inherently led to a situation in current...

  16. Loops and Metagames: Understanding Game Design Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sicart, Miguel Angel

    2015-01-01

    In this paper we present a set of formal concepts that can help in game design analysis. Our goal is to provide a conceptual framework based on terminology used in game design.......In this paper we present a set of formal concepts that can help in game design analysis. Our goal is to provide a conceptual framework based on terminology used in game design....

  17. Experimental Engineering: Articulating and Valuing Design Experimentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Anna; Grönvall, Erik; Fritsch, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we propose Experimental Engineering as a way to articulate open- ended technological experiments as a legitimate design research practice. Experimental Engineering introduces a move away from an outcome or result driven design process towards an interest in existing technologies...

  18. Geothermal Loop Experimental Facility. Quarterly report, April--June 1978

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bischoff, W.S.; Bishop, H.K.; Cooney, C.S.; Hanenburg, W.H.; Hoaglin, G.J.; Jacobson, W.O.; Mulliner, D.K.; Newell, D.G.; Swanson, C.R.

    1978-07-01

    The Geothermal Loop Experimental Facility (GLEF) was modified to use a two stage flash process with two parallel flash trains for the extraction of energy from a high temperature, high salinity, liquid-dominated resource. Since plant start-up in May 1976, a substantial amount of information has been obtained on the operation of the plant, components, brine and steam composition, production and injection wells, and the potential of the Niland Reservoir. The general operation and accomplishments of the GLEF during the period April 1978 through June 1978 are discussed. The GLEF underwent a major redesign. Modifications and inspections of various GLEF equipment and systems are also discussed. Information about the production and injection wells flow testing and instrumentation are discussed. Information regarding coatings and linings for valves and piping is included. In the Chemistry Section there is a wide range of data taken from Brine, Steam, Scale, Binary, Condensate, and Cooling Water Systems.

  19. Design of Closed Loop Supply Chains

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.R. Krikke (Harold); J.M. Bloemhof-Ruwaard (Jacqueline); L.N. van Wassenhove (Luk)

    2001-01-01

    textabstractIncreased concern for the environment has lead to new techniques to design products and supply chains that are both economically and ecologically feasible. This paper deals with the product - and corresponding supply chain design for a refrigerator. Literature study shows that there are

  20. THEME: a web tool for loop-design microarray data analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Chaang-Ray; Shu, Wun-Yi; Tsai, Min-Lung; Cheng, Wei-Chung; Hsu, Ian C

    2012-02-01

    A number of recent studies have shown that loop-design is more efficient than reference control design. Data analysis for loop-design microarray experiments is commonly undertaken using linear models and statistical tests. These techniques require specialized knowledge in statistical programming. However, limited loop-design web-based tools are available. We have developed the THEME (Tsing Hua Engine of Microarray Experiment) that exploits all necessary data analysis tools for loop-design microarray studies. THEME allows users to construct linear models and to apply multiple user-defined statistical tests of hypotheses for detection of DEG (differentially expressed genes). Users can modify entries of design matrix for experimental design as well as that of contrast matrix for statistical tests of hypotheses. The output of multiple user-defined statistical tests of hypotheses, DEG lists, can be cross-validated. The web platform provides data assessment and visualization tools that significantly assist users when evaluating the performance of microarray experimental procedures. THEME is also a MIAME (Minimal Information About a Microarray Experiment) compliant system, which enables users to export formatted files for GEO (Gene Expression Omnibus) submission. THEME offers comprehensive web services to biologists for data analysis of loop-design microarray experiments. This web-based resource is especially useful for core facility service as well as collaboration projects when researchers are not at the same site. Data analysis procedures, starting from uploading raw data files to retrieving DEG lists, can be flexibly operated with natural workflows. These features make THEME a reliable and powerful on-line system for data analysis of loop-design microarrays. The THEME server is available at http://metadb.bmes.nthu.edu.tw/theme/. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Exploring the Use of Design of Experiments in Industrial Processes Operating Under Closed-Loop Control

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Capaci, Francesca; Kulahci, Murat; Vanhatalo, Erik

    2017-01-01

    Industrial manufacturing processes often operate under closed-loop control, where automation aims to keep important process variables at their set-points. In process industries such as pulp, paper, chemical and steel plants, it is often hard to find production processes operating in open loop...... such processes. The Tennessee Eastman challenge process simulator is used as a test-bed to highlight two experimental scenarios. The first scenario explores the impact of experimental factors that may be considered as disturbances in the closed-loop system. The second scenario exemplifies a screening design...... using the set-points of controllers as experimental factors. We provide examples of how to analyze the two scenarios. ...

  2. System design description for GCFR-core flow test loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huntley, W.R.; Grindell, A.G.

    1980-12-01

    The Core Flow Test Loop is a high-pressure, high-temperature, out-of-reactor helium circulation system that is being constructed to permit detailed study of the thermomechanical and thermal performance at prototypic steady-state and transient operating conditions of simulated segments of core assemblies for a GCFR Demonstration Plant, as designed by General Atomic Company. It will also permit the expermental verification of predictive analytical models of the GCFR core assemblies needed to reduce operational and safety uncertainties of the GCFR. Full-sized blanket assemblies and segments of fuel rod and control rod fuel assemblies will be simulated with test bundles of electrically powered fuel rod or blanket rod simulators. The loop will provide the steady-state and margin test requirements of bundle power and heat removal, and of helium coolant flow rate, pressure, and temperature for test bundles having up to 91 rods; these requirements set the maximum power, coolant helium flow, and thermal requirements for the loop. However, the size of the test vessel that contains the test bundles will be determined by the bundles that simulate a full-sized GCFR blanket assembly. The loop will also provide for power and coolant transients to simulate transient operation of GCFR core assemblies, including the capability for rapid helium depressurization to simulate the depressurization class of GCFR accidents. In addition, the loop can be used as an out-of-reactor test bed for characterizing in-reactor test bundle configurations.

  3. System and method of designing models in a feedback loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosink, Luke C.; Pulsipher, Trenton C.; Sego, Landon H.

    2017-02-14

    A method and system for designing models is disclosed. The method includes selecting a plurality of models for modeling a common event of interest. The method further includes aggregating the results of the models and analyzing each model compared to the aggregate result to obtain comparative information. The method also includes providing the information back to the plurality of models to design more accurate models through a feedback loop.

  4. Conceptual Design of Forced Convection Molten Salt Heat Transfer Testing Loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manohar S. Sohal; Piyush Sabharwall; Pattrick Calderoni; Alan K. Wertsching; S. Brandon Grover

    2010-09-01

    This report develops a proposal to design and construct a forced convection test loop. A detailed test plan will then be conducted to obtain data on heat transfer, thermodynamic, and corrosion characteristics of the molten salts and fluid-solid interaction. In particular, this report outlines an experimental research and development test plan. The most important initial requirement for heat transfer test of molten salt systems is the establishment of reference coolant materials to use in the experiments. An earlier report produced within the same project highlighted how thermophysical properties of the materials that directly impact the heat transfer behavior are strongly correlated to the composition and impurities concentration of the melt. It is therefore essential to establish laboratory techniques that can measure the melt composition, and to develop purification methods that would allow the production of large quantities of coolant with the desired purity. A companion report describes the options available to reach such objectives. In particular, that report outlines an experimental research and development test plan that would include following steps: •Molten Salts: The candidate molten salts for investigation will be selected. •Materials of Construction: Materials of construction for the test loop, heat exchangers, and fluid-solid corrosion tests in the test loop will also be selected. •Scaling Analysis: Scaling analysis to design the test loop will be performed. •Test Plan: A comprehensive test plan to include all the tests that are being planned in the short and long term time frame will be developed. •Design the Test Loop: The forced convection test loop will be designed including extensive mechanical design, instrument selection, data acquisition system, safety requirements, and related precautionary measures. •Fabricate the Test Loop. •Perform the Tests. •Uncertainty Analysis: As a part of the data collection, uncertainty analysis will

  5. Supercritical water loop design for corrosion and water chemistry tests under irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruzickova, Mariana; Hajek, Petr; Vsolak, Rudolf; Kysela, Jan [Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc, Reactor Services Division, Husinec (Czech Republic); Smida, Stepan [H and D Engineering, Praha (Czech Republic); Petr, Jan [Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc, Praha (Czech Republic)

    2008-03-15

    An experimental loop operating with water at supercritical conditions (25MPa, 600 .deg. C in the test section) is designed for operation in the research reactor LVR-15 in UJV Rez, Czech Republic. The loop should serve as an experimental facility for corrosion tests of materials for in-core as well as out-of-core structures, for testing and optimization of suitable water chemistry for a future HPLWR and for studies of radiolysis of water at supercritical conditions, which remains the domain where very few experimental data are available. At present, final necessary calculations (thermalhydraulic, neutronic, strength) are being performed on the irradiation channel, which is the most challenging part of the loop. The concept of the primary and auxiliary circuits has been completed. The design of the loop shall be finished in the course of the year 2007 to start the construction, out-of-pile testing to verify proper functioning of all systems and as such to be ready for in-pile tests by the end of the HPLWR Phase 2 European project by the end of 2009.

  6. EXPERIMENTAL VALIDATION OF A DUAL LOOP CONTROL OF TWO PHASES INTERLEAVED BOOST CONVERTER FOR FUEL CELL APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Kraa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, a modelling, an implementation and a control of a dc-dc converter structure called “two phases Interleaved Boost Converter (IBC” will be presented. This topology is widely used in order to reduce the input current ripples and the size of passive component with high efficiency. The control of the IBC converter is designed by dual loop control that contains a voltage loop with a linear PI controller and a fast current loop with a non-linear sliding controller to ensure a good tracking in steady state and fast performance in transient state. The proposed control loop has been validated, first by the simulation results under Matlab-Simulink and after by the experimental results using a small-scale test bench with the dSPACE-1104 card.

  7. Design and simulation of a sensor for heliostat field closed loop control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collins, Mike; Potter, Daniel; Burton, Alex

    2017-06-01

    Significant research has been completed in pursuit of capital cost reductions for heliostats [1],[2]. The camera array closed loop control concept has potential to radically alter the way heliostats are controlled and installed by replacing high quality open loop targeting systems with low quality targeting devices that rely on measurement of image position to remove tracking errors during operation. Although the system could be used for any heliostat size, the system significantly benefits small heliostats by reducing actuation costs, enabling large numbers of heliostats to be calibrated simultaneously, and enabling calibration of heliostats that produce low irradiance (similar or less than ambient light images) on Lambertian calibration targets, such as small heliostats that are far from the tower. A simulation method for the camera array has been designed and verified experimentally. The simulation tool demonstrates that closed loop calibration or control is possible using this device.

  8. Experimental validation of packed bed chemical-looping combustion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Noorman, S.; van Sint Annaland, M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.

    2010-01-01

    Chemical-looping combustion has emerged as a promising alternative technology, intrinsically integrating CO2 capture in power production. A novel reactor concept based on dynamically operated packed beds has been proposed [Noorman, S., van Sint Annaland, M., Kuipers, J.A.M., 2007. Packed bed reactor

  9. Chemical looping reactor system design double loop circulating fluidized bed (DLCFB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bischi, Aldo

    2012-05-15

    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is continuously gaining more importance among the carbon capture and storage (CCS) technologies. It is an unmixed combustion process which takes place in two steps. An effective way to realize CLC is to use two interconnected fluidized beds and a metallic powder circulating among them, acting as oxygen carrier. The metallic powder oxidizes at high temperature in one of the two reactors, the air reactor (AR). It reacts in a highly exothermic reaction with the oxygen of the injected fluidising air. Afterwards the particles are sent to the other reactor where the fuel is injected, the fuel reactor (FR). There, they transport heat and oxygen necessary for the reaction with the injected fuel to take place. At high temperatures, the particle's oxygen reacts with the fuel producing Co2 and steam, and the particles are ready to start the loop again. The overall reaction, the sum of the enthalpy changes of the oxygen carrier oxidation and reduction reactions, is the same as for the conventional combustion. Two are the key features, which make CLC promising both for costs and capture efficiency. First, the high inherent irreversibility of the conventional combustion is avoided because the energy is utilized stepwise. Second, the Co2 is intrinsically separated within the process; so there is in principle no need either of extra carbon capture devices or of expensive air separation units to produce oxygen for oxy-combustion. A lot of effort is taking place worldwide on the development of new chemical looping oxygen carrier particles, reactor systems and processes. The current work is focused on the reactor system: a new design is presented, for the construction of an atmospheric 150kWth prototype working with gaseous fuel and possibly with inexpensive oxygen carriers derived from industrial by-products or natural minerals. It consists of two circulating fluidized beds capable to operate in fast fluidization regime; this will increase the

  10. Integrating Lean Exploration Loops Into Healthcare Facility Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazur, Lukasz M; Johnson, Kendra; Pooya, Pegah; Chadwick, Janet; McCreery, John

    2017-04-01

    To explore what, when, and how Lean methods and tools can add value during the programming phase of design through providing additional resources and support to project leadership and the architectural design team. This case study-based research took place at one large academic hospital during design efforts of a surgical tower to house 19 operating rooms (ORs) and support spaces including pre- and postop, central processing and distribution, and materials management. Surgical services project leadership asked for support from Lean practitioners during the design process. Lean exploration loops (LELs) were conducted to generate evidence to support stakeholders, as they made important decisions about the new building design. The analyses conducted during LELs were primarily focused on the relative advantages of a large footprint with few floors or a smaller footprint with more floors and support spaces not collocated adjacent to ORs on the same floor. LELs resulted in quantifications of key operational and design features (e.g., design preferences of employees and patients, horizontal distance travel, and elevator utilization studies), which in turn complemented the architectural design process and created an opportunities to gain buy-in and consensus from stakeholders through their active participation in many of the analyses. We found Lean tools and methods to be of most value during programming phase when focused on the high-level operational and design issues to help establish buy-in and consensus among stakeholders, while acknowledging that there is often not enough design detail to perform accurate analysis.

  11. Experimental measurement and CFD simulation on the hydrodynamics of an internal-loop airlift reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liew Shi Yan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper concerns with the experimental measurement and computational fluid dynamics simulation on local hydrodynamics of a gas-liquid internal-loop airlift reactor. The aim of this work is to study the sensitivity of the drag models and the significance of considering the lift force on the predictive accuracy of the simulation. The experimental analysis was carried out using laser Doppler anemometry at three different heights (i.e. Y = 0.20 m, 0.30 m and 0.38 m across the riser and downcomerat volumetric flow rate of 0.30 m3/h to provide validation for the simulation results. A transient three-dimensional gasliquid internal-loop airlift reactor was carried out using FLUENT 16.2 by implementing the two-fluid model approach. The Eulerian-Eulerian multiphase and standard κ-ε dispersed turbulence model wereemployed in this study. Results suggest that the spherical drag model performed poorly and that the drag model governed by Rayleigh-Taylor shows promising accuracy in the prediction of overall mean axial liquid velocity. On the other hand, the consideration of lift model shows slightly improvement in accuracy. These findings may serve as a guidance for future scale-up and design of airlift reactor studies

  12. Experimental design a chemometric approach

    CERN Document Server

    Deming, SN

    1987-01-01

    Now available in a paperback edition is a book which has been described as ``...an exceptionally lucid, easy-to-read presentation... would be an excellent addition to the collection of every analytical chemist. I recommend it with great enthusiasm.'' (Analytical Chemistry). Unlike most current textbooks, it approaches experimental design from the point of view of the experimenter, rather than that of the statistician. As the reviewer in `Analytical Chemistry' went on to say: ``Deming and Morgan should be given high praise for bringing the principles of experimental design to the level of the p

  13. Integrating Lean Exploration Loops Into Healthcare Facility Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, Kendra; M Mazur, Lukasz; Chadwick, Janet; Pooya, Pegah; Amos, Alison; McCreery, John

    2017-04-01

    To explore how Lean can add value during the schematic phase of design through providing additional resources and support to project leadership and the architectural design team. This case study-based research took place at one large academic hospital during design efforts of surgical tower to house 19 operating rooms (ORs) and support spaces including pre- and post-op, central processing and distribution, and materials management. Surgical services project leadership asked for Lean practitioners' support during the design process. Lean Exploration Loops (LELs) were conducted to generate evidence to support stakeholders, as they made important decisions about the new building design. The analyses conducted during LELs during the schematic phase were primarily conducted using express workouts (EWOs) and were focused on the flow of patients, staff, and family throughout the pavilion. LELs resulted in recommendations for key design features (e.g., number of pre- and post-op bays per OR floor, location of doors, scrub sinks, stretcher alcoves, equipment storage, and sterile core areas). Two-sided pre- and post-op bays with an inner clinical workspace and an outer patient transport corridor were recommended. Communicating elevator and a centrally located stairwell for staff to alleviate stress on the main bank of elevators at peak usage times were also suggested. We found Lean tools and methods to be of most value during schematic phase when focused on detailed process and layout analysis, while acknowledging the usefulness of focused EWOs to generate the evidence needed for the decision-making.

  14. Design approaches to experimental mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirlott, Angela G; MacKinnon, David P

    2016-09-01

    Identifying causal mechanisms has become a cornerstone of experimental social psychology, and editors in top social psychology journals champion the use of mediation methods, particularly innovative ones when possible (e.g. Halberstadt, 2010, Smith, 2012). Commonly, studies in experimental social psychology randomly assign participants to levels of the independent variable and measure the mediating and dependent variables, and the mediator is assumed to causally affect the dependent variable. However, participants are not randomly assigned to levels of the mediating variable(s), i.e., the relationship between the mediating and dependent variables is correlational. Although researchers likely know that correlational studies pose a risk of confounding, this problem seems forgotten when thinking about experimental designs randomly assigning participants to levels of the independent variable and measuring the mediator (i.e., "measurement-of-mediation" designs). Experimentally manipulating the mediator provides an approach to solving these problems, yet these methods contain their own set of challenges (e.g., Bullock, Green, & Ha, 2010). We describe types of experimental manipulations targeting the mediator (manipulations demonstrating a causal effect of the mediator on the dependent variable and manipulations targeting the strength of the causal effect of the mediator) and types of experimental designs (double randomization, concurrent double randomization, and parallel), provide published examples of the designs, and discuss the strengths and challenges of each design. Therefore, the goals of this paper include providing a practical guide to manipulation-of-mediator designs in light of their challenges and encouraging researchers to use more rigorous approaches to mediation because manipulation-of-mediator designs strengthen the ability to infer causality of the mediating variable on the dependent variable.

  15. Design strategies for dynamic closed-loop optogenetic neurocontrol in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bolus, Michael F; Willats, Adam A; Whitmire, Clarissa J; Rozell, Christopher J; Stanley, Garrett B

    2018-01-04

    Controlling neural activity enables the possibility of manipulating sensory perception, cognitive processes, and body movement, in addition to providing a powerful framework for functionally disentangling the neural circuits that underlie these complex phenomena. Over the last decade, optogenetic stimulation has become an increasingly important and powerful tool for understanding neural circuit function, owing to the ability to target specific cell types and bidirectionally modulate neural activity. To date, most stimulation has been provided in open-loop or in an on/off closed-loop fashion, where previously-determined stimulation is triggered by an event. Here, we describe and demonstrate a design approach for precise optogenetic control of neuronal firing rate modulation using feedback to guide stimulation continuously. Approach. Using the rodent somatosensory thalamus as an in-vivo experimental testbed for realizing desired time-varying patterns of firing rate modulation, we utilized a moving average exponential filter to estimate firing rate online from single-unit spiking measured extracellularly. This estimate of instantaneous rate served as feedback for a proportional integral (PI) controller, which was designed during the experiment based on a linear-nonlinear Poisson (LNP) model of the neuronal response to light. Main results. The LNP model fit during the experiment enabled robust closed-loop control, resulting in good tracking of sinusoidal and non-sinusoidal targets, and rejection of unmeasured disturbances. Closed-loop control also enabled manipulation of trial-to-trial variability. Significance. Because neuroscientists are faced with the challenge of dissecting the functions of circuit components, the ability to maintain control of a region of interest in spite of changes in ongoing neural activity will be important for disambiguating function within networks. Closed-loop stimulation strategies are ideal for control that is robust to such

  16. Closed loop supply chain network design with fuzzy tactical decisions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherafati, Mahtab; Bashiri, Mahdi

    2016-01-01

    One of the most strategic and the most significant decisions in supply chain management is reconfiguration of the structure and design of the supply chain network. In this paper, a closed loop supply chain network design model is presented to select the best tactical and strategic decision levels simultaneously considering the appropriate transportation mode in activated links. The strategic decisions are made for a long term; thus, it is more satisfactory and more appropriate when the decision variables are considered uncertain and fuzzy, because it is more flexible and near to the real world. This paper is the first research which considers fuzzy decision variables in the supply chain network design model. Moreover, in this study a new fuzzy optimization approach is proposed to solve a supply chain network design problem with fuzzy tactical decision variables. Finally, the proposed approach and model are verified using several numerical examples. The comparison of the results with other existing approaches confirms efficiency of the proposed approach. Moreover the results confirms that by considering the vagueness of tactical decisions some properties of the supply chain network will be improved.

  17. Design, development and test of a capillary pump loop heat pipe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kroliczek, E. J.; Ku, J.; Ollendorf, S.

    1984-06-01

    The development of a capillary pump loop (CPL) heat pipe, including computer modeling and breadboard testing, is presented. The computer model is a SINDA-type thermal analyzer, combined with a pressure analyzer, which predicts the transients of the CPL heat pipe during operation. The breadboard is an aluminum/ammonia transport system which contains multiple parallel evaporator and condenser zones within a single loop. Test results have demonstrated the practicality and reliability of such a design, including heat load sharing among evaporators, liquid inventory/temperature control feature, and priming under load. Transport capability for this system is 65 KW-M with individual evaporator pumps managing up to 1.7 KW at a heat flux of 15 W/sq cm. The prediction of the computer model for heat transport capabilities is in good agreement with experimental results.

  18. Sudoku Squares as Experimental Designs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 20; Issue 9. Sudoku Squares as Experimental Designs. Jyotirmoy Sarkar Bikas K Sinha. General Article ... Author Affiliations. Jyotirmoy Sarkar1 Bikas K Sinha2. Indiana University-Purdue University, Indianapolis, USA; Indian Statistical Institute, Kolkata ...

  19. Potential Pitfalls of Experimental Design

    OpenAIRE

    Phillip Watkins

    2017-01-01

    Good experimental design begins with the end in mind. An early conversation with a statistician will both increase the chances of an experimental study contributing to the literature and minimize the risks to participating human subjects.  Sir R.A. Fisher felt that “to consult the statistician after an experiment is finished is often merely to ask him to conduct a post mortem examination: he can perhaps say what the experiment died of.” To this end, some questions from a statistician are pres...

  20. A dual loop strategy for the design of a control surface actuation system with nonlinear limitations

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Gaspari, Alessandro; Mannarino, Andrea; Mantegazza, Paolo

    2017-06-01

    A novel frequency-based optimization algorithm, suitable to tune generic controllers involved in the dual loop architectures, is presented. A control scheme, based on standard industrial regulators, is adopted to incorporate nonlinear constraints reproducing technological limitations, in a control surfaces actuation system installed on a wind tunnel aeroelastic demonstrator. An integrated observer for disturbance rejection helps to meet one of the required constraints when aerodynamic loads are present. Numerical and experimental results are presented with the aim to design the actuation system and validate the methodology, considering both standard input signals and realistic command profiles.

  1. Optimized Carrier Tracking Loop Design for Real-Time High-Dynamics GNSS Receivers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro A. Roncagliolo

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Carrier phase estimation in real-time Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS receivers is usually performed by tracking loops due to their very low computational complexity. We show that a careful design of these loops allows them to operate properly in high-dynamics environments, that is, accelerations up to 40 g or more. Their phase and frequency discriminators and loop filter are derived considering the digital nature of the loop inputs. Based on these ideas, we propose a new loop structure named Unambiguous Frequency-Aided Phase-Locked Loop (UFA-PLL. In terms of tracking capacity and noise resistance UFA-PLL has the same advantages of frequently used coupled-loop schemes, but it is simpler to design and to implement. Moreover, it can keep phase lock in situations where other loops cannot. The loop design is completed selecting the correlation time and loop bandwidth that minimize the pull-out probability, without relying on typical rules of thumb. Optimal and efficient ways to smooth the phase estimates are also presented. Hence, high-quality phase measurements—usually exploited in offline and quasistatic applications—become practical for real-time and high-dynamics receivers. Experiments with fixed-point implementations of the proposed loops and actual radio signals are also shown.

  2. Elements of Bayesian experimental design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sivia, D.S. [Rutherford Appleton Lab., Oxon (United Kingdom)

    1997-09-01

    We consider some elements of the Bayesian approach that are important for optimal experimental design. While the underlying principles used are very general, and are explained in detail in a recent tutorial text, they are applied here to the specific case of characterising the inferential value of different resolution peakshapes. This particular issue was considered earlier by Silver, Sivia and Pynn (1989, 1990a, 1990b), and the following presentation confirms and extends the conclusions of their analysis.

  3. Test Requirements and Conceptual Design for a Potassium Test Loop to Support an Advanced Potassium Rankine Cycle Power Conversion Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoder, JR.G.L.

    2006-03-08

    Parameters for continuing the design and specification of an experimental potassium test loop are identified in this report. Design and construction of a potassium test loop is part of the Phase II effort of the project ''Technology Development Program for an Advanced Potassium Rankine Power Conversion System''. This program is supported by the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. Design features for the potassium test loop and its instrumentation system, specific test articles, and engineered barriers for ensuring worker safety and protection of the environment are described along with safety and environmental protection requirements to be used during the design process. Information presented in the first portion of this report formed the basis to initiate the design phase of the program; however, the report is a living document that can be changed as necessary during the design process, reflecting modifications as additional design details are developed. Some portions of the report have parameters identified as ''to be determined'' (TBD), reflecting the early stage of the overall process. In cases where specific design values are presently unknown, the report attempts to document the quantities that remain to be defined in order to complete the design of the potassium test loop and supporting equipment.

  4. Validation of the generalized model of two-phase thermosyphon loop based on experimental measurements of volumetric flow rate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bieliński Henryk

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The current paper presents the experimental validation of the generalized model of the two-phase thermosyphon loop. The generalized model is based on mass, momentum, and energy balances in the evaporators, rising tube, condensers and the falling tube. The theoretical analysis and the experimental data have been obtained for a new designed variant. The variant refers to a thermosyphon loop with both minichannels and conventional tubes. The thermosyphon loop consists of an evaporator on the lower vertical section and a condenser on the upper vertical section. The one-dimensional homogeneous and separated two-phase flow models were used in calculations. The latest minichannel heat transfer correlations available in literature were applied. A numerical analysis of the volumetric flow rate in the steady-state has been done. The experiment was conducted on a specially designed test apparatus. Ultrapure water was used as a working fluid. The results show that the theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the measured volumetric flow rate at steady-state.

  5. Validation of the generalized model of two-phase thermosyphon loop based on experimental measurements of volumetric flow rate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bieliński, Henryk

    2016-09-01

    The current paper presents the experimental validation of the generalized model of the two-phase thermosyphon loop. The generalized model is based on mass, momentum, and energy balances in the evaporators, rising tube, condensers and the falling tube. The theoretical analysis and the experimental data have been obtained for a new designed variant. The variant refers to a thermosyphon loop with both minichannels and conventional tubes. The thermosyphon loop consists of an evaporator on the lower vertical section and a condenser on the upper vertical section. The one-dimensional homogeneous and separated two-phase flow models were used in calculations. The latest minichannel heat transfer correlations available in literature were applied. A numerical analysis of the volumetric flow rate in the steady-state has been done. The experiment was conducted on a specially designed test apparatus. Ultrapure water was used as a working fluid. The results show that the theoretical predictions are in good agreement with the measured volumetric flow rate at steady-state.

  6. Potential Pitfalls of Experimental Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Phillip Watkins

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Good experimental design begins with the end in mind. An early conversation with a statistician will both increase the chances of an experimental study contributing to the literature and minimize the risks to participating human subjects.  Sir R.A. Fisher felt that “to consult the statistician after an experiment is finished is often merely to ask him to conduct a post mortem examination: he can perhaps say what the experiment died of.” To this end, some questions from a statistician are presented along with the associated experimental study pitfalls to avoid during the study planning phase. Several concrete examples are provided to give some practical knowledge on how to improve an experimental study at the onset.  Hypothesis formulation, sample size determination, randomization, and double-blinding are all explained from the viewpoint of a statistician’s final analysis. Confounders, sampling, and missing data are also briefly covered through this hypothetical question and answer session.

  7. A thermoelectric generator using loop heat pipe and design match for maximum-power generation

    KAUST Repository

    Huang, Bin-Juine

    2015-09-05

    The present study focuses on the thermoelectric generator (TEG) using loop heat pipe (LHP) and design match for maximum-power generation. The TEG uses loop heat pipe, a passive cooling device, to dissipate heat without consuming power and free of noise. The experiments for a TEG with 4W rated power show that the LHP performs very well with overall thermal resistance 0.35 K W-1, from the cold side of TEG module to the ambient. The LHP is able to dissipate heat up to 110W and is maintenance free. The TEG design match for maximum-power generation, called “near maximum-power point operation (nMPPO)”, is studied to eliminate the MPPT (maximum-power point tracking controller). nMPPO is simply a system design which properly matches the output voltage of TEG with the battery. It is experimentally shown that TEG using design match for maximum-power generation (nMPPO) performs better than TEG with MPPT.

  8. Conceptual Design for a High-Temperature Gas Loop Test Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James B. Kesseli

    2006-08-01

    This report documents an early-stage conceptual design for a high-temperature gas test loop. The objectives accomplished by the study include, (1) investigation of existing gas test loops to determine ther capabilities and how the proposed system might best complement them, (2) development of a preliminary test plan to help identify the performance characteristics required of the test unit, (3) development of test loop requirements, (4) development of a conceptual design including process flow sheet, mechanical layout, and equipment specifications and costs, and (5) development of a preliminary test loop safety plan.

  9. Current control loop design and analysis based on resonant regulators for microgrid applications

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federico, de Bosio; Pastorelli, Michelle; de Sousa Ribeiro, Luiz Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Voltage and current control loops play an important role in the performance of microgrids employing power electronics voltage source inverters. Correct design of feedback loops is essential for the proper operation of these systems. This paper analyzes the influence of state feedback cross......-coupling in the design of resonant regulators for inner current loops in power converters operating in standalone microgrids. It is also demonstrated that the effect of state feedback cross-coupling degrades the performance of the control loops by increasing the steady-state error. Different resonant regulators...

  10. Design and analysis of closed-loop decoder adaptation algorithms for brain-machine interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dangi, Siddharth; Orsborn, Amy L; Moorman, Helene G; Carmena, Jose M

    2013-07-01

    Closed-loop decoder adaptation (CLDA) is an emerging paradigm for achieving rapid performance improvements in online brain-machine interface (BMI) operation. Designing an effective CLDA algorithm requires making multiple important decisions, including choosing the timescale of adaptation, selecting which decoder parameters to adapt, crafting the corresponding update rules, and designing CLDA parameters. These design choices, combined with the specific settings of CLDA parameters, will directly affect the algorithm's ability to make decoder parameters converge to values that optimize performance. In this article, we present a general framework for the design and analysis of CLDA algorithms and support our results with experimental data of two monkeys performing a BMI task. First, we analyze and compare existing CLDA algorithms to highlight the importance of four critical design elements: the adaptation timescale, selective parameter adaptation, smooth decoder updates, and intuitive CLDA parameters. Second, we introduce mathematical convergence analysis using measures such as mean-squared error and KL divergence as a useful paradigm for evaluating the convergence properties of a prototype CLDA algorithm before experimental testing. By applying these measures to an existing CLDA algorithm, we demonstrate that our convergence analysis is an effective analytical tool that can ultimately inform and improve the design of CLDA algorithms.

  11. Inner Current Loop Analysis and Design Based on Resonant Regulators for Isolated Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Federico, de Bosio; de Sousa Ribeiro, Luiz Antonio; Soares Lima, Marcel

    2015-01-01

    Inner current and voltage loops are fundamental in achieving good performance of microgrids based on power electronics voltage source inverters. The analysis and design of these loops are essential for the adequate operation of these systems. This paper investigates the effect of state feedback...

  12. Designing of Closed loops for passenger car tyres

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dierkes, Wilma K.; van Hoek, Johannes Wilhelmus; Heideman, Geert; Noordermeer, Jacobus W.M.; Blume, Anke; Topp, Margie

    2017-01-01

    One of the emerging topics in elastomer technology is Circular Economy. In the past, the quality of recycled rubber was rather low, limiting the application range and quantities. New technologies for higher quality recycled rubber need to be developed in order to make cradle-to-cradle loops for

  13. DESIGN RULE FOR PUMPING DEVICES IN A LOOP POLYMERIZATION REACTOR

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    MOZARYN, W; JANSSEN, LPBM; VANDIERENDONCK, LL

    The mutual influence on the pumping capacity of independently driven pumping-stirring devices in a polymerization loop reactor is presented. A simple method for the calculation of the minimum rotational speed for an axial pumping stirrer in relation to the pumping action of a helical ribbon is

  14. Development and Implementation of a Design Metric for Systems Containing Long-Term Fluid Loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, John W.

    2016-01-01

    John Steele, a chemist and technical fellow from United Technologies Corporation, provided a water quality module to assist engineers and scientists with a metric tool to evaluate risks associated with the design of space systems with fluid loops. This design metric is a methodical, quantitative, lessons-learned based means to evaluate the robustness of a long-term fluid loop system design. The tool was developed by a cross-section of engineering disciplines who had decades of experience and problem resolution.

  15. Development of gas cooled reactors and experimental setup of high temperature helium loop for in-pile operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miletić, Marija, E-mail: marija_miletic@live.com [Czech Technical University in Prague, Prague (Czech Republic); Fukač, Rostislav, E-mail: fuk@cvrez.cz [Research Centre Rez Ltd., Rez (Czech Republic); Pioro, Igor, E-mail: Igor.Pioro@uoit.ca [University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Oshawa (Canada); Dragunov, Alexey, E-mail: Alexey.Dragunov@uoit.ca [University of Ontario Institute of Technology, Oshawa (Canada)

    2014-09-15

    coolants. The purpose of the high temperature helium loop (HTHL) is to simulate technical and chemical conditions of VHTR's coolant. The loop is intended to serve an as experimental device for fatigue and creep tests of construction metallic materials for gas-cooled reactors and it should be also employed for research in field of gaseous coolant chemistry. The loop will serve also for tests of nuclear graphite, dosing and helium purification systems. Because the VHTR is a new reactor concept, major technical uncertainties remain relative to helium-cooled advanced reactor systems. This paper summarizes also the concept of the HTHL in the Research Centre Rez Ltd., its design, utilization and future plans for experimental setup.

  16. Revisiting the Closed-Loop Pneumatic Drive Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K D. Efremova

    2017-01-01

    state process under its constant temperature, pressure, and volume and also in the absolute or partial absence of heat exchange with the surrounding medium. The inconstancy of the compressed air mass during filling in and discharging of pneumatic cavities of variable volume causes non-stationary thermodynamic processes in the pneumatic actuators and requires their specifying in conditions of heat and mass exchange.The pneumatic actuator piston speed is related to the peculiarities of the working medium movement through the narrow slits of distribution and control devices of pneumatic automation due to dependency of the flow on the outflow parameter, which in turn is related to the criticality of the outflow process (the ratio of the pressure at the outlet of the throttling device and at its inlet.It is shown that when calculating and designing the pneumatic drives, including closed-loop ones, as well as for evaluating their dynamic characteristics, a system solution of the equations determining the processes of filling and discharging the cavities of the pneumatic cylinder is required, taking into account the peculiarities of compressed air movement through the narrow slits of pneumatic automation devices.The outflow parameter available in the equations of the pneumatic drive dynamics and determined by the outflow process criticality and by the heat exchange conditions (a poly-tropic index requires their numerical solution.

  17. Comparison of numerical results with experimental data for single-phase natural convection in an experimental sodium loop. [LMFBR

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ribando, R.J.

    1979-01-01

    A comparison is made between computed results and experimental data for a single-phase natural convection test in an experimental sodium loop. The test was conducted in the Thermal-Hydraulic Out-of-Reactor Safety (THORS) facility, an engineering-scale high temperature sodium loop at the Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) used for thermal-hydraulic testing of simulated Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) subassemblies at normal and off-normal operating conditions. Heat generation in the 19 pin assembly during the test was typical of decay heat levels. The test chosen for analysis in this paper was one of seven natural convection runs conducted in the facility using a variety of initial conditions and testing parameters. Specifically, in this test the bypass line was open to simulate a parallel heated assembly and the test was begun with a pump coastdown from a small initial forced flow. The computer program used to analyze the test, LONAC (LOw flow and NAtural Convection) is an ORNL-developed, fast-running, one-dimensional, single-phase, finite-difference model used for simulating forced and free convection transients in the THORS loop.

  18. Fuzzy multi-objective sustainable and green closed-loop supply chain network design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soleimani, Hamed; Govindan, Kannan; Saghafi, Hamid

    2017-01-01

    This article addresses a design problem of a closed loop supply chain, including suppliers, manufacturers, distribution centers, customers, warehouse centers, return centers, and recycling centers. The problem entails three choices regarding recycling, namely, product recycling, and components re...

  19. DESIGNING A FINITE STATE MACHINE SIMULATOR TO DETECT LOOPS FOR ALICE DETECTOR CONTROL SYSTEM

    CERN Document Server

    Yogatama, Bobbi Winema

    2017-01-01

    This paper present the design and implementation of a Finite State Machine simulator to provoke loops in ALICE Detector Control System (DCS). Loops in a Finite State Machine can be very harmful for the control system and need to be prevented. One way to prevent loops is to simulate the designed Finite State Machine using a simulator that can detect all of the possible conditions that can provoke loops. Further correction can then be made after the loops are detected in the control system. The proposed simulator is able to get the structure of any unknown FSM, get every datapoint elements that are associated with the FSM, and find every possible datapoint combinations that can provoke loops in the FSM. At the end of the project, we tested the simulator on a sample FSM with loops and a real FSM that belongs to the ALICE PHOton Spectrometer (PHOS). The testing results indicate that the simulator is able to detect every possible condition that can cause loops in the FSM.

  20. Experimental and Numerical Study on the Semi-Closed Loop Control of a Planar Parallel Robot Manipulator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong-Lin Kuo

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper implements the model predictive control to fulfill the position control of a 3-DOF 3-RRR planar parallel manipulator. The research work covers experimental and numerical studies. First, an experimental hardware-in-the-loop system to control the manipulator is constructed. The manipulator is driven by three DC motors, and each motor has an encoder to measure the rotating angles of the motors. The entire system is designed as a semiclosed-loop control system. The controller receives the encoder signals as inputs to produce signals driving the motors. Secondly, the motor parameters are obtained by system identification, and the controllers are designed based on these parameters. Finally, the numerical simulations are performed by incorporating the manipulator kinematics and the motor dynamics; the results are compared with those from the experiments. Both results show that they are in good agreement at steady state. There are two main contributions in this paper. One is the application of the model predictive control to the planar parallel manipulator, and the other one is to overcome the effects of the uncertainties of the DC motors and the performance of the position control due to the dynamic behavior of the manipulator.

  1. Ground experimental investigations into an ejected spray cooling system for space closed-loop application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Hongsheng

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Spray cooling has proved its superior heat transfer performance in removing high heat flux for ground applications. However, the dissipation of vapor–liquid mixture from the heat surface and the closed-loop circulation of the coolant are two challenges in reduced or zero gravity space environments. In this paper, an ejected spray cooling system for space closed-loop application was proposed and the negative pressure in the ejected condenser chamber was applied to sucking the two-phase mixture from the spray chamber. Its ground experimental setup was built and experimental investigations on the smooth circle heat surface with a diameter of 5 mm were conducted with distilled water as the coolant spraying from a nozzle of 0.51 mm orifice diameter at the inlet temperatures of 69.2 °C and 78.2 °C under the conditions of heat flux ranging from 69.76 W/cm2 to 311.45 W/cm2, volume flow through the spray nozzle varying from 11.22 L/h to 15.76 L/h. Work performance of the spray nozzle and heat transfer performance of the spray cooling system were analyzed; results show that this ejected spray cooling system has a good heat transfer performance and provides valid foundation for space closed-loop application in the near future.

  2. Experimental Design and Some Threats to Experimental Validity: A Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skidmore, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Experimental designs are distinguished as the best method to respond to questions involving causality. The purpose of the present paper is to explicate the logic of experimental design and why it is so vital to questions that demand causal conclusions. In addition, types of internal and external validity threats are discussed. To emphasize the…

  3. EXPERIMENTAL AND SIMULATION ANALYSIS OF BREAKLOCK IN PHASE LOCKED LOOP SYNTHESIZER FOR FREQUENCY TRACKING APPLICATIONS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HARIKRISHNA PAIK

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Modern missile seekers invariably employ monopulse radar with phase locked loop (PLL as a frequency (angle tracking subsystem in the receiver. The frequency locking and/or unlocking of these receivers can be achieved either by introducing imperfections in the monopulse design or using multiple repeater sources. In the present paper, the break-lock of PLL synthesizer in the monopulse radar receiver is presented. The linear frequency modulated (LFM signal has been used as a repeater interference signal, which is injected into the PLL along with radar echo signal. The frequency deviation as a function of LFM signal power required to break-lock is presented for different values of modulation rate and echo signal power. The simulation results show that breaklock is achieved at frequency deviation of 0.36 MHz (0.35 MHz measured value for a typical jammer power of -14 dBm and modulation rate of 200 kHz with radar echo signal power of -14 dBm at the PLL input. The measured results show that at a typical jammer power of -14 dBm, break-lock is achieved at frequency deviations of 0.35 and 0.9 MHz for modulation rates of 200 and 500 kHz respectively, revealing that at lower values of modulation rate, breaklock is achieved at lower values of frequency deviation. The computer simulation is carried out for performance prediction and experimental measurement results are presented in support of the simulated results. With fairly good and consistent agreement between the measured and simulated results, the PLL is well suited to be integrated within monopulse radar receivers for LFM jamming.

  4. Design of a rotary reactor for chemical-looping combustion. Part 1: Fundamentals and design methodology

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Zhenlong

    2014-04-01

    Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) is a novel and promising option for several applications including carbon capture (CC), fuel reforming, H 2 generation, etc. Previous studies demonstrated the feasibility of performing CLC in a novel rotary design with micro-channel structures. In the reactor, a solid wheel rotates between the fuel and air streams at the reactor inlet, and depleted air and product streams at exit. The rotary wheel consists of a large number of micro-channels with oxygen carriers (OC) coated on the inner surface of the channel walls. In the CC application, the OC oxidizes the fuel while the channel is in the fuel zone to generate undiluted CO2, and is regenerated while the channel is in the air zone. In this two-part series, the effect of the reactor design parameters is evaluated and its performance with different OCs is compared. In Part 1, the design objectives and criteria are specified and the key parameters controlling the reactor performance are identified. The fundamental effects of the OC characteristics, the design parameters, and the operating conditions are studied. The design procedures are presented on the basis of the relative importance of each parameter, enabling a systematic methodology of selecting the design parameters and the operating conditions with different OCs. Part 2 presents the application of the methodology to the designs with the three commonly used OCs, i.e., nickel, copper, and iron, and compares the simulated performances of the designs. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Integrated open loop control and design of a food storage room

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mourik, van S.; Zwart, H.J.; Keesman, K.J.

    2009-01-01

    Usually, control design in a food storage room takes place after the plant has been designed. However, the performance of the plant connected to the controller might be improved by simultaneous design of the plant and the controller. In the case of open loop control, expressions that describe the

  6. Metabolism of hydroxy fatty acids in dogs with steatorrhea secondary to experimentally produced intestinal blind loops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y S; Spritz, N

    1968-07-01

    Several aspects of the metabolism of hydroxy fatty acids were studied in dogs with steatorrhea resulting from an experimentally produced jejunal blind loop. In these animals hydroxy acids were present in the stool in amounts far above normal. These acids disappeared from the feces during tetracycline administration and after exclusion of the blind loop-both procedures that corrected the steatorrhea apparently by reducing bacterial overgrowth. Hydroxy acids persisted in higher than normal amounts, however, after administration of taurocholic acid, which also corrected the steatorrhea, but by a different mechanism. Both in normal dogs and in those with blind loops, hydroxy acid constituted a higher percentage of total fatty acids in the jejunum. A possible conclusion is that hydroxy fatty acids have an enterohepatic circulation via the portal system. When hydroxy acids were fed to normal dogs, steatorrhea was not produced and absorption in amounts similar to that of unsubstituted stearic acid was observed. Isotopic oleic and linoleic acids were converted to hydroxy acids both in vivo and during in vitro incubation with feces; stearic acid was not. These findings support the idea that hydroxy acids arise by the addition of water across double bonds, this addition being catalyzed by enzymes of intestinal bacteria.

  7. A Systematic Approach to Design High-Order Phase-Locked Loops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golestan, Saeed; Fernandez, Francisco Daniel Freijedo; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2015-01-01

    A basic approach to improve the performance of phase-locked loop (PLL) under adverse grid condition is to incorporate a first-order low-pass filter (LPF) into its control loop. The first-order LPF, however, has a limited ability to suppress grid disturbances. A natural thought to further improve...... the disturbance rejection capability of PLL is to use high order LPFs, resulting in high order PLLs. Application of high order LPFs, however, results in high order PLLs, which rather complicates the PLL analysis and design procedure. To overcome this challenge, a systematic method to design high order PLLs...... is presented in this letter. The suggested approach has a general theme, which means it can be applied to design the PLL control parameters regardless of the order of in-loop LPF. The effectiveness of suggested design method is confirmed through different design cases....

  8. SDG and E - ERDA Geothermal Loop Experimental Facility. Bi-monthly report, May 1975-August 1976

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, H.K.; Bricarello, J.R.; Campbell, J.A.; Lombard, G.L.; Mulliner, D.K.; Swanson, C.R.

    1976-09-01

    A description of the Geothermal Loop Experimental Facility (GLEF) its construction problems, and a discussion of start-up testing are included. A history and description of the operation and maintenance with the brine injection pump for the facility are presented. The GLEF was divided into five separate sections: steam and condensate system, brine system, purge water system, vent gas system, and cooling water system. An insight into the chemistry of each system is provided by analysis of samples taken. Scaling and corrosion effects of brine, steam, gas, and water in these systems are described in detail. (MHR)

  9. EURISOL-DS Multi-MW Target: Design of the EURISOL Liquid metal loop

    CERN Document Server

    K. Samec (PSI)

    A Mercury loop capable of evacuating 2.7 MW of the 4 MW deposited in the Eurisol liquid metal neutron spallation target is described in the present design study.The study takes into account the effects on the loop of temperature, pressure, irradiation, liquid metal corrosion, including both steady state operations and normal transients. Accidental conditions are only briefly alluded to in the form of a description of the protection barriers and envisaged mitigation strategies.

  10. Shallow open-loop geothermal systems: simulation of heat transfer in groundwater and experimental tests for improving parameterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fossoul, F.; Orban, P.; Dassargues, A.; Hydrogeology; Environmental Geology

    2011-12-01

    Innovative and efficient strategies for energy use become a priority, especially in civil engineering. Geothermal open-loop systems (geothermal wells) are not so developed in Belgium contrary to close-loop systems. This is generally due to the lack of relevant dimensioning and impact study that must be foreseen during the planning phases of the building. However, as shallow groundwater is widely available, geothermal wells potential is significant. Using both experimental and numerical tools, our aim is to develop a rigorous methodology to design heating and cooling shallow geothermal wells (pumping/reinjection), with a detailed hydrogeological characterization coupled to feasibility, environmental impact assessment, dimensioning, and system sustainability. Concerning numerical modeling, Groundwater flow and heat transfer is computed using different codes (HydroGeoSphere, MT3DMS and SHEMAT) for a comparative sensitivity analysis on a typical case. Coupling and temperature non linearities of hydro-thermal parameters values are checked accurately. As shown previously, small temperature variations (temperatures ranging from 12 to 25 °C) allow to use conventional solute transport codes for modeling heat transfer in groundwater taking benefits of the similarities between solute transport and heat transfer equations. When numerical codes are used as dimensioning tools for long-term simulations, reliable values for hydro-thermal properties of the aquifer are essential. As very few experimental values are available in the literature, field experiments are needed to determine more accurately the local values in different geological/hydrogeological conditions. Apart from thermal response tests (TRT) usually performed for designing a close-loop system within a borehole considered in static groundwater conditions, there is no standard procedure for geothermal wells systems. In an open-loop system, groundwater movement induced by the pumping is responsible for a major heat

  11. Sudoku Squares as Experimental Designs

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    IAS Admin

    Sudoku is a popular combinatorial puzzle. We give a brief overview of some mathematical fea- tures of a Sudoku square. Then we focus on in- terpreting Sudoku squares as experimental de- signs in order to meet a practical need. 1. Sudoku Squares and Sudoku Puzzles. The (standard) Sudoku square of order 9 entails a ...

  12. Closed-Loop, Multichannel Experimentation Using the Open-Source NeuroRighter Electrophysiology Platform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newman, Jonathan P; Zeller-Townson, Riley; Fong, Ming-Fai; Arcot Desai, Sharanya; Gross, Robert E; Potter, Steve M

    2012-01-01

    Single neuron feedback control techniques, such as voltage clamp and dynamic clamp, have enabled numerous advances in our understanding of ion channels, electrochemical signaling, and neural dynamics. Although commercially available multichannel recording and stimulation systems are commonly used for studying neural processing at the network level, they provide little native support for real-time feedback. We developed the open-source NeuroRighter multichannel electrophysiology hardware and software platform for closed-loop multichannel control with a focus on accessibility and low cost. NeuroRighter allows 64 channels of stimulation and recording for around US $10,000, along with the ability to integrate with other software and hardware. Here, we present substantial enhancements to the NeuroRighter platform, including a redesigned desktop application, a new stimulation subsystem allowing arbitrary stimulation patterns, low-latency data servers for accessing data streams, and a new application programming interface (API) for creating closed-loop protocols that can be inserted into NeuroRighter as plugin programs. This greatly simplifies the design of sophisticated real-time experiments without sacrificing the power and speed of a compiled programming language. Here we present a detailed description of NeuroRighter as a stand-alone application, its plugin API, and an extensive set of case studies that highlight the system's abilities for conducting closed-loop, multichannel interfacing experiments.

  13. Closed-loop, multichannel experimentation using the open-source NeuroRighter electrophysiology platform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Paul Newman

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Single neuron feedback control techniques, such as voltage clamp and dynamic clamp, have enabled numerous advances in our understanding of ion channels, electrochemical signaling, and neural dynamics. Although commercially available multichannel recording and stimulation systems are commonly used for studying neural processing at the network level, they provide little native support for real-time feedback. We developed the open-source NeuroRighter multichannel electrophysiology hardware and software platform for closed-loop multichannel control with a focus on accessibility and low cost. NeuroRighter allows 64 channels of stimulation and recording for around US $10,000, along with the ability to integrate with other software and hardware. Here, we present substantial enhancements to the NeuroRighter platform, including a redesigned desktop application, a new stimulation subsystem allowing arbitrary stimulation patterns, low-latency data servers for accessing data streams, and a new application programming interface (API for creating closed-loop protocols that can be inserted into NeuroRighter as plugin programs. This greatly simplifies the design of sophisticated real-time experiments without sacrificing the power and speed of a compiled programming language. Here we present a detailed description of NeuroRighter as a stand alone application, its plugin API, and an extensive set of case studies that highlight the system's abilities for conducting closed-loop, multichannel interfacing experiments.

  14. Design citeria for apllications with non-manifest loops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mansour, O.; Molenkamp, Egbert; Krol, Th.

    2004-01-01

    In the design process of high-throughput applications, design choices concerning the type of processor architecture and appropriate scheduling mechanism, have to be made. Take a reed-solomon decoder as an example, the amount of clock cycles consumed in decoding a code is dependent on the amount of

  15. An Introduction to Experimental Design Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cash, Philip; Stanković, Tino; Štorga, Mario

    2016-01-01

    Design research brings together influences from the whole gamut of social, psychological, and more technical sciences to create a tradition of empirical study stretching back over 50 years (Horvath 2004; Cross 2007). A growing part of this empirical tradition is experimental, which has gained...... design researcher. Thus, this book brings together leading researchers from across design research in order to provide the reader with a foundation in experimental design research; an appreciation of possible experimental perspectives; and insight into how experiments can be used to build robust...... and significant scientific knowledge. This chapter sets the stage for these discussions by introducing experimental design research, outlining the various types of experimental approach, and explaining the role of this book in the wider methodological context....

  16. A closed-loop based framework for design requirement management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Zhinan; Li, Xuemeng; Liu, Zelin

    2014-01-01

    Requirement management plays a crucial role in determining a successful engineering design project. The focus of current requirement research is on the development of requirement elicitation, analysis and formalization methods and tools. Moreover, the existing requirement research often pays...... attention to the fuzzy front end of product design process. In fact, there exists more needs for requirement knowledge at each stage of a product lifecycle and requirement also has its own lifecycle. However, the research in the field of engineering design lack of a framework to support requirement...

  17. Review of application code and standards for mechanical and piping design of HANARO fuel test loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, J. Y.

    1998-02-01

    The design and installation of the irradiation test facility for verification test of the fuel performance are very important in connection with maximization of the utilization of HANARO. HANARO fuel test loop was designed in accordance with the same code and standards of nuclear power plant because HANARO FTL will be operated the high pressure and temperature same as nuclear power plant operation conditions. The objective of this study is to confirm the propriety of application code and standards for mechanical and piping of HANARO fuel test loop and to decide the technical specification of FTL systems. (author). 18 refs., 8 tabs., 6 figs.

  18. Cooling of High Heat Flux Flat Surface with Nanofluid Assisted Convective Loop: Experimental Assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arya Amir

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Experimental investigation was conducted on the thermal performance and pressure drop of a convective cooling loop working with ZnO aqueous nanofluids. The loop was used to cool a flat heater connected to an AC autotransformer. Influence of different operating parameters, such as fluid flow rate and mass concentration of nanofluid on surface temperature of heater, pressure drop, friction factor and overall heat transfer coefficient was investigated and briefly discussed. Results of this study showed that, despite a penalty for pressure drop, ZnO/water nanofluid was a promising coolant for cooling the micro-electronic devices and chipsets. It was also found that there is an optimum for concentration of nanofluid so that the heat transfer coefficient is maximum, which was wt. % = 0.3 for ZnO/water used in this research. In addition, presence of nanoparticles enhanced the friction factor and pressure drop as well; however, it is not very significant in comparison with those of registered for the base fluid.

  19. Oscillations in MAPK cascade triggered by two distinct designs of coupled positive and negative feedback loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Feedback loops, both positive and negative are embedded in the Mitogen Activated Protein Kinase (MAPK) cascade. In the three layer MAPK cascade, both feedback loops originate from the terminal layer and their sites of action are either of the two upstream layers. Recent studies have shown that the cascade uses coupled positive and negative feedback loops in generating oscillations. Two plausible designs of coupled positive and negative feedback loops can be elucidated from the literature; in one design the positive feedback precedes the negative feedback in the direction of signal flow and vice-versa in another. But it remains unexplored how the two designs contribute towards triggering oscillations in MAPK cascade. Thus it is also not known how amplitude, frequency, robustness or nature (analogous/digital) of the oscillations would be shaped by these two designs. Results We built two models of MAPK cascade that exhibited oscillations as function of two underlying designs of coupled positive and negative feedback loops. Frequency, amplitude and nature (digital/analogous) of oscillations were found to be differentially determined by each design. It was observed that the positive feedback emerging from an oscillating MAPK cascade and functional in an external signal processing module can trigger oscillations in the target module, provided that the target module satisfy certain parametric requirements. The augmentation of the two models was done to incorporate the nuclear-cytoplasmic shuttling of cascade components followed by induction of a nuclear phosphatase. It revealed that the fate of oscillations in the MAPK cascade is governed by the feedback designs. Oscillations were unaffected due to nuclear compartmentalization owing to one design but were completely abolished in the other case. Conclusion The MAPK cascade can utilize two distinct designs of coupled positive and negative feedback loops to trigger oscillations. The amplitude, frequency and

  20. Digital Phase Locked Loop Induction Motor Speed Controller: Design and Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mouna BEN HAMED

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Phase locked loop (PLL is a technique which has contributed significantly toward the technology advancement in communication and motor servo control systems. Inventions in PLL schemes combining with novel integrated circuit have made PLL devices important system components. The development of better modular PLL integrated circuit is continuing. As a result, it is expected that it will contribute to improvement in performance and reliability for communication and servo control systems. In this paper, the study of the speed control of induction motor (IM drives using digital phase locked loop (DPLL is discussed. A novel scalar law which compensates the slip frequency loop calculation is proposed. The overall investigated system is tested using a 1Kw IM. Different speed trajectories are considered covering the realistic operating range. The PLL IM drives controller is implemented all around the most popular integrated circuits 4046 PLL. Experimental results are presented to show the performance of the investigated control system.

  1. Experimental investigations on control of flow instability in single-phase natural circulation loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bodkha, Kapil; Kumar, Naveen; Vijayan, P.K. [Bhabha Atomic Reseach Centre, Trombay, Mumbai (Germany). Reactor Engineering Div.

    2013-07-15

    Natural circulation systems offer simplicity, enhanced safety and reliability and thus are advantageous over their forced circulation counterpart. However, natural circulation is susceptible to flow instabilities. These instabilities are undesirable for various reasons. Literature suggests the use of orifices at the inlet to suppress instability. However, orificing introduces pressure drop which limits the flow rate and hence the heat carrying capacity of the fluid. In the present study, investigations have been carried out with different mechanical gadgets to control the natural circulation flow instabilities. Extensive experiments have been carried out in a single-phase rectangular natural circulation loop to study the effect of these mechanical gadgets on instability. The paper brings out the results of experimental investigations carried out on the role of mechanical gadgets in controlling instability. (orig.)

  2. Experimental study on the performance characteristics of an enhanced two-phase loop thermosyphon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ziapour, Behrooz M.; Baygan, Majid; Mohammadnia, Ali

    2015-10-01

    A two-phase loop thermosyphon (TPLT) is an apparatus for heat transmission from the hot section of system (evaporator) to the cold part (condenser), with relatively small temperature differences. The setup used in this study consists of a TPLT, including evaporator, riser, an advanced condenser and downcomer. The condenser inlet has a nozzle. The steam rises from evaporator, flows through the nozzle and sprays on a vertical copper surface inside the condenser. To cool the copper sheet, then a cooler system was installed rear of it. The experimental tests were performed for presence of the nozzle and without it. The results showed that the TPLT efficiency increases for the modified condenser using nozzle. Also, the overall heat transfer coefficient of TPLT is enhanced by the nozzle. In the case of the nozzle with distance of 13 mm from copper sheet, and T e, sat > 55 °C, the value of suddenly increased.

  3. Chemicals-Based Formulation Design: Virtual Experimentations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conte, Elisa; Gani, Rafiqul

    2011-01-01

    This paper presents a systematic procedure for virtual experimentations related to the design of liquid formulated products. All the experiments that need to be performed when designing a liquid formulated product (lotion), such as ingredients selection and testing, solubility tests, property mea...... on the design of an insect repellent lotion will show that the software is an essential instrument in decision making, and that it reduces time and resources since experimental efforts can be focused on one or few product alternatives.......This paper presents a systematic procedure for virtual experimentations related to the design of liquid formulated products. All the experiments that need to be performed when designing a liquid formulated product (lotion), such as ingredients selection and testing, solubility tests, property...... measurements, can now be performed through the virtual Product-Process Design laboratory [[1], [2] and [3

  4. Experimental Study of Single Phase Flow in a Closed-Loop Cooling System with Integrated Mini-Channel Heat Sink

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lei Ma

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The flow and heat transfer characteristics of a closed-loop cooling system with a mini-channel heat sink for thermal management of electronics is studied experimentally. The heat sink is designed with corrugated fins to improve its heat dissipation capability. The experiments are performed using variable coolant volumetric flow rates and input heating powers. The experimental results show a high and reliable thermal performance using the heat sink with corrugated fins. The heat transfer capability is improved up to 30 W/cm2 when the base temperature is kept at a stable and acceptable level. Besides the heat transfer capability enhancement, the capability of the system to transfer heat for a long distance is also studied and a fast thermal response time to reach steady state is observed once the input heating power or the volume flow rate are varied. Under different input heat source powers and volumetric flow rates, our results suggest potential applications of the designed mini-channel heat sink in cooling microelectronics.

  5. Microsatellite Attitude Determination and Control Subsystem Design and Implementation: Software-in-the-Loop Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ho-Nien Shou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The paper describes the development of a microsatellite attitude determination and control subsystem (ADCS and verification of its functionality by software-in-the-loop (SIL method. The role of ADCS is to provide attitude control functions, including the de-tumbling and stabilizing the satellite angular velocity, and as well as estimating the orbit and attitude information during the satellite operation. In Taiwan, Air Force Institute of Technology (AFIT, dedicating for students to design experimental low earth orbit micro-satellite, called AFITsat. For AFITsat, the operation of the ADCS consists of three modes which are initialization mode, detumbling mode, and normal mode, respectively. During the initialization mode, ADCS collects the early orbit measurement data from various sensors so that the data can be downlinked to the ground station for further analysis. As particularly emphasized in this paper, during the detumbling mode, ADCS implements the thrusters in plus-wide modulation control method to decrease the satellite angular velocity. ADCS provides the attitude determination function for the estimation of the satellite state, during normal mode. The three modes of microsatellite adopted Kalman filter algorithm estimate microsatellite attitude. This paper will discuss using the SIL validation ADCS function and verify its feasibility.

  6. Experimental toxicology: Issues of statistics, experimental design, and replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briner, Wayne; Kirwan, Jeral

    2017-01-01

    The difficulty of replicating experiments has drawn considerable attention. Issues with replication occur for a variety of reasons ranging from experimental design to laboratory errors to inappropriate statistical analysis. Here we review a variety of guidelines for statistical analysis, design, and execution of experiments in toxicology. In general, replication can be improved by using hypothesis driven experiments with adequate sample sizes, randomization, and blind data collection techniques. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Experimental research on molten salt thermofluid technology using a high-temperature molten salt loop applied for a fusion reactor Flibe blanket

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toda, Saburo; Chiba, Shinya E-mail: schiba@karma.qse.tohoku.ac.jp; Yuki, Kazuhisa; Omae, Masahiro; Sagara, Akio

    2002-12-01

    Experimental research on molten salt thermofluid technology using a high-temperature molten salt loop (MSL) is described in this paper. The MSL was designed to be able to use Flibe as a coolant, however, a simulant, heat transfer salt (HTS) has to be used alternatively since Flibe is difficult to operate under avoiding a biohazard of Be. Experiment on heat-transfer enhancement, that is required for applying to cool the high heat flux components of fusion reactors, is ongoing. Preliminary experimental results showed that an internal structure of a mixing chamber in the MSL was important to obtain accurate bulk temperatures under severe thermal conditions. For operating the loop, careful handling are needed to proceed how to melt the salt and to circulate it in starting the operation of the MSL. It is concluded that several improvements proposed from the present experiences should be applied for the future Flibe operation.

  8. Design, Construction and Testing of an In-Pile Loop for PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) Simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-06-01

    concentrations. It was found that raising coolant pH would decrease visual crud concentrations, but steam generator plenum and primary coolant pipe wall...built, the Loop duplicates the core and Steam Generator fluid surface film differential temperatures, bulk fluid temperatures, and wall fluid shear...2.4.2 Loop Plenum Design 39 2.4.3 Neutron Absorber Plug 44 2.4.4 Plenum Section Instrumentation 45 2.5 Steam Generator /Heat Rejection Section 45 5 2.5.1

  9. Designing control loops for linear and switching power supplies a tutorial guide

    CERN Document Server

    Basso, Christophe P

    2012-01-01

    Loop control is an essential area of electronics engineering that today's professionals need to master. Rather than delving into extensive theory, this practical book focuses on what you really need to know for compensating or stabilizing a given control system. You can turn instantly to practical sections with numerous design examples and ready-made formulas to help you with your projects in the field. You also find coverage of the underpinnings and principles of control loops so you can gain a more complete understanding of the material. This authoritative volume explains how to conduct anal

  10. Design and Measurements of a Hybrid RF-MEMS Reconfigurable Loop Antenna on a Flexible Substrate (PREPRINT)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-01

    presented and discussed herein. Design Concept and Structure The designed loop antenna consists of a coplanar waveguide-fed ( CPW ) loop that is...the input impedance presented at the antenna terminals at the resonant frequencies becomes very high. When one switch is turned ‘on’ and the...other ‘off’ (Fig. 1b or Fig. 1c), the antenna functions as a traveling-wave loop at its main resonant frequency of operation. The simulated results

  11. Optimal Pipe Size Design for Looped Irrigation Water Supply System Using Harmony Search: Saemangeum Project Area

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ho Min; Sadollah, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Water supply systems are mainly classified into branched and looped network systems. The main difference between these two systems is that, in a branched network system, the flow within each pipe is a known value, whereas in a looped network system, the flow in each pipe is considered an unknown value. Therefore, an analysis of a looped network system is a more complex task. This study aims to develop a technique for estimating the optimal pipe diameter for a looped agricultural irrigation water supply system using a harmony search algorithm, which is an optimization technique. This study mainly serves two purposes. The first is to develop an algorithm and a program for estimating a cost-effective pipe diameter for agricultural irrigation water supply systems using optimization techniques. The second is to validate the developed program by applying the proposed optimized cost-effective pipe diameter to an actual study region (Saemangeum project area, zone 6). The results suggest that the optimal design program, which applies an optimization theory and enhances user convenience, can be effectively applied for the real systems of a looped agricultural irrigation water supply. PMID:25874252

  12. Yakima Hatchery Experimental Design : Annual Progress Report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busack, Craig; Knudsen, Curtis; Marshall, Anne

    1991-08-01

    This progress report details the results and status of Washington Department of Fisheries' (WDF) pre-facility monitoring, research, and evaluation efforts, through May 1991, designed to support the development of an Experimental Design Plan (EDP) for the Yakima/Klickitat Fisheries Project (YKFP), previously termed the Yakima/Klickitat Production Project (YKPP or Y/KPP). This pre- facility work has been guided by planning efforts of various research and quality control teams of the project that are annually captured as revisions to the experimental design and pre-facility work plans. The current objective are as follows: to develop genetic monitoring and evaluation approach for the Y/KPP; to evaluate stock identification monitoring tools, approaches, and opportunities available to meet specific objectives of the experimental plan; and to evaluate adult and juvenile enumeration and sampling/collection capabilities in the Y/KPP necessary to measure experimental response variables.

  13. Experimental Study of Flexible Plate Vibration Control by Using Two-Loop Sliding Mode Control Strategy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jingyu; Lin, Jiahui; Liu, Yuejun; Yang, Kang; Zhou, Lanwei; Chen, Guoping

    2017-08-01

    It is well known that intelligent control theory has been used in many research fields, novel modeling method (DROMM) is used for flexible rectangular active vibration control, and then the validity of new model is confirmed by comparing finite element model with new model. In this paper, taking advantage of the dynamics of flexible rectangular plate, a two-loop sliding mode (TSM) MIMO approach is introduced for designing multiple-input multiple-output continuous vibration control system, which can overcome uncertainties, disturbances or unstable dynamics. An illustrative example is given in order to show the feasibility of the method. Numerical simulations and experiment confirm the effectiveness of the proposed TSM MIMO controller.

  14. Experimental design optimization for screening relevant free ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experimental design methodology was used to optimize the HPLC separation of various relevant phenolic acids from an artificial mixture. The effect of four characteristic factors of the HPLC procedure on the Chromatographic Response Function was investigated by a Central Composite Face-Centred Design and Multi ...

  15. Hippocampal closed-loop modeling and implications for seizure stimulation design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, Roman A.; Song, Dong; Hampson, Robert E.; Deadwyler, Sam A.; Berger, Theodore W.; Marmarelis, Vasilis Z.

    2015-10-01

    Objective. Traditional hippocampal modeling has focused on the series of feedforward synapses known as the trisynaptic pathway. However, feedback connections from CA1 back to the hippocampus through the entorhinal cortex (EC) actually make the hippocampus a closed-loop system. By constructing a functional closed-loop model of the hippocampus, one may learn how both physiological and epileptic oscillations emerge and design efficient neurostimulation patterns to abate such oscillations. Approach. Point process input-output models where estimated from recorded rodent hippocampal data to describe the nonlinear dynamical transformation from CA3 → CA1, via the schaffer-collateral synapse, and CA1 → CA3 via the EC. Each Volterra-like subsystem was composed of linear dynamics (principal dynamic modes) followed by static nonlinearities. The two subsystems were then wired together to produce the full closed-loop model of the hippocampus. Main results. Closed-loop connectivity was found to be necessary for the emergence of theta resonances as seen in recorded data, thus validating the model. The model was then used to identify frequency parameters for the design of neurostimulation patterns to abate seizures. Significance. Deep-brain stimulation (DBS) is a new and promising therapy for intractable seizures. Currently, there is no efficient way to determine optimal frequency parameters for DBS, or even whether periodic or broadband stimuli are optimal. Data-based computational models have the potential to be used as a testbed for designing optimal DBS patterns for individual patients. However, in order for these models to be successful they must incorporate the complex closed-loop structure of the seizure focus. This study serves as a proof-of-concept of using such models to design efficient personalized DBS patterns for epilepsy.

  16. Fast Bayesian experimental design: Laplace-based importance sampling for the expected information gain

    KAUST Repository

    Beck, Joakim

    2017-10-10

    In calculating expected information gain in optimal Bayesian experimental design, the computation of the inner loop in the classical double-loop Monte Carlo requires a large number of samples and suffers from underflow if the number of samples is small. These drawbacks can be avoided by using an importance sampling approach. We present a computationally efficient method for optimal Bayesian experimental design that introduces importance sampling based on the Laplace method to the inner loop. We derive the optimal values for the method parameters in which the average computational cost is minimized according to the desired error tolerance. We use three numerical examples to demonstrate the computational efficiency of our method compared with the classical double-loop Monte Carlo, and a more recent single-loop Monte Carlo method that uses the Laplace method as an approximation of the return value of the inner loop. The first example is a scalar problem that is linear in the uncertain parameter. The second example is a nonlinear scalar problem. The third example deals with the optimal sensor placement for an electrical impedance tomography experiment to recover the fiber orientation in laminate composites.

  17. Design and analysis of a high pressure and high temperature sulfuric acid experimental system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sung-Deok, E-mail: sdhong1@kaeri.re.kr [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chan-Soo; Kim, Yong-Wan [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Yuseong-Gu, Daejeon 305-600 (Korea, Republic of); Seo, Dong-Un; Park, Goon-Cherl [Seoul National University, San56-1, Sillim-Dong, Kwanak-Gu, Seoul 151-742 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-10-15

    We discuss the design and analysis of a small scale sulfuric acid experimental system that can simulate a part of the hydrogen production module. Because nuclear hydrogen coupled components such as a SO{sub 3} decomposer and a sulfuric acid evaporator should be tested under high pressure and high temperature operating conditions, we developed the sulfuric acid loop to satisfy design specifications of 900 Degree-Sign C in temperature and 1.0 MPa in pressure. The components for the sulfuric acid loop were specially designed using a combination of materials with good corrosion resistance; a ceramic and Hastelloy-C276. The design feature of the loop was tested for performance in a 10 h sulfuric acid experiment and optimized using Aspen+ code simulation.

  18. Optimal Bayesian Experimental Design for Combustion Kinetics

    KAUST Repository

    Huan, Xun

    2011-01-04

    Experimental diagnostics play an essential role in the development and refinement of chemical kinetic models, whether for the combustion of common complex hydrocarbons or of emerging alternative fuels. Questions of experimental design—e.g., which variables or species to interrogate, at what resolution and under what conditions—are extremely important in this context, particularly when experimental resources are limited. This paper attempts to answer such questions in a rigorous and systematic way. We propose a Bayesian framework for optimal experimental design with nonlinear simulation-based models. While the framework is broadly applicable, we use it to infer rate parameters in a combustion system with detailed kinetics. The framework introduces a utility function that reflects the expected information gain from a particular experiment. Straightforward evaluation (and maximization) of this utility function requires Monte Carlo sampling, which is infeasible with computationally intensive models. Instead, we construct a polynomial surrogate for the dependence of experimental observables on model parameters and design conditions, with the help of dimension-adaptive sparse quadrature. Results demonstrate the efficiency and accuracy of the surrogate, as well as the considerable effectiveness of the experimental design framework in choosing informative experimental conditions.

  19. IMC-PID design based on model matching approach and closed-loop shaping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Qi B; Liu, Q

    2014-03-01

    Motivated by the limitations of the conventional internal model control (IMC), this communication addresses the design of IMC-based PID in terms of the robust performance of the control system. The IMC controller form is obtained by solving an H-infinity problem based on the model matching approach, and the parameters are determined by closed-loop shaping. The shaping of the closed-loop transfer function is considered both for the set-point tracking and for the load disturbance rejection. The design procedure is formulated as a multi-objective optimization problem which is solved by a specific optimization algorithm. A nice feature of this design method is that it permits a clear tradeoff between robustness and performance. Simulation examples show that the proposed method is effective and has a wide applicability. Crown Copyright © 2013 Published by ISA on behalf of ISA All rights reserved.

  20. Transient analysis of subcritical/supercritical carbon dioxide based natural circulation loop with end heat exchangers: experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Ajay Kumar; Ramgopal, Maddali; Bhattacharyya, Souvik

    2017-09-01

    Carbon dioxide (CO2) based natural circulation loops (NCLs) has gained attention due to its compactness with higher heat transfer rate. In the present study, experimental investigations have been carried out to capture the transient behaviour of a CO2 based NCL operating under subcritical as well as supercritical conditions. Water is used as the external fluid in cold and hot heat exchangers. Results are obtained for various inlet temperatures (323-353 K) of water in the hot heat exchanger and a fixed inlet temperature (305 K) of cooling water in the cold heat exchanger. Effect of loop operating pressure (50-90 bar) on system performance is also investigated. Effect of loop tilt in two different planes (XY and YZ) is also studied in terms of transient as well as steady state behaviour of the loop. Results show that the time required to attain steady state decreases as operating pressure of the loop increases. It is also observed that the change in temperature of loop fluid (CO2) across hot or cold heat exchanger decreases as operating pressure increases.

  1. Experimental design in chromatography: a tutorial review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hibbert, D Brynn

    2012-12-01

    The ability of a chromatographic method to successful separate, identify and quantitate species is determined by many factors, many of which are in the control of the experimenter. When attempting to discover the important factors and then optimise a response by tuning these factors, experimental design (design of experiments, DoE) gives a powerful suite of statistical methodology. Advantages include modelling by empirical functions, not requiring detailed knowledge of the underlying physico-chemical properties of the system, a defined number of experiments to be performed, and available software to accomplish the task. Two uses of DoE in chromatography are for showing lack of significant effects in robustness studies for method validation, and for identifying significant factors and then optimising a response with respect to them in method development. Plackett-Burman designs are widely used in validation studies, and fractional factorial designs and their extensions such as central composite designs are the most popular optimisers. Box-Behnken and Doehlert designs are becoming more used as efficient alternatives. If it is not possible to practically realise values of the factors required by experimental designs, or if there is a constraint on the total number of experiments that can be done, then D-optimal designs can be very powerful. Examples of the use of DoE in chromatography are reviewed. Recommendations are given on how to report DoE studies in the literature. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Experimental design in chemistry: A tutorial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leardi, Riccardo

    2009-10-12

    In this tutorial the main concepts and applications of experimental design in chemistry will be explained. Unfortunately, nowadays experimental design is not as known and applied as it should be, and many papers can be found in which the "optimization" of a procedure is performed one variable at a time. Goal of this paper is to show the real advantages in terms of reduced experimental effort and of increased quality of information that can be obtained if this approach is followed. To do that, three real examples will be shown. Rather than on the mathematical aspects, this paper will focus on the mental attitude required by experimental design. The readers being interested to deepen their knowledge of the mathematical and algorithmical part can find very good books and tutorials in the references [G.E.P. Box, W.G. Hunter, J.S. Hunter, Statistics for Experimenters: An Introduction to Design, Data Analysis, and Model Building, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1978; R. Brereton, Chemometrics: Data Analysis for the Laboratory and Chemical Plant, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1978; R. Carlson, J.E. Carlson, Design and Optimization in Organic Synthesis: Second Revised and Enlarged Edition, in: Data Handling in Science and Technology, vol. 24, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2005; J.A. Cornell, Experiments with Mixtures: Designs, Models and the Analysis of Mixture Data, in: Series in Probability and Statistics, John Wiley & Sons, New York, 1991; R.E. Bruns, I.S. Scarminio, B. de Barros Neto, Statistical Design-Chemometrics, in: Data Handling in Science and Technology, vol. 25, Elsevier, Amsterdam, 2006; D.C. Montgomery, Design and Analysis of Experiments, 7th edition, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2009; T. Lundstedt, E. Seifert, L. Abramo, B. Thelin, A. Nyström, J. Pettersen, R. Bergman, Chemolab 42 (1998) 3; Y. Vander Heyden, LC-GC Europe 19 (9) (2006) 469].

  3. Bayesian Optimal Experimental Design Using Multilevel Monte Carlo

    KAUST Repository

    Ben Issaid, Chaouki

    2015-01-07

    Experimental design is very important since experiments are often resource-exhaustive and time-consuming. We carry out experimental design in the Bayesian framework. To measure the amount of information, which can be extracted from the data in an experiment, we use the expected information gain as the utility function, which specifically is the expected logarithmic ratio between the posterior and prior distributions. Optimizing this utility function enables us to design experiments that yield the most informative data for our purpose. One of the major difficulties in evaluating the expected information gain is that the integral is nested and can be high dimensional. We propose using Multilevel Monte Carlo techniques to accelerate the computation of the nested high dimensional integral. The advantages are twofold. First, the Multilevel Monte Carlo can significantly reduce the cost of the nested integral for a given tolerance, by using an optimal sample distribution among different sample averages of the inner integrals. Second, the Multilevel Monte Carlo method imposes less assumptions, such as the concentration of measures, required by Laplace method. We test our Multilevel Monte Carlo technique using a numerical example on the design of sensor deployment for a Darcy flow problem governed by one dimensional Laplace equation. We also compare the performance of the Multilevel Monte Carlo, Laplace approximation and direct double loop Monte Carlo.

  4. A proof-of-principle simulation for closed-loop control based on preexisting experimental thalamic DBS-enhanced instrumental learning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ching-Fu; Yang, Shih-Hung; Lin, Sheng-Huang; Chen, Po-Chuan; Lo, Yu-Chun; Pan, Han-Chi; Lai, Hsin-Yi; Liao, Lun-De; Lin, Hui-Ching; Chen, Hsu-Yan; Huang, Wei-Chen; Huang, Wun-Jhu; Chen, You-Yin

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) has been applied as an effective therapy for treating Parkinson's disease or essential tremor. Several open-loop DBS control strategies have been developed for clinical experiments, but they are limited by short battery life and inefficient therapy. Therefore, many closed-loop DBS control systems have been designed to tackle these problems by automatically adjusting the stimulation parameters via feedback from neural signals, which has been reported to reduce the power consumption. However, when the association between the biomarkers of the model and stimulation is unclear, it is difficult to develop an optimal control scheme for other DBS applications, i.e., DBS-enhanced instrumental learning. Furthermore, few studies have investigated the effect of closed-loop DBS control for cognition function, such as instrumental skill learning, and have been implemented in simulation environments. In this paper, we proposed a proof-of-principle design for a closed-loop DBS system, cognitive-enhancing DBS (ceDBS), which enhanced skill learning based on in vivo experimental data. The ceDBS acquired local field potential (LFP) signal from the thalamic central lateral (CL) nuclei of animals through a neural signal processing system. A strong coupling of the theta oscillation (4-7 Hz) and the learning period was found in the water reward-related lever-pressing learning task. Therefore, the theta-band power ratio, which was the averaged theta band to averaged total band (1-55 Hz) power ratio, could be used as a physiological marker for enhancement of instrumental skill learning. The on-line extraction of the theta-band power ratio was implemented on a field-programmable gate array (FPGA). An autoregressive with exogenous inputs (ARX)-based predictor was designed to construct a CL-thalamic DBS model and forecast the future physiological marker according to the past physiological marker and applied DBS. The prediction could further assist the design of

  5. Experimental design matters for statistical analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Signe Marie; Schaarschmidt, Frank; Onofri, Andrea

    2018-01-01

    , the experimental design is often more or less neglected when analyzing data. Two data examples were analyzed using different modelling strategies: Firstly, in a randomized complete block design, mean heights of maize treated with a herbicide and one of several adjuvants were compared. Secondly, translocation......BACKGROUND: Nowadays, the evaluation of effects of pesticides often relies on experimental designs that involve multiple concentrations of the pesticide of interest or multiple pesticides at specific comparable concentrations and, possibly, secondary factors of interest. Unfortunately...... of an insecticide applied to maize as a seed treatment was evaluated using incomplete data from an unbalanced design with several layers of hierarchical sampling. Extensive simulations were carried out to further substantiate the effects of different modelling strategies. RESULTS: It was shown that results from sub...

  6. Experimental design research approaches, perspectives, applications

    CERN Document Server

    Stanković, Tino; Štorga, Mario

    2016-01-01

    This book presents a new, multidisciplinary perspective on and paradigm for integrative experimental design research. It addresses various perspectives on methods, analysis and overall research approach, and how they can be synthesized to advance understanding of design. It explores the foundations of experimental approaches and their utility in this domain, and brings together analytical approaches to promote an integrated understanding. The book also investigates where these approaches lead to and how they link design research more fully with other disciplines (e.g. psychology, cognition, sociology, computer science, management). Above all, the book emphasizes the integrative nature of design research in terms of the methods, theories, and units of study—from the individual to the organizational level. Although this approach offers many advantages, it has inherently led to a situation in current research practice where methods are diverging and integration between individual, team and organizational under...

  7. Numerical Analysis of a Flexible Dual Loop Coil and its Experimental Validation for pre-Clinical Magnetic Resonance Imaging of Rodents at 7 T

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Solis-Najera S.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A surface radio frequency coil was developed for small animal image acquisition in a pre-clinical magnetic resonance imaging system at 7 T. A flexible coil composed of two circular loops was developed to closely cover the object to be imaged. Electromagnetic numerical simulations were performed to evaluate its performance before the coil construction. An analytical expression of the mutual inductance for the two circular loops as a function of the separation between them was derived and used to validate the simulations. The RF coil is composed of two circular loops with a 5 cm external diameter and was tuned to 300 MHz and 50 Ohms matched. The angle between the loops was varied and the Q factor was obtained from the S11 simulations for each angle. B1 homogeneity was also evaluated using the electromagnetic simulations. The coil prototype was designed and built considering the numerical simulation results. To show the feasibility of the coil and its performance, saline-solution phantom images were acquired. A correlation of the simulations and imaging experimental results was conducted showing a concordance of 0.88 for the B1 field. The best coil performance was obtained at the 90° aperture angle. A more realistic phantom was also built using a formaldehyde-fixed rat phantom for ex vivo imaging experiments. All images showed a good image quality revealing clearly defined anatomical details of an ex vivo rat.

  8. Design of a Dual-Band Bandpass Filter Using an Open-Loop Resonator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hyun-Seo Im

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this paper, we present a novel design for a dual-band bandpass filter (BPF based on the conventional second-order, open-loop BPF. By adding series resonant circuits to the open ends of the resonator, we can create two resonant modes from the even and odd modes. One pair of the even and odd modes constitutes the upper passband, while the other pair constitutes the lower passband. By adding another series resonant circuit to the open-loop resonator, we can control the bandwidth of either the upper passband or the lower passband. We can replace the series resonant circuits with simple microstrip line resonators. A dual-band BPF working at both Wi-Fi bands (2.4 GHz and 5.8 GHz bands is designed based on the proposed method and is tested. The measured and simulated results show excellent agreement.

  9. Experimental research of a two-phase nitrogen natural circulation loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reisz, S.; Bonelli, A.; Baudouy, B.

    2017-12-01

    Two-phase heat and mass transfer in nitrogen has been experimentally investigated in a natural circulation loop. The experiments were realized in steady-state conditions near atmospheric pressure with a 10 mm inner diameter vertical copper tube, uniformly heated over roughly 1 m in length. The vapor and total mass flow rates and the wall temperature were measured as a function of the tube heat flux density. The investigated ranges-limits are 40 g/s, 25% and 30 kW/m2 for the total mass flow rate, the vapor quality and the heat flux density respectively. Transition from single phase natural convection to nucleate boiling flow is evidenced by wall temperature measurements at five different locations along the heated tube. The measurements are compared to the numerical computations of the total mass flow rate that is simulated by a set of conservation equations based on a simple separated flow model. The model catches most of the features of the mass flow rate evolution as a function of the heat flux density. In addition, the wall temperature measurements are used to determine the heat transfer coefficients that are compared with known correlations in both single phase natural convection and boiling flow. A majority of the data falls within ±20% of the predicted values given by the correlations.

  10. Design of a liquid metal target loop for a high power spallation

    CERN Document Server

    Andreas Vetter (PSI)

    Diplomarbeit zur Erlangung des Grades Diplom-IngenieurTechnische Universität BerlinThis thesis shows the lay-out of the liquid metal loop, which is designed to evacuate 3.0 MW of thermal power. It describes the function and sizing of the piping and components. The thesis deals with the choice of the pump, the expansion tank/gas separator and the heat exchanger using water as cooling fluid as well as instrumentation.

  11. The Freon loop double containment design for Spacelab refrigerator/freezer to protect environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hye, A.

    1985-01-01

    General Electric is building a vapor compression refrigerator/freezer for NASA-Johnson Space Center for the Spacelab mission SLS-1 for life sciences experiments. Freon R502 is used as refrigerant. As R502 is considered toxic, the whole Freon loop is enclosed in a second containment to avoid exposure to crewmen. A detailed description of the design and construction of the safety enclosure is presented.

  12. Automatic PID Control Loops Design for Performance Improvement of Cryogenic Turboexpander

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, D. M.; Patel, H. K.; Shah, D. K.

    2015-04-01

    Cryogenics field involves temperature below 123 K which is much less than ambient temperature. In addition, many industrially important physical processes—from fulfilling the needs of National Thermonuclear Fusion programs, superconducting magnets to treatment of cutting tools and preservation of blood cells, require extreme low temperature. The low temperature required for liquefaction of common gases can be obtained by several processes. Liquefaction is the process of cooling or refrigerating a gas to a temperature below its critical temperature so that liquid can be formed at some suitable pressure which is below the critical pressure. Helium liquefier is used for the liquefaction process of helium gas. In general, the Helium Refrigerator/Liquefier (HRL) needs turboexpander as expansion machine to produce cooling effect which is further used for the production of liquid helium. Turboexpanders, a high speed device that is supported on gas bearings, are the most critical component in many helium refrigeration systems. A very minor fault in the operation and manufacturing or impurities in the helium gas can destroy the turboexpander. However, since the performance of expanders is dependent on a number of operating parameters and the relations between them are quite complex, the instrumentation and control system design for turboexpander needs special attention. The inefficiency of manual control leads to the need of designing automatic control loops for turboexpander. Proper design and implementation of the control loops plays an important role in the successful operation of the cryogenic turboexpander. The PID control loops has to be implemented with accurate interlocks and logic to enhance the performance of the cryogenic turboexpander. For different normal and off-normal operations, speeds will be different and hence a proper control method for critical rotational speed avoidance is must. This paper presents the design of PID control loops needed for the

  13. Multi-period design and planning of closed-loop supply chains withuncertain supply and demand

    OpenAIRE

    Zeballos, Luís J.; Mendez, Carlos A.; Barbosa-Póvoa, Ana Paula; Novais, Augusto Q.

    2014-01-01

    A design and planning approach is proposed for addressing general multi-period, multi-product closed-loop supply chains (CLSCs), structured as a 10-layer network (5 forward plus 5 reverse flows), with uncertain levels in the amount of raw material supplies and customer demands. The consideration ofa multi-period setting leads to a multi-stage stochastic programming problem, which is handled by amixed-integer linear programming (MILP) formulation. The effects of uncertain demand and supply...

  14. An experimental study on an oscillating loop heat pipe consisting of three interconnected columns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Özdemir, Mustafa

    2007-04-01

    This paper presents some experimental results of an extensive research on a novel oscillating heat pipe. The heat pipe is formed of three interconnected columns as different from the pulsating heat pipe designs. The dimensions of the heat pipe considered in this study are large enough to neglect the effect of capillary forces. Thus, the self-oscillation of the system is driven by the gravitational force and the phase lag between the evaporation and condensation processes. The overall heat transfer coefficient is found to be approximately constant irrespective of heat load for the experimental cases considered. The results are also compared with the previously published data by other investigators for water as the working fluid and for the same heat input range. The experimental data for the time variation of the liquid column heights and the vapor pressure are correlated algebraically, convenient for practical uses.

  15. Design of an All-Digital Synchronized Frequency Multiplier Based on a Dual-Loop (D/FLL Architecture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maher Assaad

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a new architecture for a synchronized frequency multiplier circuit. The proposed architecture is an all-digital dual-loop delay- and frequency-locked loops circuit, which has several advantages, namely, it does not have the jitter accumulation issue that is normally encountered in PLL and can be adapted easily for different FPGA families as well as implemented as an integrated circuit. Moreover, it can be used in supplying a clock reference for distributed digital processing systems as well as intra/interchip communication in system-on-chip (SoC. The proposed architecture is designed using the Verilog language and synthesized for the Altera DE2-70 development board. The experimental results validate the expected phase tracking as well as the synthesizing properties. For the measurement and validation purpose, an input reference signal in the range of 1.94–2.62 MHz was injected; the generated clock signal has a higher frequency, and it is in the range of 124.2–167.9 MHz with a frequency step (i.e., resolution of 0.168 MHz. The synthesized design requires 330 logic elements using the above Altera board.

  16. Continuous Drug Infusion for Diabetes Therapy: A Closed-Loop Control System Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiming Chen

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available While a typical way for diabetes therapy is discrete insulin infusion based on long-time interval measurement, in this paper, we design a closed-loop control system for continuous drug infusion to improve the traditional discrete methods and make diabetes therapy automatic in practice. By exploring the accumulative function of drug to insulin, a continuous injection model is proposed. Based on this model, proportional-integral-derivative (PID and fuzzy logic controllers are designed to tackle a control problem of the resulting highly nonlinear plant. Even with serious disturbance of glucose, such as nutrition absorption at meal time, the proposed scheme can perform well in simulation experiments.

  17. Experimental investigation of the chemical looping method on a 1 MW pilot plant; Experimentelle Untersuchung des Chemical Looping Verfahrens an einer 1 MW Versuchsanlage

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orth, Matthias

    2014-08-27

    Attempting to counteract the consequences of climate change, leading industrial nations have agreed on reducing their CO{sub 2} emissions significantly. To reach these reduction goals, it is essential to reduce the CO{sub 2} emissions in the field of energy conversion. This PHD thesis covers the field of chemical looping combustion, a technology that uses fossil fuels for energy conversion with inherent capture of CO{sub 2}. Since the research regarding chemical looping had so far focused mainly on lab scale or small scale experiments, a 1 MW pilot plant has been erected at Technische Universitaet Darmstadt in order to investigate the process in a semi-industrial scale and to check the process efficiency with commercially usable equipment. This pilot consists of two interconnected fluidized bed reactors and has an overall height of more than 11 m. In this thesis, some experiments with ilmenite - used as the oxygen carrier - are explained. Furthermore, the design, erection and commissioning of the pilot plant are presented as well as the results of the first test campaigns. The evaluation of the latter proves that the process can be handled in the design configuration and that CO{sub 2} can be safely captured in a pilot plant of this scale.

  18. Fully Bayesian Experimental Design for Pharmacokinetic Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elizabeth G. Ryan

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Utility functions in Bayesian experimental design are usually based on the posterior distribution. When the posterior is found by simulation, it must be sampled from for each future dataset drawn from the prior predictive distribution. Many thousands of posterior distributions are often required. A popular technique in the Bayesian experimental design literature, which rapidly obtains samples from the posterior, is importance sampling, using the prior as the importance distribution. However, importance sampling from the prior will tend to break down if there is a reasonable number of experimental observations. In this paper, we explore the use of Laplace approximations in the design setting to overcome this drawback. Furthermore, we consider using the Laplace approximation to form the importance distribution to obtain a more efficient importance distribution than the prior. The methodology is motivated by a pharmacokinetic study, which investigates the effect of extracorporeal membrane oxygenation on the pharmacokinetics of antibiotics in sheep. The design problem is to find 10 near optimal plasma sampling times that produce precise estimates of pharmacokinetic model parameters/measures of interest. We consider several different utility functions of interest in these studies, which involve the posterior distribution of parameter functions.

  19. Embedded Sensors and Controls to Improve Component Performance and Reliability -- Loop-scale Testbed Design Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Melin, Alexander M. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Kisner, Roger A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-09-01

    Embedded instrumentation and control systems that can operate in extreme environments are challenging to design and operate. Extreme environments limit the options for sensors and actuators and degrade their performance. Because sensors and actuators are necessary for feedback control, these limitations mean that designing embedded instrumentation and control systems for the challenging environments of nuclear reactors requires advanced technical solutions that are not available commercially. This report details the development of testbed that will be used for cross-cutting embedded instrumentation and control research for nuclear power applications. This research is funded by the Department of Energy's Nuclear Energy Enabling Technology program's Advanced Sensors and Instrumentation topic. The design goal of the loop-scale testbed is to build a low temperature pump that utilizes magnetic bearing that will be incorporated into a water loop to test control system performance and self-sensing techniques. Specifically, this testbed will be used to analyze control system performance in response to nonlinear and cross-coupling fluid effects between the shaft axes of motion, rotordynamics and gyroscopic effects, and impeller disturbances. This testbed will also be used to characterize the performance losses when using self-sensing position measurement techniques. Active magnetic bearings are a technology that can reduce failures and maintenance costs in nuclear power plants. They are particularly relevant to liquid salt reactors that operate at high temperatures (700 C). Pumps used in the extreme environment of liquid salt reactors provide many engineering challenges that can be overcome with magnetic bearings and their associated embedded instrumentation and control. This report will give details of the mechanical design and electromagnetic design of the loop-scale embedded instrumentation and control testbed.

  20. Chemical-Based Formulation Design: Virtual Experimentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conte, Elisa; Gani, Rafiqul

    of databases with data of AIs used in different products (such as insect repellents), solvents classified in terms of special characteristics (such as solubility in water), and additives classified in terms of their application (such as aroma agents, wetting agents and preservatives). In addition, the software......This paper presents a software, the virtual Product-Process Design laboratory (virtual PPD-lab) and the virtual experimental scenarios for design/verification of consumer oriented liquid formulated products where the software can be used. For example, the software can be employed for the design......; the addition of the missing chemicals to an incomplete formulation and the verification of the final product. The software is based on a framework that allows quick implementation of different design/verification work-flows and their associated models, methods, tools and data. The software contains a suite...

  1. Fundamentals of statistical experimental design and analysis

    CERN Document Server

    Easterling, Robert G

    2015-01-01

    Professionals in all areas - business; government; the physical, life, and social sciences; engineering; medicine, etc. - benefit from using statistical experimental design to better understand their worlds and then use that understanding to improve the products, processes, and programs they are responsible for. This book aims to provide the practitioners of tomorrow with a memorable, easy to read, engaging guide to statistics and experimental design. This book uses examples, drawn from a variety of established texts, and embeds them in a business or scientific context, seasoned with a dash of humor, to emphasize the issues and ideas that led to the experiment and the what-do-we-do-next? steps after the experiment. Graphical data displays are emphasized as means of discovery and communication and formulas are minimized, with a focus on interpreting the results that software produce. The role of subject-matter knowledge, and passion, is also illustrated. The examples do not require specialized knowledge, and t...

  2. Experimental Vertical Stability Studies for ITER Performance and Design Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Humphreys, D A; Casper, T A; Eidietis, N; Ferrera, M; Gates, D A; Hutchinson, I H; Jackson, G L; Kolemen, E; Leuer, J A; Lister, J; LoDestro, L L; Meyer, W H; Pearlstein, L D; Sartori, F; Walker, M L; Welander, A S; Wolfe, S M

    2008-10-13

    Operating experimental devices have provided key inputs to the design process for ITER axisymmetric control. In particular, experiments have quantified controllability and robustness requirements in the presence of realistic noise and disturbance environments, which are difficult or impossible to characterize with modeling and simulation alone. This kind of information is particularly critical for ITER vertical control, which poses some of the highest demands on poloidal field system performance, since the consequences of loss of vertical control can be very severe. The present work describes results of multi-machine studies performed under a joint ITPA experiment on fundamental vertical control performance and controllability limits. We present experimental results from Alcator C-Mod, DIII-D, NSTX, TCV, and JET, along with analysis of these data to provide vertical control performance guidance to ITER. Useful metrics to quantify this control performance include the stability margin and maximum controllable vertical displacement. Theoretical analysis of the maximum controllable vertical displacement suggests effective approaches to improving performance in terms of this metric, with implications for ITER design modifications. Typical levels of noise in the vertical position measurement which can challenge the vertical control loop are assessed and analyzed.

  3. Involving students in experimental design: three approaches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNeal, A P; Silverthorn, D U; Stratton, D B

    1998-12-01

    Many faculty want to involve students more actively in laboratories and in experimental design. However, just "turning them loose in the lab" is time-consuming and can be frustrating for both students and faculty. We describe three different ways of providing structures for labs that require students to design their own experiments but guide the choices. One approach emphasizes invertebrate preparations and classic techniques that students can learn fairly easily. Students must read relevant primary literature and learn each technique in one week, and then design and carry out their own experiments in the next week. Another approach provides a "design framework" for the experiments so that all students are using the same technique and the same statistical comparisons, whereas their experimental questions differ widely. The third approach involves assigning the questions or problems but challenging students to design good protocols to answer these questions. In each case, there is a mixture of structure and freedom that works for the level of the students, the resources available, and our particular aims.

  4. MicroarrayDesigner: an online search tool and repository for near-optimal microarray experimental designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferhatosmanoglu Nilgun

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dual-channel microarray experiments are commonly employed for inference of differential gene expressions across varying organisms and experimental conditions. The design of dual-channel microarray experiments that can help minimize the errors in the resulting inferences has recently received increasing attention. However, a general and scalable search tool and a corresponding database of optimal designs were still missing. Description An efficient and scalable search method for finding near-optimal dual-channel microarray designs, based on a greedy hill-climbing optimization strategy, has been developed. It is empirically shown that this method can successfully and efficiently find near-optimal designs. Additionally, an improved interwoven loop design construction algorithm has been developed to provide an easily computable general class of near-optimal designs. Finally, in order to make the best results readily available to biologists, a continuously evolving catalog of near-optimal designs is provided. Conclusion A new search algorithm and database for near-optimal microarray designs have been developed. The search tool and the database are accessible via the World Wide Web at http://db.cse.ohio-state.edu/MicroarrayDesigner. Source code and binary distributions are available for academic use upon request.

  5. Sequential experimental design based generalised ANOVA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chakraborty, Souvik, E-mail: csouvik41@gmail.com; Chowdhury, Rajib, E-mail: rajibfce@iitr.ac.in

    2016-07-15

    Over the last decade, surrogate modelling technique has gained wide popularity in the field of uncertainty quantification, optimization, model exploration and sensitivity analysis. This approach relies on experimental design to generate training points and regression/interpolation for generating the surrogate. In this work, it is argued that conventional experimental design may render a surrogate model inefficient. In order to address this issue, this paper presents a novel distribution adaptive sequential experimental design (DA-SED). The proposed DA-SED has been coupled with a variant of generalised analysis of variance (G-ANOVA), developed by representing the component function using the generalised polynomial chaos expansion. Moreover, generalised analytical expressions for calculating the first two statistical moments of the response, which are utilized in predicting the probability of failure, have also been developed. The proposed approach has been utilized in predicting probability of failure of three structural mechanics problems. It is observed that the proposed approach yields accurate and computationally efficient estimate of the failure probability.

  6. Development of a thermal-hydraulic code for reflood analysis in a PWR experimental loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alves, Sabrina P.; Mesquita, Amir Z.; Rezende, Hugo C., E-mail: sabrinapral@gmail.com, E-mail: amir@cdtn.brm, E-mail: hcr@cdtn.br, E-mail: hcr@cdtn.br [Centro de Desenvolvimento da Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN/CNEN-MG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil); Palma, Daniel A.P., E-mail: dapalma@cnen.gov.br [Comissão Nacional de Energia Nuclear (CNEN), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2017-07-01

    A process of fundamental importance in the event of Loss of Coolant Accident (LOCA) in Pressurized Water nuclear Reactors (PWR) is the reflood of the core or rewetting of nuclear fuels. The Nuclear Technology Development Center (CDTN) has been developing since the 70’s programs to allow Brazil to become independent in the field of reactor safety analysis. To that end, in the 80’s was designed, assembled and commissioned one Rewetting Test Facility (ITR in Portuguese). This facility aims to investigate the phenomena involved in the thermal hydraulic reflood phase of a Loss of Coolant Accident in a PWR nuclear reactor. This work aim is the analysis of physical and mathematical models governing the rewetting phenomenon, and the development a thermo-hydraulic simulation code of a representative experimental circuit of the PWR reactors core cooling channels. It was possible to elaborate and develop a code called REWET. The results obtained with REWET were compared with the experimental results of the ITR, and with the results of the Hydroflut code, that was the old program previously used. An analysis was made of the evolution of the wall temperature of the test section as well as the evolution of the front for two typical tests using the two codes calculation, and experimental results. The result simulated by REWET code for the rewetting time also came closer to the experimental results more than those calculated by Hydroflut code. (author)

  7. Investigation on readout coil design for fluxed locked loop control of HTS rf-SQUID

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyato, Y.; Itozaki, H.

    2017-07-01

    We investigated the readout coil, electro-magnetically coupled with a HTS rf-SQUID for the flux-locked loop control. The design and size of the readout coil affected the SQUID performances. Among the tested combinations of different readout coils with the rf-SQUID, the rectangular coil, which just surrounded the slit in the rf-SQUID, was advantageous for the better performance. We also demonstrated the rf-SQUID operation with the rectangular coils made of the thin flexible print circuit board, which could be put on the rf-SQUID stably.

  8. Numerical Simulations and Design Optimization of the PHT Loop of Natural Circulation BWR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. V. Durga Prasad

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Mathematical modeling and numerical simulation of natural circulation boiling water reactor (NCBWR are very important in order to study its performance for different designs and various off-design conditions and for design optimization. In the present work, parametric studies of the primary heat transport loop of NCBWR have been performed using lumped parameter models and RELAP5/MOD3.4 code. The lumped parameter models are based on the drift flux model and homogeneous equilibrium mixture (HEM model of two-phase flow. Numerical simulations are performed with both models. Compared to the results obtained from the HEM model, those obtained from the drift flux model are closer to RELAP5. The variations of critical heat flux with various geometric parameters and operating conditions are thoroughly investigated. The material required to construct the primary heat transport (PHT loop of NCBWR has been minimized using sequential quadratic programming. The stability of NCBWR has also been verified at the optimum point.

  9. Experimental investigations with a carbonate looping test facility with 1 MW thermal power; Experimentelle Untersuchungen an einer Carbonate Looping Versuchsanlage mit 1 MW thermischer Leistung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Galloy, Alexander

    2014-02-20

    Carbonate looping is a process for separation of CO{sub 2} from flue gases of fossil-fired power plants. For further examination of this process a test facility with a thermal power of 1 MW has been designed, erected, commissioned and operated. This plant was operated for several hundred hours in different modes. CO{sub 2} could be separated from a synthetic flue gas. Separation was possible within continuous and discontinuous mode of operation. Within this work the state of the art, the test facility and measurement results e.g. temperature curves, pressure curves and gas concentrations are presented. Additionally, the influence of these parameters on the CO{sub 2} separation is discussed.

  10. Heat transport modeling for the design of a low enthalpy open-loop system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Piccinini

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available A case study of hydrogeological characterization and heat transport modeling for the design of a low enthalpy system in the Province of Treviso (Italy is here presented. It is an open loop system that pumps and re-injects groundwater from a confined aquifer of the high Veneto plain. This type of systems is the most efficient in terms of yield, but its construction is highly conditioned by the availability of groundwater resource and by the environmental laws related to groundwater exploitation. Groundwater flow modeling with MODFLOW 2005 led to a good aquifer parameters estimation, by means of the quantitative calibration of a pumping test made on the pumping well and an observation piezometer. Then, with the heat transport modeling with SEAWAT 4 the distance between pumping well and re-injecting well has been optimized, avoiding so the thermal feedback effect. The lack of sitespecific data for dispersivity parameters has been solved through a sensitivity analysis on the main dispersivity parameters of heat transport. Finally, in order to comply with the environmental laws, a long-term forecasting simulation (duration of 20 years has been set up in order to evaluate the open loop system thermal impact on the aquifer. The obtained results put in evidence that the design of low enthalpy systems strongly needs a detailed hydrogeological characterization of the aquifer interested by the pumping and that numerical modeling is the most effective tool in support of the definition of the optimal distance between pumping and re-injecting wells in the open loop systems.

  11. Fish Attraction Devices (FADs and experimental designs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael J. Kingsford

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available There is widespread use of fish attraction devices (FADs in commercial fisheries and research. Investigations on the utility of FADs to catch fishes, and factors influencing fishes associated with FADs, require careful consideration of experimental designs. The development of appropriate models, from observations and the literature, should be developed before hypotheses can be tested with robust sampling designs. Robust sampling designs may only be possible if investigators have some role in the planning stage of deploying FADs. If the objective of the study is to determine the influence of FADs on assemblages of fishes, then experimenters need to consider that a `FAD-effect´ (=impact cannot be demonstrated without controls. Some preliminary studies may be required to determine the spatial extent of a FAD-effect before suitable sites can be chosen for controls. Other controls may also be necessary, depending on the method used to estimate numbers of fishes (e.g. controls for disturbance. Recent advances in sampling designs that are applicable to impact studies are discussed. Beyond-BACI (Before After Control Impact and MBACI (Multiple BACI designs are recommended because they cater for temporal and spatial variation in the abundance of organisms, which is generally great for pelagic fishes. The utility of orthogonal sampling designs is emphasised as a means of elucidating the influence of multiple factors and, importantly, interactions between them. Further, nested analyses are suggested to deal with multiple temporal and/or spatial time scales in sampling designs. The independence of replicate FADs should also be considered. Problems of independence include: FADs that are connected, thus providing potential routes of movement of associated fishes; temporal dependence where the number of fish at a time influences the number at the next time due to fish becoming residents; and the fact that the proximity of other FADs may influence numbers of

  12. The Structure, Design, and Closed-Loop Motion Control of a Differential Drive Soft Robot.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pang; Jiangbei, Wang; Yanqiong, Fei

    2018-02-01

    This article presents the structure, design, and motion control of an inchworm inspired pneumatic soft robot, which can perform differential movement. This robot mainly consists of two columns of pneumatic multi-airbags (actuators), one sensor, one baseboard, front feet, and rear feet. According to the different inflation time of left and right actuators, the robot can perform both linear and turning movements. The actuators of this robot are composed of multiple airbags, and the design of the airbags is analyzed. To deal with the nonlinear performance of the soft robot, we use radial basis function neural networks to train the turning ability of this robot on three different surfaces and create a mathematical model among coefficient of friction, deflection angle, and inflation time. Then, we establish the closed-loop automatic control model using three-axis electronic compass sensor. Finally, the automatic control model is verified by linear and turning movement experiments. According to the experiment, the robot can finish the linear and turning movements under the closed-loop control system.

  13. MULTI-LOOP CONTROL DESIGN IN MULTIVARIABLE (2X2 CONTINUOUS STIRRED TANK REACTOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Wahid

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available With this study, the design and tuning of multi-loop for multivariable (2x2 CSTR will be made in order to achieve optimum CSTR control performance. This study used Bequette model reactor and MATLAB software and is expected to be able to cope with disturbances in the reactor so that the reactor system is able to stabilize quickly despite the distractions. In this study, the design will be made using multi-loop approach, along with PI controller as the next step. Then, BLT and auto-tune tuning method will be used in PI controller and given disturbances to both of tuning method. The controller performances are then compared. Results of the study are then analyzed for discussions and conclusions. Results from this study have shown that in terms of disturbance rejection, BLT is better than auto-tune based on comparison between both of controller performances. For IAE for the case of temperature, BLT is 30% better than auto-tune, but it is almost the same for the case of concentration. For settling time for the case of concentration, BLT is 30% better than auto-tune, and for the case of temperature, BLT is 18% better than auto-tune. For rise time for the case of concentration and temperature, BLT is 30% better than auto-tune.

  14. Noise-shaping all-digital phase-locked loops modeling, simulation, analysis and design

    CERN Document Server

    Brandonisio, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    This book presents a novel approach to the analysis and design of all-digital phase-locked loops (ADPLLs), technology widely used in wireless communication devices. The authors provide an overview of ADPLL architectures, time-to-digital converters (TDCs) and noise shaping. Realistic examples illustrate how to analyze and simulate phase noise in the presence of sigma-delta modulation and time-to-digital conversion. Readers will gain a deep understanding of ADPLLs and the central role played by noise-shaping. A range of ADPLL and TDC architectures are presented in unified manner. Analytical and simulation tools are discussed in detail. Matlab code is included that can be reused to design, simulate and analyze the ADPLL architectures that are presented in the book.   • Discusses in detail a wide range of all-digital phase-locked loops architectures; • Presents a unified framework in which to model time-to-digital converters for ADPLLs; • Explains a procedure to predict and simulate phase noise in oscil...

  15. Enhanced Performance Controller Design for Stochastic Systems by Adding Extra State Estimation onto the Existing Closed Loop Control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhou, Yuyang; Zhang, Qichun; Wang, Hong

    2016-08-30

    To enhance the performance of the tracking property , this paper presents a novel control algorithm for a class of linear dynamic stochastic systems with unmeasurable states, where the performance enhancement loop is established based on Kalman filter. Without changing the existing closed loop with the PI controller, the compensative controller is designed to minimize the variances of the tracking errors using the estimated states and the propagation of state variances. Moreover, the stability of the closed-loop systems has been analyzed in the mean-square sense. A simulated example is included to show the effectiveness of the presented control algorithm, where encouraging results have been obtained.

  16. Set membership experimental design for biological systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marvel Skylar W

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experimental design approaches for biological systems are needed to help conserve the limited resources that are allocated for performing experiments. The assumptions used when assigning probability density functions to characterize uncertainty in biological systems are unwarranted when only a small number of measurements can be obtained. In these situations, the uncertainty in biological systems is more appropriately characterized in a bounded-error context. Additionally, effort must be made to improve the connection between modelers and experimentalists by relating design metrics to biologically relevant information. Bounded-error experimental design approaches that can assess the impact of additional measurements on model uncertainty are needed to identify the most appropriate balance between the collection of data and the availability of resources. Results In this work we develop a bounded-error experimental design framework for nonlinear continuous-time systems when few data measurements are available. This approach leverages many of the recent advances in bounded-error parameter and state estimation methods that use interval analysis to generate parameter sets and state bounds consistent with uncertain data measurements. We devise a novel approach using set-based uncertainty propagation to estimate measurement ranges at candidate time points. We then use these estimated measurements at the candidate time points to evaluate which candidate measurements furthest reduce model uncertainty. A method for quickly combining multiple candidate time points is presented and allows for determining the effect of adding multiple measurements. Biologically relevant metrics are developed and used to predict when new data measurements should be acquired, which system components should be measured and how many additional measurements should be obtained. Conclusions The practicability of our approach is illustrated with a case study. This

  17. AKUT-II: an experimental plant for purifying the HTR loop of combustion waste gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beaujean, H.; Vygen, H.

    1976-02-15

    A plant for the separation of aerosols, krypton and tritium (AKUT) used for purifying the head end of the reprocessing of thorium-containing fuel elements from combustion waste gases is described. Data are to be collected to enable a process engineer to plan and construct a large-scale plant, and the correctness and practicability of the concept adopted is to be proved in conjunction with the JUPITER plant. It is true that the tests on the AKUT I plant confirmed that the flow scheme was basically correct, but the actual experimental operation was considerably limited by a fixed and rigid coupling to the combustion furnace. Some operational conditions were encountered which did not meet the design values. Part of the plant (krypton separation) is being tested in the USA. The German concept was taken over in the early stages of tests and adapted to existing apparatuses, the result inevitably being different experimental conditions. The AKUT II plant can now be used for consideration of the economic and safety conditions, and comparisons can be made.

  18. Competitive closed-loop supply chain network design with price-dependent demands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rezapour, Shabnam; Farahani, Reza Zanjirani; Fahimnia, Behnam

    2015-01-01

    Abstract This paper presents a bi-level model for the strategic reverse network design (upper level) and tactical/operational planning (lower level) of a closed-loop single-period supply chain operating in a competitive environment with price-dependent market demand. An existing supply chain (SC......) is involved in the manufacturing and distribution of new products, while the new (to-be-designed) rival SC can supply both new and remanufactured products. Competitions exist not only externally between the two chains supplying new products to the same market, but also internally in the new chain...... for the supply of new and remanufactured products. The performance behaviors of both SCs are evaluated with specific focus placed on investigating the impacts of the strategic facility location decisions of the new SC on the tactical/operational transport and inventory decisions of the overall network. The bi...

  19. Incorporating risk measures in closed-loop supply chain network design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soleimani, H.; Seyyed-Esfahani, M.; Govindan, Kannan

    2014-01-01

    This paper considers a location-allocation problem in a closed-loop supply chain (CLSC) with two extensions: first, demand and prices of new and return products are regarded as non-deterministic parameters and second, the objective function is developed from expected profit to three types of mean......-risk ones. Indeed, design and planning an integrated CLSC in real-world volatile markets is an important and necessary issue. Further, risk-neutral approaches, which are considered expected values, are not efficient for such uncertain conditions. Hence, this paper, copes with the design and planning problem...... of a CLSC in a two-stage stochastic structure. Besides, risk criteria are considered through using three types of popular and well-behaved risk measures: mean absolute deviation, value at risk and conditional value at risk (CVaR). Consequently, three types of mean-risk models are developed as objective...

  20. Design, Development, and Testing of a UAV Hardware-in-the-Loop Testbed for Aviation and Airspace Prognostics Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulkarni, Chetan; Teubert, Chris; Gorospe, George; Burgett, Drew; Quach, Cuong C.; Hogge, Edward

    2016-01-01

    The airspace is becoming more and more complicated, and will continue to do so in the future with the integration of Unmanned Aerial Vehicles (UAVs), autonomy, spacecraft, other forms of aviation technology into the airspace. The new technology and complexity increases the importance and difficulty of safety assurance. Additionally, testing new technologies on complex aviation systems & systems of systems can be very difficult, expensive, and sometimes unsafe in real life scenarios. Prognostic methodology provides an estimate of the health and risks of a component, vehicle, or airspace and knowledge of how that will change over time. That measure is especially useful in safety determination, mission planning, and maintenance scheduling. The developed testbed will be used to validate prediction algorithms for the real-time safety monitoring of the National Airspace System (NAS) and the prediction of unsafe events. The framework injects flight related anomalies related to ground systems, routing, airport congestion, etc. to test and verify algorithms for NAS safety. In our research work, we develop a live, distributed, hardware-in-the-loop testbed for aviation and airspace prognostics along with exploring further research possibilities to verify and validate future algorithms for NAS safety. The testbed integrates virtual aircraft using the X-Plane simulator and X-PlaneConnect toolbox, UAVs using onboard sensors and cellular communications, and hardware in the loop components. In addition, the testbed includes an additional research framework to support and simplify future research activities. It enables safe, accurate, and inexpensive experimentation and research into airspace and vehicle prognosis that would not have been possible otherwise. This paper describes the design, development, and testing of this system. Software reliability, safety and latency are some of the critical design considerations in development of the testbed. Integration of HITL elements in

  1. Reactor design, cold-model experiment and CFD modeling for chemical looping combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Shaohua; Ma, Jinchen; Hu, Xintao; Zhao, Haibo; Wang, Baowen; Zheng, Chuguang [Huazhong Univ. of Science and Technology, Wuhan (China). State Key Lab. of Coal Combustion

    2013-07-01

    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is an efficient, clean and cheap technology for CO{sub 2} capture, and an interconnected fluidized bed is more appropriate solution for CLC. This paper aims to design a reactor system for CLC, carry out cold-model experiment of the system, and model fuel reactor using commercial CFD software. As for the CLC system, the air reactor (AR) is designed as a fast fluidized bed while the fuel reactor (FR) is a bubbling bed; a cyclone is used for solid separation of the AR exit flow. The AR and FR are separated by two U-type loop seals to remain gas sealed. Considered the chemical kinetics of oxygen carrier, fluid dynamics, pressure balance and mass balance of the system simultaneously, some key design parameters of a CH{sub 4}-fueled and Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-based CLC reactor (thermal power of 50 kWth) are determined, including key geometric parameters (reactor cross-sectional area and reactor height) and operation parameters (bed material quantity, solid circulation rate, apparent gas velocity of each reactor). A cold-model bench having same geometric parameters with its prototype is built up to study the effects of various operation conditions (including gas velocity in the reactors and loop seals, and bed material height, etc.) on the solids circulation rate, gas leakage, and pressure balance. It is witnessed the cold-model system is able to meet special requirements for CLC system such as gas sealing between AR and FR, the circulation rate and particles residence time. Furthermore, the thermal FR reactor with oxygen carrier of Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3}/Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and fuel of CH{sub 4} is simulated by commercial CFD solver FLUENT. It is found that for the design case the combustion efficiency of CH{sub 4} reaches 88.2%. A few part of methane is unburned due to fast, large bubbles rising through the reactor.

  2. Design and Modeling of a Liquid Lithium LiMIT Loop

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szott, Matthew; Christenson, Michael; Stemmley, Steven; Ahn, Chisung; Andruczyk, Daniel; Ruzic, David

    2017-10-01

    The use of flowing liquid lithium in plasma facing components has been shown to reduce erosion and thermal stress damage, prolong device lifetime, decrease edge recycling, reduce impurities, and increase plasma performance, all while providing a clean and self-healing surface. The Liquid Metal Infused Trench (LiMIT) system has proven the concept of controlled thermoelectric magnetohydrodynamic-driven lithium flow for use in fusion relevant conditions, through tests at UIUC, HT-7, and Magnum PSI. As the use of liquid lithium in fusion devices progresses, emphasis must now be placed on full systems integration of flowing liquid metal concepts. The LiMIT system will be upgraded to include a full liquid lithium loop, which will pump lithium into the fusion device, utilize TEMHD to drive lithium through the vessel, and remove lithium for filtration and degassing. Flow control concepts recently developed at UIUC - including wetting control, dryout control, and flow velocity control - will be tested in conjunction in order to demonstrate a robust system. Lithium loop system requirements, designs, and modeling work will be presented, along with plans for installation and testing on the HIDRA device at UIUC. This work is supported by DOE/ALPS DE-FG02-99ER54515.

  3. The Design of Phase-Locked-Loop Circuit for Precision Capacitance Micrometer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Shujie

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available High precision non-contact micrometer is normally divided into three categories: inductance micrometer, capacitance micrometer and optical interferometer micrometer. The capacitance micrometer is widely used because it has high performance to price ratio. With the improvement of automation level, precision of capacitance micrometer is required higher and higher. Generally, capacitance micrometer consists of the capacitance sensor, capacitance/voltage conversion circuit, and modulation and demodulation circuits. However, due to the existing of resistors, capacitors and other components in the circuit, the phase shift of the carrier signal and the modulated signal might occur. In this case, the specific value of phase shift cannot be determined. Therefore, error caused by the phase shift cannot be eliminated. This will reduce the accuracy of micrometer. In this design, in order to eliminate the impact of the phase shift, the phase-locked-loop (PLL circuit is employed. Through the experiment, the function of tracking the input signal phase and frequency is achieved by the phase-locked-loop circuit. This signal processing method can also be applied to tuber electrical resistance tomography system and other precision measurement circuit.

  4. Creativity in the Training and Practice of Instructional Designers: The Design/Creativity Loops Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clinton, Gregory; Hokanson, Brad

    2012-01-01

    This article presents a discussion of research and theoretical perspectives on creativity and instructional design, offering a conceptual model of the connection between these two constructs that was originally proposed in the dissertation work of the first author (Clinton, Creativity and design: A study of the learning experience of instructional…

  5. Conceptual design of the integral test loop (I): Reactor coolant system and secondary system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Song, Chul Hwa; Lee, Seong Je; Kwon, Tae Soon; Moon, Sang Ki [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Taejon (Korea)

    1999-10-01

    This report describes the conceptual design of the primary coolant system and the secondary system of the Integral Test Loop (ITL) which simulates overall thermal hydraulic phenomena of the primary system of a nuclear power plant during postulated accidents or transients. The design basis for the primary coolant system and secondary system is as follows ; Reference plant: Korean Standard Nuclear Plant (KSNP), Height ratio : 1/1, Volume ratio : 1/200, Power scale : Max. 15% of the scaled nominal power, Temperature, Pressure : Real plant conditions. The primary coolant system includes a reactor vessel, which contains a core simulator, a steam generator, a reactor coolant pump simulator, a pressurizer and piping, which consists of two hot legs, four cold legs and four intermediate legs. The secondary system consists of s steam discharge system, a feedwater supply system and a steam condensing system. This conceptual design report describes general configuration of the reference plant, and major function and operation of each system of the plant. Also described is the design philosophy of each component and system of the ITL, and specified are the design criteria and technical specifications of each component and system of the ITL in the report. 17 refs., 43 figs., 51 tabs. (Author)

  6. Off-design performance of a chemical looping combustion (CLC) combined cycle: effects of ambient temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chi, Jinling; Wang, Bo; Zhang, Shijie; Xiao, Yunhan

    2010-02-01

    The present work investigates the influence of ambient temperature on the steady-state off-design thermodynamic performance of a chemical looping combustion (CLC) combined cycle. A sensitivity analysis of the CLC reactor system was conducted, which shows that the parameters that influence the temperatures of the CLC reactors most are the flow rate and temperature of air entering the air reactor. For the ambient temperature variation, three off-design control strategies have been assumed and compared: 1) without any Inlet Guide Vane (IGV) control, 2) IGV control to maintain air reactor temperature and 3) IGV control to maintain constant fuel reactor temperature, aside from fuel flow rate adjusting. Results indicate that, compared with the conventional combined cycle, due to the requirement of pressure balance at outlet of the two CLC reactors, CLC combined cycle shows completely different off-design thermodynamic characteristics regardless of the control strategy adopted. For the first control strategy, temperatures of the two CLC reactors both rise obviously as ambient temperature increases. IGV control adopted by the second and the third strategy has the effect to maintain one of the two reactors' temperatures at design condition when ambient temperature is above design point. Compare with the second strategy, the third would induce more severe decrease of efficiency and output power of the CLC combined cycle.

  7. Experimental study of a water thermo-capillary loop; Etude experimentale d`une boucle thermocapillaire a eau

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lefriec, C.; Alexandre, A. [Ecole Nationale Superieure de Mecanique et d`Aerotechnique (ENSMA), 86 - Poitiers (France)

    1996-12-31

    This paper presents a bench scale experiment of a water thermo-capillary loop which allows to improve the understanding of its functioning mechanisms thanks to the internal visualisation of each component using transparent walls. The advantages of water are its non-toxicity, its high chemical compatibility with several materials and its low functioning pressure. The experimental device is presented and the functioning regimes of each component is analyzed: condenser (flow visualization, influence of tilt), evaporator (quality of heat exchange between teeth and porous medium, bubbles, heat exchange coefficient). (J.S.)

  8. Designing Dialogic E-Learning in Pharmacy Professionalism Using Calibrated Feedback Loops (CFLs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sue Roff

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The feedback analytics of online software including Articulate and Bristol Online Surveys can be used to facilitate dialogic learning in a community of practice such as Pharmacy and, thereby, promote reflective learning by the creation of formative calibrated feedback loops. Based on work with medical, dental, nursing, osteopathic, and social work students, trainees, and registrants, the paper shows how an online learning community can be created along the continuum from undergraduate to registrant to develop authentic dialogic e-learning around standards of Professionalism. The Dundee PolyProfessionalism inventories and Situational Judgement Scenarios (SJSs can be customised for Pharmacy Professionalism learning to support evidence-based curriculum design along benchmarked learning curves and to profile Professionalism learning in individuals and cohorts.

  9. Design and Evaluation of a Water Recirculation Loop Maintenance Device for the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, John W.; Rector, Tony; Bue, Grant C.; Campbell, Colin; Makinen, Janice

    2012-01-01

    A dual-bed device to maintain the water quality of the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporation (SWME) water recirculation loop has been designed and is undergoing testing. The SWME is a heat rejection device under development at the NASA Johnson Space Center to perform thermal control for advanced spacesuits. One advantage to this technology is the potential for a significantly greater degree of tolerance to contamination when compared to the existing sublimator technology. The driver for the development of a water recirculation maintenance device is to further enhance this advantage through the leveraging of fluid loop management lessons learned from the International Space Station (ISS). A bed design that was developed for a Hamilton Sundstrand military application, and considered for a potential ISS application with the Urine Processor Assembly, provides a low pressure drop means for water maintenance in a recirculation loop. The bed design is coupled with high-capacity ion exchange resins, organic adsorbents, and a cyclic methodology developed for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit Transport Water Loop. The bed design further leverages a sorbent developed for the ISS that introduces a biocide in a microgravity-compatible manner for the Internal Active Thermal Control System. The leveraging of these water maintenance technologies to the SWME recirculation loop is a unique demonstration of applying the valuable lessons learned on the ISS to the next generation of crewed spaceflight Environmental Control and Life Support System hardware.

  10. Design and Evaluation of a Water Recirculation Loop Maintenance Device for the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steele, John W.; Rector, Tony; Bue, Grant C.; Campbell, Colin; Makinen, Janice

    2011-01-01

    A dual-bed device to maintain the water quality of the Advanced Spacesuit Water Membrane Evaporation (SWME) water recirculation loop has been designed and is undergoing testing. The SWME is a heat rejection device under development at the NASA Johnson Space Center to perform thermal control for advanced spacesuits. One advantage to this technology is the potential for a significantly greater degree of tolerance to contamination when compared to the existing Sublimator technology. The driver for the development of a water recirculation maintenance device is to further enhance this advantage through the leveraging of fluid loop management lessons-learned from the International Space Station (ISS). A bed design that was developed for a Hamilton Sundstrand military application, and considered for a potential ISS application with the Urine Processor Assembly, provides a low pressure drop means for water maintenance in a recirculation loop. The bed design is coupled with high capacity ion exchange resins, organic adsorbents, and a cyclic methodology developed for the Extravehicular Mobility Unit (EMU) Transport Water loop. The bed design further leverages a sorbent developed for ISS that introduces a biocide in a microgravity-compatible manner for the Internal Active Thermal Control System (IATCS). The leveraging of these water maintenance technologies to the SWME recirculation loop is a clear demonstration of applying the valuable lessons learned on the ISS to the next generation of manned spaceflight Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) hardware.

  11. The OregonHeart Total Artificial Heart: Design and Performance on a Mock Circulatory Loop.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Glynn, Jeremy; Song, Howard; Hull, Bryan; Withers, Stanley; Gelow, Jill; Mudd, James; Starr, Albert; Wampler, Richard

    2017-10-01

    Widespread use of heart transplantation is limited by the scarcity of donor organs. Total artificial heart (TAH) development has been pursued to address this shortage, especially to treat patients who require biventricular support. We have developed a novel TAH that utilizes a continuously spinning rotor that shuttles between two positions to provide pulsatile, alternating blood flow to the systemic and pulmonary circulations without artificial valves. Flow rates and pressures generated by the TAH are controlled by adjusting rotor speed, cycle frequency, and the proportion of each cycle spent pumping to either circulation. To validate the design, a TAH prototype was placed in a mock circulatory loop that simulates vascular resistance, pressure, and compliance in normal and pathophysiologic conditions. At a systemic blood pressure of 120/80 mm Hg, nominal TAH output was 7.4 L/min with instantaneous flows reaching 17 L/min. Pulmonary artery, and left and right atrial pressures were all maintained within normal ranges. To simulate implant into a patient with severe pulmonary hypertension, the pulmonary vascular resistance of the mock loop was increased to 7.5 Wood units. By increasing pump speed to the pulmonary circulation, cardiac output could be maintained at 7.4 L/min as mean pulmonary artery pressure increased to 56 mm Hg while systemic blood pressures remained normal. This in vitro testing of a novel, shuttling TAH demonstrated that cardiac output could be maintained across a range of pathophysiologic conditions including pulmonary hypertension. These experiments serve as a proof-of-concept for the design, which has proceeded to in vivo testing. © 2017 International Center for Artificial Organs and Transplantation and Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  12. Two-stage microbial community experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tickle, Timothy L; Segata, Nicola; Waldron, Levi; Weingart, Uri; Huttenhower, Curtis

    2013-12-01

    Microbial community samples can be efficiently surveyed in high throughput by sequencing markers such as the 16S ribosomal RNA gene. Often, a collection of samples is then selected for subsequent metagenomic, metabolomic or other follow-up. Two-stage study design has long been used in ecology but has not yet been studied in-depth for high-throughput microbial community investigations. To avoid ad hoc sample selection, we developed and validated several purposive sample selection methods for two-stage studies (that is, biological criteria) targeting differing types of microbial communities. These methods select follow-up samples from large community surveys, with criteria including samples typical of the initially surveyed population, targeting specific microbial clades or rare species, maximizing diversity, representing extreme or deviant communities, or identifying communities distinct or discriminating among environment or host phenotypes. The accuracies of each sampling technique and their influences on the characteristics of the resulting selected microbial community were evaluated using both simulated and experimental data. Specifically, all criteria were able to identify samples whose properties were accurately retained in 318 paired 16S amplicon and whole-community metagenomic (follow-up) samples from the Human Microbiome Project. Some selection criteria resulted in follow-up samples that were strongly non-representative of the original survey population; diversity maximization particularly undersampled community configurations. Only selection of intentionally representative samples minimized differences in the selected sample set from the original microbial survey. An implementation is provided as the microPITA (Microbiomes: Picking Interesting Taxa for Analysis) software for two-stage study design of microbial communities.

  13. Bayesian Optimal Experimental Design Using Multilevel Monte Carlo

    KAUST Repository

    Ben Issaid, Chaouki

    2015-05-12

    Experimental design can be vital when experiments are resource-exhaustive and time-consuming. In this work, we carry out experimental design in the Bayesian framework. To measure the amount of information that can be extracted from the data in an experiment, we use the expected information gain as the utility function, which specifically is the expected logarithmic ratio between the posterior and prior distributions. Optimizing this utility function enables us to design experiments that yield the most informative data about the model parameters. One of the major difficulties in evaluating the expected information gain is that it naturally involves nested integration over a possibly high dimensional domain. We use the Multilevel Monte Carlo (MLMC) method to accelerate the computation of the nested high dimensional integral. The advantages are twofold. First, MLMC can significantly reduce the cost of the nested integral for a given tolerance, by using an optimal sample distribution among different sample averages of the inner integrals. Second, the MLMC method imposes fewer assumptions, such as the asymptotic concentration of posterior measures, required for instance by the Laplace approximation (LA). We test the MLMC method using two numerical examples. The first example is the design of sensor deployment for a Darcy flow problem governed by a one-dimensional Poisson equation. We place the sensors in the locations where the pressure is measured, and we model the conductivity field as a piecewise constant random vector with two parameters. The second one is chemical Enhanced Oil Recovery (EOR) core flooding experiment assuming homogeneous permeability. We measure the cumulative oil recovery, from a horizontal core flooded by water, surfactant and polymer, for different injection rates. The model parameters consist of the endpoint relative permeabilities, the residual saturations and the relative permeability exponents for the three phases: water, oil and

  14. Design of PID controllers in double feedback loops for SISO systems with set-point filters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vijayan, V; Panda, Rames C

    2012-07-01

    A PID controller is widely used to control industrial processes that are mostly open loop stable or unstable. Selection of proper feedback structure and controller tuning helps to improve the performance of the loop. In this paper a double-feedback loop/method is used to achieve stability and better performance of the process. The internal feedback is used for stabilizing the process and the outer loop is used for good setpoint tracking. An internal model controller (IMC) based PID method is used for tuning the outer loop controller. Autotuning based on relay feedback or the Ziegler-Nichols method can be used for tuning an inner loop controller. A tuning parameter (λ) that is used to tune IMC-PID is used as a time constant of a setpoint filter that is used for reducing the peak overshoot. The method has been tested successfully on many low order processes. Copyright © 2012 ISA. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. A Mixed Integer Linear Programming Model for the Design of Remanufacturing Closed–loop Supply Chain Network

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mbarek Elbounjimi

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Closed-loop supply chain network design is a critical issue due to its impact on both economic and environmental performances of the supply chain. In this paper, we address the problem of designing a multi-echelon, multi-product and capacitated closed-loop supply chain network. First, a mixed-integer linear programming formulation is developed to maximize the total profit. The main contribution of the proposed model is addressing two economic viability issues of closed-loop supply chain. The first issue is the collection of sufficient quantity of end-of-life products are assured by retailers against an acquisition price. The second issue is exploiting the benefits of colocation of forward facilities and reverse facilities. The presented model is solved by LINGO for some test problems. Computational results and sensitivity analysis are conducted to show the performance of the proposed model.

  16. Design, Prototyping, and Assessment of a Wastewater Closed-Loop Recovery and Purification System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marco Bortolini

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Efforts to decrease the water use within industry are mandatory to pursue product and process sustainability. Particularly, the European Union (EU is at the top level for water consumption in industry, while some sectors, such as the food and beverage (F&B, are highly water-intensive with hundreds of liters per hour of consumed and, then, drained water. This article provides a systematic overview of the most innovative insights coming from an EU Eco-Innovation project dealing with greening the F&B industry through the design, prototyping, technical, economic, and environmental assessment of a wastewater closed-loop recovery and purification system. The system, tailored for a standard mid-size F&B company using 2–3 billion L/year of raw water, collects, purifies and recirculates the key produced wastewater streams with an overall recovery efficiency of about 56%. The proposed purification technology comes from the most efficient combination of membrane-based filtration methods, reverse osmosis (RO, and ultraviolet modules. Evidence from the technical design, full-scale on-site technology prototyping, net-present-value (NPV analysis and system life-cycle-assessment (LCA are presented concluding about the convenience of adopting the proposed solution to reduce costs and impacts on the environment.

  17. Autonomous entropy-based intelligent experimental design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malakar, Nabin Kumar

    2011-07-01

    The aim of this thesis is to explore the application of probability and information theory in experimental design, and to do so in a way that combines what we know about inference and inquiry in a comprehensive and consistent manner. Present day scientific frontiers involve data collection at an ever-increasing rate. This requires that we find a way to collect the most relevant data in an automated fashion. By following the logic of the scientific method, we couple an inference engine with an inquiry engine to automate the iterative process of scientific learning. The inference engine involves Bayesian machine learning techniques to estimate model parameters based upon both prior information and previously collected data, while the inquiry engine implements data-driven exploration. By choosing an experiment whose distribution of expected results has the maximum entropy, the inquiry engine selects the experiment that maximizes the expected information gain. The coupled inference and inquiry engines constitute an autonomous learning method for scientific exploration. We apply it to a robotic arm to demonstrate the efficacy of the method. Optimizing inquiry involves searching for an experiment that promises, on average, to be maximally informative. If the set of potential experiments is described by many parameters, the search involves a high-dimensional entropy space. In such cases, a brute force search method will be slow and computationally expensive. We develop an entropy-based search algorithm, called nested entropy sampling, to select the most informative experiment. This helps to reduce the number of computations necessary to find the optimal experiment. We also extended the method of maximizing entropy, and developed a method of maximizing joint entropy so that it could be used as a principle of collaboration between two robots. This is a major achievement of this thesis, as it allows the information-based collaboration between two robotic units towards a same

  18. Optimal experimental design and therapeutic drug monitoring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kulcsár, C; Pronzato, L; Walter, E

    1994-06-01

    A simple example of intravenous theophylline therapy is used to present and compare various drug administration policies based on stochastic control theory. The simplest approach (Heuristic-Certainty-Equivalence (HCE) control) assumes that the model parameters are known. Prior uncertainty on these parameters can be taken into account by using average optimal (AO) control. The available knowledge about the system can be improved by measuring the drug concentration some time after the beginning of the treatment. This corresponds to the notion of feedback and leads to the HCE feedback (HCEF) and AO feedback (AOF) policies. A further step towards optimality consists in choosing the optimal measurement time given that the final purpose is the control of the system and not the estimation of its parameters. Finally, closed-loop optimal (CLO) control optimally chooses both the dosage regimen and measurement time.

  19. An experimental study on the performance of closed loop pulsating heat pipe (CLPHP) with methanol as a working fluid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Md. Lutfor; Nourin, Farah Nazifa, E-mail: farahnazifanourin@gmail.com; Salsabil, Zaimaa; Yasmin, Nusrat, E-mail: nusratyasmin015@gmail.com [Military Institute of Science and Technology, Mirpur Cantonment, Dhaka -1216 (Bangladesh); Ali, Mohammad [Bangladesh University of Engineering and Technology, Dhaka -1000 (Bangladesh)

    2016-07-12

    Thermal control is an important topic for thermal management of small electrical and electronic devices. Closed loop pulsating heat pipe (CLPHP) arises as the best solution for thermal control. The aim of this experimental study is to search a CLPHP of better thermal performance for cooling different electrical and electronic devices. In this experiment, methanol is used as working fluid. The effect of using methanol as a working fluid is studied on thermal performance in different filling ratios and angles of inclination. A copper capillary tube is used where the inner diameter is 2 mm,outer diameter is 2.5 mm and 250 mm long. The CLPHP has 8 loops where the evaporation section is 50 mm, adiabatic section is 120 mm and condensation section is 80 mm. The experiment is done using FR of 40%-70% with 10% of interval and angles of inclination 0° (vertical), 30°, 45°, 60° varying heat input. The results are compared on the basis of evaporator temperature, condenser temperature and their differences, thermal resistance, heat transfer co-efficient, power input and pulsating time. The results demonstrate the effect of methanol in different filling ratios and angles of inclination. M ethanol shows better performance at 30° inclination with 40% FR.

  20. An experimental study on the performance of closed loop pulsating heat pipe (CLPHP) with methanol as a working fluid

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md. Lutfor; Nourin, Farah Nazifa; Salsabil, Zaimaa; Yasmin, Nusrat; Ali, Mohammad

    2016-07-01

    Thermal control is an important topic for thermal management of small electrical and electronic devices. Closed loop pulsating heat pipe (CLPHP) arises as the best solution for thermal control. The aim of this experimental study is to search a CLPHP of better thermal performance for cooling different electrical and electronic devices. In this experiment, methanol is used as working fluid. The effect of using methanol as a working fluid is studied on thermal performance in different filling ratios and angles of inclination. A copper capillary tube is used where the inner diameter is 2mm,outer diameter is 2.5mm and 250mm long. The CLPHP has 8 loops where the evaporation section is 50mm, adiabatic section is 120mm and condensation section is 80mm. The experiment is done using FR of 40%-70% with 10% of interval and angles of inclination 0° (vertical), 30°, 45°, 60° varying heat input. The results are compared on the basis of evaporator temperature, condenser temperature and their differences, thermal resistance, heat transfer co-efficient, power input and pulsating time. The results demonstrate the effect of methanol in different filling ratios and angles of inclination. M ethanol shows better performance at 30° inclination with 40% FR.

  1. Web Based Learning Support for Experimental Design in Molecular Biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilmsen, Tinri; Bisseling, Ton; Hartog, Rob

    An important learning goal of a molecular biology curriculum is a certain proficiency level in experimental design. Currently students are confronted with experimental approaches in textbooks, in lectures and in the laboratory. However, most students do not reach a satisfactory level of competence in the design of experimental approaches. This…

  2. Development of a Loop-Mediated Isothermal Amplification Assay for Rapid Detection of Trichosporon asahii in Experimental and Clinical Samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Jianfeng; Liao, Yong; Li, Haitao; Lu, Xuelian; Han, Xiufeng; Tian, Yanli; Chen, Shanshan; Yang, Rongya

    2015-01-01

    Invasive trichosporonosis is a deep mycosis found mainly in immunocompromised hosts, and the major pathogen is Trichosporon asahii. We detected the species-specific intergenic spacers (IGS) of rRNA gene of T. asahii using a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay in 15 isolates with 3 different visualization methods, including SYBR green detection, gel electrophoresis, and turbidimetric methods. The LAMP assay displayed superior rapidity to other traditional methods in the detection time; that is, only 1 h was needed for detection and identification of the pathogen DNA. Furthermore, the detection limit of the LAMP assay was more sensitive than the PCR assay. We also successfully detect the presence of T. asahii in samples from experimentally infected mice and samples from patients with invasive trichosporonosis caused by T. asahii, suggesting that this method may become useful in clinical applications in the near future. PMID:25692144

  3. An improved design of virtual output impedance loop for droop-controlled parallel three-phase Voltage Source Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiongfei; Blaabjerg, Frede; Chen, Zhe

    2012-01-01

    The virtual output impedance loop is known as an effective way to enhance the load sharing stability and quality of droop-controlled parallel inverters. This paper proposes an improved design of virtual output impedance loop for parallel three-phase voltage source inverters. In the approach......, a virtual output impedance loop based on the decomposition of inverter output current is developed, where the positive- and negative-sequence virtual impedances are synthesized separately. Thus, the negative-sequence circulating current among the parallel inverters can be minimized by using a large negative...... sharing can be obtained. Finally, laboratory test results of two parallel three-phase voltage source inverters are shown to confirm the validity of the proposed method....

  4. Study and Optimization of Design Parameters in Water Loop Heat Pump Systems for Office Buildings in the Iberian Peninsula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco Javier Fernández

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Water loop heat pump (WLHP air conditioning systems use heat pumps connected to a common water circuit to fulfill the energy demands of different thermal zones in a building. In this study, the energy consumption was analyzed for the air conditioning of an office building in the typical climate of four important cities of the Iberian Peninsula. The energy consumption of one water loop heat pump system was compared with a conventional water system. Two design parameters, the range in the control temperatures and the water loop thermal storage size, were tested. Energy redistribution is an important advantage of the WLHP system, but significant savings came from high efficiency parameters in the heat pumps and minor air flow rates in the cooling tower. The low thermal level in the water loop makes this technology appropriate to combine with renewable sources. Using natural gas as the thermal energy source, a mean decrease in CO2 emissions of 8.1% was reached. Simulations showed that the installation of big thermal storage tanks generated small energy savings. Besides, the total annual consumption in buildings with high internal loads can be reduced by keeping the water loop as cool as possible.

  5. New experimental device for VHTR structural material testing and helium coolant chemistry investigation - High Temperature Helium Loop in NRI Rez

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berka, Jan, E-mail: bej@cvrez.cz [Research Centre Rez, Ltd, Husinec-Rez 130, 25068 Rez (Czech Republic); Institute of Chemical Technology Prague, Technicka 1905, 16628 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Matecha, Josef, E-mail: josef.matecha@ujv.cz [Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc., Husinec-Rez 130, 25068 Rez (Czech Republic); Cerny, Michal [Institute of Chemical Technology Prague, Technicka 1905, 16628 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Viden, Ivan, E-mail: ivan.viden@vscht.cz [Institute of Chemical Technology Prague, Technicka 1905, 16628 Prague 6 (Czech Republic); Sus, Frantisek [Research Centre Rez, Ltd, Husinec-Rez 130, 25068 Rez (Czech Republic); Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc., Husinec-Rez 130, 25068 Rez (Czech Republic); Hajek, Petr [Nuclear Research Institute Rez plc., Husinec-Rez 130, 25068 Rez (Czech Republic)

    2012-10-15

    The High Temperature Helium Loop (HTHL) is an experimental device for simulation of VHTR helium coolant conditions. The purpose of the HTHL is structural materials testing and helium coolant chemistry investigation. In the HTHL pure helium will be used as working medium and its main physical parameters are 7 MPa, max. temperature in the test section 900 Degree-Sign C and flow rate 37.8 kg/h. The HTHL consists of an active channel, the helium purification system, the system of impurities dosage (e.g. CO, CO{sub 2}, H{sub 2}, H{sub 2}O, O{sub 2}, N{sub 2}, and CH{sub 4}) and the helium chemistry monitoring system (sampling and on-line analysis and determination of impurities in the helium flow). The active channel is planned to be placed into the core of the experimental reactor LVR-15 which will serve as a neutron flux source (max. 2.5 Multiplication-Sign 10{sup 18} n/m{sup 2} s for fast neutrons). The HTHL is now under construction. Some of its main parts are finished, some are still being produced (active channel internals, etc.), some should be improved to work correctly (the helium circulatory compressor); certain sub-systems are planned to be integrated to the loop (systems for the determination of moisture and other impurities in helium, etc.). The start of the HTHL operation is expected during 2011 and the integration of the active channel into the LVR-15 core during 2012.

  6. Evaluation of an adaptive game that uses EEG measures validated during the design process as inputs to a biocybernetic loop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kate eEwing

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Biocybernetic adaptation is a form of physiological computing whereby real-time data streaming from the brain and body is used by a negative control loop to adapt the user interface. This paper describes the development of an adaptive game system that is designed to maximize player engagement by utilizing changes in real-time EEG to adjust the level of game demand. The research consists of four main stages (1 the development of a conceptual framework upon which to model the interaction between person and system, (2 the validation of the psychophysiological inference underpinning the loop, (3 the construction of a working prototype, and (4 an evaluation of the adaptive game. Two studies are reported; the first demonstrates the sensitivity of EEG power in the (frontal theta and (parietal alpha bands to changing levels of game demand. These variables were then reformulated within the working biocybernetic control loop designed to maximize player engagement. The second study evaluated the performance of an adaptive game of Tetris with respect to system behavior and user experience. Important issues for the design and evaluation of closed-loop interfaces are discussed.

  7. Conceptual design of a First Wall mock-up experiment in preparation for the qualification of breeding blanket technologies in the Helium Loop Karlsruhe (HELOKA) facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeile, C., E-mail: christian.zeile@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Abou-Sena, A.; Boccaccini, L.V.; Ghidersa, B.E.; Kang, Q.; Kunze, A. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Lamberti, L. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Dipartimento Energia, Politecnico di Torino (Italy); Maione, I.A.; Rey, J.; Weth, A. von der [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Hermann-von-Helmholtz-Platz 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • Experiment in preparation for the qualification of Breeding Blanket technologies in HELOKA facility is proposed. • Experimental capabilities, instrumentation of the mock-up and experimental program are presented. • Design and manufacturing of the mock-up is described. • Design of modular attachment system to obtain different stress levels and distributions on the mock-up is discussed. - Abstract: An experimental program based on a First Wall mock-up is presented as preparation for the qualification of breeding blanket mock-ups at high heat flux in the Helium Loop Karlsruhe (HELOKA) facility. Two objectives of the experimental program have been defined: testing of the experimental setup and a first validation of FE models. The design and manufacturing of mock-up representing about 1/3 of the heated zone of an ITER Test Blanket Module (TBM) First Wall is discussed. A modular attachment system concept has been developed for the fixation of the mock-up in order to be able to generate different stress distributions and levels on the plate, which is confirmed by thermo-mechanical analyses. The HELOKA facility is able to provide a TBM relevant helium cooling system and to generate the required surface heat flux by an electron beam gun. An installed IR camera can be used to measure the temperature distribution on the surface.

  8. Piezoelectric Actuated Phase Shifter Based on External Laser Interferometer: Design, Control and Experimental Validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Peng-Zhi; Wang, Xiao-Dong; Sui, Yong-Xin; Zhang, De-Fu; Wang, Dong-Fang; Dong, Li-Jian; Ni, Ming-Yang

    2017-04-11

    To improve the phase-shifting accuracy, this paper presents a novel integrated framework for design, control and experimental validation of the piezoelectric actuated phase shifter with a trade-off between accuracy and cost. The piezoelectric actuators with built-in sensors are adopted to drive the double parallel four-bar linkage flexure hinge-based mechanisms. Three mechanisms form the tripod structure of the assembled phase shifter. Then, a semi-closed loop controller with inner feedback and outer feedforward loops via the external laser interferometer is developed for accurate positioning of the phase shifter. Finally, experiments related with travel range, step response, linearity and repeatability are carried out. The linearity error is 0.21% and the repeatability error of 10 μ m displacement is 3 nm. The results clearly demonstrate the good performance of the developed phase shifter and the feasibility of the proposed integrated framework.

  9. Development of the Biological Experimental Design Concept Inventory (BEDCI)

    OpenAIRE

    Deane, Thomas; Nomme, Kathy; Jeffery, Erica; Pollock, Carol; Birol, Gülnur

    2014-01-01

    Interest in student conception of experimentation inspired the development of a fully validated 14-question inventory on experimental design in biology (BEDCI) by following established best practices in concept inventory (CI) design. This CI can be used to diagnose specific examples of non–expert-like thinking in students and to evaluate the success of teaching strategies that target conceptual changes. We used BEDCI to diagnose non–expert-like student thinking in experimental design at the p...

  10. Experimental study of thermo-hydraulic characteristics of natural circulation loop at water and FC-72 boiling under atmospheric pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaban’kov, O. N.; Sukomel, L. A.; Zubov, N. O.; Yagov, V. V.

    2017-10-01

    The results of experimental study of thermo and hydraulic characteristics of flow boiling of water and FC-72 in natural circulation loop under atmospheric pressure are presented. The experimental data have been obtained in the range of wall heat flux densities (6 – 70) kW/m2 for water and (4.6 – 30) kW/m2 for FC-72. These two liquids differ substantially in thermophysical properties so it makes it possible to extend the range of reduced pressures almost for an order of magnitude without changing the technical parameters of experimental setup. An additional information for the analysis of flow pattern influence on onset of instability and unstable circulation mechanism have been obtained as the result. The flow up tube of the loop had inner diameter 9.1 mm and consisted of two section – heated one 98 diameters length (that is 65 % of total tube length) and upper adiabatic section with length 48 diameters. Different circulation regimes were realized in experiments: mixed regimes with single phase and boiling zones in the heated part of the tube and boiling regimes along the full length of the heated section. The experimental data on circulation velocity (flow rate) and wall temperature distributions (including pulsating components of temperature and velocity) are presented in dependence on wall heat flux density and liquid subcooling at the inlet to the heated zone. At water experiments autooscillating regimes of boiling flows were observed within the whole range of inlet liquid subcoolings up to saturation temperature and at all wall heat flux densities from lowest one (10 kW/m2) to somewhat upper limiting value of 64 kW/m2. At higher heat fluxes the two-phase boiling flow was stable not only in saturation inlet liquid temperature but also at low subcoolings. In FC-72 experiments the flow was stable at all realized heat flux densities within the range of inlet liquid subcoolings (2 – 20) °C.

  11. Conceptual design report, CEBAF basic experimental equipment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1990-04-13

    The Continuous Electron Beam Accelerator Facility (CEBAF) will be dedicated to basic research in Nuclear Physics using electrons and photons as projectiles. The accelerator configuration allows three nearly continuous beams to be delivered simultaneously in three experimental halls, which will be equipped with complementary sets of instruments: Hall A--two high resolution magnetic spectrometers; Hall B--a large acceptance magnetic spectrometer; Hall C--a high-momentum, moderate resolution, magnetic spectrometer and a variety of more dedicated instruments. This report contains a short description of the initial complement of experimental equipment to be installed in each of the three halls.

  12. Design of Formulated Products: Experimental Component

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Conte, Elisa; Gani, Rafiqul; Cheng, Y. S.

    2012-01-01

    A systematic methodology for the design and verification of chemical-based products is proposed. By integrating modeling, and experiments, the search space is efficiently scanned to identify the feasible product candidates. The product design (or verification) problem consists of three stages: co...... and a sunscreen lotion....

  13. Pion Transition Form Factor at the Two-Loop Level VIS-À-VIS Experimental Data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikhailov, S. V.; Stefanis, N. G.

    We use light-cone QCD sum rules to calculate the pion-photon transition form factor, taking into account radiative corrections up to the next-to-next-to-leading order of perturbation theory. We compare the obtained predictions with all available experimental data from the CELLO, CLEO, and the BaBar Collaborations. We point out that the BaBar data are incompatible with the convolution scheme of QCD, on which our predictions are based, and can possibly be explained only with a violation of the factorization theorem. We pull together recent theoretical results and comment on their significance.

  14. Experimental Validation of an Integrated Controls-Structures Design Methodology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maghami, Peiman G.; Gupta, Sandeep; Elliot, Kenny B.; Walz, Joseph E.

    1996-01-01

    The first experimental validation of an integrated controls-structures design methodology for a class of large order, flexible space structures is described. Integrated redesign of the controls-structures-interaction evolutionary model, a laboratory testbed at NASA Langley, was described earlier. The redesigned structure was fabricated, assembled in the laboratory, and experimentally tested against the original structure. Experimental results indicate that the structure redesigned using the integrated design methodology requires significantly less average control power than the nominal structure with control-optimized designs, while maintaining the required line-of-sight pointing performance. Thus, the superiority of the integrated design methodology over the conventional design approach is experimentally demonstrated. Furthermore, amenability of the integrated design structure to other control strategies is evaluated, both analytically and experimentally. Using Linear-Quadratic-Guassian optimal dissipative controllers, it is observed that the redesigned structure leads to significantly improved performance with alternate controllers as well.

  15. Loop-to-loop coupling.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Warne, Larry Kevin; Lucero, Larry Martin; Langston, William L.; Salazar, Robert Austin; Coleman, Phillip Dale; Basilio, Lorena I.; Bacon, Larry Donald

    2012-05-01

    This report estimates inductively-coupled energy to a low-impedance load in a loop-to-loop arrangement. Both analytical models and full-wave numerical simulations are used and the resulting fields, coupled powers and energies are compared. The energies are simply estimated from the coupled powers through approximations to the energy theorem. The transmitter loop is taken to be either a circular geometry or a rectangular-loop (stripline-type) geometry that was used in an experimental setup. Simple magnetic field models are constructed and used to estimate the mutual inductance to the receiving loop, which is taken to be circular with one or several turns. Circuit elements are estimated and used to determine the coupled current and power (an equivalent antenna picture is also given). These results are compared to an electromagnetic simulation of the transmitter geometry. Simple approximate relations are also given to estimate coupled energy from the power. The effect of additional loads in the form of attached leads, forming transmission lines, are considered. The results are summarized in a set of susceptibility-type curves. Finally, we also consider drives to the cables themselves and the resulting common-to-differential mode currents in the load.

  16. Results of theoretical and experimental studies of hydrodynamics of circulation loops in circulating fluidized bed reactors and systems with interconnected reactors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryabov, G. A.; Folomeev, O. M.; Sankin, D. A.; Melnikov, D. A.

    2015-02-01

    Problems of the calculation of circulation loops in circulating fluidized bed reactors and systems with interconnected reactors (polygeneration systems for the production of electricity, heat, and useful products and chemical cycles of combustion and gasification of solid fuels)are considered. A method has been developed for the calculation of circulation loop of fuel particles with respect to boilers with circulating fluidized bed (CFB) and systems with interconnected reactors with fluidized bed (FB) and CFB. New dependences for the connection between the fluidizing agent flow (air, gas, and steam) and performance of reactors and for the whole system (solids flow rate, furnace and cyclone pressure drops, and bed level in the riser) are important elements of this method. Experimental studies of hydrodynamics of circulation loops on the aerodynamic unit have been conducted. Experimental values of pressure drop of the horizontal part of the L-valve, which satisfy the calculated dependence, have been obtained.

  17. Flow Components in a NaK Test Loop Designed to Simulate Conditions in a Nuclear Surface Power Reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polzin, Kurt A.; Godfroy, Thomas J.

    2008-01-01

    A test loop using NaK as the working fluid is presently in use to study material compatibility effects on various components that comprise a possible nuclear reactor design for use on the lunar surface. A DC electromagnetic (EM) pump has been designed and implemented as a means of actively controlling the NaK flow rate through the system and an EM flow sensor is employed to monitor the developed flow rate. These components allow for the matching of the flow rate conditions in test loops with those that would be found in a full-scale surface-power reactor. The design and operating characteristics of the EM pump and flow sensor are presented. In the EM pump, current is applied to a set of electrodes to produce a Lorentz body force in the fluid. A measurement of the induced voltage (back-EMF) in the flow sensor provides the means of monitoring flow rate. Both components are compact, employing high magnetic field strength neodymium magnets thermally coupled to a water-cooled housing. A vacuum gap limits the heat transferred from the high temperature NaK tube to the magnets and a magnetically-permeable material completes the magnetic circuit. The pump is designed to produce a pressure rise of 5 psi, and the flow sensor's predicted output is roughly 20 mV at the loop's nominal flow rate of 0.5 GPM.

  18. Autism genetics: Methodological issues and experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sacco, Roberto; Lintas, Carla; Persico, Antonio M

    2015-10-01

    Autism is a complex neuropsychiatric disorder of developmental origin, where multiple genetic and environmental factors likely interact resulting in a clinical continuum between "affected" and "unaffected" individuals in the general population. During the last two decades, relevant progress has been made in identifying chromosomal regions and genes in linkage or association with autism, but no single gene has emerged as a major cause of disease in a large number of patients. The purpose of this paper is to discuss specific methodological issues and experimental strategies in autism genetic research, based on fourteen years of experience in patient recruitment and association studies of autism spectrum disorder in Italy.

  19. Human Factors Experimental Design and Analysis Reference

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-07-01

    8.75 83.36 8 =where, tObserved YPD = 53.75 YSD = 62.00 3.6.5. Within-Subjects t-Test (Cont’d) (Click in this red rectangle to see SAS calculations...expands computer experience into 3 levels, High, Medium , and Low, as compared to the original example that used only 2 levels of computer experience...High and Low. In this example, each of the 80 subjects who used the experimental text editor rated their computer experience as high, medium , or

  20. Modeling and Compensation Design for a Power Hardware-in-the-Loop Simulation of an AC Distribution System: Preprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prabakar, Kumaraguru [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Ainsworth, Nathan [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Pratt, Annabelle [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Baggu, Murali M [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States); Hariri, Ali [Formerly NREL

    2017-10-06

    Power hardware-in-the-loop (PHIL) simulation, where actual hardware under text is coupled with a real-time digital model in closed loop, is a powerful tool for analyzing new methods of control for emerging distributed power systems. However, without careful design and compensation of the interface between the simulated and actual systems, PHIL simulations may exhibit instability and modeling inaccuracies. This paper addresses issues that arise in the PHIL simulation of a hardware battery inverter interfaced with a simulated distribution feeder. Both the stability and accuracy issues are modeled and characterized, and a methodology for design of PHIL interface compensation to ensure stability and accuracy is presented. The stability and accuracy of the resulting compensated PHIL simulation is then shown by experiment.

  1. Split-plot designs for multistage experimentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kulahci, Murat; Tyssedal, John

    2016-01-01

    at the same time will be more efficient. However, there have been only a few attempts in the literature to provide an adequate and easy-to-use approach for this problem. In this paper, we present a novel methodology for constructing two-level split-plot and multistage experiments. The methodology is based...... be accommodated in each stage. Furthermore, split-plot designs for multistage experiments with good projective properties are also provided....

  2. A Methodology to Assess the Capability of Engine Designs to Meet Closed-Loop Performance and Operability Requirements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zinnecker, Alicia M.; Csank, Jeffrey

    2015-01-01

    Designing a closed-loop controller for an engine requires balancing trade-offs between performance and operability of the system. One such trade-off is the relationship between the 95 percent response time and minimum high-pressure compressor (HPC) surge margin (SM) attained during acceleration from idle to takeoff power. Assuming a controller has been designed to meet some specification on response time and minimum HPC SM for a mid-life (nominal) engine, there is no guarantee that these limits will not be violated as the engine ages, particularly as it reaches the end of its life. A characterization for the uncertainty in this closed-loop system due to aging is proposed that defines elliptical boundaries to estimate worst-case performance levels for a given control design point. The results of this characterization can be used to identify limiting design points that bound the possible controller designs yielding transient results that do not exceed specified limits in response time or minimum HPC SM. This characterization involves performing Monte Carlo simulation of the closed-loop system with controller constructed for a set of trial design points and developing curve fits to describe the size and orientation of each ellipse; a binary search procedure is then employed that uses these fits to identify the limiting design point. The method is demonstrated through application to a generic turbofan engine model in closed-loop with a simplified controller; it is found that the limit for which each controller was designed was exceeded by less than 4.76 percent. Extension of the characterization to another trade-off, that between the maximum high-pressure turbine (HPT) entrance temperature and minimum HPC SM, showed even better results: the maximum HPT temperature was estimated within 0.76 percent. Because of the accuracy in this estimation, this suggests another limit that may be taken into consideration during design and analysis. It also demonstrates the extension

  3. On experimentation across science, design and society

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boris, Stefan Darlan

    2016-01-01

    The article describes how the principal idea behind the landscape laboratories has been to develop a 1:1 platform where researchers, practitioners and lay people can meet and cooperate on the development and testing of new design concepts for establishing and managing urban landscapes. This is so......The article describes how the principal idea behind the landscape laboratories has been to develop a 1:1 platform where researchers, practitioners and lay people can meet and cooperate on the development and testing of new design concepts for establishing and managing urban landscapes....... This is something, which is becoming increasingly relevant, as landscape architects and urban planners today have to address the challenges confronting urbanism due to the continued entanglement of urbanisation and anthropogenic processes. These are challenges where the act of destabilizing dichotomies (inside....../outside, natural/manmade, etc.) is one out of several reasons for not only continuing but also strengthening the landscape laboratories as testing grounds for future urban landscapes and green spaces in the Anthropocene....

  4. Designing Closed-Loop Brain-Machine Interfaces Using Model Predictive Control

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gautam Kumar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Brain-machine interfaces (BMIs are broadly defined as systems that establish direct communications between living brain tissue and external devices, such as artificial arms. By sensing and interpreting neuronal activities to actuate an external device, BMI-based neuroprostheses hold great promise in rehabilitating motor disabled subjects, such as amputees. In this paper, we develop a control-theoretic analysis of a BMI-based neuroprosthetic system for voluntary single joint reaching task in the absence of visual feedback. Using synthetic data obtained through the simulation of an experimentally validated psycho-physiological cortical circuit model, both the Wiener filter and the Kalman filter based linear decoders are developed. We analyze the performance of both decoders in the presence and in the absence of natural proprioceptive feedback information. By performing simulations, we show that the performance of both decoders degrades significantly in the absence of the natural proprioception. To recover the performance of these decoders, we propose two problems, namely tracking the desired position trajectory and tracking the firing rate trajectory of neurons which encode the proprioception, in the model predictive control framework to design optimal artificial sensory feedback. Our results indicate that while the position trajectory based design can only recover the position and velocity trajectories, the firing rate trajectory based design can recover the performance of the motor task along with the recovery of firing rates in other cortical regions. Finally, we extend our design by incorporating a network of spiking neurons and designing artificial sensory feedback in the form of a charged balanced biphasic stimulating current.

  5. ANIMATED DOCUMENTARY: EXPERIMENTATION, TECHNOLOGY AND DESIGN

    OpenAIRE

    INDIA MARA MARTINS

    2009-01-01

    O objetivo desta tese é refletir sobre o documentário animado. Um produto audiovisual que mistura documentário e animação e está redefinindo o papel do design na produção das novas mídias. Mostramos também que o documentário animado reacende uma série de debates e reflexões relativas à teoria do documentário e da animação em relação às concepções de realismo. A nossa principal premissa é que o documentário sempre se apropriou da tecnologia de forma a favorecer a experimentação ...

  6. Experimental design in analytical chemistry--part I: theory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ebrahimi-Najafabadi, Heshmatollah; Leardi, Riccardo; Jalali-Heravi, Mehdi

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews the main concepts of experimental design applicable to the optimization of analytical chemistry techniques. The critical steps and tools for screening, including Plackett-Burman, factorial and fractional factorial designs, and response surface methodology such as central composite, Box-Behnken, and Doehlert designs, are discussed. Some useful routines are also presented for performing the procedures.

  7. Design and Benchmarking of a Network-In-the-Loop Simulation for Use in a Hardware-In-the-Loop System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aretskin-Hariton, Eliot; Thomas, George; Culley, Dennis; Kratz, Jonathan

    2017-01-01

    Distributed engine control (DEC) systems alter aircraft engine design constraints because of fundamental differences in the input and output communication between DEC and centralized control architectures. The change in the way communication is implemented may create new optimum engine-aircraft configurations. This paper continues the exploration of digital network communication by demonstrating a Network-In-the-Loop simulation at the NASA Glenn Research Center. This simulation incorporates a real-time network protocol, the Engine Area Distributed Interconnect Network Lite (EADIN Lite), with the Commercial Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation 40k (C-MAPSS40k) software. The objective of this study is to assess digital control network impact to the control system. Performance is evaluated relative to a truth model for large transient maneuvers and a typical flight profile for commercial aircraft. Results show that a decrease in network bandwidth from 250 Kbps (sampling all sensors every time step) to 40 Kbps, resulted in very small differences in control system performance.

  8. Design and Benchmarking of a Network-In-the-Loop Simulation for Use in a Hardware-In-the-Loop System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aretskin-Hariton, Eliot D.; Thomas, George Lindsey; Culley, Dennis E.; Kratz, Jonathan L.

    2017-01-01

    Distributed engine control (DEC) systems alter aircraft engine design constraints be- cause of fundamental differences in the input and output communication between DEC and centralized control architectures. The change in the way communication is implemented may create new optimum engine-aircraft configurations. This paper continues the exploration of digital network communication by demonstrating a Network-In-the-Loop simulation at the NASA Glenn Research Center. This simulation incorporates a real-time network protocol, the Engine Area Distributed Interconnect Network Lite (EADIN Lite), with the Commercial Modular Aero-Propulsion System Simulation 40k (C-MAPSS40k) software. The objective of this study is to assess digital control network impact to the control system. Performance is evaluated relative to a truth model for large transient maneuvers and a typical flight profile for commercial aircraft. Results show that a decrease in network bandwidth from 250 Kbps (sampling all sensors every time step) to 40 Kbps, resulted in very small differences in control system performance.

  9. Prosthesis-user-in-the-loop: user-centered design parameters and visual simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christ, O; Wojtusch, J; Beckerle, P; Wolff, K; Vogt, J; von Stryk, O; Rinderknecht, S

    2012-01-01

    After an amputation, processes of change in the body image as well as a change in body scheme have direct influences on the quality of living in every patient. Within this paper, a paradigm of experimental induced body illusion (the Rubber Hand Illusion, RHI) is integrated in a prosthetic hardware simulator concept. This concept combines biodynamical and visual feedback to enhance the quality of rehabilitation and to integrate patients' needs into the development of prostheses aiming on user-centered solutions. Therefore, user-centered design parameters are deducted. Furthermore, the basic concept of the visual simulation is presented and a possibility for its implementation is given. Finally, issues and conclusions for future work are described.

  10. Loop Shaping Control Design for a Supersonic Propulsion System Model Using Quantitative Feedback Theory (QFT) Specifications and Bounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Connolly, Joseph W.; Kopasakis, George

    2010-01-01

    This paper covers the propulsion system component modeling and controls development of an integrated mixed compression inlet and turbojet engine that will be used for an overall vehicle Aero-Propulso-Servo-Elastic (APSE) model. Using previously created nonlinear component-level propulsion system models, a linear integrated propulsion system model and loop shaping control design have been developed. The design includes both inlet normal shock position control and jet engine rotor speed control for a potential supersonic commercial transport. A preliminary investigation of the impacts of the aero-elastic effects on the incoming flow field to the propulsion system are discussed, however, the focus here is on developing a methodology for the propulsion controls design that prevents unstart in the inlet and minimizes the thrust oscillation experienced by the vehicle. Quantitative Feedback Theory (QFT) specifications and bounds, and aspects of classical loop shaping are used in the control design process. Model uncertainty is incorporated in the design to address possible error in the system identification mapping of the nonlinear component models into the integrated linear model.

  11. Top notch design for fiber-loop cavity ring-down spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rushworth, Cathy M; James, Dean; Lee, Jason W L; Vallance, Claire

    2011-11-15

    Fiber-loop cavity ring-down spectroscopy (CRDS) is a highly sensitive spectroscopic absorption technique which has shown considerable promise for the analysis of small-volume liquid samples. We have developed a new light coupling method for fiber-loop CRDS, which overcomes two disadvantages of the technique: low efficiency light coupling into the cavity and high loss per pass. The coupler is based on a 45° reflective notch polished between 10 and 30 μm into the core of a large-core-diameter (365 μm) optical fiber, and allows for nearly 100% light coupling into the cavity, with a low loss per pass (down measurements on aqueous rhodamine 6G (Rh6G) at 532 nm. The results are compared with data obtained using the same light source and detector, but a conventional bend-coupled small-core-diameter (50 μm) optical fiber loop. With our new coupler, a detection limit of 0.11 cm(-1) is found, which corresponds to detection of 0.93 μM Rh6G in a volume of only 19 nL. This is an improvement of over an order of magnitude on our bend-coupled small-core optical fiber results, in which a detection limit of 5.3 cm(-1) was found, corresponding to a detection of 43 μM Rh6G in a volume of 20 pL.

  12. Design Issues and Inference in Experimental L2 Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hudson, Thom; Llosa, Lorena

    2015-01-01

    Explicit attention to research design issues is essential in experimental second language (L2) research. Too often, however, such careful attention is not paid. This article examines some of the issues surrounding experimental L2 research and its relationships to causal inferences. It discusses the place of research questions and hypotheses,…

  13. A Bayesian experimental design approach to structural health monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrar, Charles [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Flynn, Eric [UCSD; Todd, Michael [UCSD

    2010-01-01

    Optimal system design for SHM involves two primarily challenges. The first is the derivation of a proper performance function for a given system design. The second is the development of an efficient optimization algorithm for choosing a design that maximizes, or nearly maximizes the performance function. In this paper we will outline how an SHM practitioner can construct the proper performance function by casting the entire design problem into a framework of Bayesian experimental design. The approach demonstrates how the design problem necessarily ties together all steps of the SHM process.

  14. A double-loop evaluation process for MOOC design and its pilot application in the university domain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Federica Cirulli

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The diffusion of Massive Open Online Courses (MOOCs is significantly changing the way people learn and update their knowledge and competencies. Although the benefits characterizing MOOCs, which leverage on free and open access to know-how and digitized materials, there are some challenges which call for improving and enhancing the existing methods and approaches for MOOCs design. By combining theory and practice, this paper presents a process of MOOCs design based on a double-loop phase of evaluation. Specifically, the paper provides evidences on how to take advantage of the learners’ and teachers’ feedback to redesign or rethink the course’s architecture, and especially the storyboard and blueprint. A pilot application of the proposed approach has been made to design a course dealing with entrepreneurship domain, and in particular with crowdfunding. The results of the application are presented to validate the approach and provide teachers and course’s designers with some recommendations.

  15. SDG and E/ERDA geothermal loop experimental facility. Bi-monthly report, January--February 1977

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bishop, H.K.; Bricarello, J.R.; Enos, F.L.; Hodgdon, N.C.; Jacobson, W.O.; Li, K.K.; Mulliner, D.K.; Swanson, C.R.

    1977-03-01

    Progress is reported in research on the Geothermal Loop Experimental Facility (GLEF), which operated for 758 hours during January and February 1977 with geothermal brine from both Magmamax No. 1 and Woolsey No. 1 wells. The facility was shut down for two weeks for the first major cleaning of the plant. The cleaning was accomplished by hand-scraping the large vessels, hydroblasting (high pressure water jets) portions of the reinjection line, and acid soaking, followed in most instances by hydroblasting, of the facility brine drain lines. The deepening of Woolsey No. 1 well to approximately 3490 feet was completed. Flow tests of Woolsey were attempted, with resumption of facility operation utilizing Magmamax No. 3 as the reinjection well. Insufficient geothermal fluid pressure at the Woolsey No. 1 wellhead resulted in several intermittent operations. Remedial measures undertaken included high pressure injection (hydrofracture) using a separate pump on Magmamax No. 2 and back flushing using a nitrogen purge on Magmamax No. 3. After these remedial measures were taken, the injection-well back pressure remained high, thus limiting the reinjection operation. Downhole data under these low flow conditions were gathered in order to determine further remedial actions. Typical reinjection conditions during this time were 400 gpm, 450 psig and 200/sup 0/F at the plant boundary. Final Woolsey No. 1 wellhead conditions were approximately 200 psig and 400/sup 0/F, indicating that an adequate supply of geothermal brine to the GLEF is very probable. No change in the GLEF brine and steam chemistry occurred during this reporting period. Scaling occurred throughout the system with the greatest deposition in the injection pump and lines. Scale composition varied from an iron, lead, silica mixture in the initial plant stages to a predominantly silica scale in the last stage and injection line. Installation of the electronic data logging system was completed. (JGB)

  16. Construction of the blowdown and condensation loop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Choon Kyung; Song, Chul Kyung; Cho, Seok; Chun, S. Y.; Chung, Moon Ki

    1997-12-01

    The blowdown and condensation loop (B and C loop) has been constructed to get experimental data for designing the safety depressurization system (SDS) and steam sparger which are considered to implement in the Korea Next Generation Reactor (KNGR). In this report, system description on the B and C loop is given in detail, which includes the drawings and technical specification of each component, instrumentation and control system, and the operational procedures and the results of the performance testing. (author). 7 refs., 11 tabs., 48 figs.

  17. Design of a Closed-Loop, Bidirectional Brain Machine Interface System With Energy Efficient Neural Feature Extraction and PID Control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xilin; Zhang, Milin; Richardson, Andrew G; Lucas, Timothy H; Van der Spiegel, Jan

    2017-08-01

    This paper presents a bidirectional brain machine interface (BMI) microsystem designed for closed-loop neuroscience research, especially experiments in freely behaving animals. The system-on-chip (SoC) consists of 16-channel neural recording front-ends, neural feature extraction units, 16-channel programmable neural stimulator back-ends, in-channel programmable closed-loop controllers, global analog-digital converters (ADC), and peripheral circuits. The proposed neural feature extraction units includes 1) an ultra low-power neural energy extraction unit enabling a 64-step natural logarithmic domain frequency tuning, and 2) a current-mode action potential (AP) detection unit with time-amplitude window discriminator. A programmable proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller has been integrated in each channel enabling a various of closed-loop operations. The implemented ADCs include a 10-bit voltage-mode successive approximation register (SAR) ADC for the digitization of the neural feature outputs and/or local field potential (LFP) outputs, and an 8-bit current-mode SAR ADC for the digitization of the action potential outputs. The multi-mode stimulator can be programmed to perform monopolar or bipolar, symmetrical or asymmetrical charge balanced stimulation with a maximum current of 4 mA in an arbitrary channel configuration. The chip has been fabricated in 0.18 μ m CMOS technology, occupying a silicon area of 3.7 mm 2 . The chip dissipates 56 μW/ch on average. General purpose low-power microcontroller with Bluetooth module are integrated in the system to provide wireless link and SoC configuration. Methods, circuit techniques and system topology proposed in this work can be used in a wide range of relevant neurophysiology research, especially closed-loop BMI experiments.

  18. Experimental Investigation of CaMnO3−δ Based Oxygen Carriers Used in Continuous Chemical-Looping Combustion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Hallberg

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Three materials of perovskite structure, CaMn1−xMxO3−δ (M = Mg or Mg and Ti, have been examined as oxygen carriers in continuous operation of chemical-looping combustion (CLC in a circulating fluidized bed system with the designed fuel power 300 W. Natural gas was used as fuel. All three materials were capable of completely converting the fuel to carbon dioxide and water at 900°C. All materials also showed the ability to release gas phase oxygen when fluidized by inert gas at elevated temperature (700–950°C; that is, they were suitable for chemical looping with oxygen uncoupling (CLOU. Both fuel conversion and oxygen release improved with temperature. All three materials also showed good mechanical integrity, as the fraction of fines collected during experiments was small. These results indicate that the materials are promising oxygen carriers for chemical-looping combustion.

  19. The Use of an Experimental Design Approach to Investigate the ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    This study looked at using statistical design of experimental (DoE) principles to observe interactions between two graphite types and a nanocarbon ... Pb-acid battery, Pb-plate, graphite, expanders, design of experiment. 1. Introduction .... The CCA test was done by placing the cells in a freezer for 24 h at –18 ± 1 °C prior to ...

  20. Use of Experimental Design for Peuhl Cheese Process Optimization ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Use of Experimental Design for Peuhl Cheese Process Optimization. ... Journal of Applied Sciences and Environmental Management ... This work consisting in use of a central composite design enables the determination of optimal process conditions concerning: leaf extract volume added (7 mL), heating temperature ...

  1. Gasification Coupled Chemical Looping Combustion of Coal: A Thermodynamic Process Design Study

    OpenAIRE

    Borkhade, Sonali A.; Shriwas, Preksha A.; Ganesh R. Kale

    2013-01-01

    A thermodynamic investigation of gasification coupled chemical looping combustion (CLC) of carbon (coal) is presented in this paper. Both steam and CO2 are used for gasification within the temperature range of 500–1200°C. Chemical equilibrium model was considered for the gasifier and CLC fuel reactor. The trends in product compositions and energy requirements of the gasifier, fuel reactor, and air reactor were determined. Coal (carbon) gasification using 1.5 mol H2O and 1.5 mol CO2 per mole c...

  2. Experimental Methodology in English Teaching and Learning: Method Features, Validity Issues, and Embedded Experimental Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jang Ho

    2012-01-01

    Experimental methods have played a significant role in the growth of English teaching and learning studies. The paper presented here outlines basic features of experimental design, including the manipulation of independent variables, the role and practicality of randomised controlled trials (RCTs) in educational research, and alternative methods…

  3. Experimental Study on Hydrate Induction Time of Gas-Saturated Water-in-Oil Emulsion using a High-Pressure Flow Loop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lv X.F.

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Hydrate is one of the critical precipitates which have to be controlled for subsea flow assurance. The induction time of hydrate is therefore a significant parameter. However, there have been few studies on the induction time of the natural gas hydrate formation in a flow loop system. Consequently, a series of experiments were firstly performed, including water, natural gas and Diesel oil, on the hydrate induction time under various conditions such as the supercooling and supersaturation degree, water cut, anti-agglomerant dosage, etc. The experiments were conducted in a high-pressure hydrate flow loop newly constructed in the China University of Petroleum (Beijing, and dedicated to flow assurance studies. Then, based on previous research, this study puts forward a method for induction time, which is characterized by clear definition, convenient measurement and good generality. Furthermore, we investigated the influences of the experimental parameters and analyzed the experimental phenomena for the hydrate induction time in a flowing system.

  4. Design of an experimental set up for convective drying: experimental studies at different drying temperature

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohan, V. P. Chandra; Talukdar, Prabal

    2013-01-01

    An experimental setup is designed to investigate the convective drying of moist object experimentally. All the design data, components of setup, materials and specifications are presented. Transient moisture content of a rectangular shaped potato slice (4 × 2 × 2 cm) is measured at different air temperatures of 40, 50, 60 and 70 °C with an air velocity of 2 m/s. Two different drying rate periods are observed. Results are compared with available results from literature.

  5. Mathematical Modeling of Loop Heat Pipes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, Tarik; Ku, Jentung; Hoang, Triem T.; Cheung, Mark L.

    1998-01-01

    The primary focus of this study is to model steady-state performance of a Loop Heat Pipe (LHP). The mathematical model is based on the steady-state energy balance equations at each component of the LHP. The heat exchange between each LHP component and the surrounding is taken into account. Both convection and radiation environments are modeled. The loop operating temperature is calculated as a function of the applied power at a given loop condition. Experimental validation of the model is attempted by using two different LHP designs. The mathematical model is tested at different sink temperatures and at different elevations of the loop. Tbc comparison of the calculations and experimental results showed very good agreement (within 3%). This method proved to be a useful tool in studying steady-state LHP performance characteristics.

  6. Design and scale-up of a combustion process for inherent CO{sub 2} separation by chemical looping combustion; Design und Scale-up eines Verbrennungsverfahrens zur inhaerenten CO{sub 2} - Abtrennung mittels Chemical-Looping Combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kronberger, B.; Luisser, M.; Loeffler, G.; Hofbauer, H. [Technische Universitaet Wien, Institut fuer Verfahrenstechnik, Umwelttechnik und Technische Biowissenschaften, Wien (Austria)

    2004-07-01

    Chemical looping combustion (CLC) is a novel power plant concept with inherent separation of carbon dioxide. Using metal oxides as oxygen carriers, oxygen is separated from the combustion air and is supplied to the fuel for oxidation. There is no direct contact between fuel and combustion air, and the combustion products CO2 and water are obtained separately from nitrogen. The contribution presents the state of development of the process. Design criteria are derived from the research findings so far in the fields of oxygen carrier reactivity and stability, fluid dynamics of the reactor system, simulation of power plant processes, and prototype operation. The design criteria, together with the scale-up criteria developed for CLC, provide the basis for developing a power plant concept with integrated CLC combustion. (orig.)

  7. Optimal Experimental Design of Furan Shock Tube Kinetic Experiments

    KAUST Repository

    Kim, Daesang

    2015-01-07

    A Bayesian optimal experimental design methodology has been developed and applied to refine the rate coefficients of elementary reactions in Furan combustion. Furans are considered as potential renewable fuels. We focus on the Arrhenius rates of Furan + OH ↔ Furyl-2 + H2O and Furan ↔ OH Furyl-3 + H2O, and rely on the OH consumption rate as experimental observable. A polynomial chaos surrogate is first constructed using an adaptive pseudo-spectral projection algorithm. The PC surrogate is then exploited in conjunction with a fast estimation of the expected information gain in order to determine the optimal design in the space of initial temperatures and OH concentrations.

  8. Open-loop versus closed-loop control of MEMS devices: choices and issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borovic, B.; Liu, A. Q.; Popa, D.; Cai, H.; Lewis, F. L.

    2005-10-01

    From a controls point of view, micro electromechanical systems (MEMS) can be driven in an open-loop and closed-loop fashion. Commonly, these devices are driven open-loop by applying simple input signals. If these input signals become more complex by being derived from the system dynamics, we call such control techniques pre-shaped open-loop driving. The ultimate step for improving precision and speed of response is the introduction of feedback, e.g. closed-loop control. Unlike macro mechanical systems, where the implementation of the feedback is relatively simple, in the MEMS case the feedback design is quite problematic, due to the limited availability of sensor data, the presence of sensor dynamics and noise, and the typically fast actuator dynamics. Furthermore, a performance comparison between open-loop and closed-loop control strategies has not been properly explored for MEMS devices. The purpose of this paper is to present experimental results obtained using both open- and closed-loop strategies and to address the comparative issues of driving and control for MEMS devices. An optical MEMS switching device is used for this study. Based on these experimental results, as well as computer simulations, we point out advantages and disadvantages of the different control strategies, address the problems that distinguish MEMS driving systems from their macro counterparts, and discuss criteria to choose a suitable control driving strategy.

  9. Principles of Experimental Design for Big Data Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drovandi, Christopher C; Holmes, Christopher; McGree, James M; Mengersen, Kerrie; Richardson, Sylvia; Ryan, Elizabeth G

    2017-08-01

    Big Datasets are endemic, but are often notoriously difficult to analyse because of their size, heterogeneity and quality. The purpose of this paper is to open a discourse on the potential for modern decision theoretic optimal experimental design methods, which by their very nature have traditionally been applied prospectively, to improve the analysis of Big Data through retrospective designed sampling in order to answer particular questions of interest. By appealing to a range of examples, it is suggested that this perspective on Big Data modelling and analysis has the potential for wide generality and advantageous inferential and computational properties. We highlight current hurdles and open research questions surrounding efficient computational optimisation in using retrospective designs, and in part this paper is a call to the optimisation and experimental design communities to work together in the field of Big Data analysis.

  10. Principles of Experimental Design for Big Data Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Drovandi, Christopher C; Holmes, Christopher; McGree, James M; Mengersen, Kerrie; Richardson, Sylvia; Ryan, Elizabeth G

    2016-01-01

    Big Datasets are endemic, but are often notoriously difficult to analyse because of their size, heterogeneity and quality. The purpose of this paper is to open a discourse on the potential for modern decision theoretic optimal experimental design methods, which by their very nature have traditionally been applied prospectively, to improve the analysis of Big Data through retrospective designed sampling in order to answer particular questions of interest. By appealing to a range of examples, it is suggested that this perspective on Big Data modelling and analysis has the potential for wide generality and advantageous inferential and computational properties. We highlight current hurdles and open research questions surrounding efficient computational optimisation in using retrospective designs, and in part this paper is a call to the optimisation and experimental design communities to work together in the field of Big Data analysis. PMID:28883686

  11. Development and experimental validation of a protein design software

    OpenAIRE

    Stiebritz, Martin

    2008-01-01

    Computational protein design - understood as the prediction of an amino acid sequence that will adopt a given 3-dimensional structure associated with a desired function - offers the promising perspective of tailoring proteins according to special needs. From a more fundamental point of view, it improves our understanding of protein architecture, folding and dynamics. Here, the development and experimental validation of a protein design software - MUMBO - is described. The current implementati...

  12. Aviation human-in-the-loop simulation studies : experimental planning, design, and data management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Researchers from the NASAAmes Flight Cognition Laband the FAAs Aerospace Human Factors Research Lab at the Civil Aerospace Medical Instituteexamined task and workload management by single pilots in very light jets, also called entry-level jets.Thi...

  13. Aviation Human-in-the-Loop Simulation Studies: Experimental Planning, Design, and Data Management

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    CONTG BYD 21Z. AIRMET TURB..VT NY LO PA OH LE WV FROM YSC TO 20SSW ALB TO 30SSW PSB TO HNN TO CVG TO FWA TO DXO TO MSS TO YSC MOD TURB BLW FL180. CONDS...TURB..VT NY LO PA OH LE WV FROM YSC TO 20SSW ALB TO 30SSW PSB TO HNN TO CVG TO FWA TO DXO TO MSS TO YSC MOD TURB BLW FL180. CONDS CONTG BYD 21Z

  14. Neural Network Assisted Experimental Designs for Food Research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.S. Ramaswamy

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available The ability of artificial neural networks (ANN in predicting full factorial data from the fractional data corresponding to some of the commonly used experimental designs is explored in this paper. Factorial and fractional factorial designs such as L8, L9, L18, and Box and Behnken schemes were considered both in their original form and with some variations (L8+6, L15 and L9+1. Full factorial (3 factors x 5 levels and fractional data were generated employing sixteen different mathematical equations (four in each category: linear, with and without interactions, and non-linear, with and without interactions. Different ANN models were trained and the best model was chosen for each equation based on their ability to predict the fractional data. The best experimental design was then chosen based on their ability to simulate the full- factorial data for each equation. In several cases, the mean relative errors with the L18 design (which had more input data than other models were even higher than with other smaller fractional design. In general, the ANN assisted Lm, Box and Behnken, L15 and L18 designs were found to predict the full factorial data reasonably well with errors less than 5 %. The L8+6 model performed well with several experimental datasets reported in the literature.

  15. Experimental Design to Evaluate Directed Adaptive Mutation in Mammalian Cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiaro, Christopher R; May, Tobias

    2014-01-01

    Background We describe the experimental design for a methodological approach to determine whether directed adaptive mutation occurs in mammalian cells. Identification of directed adaptive mutation would have profound practical significance for a wide variety of biomedical problems, including disease development and resistance to treatment. In adaptive mutation, the genetic or epigenetic change is not random; instead, the presence and type of selection influences the frequency and character of the mutation event. Adaptive mutation can contribute to the evolution of microbial pathogenesis, cancer, and drug resistance, and may become a focus of novel therapeutic interventions. Objective Our experimental approach was designed to distinguish between 3 types of mutation: (1) random mutations that are independent of selective pressure, (2) undirected adaptive mutations that arise when selective pressure induces a general increase in the mutation rate, and (3) directed adaptive mutations that arise when selective pressure induces targeted mutations that specifically influence the adaptive response. The purpose of this report is to introduce an experimental design and describe limited pilot experiment data (not to describe a complete set of experiments); hence, it is an early report. Methods An experimental design based on immortalization of mouse embryonic fibroblast cells is presented that links clonal cell growth to reversal of an inactivating polyadenylation site mutation. Thus, cells exhibit growth only in the presence of both the countermutation and an inducing agent (doxycycline). The type and frequency of mutation in the presence or absence of doxycycline will be evaluated. Additional experimental approaches would determine whether the cells exhibit a generalized increase in mutation rate and/or whether the cells show altered expression of error-prone DNA polymerases or of mismatch repair proteins. Results We performed the initial stages of characterizing our system

  16. Experimental design to evaluate directed adaptive mutation in Mammalian cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordonaro, Michael; Chiaro, Christopher R; May, Tobias

    2014-12-09

    We describe the experimental design for a methodological approach to determine whether directed adaptive mutation occurs in mammalian cells. Identification of directed adaptive mutation would have profound practical significance for a wide variety of biomedical problems, including disease development and resistance to treatment. In adaptive mutation, the genetic or epigenetic change is not random; instead, the presence and type of selection influences the frequency and character of the mutation event. Adaptive mutation can contribute to the evolution of microbial pathogenesis, cancer, and drug resistance, and may become a focus of novel therapeutic interventions. Our experimental approach was designed to distinguish between 3 types of mutation: (1) random mutations that are independent of selective pressure, (2) undirected adaptive mutations that arise when selective pressure induces a general increase in the mutation rate, and (3) directed adaptive mutations that arise when selective pressure induces targeted mutations that specifically influence the adaptive response. The purpose of this report is to introduce an experimental design and describe limited pilot experiment data (not to describe a complete set of experiments); hence, it is an early report. An experimental design based on immortalization of mouse embryonic fibroblast cells is presented that links clonal cell growth to reversal of an inactivating polyadenylation site mutation. Thus, cells exhibit growth only in the presence of both the countermutation and an inducing agent (doxycycline). The type and frequency of mutation in the presence or absence of doxycycline will be evaluated. Additional experimental approaches would determine whether the cells exhibit a generalized increase in mutation rate and/or whether the cells show altered expression of error-prone DNA polymerases or of mismatch repair proteins. We performed the initial stages of characterizing our system and have limited preliminary data

  17. Squeeze-film damper design with air channels : Experimental verification

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dias, R.A.; Wolffenbuttel, R.F.; Cretu, E.; Rocha, L.A.

    2011-01-01

    The experimental evaluation of damping-improved parallel-plate geometries is reported in this paper. An improved damper geometry with air channels was developed to address contradictory design constraints: large sensing parallel-plate area is desirable for a significant readout capacitance as well

  18. Experimental design of natural and accellerated bone and wood ageing

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Facorellis, Y.; Pournou, A.; Richter, Jane

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents the experimental design for natural and accelerated ageing of bone and wood samples found in museum conditions that was conceived as part of the INVENVORG (Thales Research Funding Program – NRSF) investigating the effects of the environmental factors on natural organic materials....

  19. Experimental and numerical analysis for optimal design parameters ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Later, the response surface curves are studied using ANOVA. Finally, the relations established are confirmed experimentally to validate the models. The relations thus established are beneficent in furtherance of designing evaporators. Additionally, the presentstudy is among the first attempts to reveal the effect of humidity ...

  20. Single-Subject Experimental Design for Evidence-Based Practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byiers, Breanne J.; Reichle, Joe; Symons, Frank J.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Single-subject experimental designs (SSEDs) represent an important tool in the development and implementation of evidence-based practice in communication sciences and disorders. The purpose of this article is to review the strategies and tactics of SSEDs and their application in speech-language pathology research. Method: The authors…

  1. Taguchi method of experimental design in materials education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiser, Martin W.

    1993-01-01

    Some of the advantages and disadvantages of the Taguchi Method of experimental design as applied to Materials Science will be discussed. This is a fractional factorial method that employs the minimum number of experimental trials for the information obtained. The analysis is also very simple to use and teach, which is quite advantageous in the classroom. In addition, the Taguchi loss function can be easily incorporated to emphasize that improvements in reproducibility are often at least as important as optimization of the response. The disadvantages of the Taguchi Method include the fact that factor interactions are normally not accounted for, there are zero degrees of freedom if all of the possible factors are used, and randomization is normally not used to prevent environmental biasing. In spite of these disadvantages it is felt that the Taguchi Method is extremely useful for both teaching experimental design and as a research tool, as will be shown with a number of brief examples.

  2. Optimal Experimental Design for Large-Scale Bayesian Inverse Problems

    KAUST Repository

    Ghattas, Omar

    2014-01-06

    We develop a Bayesian framework for the optimal experimental design of the shock tube experiments which are being carried out at the KAUST Clean Combustion Research Center. The unknown parameters are the pre-exponential parameters and the activation energies in the reaction rate expressions. The control parameters are the initial mixture composition and the temperature. The approach is based on first building a polynomial based surrogate model for the observables relevant to the shock tube experiments. Based on these surrogates, a novel MAP based approach is used to estimate the expected information gain in the proposed experiments, and to select the best experimental set-ups yielding the optimal expected information gains. The validity of the approach is tested using synthetic data generated by sampling the PC surrogate. We finally outline a methodology for validation using actual laboratory experiments, and extending experimental design methodology to the cases where the control parameters are noisy.

  3. Determination of the Clean Air Delivery Rate (CADR) of Photocatalytic Oxidation (PCO) Purifiers for Indoor Air Pollutants Using a Closed-Loop Reactor. Part II: Experimental Results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Héquet, Valérie; Batault, Frédéric; Raillard, Cécile; Thévenet, Frédéric; Le Coq, Laurence; Dumont, Éric

    2017-03-06

    The performances of a laboratory PhotoCatalytic Oxidation (PCO) device were determined using a recirculation closed-loop pilot reactor. The closed-loop system was modeled by associating equations related to two ideal reactors: a perfectly mixed reservoir with a volume of VR = 0.42 m³ and a plug flow system corresponding to the PCO device with a volume of VP = 5.6 × 10-3 m³. The PCO device was composed of a pleated photocatalytic filter (1100 cm²) and two 18-W UVA fluorescent tubes. The Clean Air Delivery Rate (CADR) of the apparatus was measured under different operating conditions. The influence of three operating parameters was investigated: (i) light irradiance I from 0.10 to 2.0 mW·cm-2; (ii) air velocity v from 0.2 to 1.9 m·s-1; and (iii) initial toluene concentration C₀ (200, 600, 1000 and 4700 ppbv). The results showed that the conditions needed to apply a first-order decay model to the experimental data (described in Part I) were fulfilled. The CADR values, ranging from 0.35 to 3.95 m³·h-1, were mainly dependent on the light irradiance intensity. A square root influence of the light irradiance was observed. Although the CADR of the PCO device inserted in the closed-loop reactor did not theoretically depend on the flow rate (see Part I), the experimental results did not enable the confirmation of this prediction. The initial concentration was also a parameter influencing the CADR, as well as the toluene degradation rate. The maximum degradation rate rmax ranged from 342 to 4894 ppbv/h. Finally, this study evidenced that a recirculation closed-loop pilot could be used to develop a reliable standard test method to assess the effectiveness of PCO devices.

  4. Determination of the Clean Air Delivery Rate (CADR of Photocatalytic Oxidation (PCO Purifiers for Indoor Air Pollutants Using a Closed-Loop Reactor. Part II: Experimental Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valérie Héquet

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available The performances of a laboratory PhotoCatalytic Oxidation (PCO device were determined using a recirculation closed-loop pilot reactor. The closed-loop system was modeled by associating equations related to two ideal reactors: a perfectly mixed reservoir with a volume of VR = 0.42 m3 and a plug flow system corresponding to the PCO device with a volume of VP = 5.6 × 10−3 m3. The PCO device was composed of a pleated photocatalytic filter (1100 cm2 and two 18-W UVA fluorescent tubes. The Clean Air Delivery Rate (CADR of the apparatus was measured under different operating conditions. The influence of three operating parameters was investigated: (i light irradiance I from 0.10 to 2.0 mW·cm−2; (ii air velocity v from 0.2 to 1.9 m·s−1; and (iii initial toluene concentration C0 (200, 600, 1000 and 4700 ppbv. The results showed that the conditions needed to apply a first-order decay model to the experimental data (described in Part I were fulfilled. The CADR values, ranging from 0.35 to 3.95 m3·h−1, were mainly dependent on the light irradiance intensity. A square root influence of the light irradiance was observed. Although the CADR of the PCO device inserted in the closed-loop reactor did not theoretically depend on the flow rate (see Part I, the experimental results did not enable the confirmation of this prediction. The initial concentration was also a parameter influencing the CADR, as well as the toluene degradation rate. The maximum degradation rate rmax ranged from 342 to 4894 ppbv/h. Finally, this study evidenced that a recirculation closed-loop pilot could be used to develop a reliable standard test method to assess the effectiveness of PCO devices.

  5. Experimental studies and computational benchmark on heavy liquid metal natural circulation in a full height-scale test loop for small modular reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Yong-Hoon, E-mail: chaotics@snu.ac.kr [Department of Energy Systems Engineering, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of); Cho, Jaehyun [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, 111 Daedeok-daero, 989 Beon-gil, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34057 (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jueun; Ju, Heejae; Sohn, Sungjune; Kim, Yeji; Noh, Hyunyub; Hwang, Il Soon [Department of Energy Systems Engineering, Seoul National University, 1 Gwanak-ro, Gwanak-gu, Seoul 08826 (Korea, Republic of)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • Experimental studies on natural circulation for lead-bismuth eutectic were conducted. • Adiabatic wall boundaries conditions were established by compensating heat loss. • Computational benchmark with a system thermal-hydraulics code was performed. • Numerical simulation and experiment showed good agreement in mass flow rate. • An empirical relation was formulated for mass flow rate with experimental data. - Abstract: In order to test the enhanced safety of small lead-cooled fast reactors, lead-bismuth eutectic (LBE) natural circulation characteristics have been studied. We present results of experiments with LBE non-isothermal natural circulation in a full-height scale test loop, HELIOS (heavy eutectic liquid metal loop for integral test of operability and safety of PEACER), and the validation of a system thermal-hydraulics code. The experimental studies on LBE were conducted under steady state as a function of core power conditions from 9.8 kW to 33.6 kW. Local surface heaters on the main loop were activated and finely tuned by trial-and-error approach to make adiabatic wall boundary conditions. A thermal-hydraulic system code MARS-LBE was validated by using the well-defined benchmark data. It was found that the predictions were mostly in good agreement with the experimental data in terms of mass flow rate and temperature difference that were both within 7%, respectively. With experiment results, an empirical relation predicting mass flow rate at a non-isothermal, adiabatic condition in HELIOS was derived.

  6. Design of Pump as Turbine Experimental Test Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zariatin D. L.

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the design process of experimental test facility for pump as turbine hydropower system. Three design possibilities that related to the PAT condition of operation was developed and analyzed by using CFD Software. It is found that the First Variant with a straight flow to the PAT will produce higher velocity, which is needed to generate more rotation of the shaft generator, in order to generate more electric power. The strength of PAT construction was analyzed by using FEM software. It was found that the maximum stress is 6 MPa and can be concluded that the construction is appropriate to the design requirement.

  7. COMPARISON OF EXPERIMENTAL-DESIGNS COMBINING PROCESS AND MIXTURE VARIABLES .1. DESIGN CONSTRUCTION AND THEORETICAL EVALUATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DUINEVELD, C. A. A.; Smilde, A. K.; Doornbos, D. A.

    1993-01-01

    The combination of process variables and mixture variables in experimental design is a problem which has not yet been solved. It is examined here whether a set of designs can be found which can be used for a series of models of reasonable complexity. The proposed designs are compared with known

  8. COMPARISON OF EXPERIMENTAL-DESIGNS COMBINING PROCESS AND MIXTURE VARIABLES .1. DESIGN CONSTRUCTION AND THEORETICAL EVALUATION

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DUINEVELD, CAA; SMILDE, AK; DOORNBOS, DA

    The combination of process variables and mixture variables in experimental design is a problem which has not yet been solved. It is examined here whether a set of designs can be found which can be used for a series of models of reasonable complexity. The proposed designs are compared with known

  9. Computational design and experimental validation of new thermal barrier systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Shengmin [Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge, LA (United States)

    2015-03-31

    The focus of this project is on the development of a reliable and efficient ab initio based computational high temperature material design method which can be used to assist the Thermal Barrier Coating (TBC) bond-coat and top-coat design. Experimental evaluations on the new TBCs are conducted to confirm the new TBCs’ properties. Southern University is the subcontractor on this project with a focus on the computational simulation method development. We have performed ab initio density functional theory (DFT) method and molecular dynamics simulation on screening the top coats and bond coats for gas turbine thermal barrier coating design and validation applications. For experimental validations, our focus is on the hot corrosion performance of different TBC systems. For example, for one of the top coatings studied, we examined the thermal stability of TaZr2.75O8 and confirmed it’s hot corrosion performance.

  10. Experimental evaluation of a Chinese sulfur-containing lean iron ore as the oxygen carrier for chemical-looping combustion

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Xiaojia; Hao LIU; Jin, Baosheng; Zhao, Jie; Sun, Chenggong; Snape, Colin E.

    2016-01-01

    A series of chemical-looping combustion (CLC) tests were conducted in a thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) reactor to investigate the potential of a Chinese sulfur-containing lean iron ore as the oxygen carrier. Two main products of solidfuel pyrolysis and gasification, namely, CH4 and CO, were selected as the reducing gases. Consecutive reduction−oxidation cycles were first carried out in the TGA reactor to evaluate the cyclic stability and agglomeration tendency of the oxygen carrier. The eff...

  11. Design and Implementation of an Experimental Segway Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Younis, Wael; Abdelati, Mohammed

    2009-03-01

    The segway is the first transportation product to stand, balance, and move in the same way we do. It is a truly 21st-century idea. The aim of this research is to study the theory behind building segway vehicles based on the stabilization of an inverted pendulum. An experimental model has been designed and implemented through this study. The model has been tested for its balance by running a Proportional Derivative (PD) algorithm on a microprocessor chip. The model has been identified in order to serve as an educational experimental platform for segways.

  12. High-Order Frequency-Locked Loops

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golestan, Saeed; Guerrero, Josep M.; Quintero, Juan Carlos Vasquez

    2017-01-01

    In very recent years, some attempts for designing high-order frequency-locked loops (FLLs) have been made. Nevertheless, the advantages and disadvantages of these structures, particularly in comparison with a standard FLL and high-order phase-locked loops (PLLs), are rather unclear. This lack...... study, and its small-signal modeling, stability analysis, and parameter tuning are presented. Finally, to gain insight about advantages and disadvantages of high-order FLLs, a theoretical and experimental performance comparison between the designed second-order FLL and a standard FLL (first-order FLL...

  13. Theoretical study on a solar collector loop during stagnation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, Ziqian; Dragsted, Janne; Furbo, Simon

    A mathematical model simulating the stagnation behavior of a pressurized solar collector loop with solar collectors with a good emptying behavior is developed. Based on the pre-pressure of the expansion vessel, the system filling pressure of the solar collector loop and the design of the solar...... collector loop, the mass of the fluid flowing into the pressurized expansion vessel and the pressures at the top part and at the bottom part of the solar collector loop during stagnation for the solar collector loop are calculated. The theoretically calculated results are compared with experimental results....... There is a good agreement between calculations and measurements. The developed simulation model is therefore suitable to determine the behavior of solar collector loops during stagnation....

  14. D-Optimal Experimental Design for Contaminant Source Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sai Baba, A. K.; Alexanderian, A.

    2016-12-01

    Contaminant source identification seeks to estimate the release history of a conservative solute given point concentration measurements at some time after the release. This can be mathematically expressed as an inverse problem, with a linear observation operator or a parameter-to-observation map, which we tackle using a Bayesian approach. Acquisition of experimental data can be laborious and expensive. The goal is to control the experimental parameters - in our case, the sparsity of the sensors, to maximize the information gain subject to some physical or budget constraints. This is known as optimal experimental design (OED). D-optimal experimental design seeks to maximize the expected information gain, and has long been considered the gold standard in the statistics community. Our goal is to develop scalable methods for D-optimal experimental designs involving large-scale PDE constrained problems with high-dimensional parameter fields. A major challenge for the OED, is that a nonlinear optimization algorithm for the D-optimality criterion requires repeated evaluation of objective function and gradient involving the determinant of large and dense matrices - this cost can be prohibitively expensive for applications of interest. We propose novel randomized matrix techniques that bring down the computational costs of the objective function and gradient evaluations by several orders of magnitude compared to the naive approach. The effect of randomized estimators on the accuracy and the convergence of the optimization solver will be discussed. The features and benefits of our new approach will be demonstrated on a challenging model problem from contaminant source identification involving the inference of the initial condition from spatio-temporal observations in a time-dependent advection-diffusion problem.

  15. Fast Bayesian optimal experimental design and its applications

    KAUST Repository

    Long, Quan

    2015-01-07

    We summarize our Laplace method and multilevel method of accelerating the computation of the expected information gain in a Bayesian Optimal Experimental Design (OED). Laplace method is a widely-used method to approximate an integration in statistics. We analyze this method in the context of optimal Bayesian experimental design and extend this method from the classical scenario, where a single dominant mode of the parameters can be completely-determined by the experiment, to the scenarios where a non-informative parametric manifold exists. We show that by carrying out this approximation the estimation of the expected Kullback-Leibler divergence can be significantly accelerated. While Laplace method requires a concentration of measure, multi-level Monte Carlo method can be used to tackle the problem when there is a lack of measure concentration. We show some initial results on this approach. The developed methodologies have been applied to various sensor deployment problems, e.g., impedance tomography and seismic source inversion.

  16. Optimization of Metal Removal Factors Using Experimental Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Burcu Çağlar GENÇOSMAN

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Experimental design methodology has been used in various research areas including industrial and chemical engineering. In this paper, factor analysis and response surface optimization approaches were used for cadmium removal from aqueous solutions. The factors affecting removal of Cd ions from aqueous solutions were investigated depending on pH, initial metal concentration and solution temperature. Activated carbon used in the experiments was produced from Tunçbilek lignite by physical activation method. The analysis of important factors is established by using the design of experiments method. The effect and the interaction among the investigated factors are evaluated using the analysis of variance method. Together with regression analysis, response surface optimization is also utilized to obtain optimum conditions for best copper removal within the experimental limits.

  17. TIBER: Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Research. Final design report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henning, C.D.; Logan, B.G.; Barr, W.L.; Bulmer, R.H.; Doggett, J.N.; Johnson, B.M.; Lee, J.D.; Hoard, R.W.; Miller, J.R.; Slack, D.S.

    1985-11-01

    The Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Research (TIBER) device is the smallest superconductivity tokamak designed to date. In the design plasma shaping is used to achieve a high plasma beta. Neutron shielding is minimized to achieve the desired small device size, but the superconducting magnets must be shielded sufficiently to reduce the neutron heat load and the gamma-ray dose to various components of the device. Specifications of the plasma-shaping coil, the shielding, coaling, requirements, and heating modes are given. 61 refs., 92 figs., 30 tabs. (WRF)

  18. Model-Based Optimal Experimental Design for Complex Physical Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-12-03

    optimality aspect of sOED, another major difficulty remains: to numer - ically represent non-Gaussian, continuous random variable posteriors (i.e...construct, as they involve solving a convex optimization problem that can be easily separated into independent sub-problems for each dimension, and requires...OM Knio. “Bayesian Guided Optimal Experimental Design for Reactive Multilayers.” In preparation, 2015. 6. X Huan, “ Numerical Approaches for Sequential

  19. Computer-aided design of novel HIV-1 entry inhibitors blocking the virus envelope gp120 V3 loop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuzikov A. V.

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim. The object of this study was to implement computer-aided design of the water-soluble analog of glycolipid β -galactosylceramide (β-GalCer, which presents a potential HIV-1 entry inhibitor, by the analysis of intermolecular interactions of β-GalCer with the central region of the virus envelope gp120 V3 loop followed by synthesis of this glycolipid derivative and testing for antiviral activity. Methods. To reach the object of view, computer modeling procedures, such as quantum chemical calculations, molecular docking, molecular dynamics and free energy simulations, were involved in the studies in conjunction with chemical synthesis and anti-HIV-1 assay methods. Results. As a result, the high probability of exhibiting of antiviral activity was predicted for the designed β-GalCer analog. The data of molecular modeling were confirmed by those of primary medical trials of the synthesized compound. Conclusions. In the light of the findings obtained, the designed analog of β-GalCer may be considered as the basic structure for simulation of its more potent structural forms and for posterior selection of drug candidates most promising for synthesis and anti-HIV-1 assays.

  20. Reliable design of a closed loop supply chain network under uncertainty: An interval fuzzy possibilistic chance-constrained model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vahdani, Behnam; Tavakkoli-Moghaddam, Reza; Jolai, Fariborz; Baboli, Arman

    2013-06-01

    This article seeks to offer a systematic approach to establishing a reliable network of facilities in closed loop supply chains (CLSCs) under uncertainties. Facilities that are located in this article concurrently satisfy both traditional objective functions and reliability considerations in CLSC network designs. To attack this problem, a novel mathematical model is developed that integrates the network design decisions in both forward and reverse supply chain networks. The model also utilizes an effective reliability approach to find a robust network design. In order to make the results of this article more realistic, a CLSC for a case study in the iron and steel industry has been explored. The considered CLSC is multi-echelon, multi-facility, multi-product and multi-supplier. Furthermore, multiple facilities exist in the reverse logistics network leading to high complexities. Since the collection centres play an important role in this network, the reliability concept of these facilities is taken into consideration. To solve the proposed model, a novel interactive hybrid solution methodology is developed by combining a number of efficient solution approaches from the recent literature. The proposed solution methodology is a bi-objective interval fuzzy possibilistic chance-constraint mixed integer linear programming (BOIFPCCMILP). Finally, computational experiments are provided to demonstrate the applicability and suitability of the proposed model in a supply chain environment and to help decision makers facilitate their analyses.

  1. Integrating topology optimization in precision motion system design for optimal closed-loop control performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Veen, G.J.; Langelaar, M.; Van Der Meulen, Stan; Laro, Dick; Aangenent, Wouter; van Keulen, A.

    2017-01-01

    In pursuit of better accuracy, higher speed and larger scale, manufacturers of high-performance devices increasingly rely on components which have been designed with a multidisciplinary approach from the outset. In the context of motion systems, this means that for instance structural mechanics,

  2. Chemical Looping Pilot Plant Results Using a Nickel-Based Oxygen Carrier; Resultats de l'experimentation sur un pilote operant en boucle chimique avec un materiau transporteur d'oxygene a base de nickel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Proll, T.; Kolbitsch, P.; Bolhar-Nordenkampf, J.; Hofbauer, H. [Vienna University of Technology, Institute of Chemical Engineering, Getreidemarkt 9/166, Vienna 1060 (Austria)

    2011-03-15

    A chemical looping pilot plant was designed, built and operated with a design fuel power of 120 kW (lower heating value, natural gas). The system consists of two Circulating Fluidized Bed (CFB) reactors. Operating results are presented and evaluated for a highly reactive nickel-based oxygen carrier, total system inventory 65 kg. The performance in fuel conversion achieved is in the range of 99.8% (CH{sub 4} conversion) and 92% (CO{sub 2} yield). In chemical looping reforming operation, it can be reported that thermodynamic equilibrium is reached in the fuel reactor and that all oxygen is absorbed in the air reactor as soon as the global stoichiometric air/fuel ratio is below 1 and the air reactor temperature is 900 C or more. Even though pure natural gas (98.6 vol.% CH{sub 4}) without steam addition was fed to the fuel reactor, no carbon formation has been found as long as the global stoichiometric air/fuel ratio was larger than 0.4. Based on the experimental findings and on the general state of the art, it is concluded that niche applications such as industrial steam generation from natural gas or CO{sub 2}-ready coupled production of H{sub 2} and N{sub 2} can be interesting pathways for immediate scale-up of the technology. (authors)

  3. Interaction between {sup 99}Tc{sup m}-hydroxmethylene diphosphonate and loop-diuretics in an experimental mouse system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cronhjort, M. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Sjoeberg, H.E. [Dept. of Endocrinology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Schnell, P.O. [Dept. of Hospital Physics, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden); Jacobsson, H. [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Karolinska Hospital, Stockholm (Sweden)

    1994-12-31

    The image quality at bone scintigraphy depends largely on the bone/soft-tissue activity ratio. This varies considerably between different patients and may sometimes be strongly reduced. The ratio increases with time due to urinary excretion of extracelluar activity. The possibility to utilize the phosphaturic effect of loop-diuretics to enhance the excretion of the soft tissue activity caused by radiolabeled phosphonate compounds at bone scintigraphy has been studied. Three loop-diuretics (Bumetanide, Ethacrynic acid and Furosemide) were injected at different times in relation to {sup 99}Tc{sup m}-Hydroxymethylene diphosphonate (HDP) in mice. By assessing the activity of different organs as well as of peripheral blood by a gamma-counter, the activity distribution in the animals was established. Administration of diuretics together with, or after HDP has a negative influence on the quality of the potential HDP-image. Administration of diuretics prior to the radiopharmaceutical slightly improves the image quality, but not to an extent justifying it use for this purpose in practice. The complex effects on HDP may be explained by the influence of Furosemide on calcium, pH and on blood plasma volume and their hormonal consequences. (orig.) [Deutsch] Bei der Knochenszintigraphie haengt die Bildqualitaet hauptsaechlich von der Quote der Isotopenaktivitaet in den Knochen und in den Weichteilen ab. Die extrazellulaere Weichteilaktivitaet wird durch die Nieren ausgeschieden, zur Steigerung der Quote fuehrend. Die Moeglichkeit die Diuretica wegen ihrer Wirkung die extrazellulaeren Isotopen aus dem Koerper auszuschneiden zu benuetzen ist hier untersucht worden. Diesbezueglich hat man insgesamt drei Typen von Loop-Diuretica (Bumetanid, Ethacrynsaeure und Furosemid) verwendet. Die Diuretica hat man den Maeusen bei verschiedenen Zeitpunkten im Verhaeltnis zu dem {sup 99}Tc{sup m}-HDP (HDP) zugefuehrt. Um die Verteilung des Isotops in den Tierkoerpern festzustellen, ist die

  4. COMPARISON OF EXPERIMENTAL-DESIGNS COMBINING PROCESS AND MIXTURE VARIABLES .2. DESIGN EVALUATION ON MEASURED DATA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DUINEVELD, CAA; SMILDE, AK; DOORNBOS, DA

    The construction of a small experimental design for a combination of process and mixture variables is a problem which has not been solved completely by now. In a previous paper we evaluated some designs with theoretical measures. This second paper evaluates the capabilities of the best of these

  5. COMPARISON OF EXPERIMENTAL-DESIGNS COMBINING PROCESS AND MIXTURE VARIABLES .2. DESIGN EVALUATION ON MEASURED DATA

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    DUINEVELD, C. A. A.; Smilde, A. K.; Doornbos, D. A.

    1993-01-01

    The construction of a small experimental design for a combination of process and mixture variables is a problem which has not been solved completely by now. In a previous paper we evaluated some designs with theoretical measures. This second paper evaluates the capabilities of the best of these

  6. Experimental Investigations on Performance and Design Parameters of Solar Chimney

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    İbrahim ÜÇGÜL

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, a solar chimney system, which is suitable for climate conditions of Isparta and its surroundings, is designed theoretically. With the aim of studying experimentally as based on that design, a prototype solar chimney has been constructed in the university campus area of Süleyman Demirel University-RACRER (Research and Application Center for Renewable Energy Resources. Additionally, after the experimental studies, the system is modelled theoretically with depending on the design. Then, this model constituted the basis for developed computer programme and performance parameters of the system are obtained. The obtained findings showed that the solar chimney, which is suitable for climate conditions of Isparta and its surroundings, are sufficient for determining design and performance parameters. The results showed that electricity generation with solar chimney is suitable for areas which have high solar incident and long sunshine duration and similar climate conditions as such as Isparta and its surroundings. When the results are evaluated, it is seen that electricity generation power of solar chimney depends on the region solar data, the chimney height and the size of greenhouse area.

  7. Net Metering and Market Feedback Loops: Exploring the Impact of Retail Rate Design on Distributed PV Deployment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Darghouth, Naïm R. [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Wiser, Ryan [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Barbose, Galen [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States); Mills, Andrew [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States)

    2015-01-13

    The substantial increase in deployment of customer-sited solar photovoltaics (PV) in the United States has been driven by a combination of steeply declining costs, financing innovations, and supportive policies. Among those supportive policies is net metering, which in most states effectively allows customers to receive compensation for distributed PV generation at the full retail electricity price. The current design of retail electricity rates and the presence of net metering have elicited concerns that the possible under-recovery of fixed utility costs from PV system owners may lead to a feedback loop of increasing retail prices that accelerate PV adoption and further rate increases. However, a separate and opposing feedback loop could offset this effect: increased PV deployment may lead to a shift in the timing of peak-period electricity prices that could reduce the bill savings received under net metering where time-varying retail electricity rates are used, thereby dampening further PV adoption. In this paper, we examine the impacts of these two competing feedback dynamics on U.S. distributed PV deployment through 2050 for both residential and commercial customers, across states. Our results indicate that, at the aggregate national level, the two feedback effects nearly offset one another and therefore produce a modest net effect, although their magnitude and direction vary by customer segment and by state. We also model aggregate PV deployment trends under various rate designs and net-metering rules, accounting for feedback dynamics. Our results demonstrate that future adoption of distributed PV is highly sensitive to retail rate structures. Whereas flat, time-invariant rates with net metering lead to higher aggregate national deployment levels than the current mix of rate structures (+5% in 2050), rate structures with higher monthly fixed customer charges or PV compensation at levels lower than the full retail rate can dramatically erode aggregate customer

  8. Theoretical and experimental performance analysis for cold trap design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hemanath, M.G., E-mail: hemanath@igcar.gov.i [Fast Reactor Technology Group, Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India); Meikandamurthy, C.; Kumar, A. Ashok; Chandramouli, S.; Rajan, K.K.; Rajan, M.; Vaidyanathan, G.; Padmakumar, G.; Kalyanasundaram, P.; Raj, Baldev [Fast Reactor Technology Group, Indira Gandhi Center for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam (India)

    2010-10-15

    Cold trap is a purification unit used in sodium system of FBR's for maintaining the oxygen/hydrogen level in sodium within acceptable limits. It works on the principle of crystallization and precipitation of oxides/hydrides of sodium in a wire mesh, when the temperature of sodium is reduced below the saturation temperature. The cold traps presently used have lower effectiveness and get plugged prematurely. The plugged cold traps are cleaned and then put back into service. Frequent cleaning of cold trap results in the long down time of the sodium system. New design of cold trap has been conceived to overcome the above problems. The mathematical modeling for the new design was carried out and validated with experimentally tested results for its effectiveness. This paper shares the experience gained on the new design of cold trap for FBR's.

  9. Single-subject experimental design for evidence-based practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Byiers, Breanne J; Reichle, Joe; Symons, Frank J

    2012-11-01

    Single-subject experimental designs (SSEDs) represent an important tool in the development and implementation of evidence-based practice in communication sciences and disorders. The purpose of this article is to review the strategies and tactics of SSEDs and their application in speech-language pathology research. The authors discuss the requirements of each design, followed by advantages and disadvantages. The logic and methods for evaluating effects in SSED are reviewed as well as contemporary issues regarding data analysis with SSED data sets. Examples of challenges in executing SSEDs are included. Specific exemplars of how SSEDs have been used in speech-language pathology research are provided throughout. SSED studies provide a flexible alternative to traditional group designs in the development and identification of evidence-based practice in the field of communication sciences and disorders.

  10. The Earth-Moon Transfer Trajectory Design and Analysis using Intermediate Loop Orbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Young-Joo; Woo, Jin; Park, Sang-Young; Kyu-Hong Choi; Sim, Eun-Sup

    2009-06-01

    Various Earth-Moon transfer trajectories are designed and analyzed to prepare the future Korea's Lunar missions. Minimum fuel trajectory solutions are obtained for the departure year of 2017, 2020, 2022, and every required mission phases are analyzed from Earth departure to the final lunar mission orbit. N-body equations of motion are formulated which include the gravitational effect of the Sun, Earth and Moon. In addition, accelerations due to geopotential harmonics, Lunar J2 and solar radiation pressures are considered. Impulsive high thrust is assumed as the main thrusting method of spacecraft with launcher capability of KSLV-2 which is planned to be developed. For the method of injecting a spacecraft into a trans Lunar trajectory, both direct shooting from circular parking orbit and shooting from the multiple elliptical intermediate orbits are adapted, and their design results are compared and analyzed. In addition, spacecraft's visibility from Deajeon ground station are constrained to see how they affect the magnitude of TLI (Trans Lunar Injection) maneuver. The results presented in this paper includes launch opportunities, required optimal maneuver characteristics for each mission phase as well as the trajectory characteristics and numerous related parameters. It is confirmed that the final mass of Korean lunar explorer strongly depends onto the initial parking orbit's altitude and launcher's capability, rather than mission start time.

  11. The Earth-Moon Transfer Trajectory Design and Analysis using Intermediate Loop Orbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young-Joo Song

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Various Earth-Moon transfer trajectories are designed and analyzed to prepare the future Korea's Lunar missions. Minimum fuel trajectory solutions are obtained for the departure year of 2017, 2020, 2022, and every required mission phases are analyzed from Earth departure to the final lunar mission orbit. N-body equations of motion are formulated which include the gravitational effect of the Sun, Earth and Moon. In addition, accelerations due to geopotential harmonics, Lunar J2 and solar radiation pressures are considered. Impulsive high thrust is assumed as the main thrusting method of spacecraft with launcher capability of KSLV-2 which is planned to be developed. For the method of injecting a spacecraft into a trans Lunar trajectory, both direct shooting from circular parking orbit and shooting from the multiple elliptical intermediate orbits are adapted, and their design results are compared and analyzed. In addition, spacecraft's visibility from Deajeon ground station are constrained to see how they affect the magnitude of TLI (Trans Lunar Injection maneuver. The results presented in this paper includes launch opportunities, required optimal maneuver characteristics for each mission phase as well as the trajectory characteristics and numerous related parameters. It is confirmed that the final mass of Korean lunar explorer strongly depends onto the initial parking orbit's altitude and launcher's capability, rather than mission start time.

  12. The Modular Design and Production of an Intelligent Robot Based on a Closed-Loop Control Strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Libo; Zhu, Junjie; Ren, Hao; Liu, Dongdong; Meng, Dan; Wu, Yanjun; Luo, Tiejian

    2017-10-14

    Intelligent robots are part of a new generation of robots that are able to sense the surrounding environment, plan their own actions and eventually reach their targets. In recent years, reliance upon robots in both daily life and industry has increased. The protocol proposed in this paper describes the design and production of a handling robot with an intelligent search algorithm and an autonomous identification function. First, the various working modules are mechanically assembled to complete the construction of the work platform and the installation of the robotic manipulator. Then, we design a closed-loop control system and a four-quadrant motor control strategy, with the aid of debugging software, as well as set steering gear identity (ID), baud rate and other working parameters to ensure that the robot achieves the desired dynamic performance and low energy consumption. Next, we debug the sensor to achieve multi-sensor fusion to accurately acquire environmental information. Finally, we implement the relevant algorithm, which can recognize the success of the robot's function for a given application. The advantage of this approach is its reliability and flexibility, as the users can develop a variety of hardware construction programs and utilize the comprehensive debugger to implement an intelligent control strategy. This allows users to set personalized requirements based on their needs with high efficiency and robustness.

  13. Amplified energy harvester from footsteps: design, modeling, and experimental analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Ya; Chen, Wusi; Guzman, Plinio; Zuo, Lei

    2014-04-01

    This paper presents the design, modeling and experimental analysis of an amplified footstep energy harvester. With the unique design of amplified piezoelectric stack harvester the kinetic energy generated by footsteps can be effectively captured and converted into usable DC power that could potentially be used to power many electric devices, such as smart phones, sensors, monitoring cameras, etc. This doormat-like energy harvester can be used in crowded places such as train stations, malls, concerts, airport escalator/elevator/stairs entrances, or anywhere large group of people walk. The harvested energy provides an alternative renewable green power to replace power requirement from grids, which run on highly polluting and global-warming-inducing fossil fuels. In this paper, two modeling approaches are compared to calculate power output. The first method is derived from the single degree of freedom (SDOF) constitutive equations, and then a correction factor is applied onto the resulting electromechanically coupled equations of motion. The second approach is to derive the coupled equations of motion with Hamilton's principle and the constitutive equations, and then formulate it with the finite element method (FEM). Experimental testing results are presented to validate modeling approaches. Simulation results from both approaches agree very well with experimental results where percentage errors are 2.09% for FEM and 4.31% for SDOF.

  14. Stimulated Brillouin scattering materials, experimental design and applications: A review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Zhenxu; Yuan, Hang; Liu, Zhaohong; Xu, Pengbai; Gao, Qilin; Williams, Robert J.; Kitzler, Ondrej; Mildren, Richard P.; Wang, Yulei; Lu, Zhiwei

    2018-01-01

    Stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS), as one type of third-order nonlinear optics effect, is extensively exploited and rapidly developed in the field of lasers and optoelectronics. A large number of theoretical and experimental studies on SBS have been carried out in the past decades. Especially, the exploration of new SBS materials and new types of SBS modulation methods have been engaged simultaneously, as the properties of different materials have great influence on the SBS performance such as generation threshold, Brillouin amplification efficiency, frequency shift, breakdown threshold, etc. This article provides a comprehensive review of the characteristics of different types of SBS materials, SBS applications, experimental design methods, as well as the parameter optimization method, which is expected to provide reference and guidance to SBS related experiments.

  15. Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Shengmin; Yang, Shizhong; Khosravi, Ebrahim

    2014-04-01

    This project (10/01/2010-9/30/2014), “Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems”, originates from Louisiana State University (LSU) Mechanical Engineering Department and Southern University (SU) Department of Computer Science. This project will directly support the technical goals specified in DE-FOA-0000248, Topic Area 3: Turbine Materials, by addressing key technologies needed to enable the development of advanced turbines and turbine-based systems that will operate safely and efficiently using coal-derived synthesis gases. In this project, the focus is to develop and implement novel molecular dynamics method to improve the efficiency of simulation on novel TBC materials; perform high performance computing (HPC) on complex TBC structures to screen the most promising TBC compositions; perform material characterizations and oxidation/corrosion tests; and demonstrate our new thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems experimentally under integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) environments.

  16. Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Shengmin; Yang, Shizhong; Khosravi, Ebrahim

    2012-10-01

    This project (10/01/2010-9/30/2013), “Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems”, originates from Louisiana State University (LSU) Mechanical Engineering Department and Southern University (SU) Department of Computer Science. This project will directly support the technical goals specified in DEFOA- 0000248, Topic Area 3: Turbine Materials, by addressing key technologies needed to enable the development of advanced turbines and turbine-based systems that will operate safely and efficiently using coal-derived synthesis gases. We will develop and implement novel molecular dynamics method to improve the efficiency of simulation on novel TBC materials; perform high performance computing (HPC) on complex TBC structures to screen the most promising TBC compositions; perform material characterizations and oxidation/corrosion tests; and demonstrate our new thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems experimentally under integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) environments. The durability of the coating will be examined using the proposed Durability Test Rig.

  17. Plant metabolomics: from experimental design to knowledge extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Amit; Umashankar, Shivshankar; Swarup, Sanjay

    2013-01-01

    Metabolomics is one of the most recent additions to the functional genomics approaches. It involves the use of analytical chemistry techniques to provide high-density data of metabolic profiles. Data is then analyzed using advanced statistics and databases to extract biological information, thus providing the metabolic phenotype of an organism. Large variety of metabolites produced by plants through the complex metabolic networks and their dynamic changes in response to various perturbations can be studied using metabolomics. Here, we describe the basic features of plant metabolic diversity and analytical methods to describe this diversity, which includes experimental workflows starting from experimental design, sample preparation, hardware and software choices, combined with knowledge extraction methods. Finally, we describe a scenario for using these workflows to identify differential metabolites and their pathways from complex biological samples.

  18. Moving Average Filter-Based Phase-Locked Loops: Performance Analysis and Design Guidelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golestan, Saeed; Ramezani, Malek; Guerrero, Josep M.

    2014-01-01

    this challenge, incorporating moving average filter(s) (MAF) into the PLL structure has been proposed in some recent literature. A MAF is a linear-phase finite impulse response filter which can act as an ideal low-pass filter, if certain conditions hold. The main aim of this paper is to present the control......, the PLL block diagram description is shown, the advantages and limitations are briefly discussed, and the tuning approach (if available) is evaluated. The paper then presents two systematic methods to design the control parameters of a typical MAF-based PLL: one for the case of using a proportional......-integral (PI) type loopfilter (LF) in the PLL, and the other for the case of using a proportional-integral-derivative (PID) type LF. Finally, the paper compares the performance of a well-tuned MAF-based PLL when using the PI-type LF with the results of using the PID-type LF, which provides useful insights...

  19. Optimization of formulation variables of benzocaine liposomes using experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mura, Paola; Capasso, Gaetano; Maestrelli, Francesca; Furlanetto, Sandra

    2008-01-01

    This study aimed to optimize, by means of an experimental design multivariate strategy, a liposomal formulation for topical delivery of the local anaesthetic agent benzocaine. The formulation variables for the vesicle lipid phase uses potassium glycyrrhizinate (KG) as an alternative to cholesterol and the addition of a cationic (stearylamine) or anionic (dicethylphosphate) surfactant (qualitative factors); the percents of ethanol and the total volume of the hydration phase (quantitative factors) were the variables for the hydrophilic phase. The combined influence of these factors on the considered responses (encapsulation efficiency (EE%) and percent drug permeated at 180 min (P%)) was evaluated by means of a D-optimal design strategy. Graphic analysis of the effects indicated that maximization of the selected responses requested opposite levels of the considered factors: For example, KG and stearylamine were better for increasing EE%, and cholesterol and dicethylphosphate for increasing P%. In the second step, the Doehlert design, applied for the response-surface study of the quantitative factors, pointed out a negative interaction between percent ethanol and volume of the hydration phase and allowed prediction of the best formulation for maximizing drug permeation rate. Experimental P% data of the optimized formulation were inside the confidence interval (P < 0.05) calculated around the predicted value of the response. This proved the suitability of the proposed approach for optimizing the composition of liposomal formulations and predicting the effects of formulation variables on the considered experimental response. Moreover, the optimized formulation enabled a significant improvement (P < 0.05) of the drug anaesthetic effect with respect to the starting reference liposomal formulation, thus demonstrating its actually better therapeutic effectiveness.

  20. Optimal experimental design to position transducers in ultrasound breast imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korta Martiartu, Naiara; Boehm, Christian; Vinard, Nicolas; Jovanović Balic, Ivana; Fichtner, Andreas

    2017-03-01

    We present methods to optimize the setup of a 3D ultrasound tomography scanner for breast cancer detection. This approach provides a systematic and quantitative tool to evaluate different designs and to optimize the con- figuration with respect to predefined design parameters. We consider both, time-of-flight inversion using straight rays and time-domain waveform inversion governed by the acoustic wave equation for imaging the sound speed. In order to compare different designs, we measure their quality by extracting properties from the Hessian operator of the time-of-flight or waveform differences defined in the inverse problem, i.e., the second derivatives with respect to the sound speed. Spatial uncertainties and resolution can be related to the eigenvalues of the Hessian, which provide a good indication of the information contained in the data that is acquired with a given design. However, the complete spectrum is often prohibitively expensive to compute, thus suitable approximations have to be developed and analyzed. We use the trace of the Hessian operator as design criterion, which is equivalent to the sum of all eigenvalues and requires less computational effort. In addition, we suggest to take advantage of the spatial symmetry to extrapolate the 3D experimental design from a set of 2D configurations. In order to maximize the quality criterion, we use a genetic algorithm to explore the space of possible design configurations. Numerical results show that the proposed strategies are capable of improving an initial configuration with uniformly distributed transducers, clustering them around regions with poor illumination and improving the ray coverage of the domain of interest.

  1. Preliminary Feasibility, Design, and Hazard Analysis of a Boiling Water Test Loop Within the Idaho National Laboratory Advanced Test Reactor National Scientific User Facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Douglas M. Gerstner

    2009-05-01

    The Advanced Test Reactor (ATR) is a pressurized light-water reactor with a design thermal power of 250 MW. The principal function of the ATR is to provide a high neutron flux for testing reactor fuels and other materials. The ATR and its support facilities are located at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). A Boiling Water Test Loop (BWTL) is being designed for one of the irradiation test positions within the. The objective of the new loop will be to simulate boiling water reactor (BWR) conditions to support clad corrosion and related reactor material testing. Further it will accommodate power ramping tests of candidate high burn-up fuels and fuel pins/rods for the commercial BWR utilities. The BWTL will be much like the pressurized water loops already in service in 5 of the 9 “flux traps” (region of enhanced neutron flux) in the ATR. The loop coolant will be isolated from the primary coolant system so that the loop’s temperature, pressure, flow rate, and water chemistry can be independently controlled. This paper presents the proposed general design of the in-core and auxiliary BWTL systems; the preliminary results of the neutronics and thermal hydraulics analyses; and the preliminary hazard analysis for safe normal and transient BWTL and ATR operation.

  2. Rotary Bed Reactor for Chemical-Looping Combustion with Carbon Capture. Part 1: Reactor Design and Model Development

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Zhenlong

    2013-01-17

    Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) is a novel and promising technology for power generation with inherent CO2 capture. Currently, almost all of the research has been focused on developing CLC-based interconnected fluidized-bed reactors. In this two-part series, a new rotary reactor concept for gas-fueled CLC is proposed and analyzed. In part 1, the detailed configuration of the rotary reactor is described. In the reactor, a solid wheel rotates between the fuel and air streams at the reactor inlet and exit. Two purging sectors are used to avoid the mixing between the fuel stream and the air stream. The rotary wheel consists of a large number of channels with copper oxide coated on the inner surface of the channels. The support material is boron nitride, which has high specific heat and thermal conductivity. Gas flows through the reactor at elevated pressure, and it is heated to a high temperature by fuel combustion. Typical design parameters for a thermal capacity of 1 MW have been proposed, and a simplified model is developed to predict the performances of the reactor. The potential drawbacks of the rotary reactor are also discussed. © 2012 American Chemical Society.

  3. Designing Awe in Virtual Reality: An Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alice Chirico

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Awe is a little-studied emotion with a great transformative potential. Therefore, the interest toward the study of awe’s underlying mechanisms has been increased. Specifically, researchers have been interested in how to reproduce intense feelings of awe within laboratory conditions. It has been proposed that the use of virtual reality (VR could be an effective way to induce awe in controlled experimental settings, thanks to its ability of providing participants with a sense of “presence,” that is, the subjective feeling of being displaced in another physical or imaginary place. However, the potential of VR as awe-inducing medium has not been fully tested yet. In the present study, we provided an evidence-based design and a validation of four immersive virtual environments (VEs involving 36 participants in a within-subject design. Of these, three VEs were designed to induce awe, whereas the fourth VE was targeted as an emotionally neutral stimulus. Participants self-reported the extent to which they felt awe, general affect and sense of presence related to each environment. As expected, results showed that awe-VEs could induce significantly higher levels of awe and presence as compared to the neutral VE. Furthermore, these VEs induced significantly more positive than negative affect. These findings supported the potential of immersive VR for inducing awe and provide useful indications for the design of awe-inspiring virtual environments.

  4. Design of Experimental Suspended Footbridge with Deck Made of UHPC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Blank Marek

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper deals with the static and dynamic design of experimental footbridge for pedestrians and cyclists in the municipality Lužec nad Vltavou in Czech Republic, Europe. This work aims to familiarize the reader with calculations carried out and the results obtained, describing the static and dynamic properties of proposed footbridge. The construction of footbridge is designed as a suspended structure with prestressed bridge deck consisting of prefabricated UHPC panels and reversed “V” shaped steel pylon with height of approximately 40 meters. The deck is anchored using 24 steel hangers in one row in a steel pylon - 17 ropes in the main span and 7 cables on the other side. Range of the main span is 99.18 meters and the secondary span is 31.9 m. Deck width is 4.5 meters with 3.0 meters passing space. The bridge is designed for the possibility of passage of vehicles weighting up to 3.5 tons. Deck panels are made of UHPC with reinforcement. At the edge of the bridge on the side of the shorter span the bridge deck is firmly connected with abutment and on the other deck it is stored using a pair of sliding bearings. The utilization of the excellent properties of UHPC allows to design a very thin and lightweight construction of the deck, which could not be achieved with the use of normal concrete.

  5. An Experimental Design of Bypass Magneto-Rheological (MR) damper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rashid, MM; Aziz, Mohammad Abdul; Raisuddin Khan, Md.

    2017-11-01

    The magnetorheological (MR) fluid bypass damper fluid flow through a bypass by utilizing an external channel which allows the controllability of MR fluid in the channel. The Bypass MR damper (BMRD) contains a rectangular bypass flow channel, current controlled movable piston shaft arrangement and MR fluid. The static piston coil case is winding by a coil which is used inside the piston head arrangement. The current controlled coil case provides a magnetic flux through the BMRD cylinder for controllability. The high strength of alloy steel materials are used for making piston shaft which allows magnetic flux propagation throughout the BMRD cylinder. Using the above design materials, a Bypass MR damper is designed and tested. An excitation of current is applied during the experiment which characterizes the BMRD controllability. It is shown that the BMRD with external flow channel allows a high controllable damping force using an excitation current. The experimental result of damping force-displacement characteristics with current excitation and without current excitation are compared in this research. The BMRD model is validated by the experimental result at various frequencies and applied excitation current.

  6. Fast Bayesian Optimal Experimental Design for Seismic Source Inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Long, Quan

    2016-01-06

    We develop a fast method for optimally designing experiments [1] in the context of statistical seismic source inversion [2]. In particular, we efficiently compute the optimal number and locations of the receivers or seismographs. The seismic source is modeled by a point moment tensor multiplied by a time-dependent function. The parameters include the source location, moment tensor components, and start time and frequency in the time function. The forward problem is modeled by the elastic wave equations. We show that the Hessian of the cost functional, which is usually defined as the square of the weighted L2 norm of the difference between the experimental data and the simulated data, is proportional to the measurement time and the number of receivers. Consequently, the posterior distribution of the parameters, in a Bayesian setting, concentrates around the true parameters, and we can employ Laplace approximation and speed up the estimation of the expected Kullback-Leibler divergence (expected information gain), the optimality criterion in the experimental design procedure. Since the source parameters span several magnitudes, we use a scaling matrix for efficient control of the condition number of the original Hessian matrix. We use a second-order accurate finite difference method to compute the Hessian matrix and either sparse quadrature or Monte Carlo sampling to carry out numerical integration. We demonstrate the efficiency, accuracy, and applicability of our method on a two-dimensional seismic source inversion problem.

  7. Fast Bayesian optimal experimental design for seismic source inversion

    KAUST Repository

    Long, Quan

    2015-07-01

    We develop a fast method for optimally designing experiments in the context of statistical seismic source inversion. In particular, we efficiently compute the optimal number and locations of the receivers or seismographs. The seismic source is modeled by a point moment tensor multiplied by a time-dependent function. The parameters include the source location, moment tensor components, and start time and frequency in the time function. The forward problem is modeled by elastodynamic wave equations. We show that the Hessian of the cost functional, which is usually defined as the square of the weighted L2 norm of the difference between the experimental data and the simulated data, is proportional to the measurement time and the number of receivers. Consequently, the posterior distribution of the parameters, in a Bayesian setting, concentrates around the "true" parameters, and we can employ Laplace approximation and speed up the estimation of the expected Kullback-Leibler divergence (expected information gain), the optimality criterion in the experimental design procedure. Since the source parameters span several magnitudes, we use a scaling matrix for efficient control of the condition number of the original Hessian matrix. We use a second-order accurate finite difference method to compute the Hessian matrix and either sparse quadrature or Monte Carlo sampling to carry out numerical integration. We demonstrate the efficiency, accuracy, and applicability of our method on a two-dimensional seismic source inversion problem. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

  8. Sparse linear models: Variational approximate inference and Bayesian experimental design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seeger, Matthias W [Saarland University and Max Planck Institute for Informatics, Campus E1.4, 66123 Saarbruecken (Germany)

    2009-12-01

    A wide range of problems such as signal reconstruction, denoising, source separation, feature selection, and graphical model search are addressed today by posterior maximization for linear models with sparsity-favouring prior distributions. The Bayesian posterior contains useful information far beyond its mode, which can be used to drive methods for sampling optimization (active learning), feature relevance ranking, or hyperparameter estimation, if only this representation of uncertainty can be approximated in a tractable manner. In this paper, we review recent results for variational sparse inference, and show that they share underlying computational primitives. We discuss how sampling optimization can be implemented as sequential Bayesian experimental design. While there has been tremendous recent activity to develop sparse estimation, little attendance has been given to sparse approximate inference. In this paper, we argue that many problems in practice, such as compressive sensing for real-world image reconstruction, are served much better by proper uncertainty approximations than by ever more aggressive sparse estimation algorithms. Moreover, since some variational inference methods have been given strong convex optimization characterizations recently, theoretical analysis may become possible, promising new insights into nonlinear experimental design.

  9. Bayesian optimal experimental design for priors of compact support

    KAUST Repository

    Long, Quan

    2016-01-08

    In this study, we optimize the experimental setup computationally by optimal experimental design (OED) in a Bayesian framework. We approximate the posterior probability density functions (pdf) using truncated Gaussian distributions in order to account for the bounded domain of the uniform prior pdf of the parameters. The underlying Gaussian distribution is obtained in the spirit of the Laplace method, more precisely, the mode is chosen as the maximum a posteriori (MAP) estimate, and the covariance is chosen as the negative inverse of the Hessian of the misfit function at the MAP estimate. The model related entities are obtained from a polynomial surrogate. The optimality, quantified by the information gain measures, can be estimated efficiently by a rejection sampling algorithm against the underlying Gaussian probability distribution, rather than against the true posterior. This approach offers a significant error reduction when the magnitude of the invariants of the posterior covariance are comparable to the size of the bounded domain of the prior. We demonstrate the accuracy and superior computational efficiency of our method for shock-tube experiments aiming to measure the model parameters of a key reaction which is part of the complex kinetic network describing the hydrocarbon oxidation. In the experiments, the initial temperature and fuel concentration are optimized with respect to the expected information gain in the estimation of the parameters of the target reaction rate. We show that the expected information gain surface can change its shape dramatically according to the level of noise introduced into the synthetic data. The information that can be extracted from the data saturates as a logarithmic function of the number of experiments, and few experiments are needed when they are conducted at the optimal experimental design conditions.

  10. Experimental Design for the INL Sample Collection Operational Test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amidan, Brett G.; Piepel, Gregory F.; Matzke, Brett D.; Filliben, James J.; Jones, Barbara

    2007-12-13

    This document describes the test events and numbers of samples comprising the experimental design that was developed for the contamination, decontamination, and sampling of a building at the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). This study is referred to as the INL Sample Collection Operational Test. Specific objectives were developed to guide the construction of the experimental design. The main objective is to assess the relative abilities of judgmental and probabilistic sampling strategies to detect contamination in individual rooms or on a whole floor of the INL building. A second objective is to assess the use of probabilistic and Bayesian (judgmental + probabilistic) sampling strategies to make clearance statements of the form “X% confidence that at least Y% of a room (or floor of the building) is not contaminated. The experimental design described in this report includes five test events. The test events (i) vary the floor of the building on which the contaminant will be released, (ii) provide for varying or adjusting the concentration of contaminant released to obtain the ideal concentration gradient across a floor of the building, and (iii) investigate overt as well as covert release of contaminants. The ideal contaminant gradient would have high concentrations of contaminant in rooms near the release point, with concentrations decreasing to zero in rooms at the opposite end of the building floor. For each of the five test events, the specified floor of the INL building will be contaminated with BG, a stand-in for Bacillus anthracis. The BG contaminant will be disseminated from a point-release device located in the room specified in the experimental design for each test event. Then judgmental and probabilistic samples will be collected according to the pre-specified sampling plan. Judgmental samples will be selected based on professional judgment and prior information. Probabilistic samples will be selected in sufficient numbers to provide desired confidence

  11. Vertically Polarized Omnidirectional Printed Slot Loop AntennaPrinted Slot Loop Antenna (invited)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, Nikolaj Peter Iversen; Kvist, Søren Helstrup; Thaysen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    A novel verticall A novel vertically polarized dpolarize , omnidirection omnidirectional l , printed slot loop antenna h sprinted slot loop antenna has been designed, simulated, fabricated, and measured. The slot loop works as a magnetic loop. The loop is loaded with inductors to insure uniform a...

  12. New synthetic thrombin inhibitors: molecular design and experimental verification.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena I Sinauridze

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The development of new anticoagulants is an important goal for the improvement of thromboses treatments. OBJECTIVES: The design, synthesis and experimental testing of new safe and effective small molecule direct thrombin inhibitors for intravenous administration. METHODS: Computer-aided molecular design of new thrombin inhibitors was performed using our original docking program SOL, which is based on the genetic algorithm of global energy minimization in the framework of a Merck Molecular Force Field. This program takes into account the effects of solvent. The designed molecules with the best scoring functions (calculated binding energies were synthesized and their thrombin inhibitory activity evaluated experimentally in vitro using a chromogenic substrate in a buffer system and using a thrombin generation test in isolated plasma and in vivo using the newly developed model of hemodilution-induced hypercoagulation in rats. The acute toxicities of the most promising new thrombin inhibitors were evaluated in mice, and their stabilities in aqueous solutions were measured. RESULTS: New compounds that are both effective direct thrombin inhibitors (the best K(I was 1111.1 mg/kg. A plasma-substituting solution supplemented with one of the new inhibitors prevented hypercoagulation in the rat model of hemodilution-induced hypercoagulation. Activities of the best new inhibitors in physiological saline (1 µM solutions were stable after sterilization by autoclaving, and the inhibitors remained stable at long-term storage over more than 1.5 years at room temperature and at 4°C. CONCLUSIONS: The high efficacy, stability and low acute toxicity reveal that the inhibitors that were developed may be promising for potential medical applications.

  13. Protein design algorithms predict viable resistance to an experimental antifolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeve, Stephanie M; Gainza, Pablo; Frey, Kathleen M; Georgiev, Ivelin; Donald, Bruce R; Anderson, Amy C

    2015-01-20

    Methods to accurately predict potential drug target mutations in response to early-stage leads could drive the design of more resilient first generation drug candidates. In this study, a structure-based protein design algorithm (K* in the OSPREY suite) was used to prospectively identify single-nucleotide polymorphisms that confer resistance to an experimental inhibitor effective against dihydrofolate reductase (DHFR) from Staphylococcus aureus. Four of the top-ranked mutations in DHFR were found to be catalytically competent and resistant to the inhibitor. Selection of resistant bacteria in vitro reveals that two of the predicted mutations arise in the background of a compensatory mutation. Using enzyme kinetics, microbiology, and crystal structures of the complexes, we determined the fitness of the mutant enzymes and strains, the structural basis of resistance, and the compensatory relationship of the mutations. To our knowledge, this work illustrates the first application of protein design algorithms to prospectively predict viable resistance mutations that arise in bacteria under antibiotic pressure.

  14. Statistics in experimental design, preprocessing, and analysis of proteomics data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jung, Klaus

    2011-01-01

    High-throughput experiments in proteomics, such as 2-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry (MS), yield usually high-dimensional data sets of expression values for hundreds or thousands of proteins which are, however, observed on only a relatively small number of biological samples. Statistical methods for the planning and analysis of experiments are important to avoid false conclusions and to receive tenable results. In this chapter, the most frequent experimental designs for proteomics experiments are illustrated. In particular, focus is put on studies for the detection of differentially regulated proteins. Furthermore, issues of sample size planning, statistical analysis of expression levels as well as methods for data preprocessing are covered.

  15. EXPERIMENTAL RESEARCH REGARDING LEATHER APPLICATIONS IN PRODUCT DESIGN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRALEA Jeni

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the role and importance of experimental research in design activity. The designer, as a researcher and a project manager, proposes to establish a relationship between functional-aesthetic-constructive-technological-economic,based on the aesthetic possibilities of the materials used for the experiments. With the aim to identify areas for the application of leather waste resulted from the production process, the paper presents experiments conducted with this material in combination with wood, by using different techniques that lead to different aesthetic effects. Identifying the areas to use and creating products from leather and/or wood waste, is based on the properties of these materials. Leather, the subject of these experiments, has the advantage that it can be used on both sides. Tactile differences of the two sides of this material has both aesthetical and functional advantages, which makes it suitable for applications on products that meet the requirements of "design for all". With differentiated tactile characteristics, in combination with other materials, for these experiments wood, easily "read touch" products can be generated to help people with certain disabilities. Thus, experiments presented in this paper allows the establishment of aesthetic schemes applicable to products that are friendly both with the environment (based on the reuse of wood and leather waste and with the users (can be used as applications, accessories and concepts of products for people with certain disabilities. The designer’s choices or decisions can be based on the results of this experiment. The experiment enables the designer to develop creative, innovative and environmentally friendly products.

  16. Experimental and Theoretical Study of the Movement of the Wpd Flexible Loop of Human Protein Tyrosine Phosphatase PTP1B in Complex with Halide Ions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Aline; Saenz-Méndez, Patricia; Cousido-Siah, Alexandra; Podjarny, Alberto D.; Ventura, Oscar N.

    2012-11-01

    Protein tyrosine phosphorylation is a post-translational modification mechanism, crucial for the regulation of nearly all aspects of cell life. This dynamic, reversible process is regulated by the balanced opposing activity of protein tyrosine kinases and protein tyrosine phosphatases. In particular, the protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B (PTP1B) is implicated in the regulation of the insulin-receptor activity, leptin-stimulated signal transduction pathways and other clinically relevant metabolic routes, and it has been found overexpressed or overregulated in human breasts, colon and ovary cancers. The WPD loop of the enzyme presents an inherent flexibility, and it plays a fundamental role in the enzymatic catalysis, turning it into a potential target in the design of new efficient PTP1B inhibitors. In order to determine the interactions that control the spatial conformation adopted by the WPD loop, complexes between the enzyme and halide ions (Br- and I- in particular) were crystallized and their crystallographic structure determined, and the collective movements of the aforementioned complexes were studied through Molecular Dynamics (MD) simulations. Both studies yielded concordant results, indicating the existence of a relationship between the identity of the ion present in the complex and the strength of the interactions it establishes with the surrounding protein residues.

  17. Experimental studies of tuned particle damper: Design and characterization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Kai; Xi, Yanhui; Chen, Tianning; Ma, Zhihao

    2018-01-01

    To better suppress the structural vibration in the micro vibration and harsh environment, a new type of damper, tuned particle damper (TPD), was designed by combining the advantage of classical dynamic vibration absorber (DVA) and particle damper (PD). An equivalent theoretical model was established to describe the dynamic behavior of a cantilever system treated with TPD. By means of a series of sine sweep tests, the dynamic characteristic of TPD under different excitation intensity was explored and the damping performance of TPD was investigated by comparing with classical DVA and PD with the same mass ratio. Experimental results show that with the increasing of excitation intensity TPD shows two different dynamic characteristics successively, i.e., PD-like and DVA-like. TPD shows a wider suppression frequency band than classical DVA and better practicability than PD in the micro vibration environment. Moreover, to characterize the dynamic characteristic of TPD, a simple evaluation of the equivalent dynamic mass and equivalent dynamic damping of the cantilever system treated with TPD was performed by fitting the experimental data to the presented theoretical model. Finally, based on the rheology behaviors of damping particles reported by the previous research results, an approximate phase diagram which shows the motion states of damping particles in TPD was employed to analyze the dynamic characteristic of TPD and several motion states of damping particles in TPD were presented via a high-speed camera.

  18. Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guo, Shengmin; Yang, Shizhong; Khosravi, Ebrahim

    2011-12-31

    This project (10/01/2010-9/30/2013), “Computational Design and Experimental Validation of New Thermal Barrier Systems”, originates from Louisiana State University (LSU) Mechanical Engineering Department and Southern University (SU) Department of Computer Science. This proposal will directly support the technical goals specified in DE-FOA-0000248, Topic Area 3: Turbine Materials, by addressing key technologies needed to enable the development of advanced turbines and turbine-based systems that will operate safely and efficiently using coal-derived synthesis gases. We will develop novel molecular dynamics method to improve the efficiency of simulation on novel TBC materials; we will perform high performance computing (HPC) on complex TBC structures to screen the most promising TBC compositions; we will perform material characterizations and oxidation/corrosion tests; and we will demonstrate our new Thermal barrier coating (TBC) systems experimentally under Integrated gasification combined cycle (IGCC) environments. The durability of the coating will be examined using the proposed High Temperature/High Pressure Durability Test Rig under real syngas product compositions.

  19. Experimental Verification of Current Shear Design Equations for HSRC Beams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Attaullah Shah

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Experimental research on the shear capacity of HSRC (High Strength Reinforced Concrete beams is relatively very limited as compared to the NSRC (Normal Strength Reinforced Concrete beams. Most of the Building Codes determine the shear strength of HSRC with the help of empirical equations based on experimental work of NSRC beams and hence these equations are generally regarded as un-conservative for HSRC beams particularly at low level of longitudinal reinforcement. In this paper, 42 beams have been tested in two sets, such that in 21 beams no transverse reinforcement has been used, whereas in the remaining 21 beams, minimum transverse reinforcement has been used as per ACI-318 (American Concrete Institute provisions. Two values of compressive strength 52 and 61 MPa, three values of longitudinal steel ratio and seven values of shear span to depth ratio have been have been used. The beams were tested under concentrated load at the mid span. The results are compared with the equations proposed by different international building codes like ACI, AASHTO LRFD, EC (Euro Code, Canadian Code and Japanese Code for shear strength of HSRC beams.From comparison, it has been observed that some codes are less conservative for shear design of HSRC beams and further research is required to rationalize these equations.

  20. Simulation-based optimal Bayesian experimental design for nonlinear systems

    KAUST Repository

    Huan, Xun

    2013-01-01

    The optimal selection of experimental conditions is essential to maximizing the value of data for inference and prediction, particularly in situations where experiments are time-consuming and expensive to conduct. We propose a general mathematical framework and an algorithmic approach for optimal experimental design with nonlinear simulation-based models; in particular, we focus on finding sets of experiments that provide the most information about targeted sets of parameters.Our framework employs a Bayesian statistical setting, which provides a foundation for inference from noisy, indirect, and incomplete data, and a natural mechanism for incorporating heterogeneous sources of information. An objective function is constructed from information theoretic measures, reflecting expected information gain from proposed combinations of experiments. Polynomial chaos approximations and a two-stage Monte Carlo sampling method are used to evaluate the expected information gain. Stochastic approximation algorithms are then used to make optimization feasible in computationally intensive and high-dimensional settings. These algorithms are demonstrated on model problems and on nonlinear parameter inference problems arising in detailed combustion kinetics. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.

  1. Experimental design data for the biosynthesis of citric acid using Central Composite Design method.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kola, Anand Kishore; Mekala, Mallaiah; Goli, Venkat Reddy

    2017-06-01

    In the present investigation, we report that statistical design and optimization of significant variables for the microbial production of citric acid from sucrose in presence of filamentous fungi A. niger NCIM 705. Various combinations of experiments were designed with Central Composite Design (CCD) of Response Surface Methodology (RSM) for the production of citric acid as a function of six variables. The variables are; initial sucrose concentration, initial pH of medium, fermentation temperature, incubation time, stirrer rotational speed, and oxygen flow rate. From experimental data, a statistical model for this process has been developed. The optimum conditions reported in the present article are initial concentration of sucrose of 163.6 g/L, initial pH of medium 5.26, stirrer rotational speed of 247.78 rpm, incubation time of 8.18 days, fermentation temperature of 30.06 °C and flow rate of oxygen of 1.35 lpm. Under optimum conditions the predicted maximum citric acid is 86.42 g/L. The experimental validation carried out under the optimal values and reported citric acid to be 82.0 g/L. The model is able to represent the experimental data and the agreement between the model and experimental data is good.

  2. Experimental design data for the biosynthesis of citric acid using Central Composite Design method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anand Kishore Kola

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation, we report that statistical design and optimization of significant variables for the microbial production of citric acid from sucrose in presence of filamentous fungi A. niger NCIM 705. Various combinations of experiments were designed with Central Composite Design (CCD of Response Surface Methodology (RSM for the production of citric acid as a function of six variables. The variables are; initial sucrose concentration, initial pH of medium, fermentation temperature, incubation time, stirrer rotational speed, and oxygen flow rate. From experimental data, a statistical model for this process has been developed. The optimum conditions reported in the present article are initial concentration of sucrose of 163.6 g/L, initial pH of medium 5.26, stirrer rotational speed of 247.78 rpm, incubation time of 8.18 days, fermentation temperature of 30.06 °C and flow rate of oxygen of 1.35 lpm. Under optimum conditions the predicted maximum citric acid is 86.42 g/L. The experimental validation carried out under the optimal values and reported citric acid to be 82.0 g/L. The model is able to represent the experimental data and the agreement between the model and experimental data is good.

  3. Experimental evaluation and design of unfilled and concrete-filled FRP composite piles : Task 4A : design specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The overall goal of this project is the experimental evaluation and design of unfilled and concrete-filled FRP composite piles for load-bearing in bridges. This report covers Task 4A, Design Specifications. : Structural design specifications are base...

  4. Quasi-experimental designs in practice-based research settings: design and implementation considerations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Handley, Margaret A; Schillinger, Dean; Shiboski, Stephen

    2011-01-01

    Although randomized controlled trials are often a gold standard for determining intervention effects, in the area of practice-based research (PBR), there are many situations in which individual randomization is not possible. Alternative approaches to evaluating interventions have received increased attention, particularly those that can retain elements of randomization such that they can be considered "controlled" trials. Methodological design elements and practical implementation considerations for two quasi-experimental design approaches that have considerable promise in PBR settings--the stepped-wedge design, and a variant of this design, a wait-list cross-over design, are presented along with a case study from a recent PBR intervention for patients with diabetes. PBR-relevant design features include: creation of a cohort over time that collects control data but allows all participants (clusters or patients) to receive the intervention; staggered introduction of clusters; multiple data collection points; and one-way cross-over into the intervention arm. Practical considerations include: randomization versus stratification, training run in phases; and extended time period for overall study completion. Several design features of practice based research studies can be adapted to local circumstances yet retain elements to improve methodological rigor. Studies that utilize these methods, such as the stepped-wedge design and the wait-list cross-over design, can increase the evidence base for controlled studies conducted within the complex environment of PBR.

  5. Tabletop Games: Platforms, Experimental Games and Design Recommendations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haller, Michael; Forlines, Clifton; Koeffel, Christina; Leitner, Jakob; Shen, Chia

    While the last decade has seen massive improvements in not only the rendering quality, but also the overall performance of console and desktop video games, these improvements have not necessarily led to a greater population of video game players. In addition to continuing these improvements, the video game industry is also constantly searching for new ways to convert non-players into dedicated gamers. Despite the growing popularity of computer-based video games, people still love to play traditional board games, such as Risk, Monopoly, and Trivial Pursuit. Both video and board games have their strengths and weaknesses, and an intriguing conclusion is to merge both worlds. We believe that a tabletop form-factor provides an ideal interface for digital board games. The design and implementation of tabletop games will be influenced by the hardware platforms, form factors, sensing technologies, as well as input techniques and devices that are available and chosen. This chapter is divided into three major sections. In the first section, we describe the most recent tabletop hardware technologies that have been used by tabletop researchers and practitioners. In the second section, we discuss a set of experimental tabletop games. The third section presents ten evaluation heuristics for tabletop game design.

  6. Experimental Reality: Principles for the Design of Augmented Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahlou, Saadi

    The Laboratory of Design for Cognition at EDF R&D (LDC) is a living laboratory, which we created to develop Augmented Environment (AE) for collaborative work, more specifically “cognitive work” (white collars, engineers, office workers). It is a corporate laboratory in a large industry, where natural activity of real users is observed in a continuous manner in various spaces (project space, meeting room, lounge, etc.) The RAO room, an augmented meeting room, is used daily for “normal” meetings; it is also the “mother room” of all augmented meeting rooms in the company, where new systems, services, and devices are tested. The LDC has gathered a unique set of data on the use of AE, and developed various observation and design techniques, described in this chapter. LDC uses novel techniques of digital ethnography, some of which were invented there (SubCam, offsat) and some of which were developed elsewhere and adapted (360° video, WebDiver, etc.). At LDC, some new theories have also been developed to explain behavior and guide innovation: cognitive attractors, experimental reality, and the triple-determination framework.

  7. Experimental investigation of design parameters on dry powder inhaler performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ngoc, Nguyen Thi Quynh; Chang, Lusi; Jia, Xinli; Lau, Raymond

    2013-11-30

    The study aims to investigate the impact of various design parameters of a dry powder inhaler on the turbulence intensities generated and the performance of the dry powder inhaler. The flow fields and turbulence intensities in the dry powder inhaler are measured using particle image velocimetry (PIV) techniques. In vitro aerosolization and deposition a blend of budesonide and lactose are measured using an Andersen Cascade Impactor. Design parameters such as inhaler grid hole diameter, grid voidage and chamber length are considered. The experimental results reveal that the hole diameter on the grid has negligible impact on the turbulence intensity generated in the chamber. On the other hand, hole diameters smaller than a critical size can lead to performance degradation due to excessive particle-grid collisions. An increase in grid voidage can improve the inhaler performance but the effect diminishes at high grid voidage. An increase in the chamber length can enhance the turbulence intensity generated but also increases the powder adhesion on the inhaler wall. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Numerical and experimental design of coaxial shallow geothermal energy systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raghavan, Niranjan

    Geothermal Energy has emerged as one of the front runners in the energy race because of its performance efficiency, abundance and production competitiveness. Today, geothermal energy is used in many regions of the world as a sustainable solution for decreasing dependence on fossil fuels and reducing health hazards. However, projects related to geothermal energy have not received their deserved recognition due to lack of computational tools associated with them and economic misconceptions related to their installation and functioning. This research focuses on numerical and experimental system design analysis of vertical shallow geothermal energy systems. The driving force is the temperature difference between a finite depth beneath the earth and its surface stimulates continuous exchange of thermal energy from sub-surface to the surface (a geothermal gradient is set up). This heat gradient is captured by the circulating refrigerant and thus, tapping the geothermal energy from shallow depths. Traditionally, U-bend systems, which consist of two one-inch pipes with a U-bend connector at the bottom, have been widely used in geothermal applications. Alternative systems include coaxial pipes (pipe-in-pipe) that are the main focus of this research. It has been studied that coaxial pipes have significantly higher thermal performance characteristics than U-bend pipes, with comparative production and installation costs. This makes them a viable design upgrade to the traditional piping systems. Analytical and numerical heat transfer analysis of the coaxial system is carried out with the help of ABAQUS software. It is tested by varying independent parameters such as materials, soil conditions and effect of thermal contact conductance on heat transfer characteristics. With the above information, this research aims at formulating a preliminary theoretical design setup for an experimental study to quantify and compare the heat transfer characteristics of U-bend and coaxial

  9. System design overview of JAXA small supersonic experimental airplane (NEXST-1)

    OpenAIRE

    Takami, Hikaru; 高見 光

    2007-01-01

    The system of JAXA small supersonic experimental airplane (NEXST-1: National EXperimental Supersonic Transport-1) has been briefly explained. Some design problems that the designers have encountered have also been briefly explained.

  10. Estimating Intervention Effects across Different Types of Single-Subject Experimental Designs: Empirical Illustration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeyaert, Mariola; Ugille, Maaike; Ferron, John M.; Onghena, Patrick; Heyvaert, Mieke; Beretvas, S. Natasha; Van den Noortgate, Wim

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to illustrate the multilevel meta-analysis of results from single-subject experimental designs of different types, including AB phase designs, multiple-baseline designs, ABAB reversal designs, and alternating treatment designs. Current methodological work on the meta-analysis of single-subject experimental designs…

  11. A robust sensorless output feedback controller of the induction motor drives: new design and experimental validation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghanes, M.; Barbot, J.-B.; De Leon, J.; Glumineau, A.

    2010-03-01

    In this article, a sensorless output feedback controller is designed in order to drive the induction motor (IM) without the use of flux and speed sensors. First, an observer that uses only the measured stator currents is synthesised to estimate the mechanical variables (speed and load torque) and the magnetic variables (fluxes) by structurally taking into account the unobservability phenomena of the sensorless IM (SIM) and the parametric uncertainties. Second, a current-based field-oriented sliding mode control that uses the flux and the speed estimates given by the former observer is developed so as to steer the estimated speed and flux magnitude to the desired references. Since the observer error dynamic is independent from the known input control and depends on the IM parametric uncertainties, a kind of separation principle is introduced to guarantee the practical stability of the whole closed-loop system 'observer-controller' ('O-C') according to observability and unobservability time variation. A significant benchmark taking into account the unobservability phenomena of the SIM is presented to show the performances of the whole control scheme against experimental set-up.

  12. An integrated approach to the design of tube hydroforming processes: artificial intelligence, numerical analysis and experimental investigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lorenzo, R.; Filice, L.; Umbrello, D.; Micari, F.

    2004-06-01

    In the last years, the growing role of process flexibility in modern mechanical industries has driven a rising interest in optimisation of process/product design through innovative techniques. Moreover, the development of niche productions, which are characterised by low production volumes and small batches leads to the need of more flexible and rapid forming technologies. In this way, a great research effort is performed towards the study of new stamping processes: among them hydro forming finds a large interest in automotive industry since it allows to significantly reduce tooling costs and also to avoid some secondary operations. Different studies are available in the technical literature concerning the fundamentals of tube hydro forming processes as well as the industrial application of such operations. As process design issues are concerned, in the paper, the authors propose the integration of different tools, namely artificial intelligence techniques, numerical simulations and experimental knowledge to carry out tube hydro forming design. A fuzzy system was integrated with a FEM code for process simulation obtaining a sort of closed loop control system to be utilised in the process design phase. An experimental validation of the design procedure was developed as well proving the effectiveness of the proposed approach in order to obtain defect free components both as geometrical features and ductile fractures are concerned.

  13. Analysis of first and second order binary quantized digital phase-locked loops for ideal and white Gaussian noise inputs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blasche, P. R.

    1980-01-01

    Specific configurations of first and second order all digital phase locked loops are analyzed for both ideal and additive white gaussian noise inputs. In addition, a design for a hardware digital phase locked loop capable of either first or second order operation is presented along with appropriate experimental data obtained from testing of the hardware loop. All parameters chosen for the analysis and the design of the digital phase locked loop are consistent with an application to an Omega navigation receiver although neither the analysis nor the design are limited to this application.

  14. Experimental design strategy a part of an innovative construction industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maarten Gjaltema; Rogier Laterveer; Dr Ruben Vrijhoef

    2013-01-01

    From the article: Abstract. This exploratory and conceptual article sets out to research what arguments and possibilities for experimentation in construction exists and if experimentation can contribute towards more innovative construction as a whole. Traditional, -western- construction is very

  15. Experimental Design Strategy As Part of an Innovative Construction Industry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rogier Laterveer

    2013-01-01

    This exploratory and conceptual article sets out to research what arguments and possibilities for experimentation in construction exists and if experimentation can contribute towards more innovative construction as a whole. Traditional, -western- construction is very conservative and regional, often

  16. Stability and Accuracy Considerations in the Design and Implementation of Wind Turbine Power Hardware in the Loop Platform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Luo, Kui; Shi, Wenhui; Chi, Yongning

    2017-01-01

    There is increasing interest in the evaluation of wind turbine control capabilities for providing grid support. Power hardware in the loop (PHIL) simulation is an advanced method that can be used for studying the interaction of hardware with the power network, as the scaled-down actual wind turbine...

  17. The effect of design and scale on the mixing and mass transfer in U-loop bioreactors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Leander Adrian Haaning; Villadsen, John; Jørgensen, Sten Bay

    vertical forced flow loop reactor where gas and liquid are driven through a series of static mixers in a U-shaped pipe, is quite capable of coping with these challenges in pilot scale. The critical question remains; what happens when the scale undergoes a more than 10 fold increase and the geometry...

  18. Multi-constraint Computational Design Suggests that Native Sequences of Germline Antibody H3 Loops are Nearly Optimal for Conformational Flexibility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babor, Mariana; Kortemme, Tanja

    2014-01-01

    The limited size of the germline antibody repertoire has to recognize a far larger number of potential antigens. The ability of a single antibody to bind multiple ligands due to conformational flexibility in the antigen-binding site can significantly enlarge the repertoire. Among the six hyper-variable complementarity determining regions (CDRs) that comprise the binding site, the CDR H3 loop is particularly flexible. Computational protein design studies showed that predicted low energy sequences compatible with a given backbone structure often have considerable similarity to the corresponding native sequences of naturally occurring proteins, indicating that native protein sequences are close to optimal for their structures. Here, we take a step forward to determine whether conformational flexibility, believed to play a key functional role in germline antibodies, is also central in shaping their native sequence. In particular, we use a multi-constraint computational design strategy, along with the Rosetta energy function, to propose that the native sequences of CDR H3 loops from germline antibodies are nearly optimal for conformational flexibility. Moreover, we find that antibody maturation may lead to sequences with a higher degree of optimization for a single conformation, while disfavoring sequences that are intrinsically flexible. In addition, this computational strategy allows us to predict mutations in the CDR H3 loop to stabilize the antigen-bound conformation, a computational mimic of affinity maturation, that may increase antigen binding affinity by pre-organizing the antigen binding loop. In vivo affinity maturation data are consistent with our predictions. The method described here can be useful to design antibodies with higher selectivity and affinity by reducing conformational diversity. PMID:19194863

  19. Phosphate removal from water by fly ash: factorial experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Can, Mevra Yalvac; Yildiz, Ergun

    2006-07-31

    The influence of three variables (phophate concentration, initial pH of solution (pH(0)) and the fly ash dosage) on the removal efficiency of phosphate (% E) and equilibrium pH of solution (pH(eq)) by using fly ash was studied by means of 2(3) full factorial experimental designs. The parameters coded as x(1), x(2) and x(3), consecutively(,) were used. The parameters were investigated at two levels (-1 and 1). The effects of these factors on dependent variables, namely, % E and pH(eq) were investigated. To determine the significance of effects, the analysis of variance with 95% confidence limits was used. It was shown that % E and pH(eq) obtained in this study were found to be 99.6% and 11.16, corresponding to the operating condition of 25 mg l(-1), 2 g l(-1) and 5.5 for the phosphate concentration, fly ash dosage and pH(0), respectively.

  20. Tokamak experimental power reactor conceptual design. Volume I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-08-01

    A conceptual design has been developed for a tokamak Experimental Power Reactor to operate at net electrical power conditions with a plant capacity factor of 50 percent for 10 years. The EPR operates in a pulsed mode at a frequency of approximately 1/min., with an approximate 75 percent duty cycle, is capable of producing approximately 72 MWe and requires 42 MWe. The annual tritium consumption is 16 kg. The EPR vacuum chamber is 6.25 m in major radius and 2.4 m in minor radius, is constructed of 2-cm thick stainless steel, and has 2-cm thick detachable, beryllium-coated coolant panels mounted on the interior. An 0.28 m stainless steel blanket and a shield ranging from 0.6 to 1.0 m surround the vacuum vessel. The coolant is H/sub 2/O. Sixteen niobium-titanium superconducting toroidal-field coils provide a field of 10 T at the coil and 4.47 T at the plasma. Superconducting ohmic-heating and equilibrium-field coils provide 135 V-s to drive the plasma current. Plasma heating is accomplished by 12 neutral beam-injectors, which provide 60 MW. The energy transfer and storage system consists of a central superconducting storage ring, a homopolar energy storage unit, and a variety of inductor-converters.

  1. Effect of Loop Diameter on the Steady State and Stability Behaviour of Single-Phase and Two-Phase Natural Circulation Loops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. K. Vijayan

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In natural circulation loops, the driving force is usually low as it depends on the riser height which is generally of the order of a few meters. The heat transport capability of natural circulation loops (NCLs is directly proportional to the flow rate it can generate. With low driving force, the straightforward way to enhance the flow is to reduce the frictional losses. A simple way to do this is to increase the loop diameter which can be easily adopted in pressure tube designs such as the AHWR and the natural circulation boilers employed in fossil-fuelled power plants. Further, the loop diameter also plays an important role on the stability behavior. An extensive experimental and theoretical investigation of the effect of loop diameter on the steady state and stability behavior of single- and two-phase natural circulation loops have been carried out and the results of this study are presented in this paper.

  2. Fuskite® preliminary experimental tests based on permeation against vacuum for hydrogen recovery as a potential application in Pb15.7Li loop systems.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sacristán, R., E-mail: mrosa.sacristan@sener.es [SENER Ingeniería y Sistemas, C/ Provença 392, 5a, 08025 Barcelona (Spain); Veredas, G. [EURATOM-CIEMAT Fusion Assoc., Fusion Technology Division, Av. Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Bonjoch, I. [SENER Ingeniería y Sistemas, C/ Provença 392, 5a, 08025 Barcelona (Spain); Peñalva, I. [UPV/EHU, Departamento de Ingeniería Nuclear y Mecánica de Fluidos, Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Calderón, E. [SENER Ingeniería y Sistemas, C/ Provença 392, 5a, 08025 Barcelona (Spain); Alberro, G. [UPV/EHU, Departamento de Ingeniería Nuclear y Mecánica de Fluidos, Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Balart, D. [SENER Ingeniería y Sistemas, Avda. Zugazarte 56, 48930 Las Arenas, Vizcaya (Spain); Sarrionandia-Ibarra, A. [UPV/EHU, Departamento de Ingeniería Nuclear y Mecánica de Fluidos, Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain); Pérez, V. [SENER Ingeniería y Sistemas, Avda. Zugazarte 56, 48930 Las Arenas, Vizcaya (Spain); Ibarra, A. [EURATOM-CIEMAT Fusion Assoc., Fusion Technology Division, Av. Complutense 40, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Legarda, F. [UPV/EHU, Departamento de Ingeniería Nuclear y Mecánica de Fluidos, Alameda de Urquijo s/n, 48013 Bilbao (Spain)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • Full material characterization as far as hydrogen transport properties are concern. • Quantification of permeator leaks and material degasification. • Analysis of H{sub 2} recovered by means of permeation against vacuum in different conditions. • Hydrogen recovery efficiencies determination. - Abstract: Tritium recovery in fusion reactors is one of the main goals in R and D, as a limited inventory is available and its uneconomic production. That is the reason why efficient technologies are indispensable to be developed in order to achieve fast tritium recovery and its subsequent reuse in the system for increasing its self-sufficiency. In this work a flexible tritium recovery demonstrator prototype based on permeation against vacuum concept has been designed and manufactured, as well as all necessary equipment for a Pb15.7Li loop implementation in order to test and demonstrate that an in-pipe integrated solution is possible, and at the same time, to validate the manufacturing process. Thus, efficient rates for more optimized future models could be then extrapolated. The aim of this paper is to show the different testing results that have been carried out in this research project. These results include permeation properties of the material considered for the permeator, as long as it has been manufactured with a novel technique, Selective Laser Melting. They also include vacuum tests on the permeator to quantify possible leakages and to set up and analyze the capability to generate vacuum inside the permeator, and finally, permeation tests with the prototype, in a first stage with a gas mixture of hydrogen and argon inside the loop instead of Pb15.7Li.

  3. Comments and Remarks over Classic Linear Loop-Gain Method for Oscillator Design and Analysis. New Proposed Method Based on NDF/RRT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. L. Jimenez-Martin

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Present paper describes a new method for designing oscillators based on the Normalized Determinant Function (NDF and Return Relations (RRT . First a review of the loop-gain method will be performed, showing pros, cons and including some examples for exploring wrong so- lutions provided by this method. Wrong solutions, because some conditions have to be previously fulfilled in order to obtain right ones, which will be described and finally, demonstrate that NDF analysis is necessary, including Return Relations (RRT usefulness, which in fact are related with the True Loop-Gain. Finally concluding this paper, steps for oscillator design and analysis, using the proposed NDF/RRT method will be presented, compared to wrong previous solutions pointing out new accuracy achieved on oscillation frequency and QL prediction. Also, more new examples, of plane reference oscillators (Z/Y/rho, will be added for which loop gain method application is clearly difficult or even impossible, solving them with the new proposed NDF/RRT method.

  4. Experimental design issues for the early detection of disease: novel designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Ping; Zelen, Marvin

    2002-09-01

    This paper investigates two experimental designs which have been used to evaluate the benefit of the early detection of breast cancer. They have some advantages over a classical design (the screening program versus usual medical care) in that subjects in a control group may benefit by participating in the study. We refer to the two experimental designs as the up-front (UFD) and close-out (COD) designs. The UFD consists of offering an initial exam to all participants. Then they can be randomized to a usual care group or a screening group receiving one or more special examinations. If the outcome of the initial examination is included in the analysis, then the study can answer the question of the benefit of an additional screening program after an initial examination. If the analysis excludes all the cases diagnosed at the initial examination, then the analysis evaluates the benefit of a screening program after elimination of the prevalent cases. These prevalent cases are most likely to be affected by length bias sampling and consequently will tend to have less aggressive disease and live longer. As a result, the UFD can answer two scientific questions. The COD consists of randomizing subjects to a usual care group and a screened group. However, the usual care group receives an examination which coincides at the time of the last exam in the study group. In this paper the power of these two designs have been evaluated. In both cases the power is severely reduced compared to the usual control group receiving no special exams. The power is a function of the sensitivity of the exam, the number and spacings of the exams given to the screened group as well as the sample size, disease incidence of the population and the survival distribution. The theoretical results on power are applied to the Canadian National Breast Cancer Study (ages 40-49) which used an UFD and the Stockholm Mammography Breast Cancer Screening Trial which utilized a COD.

  5. Experimental Design on Laminated Veneer Lumber Fiber Composite: Surface Enhancement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meekum, U.; Mingmongkol, Y.

    2010-06-01

    Thick laminate veneer lumber(LVL) fibre reinforced composites were constructed from the alternated perpendicularly arrayed of peeled rubber woods. Glass woven was laid in between the layers. Native golden teak veneers were used as faces. In house formulae epoxy was employed as wood adhesive. The hand lay-up laminate was cured at 150° C for 45 mins. The cut specimen was post cured at 80° C for at least 5 hours. The 2k factorial design of experimental(DOE) was used to verify the parameters. Three parameters by mean of silane content in epoxy formulation(A), smoke treatment of rubber wood surface(B) and anti-termite application(C) on the wood surface were analysed. Both low and high levels were further subcategorised into 2 sub-levels. Flexural properties were the main respond obtained. ANOVA analysis of the Pareto chart was engaged. The main effect plot was also testified. The results showed that the interaction between silane quantity and termite treatment is negative effect at high level(AC+). Vice versa, the interaction between silane and smoke treatment was positive significant effect at high level(AB+). According to this research work, the optimal setting to improve the surface adhesion and hence flexural properties enhancement were high level of silane quantity, 15% by weight, high level of smoked wood layers, 8 out of 14 layers, and low anti termite applied wood. The further testes also revealed that the LVL composite had superior properties that the solid woods but slightly inferior in flexibility. The screw withdrawn strength of LVL showed the higher figure than solid wood. It is also better resistance to moisture and termite attack than the rubber wood.

  6. Design and Hardware-in-the-Loop Implementation of Optimal Canonical Maneuvers for an Autonomous Planetary Aerial Vehicle

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-01

    trajectories generated in this thesis are listed in Table 5. DYN WPP WPC WPN WP_Handler Pitch_cmd Roll_cmd V_cmd Elev Aileron Rudder Throttle...states also include Thrust and four angles: flight path elevation angle, which is the angle between the x-y plane and the nose of the aircraft; the...trajectory signals, which are then processed by the various loops to create elevator, rudder, and aileron , and throttle commands to the aircraft

  7. Tunable microwave metamaterial absorbers using varactor-loaded split loops

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jinfeng; Li, Delong; Yan, Shuang; Cai, Yijun; Huo Liu, Qing; Lin, Timothy

    2015-12-01

    Currently, implementation of active circuit elements within metamaterials is an effective way to make them electrically tunable. We combine varactors with split copper loops in a metamaterial absorber in order to obtain an electrically tunable microwave response. This absorber has a compact planar structure and a simplified back feeding network. Flexible frequency tunability of the microwave reflection in the range of 5-6 GHz is experimentally achieved. The design, simulation, and experimental results are systematically presented. The proposed method is scalable for developing active metamaterial absorbers based on metal loops, and shows a promising potential of active metamaterial absorbers for extensive microwave applications.

  8. Experimental and numerical analysis for optimal design parameters ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajneesh Kaushal

    Finally, the relations established are confirmed experimentally to validate the models. The relations thus established are ... Additionally, the present study is among the first attempts to reveal the effect of humidity on the performance of falling film evaporator. .... and accuracies of instruments used. 2.2 Experimental procedure.

  9. 14 CFR 437.85 - Allowable design changes; modification of an experimental permit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Allowable design changes; modification of... Conditions of an Experimental Permit § 437.85 Allowable design changes; modification of an experimental permit. (a) The FAA will identify in the experimental permit the type of changes that the permittee may...

  10. Design of a low-cost thermoacoustic electricity generator and its experimental verification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Backhaus, Scott N [Los Alamos National Laboratory; Yu, Z [UNIV OF MANCHESTER; Jaworski, A J [UNIV OF MANCHESTER

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the design and testing of a low cost thermoacoustic generator. A travelling-wave thermoacoustic engine with a configuration of a looped-tube resonator is designed and constructed to convert heat to acoustic power. A commercially available, low-cost loudspeaker is adopted as the alternator to convert the engine's acoustic power to electricity. The whole system is designed using linear thermoacoustic theory. The optimization of different parts of the thermoacoustic generator, as well as the matching between the thermoacoustic engine and the alternator are discussed in detail. A detailed comparison between the preliminary test results and linear thermoacoustic predictions is provided.

  11. Artificial Warming of Arctic Meadow under Pollution Stress: Experimental design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moni, Christophe; Silvennoinen, Hanna; Fjelldal, Erling; Brenden, Marius; Kimball, Bruce; Rasse, Daniel

    2014-05-01

    Boreal and arctic terrestrial ecosystems are central to the climate change debate, notably because future warming is expected to be disproportionate as compared to world averages. Likewise, greenhouse gas (GHG) release from terrestrial ecosystems exposed to climate warming is expected to be the largest in the arctic. Artic agriculture, in the form of cultivated grasslands, is a unique and economically relevant feature of Northern Norway (e.g. Finnmark Province). In Eastern Finnmark, these agro-ecosystems are under the additional stressor of heavy metal and sulfur pollution generated by metal smelters of NW Russia. Warming and its interaction with heavy metal dynamics will influence meadow productivity, species composition and GHG emissions, as mediated by responses of soil microbial communities. Adaptation and mitigation measurements will be needed. Biochar application, which immobilizes heavy metal, is a promising adaptation method to promote positive growth response in arctic meadows exposed to a warming climate. In the MeadoWarm project we conduct an ecosystem warming experiment combined to biochar adaptation treatments in the heavy-metal polluted meadows of Eastern Finnmark. In summary, the general objective of this study is twofold: 1) to determine the response of arctic agricultural ecosystems under environmental stress to increased temperatures, both in terms of plant growth, soil organisms and GHG emissions, and 2) to determine if biochar application can serve as a positive adaptation (plant growth) and mitigation (GHG emission) strategy for these ecosystems under warming conditions. Here, we present the experimental site and the designed open-field warming facility. The selected site is an arctic meadow located at the Svanhovd Research station less than 10km west from the Russian mining city of Nikel. A splitplot design with 5 replicates for each treatment is used to test the effect of biochar amendment and a 3oC warming on the Arctic meadow. Ten circular

  12. A hybrid particle swarm optimization and genetic algorithm for closed-loop supply chain network design in large-scale networks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Soleimani, Hamed; Kannan, Govindan

    2015-01-01

    , customer awareness, and the economical motivations of the organizations. However, designing and planning a closed-loop supply chain is an NP-hard problem, which makes it difficult to achieve acceptable results in a reasonable time. In this paper, we try to cope with this problem by proposing a new......-heuristic algorithms are considered to develop a new elevated hybrid algorithm: the genetic algorithm (GA) and particle swarm optimization (PSO). Analyzing the above-mentioned algorithms' strengths and weaknesses leads us to attempt to improve the GA using some aspects of PSO. Therefore, a new hybrid algorithm...

  13. Hierarchical Neural Network (HNN) for Closed Loop Decision Making: Designing the Architecture of a Hierarchical Neural Network to Model Attention, Learning and Goal Oriented Behavior

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-12-01

    surveyed. Later control of1a robotiic system was used as the prototypical task and a HNN was designed and compared with the state of the art adaptive...Z Solution to the In’.erse kinematics efficiency foi the 6-DOF ,Lise is due to tihe Problem in Roboti s b% Neural Networks IEEE International3 trade...manipulator Desired Mechanism Actwl parameters in closed loop operation.T etr In operation, the controller is given a trajectory by a path Controller RobotI

  14. Flexible performance design for the H∞ loop-shaping control based on the linear matrix inequality approach: Application to the coaxial rotor helicopter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhiyan Dong

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available This article introduces a new H ∞ loop-shaping control to decrease the complexity of the appropriate selection of the required performance for a coaxial rotor helicopter with unpredicted or unknown unstructured uncertainties. Uncertainty models are normally assumed that some knowledge of type is known. And to model a particular uncertainty as a separate model is necessary in the high-performance design of specified applications. But to model each particular uncertainty will increase the complexity of performance design for the extremely complex plant. H ∞ loop-shaping control provides a competitive and flexible choice to simultaneously represent a family of unpredicted and unconsidered unstructured uncertainty bounded by H ∞ norm. Many researches have been conducted to consider some aspects of this method, for example, the nominal stability, robustness to uncertainty, and implementation issues. However, to decrease the complexity of the appropriate selection of the required performance was not considered seriously. Therefore, a sufficient set of stable condition is derived using linear matrix inequality approach to provide the flexible performance design considering unpredicted and unknown unstructured uncertainties. Furthermore, the proposed method is applied to stabilize the attitude subsystem of a reconstructed coaxial rotor helicopter. Simulations indicate the effectiveness of the proposed method in the step response.

  15. FAULT PROPAGATION AND EFFECTS ANALYSIS FOR DESIGNING AN ONLINE MONITORING SYSTEM FOR THE SECONDARY LOOP OF A NUCLEAR POWER PLANT PART OF A HYBRID ENERGY SYSTEM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Huijuan; Diao, Xiaoxu; Li, Boyuan; Smidts, Carol; Bragg-Sitton, Shannon

    2017-03-01

    This paper studies the propagation and effects of faults of critical components that pertain to the secondary loop of a nuclear power plant found in Nuclear Hybrid Energy Systems (NHES). This information is used to design an on-line monitoring (OLM) system which is capable of detecting and forecasting faults that are likely to occur during NHES operation. In this research, the causes, features, and effects of possible faults are investigated by simulating the propagation of faults in the secondary loop. The simulation is accomplished by using the Integrated System Failure Analysis (ISFA). ISFA is used for analyzing hardware and software faults during the conceptual design phase. In this paper, the models of system components required by ISFA are initially constructed. Then, the fault propagation analysis is implemented, which is conducted under the bounds set by acceptance criteria derived from the design of an OLM system. The result of the fault simulation is utilized to build a database for fault detection and diagnosis, provide preventive measures, and propose an optimization plan for the OLM system.

  16. Efficient Experimental Design Strategies in Toxicology and Bioassay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy E. O'Brien

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Modelling in bioassay often uses linear or nonlinear logistic regression models, and relative potency is often the focus when two or more compounds are to be compared.  Estimation in these settings is typically based on likelihood methods.  Here, we focus on the 3-parameter model representation given in Finney (1978 in which the relative potency is a model parameter.  Using key matrix results and the general equivalence theorem of Kiefer & Wolfowitz (1960, this paper establishes key design properties of the optimal design for relative potency using this model.  We also highlight aspects of subset designs for the relative potency parameter and extend geometric designs to efficient design settings of bioassay.  These latter designs are thus useful for both parameter estimation and checking for goodness-of-fit.  A typical yet insightful example is provided from the field of toxicology to illustrate our findings.

  17. FFTF reload core nuclear design for increased experimental capability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rothrock, R.B.; Nelson, J.V.; Dobbin, K.D.; Bennett, R.A.

    1976-01-01

    In anticipation of continued growth in the FTR experimental irradiations program, the enrichments for the next batches of reload driver fuel to be manufactured have been increased to provide a substantially enlarged experimental reactivity allowance. The enrichments for these fuel assemblies, termed ''Cores 3 and 4,'' were selected to meet the following objectives and constraints: (1) maintain a reactor power capability of 400 MW (based on an evaluation of driver fuel centerline melting probability at 15 percent overpower); (2) provide a peak neutron flux of nominally 7 x 10/sup 15/ n/cm/sup 2/-sec, with a minimum acceptable value of 95 percent of this (i.e., 6.65 x 10/sup 15/ n/cm/sup 2/-sec); and (3) provide the maximum experimental reactivity allowance that is consistent with the above constraints.

  18. Critical Zone Experimental Design to Assess Soil Processes and Function

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banwart, Steve

    2010-05-01

    experimental design studies soil processes across the temporal evolution of the soil profile, from its formation on bare bedrock, through managed use as productive land to its degradation under longstanding pressures from intensive land use. To understand this conceptual life cycle of soil, we have selected 4 European field sites as Critical Zone Observatories. These are to provide data sets of soil parameters, processes and functions which will be incorporated into the mathematical models. The field sites are 1) the BigLink field station which is located in the chronosequence of the Damma Glacier forefield in alpine Switzerland and is established to study the initial stages of soil development on bedrock; 2) the Lysina Catchment in the Czech Republic which is representative of productive soils managed for intensive forestry, 3) the Fuchsenbigl Field Station in Austria which is an agricultural research site that is representative of productive soils managed as arable land and 4) the Koiliaris Catchment in Crete, Greece which represents degraded Mediterranean region soils, heavily impacted by centuries of intensive grazing and farming, under severe risk of desertification.

  19. A True Open-Loop Synchronization Technique

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Golestan, Saeed; Vidal, Ana; Yepes, Alejandro G.

    2016-01-01

    Synchronization techniques can be broadly classified into two major categories: Closed-loop and open-loop methods. The open-loop synchronization (OLS) techniques, contrary to the closed-loop ones, are unconditionally stable and benefit from a fast dynamic response. Their performance, however, tends...... is to develop a true OLS (and therefore, unconditionally stable) technique without any need for the calculation of sine and cosine functions. The effectiveness of the proposed synchronization technique is confirmed through the simulation and experimental results....

  20. Design of a right ventricular mock circulation loop as a test bench for right ventricular assist devices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mueller, Indra; Jansen-Park, So-Hyun; Neidlin, Michael; Steinseifer, Ulrich; Abel, Dirk; Autschbach, Rüdiger; Rossaint, Rolf; Schmitz-Rode, Thomas; Sonntag, Simon Johannes

    2017-04-01

    Right heart failure (RHF), e.g. due to pulmonary hypertension (PH), is a serious health issue with growing occurrence and high mortality rate. Limited efficacy of medication in advanced stages of the disease constitutes the need for mechanical circulatory support of the right ventricle (RV). An essential contribution to the process of developing right ventricular assist devices (RVADs) is the in vitro test bench, which simulates the hemodynamic behavior of the native circulatory system. To model healthy and diseased arterial-pulmonary hemodynamics in adults (mild and severe PH and RHF), a right heart mock circulation loop (MCL) was developed. Incorporating an anatomically shaped silicone RV and a silicone atrium, it not only enables investigations of hemodynamic values but also suction events or the handling of minimal invasive RVADs in an anatomical test environment. Ventricular pressure-volume loops of all simulated conditions as well as pressure and volume waveforms were recorded and compared to literature data. In an exemplary test, an RVAD was connected to the apex to further test the feasibility of studying such devices with the developed MCL. In conclusion, the hemodynamic behavior of the native system was well reproduced by the developed MCL, which is a useful basis for future RVAD tests.

  1. Design Construction and Operation of a Supercritical Carbon Dioxide (sCO2) Loop for Investigation of Dry Cooling and Natural Circulation Potential for Use in Advanced Small Modular Reactors Utilizing sCO2 Power Conversion Cycles.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Middleton, Bobby D. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Rodriguez, Salvador B. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States); Carlson, Matthew David [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-NM), Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2015-11-01

    This report outlines the work completed for a Laboratory Directed Research and Development project at Sandia National Laboratories from October 2012 through September 2015. An experimental supercritical carbon dioxide (sCO 2 ) loop was designed, built, and o perated. The experimental work demonstrated that sCO 2 can be uti lized as the working fluid in an air - cooled, natural circulation configuration to transfer heat from a source to the ultimate heat sink, which is the surrounding ambient environment in most ca ses. The loop was also operated in an induction - heated, water - cooled configuration that allows for measurements of physical parameters that are difficult to isolate in the air - cooled configuration. Analysis included the development of two computational flu id dynamics models. Future work is anticipated to answer questions that were not covered in this project.

  2. Findings in Experimental Psychology as Functioning Principles of Theatrical Design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldwell, George

    A gestalt approach to theatrical design seems to provide some ready and stable explanations for a number of issues in the scenic arts. Gestalt serves as the theoretical base for a number of experiments in psychology whose findings appear to delineate the principles of art to be used in scene design. The fundamental notion of gestalt theory…

  3. Model-robust experimental designs for the fractional polynomial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    can give a good a fit to the data and much more plausible behavior between de- sign points than the polynomial models. In this ... often resorted to the theory of optimal designs to get practical designs for those models. However the complexity of these nonlinear ..... on Statistics in Industry and Tech- nology, Dayton, Ohio. 18 ...

  4. The experimental design of the Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steven L. Sheriff; Shuoqiong. He

    1997-01-01

    The Missouri Ozark Forest Ecosystem Project (MOFEP) is an experiment that examines the effects of three forest management practices on the forest community. MOFEP is designed as a randomized complete block design using nine sites divided into three blocks. Treatments of uneven-aged, even-aged, and no-harvest management were randomly assigned to sites within each block...

  5. Leveraging the Experimental Method to Inform Solar Cell Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Mary Annette; Ribblett, Jason W.; Hershberger, Heather Nicole

    2010-01-01

    In this article, the underlying logic of experimentation is exemplified within the context of a photoelectrical experiment for students taking a high school engineering, technology, or chemistry class. Students assume the role of photochemists as they plan, fabricate, and experiment with a solar cell made of copper and an aqueous solution of…

  6. PAR Loop Schedule Review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schaffer, Jr.; W.F.

    1958-04-30

    The schedule for the installation of the PAR slurry loop experiment in the South Facility of the ORR has been reviewed and revised. The design, fabrications and Installation is approximately two weeks behind schedule at this time due to many factors; however, indications are that this time can be made up. Design is estimated to be 75% complete, fabrication 32% complete and installation 12% complete.

  7. Experimental design with applications in management, engineering and the sciences

    CERN Document Server

    Berger, Paul D; Celli, Giovana B

    2018-01-01

    This text introduces and provides instruction on the design and analysis of experiments for a broad audience. Formed by decades of teaching, consulting, and industrial experience in the Design of Experiments field, this new edition contains updated examples, exercises, and situations covering the science and engineering practice. This text minimizes the amount of mathematical detail, while still doing full justice to the mathematical rigor of the presentation and the precision of statements, making the text accessible for those who have little experience with design of experiments and who need some practical advice on using such designs to solve day-to-day problems. Additionally, an intuitive understanding of the principles is always emphasized, with helpful hints throughout.

  8. Interdisciplinary for Social Engagement: Art and Design Experimental Study

    OpenAIRE

    Hope Angelique Wells; Lyubava Fartushenko; Andrew Chamberlain

    2015-01-01

    In this ever-changing world with a population of over seven billion, social equality, and environmental sustainability needs new innovative and inclusive solutions. Today, the interdisciplinary practice of art and design has the ability to raise social awareness and engagement in health-related issues. Art and design experiments with combining the traditional art methods with technology and interactive systems to communicate scientific research with problem solving goals. Creative interdiscip...

  9. Virtual velocity loop based on MEMS accelerometers for optical stabilization control system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Wei; Deng, Chao; Mao, Yao; Ren, Ge

    2017-08-01

    In the optical stabilization control system (OSCS) control system based on a charge-coupled device (CCD), stabilization performance of the line-of-sight is severely limited by the mechanical resonance and the low sampling rate of the CCD. An approach to improve the stabilization performance of the OSCS control system with load restriction based on three loops, including an acceleration loop, a virtual velocity loop, and a position loop, by using MEMS accelerometers and a CCD is proposed. The velocity signal is obtained by accelerators instead of gyro sensors. Its advantages are low power, low cost, small size, and wide measuring range. A detailed analysis is provided to show how to design the virtual velocity loop and correct virtual velocity loop drift. Experimental results show that the proposed multiloop feedback control method with virtual velocity loop in which the disturbance suppression performance is better than that of the dual loop control with only an acceleration loop and a position loop at low frequency.

  10. Design of an ammonia closed-loop storage system in a CSP power plant with a power tower cavity receiver

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdiwe, Ramadan; Haider, Markus

    2017-06-01

    In this study the thermochemical system using ammonia as energy storage carrier is investigated and a transient mathematical model using MATLAB software was developed to predict the behavior of the ammonia closed-loop storage system including but not limited to the ammonia solar reactor and the ammonia synthesis reactor. The MATLAB model contains transient mass and energy balances as well as chemical equilibrium model for each relevant system component. For the importance of the dissociation and formation processes in the system, a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation on the ammonia solar and synthesis reactors has been performed. The CFD commercial package FLUENT is used for the simulation study and all the important mechanisms for packed bed reactors are taken into account, such as momentum, heat and mass transfer, and chemical reactions. The FLUENT simulation reveals the profiles inside both reactors and compared them with the profiles from the MATLAB code.

  11. Defining a Closed-Loop U.S. Aluminum Can Supply Chain Through Technical Design and Supply Chain Innovation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buffington, Jack; Peterson, Ray

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to conduct a supply chain material flow analysis (MFA) for the U.S. aluminum can market, consistent with studies conducted for the overall worldwide aluminum industry. A technical definition of the use of alloys 5182 and 3104 is conducted by metallurgists for use in the "aluminum can" MFA. Four propositions are created: technical, economic, and supply chain factors are as important to secondary aluminum recycling in an aluminum can as higher recycling rates (P1); the development of a unialloy aluminum can will increase reuse rates, but recycling rates must increase for this to happen (P2); a closed-loop aluminum can supply chain is not able to be fully realized in today's environment but is very useful for understanding improvement through both supply and demand (P3); and UBC supply can improve through a "voluntary deposit-refund system" approach (P4).

  12. Protein loop modeling using a new hybrid energy function and its application to modeling in inaccurate structural environments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hahnbeom; Lee, Gyu Rie; Heo, Lim; Seok, Chaok

    2014-01-01

    Protein loop modeling is a tool for predicting protein local structures of particular interest, providing opportunities for applications involving protein structure prediction and de novo protein design. Until recently, the majority of loop modeling methods have been developed and tested by reconstructing loops in frameworks of experimentally resolved structures. In many practical applications, however, the protein loops to be modeled are located in inaccurate structural environments. These include loops in model structures, low-resolution experimental structures, or experimental structures of different functional forms. Accordingly, discrepancies in the accuracy of the structural environment assumed in development of the method and that in practical applications present additional challenges to modern loop modeling methods. This study demonstrates a new strategy for employing a hybrid energy function combining physics-based and knowledge-based components to help tackle this challenge. The hybrid energy function is designed to combine the strengths of each energy component, simultaneously maintaining accurate loop structure prediction in a high-resolution framework structure and tolerating minor environmental errors in low-resolution structures. A loop modeling method based on global optimization of this new energy function is tested on loop targets situated in different levels of environmental errors, ranging from experimental structures to structures perturbed in backbone as well as side chains and template-based model structures. The new method performs comparably to force field-based approaches in loop reconstruction in crystal structures and better in loop prediction in inaccurate framework structures. This result suggests that higher-accuracy predictions would be possible for a broader range of applications. The web server for this method is available at http://galaxy.seoklab.org/loop with the PS2 option for the scoring function.

  13. Protein loop modeling using a new hybrid energy function and its application to modeling in inaccurate structural environments.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hahnbeom Park

    Full Text Available Protein loop modeling is a tool for predicting protein local structures of particular interest, providing opportunities for applications involving protein structure prediction and de novo protein design. Until recently, the majority of loop modeling methods have been developed and tested by reconstructing loops in frameworks of experimentally resolved structures. In many practical applications, however, the protein loops to be modeled are located in inaccurate structural environments. These include loops in model structures, low-resolution experimental structures, or experimental structures of different functional forms. Accordingly, discrepancies in the accuracy of the structural environment assumed in development of the method and that in practical applications present additional challenges to modern loop modeling methods. This study demonstrates a new strategy for employing a hybrid energy function combining physics-based and knowledge-based components to help tackle this challenge. The hybrid energy function is designed to combine the strengths of each energy component, simultaneously maintaining accurate loop structure prediction in a high-resolution framework structure and tolerating minor environmental errors in low-resolution structures. A loop modeling method based on global optimization of this new energy function is tested on loop targets situated in different levels of environmental errors, ranging from experimental structures to structures perturbed in backbone as well as side chains and template-based model structures. The new method performs comparably to force field-based approaches in loop reconstruction in crystal structures and better in loop prediction in inaccurate framework structures. This result suggests that higher-accuracy predictions would be possible for a broader range of applications. The web server for this method is available at http://galaxy.seoklab.org/loop with the PS2 option for the scoring function.

  14. Experimental Evaluation of Three Designs of Electrodynamic Flexural Transducers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tobias J. R. Eriksson

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Three designs for electrodynamic flexural transducers (EDFT for air-coupled ultrasonics are presented and compared. An all-metal housing was used for robustness, which makes the designs more suitable for industrial applications. The housing is designed such that there is a thin metal plate at the front, with a fundamental flexural vibration mode at ∼50 kHz. By using a flexural resonance mode, good coupling to the load medium was achieved without the use of matching layers. The front radiating plate is actuated electrodynamically by a spiral coil inside the transducer, which produces an induced magnetic field when an AC current is applied to it. The transducers operate without the use of piezoelectric materials, which can simplify manufacturing and prolong the lifetime of the transducers, as well as open up possibilities for high-temperature applications. The results show that different designs perform best for the generation and reception of ultrasound. All three designs produced large acoustic pressure outputs, with a recorded sound pressure level (SPL above 120 dB at a 40 cm distance from the highest output transducer. The sensitivity of the transducers was low, however, with single shot signal-to-noise ratio ( SNR ≃ 15 dB in transmit–receive mode, with transmitter and receiver 40 cm apart.

  15. Experimental Investigations on a Novel Chemical Looping Combustion Configuration Étude expérimentale d’une nouvelle configuration de combustion en boucle chimique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazdanpanah M.M.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Chemical Looping Combustion (CLC is a promising novel combustion technology involving inherent separation of carbon dioxide with minimum energy penalty. An oxygen carrier is employed to continuously transfer oxygen from the air reactor to the fuel reactor where the oxygen is delivered to the fuel. Consequently, direct contact between the air and fuel is prevented. The resulting flue gas is CO2-rich, without N2 dilution. The reduced oxygen carrier is then transported back to the air reactor for re-oxidation purposes, hence forming a chemical loop. Various CLC configurations have already been developed and tested on laboratory scales. However, more investigations are required to achieve feasible CLC processes. Among the different points to address, control of the solid circulation rate between the two reactors is of the highest importance regarding its effect on achievement of an appropriate oxygen transfer rate and solid oxidation degrees. Moreover, minimization of gas leakage between the fuel and air reactors is another important issue to be considered. A novel CLC configuration is proposed where reactions are carried out in two interconnected bubbling fluidized beds. Solid circulation rate control is achieved independently of gas flow rate in the reactors through use of pneumatic non-mechanical valves (L-valves. Moreover, loopseals are employed to minimize gas leakage while transferring solids. Experimental results from operation of a 10 kWth equivalent cold prototype are presented in this paper. The effect of operating variables on the solid circulation rate, gas leakage between the two beds and the pressure balance on all of the process elements is studied. The results demonstrate stable solid circulation with efficient control of the solid flow rate and effective gas tightness of the system. La combustion en boucle chimique (CLC est une nouvelle technologie prometteuse qui implique la separation inherente du dioxyde de carbone avec une perte

  16. An Experimental Verification of morphology of ibuprofen crystals from CAMD designed solvent

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karunanithi, Arunprakash T.; Acquah, Charles; Achenie, Luke E.K.

    2007-01-01

    of crystals formed from solvents, necessitates additional experimental verification steps. In this work we report the experimental verification of crystal morphology for the case study, solvent design for ibuprofen crystallization, presented in Karunanithi et al. [2006. A computer-aided molecular design...

  17. Web-Based Learning Support for Experimental Design in Molecular Biology: A Top-Down Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aegerter-Wilmsen, Tinri; Hartog, Rob; Bisseling, Ton

    2003-01-01

    An important learning goal of a molecular biology curriculum is the attainment of a certain competence level in experimental design. Currently, undergraduate students are confronted with experimental approaches in textbooks, lectures and laboratory courses. However, most students do not reach a satisfactory level of competence in the designing of…

  18. Interdisciplinary for Social Engagement: Art and Design Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hope Angelique Wells

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available In this ever-changing world with a population of over seven billion, social equality, and environmental sustainability needs new innovative and inclusive solutions. Today, the interdisciplinary practice of art and design has the ability to raise social awareness and engagement in health-related issues. Art and design experiments with combining the traditional art methods with technology and interactive systems to communicate scientific research with problem solving goals. Creative interdisciplinary opens many doors to a variety of collaborative efforts in seeking proactive solutions to environmental and social issues.

  19. From cultural to environmental heritage. Design experimentations in ancient settlement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonello Monsù Scolaro

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The rising awareness of human impacts on the natural environment compels researchers to steadily review the sustainability criteria for the built environment. This evolution clearly influences the research and design experiences reported in this paper, which focus on the reclamation and reuse of the historic urban fabric. These experiments help to imagine a possible future where innovation happens into the core of the city, usually considered a place devoted to tradition, rather than in its outskirts. Unexpected environmental issues consequently come to the fore, that could help in reconsidering prevailing design and building practices as well planning policies.

  20. A unifying experimental design for dissecting tree genomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Lidan; Zhu, Xuli; Zhang, Qixiang; Wu, Rongling

    2015-08-01

    Linkage mapping and association mapping are adopted as an approach of choice for dissecting complex traits, but each shows a limitation when used alone. We propose an open-pollinated (OP) family design to integrate these two approaches into an organizing framework. The design unifies the strengths of population and quantitative genetic studies for evolutionary inference and high-resolution gene mapping. It particularly suits genome dissection of forest trees given their extant populations that are mostly undomesticated. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. System design description of forced-convection molten-salt corrosion loops MSR-FCL-3 and MSR-FCL-4

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huntley, W.R.; Silverman, M.D.

    1976-11-01

    Molten-salt corrosion loops MSR-FCL-3 and MSR-FCL-4 are high-temperature test facilities designed to evaluate corrosion and mass transfer of modified Hastelloy N alloys for future use in Molten-Salt Breeder Reactors. Salt is circulated by a centrifugal sump pump to evaluate material compatibility with LiF-BeF/sub 2/-ThF/sub 4/-UF/sub 4/ fuel salt at velocities up to 6 m/s (20 fps) and at salt temperatures from 566 to 705/sup 0/C (1050 to 1300/sup 0/F). The report presents the design description of the various components and systems that make up each corrosion facility, such as the salt pump, corrosion specimens, salt piping, main heaters, salt coolers, salt sampling equipment, and helium cover-gas system, etc. The electrical systems and instrumentation and controls are described, and operational procedures, system limitations, and maintenance philosophy are discussed.

  2. Experimental design applied to the optimization and partial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The objective of this work was to optimize the medium composition for maximum pectin-methylesterase (PME) production from a newly isolated strain of Penicillium brasilianum by submerged fermentation. A Plackett-Burman design was first used for the screening of most important factors, followed by a 23 full ...

  3. Introduction to Experimental Design: Can You Smell Fear?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willmott, Chris J. R.

    2011-01-01

    The ability to design appropriate experiments in order to interrogate a research question is an important skill for any scientist. The present article describes an interactive lecture-based activity centred around a comparison of two contrasting approaches to investigation of the question "Can you smell fear?" A poorly designed…

  4. Design and implementation of a low cost experimental testbed for ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Th is study therefore presents an inexpensive WSN test bed designed and constructed from an ESP8266EX Wi - Fi module. An experiment was conducted and results revealed that ESP8266EX based sensor nodes have a wider network coverage compared to the Arduino sensor s based test bed. The proposed test bed ...

  5. Tokamak experimental power reactor conceptual design. Volume II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1976-08-01

    Volume II contains the following appendices: (1) summary of EPR design parameters, (2) impurity control, (3) plasma computational models, (4) structural support system, (5) materials considerations for the primary energy conversion system, (6) magnetics, (7) neutronics penetration analysis, (8) first wall stress analysis, (9) enrichment of isotopes of hydrogen by cryogenic distillation, and (10) noncircular plasma considerations. (MOW)

  6. Model-robust experimental designs for the fractional polynomial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Fractional polynomial response surface models are polynomial models whose powers are restricted to a small predefined set of rational numbers. Very often these models can give a good a fit to the data and much more plausible behavior between design points than the polynomial models. In this paper, we propose a ...

  7. Analytical design of an industrial two-term controller for optimal regulatory control of open-loop unstable processes under operational constraints.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tchamna, Rodrigue; Lee, Moonyong

    2017-11-14

    This paper proposes a novel optimization-based approach for the design of an industrial two-term proportional-integral (PI) controller for the optimal regulatory control of unstable processes subjected to three common operational constraints related to the process variable, manipulated variable and its rate of change. To derive analytical design relations, the constrained optimal control problem in the time domain was transformed into an unconstrained optimization problem in a new parameter space via an effective parameterization. The resulting optimal PI controller has been verified to yield optimal performance and stability of an open-loop unstable first-order process under operational constraints. The proposed analytical design method explicitly takes into account the operational constraints in the controller design stage and also provides useful insights into the optimal controller design. Practical procedures for designing optimal PI parameters and a feasible constraint set exclusive of complex optimization steps are also proposed. The proposed controller was compared with several other PI controllers to illustrate its performance. The robustness of the proposed controller against plant-model mismatch has also been investigated. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  8. On the construction of experimental designs for a given task by jointly optimizing several quality criteria: Pareto-optimal experimental designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez, M S; Sarabia, L A; Ortiz, M C

    2012-11-19

    Experimental designs for a given task should be selected on the base of the problem being solved and of some criteria that measure their quality. There are several such criteria because there are several aspects to be taken into account when making a choice. The most used criteria are probably the so-called alphabetical optimality criteria (for example, the A-, E-, and D-criteria related to the joint estimation of the coefficients, or the I- and G-criteria related to the prediction variance). Selecting a proper design to solve a problem implies finding a balance among these several criteria that measure the performance of the design in different aspects. Technically this is a problem of multi-criteria optimization, which can be tackled from different views. The approach presented here addresses the problem in its real vector nature, so that ad hoc experimental designs are generated with an algorithm based on evolutionary algorithms to find the Pareto-optimal front. There is not theoretical limit to the number of criteria that can be studied and, contrary to other approaches, no just one experimental design is computed but a set of experimental designs all of them with the property of being Pareto-optimal in the criteria needed by the user. Besides, the use of an evolutionary algorithm makes it possible to search in both continuous and discrete domains and avoid the need of having a set of candidate points, usual in exchange algorithms. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Development and Validation of a Rubric for Diagnosing Students’ Experimental Design Knowledge and Difficulties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Annwesa P.; Anderson, Trevor R.

    2014-01-01

    It is essential to teach students about experimental design, as this facilitates their deeper understanding of how most biological knowledge was generated and gives them tools to perform their own investigations. Despite the importance of this area, surprisingly little is known about what students actually learn from designing biological experiments. In this paper, we describe a rubric for experimental design (RED) that can be used to measure knowledge of and diagnose difficulties with experimental design. The development and validation of the RED was informed by a literature review and empirical analysis of undergraduate biology students’ responses to three published assessments. Five areas of difficulty with experimental design were identified: the variable properties of an experimental subject; the manipulated variables; measurement of outcomes; accounting for variability; and the scope of inference appropriate for experimental findings. Our findings revealed that some difficulties, documented some 50 yr ago, still exist among our undergraduate students, while others remain poorly investigated. The RED shows great promise for diagnosing students’ experimental design knowledge in lecture settings, laboratory courses, research internships, and course-based undergraduate research experiences. It also shows potential for guiding the development and selection of assessment and instructional activities that foster experimental design. PMID:26086658

  10. Gunnar Aagaard Andersen: Commercial Design and Experimental Art

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gether, Vibeke Petersen

    2016-01-01

    Gunnar Aagaard Andersen’s relaxed approach both to art and to commercialised creativity positioned him centrally in the field where the two overlap. Other important players were the brothers Aage and Mads Eg Damgaard, who owned textile factories in Herning, the artistic textile firm Unika Væv...... in Copenhagen and the magazine Mobilia. These enterprises were pioneers within both the commercial–industrial creative field and experimental art from the 1950s. The industrial process, from idea and experiment to production,as well as the expanded field of visual art, was demonstrated in concrete painting...... and total decoration. These developments within the visual arts of the 1950s and 1960s were followed up by Paul Gadegaard, Dieter Roth, Arthur Köpcke and Paul Gernes, as well as by Aagaard Andersen himself....

  11. Optimal Performance Design Guideline of Hybrid Reference Frame-based Dual Loop Control Strategy for Stand-Alone Single-Phase Inverters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Han, Yang; Jiang, Ai-Ting; Coelho, Ernane A. A.

    2018-01-01

    The dual-loop control strategies in hybrid reference frame (HRF) for single-phase voltage source inverters (VSIs) in islanded operation mode is studied, which applies a capacitor voltage shaping loop in the synchronous reference frame (SRF) and a capacitor current shaping loop in the stationary r...

  12. Fiber loop ringdown - a time-domain sensing technique for multi-function fiber optic sensor platforms: current status and design perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chuji

    2009-01-01

    Fiber loop ringdown (FLRD) utilizes an inexpensive telecommunications light source, a photodiode, and a section of single-mode fiber to form a uniform fiber optic sensor platform for sensing various quantities, such as pressure, temperature, strain, refractive index, chemical species, biological cells, and small volume of fluids. In FLRD, optical losses of a light pulse in a fiber loop induced by changes in a quantity are measured by the light decay time constants. FLRD measures time to detect a quantity; thus, FLRD is referred to as a time-domain sensing technique. FLRD sensors have near real-time response, multi-pass enhanced high-sensitivity, and relatively low cost (i.e., without using an optical spectral analyzer). During the last eight years since the introduction of the original form of fiber ringdown spectroscopy, there has been increasing interest in the FLRD technique in fiber optic sensor developments, and new application potential is being explored. This paper first discusses the challenging issues in development of multi-function, fiber optic sensors or sensor networks using current fiber optic sensor sensing schemes, and then gives a review on current fiber optic sensor development using FLRD technique. Finally, design perspectives on new generation, multi-function, fiber optic sensor platforms using FLRD technique are particularly presented.

  13. End-point controller design for an experimental two-link flexible manipulator using convex optimization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oakley, Celia M.; Barratt, Craig H.

    1990-01-01

    Recent results in linear controller design are used to design an end-point controller for an experimental two-link flexible manipulator. A nominal 14-state linear-quadratic-Gaussian (LQG) controller was augmented with a 528-tap finite-impulse-response (FIR) filter designed using convex optimization techniques. The resulting 278-state controller produced improved end-point trajectory tracking and disturbance rejection in simulation and experimentally in real time.

  14. Statistical Approaches in Analysis of Variance: from Random Arrangements to Latin Square Experimental Design

    OpenAIRE

    Radu E. SESTRAŞ; Lorentz JÄNTSCHI; Sorana D. BOLBOACĂ

    2009-01-01

    Background: The choices of experimental design as well as of statisticalanalysis are of huge importance in field experiments. These are necessary tobe correctly in order to obtain the best possible precision of the results. Therandom arrangements, randomized blocks and Latin square designs werereviewed and analyzed from the statistical perspective of error analysis.Material and Method: Random arrangements, randomized block and Latinsquares experimental designs were used as field experiments. ...

  15. Experimental design and quality assurance: in situ fluorescence instrumentation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conmy, Robyn N.; Del Castillo, Carlos E.; Downing, Bryan D.; Chen, Robert F.

    2014-01-01

    Both instrument design and capabilities of fluorescence spectroscopy have greatly advanced over the last several decades. Advancements include solid-state excitation sources, integration of fiber optic technology, highly sensitive multichannel detectors, rapid-scan monochromators, sensitive spectral correction techniques, and improve data manipulation software (Christian et al., 1981, Lochmuller and Saavedra, 1986; Cabniss and Shuman, 1987; Lakowicz, 2006; Hudson et al., 2007). The cumulative effect of these improvements have pushed the limits and expanded the application of fluorescence techniques to numerous scientific research fields. One of the more powerful advancements is the ability to obtain in situ fluorescence measurements of natural waters (Moore, 1994). The development of submersible fluorescence instruments has been made possible by component miniaturization and power reduction including advances in light sources technologies (light-emitting diodes, xenon lamps, ultraviolet [UV] lasers) and the compatible integration of new optical instruments with various sampling platforms (Twardowski et at., 2005 and references therein). The development of robust field sensors skirt the need for cumbersome and or time-consuming filtration techniques, the potential artifacts associated with sample storage, and coarse sampling designs by increasing spatiotemporal resolution (Chen, 1999; Robinson and Glenn, 1999). The ability to obtain rapid, high-quality, highly sensitive measurements over steep gradients has revolutionized investigations of dissolved organic matter (DOM) optical properties, thereby enabling researchers to address novel biogeochemical questions regarding colored or chromophoric DOM (CDOM). This chapter is dedicated to the origin, design, calibration, and use of in situ field fluorometers. It will serve as a review of considerations to be accounted for during the operation of fluorescence field sensors and call attention to areas of concern when making

  16. Experimental burn plot trial in the Kruger National Park: history, experimental design and suggestions for data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Biggs

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available The experimental burn plot (EBP trial initiated in 1954 is one of few ongoing long-termfire ecology research projects in Africa. The trial aims to assess the impacts of differentfire regimes in the Kruger National Park. Recent studies on the EBPs have raised questions as to the experimental design of the trial, and the appropriate model specificationwhen analysing data. Archival documentation reveals that the original design was modified on several occasions, related to changes in the park's fire policy. These modifications include the addition of extra plots, subdivision of plots and changes in treatmentsover time, and have resulted in a design which is only partially randomised. The representativity of the trial plots has been questioned on account of their relatively small size,the concentration of herbivores on especially the frequently burnt plots, and soil variation between plots. It is suggested that these factors be included as covariates inexplanatory models or that certain plots be excluded from data analysis based on resultsof independent studies of these factors. Suggestions are provided for the specificationof the experimental design when analysing data using Analysis of Variance. It is concluded that there is no practical alternative to treating the trial as a fully randomisedcomplete block design.

  17. Experimental Design for Testing Local Lorentz Invariance Violations in Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ya-Fen; Tan, Yu-Jie; Shao, Cheng-Gang

    2017-09-01

    Local Lorentz invariance is an important component of General Relativity. Testing for Local Lorentz invariance can not only probe the foundation stone of General Relativity but also help to explore the unified theory for General Relativity and quantum mechanics. In this paper, we search the Local Lorentz invariance violation associated with operators of mass dimension d=6 in the pure-gravity sector with short-range gravitational experiments. To enlarge the Local Lorentz invariance violation signal effectively, we design a new experiment in which the constraints of all fourteen violation coefficients may be improved by about one order of magnitude

  18. Experimental Design of Formulations Utilizing High Dimensional Model Representation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Genyuan; Bastian, Caleb; Welsh, William; Rabitz, Herschel

    2015-07-23

    Many applications involve formulations or mixtures where large numbers of components are possible to choose from, but a final composition with only a few components is sought. Finding suitable binary or ternary mixtures from all the permissible components often relies on simplex-lattice sampling in traditional design of experiments (DoE), which requires performing a large number of experiments even for just tens of permissible components. The effect rises very rapidly with increasing numbers of components and can readily become impractical. This paper proposes constructing a single model for a mixture containing all permissible components from just a modest number of experiments. Yet the model is capable of satisfactorily predicting the performance for full as well as all possible binary and ternary component mixtures. To achieve this goal, we utilize biased random sampling combined with high dimensional model representation (HDMR) to replace DoE simplex-lattice design. Compared with DoE, the required number of experiments is significantly reduced, especially when the number of permissible components is large. This study is illustrated with a solubility model for solvent mixture screening.

  19. Patient reactions to personalized medicine vignettes: an experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Butrick, Morgan; Roter, Debra; Kaphingst, Kimberly; Erby, Lori H; Haywood, Carlton; Beach, Mary Catherine; Levy, Howard P

    2011-05-01

    Translational investigation on personalized medicine is in its infancy. Exploratory studies reveal attitudinal barriers to "race-based medicine" and cautious optimism regarding genetically personalized medicine. This study describes patient responses to hypothetical conventional, race-based, or genetically personalized medicine prescriptions. Three hundred eighty-seven participants (mean age = 47 years; 46% white) recruited from a Baltimore outpatient center were randomized to this vignette-based experimental study. They were asked to imagine a doctor diagnosing a condition and prescribing them one of three medications. The outcomes are emotional response to vignette, belief in vignette medication efficacy, experience of respect, trust in the vignette physician, and adherence intention. Race-based medicine vignettes were appraised more negatively than conventional vignettes across the board (Cohen's d = -0.51-0.57-0.64, P medicine (-0.14-0.15-0.17, P = 0.47), with the exception of reduced adherence intention to genetically personalized medicine (Cohen's d = -0.38-0.41-0.44, P = 0.009). This relative reluctance to take genetically personalized medicine was pronounced for racial minorities (Cohen's d = -0.38-0.31-0.25, P = 0.02) and was related to trust in the vignette physician (change in R = 0.23, P medicine technology, especially among racial minorities, and highlights enhancement of adherence through improved doctor- patient relationships.

  20. Manufacturing cereal bars with high nutritional value through experimental design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberta Covino

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Organizations responsible for public health throughout the world have been increasingly worrying about how to feed populations encouraging a nutritious and balanced diet in order to decrease the occurrence of chronic diseases, which are constantly related to an inadequate diet. Still, due to matters of modern lifestyle consumers are increasingly seeking convenient products. This being so, cereal bars have been an option when the matter is low calorie fast food which is also source of fiber. This study aimed at developing a cereal bar with high dietary fiber, iron, vitamins A and vitamin E, in order to easily enable adult population achieve the daily recommendation for such nutrients. Eight formulations plus the focal point were conducted through experimental planning; sensory analysis with 110 tasters for each block and texture. Afterwards, we conducted centesimal analysis for all three formulations presenting the best sensory results. After statistical analysis and comparison to the means for products available in the market, it was possible to conclude that the product developed presented great acceptance and fiber level more than twice as much as the means for commercial products.

  1. A projection method for under determined optimal experimental designs

    KAUST Repository

    Long, Quan

    2014-01-09

    A new implementation, based on the Laplace approximation, was developed in (Long, Scavino, Tempone, & Wang 2013) to accelerate the estimation of the post–experimental expected information gains in the model parameters and predictive quantities of interest. A closed–form approximation of the inner integral and the order of the corresponding dominant error term were obtained in the cases where the parameters are determined by the experiment. In this work, we extend that method to the general cases where the model parameters could not be determined completely by the data from the proposed experiments. We carry out the Laplace approximations in the directions orthogonal to the null space of the corresponding Jacobian matrix, so that the information gain (Kullback–Leibler divergence) can be reduced to an integration against the marginal density of the transformed parameters which are not determined by the experiments. Furthermore, the expected information gain can be approximated by an integration over the prior, where the integrand is a function of the projected posterior covariance matrix. To deal with the issue of dimensionality in a complex problem, we use Monte Carlo sampling or sparse quadratures for the integration over the prior probability density function, depending on the regularity of the integrand function. We demonstrate the accuracy, efficiency and robustness of the proposed method via several nonlinear under determined numerical examples.

  2. Design of a Time-to-Digital Converter for an All-Digital Phase Locked Loop for the 2-GHz Band

    OpenAIRE

    Wali, Naveen; Radhakrishnan, Balamurali

    2013-01-01

    An all-digital phase locked loop for WiGig systems was implemented. The developedall-digital phase locked loop has a targeted frequency range of 2.1-GHz to2.5-GHz. The all-digital phase locked loop replaces the traditional charge pumpbased analog phase locked loop. The digital nature of the all-digital phase lockedloop system makes it superior to the analog counterpart.There are four main partswhich constitutes the all-digital phase locked loop. The time-to-digital converteris one of the impo...

  3. Fast protein loop sampling and structure prediction using distance-guided sequential chain-growth Monte Carlo method.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ke Tang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Loops in proteins are flexible regions connecting regular secondary structures. They are often involved in protein functions through interacting with other molecules. The irregularity and flexibility of loops make their structures difficult to determine experimentally and challenging to model computationally. Conformation sampling and energy evaluation are the two key components in loop modeling. We have developed a new method for loop conformation sampling and prediction based on a chain growth sequential Monte Carlo sampling strategy, called Distance-guided Sequential chain-Growth Monte Carlo (DISGRO. With an energy function designed specifically for loops, our method can efficiently generate high quality loop conformations with low energy that are enriched with near-native loop structures. The average minimum global backbone RMSD for 1,000 conformations of 12-residue loops is 1:53 A° , with a lowest energy RMSD of 2:99 A° , and an average ensembleRMSD of 5:23 A° . A novel geometric criterion is applied to speed up calculations. The computational cost of generating 1,000 conformations for each of the x loops in a benchmark dataset is only about 10 cpu minutes for 12-residue loops, compared to ca 180 cpu minutes using the FALCm method. Test results on benchmark datasets show that DISGRO performs comparably or better than previous successful methods, while requiring far less computing time. DISGRO is especially effective in modeling longer loops (10-17 residues.

  4. Characteristics of a foot-and-mouth disease virus with a partial VP1 G-H loop deletion in experimentally infected cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fowler, Veronica; Bashiruddin, John B.; Belsham, Graham

    2014-01-01

    Previous work in cattle illustrated the protective efficacy and negative marker potential of a A serotype foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) vaccine prepared from a virus lacking a significant portion of the VP1 G-H loop (termed A(−)). Since this deletion also includes the arginine-glycine-aspar...

  5. A modified experimental hut design for studying responses of disease-transmitting mosquitoes to indoor interventions: the Ifakara experimental huts.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fredros O Okumu

    Full Text Available Differences between individual human houses can confound results of studies aimed at evaluating indoor vector control interventions such as insecticide treated nets (ITNs and indoor residual insecticide spraying (IRS. Specially designed and standardised experimental huts have historically provided a solution to this challenge, with an added advantage that they can be fitted with special interception traps to sample entering or exiting mosquitoes. However, many of these experimental hut designs have a number of limitations, for example: 1 inability to sample mosquitoes on all sides of huts, 2 increased likelihood of live mosquitoes flying out of the huts, leaving mainly dead ones, 3 difficulties of cleaning the huts when a new insecticide is to be tested, and 4 the generally small size of the experimental huts, which can misrepresent actual local house sizes or airflow dynamics in the local houses. Here, we describe a modified experimental hut design - The Ifakara Experimental Huts- and explain how these huts can be used to more realistically monitor behavioural and physiological responses of wild, free-flying disease-transmitting mosquitoes, including the African malaria vectors of the species complexes Anopheles gambiae and Anopheles funestus, to indoor vector control-technologies including ITNs and IRS. Important characteristics of the Ifakara experimental huts include: 1 interception traps fitted onto eave spaces and windows, 2 use of eave baffles (panels that direct mosquito movement to control exit of live mosquitoes through the eave spaces, 3 use of replaceable wall panels and ceilings, which allow safe insecticide disposal and reuse of the huts to test different insecticides in successive periods, 4 the kit format of the huts allowing portability and 5 an improved suite of entomological procedures to maximise data quality.

  6. Constructing experimental designs for discrete-choice experiments: report of the ISPOR Conjoint Analysis Experimental Design Good Research Practices Task Force.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed Johnson, F; Lancsar, Emily; Marshall, Deborah; Kilambi, Vikram; Mühlbacher, Axel; Regier, Dean A; Bresnahan, Brian W; Kanninen, Barbara; Bridges, John F P

    2013-01-01

    Stated-preference methods are a class of evaluation techniques for studying the preferences of patients and other stakeholders. While these methods span a variety of techniques, conjoint-analysis methods-and particularly discrete-choice experiments (DCEs)-have become the most frequently applied approach in health care in recent years. Experimental design is an important stage in the development of such methods, but establishing a consensus on standards is hampered by lack of understanding of available techniques and software. This report builds on the previous ISPOR Conjoint Analysis Task Force Report: Conjoint Analysis Applications in Health-A Checklist: A Report of the ISPOR Good Research Practices for Conjoint Analysis Task Force. This report aims to assist researchers specifically in evaluating alternative approaches to experimental design, a difficult and important element of successful DCEs. While this report does not endorse any specific approach, it does provide a guide for choosing an approach that is appropriate for a particular study. In particular, it provides an overview of the role of experimental designs for the successful implementation of the DCE approach in health care studies, and it provides researchers with an introduction to constructing experimental designs on the basis of study objectives and the statistical model researchers have selected for the study. The report outlines the theoretical requirements for designs that identify choice-model preference parameters and summarizes and compares a number of available approaches for constructing experimental designs. The task-force leadership group met via bimonthly teleconferences and in person at ISPOR meetings in the United States and Europe. An international group of experimental-design experts was consulted during this process to discuss existing approaches for experimental design and to review the task force's draft reports. In addition, ISPOR members contributed to developing a consensus

  7. Single-Case Experimental Designs: A Systematic Review of Published Research and Current Standards

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Justin D.

    2012-01-01

    This article systematically reviews the research design and methodological characteristics of single-case experimental design (SCED) research published in peer-reviewed journals between 2000 and 2010. SCEDs provide researchers with a flexible and viable alternative to group designs with large sample sizes. However, methodological challenges have…

  8. Adequacy of different experimental designs for eucalyptus spacing trials in Portuguese environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paula Soares; Margarida Tome

    2000-01-01

    In Portugal, several eucalyptus spacing trials cover a relatively broad range of experimental designs: trials with a non-randomized block design with plots of different size and number of trees per plot; trials based on a non-systematic design in which spacings were randomized resulting in a factorial arrangement with plots of different size and shape and equal number...

  9. Natural Circulation Characteristics of a Symmetric Loop under Inclined Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xingtuan Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Natural circulation is an important process for primary loops of some marine integrated reactors. The reactor works under inclined conditions when severe accidents happen to the ship. In this paper, to investigate the characteristics of natural circulation, experiments were conducted in a symmetric loop under the inclined angle of 0~45°. A CFD model was also set up to predict the behaviors of the loop beyond the experimental scope. Total circulation flow rate decreases with the increase of inclined angle. Meanwhile one circulation is depressed while the other is enhanced, and accordingly the disparity between the branch circulations arises and increases with the increase of inclined angle. Circulation only takes place in one branch circuit at large inclined angle. Also based on the CFD model, the influences of flow resistance distribution and loop configuration on natural circulation are predicted. The numerical results show that to design the loop with the configuration of big altitude difference and small width, it is favorable to reduce the influence of inclination; however too small loop width will cause severe reduction of circulation ability at large angle inclination.

  10. Batch phenol biodegradation study and application of factorial experimental design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Hellal

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A bacterium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATTC27853, was investigated for its ability to grow and to degrade phenol as solecarbon source, in aerobic batch culture. The parameters which affect the substrate biodegradation such as the adaptation ofbacteria to phenol, the temperature, and the nature of the bacteria were investigated. The results show that for a range oftemperature of 30 to 40°C, the best degradation of phenol for a concentration of 100mg/l was observed at 30°C. The regenerationof the bacterium which allows the reactivation of its enzymatic activity, shows that the degradation of 100 mg/ l ofsubstrate at 30° C required approximately 50 hours with revivified bacteria, while it only starts after 72 hours for those norevivified. Adapted to increasing concentrations, allows the bacteria to degrade a substrate concentration of about 400mg/l in less than 350 hours.A second part was consisted in the determination of a substrate degradation model using the factorial experiment design,as a function of temperature (30-40°C and of the size of the inoculums (260.88 - 521.76mg/ l. The results were analyzedstatistically using the Student’s t-test, analysis of variance, and F-test. The value of R2 (0.99872 and adjusted R2 (0.9962close to 1.0, verifies the good correlation between the observed and the predicted values, and provides the excellent relationshipbetween the independent variables (factors and the response (the time of the phenol degradation. F-value found above200, indicates that the considered model is statistically significant.

  11. Design and experimental tests of free electron laser wire scanners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. L. Orlandi

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available SwissFEL is a x-rays free electron laser (FEL driven by a 5.8 GeV linac under construction at Paul Scherrer Institut. In SwissFEL, wire scanners (WSCs will be complementary to view-screens for emittance measurements and routinely used to monitor the transverse profile of the electron beam during FEL operations. The SwissFEL WSC is composed of an in-vacuum beam-probe—motorized by a stepper motor—and an out-vacuum pick-up of the wire signal. The mechanical stability of the WSC in-vacuum hardware has been characterized on a test bench. In particular, the motor induced vibrations of the wire have been measured and mapped for different motor speeds. Electron-beam tests of the entire WSC setup together with different wire materials have been carried out at the 250 MeV SwissFEL Injector Test Facility (SITF, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH and at FERMI (Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste, Italy. In particular, a comparative study of the relative measurement accuracy and the radiation-dose release of Al(99∶Si(1 and tungsten (W wires has been carried out. On the basis of the outcome of the bench and electron-beam tests, the SwissFEL WSC can be qualified as a high resolution and machine-saving diagnostic tool in consideration of the mechanical stability of the scanning wire at the micrometer level and the choice of the wire material ensuring a drastic reduction of the radiation-dose release with respect to conventional metallic wires. The main aspects of the design, laboratory characterization and electron beam tests of the SwissFEL WSCs are presented.

  12. Design and experimental tests of free electron laser wire scanners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orlandi, G. L.; Heimgartner, P.; Ischebeck, R.; Loch, C. Ozkan; Trovati, S.; Valitutti, P.; Schlott, V.; Ferianis, M.; Penco, G.

    2016-09-01

    SwissFEL is a x-rays free electron laser (FEL) driven by a 5.8 GeV linac under construction at Paul Scherrer Institut. In SwissFEL, wire scanners (WSCs) will be complementary to view-screens for emittance measurements and routinely used to monitor the transverse profile of the electron beam during FEL operations. The SwissFEL WSC is composed of an in-vacuum beam-probe—motorized by a stepper motor—and an out-vacuum pick-up of the wire signal. The mechanical stability of the WSC in-vacuum hardware has been characterized on a test bench. In particular, the motor induced vibrations of the wire have been measured and mapped for different motor speeds. Electron-beam tests of the entire WSC setup together with different wire materials have been carried out at the 250 MeV SwissFEL Injector Test Facility (SITF, Paul Scherrer Institut, CH) and at FERMI (Elettra-Sincrotrone Trieste, Italy). In particular, a comparative study of the relative measurement accuracy and the radiation-dose release of Al (99 )∶Si (1 ) and tungsten (W) wires has been carried out. On the basis of the outcome of the bench and electron-beam tests, the SwissFEL WSC can be qualified as a high resolution and machine-saving diagnostic tool in consideration of the mechanical stability of the scanning wire at the micrometer level and the choice of the wire material ensuring a drastic reduction of the radiation-dose release with respect to conventional metallic wires. The main aspects of the design, laboratory characterization and electron beam tests of the SwissFEL WSCs are presented.

  13. Delineamento experimental e tamanho de amostra para alface cultivada em hidroponia Experimental design and sample size for hydroponic lettuce crop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Schimitz Marodim

    2000-10-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo visa a estabelecer o delineamento experimental e o tamanho de amostra para a cultura da alface (Lactuca sativa em hidroponia, pelo sistema NFT (Nutrient film technique. O experimento foi conduzido no Laboratório de Cultivos Sem Solo/Hidroponia, no Departamento de Fitotecnia da Universidade Federal de Santa Maria e baseou-se em dados de massa de plantas. Os resultados obtidos mostraram que, usando estrutura de cultivo de alface em hidroponia sobre bancadas de fibrocimento com seis canais, o delineamento experimental adequado é blocos ao acaso se a unidade experimental for constituída de faixas transversais aos canais das bancadas, e deve ser inteiramente casualizado se a bancada for a unidade experimental; para a variável massa de plantas, o tamanho da amostra é de 40 plantas para uma semi-amplitude do intervalo de confiança em percentagem da média (d igual a 5% e de 7 plantas para um d igual a 20%.This study was carried out to establish the experimental design and sample size for hydroponic lettuce (Lactuca sativa crop under nutrient film technique. The experiment was conducted in the Laboratory of Hydroponic Crops of the Horticulture Department of the Federal University of Santa Maria. The evaluated traits were plant weight. Under hydroponic conditions on concrete bench with six ducts, the most indicated experimental design for lettuce is randomised blocks for duct transversal plots or completely randomised for bench plot. The sample size for plant weight should be 40 and 7 plants, respectively, for a confidence interval of mean percentage (d equal to 5% and 20%.

  14. Design, construction and testing of a radon experimental chamber; Diseno, construccion y pruebas de una camara experimental de radon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chavez B, A.; Balcazar G, M

    1991-10-15

    To carry out studies on the radon behavior under controlled and stable conditions it was designed and constructed a system that consists of two parts: a container of mineral rich in Uranium and an experimentation chamber with radon united one to the other one by a step valve. The container of uranium mineral approximately contains 800 gr of uranium with a law of 0.28%; the radon gas emanated by the mineral is contained tightly by the container. When the valve opens up the radon gas it spreads to the radon experimental chamber; this contains 3 accesses that allow to install different types of detectors. The versatility of the system is exemplified with two experiments: 1. With the radon experimental chamber and an associated spectroscopic system, the radon and two of its decay products are identified. 2. The design of the system allows to couple the mineral container to other experimental geometries to demonstrate this fact it was coupled and proved a new automatic exchanger system of passive detectors of radon. The results of the new automatic exchanger system when it leave to flow the radon freely among the container and the automatic exchanger through a plastic membrane of 15 m. are shown. (Author)

  15. Double-Loop Health Technology: Enabling Socio-technical Design of Personal Health Technology in Clinical Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bardram, Jakob Eyvind; Frost, Mads

    2018-01-01

    Personal health technology is rapidly emerging as a response to the challenges associated with significant increase in chronic noncommunicable diseases. The overall design paradigm behind most of these applications is to manually and automatically sample data from sensors and smartphones and use...... present a case of designing personal health technology for mental health, which is integrated into hospital-based treatment. This system helps patients to manage their disease by tracking and correlation behavior and disease progression and provide feedback to them, while also deployed as part...... of a clinical outpatient treatment. Hence, clinicians are “in the loop” and can monitor and provide feedback to patients. The chapter outlines the case and discusses lessons learned from it with respect to the socio-technical design of personal health technologies to be embedded as part of clinical treatment....

  16. Experimental Design for Evaluating the Safety Benefits of Railroad Advance Warning Signs

    Science.gov (United States)

    1979-04-01

    The report presents the findings and conclusions of a study to develop an experimental design and analysis plan for field testing and evaluation of the accident reduction potential of a proposed new railroad grade crossing advance warning sign. Sever...

  17. Design and Development of a Testing Device for Experimental Measurements of Foundation Slabs on the Subsoil

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Čajka, Radim; Křivý, Vít; Sekanina, David

    2011-01-01

    The paper deals with technical solutions and construction of a testing stand designed for experimental measurements of deformations and state of stress of foundation structures placed on the subsoil...

  18. Fast estimation of expected information gains for Bayesian experimental designs based on Laplace approximations

    KAUST Repository

    Long, Quan

    2013-06-01

    Shannon-type expected information gain can be used to evaluate the relevance of a proposed experiment subjected to uncertainty. The estimation of such gain, however, relies on a double-loop integration. Moreover, its numerical integration in multi-dimensional cases, e.g., when using Monte Carlo sampling methods, is therefore computationally too expensive for realistic physical models, especially for those involving the solution of partial differential equations. In this work, we present a new methodology, based on the Laplace approximation for the integration of the posterior probability density function (pdf), to accelerate the estimation of the expected information gains in the model parameters and predictive quantities of interest. We obtain a closed-form approximation of the inner integral and the corresponding dominant error term in the cases where parameters are determined by the experiment, such that only a single-loop integration is needed to carry out the estimation of the expected information gain. To deal with the issue of dimensionality in a complex problem, we use a sparse quadrature for the integration over the prior pdf. We demonstrate the accuracy, efficiency and robustness of the proposed method via several nonlinear numerical examples, including the designs of the scalar parameter in a one-dimensional cubic polynomial function, the design of the same scalar in a modified function with two indistinguishable parameters, the resolution width and measurement time for a blurred single peak spectrum, and the boundary source locations for impedance tomography in a square domain. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

  19. Design and experimental tests of a novel neutron spin analyzer for wide angle spin echo spectrometers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fouquet, Peter; Farago, Bela; Andersen, Ken H.; Bentley, Phillip M.; Pastrello, Gilles; Sutton, Iain; Thaveron, Eric; Thomas, Frederic [Institut Laue-Langevin, BP 156, F-38042 Grenoble Cedex 9 (France); Moskvin, Evgeny [Helmholtzzentrum Berlin, Glienicker Strasse 100, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Pappas, Catherine [Helmholtzzentrum Berlin, Glienicker Strasse 100, D-14109 Berlin (Germany); Faculty of Applied Sciences, Delft University of Technology, Mekelweg 15, 2629 JB Delft (Netherlands)

    2009-09-15

    This paper describes the design and experimental tests of a novel neutron spin analyzer optimized for wide angle spin echo spectrometers. The new design is based on nonremanent magnetic supermirrors, which are magnetized by vertical magnetic fields created by NdFeB high field permanent magnets. The solution presented here gives stable performance at moderate costs in contrast to designs invoking remanent supermirrors. In the experimental part of this paper we demonstrate that the new design performs well in terms of polarization, transmission, and that high quality neutron spin echo spectra can be measured.

  20. Bayesian experimental design of a multichannel interferometer for Wendelstein 7-X.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dreier, H; Dinklage, A; Fischer, R; Hirsch, M; Kornejew, P

    2008-10-01

    Bayesian experimental design (BED) is a framework for the optimization of diagnostics basing on probability theory. In this work it is applied to the design of a multichannel interferometer at the Wendelstein 7-X stellarator experiment. BED offers the possibility to compare diverse designs quantitatively, which will be shown for beam-line designs resulting from different plasma configurations. The applicability of this method is discussed with respect to its computational effort.

  1. Experimental study of a novel photovoltaic solar-assisted heat pump/loop heat-pipe (PV-SAHP/LHP) system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tao; Pei, Gang; Zhu, Qunzhi; Ji, Jie

    2017-01-01

    A prototype of a photovoltaic solar-assisted heat-pump/loop heat-pipe system (PV-SAHP/LHP) was constructed in this paper. The system was a combination of photovoltaic solar-assisted heat pump system (PV-SAHP) and loop heat pipe photovoltaic/thermal (LHP-PV/T) system. The combined system can carry out with two modes but using the same working fluid, and the two modes can switch operation freely. R600a was employed as the working fluid, and system performance under different working mode was presented in this paper. The results show that the day average photothermal efficiency & photovoltaic efficiency can reach to 43.6% & 11.3% under LHP-PV/T working mode compared with that of 57.5% & 12.1% under PV-SAHP working mode: Besides that, a day average COP of 3.66 was obtained under PV-SAHP working mode.

  2. Web based learning support for experimental design in molecular biology: a top-down approach

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aegerter-Wilmsen, T.; Hartog, R.; Bisseling, T.

    2003-01-01

    An important learning goal of a molecular biology curriculum is the attainment of a certain competence level in experimental design. Currently, undergraduate students are confronted with experimental approaches in textbooks, lectures and laboratory courses. However, most students do not reach a

  3. Experimental Device for Learning of Logical Circuit Design using Integrated Circuits

    OpenAIRE

    石橋, 孝昭

    2012-01-01

    This paper presents an experimental device for learning of logical circuit design using integrated circuits and breadboards. The experimental device can be made at a low cost and can be used for many subjects such as logical circuits, computer engineering, basic electricity, electrical circuits and electronic circuits. The proposed device is effective to learn the logical circuits than the usual lecture.

  4. Establishing the experimenting society : The historical origin of social experimentation according to the randomized controlled design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dehue, T

    2001-01-01

    This article tl aces the historical origin of social experimentation. It highlights the central role of psychology in establishing the randomized controlled design and its quasi-experimental derivatives. The author investigates the differences in the 19th- and 20th-century meaning of the expression

  5. OTIMIZATION OF TRANSESTERIFICATION DOUBLE STEP PROCESS (TDSP) TO THE PRODUCTION OF BIODIESEL THROUGH DOEHLERT EXPERIMENTAL DESIGN

    OpenAIRE

    Ruschel, Carla Felippi Chiella; Ferrão, Marco Flôres; Santos, Francisco Paulo dos; Samios, Dimitrios

    2016-01-01

    In this work, Doehlert experimental design was used to optimize the Transesterification Double Step Process (TDSP) method of methyl soybean oil biodiesel production which starts with a basic catalysis followed by an acidic catalysis. The conversion values were calculated from NMR spectra. Response surface was used to show the results of the interactions between the variables. This experimental design evaluated variables like catalyst and alcohol amount for the basic catalysis and time and tem...

  6. Experimental investigation on thermal performance of a closed loop pulsating heat pipe (CLPHP) using methanol and distilled water at different filling ratios

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahman, Md. Lutfor; Swarna, Anindita Dhar; Ahmed, Syed Nasif Uddin; Perven, Sanjida; Ali, Mohammad

    2016-07-01

    Pulsating Heat Pipes, the new two-phase heat transfer devices, with no counter current flow between liquid and vapor have become a modern topic for research in the field of thermal management. This paper focuses on the performance of methanol and distilled water as working fluid in a closed loop pulsating heat pipe (CLPHP). This performances are compared in terms of thermal resistance, heat transfer co-efficient, and evaporator and condenser wall temperature with variable heat inputs. Methanol and Distilled water are selected for their lower surface tension, dynamic viscosity and sensible heat. A closed loop PHP made of copper with 2mm ID and 2.5mm OD having total 8 loops are supplied with power input varied from 10W to 60W. During the experiment the PHP is kept vertical, while the filling ratio (FR) is increased gradually from 40% to 70% with 10% increment. The optimum filling ratio for a minimum thermal resistance is found to be 60% and 40% for distilled water and methanol respectively and methanol is found to be the better working fluid compared to distilled water in terms of its lower thermal resistance and higher heat transfer coefficient.

  7. Measuring and Advancing Experimental Design Ability in an Introductory Course without Altering Existing Lab Curriculum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanks, Ryan A; Robertson, Chuck L; Haygood, Christian S; Herdliksa, Anna M; Herdliska, Heather R; Lloyd, Steven A

    2017-01-01

    Introductory biology courses provide an important opportunity to prepare students for future courses, yet existing cookbook labs, although important in their own way, fail to provide many of the advantages of semester-long research experiences. Engaging, authentic research experiences aid biology students in meeting many learning goals. Therefore, overlaying a research experience onto the existing lab structure allows faculty to overcome barriers involving curricular change. Here we propose a working model for this overlay design in an introductory biology course and detail a means to conduct this lab with minimal increases in student and faculty workloads. Furthermore, we conducted exploratory factor analysis of the Experimental Design Ability Test (EDAT) and uncovered two latent factors which provide valid means to assess this overlay model's ability to increase advanced experimental design abilities. In a pre-test/post-test design, we demonstrate significant increases in both basic and advanced experimental design abilities in an experimental and comparison group. We measured significantly higher gains in advanced experimental design understanding in students in the experimental group. We believe this overlay model and EDAT factor analysis contribute a novel means to conduct and assess the effectiveness of authentic research experiences in an introductory course without major changes to the course curriculum and with minimal increases in faculty and student workloads.

  8. Measuring and Advancing Experimental Design Ability in an Introductory Course without Altering Existing Lab Curriculum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryan A. Shanks

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introductory biology courses provide an important opportunity to prepare students for future courses, yet existing cookbook labs, although important in their own way, fail to provide many of the advantages of semester-long research experiences. Engaging, authentic research experiences aid biology students in meeting many learning goals. Therefore, overlaying a research experience onto the existing lab structure allows faculty to overcome barriers involving curricular change. Here we propose a working model for this overlay design in an introductory biology course and detail a means to conduct this lab with minimal increases in student and faculty workloads. Furthermore, we conducted exploratory factor analysis of the Experimental Design Ability Test (EDAT and uncovered two latent factors which provide valid means to assess this overlay model’s ability to increase advanced experimental design abilities. In a pre-test/post-test design, we demonstrate significant increases in both basic and advanced experimental design abilities in an experimental and comparison group. We measured significantly higher gains in advanced experimental design understanding in students in the experimental group. We believe this overlay model and EDAT factor analysis contribute a novel means to conduct and assess the effectiveness of authentic research experiences in an introductory course without major changes to the course curriculum and with minimal increases in faculty and student workloads.

  9. Inverse wing design for the scaled supersonic experimental airplane with ensuring design constraints

    OpenAIRE

    Matsushima, Kisa; Iwamiya, Toshiyuki; Zhang, Wanqiu; 松島 紀佐; 岩宮 敏幸; Zhang, Wanqiu

    2007-01-01

    Aerodynamic shape of a wing for NAL (National Aerospace Laboratory)'s first SST (SuperSonic Transport) model has been designed by a supersonic inverse design method. This method handles wing-fuselage configurations and provides wing section's geometry at every span for Navier-Stokes flowfields. The design target is a NLF (Natural Laminar Flow) wing at the speed of M(sub infinity) = 2.0. The original system of the inverse design method has to be modified so that several design constraints can ...

  10. A versatile method to design stem-loop primer-based quantitative PCR assays for detecting small regulatory RNA molecules.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsolt Czimmerer

    Full Text Available Short regulatory RNA-s have been identified as key regulators of gene expression in eukaryotes. They have been involved in the regulation of both physiological and pathological processes such as embryonal development, immunoregulation and cancer. One of their relevant characteristics is their high stability, which makes them excellent candidates for use as biomarkers. Their number is constantly increasing as next generation sequencing methods reveal more and more details of their synthesis. These novel findings aim for new detection methods for the individual short regulatory RNA-s in order to be able to confirm the primary data and characterize newly identified subtypes in different biological conditions. We have developed a flexible method to design RT-qPCR assays that are very sensitive and robust. The newly designed assays were tested extensively in samples from plant, mouse and even human formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissues. Moreover, we have shown that these assays are able to quantify endogenously generated shRNA molecules. The assay design method is freely available for anyone who wishes to use a robust and flexible system for the quantitative analysis of matured regulatory RNA-s.

  11. A versatile method to design stem-loop primer-based quantitative PCR assays for detecting small regulatory RNA molecules.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czimmerer, Zsolt; Hulvely, Julianna; Simandi, Zoltan; Varallyay, Eva; Havelda, Zoltan; Szabo, Erzsebet; Varga, Attila; Dezso, Balazs; Balogh, Maria; Horvath, Attila; Domokos, Balint; Torok, Zsolt; Nagy, Laszlo; Balint, Balint L

    2013-01-01

    Short regulatory RNA-s have been identified as key regulators of gene expression in eukaryotes. They have been involved in the regulation of both physiological and pathological processes such as embryonal development, immunoregulation and cancer. One of their relevant characteristics is their high stability, which makes them excellent candidates for use as biomarkers. Their number is constantly increasing as next generation sequencing methods reveal more and more details of their synthesis. These novel findings aim for new detection methods for the individual short regulatory RNA-s in order to be able to confirm the primary data and characterize newly identified subtypes in different biological conditions. We have developed a flexible method to design RT-qPCR assays that are very sensitive and robust. The newly designed assays were tested extensively in samples from plant, mouse and even human formalin fixed paraffin embedded tissues. Moreover, we have shown that these assays are able to quantify endogenously generated shRNA molecules. The assay design method is freely available for anyone who wishes to use a robust and flexible system for the quantitative analysis of matured regulatory RNA-s.

  12. Development and Validation of a Rubric for Diagnosing Students' Experimental Design Knowledge and Difficulties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Annwesa P; Anderson, Trevor R; Pelaez, Nancy

    2014-01-01

    It is essential to teach students about experimental design, as this facilitates their deeper understanding of how most biological knowledge was generated and gives them tools to perform their own investigations. Despite the importance of this area, surprisingly little is known about what students actually learn from designing biological experiments. In this paper, we describe a rubric for experimental design (RED) that can be used to measure knowledge of and diagnose difficulties with experimental design. The development and validation of the RED was informed by a literature review and empirical analysis of undergraduate biology students' responses to three published assessments. Five areas of difficulty with experimental design were identified: the variable properties of an experimental subject; the manipulated variables; measurement of outcomes; accounting for variability; and the scope of inference appropriate for experimental findings. Our findings revealed that some difficulties, documented some 50 yr ago, still exist among our undergraduate students, while others remain poorly investigated. The RED shows great promise for diagnosing students' experimental design knowledge in lecture settings, laboratory courses, research internships, and course-based undergraduate research experiences. It also shows potential for guiding the development and selection of assessment and instructional activities that foster experimental design. © 2014 A. P. Dasgupta et al. CBE—Life Sciences Education © 2014 The American Society for Cell Biology. This article is distributed by The American Society for Cell Biology under license from the author(s). It is available to the public under an Attribution–Noncommercial–Share Alike 3.0 Unported Creative Commons License (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/3.0).

  13. Alternative loop rings

    CERN Document Server

    Goodaire, EG; Polcino Milies, C

    1996-01-01

    For the past ten years, alternative loop rings have intrigued mathematicians from a wide cross-section of modern algebra. As a consequence, the theory of alternative loop rings has grown tremendously. One of the main developments is the complete characterization of loops which have an alternative but not associative, loop ring. Furthermore, there is a very close relationship between the algebraic structures of loop rings and of group rings over 2-groups. Another major topic of research is the study of the unit loop of the integral loop ring. Here the interaction between loop rings and group ri

  14. Optimization of fast disintegration tablets using pullulan as diluent by central composite experimental design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dipil Patel

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to apply central composite experimental design to investigate main and interaction effect of formulation parameters in optimizing novel fast disintegration tablets formulation using pullulan as diluents. Face centered central composite experimental design was employed to optimize fast disintegration tablet formulation. The variables studied were concentration of diluents (pullulan, X1, superdisintigrant (sodium starch glycolate, X2, and direct compression aid (spray dried lactose, X3. Tablets were characterized for weight variation, thickness, disintegration time (Y1 and hardness (Y2. Good correlation between the predicted values and experimental data of the optimized formulation methodology in optimizing fast disintegrating tablets using pullulan as a diluent.

  15. Optimization of fast disintegration tablets using pullulan as diluent by central composite experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Dipil; Chauhan, Musharraf; Patel, Ravi; Patel, Jayvadan

    2012-03-01

    The objective of this work was to apply central composite experimental design to investigate main and interaction effect of formulation parameters in optimizing novel fast disintegration tablets formulation using pullulan as diluents. Face centered central composite experimental design was employed to optimize fast disintegration tablet formulation. The variables studied were concentration of diluents (pullulan, X(1)), superdisintigrant (sodium starch glycolate, X(2)), and direct compression aid (spray dried lactose, X(3)). Tablets were characterized for weight variation, thickness, disintegration time (Y(1)) and hardness (Y(2)). Good correlation between the predicted values and experimental data of the optimized formulation methodology in optimizing fast disintegrating tablets using pullulan as a diluent.

  16. An efficient approach to bioconversion kinetic model generation based on automated microscale experimentation integrated with model driven experimental design

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chen, B. H.; Micheletti, M.; Baganz, F.

    2009-01-01

    design. It incorporates a model driven approach to the experimental design that minimises the number of experiments to be performed, while still generating accurate values of kinetic parameters. The approach has been illustrated with the transketolase mediated asymmetric synthesis of L......Reliable models of enzyme kinetics are required for the effective design of bioconversion processes. Kinetic expressions of the enzyme-catalysed reaction rate however, are frequently complex and establishing accurate values of kinetic parameters normally requires a large number of experiments....... These can be both time consuming and expensive when working with the types of non-natural chiral intermediates important in pharmaceutical syntheses. This paper presents ail automated microscale approach to the rapid and cost effective generation of reliable kinetic models useful for bioconversion process...

  17. Engineering design and construction of a function Hg – loop & Contribution of IPUL in windowless Hg-target feasibility studies

    CERN Document Server

    J. Freibergs, E. Platacis, K. Kravalis, A. Ziks&I.Platnieks

    Within EURISOL – DS, a liquid metal /LM/ spallation target with a power of several Megawatt is designed to provide neutrons to a fission target. The target station that allows the full intensity of a 4 MW proton beam to be used for RIB production will require new advanced technology. It is a critical component of EURISOL.For a power density above 103 MW/m3 the windowless, free-surface, molten LM-jet is proposed as a target since it avoids the very serious lifetime – shortening damage caused by the power proton beam in any system

  18. In-situ Condition Monitoring of Components in Small Modular Reactors Using Process and Electrical Signature Analysis. Final report, volume 1. Development of experimental flow control loop, data analysis and plant monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhyaya, Belle [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Hines, J. Wesley [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Damiano, Brian [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Mehta, Chaitanya [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Collins, Price [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Lish, Matthew [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Cady, Brian [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Lollar, Victor [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); de Wet, Dane [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States); Bayram, Duygu [Univ. of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN (United States)

    2015-12-15

    The research and development under this project was focused on the following three major objectives: Objective 1: Identification of critical in-vessel SMR components for remote monitoring and development of their low-order dynamic models, along with a simulation model of an integral pressurized water reactor (iPWR). Objective 2: Development of an experimental flow control loop with motor-driven valves and pumps, incorporating data acquisition and on-line monitoring interface. Objective 3: Development of stationary and transient signal processing methods for electrical signatures, machinery vibration, and for characterizing process variables for equipment monitoring. This objective includes the development of a data analysis toolbox. The following is a summary of the technical accomplishments under this project: - A detailed literature review of various SMR types and electrical signature analysis of motor-driven systems was completed. A bibliography of literature is provided at the end of this report. Assistance was provided by ORNL in identifying some key references. - A review of literature on pump-motor modeling and digital signal processing methods was performed. - An existing flow control loop was upgraded with new instrumentation, data acquisition hardware and software. The upgrading of the experimental loop included the installation of a new submersible pump driven by a three-phase induction motor. All the sensors were calibrated before full-scale experimental runs were performed. - MATLAB-Simulink model of a three-phase induction motor and pump system was completed. The model was used to simulate normal operation and fault conditions in the motor-pump system, and to identify changes in the electrical signatures. - A simulation model of an integral PWR (iPWR) was updated and the MATLAB-Simulink model was validated for known transients. The pump-motor model was interfaced with the iPWR model for testing the impact of primary flow perturbations (upsets) on

  19. Application of Iterative Robust Model-based Optimal Experimental Design for the Calibration of Biocatalytic Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Van Daele, Timothy; Gernaey, Krist V.; Ringborg, Rolf Hoffmeyer

    2017-01-01

    The aim of model calibration is to estimate unique parameter values from available experimental data, here applied to a biocatalytic process. The traditional approach of first gathering data followed by performing a model calibration is inefficient, since the information gathered during...... experimentation is not actively used to optimise the experimental design. By applying an iterative robust model-based optimal experimental design, the limited amount of data collected is used to design additional informative experiments. The algorithm is used here to calibrate the initial reaction rate of an ω......-transaminase catalysed reaction in a more accurate way. The parameter confidence region estimated from the Fisher Information Matrix is compared with the likelihood confidence region, which is a more accurate, but also a computationally more expensive method. As a result, an important deviation between both approaches...

  20. Study of the effect of loop inductance on the RF transmission line to cavity coupling coefficient

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lal, Shankar; Pant, K. K.

    2016-08-01

    Coupling of RF power is an important aspect in the design and development of RF accelerating structures. RF power coupling employing coupler loops has the advantage of tunability of β, the transmission line to cavity coupling coefficient. Analytical expressions available in literature for determination of size of the coupler loop using Faraday's law of induction show reasonably good agreement with experimentally measured values of β below critical coupling (β ≤ 1) but show large deviation with experimentally measured values and predictions by simulations for higher values of β. In actual accelerator application, many RF cavities need to be over-coupled with β > 1 for reasons of beam loading compensation, reduction of cavity filling time, etc. This paper discusses a modified analytical formulation by including the effect of loop inductance in the determination of loop size for any desired coupling coefficient. The analytical formulation shows good agreement with 3D simulations and with experimentally measured values. It has been successfully qualified by the design and development of power coupler loops for two 476 MHz pre-buncher RF cavities, which have successfully been conditioned at rated power levels using these coupler loops.

  1. Design of a rotary reactor for chemical-looping combustion. Part 2: Comparison of copper-, nickel-, and iron-based oxygen carriers

    KAUST Repository

    Zhao, Zhenlong

    2014-04-01

    Chemical-looping combustion (CLC) is a novel and promising option for several applications including carbon capture (CC), fuel reforming, H 2 generation, etc. Previous studies demonstrated the feasibility of performing CLC in a novel rotary design with micro-channel structures. Part 1 of this series studied the fundamentals of the reactor design and proposed a comprehensive design procedure, enabling a systematic methodology of designing and evaluating the rotary CLC reactor with different OCs and operating conditions. This paper presents the application of the methodology to the designs with three commonly used OCs, i.e., copper, nickel, and iron. The physical properties and the reactivities of the three OCs are compared at operating conditions suitable for the rotary CLC. Nickel has the highest reduction rate, but relatively slow oxidation reactivity while the iron reduction rate is most sensitive to the fuel concentration. The design parameters and the operating conditions for the three OCs are selected, following the strategies proposed in Part 1, and the performances are evaluated using a one-dimensional plug-flow model developed previously. The simulations show that for all OCs, complete fuel conversion and high carbon separation efficiency can be achieved at periodic stationary state with reasonable operational stabilities. The nickel-based design includes the smallest dimensions because of its fast reduction rate. The operation of nickel case is mainly limited to the slow oxidation rate, and hence a relatively large share of air sector is used. The iron-based design has the largest size, due to its slow reduction reactivity near the exit or in the fuel purge sector where the fuel concentration is low. The gas flow temperature increases monotonically for all the cases, and is mainly determined by the solid temperature. In the periodic state, the local temperature variation is within 40 K and the thermal distortion is limited. The design of the rotary CLC is

  2. Experimental and Theoretical Progress of Linear Collider Final Focus Design and ATF2 Facility

    CERN Document Server

    Seryi, Andrei; Zimmermann, Frank; Kubo, Kiyoshi; Kuroda, Shigeru; Okugi, Toshiyuki; Tauchi, Toshiaki; Terunuma, Nobuhiro; Urakawa, Junji; White, Glen; Woodley, Mark; Angal-Kalinin, Deepa

    2014-01-01

    In this brief overview we will reflect on the process of the design of the linear collider (LC) final focus (FF) optics, and will also describe the theoretical and experimental efforts on design and practical realisation of a prototype of the LC FF optics implemented in the ATF2 facility at KEK, Japan, presently being commissioned and operated.

  3. Overview of design development of FCC-hh Experimental Interaction Regions

    CERN Document Server

    AUTHOR|(CDS)2082479; Abelleira, Jose; Cruz Alaniz, Emilia; Van Riesen-Haupt, Leon; Benedikt, Michael; Besana, Maria Ilaria; Buffat, Xavier; Burkhardt, Helmut; Cerutti, Francesco; Langner, Andy Sven; Martin, Roman; Riegler, Werner; Schulte, Daniel; Tomas Garcia, Rogelio; Appleby, Robert Barrie; Rafique, Haroon; Barranco Garcia, Javier; Pieloni, Tatiana; Boscolo, Manuela; Collamati, Francesco; Nevay, Laurence James; Hofer, Michael

    2017-01-01

    The experimental interaction region (EIR) is one of the key areas that define the performance of the Future Circular Collider. In this overview we will describe the status and the evolution of the design of EIR of FCC-hh, focusing on design of the optics, energy deposition in EIR elements, beam-beam effects and machine detector interface issues.

  4. Visualizing Experimental Designs for Balanced ANOVA Models using Lisp-Stat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Philip W. Iversen

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The structure, or Hasse, diagram described by Taylor and Hilton (1981, American Statistician provides a visual display of the relationships between factors for balanced complete experimental designs. Using the Hasse diagram, rules exist for determining the appropriate linear model, ANOVA table, expected means squares, and F-tests in the case of balanced designs. This procedure has been implemented in Lisp-Stat using a software representation of the experimental design. The user can interact with the Hasse diagram to add, change, or delete factors and see the effect on the proposed analysis. The system has potential uses in teaching and consulting.

  5. A Robust Inner and Outer Loop Control Method for Trajectory Tracking of a Quadrotor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Dunzhu; Cheng, Limei; Yao, Yanhong

    2017-01-01

    In order to achieve the complicated trajectory tracking of quadrotor, a geometric inner and outer loop control scheme is presented. The outer loop generates the desired rotation matrix for the inner loop. To improve the response speed and robustness, a geometric SMC controller is designed for the inner loop. The outer loop is also designed via sliding mode control (SMC). By Lyapunov theory and cascade theory, the closed-loop system stability is guaranteed. Next, the tracking performance is validated by tracking three representative trajectories. Then, the robustness of the proposed control method is illustrated by trajectory tracking in presence of model uncertainty and disturbances. Subsequently, experiments are carried out to verify the method. In the experiment, ultra wideband (UWB) is used for indoor positioning. Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) is used for fusing inertial measurement unit (IMU) and UWB measurements. The experimental results show the feasibility of the designed controller in practice. The comparative experiments with PD and PD loop demonstrate the robustness of the proposed control method. PMID:28925984

  6. CO2 Capture by Calcium Looping at Relevant Conditions for Cement Plants: Experimental Testing in a 30 kWth Pilot Plant

    OpenAIRE

    Arias Rozada, Borja; Alonso Carreño, Mónica; Abanades García, Juan Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Calcium looping technology has a high potential for capturing CO2 in cement plants as the CaO-rich purge from the calciner can be used to replace a sizable fraction of the CaCO3 used as feedstock. Integrating the CaL process into the cement plant requires the carbonator reactor to operate under new conditions (i.e., a higher carbonator CO2 load, a more active sorbent, smaller particle sizes). This work analyzes the impact of some of the new CaL operating conditions on the pe...

  7. Wind refrigeration : design and results of an experimental facility; Refrigeracion eolica: Diseno y resultados de una instalacion experimental

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beltran, R. G.; Talero, A.

    2004-07-01

    This article describes the experimental setup used to obtain design parameters for a wind driven refrigeration equipment. The system compressor is directly coupled to the wind mill and will provide refrigeration to a community located in La Guajira in northern Colombia. The testing on the experimental installation assessed the refrigeration capacity that could be provided by an open type commercial compressor coupled to the wind mill axis. Power and torque requirements have been evaluated for different wind mill rotational speeds. An assessment of the local conditions relating to wind speed, frequency and preferred direction for the installation site has been made based on measurements by the Meteorological National Institute and independent data from other sources. (Author)

  8. An Empirical Study of Parameter Estimation for Stated Preference Experimental Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fei Yang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The stated preference experimental design can affect the reliability of the parameters estimation in discrete choice model. Some scholars have proposed some new experimental designs, such as D-efficient, Bayesian D-efficient. But insufficient empirical research has been conducted on the effectiveness of these new designs and there has been little comparative analysis of the new designs against the traditional designs. In this paper, a new metro connecting Chengdu and its satellite cities is taken as the research subject to demonstrate the validity of the D-efficient and Bayesian D-efficient design. Comparisons between these new designs and orthogonal design were made by the fit of model and standard deviation of parameters estimation; then the best model result is obtained to analyze the travel choice behavior. The results indicate that Bayesian D-efficient design works better than D-efficient design. Some of the variables can affect significantly the choice behavior of people, including the waiting time and arrival time. The D-efficient and Bayesian D-efficient design for MNL can acquire reliability result in ML model, but the ML model cannot develop the theory advantages of these two designs. Finally, the metro can handle over 40% passengers flow if the metro will be operated in the future.

  9. Vertically Polarized Omnidirectional Printed Slot Loop Antenna

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kammersgaard, Nikolaj Peter Iversen; Kvist, Søren H.; Thaysen, Jesper

    2015-01-01

    A novel vertically polarized omnidirectional printed slot loop antenna has been designed, simulated, fabricated and measured. The slot loop works as a magnetic loop. The loop is loaded with inductors to insure uniform and in-phase fields in the slot in order to obtain an omnidirectional radiation...... pattern. The antenna is designed for the 2.45 GHz Industrial, Scientific and Medical band. Applications of the antenna are many. One is for on-body applications since it is ideal for launching a creeping waves due to the polarization....

  10. Nonlinear Bayesian Tracking Loops for Multipath Mitigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pau Closas

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper studies Bayesian filtering techniques applied to the design of advanced delay tracking loops in GNSS receivers with multipath mitigation capabilities. The analysis includes tradeoff among realistic propagation channel models and the use of a realistic simulation framework. After establishing the mathematical framework for the design and analysis of tracking loops in the context of GNSS receivers, we propose a filtering technique that implements Rao-Blackwellization of linear states and a particle filter for the nonlinear partition and compare it to traditional delay lock loop/phase lock loop-based schemes.

  11. Beatbox em loop: crescimento de ideias musicais e seu desdobramento na arte digital e no design sonoro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jalver Bethônico

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available http://dx.doi.org/10.5007/1807-9288.2013v9n1p248   Este texto apresenta a constituição de uma pesquisa interdisciplinar que, na base é a intersecção de duas áreas de Pesquisa, Ensino e Extensão da Escola de Belas Artes da UFMG: Design Sonoro e Artes Digitais, mas que vai colocar em fricção a Poesia Sonora, a Literatura, a Música Contemporânea, as Artes Gráficas e a Música Pop. Nosso trabalho nas áreas sonoras aplicadas ao audiovisual mostrou que o território da pesquisa musical é um horizonte de enriquecimento das relações entre imagem e som ao ampliar o material colocado em jogo. Partindo das memórias pessoais desvelamos o desenrolar de experimentações em torno do Beatbox que, por fim, servem a um jogo interativo educacional (“Escrever e Musicar”, desenvolvido para o Grupo de Pesquisa ALADIM - FALE, uma peça teatral (“Pessoas”, dirigida pelo Prof. Antônio Hildebrando do Curso de Teatro da EBA-UFMG e uma improvisação em vídeo e música (dentro do projeto “Sound-Sight” do Grupo de Pesquisa interSignos. Apresentamos um percurso circular onde o Beatbox lança desafios e traz soluções para as ferramentas digitais que, por sua vez, apontam caminhos para a exploração musical. Este trabalho, mesmo que não seja nosso foco, traz uma contribuição para a compreensão do Beatbox. Assim, mostramos como o pensamento crítico e técnico em música contribui para o enriquecimento das relações imagem-som nas tecnologias contemporâneas com o surgimento de questões audiovisuais em torno de uma fonte sonora.

  12. Cooperative Experimental System Development - cooperative techniques beyound initial design and analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønbæk, Kaj; Kyng, Morten; Mogensen, Preben Holst

    1995-01-01

    , however, not limited to this development context, it may be applied for in-house or contract development as well. In system development, particularly in cooperative and experimental system development, we argue that it is necessary to analytically separate the abstract concerns, e.g. analysis, design......This chapter represents a step towards the establishment of a new system development approach, called Cooperative Experimental System Development (CESD). CESD seeks to overcome a number of limitations in existing approaches: specification oriented methods usually assume that system design can...... be based solely on observation and detached reflection; prototyping methods often have a narrow focus on the technical construction of various kinds of prototypes; Participatory Design techniques—including the Scandinavian Cooperative Design (CD) approaches—seldom go beyond the early analysis/design...

  13. Experimental Modelling of the Breakdown Voltage of Air Using Design of Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    REZOUGA, M.

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Many experimental and numerical studies were devoted to the electric discharge of air, and some mathematical models were proposed for the critical breakdown voltage. As this latter depends on several parameters, it is difficult to find a formula, theoretical or experimental, which considers many factors. The aim of this paper is to model the critical breakdown voltage in a "Sphere-Sphere� electrodes system by using the methodology of experimental designs. Several factors were considered, such as geometrical factors (inter-electrodes interval, diameter of the electrodes and climatic factors (temperature, humidity. Two factorial centred faces experimental designs (CCF were carried out, a first one for the geometrical factors and a second one for the climatic factors. The obtained results made it possible to propose mathematical models and to study the interactions between the various factors.

  14. Structure-guided Design and Immunological Characterization of Immunogens Presenting the HIV-1 gp120 V3 Loop on a CTB Scaffold

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M Totrov; X Jiang; X Kong; S Cohen; C Krachmarov; A Salomon; C Williams; M Seaman; R Abagyan; et al.

    2011-12-31

    V3 loop is a major neutralizing determinant of the HIV-1 gp120. Using 3D structures of cholera toxin B subunit (CTB), complete V3 in the gp120 context, and V3 bound to a monoclonal antibody (mAb), we designed two V3-scaffold immunogen constructs (V3-CTB). The full-length V3-CTB presenting the complete V3 in a structural context mimicking gp120 was recognized by the large majority of our panel of 24 mAbs. The short V3-CTB presenting a V3 fragment in the conformation observed in the complex with the 447-52D Fab, exhibited high-affinity binding to this mAb. The immunogens were evaluated in rabbits using DNA-prime/protein-boost protocol. Boosting with the full-length V3-CTB induced high anti-V3 titers in sera that potently neutralize multiple HIV virus strains. The short V3-CTB was ineffective. The results suggest that very narrow antigenic profile of an immunogen is associated with poor Ab response. An immunogen with broader antigenic activity elicits robust Ab response.

  15. A family-based intervention targeting parents of preschool children with overweight and obesity: conceptual framework and study design of LOOPS- Lund overweight and obesity preschool study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Önnerfält Jenny

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background As the rate of overweight among children is rising there is a need for evidence-based research that will clarify what the best interventional strategies to normalize weight development are. The overall aim of the Lund Overweight and Obesity Preschool Study (LOOPS is to evaluate if a family-based intervention, targeting parents of preschool children with overweight and obesity, has a long-term positive effect on weight development of the children. The hypothesis is that preschool children with overweight and obesity, whose parents participate in a one-year intervention, both at completion of the one-year intervention and at long term follow up (2-, 3- and 5-years will have reduced their BMI-for-age z-score. Methods/Design The study is a randomized controlled trial, including overweight (n=160 and obese (n=80 children 4-6-years-old. The intervention is targeting the parents, who get general information about nutrition and exercise recommendations through a website and are invited to participate in a group intervention with the purpose of supporting them to accomplish preferred lifestyle changes, both in the short and long term. To evaluate the effect of various supports, the parents are randomized to different interventions with the main focus of: 1 supporting the parents in limit setting by emphasizing the importance of positive interactions between parents and children and 2 influencing the patterns of daily activities to induce alterations of everyday life that will lead to healthier lifestyle. The primary outcome variable, child BMI-for-age z-score will be measured at referral, inclusion, after 6 months, at the end of intervention and at 2-, 3- and 5-years post intervention. Secondary outcome variables, measured at inclusion and at the end of intervention, are child activity pattern, eating habits and biochemical markers as well as parent BMI, exercise habits, perception of health, experience of parenthood and level of

  16. Experimental measurement and numerical analysis on resonant characteristics of piezoelectric disks with partial electrode designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Chih; Ma, Chien-Ching

    2004-08-01

    Three experimental techniques are used in this study to access the influence of the electrode arrangement on the resonant characteristics of piezoceramic disks. These methods, including the amplitude-fluctuation electronic speckle pattern interferometry (AF-ESPI), laser Doppler vibrometer-dynamic signal analyzer (LDV-DSA), and impedance analysis, are based on the measurement of full-field displacement, pointwise displacement, and electric impedance, respectively. In this study, one full electrode design and three nonsymmetrical partial electrode designs of piezoelectric disks are investigated. Because the clear fringe patterns measured by the AF-ESPI method will be shown only at resonant frequencies, both the resonant frequencies and the corresponding vibration mode shapes are successfully obtained at the same time for out-of-plane and in-plane motions. The second experimental method is the impedance analysis, which is used to measure the resonant and antiresonant frequencies. In addition to these experimental methods, LDV-DSA is used to determine the resonant frequencies of the vibration mode with out-of-plane motion. From the experimental results, the dependence of electrode design on the vibration frequencies and mode shapes is addressed. Numerical computations based on the finite element method are presented, and the results are compared with the experimental measurements. The effect of different designs of electrode is more significant in the in-plane modes than that in the out-of-plane modes.

  17. Development of the Neuron Assessment for Measuring Biology Students’ Use of Experimental Design Concepts and Representations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasgupta, Annwesa P.; Anderson, Trevor R.; Pelaez, Nancy J.

    2016-01-01

    Researchers, instructors, and funding bodies in biology education are unanimous about the importance of developing students’ competence in experimental design. Despite this, only limited measures are available for assessing such competence development, especially in the areas of molecular and cellular biology. Also, existing assessments do not measure how well students use standard symbolism to visualize biological experiments. We propose an assessment-design process that 1) provides background knowledge and questions for developers of new “experimentation assessments,” 2) elicits practices of representing experiments with conventional symbol systems, 3) determines how well the assessment reveals expert knowledge, and 4) determines how well the instrument exposes student knowledge and difficulties. To illustrate this process, we developed the Neuron Assessment and coded responses from a scientist and four undergraduate students using the Rubric for Experimental Design and the Concept-Reasoning Mode of representation (CRM) model. Some students demonstrated sound knowledge of concepts and representations. Other students demonstrated difficulty with depicting treatment and control group data or variability in experimental outcomes. Our process, which incorporates an authentic research situation that discriminates levels of visualization and experimentation abilities, shows potential for informing assessment design in other disciplines. PMID:27146159

  18. Design of Experimental Data Publishing Software for Neutral Beam Injector on EAST

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; Hu, Chundong; Sheng, Peng; Zhao, Yuanzhe; Zhang, Xiaodan; Wu, Deyun

    2015-02-01

    Neutral Beam Injection (NBI) is one of the most effective means for plasma heating. Experimental Data Publishing Software (EDPS) is developed to publish experimental data to get the NBI system under remote monitoring. In this paper, the architecture and implementation of EDPS including the design of the communication module and web page display module are presented. EDPS is developed based on the Browser/Server (B/S) model, and works under the Linux operating system. Using the data source and communication mechanism of the NBI Control System (NBICS), EDPS publishes experimental data on the Internet.

  19. Experimental Investigations of Decentralised Control Design for The Stabilisation of Rotor-Gas Bearings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Theisen, Lukas Roy Svane; Galeazzi, Roberto; Niemann, Hans Henrik

    2015-01-01

    directions. Hardening and softening P-lead controllers are designed based on the models experimentally identified, and salient features of both controllers are discussed. Both controllers are implemented and validated on the physical test rig. Experimental results confirm the validity of the proposed......-Box identification for the design of stabilising controllers, capable of enabling the active lubrication of the journal. The root locus analysis shows that two different control solutions are feasible for the dampening of the first two eigenfrequencies of the rotor-gas bearing in the horizontal and vertical...

  20. Experimental designs for evaluation of genetic variability and selection of ancient grapevine varieties: a simulation study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gonçalves, E; St Aubyn, A; Martins, A

    2010-06-01

    Classical methodologies for grapevine selection used in the vine-growing world are generally based on comparisons among a small number of clones. This does not take advantage of the entire genetic variability within ancient varieties, and therefore limits selection challenges. Using the general principles of plant breeding and of quantitative genetics, we propose new breeding strategies, focussed on conservation and quantification of genetic variability by performing a cycle of mass genotypic selection prior to clonal selection. To exploit a sufficiently large amount of genetic variability, initial selection trials must be generally very large. The use of experimental designs adequate for those field trials has been intensively recommended for numerous species. However, their use in initial trials of grapevines has not been studied. With the aim of identifying the most suitable experimental designs for quantification of genetic variability and selection of ancient varieties, a study was carried out to assess through simulation the comparative efficiency of various experimental designs (randomized complete block design, alpha design and row-column (RC) design). The results indicated a greater efficiency for alpha and RC designs, enabling more precise estimates of genotypic variance, greater precision in the prediction of genetic gain and consequently greater efficiency in genotypic mass selection.

  1. Conceptual design of superconducting magnet systems for the Argonne Tokamak Experimental Power Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, S.T.; Turner, L.R.; Mills, F.E.; DeMichele, D.W.; Smelser, P.; Kim, S.H.

    1976-01-01

    As an integral effort in the Argonne Tokamak Experimental Power Reactor Conceptual Design, the conceptual design of a 10-tesla, pure-tension superconducting toroidal-field (TF) coil system has been developed in sufficient detail to define a realistic design for the TF coil system that could be built based upon the current state of technology with minimum technological extrapolations. A conceptual design study on the superconducting ohmic-heating (OH) coils and the superconducting equilibrium-field (EF) coils were also completed. These conceptual designs are developed in sufficient detail with clear information on high current ac conductor design, cooling, venting provision, coil structural support and zero loss poloidal coil cryostat design. Also investigated is the EF penetration into the blanket and shield.

  2. Quantification of pore size distribution using diffusion NMR: experimental design and physical insights.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, Yaniv; Nevo, Uri

    2014-04-28

    Pulsed field gradient (PFG) diffusion NMR experiments are sensitive to restricted diffusion within porous media and can thus reveal essential microstructural information about the confining geometry. Optimal design methods of inverse problems are designed to select preferred experimental settings to improve parameter estimation quality. However, in pore size distribution (PSD) estimation using NMR methods as in other ill-posed problems, optimal design strategies and criteria are scarce. We formulate here a new optimization framework for ill-posed problems. This framework is suitable for optimizing PFG experiments for probing geometries that are solvable by the Multiple Correlation Function approach. The framework is based on a heuristic methodology designed to select experimental sets which balance between lowering the inherent ill-posedness and increasing the NMR signal intensity. This method also selects favorable discrete pore sizes used for PSD estimation. Numerical simulations performed demonstrate that using this framework greatly improves the sensitivity of PFG experimental sets to the pores' sizes. The optimization also sheds light on significant features of the preferred experimental sets. Increasing the gradient strength and varying multiple experimental parameters is found to be preferable for reducing the ill-posedness. We further evaluate the amount of pore size information that can be obtained by wisely selecting the duration of the diffusion and mixing times. Finally, we discuss the ramification of using single PFG or double PFG sequences for PSD estimation. In conclusion, the above optimization method can serve as a useful tool for experimenters interested in quantifying PSDs of different specimens. Moreover, the applicability of the suggested optimization framework extends far beyond the field of PSD estimation in diffusion NMR, and reaches design of sampling schemes of other ill-posed problems.

  3. Predicting the ballistic strength of aramid fiber composites by implementing full factorial experimental design

    OpenAIRE

    Dimeski, Dimko; Srebrenkoska, Vineta

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to predict the ballistic strength of hard aramid fiber/phenolic ballistic composites by implementing the full factorial experimental design. When designing ballistic composites two major factors are the most important: the ballistic strength and the weight of the protection. The ultimate target is to achieve the required ballistic strength with the lowest possible weight of protection. The hard ballistic aramid/phenolic composites were made by open mold...

  4. Experimental Analyses for The Mechanical Behavior of Pressed All-Ceramic Molar Crowns with Anatomical Design

    OpenAIRE

    Porojan Liliana; Porojan Sorin; Rusu Lucian; Boloş Adrian; Savencu Cristina

    2017-01-01

    Ceramic restorations show considerable variation in strength and structural reliability regarding to the type of material, and design characteristics. The fracture of ceramics occurs with little or no plastic deformation, with cracks propagated in an unstable manner under applied tensile stresses. The aim of the study was to assess experimental analyses of pressed monolithic ceramic crowns with anatomical design used in the posterior areas in order to understand their mechanical behavior befo...

  5. Experimental Design and Validation of an Accelerated Random Vibration Fatigue Testing Methodology

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Jiang(Center for Statistical and Theoretical Condensed Matter Physics, Zhejiang Normal University, Jinhua City, Zhejiang Province 321004, China); Gun Jin Yun; Li Zhao; Junyong Tao

    2015-01-01

    Novel accelerated random vibration fatigue test methodology and strategy are proposed, which can generate a design of the experimental test plan significantly reducing the test time and the sample size. Based on theoretical analysis and fatigue damage model, several groups of random vibration fatigue tests were designed and conducted with the aim of investigating effects of both Gaussian and non-Gaussian random excitation on the vibration fatigue. First, stress responses at a weak point of a ...

  6. Experimental Design for Hanford Low-Activity Waste Glasses with High Waste Loading

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Piepel, Gregory F. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Cooley, Scott K. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Vienna, John D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Crum, Jarrod V. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2015-07-24

    This report discusses the development of an experimental design for the initial phase of the Hanford low-activity waste (LAW) enhanced glass study. This report is based on a manuscript written for an applied statistics journal. Appendices A, B, and E include additional information relevant to the LAW enhanced glass experimental design that is not included in the journal manuscript. The glass composition experimental region is defined by single-component constraints (SCCs), linear multiple-component constraints (MCCs), and a nonlinear MCC involving 15 LAW glass components. Traditional methods and software for designing constrained mixture experiments with SCCs and linear MCCs are not directly applicable because of the nonlinear MCC. A modification of existing methodology to account for the nonlinear MCC was developed and is described in this report. One of the glass components, SO3, has a solubility limit in glass that depends on the composition of the balance of the glass. A goal was to design the experiment so that SO3 would not exceed its predicted solubility limit for any of the experimental glasses. The SO3 solubility limit had previously been modeled by a partial quadratic mixture model expressed in the relative proportions of the 14 other components. The partial quadratic mixture model was used to construct a nonlinear MCC in terms of all 15 components. In addition, there were SCCs and linear MCCs. This report describes how a layered design was generated to (i) account for the SCCs, linear MCCs, and nonlinear MCC and (ii) meet the goals of the study. A layered design consists of points on an outer layer, and inner layer, and a center point. There were 18 outer-layer glasses chosen using optimal experimental design software to augment 147 existing glass compositions that were within the LAW glass composition experimental region. Then 13 inner-layer glasses were chosen with the software to augment the existing and outer

  7. High temperature storage loop :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gill, David Dennis; Kolb, William J.

    2013-07-01

    A three year plan for thermal energy storage (TES) research was created at Sandia National Laboratories in the spring of 2012. This plan included a strategic goal of providing test capability for Sandia and for the nation in which to evaluate high temperature storage (>650ÀC) technology. The plan was to scope, design, and build a flow loop that would be compatible with a multitude of high temperature heat transfer/storage fluids. The High Temperature Storage Loop (HTSL) would be reconfigurable so that it was useful for not only storage testing, but also for high temperature receiver testing and high efficiency power cycle testing as well. In that way, HTSL was part of a much larger strategy for Sandia to provide a research and testing platform that would be integral for the evaluation of individual technologies funded under the SunShot program. DOEs SunShot program seeks to reduce the price of solar technologies to 6/kWhr to be cost competitive with carbon-based fuels. The HTSL project sought to provide evaluation capability for these SunShot supported technologies. This report includes the scoping, design, and budgetary costing aspects of this effort

  8. Carrier tracking algorithm based on joint acquisition of frequency locked loop and phase locked loop

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gao Kang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aiming at the problem of frequency step in the frequency lock loop (FLL - phase lock loop (PLL carrier tracking algorithm’s conversion state, presenting an improved algorithm: PLL and FLL joint acquisition to replace the single FLL acquires frequency, and deduce the loop state transition threshold. The simulation results show that the improved algorithm is more stable in the conversion process, and the loop performance is optimized. When the SNR is -10dB, and has the acceleration rate, the tracking loop does not have a frequency step at the time of conversion, achieving the design purpose.

  9. Whither Instructional Design and Teacher Training? The Need for Experimental Research

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gropper, George L.

    2015-01-01

    This article takes a contrarian position: an "instructional design" or "teacher training" model, because of the sheer number of its interconnected parameters, is too complex to assess or to compare with other models. Models may not be the way to go just yet. This article recommends instead prior experimental research on limited…

  10. The Impact of the Hawthorne Effect in Experimental Designs in Educational Research. Final Report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cook, Desmond L.

    Project objectives included (1) establishing a body of knowledge concerning the role of the Hawthorne effect in experimental designs in educational research, (2) assessing the influence of the Hawthorne effect on educational experiments conducted under varying conditions of control, (3) identifying the major components comprising the effect, and…

  11. Sensitivity-based approach to optimal experimental design in a receptor trafficking and down regulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casey, Fergal; Waterfall, Joshua; Gutenkunst, Ryan; Brown, Kevin; Myers, Christopher; Sethna, James

    2006-03-01

    We apply the ideas of optimal experimental design to systems biology models: minimizing a design criterion based on the average variance of predictions, we suggest new experiments that need to be performed to optimally test a given biological hypothesis. The estimated variance in predictions is derived from the sensitivities of protein and chemical species in the model to changes in reaction rates. The sensitivities also allow us to determine which interactions in the biological network dominate the system behavior. To test the design principles, we have developed a differential equation model incorporating the processes of endocytosis, recycling and degradation of activated epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor in a mammalian cell line. Recent experimental work has discovered mutant proteins that cause receptor accumulation and a prolonged growth signal. Our model is optimized to fit this mutant experimental data and wild type data for a variety of experimental conditions. Of biological interest is the effect on surface and internalized receptor levels after the overexpression or inactivation of regulator proteins in the network: the optimal design method allows us to fine tune the conditions to best predict the behavior of these unknown components of the system.

  12. Bias Corrections for Standardized Effect Size Estimates Used with Single-Subject Experimental Designs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ugille, Maaike; Moeyaert, Mariola; Beretvas, S. Natasha; Ferron, John M.; Van den Noortgate, Wim

    2014-01-01

    A multilevel meta-analysis can combine the results of several single-subject experimental design studies. However, the estimated effects are biased if the effect sizes are standardized and the number of measurement occasions is small. In this study, the authors investigated 4 approaches to correct for this bias. First, the standardized effect…

  13. 76 FR 28715 - Endangered and Threatened Species: Designation of a Nonessential Experimental Population for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-05-18

    ... species O. mykiss. The common names of the non-anadromous, or resident, form are rainbow trout and redband... species of Pacific salmonid. These fish can be anadromous or freshwater residents, and under some... Species: Designation of a Nonessential Experimental Population for Middle Columbia River Steelhead Above...

  14. Guided-Inquiry Labs Using Bean Beetles for Teaching the Scientific Method & Experimental Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schlueter, Mark A.; D'Costa, Allison R.

    2013-01-01

    Guided-inquiry lab activities with bean beetles ("Callosobruchus maculatus") teach students how to develop hypotheses, design experiments, identify experimental variables, collect and interpret data, and formulate conclusions. These activities provide students with real hands-on experiences and skills that reinforce their understanding of the…

  15. Combined application of mixture experimental design and artificial neural networks in the solid dispersion development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medarević, Djordje P; Kleinebudde, Peter; Djuriš, Jelena; Djurić, Zorica; Ibrić, Svetlana

    2016-01-01

    This study for the first time demonstrates combined application of mixture experimental design and artificial neural networks (ANNs) in the solid dispersions (SDs) development. Ternary carbamazepine-Soluplus®-poloxamer 188 SDs were prepared by solvent casting method to improve carbamazepine dissolution rate. The influence of the composition of prepared SDs on carbamazepine dissolution rate was evaluated using d-optimal mixture experimental design and multilayer perceptron ANNs. Physicochemical characterization proved the presence of the most stable carbamazepine polymorph III within the SD matrix. Ternary carbamazepine-Soluplus®-poloxamer 188 SDs significantly improved carbamazepine dissolution rate compared to pure drug. Models developed by ANNs and mixture experimental design well described the relationship between proportions of SD components and percentage of carbamazepine released after 10 (Q10) and 20 (Q20) min, wherein ANN model exhibit better predictability on test data set. Proportions of carbamazepine and poloxamer 188 exhibited the highest influence on carbamazepine release rate. The highest carbamazepine release rate was observed for SDs with the lowest proportions of carbamazepine and the highest proportions of poloxamer 188. ANNs and mixture experimental design can be used as powerful data modeling tools in the systematic development of SDs. Taking into account advantages and disadvantages of both techniques, their combined application should be encouraged.

  16. Optimization of the synthesis of 1-allyloxy-2-hydroxy-propyl-starch through statistical experimental design

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huijbrechts, A.M.L.; Vermonden, T.; Bogaert, P.; Franssen, M.C.R.; Visser, G.M.; Boeriu, C.G.; Sudhölter, E.J.R.

    2009-01-01

    The synthesis of 1-allyloxy-2-hydroxy-propyl starches was studied using a statistical experimental design approach. The etherification of two different granular maize starches with allyl glycidyl ether (AGE) in a heterogeneous alkaline suspension was investigated. The optimal reaction conditions

  17. Digital learning material for experimental design and model building in molecular biology

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Aegerter-Wilmsen, T.

    2005-01-01

    Designing experimental approaches is a major cognitive skill in molecular biology research, and building models, including quantitative ones, is a cognitive skill which is rapidly gaining importance. Since molecular biology education at university level is aimed at educating future researchers, we

  18. Building upon the Experimental Design in Media Violence Research: The Importance of Including Receiver Interpretations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potter, W. James; Tomasello, Tami K.

    2003-01-01

    Argues that the inclusion of viewer interpretation variables in experimental design and analysis procedures can greatly increase the methodology's ability to explain variance. Focuses attention on the between-group differences, while an analysis of how individual participants interpret the cues in the stimulus material focused attention on the…

  19. Guided Inquiry in a Biochemistry Laboratory Course Improves Experimental Design Ability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goodey, Nina M.; Talgar, Cigdem P.

    2016-01-01

    Many biochemistry laboratory courses expose students to laboratory techniques through pre-determined experiments in which students follow stepwise protocols provided by the instructor. This approach fails to provide students with sufficient opportunities to practice experimental design and critical thinking. Ten inquiry modules were created for a…

  20. A Course on Experimental Design for Different University Specialties: Experiences and Changes over a Decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martinez Luaces, Victor; Velazquez, Blanca; Dee, Valerie

    2009-01-01

    We analyse the origin and development of an Experimental Design course which has been taught in several faculties of the Universidad de la Republica and other institutions in Uruguay, over a 10-year period. At the end of the course, students were assessed by carrying out individual work projects on real-life problems, which was innovative for…

  1. Experimental design applied to the formulation of lipsticks with particular features.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanotti, F; Masiello, S; Bader, S; Guarneri, M; Vojnovic, D

    1998-08-01

    In our work a non-classical experimental design was applied to obtain lipsticks endowed with particular characteristics. Our aim was to formulate lipsticks that leave a brilliant and shiny colour application and have a transparent look. The emollient substances and the waxes (consistency factors) were identified as the main variables of the system. A two phase experimental strategy was thought out: the optimal quantities of consistency factors were selected using a Doehlert experimental matrix, whereas the correct mixtures of emollients were determined using a Scheffé simplex-centroid design. These two design were combined and a set of 49 experiments was obtained. The experiments carried out allowed the definition of a zone of two phases in which the objectives were attained: the correct types and appropriate quantities of emollients and waxes were determined. To find a possible correlation between some mixtures and the lipsticks' sensorial behaviour, differential scanning calorimetry was used. These results, in addition to those obtained using the experimental design allowed us to select the best lipstick formula. (c) Rapid Science Ltd. 1998.

  2. Assessing longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) restoration after southern pine beetle kill using a compact experimental design

    Science.gov (United States)

    J.-P. Berrill; C.M. Dagley

    2010-01-01

    A compact experimental design and analysis is presented of longleaf pine (Pinus palustris) survival and growth in a restoration project in the Piedmont region of Georgia, USA. Longleaf pine seedlings were planted after salvage logging and broadcast burning in areas of catastrophic southern pine beetle (Dendroctonus frontalis) attacks on even-aged mixed pine-hardwood...

  3. Experimental Aeroelastic Models Design and Wind Tunnel Testing for Correlation with New Theory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Several examples of experimental model designs, wind tunnel tests and correlation with new theory are presented in this paper. The goal is not only to evaluate a new theory, new computational method or new aeroelastic phonomenon, but also to provide new insights into nonlinear aeroelastic phenomena, flutter, limit cycle oscillation (LCO and gust response.

  4. Thermodynamic model using experimental loss factors for dielectric elastomer actuator design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lucking Bigué, J.-P.; Chouinard, P.; Denninger, M.; Proulx, S.; Plante, J.-S.

    2010-04-01

    Dielectric Elastomer Actuators (DEAs) are a promising actuation technology for mobile robotics due to their high forceto- weight ratio, their potential for high efficiencies, and their low cost. The preliminary design of such actuators requires a quick and precise assessment of actuator energy conversion performance. To do so, this paper proposes a simple thermodynamic model using experimentally acquired loss factors that predict actuator mechanical work, energy consumption, and efficiency when operating under constant voltage and constant charge modes. Mechanical and electrical loss factors for both VHB 4905 (acrylic) and Nusil's CF19-2186 (silicone) are obtained by mapping the performances of cone-shaped DEAs over a broad range of actuator speeds, capacitance ratios, and applied voltages. Extensive experimental results reveal the main performance trends to follow for preliminary actuator design, which are explained by the proposed model. For the tested conditions, the maximum experimental brake efficiencies are ~35% and ~25% for VHB and CF19-2186 respectively.

  5. Design, Simulation and Experimental Investigation of a Solar System Based on PV Panels and PVT Collectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Annamaria Buonomano

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents numerical and experimental analyses aimed at evaluating the technical and economic feasibility of photovoltaic/thermal (PVT collectors. An experimental setup was purposely designed and constructed in order to compare the electrical performance of a PVT solar field with the one achieved by an identical solar field consisting of conventional photovoltaic (PV panels. The experimental analysis also aims at evaluating the potential advantages of PVT vs. PV in terms of enhancement of electrical efficiency and thermal energy production. The installed experimental set-up includes four flat polycrystalline silicon PV panels and four flat unglazed polycrystalline silicon PVT collectors. The total electrical power and area of the solar field are 2 kWe and 13 m2, respectively. The experimental set-up is currently installed at the company AV Project Ltd., located in Avellino (Italy. This study also analyzes the system from a numerical point of view, including a thermo-economic dynamic simulation model for the design and the assessment of energy performance and economic profitability of the solar systems consisting of glazed PVT and PV collectors. The experimental setup was modelled and partly simulated in TRNSYS environment. The simulation model was useful to analyze efficiencies and temperatures reached by such solar technologies, by taking into account the reference technology of PVTs (consisting of glazed collectors as well as to compare the numerical data obtained by dynamic simulations with the gathered experimental results for the PV technology. The numerical analysis shows that the PVT global efficiency is about 26%. Conversely, from the experimental point of view, the average thermal efficiency of PVT collectors is around 13% and the electrical efficiencies of both technologies are almost coincident and equal to 15%.

  6. Digitized self-oscillating loop for piezoelectric transformer-based power converters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ekhtiari, Marzieh; Andersen, Thomas; Zhang, Zhe

    2016-01-01

    A new method is implemented in designing of self-oscillating loop for driving piezoelectric transformers. The implemented method is based on combining both analog and digital control systems. Digitized delay, or digitized phase shift through the self-oscillating loop results in a very precise...... frequency control and ensures an optimum operation of the piezoelectric transformer in terms of voltage gain and efficiency. In this work, additional time delay is implemented digitally for the first time through 16 bit digital-to-analog converter to the self-oscillating loop. Delay control setpoints...... updates at a rate of 417 kHz. This allows the control loop to dynamically follow frequency changes of the transformer in each resonant cycle. The operation principle behind self-oscillating is discussed in this paper. Moreover, experimental results are reported....

  7. Stability Analysis and Controller Synthesis for Single-Loop Voltage-Controlled VSIs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wang, Xiongfei; Loh, Poh Chiang; Blaabjerg, Frede

    2017-01-01

    This paper analyzes the stability of the digital single-loop voltage-controlled Voltage-Source Inverters (VSIs) using linear voltage regulators. It reveals that the phase lags caused by using the resonant controller and the time delay of digital control system can stabilize the voltage loop witho...... proposed, and a holistic design method of the controller is developed with the root contours in the discrete z-domain. Simulations and experimental tests for a 400-Hz VSI system validate the theoretical analysis and the performance of the proposed approach.......This paper analyzes the stability of the digital single-loop voltage-controlled Voltage-Source Inverters (VSIs) using linear voltage regulators. It reveals that the phase lags caused by using the resonant controller and the time delay of digital control system can stabilize the voltage loop without...

  8. Fertilizer Response Curves for Commercial Southern Forest Species Defined with an Un-Replicated Experimental Design.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coleman, Mark; Aubrey, Doug; Coyle, David, R.; Daniels, Richard, F.

    2005-11-01

    There has been recent interest in use of non-replicated regression experimental designs in forestry, as the need for replication in experimental design is burdensome on limited research budgets. We wanted to determine the interacting effects of soil moisture and nutrient availability on the production of various southeastern forest trees (two clones of Populus deltoides, open pollinated Platanus occidentalis, Liquidambar styraciflua and Pinus taeda). Additionally, we required an understanding of the fertilizer response curve. To accomplish both objectives we developed a composite design that includes a core ANOVA approach to consider treatment interactions, with the addition of non-replicated regression plots receiving a range of fertilizer levels for the primary irrigation treatment.

  9. Experimental validation of systematically designed acoustic hyperbolic meta material slab exhibiting negative refraction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Rasmus Ellebæk; Sigmund, Ole

    2016-01-01

    This Letter reports on the experimental validation of a two-dimensional acoustic hyperbolic metamaterial slab optimized to exhibit negative refractive behavior. The slab was designed using a topology optimization based systematic design method allowing for tailoring the refractive behavior....... The experimental results confirm the predicted refractive capability as well as the predicted transmission at an interface. The study simultaneously provides an estimate of the attenuation inside the slab stemming from the boundary layer effects—insight which can be utilized in the further design...... of the metamaterial slabs. The capability of tailoring the refractive behavior opens possibilities for different applications. For instance, a slab exhibiting zero refraction across a wide angular range is capable of funneling acoustic energy through it, while a material exhibiting the negative refractive behavior...

  10. Man-machine Integration Design and Analysis System (MIDAS) Task Loading Model (TLM) experimental and software detailed design report

    Science.gov (United States)

    Staveland, Lowell

    1994-01-01

    This is the experimental and software detailed design report for the prototype task loading model (TLM) developed as part of the man-machine integration design and analysis system (MIDAS), as implemented and tested in phase 6 of the Army-NASA Aircrew/Aircraft Integration (A3I) Program. The A3I program is an exploratory development effort to advance the capabilities and use of computational representations of human performance and behavior in the design, synthesis, and analysis of manned systems. The MIDAS TLM computationally models the demands designs impose on operators to aide engineers in the conceptual design of aircraft crewstations. This report describes TLM and the results of a series of experiments which were run this phase to test its capabilities as a predictive task demand modeling tool. Specifically, it includes discussions of: the inputs and outputs of TLM, the theories underlying it, the results of the test experiments, the use of the TLM as both stand alone tool and part of a complete human operator simulation, and a brief introduction to the TLM software design.

  11. An experimental school prototype: Integrating 3rs (reduce, reuse & recycle concept into architectural design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kong Seng Yeap

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The authors conducted a design project to examine the use of school as an ecological learning hub for children. Specifically, this study explores the ecological innovations that transform physical environment into three-dimensional textbooks for environmental education. A series of design workshops were carried out to gain interdisciplinary input for ecological school design. The findings suggest to integrate the concept of 3Rs (Reduce, Reuse & Recycle into the physical environment. As a result, an experimental school prototype is developed. It represents a series of recommendations that are rendered by novel ideas through the amalgamation of architecture, ecology and education. These findings promote the development of sustainable and interactive learning spaces through cross-disciplinary investigations in school architecture. Designers and practitioners interested in educational facilities design would find this article useful.

  12. Approximate Loop Unrolling

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez-Cancio, Marcelino; Combemale, Benoit; Baudry, Benoit

    2016-01-01

    We introduce Approximate Unrolling, a loop optimization that reduces execution time and energy consumption, exploiting the existence of code regions that can endure some degree of approximation while still producing acceptable results. This work focuses on a specific kind of forgiving region: counted loops that map a given functions over the elements of an array. Approximate Unrolling transforms loops in a similar way Loop Unrolling does. However, unlike its exact counterpart, our optimizatio...

  13. Toxic responses to defined chemical mixtures: mathematical models and experimental designs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Michaud, J P; Gandolfi, A J; Brendel, K

    1994-01-01

    The problem and relevance of assessing biological responses to chemical mixtures is presented with reference to the literature on this problem and its possible solutions. This review is intended for a general audience as an introduction to, and comment on, assessing the interactions of defined mixtures of xenobiotics. The focus is on experimental toxicology, however, the methods are also applicable to pharmacology. Much of the literature on this topic is quite specialized in statistics, theory, or specific applications. This may deter a significant portion of the growing number of investigators in this field from using this literature, and may partially account for the persistent use of methods which have been shown to permit precarious conclusions. References are given for some of the most comprehensive and recent work and reviews on the subject. The reader is given some familiarity with this topic's basic problems and ideas, and the controversy on terminology. One example is presented of a popular experimental design and data analysis method which while applicable in some situations, has been shown to lead to precarious and even erroneous conclusions. Eight other methods of data analysis are briefly presented and some of their advantages, disadvantages, assumptions, and limitations are discussed. These methods were selected to illustrate similarities and differences in the various approaches taken in addressing this problem. Three basic types of experimental design appropriate to these kinds of studies are outlined. General considerations, suggested guidelines, and possible pitfalls in experimental design, and data analysis of biological responses to chemical mixtures are discussed.

  14. Entropy-Based Experimental Design for Optimal Model Discrimination in the Geosciences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wolfgang Nowak

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Choosing between competing models lies at the heart of scientific work, and is a frequent motivation for experimentation. Optimal experimental design (OD methods maximize the benefit of experiments towards a specified goal. We advance and demonstrate an OD approach to maximize the information gained towards model selection. We make use of so-called model choice indicators, which are random variables with an expected value equal to Bayesian model weights. Their uncertainty can be measured with Shannon entropy. Since the experimental data are still random variables in the planning phase of an experiment, we use mutual information (the expected reduction in Shannon entropy to quantify the information gained from a proposed experimental design. For implementation, we use the Preposterior Data Impact Assessor framework (PreDIA, because it is free of the lower-order approximations of mutual information often found in the geosciences. In comparison to other studies in statistics, our framework is not restricted to sequential design or to discrete-valued data, and it can handle measurement errors. As an application example, we optimize an experiment about the transport of contaminants in clay, featuring the problem of choosing between competing isotherms to describe sorption. We compare the results of optimizing towards maximum model discrimination with an alternative OD approach that minimizes the overall predictive uncertainty under model choice uncertainty.

  15. Application of iterative robust model-based optimal experimental design for the calibration of biocatalytic models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Daele, Timothy; Gernaey, Krist V; Ringborg, Rolf H; Börner, Tim; Heintz, Søren; Van Hauwermeiren, Daan; Grey, Carl; Krühne, Ulrich; Adlercreutz, Patrick; Nopens, Ingmar

    2017-09-01

    The aim of model calibration is to estimate unique parameter values from available experimental data, here applied to a biocatalytic process. The traditional approach of first gathering data followed by performing a model calibration is inefficient, since the information gathered during experimentation is not actively used to optimize the experimental design. By applying an iterative robust model-based optimal experimental design, the limited amount of data collected is used to design additional informative experiments. The algorithm is used here to calibrate the initial reaction rate of an ω-transaminase catalyzed reaction in a more accurate way. The parameter confidence region estimated from the Fisher Information Matrix is compared with the likelihood confidence region, which is not only more accurate but also a computationally more expensive method. As a result, an important deviation between both approaches is found, confirming that linearization methods should be applied with care for nonlinear models. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 33:1278-1293, 2017. © 2017 American Institute of Chemical Engineers.

  16. Blind Loop Syndrome

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... breeding ground for bacteria. The bacteria may produce toxins as well as block the absorption of nutrients. The greater the length of small bowel involved in the blind loop, the greater the chance of bacterial overgrowth. What triggers blind loop syndrome? Blind loop ...

  17. Designing Control Loops for Linear and Switching Power Supplies: A Tutorial Guide. By Christophe Basso, Artech House, 2012; 593 Pages. Price £99.00, ISBN 978-1-60807-557-7

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-Kun Lin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Loop control is an essential area of electronics engineering that today’s professionals need to master. Rather than delving into extensive theory, this practical book focuses on what you really need to know for compensating or stabilizing a given control system. You can turn instantly to practical sections with numerous design examples and ready-made formulas to help you with your projects in the field. You also find coverage of the underpinnings and principles of control loops so you can gain a more complete understanding of the material. This authoritative volume explains how to conduct analysis of control systems and provides extensive details on practical compensators. It helps you measure your system, showing how to verify if a prototype is stable and features enough design margin. Moreover, you learn how to secure high-volume production by bench-verified safety margins.

  18. Optimization of Protease Production from Aspergillus Oryzae Sp. Using Box-Behnken Experimental Design

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Srinu Babu

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Protease production by Aspergillus oryzae was optimized in shake-flask cultures using Box-Behnken experimental design. An empirical model was developed through response surface methodology to describe the relationship between tested variable (peptone, glucose, soyabeanmeal and pH. Maximum enzyme activity was attained with Peptone at 4 g∕L; temperature at 30 °C glucose at 6 g∕L; 30 °C and pH at 10. Experimental verification of the model showed a validation of 95%, which is more than 3-fold increase compare to the basal medium.

  19. Bridging topological and functional information in protein interaction networks by short loops profiling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Sun Sook; Pandini, Alessandro; Annibale, Alessia; Coolen, Anthony C. C.; Thomas, N. Shaun B.; Fraternali, Franca

    2015-02-01

    Protein-protein interaction networks (PPINs) have been employed to identify potential novel interconnections between proteins as well as crucial cellular functions. In this study we identify fundamental principles of PPIN topologies by analysing network motifs of short loops, which are small cyclic interactions of between 3 and 6 proteins. We compared 30 PPINs with corresponding randomised null models and examined the occurrence of common biological functions in loops extracted from a cross-validated high-confidence dataset of 622 human protein complexes. We demonstrate that loops are an intrinsic feature of PPINs and that specific cell functions are predominantly performed by loops of different lengths. Topologically, we find that loops are strongly related to the accuracy of PPINs and define a core of interactions with high resilience. The identification of this core and the analysis of loop composition are promising tools to assess PPIN quality and to uncover possible biases from experimental detection methods. More than 96% of loops share at least one biological function, with enrichment of cellular functions related to mRNA metabolic processing and the cell cycle. Our analyses suggest that these motifs can be used in the design of targeted experiments for functional phenotype detection.

  20. Overview of the TIBER 2 (Thermal Ignition/Burn Experimental Reactor) design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henning, C. D.; Logan, B. G.

    1987-10-01

    The TIBER 2 Tokamak Ignition/Burn Experimental Reactor design is the result of efforts by numerous people and institutions, including many fusion laboratories, universities, and industries. While subsystems will be covered extensively in other reports, this overview will attempt to place the work in perspective. Major features of the design are compact size, low cost, and steady-state operation. These are achieved through plasma shaping and innovative features such as radiation tolerant magnets and optimized shielding. While TIBER 2 can operate in a pulsed mode, steady-state is preferred for nuclear testing. Current drive is achieved by a combination of lower hybrid and neutral beams. In addition, 10 MW of ECR is added for disruption control and current drive profiling. The TIBER 2 design has been the US option in preparation for the International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Other equivalent national designs are the NET in Europe, the FER in Japan and the OTR in the USSR. These designs will help set the basis for the new international design effort.

  1. Optimal experimental designs for estimating Henry's law constants via the method of phase ratio variation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kapelner, Adam; Krieger, Abba; Blanford, William J

    2016-10-14

    When measuring Henry's law constants (kH) using the phase ratio variation (PRV) method via headspace gas chromatography (GC), the value of kH of the compound under investigation is calculated from the ratio of the slope to the intercept of a linear regression of the inverse GC response versus the ratio of gas to liquid volumes of a series of vials drawn from the same parent solution. Thus, an experimenter collects measurements consisting of the independent variable (the gas/liquid volume ratio) and dependent variable (the GC-1 peak area). A review of the literature found that the common design is a simple uniform spacing of liquid volumes. We present an optimal experimental design which estimates kH with minimum error and provides multiple means for building confidence intervals for such estimates. We illustrate performance improvements of our design with an example measuring the kH for Naphthalene in aqueous solution as well as simulations on previous studies. Our designs are most applicable after a trial run defines the linear GC response and the linear phase ratio to the GC-1 region (where the PRV method is suitable) after which a practitioner can collect measurements in bulk. The designs can be easily computed using our open source software optDesignSlopeInt, an R package on CRAN. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Two-Stage Experimental Design for Dose-Response Modeling in Toxicology Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Kai; Yang, Feng; Porter, Dale W; Wu, Nianqiang

    The efficient design of experiments (i.e., selection of experimental doses and allocation of animals) is important to establishing dose-response relationships in toxicology studies. The proposed procedure for design of experiments is distinct from those in the literature because it is able to adequately accommodate the special features of the dose-response data, which include non-normality, variance heterogeneity, possibly nonlinearity of the dose-response curve, and data scarcity. The design procedure is built in a sequential two-stage paradigm that allows for a learning process. In the first stage, preliminary experiments are performed to gain information regarding the underlying dose-response curve and variance structure. In the second stage, the prior information obtained from the previous stage is utilized to guide the second-stage experiments. An optimization algorithm is developed to search for the design of experiments that will lead to dose-response models of the highest quality. To evaluate model quality (or uncertainty), which is the basis of design optimization, a bootstrapping method is employed; unlike standard statistical methods, bootstrapping is not subject to restrictive assumptions such as normality or large sample sizes. The design procedure in this paper will help to reduce the experimental cost/time in toxicology studies and alleviate the sustainability concerns regarding the tremendous new materials and chemicals.

  3. Experimental Design of Electrocoagulation and Magnetic Technology for Enhancing Suspended Solids Removal from Synthetic Wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moh Faiqun Ni'am

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Design of experiments (DOE is one of the statistical method that is used as a tool to enhance and improve experimental quality. The changes to the variables of a process or system is supposed to give the optimal result (response and quite satisfactory. Experimental design can defined as a test or series of test series by varying the input variables (factors of a process that can known to cause changes in output (response. This paper presents the results of experimental design of wastewater treatment by electrocoagulation (EC technique. A combined magnet and electrocoagulation (EC technology were designed to increase settling velocity and to enhance suspended solid removal efficiencies from wastewater samples. In this experiment, a synthetic wastewater samples were prepared by mixing 700 mg of the milk powder in one litre of water and treated by using an acidic buffer solution. The monopolar iron (Fe plate anodes and cathodes were employed as electrodes. Direct current was varied in a range of between 0.5 and 1.1 A, and flowrate in a range of between 1.00 to 3.50 mL/s. One permanent magnets namely AlNiCo with a magnetic strength of 0.16T was used in this experiment. The results show that the magnetic field and the flowrate have major influences on suspended solids removal. The efficiency removals of suspended solids, turbidity and COD removal efficiencies at optimum conditions were found to be more than 85%, 95%, and 75%, respectively.

  4. Intuitive web-based experimental design for high-throughput biomedical data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friedrich, Andreas; Kenar, Erhan; Kohlbacher, Oliver; Nahnsen, Sven

    2015-01-01

    Big data bioinformatics aims at drawing biological conclusions from huge and complex biological datasets. Added value from the analysis of big data, however, is only possible if the data is accompanied by accurate metadata annotation. Particularly in high-throughput experiments intelligent approaches are needed to keep track of the experimental design, including the conditions that are studied as well as information that might be interesting for failure analysis or further experiments in the future. In addition to the management of this information, means for an integrated design and interfaces for structured data annotation are urgently needed by researchers. Here, we propose a factor-based experimental design approach that enables scientists to easily create large-scale experiments with the help of a web-based system. We present a novel implementation of a web-based interface allowing the collection of arbitrary metadata. To exchange and edit information we provide a spreadsheet-based, humanly readable format. Subsequently, sample sheets with identifiers and metainformation for data generation facilities can be created. Data files created after measurement of the samples can be uploaded to a datastore, where they are automatically linked to the previously created experimental design model.

  5. A Bayesian active learning strategy for sequential experimental design in systems biology.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauwels, Edouard; Lajaunie, Christian; Vert, Jean-Philippe

    2014-09-26

    BackgroundDynamical models used in systems biology involve unknown kinetic parameters. Setting these parameters is a bottleneck in many modeling projects. This motivates the estimation of these parameters from empirical data. However, this estimation problem has its own difficulties, the most important one being strong ill-conditionedness. In this context, optimizing experiments to be conducted in order to better estimate a system¿s parameters provides a promising direction to alleviate the difficulty of the task.ResultsBorrowing ideas from Bayesian experimental design and active learning, we propose a new strategy for optimal experimental design in the context of kinetic parameter estimation in systems biology. We describe algorithmic choices that allow to implement this method in a computationally tractable way and make it fully automatic. Based on simulation, we show that it outperforms alternative baseline strategies, and demonstrate the benefit to consider multiple posterior modes of the likelihood landscape, as opposed to traditional schemes based on local and Gaussian approximations.ConclusionThis analysis demonstrates that our new, fully automatic Bayesian optimal experimental design strategy has the potential to support the design of experiments for kinetic parameter estimation in systems biology.

  6. Intuitive Web-Based Experimental Design for High-Throughput Biomedical Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andreas Friedrich

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Big data bioinformatics aims at drawing biological conclusions from huge and complex biological datasets. Added value from the analysis of big data, however, is only possible if the data is accompanied by accurate metadata annotation. Particularly in high-throughput experiments intelligent approaches are needed to keep track of the experimental design, including the conditions that are studied as well as information that might be interesting for failure analysis or further experiments in the future. In addition to the management of this information, means for an integrated design and interfaces for structured data annotation are urgently needed by researchers. Here, we propose a factor-based experimental design approach that enables scientists to easily create large-scale experiments with the help of a web-based system. We present a novel implementation of a web-based interface allowing the collection of arbitrary metadata. To exchange and edit information we provide a spreadsheet-based, humanly readable format. Subsequently, sample sheets with identifiers and metainformation for data generation facilities can be created. Data files created after measurement of the samples can be uploaded to a datastore, where they are automatically linked to the previously created experimental design model.

  7. Policy design in closed-loop supply chains for the integrated management of component recycling and spare parts supply in the electronics industry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schroeter, Marcus; Spengler, Thomas

    2004-02-01

    The strategy to recover components from discarded electrical and electronic equipment to obtain spare parts is promising, especially during the final service phase. In that phase, the original product is no longer produced and the sources of new parts are often limited. Controlling those closed-loop supply chains is challenging. Decision makers have to choose when to acquire discarded equipment, when to recover used parts, and when to produce new parts. We developed a generic system dynamics model that provides a test for various proposed policies to control closed-loop supply chains with parts recovery and spare-parts supply.

  8. Engineering at SLAC: Designing and constructing experimental devices for the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource - Final Paper

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Djang, Austin [SLAC National Accelerator Lab., Menlo Park, CA (United States)

    2015-08-22

    Thanks to the versatility of the beam lines at SSRL, research there is varied and benefits multiple fields. Each experiment requires a particular set of experiment equipment, which in turns requires its own particular assembly. As such, new engineering challenges arise from each new experiment. My role as an engineering intern has been to help solve these challenges, by designing and assembling experimental devices. My first project was to design a heated sample holder, which will be used to investigate the effect of temperature on a sample's x-ray diffraction pattern. My second project was to help set up an imaging test, which involved designing a cooled grating holder and assembling multiple positioning stages. My third project was designing a 3D-printed pencil holder for the SSRL workstations.

  9. Experimental Design and Data Analysis of In Vivo Fluorescence Imaging Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Ying; Lin, Hui-Min

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this chapter is to provide researchers who conduct in vivo fluorescence imaging studies with guidance in statistical aspects in the experimental design and data analysis of such studies. In the first half of this chapter, we introduce the key statistical components for designing a sound in vivo experiment. Particular emphasis is placed on the issues and designs that pertain to fluorescence imaging studies. Examples representing several popular types of fluorescence imaging experiments are provided as case studies to demonstrate how to appropriately design such studies. In the second half of this chapter, we explain the fundamental statistical concepts and methods used in the data analysis of typical in vivo experiments. We also provide specific examples in in vivo imaging studies to illustrate the key steps of analysis procedure.

  10. Design, Evaluation and Experimental Effort Toward Development of a High Strain Composite Wing for Navy Aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruno, Joseph; Libeskind, Mark

    1990-01-01

    This design development effort addressed significant technical issues concerning the use and benefits of high strain composite wing structures (Epsilon(sub ult) = 6000 micro-in/in) for future Navy aircraft. These issues were concerned primarily with the structural integrity and durability of the innovative design concepts and manufacturing techniques which permitted a 50 percent increase in design ultimate strain level (while maintaining the same fiber/resin system) as well as damage tolerance and survivability requirements. An extensive test effort consisting of a progressive series of coupon and major element tests was an integral part of this development effort, and culminated in the design, fabrication and test of a major full-scale wing box component. The successful completion of the tests demonstrated the structural integrity, durability and benefits of the design. Low energy impact testing followed by fatigue cycling verified the damage tolerance concepts incorporated within the structure. Finally, live fire ballistic testing confirmed the survivability of the design. The potential benefits of combining newer/emerging composite materials and new or previously developed high strain wing design to maximize structural efficiency and reduce fabrication costs was the subject of subsequent preliminary design and experimental evaluation effort.

  11. A Sino-Finnish initiative for experimental teaching practices using the Design Factory pedagogical platform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Björklund, Tua A.; Nordström, Katrina M.; Clavert, Maria

    2013-10-01

    The paper presents a Sino-Finnish teaching initiative, including the design and experiences of a series of pedagogical workshops implemented at the Aalto-Tongji Design Factory (DF), Shanghai, China, and the experimentation plans collected from the 54 attending professors and teachers. The workshops aimed to encourage trying out interdisciplinary hands-on teaching, and enable teachers to implement their ideas for teaching development utilising the DF pedagogical platform. The majority of the participants planned teaching experimentations aiming at enhancing student understanding of curricula through various group exercises utilising concrete artefacts, but found their implementation within established practices quite challenging, highlighting the challenges of transforming strategic collaboration into grass-root activity. However, the workshops ignited widespread interest in a continuum of collaboration in teaching development, and the DF has since acted as a hub for the implementation of subsequent internationalisation efforts of the two universities, including establishing a dual-degree programme.

  12. Increased performance in a bottom-up designed robot by experimentally guided redesign

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jørgen Christian

    2013-01-01

    Purpose – Using a bottom-up, model-free approach when building robots is often seen as a less scientific way, compared to a top-down model-based approach, because the results are not easily generalizable to other systems. The authors, however, hypothesize that this problem may be addressed by using...... solid experimental methods. The purpose of this paper is to show how well-known experimental methods from bio-mechanics are used to measure and locate weaknesses in a bottom-up, model-free implementation of a quadruped walker and come up with a better solution. Design/methodology/approach – To study...... the bottom-up, mode-free approach, the authors used the robotic construction kit, LocoKit. This construction kit allows researchers to construct legged robots, without having a mathematical model beforehand. The authors used no specific mathematical model to design the robot, but instead used intuition...

  13. Self-healing in segmented metallized film capacitors: Experimental and theoretical investigations for engineering design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belko, V. O.; Emelyanov, O. A.

    2016-01-01

    A significant increase in the efficiency of modern metallized film capacitors has been achieved by the application of special segmented nanometer-thick electrodes. The proper design of the electrode segmentation guarantees the best efficiency of the capacitor's self-healing (SH) ability. Meanwhile, the reported theoretical and experimental results have not led to the commonly accepted model of the SH process, since the experimental SH dissipated energy value is several times higher than the calculated one. In this paper, we show that the difference is caused by the heat outflow into polymer film. Based on this, a mathematical model of the metallized electrode destruction is developed. These insights in turn are leading to a better understanding of the SH development. The adequacy of the model is confirmed by both the experiments and the numerical calculations. A procedure of optimal segmented electrode design is offered.

  14. Theoretical and Experimental Investigation of Mufflers with Comments on Engine-Exhaust Muffler Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Don D , Jr; Stokes, George M; Moore, Dewey; Stevens, George L , Jr

    1954-01-01

    Equations are presented for the attenuation characteristics of single-chamber and multiple-chamber mufflers of both the expansion-chamber and resonator types, for tuned side-branch tubes, and for the combination of an expansion chamber with a resonator. Experimental curves of attenuation plotted against frequency are presented for 77 different mufflers with a reflection-free tailpipe termination. The experiments were made at room temperature without flow; the sound source was a loud-speaker. A method is given for including the tailpipe reflections in the calculations. Experimental attenuation curves are presented for four different muffler-tailpipe combinations, and the results are compared with the theory. The application of the theory to the design of engine-exhaust mufflers is discussed, and charts are included for the assistance of the designer.

  15. Towards an optimal experimental design for N2O model calibration during biological nitrogen removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domingo Felez, Carlos; Valverde Pérez, Borja; Plósz, Benedek G.

    Process models describing nitrous oxide (N2O) production during biological nitrogen removal allow for the development of mitigation strategies of this potent greenhouse gas. N2O is an intermediate of nitrogen removal, hence its prediction is negatively affected by the uncertainty associated to its...... substrates. Improving experimental designs for model calibration reduces prediction uncertainties. Moreover, the individual analysis of autotrophic and heterotrophic contribution to the total NO and N2O pool was assessed for already proposed model structures under different experimental scenarios....... The results show the need for information-rich experiemental designs to assess the predicting capabilities of N2O models. This work represents a step further in understanding the N2O production and emissions associated to conventional wastewater treatment. Moreovere, it will facilitate the development...

  16. The Impact of Diagnostic Code Misclassification on Optimizing the Experimental Design of Genetic Association Studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J. Schrodi

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Diagnostic codes within electronic health record systems can vary widely in accuracy. It has been noted that the number of instances of a particular diagnostic code monotonically increases with the accuracy of disease phenotype classification. As a growing number of health system databases become linked with genomic data, it is critically important to understand the effect of this misclassification on the power of genetic association studies. Here, I investigate the impact of this diagnostic code misclassification on the power of genetic association studies with the aim to better inform experimental designs using health informatics data. The trade-off between (i reduced misclassification rates from utilizing additional instances of a diagnostic code per individual and (ii the resulting smaller sample size is explored, and general rules are presented to improve experimental designs.

  17. Development and in vitro evaluation of furosemide transdermal formulations using experimental design techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agyralides, Gregorios G; Dallas, Paraskevas P; Rekkas, Dimitrios M

    2004-08-20

    The in vitro skin permeation of furosemide, a commonly used loop diuretic, through human epidermis, as a preliminary step towards the development of a transdermal therapeutic system, was examined. A screening study was carried out, in order to estimate the effects of the type, the concentration of enhancer and the concentration of gelling agent on the cumulative amount of furosemide permeated through human epidermis, using a 3(3) factorial design. The type and the concentration of enhancer were further evaluated as they were found to affect significantly furosemide permeation. In order to further increase the amount of the drug permeated, the combination of two enhancers, Azone and oleyl alcohol, at three concentration levels was employed, using an optimization technique. The results indicated that higher amounts of furosemide permeated were observed when Azone was used at 5.0-6.5% (v/v) and oleyl alcohol at 7.5-9% (v/v), in the gels used. These formulations seem to be suitable for possible transdermal delivery of furosemide for pediatric use.

  18. Experimental design and analysis for accelerated degradation tests with Li-ion cells.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doughty, Daniel Harvey; Thomas, Edward Victor; Jungst, Rudolph George; Roth, Emanuel Peter

    2003-08-01

    This document describes a general protocol (involving both experimental and data analytic aspects) that is designed to be a roadmap for rapidly obtaining a useful assessment of the average lifetime (at some specified use conditions) that might be expected from cells of a particular design. The proposed experimental protocol involves a series of accelerated degradation experiments. Through the acquisition of degradation data over time specified by the experimental protocol, an unambiguous assessment of the effects of accelerating factors (e.g., temperature and state of charge) on various measures of the health of a cell (e.g., power fade and capacity fade) will result. In order to assess cell lifetime, it is necessary to develop a model that accurately predicts degradation over a range of the experimental factors. In general, it is difficult to specify an appropriate model form without some preliminary analysis of the data. Nevertheless, assuming that the aging phenomenon relates to a chemical reaction with simple first-order rate kinetics, a data analysis protocol is also provided to construct a useful model that relates performance degradation to the levels of the accelerating factors. This model can then be used to make an accurate assessment of the average cell lifetime. The proposed experimental and data analysis protocols are illustrated with a case study involving the effects of accelerated aging on the power output from Gen-2 cells. For this case study, inadequacies of the simple first-order kinetics model were observed. However, a more complex model allowing for the effects of two concurrent mechanisms provided an accurate representation of the experimental data.

  19. Design of Passive Acoustic Wave Shaping Devices and Their Experimental Validation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Rasmus Ellebæk; Sigmund, Ole; Fernandez Grande, Efren

    We discuss a topology optimization based approach for designing passive acoustic wave shaping devices and demonstrate its application to; directional sound emission [1], sound focusing and wave splitting. Optimized devices, numerical and experimental results are presented and benchmarked against...... by the Helmholtz equation. An exterior 2D model domain is used and an array of point sources is considered as sound emitters. The optimization goal is to identify a distribution of solid material in a design sub-domain which produces a desired spatial sound feld pattern across a frequency band of interest...

  20. An Effective Experimental Optimization Method for Wireless Power Transfer System Design Using Frequency Domain Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sangyeong Jeong

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper proposes an experimental optimization method for a wireless power transfer (WPT system. The power transfer characteristics of a WPT system with arbitrary loads and various types of coupling and compensation networks can be extracted by frequency domain measurements. The various performance parameters of the WPT system, such as input real/imaginary/apparent power, power factor, efficiency, output power and voltage gain, can be accurately extracted in a frequency domain by a single passive measurement. Subsequently, the design parameters can be efficiently tuned by separating the overall design steps into two parts. The extracted performance parameters of the WPT system were validated with time-domain experiments.

  1. Design, Analysis, Prototyping, and Experimental Evaluation of an Efficient Double Coil Magnetorheological Valve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guoliang Hu

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available A double coil magnetorheological (MR valve with an outer annular resistance gap was designed and prototyped. The finite element modeling and analysis of double coil MR valve were carried out using ANSYS/Emag software, and the optimal magnetic field distribution and magnetic flux density of the double coil MR valve were achieved. The mechanism of the pressure drop was studied by building a mathematical model of pressure drop in the double coil MR valve. The proposed double coil MR valve was prototyped and its performance was experimentally evaluated. The new MR valve design has improved the efficiency of double coil MR valve significantly.

  2. Performance of Different Experimental Absorber Designs in Absorption Heat Pump Cycle Technologies: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan Ibarra-Bahena

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The absorber is a major component of absorption cycle systems, and its performance directly impacts the overall size and energy supplies of these devices. Absorption cooling and heating cycles have different absorber design requirements: in absorption cooling systems, the absorber works close to ambient temperature, therefore, the mass transfer is the most important phenomenon in order to reduce the generator size; on the other hand, in heat transformer absorption systems, is important to recover the heat delivered by exothermic reactions produced in the absorber. In this paper a review of the main experimental results of different absorber designs reported in absorption heat pump cycles is presented.

  3. Optimizing laboratory animal stress paradigms: The H-H* experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCarty, Richard

    2017-01-01

    Major advances in behavioral neuroscience have been facilitated by the development of consistent and highly reproducible experimental paradigms that have been widely adopted. In contrast, many different experimental approaches have been employed to expose laboratory mice and rats to acute versus chronic intermittent stress. An argument is advanced in this review that more consistent approaches to the design of chronic intermittent stress experiments would provide greater reproducibility of results across laboratories and greater reliability relating to various neural, endocrine, immune, genetic, and behavioral adaptations. As an example, the H-H* experimental design incorporates control, homotypic (H), and heterotypic (H*) groups and allows for comparisons across groups, where each animal is exposed to the same stressor, but that stressor has vastly different biological and behavioral effects depending upon each animal's prior stress history. Implementation of the H-H* experimental paradigm makes possible a delineation of transcriptional changes and neural, endocrine, and immune pathways that are activated in precisely defined stressor contexts. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Life on rock. Scaling down biological weathering in a new experimental design at Biosphere-2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaharescu, D. G.; Dontsova, K.; Burghelea, C. I.; Chorover, J.; Maier, R.; Perdrial, J. N.

    2012-12-01

    Biological colonization and weathering of bedrock on Earth is a major driver of landscape and ecosystem development, its effects reaching out into other major systems such climate and geochemical cycles of elements. In order to understand how microbe-plant-mycorrhizae communities interact with bedrock in the first phases of mineral weathering we developed a novel experimental design in the Desert Biome at Biosphere-2, University of Arizona (U.S.A). This presentation will focus on the development of the experimental setup. Briefly, six enclosed modules were designed to hold 288 experimental columns that will accommodate 4 rock types and 6 biological treatments. Each module is developed on 3 levels. A lower volume, able to withstand the weight of both, rock material and the rest of the structure, accommodates the sampling elements. A middle volume, houses the experimental columns in a dark chamber. A clear, upper section forms the habitat exposed to sunlight. This volume is completely sealed form exterior and it allows a complete control of its air and water parameters. All modules are connected in parallel with a double air purification system that delivers a permanent air flow. This setup is expected to provide a model experiment, able to test important processes in the interaction rock-life at grain-to- molecular scale.

  5. Advanced Laboratory at Texas State University: Error Analysis, Experimental Design, and Research Experience for Undergraduates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ventrice, Carl

    2009-04-01

    Physics is an experimental science. In other words, all physical laws are based on experimentally observable phenomena. Therefore, it is important that all physics students have an understanding of the limitations of certain experimental techniques and the associated errors associated with a particular measurement. The students in the Advanced Laboratory class at Texas State perform three detailed laboratory experiments during the semester and give an oral presentation at the end of the semester on a scientific topic of their choosing. The laboratory reports are written in the format of a ``Physical Review'' journal article. The experiments are chosen to give the students a detailed background in error analysis and experimental design. For instance, the first experiment performed in the spring 2009 semester is entitled Measurement of the local acceleration due to gravity in the RFM Technology and Physics Building. The goal of this experiment is to design and construct an instrument that is to be used to measure the local gravitational field in the Physics Building to an accuracy of ±0.005 m/s^2. In addition, at least one of the experiments chosen each semester involves the use of the research facilities within the physics department (e.g., microfabrication clean room, surface science lab, thin films lab, etc.), which gives the students experience working in a research environment.

  6. Optimization Of Freeze-Dried Starter For Yogurt By Full Factorial Experimental Design

    OpenAIRE

    Chen He; Niu Jinfeng; Shu Guowei; Wan Hongchang

    2015-01-01

    With the rapidly development of fermented milk product, it is significant for enhancing the performance of starter culture. This paper not only investigated the influence of anti-freeze factors and freeze-drying protective agents on viable count, freeze-drying survival rate and yield of Lactobacillus bulgaricus (LB) and Streptococcus thermophilus (ST), but also optimized the bacteria proportion of freeze-dried starter culture for yogurt by full factorial experimental design. The results showe...

  7. Design and Implementation of a Control System for Testing an Experimental Electrical Vehicle

    OpenAIRE

    Miranda Bermejo, Jorge

    2010-01-01

    The Research Institute of Vehicle Engines and Automotive Engineering (IVK) at the University of Stuttgart is developing an experimental electric vehicle. With that vehicle different research topics in the scope of e-mobility will be investigated. Some of these topics are range prediction and optimization issues, adapted control of inverter and electric motor, as well as, different battery charging techniques. The aim of this master thesis is to design and to implement the contr...

  8. Design of an experimental setup for hydro-kinetic energy conversion

    OpenAIRE

    Grabbe, Mårten; Yuen, Katarina; Goude, Anders; Lalander, Emilia; Leijon, Mats

    2009-01-01

    A hydro-kinetic energy project has been underway in Sweden since 2000, and an in-stream prototype setup for experiments at a site in a Swedish river is now in progress. The system comprises a vertical axis turbine and a directly driven permanent magnet generator. Methods and choices used in designing the system are described here. The turbine and generator are evaluated based on measurements and CFD simulations of conditions at the site for the experimental setup.

  9. Chemometrics in analytical chemistry-part I: history, experimental design and data analysis tools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brereton, Richard G; Jansen, Jeroen; Lopes, João; Marini, Federico; Pomerantsev, Alexey; Rodionova, Oxana; Roger, Jean Michel; Walczak, Beata; Tauler, Romà

    2017-10-01

    Chemometrics has achieved major recognition and progress in the analytical chemistry field. In the first part of this tutorial, major achievements and contributions of chemometrics to some of the more important stages of the analytical process, like experimental design, sampling, and data analysis (including data pretreatment and fusion), are summarised. The tutorial is intended to give a general updated overview of the chemometrics field to further contribute to its dissemination and promotion in analytical chemistry.

  10. Numerical and experimental hydrodynamic analysis of suction cup bio-logging tag designs for marine mammals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murray, Mark; Shorter, Alex; Howle, Laurens; Johnson, Mark; Moore, Michael

    2012-11-01

    The improvement and miniaturization of sensing technologies has made bio-logging tags, utilized for the study of marine mammal behavior, more practical. These sophisticated sensing packages require a housing which protects the electronics from the environment and provides a means of attachment to the animal. The hydrodynamic forces on these housings can inadvertently remove the tag or adversely affect the behavior or energetics of the animal. A modification to the original design of a suction cup bio-logging tag housing was desired to minimize the adverse forces. In this work, hydrodynamic loading of two suction cup tag designs, original and modified designs, were analyzed using computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models and validated experimentally. Overall, the simulation and experimental results demonstrated that a tag housing that minimized geometric disruptions to the flow reduced drag forces, and that a tag housing with a small frontal cross-sectional area close to the attachment surface reduced lift forces. Preliminary results from experimental work with a common dolphin cadaver indicates that the suction cups used to attach the tags to the animal provide sufficient attachment force to resist failure at predicted drag and lift forces in 10 m/s flow.

  11. Control analysis and experimental verification of a practical dc–dc boost converter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saswati Swapna Dash

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents detailed open loop and closed loop analysis on boost dc–dc converter for both voltage mode control and current mode control. Here the boost dc–dc converter is a practical converter considering all possible parasitic elements like ESR and on state voltage drops. The open loop control, closed loop current mode control and voltage mode control are verified. The comparative study of all control techniques is presented. The PI compensator for closed loop current mode control is designed using these classical techniques like root locus technique and bode diagram. The simulation results are validated with the experimental results of voltage mode control for both open loop and closed loop control.

  12. Advanced computational tools for PEM fuel cell design. Part 2. Detailed experimental validation and parametric study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sui, P. C.; Kumar, S.; Djilali, N.

    This paper reports on the systematic experimental validation of a comprehensive 3D CFD-based computational model presented and documented in Part 1. Simulations for unit cells with straight channels, similar to the Ballard Mk902 hardware, are performed and analyzed in conjunction with detailed current mapping measurements and water mass distributions in the membrane-electrode assembly. The experiments were designed to display sensitivity of the cell over a range of operating parameters including current density, humidification, and coolant temperature, making the data particularly well suited for systematic validation. Based on the validation and analysis of the predictions, values of model parameters, including the electro-osmotic drag coefficient, capillary diffusion coefficient, and catalyst specific surface area are determined adjusted to fit experimental data of current density and MEA water content. The predicted net water flux out of the anode (normalized by the total water generated) increases as anode humidification water flow rate is increased, in agreement with experimental results. A modification of the constitutive equation for the capillary diffusivity of water in the porous electrodes that attempts to incorporate the experimentally observed immobile (or irreducible) saturation yields a better fit of the predicted MEA water mass with experimental data. The specific surface area parameter used in the catalyst layer model is found to be effective in tuning the simulations to predict the correct cell voltage over a range of stoichiometries.

  13. Experimental design for efficient identification of gene regulatory networks using sparse Bayesian models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsuda Koji

    2007-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Identifying large gene regulatory networks is an important task, while the acquisition of data through perturbation experiments (e.g., gene switches, RNAi, heterozygotes is expensive. It is thus desirable to use an identification method that effectively incorporates available prior knowledge – such as sparse connectivity – and that allows to design experiments such that maximal information is gained from each one. Results Our main contributions are twofold: a method for consistent inference of network structure is provided, incorporating prior knowledge about sparse connectivity. The algorithm is time efficient and robust to violations of model assumptions. Moreover, we show how to use it for optimal experimental design, reducing the number of required experiments substantially. We employ sparse linear models, and show how to perform full Bayesian inference for these. We not only estimate a single maximum likelihood network, but compute a posterior distribution over networks, using a novel variant of the expectation propagation method. The representation of uncertainty enables us to do effective experimental design in a standard statistical setting: experiments are selected such that the experiments are maximally informative. Conclusion Few methods have addressed the design issue so far. Compared to the most well-known one, our method is more transparent, and is shown to perform qualitatively superior. In the former, hard and unrealistic constraints have to be placed on the network structure for mere computational tractability, while such are not required in our method. We demonstrate reconstruction and optimal experimental design capabilities on tasks generated from realistic non-linear network simulators. The methods described in the paper are available as a Matlab package at http://www.kyb.tuebingen.mpg.de/sparselinearmodel.

  14. Design of passive directional acoustic devices using Topology Optimization - from method to experimental validation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christiansen, Rasmus E; Fernandez-Grande, Efren

    2016-11-01

    The paper presents a topology optimization based method for designing acoustic focusing devices, capable of tailoring the sound emission pattern of one or several sources, across a chosen frequency band. The method is demonstrated numerically considering devices optimized for directional sound emission in two dimensions and is experimentally validated using three dimensional prints of the optimized designs. The emitted fields exhibit a level difference of at least 15 dB on axis relative to the off-axis directions, over frequency bands of approximately an octave. It is demonstrated to be possible to design focusing devices of dimensions comparable to the acoustic wavelength, a frequency range which is typically problematic, as well as devices operating at higher frequencies. The classical parabolic reflector is used as a benchmark. The devices designed using the proposed method are shown to outperform the latter in terms of directivity and maximum side-lobe level over nearly an octave band. A set of frequencies are considered simultaneously in the design formulation and performance robustness toward uniform spatial production errors in the designed devices is assured by including perturbations of the geometry in the design formulation.

  15. Effect of glenoid implant design on glenohumeral stability: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sins, Lauranne; Tétreault, Patrice; Petit, Yvan; Nuño, Natalia; Billuart, Fabien; Hagemeister, Nicola

    2012-10-01

    Though several glenoid implants were developed over the past years, a high rate of glenoid loosening remains. This complication is linked to the glenohumeral stability, defined as humeral head translation. In an intact shoulder, this concept is ensured by all active and passive elements, particularly the labrum. Two features of a glenoid implant can be adjusted to improve the stability, or, in other words, to decrease the translations: the first is the mismatch, defined as the difference of curvature between the prosthetic head and glenoid; the second is the shape of the glenoid component. Therefore, the objective of this study was to compare the performance of 2 glenoid components (Ceraver, Roissy, France): (1) a standard design and (2) a design named "labrum design" with a superior part simulating the anatomic labrum. An experimental device was developed to evaluate forces and kinematics. The device simulated active, dynamic and continuous abduction of an entire arm. It reproduced the Scapulo-Humeral Rhythm. The labrum design was installed first. To evaluate the effect of mismatch on the glenohumeral stability, 3 humeral heads were tested, corresponding to the ones recommended by the company. The experiment was repeated for the standard design. The results obtained show a general decrease of the prosthetic head translation with the labrum design compared to the standard design. No noticeable effect of mismatch was found. A proof of concept of the interest of the artificial labrum was provided since it improved the glenohumeral stability. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Experimental design and Bayesian networks for enhancement of delta-endotoxin production by Bacillus thuringiensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ennouri, Karim; Ayed, Rayda Ben; Hassen, Hanen Ben; Mazzarello, Maura; Ottaviani, Ennio

    2015-12-01

    Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) is a Gram-positive bacterium. The entomopathogenic activity of Bt is related to the existence of the crystal consisting of protoxins, also called delta-endotoxins. In order to optimize and explain the production of delta-endotoxins of Bacillus thuringiensis kurstaki, we studied seven medium components: soybean meal, starch, KH₂PO₄, K₂HPO₄, FeSO₄, MnSO₄, and MgSO₄and their relationships with the concentration of delta-endotoxins using an experimental design (Plackett-Burman design) and Bayesian networks modelling. The effects of the ingredients of the culture medium on delta-endotoxins production were estimated. The developed model showed that different medium components are important for the Bacillus thuringiensis fermentation. The most important factors influenced the production of delta-endotoxins are FeSO₄, K2HPO₄, starch and soybean meal. Indeed, it was found that soybean meal, K₂HPO₄, KH₂PO₄and starch also showed positive effect on the delta-endotoxins production. However, FeSO4 and MnSO4 expressed opposite effect. The developed model, based on Bayesian techniques, can automatically learn emerging models in data to serve in the prediction of delta-endotoxins concentrations. The constructed model in the present study implies that experimental design (Plackett-Burman design) joined with Bayesian networks method could be used for identification of effect variables on delta-endotoxins variation.

  17. Managing Model Data Introduced Uncertainties in Simulator Predictions for Generation IV Systems via Optimum Experimental Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Turinsky, Paul J [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Abdel-Khalik, Hany S [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States); Stover, Tracy E [North Carolina State Univ., Raleigh, NC (United States)

    2011-03-01

    An optimization technique has been developed to select optimized experimental design specifications to produce data specifically designed to be assimilated to optimize a given reactor concept. Data from the optimized experiment is assimilated to generate posteriori uncertainties on the reactor concept’s core attributes from which the design responses are computed. The reactor concept is then optimized with the new data to realize cost savings by reducing margin. The optimization problem iterates until an optimal experiment is found to maximize the savings. A new generation of innovative nuclear reactor designs, in particular fast neutron spectrum recycle reactors, are being considered for the application of closing the nuclear fuel cycle in the future. Safe and economical design of these reactors will require uncertainty reduction in basic nuclear data which are input to the reactor design. These data uncertainty propagate to design responses which in turn require the reactor designer to incorporate additional safety margin into the design, which often increases the cost of the reactor. Therefore basic nuclear data needs to be improved and this is accomplished through experimentation. Considering the high cost of nuclear experiments, it is desired to have an optimized experiment which will provide the data needed for uncertainty reduction such that a reactor design concept can meet its target accuracies or to allow savings to be realized by reducing the margin required due to uncertainty propagated from basic nuclear data. However, this optimization is coupled to the reactor design itself because with improved data the reactor concept can be re-optimized itself. It is thus desired to find the experiment that gives the best optimized reactor design. Methods are first established to model both the reactor concept and the experiment and to efficiently propagate the basic nuclear data uncertainty through these models to outputs. The representativity of the experiment

  18. Transient modelling of a natural circulation loop under variable pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vianna, Andre L.B.; Faccini, Jose L.H.; Su, Jian, E-mail: avianna@nuclear.ufrj.br, E-mail: sujian@nuclear.ufrj.br, E-mail: faccini@ien.gov.br [Coordenacao de Pos-Graduacao e Pesquisa de Engenharia (COPPE/UFRJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Programa de Engenharia Nuclear; Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (IEN/CNEN-RJ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Lab. de Termo-Hidraulica Experimental

    2017-07-01

    The objective of the present work is to model the transient operation of a natural circulation loop, which is one-tenth scale in height to a typical Passive Residual Heat Removal system (PRHR) of an Advanced Pressurized Water Nuclear Reactor and was designed to meet the single and two-phase flow similarity criteria to it. The loop consists of a core barrel with electrically heated rods, upper and lower plena interconnected by hot and cold pipe legs to a seven-tube shell heat exchanger of countercurrent design, and an expansion tank with a descending tube. A long transient characterized the loop operation, during which a phenomenon of self-pressurization, without self-regulation of the pressure, was experimentally observed. This represented a unique situation, named natural circulation under variable pressure (NCVP). The self-pressurization was originated in the air trapped in the expansion tank and compressed by the loop water dilatation, as it heated up during each experiment. The mathematical model, initially oriented to the single-phase flow, included the heat capacity of the structure and employed a cubic polynomial approximation for the density, in the buoyancy term calculation. The heater was modelled taking into account the different heat capacities of the heating elements and the heater walls. The heat exchanger was modelled considering the coolant heating, during the heat exchanging process. The self-pressurization was modelled as an isentropic compression of a perfect gas. The whole model was computationally implemented via a set of finite difference equations. The corresponding computational algorithm of solution was of the explicit, marching type, as for the time discretization, in an upwind scheme, regarding the space discretization. The computational program was implemented in MATLAB. Several experiments were carried out in the natural circulation loop, having the coolant flow rate and the heating power as control parameters. The variables used in the

  19. The influence of the design matrix on treatment effect estimates in the quantitative analyses of single-subject experimental design research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moeyaert, Mariola; Ugille, Maaike; Ferron, John M; Beretvas, S Natasha; Van den Noortgate, Wim

    2014-09-01

    The quantitative methods for analyzing single-subject experimental data have expanded during the last decade, including the use of regression models to statistically analyze the data, but still a lot of questions remain. One question is how to specify predictors in a regression model to account for the specifics of the design and estimate the effect size of interest. These quantitative effect sizes are used in retrospective analyses and allow synthesis of single-subject experimental study results which is informative for evidence-based decision making, research and theory building, and policy discussions. We discuss different design matrices that can be used for the most common single-subject experimental designs (SSEDs), namely, the multiple-baseline designs, reversal designs, and alternating treatment designs, and provide empirical illustrations. The purpose of this article is to guide single-subject experimental data analysts interested in analyzing and meta-analyzing SSED data. © The Author(s) 2014.

  20. Supercritical water loop for in-pile materials testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruzickova, M.; Vsolak, R.; Hajek, P.; Zychova, M.; Fukac, R. [Research Centre Rez Ltd., Husinec-Rez (Czech Republic)

    2011-07-01

    The Supercritical Water Loop (SCWL) has been designed and built within the HPLWR Phase 2 project, with the objective of testing materials under supercritical water conditions and radiation. The design parameters are set to 25MPa and 600{sup o}C in the testing area, where material samples shall be located. The loop has recently undergone pressure and leakage tests, during which the strength and tightness of the loop were proved. The loop has been also subjected to the first trial operation at nearly maximum operating parameters (temperature 550 {sup o}C was reached); loop operation was steady during several days. Presently, loop operation is envisaged in order to test the loop's long term operation ability. Samples of a material that needs further testing under out- of-pile conditions shall be exposed in the loop; the choice shall be made in agreement with the results of the WP4 - Materials of the HPLWR Phase 2 project. (author)