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Sample records for experimental carbon monoxide

  1. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Education Centers Carbon Monoxide Information Center Carbon Monoxide Information Center En Español The Invisible Killer Carbon monoxide, ... Install one and check its batteries regularly. View Information About CO Alarms Other CO Topics Safety Tips ...

  2. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Center Carbon Monoxide Information Center En Español The Invisible Killer Carbon monoxide, also known as CO, is called the "Invisible Killer" because it's a colorless, odorless, poisonous gas. ...

  3. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... main content Languages 简体中文 English Bahasa Indonesia 한국어 Español ภาษาไทย Tiếng Việt Text Size: Decrease Font Increase ... Monoxide Information Center Carbon Monoxide Information Center En Español The Invisible Killer Carbon monoxide, also known as ...

  4. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Safety Blogs: CO Safety More CO Blogs Research & Statistics JANUARY 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths ... 2011 Annual Estimates View All CO-Related Injury Statistics and Technical Reports Related Links Recalls Safety Education ...

  5. Carbon Monoxide Nonattainment Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — This data layer identifies areas in the U.S. where air pollution levels have not met the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) for Carbon Monoxide and have...

  6. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Import Surveillance International Recall Guidance Civil and Criminal Penalties Federal Court Orders & ... 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths Associated with the Use of Consumer Products 2012 ...

  7. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... vented fuel-burning appliances such as furnaces, stoves, water heaters and fireplaces. Watch This Video View CO ... Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths Associated with the Use of Consumer Products 2012 Annual Estimates OCTOBER 13, ...

  8. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths Associated with the Use of Consumer Products 2011 Annual Estimates View All CO-Related Injury Statistics and ... Fear Act Data USA.gov Report an Unsafe Product Contact Us: ...

  9. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION Search CPSC Search Menu Home Recalls Recall List CPSC Recall API Recall Lawsuits ... and Bans Report an Unsafe Product Consumers Businesses Home Safety Education Safety Education Centers Carbon Monoxide Information ...

  10. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... United States CONSUMER PRODUCT SAFETY COMMISSION Search CPSC ... and In-Depth Investigations Associated with Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide from Engine-Driven Generators and Other Engine-Driven Tools, 2004– ...

  11. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... On Safety Blogs: CO Safety More CO Blogs Research & Statistics JANUARY 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide ... Related Links Recalls Safety Education Regulations, Laws & Standards Research & Statistics Business & Manufacturing Small Business Resources OnSafety Blogs ...

  12. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Unites States die every year from accidental non-fire related CO poisoning associated with consumer products, including ... CO Blogs Research & Statistics JANUARY 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths Associated with the Use of ...

  13. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... and Bans Report an Unsafe Product Consumers Businesses Home Safety Education Safety Education Centers Carbon Monoxide Information Center Carbon ... All CO Safety Guides ")); jQuery(".node-type-safety-education-center ... Camping Equipment Home Heating Equipment On Safety Blogs: CO Safety More ...

  14. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... 2014 JANUARY 08, 2015 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths Associated with the Use of Consumer Products 2011 Annual Estimates View All CO-Related Injury Statistics and Technical Reports Related Links Recalls Safety Education Regulations, Laws & Standards Research & Statistics Business & Manufacturing Small ...

  15. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... On Safety Blogs: CO Safety More CO Blogs Research & Statistics JANUARY 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide ... Website Feedback Connect with Us: Facebook Instagram YouTube Twitter Blog SlideShare GooglePlus Flickr Report an Unsafe Product ...

  16. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... of Consumer Products 2012 Annual Estimates OCTOBER 13, 2015 Incidents, Deaths, and In-Depth Investigations Associated with ... Other Engine-Driven Tools, 2004–2014 JANUARY 08, 2015 Non-Fire Carbon Monoxide Deaths Associated with the ...

  17. Light irradiation for treatment of acute carbon monoxide poisoning: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Taku; Kashimura, Takeshi; Ise, Marii; Lohman, Brandon D; Taira, Yasuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Because treatment modalities for carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, especially normobaric oxygen and hyperbaric oxygen therapies, have limited effects and hyperbaric oxygen is not available at the scene where treatment is most needed, we conducted a study to determine and compare rates of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) dissociation achieved in human in vitro blood samples under light radiation emitted at three levels of illuminance. This was done with a view toward eventual on-site application. We drew blood from 10 volunteers, prepared 10 red blood cell solutions, and subjected each solution to a CO bubbling procedure to increase the COHb saturation. Samples of each bubbled solution were then divided between 3 beakers (beakers A, B, and C) for a total of 30 beakers. The solution in each beaker was exposed to a continuous flow of oxygen at 50 mL/min, and simultaneously for a period of 15 min, the beaker A and B solutions were irradiated with light emitted at 500,000 and 100,000 lux, respectively, from a halogen light source. The beaker C solutions were exposed to room light. At 3, 6, 9, 12, and 15 min, a 50-μL sample was pipetted from each of the 30 beakers for determination of its light absorbance and the COHb dissociation rate. Under each of the experimental conditions, dissociation progressed but at different rates, and starting at 3 min, the differences in rates between conditions were significant (P poisoning.

  18. Light irradiation for treatment of acute carbon monoxide poisoning: an experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Tanaka, Taku; Kashimura, Takeshi; Ise, Marii; Lohman, Brandon D.; Taira, Yasuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Background Because treatment modalities for carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, especially normobaric oxygen and hyperbaric oxygen therapies, have limited effects and hyperbaric oxygen is not available at the scene where treatment is most needed, we conducted a study to determine and compare rates of carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) dissociation achieved in human in vitro blood samples under light radiation emitted at three levels of illuminance. This was done with a view toward eventual on-site applicat...

  19. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Job Opportunities Inspector General Regulations, Laws & Standards ... monoxide, also known as CO, is called the "Invisible Killer" because it's a colorless, odorless, poisonous gas. More than 150 people in the Unites States ...

  20. Carbon Monoxide Silicate Reduction System, Phase I

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Carbon Monoxide Silicate Reduction System (COSRS) is an innovative method that for the first time uses the strong reductant carbon monoxide to both reduce iron...

  1. 29 CFR 1917.24 - Carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... monoxide content of the atmosphere in a room, building, vehicle, railcar, or any enclosed space shall be... employees shall be removed from the enclosed space if the carbon monoxide concentration exceeds a ceiling of 100 ppm (0.01%). (b) Testing. Tests to determine carbon monoxide concentration shall be made when...

  2. Carbon Monoxide Information Center

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Heaters & Camping Equipment Home Heating Equipment On Safety Blogs: CO Safety More CO Blogs Research & Statistics JANUARY 07, 2016 Non-Fire Carbon ... Research & Statistics Business & Manufacturing Small Business Resources OnSafety Blogs International Newsroom About CPSC Contact Us Sitemap RSS ...

  3. Experimental-theoretical approach to carbon monoxide density calculation at the incipient stage of the fire indoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puzach, S. V.; Suleykin, E. V.; Akperov, R. G.; Nguyen, T. D.

    2017-11-01

    A new experimental-theoretical approach to the toxic gases concentrations assessment in case of fire indoors is offered. The analytical formulas for calculation of CO average volume density are received. These formulas do not contain the geometrical sizes of the room and surfaces dimensions of combustible materials and, therefore, are valid under conditions of as a small-scale fire as a large-scale fire. A small-scale experimental installation for modeling fire thermal and gas dynamics in the closed or open thermodynamic system has been designed. The results of the experiments on determining dependencies of CO average volume density from average volume temperature and oxygen average volume density as well as dependencies of specific coefficients of CO emission and specific mass rates of the combustible material gasification from the time of tests during the burning of wood, transformer oil and PVC cables shield are presented. The results of numerical experiments on CO density calculation in small and large scale rooms using the proposed analytical solutions, integral, zone and field models for calculation of fire thermal and gas dynamics are presented. The comparison with the experimental data obtained by the authors and given in the literature has been performed. It is shown that CO density calculation in the full-scale room at the incipient stage of the fire can be carried out taking into account only the experimental dependences of CO from temperature or O2 density, that have been obtained from small-scale experiments. Therefore the solution of the equation of carbon monoxide mass conservation law is not necessary.

  4. Electrocatalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel de Jesus Santiago Farias

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available This work discusses some important aspects related to the carbon monoxide electrooxidation reaction on Pt single crystal electrodes in acidic media. The mechanistic aspects are discussed in terms of the formation of compact structures developed when CO is adsorbed. The main ideas presented here are focused on the mechanistic aspects that take into account the existence of such structures. The classical kinetic mechanisms of Lagmuir-Hinshelwood and Eley-Rideal are discussed considering the superficial mobility of CO or nucleation-growing of islands formed by oxygen-containing adsorbates.

  5. NAMMA CARBON MONOXIDE BY ATTENUATED LASER TRANSMISSION (COBALT) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NAMMA Carbon mOnoxide By Attenuated Laser Transmission (COBALT) dataset includes measurements of the carbon monoxide mixing ratio and derived carbon monoxide...

  6. A review of the experimental evidence on the toxicokinetics of carbon monoxide: the potential role of pathophysiology among susceptible groups.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barn, Prabjit; Giles, Luisa; Héroux, Marie-Eve; Kosatsky, Tom

    2018-02-05

    Acute high level carbon monoxide (CO) exposure can cause immediate cardio-respiratory arrest in anyone, but the effects of lower level exposures in susceptible persons are less well known. The percentage of CO-bound hemoglobin in blood (carboxyhemoglobin; COHb) is a marker of exposure and potential health outcomes. Indoor air quality guidelines developed by the World Health Organization and Health Canada, among others, are set so that CO exposure does not lead to COHb levels above 2.0%, a target based on experimental evidence on toxicodynamic relationships between COHb and cardiac performance among persons with cardiovascular disease (CVD). The guidelines do not consider the role of pathophysiological influences on toxicokinetic relationships. Physiological deficits that contribute to increased CO uptake, decreased CO elimination, and increased COHb formation can alter relationships between CO exposures and resulting COHb levels, and consequently, the severity of outcomes. Following three fatalities attributed to CO in a long-term care facility (LTCF), we queried whether pathologies other than CVD could alter CO-COHb relationships. Our primary objective was to inform susceptibility-specific modeling that accounts for physiological deficits that may alter CO-COHb relationships, ultimately to better inform CO management in LTCFs. We reviewed experimental studies investigating relationships between CO, COHb, and outcomes related to health or physiological outcomes among healthy persons, persons with CVD, and six additional physiologically susceptible groups considered relevant to LTCF residents: persons with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), anemia, cerebrovascular disease (CBD), heart failure, multiple co-morbidities, and persons of older age (≥ 60 years). We identified 54 studies published since 1946. Six studies investigated toxicokinetics among healthy persons, and the remaining investigated toxicodynamics, mainly among healthy persons and persons

  7. Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet İbrahim Turan

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide poisoning is a major cause of death following attempted suicide and accidental exposures. Although clinical presentation depends on the duration and the intensity of exposure, the assessment of the severity of intoxication is difficult. A small percentage of patients who show complete initial recovery may develop delayed neurological deficits. Delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning is a rare and poor prognosis neurologic disorders and there is no specific treatment. We present a case with early onset of delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning with typical cranial imaging findings in a child with atypical history and clinical presentation.

  8. An unusual case of carbon monoxide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Auger, P L; Levesque, B; Martel, R; Prud'homme, H; Bellemare, D; Barbeau, C; Lachance, P; Rhainds, M

    1999-07-01

    Carbon monoxide, a gas originating from incomplete combustion of carbon-based fuels, is an important cause of human deaths. In this paper, we describe an unusual carbon monoxide poisoning in a dwelling without obvious sources of combustion gases, for which two adults had to be treated in a hyperbaric chamber. Carbon monoxide readings were taken in the house and in the neighboring homes. Methane gas and nitrogen oxide levels were also monitored in the house air. Soil samples were collected around the house and tested for hydrocarbon residues. The investigation revealed the presence of a pocket of carbon monoxide under the foundation of the house. The first readings revealed carbon monoxide levels of 500 ppm in the basement. The contamination lasted for a week. The investigation indicated that the probable source of contamination was the use of explosives at a nearby rain sewer construction site. The use of explosives in a residential area can constitute a major source of carbon monoxide for the neighboring populations. This must be investigated, and public health authorities, primary-care physicians, governmental authorities, and users and manufacturers of explosives must be made aware of this problem.

  9. Protect Yourself from Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2007-11-20

    Learn about carbon monoxide - a colorless, odorless gas - and how to protect yourself and your family.  Created: 11/20/2007 by CDC National Center for Environmental Health.   Date Released: 12/4/2007.

  10. Carbon Monoxide Silicate Reduction System, Phase II

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The Carbon Monoxide Silicate Reduction System (COSRS) is a novel technology for producing large quantities of oxygen on the Moon. Oxygen yields of 15 kilograms per...

  11. Hearing Loss due to Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mehrparvar, Amir Houshang; Davari, Mohammad Hossein; Mollasadeghi, Abolfazl

    2013-01-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is one of the rare causes of hearing loss which may cause reversible or irreversible, unilateral or bilateral hearing loss after acute or chronic exposure. In this report, we present a case of bilateral sensorineural hearing loss in a secondary smelting workshop worker...... after an acute exposure to carbon monoxide. This complication was diagnosed by pure-tone audiometry and confirmed by transient evoked otoacoustic emissions. Hearing loss has not improved after 3 months of followup....

  12. Electrocatalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel de Jesus Santiago Farias

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho discute alguns aspectos importantes relacionados à reação de eletrooxidação do monóxido de carbono sobre monocristais de platina, em meio ácido. Aspectos mecanísticos são discutidos em termos da formação das estruturas compactas que o CO forma quando este é adsorvido. As principais idéias aqui apresentadas, levam em consideração as existências dessas estruturas. Os clássicos mecanismos Lagmuir-Hinshelwood e Eley-Rideal são aqui discutidos, especialmente o primeiro considerando a mobilidade do CO e também a nucleação e crescimento de ilhas formadas por espécies adsorvidas contendo oxigênio.////////// This work discusses some important aspects related to the carbon monoxide electrooxidation reaction on Pt single crystal electrodes in acidic media. The mechanistic aspects are discussed in terms of the formation of compact structures developed when CO is adsorbed. The main ideas presented here are focused on the mechanistic aspects that take into account the existence of such structures. The classical kinetic mechanisms of Lagmuir-Hinshelwood and Eley-Rideal are discussed considering the superficial mobility of CO or nucleation-growing of islands formed by oxygen-containing adsorbates.

  13. Unstable angina and exposure to carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balzan, M V; Cacciottolo, J M; Mifsud, S

    1994-10-01

    Inhalation of small amounts of carbon monoxide diminishes the pain threshold in patients with stable angina pectoris. The aim of this study was to identify and describe patients who had been exposed unknowingly to toxic inhalations of this gas and subsequently presented to hospital with a clinical picture of unstable angina. Blood carboxyhaemoglobin levels of 104 patients referred with unstable angina to a coronary care unit were determined on admission. The likely source of carbon monoxide was identified in all patients. Three patients had definite carbon monoxide intoxication. Another five patients had evidence of minor exposure. When the three cases with carbon monoxide poisoning were excluded, the mean carboxyhaemoglobin level was 2.5% (+/- 1.3) for smokers (n = 30) and 0.6% (+/- 0.5) for non-smokers (n = 71). Use of fossil fuel combustion in an enclosed environment was responsible for the three most serious intoxications and one of the minor cases. We suggest that a number of patients admitted for coronary care with unstable angina may have significant carbon monoxide poisoning. This intoxication is often overlooked by attending physicians with the result that high concentration oxygen therapy is not administered, when it is in fact a necessary part of treatment.

  14. Experimental and numerical investigation of laminar flame speeds of hydrogen/carbon monoxide/carbon dioxide/nitrogen mixtures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Natarajan, Jayaprakash

    Coal derived synthetic gas (syngas) fuel is a promising solution for today's increasing demand for clean and reliable power. Syngas fuels are primarily mixtures of H2 and CO, often with large amounts of diluents such as N2, CO2, and H2O. The specific composition depends upon the fuel source and gasification technique. This requires gas turbine designers to develop fuel flexible combustors capable of operating with high conversion efficiency while maintaining low emissions for a wide range of syngas tact mixtures. Design tools often used in combustor development require data on various fundamental gas combustion properties. For example, laminar flame speed is often an input as it has a significant impact upon the size and static stability of the combustor. Moreover it serves as a good validation parameter for leading kinetic models used for detailed combustion simulations. Thus the primary objective of this thesis is measurement of laminar flame speeds of syngas fuel mixtures at conditions relevant to ground-power gas turbines. To accomplish this goal, two flame speed measurement approaches were developed: a Bunsen flame approach modified to use the reaction zone area in order to reduce the influence of flame curvature on the measured flame speed and a stagnation flame approach employing a rounded bluff body. The modified Bunsen flame approach was validated against stretch-corrected approaches over a range of fuels and test conditions; the agreement is very good (less than 10% difference). Using the two measurement approaches, extensive flame speed information were obtained for lean syngas mixtures at a range of conditions: (1) 5 to 100% H2 in the H2/CO fuel mixture; (2) 300-700 K preheat temperature; (3) 1 to 15 atm pressure, and (4) 0-70% dilution with CO2 or N2. The second objective of this thesis is to use the flame speed data to validate leading kinetic mechanisms for syngas combustion. Comparisons of the experimental flame speeds to those predicted using

  15. CARBON MONOXIDE AND THE NERVOUS SYSTEM

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, tasteless, odorless, and non-irritating gas formed when carbon in fuel is not burned completely. It enters the bloodstream through the lungs and attaches to hemoglobin (Hb), the body's oxygen carrier, forming carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) and there...

  16. Formation and Reduction of Carbon Monoxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rostami AA

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The total amounts of carbon monoxide (CO and carbon dioxide (CO2 in the mainstream smoke of a burning cigarette during a steady draw were measured by a non-dispersive infrared (IR technique for a variety of flow rates. The temperature profiles in the cigarette were also measured under the same flow conditions. The data were used in a diffusion model to estimate the concentrations of these gases downstream of the pyrolysis zone. The contribution of pyrolysis in the generation of these gases was calculated using a kinetic model. The remaining CO and CO2 are attributed to processes occurring in the combustion zone. The calculated mean concentrations of carbon oxides behind the pyrolysis zone are in reasonable agreement with the experimental data. The contributions of pyrolysis and combustion to the formation of CO were found to be approximately 1/3 and 2/3 respectively. The results show that the peak temperature rises with an increase in the mainstream flow rate in the limited range of 0 to 200 mL/min. As a result, the concentrations of carbon oxides behind the pyrolysis zone also increase with the flow rate and reach plateaus at higher flow rates.

  17. Pulmonary edema in acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Kun Sang; Chang, Kee Hyun; Lee, Myung Uk

    1974-01-01

    Acute carbon monoxide poisoning has frequently occurred in Korean, because of the coal briquette being widely used as fuel in Korean residences. Carbon monoxide poisoning has been extensively studied, but it has been sparsely reported that pulmonary edema may develop in acute CO poisoning. We have noticed nine cases of pulmonary edema in acute CO poisoning last year. Other possible causes of pulmonary edema could be exclude in all cases but one. The purpose of this paper is to describe nine cases of pulmonary edema complicated in acute CO poisoning and discuss the pathogenesis and the prognosis

  18. NAMMA CARBON MONOXIDE BY ATTENUATED LASER TRANSMISSION (COBALT) V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The NAMMA COBALT dataset measures the carbon monoxide mixing ratio and derives carbon monoxide mixing ratio profiles in the upper troposphere/lower stratosphere...

  19. Study on the surface oxidation resistance of uranium metal in the atmosphere of carbon monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaolin; Fu Yibei; Xie Renshou

    1999-01-01

    The surface reactions of different layers on uranium metal with carbon monoxide at 25, 80 and 200 degree C are studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The experimental results show that the carbon monoxide is adsorbed on the surface oxide layer of uranium and interacted each other. The content of oxygen in the surface oxide and O/U ratio are decreased with increasing the exposure of carbon monoxide to the surface layer. The effect of reduction on the metal surface is more obviously with a higher temperature and increasing of layer thickness. The investigation indicates the uranium metal has resistance to further oxidation in the atmosphere of carbon monoxide

  20. Carbon monoxide observation in M31

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Combes, F.; Encrenaz, P.J.; Lucas, R.; Weliachew, L.

    1978-01-01

    Emission from carbon monoxide has been detected in the spiral arms of the galaxy Andromeda (M31), and a partial radial distribution along the major axis is presented. This latter shows that CO emission is only found in the inside of the HI spiral arms [fr

  1. Cutaneous manifestations of acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagy, R.; Greer, K.E.; Harman, L.E. Jr.

    1979-10-01

    A patient with acute carbon monoxide poisoning due to leakage of gas from the exhaust system in his automobile noted edema and blister formation over large areas of the skin of one half of his body. Rhabdomyolysis, acute but transient renal insufficiency, and hemolytic anemia developed subsequently.

  2. Carbon Monoxide as Indoor Pollutant in Kano Metropolis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    MICHAEL

    ABSTRACT: The level of carbon monoxide concentrations in three different residential areas of Kano municipality has been determined. Health effects of carbon monoxide are not only determined by its pollution level, but the time spent breathing polluted air. Samples of carbon monoxide gas in three different residential ...

  3. Review: hemodynamic response to carbon monoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Penney, D.G.

    1988-04-01

    Historically, and at present, carbon monoxide is a major gaseous poison responsible for widespread morbidity and mortality. From threshold to maximal nonlethal levels, a variety of cardiovascular changes occur, both immediately and in the long term, whose homeostatic function it is to renormalize tissue oxygen delivery. However, notwithstanding numerous studies over the past century, the literature remains equivocal regarding the hemodynamic responses in animals and humans, although CO hypoxia is clearly different in several respects from hypoxic hypoxia. Factors complicating interpretation of experimental findings include species, CO dose level and rate, route of CO delivery, duration, level of exertion, state of consciousness, and anesthetic agent used. Augmented cardiac output usually observed with moderate COHb may be compromised in more sever poisoning for the same reasons, such that regional or global ischemia result. The hypotension usually seen in most animal studies is thought to be a primary cause of CNS damage resulting from acute CO poisoning, yet the exact mechanism(s) remains unproven in both animals and humans, as does the way in which CO produces hypotension. This review briefly summarizes the literature relevant to the short- and long-term hemodynamic responses reported in animals and humans. It concludes by presenting an overview using data from a single species in which the most complete work has been done to date.

  4. 40 CFR 86.316-79 - Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 18 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide... Test Procedures § 86.316-79 Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide analyzer specifications. (a) Carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide measurements are to be made with nondispersive infrared (NDIR) an analyzers. (b...

  5. Compact Instrument for Measurement of Atmospheric Carbon Monoxide Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Southwest Sciences proposed the development of a rugged, compact, and automated instrument for the high sensitivity measurement of tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO)....

  6. Catalyst for Carbon Monoxide Oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Patricia; Brown, Kenneth; VanNorman, John; Brown, David; Upchurch, Billy; Schryer, David; Miller, Irvin

    2010-01-01

    catalyst composition in an amount of about 5 to 25 (especially 7) percent by weight, SnO2 is present in an amount of about 30 to 40 (especially 40) percent by weight, and silica gel is present in an amount of 45 to 55 (especially 50) percent by weight. The composition of this catalyst was suggested by preliminary experiments in which a Pt/SnO2 catalyst was needed for bound water to enhance its activity. These experimental results suggested that if the water were bound to the surface, this water would enhance and prolong catalyst activity for long time periods. Because the catalyst is to be exposed to a laser gas mixture, and because a CO2 laser can tolerate only a very small amount of moisture, a hygroscopic support for the catalyst would provide the needed H2O into the gas. Silica gel is considered to be superior because of its property to chemisorb water on its surface over a wide range of moisture content.

  7. Carbon Monoxide Exposure in Youth Ice Hockey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macnow, Theodore; Mannix, Rebekah; Meehan, William P

    2017-11-01

    To examine the effect of ice resurfacer type on carboxyhemoglobin levels in youth hockey players. We hypothesized that players in arenas with electric resurfacers would have normal, stable carboxyhemoglobin levels during games, whereas those in arenas with internal combustion engine (IC) resurfacers would have an increase in carboxyhemoglobin levels. Prospective cohort study. Enclosed ice arenas in the northeastern United States. Convenience sample of players aged 8 to 18 years old in 16 games at different arenas. Eight arenas (37 players) used an IC ice resurfacer and 8 arenas (36 players) an electric resurfacer. Carboxyhemoglobin levels (SpCO) were measured using a pulse CO-oximeter before and after the game. Arena air was tested for carbon monoxide (CO) using a metered gas detector. Players completed symptom questionnaires. The change in SpCO from pregame to postgame was compared between players at arenas with electric versus IC resurfacers. Carbon monoxide was present at 6 of 8 arenas using IC resurfacers, levels ranged from 4 to 42 parts per million. Carbon monoxide was not found at arenas with electric resurfacers. Players at arenas with IC resurfacers had higher median pregame SpCO levels compared with those at electric arenas (4.3% vs 1%, P electric group (2.8% vs 1%, P = 0.01). There were no significant differences in symptom scores. Players at arenas operating IC resurfacers had significantly higher SpCO levels. Youth hockey players in arenas with IC resurfacers have an increase in carboxyhemoglobin during games and have elevated baseline carboxyhemoglobin levels compared with players at arenas with electric resurfacers. Electric resurfacers decrease the risk of CO exposure.

  8. Search of medical literature for indoor carbon monoxide exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brennan, T.; Ivanovich, M.

    1995-12-01

    This report documents a literature search on carbon monoxide. The search was limited to the medical and toxicological databases at the National Library of Medicine (MEDLARS). The databases searched were Medline, Toxline and TOXNET. Searches were performed using a variety of strategies. Combinations of the following keywords were used: carbon, monoxide, accidental, residential, occult, diagnosis, misdiagnosis, heating, furnace, and indoor. The literature was searched from 1966 to the present. Over 1000 references were identified and summarized using the following abbreviations: The major findings of the search are: (1) Acute and subacute carbon monoxide exposures result in a large number of symptoms affecting the brain, kidneys, respiratory system, retina, and motor functions. (2) Acute and subacute carbon monoxide (CO) poisonings have been misdiagnosed on many occasions. (3) Very few systematic investigations have been made into the frequency and consequences of carbon monoxide poisonings.

  9. Reduction of carbon monoxide. Past research summary

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schrock, R.R.

    1981-10-01

    Research programs for the year on the preparation, characterization, and reactions of binuclear tantalum complexes are described. All evidence to date suggest the following of these dimeric molecules: (1) the dimer does not break into monomers under mild conditions; (2) intermolecular hydride exchange is not negligible, but it is slow; (3) intermolecular non-ionic halide exchange is fast; (4) the ends of the dimers can rotate partially with respect to one another. The binuclear tantalum hydride complexes were found to react with carbon monoxide to give a molecule which is the only example of reduction of CO by a transition metal hydride to give a complex containing a CHO ligand. Isonitrides also reacted in a similar manner with dimeric tantalum hydride. (ATT)

  10. Epidemiology of acute carbon monoxide poisoning in a Spanish region.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dueñas-Laita, A; Ruiz-Mambrilla, M; Gandía, F; Cerdá, R; Martín-Escudero, J C; Pérez-Castrillón, J L; Díaz, G

    2001-01-01

    In Spain, as in most of the world, the incidence of acute carbon monoxide poisoning is probably underestimated. During an eighteen-month period we studied, by means of a standardized data collection form, all the cases of acute carbon monoxide poisoning that were diagnosed in 2 university hospitals. During the study, 154 patients were diagnosed with carbon monoxide poisoning. The mean age was 32.2+/-15.5 years. The two principal exposure sites were the kitchen (43%) and bathroom (23%). The majority of the cases related to malfunction of the water heater (30%) and of the central heating (23%) and 68% occurred in the home. Improper combustion of butane (31%), propane (13%), and natural gas (12%) were most frequent. The most prevalent clinical manifestations were headache (94%), dizziness (56%), nausea (45%), loss of consciousness (38%), and weakness (34%). Five patients died. In 14.4%, symptoms suggested delayed neurological syndrome. The largest number of cases of poisoning occurred during the months of December and January. Compared with previous Spanish series or with the antecedent year, acute carbon monoxide poisoning has a high prevalence in our region. Two factors appear to be essential to the accurate diagnosis of acute carbon monoxide poisoning: 1) the ability of emergency room physicians to recognize the clinical symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning and 2) access to a carbon monoxide-oximeter.

  11. Combustion characteristics of hydrogen. Carbon monoxide based gaseous fuels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Notardonato, J. J.; White, D. J.; Kubasco, A. J.; Lecren, R. T.

    1981-01-01

    An experimental rig program was conducted with the objective of evaluating the combuston performance of a family of fuel gases based on a mixture of hydrogen and carbon monoxide. These gases, in addition to being members of a family, were also representative of those secondary fuels that could be produced from coal by various gasification schemes. In particular, simulated Winkler, Lurgi, and Blue-water low and medium energy content gases were used as fuels in the experimental combustor rig. The combustor used was originally designed as a low NOx rich-lean system for burning liquid fuels with high bound nitrogen levels. When used with the above gaseous fuels this combustor was operated in a lean-lean mode with ultra long residence times. The Blue-water gas was also operated in a rich-lean mode. The results of these tests indicate the possibility of the existence of an 'optimum' gas turbine hydrogen - carbon monoxide based secondary fuel. Such a fuel would exhibit NOx and high efficiency over the entire engine operating range. It would also have sufficient stability range to allow normal light-off and engine acceleration. Solar Turbines Incorporated would like to emphasize that the results presented here have been obtained with experimental rig combustors. The technologies generated could, however, be utilized in future commercial gas turbines.

  12. Syncope Associated with Carbon Monoxide Poisoning due to Narghile Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seda Ozkan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Narghile smoking is a traditional method of tobacco use, and it has been practiced extensively for 400 years. Traditionally, narghile smoking is a matter of culture mainly in Middle East, Asia, and Africa. In recent years, its use as a social activity has increased worldwide, especially among young people. Narghile smoking is an unusual cause of carbon monoxide poisoning. Narghile smoking, compared to cigarette smoking, can result in more smoke exposure and greater levels of carbon monoxide. We present an acute syncope case of a 19-year-old male patient who had carbon monoxide poisoning after narghile smoking.

  13. An interesting cause of pulmonary emboli: acute carbon monoxide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevinc, Alper; Savli, Haluk; Atmaca, Hasan

    2005-07-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning, a public health problem of considerable significance, is a relatively frequent event today, resulting in thousands of hospitalizations annually. A 70-year-old lady was seen in the emergency department with a provisional diagnosis of carbon monoxide poisoning. The previous night, she slept in a tightly closed room heated with coal ember. She was found unconscious in the morning with poor ventilation. She had a rare presentation of popliteal vein thrombosis, pulmonary emboli, and possible tissue necrosis with carbon monoxide poisoning. Oxygen treatment with low-molecular-weight heparin (nadroparine) and warfarin therapy resulted in an improvement in both popliteal and pulmonary circulations. In conclusion, the presence of pulmonary emboli should be sought in patients with carbon monoxide poisoning.

  14. An interesting cause of pulmonary emboli: Acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sevinc, A.; Savli, H.; Atmaca, H. [Gaziantep University, Gaziantep (Turkey). School of Medicine

    2005-07-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning, a public health problem of considerable significance, is a relatively frequent event today, resulting in thousands of hospitalizations annually. A 70-year-old lady was seen in the emergency department with a provisional diagnosis of carbon monoxide poisoning. The previous night, she slept in a tightly closed room heated with coal ember. She was found unconscious in the morning with poor ventilation. She had a rare presentation of popliteal vein thrombosis, pulmonary emboli, and possible tissue necrosis with carbon monoxide poisoning. Oxygen treatment with low-molecular-weight heparin (nadroparine) and warfarin therapy resulted in an improvement in both popliteal and pulmonary circulations. In conclusion, the presence of pulmonary emboli should be sought in patients with carbon monoxide poisoning.

  15. CT and clinical patterns in suicidal carbon monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grobovschek, M.; Geretsegger, C.; Weinberger, R.; Fartacek, R.

    1988-01-01

    Cranial CT is important to exclude the presence of a mass in the cavum cranii in case of an unclear suicide attempt, particularly a traumatic mass. It can be helpful also in cases of carbon monoxide intoxications. (orig.) [de

  16. Carbon Monoxide: An Essential Signalling Molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Brian E.

    Carbon monoxide (CO), like nitric oxide (NO), is an essential signalling molecule in humans. It is active in the cardiovascular system as a vasodilator. In addition, CO possesses anti-inflammatory, anti-apoptotic and anti-proliferative properties and protects tissues from hypoxia and reperfusion injury. Some of its applications in animal models include suppression of organ graft rejection and safeguarding the heart during reperfusion after cardiopulmonary bypass surgery. CO also suppresses arteriosclerotic lesions following angioplasty, reverses established pulmonary hypertension and mitigates the development of post-operative ileus in the murine small intestine and the development of cerebral malaria in mice as well as graft-induced intimal hyperplasia in pigs. There have been several clinical trials using air-CO mixtures for the treatment of lung-, heart-, kidney- and abdominal-related diseases. This review examines the research involving the development of classes of compounds (with particular emphasis on metal carbonyls) that release CO, which could be used in clinically relevant conditions. The review is drawn not only from published papers in the chemical literature but also from the extensive biological literature and patents on CO-releasing molecules (CO-RMs).

  17. Carbon monoxide concentration forecasting in Santiago, Chile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, Patricio; Palacios, Rodrigo; Castillo, Alejandro

    2004-08-01

    In the city of Santiago, Chile, air quality is defined in terms of particulate matter with an aerodynamic diameter < or = 10 microm (PM10) concentrations. An air quality forecasting model based on past concentrations of PM10 and meteorological conditions currently is used by the metropolitan agency for the environment, which allows restrictions to emissions to be imposed in advance. This model, however, fails to forecast between 40 and 50% of the days considered to be harmful for the inhabitants every year. Given that a high correlation between particulate matter and carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations is observed at monitoring stations in the city, a model for CO concentration forecasting would be a useful tool to complement information about expected air quality in the city. Here, the results of a neural network-based model aimed to forecast maximum values of the 8-hr moving average of CO concentrations for the next day are presented. Forecasts from the neural network model are compared with those produced with linear regressions. The neural network model seems to leave more room to adjust free parameters with 1-yr data to predict the following year's values. We have worked with 3 yr of data measured at the monitoring station located in the zone with the worst air quality in the city of Santiago, Chile.

  18. Elevated carboxyhemoglobin: sources of carbon monoxide exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchelli Ramirez, Herminia; Fernández Alvarez, Ramón; Rubinos Cuadrado, Gemma; Martinez Gonzalez, Cristina; Rodriguez Jerez, Francisco; Casan Clara, Pere

    2014-11-01

    Inhalation of carbon monoxide (CO) can result in poisoning, with symptoms ranging from mild and nonspecific to severe, or even death. CO poisoning is often underdiagnosed because exposure to low concentrations goes unnoticed, and threshold values for normal carboxyhemoglobin vary according to different authors. The aim of our study was to analyze carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels in an unselected population and detect sources of CO exposure In a cross-sectional descriptive study, we analyzed consecutive arterial blood gas levels processed in our laboratory. We selected those with COHb≥2.5% in nonsmokers and ≥5% in smokers. In these cases a structured telephone interview was conducted. Elevated levels of COHb were found in 64 (20%) of 306 initial determinations. Of these, data from 51 subjects aged 65±12 years, 31 (60%) of which were men, were obtained. Mean COHb was 4.0%. Forty patients (78%) were non-smokers with mean COHb of 3.2%, and 11 were smokers with COHb of 6.7%. In 45 patients (88.2%) we detected exposure to at least one source of ambient CO other than cigarette smoke. A significant proportion of individuals from an unselected sample had elevated levels of COHb. The main sources of CO exposure were probably the home, so this possibility should be explored. The population should be warned about the risks and encouraged to take preventive measures. Copyright © 2013 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.

  19. Residential carbon monoxide poisoning from motor vehicles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Neil B

    2011-01-01

    Although morbidity and mortality from accidental carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning are high in the United States, identification of common but poorly recognized sources should help prevention efforts. The study aimed to describe CO poisoning of home occupants due to a vehicle left running in an attached garage. News stories reporting incidents of US CO poisoning were collected daily from March 2007 to September 2009 via a news.Google.com search and data extracted. Patients were individuals reported in the media to have been poisoned with CO in their home by a vehicle running in the attached garage. Main outcome measures were frequency of occurrence, geographic distribution, patient demographics, and mortality. Of 837 CO poisoning incidents reported in US news media over 2 and a half years, 59 (8%) were the result of a vehicle left running in the garage. The elderly were disproportionately affected, with incidents most common in states with larger elderly populations and 29% of cases with age specified occurring in individuals older than 80 years. Among those older than 80 years, 15 of 17 were found dead at the scene. Residential CO poisoning from a vehicle running in the garage is common, disproportionately affects the elderly, has a high mortality rate, and should be preventable with a residential CO alarm. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Solar cycle variations in mesospheric carbon monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae N.; Wu, Dong L.; Ruzmaikin, Alexander; Fontenla, Juan

    2018-05-01

    As an extension of Lee et al. (2013), solar cycle variation of carbon monoxide (CO) is analyzed with MLS observation, which covers more than thirteen years (2004-2017) including maximum of solar cycle 24. Being produced primarily by the carbon dioxide (CO2) photolysis in the lower thermosphere, the variations of the mesospheric CO concentration are largely driven by the solar cycle modulated ultraviolet (UV) variation. This solar signal extends down to the lower altitudes by the dynamical descent in the winter polar vortex, showing a time lag that is consistent with the average descent velocity. To characterize a global distribution of the solar impact, MLS CO is correlated with the SORCE measured total solar irradiance (TSI) and UV. As high as 0.8 in most of the polar mesosphere, the linear correlation coefficients between CO and UV/TSI are more robust than those found in the previous work. The photochemical contribution explains most (68%) of the total variance of CO while the dynamical contribution accounts for 21% of the total variance at upper mesosphere. The photochemistry driven CO anomaly signal is extended in the tropics by vertical mixing. The solar cycle signal in CO is further examined with the Whole Atmosphere Community Climate Model (WACCM) 3.5 simulation by implementing two different modeled Spectral Solar Irradiances (SSIs): SRPM 2012 and NRLSSI. The model simulations underestimate the mean CO amount and solar cycle variations of CO, by a factor of 3, compared to those obtained from MLS observation. Different inputs of the solar spectrum have small impacts on CO variation.

  1. Carbon monoxide adsorption on silver doped gold clusters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Haeck, Jorg; Veldeman, Nele; Claes, Pieterjan; Janssens, Ewald; Andersson, Mats; Lievens, Peter

    2011-03-24

    Well controlled gas phase experiments of the size and dopant dependent reactivity of gold clusters can shed light on the surprising discovery that nanometer sized gold particles are catalytically active. Most studies that investigate the reactivity of gold clusters in the gas phase focused on charged, small sized clusters. Here, reactivity measurements in a low-pressure reaction cell were performed to investigate carbon monoxide adsorption on neutral bare and silver doped gold clusters (Au(n)Ag(m); n = 10-45; m = 0, 1, 2) at 140 K. The size dependence of the reaction probabilities reflects the role of the electronic shells for the carbon monoxide adsorption, with closed electronic shell systems being the most reactive. In addition, the cluster's reaction probability is reduced upon substitution of gold atoms for silver. Inclusion of a single silver atom causes significant changes in the reactivity only for a few cluster sizes, whereas there is a more general reduction in the reactivity with two silver atoms in the cluster. The experimental observations are qualitatively explained on the basis of a Blyholder model, which includes dopant induced features such as electron transfer from silver to gold, reduced s-d hybrization, and changes in the cluster geometry.

  2. [Exposure to carbon monoxide in wildland firefighters during wildfires suppression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carballo Leyenda, Belén; Rodríguez-Marroyo, José A; López-Satué, Jorge; Avila Ordás, Concepción; Pernía Cubillo, Raúl; Villa Vicente, José Gerardo

    2010-01-01

    Health and occupational performance in wildland firefighters are mainly impaired for the carbon monoxide inhalation. Therefore, the aim of this study was to analyze the personal exposure to carbon monoxide in wildland firefighters during wildfires suppression. Carbon monoxide exposure was monitorized in 44 subjects during 58 real wildfires. Moreover, we analyzed the time weighted average exposure for an 8h shift (VA-ED). The wildfires were classified according to the work done (direct attack, indirect attack and mixed attack) and the current fuel (grass, bush, understory and mixed). The mean exposure to carbon monoxide was of 18,4 ± 1,7 ppm, what supposed a VA-ED of 7,0 ± 1,0 ppm. The highest exposures to carbon monoxide were found during the mixed attack (20,4 ± 2,3 ppm) and direct attack (17,5 ± 2,7 ppm). We only obtained significant differences (p wildfires suppression and the type of fuel involved. Mean values obtained in this study were within safety limits described by different Spanish (INSHT) and international (NIOSH, OSHA) occupational safety and health agencies.

  3. Development of an enzymatic sensor for carbon monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hurtado, Clara; Gomez, Diana; Larmat, Fernando; Torres, Walter; Cuervo, Raul; Bravo, Enrique; Benitez, Neyla

    2003-01-01

    The detection and the pursuit of gases that contribute in the increase of the atmospheric contamination are a necessity, for what the electrochemical sensors have potential industrial applications for the control of the quality of the air. The development of amperometric sensor based on enzymes offers advantages, since the use of the biological component provides him high selectivity due to the great specificity of the substrate of the enzyme. The monoxide of carbon (CO) it is a polluting, poisonous gas, taken place during the incomplete combustion of organic materials (natural gas, petroleum, gasoline, coal and vegetable material). The determination of monoxide of carbon (CO) it can be reached by electrochemical mediums using the methylene blue like the electronic mediator for the enzyme monoxide of carbon oxidase (COx)

  4. Hydrocarbon and carbon monoxide emissions from biomass burning in Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, J. P.; Zimmerman, P. R.; Heidt, L.; Pollock, W.

    1984-02-01

    Field measurements of hydrocarbon emissions from biomass burning in the cerrado (grasslands) and selva (tropical forest) regions of Brazil in 1979 and 1980 are characterized and quantified here. Regional consequences of burning activities include increased background mixing ratios of carbon monoxide and ozone, as well as reduced visibility, over extensive areas. Global extrapolation of the emission rate of hydrocarbons from these fires indicates that 6×1013 g C of gas phase hydrocarbons and 8×1014 g CO may be released annually from biomass burning. These emissions contribute significantly to the global budgets of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide.

  5. Terpolymerization of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, R.; Steinberg, M.

    This invention relates to high molecular weight terpolymer of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide stable to 280/sup 0/C and containing as little as 36 mo1% ethylene and about 41 to 51 mo1% sulfur dioxide, and to the method of producing said terpolymer by irradiation of a liquid and gaseous mixture of ethylene, sulfur dioxide and carbon monoxide by means of Co-60 gamma rays or an electron beam, at a temperature of about 10 to 50/sup 0/C, and at a pressure of about 140 to 680 atmospheres, to initiate polymerization.

  6. Ethylene and Carbon Monoxide Production by Septoria musiva

    Science.gov (United States)

    S. Brown-Skrobot; L. R. Brown; T. H. Filer

    1984-01-01

    An investigation into the mechanism by which Septoria musiva causes the premature defoliation of cottonwood trees was undertaken. Gas-chromatograpic analysis of the atmosphere overlying the original culture indicated that this fungus produced significant quantities of ethylene and carbon monoxide. Subcultures failed to produce either gas on a variety...

  7. Effect of carbon monoxide on Swiss albino mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilado, C. J.; Cumming, H. J.

    1977-01-01

    Times to incapacitation and death and LC50 values were determined for male Swiss albino mice exposed to different concentrations of carbon monoxide in a 4.2 liter hemispherical chamber. These values are compared to values reported in the literature. The LC50 for a 30 minute exposure was 3570 ppm CO.

  8. Poisoning by carbon monoxide in Morocco from 1991 to 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aghandous, Rachida; Chaoui, Hanane; Rhalem, Naima; Semllali, Ilham; Badri, Mohamed; Soulaymani, Abdelmajid; Ouammi, Lahcen; Soulaymani-Bencheikh, Rachida

    2012-04-01

    To describe the characteristics relating to the provenance of statements, patients and to evaluate the spatiotemporal evolution of carbon monoxide poisoning reported to Poison Control Center and Pharmacovigilance of Morocco (CAPM). This is a retrospective study over a period of 18 years from 1991 to 2008, for all cases of poisoning by carbon monoxide reported to CAPM. The epidemiological study focused on 12 976 cases of carbon monoxide poisoning reported to CAPM between 1991 and 2008. The average age of patients was 25.5 +/- 15.6 years, sex ratio was 0.5. The poisoning occurred by accident in 98.7% of cases, especially at home (96.7%) and in cold months. The urban population was the most affected (89.0%). The region of Meknes Tafilalt was the most concerned with 16.6% of cases. The symptomatology was characterized by the predominance of gastrointestinal tract diseases (37.1%). Deaths have reached a percentage of 0.9%. These qualitative and quantitative information is useful to highlight warnings and plan a strategy against carbon monoxide poisoning in Morocco.

  9. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: Death on Mount McKinley,

    Science.gov (United States)

    1987-05-08

    va liabilitY Coden jAvai 1- and/or/or 11I)ISt Special. ’CARBON MONOXIDE POISONING CARBONI MONOX I DE FOIB 0N I NGm DEATH- ON MVOUINT Mvc IN .EY...plateau which contains numerous campsites during %;’no Spring climbing season. The National Park Service/University of Alaska medical/rescue tent is

  10. Air quality assessment of carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Air quality in urban areas is a cause of concern because of increased industrial activities that contribute to large quantities of emissions. The study assess levels and variations of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2) and sulfur dioxide (SO2) in Blantyre, Malawi using a stationary environmental monitoring station ...

  11. Carbon monoxide poisoning mimicking long-QT induced syncope

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    I.M. Onvlee-Dekker (Irene); A.C.H. de Vries (Andrica); A.D.J. ten Harkel (Arend)

    2007-01-01

    textabstractCarbon monoxide (CO)poisoning is a rare cause of QT prolongation, and is therefore easily missed. The case of a patient with unexplained syncope and QT prologation on the electrocardiogram that turned out to be related to CO poisoning is reported here. In patients with QT prolongation,

  12. 21 CFR 177.1312 - Ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...), Food and Drug Administration, 5100 Paint Branch Pkwy., College Park, MD 20740, or at the National... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ethylene-carbon monoxide copolymers. 177.1312 Section 177.1312 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES...

  13. Spatial distribution of atmospheric carbon monoxide over Bay of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Earth System Science; Volume 117; Issue 4. Spatial distribution of atmospheric carbon monoxide over Bay of Bengal and Arabian Sea: Measurements during pre-monsoon period of 2006. V R Aneesh G Mohankumar S Sampath. Volume 117 Issue 4 August 2008 pp 449-455 ...

  14. The interaction of carbon monoxide with model astrophysical surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collings, Mark P; Dever, John W; McCoustra, Martin R S

    2014-02-28

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is an important component of the icy mantles that accrete on interstellar dust grains. To develop a better understanding of the physicochemical basis of its infrared spectroscopy, we have studied the interaction of submonolayer coverages of CO with the surface of films of other astrophysically relevant species--(13)CO, carbon dioxide (CO2), ammonia (NH3), methanol (CH3OH) and water (H2O)--under ultrahigh vacuum and cryogenic (10 K) conditions using reflection-absorption infrared spectroscopy (RAIRS). In support of these measurements, we have performed ab initio calculations of gas phase dimer complexes, and made comparisons to experimental results of gas phase and matrix isolated complexes, which are extensively reported in the literature. The interaction of CO can be categorised as occurring via the C atom (C(CO) bonded), the O atom (O(CO) bonded) or in a π-bonded configuration. The C(CO) configuration is characterised by a blue shifted C≡O stretch frequency, and is observed for CO adsorbed on (13)CO, CO2 and H2O surfaces. From the absence of such a feature from the spectra of CO adsorbed on CH3OH it can be concluded that the dangling OH bonds required for this adsorption configuration are not present at the surface of the CH3OH film.

  15. Selected constituents in the smokes of foreign commercial cigaretts: tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jenkins, R.A.; Quincy, R.B.; Guerin, M.R.

    1979-05-01

    The tar, nicotine, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide contents of the smokes of 220 brands of foreign commercial cigarettes are reported. In some instances, filter cigarettes of certain brands were found to deliver as much or more smoke constituents than their nonfilter counterparts. Also, data indicated that there can be a great variation in the tar, nicotine, or carbon monoxide content of the smoke of samples of a given brand of cigarettes, depending on the nation in which they are purchased. 24 tables.

  16. Composite catalyst for carbon monoxide and hydrocarbon oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Wei; Flytzani-Stephanopoulos, Maria

    1996-01-01

    A method and composition for the complete oxidation of carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbon compounds. The method involves reacting the carbon monoxide and/or hydrocarbons with an oxidizing agent in the presence of a metal oxide composite catalyst. The catalyst is prepared by combining fluorite-type oxygen ion conductors with active transition metals. The fluorite oxide, selected from the group consisting of cerium oxide, zirconium oxide, thorium oxide, hafnium oxide, and uranium oxide, and may be doped by alkaline earth and rare earth oxides. The transition metals, selected from the group consisting of molybdnum, copper, cobalt, maganese, nickel, and silver, are used as additives. The atomic ratio of transition metal to fluorite oxide is less than one.

  17. Retrograde amnesia following carbon monoxide poisoning: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acland, Peter R; Heaver, Catriona

    2008-07-01

    Retrograde amnesia is a recognised neurological complication of carbon monoxide poisoning. This article describes the case of a female found dead in her bath where initial post-mortem findings and the surrounding circumstances raised strong suspicions of homicide, especially when there was contradictory evidence from her husband who was the only other person present. He was later diagnosed as having retrograde amnesia between his two visits to the bathroom to attend to his wife which caused him to merge them into one event, thus arousing suspicions of foul play. The discussion explores the current clinical views on non-fatal carbon monoxide poisoning as well as problems of interpretation of information derived from case work.

  18. Effect of carbon monoxide on plants. [Mimosa pudica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, P.W.; Crocker, W.; Hitchcock, A.E.

    1933-01-01

    Of 108 species of plants treated with one per cent carbon monoxide, 45 showed epinastic growth of leaves. Several species showed hyponasty which caused upward curling of leaves. Other effects included: retarded stem elongation; abnormally small new leaves; abnormal yellowing of the leaves, beginning with the oldest; abscission of leaves usually associated with yellowing; and hypertrophied tissues on stems and roots. During recovery an abnormally large number of side shoots arose from latent buds of many species. Motion pictures of Mimosa pudica showed a loss of correlation, normal equilibrium position to gravity, and sensitiveness to contact or heat stimuli; however, the leaves moved about more rapidly than those of controls. Since carbon monoxide causes growth rigor and loss of sensitiveness to external stimuli, it is here considered as an anesthetic.

  19. Bilateral brachial plexus injury following acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Rahmani, Mounia; Belaidi, Halima; Benabdeljlil, Maria; Bouchhab, Wafa; El Jazouli, Nadia; El Brini, Asmae; Aidi, Saadia; Ouazzani, Reda M; El Alaoui Faris, Mustapha

    2013-01-01

    Background Carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication is a leading cause of severe neuropsychological impairments. Peripheral nerve injury has rarely been reported. It consists usually in a demyelinating polyneuropathy or mononeuropathy affecting mainly the lower limbs. Isolated involvement of both upper extremities has been described in only 4 patients related to root damage. We report the first case of bilateral brachial plexus injury following CO poisoning and review all previous CO-induced neuropa...

  20. Molybdopterin in carbon monoxide oxidase from carboxydotrophic bacteria.

    OpenAIRE

    Meyer, O; Rajagopalan, K V

    1984-01-01

    The carbon monoxide oxidases (COXs) purified from the carboxydotrophic bacteria Pseudomonas carboxydohydrogena and Pseudomonas carboxydoflava were found to be molybdenum hydroxylases, identical in cofactor composition and spectral properties to the recently characterized enzyme from Pseudomonas carboxydovorans (O. Meyer, J. Biol. Chem. 257:1333-1341, 1982). All three enzymes exhibited a cofactor composition of two flavin adenine dinucleotides, two molybdenums, eight irons and eight labile sul...

  1. Carbon monoxide and isocyanide complexes of trivalent uranium metallocenes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mar Conejo, M. del; Parry, J.S.; Carmona, E.; Schultz, M.; Brennann, J.G.; Beshouri, S.M.; Andersen, R.A.; Rogers, R.D.; Coles, S.; Hursthouse, M.

    1999-01-01

    The [Cp' 3 U] metallocenes contain substituted cyclopentadienyl ligands and U III with f 3 electron configuration. They are good π donors and bind π-accepting ligands (L) such as carbon monoxide and isocyanides to form the corresponding adducts [Cp' 3 U(L)]. The π-donating capability of the [Cp' 3 U] fragments appears to be readily modulated by the substituents on the cyclopentadienyl ligand. (orig.)

  2. Diffusion-weighted MR imaging findings in carbon monoxide poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Teksam, M.; Casey, S.O.; Michel, E.; Liu, H.; Truwit, C.L.

    2002-01-01

    Diffusion-weighted MR imaging (DWI) of two patients with carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning demonstrated white matter and cortical hyperintensities. In one patient, the changes on the FLAIR sequence were more subtle than those on DWI. The DWI abnormality in this patient represented true restriction. In the second patient, repeated exposure to CO caused restricted diffusion. DWI may be helpful for earlier identification of the changes of acute CO poisoning. (orig.)

  3. Mobile Carbon Monoxide Monitoring System Based on Arduino-Matlab for Environmental Monitoring Application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azieda Mohd Bakri, Nur; Junid, Syed Abdul Mutalib Al; Razak, Abdul Hadi Abdul; Idros, Mohd Faizul Md; Karimi Halim, Abdul

    2015-11-01

    Nowadays, the increasing level of carbon monoxide globally has become a serious environmental issue which has been highlighted in most of the country globally. The monitoring of carbon monoxide content is one of the approaches to identify the level of carbon monoxide pollution towards providing the solution for control the level of carbon monoxide produced. Thus, this paper proposed a mobile carbon monoxide monitoring system for measuring the carbon monoxide content based on Arduino-Matlab General User Interface (GUI). The objective of this project is to design, develop and implement the real-time mobile carbon monoxide sensor system and interfacing for measuring the level of carbon monoxide contamination in real environment. Four phases or stages of work have been carried out for the accomplishment of the project, which classified as sensor development, controlling and integrating sensor, data collection and data analysis. As a result, a complete design and developed system has been verified with the handheld industrial standard carbon monoxide sensor for calibrating the sensor sensitivity and measurement in the laboratory. Moreover, the system has been tested in real environments by measuring the level of carbon monoxide in three different lands used location; industrial area; residential area and main road (commercial area). In this real environment test, the industrial area recorded the highest reading with 71.23 ppm and 82.59 ppm for sensor 1 and sensor 2 respectively. As a conclusion, the mobile realtime carbon monoxide system based on the Arduino-Matlab is the best approach to measure the carbon monoxide concentration in different land-used since it does not require a manual data collection and reduce the complexity of the existing carbon monoxide level concentration measurement practise at the same time with a complete data analysis facilities.

  4. Carbon monoxide poisoning - Immediate diagnosis and treatment are crucial to avoid complications.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenthal, L.D. [Case Western Reserve University, Cleveland, OH (United States)

    2006-03-15

    Carbon monoxide is an odorless, colorless, tasteless gas produced by the incomplete combustion of carbon-containing fuels (oil, kerosene, coal, wood) or the inadequate ventilation of natural gas. When carbon monoxide is introduced into the bloodstream, it binds to hemoglobin, reducing the number of binding sites available for oxygen. Carbon monoxide also changes the structure of the hemoglobin molecule, which makes it even more difficult for oxygen that has attached to be released into tissues. The resulting tissue ischemia can lead to organ failure, permanent changes in cognition, or death. Carbon monoxide poisoning is the leading cause of death by poisoning in industrialized countries.

  5. Carbon monoxide may be an important molecule in migraine and other headaches

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arngrim, Nanna; Schytz, Henrik W; Hauge, Mette K

    2014-01-01

    of cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathways. Here, we review the literature about carbon monoxide-induced headache and its possible mechanisms. CONCLUSION: We suggest, for the first time, that carbon monoxide may play an important role in the mechanisms of migraine and other headaches.......INTRODUCTION: Carbon monoxide was previously considered to just be a toxic gas. A wealth of recent information has, however, shown that it is also an important endogenously produced signalling molecule involved in multiple biological processes. Endogenously produced carbon monoxide may thus play...... an important role in nociceptive processing and in regulation of cerebral arterial tone. DISCUSSION: Carbon monoxide-induced headache shares many characteristics with migraine and other headaches. The mechanisms whereby carbon monoxide causes headache may include hypoxia, nitric oxide signalling and activation...

  6. Effect of N-Acetylcysteine in Protecting from Simultaneous Noise and Carbon Monoxide Induced Hair Cell Loss

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akram Pourbakht

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Aim: N-acetylcysteine, a glutathione precursor and reactive oxygen species scavenger, is reported to be effective in reducing noise-induced hearing loss. Many workers in industry are exposed simultaneously to noise and chemical pollutants such as carbon monoxide. We investigated effectiveness of N-acetylcysteine in protecting the cochlea from simultaneous noise and carbon monoxide damages.Methods: Twelve rabbits were exposed simeltaneously to 100 dB sound pressure level of broad band noise and carbon monoxide 8 hours a day for 5 days. One hour before exposure, experimental group received 325 mg/kg of N-acetylcysteine while normal saline was administered for the control group. The protective effect of N-acetylcysteine was evaluated 3 weeks after exposure by histological assessment of the hair cells.Results: Simultaneous exposure to noise and carbon monoxide resulted in a considerable damage to the outer hair cells; however, the inner hair cells and the pillar cells remained intact. Use of N-acetylcysteine in the experimental group significantly reduced the extent of outer hair cell loss.Conclusion: N-acetylcysteine attenuates simultaneous noise and carbon monoxide induced hair cell damage in rabbits.

  7. XPS study on the surface reaction of uranium metal with carbon monoxide at 200 degree C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaoling; Fu Yibei; Xie Renshou; Huang Ruiliang

    1996-12-01

    The surface reaction of uranium metal with carbon monoxide at 200 degree C has been studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The carbon monoxide adsorption on the surface oxide layer resulted in U4f peak shifting to the lower binding energy and the content of oxygen in the oxide is decreased. O/U radio decreases with increasing the exposure of carbon monoxide to the surface layer. The investigation indicated the surface layer of uranium metal was further reduced in the atmosphere of carbon monoxide at high temperature. (3 refs., 5 figs.)

  8. Transient PrOx carbon monoxide measurement, control, and optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inbody, M. A. (Michael A.); Borup, R. L. (Rodney L.); Tafoya, J. (Jose I.)

    2002-01-01

    Fuel processing systems for low temperature polymer electrolyte membrane (PEM) fuel cell systems require control of the carbon monoxide concentration to less than 100 ppm to 10 ppm in the anode feed. Conventional hydrocarbon fuel processors use a water-gas shift (WGS) reactor to react CO with water to form H2 and reduce the CO concentration. The CO conversion is limited by equilibrium at the outlet temperature of the WGS reactor. The WGS outlet CO concentration can range from over 1% to 2000 ppm depending on the system and its operating parameters. At these concentrations, CO poisons low temperature PEM fuel cells and the concentrations needs to be reduced further.

  9. Material processing with hydrogen and carbon monoxide on Mars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepp, Aloysius F.; Linne, Diane L.; Landis, Geoffrey A.

    1991-01-01

    Several novel proposals are examined for propellant production from carbon dioxide and monoxide and hydrogen. Potential uses were also examined of CO as a fuel or as a reducing agent in metal oxide processing as obtained or further reduced to carbon. Hydrogen can be reacted with CO to produce a wide variety of hydrocarbons, alcohols, and other organic compounds. Methanol, produced by Fischer-Tropsch chemistry may be useful as a fuel; it is easy to store and handle because it is a liquid at Mars temperatures. The reduction of CO2 to hydrocarbons such as methane or acetylene can be accomplished with hydrocarbons. Carbon monoxide and hydrogen require cryogenic temperatures for storage as liquid. Noncryogenic storage of hydrogen may be accomplished using hydrocarbons, inorganic hydrides, or metal hydrides. Noncryogenic storage of CO may be accomplished in the form of iron carbonyl (FE(CO)5) or other metal carbonyls. Low hydrogen content fuels such as acetylene (C2H2) may be effective propellants with low requirements for earth derived resources. The impact on manned Mars missions of alternative propellant production and utilization is discussed.

  10. Suicidal carbon monoxide poisoning using a gas-powered generator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blässer, Katharina; Tatschner, Thomas; Bohnert, Michael

    2014-03-01

    The presented case deals with an unusual suicide by carbon monoxide poisoning. In a car parked in a highway rest area, the body of a middle-aged man was found. In the open trunk of the car there was a gas-powered generator which was switched on, but no longer running. The tank was three quarters full. At autopsy, bright-red livores, cherry-pink fingernails, cherry-red blood and salmon-red skeletal musculature were found. According to the toxicological analysis performed during autopsy, the COHb content in the corpse blood was 68%. To reconstruct the event, the emergency generator was started again in the man's car. By means of measuring probes placed in the interior of the car, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and oxygen were measured and recorded in a concentration-time curve; the concentration of cyanide was measured at the end of the experiment. The lower explosion limit of 500 ppm CO was reached after 30s already. For technical reasons, no further values could be recorded. After about 14 min the engine started stuttering with approximately 14 vol.% of oxygen in the air, but continued to run at a lower speed until the experiment was stopped after 25 min. The final concentration of cyanide was 7.5 ppm. In view of the rapid CO increase in the interior of the vehicle it is to be assumed that the victim lost consciousness very fast. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. A carbon monoxide passive sampler: Research and development needs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traynor, G.W.; Apte, M.G.; Diamond, R.C.; Woods, A.L.

    1991-11-01

    In rare instances, carbon monoxide (CO) levels in houses can reach dangerously high concentrations, causing adverse health effects ranging from mild headaches to, under extreme conditions, death. Hundreds of fatal accidental carbon monoxide poisonings occur each year primarily due to the indoor operation of motor vehicles, the indoor use of charcoal for cooking, the operation of malfunctioning vented and unvented combustion appliances, and the misuse combustion appliances. Because there is a lack of simple, inexpensive, and accurate field sampling instrumentation, it is difficult for gas utilities and researchers to conduct field research studies designed to quantify the concentrations of CO in residences. Determining the concentration of CO in residences is the first step towards identifying the high risk appliances and high-CO environments which pose health risks. Thus, there exists an urgent need to develop and field-validate a CO-quantifying technique suitable for affordable field research. A CO passive sampler, if developed, could fulfill these requirements. Existing CO monitoring techniques are discussed as well as three potential CO-detection methods for use in a CO passive sampler. Laboratory and field research needed for the development and validation of an effective and cost-efficient CO passive sampler are also discussed.

  12. Bilateral brachial plexus injury following acute carbon monoxide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani, Mounia; Belaidi, Halima; Benabdeljlil, Maria; Bouchhab, Wafa; El Jazouli, Nadia; El Brini, Asmae; Aidi, Saadia; Ouazzani, Reda M; El Alaoui Faris, Mustapha

    2013-12-07

    Carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication is a leading cause of severe neuropsychological impairments. Peripheral nerve injury has rarely been reported. It consists usually in a demyelinating polyneuropathy or mononeuropathy affecting mainly the lower limbs. Isolated involvement of both upper extremities has been described in only 4 patients related to root damage. We report the first case of bilateral brachial plexus injury following CO poisoning and review all previous CO-induced neuropathy described in literature. After being unconscious for three hours, a 42 years old man experienced bilateral brachial weakness associated with edema of the face and the upper limbs. Neurological examination showed a brachial diplegia, distal vibratory, thermic and algic hypoesthesia, deep tendon areflexia in upper limbs. There was no sensory or motor deficit in lower extremities. No cognitive disturbances were detected. Creatine kinase was elevated. Electroneuromyogram patterns were compatible with the diagnosis of bilateral C5 D1 brachial axonal plexus injury predominant on the left side. Clinical course after hyperbaric oxygen therapy was marked by a complete recovery of neurological disorders. Peripheral neuropathy is an unusual complication of CO intoxication. Bilateral brachial plexus impairment is exceptional. Various mechanisms have been implicated including nerve compression secondary to rhabdomyolysis, nerve ischemia due to hypoxia and direct nerve toxicity of carbon monoxide. Prognosis is commonly excellent without any sequelae.

  13. Modulation of growth cone filopodial length by carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estes, Stephen; Artinian, Liana; Rehder, Vincent

    2017-06-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is physiologically produced via heme degradation by heme oxygenase enzymes. Whereas CO has been identified as an important physiological signaling molecule, the roles it plays in neuronal development and regeneration are poorly understood. During these events, growth cones guide axons through a rich cellular environment to locate target cells and establish synaptic connections. Previously, we have shown that another gaseous signaling molecule, nitric oxide (NO), has potent effects on growth cone motility. With NO and CO sharing similar cellular targets, we wanted to determine whether CO affected growth cone motility as well. We assessed how CO affected growth cone filopodial length and determined the signaling pathway by which this effect was mediated. Using two well-characterized neurons from the freshwater snail, Helisoma trivolvis, it was found that the CO donor, carbon monoxide releasing molecule-2 (CORM-2), increased filopodial length. CO utilized a signaling pathway that involved the activation of soluble guanylyl cyclase, protein kinase G, and ryanodine receptors. While increases in filopodial length often occur from robust increases in intracellular calcium levels, the timing in which CO increased filopodial length corresponded with low basal calcium levels in growth cones. Taken together with findings of a heme oxygenase-like protein in the Helisoma nervous system, these results provide evidence for CO as a modulator of growth cone motility and implicate CO as a neuromodulatory signal during neuronal development and/or regeneration. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Develop Neurobiol 77: 677-690, 2017. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Secondhand cigarette smoke as a cause of chronic carbon monoxide poisoning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kachulis, C.J.

    1981-07-01

    Symptoms of carbon monoxide poisoning in a nonsmoking patient continued for several years until her husband stopped smoking cigarettes near her. Carbon monoxide poisoning should be considered in non-smokers when characteristic toxic symptoms occur (ie, lethargy, irritability, headache, blurred vision, slowed reaction time, and decreased concentration). Toxicity may develop simply from breathing second-hand smoke.

  15. Neurological Effects of Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coskun YARAR

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide poisoning (COP is one of the most common causes of mortality and morbidity due to poisoning in all over the world. Although the incidence of COP has not been known exactly in the childhood, almost one-third of CO exposures occurred in children. The data regarding COP in children are inconclusive. Children may be more vulnerable to CO exposure than adults as a result of their high respiration and metabolic rates, high oxygen metabolism, and immature central nervous system. Recent researches proposed new theories about neurological effects of CO toxicity. The clinical presentations associated acute COP may be various and nonspecific. Unrecognized CO exposure may lead to significant morbidity and mortality. CO exposed children often become symptomatic earlier, and recover more rapidly, than similarly CO exposed adults. Mild clinical signs and symptoms associated with COP are headache, dizziness, weakness, lethargy, and myalgia; however, severe signs and symptoms such as blurred vision, syncope, convulsion, coma, cardiopulmonary arrest and death can also accompany with COP. Neurologic manifestations can include altered mental status at different degrees, neck stiffness, tremor, ataxia, and positive Babinski's sign. Delayed neurologic sequels (DNS of COP might be seen in children like adults. DNS symptoms and signs in children include memory problems, mental retardation, mutism, fecal and urinary incontinence, motor deficits, facial palsy, psychosis, chronic headache, seizures, and epilepsy. After CO exposure children must be cared to detect and treat DNS. Although hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT is reported to prevent development of DNS, its indications, application duration and procedures are controversial in both of the children and adults. Although their predictive values are limited, exposing to CO more than eight hours and suffering from CO-induced coma, cardiac arrest, lactic acidosis, high COHb levels, and pathologic findings

  16. Digital image analysis of fingernail colour in cadavers comparing carbon monoxide poisoning to controls.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Langlois, Neil E I

    2010-03-01

    Carbon monoxide is a component of motor vehicle exhaust fumes, provided a functional catalytic converter is not present. This gas binds avidly to the hemoglobin molecule in red blood cells preventing its oxygen transport function, effectively poisoning the body by starving it of oxygen. In binding to hemoglobin, carbon monoxide forms carboxyhemoglobin, which has a characteristic bright pink color. It has been remarked that the fingernails of victims of carbon monoxide tend to exhibit pink color, otherwise fingernails of deceased bodies tend towards a dark red to blue color. This study sought to objectively determine by using digital image analysis if a color difference occurred between the fingernails of a group of cadavers with carbon monoxide poisoning compared to a group of controls. The fingernails of the carbon monoxide group did tend to be more red than the controls, but due to overlap between the two groups assessment of the fingernails cannot be recommended as a rapid screening test.

  17. Identifying and managing adverse environmental health effects: 6. Carbon monoxide poisoning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abelsohn, Alan; Sanborn, Margaret D.; Jessiman, Barry J.; Weir, Erica

    2002-01-01

    CARBON MONOXIDE POISONING IS AN ENIGMATIC ILLNESS. The symptoms are often nonspecific or masked by an exacerbation of an underlying illness, such as congestive heart failure, that has been triggered by carbon monoxide inhalation. The effects can range from mild, annoying symptoms relieved by removal of the source to severe morbidity with profound central nervous system dysfunction, acute complications and delayed sequelae. Estimates suggest that about one-third of nonfatal cases of carbon monoxide poisoning go undetected and undiagnosed. We present a case of residential carbon monoxide poisoning to illustrate these points and to demonstrate the usefulness of a simple tool based on the CH2OPD2 mnemonic (Community, Home, Hobbies, Occupation, Personal habits, Diet and Drugs) that physicians can use to obtain an environmental exposure history. We outline the clinical management of carbon monoxide poisoning and provide strategies and resources to prevent exposure. PMID:12126326

  18. Carbon monoxide-related deaths from 1984 to 1993 in Vienna, Austria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Risser, D; Schneider, B

    1995-05-01

    Carbon monoxide poisoning occurs frequently in industrialized countries. Between 1970 and 1978 in Vienna, the capital of Austria, carbon-monoxide-rich coal gas was replaced with natural gas. Despite this fact, people still die of unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning. The main purpose of this study was to determine the reasons for unintentional carbon monoxide-related deaths, and further to describe the epidemiology of these fetal poisonings in Vienna between 1984 and 1993. A secondary purpose was to investigate whether intentional carbon monoxide poisoning still plays a role among suicides as was the case up to the 1970s. For this purpose we analyzed carbon monoxide-related deaths in Vienna from 1984 to 1993, based on actual autopsy reports of postmortems performed at the Viennese Institute of Forensic Medicine. Deaths due to fire were excluded. The main reason for unintentional carbon monoxide-related deaths in Vienna between 1984 and 1993 was flueless gas-fueled water heating appliances, overused especially by old people during the cold period of the year. The frequency of unintentional carbon monoxide-related deaths in 1993 was almost as high as in 1984. A total of 53% of deceased persons were over age 60. Most fatal carbon monoxide poisoning occurred during the cold period of the year. Suicides decreased significantly during the investigation period. In 76% of these deaths car exhaust fumes were inhaled, especially by men. In conclusion, we recommend programs to prevent unintentional carbon monoxide-related deaths. These programs should especially target the elderly. Flueless gas boilers should not be overused. Furthermore, apartments should be aired sufficiently, even during the cold period of the year.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  19. 40 CFR 89.112 - Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter exhaust emission standards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ....112 Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and particulate matter exhaust emission... emissions of oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, and nonmethane hydrocarbon are measured using... 40 Protection of Environment 20 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Oxides of nitrogen, carbon monoxide...

  20. Four deaths due to carbon monoxide poisoning in car washes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carson, H J; Stephens, P J

    1999-09-01

    In a period of 13 months, three separate incidents of lethal carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning in closed car wash bays resulted in the deaths of 4 white men aged 20 to 36 years. Each man appears to have been intoxicated with mind-altering substances, which may impair judgment, perception of outside conditions, and self-awareness. All four died in winter months. For three men, the deaths were ruled accidental, and for the remaining man, the previous deaths appear to have provided a model for suicide. Warning signs may not be effective to prevent future CO deaths in car washes because of the possible role of intoxication. Mechanical or electronic methods to prevent a bay door from closing completely may be preferable.

  1. The Distribution of Carbon Monoxide in the GOCART Model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Xiaobiao; Chin, Mian; Einaudi, Franco (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is an important trace gas because it is a significant source of tropospheric Ozone (O3) as well as a major sink for atmospheric hydroxyl radical (OH). The distribution of CO is set by a balance between the emissions, transport, and chemical processes in the atmosphere. The Georgia Tech/Goddard Global Ozone Chemistry Aerosol Radiation and Transport (GOCART) model is used to simulate the atmospheric distribution of CO. The GOCART model is driven by the assimilated meteorological data from the Goddard Earth Observing System Data Assimilation System (GEOS DAS) in an off-line mode. We study the distribution of CO on three time scales: (1) day to day fluctuation produced by the synoptic waves; (2) seasonal changes due to the annual cycle of CO sources and sinks; and (3) interannual variability induced by dynamics. Comparison of model results with ground based and remote sensing measurements will also be presented.

  2. Carbon monoxide inhalation induces headache in a human headache model

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arngrim, Nanna; Schytz, Henrik Winther; Britze, Josefine

    2018-01-01

    Introduction Carbon monoxide (CO) is an endogenously produced signalling molecule that has a role in nociceptive processing and cerebral vasodilatation. We hypothesized that inhalation of CO would induce headache and vasodilation of cephalic and extracephalic arteries. Methods In a randomized......, double-blind, placebo-controlled crossover design, 12 healthy volunteers were allocated to inhalation of CO (carboxyhemoglobin 22%) or placebo on two separate days. Headache was scored on a verbal rating scale from 0-10. We recorded mean blood velocity in the middle cerebral artery (VMCA) by transcranial...... Doppler, diameter of the superficial temporal artery (STA) and radial artery (RA) by high-resolution ultrasonography and facial skin blood flow by laser speckle contrast imaging. Results Ten volunteers developed headache after CO compared to six after placebo. The area under the curve for headache (0...

  3. UV-induced carbon monoxide emission from living vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Dan; Albert, Kristian Rost; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard

    2013-01-01

    The global burden of carbon monoxide (CO) is rather uncertain. In this paper we address the potential for UV-induced CO emission by living terrestrial vegetation surfaces. Real-time measurements of CO concentrations were made with a cavity enhanced laser spectrometer connected in closed loop...... to either an ecosystem chamber or a plant-leaf scale chamber. Leaves of all examined plant species exhibited emission of CO in response to artificial UV-radiation as well as the UV-component of natural solar radiation. The UV-induced rate of CO emission exhibited a rather low dependence on temperature......, indicating an abiotic process. The emission of CO in response to the UV-component of natural solar radiation was also evident at the ecosystem scale....

  4. Carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication: Computerized tomography and magnetic resonance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Benitez Gomez, S.; Aguilera Navarro, J.M.; Gonzalez Garcia, A.; Gonzalez Marcos, J.R.; Fernandez Cruz, J.

    1993-01-01

    We present a case of acute carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication in a previously healthy 13-year-old girl, who was found in the bathroom, unconscious and with the gas-burning hot water thank operating. The neuroradiological study showed bilateral, symmetrical cortical and subcortical parietooccipital and temporal lesions as well as damage to the basal lymph nodes. These lesions were related to the anoxic situation induced by this type of intoxication. Clinicoradiological follow-up included CT and MR sequences over a period of 10 months. In this cases, we stress the greater sensitivity of MR in the early detection of the characteristic lesions in this situation and we analyze the evolution of the process. (Author)

  5. Air Quality Criteria for Carbon Monoxide (Final Report, 2000) ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgates national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) on the basis of scientific information contained in integrated science assessments (ISAs), formerly known as air quality criteria documents (AQCDs). The ISA is a concise review, synthesis, and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science, and it communicates critical science judgments relevant to the NAAQS review. The most recent ISA for carbon monoxide (CO) was completed in 2010, and is available under related links (below). In 2000, EPA released a revised criteria document for CO which reviewed the latest evidence available at the time regarding sources, atmospheric chemistry, population exposure, dosimetry, pharmacokinetics, and health effects of CO, including effects in susceptible populations.

  6. Air Quality Criteria for Carbon Monoxide (Final Report, 1991) ...

    Science.gov (United States)

    The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) promulgates national ambient air quality standards (NAAQS) on the basis of scientific information contained in integrated science assessments (ISAs), formerly known as air quality criteria documents (AQCDs). The ISA is a concise review, synthesis, and evaluation of the most policy-relevant science, and it communicates critical science judgments relevant to the NAAQS review. A more recent ISA for carbon monoxide (CO) was completed in 2010, and is available under downloads. In 1991, EPA released a revised criteria document for CO which reviewed the latest evidence available at the time regarding sources, atmospheric chemistry, population exposure, dosimetry, pharmacokinetics, and health effects of CO, including effects in susceptible populations. This document was revised and updated in 2000. The 2000 CO AQCD is available under downloads.

  7. Study on the influence of carbon monoxide to the surface oxide layer of uranium metal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaolin; Duan Rongliang; Fu Yibei; Xie Renshou; Zuo Changming; Zhao Chunpei; Chen Hong

    1997-01-01

    The influence of carbon monoxide to the surface oxide layer of uranium metal has been studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and gas chromatography (GC). Carbon monoxide adsorption on the oxide layer resulted in U4f peak shifting to the lower binding energy. The content of oxygen in the oxide is decreased and the atomic ratio (O/U) is decreased by 7.2%. The amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere after the surface reaction is increased by 11.0%. The investigation indicates that the surface layer can prevent the further oxidation uranium metal in the atmosphere of carbon monoxide

  8. Carbon monoxide - hydrogen combustion characteristics in severe accident containment conditions. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2000-03-01

    production from a study for French reactors. For limestone-sand concrete, CO could be present in significant quantities (6% to 8%). For siliceous concrete, on the other hand, the CO concentration is generally small, of the order of 1%. Combustible gas generation (carbon monoxide and ex-vessel hydrogen) from core-concrete interactions is predicted in available codes (i.e., CORCON, WECHSL) but results are also highly plant specific. For this reason, the generation of CO is not examined in detail in this report, beyond defining a relevant range of compositions that bound the possible cases. This report reviews the knowledge base on CO/H 2 combustion from the perspective of assessing the potential combustion threat in containment during a severe reactor accident. Most aspects of classical combustion behaviour are discussed, including flammability limits, burning velocities, pressure development and detonability. Since CO and H 2 co-exist with copious quantities of CO 2 and steam in containment, diluent effects of CO 2 and steam on H 2 /CO combustion properties are also examined, where known. Where evident gaps in knowledge exist, they are identified and the safety implications of the resulting uncertainties are discussed: - Flammability limits for CO-H 2 -H 2 O-CO 2 -air mixtures can be determined accurately from Le Chatelier's rule or from empirical curve-fits to the experimental data. The presence of CO widens the flammability limits of hydrogen. - Burning velocities in CO 2 , H 2 , steam, and air mixtures can be determined reasonably accurately at low CO concentrations using available codes. However, available codes are not reliable at low hydrogen concentrations. There is a need for experimental determination of burning velocities for CO in the range of 0 to 10% and H2 in the range of 9 to 20%, and diluent (steam-CO 2 ) concentrations of up to 50%. Because burning velocity is a basic input parameter in the calculation of combustion pressure development, and since the

  9. Carbon monoxide production from desflurane and six types of carbon dioxide absorbents in a patient model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijzer, C.; Perez, R. S. G. M.; de Lange, J. J.

    2005-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Desflurane is known to produce high concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO) in desiccated sodalime or Baralyme (Allied Healthcare Products, St. Louis, MO). Desiccated absorbents without strong bases like potassium hydroxide or sodium hydroxide are reported to produce less or no CO at all.

  10. Carbon Nanomaterials from Carbon Monoxide Using Nickel and Cobalt Catalysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liszka, B.; Krzton, A.; Pawlyta, M.

    2010-01-01

    Two catalysts, nickel and cobalt, supported on MgO were used for carbon nanomaterials deposition by CO disproportionation. The syntheses were performed at 795 and 900 K in the hydrogen atmosphere. The resulting products were investigated using atomic force microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy. Although in the literature carbon nanofibres are expected to form: in the hydrogen presence, we obtained carbon nanotubes, which were multiwall and twisted with the outer diameter of 10-120 nm and the tube length up to 10 μm. (authors)

  11. Campaign to prevent carbon monoxide poisoning : fall-winter 2007-2008

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefebvre, B.; Chabot, L.; Gratton, J.; Lacoursiere, D.

    2009-01-01

    Quebec launched a public health campaign for the Montreal region to prevent carbon monoxide poisoning. The objectives of the campaign were to communicate the dangers of carbon monoxide poisoning, its potential sources, its effects on public health, and the means to prevent poisoning. Its purpose was to inform the public of the risks and strategies to be used in case of carbon monoxide poisoning and to lay out the merits of household carbon monoxide alarms. The communication was done by way of the media, in cooperation with community organizations and school boards. Other tools used in the campaign included the Internet, flyers and press releases. A poll taken in 2008 showed that 59 per cent of the respondents had one or more sources for carbon monoxide in their homes, including fireplaces, and that 28 per cent had a functioning alarm for carbon monoxide detection. A future survey will be held to follow-up on the evolution of the campaign. The development of various activities will help decrease the risk of carbon monoxide poisoning. tabs., figs.

  12. Reaction of uranium oxides with chlorine and carbon or carbon monoxide to prepare uranium chlorides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Haas, P.A.; Lee, D.D.; Mailen, J.C.

    1991-11-01

    The preferred preparation concept of uranium metal for feed to an AVLIS uranium enrichment process requires preparation of uranium tetrachloride (UCI{sub 4}) by reacting uranium oxides (UO{sub 2}/UO{sub 3}) and chlorine (Cl{sub 2}) in a molten chloride salt medium. UO{sub 2} is a very stable metal oxide; thus, the chemical conversion requires both a chlorinating agent and a reducing agent that gives an oxide product which is much more stable than the corresponding chloride. Experimental studies in a quartz reactor of 4-cm ID have demonstrated the practically of some chemical flow sheets. Experimentation has illustrated a sequence of results concerning the chemical flow sheets. Tests with a graphite block at 850{degrees}C demonstrated rapid reactions of Cl{sub 2} and evolution of carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}) as a product. Use of carbon monoxide (CO) as the reducing agent also gave rapid reactions of Cl{sub 2} and formation of CO{sub 2} at lower temperatures, but the reduction reactions were slower than the chlorinations. Carbon powder in the molten salt melt gave higher rates of reduction and better steady state utilization of Cl{sub 2}. Addition of UO{sub 2} feed while chlorination was in progress greatly improved the operation by avoiding the plugging effects from high UO{sub 2} concentrations and the poor Cl{sub 2} utilizations from low UO{sub 2} concentrations. An UO{sub 3} feed gave undesirable effects while a feed of UO{sub 2}-C spheres was excellent. The UO{sub 2}-C spheres also gave good rates of reaction as a fixed bed without any molten chloride salt. Results with a larger reactor and a bottom condenser for volatilized uranium show collection of condensed uranium chlorides as a loose powder and chlorine utilizations of 95--98% at high feed rates. 14 refs., 7 figs., 14 tabs.

  13. Study of mechanism of methanol synthesis from carbon monoxide and hydrogen using radioactive carbon isotope C14

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kagan, Yu.B.; Rozovskij, A.Ya.; Liberov, L.G.; Slivinskij, E.V.; Lin, G.I.; Loktev, S.M.; Bashkirov, A.N.

    1975-01-01

    Mechanism of methanol synthesis from carbon monoxide and hydrogen (in the presence of CO 2 ) on various catalysts using radioactive carbon oxides C 14 O and C 14 O 2 was investigated. In the presence of copper-zinc-aluminum and zinc-chromium oxides the methanol synthesis from CO and H 2 occurs via carbon dioxide intermediacy. On a fused iron catalyst the synthesis from carbon monoxide and hydrogen is the main rout to get the lowest alcohols

  14. Rationalizing Burned Carbon with Carbon Monoxide Exported from South America

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chatfield, R.; Freitas, S. R.; SilvaDias, M. A.; SilvaDias, P. O.; Hipskind, R. Stephen (Technical Monitor)

    2002-01-01

    We present several estimates cross-checking the fluxes of carbon to the atmosphere from burning, comparing models that are based on simple land-surface parameterizations and atmospheric transport dynamics. Both estimates made by NASA Ames and USP modeling techniques are quite high compared to some detailed satellite/land-use studies of emissions. The flux of carbon liberated to the atmosphere via biomass burning is important for several reasons. This flux is a fundamental statistic for the parameterization of the large-scale flux of gases controlling the reactive greenhouse gases methane and ozone. Similarly, it is central to the estimation of the translocation of nitrogen and pyrodenitrification in the tropics. Thirdly, CO2 emitted from rainforest clearing contributes directly to carbon lost from the rainforest system as it contributes to greenhouse gas forcing. While CO2 from pasturage, agriculture, etc, is considered to be reabsorbed seasonally, and so "off budget" for the carbon cycle, it must also be accounted. CO2 anomalies related to daily weather and interannual climatic variation are strong enough to perturb our scientific perception of long-term carbon storage trends. We compare fluxes deduced from land-use statistics (originally, W.M. Hao) and from satellite hot pixels (A. Setzer) with atmospheric fluxes determined by the mesoscale/continental scale models RAMS and MM5, and point to some new work with highly resolved global models (the NASA Data Assimilation Office's GEOS4). Our simulations are tied to events, so that measured tracers like CO tie the models directly to the burning and meteorology of a specific period. We point out a particular sensitivity in estimates based on CO, and indicate how analysis of CO2 along with other biomass-burning tracers may lead to an improved multi-species estimator of carbon burned.

  15. Influence of carbon monoxide to the surface layer of uranium metal and its oxides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Xiaoling; Fu Yibei; Xie Renshou; Huang Ruiliang

    1996-09-01

    The surface structures of uranium metal and triuranium octaoxide (U 3 O 8 ) and the influence of carbon monoxide to the surface layers have been studied by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). After exposure to carbon monoxide, contents of oxygen in the surface oxides of uranium metal and U 3 O 8 are decreased and O/U ratios decrease 7.2%, 8.0% respectively. The investigation indicated the surface layers of uranium metal and its oxides were forbidden to further oxidation in the atmosphere of carbon monoxide. (11 refs., 9 figs., 2 tabs.)

  16. Regulation of multiple carbon monoxide consumption pathways in anaerobic bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stephen M Techtmann

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO, well known as a toxic gas, is increasingly recognized as a key metabolite and signaling molecule. Microbial utilization of CO is quite common, evidenced by the rapid escalation in description of new species of CO-utilizing bacteria and archaea. Carbon monoxide dehydrogenase (CODH, the protein complex that enables anaerobic CO utilization has been well-characterized from an increasing number of microorganisms, however the regulation of multiple CO-related gene clusters in single isolates remains unexplored. Many species are extroraordinarily resistant to high CO concentrations, thiriving under pure CO at more than one atmosphere. We hypothesized that, in strains that can grow exclusively on CO, both carbon acquisition via the CODH/Acetyl CoA synthase complex and energy conservation via a CODH-linked hydrogenase must be differentially regulated in response to the availability of CO. The CO-sensing transcriptional activator, CooA is present in most CO-oxidizing bacteria. Here we present a genomic and phylogenetic survey of CODH operons and cooA genes found in CooA-containing bacteria. Two distinct groups of CooA homologs were found: One clade (CooA-1 is found in the majority of CooA containing bacteria, whereas the other clade (CooA-2 is found only in genomes that encode multiple CODH clusters, suggesting that the CooA-2 might be important for cross-regulation of competing CODH operons. Recombinant CooA-1 and CooA-2 regulators from the prototypical CO-utilizing bacterium Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans were purified, and promoter binding analyses revealed that CooA-1 specifically regulates the hydrogenase-linked CODH, whereas CooA-2 is able to regulate both the hydrogenase-linked CODH and the CODH/ACS operons. These studies point to the ability of dual CooA homologs to partition CO into divergent CO-utilizing pathways resulting in efficient consumption of a single limiting growth substrate available across a wide range of

  17. Computation of diatomic molecular spectra for selected transitions of aluminum monoxide, cyanide, diatomic carbon, and titanium monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Parigger, Christian G.; Woods, Alexander C.; Surmick, David M.; Gautam, Ghaneshwar; Witte, Michael J.; Hornkohl, James O.

    2015-01-01

    Laser ablation studies with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) typically emphasize atomic species yet fingerprints from molecular species can occur subsequently or concurrently. In this work, selected molecular transitions of aluminum monixide (AlO), diatomic carbon (C 2 ), cyanide (CN), and titanium monoxide (TiO) are accurately computed. Line strength tables are used to describe the radiative transitions of diatomic molecules primarily in the visible, optical region. Details are elaborated of the computational procedure that allows one to utilize diatomic spectra as a predictive and as a diagnostic tool. In order to create a computed spectrum, the procedure requires information regarding the temperature of the diatomic transitions along with other input such as the spectral resolution. When combined with a fitting algorithm to optimize such parameters, this procedure is used to infer information from an experimentally obtained spectrum. Furthermore, the programs and data files are provided for LIBS investigations that also reveal AlO, C 2 , CN, and TiO diatomic spectra. - Highlights: • We present a program for fitting of molecular spectra. • This includes data base for AlO, C 2 , CN, and TiO. • We discuss the details of the program including fitting. • We show computed examples and reference current work

  18. Computation of diatomic molecular spectra for selected transitions of aluminum monoxide, cyanide, diatomic carbon, and titanium monoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Parigger, Christian G., E-mail: cparigge@tennessee.edu [The University of Tennessee/University of Tennessee Space Institute, Center for Laser Applications, 411 B.H. Goethert Parkway, Tullahoma, TN 37388-9700 (United States); Woods, Alexander C.; Surmick, David M.; Gautam, Ghaneshwar; Witte, Michael J. [The University of Tennessee/University of Tennessee Space Institute, Center for Laser Applications, 411 B.H. Goethert Parkway, Tullahoma, TN 37388-9700 (United States); Hornkohl, James O. [Hornkohl Consulting, Tullahoma, TN 37388 (United States)

    2015-05-01

    Laser ablation studies with laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) typically emphasize atomic species yet fingerprints from molecular species can occur subsequently or concurrently. In this work, selected molecular transitions of aluminum monixide (AlO), diatomic carbon (C{sub 2}), cyanide (CN), and titanium monoxide (TiO) are accurately computed. Line strength tables are used to describe the radiative transitions of diatomic molecules primarily in the visible, optical region. Details are elaborated of the computational procedure that allows one to utilize diatomic spectra as a predictive and as a diagnostic tool. In order to create a computed spectrum, the procedure requires information regarding the temperature of the diatomic transitions along with other input such as the spectral resolution. When combined with a fitting algorithm to optimize such parameters, this procedure is used to infer information from an experimentally obtained spectrum. Furthermore, the programs and data files are provided for LIBS investigations that also reveal AlO, C{sub 2}, CN, and TiO diatomic spectra. - Highlights: • We present a program for fitting of molecular spectra. • This includes data base for AlO, C{sub 2}, CN, and TiO. • We discuss the details of the program including fitting. • We show computed examples and reference current work.

  19. Interannual Variations of MLS Carbon Monoxide Induced by Solar Cycle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Jae N.; Wu, Dong L.; Ruzmaikin, Alexander

    2013-01-01

    More than eight years (2004-2012) of carbon monoxide (CO) measurements from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) are analyzed. The mesospheric CO, largely produced by the carbon dioxide (CO2) photolysis in the lower thermosphere, is sensitive to the solar irradiance variability. The long-term variation of observed mesospheric MLS CO concentrations at high latitudes is likely driven by the solar-cycle modulated UV forcing. Despite of different CO abundances in the southern and northern hemispheric winter, the solar-cycle dependence appears to be similar. This solar signal is further carried down to the lower altitudes by the dynamical descent in the winter polar vortex. Aura MLS CO is compared with the Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) total solar irradiance (TSI) and also with the spectral irradiance in the far ultraviolet (FUV) region from the SORCE Solar-Stellar Irradiance Comparison Experiment (SOLSTICE). Significant positive correlation (up to 0.6) is found between CO and FUVTSI in a large part of the upper atmosphere. The distribution of this positive correlation in the mesosphere is consistent with the expectation of CO changes induced by the solar irradiance variations.

  20. Tsukamurella carboxydivorans sp. nov., a carbon monoxide-oxidizing actinomycete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Sae W; Kim, Sung M; Park, Sang T; Kim, Young M

    2009-06-01

    A Gram-positive, slightly acid-alcohol-fast, carbon monoxide-oxidizing bacterium, strain Y2(T), was isolated from a soil sample collected from a roadside in Seoul, Korea. On the basis of 16S rRNA gene sequence comparative analyses, strain Y2(T) was shown to belong to the genus Tsukamurella and was most closely related to Tsukamurella tyrosinosolvens DSM 44234(T) (GenBank accession no. AY238514; 99.8 %). The predominant fatty acids were C(18 : 1)omega9c and C(16 : 0). The cell-wall peptidoglycan of strain Y2(T) contained meso-diaminopimelic acid as the diagnostic diamino acid. Strain Y2(T) contained galactose and arabinose as the whole cell sugars. The DNA G+C content was 77 mol%. The DNA-DNA relatedness value between strain Y2(T) and T. tyrosinosolvens DSM 44234(T) was 62.7 %. Based on the combination of the carbon source utilization pattern, fatty acid profile, cell-wall chemotype, DNA G+C content and DNA-DNA hybridization experiments, it is proposed that strain Y2(T) (=KCCM 42885(T)=JCM 15482(T)) represents the type strain of a novel species, Tsukamurella carboxydivorans sp. nov.

  1. MLS/Aura Level 2 Carbon Monoxide (CO) Mixing Ratio V004

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ML2CO is the EOS Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) standard product for carbon monoxide derived from radiances measured by the 640 GHz radiometer. The current...

  2. Carbon Monoxide NAAQS Designations, Region 9, 2011, US EPA Region 9

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Polygon Feature class of Nonattainment Areas for Carbon Monoxide. Nonattainment areas are geographic areas which have not met National Ambient Air Quality Standards...

  3. Carbon monoxide toxicity. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection data base). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-08-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the mechanism and clinical manifestations of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure, including the effects on the liver, cardiovascular, and nervous systems. Topics include studies of the carbon monoxide binding affinity with hemoglobin, measurement of carboxyhemoglobin in humans and various animal species, carbon monoxide levels resulting from tobacco and marijuana smoke, occupational exposure and the NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) biological exposure index, symptomology and percent of blood CO, and intrauterine exposure. Air pollution, tobacco smoking, and occupational exposure are discussed as primary sources of carbon monoxide exposure. The effects of cigarette smoking on fetal development and health are excluded and examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains a minimum of 172 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  4. MLS/Aura Near-Real-Time L2 Carbon Monoxide (CO) Mixing Ratio V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ML2CO_NRT is the EOS Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) Near-Real-Time (NRT) product for carbon monoxide (CO). This product contains daily CO profiles taken from the...

  5. Carbon monoxide toxicity. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the mechanism and clinical manifestations of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure, including the effects on the liver, cardiovascular, and nervous systems. Topics include studies of the carbon monoxide binding affinity with hemoglobin, measurement of carboxyhemoglobin in humans and various animal species, carbon monoxide levels resulting from tobacco and marijuana smoke, occupational exposure and the NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) biological exposure index, symptomology and percent of blood CO, and intrauterine exposure. Air pollution, tobacco smoking, and occupational exposure are discussed as primary sources of carbon monoxide exposure. The effects of cigarette smoking on fetal development and health are excluded and examined in a separate bibliography. (Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  6. Carbon monoxide toxicity. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-10-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the mechanism and clinical manifestations of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure, including the effects on the liver, cardiovascular, and nervous systems. Topics include studies of the carbon monoxide binding affinity with hemoglobin, measurement of carboxyhemoglobin in humans and various animal species, carbon monoxide levels resulting from tobacco and marijuana smoke, occupational exposure and the NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) biological exposure index, symptomology and percent of blood CO, and intrauterine exposure. Air pollution, tobacco smoking, and occupational exposure are discussed as primary sources of carbon monoxide exposure. The effects of cigarette smoking on fetal development and health are excluded and examined in a separate bibliography.(Contains 50-250 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.) (Copyright NERAC, Inc. 1995)

  7. MLS/Aura L2 Carbon Monoxide (CO) Mixing Ratio V002

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ML2CO is the EOS Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) standard product for carbon monoxide derived from radiances measured by the 640 GHz radiometer. The current...

  8. MLS/Aura L2 Carbon Monoxide (CO) Mixing Ratio V003

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — ML2CO is the EOS Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) standard product for carbon monoxide derived from radiances measured by the 640 GHz radiometer. The current...

  9. A study of carbon monoxide distribution determinations for a global transport model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peters, Leonard K.

    1988-01-01

    The primary objective of this grant was to further the development of a global transport/chemistry model that simulates the physico-chemical behavior of methane and carbon monoxide in the troposphere. The computer simulation model is designed to analyze the processes that occur as methane and carbon monoxide are transported from their respective sources to their ultimate fate, e.g., final conversion to CO2, transport to the stratosphere, deposition at ground level, etc.

  10. Adsortion-catalytic method for removing carbon monoxide from gas streams and catalysts for that method

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vlasenko, V.M.; Solov`ev, S.A.; Belokleitseva, G.M.

    1992-07-20

    Effective catalysts have been developed for the adsorption-catalytic removal of carbon monoxide from gases; a method of adsorption-catalytic removal of carbon monoxide from gases over a manganese oxide catalyst on a mordenite carrier which permits purification with almost no increase in gas temperature. A procedure for regeneration of the catalyst which ensures reproducibility of the adsorption process. 11 refs., 2 figs., 2 tabs.

  11. Accidental carbon monoxide poisoning presenting without a history of exposure: A case report

    OpenAIRE

    Bennetto, Luke; Powter, Louise; Scolding, Neil J

    2008-01-01

    Abstract Introduction Carbon monoxide poisoning is easy to diagnose when there is a history of exposure. When the exposure history is absent, or delayed, the diagnosis is more difficult and relies on recognising the importance of multi-system disease. We present a case of accidental carbon monoxide poisoning. Case presentation A middle-aged man, who lived alone in his mobile home was found by friends in a confused, incontinent state. Initial signs included respiratory failure, cardiac ischaem...

  12. Recipients of hyperbaric oxygen treatment for carbon monoxide poisoning and exposure circumstances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clower, Jacquelyn H; Hampson, Neil B; Iqbal, Shahed; Yip, Fuyuen Y

    2012-07-01

    Unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning is preventable. Severe cases are often referred for hyperbaric oxygen treatment. To guide prevention efforts and treatment practices, this study provides some of the most detailed current information about patients with carbon monoxide poisoning who have been treated at hyperbaric facilities across the United States and the circumstances surrounding their exposures. This study can help improve efforts to prevent carbon monoxide poisoning and enhance treatment practices. From August 2008 to January 2010, nonidentifiable, patient-level data were reported by 87 hyperbaric facilities in 39 states via an online reporting system. This reporting system was developed collaboratively by the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Among the 864 patients reported to receive hyperbaric oxygen treatment for unintentional, non-fire-related, carbon monoxide poisoning, most of the patients were white men aged between 18 and 44 years. Only 10% of patients reported the presence of a carbon monoxide alarm at their exposure location, and 75% reported being part of a group exposure. Nineteen patients (2%) reported a prior carbon monoxide exposure. About half (55%) of the patients treated were discharged after treatment; 41% were hospitalized. The findings in this report expand the knowledge about patients with carbon monoxide poisoning. These results suggest that prevention efforts, such as educating the public about using carbon monoxide alarms and targeting the most at-risk populations, may help reduce the number of exposures, the number of persons with chronic cognitive sequelae, and the resulting burden on the health care system. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. The range of 1-3 keV electrons in solid oxygen and carbon monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oehlenschlaeger, M.; Andersen, H.H.; Schou, J.; Soerensen, H.

    1985-01-01

    The range of 1-3 keV electrons in films of solid oxygen and carbon monoxide has been measured by a mirror-substrate method. The technique used here is identical to the one previously used for range measurements on solid hydrogen and nitrogen. The range in oxygen is slightly shorter than that in nitrogen whereas the range in carbon monoxide is about 20% larger than that in the nitrogen. (orig.)

  14. Carbon monoxide reduces near-infrared spectroscopy determined 'total' hemoglobin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Niemann, Mads J; Sørensen, Henrik; Siebenmann, Christoph

    2017-01-01

    to normoxia (68.9 ± 6.9%; p determined ScO2 remained unchanged during CO/O2 and O2 inhalations but oxygenated and deoxygenated hemoglobin decreased (by 19.7 μM (median; IQR 2.8-34.8; p = .016) and 37.3 μM (30.8-46.6; p = .004), respectively) during inhalation of CO/O2 compared...... to inhalation of O2. Therefore, NIRO-200NX determined 'total' hemoglobin (sum of O2Hb and HHb) decreased (by 62.1 μM; 44.5-78.2; p = .001). In conclusion, exposure to CO did not increase MCAVmean, and neither NIRO-200NX nor INVOS-5100 detected a change in ScO2 when CO was added to inhalation of oxygen......Carbon monoxide (CO) increases middle cerebral artery mean flow velocity (MCAVmean), but the effect of CO on the near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) determined cerebral oxygenation (ScO2) is not detailed. In our study, 11 non-smoking subjects breathed 100% O2 through a closed circuit. A CO2 scrubber...

  15. The Role of Oxygen Therapies in Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suleyman Metin

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Due to climate and socio-economic issues in Turkey, the incidence of carbon monoxide (CO poisoning is high, especially in winter. Clinical manifestations may vary depending on the type of CO source, concentration and duration of exposure. The symptoms of CO poisoning predominantly manifest in lots of organs and systems with high oxygen utilization, especially the brain and the heart. The primary aim in oxygen therapy is to eliminate CO and to reduce its toxic effects. In this context, normobaric and hyperbaric oxygen therapy are used to achieve these goals. Normobaric oxygen (NBO treatment is an easily accessible and relatively not expensive modality, where hyperbaric oxygen (HBO therapy requires specific equipment, certified staff and is available only in some centers. Additionally, HBO treatment has several additional advantages over NBO treatment. Despite its benefits, it is compulsory to search for some criteria in selecting patients to be treated because of the limited availability and access of hyperbaric facilities. For an effective evaluation and an optimal treatment, advanced education of the healthcare professionals on the use of oxygen delivery modalities in the management of CO poisoning is imperative. In this review, it has been aimed to outline the significance of oxygen treatment modalities and to determine patient selection criteria for HBO treatment in the management of CO poisoning which continues to be an important threat to community health care. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2011; 10(4.000: 487-494

  16. The immunomodulatory role of carbon monoxide during transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amano Mariane

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The number of organ and tissue transplants has increased worldwide in recent decades. However, graft rejection, infections due to the use of immunosuppressive drugs and a shortage of graft donors remain major concerns. Carbon monoxide (CO had long been regarded solely as a poisonous gas. Ultimately, physiological studies unveiled the endogenous production of CO, particularly by the heme oxygenase (HO-1 enzyme, recognizing CO as a beneficial gas when used at therapeutic doses. The protective properties of CO led researchers to develop uses for it, resulting in devices and molecules that can deliver CO in vitro and in vivo. The resulting interest in clinical investigations was immediate. Studies regarding the CO/HO-1 modulation of immune responses and their effects on various immune disorders gave rise to transplantation research, where CO was shown to be essential in the protection against organ rejection in animal models. This review provides a perspective of how CO modulates the immune system to improve transplantation and suggests its use as a therapy in the field.

  17. Carbon monoxide: from toxin to endogenous modulator of cardiovascular functions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.A. Johnson

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO is a pollutant commonly recognized for its toxicological attributes, including CNS and cardiovascular effects. But CO is also formed endogenously in mammalian tissues. Endogenously formed CO normally arises from heme degradation in a reaction catalyzed by heme oxygenase. While inhibitors of endogenous CO production can raise arterial pressure, heme loading can enhance CO production and lead to vasodepression. Both central and peripheral tissues possess heme oxygenases and generate CO from heme, but the inability of heme substrate to cross the blood brain barrier suggests the CNS heme-heme oxygenase-CO system may be independent of the periphery. In the CNS, CO apparently acts in the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS promoting changes in glutamatergic neurotransmission and lowering blood pressure. At the periphery, the heme-heme oxygenase-CO system can affect cardiovascular functions in a two-fold manner; specifically: 1 heme-derived CO generated within vascular smooth muscle (VSM can promote vasodilation, but 2 its actions on the endothelium apparently can promote vasoconstriction. Thus, it seems reasonable that the CNS-, VSM- and endothelial-dependent actions of the heme-heme oxygenase-CO system may all affect cardiac output and vascular resistance, and subsequently blood pressure.

  18. Cost of accidental carbon monoxide poisoning: A preventable expense.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hampson, Neil B

    2016-06-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is common in the United States, accounting for hundreds of deaths and thousands of emergency department visits annually. It is believed that most accidental CO poisoning is preventable through public education, warning labels on consumer products, and uniform use of residential CO alarms. However, cost effectiveness of these prevention strategies has not been demonstrated in the United States to date. It was the objective of this study to estimate societal cost of accidental CO poisoning and evaluate the cost-effectiveness of universal installation of residential CO alarms. Published studies and data from the English language literature were used in to estimate direct hospital costs and lost earnings resulting from accidental CO poisoning. The study was performed in the US in 2015. Approximately 6600 individuals are estimated to sustain long-term cognitive sequela annually, with total loss in earnings of approximately $925 million, 334 individuals die from accidental, non-fire related CO poisoning with an average loss of 26 years of productivity accounting for $355 million, and 2800 are hospitalized with acute medical care costs of $33 million. Available data indicate that accidental CO poisoning in the US conservatively costs society over $1.3 billion, resulting from direct hospital costs and lost earnings. Further, it demonstrates a positive cost-benefit ratio for the uniform use of residential CO alarms.

  19. Carbon monoxide exposures after hurricane Ike - Texas, September 2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-08-14

    During power outages after hurricanes, survivors can be at risk for carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning if they use portable generators improperly. On September 13, 2008, Hurricane Ike struck the coast of Texas, leaving approximately 2.3 million households in the southeastern portion of the state without electricity. Six days later, 1.3 million homes were still without electrical power. To assess the impact of storm-related CO exposures and to enhance prevention efforts, CDC analyzed data from five disparate surveillance sources on CO exposures reported during September 13--26 in counties of southeast Texas that were declared disaster areas by the federal government. This report describes the results of that analysis, which indicated that one data source, Texas poison centers, received reports of 54 persons with storm-related CO exposures during the surveillance period. Another data source, the Undersea and Hyperbaric Medical Society (UHMS) hyperbaric oxygen treatment database, reported that 15 persons received hyperbaric oxygen treatment for storm-related CO poisoning. Medical examiners, public health officials, and hospitals in Texas reported that seven persons died from storm-related CO poisoning. Among the data sources, the percentage of reported storm-related CO exposures caused by improper generator use ranged from 82% to 87%. These findings underscore the need for effective prevention messages during storm preparation, warnings, and response periods regarding the correct use of generators and the installation and maintenance of battery-powered CO detectors.

  20. Molybdopterin in carbon monoxide oxidase from carboxydotrophic bacteria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meyer, O.; Rajagopalan, K.V.

    1984-02-01

    The carbon monoxide oxidases (COXs) purified from the carboxydotrophic bacteria Pseudomonas carboxydohydrogena and Pseudomonas carboxydoflava were found to be molybdenum hydroxylases, identical in cofactor composition and spectral properties to the recently characterized enzyme from Pseudomonas carboxydovorans. All three enzymes exhibited a cofactor composition of two flavin adenine dinucleotides, two molybdenums, eight irons and eight labile sulfides per dimeric molecule, typical for molybdenum-containing iron-sulfur flavoproteins. The millimolar extinction coefficient of the COXs at 450 nm was 72 (per two flavin adenine dinucleotides), a value similar to that of milk xanthine oxidase and chicken liver xanthine dehydrogenase at 450 nm. That molybdopterin, the novel prosthetic group of the molybdenum cofactor of a variety of molybdoenzymes is also a constituent of COXs from carboxydotrophic bacteria is indicated by the formation of identical fluorescent cofactor derivatives, by complementation of the nitrate reductase activity in extracts of Neurospora crassa nit-1, and by the presence of organic phosphate additional to flavin adenine dinucleotides. Molybdopterin is tightly but noncovalently bound to the protein. COX, sulfite oxidase, xanthine oxidase, and xanthine dehydrogenase each contains 2 mol of molybdopterin per mol of enzyme. The presence of a trichloroacetic acid-releasable, so-far-unidentified, phosphorous-containing moiety in COX is suggested by the results of phosphate analysis.

  1. Catalytic oxidation of carbon monoxide over supported palladium nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soni, Keshav Chand; Krishna, R.; Chandra Shekar, S.; Singh, Beer

    2016-01-01

    Catalytic oxidation of CO with ozone had been studied over Al2O3 and SiO2 supported Pd nanoparticles which was synthesized by two different methods. The polyol method mainly resulted in highly dispersed Pd particles on the support, while the impregnation method resulted in agglomeration Pd particles on the support. Supported Pd nanoparticles synthesized from PdCl2 in the presence of poly ( N-vinylpyrrolidone) (PVP) by chemical reduction. The catalysts were characterized by X-ray diffraction, N2 BET surface area, pore size distributions, CO chemisorption, TEM and H2-temperature programmed reduction. The physico-chemical properties were well correlated with activity data. Characterizations of XRD and TEM show that the surface Pd nanoparticles are highly dispersed over Al2O3 and SiO2. The catalytic activity was dependent upon ozone/CO ratio, contact times, and the reaction temperature. The extent of carbon monoxide oxidation was proportional to the catalytically ozone decomposition. The PVP synthesized Pd/A2O3 catalyst had been found to be highly active for complete CO removal at room temperature. The higher activity of the nanocatalyst was attributed to small particle size and higher dispersion of Pd over support.

  2. [Improvement of carbon monoxide analysis in fish meat].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohtsuki, Takashi; Kawasaki, Yoko; Kubota, Hiroki; Namiki, Tatsuya; Iizuka, Tayoshi; Shionoya, Noriko; Yoshii, Nobuhiko; Ohara, Reiko; Tanaka, Makiko; Kobayashi, Hisashi; Sato, Kyoko; Kawamura, Yoko

    2011-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) treatment of fish meat of tuna, yellowtail, tilapia etc. is not allowed in Japan, since it can maintain the red color for a longer period than the microbiological shelf life of fish meat. The official method for quantification of CO has a problem, in that a part of the CO is lost during the preparation of the fish sample. To solve this problem, we modified the official method in this study. We also applied this modified method to survey the contents of CO in tuna, yellowtail, young yellowtail, and tilapia. As a result, the modified method was found to be more suitable for CO quantification than the official method. An inter-laboratory study by 4 laboratories confirmed that the CO content of many samples of tilapia exceeded the regulation value, apparently due to the higher recovery of CO, compared to the official method. Therefore, it was suggested that the regulation value in the case of tilapia should be changed if this method is introduced as an official method.

  3. Color evaluation of carbon monoxide treated porcine blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, P R; Gomide, L A M; Ramos, E M; Stringheta, P C; Parreiras, J F M

    2004-12-01

    The stability of liquid porcine blood, treated with carbon monoxide (CO) at different pH values (7.40, 6.70, and 6.00) up to its complete saturation, was studied. Lowering the pH from 7.40 to 6.70 resulted in a decrease in the amount of CO necessary to obtain 100% carboxyhemoglobin. Further pH lowering to 6.00 did not result in additional reduction in the amount of gas. During 4 days of refrigerated storage CO treated liquid blood maintained, at every pH, a more stable and attractive red color than fresh blood, which was a result of an increase (Predness) and b(*) (yellowness) values and no variation (P>0.05) on L(*) (lightness) value. Hue (h(*)) and chroma (C(*)) decreased in the untreated blood but not in the CO-treated blood. The results indicate that blood saturation with CO yields a product having greater potential for use in meat products without compromising its visual appearance.

  4. Carbon monoxide in exhaled breath testing and therapeutics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryter, Stefan W; Choi, Augustine M K

    2013-03-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO), a low molecular weight gas, is a ubiquitous environmental product of organic combustion, which is also produced endogenously in the body, as the byproduct of heme metabolism. CO binds to hemoglobin, resulting in decreased oxygen delivery to bodily tissues at toxicological concentrations. At physiological concentrations, CO may have endogenous roles as a potential signaling mediator in vascular function and cellular homeostasis. Exhaled CO (eCO), similar to exhaled nitric oxide (eNO), has been evaluated as a candidate breath biomarker of pathophysiological states, including smoking status, and inflammatory diseases of the lung and other organs. eCO values have been evaluated as potential indicators of inflammation in asthma, stable COPD and exacerbations, cystic fibrosis, lung cancer, or during surgery or critical care. The utility of eCO as a marker of inflammation and its potential diagnostic value remain incompletely characterized. Among other candidate 'medicinal gases' with therapeutic potential, (e.g., NO and H2S), CO has been shown to act as an effective anti-inflammatory agent in preclinical animal models of inflammatory disease, acute lung injury, sepsis, ischemia/reperfusion injury and organ graft rejection. Current and future clinical trials will evaluate the clinical applicability of this gas as a biomarker and/or therapeutic in human disease.

  5. Carbon Monoxide Poisoning After an Ice Storm in Kentucky, 2009

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutterloh, Emily C.; Iqbal, Shahed; Clower, Jacquelyn H.; Spillerr, Henry A.; Riggs, Margaret A.; Sugg, Tennis J.; Humbaugh, Kraig E.; Cadwell, Betsy L.; Thoroughman, Douglas A.

    2011-01-01

    Objectives. Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is a leading cause of morbidity and mortality during natural disasters. On January 26–27, 2009, a severe ice storm occurred in Kentucky, causing widespread, extended power outages and disrupting transportation and communications. After the storm, CO poisonings were reported throughout the state. The objectives of this investigation were to determine the extent of the problem, identify sources of CO poisoning, characterize cases, make recommendations to reduce morbidity and mortality, and develop prevention strategies. Methods. We obtained data from the Kentucky Regional Poison Center (KRPC), hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) facilities, and coroners. Additionally, the Kentucky Department for Public Health provided statewide emergency department (ED) and hospitalization data. Results. During the two weeks after the storm, KRPC identified 144 cases of CO poisoning; exposure sources included kerosene heaters, generators, and propane heaters. Hospitals reported 202 ED visits and 26 admissions. Twenty-eight people received HBOT. Ten deaths were attributed to CO poisoning, eight of which were related to inappropriate generator location. Higher rates of CO poisoning were reported in areas with the most ice accumulation. Conclusions. Although CO poisonings are preventable, they continue to occur in postdisaster situations. Recommendations include encouraging use of CO alarms, exploring use of engineering controls on generators to decrease CO exposure, providing specific information regarding safe use and placement of CO-producing devices, and using multiple communication methods to reach people without electricity. PMID:21563718

  6. CT of the brain in acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohno, Masato; Uchino, Akira; Hayashi, Kazuji; Nakata, Hajime.

    1988-01-01

    Cerebral computed tomographic (CT) findings of acute carbon monoxide (Co) poisoning were analized in thirty-six cases treated with hyperbraric oxygen therapy and their relationship with prognosis was evaluated. The cases were classified into there groups, early stage, interval form, and non-interval form groups. In all groups, the initial abnormality was low density areas presumably due to edema, demyelination and/or softening. It was seen in the globus pallidus and/or white matter. Following these initial changes, cerebral hemorrhage, ventricular dilatation, and cerebral atrophy developed in a few cases. The frequency of abnormal CT findings was higher in the interval form group (85 %) or non-interval group (83 %) than the early stage group (41 %). The prognosis was good in most cases with normal CT findings. The possibility of recovery diminished in the patients with abnormal CT findings. The prognosis was particularly poor in cases showing abnormality both in globus pallidus and white matter. We conclude that CT is useful not only for detecting the pathologic change but also for predicting the prognosis of the patient with acute Co poisoning. (author)

  7. Brain CT scan in acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We, En-Huei

    1986-01-01

    The brain CT findings in 19 patients with acute carbon monoxide poisoning was analysed and the emphasis was placed on the relationship between CT findings and prognosis. Five had a normal manifestation in CT ; eight had the findings of ovoid or patchy low density area in globus pallidus, bilateral or unlateral, during the second day to fifth week after poisoning, and the low density areas were decreasing and blurring in edge in follow up and at last disappeared during 3 - 14 weeks in three cases of them ; nine showed the appearance of diffuse low density of white matter and of globus pallidus in some of them ; two had an appearance of brain atrophy. The pathology of CT findings mentioned above may be brain edema, necrosis, malacia and degeneration in gray matter and globus pallidus. The result suggested the cases with normal CT manifestation, cerebral edema and decreasing and disappearing low density area had a good prognosis, in contrary, the cases with persistant low density in globus pallidus had a poorer prognosis. (author)

  8. National carbon monoxide poisoning surveillance framework and recent estimates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Shahed; Clower, Jacquelyn H; King, Michael; Bell, Jeneita; Yip, Fuyuen Y

    2012-01-01

    Unintentional, non-fire-related (UNFR) carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is a leading cause of poisoning in the United States. A comprehensive national CO poisoning surveillance framework is needed to obtain accurate estimates of CO poisoning burden and guide prevention efforts. This article describes the current national CO poisoning surveillance framework and reports the most recent national estimates. We analyzed mortality data from the National Vital Statistics System multiple cause-of-death file, emergency department (ED) and hospitalization data from the Healthcare Cost and Utilization Project's Nationwide Emergency Department Sample and Nationwide Inpatient Sample, hyperbaric oxygen treatment (HBOT) data from HBOT facilities, exposure data from the National Poison Data System, and CO alarm prevalence data from the American Housing Survey and the National Health Interview Survey. In the United States, 2,631 UNFR CO deaths occurred from 1999 to 2004, an average of 439 deaths annually. In 2007, there were 21,304 (71 per one million population) ED visits and 2,302 (eight per one million population) hospitalizations for confirmed cases of CO poisoning. In 2009, 552 patients received HBOT, and from 2000 to 2009, 68,316 UNFR CO exposures were reported to poison centers. Most nonfatal poisonings were among children (65 years of age). More poisonings occurred during winter months and in the Midwest and Northeast. UNFR CO poisoning poses a significant public health burden. Systematic evaluation of data sources coupled with modification and expansion of the surveillance framework might assist in developing effective prevention strategies.

  9. Carbon monoxide and methane adsorption of crude oil refinery using activated carbon from palm shells as biosorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuliusman; Afdhol, M. K.; Sanal, Alristo

    2018-03-01

    Carbon monoxide and methane gas are widely present in oil refineries. Off-potential gas is used as raw material for the petrochemical industry. In order for this off-gas to be utilized, carbon monoxide and methane must be removed from off-gas. This study aims to adsorb carbon monoxide and methane using activated carbon of palm shells and commercial activated carbon simultaneously. This research was conducted in 2 stages: 1) Preparation and characterization of activated carbon, 2) Carbon monoxide and methane adsorption test. The activation experiments using carbon dioxide at a flow rate of 150 ml/min yielded a surface area of 978.29 m2/g, Nitrogen at flow rate 150 ml/min yielded surface area 1241.48 m2/g, and carbon dioxide and nitrogen at a flow rate 200 ml/min yielded a surface area 300.37 m2/g. Adsorption of carbon monoxide and methane on activated carbon of palm shell systems yielded results in the amount of 0.5485 mg/g and 0.0649 mg/g and using commercial activated carbon yielded results in the amount of 0.5480 mg/g and 0.0650 mg/g

  10. Characteristics of autoignited laminar lifted flames in heated coflow jets of carbon monoxide/hydrogen mixtures

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Byungchul

    2012-06-01

    The characteristics of autoignited lifted flames in laminar jets of carbon monoxide/hydrogen fuels have been investigated experimentally in heated coflow air. In result, as the jet velocity increased, the blowoff was directly occurred from the nozzle-attached flame without experiencing a stabilized lifted flame, in the non-autoignited regime. In the autoignited regime, the autoignited lifted flame of carbon monoxide diluted by nitrogen was affected by the water vapor content in the compressed air oxidizer, as evidenced by the variation of the ignition delay time estimated by numerical calculation. In particular, in the autoignition regime at low temperatures with added hydrogen, the liftoff height of the autoignited lifted flames decreased and then increased as the jet velocity increased. Based on the mechanism in which the autoignited laminar lifted flame is stabilized by ignition delay time, the liftoff height can be influenced not only by the heat loss, but also by the preferential diffusion between momentum and mass diffusion in fuel jets during the autoignition process. © 2012 The Korean Society of Mechanical Engineers.

  11. Exhaled carbon monoxide in asthmatics: a meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huang Mao

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The non-invasive assessment of airway inflammation is potentially advantageous in asthma management. Exhaled carbon monoxide (eCO measurement is cheap and has been proposed to reflect airway inflammation and oxidative stress but current data are conflicting. The purpose of this meta-analysis is to determine whether eCO is elevated in asthmatics, is regulated by steroid treatment and reflects disease severity and control. Methods A systematic search for English language articles published between 1997 and 2009 was performed using Medline, Embase and Cochrane databases. Observational studies comparing eCO in non-smoking asthmatics and healthy subjects or asthmatics before and after steroid treatment were included. Data were independently extracted by two investigators and analyzed to generate weighted mean differences using either a fixed or random effects meta-analysis depending upon the degree of heterogeneity. Results 18 studies were included in the meta-analysis. The eCO level was significantly higher in asthmatics as compared to healthy subjects and in intermittent asthma as compared to persistent asthma. However, eCO could not distinguish between steroid-treated asthmatics and steroid-free patients nor separate controlled and partly-controlled asthma from uncontrolled asthma in cross-sectional studies. In contrast, eCO was significantly reduced following a course of corticosteroid treatment. Conclusions eCO is elevated in asthmatics but levels only partially reflect disease severity and control. eCO might be a potentially useful non-invasive biomarker of airway inflammation and oxidative stress in nonsmoking asthmatics.

  12. Carbon monoxide inhalation increases microparticles causing vascular and CNS dysfunction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xu, Jiajun; Yang, Ming; Kosterin, Paul; Salzberg, Brian M.; Milovanova, Tatyana N.; Bhopale, Veena M.; Thom, Stephen R.

    2013-01-01

    We hypothesized that circulating microparticles (MPs) play a role in pro-inflammatory effects associated with carbon monoxide (CO) inhalation. Mice exposed for 1 h to 100 ppm CO or more exhibit increases in circulating MPs derived from a variety of vascular cells as well as neutrophil activation. Tissue injury was quantified as 2000 kDa dextran leakage from vessels and as neutrophil sequestration in the brain and skeletal muscle; and central nervous system nerve dysfunction was documented as broadening of the neurohypophysial action potential (AP). Indices of injury occurred following exposures to 1000 ppm for 1 h or to 1000 ppm for 40 min followed by 3000 ppm for 20 min. MPs were implicated in causing injuries because infusing the surfactant MP lytic agent, polyethylene glycol telomere B (PEGtB) abrogated elevations in MPs, vascular leak, neutrophil sequestration and AP prolongation. These manifestations of tissue injury also did not occur in mice lacking myeloperoxidase. Vascular leakage and AP prolongation were produced in naïve mice infused with MPs that had been obtained from CO poisoned mice, but this did not occur with MPs obtained from control mice. We conclude that CO poisoning triggers elevations of MPs that activate neutrophils which subsequently cause tissue injuries. - Highlights: • Circulating microparticles (MPs) increase in mice exposed to 100 ppm CO or more. • MPs are lysed by infusing the surfactant polyethylene glycol telomere B. • CO-induced MPs cause neutrophil activation, vascular leak and CNS dysfunction. • Similar tissue injuries do not arise with MPs obtained from air-exposed, control mice

  13. Evaluation of exposure to carbon monoxide associated with passive smoking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jo, W.-K.; Oh, J.-W.; Dong, J.-I.

    2004-01-01

    The current study measured breath carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations prior to and at prescribed time intervals after exposure to passive smoking under controlled conditions, along with the air CO concentration in the exposure room during the exposure periods. The postexposure breath CO levels were 1.4-2.7 times higher than the background breath CO levels after 30 min of exposure, yet only slightly higher after 10 min of exposure, thereby confirming that exposure to CO from passive smoking causes a significant body burden of CO. The air CO concentration gradually increased during the burning of a cigarette(s), regardless of the exposure duration, whereas it slightly decreased after burning. However, the pattern of breath CO decay was similar for the two different types of exposure (during and after a cigarette(s)) in each subject. The decrease in the postexposure alveolar CO concentrations was slow even in the early phase of the decay curves, indicating a monocompartment uptake and elimination model for the human body. The half-lives (78-277 min) estimated in the present study were comparable to those reported in previous studies associated with CO exposure from active smoking or other activities. The current study also evaluated the CO exposure of visitors and workers at three different types of recreation facility (bars, Internet cafes, and billiard halls) typically associated with passive smoking. The results confirmed that passive smoking is the major contributor to the CO exposure of nonsmoking visitors in a recreation environment. In addition, workplace exposure to CO from passive smoking was found to be the most important contributor to the daily CO exposure of nonsmoking recreation workers

  14. Carbon monoxide exchange and partitioning of a managed mountain meadow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammerle, Albin; Kitz, Florian; Spielmann, Felix; Gerdel, Katharina; Wohlfahrt, Georg

    2016-04-01

    With an average mole fraction of 100 ppb carbon monoxide (CO) plays a critical role in atmospheric chemistry and thus has an indirect global warming potential. While sources/sinks of CO on land at least partially cancel out each other, the magnitude of CO sources and sinks is highly uncertain. Even if direct CO fluxes from/to land ecosystems are very much likely clearly lower in magnitude compared to anthropogenic emissions, biomass burning, emissions from chemical precursors and the OH sink, it may be premature to neglect any direct contributions of land ecosystems to the CO budget. In addition, changes in global climate and resulting changes in global productivity may require re-evaluating older data and assumptions. One major reason for the large uncertainty is a general scarcity of empirical data. An additional factor contributing to the uncertainty is the lack of ecosystem-scale CO exchange measurements, i.e. CO flux data that encompass all sources and sinks within an ecosystem. Here we present data on continuous eddy covariance measurements of CO-fluxes above a managed mountain grassland in combination with soil chamber flux measurements, within- and above-canopy concentration profiles and an inverse Lagrangian analysis to disentangle sinks and sources of CO. Results show the grassland ecosystem to be a net source for CO during daytime, with increasing flux rates at higher solar radiation. At night, if at all, the meadow is a slight sink for CO. The same holds true regarding the soil flux measurements. Additionally, a two-month rainout experiment revealed hardly any differences in CO soil fluxes between rainout- and control-plots unless extremely dry conditions were reached.

  15. Carbon Monoxide in Meat and Fish Packaging: Advantages and Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roncalés, Pedro

    2018-01-01

    Due to increased demands for greater expectation in relation to quality, convenience, safety and extended shelf-life, combined with growing demand from retailers for cost-effective extensions of fresh muscle foods’ shelf-life, the food packaging industry quickly developed to meet these expectations. During the last few decades, modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) of foods has been a promising area of research, but much remains to be known regarding the use of unconventional gases such carbon monoxide (CO). The use of CO for meat and seafood packaging is not allowed in most countries due to the potential toxic effect, and its use is controversial in some countries. The commercial application of CO in food packaging was not then considered feasible because of possible environmental hazards for workers. CO has previously been reported to mask muscle foods’ spoilage, and this was the primary concern raised for the prohibition, as this may mislead consumers. This review was undertaken to present the most comprehensive and current overview of the widely-available, scattered information about the use of CO in the preservation of muscle foods. The advantages of CO and its industrial limits are presented and discussed. The most recent literature on the consumer safety issues related to the use of CO and consumer acceptance of CO especially in meat packaging systems were also discussed. Recommendations and future prospects were addressed for food industries, consumers and regulators on what would be a “best practice” in the use of CO in food packaging. All this promotes high ethical standards in commercial communications by means of effective regulation, for the benefit of consumers and businesses in the world, and this implies that industrialized countries and members of their regulatory agencies must develop a coherent and robust systems of regulation and control that can respond effectively to new challenges. PMID:29360803

  16. Carbon Monoxide in Meat and Fish Packaging: Advantages and Limits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djamel Djenane

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Due to increased demands for greater expectation in relation to quality, convenience, safety and extended shelf-life, combined with growing demand from retailers for cost-effective extensions of fresh muscle foods’ shelf-life, the food packaging industry quickly developed to meet these expectations. During the last few decades, modified atmosphere packaging (MAP of foods has been a promising area of research, but much remains to be known regarding the use of unconventional gases such carbon monoxide (CO. The use of CO for meat and seafood packaging is not allowed in most countries due to the potential toxic effect, and its use is controversial in some countries. The commercial application of CO in food packaging was not then considered feasible because of possible environmental hazards for workers. CO has previously been reported to mask muscle foods’ spoilage, and this was the primary concern raised for the prohibition, as this may mislead consumers. This review was undertaken to present the most comprehensive and current overview of the widely-available, scattered information about the use of CO in the preservation of muscle foods. The advantages of CO and its industrial limits are presented and discussed. The most recent literature on the consumer safety issues related to the use of CO and consumer acceptance of CO especially in meat packaging systems were also discussed. Recommendations and future prospects were addressed for food industries, consumers and regulators on what would be a “best practice” in the use of CO in food packaging. All this promotes high ethical standards in commercial communications by means of effective regulation, for the benefit of consumers and businesses in the world, and this implies that industrialized countries and members of their regulatory agencies must develop a coherent and robust systems of regulation and control that can respond effectively to new challenges.

  17. Compliance with Washington State's requirement for residential carbon monoxide alarms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neil B. Hampson

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO poisoning is responsible for significant morbidity and mortality in the US. In response, a majority of states have passed legislation in recent years requiring the installation of residential CO alarms. There is, however, no published information evaluating compliance with such laws. Employees of a Seattle medical center were surveyed in 2008 regarding home use of CO and smoke alarms. Washington State enacted legislation requiring residential CO alarms by all residences by January 1, 2013. The survey was repeated in mid-2016 to evaluate compliance. In 2016, a total of 354 employees completed the survey and their responses were compared to an equal number of 2008 survey respondents matched by home ownership and ZIP code. Residential CO alarm use rose from 37% to 78% (p < 0.0001. Among homeowners, 78% had alarms while 80% of renters had them. Homeowners with the highest compliance (96% had purchased their homes since January 1, 2013 while those with the lowest compliance (73% had purchased them earlier. A majority (79% of renters without alarms reported the reason was that their landlord did not provide one, a violation of the law. Only one-half to two-thirds of all equipped homes had the required number of either CO or smoke alarms. Use of residential CO alarms increased significantly in this study population three years after law required them. Areas for further improvement include education of landlords, tenants, and longtime homeowners about the law, as well as public education regarding the number of CO and smoke alarms needed.

  18. Computed Tomographic Findings of Acute Carbon Monoxide Posioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Young Keun; Won, Hee Sun; Lee, Seung Ro; Hahm, Chang Kok

    1983-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a kind of frequent toxic gas around our living lives, for common use of briquets as fuel, and its pathologic effect has been known due to mainly hypoxia and direct cytotoxicity in some part to almost all organs, especially to the brain and heart. Some authors have reported pathologic and anatomic changes of the acute of poisoning, although in a few cases, that bilaterally symmetrical lesions of the globs pallidus or cerebral white matter regarded as typical. After using computed tomography (CT), those findings have been discovered more easily and accurately. Authors analysed CT findings of 32 cases, who had a history of acute CO poisoning and performed CT at Hanyang University Hospital from May 1970 to June 1983. The results were as follows: 1. Of all 32 cases with CT scan, low density lesions were demonstrated in 28 cases (88%) and others were hemorrhage and calcified in 2(6%), respectively. 2. All lesions were seen as bilaterally symmetrical, except 2 cases of hemorrhage and 1 of low density. 3. Of all 28 cases of the low densities, 15 cases(53.6%) were located in the globs pallidus, 10(35.7%) in the cerebral white matter and 3(10.7%) in both of them. 4. Of all 113 cases of the low density lesions in the cerebral white matter, common locations were in the frontal and parietal lobes (65.6%), and more in frontal (40.6%). 5. Of all 113 cases of low density lesions in the cerebral white matter, cases of involving all of the lobes were found in only 4. 6. All of 2 cases of the calcified lesions were seen at both sides of the globs pallidus, symmetrically. 7. All of 2 cases of the hemorrhage were seen at thalamus, ventricles and head of caudate nucleus, and these locations were different from those of the low densities or calcifications.

  19. Carbon monoxide inhalation increases microparticles causing vascular and CNS dysfunction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Jiajun; Yang, Ming [Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Kosterin, Paul [Department of Neuroscience, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Salzberg, Brian M. [Department of Physiology, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Milovanova, Tatyana N.; Bhopale, Veena M. [Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States); Thom, Stephen R., E-mail: sthom@smail.umaryland.edu [Department of Emergency Medicine, University of Pennsylvania Perelman School of Medicine, Philadelphia, PA 19104 (United States)

    2013-12-01

    We hypothesized that circulating microparticles (MPs) play a role in pro-inflammatory effects associated with carbon monoxide (CO) inhalation. Mice exposed for 1 h to 100 ppm CO or more exhibit increases in circulating MPs derived from a variety of vascular cells as well as neutrophil activation. Tissue injury was quantified as 2000 kDa dextran leakage from vessels and as neutrophil sequestration in the brain and skeletal muscle; and central nervous system nerve dysfunction was documented as broadening of the neurohypophysial action potential (AP). Indices of injury occurred following exposures to 1000 ppm for 1 h or to 1000 ppm for 40 min followed by 3000 ppm for 20 min. MPs were implicated in causing injuries because infusing the surfactant MP lytic agent, polyethylene glycol telomere B (PEGtB) abrogated elevations in MPs, vascular leak, neutrophil sequestration and AP prolongation. These manifestations of tissue injury also did not occur in mice lacking myeloperoxidase. Vascular leakage and AP prolongation were produced in naïve mice infused with MPs that had been obtained from CO poisoned mice, but this did not occur with MPs obtained from control mice. We conclude that CO poisoning triggers elevations of MPs that activate neutrophils which subsequently cause tissue injuries. - Highlights: • Circulating microparticles (MPs) increase in mice exposed to 100 ppm CO or more. • MPs are lysed by infusing the surfactant polyethylene glycol telomere B. • CO-induced MPs cause neutrophil activation, vascular leak and CNS dysfunction. • Similar tissue injuries do not arise with MPs obtained from air-exposed, control mice.

  20. Fine particles and carbon monoxide from wood burning in 17th-19th century Danish kitchens: Measurements at two reconstructed farm houses at the Lejre Historical-Archaeological Experimental Center

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ryhl-Svendsen, Morten; Clausen, Geo; Chowdhury, Z.

    2010-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) and particulate matter (PM2.5) were measured in two reconstructed Danish farmhouses (17-19th century) during two weeks of summer. During the first week intensive measurements were performed while test cooking fires were burned, during the second week the houses were monitored...... the first week the concentration Of PM2.5 averaged daily between 138 and 1650 mu g m(-3) inside the hearths and 21-160 mu g m(-3) in adjacent living rooms. CO averaged daily between 0.21 and 1.9 ppm in living areas, and up to 12 ppm in the hearths. Highest concentrations were measured when two fires were...... lit at the same time, which would cause high personal exposure for someone working in the kitchens. 15 min averages of up to 25 400 mu g m(-3) (PM2.5) and 260 ppm CO were recorded. WHO air quality guidelines were occasionally exceeded for CO and constantly for PM2.5. However, air exchange and air...

  1. Solar Cycle Variations as Observed by MLS Carbon Monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, J. N.; Wu, D. L.; Ruzmaikin, A.; Fontenla, J. M.

    2017-12-01

    More than thirteen years (2004-2017) of carbon monoxide (CO) measurements from the Aura Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) are analyzed to better understand impacts of solar cycle 24. The upper mesospheric CO, produced primarily by the carbon dioxide (CO2) photolysis in the lower thermosphere, is sensitive to solar irradiance variability. We find that interannual variations of the mesospheric CO concentration are largely driven by the solar-cycle modulated ultraviolet (UV) variation in most of the UV wavelengths (120 to 280 nm) in high latitude regions. Despite different mean CO abundances in the SH and NH winters, their solar-cycle dependence appears to be symmetric with respect to the winter pole. This solar signal extends down to the lower altitudes by the dynamical descent in the polar vortex, showing a time lag that is consistent with the average descent velocity. To characterize a global distribution of the solar influence, Aura MLS CO is correlated with the Solar Radiation and Climate Experiment (SORCE) Total Irradiance Monitor (TIM) measured total solar irradiance (TSI) and with the SORCE Solar-Stellar Irradiance Comparison Experiment (SOLSTICE) measured UV. As high as 0.8 in most of the polar mesosphere, the linear correlation coefficients between CO and UV/TSI are more robust than those found in the previous work, with the extended analysis period. Different from the result shown in Lee et al. (2013), the downward propagation of the solar signals is similar in both NH and SH high latitudes. Effects of solar forcing on mesospheric CO extend far beyond the polar region. CO is a good tracer to show that the solar induced CO anomaly seems to follow the global meridional residual circulation and hemispheric transition from pole to pole in every six months. WACCM simulation experiment with two different solar spectral irradiance models, SRPM (Solar Radiation Physical Modeling) 2012 and NRLSSI (Naval Research Laboratory Spectral Solar Irradiance), shows that the

  2. A population-based exposure assessment methodology for carbon monoxide: Development of a carbon monoxide passive sampler and occupational dosimeter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apte, Michael G. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1997-09-01

    Two devices, an occupational carbon monoxide (CO) dosimeter (LOCD), and an indoor air quality (IAQ) passive sampler were developed for use in population-based CO exposure assessment studies. CO exposure is a serious public health problem in the U.S., causing both morbidity and mortality (lifetime mortality risk approximately 10{sup -4}). Sparse data from population-based CO exposure assessments indicate that approximately 10% of the U.S. population is exposed to CO above the national ambient air quality standard. No CO exposure measurement technology is presently available for affordable population-based CO exposure assessment studies. The LOCD and IAQ Passive Sampler were tested in the laboratory and field. The palladium-molybdenum based CO sensor was designed into a compact diffusion tube sampler that can be worn. Time-weighted-average (TWA) CO exposure of the device is quantified by a simple spectrophotometric measurement. The LOCD and IAQ Passive Sampler were tested over an exposure range of 40 to 700 ppm-hours and 200 to 4200 ppm-hours, respectively. Both devices were capable of measuring precisely (relative standard deviation <20%), with low bias (<10%). The LOCD was screened for interferences by temperature, humidity, and organic and inorganic gases. Temperature effects were small in the range of 10°C to 30°C. Humidity effects were low between 20% and 90% RH. Ethylene (200 ppm) caused a positive interference and nitric oxide (50 ppm) caused a negative response without the presence of CO but not with CO.

  3. Carbon monoxide poisoning and pulmonary injury from the mixture of formic and sulfuric acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneir, Aaron; Rentmeester, Landen

    2016-06-01

    The inhalation of carbon monoxide produced by the incomplete combustion of carbon remains a popular method of suicide. A much less common method of producing carbon monoxide for suicide is by mixing formic and sulfuric acids. We describe a patient who attempted suicide by mixing formic and sulfuric acids. He presented with a depressed level of consciousness, chemical burns of his airway and skin, and respiratory distress. He was found to have a metabolic acidosis, a carboxyhemoglobin of 36.8%, hyperkalemia, and rhabdomyolysis. His hospital course was notable for copious pulmonary secretions and hypoxia, but he ultimately recovered with supportive care. The case highlights the potential toxicity, particularly from inhaled carbon monoxide and formic acid, with this method of suicide.

  4. Population and hierarchy of active species in gold iron oxide catalysts for carbon monoxide oxidation

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Qian; Freakley, Simon J.; Edwards, Jennifer K.; Carley, Albert F.; Borisevich, Albina Y.; Mineo, Yuki; Haruta, Masatake; Hutchings, Graham J.; Kiely, Christopher J.

    2016-01-01

    The identity of active species in supported gold catalysts for low temperature carbon monoxide oxidation remains an unsettled debate. With large amounts of experimental evidence supporting theories of either gold nanoparticles or sub-nm gold species being active, it was recently proposed that a size-dependent activity hierarchy should exist. Here we study the diverging catalytic behaviours after heat treatment of Au/FeOx materials prepared via co-precipitation and deposition precipitation methods. After ruling out any support effects, the gold particle size distributions in different catalysts are quantitatively studied using aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM). A counting protocol is developed to reveal the true particle size distribution from HAADF-STEM images, which reliably includes all the gold species present. Correlation of the populations of the various gold species present with catalysis results demonstrate that a size-dependent activity hierarchy must exist in the Au/FeOx catalyst. PMID:27671143

  5. [Protective effects of endogenous carbon monoxide against myocardial ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Zhen; Ma, Shuang; Liu, Jie; Ji, Qiao-Rong; Cao, Cheng-Zhu; Li, Xiao-Na; Tang, Feng; Zhang, Wei

    2018-04-25

    The present study is aimed to explore the effects of endogenous carbon monoxide on the ischemia-reperfusion in rats. Wistar rats were intraperitoneally injected with protoporphyrin cobalt chloride (CoPP, an endogenous carbon monoxide agonist, 5 mg/kg), zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP, an endogenous carbon monoxide inhibitor, 5 mg/kg) or saline. Twenty-four hours after injection, the myocardial ischemia-reperfusion model was made by Langendorff isolated cardiac perfusion system, and cardiac function parameters were collected. Myocardial cGMP content was measured by ELISA, and the endogenous carbon monoxide in plasma and myocardial enzymes in perfusate at 10 min after reperfusion were measured by colorimetry. The results showed that before ischemia the cardiac functions of CoPP, ZnPP and control groups were stable, and there were no significant differences. After reperfusion, cardiac functions had significant differences among the three groups (P endogenous carbon monoxide can maintain cardiac function, shorten the time of cardiac function recovery, and play a protective role in cardiac ischemia-reperfusion.

  6. Correlation of computed tomography, magnetic resonance imaging and clinical outcome in acute carbon monoxide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozcan, Namik; Ozcam, Giray; Kosar, Pinar; Ozcan, Ayse; Basar, Hulya; Kaymak, Cetin

    2016-01-01

    Carbon monoxide is a toxic gas for humans and is still a silent killer in both developed and developing countries. The aim of this case series was to evaluate early radiological images as a predictor of subsequent neuropsychological sequelae, following carbon monoxide poisoning. After carbon monoxide exposure, early computed tomography scans and magnetic resonance imaging findings of a 52-year-old woman showed bilateral lesions in the globus pallidus. This patient was discharged and followed for 90 days. The patient recovered without any neurological sequela. In a 58-year-old woman exposed to carbon monoxide, computed tomography showed lesions in bilateral globus pallidus and periventricular white matter. Early magnetic resonance imaging revealed changes similar to that like in early tomography images. The patient recovered and was discharged from hospital. On the 27th day of exposure, the patient developed disorientation and memory impairment. Late magnetic resonance imaging showed diffuse hyperintensity in the cerebral white matter. White matter lesions which progress to demyelination and end up in neuropsychological sequelae cannot always be diagnosed by early computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging in carbon monoxide poisoning. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Brasileira de Anestesiologia. Published by Elsevier Editora Ltda. All rights reserved.

  7. Carbon monoxide in the environs of the star WR 16

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duronea, N. U.; Arnal, E. M.; Bronfman, L.

    2013-03-01

    Aims: We analyze the carbon monoxide emission around the star WR 16 aiming to study the physical characteristics of the molecular gas linked to the star and to achieve a better understanding of the interaction between massive stars with their surroundings. Methods: We study the molecular gas in a region in size using CO J = 1 → 0 and 13CO J = 1 → 0 line data obtained with the 4-m NANTEN telescope. Radio continuum archival data at 4.85 GHz, obtained from the Parkes-MIT-NRAO Southern Radio Survey, are also analyzed to account for the ionized gas. Available IRAS (HIRES) 60 μm and 100 μm images are used to study the characteristics of the dust around the star. Results: Our new CO and 13CO data allow the low/intermediate density molecular gas surrounding the WR nebula to be completely mapped. We report two molecular features at -5 km s-1 and -8.5 km s-1 (components 1 and 2, respectively) having a good morphological resemblance with the Hα emission of the ring nebula. Component 2 seems to be associated with the external ring, while component 1 is placed at the interface between component 2 and the Hα emission. We also report a third molecular feature ~10' in size (component 3) at a velocity of -9.5 km s-1 having a good morphological correspondence with the inner optical and IR emission, although high resolution observations are recommended to confirm its existence. The stratified morphology and kinematics of the molecular gas could be associated to shock fronts and high mass-loss events related to different evolutive phases of the WR star, which have acted upon the surrounding circumstellar molecular gas. An analysis of the mass of component 1 suggests that this feature is composed of swept-up interstellar gas and is probably enriched by molecular ejecta. The direction of the proper motion of WR 16 suggests that the morphology observed at infrared, optical, radio continuum, and probably molecular emission of the inner ring nebula is induced by the stellar motion.

  8. Assessing recent smoking status by measuring exhaled carbon monoxide levels.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AnnSofi Sandberg

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cigarette smoke causes both acute and chronic changes of the immune system. Excluding recent smoking is therefore important in clinical studies with chronic inflammation as primary focus. In this context, it is common to ask the study subjects to refrain from smoking within a certain time frame prior to sampling. The duration of the smoking cessation is typically from midnight the evening before, i.e. 8 hours from sampling. As it has been shown that a proportion of current smokers underestimates or denies smoking, objective assessment of recent smoking status is of great importance. Our aim was to extend the use of exhaled carbon monoxide (CO(breath, a well-established method for separating smokers from non-smokers, to assessment of recent smoking status. METHODS AND FINDINGS: The time course of CO(breath decline was investigated by hourly measurements during one day on non-symptomatic smokers and non-smokers (6+7, as well as by measurements on three separate occasions on non-smokers (n = 29, smokers with normal lung function (n = 38 and smokers with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (n = 19 participating in a clinical study. We used regression analysis to model the decay, and receiver operator characteristics analysis for evaluation of model performance. The decline was described as a mono-exponential decay (r(2 = 0.7 with a half-life of 4.5 hours. CO decline rate depends on initial CO levels, and by necessity a generic cut-off is therefore crude as initial CO(breath varies a lot between individuals. However, a cut-off level of 12 ppm could classify recent smokers from smokers having refrained from smoking during the past 8 hours with a specificity of 94% and a sensitivity of 90%. CONCLUSIONS: We hereby describe a method for classifying recent smokers from smokers having refrained from smoking for >8 hours that is easy to implement in a clinical setting.

  9. Carbon monoxide oxidation using Zn–Cu–Ti hydrotalcite-derived ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    dation of carbon monoxide to carbon dioxide is very important environmentally and industrially. A catalyst. ∗. For correspondence enables the reaction to occur at much lower tem- peratures than required by conventional thermal oxi- dation. Due to the lower operating temperatures, such processes preclude the formation of ...

  10. Carbon monoxide oxidation using Zn-Cu-Ti hydrotalcite-derived ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Journal of Chemical Sciences; Volume 126; Issue 4. Carbon ... These results suggested that hydrotalcite structure of Zn-Ti has a positive catalytic effect towards carbon monoxide oxidation. ... Manuscript received: 22 December 2013; Manuscript revised: 24 February 2014; Accepted: 25 February 2014 ...

  11. Stable isotope composition of atmospheric carbon monoxide. A modelling study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gromov, Sergey S.

    2014-01-01

    This study aims at an improved understanding of the stable carbon and oxygen isotope composition of the carbon monoxide (CO) in the global atmosphere by means of numerical simulations. At first, a new kinetic chemistry tagging technique for the most complete parameterisation of isotope effects has been introduced into the Modular Earth Submodel System (MESSy) framework. Incorporated into the ECHAM/MESSy Atmospheric Chemistry (EMAC) general circulation model, an explicit treatment of the isotope effects on the global scale is now possible. The expanded model system has been applied to simulate the chemical system containing up to five isotopologues of all carbon- and oxygen-bearing species, which ultimately determine the δ 13 C, δ 18 O and Δ 17 O isotopic signatures of atmospheric CO. As model input, a new stable isotope-inclusive emission inventory for the relevant trace gases has been compiled. The uncertainties of the emission estimates and of the resulting simulated mixing and isotope ratios have been analysed. The simulated CO mixing and stable isotope ratios have been compared to in-situ measurements from ground-based observatories and from the civil-aircraft-mounted CARIBIC-1 measurement platform. The systematically underestimated 13 CO/ 12 CO ratios of earlier, simplified modelling studies can now be partly explained. The EMAC simulations do not support the inferences of those studies, which suggest for CO a reduced input of the highly depleted in 13 C methane oxidation source. In particular, a high average yield of 0.94 CO per reacted methane (CH 4 ) molecule is simulated in the troposphere, to a large extent due to the competition between the deposition and convective transport processes affecting the CH 4 to CO reaction chain intermediates. None of the other factors, assumed or disregarded in previous studies, however hypothesised to have the potential in enriching tropospheric CO in 13 C, were found significant when explicitly simulated. The

  12. Substantially isotactic, linear, alternating copolymers of carbon monoxide and an olefin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, A.; Jiang, Z.

    1996-05-28

    The compound, [Pd(Me-DUPHOS)(MeCN){sub 2}](BF{sub 4}){sub 2}, [Me-DUPHOS: 1,2-bis(2,5-dimethylphospholano)benzene] is an effective catalyst for the highly enantioselective, alternating copolymerization of olefins, such as aliphatic {alpha}-olefins, with carbon monoxide to form optically active, isotactic polymers which can serve as excellent starting materials for the synthesis of other classes of chiral polymers. For example, the complete reduction of a propylene-carbon monoxide copolymer resulted in the formation of a novel, optically active poly(1,4-alcohol). Also, the previously described catalyst is a catalyst for the novel alternating isomerization cooligomerization of 2-butene with carbon monoxide to form optically active, isotactic poly(1,5-ketone).

  13. Does public education reduce ice storm-related carbon monoxide exposure?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, George; Conners, Gregory P

    2005-11-01

    Public education to prevent carbon monoxide exposure during ice storms has been recommended; its effects remain unexamined. We compared patients seen for carbon monoxide inhalation at the area's only academic Emergency Department during 1991 and 2003 ice storms; educational efforts were more intense in 2003. There were fewer patients during the second storm (45 vs. 55); all recovered fully. The percentage of Caucasian patients rose (from 57% to 89%) whereas that of African-American patients fell (from 39% to 7%). Indoor grill use, associated with 11% of 1991 cases, was eliminated in 2003. Indoor gas generators remain the most common source. Carboxyhemoglobin levels correlate poorly with ambient carbon monoxide levels. Enhanced public education had a modest effect, especially in reducing the proportion of African-American patients and those from indoor grill use. Research on more effective public health education targeted at gas generator users and combined with physical interventions should be considered.

  14. Effect of cigarette smoke, nicotine, and carbon monoxide on the permeability of the arterial wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allen, D.R.; Browse, N.L.; Rutt, D.L.; Butler, L.; Fletcher, C.

    1988-01-01

    The association between cigarette smoking and the development of atherosclerosis is well established, but the mechanism that makes cigarettes such a potent risk factor is not understood. There is normally a constant insudation of plasma macromolecules into the arterial wall. Fibrinogen and lipids are two of the large molecules involved in atherosclerosis. Therefore, we studied the effect of cigarette smoke, nicotine, and carbon monoxide on the permeability of the canine arterial wall to 125 I-labeled fibrinogen. The results show that inhaled cigarette smoke significantly and rapidly increases the permeability of the arterial wall to fibrinogen and that this effect can be produced with carbon monoxide alone but not with intravenous nicotine

  15. Accidental carbon monoxide poisoning during yagya for faith healing--a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behera, C; Millo, T M; Jaiswal, A; Dogra, T D

    2013-03-01

    A 20-year-old female and a 45-year-old male were found lying dead on the floor with frothand vomitus stain present over mouth, nose and face in a closed room. An earthen bowl with incomplete burnt woods, flowers, food materials, agarbati, etc, was also found lying near the body of the two deceased. The cause of death, established by autopsy and toxicological examination was carbon monoxide poisoning in both victims. The source of carbon monoxide was incomplete burnt woods used for yagya during puja (a faith healing practice) for bearing children.

  16. The Range of 1-3 keV Electrons in Solid Oxygen and Carbon Monoxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oehlenschlæger, M.; Andersen, H.H.; Schou, Jørgen

    1985-01-01

    The range of 1-3 keV electrons in films of solid oxygen and carbon monoxide has been measured by a mirror substrate method. The technique used here is identical to the one previously used for range measurements in solid hydrogen and nitrogen. The range in oxygen is slightly shorter than that in n......The range of 1-3 keV electrons in films of solid oxygen and carbon monoxide has been measured by a mirror substrate method. The technique used here is identical to the one previously used for range measurements in solid hydrogen and nitrogen. The range in oxygen is slightly shorter than...

  17. Anaesthetic properties of carbon monoxide and other gases in relation to plants, insects, and centipedes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zimmerman, P.W.

    1935-01-01

    The anaesthetic effect of carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, propylene, butylene, ethylene, and acetylene, when mixed with oxygen, was tested on ten different species of insects and centipedes. The lowest concentrations found to cause anaesthesia are given in per cent by volume as follows: propylene, for centipede, 30; katydid, 75; rose chafer, 60. Carbon monoxide, for centipede, 81.5; katydid, 89, rose chafer, 85. Butylene, for centipede, 5; katydid, 10; rose chafer, 40. Ethylene or acetylene, for centipede, katydid, and rose chafer, 100. Carbon dioxide, for rose chafer, 30. Ethylene was the most effective plant anaesthetic, 0.0005 per cent stopping growth movements of tomato and sunflower plants as shown by motion pictures; 0.001 per cent stopped elongation of sweet pea seedlings, while 0.00001 per cent retarded elongation nearly 50 per cent. The degree of retardation in growth from ethylene gas varied with the concentration and the plant species. Acetylene and propylene were about equally effective as plant anaesthetics. Both were approximately 10 times as effective as carbon monoxide. Mimosa pudica lost its capacity to respond to external stimuli while being exposed to 0.25 per cent of carbon monoxide, but became normal again upon being removed from the gas. 3 references, 4 tables.

  18. Observation of black carbon, ozone and carbon monoxide in the Kali Gandaki Valley Nepal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dhungel, S.; Panday, A. K.; Kathayat, B.

    2014-12-01

    The increased melting of snow and ice in the arctic and the Himalaya is a growing concern for all of the earth's population. Deposition of black carbon (BC) on the snow and ice surface accelerates melting by absorbing the radiative energy and directly transferring all that energy onto the underlying surface. During pre-monsoon season, satellite images show a thick layer of haze covering the Indo-Gangetic plain (IGP) and the Himalayan foothills. Sub-micron particles are transported to the Himalaya from the IGP predominantly driven by the thermal valley wind system. The Himalayas consist of some of the tallest mountain ranges in the world, over 8000m tall that reach the stratosphere. The Kali Gandaki Valley in Nepal is one of the deepest gorges in the world, and has some of the highest up-valley winds in the world. It is also one of the most open connecting points for air from IGP to reach the Tibetan Plateau. In 2010 the University of Virginia, in collaboration with ICIMOD and Nepal Wireless, established an atmospheric research station in Jomsom, Nepal (28.78N, 83.42E, 2900 m.a.s.l.) half-way along the Kali Gandaki valley. The station is equipped to measure black carbon (BC), carbon monoxide (CO), and ozone concentrations. It also has an automated weather station, a filter sampler, and a NASA Aeronet Sunphotometer. Here we present our observations of black carbon, ozone, carbon monoxide at Jomsom to show the diurnal and seasonal variability of the pollutants. The results show diurnal patterns in the concentration of these pollutants and also episodes of high pollutant transport along the valley. These transport episodes are more common during the pre-monsoon season which indicates that deep mountain valleys like the Kali Gandaki valley facilitate the transport of pollutants and thus promote snow and glacial melting.

  19. Carbon monoxide measurement by gas chromatography; Mesure du monoxyde de carbone par chromatographie en phase gazeuse

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gros, V.; Sarda-Esteve, R.; Bonsang, B.; Ramonet, M.

    1998-09-01

    Although carbon monoxide (CO) is present in trace quantities in the atmosphere (0.1 ppm -or parts per million in volume- on average), the study of this gas is important. Indeed, its impact on human can be dangerous at high level of concentration on the hand and it constitutes one of the main precursor of ozone in presence of concentration on the one hand and it constitutes one of the main precursor of ozone in presence of other pollutants on the other hand. Finally, CO affects the levels of several important greenhouse gases, through its reaction with hydroxyl radicals (OH). CO is measured in the atmosphere since the mid 60's by various methods. Among them, gas chromatography has the advantage to combine a low detection limit with a high precision. This report details the improvements made on the measurement analyser which allowed to perform automatic CO measurements in remote areas with low mixing ratios of carbon monoxide. This report describes some quality tests and the results of various applications. (authors)

  20. Compound A and carbon monoxide production from sevoflurane and seven different types of carbon dioxide absorbent in a patient model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Keijzer, C.; Perez, R. S. G. M.; de Lange, J. J.

    2007-01-01

    BACKGROUND: The degradation of sevoflurane can lead to the production of compound A (CA) and carbon monoxide (CO) and an increase in temperature of the absorbent. CA is known to be nephrotoxic in rats. These reactions depend on the strong base and water contents of the carbon dioxide absorbent used.

  1. Gold Nanoparticles Supported on Carbon Nitride: Influence of Surface Hydroxyls on Low Temperature Carbon Monoxide Oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Joseph A [ORNL; Dudney, Nancy J [ORNL; Li, Meijun [ORNL; Overbury, Steven {Steve} H [ORNL; Veith, Gabriel M [ORNL

    2012-01-01

    This paper reports the synthesis of 2.5 nm gold clusters on the oxygen free and chemically labile support carbon nitride (C3N4). Despite having small particle sizes and high enough water partial pressure these Au/C3N4 catalysts are inactive for the gas phase and liquid phase oxidation of carbon monoxide. The reason for the lack of activity is attributed to the lack of surface OH groups on the C3N4. These OH groups are argued to be responsible for the activation of CO in the oxidation of CO. The importance of basic OH groups explains the well document dependence of support isoelectric point versus catalytic activity.

  2. GOES-8 ABBA Biomass Burning Observations and Downwind MOPPIT Carbon Monoxide Measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feltz, J. M.; Warner, J. X.; Prins, E. M.; LaCasse, K. M.

    2002-05-01

    Studies have shown that biomass burning is a major source of aerosols and trace gases such as NO, CO2, CO, O3, NOx, N2O, NH3, SO2, CH3, and other nonmethane hydrocarbons. Preliminary global estimates indicate that biomass burning may be responsible for 38% of ozone in the troposphere, 32% of global carbon monoxide, 39% of the particulate organic carbon, and up to 40% of CO2. Recent advances in satellite technology provide the opportunity to investigate the linkages between fire activity and CO emissions using satellite derived fire products and CO retrievals. The Cooperative Institute for Meteorological Satellite Studies (CIMSS) at the University of Wisconsin - Madison is using the Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES) data to detect and monitor smoke and fires in real-time throughout the Western Hemisphere using the Wildfire Automated Biomass Burning Algorithm (WF_ABBA). The Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) science team is retrieving carbon monoxide (CO) distributions from the MOPITT instrument on the Terra platform. Preliminary studies show good agreement between large biomass burning events as detected by GOES and regions of elevated MOPITT derived carbon monoxide values. Examples from several significant biomass burning events will be presented, along with transport analyses and MOPITT carbon monoxide summaries.

  3. Rapid Evaluation of the Severity and Prognosis of Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. N. Marupov

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to assess whether cardiointervalography (CIG might be used to define the health status of patients with carbon monoxide poisoning. Subjects and methods. The autonomic nervous system (ANS was studied in 114 patients aged 16 to 80 years with carbon monohydrate poisoning who were treated at the N. V. Sklifosovsky Research Institute of Emergency Care, Moscow, in 2004—2009. Cardiointervalographic readings were analyzed in relation to condition severity and disease outcome. Results. Within the first hours after carbon monoxide poisoning, the function of the ANS was found to be impaired, which was associated with the development of hypersym-pathicotonia caused by the increased activity of its sympathetic part and the decreased tone of the parasympathet-ic one. The magnitude of hypersympathicotonia depended on the severity of poisoning and the outcome of the disease. The preponderance of ANS parasympathetic part tone suggests disturbed adaptive and compensatory mechanisms and poor prognosis. Conclusion. Cardiointervalography is recommended for the objective evaluation of the severity of carbon monoxide poisoning and the efficiency of performed treatment and prediction of the outcome of the disease. Key words: carbon monoxide, autonomic nervous system, cardiointervalography, adaptive and compensatory mechanisms.

  4. Chemical production from waste carbon monoxide: its potential for energy conservation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rohrmann, C.A.; Schiefelbein, G.F.; Molton, P.M.; Li, C.T.; Elliott, D.C.; Baker, E.G.

    1977-11-01

    Results of a study of the potential for energy conservation by producing chemicals from by-product or waste carbon monoxide (CO) from industrial sources are summarized. Extensive compilations of both industrial sources and uses for carbon monoxide were developed and included. Reviews of carbon monoxide purification and concentration technology and preliminary economic evaluations of carbon monoxide concentration, pipeline transportation and utilization of CO in the synthesis of ammonia and methanol are included. Preliminary technical and economic feasibility studies were made of producing ammonia and methanol from the by-product CO produced by a typical elemental phosphorus plant. Methanol synthesis appears to be more attractive than ammonia synthesis when using CO feedstock because of reduced water gas shift and carbon dioxide removal requirements. The economic studies indicate that methanol synthesis from CO appears to be competitive with conventional technology when the price of natural gas exceeds $0.82/million Btu, while ammonia synthesis from CO is probably not competitive until the price of natural gas exceeds $1.90/million Btu. It is concluded that there appears to be considerable potential for energy conservation in the chemical industry, by collecting CO rather than flaring it, and using it to make major chemicals such as ammonia and methanol.

  5. Fatal carbon monoxide poisoning after the detonation of explosives in an underground mine: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markey, M A; Zumwalt, R E

    2001-12-01

    An unusual death caused by carbon monoxide poisoning after the detonation of explosives in an underground mine was investigated by the Office of the Medical Investigator of the State of New Mexico. The 50-year-old miner had 18 years of mining experience but no documented safety training. He collapsed approximately 20 minutes after entering the mine and working at the bottom of the single vertical shaft. The tight confines of the mine shaft hindered rescue personnel from reaching him, and the body was not recovered until 2 days later. The autopsy showed severe coronary artery atherosclerosis with remote and resolving myocardial microinfarcts, as well as the characteristic pink lividity of carbon monoxide poisoning, which was confirmed by laboratory analysis. Detailed investigation of the scene revealed no sources of carbon monoxide other than the explosives. The case represents an uncommon cause of death in mining that may have been avoided through the use of proper safety procedures, and illustrates the importance of recognizing the many sources of carbon monoxide.

  6. Catalytic Reduction of Nitrous Oxide with Carbon Monoxide over Calcined Co–Mn–Al Hydrotalcite

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pacultová, K.; Obalová, L.; Kovanda, F.; Jirátová, Květa

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 137, 2-4 (2008), s. 358-389 ISSN 0920-5861 R&D Projects: GA ČR(CZ) GA106/05/0366 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : nitrous oxide * carbon monoxide * mixed oxide catalysts Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering Impact factor: 3.004, year: 2008

  7. 40 CFR 52.2428 - Control Strategy: Carbon monoxide and ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... ozone. 52.2428 Section 52.2428 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Control Strategy: Carbon monoxide and ozone. (a) Determination—EPA has determined that, as of November 5, 1997, the Richmond ozone nonattainment area, which consists of the counties of Chesterfield, Hanover...

  8. 40 CFR 51.241 - Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide and ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... and ozone. 51.241 Section 51.241 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED... Intergovernmental Consultation Agency Designation § 51.241 Nonattainment areas for carbon monoxide and ozone. (a... ozone will not be attained by July 1, 1979, the Governor (or Governors for interstate areas) shall...

  9. A Retrospective Analysis of Pediatric Patients Admitted to the Pediatric Emergency Service for Carbon Monoxide Intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Metin Uysalol

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: The aim of the study is to analyze the general aspects of cases with carbon monoxide intoxication in order to improve the approach to future patients. Material and Methods: The hospital records of 84 children (mean age 4.71±2.64 years; 48 male, 36 female who had been admitted to Paediatric Emergency Department for carbon monoxide intoxication between October 2007 and February 2009, were retrospectively evaluated in a descriptive analysis.Results: The source of carbon monoxide intoxication was heaters, waterheaters and fi re in 82.1%, 7.1% and 6% of cases, respectively. There was a statistically signifi cant difference between the carboxyhemoglobin levels of the patients according to the clinical classifi cation (p<0.05. The intoxication caused by heaters was observed signifi cantly in November, December and January (p<0.001, between 16:00-24:00 hours (p<0.001 and among more than one member of a family (p<0.001. A medium level correlation was detected between the treatment approach and clinical classifi cation (r=0.50, p<0.001. Conclusion: Carbon monoxide intoxication, in the presented series, was found to develop accidentally; mostly in the Winter season; during night hours when the family members gathered together. The carboxyhemoglobin levels were appropriate with the developing clinical findings. Carboxyhemoglobin level solely was not enough for achieving the diagnosis and planning the treatment.

  10. Carbon monoxide oxidation using Zn-Cu-Ti hydrotalcite-derived ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Multioxide catalysts of zinc, copper and titanium with different ratios obtained from layered double hydroxide (LDH) precursors were used in the oxidation of carbon monoxide. The catalysts were characterized by energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry, X-ray diffraction, thermal analyses (TG, DTG and DTA) and scanning ...

  11. SEASONAL SOIL FLUXES OF CARBON MONOXIDE IN BURNED AND UNBURNED BRAZILIAN SAVANNAS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soil-atmosphere fluxes of carbon monoxide (CO) were measured from September 1999 through November 2000 in savanna areas in central Brazil (Cerrado) under different fire regimes using transparent and opaque static chambers. Studies focused on two vegetation types, cerrado stricto...

  12. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Carbon Monoxide (Second External Review Draft, Sep 2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced that the Second External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Carbon Monoxide (CO) and related Annexes was made available for independent peer review and public review. This draft ISA document represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of t...

  13. Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Carbon Monoxide (First External Review Draft, Mar 2009)

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA announced that the First External Review Draft of the Integrated Science Assessment (ISA) for Carbon Monoxide (CO) and related Annexes was made available for independent peer review and public review. This draft ISA document represents a concise synthesis and evaluation of th...

  14. Forensic aspects of carbon monoxide poisoning by charcoal burning in Denmark, 2008-2012

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Pia Rude; Gheorghe, Alexandra; Lynnerup, Niels

    2014-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) inhalation is a well-known method of committing suicide. There has been a drastic increase in suicide by inhalation of CO, produced from burning charcoal, in some parts of Asia, and a few studies have reported an increased number of these deaths in Europe. CO-related deaths c...

  15. MODELLING OF CARBON MONOXIDE AIR POLLUTION IN LARG CITIES BY EVALUETION OF SPECTRAL LANDSAT8 IMAGES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Hamzelo

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Air pollution in large cities is one of the major problems that resolve and reduce it need multiple applications and environmental management. Of The main sources of this pollution is industrial activities, urban and transport that enter large amounts of contaminants into the air and reduces its quality. With Variety of pollutants and high volume manufacturing, local distribution of manufacturing centers, Testing and measuring emissions is difficult. Substances such as carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and unburned hydrocarbons and lead compounds are substances that cause air pollution and carbon monoxide is most important. Today, data exchange systems, processing, analysis and modeling is of important pillars of management system and air quality control. In this study, using the spectral signature of carbon monoxide gas as the most efficient gas pollution LANDSAT8 images in order that have better spatial resolution than appropriate spectral bands and weather meters،SAM classification algorithm and Geographic Information System (GIS , spatial distribution of carbon monoxide gas in Tehran over a period of one year from the beginning of 2014 until the beginning of 2015 at 11 map have modeled and then to the model valuation ،created maps were compared with the map provided by the Tehran quality comparison air company. Compare involved plans did with the error matrix and results in 4 types of care; overall, producer, user and kappa coefficient was investigated. Results of average accuracy were about than 80%, which indicates the fit method and data used for modeling.

  16. Operations and maintenance manual, atmospheric contaminant sensor. Addendum 1: Carbon monoxide monitor model 204

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    An instrument for monitoring the carbon monoxide content of the ambient atmosphere is described. The subjects discussed are: (1) theory of operation, (2) system features, (3) controls and monitors, (4) operational procedures, and (5) maintenance and troubleshooting. Block drawings and circuit diagrams are included to clarify the text.

  17. Room-temperature cold-welding of gold nanoparticles for enhancing the electrooxidation of carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cai; Li, Yong-Jun; Sun, Shi-Gang; Yeung, Edward S

    2011-04-21

    A cold-welding strategy is proposed to rapidly join together Au nanoparticles (AuNPs) into two-dimensional continuous structures for enhancing the electrooxidation of carbon monoxide by injecting a mixture of ethanol and tolulene into the bottom of a AuNP solution. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2011

  18. Carbon monoxide poisoning in Nigeria - it is time to pay attention ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colourless, odourless gas and a cause of thousands of deaths across the world annually but its lethal consequences often go unrecognized, especially in developing countries. Aim: To discuss the subject of CO poisoning using local examples. Methods: Information was drawn from ...

  19. Connections between Concepts Revealed by the Electronic Structure of Carbon Monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Ying; Liu, Bihui; Liu, Yue; Drew, Michael G. B.

    2012-01-01

    Different models for the electronic structure of carbon monoxide are suggested in influential textbooks. Therefore, this electronic structure offers an interesting subject in teaching because it can be used as an example to relate seemingly conflicting concepts. Understanding the connections between ostensibly different methods and between…

  20. Monitoring of exhaled carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide during lung cancer operation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khasag, Narmisheekh; Sakiyama, Shoji; Toba, Hiroaki; Yoshida, Mitsuteru; Nakagawa, Yasushi; Takizawa, Hiromitsu; Kawakami, Yukikiyo; Kenzaki, Koichiro; Ali, Abdellah Hamed Khalil; Kondo, Kazuya; Tangoku, Akira

    2014-03-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is expelled mainly via the lungs, so that exhaled carbon monoxide (Ex-CO) concentration reflects endogenous production. Recent reports have shown that Ex-CO levels are increased in critically ill patients and after anaesthesia and surgery. However, there has been no investigation of the changes in Ex-CO level during a lung operation. We continuously monitored Ex-CO and exhaled carbon dioxide (Ex-CO2) concentrations during surgery for lung cancer. Eighteen lung cancer patients who underwent elective lung cancer lobectomy were enrolled in this study. All patients were endotracheally intubated and ventilated under general anaesthesia. Ex-CO and Ex-CO2 concentrations were separately monitored and recorded continuously using two sets of Carbolyzer® breath analysers (Taiyo Inc., Osaka, Japan). Ex-CO concentration increased rapidly in response to changes in body position from supine to decubitus and was significantly decreased when patients were once again lying back (supine 2). Upon restarting bilateral ventilation, Ex-CO concentration in the operated lung was significantly higher than that in the breathing lung. In the lateral decubitus position, Ex-CO2 concentration showed the same pattern of increase as seen for Ex-CO. In the operated lung, the Ex-CO2 concentrations changed significantly at clamping, declamping and supine 2. In the re-ventilated, operated lung, the Ex-CO2 concentration was significantly lower than in the breathing lung. In the breathing lung, the Ex-CO2 concentration did not exhibit any significant changes over the course of the operation. When breathing was restarted, the Ex-CO level of the target lung was significantly higher than that of the breathing lung. The Ex-CO concentration was also affected by the surgical body position and this change was marked and transient.

  1. Aspiration Pneumonia in Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Patients with Loss of Consciousness: Prevalence, Outcomes, and Risk Factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sohn, Chang Hwan; Huh, Jin Won; Seo, Dong Woo; Oh, Bum Jin; Lim, Kyoung Soo; Kim, Won Young

    2017-12-01

    Aspiration pneumonia is associated with significant morbidity and mortality; however, little is known about aspiration pneumonia in patients with carbon monoxide intoxication, which is the leading cause of poisoning-related death. This study aimed to evaluate the prevalence, clinical impacts, and risk factors for developing aspiration pneumonia in patients with carbon monoxide poisoning with loss of consciousness. A retrospective analysis of a carbon monoxide poisoning registry was performed at our emergency department for the period January 2008 to December 2015. All adult carbon monoxide poisoning patients with loss of consciousness were included. Aspiration pneumonia developed in 103 (19.2%) of 537 patients. It was associated with increased ventilator use (52.4% vs 3.2%), length of hospital stay (median [interquartile range], 3.6 [2.1-5.1] vs 1.3 [0.6-2.1] days), and in-hospital mortality (5.8% vs 0.0%) (all P factors associated with development of aspiration pneumonia; odds ratios were 9.46 (95% confidence interval [CI] 4.92-18.19; P 12,000/mm 3 , the odds ratio increased up to 17.75 (95% CI 10.65-29.59; P pneumonia was 19.2% in carbon monoxide poisoning patients with loss of consciousness and was associated with poor outcomes. Additionally, altered mental status on emergency department arrival, white blood cell count, and increased exposure duration were independently associated with the development of aspiration pneumonia. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Molten metal reactor and method of forming hydrogen, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide using the molten alkaline metal reactor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bingham, Dennis N.; Klingler, Kerry M.; Turner, Terry D.; Wilding, Bruce M.

    2012-11-13

    A molten metal reactor for converting a carbon material and steam into a gas comprising hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide is disclosed. The reactor includes an interior crucible having a portion contained within an exterior crucible. The interior crucible includes an inlet and an outlet; the outlet leads to the exterior crucible and may comprise a diffuser. The exterior crucible may contain a molten alkaline metal compound. Contained between the exterior crucible and the interior crucible is at least one baffle.

  3. Response of Hepatoma 9618a and Normal Liver to Host Carbogen and Carbon Monoxide Breathing

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Simon P.; Rodrigues, Loreta M.; Griffiths, John R.; Stubbs, Marion

    1999-01-01

    The effects of hyperoxia (induced by host carbogen 95% oxygen/5% carbon dioxide breathing. and hypoxia (induced by host carbon monoxide CO at 660 ppm. breathing) were compared by using noninvasive magnetic resonance (MR) methods to gain simultaneous information on blood flow/oxygenation and the bioenergetic status of rat Morris H9618a hepatomas. Both carbogen and CO breathing induced a 1.5- to 2-fold increase in signal intensity in blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD) MR images. This was ...

  4. 40 CFR 63.1182 - How do I comply with the carbon monoxide standards for new and reconstructed cupolas?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 10 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false How do I comply with the carbon monoxide standards for new and reconstructed cupolas? 63.1182 Section 63.1182 Protection of Environment... monoxide standards for new and reconstructed cupolas? To comply with the CO standards, you must meet all of...

  5. Life in hot carbon monoxide: the complete genome sequence of Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans Z-2901.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Wu

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available We report here the sequencing and analysis of the genome of the thermophilic bacterium Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans Z-2901. This species is a model for studies of hydrogenogens, which are diverse bacteria and archaea that grow anaerobically utilizing carbon monoxide (CO as their sole carbon source and water as an electron acceptor, producing carbon dioxide and hydrogen as waste products. Organisms that make use of CO do so through carbon monoxide dehydrogenase complexes. Remarkably, analysis of the genome of C. hydrogenoformans reveals the presence of at least five highly differentiated anaerobic carbon monoxide dehydrogenase complexes, which may in part explain how this species is able to grow so much more rapidly on CO than many other species. Analysis of the genome also has provided many general insights into the metabolism of this organism which should make it easier to use it as a source of biologically produced hydrogen gas. One surprising finding is the presence of many genes previously found only in sporulating species in the Firmicutes Phylum. Although this species is also a Firmicutes, it was not known to sporulate previously. Here we show that it does sporulate and because it is missing many of the genes involved in sporulation in other species, this organism may serve as a "minimal" model for sporulation studies. In addition, using phylogenetic profile analysis, we have identified many uncharacterized gene families found in all known sporulating Firmicutes, but not in any non-sporulating bacteria, including a sigma factor not known to be involved in sporulation previously.

  6. Life in Hot Carbon Monoxide: The Complete Genome Sequence of Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans Z-2901.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2005-11-01

    Full Text Available We report here the sequencing and analysis of the genome of the thermophilic bacterium Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans Z-2901. This species is a model for studies of hydrogenogens, which are diverse bacteria and archaea that grow anaerobically utilizing carbon monoxide (CO as their sole carbon source and water as an electron acceptor, producing carbon dioxide and hydrogen as waste products. Organisms that make use of CO do so through carbon monoxide dehydrogenase complexes. Remarkably, analysis of the genome of C. hydrogenoformans reveals the presence of at least five highly differentiated anaerobic carbon monoxide dehydrogenase complexes, which may in part explain how this species is able to grow so much more rapidly on CO than many other species. Analysis of the genome also has provided many general insights into the metabolism of this organism which should make it easier to use it as a source of biologically produced hydrogen gas. One surprising finding is the presence of many genes previously found only in sporulating species in the Firmicutes Phylum. Although this species is also a Firmicutes, it was not known to sporulate previously. Here we show that it does sporulate and because it is missing many of the genes involved in sporulation in other species, this organism may serve as a "minimal" model for sporulation studies. In addition, using phylogenetic profile analysis, we have identified many uncharacterized gene families found in all known sporulating Firmicutes, but not in any non-sporulating bacteria, including a sigma factor not known to be involved in sporulation previously.

  7. Life in hot carbon monoxide: the complete genome sequence of Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans Z-2901.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Martin; Ren, Qinghu; Durkin, A Scott; Daugherty, Sean C; Brinkac, Lauren M; Dodson, Robert J; Madupu, Ramana; Sullivan, Steven A; Kolonay, James F; Haft, Daniel H; Nelson, William C; Tallon, Luke J; Jones, Kristine M; Ulrich, Luke E; Gonzalez, Juan M; Zhulin, Igor B; Robb, Frank T; Eisen, Jonathan A

    2005-11-01

    We report here the sequencing and analysis of the genome of the thermophilic bacterium Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans Z-2901. This species is a model for studies of hydrogenogens, which are diverse bacteria and archaea that grow anaerobically utilizing carbon monoxide (CO) as their sole carbon source and water as an electron acceptor, producing carbon dioxide and hydrogen as waste products. Organisms that make use of CO do so through carbon monoxide dehydrogenase complexes. Remarkably, analysis of the genome of C. hydrogenoformans reveals the presence of at least five highly differentiated anaerobic carbon monoxide dehydrogenase complexes, which may in part explain how this species is able to grow so much more rapidly on CO than many other species. Analysis of the genome also has provided many general insights into the metabolism of this organism which should make it easier to use it as a source of biologically produced hydrogen gas. One surprising finding is the presence of many genes previously found only in sporulating species in the Firmicutes Phylum. Although this species is also a Firmicutes, it was not known to sporulate previously. Here we show that it does sporulate and because it is missing many of the genes involved in sporulation in other species, this organism may serve as a "minimal" model for sporulation studies. In addition, using phylogenetic profile analysis, we have identified many uncharacterized gene families found in all known sporulating Firmicutes, but not in any non-sporulating bacteria, including a sigma factor not known to be involved in sporulation previously.

  8. Soil fluxes of carbonyl sulfide (COS), carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide in a boreal forest in southern Finland

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sun, Wu; Kooijmans, Linda M. J.; Maseyk, Kadmiel; Chen, Huilin; Mammarella, Ivan; Vesala, Timo; Levula, Janne; Keskinen, Helmi; Seibt, Ulli

    2018-01-01

    Soil is a major contributor to the biosphere-atmosphere exchange of carbonyl sulfide (COS) and carbon monoxide (CO). COS is a tracer with which to quantify terrestrial photosynthesis based on the coupled leaf uptake of COS and CO2, but such use requires separating soil COS flux, which is unrelated

  9. Hydrogen Oxidation on Gas Diffusion Electrodes for Phosphoric Acid Fuel Cells in the Presence of Carbon Monoxide and Oxygen

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gang, Xiao; Li, Qingfeng; Hjuler, Hans Aage

    1995-01-01

    Hydrogen oxidation has been studied on a carbon-supported platinum gas diffusion electrode in a phosphoric acidelectrolyte in the presence of carbon monoxide and oxygen in the feed gas. The poisoning effect of carbon monoxide presentin the feed gas was measured in the temperature range from 80...... to 150°C. It was found that throughout the temperaturerange, the potential loss due to the CO poisoning can be reduced to a great extent by the injection of small amounts ofgaseous oxygen into the hydrogen gas containing carbon monoxide. By adding 5 volume percent (v/o) oxygen, an almost......CO-free performance can be obtained for carbon monoxide concentrations up to 0.5 v/o CO at 130°C, 0.2 v/o CO at 100°C,and 0.1 v/o CO at 80°C, respectively....

  10. Zinc Oxide-Multi Walled Carbon Nanotubes Nanocomposites for Carbon Monoxide Gas Sensor Application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alharbi, Najlaa D; Ansari, M Shahnawaze; Salah, Numan; Khayyat, Suzan A; Khan, Zishan H

    2016-01-01

    Zinc oxide (ZnO)/multi walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) composites based sensors with different ZnO concentrations were fabricated to improve carbon monoxide (CO) gas sensing properties in comparison to the sensors based on bare MWCNTs. To study the structure, morphology and elemental composition of the resultant products, X-ray diffraction (XRD), Field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM) and Energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) were carried out. It has been observed that as the concentration of ZnO is increased more and more ZnO nanoparticles in the form of nodes get attached to MWCNTs resulting the reduction in average diameter of MWCNTs. The typical response of ZnO/MWCNTs composites based gas sensors for different CO concentrations (40, 100, 140 and 200 ppm) was studied by using very advanced sensing setup attached to I-V measurement system. Different sensing parameters such as: resistive response, sensitivity and response time were estimated at room temperature for all the fabricated sensors. The results indicated that the sensor based on nanocomposite which has 30 mg ZnO dispersed on 20 mg MWCNTs showing highest sensitivity and fastest response. All the sensors showed response times ranging from 8 to 23 seconds. The sensing mechanism behind the sensors based on ZnO/MWCNTs nanocomposites for CO gas at room temperature is also discussed in the present report.

  11. Range Measurements of keV Hydrogen Ions in Solid Oxygen and Carbon Monoxide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schou, Jørgen; Sørensen, H.; Andersen, H.H.

    1984-01-01

    Ranges of 1.3–3.5 keV/atom hydrogen and deuterium molecular ions have been measured by a thin-film reflection method. The technique, used here for range measurements in solid oxygen and carbon monoxide targets, is identical to the one used previously for range measurements in hydrogen and nitrogen....... The main aim was to look for phase-effects, i.e. gas-solid differences in the stopping processes. While measured ranges in solid oxygen were in agreement with known gas data, the ranges in solid carbon monoxide were up to 50% larger than those calculated from gas-stopping data. The latter result agrees...... with that previously found for solid nitrogen....

  12. Supply Ventilation and Prevention of Carbon Monoxide (II) Ingress into Building Premises

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvinova, N. A.

    2017-11-01

    The article contains the relationships of carbon monoxide (II) concentration versus height-above-ground near buildings derived based on results of studies. The results of studies are crucial in preventing external pollutants ingress into a ventilation system. Being generated by external emission sources, such as motor vehicles and city heating plants, carbon monoxide (II) enters the premises during operation of a supply ventilation system. Fresh air nomographic charts were drawn to select the height of a fresh air intake into the ventilation system. Nomographic charts take into account external sources. The selected emission sources are located at various levels above ground relative to the building. The recommendations allow designing supply ventilation taking into account the quality of ambient air through the whole building height.

  13. Carbon monoxide and cyanide toxicity: etiology, pathophysiology and treatment in inhalation injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huzar, Todd F; George, Tonya; Cross, James M

    2013-04-01

    Inhalation injury is most commonly associated with damage to the mucosal surfaces of the small and large airways after exposure to smoke and other products of incomplete combustion. Yet, there are far deadlier things lurking within the smoke than just the heat and particulate matter: carbon monoxide and cyanide. These two toxic substances are found in varying concentrations within the fire room and are associated with early on-scene death and in-hospital morbidity and mortality. Patients suffering from carbon monoxide and/or cyanide poisoning present with vague symptoms requiring an astute physician to make the diagnosis. Fortunately, the toxic effects related to exposure to these agents can be reversed with readily available antidotes.

  14. Electricity generation from carbon monoxide and syngas in a microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hussain, Abid; Guiot, Serge R; Mehta, Punita; Raghavan, Vijaya; Tartakovsky, Boris

    2011-05-01

    Electricity generation in microbial fuel cells (MFCs) has been a subject of significant research efforts. MFCs employ the ability of electricigenic bacteria to oxidize organic substrates using an electrode as an electron acceptor. While MFC application for electricity production from a variety of organic sources has been demonstrated, very little research on electricity production from carbon monoxide and synthesis gas (syngas) in an MFC has been reported. Although most of the syngas today is produced from non-renewable sources, syngas production from renewable biomass or poorly degradable organic matter makes energy generation from syngas a sustainable process, which combines energy production with the reprocessing of solid wastes. An MFC-based process of syngas conversion to electricity might offer a number of advantages such as high Coulombic efficiency and biocatalytic activity in the presence of carbon monoxide and sulfur components. This paper presents a discussion on microorganisms and reactor designs that can be used for operating an MFC on syngas.

  15. Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography carbon monoxide total columns: Statistical evaluation and comparison with chemistry transport model results

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laat, de A.T.J.; Gloudemans, A.M.S.; Aben, I.; Krol, M.C.; Meirink, J.F.; Werf, van der G.R.; Schrijver, H.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed statistical analysis of one year (September 2003 to August 2004) of global Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY) carbon monoxide (CO) total column retrievals from the Iterative Maximum Likelihood Method (IMLM) algorithm,

  16. Measurement of Air Pollution from Satellites (MAPS) Space Radar Laboratory - 1 (SRL1) Carbon Monoxide Second by Second data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MAPS Overview The MAPS experiment measures the global distribution of carbon monoxide (CO) mixing ratios in the free troposphere. Because of MAPS' previous flights...

  17. Measurement of Air Pollution from Satellites (MAPS) Space Radar Laboratory - 2 (SRL2) Carbon Monoxide Second by Second data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MAPS Overview The MAPS experiment measures the global distribution of carbon monoxide (CO) mixing ratios in the free troposphere. Because of MAPS' previous flights...

  18. Effect of exhaust emissions on carbon monoxide levels in employees working at indoor car wash facilities

    OpenAIRE

    Topacoglu, H; Katsakoglou, S; Ipekci, A

    2014-01-01

    Background: Exhaust emissions from motor vehicles threaten the environment and human health. Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, especially the use of exhaust gas CO in suicidal attempts is well known in the literature. Recently, indoor car wash facilities established in large shopping malls with closed parking, lots is a new risk area that exposes car wash employees to prolonged periods of high level CO emissions from cars. The aim of this study was to investigate how carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) bl...

  19. Latitudinal distribution of the sources of carbon monoxide in the troposphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hameed, S.; Stewart, R. W.

    1979-01-01

    A vertically and zonally averaged model of the troposphere has been constructed which calculates photochemical interactions and diffusive North-South transport of trace species. The model can be used to calculate the latitudinal distribution of the source function of a species if its concentration distribution is known. This procedure has been applied to carbon monoxide and large sources have been found outside the industrialized belt in the Northern Hemisphere.

  20. Measurements of the global distribution of carbon monoxide in the troposphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hinton, R. R.

    1982-01-01

    Carbon monoxide and methane grab samples were obtained simultaneously with ozone, aerosol, nitric oxide and DACOM CO measurements. Eighty grab samples were collected at various altitudes up to 19,000 ft. along a north-south flight path from Wallops Flight Center, VA to 11 N. CO and CH were analyzed by flame ionization gas chromatography with cryogenic preconcentration. The relationship between CO and O3 concentrated is examined. A comparative analysis between trends in aerosol and CO concentration is performed.

  1. Microcontroller ATMEGA8535 based Design of Carbon Monoxide (CO) Gas Detector

    OpenAIRE

    Suyuti, Ansar

    2012-01-01

    1218204-3737-IJECS-IJENS ?? August 2012 IJENS This paper presents design of Carbon Monoxide (CO) gas detector based on microcontroller performance. The device is embedded with real-time measurement through visualization in Liquid Crystal Display (LCD) and computer monitor. In addition, the data processing utilizes microcontroller ATMEGA8535 under programming environment of CodeVision AVR V2.03.4. The visualization itself is designed based on the combination between programming language of ...

  2. Exploring the water and carbon monoxide shell around Betelgeuse with VLTI/AMBER

    OpenAIRE

    Montargès, Miguel; Kervella, Pierre; Perrin, Guy; Ohnaka, Keiichi

    2013-01-01

    Betelgeuse Workshop, November 2012, Paris. To be published in the European Astronomical Society Publications Series, 2013, Editors: Pierre Kervella, Thibaut Le Bertre & Guy Perrin; International audience; We present the results of the analysis of our recent interferometric observations of Betelgeuse, using the AMBER instrument of the VLTI. Using the medium spectral resolution mode ($R \\sim 1500$) we detected the presence of the water vapour and carbon monoxide (CO) molecules in the H and K ba...

  3. Asymmetric Dimethylarginine and Pro-B-Type Natriuretic Peptide Levels in Patients With Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Murat Eroglu; Ali Osman Yildirim; Yusuf Emrah Eyi; Salim Kemal Tuncer; Umit Kaldirim; Gunalp Uzun; Erdinc Cakir

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is a leading cause of toxicity related mortality and morbidity. Recent studies focused on cardiovascular consequences of CO poisoning. The aim of this study was to investigate asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) and pro B-type natriuretic peptide (pro-BNP) levels in CO poisoned patients during normobaric oxygen treatment. METHODS: The patients treated for CO poisoning at the Emergency Department from October 2005 to May 2006 were consecutively incl...

  4. MODELLING OF CARBON MONOXIDE AIR POLLUTION IN LARG CITIES BY EVALUETION OF SPECTRAL LANDSAT8 IMAGES

    OpenAIRE

    M. Hamzelo; A. Gharagozlou; S. Sadeghian; S. H. Baikpour; A. Rajabi

    2015-01-01

    Air pollution in large cities is one of the major problems that resolve and reduce it need multiple applications and environmental management. Of The main sources of this pollution is industrial activities, urban and transport that enter large amounts of contaminants into the air and reduces its quality. With Variety of pollutants and high volume manufacturing, local distribution of manufacturing centers, Testing and measuring emissions is difficult. Substances such as carbon monoxide, sulfur...

  5. Alexithymia Associated With Bilateral Globus Pallidus Lesions After Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    OpenAIRE

    Mei-Feng Huang; Yi-Chun Yeh; Hin-Yeung Tsang; Cheng-Sheng Chen

    2010-01-01

    Alexithymia refers to a person's inability to identify and describe feelings. We present a patient who developed alexithymia after carbon monoxide poisoning following a suicide attempt by burning charcoal in an enclosed space. Brain computed tomography revealed bilateral globus pallidus hypoxic lesions. Because of the time frame and the presence of brain structural lesions, the alexithymia in this patient was thought to be caused by bilateral globus pallidus hypoxic lesions resulting from car...

  6. Relation of Hydrogen and Methane to Carbon Monoxide in Exhaust Gases from Internal-Combustion Engines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerrish, Harold C; Tessmann, Arthur M

    1935-01-01

    The relation of hydrogen and methane to carbon monoxide in the exhaust gases from internal-combustion engines operating on standard-grade aviation gasoline, fighting-grade aviation gasoline, hydrogenated safety fuel, laboratory diesel fuel, and auto diesel fuel was determined by analysis of the exhaust gases. Two liquid-cooled single-cylinder spark-ignition, one 9-cylinder radial air-cooled spark-ignition, and two liquid-cooled single-cylinder compression-ignition engines were used.

  7. Transient control of carbon monoxide with staged PrOx reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Inbody, M. A. (Michael A.); Borup, R. L. (Rodney L.); Tafoya, J. (Jose I.)

    2002-01-01

    Fuel Processor systems generate hydrogen for fuel cell systems from hydrocarbon fuels such as gasoline for automotive fuel cell systems and natural gas for stationary fuel cell systems. These fuel processor systems must remove any contaminants to levels that won't poison the fuel cell before the outlet hydrogen-rich gas stream can be used by the fuel cell to generate electricity. Carbon monoxide is a contaminant that must be removed to levels of < 100 ppm or < 10 ppm depending on the CO tolerance of the fuel cell. Typically, the last unit operation in a fuel processor is a preferential oxidation reactor or a selective oxidation reactor, which removes CO by oxidizing it to form C02. These are catalytic reactors where the catalyst and operating conditions are selected so that the oxidation rate of the carbon monoxide is higher than the oxidation rate of hydrogen, even though the hydrogen is present at much higher concentrations (> 30%) than carbon monoxide which is present at trace concentrations (< 1%).

  8. Accidental carbon monoxide poisoning presenting without a history of exposure: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennetto, Luke; Powter, Louise; Scolding, Neil J

    2008-04-22

    Carbon monoxide poisoning is easy to diagnose when there is a history of exposure. When the exposure history is absent, or delayed, the diagnosis is more difficult and relies on recognising the importance of multi-system disease. We present a case of accidental carbon monoxide poisoning. A middle-aged man, who lived alone in his mobile home was found by friends in a confused, incontinent state. Initial signs included respiratory failure, cardiac ischaemia, hypotension, encephalopathy and a rash, whilst subsequent features included rhabdomyolysis, renal failure, amnesia, dysarthria, parkinsonism, peripheral neuropathy, supranuclear gaze palsy and cerebral haemorrhage. Despite numerous investigations including magnetic resonance cerebral imaging, lumbar puncture, skin biopsy, muscle biopsy and electroencephalogram a diagnosis remained elusive. Several weeks after admission, diagnostic breakthrough was achieved when the gradual resolution of the patient's amnesia, encephalopathy and dysarthria allowed an accurate history to be taken for the first time. The patient's last recollection was turning on his gas heating for the first time since the spring. A gas heating engineer found the patient's gas boiler to be in a dangerous state of disrepair and it was immediately decommissioned. This case highlights several important issues: the bewildering myriad of clinical features of carbon monoxide poisoning, the importance of making the diagnosis even at a late stage and preventing the patient's return to a potentially fatal toxic environment, and the paramount importance of the history in the diagnostic method.

  9. Accidental carbon monoxide poisoning presenting without a history of exposure: A case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bennetto Luke

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction Carbon monoxide poisoning is easy to diagnose when there is a history of exposure. When the exposure history is absent, or delayed, the diagnosis is more difficult and relies on recognising the importance of multi-system disease. We present a case of accidental carbon monoxide poisoning. Case presentation A middle-aged man, who lived alone in his mobile home was found by friends in a confused, incontinent state. Initial signs included respiratory failure, cardiac ischaemia, hypotension, encephalopathy and a rash, whilst subsequent features included rhabdomyolysis, renal failure, amnesia, dysarthria, parkinsonism, peripheral neuropathy, supranuclear gaze palsy and cerebral haemorrhage. Despite numerous investigations including magnetic resonance cerebral imaging, lumbar puncture, skin biopsy, muscle biopsy and electroencephalogram a diagnosis remained elusive. Several weeks after admission, diagnostic breakthrough was achieved when the gradual resolution of the patient's amnesia, encephalopathy and dysarthria allowed an accurate history to be taken for the first time. The patient's last recollection was turning on his gas heating for the first time since the spring. A gas heating engineer found the patient's gas boiler to be in a dangerous state of disrepair and it was immediately decommissioned. Conclusion This case highlights several important issues: the bewildering myriad of clinical features of carbon monoxide poisoning, the importance of making the diagnosis even at a late stage and preventing the patient's return to a potentially fatal toxic environment, and the paramount importance of the history in the diagnostic method.

  10. Acute wood or coal exposure with carbon monoxide intoxication induces sister chromatid exchange

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ozturk, S.; Vatansever, S.; Cefle, K.; Palanduz, S.; Guler, K.; Erten, N.; Erk, O.; Karan, M.A.; Tascioglu, C. [University of Istanbul, Istanbul (Turkey). Istanbul Faculty of Medicine

    2002-07-01

    The object of this study was to investigate the genotoxic effect of acute overexposure to combustion products originating from coal or wood stoves in patients presenting with acute carbon monoxide intoxication. The authors analyzed the frequency of sister chromatid exchange and the carboxyhemoglobin concentration in 20 consecutive patients without a history of smoking or drug use who had been treated in the Emergency Care Unit of Istanbul Medical Faculty due to acute carbon monoxide intoxication. All of these cases were domestic accidents due to dysfunctioning coal or wood stoves. The results were compared with a control group of 20 nonsmoking, nondrug-using healthy individuals matched for age, sex, and absence of other chemical exposure. It was concluded that acute exposure to combustion products of wood or coal is genotoxic to DNA. Potential causes of genotoxicity include known mutagenic compounds present in coal or wood smoke and ash, oxygen radicals formed during combustion, as well as hypoxic and reperfusion injury mechanisms initiated by carbon monoxide intoxication.

  11. Crotalus atrox Venom Exposed to Carbon Monoxide Has Decreased Fibrinogenolytic Activity In Vivo in Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Vance G

    2018-01-01

    Envenomation by haemotoxic enzymes remains a significant source of human morbidity and mortality worldwide, with administration of long-acting or multiple doses of antivenom first-line therapy. However, coagulopathy can still occur and recur. Of interest, it has been recently demonstrated that direct, isolated exposure of snake venom enzymes with fibrinogenolytic activity to carbon monoxide (CO) abrogates venom-mediated loss of coagulation in human plasma. These observations of CO inhibition of venom fibrinogenolytic activity were subsequently repeated in rabbit whole blood. This study sought to translate these findings in an in vivo rabbit model of envenomation with fibrinogenolytic Crotalus atrox venom. Sedated rabbits were intravenously administered C. atrox venom (400 μg/kg) pre-exposed to 0 or 1000 μM carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-2 (CORM-2) in vitro. Arterial whole-blood samples demonstrated that compared to pre-envenomation values, the CORM-2-naïve venom significantly prolonged the onset of coagulation, decreased the velocity of clot growth and decreased clot strength as determined by thromboelastography an hour after venom injection. In contrast, CORM-2 pre-exposure prevented or attenuated C. atrox venom effects on coagulation kinetics. Future studies to determine whether rabbits injected with such venom subcutaneously/intramuscularly can have consequent coagulopathy abrogated by injection of carbon monoxide-releasing molecules into the 'bite site' are justified. © 2017 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  12. Reduced tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide exposure while smoking ultralow- but not low-yield cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benowitz, N L; Jacob, P; Yu, L; Talcott, R; Hall, S; Jones, R T

    1986-07-11

    An unresolved public health issue is whether some modern cigarettes are less hazardous than others and whether patients who cannot stop smoking should be advised to switch to lower-yield cigarettes. We studied "tar" (estimated by urine mutagenicity), nicotine, and carbon monoxide exposure in habitual smokers switched from their usual brand to high- (15 mg of tar), low- (5 mg of tar), or ultralow-yield (1 mg of tar) cigarettes. There were no differences in exposure comparing high- or low-yield cigarettes, but tar and nicotine exposures were reduced by 49% and 56%, respectively, and carbon monoxide exposure by 36% while smoking ultralow-yield cigarettes. Similarly, in 248 subjects smoking their self-selected brand, nicotine intake, estimated by blood concentrations of its metabolite cotinine, was 40% lower in those who smoked ultralow but no different in those smoking higher yields of cigarettes. Our data indicate that ultralow-yield cigarettes do deliver substantial doses of tar, nicotine, and carbon monoxide, but that exposures are considerably less than for other cigarettes.

  13. Toxicological Investigation of Acute Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Four Occupants of a Fuming Sport Utility Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Nnoli

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: This toxicological investigation involves a report on the death of four occupants of a sport utility vehicle on one of the major busy Federal roads of Nigeria where they were held for up to three hours in a traffic jam while the car was steaming. Methods: Autopsy was executed using the standard procedure and toxicological analysis was done using simple spectrophotometric method to establish the level of carboxyhaemoglobin (HbCO in peripheral blood in the four occupants. Results: The autopsy report indicated generalized cyanosis, sub-conjuctival hemorrhages, marked laryngo-trachea edema with severe hyperemia with frothy fluid discharges characteristic of carbon monoxide poisoning. Toxicological report of the level of HbCO in part per million (ppm in the peripheral blood of the four occupants was A= 650 ppm; B= 500 ppm; C= 480 ppm, and D= 495 ppm against the maximum permissible level of 50 ppm. Conclusion: The sudden death of the four occupants was due to excessive inhalation of the carbon monoxide gas from the exhaust fumes leaking into the cabin of the car. The poor road network, numerous potholes, and traffic jam in most of roads in Nigeria could have exacerbated a leaky exhaust of the smoky second hand SUV car leading to the acute carbon monoxide poisoning.

  14. Suicidal carbon monoxide poisoning by combining formic acid and sulfuric acid within a confined space.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Peter T; Dunn, William A

    2014-01-01

    Suicide by inhalation of carbon monoxide produced by mixing formic acid and sulfuric acid within a confined space is a rare method of suicide. This method is similar to the so-called "detergent suicide" method where an acid-based detergent is mixed with a sulfur source to produce hydrogen sulfide. Both methods produce a toxic gas that poses significant hazards for death investigators, first responders and bystanders. Carbon monoxide is an odorless gas, while hydrogen sulfide has a characteristic rotten eggs odor, so the risks associated with carbon monoxide are potentially greater due to lack of an important warning signal. While detergent suicides have become increasingly common in the USA, suicide with formic acid and sulfuric acid is rare with only three prior cases being reported. Greater awareness of this method among death investigators is warranted because of the special risks of accidental intoxication by toxic gas and the possibility that this method of suicide will become more common in the future. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  15. The indigenous Sea Gypsy divers of Thailand's west coast: measurement of carbon monoxide in the breathing air.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gold, D; Geater, A; Aiyarak, S; Juengpraert, W

    1999-07-01

    Approximately 400 indigenous divers live and work on Thailand's west coast. They dive with surface supplied air from primitive compressor units mounted on open boats which measure from seven to 11 meters in length. It was suspected that carbon monoxide was present in the breathing air of at least the gasoline-driven compressor units. To determine the presence of carbon monoxide gas in the breathing air, compressed air from the compressor was pumped through the diver air supply hose through a plenum (monitoring) chamber established on the boat. After a compressor warm-up of 15 minutes, the diving air was measured with the boat at eight different bearings to the wind, each 45 degrees apart at intervals of five minutes. Three of the four gasoline-driven compressor units tested showed presence of carbon monoxide in the breathing air. One diesel-driven unit showed a very low concentration of carbon monoxide (3-4 ppm) and six diesel-driven units showed no detectable carbon monoxide. Although not tested, diesel exhaust emissions could also enter the breathing air by the same route. A locally made modification to the compressor air intake was designed and successfully tested on one gasoline-driven compressor unit. An information sheet on the hazards of carbon monoxide as well as on the modification has been developed for distribution among the villages.

  16. The effects of carbon monoxide on respiratory chemoreflexes in humans

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vesely, A.E.; Somogyi, R.B.; Sasano, Hiroshi; Sasano, Nobuko; Fisher, J.A.; Duffin, James

    2004-01-01

    As protection against low-oxygen and high-carbon-dioxide environments, the respiratory chemoreceptors reflexly increase breathing. Since CO is also frequently present in such environments, it is important to know whether CO affects the respiratory chemoreflexes responsiveness. Although the peripheral chemoreceptors fail to detect hypoxia produced by CO poisoning, whether CO affects the respiratory chemoreflex responsiveness to carbon dioxide is unknown. The responsiveness of 10 healthy male volunteers were assessed before and after inhalation of ∼1200 ppm CO in air using two iso-oxic rebreathing tests; hypoxic, to emphasize the peripheral chemoreflex, and hyperoxic, to emphasize the central chemoreflex. Although mean (SEM) COHb values of 10.2 (0.2)% were achieved, no statistically significant effects of CO were observed. The average differences between pre- and post-CO values for ventilation response threshold and sensitivity were -0.5 (0.9) mmHg and 0.8 (0.3) L/min/mmHg, respectively, for hyperoxia, and 0.7 (1.1) mmHg and 1.2 (0.8) L/min/mmHg, respectively, for hypoxia. The 95% confidence intervals for the effect of CO were small. We conclude that environments with low levels of CO do not have a clinically significant effect acutely on either the central or the peripheral chemoreflex responsiveness to carbon dioxide

  17. An analytical study of nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide emissions in hydrocarbon combustion with added nitrogen - Preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittker, D. A.

    1980-01-01

    The influence of ground-based gas turbine combustor operating conditions and fuel-bound nitrogen (FBN) found in coal-derived liquid fuels on the formation of nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide is investigated. Analytical predictions of NOx and CO concentrations are obtained for a two-stage, adiabatic, perfectly-stirred reactor operating on a propane-air mixture, with primary equivalence ratios from 0.5 to 1.7, secondary equivalence ratios of 0.5 or 0.7, primary stage residence times from 12 to 20 msec, secondary stage residence times of 1, 2 and 3 msec and fuel nitrogen contents of 0.5, 1.0 and 2.0 wt %. Minimum nitrogen oxide but maximum carbon monoxide formation is obtained at primary zone equivalence ratios between 1.4 and 1.5, with percentage conversion of FBN to NOx decreasing with increased fuel nitrogen content. Additional secondary dilution is observed to reduce final pollutant concentrations, with NOx concentration independent of secondary residence time and CO decreasing with secondary residence time; primary zone residence time is not observed to affect final NOx and CO concentrations significantly. Finally, comparison of computed results with experimental values shows a good semiquantitative agreement.

  18. Air quality assessment of carbon monoxide, nitrogen dioxide and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Tumwitike

    Location of Blantyre district in Malawi (a) found in southern Africa region (b). The blue rectangle is extruded to show the ... hours. Running parallel south of the main highway is another busy road (Kenyatta drive) that reduces ... A stationary EMS is located at 25 m above ground on top of the building at the experimental site in ...

  19. Characteristics of Carbon Monoxide Oxidization in Rich Hydrogen by Mesoporous Silica with TiO2 Photocatalyst

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akira Nishimura

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen (H2 is normally used as the fuel to power polymer electrolyte fuel cell (PEFC. However, the power generation performance of PEFC is harmed by the carbon monoxide (CO in the H2 that is often produced frommethane (CH4. The purpose of this study is to investigate the experimental conditions in order to improve the CO oxidization performance of mesoporous silica loaded with TiO2. The impact of loading ratio of TiO2 and initial concentration ratio of O2 to CO on CO oxidization performance is investigated. As a result, the optimum loading ratio of TiO2 and initial concentration ratio of O2 to CO were 20 wt% and 4 vol%, respectively, under the experimental conditions. Under this optimumexperimental condition, the CO in rich H2 in the reactor can be completely eliminated from initial 12000 ppmV after UV light illumination of 72 hours.

  20. Thermal device and method for production of carbon monoxide and hydrogen by thermal dissociation of hydrocarbon gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Detering, Brent A.; Kong, Peter C.

    2001-01-01

    Carbon monoxide is produced in a fast quench reactor. The production of carbon monoxide includes injecting carbon dioxide and some air into a reactor chamber having a high temperature at its inlet and a rapidly expanding a reactant stream, such as a restrictive convergent-divergent nozzle at its outlet end. Carbon dioxide and other reactants such as methane and other low molecular weight hydrocarbons are injected into the reactor chamber. Other gas may be added at different stages in the process to form a desired end product and prevent back reactions. The resulting heated gaseous stream is then rapidly cooled by expansion of the gaseous stream.

  1. Carbon monoxide-fueled solid oxide fuel cell

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Homel, Michael; Koh, Joon Ho [Materials and Systems Research, Inc., 5395 West 700 South, Salt Lake City, UT 84104 (United States); Guer, Turgut M. [Direct Carbon Technologies, LLC, 525 University Avenue, Suite 1400, Palo Alto, CA 94301 (United States); Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States); Virkar, Anil V. [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT 84112 (United States)

    2010-10-01

    This study explored CO as a primary fuel in anode-supported solid oxide fuel cells (SOFCs) of both tubular and planar geometries. Tubular single cells with active areas of 24 cm{sup 2} generated power up to 16 W. Open circuit voltages for various CO/CO{sub 2} mixture compositions agreed well with the expected values. In flowing dry CO, power densities up to 0.67 W cm{sup -2} were achieved at 1 A cm{sup -2} and 850 C. This performance compared well with 0.74 W cm{sup -2} measured for pure H{sub 2} in the same cell and under the same operating conditions. Performance stability of tubular cells was investigated by long-term testing in flowing CO during which no carbon deposition was observed. At a constant current of 9.96 A (or, 0.414 A cm{sup -2}) power output remained unchanged over 375 h of continuous operation at 850 C. In addition, a 50-cell planar SOFC stack was operated at 800 C on 95% CO (balance CO{sub 2}), which generated 1176 W of total power at a power density of 224 mW cm{sup -2}. The results demonstrate that CO is a viable primary fuel for SOFCs. (author)

  2. Optical response of the copper surface to carbon monoxide deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monachesi, P; Chiodo, L

    2004-09-10

    The optical response of the Cu surface upon CO deposition is investigated from the clean Cu(110) to the reconstructed CO/Cu(110)-p(2x1) geometry through ab initio electronic structure calculations. We ascribe the relevant structures in the calculated reflectance anisotropy spectrum of the reconstructed phase to the persistence of surface states transitions. These are excited by light polarized along the direction perpendicular to the one found at the clean surface. We devise a simple model for the evolution of the optical response in the adsorption process, identifying three different regimes. The impurity regime, at very low coverages, is characterized by a critical coverage that enhances the actual one by a factor of approximately 30, close to the value estimated experimentally.

  3. Dinitrogen cleavage and functionalization by carbon monoxide promoted by a hafnium complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobloch, Donald J; Lobkovsky, Emil; Chirik, Paul J

    2010-01-01

    Molecular nitrogen (N(2)) and carbon monoxide (CO) have the two strongest bonds in chemistry and present significant challenges in developing new transformations that exploit these two abundant feedstocks. At the core of this objective is the discovery of transition-metal compounds that promote the six-electron reductive cleavage of N(2) at ambient temperature and pressure and also promote new nitrogen-element bond formation. Here we show that an organometallic hafnium compound induces N(2) cleavage on the addition of CO, with a simultaneous assembly of new nitrogen-carbon and carbon-carbon bonds. Subsequent addition of a weak acid liberates oxamide, which demonstrates that an important agrochemical can be synthesized directly from N(2) and CO. These studies introduce an alternative paradigm for N(2) cleavage and functionalization in which the six-electron reductive cleavage is promoted by both the transition metal and the incoming ligand, CO, used for the new bond formations.

  4. Interaction and reactivity of nitric oxide and carbon monoxide on ruthenium surfaces

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Quick, E.E.

    1980-03-01

    A multifaceted investigation of the reduction of nitric oxide by carbon monoxide using a ruthenium (102) single crystal catalyst in the pressure range 10/sup -3/ to 10 Torr and temperature range of 300 to 475/sup 0/C has been undertaken. Kinetic and isotopic results indicate that the reaction products CO/sub 2/ and N/sub 2/ were produced via two reaction mechanisms. Using a reducing gas mixture (low P/sub NO//P/sub CO/ ratio) a two site mechanism was operative involving NO dissociation. The carbon monoxide kinetic order varied from +1 to -3 and the nitric oxide order varied from +1 to 0. The catalyst under these conditions was determined to be metallic ruthenium with oxygen bonded within the first surface layer. The oxygen was unreactive and formed a (1 x 3)-0 LEED pattern. Under oxidizing conditions (high P/sub NO//P/sub CO/ ratio) the catalyst was ruthenium dioxide and the functional mechanism under these reaction conditions yielded a nitric oxide order of +2 to -4. Inclusion of a site poisoning mechanism under reducing conditions and an RuO/sub 2/ growth mechanism involving ruthenium cation transfer under oxidizing conditions into the kinetic rate laws led to an overall rate law which could be fit to the carbon monoxide and nitric oxide order plots. Using isotopically oxygen labelled reactants, it was observed that the three possible isotopes of carbon dioxide were produced. A ..gamma..-CO surface species is postulated as an intermediate in the exchange process. The reaction was observed to be initially surface structure insensitive and the reaction kinetics were derived using a Langmuir-Hinshelwood formalism.

  5. Fresh meat packaging: consumer acceptance of modified atmosphere packaging including carbon monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebitus, Carola; Jensen, Helen H; Roosen, Jutta; Sebranek, Joseph G

    2013-01-01

    Consumers' perceptions and evaluations of meat quality attributes such as color and shelf life influence purchasing decisions, and these product attributes can be affected by the type of fresh meat packaging system. Modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) extends the shelf life of fresh meat and, with the inclusion of carbon monoxide (CO-MAP), achieves significant color stabilization. The objective of this study was to assess whether consumers would accept specific packaging technologies and what value consumers place on ground beef packaged under various atmospheres when their choices involved the attributes of color and shelf life. The study used nonhypothetical consumer choice experiments to determine the premiums that consumers are willing to pay for extended shelf life resulting from MAP and for the "cherry red" color in meat resulting from CO-MAP. The experimental design allowed determination of whether consumers would discount foods with MAP or CO-MAP when (i) they are given more detailed information about the technologies and (ii) they have different levels of individual knowledge and media exposure. The empirical analysis was conducted using multinomial logit models. Results indicate that consumers prefer an extension of shelf life as long as the applied technology is known and understood. Consumers had clear preferences for brighter (aerobic and CO) red color and were willing to pay $0.16/lb ($0.35/kg) for each level of change to the preferred color. More information on MAP for extending the shelf life and on CO-MAP for stabilizing color decreased consumers' willingness to pay. An increase in personal knowledge and media exposure influenced acceptance of CO-MAP negatively. The results provide quantitative measures of how packaging affects consumers' acceptance and willingness to pay for products. Such information can benefit food producers and retailers who make decisions about investing in new packaging methods.

  6. Inhaled Carbon Monoxide Protects against the Development of Shock and Mitochondrial Injury following Hemorrhage and Resuscitation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hernando Gomez

    Full Text Available Currently, there is no effective resuscitative adjunct to fluid and blood products to limit tissue injury for traumatic hemorrhagic shock. The objective of this study was to investigate the role of inhaled carbon monoxide (CO to limit inflammation and tissue injury, and specifically mitochondrial damage, in experimental models of hemorrhage and resuscitation.Inhaled CO (250 ppm for 30 minutes protected against mortality in severe murine hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation (HS/R (20% vs. 80%; P<0.01. Additionally, CO limited the development of shock as determined by arterial blood pH (7.25±0.06 vs. 7.05±0.05; P<0.05, lactate levels (7.2±5.1 vs 13.3±6.0; P<0.05, and base deficit (13±3.0 vs 24±3.1; P<0.05. A dose response of CO (25-500 ppm demonstrated protection against HS/R lung and liver injury as determined by MPO activity and serum ALT, respectively. CO limited HS/R-induced increases in serum tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-6 levels as determined by ELISA (P<0.05 for doses of 100-500ppm. Furthermore, inhaled CO limited HS/R induced oxidative stress as determined by hepatic oxidized glutathione:reduced glutathione levels and lipid peroxidation. In porcine HS/R, CO did not influence hemodynamics. However, CO limited HS/R-induced skeletal muscle and platelet mitochondrial injury as determined by respiratory control ratio (muscle and ATP-linked respiration and mitochondrial reserve capacity (platelets.These preclinical studies suggest that inhaled CO can be a protective therapy in HS/R; however, further clinical studies are warranted.

  7. [Carbon monoxide gas detection system based on mid-infrared spectral absorption technique].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Guo-Lin; Dong, Ming; Song, Nan; Song, Fang; Zheng, Chuan-Tao; Wang, Yi-Ding

    2014-10-01

    Based on infrared spectral absorption technique, a carbon monoxide (CO) detection system was developed using the fundamental absorption band at the wavelength of 4.6 μm of CO molecule and adopting pulse-modulated wideband incandescence and dual-channel detector. The detection system consists of pulse-modulated wideband incandescence, open ellipsoid light-collec- tor gas-cell, dual-channel detector, main-control and signal-processing module. By optimizing open ellipsoid light-collector gas- cell, the optical path of the gas absorption reaches 40 cm, and the amplitude of the electrical signal from the detector is 2 to 3 times larger than the original signal. Therefore, by using the ellipsoidal condenser, the signal-to-noise ratio of the system will be to some extent increased to improve performance of the system. With the prepared standard CO gas sample, sensing characteris- tics on CO gas were investigated. Experimental results reveal that, the limit of detection (LOD) is about 10 ppm; the relative er- ror at the LOD point is less than 14%, and that is less than 7. 8% within the low concentration range of 20~180 ppm; the maxi- mum absolute error of 50 min long-term measurement concentration on the 0 ppm gas sample is about 3 ppm, and the standard deviation is as small as 0. 18 ppm. Compared with the CO detection systems utilizing quantum cascaded lasers (QCLs) and dis- tributed feedback lasers (DFBLs), the proposed sensor shows potential applications in CO detection under the circumstances of coal-mine and environmental protection, by virtue of high performance-cost ratio, simple optical-path structure, etc.

  8. Elevated carbon monoxide in the exhaled breath of mice during a systemic bacterial infection.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan G Barbour

    Full Text Available Blood is the specimen of choice for most laboratory tests for diagnosis and disease monitoring. Sampling exhaled breath is a noninvasive alternative to phlebotomy and has the potential for real-time monitoring at the bedside. Improved instrumentation has advanced breath analysis for several gaseous compounds from humans. However, application to small animal models of diseases and physiology has been limited. To extend breath analysis to mice, we crafted a means for collecting nose-only breath samples from groups and individual animals who were awake. Samples were subjected to gas chromatography and mass spectrometry procedures developed for highly sensitive analysis of trace volatile organic compounds (VOCs in the atmosphere. We evaluated the system with experimental systemic infections of severe combined immunodeficiency Mus musculus with the bacterium Borrelia hermsii. Infected mice developed bacterial densities of ∼10(7 per ml of blood by day 4 or 5 and in comparison to uninfected controls had hepatosplenomegaly and elevations of both inflammatory and anti-inflammatory cytokines. While 12 samples from individual infected mice on days 4 and 5 and 6 samples from uninfected mice did not significantly differ for 72 different VOCs, carbon monoxide (CO was elevated in samples from infected mice, with a mean (95% confidence limits effect size of 4.2 (2.8-5.6, when differences in CO2 in the breath were taken into account. Normalized CO values declined to the uninfected range after one day of treatment with the antibiotic ceftriaxone. Strongly correlated with CO in the breath were levels of heme oxygenase-1 protein in serum and HMOX1 transcripts in whole blood. These results (i provide further evidence of the informativeness of CO concentration in the exhaled breath during systemic infection and inflammation, and (ii encourage evaluation of this noninvasive analytic approach in other various other rodent models of infection and for utility in

  9. A Rare Cause of Chronic Headache that May Be Misdiagnosed as Migraine: Chronic Carbon Monoxide Poisoning

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehmet Kenan KANBUROGLU

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available SUMMARY: Differential diagnosis of primary headache disorders can be challenging for physicians. Although the association of headache with acute carbon monoxide intoxication is very well-defined, in refractory nonspecific headaches associated with chronic low dose exposure to carbon monoxide, CO intoxication is usually overlooked, mostly due to vague symptoms. Herein we present a 15-year-old female patient with chronic carbon monoxide poisoning who was undergoing two years of follow-up care for migraines. Chronic carbon monoxide intoxication may mimic the episodic nature and familial predisposition of migraine attacks. Normal carboxyhemoglobin levels do not exclude the diagnosis, and smoking is a confounding factor. In emergency rooms, patients presenting with headaches had higher levels of carboxyhemoglobin, but, as far as we know, there have been no studies investigating carboxyhemoglobin levels in migraine patients. Chronic carbon monoxide poisoning should be suspected in migraine patients, especially if the attacks occur during winter months. ÖZET: Primer baş ağrısında ayırıcı tanının yapılması bazen doktorlar açısından zor olabilmektedir. Literatürde karbon monoksit ile baş ağrısı arasındaki ilişki çok iyi ortaya konulmuş olmasına karşın, dirençli ve nonspesifik başağrısı nedenlerinden biri olan kronik düşük doz karbon monoksit maruziyeti kendine özgü bulgusu olmadığından sıklıkla atlanmaktadır. Bu yazıda, iki yıl migren tanısı ile takip ve tedavi edilen kronik karbon monoksit zehirlenmesi olan bir olgu sunuldu. Kronik karbon monoksit zehirlenmesi epizodik paterni ve aile fertlerinde benzer şikayetlerin olması nedeniyle migren ataklarını andırabilmektedir. Karboksihemoglobin konsantrasyonlarının normal saptanması tanıyı ekarte ettirmemekte, ayrıca sigara kullanımı da karıştırıcı bir faktör olabilmektedir. Acil servislerine baş ağrısı ile başvuran hastalar

  10. Unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning hospitalization and emergency department counts and rates by county, year, and fire-relatedness among California residents,2000-2007

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Environmental Health Tracking Program — This dataset contains case counts, rates, and confidence intervals of unintentional carbon monoxide poisoning (CO) inpatient hospitalizations and emergency...

  11. Analysis of patients presenting to the emergency department with carbon monoxide intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selim Yurtseven

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Carbon monoxide is a potentially fatal form of poisoning. The exact incidence is unclear, due to cases being undiagnosed or reported as fewer than the real number. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT is of proven efficacy in the treatment of CO intoxication.The purpose of this study was to describe the general characteristics of carbon monoxide (CO intoxications presenting to the emergency department and to investigate troponin I values and the effectiveness of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT in these patients. Material and methods: Patients presenting to the emergency department with CO intoxication over one year and patients with such intoxications receiving HBOT were examined retrospectively. Results: One hundred seventy-one patients were included; 140 (81.9% were poisoned by stoves, 18 (10.5% by hot water boilers and 10 in (5.8% by fires. COHb levels were normal in 49 of the 163 patients whose values were investigated, and were elevated in 114 patients. Mean COHb value was 16.6. Troponin I values were investigated in 112 patients. These were normal in 86 patients and elevated in 26. Mean troponin I value was 0.38 ng/ml. One hundred twenty-three of the 171 patients in the study were discharged in a healthy condition after receiving normobaric oxygen therapy, while 48 patients received HBOT. Forty-two (87.5% of the patients receiving HBOT were discharged in a healthy condition while sequelae persisted in five (10.4%. One patient died after 15 session of HBOT. Conclusion: Although elevated carboxyhemoglobin confirms diagnosis of CO intoxication, normal levels do not exclude it. Troponin I levels may rise in CO intoxication. No significant relation was observed between carboxyhemoglobin and receipt of HBOT. A significant correlation was seen, however, between troponin I levels and receipt of HBOT. Keywords: Carbon monoxide intoxication, Hyperbaric oxygen, Troponin I, Echocardiography

  12. cor, a novel carbon monoxide resistance gene, is essential for Mycobacterium tuberculosis pathogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacharia, Vineetha M; Manzanillo, Paolo S; Nair, Vidhya R; Marciano, Denise K; Kinch, Lisa N; Grishin, Nick V; Cox, Jeffery S; Shiloh, Michael U

    2013-11-19

    Tuberculosis, caused by Mycobacterium tuberculosis, remains a devastating human infectious disease, causing two million deaths annually. We previously demonstrated that M. tuberculosis induces an enzyme, heme oxygenase (HO1), that produces carbon monoxide (CO) gas and that M. tuberculosis adapts its transcriptome during CO exposure. We now demonstrate that M. tuberculosis carries a novel resistance gene to combat CO toxicity. We screened an M. tuberculosis transposon library for CO-susceptible mutants and found that disruption of Rv1829 (carbon monoxide resistance, Cor) leads to marked CO sensitivity. Heterologous expression of Cor in Escherichia coli rescued it from CO toxicity. Importantly, the virulence of the cor mutant is attenuated in a mouse model of tuberculosis. Thus, Cor is necessary and sufficient to protect bacteria from host-derived CO. Taken together, this represents the first report of a role for HO1-derived CO in controlling infection of an intracellular pathogen and the first identification of a CO resistance gene in a pathogenic organism. Macrophages produce a variety of antimicrobial molecules, including nitric oxide (NO), hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and acid (H+), that serve to kill engulfed bacteria. In addition to these molecules, human and mouse macrophages also produce carbon monoxide (CO) gas by the heme oxygenase (HO1) enzyme. We observed that, in contrast to other bacteria, mycobacteria are resistant to CO, suggesting that this might be an evolutionary adaptation of mycobacteria for survival within macrophages. We screened a panel of ~2,500 M. tuberculosis mutants to determine which genes are required for survival of M. tuberculosis in the presence of CO. Within this panel, we identified one such gene, cor, that specifically confers CO resistance. Importantly, we found that the ability of M. tuberculosis cells carrying a mutated copy of this gene to cause tuberculosis in a mouse disease model is significantly attenuated. This indicates that

  13. Evaluation of the carbon monoxide levels in staff of a general hospital

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Cristina Malezan Fleig

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Backgrounds and Objective: Exposure to carbon monoxide (CO can be harmful to human health and the first effects of intoxication may go unnoticed. Our objective was to evaluate the functional capacity and respiratory muscle strength of staff of a general hospital opposite the inhalation of carbon monoxide. Methods: cross-sectional study with a convenience sample. It was used as evaluation tools: clinical research roadmap; the MicroCO for analysis of CO concentration, CO cutoff for non-smokers among 1- 6ppm, light smokers 7-10ppm, moderate smokers 11-20ppm and heavy smokers >20ppm; the manometer to determine the respiratory muscle strength (MIP and MEP; Six minute walk test (6MWT to evaluate functional capacity. Statistical analysis was performed hair Pearson correlation test to verify the association of variables. Results:The study included 14 volunteer subjects (08 men, mean age 35.14±8,76years, working in maintenance (n=5; laundry (n=6; kitchen (n=1; engineering (n=2 of the hospital. For active smokers only 03 subjects were above the cutoff (CO>6ppm then being considered active smokers. The MIP (99.50±27.37% predicted and MEP (105.64±21,39% predicted are within normal parameters. The functional capacity of smokers (6MWT=71% of predicted, with high CO (17ppm, underperformed the baseline when compared with nonsmokers (CO=0,9ppm; 6MWT=92, 6% predicted. Moderate and negative correlation was observed between 6MWT and CO (r=-0.577, p=0.031. Conclusion: adult staff of a general hospital with preserved respiratory muscle strength and higher levels of CO exhaled have worse functional performance in the 6MWT. KEYWORDS:Muscle Strength. Carbon Monoxide.Occupational Health.Public Health.

  14. Systemic Administration of Carbon Monoxide-Releasing Molecule-3 Protects the Skeletal Muscle in Porcine Model of Compartment Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihari, Aurelia; Cepinskas, Gediminas; Sanders, David; Lawendy, Abdel-Rahman

    2018-05-01

    Acute limb compartment syndrome, a complication of musculoskeletal trauma, results in muscle necrosis and cell death. Carbon monoxide, liberated from the carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-3, has been shown protective in a rat model of compartment syndrome. The purpose of this study was to test the effect of carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-3 in a preclinical large animal model of compartment syndrome, with the ultimate goal of developing a pharmacologic adjunct treatment for compartment syndrome. Animal research study. Basic research laboratory in a hospital setting. Male Yorkshire-Landrace pigs (50-60 kg). Pigs underwent 6 hours of intracompartmental pressure elevation by infusing fluid into the anterior compartment of the right hind limb. Carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-3 was administered systemically (2 mg/kg, IV) at fasciotomy, followed by 3-hour reperfusion. Muscle perfusion, inflammation, injury, and apoptosis were assessed in the skeletal muscle. Systemic leukocyte activation was assessed during compartment syndrome and reperfusion. Elevation of hind limb intracompartmental pressure resulted in significant microvascular perfusion deficits (44% ± 1% continuously perfused capillaries in compartment syndrome vs 76% ± 4% in sham; p molecule-3 at fasciotomy increased the number of continuously perfused capillaries (68% ± 3%; p molecule-3 at fasciotomy offered protection against compartment syndrome-induced microvascular perfusion deficit, tissue injury, and systemic leukocyte activation. The data suggest the potential therapeutic application of carbon monoxide-releasing molecule-3 to patients at risk of developing compartment syndrome.

  15. Intermittent, low dose carbon monoxide exposure enhances survival and dopaminergic differentiation of human neural stem cells

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dreyer-Andersen, Nanna; Almeida, Ana Sofia; Jensen, Pia

    2018-01-01

    Exploratory studies using human fetal tissue have suggested that intrastriatal transplantation of dopaminergic neurons may become a future treatment for patients with Parkinson's disease. However, the use of human fetal tissue is compromised by ethical, regulatory and practical concerns. Human stem...... cells constitute an alternative source of cells for transplantation in Parkinson's disease, but efficient protocols for controlled dopaminergic differentiation need to be developed. Short-term, low-level carbon monoxide (CO) exposure has been shown to affect signaling in several tissues, resulting...... in Parkinson's disease....

  16. The relation between carbon monoxide emission and visual extinction in cloud L134

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tucker, K.D.; Dickman, R.L.; Encrenaz, P.J.; Kutner, M.L.

    1976-01-01

    Emission from the J=1→0 transition of carbon monoxide has been mapped over an area of 40' x 55' in cloud L134, and visual extinctions over the entire cloud have been obtained by means of star counts. Line intensities of > or =2 K are observable down to an extinction level of about one magnitude. From observations of the J=1→0 transition of the 13 CO isotopic species at 18 locations in the cloud, we have found a linear correlation between the local thermodynamic equilibrium (LTE) column densities of 13 CO and magnitudes of visual extinction

  17. FTIR study of carbon monoxide adsorption on ion-exchanged X, Y and mordenite type zeolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. HERCIGONJA

    2003-05-01

    Full Text Available In this work Fourier transform infrared (FTIR study has been applied to study the adsorption of carbon monoxide on transition metal (Mn+, Co2+, Ni2+ ion-exchanged zeolites type Y, X and mordenites. The adsorption of CO at room temperature produces overlapping IR absorption bands in the 2120–2200 cm-1 region. The frequency of the band around 2200 cm-1 is found to be dependent not only on the charge-balancing transition metal cation, but also on the framework composition. The frequencies of the band near 1600 cm-1 was found to be dependent on the Si/Al ratio of the investigated zeolites.

  18. Early Morning Concentrations of Formaldehyde and Carbon Monoxide in Milano Measured with the Mobile Pollutant Lab

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Prevot, A.S.H.; Ordonez, C.; Richer, R.; Junkermann, W. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe (Georgia)

    2004-03-01

    Within the EU project FORMAT (Formaldehyde as a tracer of oxidation in the troposphere) measurements were performed in the Po basin around Milano, Italy. Mobile measurements in the centre of Milano in the early morning allowed the determination of the emission ratios of formaldehyde and carbon monoxide. The slope derived from the correlation of measured HCHO and CO was about a factor of 8 lower than the emission ratio of the available emission inventory. This analysis will finally allow a better estimation of primary versus secondary formaldehyde in this region. (author)

  19. Effect of Carbon Monoxide on Active Oxygen Metabolism of Postharvest Jujube

    OpenAIRE

    Shaoying Zhang; Qin Li; Yulan Mao

    2014-01-01

    To prolong the shelf life postharvest jujube, the effect of carbon monoxide (CO) on senescence of postharvest jujube in relation to active oxygen metabolism was investigated. Jujubes were fumigated with CO gas at 5, 10, 20 or 40μmol/L for 1 h, and then stored for 30 days at room temperature. Changes in membrane permeability, malonaldehyde (MDA), H2O2, O2•− content, and activities of active oxygen metabolism associated enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and peroxidase...

  20. Visible-light photocatalytic conversion of carbon monoxide to methane by nickel(II) oxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sastre, Francesc; Corma, Avelino; García, Hermenegildo

    2013-12-02

    Solar Fuels: Different n- and p-type semiconductors have been investigated for sustainable solar fuel production. p-Type semiconductors, such as NiO, Fe3 O4 , Co3 O4 , and CuO, are able to reduce carbon monoxide by water or hydrogen to methane. The highest CH4 yield achieved was 17.26 mmol of CH4 per gram of catalyst using NiO in an excess of H2 . Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  1. Spontaneous cigarette brand switching: consequences for nicotine and carbon monoxide exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lynch, C J; Benowitz, N L

    1987-09-01

    A group of smokers who had participated in smoking-related studies three to six years earlier were re-studied to assess changes in their smoking practices. Individuals who smoked the same brands of cigarettes showed no change in plasma cotinine (reflecting exposure to nicotine) or expired carbon monoxide (CO) concentration. Those who switched to cigarettes of lower nicotine yield (average decrease 38 per cent) showed reduced plasma cotinine concentrations, due primarily to smoking fewer cigarettes per day. The intake of nicotine per cigarette was not different. Subjects who smoked cigarettes of higher yield (102 per cent increase) had higher cotinine and CO levels, due to greater intake per cigarette.

  2. Ratio of carbon monoxide to molecular hydrogen in interstellar dark clouds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dickman, R.L.; Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute; and The Ivan A. Getting Laboratories, The Aerospace Corporation)

    1978-01-01

    Carbon monoxide and molecular hydrogen column densities are compared at various locations within 38 interstellar dark clouds. CO column densities were obtained from radio observations of the J=1→0 transitions of the 12 C 16 O and 13 C 16 O isotopic species of the molecule. Corresponding H 2 column densities were inferred by means of visual extinctions derived from star counts, since it is argued that the standard gas-to-extinction ratio can be expected to remain valid in the clouds studied. For locations in the sources possessing line-of-sight visual extinctions in the approximate range 1.5 -2 ) = (5.0 +- 2.5) x 10 5 N 13 between molecular hydrogen and 13 CO LTE column densities. The carbon monoxide molecule can therefore be used as a quantitative ''tracer'' for the (directly unobservable) H 2 content of dark clouds. The above relationship implies that at least approx.12% of the gas-phase carbon in the clouds studied is in the form of CO, provided that the clouds are assumed to be chemically homogeneous. Langer's ion-molecule chemistry for dark clouds appears to agree well with the present work if the fractionation channel of Watson, Anicich, and Huntress is included

  3. Carbon monoxide production from five volatile anesthetics in dry sodalime in a patient model: halothane and sevoflurane do produce carbon monoxide; temperature is a poor predictor of carbon monoxide production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Perez Roberto SGM

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Desflurane and enflurane have been reported to produce substantial amounts of carbon monoxide (CO in desiccated sodalime. Isoflurane is said to produce less CO and sevoflurane and halothane should produce no CO at all. The purpose of this study is to measure the maximum amounts of CO production for all modern volatile anesthetics, with completely dry sodalime. We also tried to establish a relationship between CO production and temperature increase inside the sodalime. Methods A patient model was simulated using a circle anesthesia system connected to an artificial lung. Completely desiccated sodalime (950 grams was used in this system. A low flow anesthesia (500 ml/min was maintained using nitrous oxide with desflurane, enflurane, isoflurane, halothane or sevoflurane. For immediate quantification of CO production a portable gas chromatograph was used. Temperature was measured within the sodalime container. Results Peak concentrations of CO were very high with desflurane and enflurane (14262 and 10654 ppm respectively. It was lower with isoflurane (2512 ppm. We also measured small concentrations of CO for sevoflurane and halothane. No significant temperature increases were detected with high CO productions. Conclusion All modern volatile anesthetics produce CO in desiccated sodalime. Sodalime temperature increase is a poor predictor of CO production.

  4. The effect of modified atmosphere packaging with carbon monoxide on the storage quality of master-packaged fresh pork

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wilkinson, B.H.P.; Janz, J.A.M.; Morel, P.C.H.; Purchas, R.W.; Hendriks, W.H.

    2006-01-01

    Modified atmosphere packaging with carbon dioxide is effective for prolonging shelf-life of fresh meat. Addition of carbon monoxide to the system provides the advantage of enhancing meat colour. The study objective was to determine the effect of CO2-MAP + 0.4% CO, vs. 100% CO2-MAP, on the

  5. Exposure assessment for nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide in German hard coal mining.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dahmann, Dirk; Morfeld, Peter; Monz, Christian; Noll, Birgit; Gast, Frank

    2009-11-01

    The exposure situation of German hard coal miners with respect to the components nitrogen monoxide and nitrogen dioxide. Carbon monoxide was measured additionally and the results are displayed but not discussed in detail in this paper. The data were used to estimate personal long-term exposures in an inception cohort. For all three components, time weighted 8-h shift values were determined for typical groups of coalminers according to the European measurement standard. An expert panel from the coal mining company made an effort to estimate major potential changes in the exposure situation. The main sources of nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide in hard coal mining were the diesel engines. Blasting fumes contributed only to a lesser degree and with different exposure characteristics, e.g. much reduced NO(2) levels compared to the mines' rear areas. As rough 8 h-shift averages describing the current exposure situation, we found 1.35 ppm NO and 0.21 ppm NO(2) for the diesel engine drivers. Blasting specialists were more difficult to evaluate but rough 8 h-shift averages of 0.84 ppm NO and 0.014 ppm NO(2) could be estimated from our measurement series. By applying these data and the estimates of experts about the retrospective exposure situation to a cohort of 1,369 coalminers, we derived mean (max) cumulative exposures in ppm x number of shifts of 1,748 (5,928) for NO and 19.6 (1,013) for NO(2) when summarizing over the follow-up period from 1974 until 1998. Especially for the diesel engine drivers, exposure can be regarded as rather high, in particular, when compared to recommended limits by SCOEL and MAK, though the exposures have been in line with the enforced German occupational exposure limits. Whether this exposure situation has caused adverse health effects will be investigated epidemiologically.

  6. Cavity-enhanced quantum-cascade laser-based instrument for carbon monoxide measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Provencal, Robert; Gupta, Manish; Owano, Thomas G; Baer, Douglas S; Ricci, Kenneth N; O'Keefe, Anthony; Podolske, James R

    2005-11-01

    An autonomous instrument based on off-axis integrated cavity output spectroscopy has been developed and successfully deployed for measurements of carbon monoxide in the troposphere and tropopause onboard a NASA DC-8 aircraft. The instrument (Carbon Monoxide Gas Analyzer) consists of a measurement cell comprised of two high-reflectivity mirrors, a continuous-wave quantum-cascade laser, gas sampling system, control and data-acquisition electronics, and data-analysis software. CO measurements were determined from high-resolution CO absorption line shapes obtained by tuning the laser wavelength over the R(7) transition of the fundamental vibration band near 2172.8 cm(-1). The instrument reports CO mixing ratio (mole fraction) at a 1-Hz rate based on measured absorption, gas temperature, and pressure using Beer's Law. During several flights in May-June 2004 and January 2005 that reached altitudes of 41,000 ft (12.5 km), the instrument recorded CO values with a precision of 0.2 ppbv (1-s averaging time) and an accuracy limited by the reference CO gas cylinder (uncertainty < 1.0%). Despite moderate turbulence and measurements of particulate-laden airflows, the instrument operated consistently and did not require any maintenance, mirror cleaning, or optical realignment during the flights.

  7. Convective Influence and Transport Pathways Controlling the Tropical Distribution of Carbon Monoxide at 100 Hpa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Eric; Bergman, John; Pfister, Leonard; Ueyama, Rei; Kinnison, Doug

    2014-01-01

    Trajectory calculations with convective influence diagnosed from geostationary-satellite cloud measurements are used to evaluate the relative importance of different Tropical Tropopause Layer (TTL) transport pathways for establishing the distribution of carbon monoxide (CO) at 100 hPa as observed by the Microwave Limb Sounder (MLS) on board the Aura satellite. Carbon monoxide is a useful tracer for investigating TTL transport and convective influence because the CO lifetime is comparable to the time require for slow ascent through the TTL (a couple of months). Offline calculations of TTL radiative heating are used to determine the vertical motion field. The simple trajectory model does a reasonable job of reproducing the MLS CO distributions during Boreal wintertime and summertime. The broad maximum in CO concentration over the Pacific is primarily a result of the strong radiative heating (indicating upward vertical motion) associated with the abundant TTL cirrus in this region. Sensitivity tests indicate that the distinct CO maximum in the Asian monsoon anticyclone is strongly impacted by extreme convective systems with detrainment of polluted air above 360 K potential temperature. The relative importance of different CO source regions will also be discussed.

  8. Extension of the code COCOSYS to a dispersion code for smoke and carbon monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sdouz, Gert; Mayrhofer, Robert

    2009-01-01

    The code COCOSYS (Containment Code SYStem) was developed by GRS in Germany to simulate processes and nuclear plant states during severe accidents in the containments of light water reactors. It contains several physical models, especially a module for aerosol behaviour. The goal of this work was to extend COCOSYS for applications in more general geometries mainly for complex public buildings. For the application in public buildings models for air condition systems and different boundary conditions according to different environments were developed. The principal application of the extended code COCOSYS is in the area of emergency situations especially in the simulation for carbon monoxide and smoke dispersion. After developing and implementing the new models several test calculations were performed to evaluate the functionality of the extended code. The comparison of the results with those of the original COCOSYS code showed no discrepancies. For the first realistic application several fire emergency scenarios in the Vienna General Hospital (AKH) were selected in agreement with the fire department of the hospital. One of the scenarios addresses the danger of carbon monoxide (CO) and smoke leaking into a fire protection section through a damaged fire protection flap. As a result of the dispersion simulation the CO-concentration in all of the rooms is obtained. Together with additional results as deposition and smoke dispersion the outcome of the simulation can be used for training. Among the next steps are the validation of the new models and the selection of critical scenarios. (author)

  9. Carbon monoxide residues in vacuum-packed yellowfin tuna loins (Thunnus Albacares

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaele Marrone

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The use of carbon monoxide (CO in fresh fish has generated considerable debate. Carbon monoxide is used to treat fresh fish in order to retain its fresh red appearance for a longer period. It reacts with the oxy-myoglobin to form a fairly stable cherry red carboxy-myoglobin complex that may mask spoilage, because the CO-complex can be stable beyond the microbiological shelf life of the meat. The presence of CO in tuna fish (Thunnus Albacares has been investigated by means of optical spectroscopy. Formation of the CO adduct can be easily detected by the combined analysis of electronic absorption spectra in their normal and second derivative modes, monitoring the intense Soret band at 420 nm. Samples were judged as CO treated when their levels were higher than 200 ng/g. Only two positive samples out of 29 analyzed were detected. The high level of uncertainty (0.30 of the method requires the use of more specific and sensitive methods for confirmatory analysis.

  10. Ambient carbon monoxide associated with alleviated respiratory inflammation in healthy young adults

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, Zhuohui; Chen, Renjie; Lin, Zhijing; Cai, Jing; Yang, Yingying; Yang, Dandan; Norback, Dan; Kan, Haidong

    2016-01-01

    There is increasing controversy on whether acute exposure to ambient carbon monoxide (CO) is hazardous on respiratory health. We therefore performed a longitudinal panel study to evaluate the acute effects of ambient CO on fractional exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO), a well-established biomarker of airway inflammation. We completed 4–6 rounds of health examinations among 75 healthy young adults during April to June in 2013 in Shanghai, China. We applied the linear mixed-effect model to investigate the short-term associations between CO and FeNO. CO exposure during 2–72 h preceding health tests was significantly associated with decreased FeNO levels. For example, an interquartile range increase (0.3 mg/m 3 ) of 2-h CO exposure corresponded to 10.6% decrease in FeNO. This association remained when controlling for the concomitant exposure to co-pollutants. This study provided support that short-term exposure to ambient CO might be related with reduced levels of FeNO, a biomarker of lower airway inflammation. - Highlights: • We completed 4–6 rounds of health examinations among 75 healthy young adults. • Short-term CO exposure was significantly associated with decreased FeNO levels. • The inverse association between CO and FeNO was robust controlling for co-pollutants. - Short-term exposure to ambient carbon monoxide may alleviate the respiratory inflammation.

  11. Carbon Monoxide Residues in Vacuum-Packed Yellowfin Tuna Loins (Thunnus Albacares).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrone, Raffaele; Mascolo, Celestina; Palma, Giuseppe; Smaldone, Giorgio; Girasole, Mariagrazia; Anastasio, Aniello

    2015-06-30

    The use of carbon monoxide (CO) in fresh fish has generated considerable debate. Carbon monoxide is used to treat fresh fish in order to retain its fresh red appearance for a longer period. It reacts with the oxy-myoglobin to form a fairly stable cherry red carboxy-myoglobin complex that may mask spoilage, because the CO-complex can be stable beyond the microbiological shelf life of the meat. The presence of CO in tuna fish ( Thunnus Albacares ) has been investigated by means of optical spectroscopy. Formation of the CO adduct can be easily detected by the combined analysis of electronic absorption spectra in their normal and second derivative modes, monitoring the intense Soret band at 420 nm. Samples were judged as CO treated when their levels were higher than 200 ng/g. Only two positive samples out of 29 analyzed were detected. The high level of uncertainty (0.30) of the method requires the use of more specific and sensitive methods for confirmatory analysis.

  12. Multiphoton-induced fluorescence and ionization of B1μ+ carbon monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Loge, G.W.; Tiee, J.J.; Wampler, F.B.

    1983-01-01

    The B 1 μ + state of carbon monoxide was created by a two-photon absorption of 230-nm laser radiation. The B 1 μ + state was identified by the positions of the 0-0 absorption band Q-branch and the vibrational bands of B 1 μ + → A 1 PI fluorescence occurring in the 525-nm region. Collision-induced b 3 μ + → a 3 PI emission in the 350-nm region was also observed. The lifetimes of both the B 1 μ + state and the b 3 μ + state were measured as well as the self-quenching rate constants and the B 1 μ + quenching rate by N 2 . In addition to the two-photon-induced fluorescence of B 1 μ + carbon monoxide, a three-photon ionization was observed. Laser power-dependence studies indicated that ionization of the B 1 μ + state is readily saturated, implying that most B 1 μ + state CO is ionized rather than fluorescing. Measurement of the polarization ratio for circularly and linearly polarized excitation of fluorescence and ionization suggests that another three-photon process is occurring and occurs more efficiently for linear polarization

  13. Computed tomography of delayed encephalopathy of acute carbon monoxide poisoning - correlation with clinical findings -

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suh, Chang Hae; Chung, Sung Hoon; Choo, In Wook; Chang, Kee Hyun

    1986-01-01

    Cerebral computed tomography (CT) findings were described in twenty-six cases with the late sequelae of acute carbon monoxide poisoning and were computed with the neurological symptoms and signs. The CT findings include symmetrical periventricular white matter low density in five cases, globes pallidus low density in six cases, ventricular dilatation in seven cases, ventricular dilatation and sulci widening in three cases, and normal findings in ten cases. Only one case showed low densities in both periventricular white matter and globes pallidus. Late sequelae of the interval from of carbon monoxide poisoning were clinically categorized as cortical dysfunction, parkinsonian feature, and cerebella dysfunction. The severity of the clinical symptoms and signs of neurological sequelae is generally correlated with presence and multiplicity of abnormal brain CT findings. But of fourteen cases showing the parkinsonian feature, only five cases had low density of globes pallidus in brain CT. Another case showing small unilateral low density of globes pallidus had no parkinsonian feature but showed mild cortical dysfunction.

  14. Biomass burning sources of nitrogen oxides, carbon monoxide, and non-methane hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Atherton, C.S.

    1995-11-01

    Biomass burning is an important source of many key tropospheric species, including aerosols, carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), nitrogen oxides (NO{sub {times}}=NO+NO{sub 2}), carbon monoxide (CO), methane (CH{sub 4}), nitrous oxide (N{sub 2}O), methyl bromide (CH{sub 3}Br), ammonia (NH{sub 3}), non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) and other species. These emissions and their subsequent products act as pollutants and affect greenhouse warming of the atmosphere. One important by-product of biomass burning is tropospheric ozone, which is a pollutant that also absorbs infrared radiation. Ozone is formed when CO, CH{sub 4}, and NMHCs react in the presence of NO{sub {times}} and sunlight. Ozone concentrations in tropical regions (where the bulk of biomass burning occurs) may increase due to biomass burning. Additionally, biomass burning can increase the concentration of nitric acid (HNO{sub 3}), a key component of acid rain.

  15. Heterologous Production of an Energy-Conserving Carbon Monoxide Dehydrogenase Complex in the Hyperthermophile Pyrococcus furiosus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerrit Jan Schut

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO is an important intermediate in anaerobic carbon fixation pathways in acetogenesis and methanogenesis. In addition, some anaerobes can utilize CO as an energy source. In the hyperthermophilic archaeon Thermococcus onnurineus, which grows optimally at 80°C, CO oxidation and energy conservation is accomplished by a respiratory complex encoded by a 16-gene cluster containing a carbon monoxide dehydrogenase, a membrane-bound [NiFe]-hydrogenase and a Na+/H+ antiporter module. This complex oxidizes CO, evolves CO2 and H2, and generates a Na+ motive force that is used to conserve energy by a Na+-dependent ATP synthase. Herein we used a bacterial artificial chromosome to insert the 13.2 kb gene cluster encoding the CO-oxidizing respiratory complex of T. onnurineus into the genome of the heterotrophic archaeon, Pyrococcus furiosus, which grows optimally at 100°C. P. furiosus is normally unable to utilize CO, however, the recombinant strain readily oxidized CO and generated H2 at 80°C. Moreover, CO also served as an energy source and allowed the P. furiosus strain to grow with a limiting concentration of sugar or with peptides as the carbon source. Moreover, CO oxidation by P. furiosus was also coupled to the re-utilization, presumably for biosynthesis, of acetate generated by fermentation. The functional transfer of CO utilization between Thermococcus and Pyrococcus species demonstrated herein is representative of the horizontal gene transfer of an environmentally-relevant metabolic capability. The transfer of CO utilizing, hydrogen-producing genetic modules also has applications for biohydrogen production and a CO-based industrial platform for various thermophilic organisms.

  16. Increased ultrafine particles and carbon monoxide concentrations are associated with asthma exacerbation among urban children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Kristin A.; Halterman, Jill S.; Hopke, Philip K.; Fagnano, Maria; Rich, David Q.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Increased air pollutant concentrations have been linked to several asthma-related outcomes in children, including respiratory symptoms, medication use, and hospital visits. However, few studies have examined effects of ultrafine particles in a pediatric population. Our primary objective was to examine the effects of ambient concentrations of ultrafine particles on asthma exacerbation among urban children and determine whether consistent treatment with inhaled corticosteroids could attenuate these effects. We also explored the relationship between asthma exacerbation and ambient concentrations of accumulation mode particles, fine particles (≤ 2.5 micrograms [μm]; PM2.5), carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and ozone. We hypothesized that increased 1 to 7 day concentrations of ultrafine particles and other pollutants would be associated with increases in the relative odds of an asthma exacerbation, but that this increase in risk would be attenuated among children receiving school-based corticosteroid therapy. Methods We conducted a pilot study using data from 3–10 year-old children participating in the School-Based Asthma Therapy trial. Using a time-stratified case-crossover design and conditional logistic regression, we estimated the relative odds of a pediatric asthma visit treated with prednisone (n=96 visits among 74 children) associated with increased pollutant concentrations in the previous 7 days. We re-ran these analyses separately for children receiving medications through the school-based intervention and children in a usual care control group. Results Interquartile range increases in ultrafine particles and carbon monoxide concentrations in the previous 7 days were associated with increases in the relative odds of a pediatric asthma visit, with the largest increases observed for 4-day mean ultrafine particles (interquartile range=2088 p/cm3; OR=1.27; 95% CI=0.90–1.79) and 7-day mean carbon monoxide (interquartile range=0.17 ppm; OR=1.63; 95

  17. Evaluation of Commercial Off-the-Shelf Sorbents and Catalysts for Control of Ammonia and Carbon Monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, Bernadette; Somi, George; Winchester, J. Parker; Grose, Jeffrey; Mulloth, Lila; Perry, Jay L.

    2013-01-01

    Designers of future space vehicles envision simplifying the Atmosphere Revitalization (AR) system by combining the functions of trace contaminant (TC) control and carbon dioxide removal into one swing-bed system. Flow rates and bed sizes of the TC and CO2 systems have historically been very different. There is uncertainty about the ability of trace contaminant sorbents to adsorb adequately in high-flow or short bed length configurations, and to desorb adequately during short vacuum exposures. There is also concern about ambient ammonia levels in the absence of a condensing heat exchanger. In addition, new materials and formulations have become commercially available, formulations never evaluated by NASA for purposes of trace contaminant control. The optimal air revitalization system for future missions may incorporate a swing-bed system for carbon dioxide (CO2) and partial trace contaminant control, with a reduced-size, low-power, targeted trace contaminant system supplying the remaining contaminant removal capability. This paper describes the results of a comparative experimental investigation into materials for trace contaminant control that might be part of such a system. Ammonia sorbents and low temperature carbon monoxide (CO) oxidation catalysts are the foci. The data will be useful to designers of AR systems for future flexible path missions. This is a continuation of work presented in a prior year, with extended test results.

  18. Experimental evidence of interhemispheric transport from airborne carbon monoxide measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, R. E.; Gauntner, D. J.

    1979-01-01

    During the period 28-30 October 1977, a Pan American 747-SP aircraft flew around the world with an automated instrument package that included measurements of atmospheric CO made every 4 sec. The flight path extended from San Francisco, over the North Pole to London, south to Capetown, over the South Pole to Auckland, and back to San Francisco. The data collected show large changes with longitude, which are interpreted as direct evidence of interhemispheric mixing. Possible sources for CO are discussed.

  19. Monitoring of carbon monoxide in residences with bulk wood pellet storage in the Northeast United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rossner, Alan; Jordan, Carolyn E; Wake, Cameron; Soto-Garcia, Lydia

    2017-10-01

    The interest in biomass fuel is continuing to expand globally and in the northeastern United States as wood pellets are becoming a primary source of fuel for residential and small commercial systems. Wood pellets for boilers are often stored in basement storage rooms or large bag-type containers. Due to the enclosed nature of these storage areas, the atmosphere may exhibit increased levels of carbon monoxide. Serious accidents in Europe have been reported over the last decade in which high concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO) have been found in or near bulk pellet storage containers. The aim of this study was to characterize the CO concentrations in areas with indoor storage of bulk wood pellets. Data was obtained over approximately 7 months (December 2013 to June 2014) at 25 sites in New Hampshire and Massachusetts: 16 homes using wood pellet boilers with indoor pellet storage containers greater than or equal to 3 ton capacity; 4 homes with wood pellet heating systems with outdoor pellet storage; 4 homes using other heating fuels; and a university laboratory site. CO monitors were set up in homes to collect concentrations of CO in the immediate vicinity of wood pellet storage containers, and data were then compared to those of homes using fossil fuel systems. The homes monitored in this study provided a diverse set of housing stock spanning two and a half centuries of construction, with homes built from 1774 to 2013, representing a range of air exchange rates. The CO concentration data from each home was averaged hourly and then compared to a threshold of 9 ppm. While concentrations of CO were generally low for the homes studied, the need to properly design storage locations for pellets is and will remain a necessary component of wood pellet heating systems to minimize the risk of CO exposure. This paper is an assessment of carbon monoxide (CO) exposure from bulk wood pellet storage in homes in New Hampshire and Massachusetts. Understanding the CO concentrations

  20. Acute carbon monoxide intoxication : the relation between MR findings and clinical outcome

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Jin Bae; Jeong, Hae Woong; Kim, Ki Nam; Kim, Dong Wook; Kim, Chang Soo

    1999-01-01

    To analyse MR findings of various involving sites and the relation between such findings and clinical outcome, the authors retrospectively reviewed MR images of acute carbon monoxide intoxication. In 12 patients, MR images obtained from several hours to 12 days after acute carbon monoxide intoxication were reviewed. The images were analysed with regard to involved sites, symmetricity, signal intensity, and the presence or absence of hemorrhage, and the relationship between MR findings and clinical outcome; the presence of delayed encephalopathy was then determined. The globus pallidus(n=9), white matter(n=3), [centrum semiovale(n=2), periventricular white matter(n=1)] and gyrus(n=6) [inferior temporal gyrus(n=2), cingulate gyrus(n=1), precentral gyrus(n=1), hippocampal gyrus(n=1), parahippocampal gyrus(n=1)] were typically involved, and there was also involvenent of the corpus callosum(n=3), thalamus(n=2) and midbrain(n=2). All lesions of the globus pallidus, thalamus, midbrain and temporal lobe were bilaterally symmetric. In all these cases, subtle or prominent low signal intensity was seen on spin-echo T1WI, and high signal intensity on PDWI and T2WI. Some lesions of the globus pallidus(n=1), thalamus(n=1) and midbrain(n=1) were associated with hemorrhage, which occurred during the early subacute stage and was seen on high/low signal intensity T1/T2WI images. Acute cerebral(n=1) and cerebellar(n=1) infarctions were also seen. Cerebral white matter involvement correlated with poor clinical outcome, and in two cases, delayed encephalopathy developed. In these cases of acute carbon monoxide intoxication, the globus pallidus, white matter, cortex and hippocampus were frequently involved, and there was also involvement of various sites such as the corpus callosum, thalamus and midbrain. Lesions of the temporal lobe, thalamus and midbrain were bilaterally symmetric. The involvement of cerebral white matter and the presence of delayed encephalopathy can influence

  1. Carbon monoxide gas is not inert, but global, in its consequences for bacterial gene expression, iron acquisition and antibiotic resistance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wareham, L.K.; Begg, R.; Jesse, H.E.; van Beilen, J.W.A.; Ali, S.; Svistunenko, D.; McLean, S.; Hellingwerf, K.J.; Sanguinetti, G.; Poole, R.K.

    2016-01-01

    Carbon monoxide is a respiratory poison and gaseous signaling molecule. Although CO-releasing molecules (CORMs) deliver CO with temporal and spatial specificity in mammals, and are proven antimicrobial agents, we do not understand the modes of CO toxicity. Our aim was to explore the impact of CO gas

  2. Low concentration of exogenous carbon monoxide protects mammalian cells against proliferation induced by radiation-induced bystander effect

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tong, Liping [Center of Medical Physics and Technology, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Yu, K.N. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Center of Medical Physics and Technology, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Bao, Lingzhi; Wu, Wenqing; Wang, Hongzhi [Center of Medical Physics and Technology, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); Han, Wei, E-mail: hanw@hfcas.cn [Center of Medical Physics and Technology, Hefei Institutes of Physical Science, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China)

    2014-01-15

    Highlights: • We show the possibility of modulate proliferation induced by radiation-induced bystander effect with low concentration carbon monoxide. • Carbon monoxide inhibited proliferation via modulating the transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1)/nitric oxide (NO) signaling pathway. • Exogenous carbon monoxide has potential application in clinical radiotherapy. - Abstract: Radiation-induced bystander effect (RIBE) has been proposed to have tight relationship with the irradiation-caused secondary cancers beyond the irradiation-treated area after radiotherapy. Our previous studies demonstrated a protective effect of low concentration carbon monoxide (CO) on the genotoxicity of RIBE after α-particle irradiation. In the present work, a significant inhibitory effect of low-dose exogenous CO, generated by tricarbonyldichlororuthenium (II) dimer [CO-releasing molecule (CORM-2)], on both RIBE-induced proliferation and chromosome aberration was observed. Further studies on the mechanism revealed that the transforming growth factor β1/nitric oxide (NO) signaling pathway, which mediated RIBE signaling transduction, could be modulated by CO involved in the protective effects. Considering the potential of exogenous CO in clinical applications and its protective effect on RIBE, the present work aims to provide a foundation for potential application of CO in radiotherapy.

  3. 40 CFR Table 5 to Subpart Jjj of... - Carbon Monoxide Emission Limits for Existing Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Existing Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units 5 Table 5 to Subpart JJJ of Part 62 Protection of... Combustion Units Constructed on or Before August 30, 1999 Pt. 62, Subpt. JJJ, Table 5 Table 5 to Subpart JJJ of Part 62—Carbon Monoxide Emission Limits for Existing Small Municipal Waste Combustion Units...

  4. Design of a multi-purpose titanium bottle for uncontaminated sampling of carbon monoxide and potentially of other analytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doherty, K. W.; Taylor, C. D.; Zafiriou, O. C.

    2003-03-01

    The design, construction, and performance of a non-contaminating titanium sampler for carbon monoxide (CO) are described. In light of the favorable properties of titanium and the minimal contact of O-rings with samples, this multi-purpose design is expected to excel at a broad range of other uses: sampling gases, organic compounds, some trace metals, and living and dead particles.

  5. Levels of maximum end-expiratory carbon monoxide and certain cardiovascular parameters following hubble-bubble smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafagoj, Yanal A; Mohammed, Faisal I

    2002-08-01

    The physiological effects of cigarette smoking have been widely studied, however, little is known regarding the effects of smoking hubble-bubble. We examined the acute effects of hubble-bubble smoking on heart rate, systolic, diastolic, and mean arterial blood pressure and maximum end-expiratory carbon monoxide. This study was carried out in the student laboratory, School of Medicine, Department of Physiology, University of Jordan, Amman, Jordan, during the summer of 1999. In 18 healthy habitual hubble-bubble smokers, heart rate, blood pressure, and maximum end-expiratory carbon monoxide was measured before, during and post smoking of one hubble-bubble run (45 minutes). Compared to base line (time zero), at the end of smoking heart rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial blood pressure, and maximum end-expiratory carbon monoxide were increased 16 2.4 beats per minute, 6.7 2.5 mm Hg, 4.4 1.6 mm Hg, 5.2 1.7 mm Hg, and 14.2 1.8 ppm, (mean standard error of mean, Phubble-bubble smoking elicits a modest increase in heart rate, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, mean arterial blood pressure and maximum end-expiratory carbon monoxide in healthy hubble-bubble smokers.

  6. Nitric oxide and carbon monoxide diffusing capacity after a 1-h oxygen dive to 9 m of sea water

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Ooij, P. J. A. M.; van Hulst, R. A.; Houtkooper, A.; Sterk, P. J.

    2014-01-01

    To prevent extensive pulmonary lesions in submerged oxygen divers lung function like the forced vital capacity (FVC) or the diffusing capacity for carbon monoxide (DL,co) are used to monitor pulmonary oxygen toxicity (POT). As the diffusing capacity for nitric oxide (DL,no) measures more accurately

  7. Characteristic and Prediction of Carbon Monoxide Concentration using Time Series Analysis in Selected Urban Area in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Hamid Hazrul

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO is a poisonous, colorless, odourless and tasteless gas. The main source of carbon monoxide is from motor vehicles and carbon monoxide levels in residential areas closely reflect the traffic density. Prediction of carbon monoxide is important to give an early warning to sufferer of respiratory problems and also can help the related authorities to be more prepared to prevent and take suitable action to overcome the problem. This research was carried out using secondary data from Department of Environment Malaysia from 2013 to 2014. The main objectives of this research is to understand the characteristic of CO concentration and also to find the most suitable time series model to predict the CO concentration in Bachang, Melaka and Kuala Terengganu. Based on the lowest AIC value and several error measure, the results show that ARMA (1,1 is the most appropriate model to predict CO concentration level in Bachang, Melaka while ARMA (1,2 is the most suitable model with smallest error to predict the CO concentration level for residential area in Kuala Terengganu.

  8. Satellite observations of tropospheric ammonia and carbon monoxide: Global distributions, regional correlations and comparisons to model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammonia (NH3) and carbon monoxide (CO) are primary pollutants emitted to the Earth's atmosphere from common as well as distinct sources associated with anthropogenic and natural activities. The seasonal and global distributions and correlations of NH3 and CO from the Tropospheric...

  9. Foucault, surveillance, and carbon monoxide testing within stop-smoking services.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grant, Aimee; Ashton, Kathryn; Phillips, Rhiannon

    2015-07-01

    Health professionals have adopted proactive testing for early evidence of disease. Researchers have identified that this leads to enumerated understandings and shapes behavior in productive ways. Smoking-cessation advisors regularly test clients for carbon monoxide (CO), but client views of this had not previously been explored. We interviewed 23 clients of a United Kingdom-based stop-smoking service regarding their experiences of CO testing. The majority of participants were successful quitters. We used ATLAS.ti 7 as a data-management tool during structured qualitative analysis. Our findings reveal that clients believed the results of their CO tests. Many became enumerated in their understanding, and thus placed themselves in a hierarchy with other members of their group. Almost all clients found that knowing their CO test score was motivating. We conclude that additional research is needed to understand the experiences of CO testing among clients who do not quit. © The Author(s) 2014.

  10. A Real-Time Monitoring System of Industry Carbon Monoxide Based on Wireless Sensor Networks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jiachen; Zhou, Jianxiong; Lv, Zhihan; Wei, Wei; Song, Houbing

    2015-11-20

    Carbon monoxide (CO) burns or explodes at over-standard concentration. Hence, in this paper, a Wifi-based, real-time monitoring of a CO system is proposed for application in the construction industry, in which a sensor measuring node is designed by low-frequency modulation method to acquire CO concentration reliably, and a digital filtering method is adopted for noise filtering. According to the triangulation, the Wifi network is constructed to transmit information and determine the position of nodes. The measured data are displayed on a computer or smart phone by a graphical interface. The experiment shows that the monitoring system obtains excellent accuracy and stability in long-term continuous monitoring.

  11. UV-induced carbon monoxide emission from sand and living vegetation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bruhn, Dan; Albert, Kristian Rost; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard

    2012-01-01

    The global burden of carbon monoxide, CO, is rather uncertain. In this paper we address the potential of UV-induced CO emission by terrestrial surfaces. Real-time measurements of [CO] were made with a cavity enhanced laser connected in closed loop to either an ecosystem chamber or a leaf scale...... chamber. Sand and leaves of all examined plant species exhibited emission of CO in response to artificial UV-radiation and the UV-component of natural solar radiation. The UV-induced rate of CO emission exhibited a rather low dependence on temperature, indicating an abiotic process. The emission of CO...... in response to the UV-component of natural solar radiation was also evident at the ecosystem scale. When scaled to the global level, the UV-induced emission of CO by the major types of terrestrial surfaces, living leaves and soil (here represented by sand), amounts up to 28 Tg yr−1. This source has...

  12. Investigation of the Carbon Monoxide Gas Sensing Characteristics of Tin Oxide Mixed Cerium Oxide Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad B. Haider

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Thin films of tin oxide mixed cerium oxide were grown on unheated substrates by physical vapor deposition. The films were annealed in air at 500 °C for two hours, and were characterized using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, atomic force microscopy and optical spectrophotometry. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy results reveal that the films were highly porous and porosity of our films was found to be in the range of 11.6–21.7%. The films were investigated for the detection of carbon monoxide, and were found to be highly sensitive. We found that 430 °C was the optimum operating temperature for sensing CO gas at concentrations as low as 5 ppm. Our sensors exhibited fast response and recovery times of 26 s and 30 s, respectively.

  13. Meteorological context for fall experiments including distributions of water vapor, ozone, and carbon monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsen, Edwin F.; Gregory, Gerald L.; Sachse, Glen W.; Hill, G. F.; Gaines, Steven E.

    1987-01-01

    Meteorological contexts for the NASA GTE/CITE 1 fall 1983 flight series are presented and discussed. The large-scale wind, cold cloud, and moisture patterns are illustrated by composite diagrams based on the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration 700-, 500-, and 250-mbar analyses and the GOES-West broadband and 6.7-micron (water vapor) infrared photographs. Detailed flight path diagrams are included for seven maritime flights and one continental flight in the free troposphere and boundary layer. For three flights from Hickam Field, in Honolulu, HI, to the Intertropical Convergence Zone, vertical profiles of temperature, dew/frost point departures, wind velocity, and ozone, and carbon monoxide mixing ratios are also presented and discussed. Excellent agreement is demonstrated between the in situ and remote measurements. In particular, the predictive and diagnostic value of the 6.7-micron water vapor photographs is demonstrated.

  14. Evidence for significant photochemical production of carbon monoxide by particles in coastal and oligotrophic marine waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Huixiang; Zafiriou, Oliver C.

    2009-12-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) photoproduction from particulate and chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM) was determined in seawater from open-ocean and coastal areas. In confirmatory tests, poisoned or non-poisoned filtered and unfiltered blue-water samples, were exposed to sunlight. CO photoproduction was 21-42% higher in the unfiltered than in the filtered samples. In a more thorough study utilizing concentrated particles prepared by 0.2-μm cross-flow filtration, samples containing varying levels of particles were irradiated under simulated solar radiation. Their CO photoproduction rates increased linearly with particle concentration factor. Particulate CO production was 11-35% of CDOM-based CO production. On an absorbed-photons basis, the former was 30-108% more efficient than the latter. This study suggests that in both coastal and blue waters these new-found particulate photoprocesses are of similar biogeochemical importance to the well-known CDOM photoproduction term.

  15. Nd:YGG crystal laser at 1110 nm: a potential source for detecting carbon monoxide poisoning.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Haohai; Wu, Kui; Zhang, Huaijin; Wang, Zhengping; Wang, Jiyang; Jiang, Minhua

    2011-04-01

    We demonstrated a laser-diode pumped Nd-doped yttrium gallium garnet crystal laser at 1110 nm for the first time to our knowledge. By suppressing the oscillation at about 1.06 μm, continuous-wave output power of 2.1 W at 1110 nm was achieved. With a Cr:YAG as the saturable absorber, the passive Q-switching performance at this wavelength was obtained. The shortest pulse width and largest pulse energy were 31.5 ns and 22.7 μJ, respectively. Laser radiation at this wavelength is an important source for detecting carbon monoxide poisoning by simple frequency doubling with a nonlinear crystal.

  16. Delayed Encephalopathy of Carbon Monoxide Intoxication and Treatment with Hyperbaric Oxygen: A Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatma Polat

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Delayed encephalopathy (DE is a neuropsychiatric syndrome that can arise generally within 20 days of acute carbon monoxide (CO intoxication after apparent recovery and involves variable degrees of cognitive deficits, personality changes, movement disorders and focal neurologic deficits. We report a 35-year-old female patient with delayed encephalopathy due to CO intoxication, presenting with cognitive impairment and mild parkinsonism despite receiving hyberbaric oxigen therapy (HBO. Magnetic resonance imaging showed abnormal signal intensity and decreased diffusivity at both caudate nuclei and globus pallidus. She continued to receive additional HBO therapy and complete recovery was reached within six months. The positive effect of early HBO therapy of selected patients in reversing the acute effects of CO intoxication is appearant. We here also review the beneficial effect of HBO in preventing or limitating the late neurocognitive deficits associated with severe CO intoxication

  17. Exploring the water and carbon monoxide shell around Betelgeuse with VLTI/AMBER

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montargès, M.; Kervella, P.; Perrin, G.; Ohnaka, K.

    2013-05-01

    We present the results of the analysis of our recent interferometric observations of Betelgeuse, using the AMBER instrument of the VLTI. Using the medium spectral resolution mode (R ~ 1500) we detected the presence of the water vapour and carbon monoxide (CO) molecules in the H and K bands. We also derived the photospheric angular diameter in the continuum. By analysing the depth of the molecular lines and the interferometric visibilities, we derived the column densities of the molecules, as well as the temperature and the size of the corresponding regions in the atmosphere of Betelgeuse (the MOLsphere) using a single shell model around the photosphere. Our results confirm the findings by Perrin et al. (2004) and Ohnaka et al. (2011) that the H2O and CO molecules are distributed around Betelgeuse in a MOLsphere extending to approximately 1.3 times the star's photospheric radius.

  18. Carbon monoxide intoxication: an event to be detected by the emergency service

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnulfo Orobio-Quiñones

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The carbon monoxide poisoning (CO is a common condition. It is presented in 17.5 per 100,000 habitants. It is the main cause of poisoning mortality in developed countries. The condition requires a high index of suspicion and exhaustive evaluation of the patient circumstances. The diagnosis is complicated by the unspecific symptoms and lack of reliable markers. CO-oximetry is a tool that helps the diagnosis, therapeutic decision-making and monitoring. Although the evidence is still controversial, the best opportunity for patients intoxicated with CO is the use of oxygen at high concentrations in a hyperbaric chamber. Considering the difficult access to hyperbaric chamber in our setting, we must consider alternative therapies that can help reduce acute complications and chronic consequences.

  19. Density function theory study of the adsorption and dissociation of carbon monoxide on tungsten nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weng, Meng-Hsiung; Ju, Shin-Pon; Chen, Hsin-Tsung; Chen, Hui-Lung; Lu, Jian-Ming; Lin, Ken-Huang; Lin, Jenn-Sen; Hsieh, Jin-Yuan; Yang, Hsi-Wen

    2013-02-01

    The adsorption and dissociation properties of carbon monoxide (CO) molecule on tungsten W(n) (n = 10-15) nanoparticles have been investigated by density-functional theory (DFT) calculations. The lowest-energy structures for W(n) (n = 10-15) nanoparticles are found by the basin-hopping method and big-bang method with the modified tight-binding many-body potential. We calculated the corresponding adsorption energies, C-O bond lengths and dissociation barriers for adsorption of CO on nanoparticles. The electronic properties of CO on nanoparticles are studied by the analysis of density of state and charge density. The characteristic of CO on W(n) nanoparticles are also compared with that of W bulk.

  20. Carbon Monoxide Releasing Molecule-A1 (CORM-A1) Improves Neurogenesis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Almeida, Ana S; Soares, Nuno L; Vieira, Melissa

    2016-01-01

    . CO improves neuronal yield due to its capacity to reduce cell death, promoting an increase in proliferative population. However, one cannot disregard a direct CO's effect on specific cellular processes of neuronal differentiation. Further studies are needed to evaluate how CO can potentially modulate......Cerebral ischemia and neurodegenerative diseases lead to impairment or death of neurons in the central nervous system. Stem cell based therapies are promising strategies currently under investigation. Carbon monoxide (CO) is an endogenous product of heme degradation by heme oxygenase (HO) activity....... Administration of CO at low concentrations produces several beneficial effects in distinct tissues, namely anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory. Herein the CO role on modulation of neuronal differentiation was assessed. Three different models with increasing complexity were used: human neuroblastoma SH-S5Y5 cell...

  1. Carbon monoxide poisoning from hurricane-associated use of portable generators--Florida, 2004.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2005-07-22

    The four major hurricanes that struck Florida during August 13-September 25, 2004, produced electric power outages in several million homes. After the hurricanes, the Consumer Product Safety Commission (CPSC) investigated six deaths in Florida attributed to carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning (CPSC, unpublished data, 2004). The Florida Department of Health and CDC analyzed demographic and CO exposure data from these fatal poisoning cases and from nonfatal poisoning cases among 167 persons treated at 10 hospitals, including two with hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) chambers. This report describes the results of that analysis, which determined that misplacement of portable, gasoline-powered generators (e.g., indoors, in garages, or outdoors near windows) was responsible for nearly all of these CO exposures. Public health practitioners should recognize that post-hurricane environments present challenges to the safe operation of portable generators and should educate the public on the hazards of CO poisoning in these settings.

  2. Role of carboxydobacteria in consumption of atmospheric carbon monoxide by soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrad, R. (Max-Planck-Institut fuer Chemie, Mainz, Germany); Meyer, O.; Seiler, W.

    1981-08-01

    The carbon monoxide consumption rates of the carboxydobacteria Pseudomonas (Seliberia) carboxydohydrogena, P. carboxydovorans, and P. carboxydoflava were measured at high (50%) and low (0.5 ..mu..l liter/sup -1/) mixing ratios of CO in air. CO was only consumed when the bacteria had been grown under CO-autotrophic conditions. At low cell densities the CO comsumption rates measured at low CO mixing ratios were similar in cell suspensions and in mixtures of bacteria in soil. CO consumption observed in natural soil (loess, eolian sand, chernozem) as well as in suspensions or soil mixtures of carboxydobacteria showed Michaelis-Menten kinetics. Considering the difference of the K/sub m/, values and the observed V/sub max/ values, carboxydobacteria cannot contribute significantly to the consumption of atmospheric CO.

  3. Vibrationally selective optimal control of alignment and orientation using infrared laser pulses: Application to carbon monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Shiyang; Balint-Kurti, Gabriel G.; Manby, Frederick R.

    2007-07-01

    Optimal control methods are used to study molecular alignment and orientation using infrared laser pulses. High order molecule-field interactions are taken into account through the use of the electric-nuclear Born-Oppenheimer approximation [G. G. Balint-Kurti et al., J. Chem. Phys. 122, 084110 (2005)]. High degrees of alignment and orientation are achieved by optimized infrared laser pulses of duration on the order of one rotational period of the molecule. It is shown that, through the incorporation of a vibrational projection operator into the optimization procedure, it is possible not only to maximize the alignment and orientation but also to bring the whole system into a single prescribed vibrational manifold. Numerical calculations are performed for carbon monoxide using ab initio potential energies computed in the presence of external electric fields.

  4. Evaluation of mortadella formulated with carbon monoxide-treated porcine blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, A D; Gomide, L A M; Cecon, P R; Fontes, E A F; Fontes, P R; Ramos, E M; Vidigal, J G

    2014-06-01

    The proximate composition and color of mortadellas containing carbon monoxide-treated (COTB), untreated (UNTB), or CO-treated dried blood (CODB) were compared to that of control mortadella. Blood addition did not affect (P>0.05) the proximate composition and TBARS. The mortadella containing 10% UNTB were brown and those containing COTB or CODB were red. Residual nitrite level, L*, a*, b* and c* values of the mortadella decreased (P0.05). Increasing the amount of blood increased (P0.05) BI. Increasing storage length decreased (P0.05). Addition of CO-treated blood allows the production of better-colored sausages having lower residual nitrite levels. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Ice storm-related carbon monoxide poisonings in North Carolina: a reminder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghim, Michael; Severance, Harry W

    2004-11-01

    Severe winter weather, such as ice storms, that results in loss of electrical power, is frequently mentioned as a contributing factor in acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. However, in our literature review, such events are infrequently reported. This article reports on such an event in which more than 200 patients were evaluated and treated at a single facility because of the crippling effects of an ice storm leading to prolonged loss of power and subsequent catastrophes with alternative heating and cooking sources. One hundred seventy-six patients were treated and subsequently released after Emergency Department-based treatment for CO exposure, and three patients were admitted. Eighteen patients were treated with hyperbaric treatments and discharged. Three others left before treatment was completed. Three cases representing varying levels of severity at presentation leading to differing treatment algorithms are discussed to demonstrate a suggested clinical decision pathway in the treatment of unintentional CO poisoning.

  6. Probing the Adsorption of Carbon Monoxide on Transition Metal Clusters Using IR Action Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lapoutre, Vivike J. F.; Oomens, Jos; Bakker, Joost M.

    2012-06-01

    The discovery of enhanced catalytic activity of small gold clusters has led to a great interest in size-dependent catalytic properties of metal clusters. To obtain a better understanding of the catalytic mechanisms it is essential to know the structures of these clusters and the nature of their interaction with reactant molecules. We have studied the structure of gas-phase niobium clusters with a carbon monoxide adsorbed using IR action spectroscopy. We present size-selective IR spectra obtained via IR multiple photon spectroscopy monitoring either photodetachment or photodissociation depending on the charge state. The combination of these spectra with DFT calculations allows for the structural determination of the adsorption product. M. Haruta et al., Journal of Catalysis 115 301-309 (1989). M. Haertelt et al., The Journal of Physical Chemistry Letters 2 1720-1724 (2011)

  7. 1H MR spectroscopy of gray and white matter in carbon monoxide poisoning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kondziella, D.; Danielsen, E.R.; Hansen, K.

    2009-01-01

    limited information is available to date on the use of this protocol in determining the neurological effects of CO poisoning. To further examine the short-term and long-term effects of CO on the central nervous system, we have studied seven patients with CO poisoning assessed by gray and white matter MRS......-acetyl aspartate (NAA) ratios to creatine (Cr), predominantly in the white matter. Lactate peaks were detected in two patients during the early phase of high-dose CO poisoning. Two patients with chronic low-dose CO exposure and without loss of consciousness had normal MRI and MRS scans. On follow-up. five of our......Carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication leads to acute and chronic neurological deficits, but little is known about the specific noxious mechanisms. (1)H magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) may allow insight into the pathophysiology of CO poisoning by monitoring neurochemical disturbances, yet only...

  8. Dense Carbon Monoxide to 160 GPa: Stepwise Polymerization to Two-Dimensional Layered Solid

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Young-Jay; Kim, Minseob; Lim, Jinhyuk; Dias, Ranga; Klug, Dennis; Yoo, Choong-Shik

    2016-11-14

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is the first molecular system found to transform into a nonmolecular “polymeric” solid above 5.5 GPa, yet been studied beyond 10 GPa. Here, we show a series of pressure-induced phase transformations in CO to 160 GPa: from a molecular solid to a highly colored, low-density polymeric phase I to translucent, high-density phase II to transparent, layered phase III. The properties of these phases are consistent with those expected from recently predicted 1D P21/m, 3D I212121, and 2D Cmcm structures, respectively. Thus, the present results advocate a stepwise polymerization of CO triple bonds to ultimately a 2D singly bonded layer structure with an enhanced ionic character.

  9. [Family suicide by carbon monoxide poisoning, Paris 1890-1899. Role of popular illustrations].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luauté, Jean-Paul

    2015-01-01

    History has nearly forgotten a series of six suicides by family groups composed of parents and children residing in the same household, which received wide attention in the 1890s. This period saw the launch of illustrated supplements to Parisian daily newspapers, several of which produced dramatic depictions of these tragedies. The cause of the suicides was believed to be extreme poverty or the fear thereof. In the latter cases, it is argued that newspaper illustrations facilitated the carrying out of suicidal acts by persons whose circumstances placed them at risk for suicide. The choice of death by carbon monoxide poisoning was due to a wish by parents to die together with their children and to the hope of a peaceful death.

  10. Foliage plants for indoor removal of the primary combustion gases carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolverton, B. C.; Mcdonald, R. C.; Mesick, H. H.

    1985-01-01

    Foliage plants were evaluated for their ability to sorb carbon monoxide and nitrogen dioxide, the two primary gases produced during the combustion of fossil fuels and tobacco. The spider plant (Chlorophytum elatum var. vittatum) could sorb 2.86 micrograms CO/sq cm leaf surface in a 6 h photoperiod. The golden pothos (Scindapsus aureus) sorbed 0.98 micrograms CO/sq cm leaf surface in the same time period. In a system with the spider plant, greater than or equal to 99 percent of an initial concentration of 47 ppm NO2 could be removed in 6 h from a void volume of approximately 0.35 cu m. One spider plant potted in a 3.8 liter container can sorb 3300 micrograms CO and effect the removal of 8500 micrograms NO2/hour, recognizing the fact that a significant fraction of NO2 at high concentrations will be lost by surface sorption, dissolving in moisture, etc.

  11. Carbon monoxide exposure from commercial brand cigarettes under controlled smoking conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinhold, L L; Stitzer, M L; Yingling, J E

    1988-09-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) exposure from ultralow-, low- and high-CO delivery commercial cigarettes was examined under controlled smoking conditions. Seven chronic smokers of mid- to high-CO delivery commercial cigarettes served in the experiment. CO level increases of 2.10, 5.76 and 7.38 ppm were obtained from ultralow-yield (1.6 mg CO delivery), low-yield (5.9 mg CO delivery) and high-yield (14.3 mg CO delivery) cigarettes, respectively. Subjects achieved significantly higher increases in CO levels from both low- and high-yield cigarettes than from ultralow-yield cigarettes, but increased levels of CO from low- and high-yield cigarettes were not different from each other. The data suggest that degree of CO absorption by the lungs during a short period of time may limit increases in CO levels obtained from high-yield cigarettes.

  12. On Estimation of Contamination from Hydrogen Cyanide in Carbon Monoxide Line-intensity Mapping

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chung, Dongwoo T.; Li, Tony Y.; Viero, Marco P.; Church, Sarah E.; Wechsler, Risa H., E-mail: dongwooc@stanford.edu [Kavli Institute for Particle Astrophysics and Cosmology, Physics Department, Stanford University, Stanford, CA 94305 (United States)

    2017-09-01

    Line-intensity mapping surveys probe large-scale structure through spatial variations in molecular line emission from a population of unresolved cosmological sources. Future such surveys of carbon monoxide line emission, specifically the CO(1-0) line, face potential contamination from a disjointed population of sources emitting in a hydrogen cyanide emission line, HCN(1-0). This paper explores the potential range of the strength of HCN emission and its effect on the CO auto power spectrum, using simulations with an empirical model of the CO/HCN–halo connection. We find that effects on the observed CO power spectrum depend on modeling assumptions but are very small for our fiducial model, which is based on current understanding of the galaxy–halo connection. Given the fiducial model, we expect the bias in overall CO detection significance due to HCN to be less than 1%.

  13. A curious autopsy case of accidental carbon monoxide poisoning in a motor vehicle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumazawa, T; Watanabe-Suzuki, K; Seno, H; Ishii, A; Suzuki, O

    2000-10-01

    A 26-year-old man was found dead in his car. All doors and windows were locked inside. The ignition key was in the "on" position; but the engine was not running and the fuel tank was empty. His post-mortem lividity was cherry-pink, and marked congestion was observed in the lungs and brain macroscopically. Massive intracardiac blood containing a small amount of cruor was found in the heart. In histological examination of the heart, partial disarrangement or necrosis was found in the myocardium. The liver cells showed derangement and degenerative changes, with focal lymphocyte infiltration in the portal regions, although they were not severe. The chemical tests showed that the blood concentration of carboxyhemoglobin was 46.6%. Stimulants were also detected from his blood and urine; the concentrations of methamphetamine and amphetamine were 3.25 and 0.84 microg/ml, respectively, for his cardiac blood. Therefore, it seemed reasonable to judge that the cause of his death was carbon monoxide poisoning; the cardiomyopathy and the presence of stimulants in blood might facilitate his death. Upon careful investigation of his car, it was disclosed that exhaust gas, leaked from small holes of the exhaust pipe due to rust-through, invaded the interior through four holes on the floor of the car during parking with the engine being on for the purpose of air-conditioning of the interior. It is very common to commit suicide by introducing exhaust gas into an interior of a closed motor car, but the present accidental case of carbon monoxide poisoning in a car seems rare and worthwhile reporting.

  14. Carbon Monoxide Distribution over Peninsular Malaysia from the Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajab, Jaso M.; MatJafri, M. Z.; Lim, H. S.; Abdullah, K.

    2009-07-01

    The Atmospheric Infrared Sounder (AIRS) onboard NASA's Aqua satellite. It daily coverage of ˜70% of the planet represents a significant evolutionary advance in satellite traces gas remote sensing. AIRS, the part of a large international investment to upgrade the operational meteorological satellite systems, is first of the new generation of meteorological advanced sounders for operational and research use, Providing New Insights into Weather and Climate for the 21st Century. Carbon monoxide (CO) is a ubiquitous, an indoor and outdoor air pollutant, is not a significant greenhouse gas as it absorbs little infrared radiation from the Earth. However, it does have an influence on oxidization in the atmosphere through interaction with hydroxyl radicals (OH), which also react with methane, halocarbons and tropospheric ozone. It produced by the incomplete combustion of fossil fuels and biomass burning, and that it has a role as a smog. The aim of this investigation is to study the (CO) carbon monoxide distribution over Peninsular Malaysia. The land use map of the Peninsular Malaysia was conducted by using CO total column amount, obtained from AIRS data, the map & data was processed and analyzed by using Photoshop & SigmaPlot 11.0 programs and compared for timing of various (day time) (28 August 2005 & 29 August 2007) for both direct comparison and the comparison using the same a priori profile, the CO concentrations in 28/8/2005 higher. The CO maps were generated using Kriging Interpolation technique. This interpolation technique produced high correlation coefficient, R2 and low root mean square error, RMS for CO. This study provided useful information for influence change of CO concentration on varies temperature.

  15. Carbon Monoxide Modulates Connexin Function through a Lipid Peroxidation-Dependent Process: A Hypothesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retamal, Mauricio A

    2016-01-01

    Hemichannels are ion channels composed of six connexins (Cxs), and they have the peculiarity to be permeable not only to ions, but also to molecules such as ATP and glutamate. Under physiological conditions they present a low open probability, which is sufficient to enable them to participate in several physiological functions. However, massive and/or prolonged hemichannel opening induces or accelerates cell death. Therefore, the study of the molecular mechanisms that control hemichannel activity appears to be essential for understanding several physiological and pathological processes. Carbon monoxide (CO) is a gaseous transmitter that modulates many cellular processes, some of them through modulation of ion channel activity. CO exerts its biological actions through the activation of guanylate cyclase and/or inducing direct carbonylation of proline, threonine, lysine, and arginine. It is well accepted that guanylate cyclase dependent pathway and direct carbonylation, are not sensitive to reducing agents. However, it is important to point out that CO-through a lipid peroxide dependent process-can also induce a secondary carbonylation in cysteine groups, which is sensitive to reducing agents. Recently, in our laboratory we demonstrated that the application of CO donors to the bath solution inhibited Cx46 hemichannel currents in Xenopus laevis oocytes, a phenomenon that was fully reverted by reducing agents. Therefore, a plausible mechanism of CO-induced Cx46 hemichannel inhibition is through Cx46-lipid oxidation. In this work, I will present current evidence and some preliminary results that support the following hypothesis: Carbon monoxide inhibits Cx46 HCs through a lipid peroxidation-dependent process. The main goal of this paper is to broaden the scientific community interest in studying the relationship between CO-Fatty acids and hemichannels, which will pave the way to more research directed to the understanding of the molecular mechanism(s) that control the

  16. Paediatric emergency department-based carbon monoxide detector intervention: a randomised trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKenzie, Lara B; Roberts, Kristin J; Kaercher, Roxanne M; Collins, Christy L; Comstock, R Dawn; Fernandez, Soledad; Abdel-Rasoul, Mahmoud; Casavant, Marcel J; Mihalov, Leslie

    2017-10-01

    Although non-fire-related carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is almost entirely preventable, over 400 people die and 20 000 people are injured each year in the USA from unintentional CO poisoning. Thus, there is a critical need for evidence-based interventions for preventing CO poisoning and increasing the proper use and installation of CO detectors. A randomised, controlled trial (Project CODE, a Carbon Monoxide Detector Education intervention) with 2-week and 6-month follow-up home observations was conducted in 299 parents of children aged ≤18 years recruited in the emergency department of a level 1 paediatric trauma centre. The intervention group received an educational tool, a spiral-bound, laminated booklet that resembled a CO detector containing theory-based safety messages based on the precaution adoption process model, a plug-in CO detector and 9 V battery. The control group received a one page flyer on CO poisoning prevention. Although the difference was not statistically significant, mean CO knowledge score increased at a greater rate for the intervention group than the control group. Intervention group parents were more likely to exhibit 'safe' CO detector use than control group parents at the 2-week follow-up (RR: 2.75; 95% CI 2.06 to 3.69) and 6-month follow-up (RR: 2.78; 95% CI 2.06 to 3.76), after adjusting for self-reported CO detector use behaviour at enrolment and annual per capita income. An emergency department-delivered intervention containing a theory-based educational tool paired with a CO detector can be an effective method for increasing knowledge about CO poisoning, for prevention and for appropriate use of a CO detector. NCT00959478. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  17. A Review on Preferential Oxidation of Carbon Monoxide in Hydrogen Rich Gases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Mishra

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available In this review, recent works on the preferential oxidation of carbon monoxide in hydrogen rich gases for fuel cell applications are summarized. H2 is used as a fuel for polymer-electrolyte membrane fuel cell (PEMFC. It is produced by reforming of natural gas or liquid fuels followed by water gas shift reaction. The produced gas consists of H2, CO, and CO2. In which CO content is around 1%, which is highly poisonous for the Pt anode of the PEMFC so that further removal of CO is needed. Catalytic preferential oxidation of CO (CO-PROX is one of the most suitable methods of purification of H2 because of high CO conversion rate at low temperature range, which is preferable for PEMFC operating conditions. Catalysts used for COPROX are mainly noble metal based; gold based and base metal oxide catalysts among them Copper-Ceria based catalysts are the most appropriate due to its low cost, easy availability and result obtained by these catalysts are comparable with the conventional noble metal catalysts. Copyright © 2011 BCREC UNDIP. All rights reserved(Received: 22nd October 2010, Revised: 12nd January 2011, Accepted: 19th January 2011[How to Cite: A. Mishra, R. Prasad. (2011. A Review on Preferential Oxidation of Carbon Monoxide in Hydrogen Rich Gases. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 6 (1: 1-14. doi:10.9767/bcrec.6.1.191.1-14][How to Link / DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.9767/bcrec.6.1.191.1-14 || or local:  http://ejournal.undip.ac.id/index.php/bcrec/article/view/191] | View in 

  18. Thermal degradation kinetics of polyketone based on styrene and carbon monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mu, Jiali; Fan, Wenjun; Shan, Shaoyun; Su, Hongying; Wu, Shuisheng; Jia, Qingming

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The PK were synthesized from carbon monoxide and styrene in the presence of PANI-PdCl 2 catalyst and PdCl 2 catalyst. • The structures and thermal behaviors of PK prepared by homogenous and the supported catalyst were investigated. • The microstructures of PK were changed in the supported catalyst system. • The alternating PK copolymer (PANI-PdCl 2 catalyst) was more thermally stable than PK (PdCl 2 catalyst). • The degradation activation energy values were estimated by Flynn–Wall–Ozawa method and Kissinger method. - Abstract: Copolymerization of styrene with carbon monoxide to give polyketones (PK) was carried out under homogeneous palladium catalyst and polyaniline (PANI) supported palladium(II) catalyst, respectively. The copolymers were characterized by 1 H NMR, 13 C NMR and GPC. The results indicated that the PK catalyzed by the supported catalyst has narrow molecular weight distribution (PDI = 1.18). For comparison purpose of thermal behaviors of PK prepared by the homogeneous and the supported catalyst, thermogravimetric (TG) analysis and derivative thermogravimetric (DTG) were conducted at different heating rates. The peak temperatures (396–402 °C) for PK prepared by the supported catalyst are higher than those (387–395 °C) of PK prepared by the homogeneous catalyst. The degradation activation energy (E k ) values were estimated by Flynn–Wall–Ozawa method and Kissinger method, respectively. The E k values, as determined by two methods, were found to be in the range 270.72 ± 0.03–297.55 ± 0.10 kJ mol −1 . Structures analysis and thermal degradation analysis revealed that the supported catalyst changed the microstructures of PK, resulting in improving thermal stability of PK

  19. Human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cell transplantation for delayed encephalopathy after carbon monoxide intoxication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gong D

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Dianrong Gong,1 Haiyan Yu,1 Weihua Wang,2 Haixin Yang,1 Fabin Han1,21Department of Neurology, 2Centre for Stem Cells and Regenerative Medicine, Liaocheng People's Hospital, The Affiliated Liaocheng Hospital, Taishan Medical University, Shandong, People's Republic of ChinaAbstract: Stem cell transplantation is one of the potential treatments for neurological disorders. Since human umbilical cord stem cells have been shown to provide neuroprotection and promote neural regeneration, we have attempted to transplant the human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells (hUCB-MNCs to treat patients with delayed encephalopathy after carbon monoxide intoxication (DEACOI. The hUCB-MNCs were isolated from fresh umbilical cord blood and were given to patients subarachnoidally. Physical examinations, mini-mental state examination scores, and computed tomography scans were used to evaluate the improvement of symptoms, signs, and pathological changes of the patient's brain before and after hUCB-MNC transplantation. A total of 12 patients with DEACOI were treated with hUCB-MNCs in this study. We found that most of the patients have shown significant improvements in movement, behavior, and cognitive function, and improved brain images in 1–4 months from the first transplantation of hUCB-MNCs. None of these patients have been observed to have any severe adverse effects. Our study suggests that the hUCB-MNC transplantation may be a safe and effective treatment for DEACOI. Further studies and clinical trials with more cases, using more systematic scoring methods, are needed to evaluate brain structural and functional improvements in patients with DEACOI after hUCB-MNC therapy.Keywords: human umbilical cord blood mononuclear cells, transplantation, delayed encephalopathy after carbon monoxide intoxication, MMSE

  20. Efficient butanol-ethanol (B-E) production from carbon monoxide fermentation by Clostridium carboxidivorans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Naveira, Ánxela; Abubackar, Haris Nalakath; Veiga, María C; Kennes, Christian

    2016-04-01

    The fermentation of waste gases rich in carbon monoxide using acetogens is an efficient way to obtain valuable biofuels like ethanol and butanol. Different experiments were carried out with the bacterial species Clostridium carboxidivorans as biocatalyst. In batch assays with no pH regulation, after complete substrate exhaustion, acetic acid, butyric acid, and ethanol were detected while only negligible butanol production was observed. On the other side, in bioreactors, with continuous carbon monoxide supply and pH regulation, both C2 and C4 fatty acids were initially formed as well as ethanol and butanol at concentrations never reported before for this type of anaerobic bioconversion of gaseous C1 compounds, showing that the operating conditions significantly affect the metabolic fermentation profile and butanol accumulation. Maximum ethanol and butanol concentrations in the bioreactors were obtained at pH 5.75, reaching values of 5.55 and 2.66 g/L, respectively. The alcohols were produced both from CO fermentation as well as from the bioconversion of previously accumulated acetic and butyric acids, resulting in low residual concentrations of such acids at the end of the bioreactor experiments. CO consumption was often around 50% and reached up to more than 80%. Maximum specific rates of ethanol and butanol production were reached at pH 4.75, with values of 0.16 g/h*g of biomass and 0.07 g/h*g of biomass, respectively, demonstrating that a low pH was more favorable to solventogenesis in this process, although it negatively affects biomass growth which does also play a role in the final alcohol titer.

  1. Multi-objective optimisation in carbon monoxide gas management at TRONOX KXN Sands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stadler, Johan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO is a by-product of the ilmenite smelting process from which titania slag and pig iron are produced. Prior to this project, the CO at Tronox KZN Sands in South Africa was burnt to get rid of it, producing carbon dioxide (CO2. At this plant, unprocessed materials are pre-heated using methane gas from an external supplier. The price of methane gas has increased significantly; and so this research considers the possibility of recycling CO gas and using it as an energy source to reduce methane gas demand. It is not possible to eliminate the methane gas consumption completely due to the energy demand fluctuation, and sub-plants have been assigned either CO gas or methane gas over time. Switching the gas supply between CO and methane gas involves production downtime to purge supply lines. Minimising the loss of production time while maximising the use of CO arose as a multi-objective optimisation problem (MOP with seven decision variables, and computer simulation was used to evaluate scenarios. We applied computer simulation and the multi-objective optimisation cross-entropy method (MOO CEM to find good solutions while evaluating the minimum number of scenarios. The proposals in this paper, which are in the process of being implemented, could save the company operational expenditure while reducing the carbon footprint of the smelter.

  2. The Zr-O-W/100/ emitter and coadsorption of zirconium and carbon monoxide on W/100/

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielson, L. R.

    1981-11-01

    The lowering of the surface work function of a zirconiated tungsten field emitter by the introduction of carbon is investigated in view of the potential of such a low-work-function emitter in an unignited thermionic converter with little or no cesium. Auger electron spectroscopy and surface work function measurements by both thermionic emission and field emission retarding potential techniques were made of W(100) single crystals coated by Zr in the clean state and following exposure to bulk carbon, methane, and carbon monoxide, and zirconium and carbon monoxide simultaneously. The thermionic work function of the Zr-O-W-(100) emitter from 1450 to 1800 K is measured at 2.54 eV, while the field-emission retarding potential work function is 2.75-2.80 eV. Bulk carbon is found to reduce emitter lifetime, while heating in carbon monoxide causes zirconium diffusion into the bulk, and vacuum annealing restores it to the surface. Coabsorption of Zr and CO on W(100) followed by vacuum annealing is found to produce a minimum work function of 2.3 eV. The coabsorbed surface differs from that of Zr-O-W(100) by the lack of bulk diffusion, and by a lower high-temperature stability. The Zr-O-C-W(100) surface is concluded to be an excellent candidate for either a thermionic or field emitter.

  3. Advanced Catalysts for the Ambient Temperature Oxidation of Carbon Monoxide and Formaldehyde

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalette, Tim; Eldridge, Christopher; Yu, Ping; Alpetkin, Gokhan; Graf, John

    2010-01-01

    The primary applications for ambient temperature carbon monoxide (CO) oxidation catalysts include emergency breathing masks and confined volume life support systems, such as those employed on the Shuttle. While Hopcalite is typically used in emergency breathing masks for terrestrial applications, in the 1970s, NASA selected a 2% platinum (Pt) on carbon for use on the Shuttle since it is more active and also more tolerant to water vapor. In the last 10-15 years there have been significant advances in ambient temperature CO oxidation catalysts. Langley Research Center developed a monolithic catalyst for ambient temperature CO oxidation operating under stoichiometric conditions for closed loop carbon dioxide (CO2) laser applications which is also advertised as having the potential to oxidize formaldehyde (HCHO) at ambient temperatures. In the last decade it has been discovered that appropriate sized nano-particles of gold are highly active for CO oxidation, even at sub-ambient temperatures, and as a result there has been a wealth of data reported in the literature relating to ambient/low temperature CO oxidation. In the shorter term missions where CO concentrations are typically controlled via ambient temperature oxidation catalysts, formaldehyde is also a contaminant of concern, and requires specially treated carbons such as Calgon Formasorb as untreated activated carbon has effectively no HCHO capacity. This paper examines the activity of some of the newer ambient temperature CO and formaldehyde (HCHO) oxidation catalysts, and measures the performance of the catalysts relative to the NASA baseline Ambient Temperature Catalytic Oxidizer (ATCO) catalyst at conditions of interest for closed loop trace contaminant control systems.

  4. Electrocatalytic reduction of carbon dioxide to carbon monoxide and methane at an immobilized cobalt protoporphyrin

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shen, J.; Kortlever, R.; Kas, Recep; Mul, Guido; Koper, M.T.M.

    2015-01-01

    The electrochemical conversion of carbon dioxide and water into useful products is a major challenge in facilitating a closed carbon cycle. Here we report a cobalt protoporphyrin immobilized on a pyrolytic graphite electrode that reduces carbon dioxide in an aqueous acidic solution at relatively low

  5. Cerebral proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy demonstrates reversibility of N-acetylaspartate/creatine in gray matter after delayed encephalopathy due to carbon monoxide intoxication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Marco Bo; Kondziella, Daniel; Danielsen, Else Rubæk

    2014-01-01

    in a carbon monoxide-intoxicated victim. This may provide clinicians with important information when estimating patient outcome. CASE PRESENTATION: We report the case of a 40-year-old Caucasian woman with severe carbon monoxide poisoning who was treated with five repetitive sessions of hyperbaric oxygen...... in mid-occipital gray matter and partial reversal in white matter. CONCLUSIONS: The present case indicates that cerebral proton magnetic spectroscopy provides valuable information on brain metabolism in patients presenting with delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide intoxication. The full...

  6. Carbon monoxide from neighbouring restaurants: the need for an integrated multi-agency response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshishian, C; Sandle, H; Meltzer, M; Young, Y; Ward, R; Balasegaram, S

    2012-12-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colourless, odourless toxic gas produced during incomplete combustion of carbon-based fuels. Most CO incidents reported to the UK Health Protection Agency (HPA) are due to faulty gas appliances, and legislation exists to ensure gas appliances are properly installed. We present three CO poisoning incidents of unusual origin reported to the HPA. In each, residents living above restaurants were poisoned after workers left charcoal smouldering overnight in specialist or traditional ovens whilst ventilation systems were turned off. This led to production of CO, which travelled through floorboards and built up to dangerous concentrations in the flats. Working with local authorities, these incidents were investigated and resolved, and work was conducted to prevent further occurrences. The novel nature of these CO incidents led to delays in recognition and subsequent remedial action. Although previously undescribed, it is likely that due to the number of residences built above restaurants and the rising popularity of traditional cooking methods, similar incidents may be occurring and could increase in frequency. Multi-agency response and reporting mechanisms could be strengthened. Awareness raising in professional groups and the public on the importance of correct ventilation of such appliances is vital.

  7. Response of Hepatoma 9618a and Normal Liver to Host Carbogen and Carbon Monoxide Breathing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon P. Robinson

    1999-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of hyperoxia (induced by host carbogen 95% oxygen/5% carbon dioxide breathing. and hypoxia (induced by host carbon monoxide CO at 660 ppm. breathing were compared by using noninvasive magnetic resonance (MR methods to gain simultaneous information on blood flow/oxygenation and the bioenergetic status of rat Morris H9618a hepatomas. Both carbogen and CO breathing induced a 1.5- to 2-fold increase in signal intensity in blood oxygenation level dependent (BOLD MR images. This was due to a decrease in deoxyhemoglobin (deoxyHb, which acts as an endogenous contrast agent, caused either by formation of oxyhemoglobin in the case of carbogen breathing, or carboxyhemoglobin with CO breathing. The results were confirmed by observation of similar changes in deoxyHb in arterial blood samples examined ex vivo after carbogen or CO breathing. There was no change in nucleoside triphosphates (NTP/PI in either tumor or liver after CO breathing, whereas NTP/Pl increased twofold in the hepatoma (but not in the liver after carbogen breathing. No changes in tumor intracellular pH were seen after either treatment, whereas extracellular pH became more alkaline after CO breathing and more acid after carbogen breathing, respectively. This tumor type and the liver are unaffected by CO breathing at 660 ppm, which implies an adequate oxygen supply.

  8. Bio-Inspired Carbon Monoxide Sensors with Voltage-Activated Sensitivity

    KAUST Repository

    Savagatrup, Suchol

    2017-09-27

    Carbon monoxide (CO) outcompetes oxygen when binding to the iron center of hemeproteins, leading to a reduction in blood oxygen level and acute poisoning. Harvesting the strong specific interaction between CO and the iron porphyrin provides a highly selective and customizable sensor. We report the development of chemiresistive sensors with voltage-activated sensitivity for the detection of CO comprising iron porphyrin and functionalized single-walled carbon nanotubes (F-SWCNTs). Modulation of the gate voltage offers a predicted extra dimension for sensing. Specifically, the sensors show a significant increase in sensitivity toward CO when negative gate voltage is applied. The dosimetric sensors are selective to ppm levels of CO and functional in air. UV/Vis spectroscopy, differential pulse voltammetry, and density functional theory reveal that the in situ reduction of FeIII to FeII enhances the interaction between the F-SWCNTs and CO. Our results illustrate a new mode of sensors wherein redox active recognition units are voltage-activated to give enhanced and highly specific responses.

  9. Rapid decline in carbon monoxide emissions and export from East Asia between years 2005 and 2016

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Bo; Chevallier, Frederic; Ciais, Philippe; Yin, Yi; Deeter, Merritt N.; Worden, Helen M.; Wang, Yilong; Zhang, Qiang; He, Kebin

    2018-04-01

    Measurements of Pollution in the Troposphere (MOPITT) satellite and ground-based carbon monoxide (CO) measurements both suggest a widespread downward trend in CO concentrations over East Asia during the period 2005–2016. This negative trend is inconsistent with global bottom-up inventories of CO emissions, which show a small increase or stable emissions in this region. We try to reconcile the observed CO trend with emission inventories using an atmospheric inversion of the MOPITT CO data that estimates emissions from primary sources, secondary production, and chemical sinks of CO. The atmospheric inversion indicates a ~ ‑2% yr‑1 decrease in emissions from primary sources in East Asia from 2005–2016. The decreasing emissions are mainly caused by source reductions in China. The regional MEIC inventory for China is the only bottom up estimate consistent with the inversion-diagnosed decrease of CO emissions. According to the MEIC data, decreasing CO emissions from four main sectors (iron and steel industries, residential sources, gasoline-powered vehicles, and construction materials industries) in China explain 76% of the inversion-based trend of East Asian CO emissions. This result suggests that global inventories underestimate the recent decrease of CO emission factors in China which occurred despite increasing consumption of carbon-based fuels, and is driven by rapid technological changes with improved combustion efficiency and emission control measures.

  10. Monitoring carbon monoxide pollution over the largest ten cities in the US using satellite observations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, B.; de Beurs, K.; Owsley, B.; Krehbiel, C. P.; Henebry, G. M.

    2015-12-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is one of the several air pollutants that are largely produced by anthropogenic activities in urban areas as a result of incomplete combustion of carbon-containing fuels. Long-term satellite data can monitor spatial and temporal changes in CO globally. Here we investigated spatial, vertical, and temporal changes in CO concentrations over the largest ten US metropolitan statistical areas (MSAs) using Version 6 MOPITT TIR-only CO retrievals. The 15-year average of MOPITT Surface CO concentrations over urban areas were highest (388 ppbv) over New York City and lowest (151 ppbv) over Miami. The influence of cities on elevated CO levels extends well beyond the immediate urban area. The CO seasonal profiles above the surface show distinct seasonality with peaks March-April and troughs September-October. However, larger cities show a lack of CO seasonality near the surface. We applied the nonparametric Seasonal Kendall (SK) trend test to the CO time series. Results revealed significant decreasing trends in CO concentration, with stronger trends in the lower atmosphere (>700 hPa) than in the mid-troposphere (500-700 hPa). Our results demonstrate the strong influence of local urban emissions on (near-) surface CO concentrations. Decreasing urban CO over the past 15 years reflects improved urban metabolism through improved energy efficiency, and increasing use of alternative transportation and zero-emission vehicles.

  11. Studies on cytogenetic effects induced by chronic γ-radiation combined with benzene, toluene and carbon monoxide inhalation in animals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang Hongyuan; Wang Yuexing; Wang Lanjin; Pan Yan

    1998-01-01

    8 experimental groups were conducted according to four factors two doses orthogonal layout [L8(2 7 )] in present investigation. 90 healthy male rabbits and 90 healthy male mice were equally divided into 8 experimental groups and control group. Exprimental animals were exposed to γ-radiation combined with benzene, toluene and CO vapour for 2h per day, 5 days per week for 8 weeks. Two doses of γ-radiation, benzene, toluene and CO were 0.0375 and 0.0075 Gy/d (for rabbits, 0.0473 and 0.0095 Gy/d for mice), 182 +- 33 and 40 +- 15 mg/m 3 , 407 +- 68 and 90 +- 39 mg/m 3 as well as 278 +- 18 mg/m 3 , respectively. The main results were showed as follows: (1) γ-radiation, benzene and toluene could all induce chromosome aberration, SCEs and micronuclei of lymphocytes in rabbits and chromosome aberrations of bone marrow cells in rabbits and mice, but those was no observed in carbon monoxide. (2) γ-radiation and benzene induced chromosome aberrations and micronuclei of lymphocytes in rabbits as well as chromosome aberrations of bone marrow cells in mice, γ-radiation and toluene induced chromosome aberrations of lymphocytes (in rabbits) and bone marrow cells (in mice), benzene and toluene induced chromosome aberrations of lymphocytes (in rabbits) and bone marrow cells (in mice). They showed all significantly interaction. (3) In combined effects, the yield of chromosome aberrations, SCEs and micronuclei induced by (1) experimental groups which four factors are all high doses were highest, however, those by induced (8) experimental groups which four factors are all low doses also were higher than those of control group and there were statistical difference except SCEs

  12. Carbon monoxide reduces neuropathic pain and spinal microglial activation by inhibiting nitric oxide synthesis in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnau Hervera

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO synthesized by heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1 exerts antinociceptive effects during inflammation but its role during neuropathic pain remains unknown. Our objective is to investigate the exact contribution of CO derived from HO-1 in the modulation of neuropathic pain and the mechanisms implicated.We evaluated the antiallodynic and antihyperalgesic effects of CO following sciatic nerve injury in wild type (WT or inducible nitric oxide synthase knockout (NOS2-KO mice using two carbon monoxide-releasing molecules (CORM-2 and CORM-3 and an HO-1 inducer (cobalt protoporphyrin IX, CoPP daily administered from days 10 to 20 after injury. The effects of CORM-2 and CoPP on the expression of HO-1, heme oxygenase 2 (HO-2, neuronal nitric oxide synthase (NOS1 and NOS2 as well as a microglial marker (CD11b/c were also assessed at day 20 after surgery in WT and NOS2-KO mice. In WT mice, the main neuropathic pain symptoms induced by nerve injury were significantly reduced in a time-dependent manner by treatment with CO-RMs or CoPP. Both CORM-2 and CoPP treatments increased HO-1 expression in WT mice, but only CoPP stimulated HO-1 in NOS2-KO animals. The increased expression of HO-2 induced by nerve injury in WT, but not in NOS2-KO mice, remains unaltered by CORM-2 or CoPP treatments. In contrast, the over-expression of CD11b/c, NOS1 and NOS2 induced by nerve injury in WT, but not in NOS2-KO mice, were significantly decreased by both CORM-2 and CoPP treatments. These data indicate that CO alleviates neuropathic pain through the reduction of spinal microglial activation and NOS1/NOS2 over-expression.This study reports that an interaction between the CO and nitric oxide (NO systems is taking place following sciatic nerve injury and reveals that increasing the exogenous (CO-RMs or endogenous (CoPP production of CO may represent a novel strategy for the treatment of neuropathic pain.

  13. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in delayed encephalopathy of acute carbon monoxide poisoning - comparison with CT -

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Kee Hyun; Suh, Chang Hae; Choo, In Wook

    1986-01-01

    Eleven magnetic resonance (MR) and computed tomographic (CT) imaging were performed in nine patients with mild to moderate degree of delayed neuropsychiatric symptoms following acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, to evaluate the capability of MR in demonstrating any additional finding to CT. The MR images were obtained using 0.15 Tesla resistive system with various combination of three pulse sequences, including partial saturation recovery, T2-weighted spin echo and inversion recovery. Bilateral white matter abnormalities suggesting demyelination were demonstrated in 4 patients with MR and in only 2 patients with CT. The contrast discrimination between normal and abnormal white matter proved to be better with T2-weighted spin echo and inversion recovery than with partial saturation recovery and CT. But necrosis of the globus pallidus (1 patient) and diffuse atrophy (3 patients) were equally demonstrated on both MR and CT. It is suggested that MR be used as a initial imaging method in the evaluation of the delayed encephalopathy following acute CO poisoning, especially for the detection of the possible white matter lesions. Acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning produces hypoxia by displacing oxygen from hemoglobin and preventing its release from hemoglobin in tissues, often resulting in fetal event. Victims who survive acute CO poisoning may have various delayed symptoms and signs. Occasionally, an apparent recovery is followed within two days to three weeks by a sudden neurological deterioration. The degree of neuropsychiatric symptoms depends upon the extent and severity of the pathologic changes in the brain. The pathologic effects of CO poisoning are present in almost all organs of patients. However, the most important changes occur in the brain, which consist of necrosis of the globus pallidus and reticular zone of the substantia nigra, and the degeneration of the cerebral white matter. The diagnostic superiority of magnetic resonance (MR) over CT has already

  14. Respiratory diseases in preschool children in the city of Niš exposed to suspended particulates and carbon monoxide from ambient air

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Đorđević Amelija

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background/Aim. Analysis of air quality in Serbia indicates that the city of Niš belongs to a group of cities characterized by the third category of air quality (excessive air pollution. The aim of the study was to analyze the degree of causality between ambient air quality affected by particulate matter of 10 μm (PM10 and carbon monoxide (CO and the incidence of respiratory diseases in preschool children in the city of Niš. Methods. We quantified the influence of higher PM10 concentrations and carbon monoxide comprising motor vehicle exhausts in the city of Niš on the occurrence of unwanted health effects in preschool children by means of the hazard quotient (HQ, individual health risk (Ri, and the probability of cancer (ICR. The methodology used was according to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA, and it included basic scientific statistical methods, compilation methods, and the relevant mathematical methods for assessing air pollution health risk, based on the use of attribute equations. Results. Measurement of ambient air pollutant concentrations in the analyzed territory for the entire monitoring duration revealed that PM10 concentrations were significantly above the allowed limits during 80% of the days. The maximum measured PM10 concentration was 191.6 μg/m3, and carbon monoxide 5.415 mg/m3. The incidence of respiratory diseases in the experimental group, with a prominent impact of polluted air was 57.17%, whereas the incidence in the control group was considerably lower, 41.10 %. There were also significant differences in the distribution of certain respiratory diseases. Conclusion. In order to perform good causal analysis of air quality and health risk, it is very important to establish and develop a system for long-term monitoring, control, assessment, and prediction of air pollution. We identified the suspended PM10 and CO as ambient air pollutants causing negative health effects in the exposed preschool children

  15. New approach to carbon monoxide poisoning treatment by laser-induced photodissociation of carboxyhemoglobin of cutaneous blood vessels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asimov, Mustafo M.; Asimov, Rustam M.; Gisbrecht, Alexander

    2005-04-01

    A new approach to carbon monoxide poisoning treatment based on laser-induced photodissociation of the carboxyhemoglobin is proposed. Using the simple model of laser tissue interaction the action spectra of laser radiation on carboxyhemoglobin of cutaneous blood vessels has been calculated. The results of the calculatoins indicate that there is a relatively narrow spectral range in the visible region where one could effectively irradiate carboxyhemoglobin through the tissue not in a deep distances. In the case of deeper penetration, the action spectra of laser radiation shifts toward the longer wavelength region. Despite the similarity of the carboxyhemoglobin and oxyhemoglobin action spectra, the significant difference in quantum yields of photodissociation makes possible to develop an effective method of carbon monoxide poisoning treatment.

  16. Carbon monoxide and pancreatic islet blood flow in the rat: inhibition of haem oxygenase does not affect islet blood perfusion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlsson, P-O; Bodin, B; Andersson, A; Jansson, L

    2006-01-01

    To determine whether carbon monoxide, a known gaseous vasorelaxator, affects pancreatic islet blood flow in rats. Sprague-Dawley rats were anaesthetized with thiobutabarbital and injected intravenously with the haem oxygenase inhibitor tin-protoporphyrin IX dichloride (SnPP; 4, 10 or 20 mg/kg body-weight). After 15 min, blood flow measurements were performed using a microsphere technique. There was a slight increase in mean arterial blood pressure with the highest dose of SnPP. No effects on total pancreatic, islet, duodenal, colonic, renal or adrenal blood flow were seen with any of the applied doses. The findings of this study suggest that the haem oxygenase-carbon monoxide system is likely to be of limited importance in the regulation of blood perfusion to the pancreas, the islets of Langerhans or any of the other studied organs.

  17. Hydrothermal Synthesis of Pt-, Fe-, and Zn-doped SnO2 Nanospheres and Carbon Monoxide Sensing Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weigen Chen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Pure and M-doped (M = Pt, Fe, and Zn SnO2 nanospheres were successfully synthesized via a simple and facile hydrothermal method and characterized by X-ray powder diffraction, field-emission scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive spectroscopy. Chemical gas sensors were fabricated based on the as-synthesized nanostructures, and carbon monoxide sensing properties were systematically measured. Compared to pure, Fe-, and Zn-doped SnO2 nanospheres, the Pt-doped SnO2 nanospheres sensor exhibits higher sensitivity, lower operating temperature, more rapid response and recovery, better stability, and excellent selectivity. In addition, a theoretical study based on the first principles calculation was conducted. All results demonstrate the potential of Pt dopant for improving the gas sensing properties of SnO2-based sensors to carbon monoxide.

  18. Three-dimensional analysis of potential vorticity associated with tropopause folds and observed variations of ozone and carbon monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danielsen, Edwin F.; Hipskind, R. Stephen; Gaines, Steven E.; Sachse, Glen W.; Gregory, Gerald L.; Hill, G. F.

    1987-01-01

    The usability and reliability of potential vorticity as a meteorological stratospheric tracer are evaluated. The concept of potential vorticity conservation during transport in which stratospheric and tropospheric air are mixing is tested. Aircraft data collected on April 20, 1984 in the western and southwestern U.S. are analyzed in order to derive potential vorticity data; vertical cross sections of constant-pressure data and temperature and wind speed gradients are examined. The tropopause fold observed during the April 20, 1984 aircraft flights is described. The potential vorticity, ozone mixing ratio, and carbon monoxide mixing ratio are compared; a positive correlation between potential vorticity and the ozone mixing ratio and a negative correlation between the potential vorticity and the carbon monoxide mixing ratio are detected. The data support the concepts of the conservation of potential vorticity, the entrainment and mixing of tropospheric air across the boundaries of the fold, and the applicability of potential vorticity as a stratospheric tracer.

  19. Measurement of Air Pollution from Satellites (MAPS) Space Radar Laboratory - 2 (SRL2) Carbon Monoxide 5 degree by 5 degree data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MAPS OverviewThe MAPS experiment measures the global distribution of carbon monoxide (CO) mixing ratios in the free troposphere. Because of MAPS' previous flights on...

  20. Measurement of Air Pollution from Satellites (MAPS) Space Radar Laboratory - 1 (SRL1) Carbon Monoxide 5 degree by 5 degree data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MAPS OverviewThe MAPS experiment measures the global distribution of carbon monoxide (CO) mixing ratios in the free troposphere. Because of MAPS' previous flights on...

  1. Measurement of Air Pollution from Satellites (MAPS) Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications - 3 (OSTA3) Carbon Monoxide 5 degree by 5 degree data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MAPS Overview The MAPS experiment measures the global distribution of carbon monoxide (CO) mixing ratios in the free troposphere. Because of MAPS' previous flights...

  2. Measurement of Air Pollution from Satellites (MAPS) Office of Space and Terrestrial Applications - 3 (OSTA3) Carbon Monoxide Second by Second data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — MAPS Overview The MAPS experiment measures the global distribution of carbon monoxide (CO) mixing ratios in the free troposphere. Because of MAPS' previous flights...

  3. Carbon monoxide toxicity. April 1978-November 1989 (A Bibliography from the Life Sciences Collection data base). Report for April 1978-November 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-03-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the mechanism and clinical manifestations of carbon monoxide exposure, including the effects on the liver, cardiovascular, and nervous systems. Topics include carbon monoxide binding affinity studies with hemoglobin, measurement of carboxyhemoglobin in humans and various animal species, carbon monoxide levels as related to tobacco and marijuana smoke, occupational exposure and the NIOSH biological exposure index, symptomology and percent of blood CO, and intrauterine exposure. Air pollution, tobacco smoking, and occupational exposure are discussed as primary sources of carbon monoxide exposure. The effects of cigarette smoking on fetal development and health are excluded and examined in a separate bibliography. (This updated bibliography contains 237 citations, 16 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  4. Carbon monoxide toxicity. January 1978-March 1989 (Citations from the Life Sciences Collection data base). Report for January 1978-March 1989

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1989-03-01

    This bibliography contains citations concerning the mechanism and clinical manifestations of carbon monoxide exposure, including the effects on the liver, cardiovascular, and nervous systems. Topics include carbon monoxide binding affinity studies with hemoglobin, measurement of carboxyhemoglobin in humans and various animal species, carbon monoxide levels as related to tobacco and marijuana smoke, occupational exposure and the NIOSH biological exposure index, symptomology and percent of blood CO, and intrauterine exposure. Air pollution, tobacco smoking, and occupational exposure are discussed as primary sources of carbon monoxide exposure. The effects of cigarette smoking on fetal development and health are excluded and examined in a separate bibliography. (This updated bibliography contains 221 citations, 19 of which are new entries to the previous edition.)

  5. Modeling Potential Carbon Monoxide Exposure Due to Operation of a Major Rocket Engine Altitude Test Facility Using Computational Fluid Dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blotzer, Michael J.; Woods, Jody L.

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews computational fluid dynamics as a tool for modelling the dispersion of carbon monoxide at the Stennis Space Center's A3 Test Stand. The contents include: 1) Constellation Program; 2) Constellation Launch Vehicles; 3) J2X Engine; 4) A-3 Test Stand; 5) Chemical Steam Generators; 6) Emission Estimates; 7) Located in Existing Test Complex; 8) Computational Fluid Dynamics; 9) Computational Tools; 10) CO Modeling; 11) CO Model results; and 12) Next steps.

  6. Carbon monoxide and respiratory symptoms in young adult passive smokers: A pilot study comparing waterpipe to cigarette

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rouba Zeidan

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Studies have correlated second hand smoke (SHS with many diseases, especially respiratory effects. The goal of this study was to measure the impact of SHS on the respiratory symptoms and exhaled carbon monoxide. Material and Methods: The study population consisted of 50 young workers in restaurants serving waterpipes, 48 university students who sit frequently in the university cafeteria where cigarette smoking is allowed and 49 university students spending time in places where smoking is not allowed. Subjects completed questionnaires on socio-demographic characteristics, respiratory symptoms and exposure to SHS. Exhaled carbon monoxide levels were measured. ANOVA and Chi-square tests were used when applicable as well as linear and logistic regression analysis. Results: Exposure to cigarette smoke in university (adjusted odds ratio (ORa = 6.06 and occupational exposure to waterpipe smoke (ORa = 7.08 were predictors of chronic cough. Being married (ORa = 6.40, living near a heavy traffic road (ORa = 9.49 or near a local power generator (ORa = 7.54 appeared responsible for chronic sputum production. Moreover, predictors of chronic allergies were: being male (ORa = 7.81, living near a local power generator (ORa = 5.52 and having a family history of chronic respiratory diseases (ORa = 17.01. Carbon monoxide levels were augmented by the number of weekly hours of occupational exposure to waterpipe smoke (β = 1.46 and the number of daily hours of exposure to cigarette smoke (β = 1.14. Conclusions: In summary, young non-smoker subjects demonstrated more chronic cough and elevated carbon monoxide levels when exposed to SHS while the effect of waterpipe was even more evident.

  7. Determination of structural water by neutron protein crystallography: an analysis of the carbon monoxide myoglobin water structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schoenborn, B.P.; Hanson, J.C.

    1979-01-01

    An ideal technique for studying the water structure of proteins using neutron crystallography is discussed. The advantages of using deuterons (D 2 O) instead of hydrogen (H 2 O) are explained. The results of an early unrefined met myoglobin neutron analysis are presented. More recent high resolution x-ray analysis of met myoglobin and refined neutron analysis of carbon monoxide myoglobin water structure were compared. Neutron maps were included

  8. Accidental Carbon Monoxide Poisonings in Adana, Turkey: A 14-year Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Darçın

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Aim: Carbon monoxide (CO is often referred to as the “silent killer” because its victims cannot see it, smell it or taste it. CO is responsible for a large percentage of the accidental poisonings and deaths reported throughout the world. CO poisoning therefore is considered a serious global health threat. The aim of the present study was to describe the cases of CO poisoning in a rural areas of Adana, Turkey between 2002 and 2015 based on data collected from incident reports. Methods: The cases of accidental CO poisoning were statistically analyzed. During that period, 74 incidents occurred and 154 people were poisoned by accidental CO poisoning. Results: The results of this analysis indicate that men and adults aged ≥65 years were more likely to die from CO poisoning than others. The number of CO poisoning cases was highest during the heating season. The majority (72% of poisoning resulting in hospitalization with a life-threatening condition or death occurred within the home. Conclusion: CO poisoning is a serious danger. People must be informed about this hazard. By educating risk groups about the dangers of CO poisoning, it is possible to save many lives as well as reduce the health risks.

  9. Personal carbon monoxide exposures of preschool children in Helsinki, Finland - comparison to ambient air concentrations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alm, S.; Mukala, K.; Tittanen, P.; Jantunen, M.J. [KTL National Public Health Institute, Kuopio (Finland). Dept. of Environmental Health

    2001-07-01

    The associations of personal carbon monoxide (CO) exposures with ambient air CO concentrations measured at fixed monitoring sites, were studied among 194 children aged 3-6yr in four downtown and four suburban day-care centers in Helsinki, Finland. Each child carried a personal CO exposure monitor between 1 and 4 times for a time period of between 20 and 24h. CO concentrations at two fixed monitoring sites were measured simultaneously. The CO concentrations measured at the fixed monitoring sites were usually lower (mean maximum 8-h concentration: 0.9 and 2.6mgm{sup -3}) than the personal CO exposure concentrations (mean maximum 8-h concentration: 3.3mgm{sup -3}).The fixed site CO concentrations were poor predictors of the personal CO exposure concentrations. However, the correlations between the personal CO exposure and the fixed monitoring site CO concentrations increased (-0.03 -- -0.12 to 0.13-0.16) with increasing averaging times from 1 to 8h. Also, the fixed monitoring site CO concentrations explained the mean daily or weekly personal CO exposures of a group of simultaneously measured children better than individual exposure CO concentrations. This study suggests that the short-term CO personal exposure of children cannot be meaningfully assessed using fixed monitoring sites. (author)

  10. Carbon monoxide in human physiology – its role in the gastrointestinal tract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katarzyna Jasnos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO is produced endogenously in the body as a byproduct of heme degradation catalyzed by the action of heme oxygenase (HO enzymes. An inducible form, HO-1, responds to many factors such as oxidative stress, hypoxia, heme, bacterial endotoxins, proinflammatory cytokines and heavy metals. HO-2 is constitutively expressed under basal conditions in most human tissues including brain and gonads. Recent data show that CO is a gaseous mediator with multidirectional biological activity. It is involved in maintaining cellular homeostasis and many physiological and pathophysiological processes. CO shares many properties with another established vasodilatator and neurotransmitter – nitric oxide (NO. Both CO and NO are involved in neural transmission, modulation of blood vessel function and inhibition of platelet aggregation. The binding to guanylate cyclase, stimulation of the production of cGMP, activation of Ca2+-dependent potassium channels and stimulation of mitogen-activated protein kinases are well known cellular targets of CO action. Since CO is nowadays a subject of extensive investigation in many centers worldwide, the aim of the present study was to present the role of CO in various aspects of human physiology with special focus on its activity in the gastrointestinal tract.

  11. [Carbon monoxide in human physiology--its role in the gastrointestinal tract].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasnos, Katarzyna; Magierowski, Marcin; Kwiecień, Sławomir; Brzozowski, Tomasz

    2014-01-30

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is produced endogenously in the body as a byproduct of heme degradation catalyzed by the action of heme oxygenase (HO) enzymes. An inducible form, HO-1, responds to many factors such as oxidative stress, hypoxia, heme, bacterial endotoxins, proinflammatory cytokines and heavy metals. HO-2 is constitutively expressed under basal conditions in most human tissues including brain and gonads. Recent data show that CO is a gaseous mediator with multidirectional biological activity. It is involved in maintaining cellular homeostasis and many physiological and pathophysiological processes. CO shares many properties with another established vasodilatator and neurotransmitter - nitric oxide (NO). Both CO and NO are involved in neural transmission, modulation of blood vessel function and inhibition of platelet aggregation. The binding to guanylate cyclase, stimulation of the production of cGMP, activation of Ca2+-dependent potassium channels and stimulation of mitogen-activated protein kinases are well known cellular targets of CO action. Since CO is nowadays a subject of extensive investigation in many centers worldwide, the aim of the present study was to present the role of CO in various aspects of human physiology with special focus on its activity in the gastrointestinal tract.

  12. Long-Term Prognosis of Patients with Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: A Nationwide Cohort Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Min-Hsien; Weng, Shih-Feng; Chien, Chih-Chiang; Lin, Shio-Jean; Lin, Hung-Jung; Guo, How-Ran; Hsu, Chien-Chin; Juan, Chi-Wen

    2014-01-01

    Background Carbon monoxide poisoning (COP) often produces severe complications and can be fatal. Because this topic has not been well delineated, we investigated long-term prognoses of patients with COP (COP[+]). Methods In this retrospective nationwide cohort study, 441 COP[+] patients and 8820 COP[−] controls (120) from 1999 to 2010 were selected from Taiwan’s National Health Insurance Research Database. Results Thirty-seven (8.39%) COP[+] patients and 142 (1.61%) controls died (Prate ratios (IRR) of death were 5.24 times higher in COP[+] patients than in controls (P<0.0001). The risk of death was particularly high in the first month after COP (IRR: 308.78; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 40.79–2337.56), 1 to 6 months after (IRR: 18.92; 95% CI: 7.69–46.56), and 6–12 months after (IRR: 4.73; 95% CI: 1.02–21.90). After adjusting for age, gender, and selected comorbidities, the hazard ratio of death for COP[+] patients was still 4.097 times higher than for controls. Moreover, older age (≥30 years old), male gender, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, and low income were also independent mortality predictors. Conclusions COP significantly increases the risk for long-term mortality. Early follow-up and secondary prevention of death are needed for patients with COP. PMID:25167083

  13. Time series analysis of Carbon Monoxide from MOPITT over the Asian Continent from 2000-2004

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhattacharjee, P. S.; Roy, P.

    2005-12-01

    The human population continues to grow and large parts of the world industrialize rapidly, causing changes in the global atmospheric chemistry. Carbon monoxide (CO) is a poisonous gas in the troposphere when highly concentrated, and is produced by fossil fuel combustion, biomass burning and through natural emissions from plants. It is also an important trace gas in the atmosphere and plays a major role in the atmospheric chemistry. We present a study of CO from the measurement of MOPITT (Measurement of Pollution in the Troposphere-Level 3 gridded data) instrument on NASA Terra satellite over India and Eastern Asia for the period of 2000-2004. Day- and night-time total column CO measurements are considered over the selected regions in India, China, Thailand and Japan. The selected regions comprise of industrial cities in the Asian continent which form the source of high CO in the atmosphere. The time series data do not show an overall increasing or decreasing trend, but CO is affected by seasonal variations, wind, and precipitation patterns. East Asian regions have higher and wider seasonal fluctuations than the Indian region. CO total column values over the Bay of Bengal are also high and can be explained through wind patterns from the land towards the ocean. Although the sources of CO are mostly confined to the land, it is transported globally through the atmosphere, and has high concentrations over the ocean.

  14. Highly ordered magnetic mesoporous silicas for effective elimination of carbon monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, Jiho; Ho Chang, Jeong

    2012-01-01

    Catalysts based on crystalline nanoparticles of Fe metal supported on mesoporous silica have been developed. The synthetic process involves hydrogen reduction processing for high abundant Fe metal nanoparticles within the mesopores, in which impregnated Fe salt in the inner nanopores of mesoporous silica is thermally treated under hydrogen at 500 °C. Detailed characterization was achieved by XRD, XPS, BET, and HR-TEM techniques. The catalytic efficiency was demonstrated as a function of the used amounts and reaction time. The results show that more than 90% of the carbon monoxide was eliminated at room temperature during a period 80 min with 0.5 g of catalyst. - Graphical abstract: Strategy for the preparation of highly abundant Fe nanoparticle embedded MS catalyst by hydrogen reduction process and HR-TEM images of cross-sectional and top view. Highlights: ► MS based heterogeneous catalyst with Fe nanoparticles were demonstrated for CO elimination. ► Highly Fe nanoparticle embedded MS catalyst prepared by hydrogen reduction process. ► Systematic characterization was achieved by XRD, XPS, BET, and HR-TEM analyses. ► More than 90% of the CO was eliminated at RT during 80 min with 0.5 g of catalyst.

  15. Effects of exogenous carbon monoxide on radiation-induced bystander effect in zebrafish embryos in vivo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choi, V.W.Y.; Wong, M.Y.P. [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Cheng, S.H. [Department of Biology and Chemistry, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); Yu, K.N., E-mail: appetery@cityu.edu.hk [Department of Physics and Materials Science, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong); State Key Laboratory in Marine Pollution, City University of Hong Kong, Tat Chee Avenue, Kowloon Tong (Hong Kong)

    2012-07-15

    In the present work, the influence of a low concentration of exogenous carbon monoxide (CO) liberated from tricarbonylchloro(glycinato)ruthenium (II) (CORM-3) on the radiation induced bystander effect (RIBE) in vivo between embryos of the zebrafish was studied. RIBE was assessed through the number of apoptotic signals revealed on embryos at 25 h post fertilization (hpf). A significant attenuation of apoptosis on the bystander embryos induced by RIBE in a CO concentration dependent manner was observed. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer RIBE between zebrafish embryos in vivo was assessed by the level of apoptosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CO from 10 and 20 {mu}M CORM-3 entirely suppressed the RIBE. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer CO from 5 {mu}M CORM-3 significantly attenuated the level of apoptosis. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inactive CORM-3 did not lead to suppression of RIBE. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Suppression of RIBE by CO depended on the concentration of CORM-3.

  16. Bactericidal Effect of a Photoresponsive Carbon Monoxide-Releasing Nonwoven against Staphylococcus aureus Biofilms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klinger-Strobel, Mareike; Gläser, Steve; Makarewicz, Oliwia; Wyrwa, Ralf; Weisser, Jürgen; Pletz, Mathias W; Schiller, Alexander

    2016-07-01

    Staphylococcus aureus is a leading pathogen in skin and skin structure infections, including surgical and traumatic infections that are associated with biofilm formation. Because biofilm formation is accompanied by high phenotypic resistance of the embedded bacteria, they are almost impossible to eradicate by conventional antibiotics. Therefore, alternative therapeutic strategies are of high interest. We generated nanostructured hybrid nonwovens via the electrospinning of a photoresponsive carbon monoxide (CO)-releasing molecule [CORM-1, Mn2(CO)10] and the polymer polylactide. This nonwoven showed a CO-induced antimicrobial activity that was sufficient to reduce the biofilm-embedded bacteria by 70% after photostimulation at 405 nm. The released CO increased the concentration of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in the biofilms, suggesting that in addition to inhibiting the electron transport chain, ROS might play a role in the antimicrobial activity of CORMs on S. aureus The nonwoven showed increased cytotoxicity on eukaryotic cells after longer exposure, most probably due to the released lactic acid, that might be acceptable for local and short-time treatments. Therefore, CO-releasing nonwovens might be a promising local antimicrobial therapy against biofilm-associated skin wound infections. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  17. Carbon Monoxide Fumigation Improved the Quality, Nutrients, and Antioxidant Activities of Postharvest Peach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaoying Zhang

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Peaches (Prunus persica cv. Yanhong were fumigated with carbon monoxide (CO at 0, 0.5, 5, 10, and 20 μmol/L for 2 hours. The result showed that low concentration CO (0.5–10 μmol/L might delay the decrease of firmness and titrable acid content, restrain the increase of decay incidence, and postpone the variation of soluble solids content, but treating peaches with high concentration CO (20 μmol/L demonstrated adverse effects. Further research exhibited that exogenous CO could induce the phenylalnine ammonialyase activity, maintain nutrient contents such as Vitamin C, total flavonoid, and polyphenol, and enhance antioxidant activity according to reducing power and 2,2-diphenyl-1-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl hydrazyl radical scavenging activity. Treating peaches with appropriate concentration CO was beneficial to the quality, nutrients, and antioxidant activity of postharvest peaches during storage time. Therefore, CO fumigation might probably become a novel method to preserve postharvest peach and other fruits in the future.

  18. Characterizing electrocatalytic surfaces: Electrochemical and NMR studies of methanol and carbon monoxide on Pt/C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGrath, Patrick; Fojas, Aurora Marie; Rush, Benjamin; Reimer, Jeffrey A.; Cairns, Elton J. [Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory and University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720 (United States)

    2007-12-20

    We use cyclic voltammetry (CV) on fuel cell electrodes to elucidate the important differences between adsorbates resulting from carbon monoxide adsorption and methanol adsorption onto commercial Pt/C electrocatalysts in a sulfuric acid electrolyte. Under open circuit conditions, methanol was found to adsorb preferentially onto the Pt sites associated with 'strongly bound' hydrogen. The sites associated with 'weakly bound' hydrogen adsorbed methanol more slowly. In the case of CO adsorption, which requires no adsorbate dehydrogenation, all adsorption sites showed similar affinity towards the adsorbate. Electrochemical oxidation of the adsorbates derived from both methanol and CO exposure exhibit slower oxidation when the adsorbate is associated with cubic-packed-like sites than from close-packed-steps and other sites. NMR of a {sup 13}CO-adlayer prepared by electrochemical adsorption from low concentration {sup 13}CH{sub 3}OH shows a lower NMR shift and smaller linewidth than the previously reported values for electrochemically adsorbed {sup 13}CO gas. These results are interpreted in terms of adsorbate motion on the electrocatalyst surface. (author)

  19. Profile of acute carbon monoxide poisoning in the west province of Iran

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yari, M.; Ahmadi, H.

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To document the epidemiology and risk factors of acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning in the west of Iran and specify potentially presentable characteristics. Study Design: Observational study. Place and Duration of Study: Imam Khomeini Hospital of Kermanshah, Iran, from July 2006 to March 2008. Methodology: This study was conducted using the records of 143 cases of CO poisoning referred to the only centre for the reference of poisoning cases. Intent, age groups, source of poisoning and clinical presentation were noted and described as frequency. Results: One-hundred forty two cases (99.3%), were accidental and only one case (0.7%) was suicidal. Mortality was (21.7%, n=31). The highest mortality was found in the age groups of 20-30 years and below 10 years. The greatest frequency happened in autumn and winter. The clinical symptoms and manifestations of CO poisoning included headache (35.3%), nausea (25.4%), vomiting (21%), dyspnea (10.3%), and decrease in level of consciousness (8%). Gas water heaters (35%), room heaters (32%), stoves (24%) and other items (9%) were the principal sources of the individuals' exposure to CO. Conclusion: CO poisoning is a serious public health problem in west of Iran (Kermanshah). The number of CO poisoning cases was highest in the colder seasons of the year, whereas the majority of the poisoning cases could be prevented. (author)

  20. Evaluation of brain function in acute carbon monoxide poisoning with multimodality evoked potentials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    He, Fengsheng; Liu, Xibao; Yang, Shi; Zhang, Shoulin (Institute of Occupational Medicine, Beijing (China)); Xu, Guanghua; Fang, Guangchai; Pan, Xiaowen (Navy Hospital, Beijing (China))

    1993-02-01

    The median nerve somatosensory evoked potentials (SEP), pattern reversal visual evoked potentials (VEP), and brain stem auditory evoked potentials (BAEP) were studied in 109 healthy adults and in 88 patients with acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning. The upper limits for normal values of peak and interpeak latencies of multimodalities of evoked potentials in the reference group were established by a stepwise multiple regression analysis. SEP changes selectively affecting N32 and N60 were found in 78.8% of patients. There was prolonged PI00 latency of VEP in 58.2% of the cases examined. The prevalence of BAEP abnormalities in comatose patients (36%) was significantly higher than that (8.6%) in conscious patients. BAEP abnormalities were most frequently seen in comatose patients who had diminished brain stem reflexes (77.8%). It has been found that a consistent abnormality involving N2O and subsequent peaks in SEP, a remarkable prolongation of PI00 latency in VEP, or a prolongation of Ill-V interpeak latency in BAEP as well as the reoccurrence of evoked potential abnormalities after initial recovery all indicate unfavorable outcomes in patients with acute CO poisoning. The multimodality evoked potentials have proved to be sensitive indicators in the evaluation of brain dysfunction and in the prediction of prognosis of acute CO poisoning and the development of delayed encephalopathy. 16 refs., 4 figs., 6 tabs.

  1. TERRA/MOPITT Measurements of Tropospheric Carbon Monoxide Distributions in Support of INTEX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edwards, D. P.; Gille, J. C.; Emmons, L. K.; Ziskin, D.

    2005-01-01

    Interaction with the ongoing satellite measurements programs was an important goal of INTEX- A. The Terra/MOPITT instrument had been making global measurements of the tropospheric carbon monoxide (CO) distribution for 4 years, and was in a unique position to provide valuable support during the field campaign. Remote sensing of CO directly addressed the scientific questions motivating the IXTEX-A strategy and deployment, and measurement of this gas was rated as being mission critical. CO is an important trace gas in tropospheric chemistry due to its role in determining the atmospheric oxidizing capacity, as an ozone precursor, and as an indicator and tracer of both natural and anthropogenic pollution arising from incomplete combustion. The satellite perspective provided the more general temporal and spatial context to the aircraft and ground-based measurements during the subsequent scientific analysis. We proposed to build on the experience of supplying MOPITT data to previous field campaigns, such as TRACE-P. We provided expedited MOPITT data processing in near real-time, along with basic analysis of the measurements to indicate, where possible, the origin of the CO plumes that impacted the regions of flight operations and other in situ measurement activities. To ensure maximum exploitation of the satellite information, we will also had a scientist in the field to present and interpret the MOPITT data for the INTEX team, and to help ensure its utility in flight planning.

  2. Indoor Carbon Monoxide: A Case Study in England for Detection and Interventions to Reduce Population Exposure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. J. McCann

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Potential exposure to carbon monoxide (CO in private homes is largely unquantified. Aim. To estimate prevalence of potential exposure to CO in residential dwellings and describe associated interventions in an inner-city community. Methods. A housing association in London, Hackney Homes, began fitting CO alarms in the 22,831 local authority homes it is responsible for in January 2010. A gas engineer investigated each alarm activation and recorded the information on a standard form. We undertook a cross-sectional study of all 22,831 homes, using data from these forms. Descriptive analysis was performed, including incidence, monthly variation, cause of alarm activation, and actions taken. Results. Between November 2011 and April 2012, 106 incidents were reported. Of these, 34.6% identified an issue with a gas appliance, and 10.6% identified misuse of cooking methods as the cause of activation. Relevant interventions were put in place, including disconnection of the gas appliance and education around cooking methods. Discussion. Little is known about the burden of CO poisoning in residential dwellings. This study provides important information on the path to quantifying population exposure to CO as well as establishing a possible approach to access this key information and realistic interventions to reduce potential exposure.

  3. Storm-Related Carbon Monoxide Poisoning: An Investigation of Target Audience Knowledge and Risk Behaviors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Damon, Scott A.; Poehlman, Jon A.; Rupert, Douglas J.; Williams, Peyton N.

    2015-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisonings in the United States consistently occur when residents improperly use portable gasoline-powered generators and other tools following severe storms and power outages. However, protective behaviors—such as installing CO alarms and placing generators more than 20 feet away from indoor structures—can prevent these poisonings. This study identified knowledge, attitudes, and beliefs that lead consumers to adopt risk and protective behaviors for storm-related CO poisoning and post-storm generator use. Four focus groups (32 participants in total) were conducted with generator owners in winter and summer storm-prone areas to explore home safety, portable generator use, CO poisoning knowledge, and generator safety messages. Discussions were transcribed, and findings analyzed using an ordered meta-matrix approach. Although most generator owners were aware of CO poisoning, many were unsure what constitutes a safe location for generator operation and incorrectly stated that enclosed areas outside the home—such as attached garages, sheds, and covered porches—were safe. Convenience and access to appliances often dictated generator placement. Participants were receptive to installing CO alarms in their homes but were unsure where to place them. These findings suggest a deficit in understanding how to operate portable generators safely and a need to correct misconceptions around safe placement. In terms of behavioral price, the simple installation and maintenance of inexpensive CO alarms may be the most important strategy for ultimately protecting homes from both storm-related and other CO exposures. PMID:26345640

  4. Brief exposure to carbon monoxide preconditions cardiomyogenic cells against apoptosis in ischemia-reperfusion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo-Nakamura, Mihoko; Shintani-Ishida, Kaori; Uemura, Koichi; Yoshida, Ken-ichi

    2010-01-01

    We examined whether and how pretreatment with carbon monoxide (CO) prevents apoptosis of cardioblastic H9c2 cells in ischemia-reperfusion. Reperfusion (6 h) following brief ischemia (10 min) induced cytochrome c release, activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3, and apoptotic nuclear condensation. Brief CO pretreatment (10 min) or a caspase-9 inhibitor (Z-LEHD-FMK) attenuated these apoptotic changes. Ischemia-reperfusion increased phosphorylation of Akt at Ser472/473/474, and this was enhanced by CO pretreatment. A specific Akt inhibitor (API-2) blunted the anti-apoptotic effects of CO in reperfusion. In normoxic cells, CO enhanced O 2 - generation, which was inhibited by a mitochondrial complex III inhibitor (antimycin A) but not by a NADH oxidase inhibitor (apocynin). The CO-enhanced Akt phosphorylation was suppressed by an O 2 - scavenger (Tiron), catalase or a superoxide dismutase (SOD) inhibitor (DETC). These results suggest that CO pretreatment induces mitochondrial generation of O 2 - , which is then converted by SOD to H 2 O 2 , and subsequent Akt activation by H 2 O 2 attenuates apoptosis in ischemia-reperfusion.

  5. Brief exposure to carbon monoxide preconditions cardiomyogenic cells against apoptosis in ischemia-reperfusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kondo-Nakamura, Mihoko [Department of Forensic Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Shintani-Ishida, Kaori, E-mail: kaori@m.u-tokyo.ac.jp [Department of Forensic Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan); Uemura, Koichi; Yoshida, Ken-ichi [Department of Forensic Medicine, Graduate School of Medicine, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033 (Japan)

    2010-03-12

    We examined whether and how pretreatment with carbon monoxide (CO) prevents apoptosis of cardioblastic H9c2 cells in ischemia-reperfusion. Reperfusion (6 h) following brief ischemia (10 min) induced cytochrome c release, activation of caspase-9 and caspase-3, and apoptotic nuclear condensation. Brief CO pretreatment (10 min) or a caspase-9 inhibitor (Z-LEHD-FMK) attenuated these apoptotic changes. Ischemia-reperfusion increased phosphorylation of Akt at Ser472/473/474, and this was enhanced by CO pretreatment. A specific Akt inhibitor (API-2) blunted the anti-apoptotic effects of CO in reperfusion. In normoxic cells, CO enhanced O{sub 2}{sup -} generation, which was inhibited by a mitochondrial complex III inhibitor (antimycin A) but not by a NADH oxidase inhibitor (apocynin). The CO-enhanced Akt phosphorylation was suppressed by an O{sub 2}{sup -} scavenger (Tiron), catalase or a superoxide dismutase (SOD) inhibitor (DETC). These results suggest that CO pretreatment induces mitochondrial generation of O{sub 2}{sup -}, which is then converted by SOD to H{sub 2}O{sub 2}, and subsequent Akt activation by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} attenuates apoptosis in ischemia-reperfusion.

  6. Characterization of Carbon Monoxide Exposure During Hurricane Sandy and Subsequent Nor'easter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnall, Amy; Law, Royal; Heinzerling, Amy; Sircar, Kanta; Damon, Scott; Yip, Fuyuen; Schier, Josh; Bayleyegn, Tesfaye; Wolkin, Amy

    2017-10-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is an odorless, colorless gas produced by fossil fuel combustion. On October 29, 2012, Hurricane Sandy moved ashore near Atlantic City, New Jersey, causing widespread morbidity and mortality, $30 to $50 billion in economic damage, and 8.5 million households to be without power. The combination of power outages and unusually low temperatures led people to use alternate power sources, placing many at risk for CO exposure. We examined Hurricane Sandy-related CO exposures from multiple perspectives to help identify risk factors and develop strategies to prevent future exposures. This report combined data from 3 separate sources (health departments, poison centers via the National Poison Data System, and state and local public information officers). Results indicated that the number of CO exposures in the wake of Hurricane Sandy was significantly greater than in previous years. The persons affected were mostly females and those in younger age categories and, despite messaging, most CO exposures occurred from improper generator use. Our findings emphasize the continued importance of CO-related communication and ongoing surveillance of CO exposures to support public health response and prevention during and after disasters. Additionally, regional poison centers can be a critical resource for potential on-site management, public health promotion, and disaster-related CO exposure surveillance. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2017;11:562-567).

  7. Carbon Monoxide Observations Toward Star Forming Regions in the Outer Scutum-CentaurusSpiral Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferraro, Nicholas; Wenger, Trey V.; Khan, Asad; Balser, Dana; Armentrout, William Paul; Anderson, Loren Dean; Bania, Thomas

    2018-01-01

    The Outer Scutum-Centaurus arm (OSC) is the most distant molecular spiral arm known in the Milky Way. The Scutum-Centaurus spiral arm is posited to start at the end of the Galactic bar and to extend beyond the Solar orbit into the outer Galaxy. Carbon monoxide (CO) emission from molecular clouds is a bright star formation tracer that was recently discovered in the OSC in the first Galactic quadrant and may extend into the second quadrant. The population of star formation tracers in the OSC remains largely uncharacterized in part because the arm is distant enough from the Galactic Center to be affected by the Galactic warp. The OSC rises above the Galactic plane by nearly 4 degrees in the first quadrant, meaning most in-plane surveys of molecular gas or star formation tracers have missed the arm previously. Here we use the Arizona Radio Observatory (ARO) 12m telescope to observe 12CO J = 1-0 and 13CO J = 1-0 transitions toward 158 HII region candidates in the first and second Galactic quadrants chosen from the WISE Catalog of Galactic HII Regions. These targets are spatially coincident with the Galactic longitude-latitude (l, b) OSC locus as defined by HI emission. We detect CO toward most of our targets, many of which have at least one emission line originating beyond the Solar orbit. We compare the physical properties of molecular clouds in the OSC to the physical properties of molecular clouds located elsewhere in the Galaxy.

  8. Total content of carbon monoxide in the atmosphere over Russian regions according to satellite data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sitnov, S. A.; Mokhov, I. I.; Dzhola, A. V.

    2017-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) total columns over European Russia (ER) and western Siberia (WS) have been analyzed using MOPITT (V5, TIR/NIR, L3) IR-radiometer data obtained in 2000-2014. High CO contents are revealed over large urban and industrial agglomerations and over regions of oil-and-gas production. A stable local CO maximum is observed over the Moscow agglomeration. Statistical characteristics of CO total columns observed in the atmosphere over ER and WS in 2000-2014 are presented. An analysis of long-term changes in CO content reveals nonlinear changes in the CO total column over northern Eurasia in 2000-2014. Results of a comparative analysis of annual variations in atmospheric CO contents over ER and WS are given. Based on Fourier analysis, empirical models of annual variations in total CO contents over ER and WS are proposed. Relations between regional CO contents and fire characteristics and between spatial CO distributions and features of large-scale atmospheric dynamics under conditions of weather and climate anomalies in the summers of 2010 in ER and 2012 in WS are analyzed. Data on total CO contents measured with a MOPITT satellite radiometer and a ground-based spectrometer operating at the Zvenigorod Scientific Station of the Obukhov Institute of Atmospheric Physics are compared.

  9. Possible contribution of endogenous carbon monoxide to the development of allergic rhinitis in guinea pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunsheng Zhu

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The mechanisms responsible for the development of allergic rhinitis(AR are not fully understood. The present study was designed to explore the possible roles of carbon monoxide(CO on the pathogenesis of AR. Methods AR guinea pig model was established by nasal ovalbumin sensitization. Twenty-four AR guinea pigs were divided into four groups, 6 in each: Saline control group, AR sensitized group, Hemin treated group, and Zinc protoporphyrin (ZnPP treated group. The frequency of sneezing and nose rubbing was recorded. Leukocyte infiltration in nasal lavage fluid, serum IgE level and plasma CO were measured. Expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1 mRNA in nasal mucosa was determined by real time RT-PCR, and expression of HO-1 protein was detected by immunohistochemistry. Results The frequency of sneezing and nose rubbing, leukocyte infiltration, serum IgE, plasma CO, and HO-1 mRNA levels in sensitized guinea pigs were higher than those of control (P Conclusion The endogenous CO may take part in the inflammation process of AR and is positively correlated with expression of HO-1 in nasal mucosa. Endogenous CO plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of AR.

  10. [Involvement of endogenous carbon monoxide in regulation of respiratory rhythm in vitro].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen-Xing; Zhang, Qi-Lan; Hu, Hai-Yan; Liu, Jin; Li, Yong-Bo; Zhou, Hua; Zheng, Yu

    2007-06-25

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of endogenous carbon monoxide (CO) on respiratory rhythm. The experiments were carried out on the medullary slices of newborn Sprague-Dawley rats. The rhythmic discharge frequency (DF) of hypoglossal rootlets was taken as an index of rhythmic respiratory activity. The slices of medulla oblongata were superfused with ZnPP-9 (inhibitor of heme oxygenase), CO and hemin (substrate of heme oxygenase), respectively, to observe their effects on respiratory rhythm. The preparations were divided into 5 groups: control group of artificial cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF), group of ZnPP-9, group of exogenous CO, group of hemin and group of ZnPP-9 + hemin. The results obtained were as follows. In ZnPP-9 group, the rhythmic DF of the hypoglossal rootlets was increased (PZnPP-9 + hemin, the rhythmic DF of the hypoglossal rootlets was increased (P<0.05). It is suggested that endogenous CO may play an important role in the regulation of respiratory rhythm.

  11. Nanometer-scale discernment of field emission from tungsten surface with single carbon monoxide molecule

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsunaga, Soichiro; Suwa, Yuji; Katagiri, Souichi

    2017-12-01

    Unusual quantized beam fluctuations were found in the emission current from a cold-field emitter (CFE) operating in an extremely high vacuum of 10-10 Pa. To clarify the microscopic mechanism behind these fluctuations, we developed a new calculation method to evaluate the field emission from a heterogeneous surface under a strong electric field of 4 × 109 V/m by using the local potential distribution obtained by a first-principles calculation, instead of by using the work function. As a result of the first-principles calculations of a single molecule adsorbed on a tungsten surface, we found that dissociative adsorption of a carbon monoxide (CO) molecule enhances the emission current by changing the potential barrier in the area surrounding the C and O adatoms when these two atoms are placed at their most stable positions. It is also found that the migration of the O atom from the most stable position reduces the emission current. These types of enhancement and reduction of the emission current quantitatively explain the observed quantized fluctuations of the CFE emission current.

  12. Kinetics and mechanisms of iron sulfide reductions in hydrogen and in carbon monoxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wiltowski, T.; Hinckley, C.C.; Smith, Gerard V.; Nishizawa, T.; Saporoschenko, Mykola; Shiley, R.H.; Webster, J.R.

    1987-01-01

    The reduction of iron sulfides by hydrogen and by carbon monoxide has been studied using plug flow and thermogravimetric methods. The reactions were studied in the 523-723??K temperature range and were found to be first-order processes. Plug flow studies were used to correlate reaction rates between pyrite and the gases as a function of the surface area of the pyrite. The rate of H2S formation increases with the surface area of the pyrite sample. The results of thermogravimetric experiments indicate that the reactions consist of several steps. Rate constants for the pyrite reduction by H2 and by CO were obtained. The activation energies increased with degree of reduction. Values of Ea were 113.2 (step I) and 122.5 kJ/mole (step II) for pyrite reduction with CO and 99.4 (step I), 122.4 (step II), 125.2 (step III), and 142.6 kJ/mole (step IV) for pyrite reduction with hydrogen. ?? 1987.

  13. Progress in the reduction of carbon monoxide levels in major urban areas in Korea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kim, Ki-Hyun; Sul, Kyung-Hwa; Szulejko, Jan E.; Chambers, Scott D.; Feng, Xinbin; Lee, Min-Hee

    2015-01-01

    Long-term trends in observed carbon monoxide (CO) concentrations were analyzed in seven major South Korean cities from 1989 to 2013. Temporal trends were evident on seasonal and annual timescales, as were spatial gradients between the cities. As CO levels in the most polluted cities decreased significantly until the early 2000s, the data were arbitrarily divided into two time periods (I: 1989–2000 and II: 2001–2013) for analysis. The mean CO concentration of period II was about 50% lower than that of period I. Long-term trends of annual mean CO concentrations, examined using the Mann–Kendall (MK) method, confirm a consistent reduction in CO levels from 1989 to 2000 (period I). The abrupt reduction in CO levels was attributed to a combination of technological improvements and government administrative/regulatory initiatives (e.g., emission mitigation strategies and a gradual shift in the fuel/energy consumption mix away from coal and oil to natural gas and nuclear power). - Highlights: • As one of the criteria pollutants, CO has been extensively studied worldwide. • The concentration of CO in ambient air should be reduced to a more manageable level. • The spatiotemporal characteristics of CO in Korea are analyzed for 1989–2013. • Our efforts will help develop systematic strategies to reduce CO emissions. - The efficacy of CO mitigation strategies adopted throughout Korea is highlighted along with the limitations faced to improving air quality due to cross-boundary pollution transport.

  14. Linking the variability of atmospheric carbon monoxide to climate modes in the Southern Hemisphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buchholz, Rebecca; Monks, Sarah; Hammerling, Dorit; Worden, Helen; Deeter, Merritt; Emmons, Louisa; Edwards, David

    2017-04-01

    Biomass burning is a major driver of atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO) variability in the Southern Hemisphere. The magnitude of emissions, such as CO, from biomass burning is connected to climate through both the availability and dryness of fuel. We investigate the link between CO and climate using satellite measured CO and climate indices. Observations of total column CO from the satellite instrument MOPITT are used to build a record of interannual variability in CO since 2001. Four biomass burning regions in the Southern Hemisphere are explored. Data driven relationships are determined between CO and climate indices for the climate modes: El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO); the Indian Ocean Dipole (IOD); the Tropical Southern Atlantic (TSA); and the Southern Annular Mode (SAM). Stepwise forward and backward regression is used to select the best statistical model from combinations of lagged indices. We find evidence for the importance of first-order interaction terms of the climate modes when explaining CO variability. Implications of the model results are discussed for the Maritime Southeast Asia and Australasia regions. We also draw on the chemistry-climate model CAM-chem to explain the source contribution as well as the relative contributions of emissions and meteorology to CO variability.

  15. Carbon monoxide poisonings after two major hurricanes--Alabama and Texas, August-October 2005.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2006-03-10

    Hurricanes Katrina and Rita struck the U.S. Gulf Coast on August 29, 2005, and September 24, 2005, respectively, causing widespread damage and leaving approximately 4 million households without electrical power. Despite public health measures to prevent carbon monoxide (CO) poisonings after major power outages, multiple CO poisonings were reported in Gulf Coast states in the wake of these hurricanes. The Alabama Department of Public Health and Texas Department of State Health Services asked CDC to assist in investigating the extent and causes of these hurricane-related CO poisonings. The investigation identified 27 incidents of CO poisoning resulting in 78 nonfatal cases and 10 deaths in hurricane-affected counties in Alabama and Texas, nearly all of which were caused by gasoline-powered generators. Most of the generators involved were placed outside but close to the home to power window air conditioners (ACs) or connect to central electric panels. Few homes had functioning CO detectors. CDC continues to recommend that generators be placed far from homes, away from window ACs, and that CO detectors be used by all households operating gasoline-powered appliances (e.g., generators and gas furnaces), with batteries replaced yearly. Although the risk for CO poisoning likely decreases as generators are placed further from the home, additional studies are needed to establish a safe distance for generator placement.

  16. Carbon monoxide oxidation on Pt single crystal electrodes: understanding the catalysis for low temperature fuel cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Gonzalo; Koper, Marc T M

    2011-08-01

    Herein the general concepts of fuel cells are discussed, with special attention to low temperature fuel cells working in alkaline media. Alkaline low temperature fuel cells could well be one of the energy sources in the next future. This technology has the potential to provide power to portable devices, transportation and stationary sectors. With the aim to solve the principal catalytic problems at the anode of low temperature fuel cells, a fundamental study of the mechanism and kinetics of carbon monoxide as well as water dissociation on stepped platinum surfaces in alkaline medium is discussed and compared with those in acidic media. Furthermore, cations involved as promoters for catalytic surface reactions are also considered. Therefore, the aim of the present work is not only to provide the new fundamental advances in the electrocatalysis field, but also to understand the reactions occurring at fuel cell catalysts, which may help to improve the fabrication of novel electrodes in order to enhance the performance and to decrease the cost of low temperature fuel cells. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. Performance of a carbon monoxide sensor based on zirconia-doped ceria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Noriya Izu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Resistive-type carbon monoxide sensors were fabricated using zirconia-doped ceria, and their sensing properties were evaluated and compared with equivalent devices based on non-doped ceria. The response of both sensor types was found to increase with decreasing temperature, while the response at 450 °C of a sensor fired at 950 °C was greater than that of a sensor fired at 1100 °C. When fired at 950 °C, however, the response at 450 °C of a sensor created using zirconia-doped ceria was slightly less than that of a sensor constructed from non-doped ceria. Multivariate analysis confirmed that the response of both sensor types is proportional to the resistance raised to the power of about 0.5, and inversely proportional to the particle size raised to a power of about 0.8. The sensor response time can be considered almost the same regardless of whether zirconia doping is used or not.

  18. Urban air pollution monitoring: laser-based procedure for the detection of carbon monoxide gas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, W X; Ledingham, K W; Singhal, R P; McCanny, T

    1998-05-01

    Urban air quality is of considerable importance in many cities throughout Europe and the USA. In particular, current EU legislation has driven an expansion of monitoring of more pollutants at more sites. At present in the UK, real time readings are now available for benzene, buta-1,3-diene and other volatile organic compounds, airborne fine dust (PM10), CO, 03, SO2, and NOX. Carbon monoxide is produced to varying degrees in all combustion processes but more than 90% is caused by emissions from petrol vehicle exhausts. The World Health Ogranisation guidelines for exposure to the gas is pollutants mentioned above are monitored by different detection techniques and it has been the authors' philosophy to develop instrumentation which can monitor all the different pollutants using a single detector. To this end, a multiphoton laser based procedure, using simple ionization chambers, has been developed to detect the different pollutants with different wavelengths. For CO, a 2 + 1 resonance enhanced multiphoton ionization (REMPI) scheme at 230 nm can be used with detection limits of about 1 ppm.

  19. Multiple T state conformations in a fish hemoglobin. Carbon monoxide binding to hemoglobin of Thunnus thynnus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, R J; Neckameyer, W S; Gibson, Q H

    1981-05-10

    The blood of the Atlantic bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus) contains four hemoglobin components separable by chromatography on diethylaminoethylcellulose. These components are stable and functionally identical in their reactions with carbon monoxide. At low pH they remain in the T state even when liganded, and show two kinetic components in binding and in dissociation, with rates of 1) 1.2 microM-1 s-1 and 0.095 s-1 and 2) 0.013 microM-1 s-1 and 0.195 s-1, respectively, at pH 6, 20 degrees C, 0.1 m KPi. These components have difference spectra separated by more than 2 nm and are present in equal amounts. After CO has bound, there is a conformation change to an altered T state, in terms of the model of Monod et al. (Monod, J., Wyman, J., and Changeux, J. P. (1965) J. Mol. Biol. 12, 88-118), with a half-time of 65 s. At equilibrium, one-third of the slow kinetic component is changed into the new conformer, which binds CO at a rate of 0.14 microM-1 s-1.

  20. Model-simulated trend of surface carbon monoxide for the 2001–2010 decade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Jongmin; Pozzer, Andrea

    2015-04-01

    We present decadal trend estimates of surface carbon monoxide (CO) simulated using the atmospheric chemistry general circulation model EMAC (ECHAM5/MESSy for Atmospheric Chemistry) based on the emission scenarios Representative Concentration Pathways (RCP) 8.5 for anthropogenic activity and Global Fire Emissions Database (GFED) v3.1 for biomass burning from 2001 through 2010. The spatial distribution of the modeled surface CO is evaluated with monthly data from the Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) thermal infrared product. The global means of correlation coefficient and relative bias for the decade 2001-2010 are 0.95 and -4.29 %, respectively. We also find a reasonable correlation (R =0.78) between the trends of EMAC surface CO and full 10-year monthly records from ground-based observation (World Data Centre for Greenhouse Gases, WDCGG). Over western Europe, eastern USA, and northern Australia, the significant decreases in EMAC surface CO are estimated at -35.5±5.8, -59.6±9.1, and -13.7±9.5 ppbv per decade, respectively. In contrast, the surface CO increases by +8.9±4.8 ppbv per decade over southern Asia. A high correlation (R =0.92) between the changes in EMAC-simulated surface CO and total emission flux shows that the significant regional trends are attributed to the changes in primary and direct emissions from both anthropogenic activity and biomass burning.

  1. Changing distributions of carbon monoxide (CO) over Africa from climate and land use driven fire patterns

    Science.gov (United States)

    Worden, Helen; Bloom, Anthony; Worden, John

    2017-04-01

    Satellite measurements of atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO) provide a signature for biomass burning and anthropogenic combustion-related pollution emissions. CO plays an important role in both air quality and climate as a precursor for tropospheric ozone and as a major sink of OH, the atmospheric "detergent" that affects the lifetime of methane and other pollutants. Worden et al., [2013] showed decreasing global CO values in time series of satellite total column CO measurements over the past decade. All of the satellite instruments that measure CO in the thermal infrared showed consistent inter-annual variability due to fires and possibly the global recession in late 2008. Observed decreases in CO over N. America and Europe were consistent with expected decreases in CO emissions inventories [Granier et al., 2011], however, the decrease is not uniform globally. In particular, some regions of Africa show negligible trends in CO. Here we examine the 14-year time series (2002-2015) of surface and total column CO concentrations from MOPITT and fire radiative power (FRP) from MODIS over Africa to study the attribution of changes in CO. We are interested in changes in fires due to climate variability (El Nino) and land-use, including urbanization, and their effect on atmospheric CO burden.

  2. Evaluation of new laser spectrometer techniques for in-situ carbon monoxide measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Zellweger

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Long-term time series of the atmospheric composition are essential for environmental research and thus require compatible, multi-decadal monitoring activities. The current data quality objectives of the World Meteorological Organization (WMO for carbon monoxide (CO in the atmosphere are very challenging to meet with the measurement techniques that have been used until recently. During the past few years, new spectroscopic techniques came to market with promising properties for trace gas analytics. The current study compares three instruments that have recently become commercially available (since 2011 with the best currently available technique (Vacuum UV Fluorescence and provides a link to previous comparison studies. The instruments were investigated for their performance regarding repeatability, reproducibility, drift, temperature dependence, water vapour interference and linearity. Finally, all instruments were examined during a short measurement campaign to assess their applicability for long-term field measurements. It could be shown that the new techniques perform considerably better compared to previous techniques, although some issues, such as temperature influence and cross sensitivities, need further attention.

  3. Carbon monoxide packaging shows the same color improvement for dark cutting beef as high oxygen packaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yimin; Qin, Libo; Mao, Yanwei; Hopkins, David L; Han, Guangxing; Zhu, Lixian; Luo, Xin

    2018-03-01

    In this study, carbon monoxide (CO) modified atmosphere packaging (MAP) was used to increase redness (a*) and lightness (L*) values of dark cutting beef (ultimate pH (pHu)≥6.10), compared to normal pHu beef and intermediate pHu beef (pH: 5.40-5.79; pH: 5.80-6.09, respectively) during 20 d chilled storage. Compared with HiOx-MAP, CO-MAP exhibited similar color improvement effects (increased L*, a*, b* values) for all pHu beef groupings. The metmyoglobin (MetMb) content was lower under CO-MAP than that of HiOx-MAP in normal pHu beef, but opposite effects were observed in dark, high pH beef. This result could not be explained by MetMb reducing ability (MRA) and lipid oxidation, as both parameters were higher in CO-MAP beef than either normal or high pHu beef, compared with HiOx-MAP. In conclusion, CO-MAP was effective to maintain the cherry red color for dark cutting beef, but the color improvement mechanisms might be different with HiOx packaging methods. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Urinary cotinine and breath carbon monoxide levels among bar and restaurant employees in ankara.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caman, Ozge Karadag; Erguder, Berrin I; Ozcebe, Hilal; Bilir, Nazmi

    2013-08-01

    Hospitality sector employees constitute one of the key groups with respect to their secondhand tobacco smoke exposure at work. This study aimed to detect urinary cotinine and breath carbon monoxide (CO) levels among bar and restaurant employees in Ankara, as well as the employees' opinions on the new antitobacco law, changes in smoking behavior, and subjective health status before and after the law entered into force. This before-after study was conducted in 19 premises, with the participation of 65 employees before implementation and 81 employees 3 months after implementation of the new antitobacco law in the hospitality sector. Data in both phases were collected through face-to-face surveys, breath CO measurements, and urinary cotinine analysis. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize data, whereas chi-square test, paired and unpaired t tests, and analysis of variance were used to compare groups. Most of the restaurant and bar employees were male and below 35 years old. Before-after comparison showed that health complaints of the hospitality sector employees such as watering and itching in the eyes, difficulty in breathing, and cough (p law. Among the smoking employees, mean number of cigarettes smoked was also found to decrease (p = .012). Majority of the employees (83.8%) were found to support the smoking ban in enclosed public places. Results of this study provide solid evidence on the positive health effects of smoke-free laws and employees' support for smoke-free workplaces.

  5. Efficient photosynthesis of carbon monoxide from CO2 using perovskite photovoltaics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schreier, Marcel; Curvat, Laura; Giordano, Fabrizio; Steier, Ludmilla; Abate, Antonio; Zakeeruddin, Shaik M; Luo, Jingshan; Mayer, Matthew T; Grätzel, Michael

    2015-06-11

    Artificial photosynthesis, mimicking nature in its efforts to store solar energy, has received considerable attention from the research community. Most of these attempts target the production of H2 as a fuel and our group recently demonstrated solar-to-hydrogen conversion at 12.3% efficiency. Here, in an effort to take this approach closer to real photosynthesis, which is based on the conversion of CO2, we demonstrate the efficient reduction of CO2 to carbon monoxide driven solely by simulated sunlight using water as the electron source. Employing series-connected perovskite photovoltaics and high-performance catalyst electrodes, we reach a solar-to-CO efficiency exceeding 6.5%, which represents a new benchmark in sunlight-driven CO2 conversion. Considering hydrogen as a secondary product, an efficiency exceeding 7% is observed. Furthermore, this study represents one of the first demonstrations of extended, stable operation of perovskite photovoltaics, whose large open-circuit voltage is shown to be particularly suited for this process.

  6. Carbon monoxide concentration in donated blood: relation to cigarette smoking and other sources.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aberg, Anna-Maja; Sojka, Birgitta Nilsson; Winsö, Ola; Abrahamsson, Pernilla; Johansson, Göran; Larsson, Jan Erik

    2009-02-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is normally present in the human body due to endogenous production of CO. CO can also be inhaled by exposure to external sources such as cigarette smoke, car exhaust, and fire. The purpose of this study was to investigate CO concentrations in blood from 410 blood donors at the blood center in Umeå, Sweden. To further evaluate the effects of cigarette smoking on CO concentrations, the elimination time for CO was examined in six volunteer smokers after a smoked cigarette. Blood samples from whole blood donors were obtained during the blood center's routine operation. In connection with blood donations, demographic and behavioral data were collected from the donors. The CO concentration was determined using gas chromatography. The majority of blood donors had approximately the same CO concentration (mean, 84.5 micromol/L). In 6 percent of the samples, the concentrations were higher than 130 micromol per L. The highest CO concentration was 561 micromol per L. The main source for these high CO concentrations appeared to be cigarette smoking. In the volunteer smokers, the elimination time after a smoked cigarette varied significantly, with elimination half-lives from 4.7 to 8.4 hours. These results show that blood bank red blood cell bags may have CO concentrations above the physiologic level. The time interval between cigarette smoking and blood donation seems to be a particularly important factor for elevated CO concentrations.

  7. Performance of a fire detector based on a compact laser spectroscopic carbon monoxide sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hangauer, A; Chen, J; Strzoda, R; Fleischer, M; Amann, M-C

    2014-06-02

    In this paper we show the suitability of a miniaturized tunable diode laser spectroscopy (TDLS)-based carbon-monoxide (CO) sensor for fire detection applications. The sensor utilizes a vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser (VCSEL) and inherent calibration scheme with reference gas filled in the photodetector housing. The fire-detection experiments are carried out under realistic conditions as described in the European standard EN54. The CO generation of all class C fires (according to EN54) could be well resolved. The cross-sensitivity to other substances was found to be very low: the maximum CO false response from cigarette smoke, hairspray and general aerosols reaches a low value of a few μL/L and only if the substance is directly applied into the sensor gas inlet. Therefore this sensor overcomes the disadvantage of high false alarm rate given by smoke detectors and is also in small size which is suitable for household and industrial applications. Hence, the VCSEL-based TDLS sensor is shown to have sufficient performance for fire-detection. It has advantages such as capability for fail-safe operation and, low cross-sensitivities as compared to existing point fire detector technology which is presently limited by these factors.

  8. Electron energy and vibrational distribution functions of carbon monoxide in nanosecond atmospheric discharges and microsecond afterglows

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pietanza, L. D.; Colonna, G.; Capitelli, M.

    2017-12-01

    Nanopulse atmospheric carbon monoxide discharges and corresponding afterglows have been investigated in a wide range of applied reduced electric field (130 The results have been obtained by solving an appropriate Boltzmann equation for the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) coupled to the kinetics of vibrational and electronic excited states as well as to a simplified plasma chemistry for the different species formed during the activation of CO. The molar fraction of electronically excited states generated in the discharge is sufficient to create structures in the EEDF in the afterglow regime. On the other hand, only for long duration pulses (i.e. 50 ns), non-equilibrium vibrational distributions can be observed especially in the afterglow. The trend of the results for the case study E/N = 200 Td, \\text{pulse}=2$ ns is qualitatively and quantitatively similar to the corresponding case for CO2 implying that the activation of CO2 by cold plasmas should take into account the kinetics of formed CO with the same accuracy as the CO2 itself.

  9. Influence of surface vacancy defects on the carburisation of Fe 110 surface by carbon monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chakrabarty, Aurab; Bouhali, Othmane; Mousseau, Normand; Becquart, Charlotte S.; El-Mellouhi, Fedwa

    2016-01-01

    Adsorption and dissociation of gaseous carbon monoxide (CO) on metal surfaces is one of the most frequently occurring processes of carburisation, known as primary initiator of metal dusting corrosion. Among the various factors that can significantly influence the carburisation process are the intrinsic surface defects such as single surface vacancies occurring at high concentrations due to their low formation energy. Intuitively, adsorption and dissociation barriers of CO are expected to be lowered in the vicinity of a surface vacancy, due to the strong attractive interaction between the vacancy and the C atom. Here the adsorption energies and dissociation pathways of CO on clean and defective Fe 110 surface are explored by means of density functional theory. Interestingly, we find that the O adatom, resulting from the CO dissociation, is unstable in the electron-deficit neighbourhood of the vacancy due to its large electron affinity, and raises the barrier of the carburisation pathway. Still, a full comparative study between the clean surface and the vacancy-defected surface reveals that the complete process of carburisation, starting from adsorption to subsurface diffusion of C, is more favourable in the vicinity of a vacancy defect.

  10. Carbon monoxide in clouds at low metallicity in the dwarf irregular galaxy WLM.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elmegreen, Bruce G; Rubio, Monica; Hunter, Deidre A; Verdugo, Celia; Brinks, Elias; Schruba, Andreas

    2013-03-28

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is the primary tracer for interstellar clouds where stars form, but it has never been detected in galaxies in which the oxygen abundance relative to hydrogen is less than 20 per cent of that of the Sun, even though such 'low-metallicity' galaxies often form stars. This raises the question of whether stars can form in dense gas without molecules, cooling to the required near-zero temperatures by atomic transitions and dust radiation rather than by molecular line emission; and it highlights uncertainties about star formation in the early Universe, when the metallicity was generally low. Here we report the detection of CO in two regions of a local dwarf irregular galaxy, WLM, where the metallicity is 13 per cent of the solar value. We use new submillimetre observations and archival far-infrared observations to estimate the cloud masses, which are both slightly greater than 100,000 solar masses. The clouds have produced stars at a rate per molecule equal to 10 per cent of that in the local Orion nebula cloud. The CO fraction of the molecular gas is also low, about 3 per cent of the Milky Way value. These results suggest that in small galaxies both star-forming cores and CO molecules become increasingly rare in molecular hydrogen clouds as the metallicity decreases.

  11. Carbon monoxide poisoning during ice storms: a tale of two cities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrenn, K; Conners, G P

    1997-01-01

    This is a retrospective case series conducted at two university hospital emergency departments of 68 patients with a discharge diagnosis of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning presenting during two different ice storms (March 1991 and February 1994) in two cities (Rochester, NY, and Nashville, TN). Fifty-five patients were seen over 10 d in Rochester and 13 patients over 4 d in Nashville. The main sources of CO exposure were the indoor use of gasoline generators (40 patients), propane or kerosene heaters (9 patients), and charcoal grills (8 patients). Six patients did not speak English fluently (5 Asian patients in Nashville and 1 Greek patient in Rochester). The use of charcoal grills was the most common CO source in Nashville, occurring exclusively in patients of Asian descent, 5 of whom did not speak English. In Rochester, the use of gas generators was the most common CO source. Ice storms represent a significant threat to populations affected by prolonged power outages. Different cities will be affected in different ways. When ice storms occur, the media should distribute information about potential sources of CO exposure. In some cases, the message may need to be distributed by alternative methods to populations who do not speak English or do not have access to mainstream media.

  12. Nonfatal, unintentional, non--fire-related carbon monoxide exposures--United States, 2004-2006.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-08-22

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a colorless, odorless, nonirritating gas that is produced through the incomplete combustion of hydrocarbons. Sources of CO include combustion devices (e.g., boilers and furnaces), motor-vehicle exhaust, generators and other gasoline or diesel-powered engines, gas space heaters, woodstoves, gas stoves, fireplaces, tobacco smoke, and various occupational sources. CO poisoning is a leading cause of unintentional poisoning deaths in the United States; it was responsible for approximately 450 deaths each year during 1999-2004 and an estimated 15,200 emergency department (ED) visits each year during 2001-2003. Health effects of CO exposure can range from viral-like symptoms (e.g., fatigue, dizziness, headache, confusion, and nausea) to more severe conditions (e.g., disorientation, unconsciousness, long-term neurologic disabilities, coma, cardiorespiratory failure, and death). CO poisoning often is misdiagnosed and underdetected because of the nonspecific nature of symptoms. To update a previously published report and provide national estimates of CO-related ED visits during 2004-2006, CDC analyzed data from the National Electronic Injury Surveillance System--All Injury Program (NEISS-AIP) database. During 2004-2006, an estimated average of 20,636 ED visits for nonfatal, unintentional, non-fire-related CO exposures occurred each year. Approximately 73% of these exposures occurred in homes, and 41% occurred during winter months (December-February). Prevention efforts targeting residential and seasonal CO exposures can substantially reduce CO-related morbidity.

  13. Otoneurological symptoms in Brazilian fishermen exposed over a long period to carbon monoxide and noise.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeigelboim, Bianca Simone; Santos da Carvalho, Hugo Amilton; Gonçalves, Claudia Giglio de Oliveira; Albizu, Evelyn Joice; Marques, Jair Mendes; Fuck, Bruna Carla; Cardoso, Rafaella

    2015-01-01

    Fishing, one of the oldest productive activities, is an important sector of the Brazilian economy as well as the world economy. To evaluate the vestibular behavior in population of fishermen. It was realized as a retrospective and cross-sectional study. Thirty fishermen [mean age 49.5 (± 8.5) years] whose age ranged from 33 years to 67 years were submitted to anamnesis, otorhinolaryngological evaluation, and vestibular examination through the electronystagmography (ENG). The most evident otoneurological symptoms were: Tinnitus (66.7%), dizziness (63.3%), and hearing loss (53.3%). The most evident clinical symptoms were: Fatigue (36.7%), anxiety (23.3%), and depression (16.7%). There were alterations in the vestibular examination of 13 (43.3%) fishermen in the caloric test. There was a prevalence of alteration in the peripheral vestibular system and there was a major frequency of the peripheral vestibular irritative syndrome (30.0%). The otoneurological complaints were frequent in the population studied that verifies the importance of allowing labyrinth examinations and the need for adopting preventive measures related to noise exposure to carbon monoxide (CO), since they can cause and/enhance various manifestations of labyrinthine vestibular impairment that can affect the quality of life of these workers.

  14. Carbon monoxide oxidation over three different states of copper: Development of a model metal oxide catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jernigan, Glenn Geoffrey [California Univ., Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1994-10-01

    Carbon monoxide oxidation was performed over the three different oxidation states of copper -- metallic (Cu), copper (I) oxide (Cu2O), and copper (II) oxide (CuO) as a test case for developing a model metal oxide catalyst amenable to study by the methods of modern surface science and catalysis. Copper was deposited and oxidized on oxidized supports of aluminum, silicon, molybdenum, tantalum, stainless steel, and iron as well as on graphite. The catalytic activity was found to decrease with increasing oxidation state (Cu > Cu2O > CuO) and the activation energy increased with increasing oxidation state (Cu, 9 kcal/mol < Cu2O, 14 kcal/mol < CuO, 17 kcal/mol). Reaction mechanisms were determined for the different oxidation states. Lastly, NO reduction by CO was studied. A Cu and CuO catalyst were exposed to an equal mixture of CO and NO at 300--350 C to observe the production of N2 and CO2. At the end of each reaction, the catalyst was found to be Cu2O. There is a need to study the kinetics of this reaction over the different oxidation states of copper.

  15. The clinical and imaging characteristics of delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Chuming; Yin Zhao; Fang Yannan; Hong Weimin; Zeng Xianjie; Wang Tianwen

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To discuss the clinical and imaging characteristics of delayed encephalopathy after acute carbon monoxide poisoning (DEACMP). Methods: The clinical data of 14 patients with DEACMP were respectively analyzed. Results: Initial symptom included mentally falling (MMSE rate < 20 points) in 14 patients (100%), incontinence of urine in 11 patients (78%). Relatively significant increase of hematoma (HCT) (average level 0.503±0.027) was found in 6 patients. Three kinds of brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) appearance including diffuse white matter lesion, cortical lesion and basal nuclei lesion often existed in association. Therapy for improving circulation was given in 14 patients, and therapy with hormone was given in 9 patients; with 85% improvement rate. 5 patients without hormone therapy but with improving circulation therapy also received improvement. Conclusion: High level of HCT might be one of the causes of DECACMP due to acute disturbance of brain micro-circulation.. Close monitoring the change of HCT levels should be adopted for at least 3-6 months during therapy. Therapy for improving circulation and for anti-agglutination of platelets should be performed besides the routine high-tension oxygen therapy. Low FA value on DTI indicates the occurrence of a demyelization change in the brain long tract fibers, which indicated therapeutic effect of hormone treatment. And, therefore it would be better to perform DTI scan before therapy for individualized therapy. (authors)

  16. Carbon monoxide poisoning and death in a large enclosed ventilated area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huston, Butch; Froloff, Victor; Mills, Kelly; McGee, Michael

    2013-11-01

    A 55-year-old man with a medical history of tobacco use suddenly collapsed while power washing an empty indoor pool in a hotel. The decedent was transported to the local hospital where he was pronounced. A postmortem examination revealed atherosclerotic heart disease and bilateral pulmonary edema and congestion. A postmortem blood carbon monoxide (CO) level was 27% saturation, and a CO performed on hospital admission blood was 49% saturation. CO poisoning is a common cause of toxicological morbidity and mortality in the United States. The circumstances most often occur in an enclosed environment and may be intentional or unintentional. CO poisoning has been reported in open, well-ventilated spaces, but rarely results in death. A warning label was present on the engine clearly stating the dangers of CO emission. However, there was a false sense of security due to the large size of the pool room and the presence of industrial blowers that were being used for ventilation. © 2013 American Academy of Forensic Sciences.

  17. Using ANN and EPR models to predict carbon monoxide concentrations in urban area of Tabriz

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shakerkhatibi

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Background: Forecasting of air pollutants has become a popular topic of environmental research today. For this purpose, the artificial neural network (AAN technique is widely used as a reliable method for forecasting air pollutants in urban areas. On the other hand, the evolutionary polynomial regression (EPR model has recently been used as a forecasting tool in some environmental issues. In this research, we compared the ability of these models to forecast carbon monoxide (CO concentrations in the urban area of Tabriz city. Methods: The dataset of CO concentrations measured at the fixed stations operated by the East Azerbaijan Environmental Office along with meteorological data obtained from the East Azerbaijan Meteorological Bureau from March 2007 to March 2013, were used as input for the ANN and EPR models. Results: Based on the results, the performance of ANN is more reliable in comparison with EPR. Using the ANN model, the correlation coefficient values at all monitoring stations were calculated above 0.85. Conversely, the R2 values for these stations were obtained <0.41 using the EPR model. Conclusion: The EPR model could not overcome the nonlinearities of input data. However, the ANN model displayed more accurate results compared to the EPR. Hence, the ANN models are robust tools for predicting air pollutant concentrations.

  18. Otoneurological symptoms in Brazilian fishermen exposed over a long period to carbon monoxide and noise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca Simone Zeigelboim

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Fishing, one of the oldest productive activities, is an important sector of the Brazilian economy as well as the world economy. To evaluate the vestibular behavior in population of fishermen. It was realized as a retrospective and cross-sectional study. Thirty fishermen [mean age 49.5 (±8.5 years] whose age ranged from 33 years to 67 years were submitted to anamnesis, otorhinolaryngological evaluation, and vestibular examination through the electronystagmography (ENG. The most evident otoneurological symptoms were: Tinnitus (66.7%, dizziness (63.3%, and hearing loss (53.3%. The most evident clinical symptoms were: Fatigue (36.7%, anxiety (23.3%, and depression (16.7%. There were alterations in the vestibular examination of 13 (43.3% fishermen in the caloric test. There was a prevalence of alteration in the peripheral vestibular system and there was a major frequency of the peripheral vestibular irritative syndrome (30.0%. Conclusion: The otoneurological complaints were frequent in the population studied that verifies the importance of allowing labyrinth examinations and the need for adopting preventive measures related to noise exposure to carbon monoxide (CO, since they can cause and/enhance various manifestations of labyrinthine vestibular impairment that can affect the quality of life of these workers.

  19. Global Carbon Monoxide Products from Combined AIRS, TES and MLS Measurements on A-Train Satellites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, Juying X.; Yang, R.; Wei, Z.; Carminati, F.; Tangborn, A.; Sun, Z.; Lahoz, W.; Attie, J. L.; El Amraoui, L.; Duncan, B.

    2014-01-01

    This study tests a novel methodology to add value to satellite data sets. This methodology, data fusion, is similar to data assimilation, except that the background modelbased field is replaced by a satellite data set, in this case AIRS (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder) carbon monoxide (CO) measurements. The observational information comes from CO measurements with lower spatial coverage than AIRS, namely, from TES (Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer) and MLS (Microwave Limb Sounder). We show that combining these data sets with data fusion uses the higher spectral resolution of TES to extend AIRS CO observational sensitivity to the lower troposphere, a region especially important for air quality studies. We also show that combined CO measurements from AIRS and MLS provide enhanced information in the UTLS (upper troposphere/lower stratosphere) region compared to each product individually. The combined AIRS-TES and AIRS-MLS CO products are validated against DACOM (differential absorption mid-IR diode laser spectrometer) in situ CO measurements from the INTEX-B (Intercontinental Chemical Transport Experiment: MILAGRO and Pacific phases) field campaign and in situ data from HIPPO (HIAPER Pole-to-Pole Observations) flights. The data fusion results show improved sensitivities in the lower and upper troposphere (20-30% and above 20%, respectively) as compared with AIRS-only version 5 CO retrievals, and improved daily coverage compared with TES and MLS CO data.

  20. Composition and color stability of carbon monoxide treated dried porcine blood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontes, P R; Gomide, L A M; Fontes, E A F; Ramos, E M; Ramos, A L S

    2010-07-01

    Color stability of swine blood was studied over 12 weeks of storage in plastic bags, after pH (7.40, 6.70, or 6.00) adjustment, saturation with carbon monoxide (CO) and spray-drying. CO-treated dried blood presented a redder color and higher reflectance between 610 and 700 nm, compared to a brownish-red color and lower reflectance of untreated samples. As indicated by reflectance spectra, blood pH adjustment did not influence (P>0.05) the initial color of dried blood but influenced (Pvalues, which was more pronounced in polyethylene (OTR=4130 cm(3)/m(2)/day/atm) packaged samples. After 12 weeks of storage, CO-treated samples packaged in high OTR bags presented color indexes similar to those of the untreated dried samples. CO-treated samples packaged in nylon-polyethylene (OTR=30-60 cm(3)/m(2)/day/atm) bags showed a smaller rate of discoloration and color difference (DeltaE(*)) between the CO-treated and untreated samples. Even with some darkening, packaging CO-treated dry blood in low OTR bags still gives an acceptable reddish color after 12 weeks of storage while untreated dry blood has a brownish color just after drying. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of puff number and puff spacing on carbon monoxide exposure from commercial brand cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinhold, L L; Stitzer, M L

    1989-08-01

    Six chronic smokers of mid- to high-carbon monoxide (CO) yield cigarettes smoked ultralow- (1.6 mg CO), low- (5.9 mg CO) and high- (14.3 mg CO) yield commercial cigarettes under controlled smoking conditions in which either puff number or puff spacing was manipulated. CO exposure (pre- to postsmoking increments) was directly related to the number of puffs taken for all cigarette yields. CO exposure from the high- and low-yield cigarettes was equivalent when the number of puffs taken from the low-yield cigarettes was increased by 50% (from 8 to 12 puffs). In contrast, CO exposure from ultralow-yield cigarettes was still marginally lower than exposure from high-yield cigarettes after a 4-fold increase in puff number (8 to 32 puffs). Puff spacing did not affect biological exposure to CO. The study showed that the number of puffs taken during smoking can clearly affect biological exposure to CO, but that compensation for lowered yield using increased puffs is much more difficult when ultralow- as compared with low or "light"- yield cigarettes are smoked.

  2. Effect of filter vent blocking on carbon monoxide exposure from selected lower tar cigarette brands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweeney, C T; Kozlowski, L T; Parsa, P

    1999-05-01

    Two studies were conducted to determine the effect of blocking filter vents on carbon monoxide (CO) exposure under ad lib smoking conditions. In Study 1, 12 daily cigarette smokers smoked cigarettes from the brands Now (1 mg tar by the FTC Method) and Marlboro Lights (10 mg tar) under each of two vent-blocking conditions (unblocked and finger blocked). Blocking filter vents with fingers led to an 85% increase in CO for the brand Now, but had no added effect on CO exposure from the Marlboro Lights. In Study 2, another 12 daily cigarette smokers smoked cigarettes from each of four additional brands: Carlton (1 mg tar), Now (2 mg tar), Virginia Slims Ultra-lights (5 mg tar), and Virginia Slims Lights (8 mg tar). Blocking filter vents with the lips caused all four brands to produce equal CO exposures. Blocking vents increased smokers' exposure to CO by 239% when smoking Carltons and by 44% when smoking Nows. No significant increases in CO with blocking were found for either of the Virginia Slims brands. These results suggest that the degree to which a brand is ventilated determines whether that brand is susceptible to increased CO yields as a result of vent blocking.

  3. Improving Outreach and Surveillance Efforts Following a Large-Scale Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Wisconsin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, Paul D; Vogt, Christy M; Wozniak, Ryan J; Camponeschi, Jenny; Werner, Mark A; Meiman, Jonathan G

    In December 2014, the largest carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning in Wisconsin's history occurred at an ice arena. Following this event, the Wisconsin Environmental Public Health Tracking (WI EPHT) Program sought to improve outreach and surveillance efforts. WI EPHT designed and distributed educational materials on CO poisoning prevention and surveyed stakeholders to gauge the effectiveness of outreach efforts. To enhance surveillance, WI EPHT utilized data from the Wisconsin Poison Center (WPC) to generate real-time alerts of anomalous numbers of CO-related calls. WI EPHT found that 42% of stakeholders reviewed the outreach materials, and 1 ice arena had installed a CO detector as a result. CO alerts were developed using WPC data and are now routinely used in statewide public health surveillance. WI EPHT staff improved CO poisoning prevention outreach and saw a positive response among stakeholders. This work demonstrates ways that health agencies can improve outreach and surveillance for CO poisoning. Improvements in these areas can bolster public health response and may prevent CO-related illness and injury.

  4. Real-time measurements of endogenous carbon monoxide production in isolated pig lungs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maignan, Maxime; Briot, Raphael; Romanini, Daniel; Gennai, Stephane; Hazane-Puch, Florence; Brouta, Angelique; Debaty, Guillaume; Ventrillard, Irene

    2014-04-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion injuries are a critical determinant of lung transplantation success. The endogenous production of carbon monoxide (CO) is triggered by ischemia-reperfusion injuries. Our aim was, therefore, to assess the feasibility of exhaled CO measurements during the ex vivo evaluation of lungs submitted to ischemia-reperfusion injuries. Five pigs were euthanized and their lungs removed after pneumoplegia. After cold storage (30 min, 4°C), the lungs were connected to an extracorporeal membrane oxygenation circuit, slowly warmed-up, and ventilated. At the end of a 45-min steady state, CO measurements were performed by optical-feedback cavity-enhanced absorption spectroscopy, a specific laser-based technique for noninvasive and real-time low gas concentration measurements. Exhaled CO concentration from isolated lungs reached 0.45±0.19  ppmv and was above CO concentration in ambient air and in medical gas. CO variations peaked during the expiratory phase. Changes in CO concentration in ambient air did not alter CO concentrations in isolated lungs. Exhaled CO level was also found to be uncorrelated to heme oxygenase (HO-1) gene expression. These results confirm the feasibility of accurate and real-time CO measurement in isolated lungs. The presented technology could help establishing the exhaled CO concentration as a biomarker of ischemia-reperfusion injury in ex vivo lung perfusion.

  5. Effects of carbon monoxide treatment before vacuum packaging on the physical parameters and consumer evaluations of raw beef

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna SAKOWSKA

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract This study examined the color changes of packaged beef due to the effects of carbon monoxide exposure before vacuum packing and storage time, as well as consumers’ evaluations of that beef. In the experiment, 400 striploin steaks (M. longissimus dorsi were vacuum packed or after 48 hours of exposure to different concentrations of CO (0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.5% vacuum packed. The color measurements and consumer evaluations were conducted after 7, 10, 14, 17, and 21 days of storage in the dark at 2 ± 1 °C. Consumers evaluated the color, surface discoloration, attractiveness, and their willingness to buy the meat. The results showed that regardless of storage time, the color parameters (L*, a*, b*, C* were significantly higher for the steaks vacuum packed after exposure to carbon monoxide in comparison to those packaged in a vacuum without the use of CO. Based on the consumer evaluations, the most attractive steaks were those that had been exposed to 0.3% and 0.5% CO, which were characterized by bright red or cherry-red colors. Consumers did not accept the appearance of steaks packaged without the carbon monoxide pretreatment. Exposing meat to CO before packaging allows to obtain the attractive color of vacuum packed beef.

  6. GASP - THERMODYNAMIC AND TRANSPORT PROPERTIES OF HELIUM, METHANE, NEON, NITROGEN, CARBON MONOXIDE, CARBON DIOXIDE, OXYGEN, AND ARGON

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendricks, R. C.

    1994-01-01

    A computer program, GASP, has been written to calculate the thermodynamic and transport properties of argon, carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, fluorine, methane, neon, nitrogen, and oxygen. GASP accepts any two of pressure, temperature, or density as input. In addition, entropy and enthalpy are possible inputs. Outputs are temperature, density, pressure, entropy, enthalpy, specific heats, expansion coefficient, sonic velocity, viscosity, thermal conductivity, and surface tension. A special technique is provided to estimate the thermal conductivity near the thermodynamic critical point. GASP is a group of FORTRAN subroutines. The user typically would write a main program that invoked GASP to provide only the described outputs. Subroutines are structured so that the user may call only those subroutines needed for his particular calculations. Allowable pressures range from 0.l atmosphere to 100 to l,000 atmospheres, depending on the fluid. Similarly, allowable pressures range from the triple point of each substance to 300 degrees K to 2000 degrees K, depending on the substance. The GASP package was developed to be used with heat transfer and fluid flow applications. It is particularly useful in applications of cryogenic fluids. Some problems associated with the liquefication, storage, and gasification of liquefied natural gas and liquefied petroleum gas can also be studied using GASP. This program is written in FORTRAN IV for batch execution and is available for implementation on IBM 7000 series computers. GASP was developed in 1971.

  7. Electroreduction of carbon monoxide to liquid fuel on oxide-derived nanocrystalline copper

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Christina W.; Ciston, Jim; Kanan, Matthew W.

    2014-04-01

    The electrochemical conversion of CO2 and H2O into liquid fuel is ideal for high-density renewable energy storage and could provide an incentive for CO2 capture. However, efficient electrocatalysts for reducing CO2 and its derivatives into a desirable fuel are not available at present. Although many catalysts can reduce CO2 to carbon monoxide (CO), liquid fuel synthesis requires that CO is reduced further, using H2O as a H+ source. Copper (Cu) is the only known material with an appreciable CO electroreduction activity, but in bulk form its efficiency and selectivity for liquid fuel are far too low for practical use. In particular, H2O reduction to H2 outcompetes CO reduction on Cu electrodes unless extreme overpotentials are applied, at which point gaseous hydrocarbons are the major CO reduction products. Here we show that nanocrystalline Cu prepared from Cu2O (`oxide-derived Cu') produces multi-carbon oxygenates (ethanol, acetate and n-propanol) with up to 57% Faraday efficiency at modest potentials (-0.25 volts to -0.5 volts versus the reversible hydrogen electrode) in CO-saturated alkaline H2O. By comparison, when prepared by traditional vapour condensation, Cu nanoparticles with an average crystallite size similar to that of oxide-derived copper produce nearly exclusive H2 (96% Faraday efficiency) under identical conditions. Our results demonstrate the ability to change the intrinsic catalytic properties of Cu for this notoriously difficult reaction by growing interconnected nanocrystallites from the constrained environment of an oxide lattice. The selectivity for oxygenates, with ethanol as the major product, demonstrates the feasibility of a two-step conversion of CO2 to liquid fuel that could be powered by renewable electricity.

  8. Anaerobic transformation of carbon monoxide by microbial communities of Kamchatka hot springs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kochetkova, Tatiana V; Rusanov, Igor I; Pimenov, Nikolay V; Kolganova, Tatyana V; Lebedinsky, Alexander V; Bonch-Osmolovskaya, Elizaveta A; Sokolova, Tatyana G

    2011-05-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is one of the common gaseous compounds found in hot volcanic environments. It is known to serve as the growth substrate for a number of thermophilic prokaryotes, both aerobic and anaerobic. The goal of this work was to study the process of anaerobic transformation of CO by microbial communities inhabiting natural thermal environments: hot springs of Uzon Caldera, Kamchatka. The anaerobic microbial community of Treshchinny Spring (80°C, pH 6.5) was found to exhibit two peaks of affinity for CO (K (S1) = 54 nM and K (S2) = 1 μM). The actual rate of anaerobic CO transformation by the microbial community of this spring, calculated after obtaining the concentration dependence curve and extrapolated to the natural concentration of CO dissolved in the hot spring water (20 nM), was found to be 120 μmol l(-1) of sediment day(-1). In all the hot springs studied, more than 90% of the carbon of (14)CO upon anaerobic incubation was recovered as (14)CO(2). From 1 to 5% of (14)CO was transformed to volatile fatty acids (VFA). The number of microorganisms capable of anaerobic CO oxidation determined by dilution-to-extinction method reached 10(6) cells ml(-1) of sediment. CO-transforming anaerobic thermophilic microorganisms isolated from the springs under study exhibited hydrogenogenic type of CO oxidation and belonged to the bacterial genera Carboxydocella and Dictyoglomus. These data suggest a significant role of hydrogenogenic carboxydotrophic prokaryotes in anaerobic CO transformation in Uzon Caldera hot springs.

  9. Kinetics of carbon monoxide oxidation over modified supported CuO catalysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loc, Luu Cam; Tri, Nguyen; Cuong, Hoang Tien; Thoang, Ho Si [Vietnam Academy of Science and Technology (VAST), Ho Chi Minh City (Viet Nam). Inst. of Chemical Technology; Agafonov, Yu.A.; Gaidai, N.A.; Lapidus, A.L. [Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow (Russian Federation). N.D. Zelinsky Institute of Organic Chemistry

    2013-11-01

    The following supported on {gamma}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} catalysts: 10(wt.)%CuO (CuAl), 10%CuO+10%Cr{sub 2}O{sub 3} (CuCrAl) and 10%CuO+20%CeO{sub 2} (CuCeAl) were under the investigation. Physico-chemical characteristics of the catalysts were determined by the methods of BET, X-ray Diffraction (XRD), and Temperature-Programmed Reduction (TPR). A strong interaction of copper with support in CuAl resulted in the formation of low active copper aluminates. The bi-oxide CuCrAl was more active than CuAl owing to the formation of high catalytically active spinel CuCr{sub 2}O{sub 4}. The fact of very high activity of the sample CuCeAl can be explained by the presence of the catalytically active form of CuO-CeO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. The kinetics of CO total oxidation was studied in a gradientless flow-circulating system at the temperature range between 200 C and 270 C. The values of initial partial pressures of carbon monoxide (P{sup o}{sub CO}), oxygen (P{sup o}{sub O2}), and specially added carbon dioxide (P{sup o}{sub CO{sub 2}}) were varied in ranges (hPa): 10 / 45; 33 / 100, and 0 / 30, respectively. (orig.)

  10. Electrochemical oxidation of carbon monoxide: from platinum single crystals to low temperature fuel catalysts. Part II: Electrooxidation of H2, CO and H2/CO mixtures on well characterized PtMo alloy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PHILIP N. ROSS JR.

    2003-03-01

    Full Text Available The oxidation of hydrogen and hydrogen–carbon monoxide mixture has been investigated on well-characterized metallurgically prepared platinum–molybdenum (PtMo alloys. It was concluded that the optimum surface concentration of molybdenum is near 23 mol.%. Based on experimentally determined parameters and simulations, the mechanism of the oxidation of CO/H2 mixtures is discussed.

  11. Solar production of catalytic filamentous carbon by thermal decomposition of hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirillov, V.A.; Kuvshinov, G.G.; Mogilnykh, Yu.I. [Boreskov Institute of Catalysis, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Reller, A. [University of Hamburg (Germany); Steinfeld, A.; Weidenkaff, A.; Meier, A. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1999-08-01

    Concentrated solar radiation was used as the clean source of process heat for the production of Catalytic Filamentous Carbon (CFC) by thermal decomposition of gaseous hydrocarbons and by CO disproportionation in the presence of small metal catalyst particles. Depending on the catalyst, two different types of CFC, namely nano tubes and nano fibers, were obtained in solar experiments at the PSI solar furnace. (author) 2 figs., 1 tab., 7 refs.

  12. An assessment on dispersion of carbon monoxide from a cement factory

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    Gholamreza Goudarzi

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Modeling the dispersion of pollutants from factory stacks addresses the problem of matching emissions of a cement plant with the capacity of the environment to avoid affecting the environment and society. The main objective of this study was to simulate the dispersion of carbon monoxide (CO from the main stack of a cement plant in Doroud, Iran using SCREEN3 software developed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (US EPA. Methods: Four samplings were conducted to measure the concentration of CO in the three-stack flow of a cement factory. The input parameters were those affecting gas dispersion and included CO rate, meteorological parameters, factors associated with the stack, and various factors related to the receptor. All factors were incorporated in the model, and dispersion was modeled by SCREEN3. Results: Southwesterly winds have been dominant in the past 5 years. According to the results of this study, the highest and the lowest CO levels were estimated by the model in spring and autumn as having maximum amounts of 842.06 and 88.31 μg/m3, respectively, within distances of 526 and 960 m from the cement plant, respectively, at a downwind southwesterly direction from the plant. Conclusion: Although the maximum predicted CO levels in each of the four seasons were lower than the NAAQS criteria, the simulation results can be used as a base for reducing CO emissions to prevent the potentially significant health and environmental impacts imposed by long-term contact to such emissions.

  13. EPIDEMIOLOGY OF CARBON MONOXIDE POISONING IN LJUBLJANA FROM 1990 TO 1999

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    Miran Brvar

    2002-02-01

    Full Text Available Background. Carbon monoxide (CO is the most common lethal poisoning. The incidence of sublethal CO poisoning in Slovenia is not known. The aim of the study was to investigate the epidemiology of sublethal acute CO poisoning in Ljubljana region (Slovenia.Methods. A retrospective study involved CO poisoned patients admited to Poison Control Centre and Centre of Intensive Care Medicine of the University Medical Centre Ljubljana, between January 1, 1990 and December 31, 1999.Results. There were annualy approximately 2.4 cases of sublethal CO poisonings per 100.000 population in Ljubljana region. Of these, 25% were suicide attempts and 75% were unintentional poisonings (28% happened in domestic environment as a result of heating, cooking or bathing, 22% were associated with fire, 11% happened in the working site, 10% happened in the workroom at home and only 3% occurred in the moving vehicle. Among the patients there were 72% male and 28% female. The domestic source of CO was a gas water heater or residential heating device in the 63% of the cases, a coal stove in the 32% and an oil heater in the 6%. In the 18% of the suicide attempts we found also acute drug or alcohol intoxication, and 18% of patients poisoned in the fire were intoxicated with alcohol. Collective poisoning happened in the 25% of cases affecting from 2 to 6 persons.Conclusions. The incidence of sublethal CO poisoning in Ljubljana region appers to be seven times lower than in other countries. The main reason is misdiagnosing of CO poisoning. In the future we should consider CO poisoning more often, particularly in all patients with flu-like symptoms, unexplained headache and worsening of pre-existing diseases. We should always exclude the collective poisoning and the presence of alcohol or other drugs.

  14. Pacific Exploratory Mission-Tropics carbon monoxide measurements in historical context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pougatchev, N. S.; Sachse, G. W.; Fuelberg, H. E.; Rinsland, C. P.; Chatfield, R. B.; Connors, V. S.; Jones, N. B.; Notholt, J.; Novelli, P. C.; Reichle, H. G.

    1999-11-01

    The three-dimensional (3-D) distribution of carbon monoxide (CO) over the southern Pacific during the NASA Global Tropospheric Experiment Pacific Exploratory Mission-Tropics (PEM-T) (August-October 1996) has been analyzed in comparison to other CO measurements. The following data sets have been used in the study: National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration Climate Monitoring and Diagnostic Laboratory surface level sampling; Commonwealth Scientific and Industrial Research Organization aircraft measurements over Cape Grim, Tasmania; solar spectroscopic measurements at Lauder, New Zealand; and data from two spaceborne Measurement of Air Pollution From Satellite experiments. For the PEM-T mission back trajectories analysis and 3-D modeling of the CO transport have been performed. It has been demonstrated that CO measurements obtained by different in situ and remote techniques can be used to build the picture of the CO climatology over the large geographical area. The structure of the CO distribution over the western part of the southern Pacific during the austral spring is mainly controlled by emission from biomass burning in Australia and Africa and subsequent long-range transport. The prevailing westerly transport occurs in the middle and upper troposphere, whereas the marine boundary layer remains relatively clean and uniform. Barriers in the form of the Intertropical Convergence Zone and South Pacific Convergence Zone protect the equatorial area (equator to 10°S) from direct impact of biomass burning plumes from north and southwest. Consistency between the measurements taken in different years and modeling results indicates that the observed feature is a stable phenomenon. Outside the equatorial area the CO vertical distribution has a broad distinctive maximum at the altitude range 5-8 km and latitudes between 20°S and 30°S. This maximum is a stable feature, and its location indicates the area where the most intensive westerly transport occurs.

  15. Effect of exhaust emissions on carbon monoxide levels in employees working at indoor car wash facilities.

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    Topacoglu, H; Katsakoglou, S; Ipekci, A

    2014-01-01

    Exhaust emissions from motor vehicles threaten the environment and human health. Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning, especially the use of exhaust gas CO in suicidal attempts is well known in the literature. Recently, indoor car wash facilities established in large shopping malls with closed parking, lots is a new risk area that exposes car wash employees to prolonged periods of high level CO emissions from cars. The aim of this study was to investigate how carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) blood levels of employees get affected in confined areas with relatively poor air circulation. Twenty male volunteers working in indoor parking car wash facilities were included in the study. Participants were informed about the aim of this study and their consent was obtained. Their pulse COHb levels were measured twice, at the beginning and at the end of the working day using Rad-57 pulse CO-oximeter device, allowing non-invasive measurement of COHb blood levels to compare the changes in their COHb levels before and after work. The mean age of the male volunteers was 29.8 ± 11.9 (range 18-55). While the mean COHb levels measured at the start of the working day was 2.1 ± 2.0 (range 0-9), it was increased to 5.2 ± 3.3 (range 1-15) at the end of work shift (Wilcoxon test, p car wash facility employees is directly impacted and gets elevated by motor vechile exhaust emissions. For the health of the employees at indoor parking car wash facilities, stricter precautions are needed and the government should not give permit to such operations.

  16. A hybrid model for predicting carbon monoxide from vehicular exhausts in urban environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gokhale, Sharad; Khare, Mukesh

    Several deterministic-based air quality models evaluate and predict the frequently occurring pollutant concentration well but, in general, are incapable of predicting the 'extreme' concentrations. In contrast, the statistical distribution models overcome the above limitation of the deterministic models and predict the 'extreme' concentrations. However, the environmental damages are caused by both extremes as well as by the sustained average concentration of pollutants. Hence, the model should predict not only 'extreme' ranges but also the 'middle' ranges of pollutant concentrations, i.e. the entire range. Hybrid modelling is one of the techniques that estimates/predicts the 'entire range' of the distribution of pollutant concentrations by combining the deterministic based models with suitable statistical distribution models ( Jakeman, et al., 1988). In the present paper, a hybrid model has been developed to predict the carbon monoxide (CO) concentration distributions at one of the traffic intersections, Income Tax Office (ITO), in the Delhi city, where the traffic is heterogeneous in nature and meteorology is 'tropical'. The model combines the general finite line source model (GFLSM) as its deterministic, and log logistic distribution (LLD) model, as its statistical components. The hybrid (GFLSM-LLD) model is then applied at the ITO intersection. The results show that the hybrid model predictions match with that of the observed CO concentration data within the 5-99 percentiles range. The model is further validated at different street location, i.e. Sirifort roadway. The validation results show that the model predicts CO concentrations fairly well ( d=0.91) in 10-95 percentiles range. The regulatory compliance is also developed to estimate the probability of exceedance of hourly CO concentration beyond the National Ambient Air Quality Standards (NAAQS) of India. It consists of light vehicles, heavy vehicles, three- wheelers (auto rickshaws) and two

  17. [Case report: kleptomania and other psychiatric symptoms after carbon monoxide intoxication].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gürlek Yüksel, Ebru; Taşkin, E Oryal; Yilmaz Ovali, Gülgün; Karaçam, Melek; Esen Danaci, Ayşen

    2007-01-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) intoxication is usually a serious condition, which can result in neurological disturbances or death. In some patients with CO intoxication, but not usually, a biphasic pattern can be seen. In this condition, after antitoxic treatment, patients may completely recover and after a short recovery period, neurological and/or psychiatric symptoms appear again. This condition is known as delayed encephalopathy and its occurrence rate is between 0.06% and 11.8%. Herein, we report a case with delayed encephalopathy after CO intoxication, which began with neurological symptoms and continued with obsessive-compulsive disorder, depression, kleptomania, and psychotic disorder. The 41-year-old female patient had no psychiatric or neurological symptoms or disorders prior to CO intoxication. Increased signal intensity changes in the basal region of the left temporal lobe (including the cortex and subcortical white matter), globus pallidus (bilateral), and cerebellar cortical and subcortical white matter (bilaterally symmetrical) was detected on axial T2-weighted magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). In addition, there were atrophic changes in both cerebellar hemispheres. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first case of kleptomania described after CO intoxication in the literature. We discuss the organic etiology of kleptomania and the other psychiatric symptoms of this patient in the light of recent research. We concluded that the kleptomania seen in this patient was related to concurrent lesions in the temporal lobe and globus pallidus; in other words, her kleptomania may have been related to dysfunction simultaneously seen in both the temporolimbic and frontal-subcortical circuits.

  18. Using breath carbon monoxide to validate self-reported tobacco smoking in remote Australian Indigenous communities

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    Ivers Rowena G

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This paper examines the specificity and sensitivity of a breath carbon monoxide (BCO test and optimum BCO cutoff level for validating self-reported tobacco smoking in Indigenous Australians in Arnhem Land, Northern Territory (NT. Methods In a sample of 400 people (≥16 years interviewed about tobacco use in three communities, both self-reported smoking and BCO data were recorded for 309 study participants. Of these, 249 reported smoking tobacco within the preceding 24 hours, and 60 reported they had never smoked or had not smoked tobacco for ≥6 months. The sample was opportunistically recruited using quotas to reflect age and gender balances in the communities where the combined Indigenous populations comprised 1,104 males and 1,215 females (≥16 years. Local Indigenous research workers assisted researchers in interviewing participants and facilitating BCO tests using a portable hand-held analyzer. Results A BCO cutoff of ≥7 parts per million (ppm provided good agreement between self-report and BCO (96.0% sensitivity, 93.3% specificity. An alternative cutoff of ≥5 ppm increased sensitivity from 96.0% to 99.6% with no change in specificity (93.3%. With data for two self-reported nonsmokers who also reported that they smoked cannabis removed from the analysis, specificity increased to 96.6%. Conclusion In these disadvantaged Indigenous populations, where data describing smoking are few, testing for BCO provides a practical, noninvasive, and immediate method to validate self-reported smoking. In further studies of tobacco smoking in these populations, cannabis use should be considered where self-reported nonsmokers show high BCO.

  19. Transport Simulations of Carbon Monoxide and Aerosols from Boreal Wildfires during ARCTAS using WRF-Chem

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sessions, W.; Fuelberg, H. E.; Winker, D. M.; Chu, A. D.; Kahn, R. A.

    2009-12-01

    The Weather Research and Forecasting Model (WRF) was developed by the National Center for Atmospheric Research as the next generation of mesoscale meteorology model. The inclusion of a chemistry module (WRF-Chem) allows transport simulations of chemical and aerosol species such as those observed during NASA’s Arctic Research of the Composition of the Troposphere from Aircraft and Satellites (ARCTAS) during 2008. The ARCTAS summer deployment phase during June and July coincided with large boreal wildfires in Saskatchewan and Eastern Russia. We identified fires using the GOES Wildfire Automated Biomass Burning Algorithm (WF_ABBA) and thermal hotspot detections from MODIS sensors onboard the Aqua and Terra satellites. The fires on both continents produced plumes large enough to affect the atmospheric chemical composition of downwind population centers as well as the Arctic. Atmospheric steering currents vary greatly with altitude, making plume injection height one of the most important aspects of accurately modeling the transport of burning emissions. WRF-Chem integrates a one-dimensional plume model at grid cells containing fires to explicitly resolve the upper and lower limits of injection height. The early July fires provide multiple cases to satellite remotely sense the horizontal and vertical evolution of carbon monoxide (AIRS/MISR) and aerosols (CALIPSO) downwind of the fires. Lidar and in situ measurements from the NASA DC-8 and B-200 aircraft permit further validation of results from WRF-Chem. Using these various data sources, this paper will evaluate the ability of WRF-Chem to properly model the biomass injection heights and the downwind transport of fire plumes. Model-derived plume characteristics also will be compared with those observed by the satellites and in situ data. Finally, forecast sensitivities to varying WRF-Chem grid resolutions and plume rise mechanics will be presented.

  20. The Influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation on Tropospheric Distributions of Ozone and Carbon Monoxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowland, K. E.; Doherty, R. M.; Hodges, K.

    2015-12-01

    The influence of the North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) on the tropospheric distributions of ozone (O3) and carbon monoxide (CO) has been quantified. The Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate (MACC) Reanalysis, a combined meteorology and composition dataset for the period 2003-2012 (Innes et al., 2013), is used to investigate the composition of the troposphere and lower stratosphere in relation to the location of the storm track as well as other meteorological parameters over the North Atlantic associated with the different NAO phases. Cyclone tracks in the MACC Reanalysis compare well to the cyclone tracks in the widely-used ERA-Interim Reanalysis for the same 10-year period (cyclone tracking performed using the tracking algorithm of Hodges (1995, 1999)), as both are based on the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts' (ECMWF) Integrated Forecast System (IFS). A seasonal analysis is performed whereby the MACC reanalysis meteorological fields, O3 and CO mixing ratios are weighted by the monthly NAO index values. The location of the main storm track, which tilts towards high latitudes (toward the Arctic) during positive NAO phases to a more zonal location in the mid-latitudes (toward Europe) during negative NAO phases, impacts the location of both horizontal and vertical transport across the North Atlantic and into the Arctic. During positive NAO seasons, the persistence of cyclones over the North Atlantic coupled with a stronger Azores High promotes strong horizontal transport across the North Atlantic throughout the troposphere. In all seasons, significantly more intense cyclones occur at higher latitudes (north of ~50°C) during the positive phase of the NAO and in the southern mid-latitudes during the negative NAO phase. This impacts the location of stratospheric intrusions within the descending dry airstream behind the associated cold front of the extratropical cyclone and the venting of low-level pollution up into the free troposphere within

  1. Interfacial Cu+ promoted surface reactivity: Carbon monoxide oxidation reaction over polycrystalline copper-titania catalysts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senanayake, Sanjaya D.; Pappoe, Naa Adokaley; Nguyen-Phan, Thuy-Duong; Luo, Si; Li, Yuanyuan; Xu, Wenqian; Liu, Zongyuan; Mudiyanselage, Kumudu; Johnston-Peck, Aaron C.; Frenkel, Anatoly I.; Heckler, Ilana; Stacchiola, Dario; Rodriguez, José A.

    2016-10-01

    We have studied the catalytic carbon monoxide (CO) oxidation (CO + 0.5O2 → CO2) reaction using a powder catalyst composed of both copper (5 wt.% loading) and titania (CuOx-TiO2). Our study was focused on revealing the role of Cu, and the interaction between Cu and TiO2, by systematic comparison between two nanocatalysts, CuOx-TiO2 and pure CuOx. We interrogated these catalysts under in situ conditions using X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) and diffuse reflectance infrared Fourier transform spectroscopy (DRIFTS) to probe the structure and electronic properties of the catalyst at all stages of the reaction and simultaneously probe the surface states or intermediates of this reaction. With the aid of several ex situ characterization techniques including transmission electron microscopy (TEM), the local catalyst morphology and structure were also studied. Our results show that a CuOx-TiO2 system is more active than bulk CuOx for the CO oxidation reaction due to its lower onset temperature and better stability at higher temperatures. Our results also suggest that surface Cu+ species observed in the CuOx-TiO2 interface are likely to be a key player in the CO oxidation mechanism, while implicating that the stabilization of this species is probably associated with the oxide-oxide interface. Both in situ DRIFTS and XAFS measurements reveal that there is likely to be a Cu(Ti)-O mixed oxide at this interface. We discuss the nature of this Cu(Ti)-O interface and interpret its role on the CO oxidation reaction.

  2. Drug-enhanced carbon monoxide production from heme by cytochrome P450 reductase

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    Dragic Vukomanovic

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO formed endogenously is considered to be cytoprotective, and the vast majority of CO formation is attributed to the degradation of heme by heme oxygenases-1 and -2 (HO-1, HO-2. Previously, we observed that brain microsomes containing HO-2 produced many-fold more CO in the presence of menadione and its congeners; herein we explored these observations further. We determined the effects of various drugs on CO production of rat brain microsomes and recombinant human cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR; CO was measured by gas chromatography with reductive detection. Brain microsomes of Sprague-Dawley rats or recombinant human cytochrome P450 reductase (CPR were incubated with NADPH and various drugs in closed vials in phosphate buffer at pH 7.4 and 37°C. After 15 minutes, the reaction was stopped by cooling in dry ice, and the headspace gas was analyzed for CO production using gas chromatography with reductive (mercuric oxide detection. We observed drug-enhanced CO production in the presence of both microsomes and recombinant CPR alone; the presence of HO was not required. A range of structurally diverse drugs were capable of amplifying this CO formation; these molecules had structures consistent with redox cycling capability. The addition of catalase to a reaction mixture, that contained activating drugs, inhibited the production of CO. Drug-enhanced CO formation can be catalyzed by CPR. The mechanism of CPR activation was not through classical drug-receptor mediation. Redox cycling may be involved in the drug-induced amplification of CO production by CPR through the production of reactive oxygen species.

  3. An Outbreak of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning in Yamagata Prefecture Following the Great East Japan Earthquake

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    Ken Iseki

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: In the aftermath of the Great East Japan Earthquake, most of the areas in Yamagata prefecture experienced a serious power failure lasting for approximately 24 hours. A number of households were subsequently poisoned with carbon monoxide (CO due to various causes. In this study, we conducted a survey of CO poisoning during the disaster. Methods: A questionnaire regarding CO poisoning associated with the disaster was sent to 37 emergency hospitals in Yamagata prefecture. Results: A total of 51 patients were treated for unintentional CO poisoning in 7 hospitals (hyperbaric oxygen chambers were present in 3 of the hospitals. The patients (18 men, 33 women ranged in age from 0 to 90 years. The source of CO exposure was charcoal briquettes (23 cases; 45%, gasoline-powered electric generators (18 cases; 35%, electric generators together with oil stoves (8 cases; 16%, oil stoves (1 cases; 2%, and automobile exhaust (1 cases; 2%. Blood carboxyhemoglobin levels ranged from 0.5% to 41.6% in 49 cases. Of these, 41 patients were treated by normobaric oxygen therapy, while one was intubated for artificial respiration. Additionally, 5 patients (10% were treated by hyperbaric oxygen therapy, and 3 patients (6% experienced delayed neuropsychiatric sequelae. Conclusion: CO sources included gasoline-powered electric generators and charcoal briquettes during the disaster. Storm-related CO poisoning is well recognized as a disaster-associated accident in the United States, but not in Japan. We emphasize that public education is needed to make people aware of the dangers of CO poisoning after a disaster. In addition, a pulse CO-oximeter should be set up in hospitals.  

  4. Carbon Monoxide Observations toward Star-forming Regions in the Outer Scutum–Centaurus Spiral Arm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Trey V.; Khan, Asad A.; Ferraro, Nicholas G.; Balser, Dana S.; Armentrout, W. P.; Anderson, L. D.; Bania, T. M.

    2018-01-01

    The Outer Scutum–Centaurus arm (OSC) is the most distant molecular spiral arm known in the Milky Way. The OSC may be the very distant end of the well-known Scutum–Centaurus arm, which stretches from the end of the Galactic bar to the outer Galaxy. At this distance the OSC is seen in the first Galactic quadrant. The population of star formation tracers in the OSC remains largely uncharacterized. Extragalactic studies show a strong correlation between molecular gas and star formation, and carbon monoxide (CO) emission was recently discovered in the OSC. Here we use the Arizona Radio Observatory (ARO) 12 {{m}} telescope to observe the 12CO J = 1–0 and 13CO J = 1–0 transitions toward 78 H II region candidates chosen from the WISE Catalog of Galactic H II Regions. These targets are spatially coincident with the Galactic longitude–latitude ({\\ell },b) OSC locus as defined by H I emission. We detect CO emission in ∼80% of our targets. In total, we detect 117 12CO and 40 13CO emission lines. About two-thirds of our targets have at least one emission line originating beyond the solar orbit. Most of the detections beyond the solar orbit are associated with the outer arm, but there are 17 12CO emission lines and 8 13CO emission lines with LSR velocities that are consistent with the velocities of the OSC. There is no apparent difference between the physical properties (e.g., molecular column density) of these OSC molecular clouds and non-OSC molecular clouds within our sample.

  5. Carbon monoxide induced PPARγ SUMOylation and UCP2 block inflammatory gene expression in macrophages.

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    Arvand Haschemi

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide (CO dampens pro-inflammatory responses in a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK dependent manner. Previously, we demonstrated that CO inhibits lipopolysaccharide (LPS-induced expression of the proinflammatory early growth response-1 (Egr-1 transcription factor in macrophages via activation of PPARγ. Here, we further characterize the molecular mechanisms by which CO modulates the activity of PPARγ and Egr-1 repression. We demonstrate that CO enhances SUMOylation of PPARγ which we find was attributed to mitochondrial ROS generation. Ectopic expression of a SUMOylation-defective PPARγ-K365R mutant partially abolished CO-mediated suppression of LPS-induced Egr-1 promoter activity. Expression of a PPARγ-K77R mutant did not impair the effect of CO. In addition to PPARγ SUMOylation, CO-activated p38 MAPK was responsible for Egr-1 repression. Blocking both CO-induced PPARγ SUMOylation and p38 activation, completely reversed the effects of CO on inflammatory gene expression. In primary macrophages isolated form C57/BL6 male mice, we identify mitochondrial ROS formation by CO as the upstream trigger for the observed effects on Egr-1 in part through uncoupling protein 2 (UCP2. Macrophages derived from bone marrow isolated from Ucp2 gene Knock-Out C57/BL6 mice (Ucp2(-/-, produced significantly less ROS with CO exposure versus wild-type macrophages. Moreover, absence of UCP2 resulted in a complete loss of CO mediated Egr-1 repression. Collectively, these results indentify p38 activation, PPARγ-SUMOylation and ROS formation via UCP2 as a cooperative system by which CO impacts the inflammatory response.

  6. IASI's sensitivity to near-surface carbon monoxide (CO): Theoretical analyses and retrievals on test cases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bauduin, Sophie; Clarisse, Lieven; Theunissen, Michael; George, Maya; Hurtmans, Daniel; Clerbaux, Cathy; Coheur, Pierre-François

    2017-03-01

    Separating concentrations of carbon monoxide (CO) in the boundary layer from the rest of the atmosphere with nadir satellite measurements is of particular importance to differentiate emission from transport. Although thermal infrared (TIR) satellite sounders are considered to have limited sensitivity to the composition of the near-surface atmosphere, previous studies show that they can provide information on CO close to the ground in case of high thermal contrast. In this work we investigate the capability of IASI (Infrared Atmospheric Sounding Interferometer) to retrieve near-surface CO concentrations, and we quantitatively assess the influence of thermal contrast on such retrievals. We present a 3-part analysis, which relies on both theoretical forward simulations and retrievals on real data, performed for a large range of negative and positive thermal contrast situations. First, we derive theoretically the IASI detection threshold of CO enhancement in the boundary layer, and we assess its dependence on thermal contrast. Then, using the optimal estimation formalism, we quantify the role of thermal contrast on the error budget and information content of near-surface CO retrievals. We demonstrate that, contrary to what is usually accepted, large negative thermal contrast values (ground cooler than air) lead to a better decorrelation between CO concentrations in the low and the high troposphere than large positive thermal contrast (ground warmer than the air). In the last part of the paper we use Mexico City and Barrow as test cases to contrast our theoretical predictions with real retrievals, and to assess the accuracy of IASI surface CO retrievals through comparisons to ground-based in-situ measurements.

  7. Anthropogenic emissions and space-borne observations of carbon monoxide over South Asia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ul-Haq, Zia; Tariq, Salman; Ali, Muhammad

    2016-11-01

    The focus of this study is to understand anthropogenic emissions, spatiotemporal variability and trends of carbon monoxide (CO) over South Asia by using datasets from MACCity (Monitoring Atmospheric Composition and Climate, MACC and megaCITY - Zoom for the Environment, CityZEN), REAS (Regional Emission inventory in Asia), AIRS (Atmospheric Infrared Sounder) and SCIAMACHY (SCanning Imaging Absorption spectroMeter for Atmospheric CartograpHY). MACCity anthropogenic emissions show an overall increase of 16.5% during 2000-2010. Elevated levels of MACCity CO are found in Indo-Gangetic Basin (IGB), eastern mining region of India, Bangladesh and large urban areas. Some of the major contributors of these emissions have been identified as agricultural waste burning, land transport, industrial production, and energy generation and distribution. An area averaged mean value of AIRS CO at 600 hPa is found to be 114 ± 2 ppbv (slope -0.48 ± 0.2 ppbv yr-1, y-intercept 117 ± 1 ppbv and r = 0.68) with a minor declining trend at -0.41 ± 0.18% yr-1 over the region during 2003-2015. A strong seasonality in AIRS CO concentration is observed with spring season peak in March 129 ± 1.9 ppbv, whereas low values have been observed in summer monsoon with sturdy dip in July 99.6 ± 1.94 ppbv. AIRS CO and SCIAMACHY CO Total Column (CO TC) over the study region show spatial patterns similar to MACCity and REAS emissions. An analysis of SCIAMACHY CO TC tendencies has been performed which indicates minor rising trends over some parts of the region. Background CO, Recent Emissions (RE), and spatial anomalies in RE over high anthropogenic activity zones of Indus Basin, Ganges Basin and Eastern Region were analyzed using AIRS and SCIAMACHY CO data.

  8. A 60 yr record of atmospheric carbon monoxide reconstructed from Greenland firn air

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    V. V. Petrenko

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available We present the first reconstruction of the Northern Hemisphere (NH high latitude atmospheric carbon monoxide (CO mole fraction from Greenland firn air. Firn air samples were collected at three deep ice core sites in Greenland (NGRIP in 2001, Summit in 2006 and NEEM in 2008. CO records from the three sites agree well with each other as well as with recent atmospheric measurements, indicating that CO is well preserved in the firn at these sites. CO atmospheric history was reconstructed back to the year 1950 from the measurements using a combination of two forward models of gas transport in firn and an inverse model. The reconstructed history suggests that Arctic CO in 1950 was 140–150 nmol mol−1, which is higher than today's values. CO mole fractions rose by 10–15 nmol mol−1 from 1950 to the 1970s and peaked in the 1970s or early 1980s, followed by a ≈ 30 nmol mol−1 decline to today's levels. We compare the CO history with the atmospheric histories of methane, light hydrocarbons, molecular hydrogen, CO stable isotopes and hydroxyl radicals (OH, as well as with published CO emission inventories and results of a historical run from a chemistry-transport model. We find that the reconstructed Greenland CO history cannot be reconciled with available emission inventories unless unrealistically large changes in OH are assumed. We argue that the available CO emission inventories strongly underestimate historical NH emissions, and fail to capture the emission decline starting in the late 1970s, which was most likely due to reduced emissions from road transportation in North America and Europe.

  9. Association of Some Environmental Factors with Breath Carbon Monoxide Levels of Some Taxi Drivers in Ankara

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    Oguz Baran

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: Taxi drivers are among the occupational groups with the highest smoking prevalence and exposure to carbon monoxide (CO. This study aimed to measure breath CO levels of some taxi drivers working in Ankara and to find out some associated factors (if any. METHOD: The descriptive study was carried out with 173 taxi drivers from 14 different taxi stations in the center of Ankara. Data was collected by face to face interviews with a standart questionnaire, while breath CO was measured by a Pi-CO Smokerlyser. Descriptive statistics were used to summarize data, whereas chi-square, independant samples t-test and One-Way ANOVA were used to compare groups by SPSS 15.0 statistical package programme. RESULTS: In the study, all of the taxi drivers (n=173 were male with a mean age of 39.2±9.6 years. Of the drivers, 58.4% were current smokers, whereas 75.1% were exposed to enviromental tobacco smoke. The frequency of indoor smoking in the taxi stations, taxis and drivers’ homes were 48.0%, 45.1%, and 59.0%, respectively. The mean breath CO level of the drivers was 16.9±12.8 ppm. CO level was positively associated with the current smoking status, total years of smoking, number of cigarettes smoked per day and passive exposure to tobacco smoke, whereas the association was negative with the elapsed time from the last cigarette smoked (p0.05. CONCLUSION: Results of the study provide evidence in support of the previous literature that smoking is one of the most important sources of carbonmonoxide. Interventions such as awareness raising trainings, referral of smokers willing to quit smoking to smoking cessation centers and screening programmes for smoking related diseases are needed to be implemented in collaboration with the relevant drivers’ associations. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2010; 9(6.000: 591-596

  10. Dying to play video games: carbon monoxide poisoning from electrical generators used after hurricane Ike.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fife, Caroline E; Smith, Latisha A; Maus, Erik A; McCarthy, James J; Koehler, Michelle Z; Hawkins, Trina; Hampson, Neil B

    2009-06-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is common after major storms because of loss of electrical power and use of alternate fuel sources for heat and electricity. In past epidemics of hurricane-related CO poisoning, the source has typically been gasoline-powered electrical generators. Although it is typically believed that generators were used to power air conditioning and refrigeration, this report demonstrates an unsuspected reason for their use. After Hurricane Ike's landfall in September 2008, major power outages were associated with an epidemic of CO poisoning from electrical generators, as expected. Staff at Memorial Hermann Hospital-Texas Medical Center treated or telephone-triaged cases from the Houston area. A review of the details of those cases forms the basis of this report. Memorial Hermann Hospital-Texas Medical Center staff treated or triaged 37 individuals exposed to CO from gasoline-powered electrical generators in 13 incidents in the first 36 hours after landfall of the hurricane. Notably, 54% (20 of 37) of the patients were under the age of 18 years. Symptoms ranged from mild to severe, with 1 child dying at the scene. Eleven patients were treated with hyperbaric oxygen. Among 9 incidents in which the reason for generator use was determined, 5 were due to generators powering video games or televisions to watch movies or programs. These 5 incidents in which video games were being powered accounted for 75% (15 of 20) of the pediatric poisonings. Generator-related CO poisoning is indeed common during power outages after hurricanes. However, generators are commonly being used to provide electricity to power entertainment devices for children, such as video games. Additional public education about CO risk is needed, perhaps directed at older children and teenagers through the schools in regions susceptible to hurricanes.

  11. Reference values for lung function tests: III. Carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (transfer factor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neder J.A.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide diffusing capacity (DLCO or transfer factor (TLCO is a particularly useful test of the appropriateness of gas exchange across the lung alveolocapillary membrane. With the purpose of establishing predictive equations for DLCO using a non-smoking sample of the adult Brazilian population, we prospectively evaluated 100 subjects (50 males and 50 females aged 20 to 80 years, randomly selected from more than 8,000 individuals. Gender-specific linear prediction equations were developed by multiple regression analysis with single breath (SB absolute and volume-corrected (VA DLCO values as dependent variables. In the prediction equations, age (years and height (cm had opposite effects on DLCOSB (ml min-1 mmHg-1, independent of gender (-0.13 (age + 0.32 (height - 13.07 in males and -0.075 (age + 0.18 (height + 0.20 in females. On the other hand, height had a positive effect on DLCOSB but a negative one on DLCOSB/VA (P<0.01. We found that the predictive values from the most cited studies using predominantly Caucasian samples were significantly different from the actually measured values (P<0.05. Furthermore, oxygen uptake at maximal exercise (VO2max correlated highly to DLCOSB (R = 0.71, P<0.001; this variable, however, did not maintain an independent role to explain the VO2max variability in the multiple regression analysis (P>0.05. Our results therefore provide an original frame of reference for either DLCOSB or DLCOSB/VA in Brazilian males and females aged 20 to 80 years, obtained from the standardized single-breath technique.

  12. Carbon monoxide exposures inside an automobile traveling on an urban arterial highway.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ott, W; Switzer, P; Willits, N

    1994-08-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) exposures were measured inside a motor vehicle during 88 standardized drives on a major urban arterial highway, El Camino Real (traffic volume of 30,500-45,000 vehicles per day), over a 13-1/2 month period. On each trip (lasting between 31 and 61 minutes), the test vehicle drove the same 5.9-mile segment of roadway in both directions, for a total of 11.8 miles, passing through 20 intersections with traffic lights (10 in each direction) in three California cities (Menlo Park, Palo Alto, and Los Altos). Earlier tests showed that the test vehicle was free of CO intrusion. For the 88 trips, the mean CO concentration was 9.8 ppm, with a standard deviation of 5.8 ppm. Of nine covariates that were examined to explain the variability in the mean CO exposures observed on the 88 trips (ambient CO at two fixed stations, atmospheric stability, seasonal trend function, time of day, average surrounding vehicle count, trip duration, proportion of time stopped at lights, and instrument type), a fairly strong seasonal trend was found. A model consisting of only a single measure of traffic volume and a seasonal trend component had substantial predictive power (R2 = 0.68); by contrast, the ambient CO levels, although partially correlated with average exposures, contributed comparatively little predictive power to the model. The CO exposures experienced while drivers waited at the red lights at an intersection ranged from 6.8 to 14.9 ppm and differed considerably from intersection to intersection.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  13. Role of endogenous carbon monoxide in the control of breathing in zebrafish (Danio rerio).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tzaneva, Velislava; Perry, Steve F

    2016-12-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) is a gaseous signaling molecule and is produced in vivo from the intracellular breakdown of heme via the heme oxygenase (HO) family of enzymes. In this study we investigated the role of the HO-1/CO system in the control of ventilation in zebrafish, Danio rerio Immunohistochemistry revealed the presence of HO-1 in the chemoreceptive neuroepithelial cells (NECs) of larvae (4 days postfertilization) and adults, indicating the potential for endogenous CO production in the NECs. Hypoxia (20 min, water Po 2 of 30 mmHg) caused a significant increase in HO-1 activity in whole larvae and in the gills of adult fish. Zebrafish with reduced HO-1 activity (via HO-1 knockdown in larvae or zinc protoporphyrin IX treatment in adults) exhibited increased ventilation frequency (V f ) under normoxic but not hypoxic conditions. The addition of exogenous CO restored resting V f in fish with diminished CO production, and in some cases (e.g., hypoxic sham larvae) CO modestly reduced V f below resting levels. Larval fish were treated with phenylhydrazine (PHZ) to eliminate the potential confounding effects of CO-hemoglobin interactions that might influence ventilation. PHZ treatment did not cause changes in V f of normoxic larvae, and the addition of CO to PHZ-exposed larvae resulted in a significant decrease in sham and HO-1-deficient fish under normoxic conditions. This study demonstrates for the first time that CO plays an inhibitory role in the control of breathing in larval and adult zebrafish. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  14. Dual pathways of carbon monoxide-mediated vasoregulation: modulation by redox mechanisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamon, Brian D; Zhang, Frank F; Puri, Nitin; Brodsky, Sergey V; Goligorsky, Michael S; Nasjletti, Alberto

    2009-10-09

    Vascular tissues produce carbon monoxide (CO) via HO-dependent and HO-independent mechanisms; the former in tandem with biliverdin and iron and the latter as a lone product. CO has been shown to function as both a vasoconstrictor and vasodilator; however, factors that dictate the vasoregulatory phenotype of this gas are unknown. We investigated whether CO-mediated vasoconstriction is mechanistically linked to enhanced reactive oxygen species production that masks vasodilatory pathways. Sprague-Dawley rat interlobar and interlobular arteries were examined in terms of superoxide (O2*-) generation and vascular reactivity in the absence and presence of antioxidants. Both authentic CO and the CO-releasing molecule (CORM)-3 constricted renal arteries and increased O2*- production in a dose-dependent manner. The antioxidants tempol, ebselen, and deferoxamine inhibited CO-induced O2*- production and converted CO from constrictor to dilator. CO-induced O2*- generation was found to involve the activity of multiple oxidases including nitric oxide synthase, NADPH oxidase, xanthine oxidase, and complex IV of the mitochondrial electron chain. Furthermore, inhibition of these enzymes converted CO from constrictor to dilator. Similarly, biliverdin and bilirubin inhibited CO-induced O2*- production and vasoconstriction, allowing for a vasodilatory response to CO to be expressed. CO-induced vasoconstriction was dependent on a non-thromboxane agonist of the thromboxane receptor, whereas vasodilatory mechanisms of CO relied on the activation of soluble guanylate cyclase and calcium-gated potassium channels. CO-induced vasoconstriction involves the generation of reactive oxygen species, which, when negated, allows for the expression of vasodilatory pathways which are masked by the primary oxidative stress response to this gas.

  15. Heme Oxygenase-1/Carbon Monoxide System and Embryonic Stem Cell Differentiation and Maturation into Cardiomyocytes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suliman, Hagir B; Zobi, Fabio; Piantadosi, Claude A

    2016-03-01

    The differentiation of embryonic stem (ES) cells into energetically efficient cardiomyocytes contributes to functional cardiac repair and is envisioned to ameliorate progressive degenerative cardiac diseases. Advanced cell maturation strategies are therefore needed to create abundant mature cardiomyocytes. In this study, we tested whether the redox-sensitive heme oxygenase-1/carbon monoxide (HO-1/CO) system, operating through mitochondrial biogenesis, acts as a mechanism for ES cell differentiation and cardiomyocyte maturation. Manipulation of HO-1/CO to enhance mitochondrial biogenesis demonstrates a direct pathway to ES cell differentiation and maturation into beating cardiomyocytes that express adult structural markers. Targeted HO-1/CO interventions up- and downregulate specific cardiogenic transcription factors, transcription factor Gata4, homeobox protein Nkx-2.5, heart- and neural crest derivatives-expressed protein 1, and MEF2C. HO-1/CO overexpression increases cardiac gene expression for myosin regulatory light chain 2, atrial isoform, MLC2v, ANP, MHC-β, and sarcomere α-actinin and the major mitochondrial fusion regulators, mitofusin 2 and MICOS complex subunit Mic60. This promotes structural mitochondrial network expansion and maturation, thereby supporting energy provision for beating embryoid bodies. These effects are prevented by silencing HO-1 and by mitochondrial reactive oxygen species scavenging, while disruption of mitochondrial biogenesis and mitochondrial DNA depletion by loss of mitochondrial transcription factor A compromise infrastructure. This leads to failure of cardiomyocyte differentiation and maturation and contractile dysfunction. The capacity to augment cardiomyogenesis via a defined mitochondrial pathway has unique therapeutic potential for targeting ES cell maturation in cardiac disease. Our findings establish the HO-1/CO system and redox regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis as essential factors in ES cell differentiation as well

  16. An outbreak of carbon monoxide poisoning after a major ice storm in Maine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Daley, W R; Smith, A; Paz-Argandona, E; Malilay, J; McGeehin, M

    2000-01-01

    Unintentional carbon monoxide (CO) exposure kills over 500 people in the U.S. annually. Outbreaks of CO poisoning have occurred after winter storms. The objective of this study was to describe clinical features and identify important risk factors of a CO poisoning outbreak occurring after a major ice storm. The study design included a case series of CO poisoning patients, a telephone survey of the general community, and a case-controlled study of households using specific CO sources. The setting was the primary service area of four hospital emergency departments located in the heavily storm-impacted interior region of Maine. Participants included all patients with a laboratory-confirmed diagnosis of CO poisoning during the 2 weeks after the storm onset, and a population-based comparison group of 522 households selected by random digit dialing. There were 100 cases identified, involving 42 common-source exposure incidents, most of them during the first week. Though classic CO symptoms of headache, dizziness, and nausea predominated, 9 patients presented with chest pain and 10 were asymptomatic. One patient died and 5 were transferred for hyperbaric oxygen therapy. Gasoline-powered electric generators were a CO source in 30 incidents, kerosene heaters in 8, and propane heaters in 4. In the community, 31.4% of households used a generator after the ice storm. The strongest risk factor for poisoning was locating a generator in a basement or an attached structure such as a garage. Cases of CO poisoning with various presentations can be expected in the early aftermath of a severe ice storm. Generators are a major CO source and generator location an important risk factor for such disasters.

  17. Onboard measurement system of atmospheric carbon monoxide in the Pacific by voluntary observing ships

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Nara

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Long-term monitoring of carbon monoxide (CO mixing ratios in the atmosphere over the Pacific Ocean is being carried out on commercial cargo vessels participating in the National Institute for Environmental Studies Voluntary Observing Ships program. The program provides a regular platform for measurement of atmospheric CO along four cruise routes: from Japan to Oceania, the United States, Canada, and Southeast Asia. Flask samples are collected during every cruise for subsequent analysis in the laboratory, and in 2005, continuous shipboard CO measurements were initiated on three of the routes. Here, we describe the system we developed for onboard measurement of CO mixing ratios with a commercially available gas filter correlation CO analyzer. The fully automated system measures CO in ambient air, and the detector sensitivity and background signals are calibrated by referencing the measurements to a CO-in-air standard gas (~1 ppmv and to CO-free air scrubbed with a catalyst, respectively. We examined the artificial production of CO in the high-pressure working gas standards during storage by referencing the measurements to CO standard gases maintained as our primary scale before and after use on the ships. The onboard performance of the continuous CO measurement system was evaluated by comparing its data with data from laboratory analyses of flask samples using gas chromatography with a reduction gas detector. The reasonably good consistency between the two independent measurement methods demonstrated the good performance of both methods over the course of 3–5 years. The continuous measurement system was more useful than the flask sampling method for regionally polluted air masses, which were often encountered on Southeast Asian cruises.

  18. Carbon monoxide levels in popular passenger commuting modes traversing major commuting routes in Hong Kong

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chan, L.Y.; Liu, Y.M.

    2001-01-01

    Vehicle exhaust is a major source of air pollution in metropolitan cities. Commuters are exposed to high traffic-related pollutant concentrations. Public transportation is the most popular commuting mode in Hong Kong and there are about 10.8 million passenger trips every day. Two-thirds of them are road commuters. An extensive survey was conducted to measure carbon monoxide in three popular passenger commuting modes, bus, minibus, and taxi, which served, respectively, 3.91 million, 1.76 million and 1.31 million passenger trips per day in 1998. Three types of commuting microenvironments were selected: urban-urban, urban-suburban and urban-rural. Results indicated that in-vehicle CO level increased in the following order: bus, minibus and taxi. The overall average in-vehicle CO level in air-conditioned bus, minibus and taxi were 1.8, 2.9 and 3.3ppm, respectively. The average concentration level between air-conditioned buses (1.8ppm) and non-air-conditioned buses (1.9ppm) was insignificant. The fluctuation of in-vehicle CO level of non-air-conditioned vehicle followed the variation of out-vehicle CO concentration. Our result also showed that even in air-conditioned vehicles, the in-vehicle CO concentration was affected by the out-vehicle CO concentration although there exists a smoothing out effect. The in-vehicle CO level was the highest in urban-suburban commuting routes and was followed by urban-urban routes. The in-vehicle CO level in urban-rural routes was the lowest. The highest CO level was recorded after the vehicle traversed through tunnel.. The average CO exposure level of public road transportation commuters in Honk Kong was lower than most other cities. Factors governing the CO levels were also discussed. (Author)

  19. Mass carbon monoxide poisoning among television viewers of a football match.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Godoy, P; Pont, C; Artigues, A; Alsedà, M

    2016-11-01

    The objective was to study a mass carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning and the characteristics of the asymptomatic cases. On the 2nd of February, 2015, a group of more than 30 television viewers of a football match contacted the emergency department due to suspected CO poisoning from a butane stove. A visual inspection of the location of the exposure and a descriptive epidemiological study were conducted. Based on the type of variable, the presence of a statistical association was studied with Fisher's exact test or the Kruskal-Wallis test. Thirty-four of the 39 individuals were affected (87.2%). The exposed individuals had a mean age of 43.8 years (SD, 22.1), and 28.2% (11/39) were women. The time of exposure was 52.4min (SD, 21.0), and the mean distance from the oven was 4.2m (SD, 2.5). The most common symptoms were headache (50%), nausea (20.6%), weakness (20.6%) and dizziness (14.7%). The carboxyhaemoglobin (COHb) levels were very high (13.8% ±5.8%). Some 97.1% of the individuals required oxygen therapy, and 39.4% required hyperbaric chamber treatment. Some 29.5% of the cases had no symptoms but showed COHb levels similar to those that did have symptoms (13.6% vs. 15.3%, nonsignificant difference). The asymptomatic cases had a shorter exposure time (38.3min vs. 53.3min; P<.036). Almost a third of the exposed individuals were asymptomatic, even with COHb levels similar to those of the symptomatic patients, and the majority of these asymptomatic patients even required oxygen treatment in a hyperbaric chamber. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Medicina Interna (SEMI). All rights reserved.

  20. Paracrine effect of carbon monoxide - astrocytes promote neuroprotection through purinergic signaling in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Queiroga, Cláudia S F; Alves, Raquel M A; Conde, Sílvia V; Alves, Paula M; Vieira, Helena L A

    2016-08-15

    The neuroprotective role of carbon monoxide (CO) has been studied in a cell-autonomous mode. Herein, a new concept is disclosed - CO affects astrocyte-neuron communication in a paracrine manner to promote neuroprotection. Neuronal survival was assessed when co-cultured with astrocytes that had been pre-treated or not with CO. The CO-pre-treated astrocytes reduced neuronal cell death, and the cellular mechanisms were investigated, focusing on purinergic signaling. CO modulates astrocytic metabolism and extracellular ATP content in the co-culture medium. Moreover, several antagonists of P1 adenosine and P2 ATP receptors partially reverted CO-induced neuroprotection through astrocytes. Likewise, knocking down expression of the neuronal P1 adenosine receptor A2A-R (encoded by Adora2a) reverted the neuroprotective effects of CO-exposed astrocytes. The neuroprotection of CO-treated astrocytes also decreased following prevention of ATP or adenosine release from astrocytic cells and inhibition of extracellular ATP metabolism into adenosine. Finally, the neuronal downstream event involves TrkB (also known as NTRK2) receptors and BDNF. Pharmacological and genetic inhibition of TrkB receptors reverts neuroprotection triggered by CO-treated astrocytes. Furthermore, the neuronal ratio of BDNF to pro-BDNF increased in the presence of CO-treated astrocytes and decreased whenever A2A-R expression was silenced. In summary, CO prevents neuronal cell death in a paracrine manner by targeting astrocytic metabolism through purinergic signaling. © 2016. Published by The Company of Biologists Ltd.

  1. Carbon monoxide-induced delayed amnesia, delayed neuronal death and change in acetylcholine concentration in mice

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nabeshima, T.; Katoh, A.; Ishimaru, H.; Yoneda, Y.; Ogita, K.; Murase, K.; Ohtsuka, H.; Inari, K.; Fukuta, T.; Kameyama, T.

    1991-01-01

    We investigated the interrelationship of delayed amnesia, delayed neuronal death and changes in acetylcholine concentration induced by carbon monoxide (CO)-exposure in mice. In the test for retention of the passive avoidance task, amnesia was observed 5 and 7 days after CO-exposure when the mice were exposed to CO 1 day after training; in the case when the mice were exposed to CO 5 and 7 days before training, amnesia was also observed in a retention test given 1 day after training. The number of pyramidal cells in the hippocampal CA1 subfield was lower than that of the control 3, 5 and 7 days after CO-exposure. But the neurodegeneration in the parietal cortex, area 1, was not observed until 7 days after CO-exposure. The findings indicated that the amnesia and the neuronal death were produced after a delay when the mice were exposed to CO. In addition, the delayed amnesia was closely related to the delayed neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 subfield. Moreover, [3H]glutamate and [3H]glycine binding sites did not change after CO-exposure but, 7 days after CO-exposure, the concentration of acetylcholine and the binding of [3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate in the frontal cortex and the striatum were found to have significantly changed, but those in the hippocampus did not show significant change. Therefore, we suggest that delayed amnesia induced by CO-exposure may result from delayed neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 subfield and dysfunction in the acetylcholinergic neurons, in the frontal cortex, the striatum and/or the hippocampus

  2. Carbon monoxide-induced delayed amnesia, delayed neuronal death and change in acetylcholine concentration in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nabeshima, T.; Katoh, A.; Ishimaru, H.; Yoneda, Y.; Ogita, K.; Murase, K.; Ohtsuka, H.; Inari, K.; Fukuta, T.; Kameyama, T. (Meijo Univ., Nagoya (Japan))

    1991-01-01

    We investigated the interrelationship of delayed amnesia, delayed neuronal death and changes in acetylcholine concentration induced by carbon monoxide (CO)-exposure in mice. In the test for retention of the passive avoidance task, amnesia was observed 5 and 7 days after CO-exposure when the mice were exposed to CO 1 day after training; in the case when the mice were exposed to CO 5 and 7 days before training, amnesia was also observed in a retention test given 1 day after training. The number of pyramidal cells in the hippocampal CA1 subfield was lower than that of the control 3, 5 and 7 days after CO-exposure. But the neurodegeneration in the parietal cortex, area 1, was not observed until 7 days after CO-exposure. The findings indicated that the amnesia and the neuronal death were produced after a delay when the mice were exposed to CO. In addition, the delayed amnesia was closely related to the delayed neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 subfield. Moreover, (3H)glutamate and (3H)glycine binding sites did not change after CO-exposure but, 7 days after CO-exposure, the concentration of acetylcholine and the binding of (3H)quinuclidinyl benzilate in the frontal cortex and the striatum were found to have significantly changed, but those in the hippocampus did not show significant change. Therefore, we suggest that delayed amnesia induced by CO-exposure may result from delayed neuronal death in the hippocampal CA1 subfield and dysfunction in the acetylcholinergic neurons, in the frontal cortex, the striatum and/or the hippocampus.

  3. Source attribution using FLEXPART and carbon monoxide emission inventories: SOFT-IO version 1.0

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauvage, Bastien; Fontaine, Alain; Eckhardt, Sabine; Auby, Antoine; Boulanger, Damien; Petetin, Hervé; Paugam, Ronan; Athier, Gilles; Cousin, Jean-Marc; Darras, Sabine; Nédélec, Philippe; Stohl, Andreas; Turquety, Solène; Cammas, Jean-Pierre; Thouret, Valérie

    2017-12-01

    Since 1994, the In-service Aircraft for a Global Observing System (IAGOS) program has produced in situ measurements of the atmospheric composition during more than 51 000 commercial flights. In order to help analyze these observations and understand the processes driving the observed concentration distribution and variability, we developed the SOFT-IO tool to quantify source-receptor links for all measured data. Based on the FLEXPART particle dispersion model (Stohl et al., 2005), SOFT-IO simulates the contributions of anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions from the ECCAD emission inventory database for all locations and times corresponding to the measured carbon monoxide mixing ratios along each IAGOS flight. Contributions are simulated from emissions occurring during the last 20 days before an observation, separating individual contributions from the different source regions. The main goal is to supply added-value products to the IAGOS database by evincing the geographical origin and emission sources driving the CO enhancements observed in the troposphere and lower stratosphere. This requires a good match between observed and modeled CO enhancements. Indeed, SOFT-IO detects more than 95 % of the observed CO anomalies over most of the regions sampled by IAGOS in the troposphere. In the majority of cases, SOFT-IO simulates CO pollution plumes with biases lower than 10-15 ppbv. Differences between the model and observations are larger for very low or very high observed CO values. The added-value products will help in the understanding of the trace-gas distribution and seasonal variability. They are available in the IAGOS database via http://www.iagos.org. The SOFT-IO tool could also be applied to similar data sets of CO observations (e.g., ground-based measurements, satellite observations). SOFT-IO could also be used for statistical validation as well as for intercomparisons of emission inventories using large amounts of data.

  4. Exposure to Elevated Carbon Monoxide Levels at an Indoor Ice Arena--Wisconsin, 2014.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creswell, Paul D; Meiman, Jon G; Nehls-Lowe, Henry; Vogt, Christy; Wozniak, Ryan J; Werner, Mark A; Anderson, Henry

    2015-11-20

    On December 13, 2014, the emergency management system in Lake Delton, Wisconsin, was notified when a male hockey player aged 20 years lost consciousness after participation in an indoor hockey tournament that included approximately 50 hockey players and 100 other attendees. Elevated levels of carbon monoxide (CO) (range = 45 ppm-165 ppm) were detected by the fire department inside the arena. The emergency management system encouraged all players and attendees to seek medical evaluation for possible CO poisoning. The Wisconsin Department of Health Services (WDHS) conducted an epidemiologic investigation to determine what caused the exposure and to recommend preventive strategies. Investigators abstracted medical records from area emergency departments (EDs) for patients who sought care for CO exposure during December 13-14, 2014, conducted a follow-up survey of ED patients approximately 2 months after the event, and conducted informant interviews. Ninety-two persons sought ED evaluation for possible CO exposure, all of whom were tested for CO poisoning. Seventy-four (80%) patients had blood carboxyhemoglobin (COHb) levels consistent with CO poisoning; 32 (43%) CO poisoning cases were among hockey players. On December 15, the CO emissions from the propane-fueled ice resurfacer were demonstrated to be 4.8% of total emissions when actively resurfacing and 2.3% when idling, both above the optimal range of 0.5%-1.0%. Incomplete fuel combustion by the ice resurfacer was the most likely source of elevated CO. CO poisonings in ice arenas can be prevented through regular maintenance of ice resurfacers, installation of CO detectors, and provision of adequate ventilation.

  5. [Influences of heme oxygenase-1, carbon monoxide and nitric oxide synthase, nitrogen monoxide systems on vascular remodeling of injured balloon carotid artery in rabbits and the intercorrelations among the two systems].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Danan; He, Zuoyun; Wu, Lirong; Fang, Ying; Liu, Xingde; Li, Ping

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the influences of heme oxygenase-1, carbon monoxide and nitricoxide synthase, nitrogen monoxide systems on vascular remodeling of injured balloon carotid artery in rabbits and the intercorrelations among the two systems after balloon angioplasty. Seventy rabbits were randomly divided into seven groups, i. e., control group, SH group, Chol group, Arg group, L-NAME group, Hem group, and Znpp group. The control group received normal chow, while all the rabbits the rest six groups received 1.5% cholesterol diet. Among the six test groups, to those in Chol group and SH group nothing else was added except the 1.5% cholesterol. L-arginine or L-nitro-arginine methylester was added to those in the Arg group and in the L-NAME group with drinking water. Hemin or zincprotoporphyrin IX was added to those in Hem group and in Znpp group by injecting the medicine into the abdominal cavity. After two weeks, the experimental groups underwent balloon injury at one side common carotid artery. Compared to Chol group, the HO-1 activity and CO production increased significantly. The intima area was reduced distinctly in Hem group, while there were opposite results in Znpp group. Compared with that in Chol group, the NF-kappaB activity of Arg group and Hem group were lower significantly. That of L-NAME group and Znpp group were higher significantly. Compared with that in the Chol group, the cNOS activity and NO production were eleveated markedly in Arg group while they were decreased markedly in L-NAME group. The intima area was reduced significantly in Arg group, while in L-NAME group they were not different from those in Chol group. These results suggested that the reciprocal relationship between HO-1/CO and NOS/NO system in restenosis may play the inhibitory role against neointimal proliferation and vascular wall remodeling after balloon angioplasty.

  6. Carbon monoxide oxidation on Pt-Ru electrocatalysts supported on high surface area carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Colmati Jr. Flavio

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available This work describes the preparation and characterization of Pt-Ru alloys dispersed on high surface area carbon, which were evaluated for CO oxidation on thin porous coating rotating disk electrodes and for hydrogen oxidation on polymer electrolyte fuel cells fed with hydrogen containing 100 ppm CO. A thermal treatment (H2, 300 ºC applied to the catalysts improves the tolerance to small quantities of CO and, in some cases, reduces the potential necessary to promote the CO oxidation during a linear potential scan. Under operational conditions in a fuel cell in the presence of CO it was observed that the best results were obtained when the Pt-Ru/C alloy was prepared by simultaneous reduction of the ions Pt (IV and Ru (III, as opposed to a sequential reduction.

  7. Spatial and Temporal Variations in Characteristic Ratios of Elemental Carbon to Carbon Monoxide and Nitrogen Oxides across the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raman, Aishwarya; Arellano, Avelino F

    2017-06-20

    A ratio-based method is used to characterize anthropogenic elemental carbon (EC a ) using in situ measurements and emissions of carbon monoxide (CO) and nitrogen oxides (NO x ). We use long-term records of ground-based measurements from the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Air Quality System and Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments to assess the patterns in anthropogenic combustion ratios (ΔEC a /ΔCO and ΔEC a /ΔNO x ) across the U.S. Petroleum Administration for Defense Districts (PADD) regions for the years 2000-2015. We investigate the change in these ratios between the periods 2000-2007 and 2008-2015. Overall, ΔEC a /ΔCO ratios increase by 0.7-82% and ΔEC a /ΔNO x by 6.8-104% across the East and West PADD regions. The urban West showed the largest increase relative to other regions. This is mainly attributed to a 13-23% increase in ΔEC a during the winter and fall seasons and significant reductions in urban ΔNO x (except in winter). We also find that emission ratios derived from the EPA's National Emission Inventory (NEI) overestimate (underestimate) the increase in the observed enhancement ratios in the East (West). Analyses of changes in NEI emissions in the West reveal (a) smaller reductions in NEI emissions for NO x from the off-road sector and (b) an increase in PM 2.5 (particulate matter 2.5 μm or less in diameter) emissions from commercial/residential combustion and smaller reductions in nonroad emissions.

  8. A Light-Emitting Diode- (LED-) Based Absorption Sensor for Simultaneous Detection of Carbon Monoxide and Carbon Dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thurmond, Kyle; Loparo, Zachary; Partridge, William; Vasu, Subith S

    2016-06-01

    A sensor was developed for simultaneous measurements of carbon monoxide (CO) and carbon dioxide (CO2) fluctuations in internal combustion engine exhaust gases. This sensor utilizes low-cost and compact light-emitting diodes (LEDs) that emit in the 3-5 µm wavelength range. An affordable, fast response sensor that can measure these gases has a broad application that can lead to more efficient, fuel-flexible engines and regulation of harmful emissions. Light emission from LEDs is spectrally broader and more spatially divergent when compared to that of lasers, which presented many design challenges. Optical design studies addressed some of the non-ideal characteristics of the LED emissions. Measurements of CO and CO2 were conducted using their fundamental absorption bands centered at 4.7 µm and 4.3 µm, respectively, while a 3.6 µm reference LED was used to account for scattering losses (due to soot, window deposits, etc.) common to the three measurement LEDs. Instrument validation and calibration was performed using a laboratory flow cell and bottled-gas mixtures. The sensor was able to detect CO2 and CO concentration changes as small as 30 ppm and 400 ppm, respectively. Because of the many control and monitor species with infra-red absorption features, which can be measured using the strategy described, this work demonstrates proof of concept for a wider range of fast (250 Hz) and low-cost sensors for gas measurement and process monitoring. © The Author(s) 2016.

  9. Concentrations of volatile organic compounds, carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide and particulate matter in buses on highways in Taiwan

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Der-Jen; Huang, Hsiao-Lin

    2009-12-01

    Although airborne pollutants in urban buses have been studied in many cities globally, long-distance buses running mainly on highways have not been addressed in this regard. This study investigates the levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs), carbon monoxide (CO), carbon dioxide (CO 2) and particulate matter (PM) in the long-distance buses in Taiwan. Analytical results indicate that pollutants levels in long-distance buses are generally lower than those in urban buses. This finding is attributable to the driving speed and patterns of long-distance buses, as well as the meteorological and geographical features of the highway surroundings. The levels of benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and xylene (BTEX) found in bus cabins exceed the proposed indoor VOC guidelines for aromatic compounds, and are likely attributable to the interior trim in the cabins. The overall average CO level is 2.3 ppm, with higher average level on local streets (2.9 ppm) than on highways (2.2 ppm). The average CO 2 level is 1493 ppm, which is higher than the guideline for non-industrial occupied settings. The average PM level in this study is lower than those in urban buses and IAQ guidelines set by Taiwan EPA. However, the average PM 10 and PM 2.5 is higher than the level set by WHO. Besides the probable causes mentioned above, fewer passenger movements and less particle re-suspension from bus floor might also cause the lower PM levels. Measurements of particle size distribution reveal that more than 75% of particles are in submicron and smaller sizes. These particles may come from the infiltration from the outdoor air. This study concludes that air exchange rates in long-distance buses should be increased in order to reduce CO 2 levels. Future research on long-distance buses should focus on the emission of VOCs from brand new buses, and the sources of submicron particles in bus cabins.

  10. The influence of traffic and wood combustion on the stable isotopic composition of carbon monoxide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Saurer

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Carbon monoxide in the atmosphere is originating from various combustion and oxidation processes. Recently, the proportion of CO resulting from the combustion of wood for domestic heating may have increased due to political measures promoting this renewable energy source. Here, we used the stable isotope composition of CO (δ13C and δ18O for the characterization of different CO sources in Switzerland, along with other indicators for traffic and wood combustion (NOx-concentration, aerosol light absorption at different wavelengths. We assessed diurnal variations of the isotopic composition of CO at 3 sites during winter: a village site dominated by domestic heating, a site close to a motorway and a rural site. The isotope ratios of wood combustion emissions were studied at a test facility, indicating significantly lower δ18O of CO from wood combustion compared to traffic emissions. At the village and the motorway site, we observed very pronounced diurnal δ18O-variations of CO with an amplitude of up to 8‰. Solving the isotope mass balance equation for three distinct sources (wood combustion, traffic, clean background air resulted in diurnal patterns consistent with other indicators for wood burning and traffic. The average night-time contribution of wood-burning to total CO was 70% at the village site, 49% at the motorway site and 29% at the rural site based on the isotope mass balance. The results, however, depend strongly on the pure source isotope values, which are not very well known. We therefore additionally applied a combined CO/NOx-isotope model for verification. Here, we separated the CO emissions into different sources based on distinct CO/NOx emissions ratios for wood combustion and traffic, and inserted this information in the isotope mass balance equation. Accordingly, a highly significant agreement between measured and calculated δ18

  11. Activation of locus coeruleus heme oxygenase-carbon monoxide pathway promoted an anxiolytic-like effect in rats

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    P.G. Carvalho-Costa

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The heme oxygenase-carbon monoxide pathway has been shown to play an important role in many physiological processes and is capable of altering nociception modulation in the nervous system by stimulating soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC. In the central nervous system, the locus coeruleus (LC is known to be a region that expresses the heme oxygenase enzyme (HO, which catalyzes the metabolism of heme to carbon monoxide (CO. Additionally, several lines of evidence have suggested that the LC can be involved in the modulation of emotional states such as fear and anxiety. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the activation of the heme oxygenase-carbon monoxide pathway in the LC in the modulation of anxiety by using the elevated plus maze test (EPM and light-dark box test (LDB in rats. Experiments were performed on adult male Wistar rats weighing 250-300 g (n=182. The results showed that the intra-LC microinjection of heme-lysinate (600 nmol, a substrate for the enzyme HO, increased the number of entries into the open arms and the percentage of time spent in open arms in the elevated plus maze test, indicating a decrease in anxiety. Additionally, in the LDB test, intra-LC administration of heme-lysinate promoted an increase on time spent in the light compartment of the box. The intracerebroventricular microinjection of guanylate cyclase, an sGC inhibitor followed by the intra-LC microinjection of the heme-lysinate blocked the anxiolytic-like reaction on the EPM test and LDB test. It can therefore be concluded that CO in the LC produced by the HO pathway and acting via cGMP plays an anxiolytic-like role in the LC of rats.

  12. Reduction of nitric oxide by carbon monoxide over a silica supported platinum catalyst infrared and kinetic studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lorimer, D' Arcy Harold [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1978-07-01

    The reduction of nitric oxide by carbon monoxide over a 4.5 weight precent platinum catalyst supported on silica was studied at 300 C. Reaction rate data was obtained together with in situ infrared spectra of species on the catalyst surface. The kinetics of the system were found to exhibit two distinct trends, depending on the molar ratio of CO/NO in the reactor. For net reducing conditions (CO/NO> 1) the catalyst underwent a transient deactivation, the extent of which was dependent on the specific CO/NO ratio during reaction. Reactivation of the catalyst was obtained with both oxidizing and reducing pretreatments. For molar feed ratios of CO/NO less than one, carbon monoxide conversion was typically 95 to 100%, resulting in strongly oxidizing conditions over the catalyst. Under these conditions no deactivation was apparent. Infrared spectra recorded under reaction conditions revealed intense bands at 2075 and 2300 cm-1 , which were identified as carbon monoxide adsorbed on Pt and Si-NCO, respectively. Isocyanate bands formed under reducing conditions were more intense and exhibited greater stability than those formed under oxidizing conditions. A reaction mechanism based on the dissociation of nitric oxide as the rate-limiting step was used to correlate nitric oxide reaction rates and nitrous oxide selectivities observed under reducing conditions. As part of this mechanism it is assumed that nitrous bxide is formed via a Langmuir-Hinshelwood process in which an adsorbed nitrogen atom reacts with an adsorbed nitric oxide molecule. The nitric oxide reaction rate was found to be first order in nitric oxide partial pressure, and inverse second order in carbon monoxide partial pressure. A mechanism is proposed to qualitatively explain the deactivation process observed under reducing conditions. The essential part of this mechanism is the formation of an isocyanate species on the Pt crystallites of the catalyst and the subsequent transient diffusion of these

  13. Real-time prediction of extreme ambient carbon monoxide concentrations due to vehicular exhaust emissions using univariate linear stochastic models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharma, P.; Khare, M.

    2000-01-01

    Historical data of the time-series of carbon monoxide (CO) concentration was analysed using Box-Jenkins modelling approach. Univariate Linear Stochastic Models (ULSMs) were developed to examine the degree of prediction possible for situations where only a limited data set, restricted only to the past record of pollutant data are available. The developed models can be used to provide short-term, real-time forecast of extreme CO concentrations for an Air Quality Control Region (AQCR), comprising a major traffic intersection in a Central Business District of Delhi City, India. (author)

  14. Effect of hyperbaric oxygen therapy on whole blood cyanide concentrations in carbon monoxide intoxicated patients from fire accidents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lawson-Smith, Pia; Jansen, Erik C; Hilsted, Linda

    2010-01-01

    Hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and carbon monoxide (CO) may be important components of smoke from fire accidents. Accordingly, patients admitted to hospital from fire accidents may have been exposed to both HCN and CO. Cyanide (CN) intoxication results in cytotoxic hypoxia leading to organ dysfunction...... and possibly death. While several reports support the use of hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBO) for the treatment of severe CO poisoning, limited data exist on the effect of HBO during CN poisoning. HBO increases the elimination rate of CO haemoglobin in proportion to the increased oxygen partial pressure...

  15. Study of the catalytic activity of mixed non-stoichiometric uranium-thorium oxides in carbon monoxide oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brau, G.

    1969-06-01

    The aim of this work has been to study the catalytic properties of non-stoichiometric uranium-thorium oxides having the general formula U x Th 1-x O 2+y , for the oxidation of carbon monoxide. The preparation of pure, homogeneous, isotropic solids having good structural stability and a surface area as high as possible calls for a strict control of the conditions of preparation of these oxides right from the preparation of 'mother salts': the mixed oxalates U x Th 1-x (C 2 O 4 ) 2 , 2H 2 O. A study has been made of their physico-chemical properties (overall and surface chemical constitution, texture, structure, electrical conductivity), as well as of their adsorption properties with respect to gaseous species occurring in the catalytic reaction. This analysis has made it possible to put forward a reaction mechanism based on successive oxidations and reductions of the active surface by the reactants. A study of the reactions kinetics has confirmed the existence of this oxidation-reduction mechanism which only occurs for oxides having a uranium content of above 0.0014. The carbon dioxide produced by the reaction acts as an inhibitor by blocking the sites on which carbon monoxide can be adsorbed. These non-stoichiometric mixed oxides are a particularly clear example of catalysis by oxygen exchange between the solid and the gas phase. (author) [fr

  16. High-frequency urban measurements of molecular hydrogen and carbon monoxide in the United Kingdom

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    A. Grant

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available High-frequency measurements of atmospheric molecular hydrogen (H2 and carbon monoxide (CO were made at an urban site in the United Kingdom (UK from mid-December, 2008 until early March, 2009. Very few measurements of H2 exist in the urban environment, particularly within the UK, but are an essential component in the assessment of anthropogenic emissions of H2 and to a certain extent CO. These data provide detailed information on urban time-series, diurnal cycles as well as sources and sinks of both H2 and CO at urban locations. High-frequency data were found to be strongly influenced by local meteorological conditions of wind speed and temperature. Diurnal cycles were found to follow transport frequency very closely due to the sites proximity to major carriageways, consequently a strong correlation was found between H2 and CO mole fractions. Background subtracted mean and rush hour molar H2/CO emission ratios of 0.53±0.08 and 0.57±0.06 respectively, were calculated from linear fitting of data. The scatter plot of all H2 and CO data displayed an unusual two population pattern, thought to be associated with a large industrial area 85 km to the west of the site. However, the definitive source of this two branch pattern could not be fully elucidated. H2 emissions from transport in the UK were estimated to be 188±39 Gg H2/yr, with 8.1±2.3 Tg/yr of H2 produced from vehicle emissions globally. H2 and CO deposition velocities were calculated during stable night-time inversion events when a clear decay of both species was observed. CO was found to have a much higher deposition velocity than H2, 1.3±0.8×10−3 and 2.2±1.5×10−4 m s−1 (1σ respectively, going against the law of molecular diffusivity. The source of this unusual result was investigated, however no conclusive

  17. Spectrally resolved efficiencies of carbon monoxide (CO photoproduction in the western Canadian Arctic: particles versus solutes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. Song

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Spectrally resolved efficiency (i.e. apparent quantum yield, AQY of carbon monoxide (CO photoproduction is a useful indicator of substrate photoreactivity and a crucial parameter for modeling CO photoproduction rates in the water column. Recent evidence has suggested that CO photoproduction from particles in marine waters is significant compared to the well-known CO production from chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM photodegradation. Although CDOM-based CO AQY spectra have been extensively determined, little is known of this information on the particulate phase. Using water samples collected from the Mackenzie estuary, shelf, and Canada Basin in the southeastern Beaufort Sea, the present study for the first time quantified the AQY spectra of particle-based CO photoproduction and compared them with the concomitantly determined CDOM-based CO AQY spectra. CO AQYs of both particles and CDOM decreased with wavelength but the spectral shape of the particulate AQY was flatter in the visible regime. This feature resulted in a disproportionally higher visible light-driven CO production by particles, thereby increasing the ratio of particle- to CDOM-based CO photoproduction with depth in the euphotic zone. In terms of depth-integrated production in the euphotic zone, CO formation from CDOM was dominated by the ultraviolet (UV, 290–400 nm radiation whereas UV and visible light played roughly equal roles in CO production from particles. Spatially, CO AQY of bulk particulate matter (i.e. the sum of organics and inorganics augmented from the estuary and shelf to the basin while CO AQY of CDOM trended inversely. Water from the deep chlorophyll maximum layer revealed higher CO AQYs than did surface water for both particles and CDOM. CO AQY of bulk particulate matter exceeded that of CDOM on the shelf and in the basin, but the sequence reversed in the estuary. Without consideration of the potential role of metal oxides (e.g. iron oxides in particle

  18. Ice Core Data of Atmospheric Carbon Monoxide Over Antarctica During The Last 170 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Z.; Mak, J.; Chappellaz, J.

    2008-12-01

    The importance and interest for reconstructing past CO concentrations arises from its significant role on the chemistry of the troposphere. As the major sink for hydroxyl radicals (OH), carbon monoxide is considered to regulate the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere. CO also has a close link with methane which is a main source of CO especially in Southern Hemisphere. Past atmospheric CO concentration will help better understand past trend of the atmospheric oxidative capacity. Past isotopic data of CO will assist in determining the various sources and sinks in the past and their historic relative magnitudes. However, little information about past CO is reported due to the difficulties of measuring atmospheric CO in the ppbv range. Our study on CO in Antarctic ice cores helps determine the past trend of atmospheric oxidative capacity and relationship between CO and methane. In this study, we present both the isotopic data and concentration measurements of atmospheric CO in D47 ice cores. Ice core samples were prepared based on wet extraction method in LGGE, France. Measurements were made with a cryogenic vacuum extraction system and continuous-flow isotopic ratio mass spectrometer (CF-IRMS) in Stony Brook University, NY. 12 D47 ice core samples have been measured for both CO mixing ratio and isotopic ratios. The range of the depth is from 69m to 109m, corresponding to a range of gas age from 1829 AD to 1941 AD. It is found that CO level in the above gas age range is around 55-60ppbv and doesn't change much during this time frame. d13C (VPDB) of CO is around -28 per mil and no apparent trend of d13C is found. More isotope data are needed to show us a clear trend, especially for ice cores extending back to pre-industrial time. As for d18O, our data show very heavier d18O values. Usually high d18O values indicate foreign CO, but due to the relatively constant CO mixing ratio, this possibility can be eliminated. If there is no foreign CO, there may be some unexpected

  19. Effects of endogenous carbon monoxide on collagen synthesis in pulmonary artery in rats under hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Li-min; Du, Jun-bao; Shi, Lin; Shi, Yun; Tang, Chao-shu

    2004-01-23

    To study the role of endogenous carbon monoxide (CO) in collagen metabolism during hypoxic pulmonary vascular remodeling, a total of 18 Wistar rats were used in the study and they were randomly divided into three groups: hypoxia group (n = 6), hypoxia with zinc protoporphyrin-IX (ZnPP-IX) group (n = 6) and control group (n = 6). The measurement of mean pulmonary artery pressure (mPAP) and carboxyhemoglobin (HbCO) formation in lung tissue homogenates was measured. A morphometric analysis of pulmonary vessels was performed, in which the percentage of muscularized arteries (MA); partially muscularized arteries (PMA) and nonmuscularized arteries (NMV) in small and median pulmonary vessels, relative medial thickness (RMT) and relative medial area (RMA) of pulmonary arteries were analyzed. Collagen type I and III and transforming growth factor-beta3 (TGF-beta3) expressions were detected by immunohistochemical assay. The expressions of procollagen type I and III and TGF-beta3 mRNA were detected by in situ hybridization. The results showed that ZnPP-IX significantly increased mPAP and markedly decreased HbCO formation in lung tissue homogenates in rats under hypoxia (P ZnPP-IX, the percentage of muscularized arteries of small and median pulmonary vessels was obviously increased, and RMT and RMA of intra-acinar muscularized pulmonary arteries were markedly increased compared with hypoxic rats. Ultrastructural changes, such as hyperplasia and hypertrophy of endothelial cells (ECs) and smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and the increased number of SMCs in synthetic phenotype were found in intra-acinar pulmonary muscularized arteries of hypoxic rats treated with ZnPP-IX. Meanwhile, ZnPP-IX promoted the expression of collagen type I and III and TGF-beta3 protein in pulmonary arteries of rats under hypoxia (P ZnPP-IX elevated obviously the expressions of procollagen type I and III mRNA, and TGF-beta3 mRNA in pulmonary arteries of rats under hypoxia (P ZnPP-IX played an important role in

  20. The predictive value of MR diffusion weighted imaging on the delayed encephalopathy after carbon monoxide poisoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Xiao Xinlan; Fu Lihui; Xi Weimin; Yin Jianhua; Gong Liangeng; Yuan Aimei; Yang Xinyue; Liu Zhiyong

    2007-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the value of diffusion weighted imaging (DWI)in predicting delayed encephalopathy of the rabbits brain after carbon monoxide (CO)poisoning. Methods: Sixty healthy rabbits were put into self-made poisoning cabinet and were poisoned by inhalation of CO. Aeration of CO was stopped when the rabbits became comatous, and the cabinet was kept airpoof for 6 h. The rabbits underwent MRI before poisoning , at 1 h, 3 d, 5 d, 7 d, 15 d, 30 d ,45 d, and 60 d after poisoning respectively. Axial and sagittal T 2 WI, axial T 1 WI and DWI were performed. In the rabbits that did not show symptoms of delayed encephalopathy, the observation was discontinued on the 60th day. In the rabbit that showed the symptoms, the observation was discontinued on the 30th-45th day. The changing pattern of cortical ADC values before and after CO poisoning was observed and its relationship with delayed encephalopathy was investigated. Results: In the group without delayed encephalopathy (15 rabbits), the ADC value at 1 h after poisoning [(7.58±0.36) x 10 -4 mm 2 /s] decreased significantly compared with the pre- poisoning value [(8.02±0.35) x 10 -4 mm 2 /s] (q=0.4441, P -4 mm 2 /s], and maintained at the same level as pre- poisoning at 60 d after poisoning (P >0.05). In the group with delayed encephalopathy (15 rabbits), the ADC value at 1 h after poisoning [(7.40±0.32) x 10 -4 mm 2 /s] decreased significantly compared with the pre- poisoning value [(8.08± 0.32) x 10 -4 mm 2 /s] (q=0.6728, P -4 mm 2 /s], secondly significantly decreased at 15 d [(7.29±0.93) x 10 -4 mm 2 /s] without further recovery. The ADC value decrease at 15d alter poisoning [(7.29±0.93) x 10 -4 mm 2 /s] was significant compared with the prepoisoning ADC value (q=0.7850, P<0.01). Conclusions: There is a correlation between the decrease of the ADC value and the degree of tissue damage. The decrease of the ADC value in acute stage can predict the delayed encephalopathy. The second significant decrease

  1. Association between ambient carbon monoxide and secondary hyperparathyroidism in nondiabetic patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weng CH

    2015-09-01

    this cross-sectional study indicated the presence of an association between environmental CO exposure and SHPT in patients undergoing PD who did not have diabetes mellitus. Therefore, poor environmental air quality may be a risk factor for deterioration of SHPT in patients undergoing PD. Keywords: air pollution, CO, carbon monoxide, hyperparathyroidism, peritoneal dialysis

  2. An epidemiological study of acute carbon monoxide poisoning in the West Midlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, R C; Saunders, P J; Smith, G

    1998-11-01

    To describe the epidemiology of carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning in a defined population, identifying those at greatest risk from acute poisoning resulting in admission to hospital or death. A retrospective study with routinely collected information, set in the former West Midlands Regional Health Authority; population of 5.2 million. The data comprised 939 deaths and 701 hospital admissions due to CO poisoning between January 1988 to December 1994. The main outcome measures were age and sex standardised incidence rates (SIRs) for non-intentional, suicidal, and undetermined poisonings for health authorities and the linear relation with socioeconomic deprivation. Overall rate of non-intentional poisonings over the 7 year period was 7.6/100,000, an annual rate of 1.1/100,000. The 7 year rates were highest in people > or = 85; men 24.0/100,000 and women 19.7/100,000. For suicides the 7 year rate was 19.6/100,000, an annual rate of 2.8/100,000. The 7 year rates were highest for men of 35-39, 64.1/100,000, and for women aged 45-49, 15.3/100,000. None of the causes of poisoning were related to deprivation. Non-intentional poisonings showed a strong seasonal variation with the highest rates being recorded in the months October to March. Increased rates of poisoning were found in the rural districts of the West Midlands. There seems to have been a decline in suicides coinciding with the introduction of three way catalytic converters on cars. Elderly people and the very young are at the greatest risk from non-intentional CO poisoning and rates are highest in the winter months. Although deaths from non-intentional CO poisoning are declining nationally, in the West Midlands they have remained stable and hospital admissions are increasing. It is not solely an urban phenomenon with rates for non-intentional CO poisoning and suicides higher in the rural districts. Health authorities need to consider all populations in any prevention programme. Further work is needed to establish

  3. What do we know about carbon monoxide poisoning and cardiac compromise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cardiga, Rosa; Proença, Margarida; Carvalho, Carolina; Costa, Luís; Botella, Arturo; Marques, Filipa; Paulino, Carolina; Carvalho, António; Fonseca, Cândida

    2015-09-01

    Carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is one of the most common types of poisoning and the leading cause of death by poisoning worldwide. Cardiac injury caused by CO poisoning has been little described despite being a predictor of poor prognosis. We present the case of a healthy 24-year-old woman, admitted to our emergency room due to an episode of lipothymia without loss of consciousness. She reported holocranial headache for the previous two weeks associated with nausea and vomiting. Laboratory tests revealed blood gas analysis: pH 7.392, pCO2 32 mmHg, pO2 101 mmHg, lactate 3.5 mmol/l, HCO3 20.8 mmol/l; COHb 29.2%; serial troponin I 1.21 → 5.25 → 6.13 → 3.65 μg/l; myoglobin 1378 → 964 → 352 μg/l; and NT-proBNP 1330 pg/l. The electrocardiogram showed sinus rhythm, heart rate 110 bpm, and ST-segment depression of 2 mm in V4 and 1 mm in V5. Transthoracic echocardiography revealed a left ventricle with normal wall motion and preserved ejection fraction. Given the clinical and epidemiological context, myocardial and central nervous system ischemia due to prolonged CO exposure was assumed and normobaric oxygen therapy was immediately started. In view of evidence of injury to two major organ systems the indication for hyperbaric oxygen therapy was discussed with a specialist colleague, who suggested maintaining conservative treatment with oxygen therapy and in-hospital monitoring for 72 h. The patient was discharged on the third day and was still asymptomatic at 400 days of follow-up. Besides symptoms and signs of central nervous system dysfunction, myocardial damage should also always be considered in the context of CO poisoning. Hyperbaric therapy is still controversial and the lack of objective data highlights the need for new randomized studies. Copyright © 2014 Sociedade Portuguesa de Cardiologia. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  4. Evaluation of in situ measurements of atmospheric carbon monoxide at Mount Waliguan, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Zhang

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Quasicontinuous measurements of carbon monoxide (CO recorded over three years at Mount Waliguan (WLG, a global baseline station in remote western China, were examined using back trajectory analysis. The data include a revision to correct the working reference scale to the WMO2000 scale and corrections for drift in the reference gases. Between July 2004 and June 2007, CO exhibited large fluctuations and the 5 %, 50 % and 95 %-percentiles of relevant CO mixing ratios were 102 ppb, 126 ppb and 194 ppb. Approximately 50 % of all observed data were selected as CO background data using a mathematical procedure of robust local regression, with the remainder affected by regional-scale pollution. The monthly mean background CO mixing ratios showed a minimum in summer and a maximum in late winter, although all seasons were affected by short-term enhancements that exceeded background levels. The CO data were compared to values observed at the high alpine research station at Jungfraujoch, Switzerland. Smaller seasonal amplitudes were observed at WLG compared to the Jungfraujoch due to lower winter and spring CO levels, however, episodic enhancements of polluted air were greater at WLG. The air parcels arriving at WLG came predominately from the west, except in summer when advection from the east and southeast prevailed. Transport from the east or southeast typically brought polluted air to the site, having passed over populated urban areas upwind. A large number of elevated CO mixing ratios could also be associated with advection from the northwest of WLG via the central Xinjiang Uygur Autonomous Region (XUAR and the Ge'ermu urban area where growing industrial activities as well as crops residue burning provide sources of CO. Air masses passing over northwestern Gansu were associated with relatively high CO values suggesting an anthropogenic influence, which was likely due to anthropogenic emissions from northwestern China (based on back-trajectory and

  5. Soil fluxes of carbonyl sulfide (COS), carbon monoxide, and carbon dioxide in a boreal forest in southern Finland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Wu; Kooijmans, Linda M. J.; Maseyk, Kadmiel; Chen, Huilin; Mammarella, Ivan; Vesala, Timo; Levula, Janne; Keskinen, Helmi; Seibt, Ulli

    2018-02-01

    Soil is a major contributor to the biosphere-atmosphere exchange of carbonyl sulfide (COS) and carbon monoxide (CO). COS is a tracer with which to quantify terrestrial photosynthesis based on the coupled leaf uptake of COS and CO2, but such use requires separating soil COS flux, which is unrelated to photosynthesis, from ecosystem COS uptake. For CO, soil is a significant natural sink that influences the tropospheric CO budget. In the boreal forest, magnitudes and variabilities of soil COS and CO fluxes remain poorly understood. We measured hourly soil fluxes of COS, CO, and CO2 over the 2015 late growing season (July to November) in a Scots pine forest in Hyytiälä, Finland. The soil acted as a net sink of COS and CO, with average uptake rates around 3 pmol m-2 s-1 for COS and 1 nmol m-2 s-1 for CO. Soil respiration showed seasonal dynamics controlled by soil temperature, peaking at around 4 µmol m-2 s-1 in late August and September and dropping to 1-2 µmol m-2 s-1 in October. In contrast, seasonal variations of COS and CO fluxes were weak and mainly driven by soil moisture changes through diffusion limitation. COS and CO fluxes did not appear to respond to temperature variation, although they both correlated well with soil respiration in specific temperature bins. However, COS : CO2 and CO : CO2 flux ratios increased with temperature, suggesting possible shifts in active COS- and CO-consuming microbial groups. Our results show that soil COS and CO fluxes do not have strong variations over the late growing season in this boreal forest and can be represented with the fluxes during the photosynthetically most active period. Well-characterized and relatively invariant soil COS fluxes strengthen the case for using COS as a photosynthetic tracer in boreal forests.

  6. Catalytic Oxidation of Propylene, Toluene, Carbon Monoxide, and Carbon Black over Au/CeO2 Solids: Comparing the Impregnation and the Deposition-Precipitation Methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aboukaïs, Antoine; El-Ayadi, Houda; Skaf, Mira; Labaki, Madona; Cousin, Renaud; Abi-Aad, Edmond

    2013-01-01

    Au/CeO2 solids were prepared by two methods: deposition-precipitation (DP) and impregnation (Imp). The prepared solids were calcined under air at 400°C. Both types of catalysts have been tested in the total oxidation of propylene, toluene, carbon monoxide, and carbon black. Au/CeO2-DP solids were the most reactive owing to the high number of gold nanoparticles and Au+ species and the low concentration of Cl− ions present on its surface compared to those observed in Au/CeO2-Imp solids. PMID:24198730

  7. Study on radiation degradation of hydroxylamine derivatives. Pt.3: Qualitative and quantitative analyses of hydrogen and carbon monoxide produced by radiation degradation of N,N-diethyl hydroxylamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang Jinhua; Bao Borong; Wu Minghong; Sun Xilian

    2004-01-01

    The qualitative and quantitative analysis of hydrogen and carbon monoxide produced by radiation degradation of N,N-diethyl hydroxylamine is performed on a 2 m column packed with 5 Angstrom molecular sieve and equipped with a thermal conductivity detector. The analysis of hydrogen employs argon as a carrier gas, the column temperature is 85 degree C and the detector temperature is 110 degree C; the analysis of carbon monoxide employs hydrogen as a carrier gas, the column temperature is 50 degree C and the detector temperature is 80 degree C. The results show that the volume fraction of hydrogen is increased with the increase of dose, but has little relationship with the concentration of N,N-diethyl hydroxylamine. Carbon monoxide is only produced when the absorption dose is very high and the volume fraction is very low

  8. Spatial and temporal variability of urban fluxes of methane, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide above London, UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Helfter

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available We report on more than 3 years of measurements of fluxes of methane (CH4, carbon monoxide (CO and carbon dioxide (CO2 taken by eddy-covariance in central London, UK. Mean annual emissions of CO2 in the period 2012–2014 (39.1 ± 2.4 ktons km−2 yr−1 and CO (89 ± 16 tons km−2 yr−1 were consistent (within 1 and 5 % respectively with values from the London Atmospheric Emissions Inventory, but measured CH4 emissions (72 ± 3 tons km−2 yr−1 were over two-fold larger than the inventory value. Seasonal variability was large for CO with a winter to summer reduction of 69 %, and monthly fluxes were strongly anti-correlated with mean air temperature. The winter increment in CO emissions was attributed mainly to vehicle cold starts and reduced fuel combustion efficiency. CO2 fluxes were 33 % higher in winter than in summer and anti-correlated with mean air temperature, albeit to a lesser extent than for CO. This was attributed to an increased demand for natural gas for heating during the winter. CH4 fluxes exhibited moderate seasonality (21 % larger in winter, and a spatially variable linear anti-correlation with air temperature. Differences in resident population within the flux footprint explained up to 90 % of the spatial variability of the annual CO2 fluxes and up to 99 % for CH4. Furthermore, we suggest that biogenic sources of CH4, such as wastewater, which is unaccounted for by the atmospheric emissions inventories, make a substantial contribution to the overall budget and that commuting dynamics in and out of central business districts could explain some of the spatial and temporal variability of CO2 and CH4 emissions. To our knowledge, this study is unique given the length of the data sets presented, especially for CO and CH4 fluxes. This study offers an independent assessment of "bottom-up" emissions inventories and demonstrates that the urban sources of CO and CO2 are well characterized in

  9. Effects of biodiesel made from swine and chicken fat residues on carbon monoxide, carbon dioxide, and nitrogen oxide emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feddern, Vivian; Cunha Junior, Anildo; De Prá, Marina C; Busi da Silva, Marcio L; Nicoloso, Rodrigo da S; Higarashi, Martha M; Coldebella, Arlei; de Abreu, Paulo G

    2017-07-01

    The effects of two alternative sources of animal fat-derived biodiesel feedstock on CO 2 , CO, NO x tailpipe emissions as well as fuel consumption were investigated. Biodiesel blends were produced from chicken and swine fat waste (FW-1) or floating fat (FW-2) collected from slaughterhouse wastewater treatment processes. Tests were conducted in an unmodified stationary diesel engine operating under idling conditions in attempt to simulate slow traffic in urban areas. Significant reductions in CO (up to 47% for B100; FW-2) and NO x (up to 20% for B5; FW-2 or B100; FW-1) were attained when using biodiesel fuels at the expense of 5% increase in fuel consumption. Principal component analysis (PCA) was performed to elucidate possible associations among gas (CO 2 , CO, and NO x ) emissions, cetane number and iodine index with different sources of feedstock typically employed in the biodiesel industry. NO x , cetane number and iodine index were inversely proportional to CO 2 and biodiesel concentration. High NO x emissions were reported from high iodine index biodiesel derived especially from forestry, fishery and some agriculture feedstocks, while the biodiesel derived from animal sources consistently presented lower iodine index mitigating NO x emissions. The obtained results point out the applicability of biodiesel fuels derived from fat-rich residues originated from animal production on mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions. The information may encourage practitioners from biodiesel industry whilst contributing towards development of sustainable animal production. Emissions from motor vehicles can contribute considerably to the levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere. The use of biodiesel to replace or augment diesel can not only decrease our dependency on fossil fuels but also help decrease air pollution. Thus, different sources of feedstocks are constantly being explored for affordable biodiesel production. However, the amount of carbon monoxide (CO), carbon

  10. Official ERS technical standards: Global Lung Function Initiative reference values for the carbon monoxide transfer factor for Caucasians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanojevic, Sanja; Graham, Brian L; Cooper, Brendan G; Thompson, Bruce R; Carter, Kim W; Francis, Richard W; Hall, Graham L

    2017-09-01

    There are numerous reference equations available for the single-breath transfer factor of the lung for carbon monoxide ( T  LCO ); however, it is not always clear which reference set should be used in clinical practice. The aim of the study was to develop the Global Lung Function Initiative (GLI) all-age reference values for T  LCO Data from 19 centres in 14 countries were collected to define T  LCO reference values. Similar to the GLI spirometry project, reference values were derived using the LMS (lambda, mu, sigma) method and the GAMLSS (generalised additive models for location, scale and shape) programme in R.12 660 T  LCO measurements from asymptomatic, lifetime nonsmokers were submitted; 85% of the submitted data were from Caucasians. All data were uncorrected for haemoglobin concentration. Following adjustments for elevation above sea level, gas concentration and assumptions used for calculating the anatomic dead space volume, there was a high degree of overlap between the datasets. Reference values for Caucasians aged 5-85 years were derived for T  LCO , transfer coefficient of the lung for carbon monoxide and alveolar volume.This is the largest collection of normative T  LCO data, and the first global reference values available for T  LCO . Copyright ©ERS 2017.

  11. Evaluation of carbon monoxide in blood samples from the second health and nutrition survey. Progress report No. 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Radford, E.P.

    1976-01-01

    This is a study of carbon monoxide (CO) in the blood of human subjects participating in the Second National Health and Nutrition Survey (HANES II), a detailed study of health indicators in sample populations of many communities throughout the U.S. The purpose of this aspect of the survey is to evaluate the levels of blood carboxyhemoglobin in normal individuals of all ages in typical U.S. communities, from whom accurate histories and clinical studies are available. This report gives results of the first of three years of analyses. A careful calibration of the analytical method has been completed, and more than 3000 blood samples have been analyzed. Although smoking histories are not yet available to permit evaluation of carboxyhemoglobin in non-smokers, in children under 12 years of age, blood COHb has been found to be consistently low, with less than 3% greater than 1.5% COHb. These preliminary results suggest that urban exposure to carbon monoxide among the general population is not now significant in the U.S., at least during the period of these early examinations.

  12. Deep Conversion of Carbon Monoxide to Hydrogen and Formation of Acetate by the Anaerobic Thermophile Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anne M. Henstra

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Carboxydothermus hydrogenoformans is a thermophilic strictly anaerobic bacterium that catalyses the water gas shift reaction, the conversion of carbon monoxide with water to molecular hydrogen and carbon dioxide. The thermodynamically favorable growth temperature, compared to existing industrial catalytic processes, makes this organism an interesting alternative for production of cheap hydrogen gas suitable to fuel CO-sensitive fuel cells in a future hydrogen economy, provided sufficiently low levels of CO are reached. Here we study CO conversion and final CO levels in cultures of C. hydrogenoformans grown in batch cultures that were started with a 100% CO gas phase with and without removal of formed CO2. Final CO levels were 117 ppm without CO2 removal and below 2 ppm with CO2 removal. The Gibbs free energy change calculated with measured end concentrations and the detection of acetate suggest that C. hydrogenoformans shifted from a hydrogenogenic to an acetogenic metabolism.

  13. IR Laser-Produced Carbon-Phase Shield to Oxidation of Nanosized Titanium Monoxide

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Jandová, Věra; Bastl, Zdeněk; Šubrt, Jan; Pola, Josef

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 92, č. 2 (2011), s. 287-291 ISSN 0165-2370 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400720619; GA MŠk LC523 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504; CEZ:AV0Z40400503; CEZ:AV0Z40320502 Keywords : titanium monoxide * nanoparticles * carbothermal reduction Subject RIV: CA - Inorganic Chemistry Impact factor: 2.487, year: 2011

  14. Carbon monoxide-Releasing Molecule-2 (CORM-2 attenuates acute hepatic ischemia reperfusion injury in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhang Weihui

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Hepatic ischemia-reperfusion injury (I/Ri is a serious complication occurring during liver surgery that may lead to liver failure. Hepatic I/Ri induces formation of reactive oxygen species, hepatocyte apoptosis, and release of pro-inflammatory cytokines, which together causes liver damage and organ dysfunction. A potential strategy to alleviate hepatic I/Ri is to exploit the potent anti-inflammatory and cytoprotective effects of carbon monoxide (CO by application of so-called CO-releasing molecules (CORMs. Here, we assessed whether CO released from CORM-2 protects against hepatic I/Ri in a rat model. Methods Forty male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into four groups (n = 10. Sham group underwent a sham operation and received saline. I/R group underwent hepatic I/R procedure by partial clamping of portal structures to the left and median lobes with a microvascular clip for 60 minutes, yielding ~70% hepatic ischemia and subsequently received saline. CORM-2 group underwent the same procedure and received 8 mg/kg of CORM-2 at time of reperfusion. iCORM-2 group underwent the same procedure and received iCORM-2 (8 mg/kg, which does not release CO. Therapeutic effects of CORM-2 on hepatic I/Ri was assessed by measuring serum damage markers AST and ALT, liver histology score, TUNEL-scoring of apoptotic cells, NFkB-activity in nuclear liver extracts, serum levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-6, and hepatic neutrophil infiltration. Results A single systemic infusion with CORM-2 protected the liver from I/Ri as evidenced by a reduction in serum AST/ALT levels and an improved liver histology score. Treatment with CORM-2 also up-regulated expression of the anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2, down-regulated caspase-3 activation, and significantly reduced the levels of apoptosis after I/Ri. Furthermore, treatment with CORM-2 significantly inhibited the activity of the pro-inflammatory transcription factor NF-κB as measured in

  15. Baseline carbon monoxide and ozone in the northeast US over 2001-2010

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Y.; Mao, H.; Demerjian, K.; Hogrefe, C.; Liu, J.

    2015-10-01

    Baseline carbon monoxide (CO) and ozone (O3) were studied at seven rural sites in the northeast US during varying periods over 2001-2010. Interannual and seasonal variations of baseline CO and O3 were examined for the effects of changes in anthropogenic emissions, stratospheric intrusion, transport pathways and O3 photochemistry. Baseline CO generally exhibited decreasing trends at most sites, except at Castle Spring (CS), an elevated (~ 400 m a.s.l.) site in rural central New Hampshire. Over April 2001-December 2010, baseline CO at Thompson Farm (TF), Pinnacle State Park (PSP), and Whiteface Mountain (WFM) decreased at rates ranging from -4.3 to -2.5 ppbv yr-1. Baseline CO decreased significantly at a rate of -2.3 ppbv yr-1 at Mt. Washington (MWO) over April 2001-March 2009, and -3.5 ppbv yr-1 at Pack Monadnock (PM) over July 2004-October 2010. Unlike baseline CO, baseline O3 did not display a significant long term trend at any of the sites, resulting probably from opposite trends in NOx emissions worldwide and possibly from the overall relatively constant mixing ratios of CH4 in the 2000s. In looking into long term trends by season, wintertime baseline CO at MWO and WFM, the highest sites, did not exhibit a significant trend, probably due to the competing effects of decreasing CO emissions in the US and increasing emissions in Asia. Springtime and wintertime baseline O3 at TF increased significantly at a rate of 2.4 and 2.7 ppbv yr-1, respectively, which was likely linked to nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions reductions over urban areas and possible resultant increases in O3 due to less titration by NO in urban plumes. The effects of meteorology on baseline O3 and CO were investigated. A negative correlation was found between springtime baseline O3 and the North Atlantic oscillation (NAO) index. It was found that during positive NAO years, lower baseline O3 in the northeast US was linked to less solar radiation flux, weakened stratospheric intrusion, and intensified

  16. Carbon monoxide climatology derived from the trajectory mapping of global MOZAIC-IAGOS data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osman, Mohammed K.; Tarasick, David W.; Liu, Jane; Moeini, Omid; Thouret, Valerie; Fioletov, Vitali E.; Parrington, Mark; Nédélec, Philippe

    2016-08-01

    A three-dimensional gridded climatology of carbon monoxide (CO) has been developed by trajectory mapping of global MOZAIC-IAGOS in situ measurements from commercial aircraft data. CO measurements made during aircraft ascent and descent, comprising nearly 41 200 profiles at 148 airports worldwide from December 2001 to December 2012, are used. Forward and backward trajectories are calculated from meteorological reanalysis data in order to map the CO measurements to other locations and so to fill in the spatial domain. This domain-filling technique employs 15 800 000 calculated trajectories to map otherwise sparse MOZAIC-IAGOS data into a quasi-global field. The resulting trajectory-mapped CO data set is archived monthly from 2001 to 2012 on a grid of 5° longitude × 5° latitude × 1 km altitude, from the surface to 14 km altitude.The mapping product has been carefully evaluated, firstly by comparing maps constructed using only forward trajectories and using only backward trajectories. The two methods show similar global CO distribution patterns. The magnitude of their differences is most commonly 10 % or less and found to be less than 30 % for almost all cases. Secondly, the method has been validated by comparing profiles for individual airports with those produced by the mapping method when data from that site are excluded. While there are larger differences below 2 km, the two methods agree very well between 2 and 10 km with the magnitude of biases within 20 %. Finally, the mapping product is compared with global MOZAIC-IAGOS cruise-level data, which were not included in the trajectory-mapped data set, and with independent data from the NOAA aircraft flask sampling program. The trajectory-mapped MOZAIC-IAGOS CO values show generally good agreement with both independent data sets.Maps are also compared with version 6 data from the Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT) satellite instrument. Both data sets clearly show major regional CO sources such

  17. Carbon monoxide climatology derived from the trajectory mapping of global MOZAIC-IAGOS data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. K. Osman

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available A three-dimensional gridded climatology of carbon monoxide (CO has been developed by trajectory mapping of global MOZAIC-IAGOS in situ measurements from commercial aircraft data. CO measurements made during aircraft ascent and descent, comprising nearly 41 200 profiles at 148 airports worldwide from December 2001 to December 2012, are used. Forward and backward trajectories are calculated from meteorological reanalysis data in order to map the CO measurements to other locations and so to fill in the spatial domain. This domain-filling technique employs 15 800 000 calculated trajectories to map otherwise sparse MOZAIC-IAGOS data into a quasi-global field. The resulting trajectory-mapped CO data set is archived monthly from 2001 to 2012 on a grid of 5° longitude  ×  5° latitude  ×  1 km altitude, from the surface to 14 km altitude.The mapping product has been carefully evaluated, firstly by comparing maps constructed using only forward trajectories and using only backward trajectories. The two methods show similar global CO distribution patterns. The magnitude of their differences is most commonly 10 % or less and found to be less than 30 % for almost all cases. Secondly, the method has been validated by comparing profiles for individual airports with those produced by the mapping method when data from that site are excluded. While there are larger differences below 2 km, the two methods agree very well between 2 and 10 km with the magnitude of biases within 20 %. Finally, the mapping product is compared with global MOZAIC-IAGOS cruise-level data, which were not included in the trajectory-mapped data set, and with independent data from the NOAA aircraft flask sampling program. The trajectory-mapped MOZAIC-IAGOS CO values show generally good agreement with both independent data sets.Maps are also compared with version 6 data from the Measurements Of Pollution In The Troposphere (MOPITT satellite instrument

  18. Postconditioning with inhaled carbon monoxide counteracts apoptosis and neuroinflammation in the ischemic rat retina.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nils Schallner

    Full Text Available Ischemia and reperfusion injury (I/R of neuronal structures and organs is associated with increased morbidity and mortality due to neuronal cell death. We hypothesized that inhalation of carbon monoxide (CO after I/R injury ('postconditioning' would protect retinal ganglion cells (RGC.Retinal I/R injury was performed in Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 8 by increasing ocular pressure (120 mmHg, 1 h. Rats inhaled room air or CO (250 ppm for 1 h immediately following ischemia or with 1.5 and 3 h latency. Retinal tissue was harvested to analyze Bcl-2, Bax, Caspase-3, HO-1 expression and phosphorylation of the nuclear transcription factor (NF-κB, p38 and ERK-1/2 MAPK. NF-κB activation was determined and inhibition of ERK-1/2 was performed using PD98059 (2 mg/kg. Densities of fluorogold prelabeled RGC were analyzed 7 days after injury. Microglia, macrophage and Müller cell activation and proliferation were evaluated by Iba-1, GFAP and Ki-67 staining.Inhalation of CO after I/R inhibited Bax and Caspase-3 expression (Bax: 1.9 ± 0.3 vs. 1.4 ± 0.2, p = 0.028; caspase-3: 2.0 ± 0.2 vs. 1.5 ± 0.1, p = 0.007; mean ± S.D., fold induction at 12 h, while expression of Bcl-2 was induced (1.2 ± 0.2 vs. 1.6 ± 0.2, p = 0.001; mean ± S.D., fold induction at 12 h. CO postconditioning suppressed retinal p38 phosphorylation (p = 0.023 at 24 h and induced the phosphorylation of ERK-1/2 (p<0.001 at 24 h. CO postconditioning inhibited the expression of HO-1. The activation of NF-κB, microglia and Müller cells was potently inhibited by CO as well as immigration of proliferative microglia and macrophages into the retina. CO protected I/R-injured RGC with a therapeutic window at least up to 3 h (n = 8; RGC/mm(2; mean ± S.D.: 1255 ± 327 I/R only vs. 1956 ± 157 immediate CO treatment, vs. 1830 ± 109 1.5 h time lag and vs. 1626 ± 122 3 h time lag; p<0.001. Inhibition of ERK-1/2 did not counteract the CO effects (RGC/mm(2: 1956 ± 157 vs. 1931 ± 124, mean ± S.D., p

  19. Validation of lower tropospheric carbon monoxide inferred from MOZART model simulation over India

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarragunta, Y.; Srivastava, S.; Mitra, D.

    2017-02-01

    In the present study, MOZART-4 (Model for Ozone and Related chemical Tracers-Version-4) simulation has been made from 2003 to 2007 and compared with satellite and in-situ observations with a specific focus on Indian subcontinent to illustrate the capabilities of MOZART-4 model. The model simulated CO have been compared with latest version (version-6) of MOPITT (Measurement Of Pollution In The Troposphere) carbon monoxide (CO) retrievals at 900, 800 and 700 hPa. Model reproduces major features present in satellite observations. However model significantly overestimates CO over the entire Indian region at 900 hPa and moderately overestimates at 800 hPa and 700 hPa. The frequency distribution of all simulated data points with respect to MOZART error shows maximum in the error range of 10-20% at all pressure levels. Over total Indian landmass, the percentage of gridded CO data that are being overestimated in the range of 0-30% at 900 hPa, 800 hPa and 700 hPa are 58%, 62% and 66% respectively. The study reflects very good correlation between two datasets over Central India (CI) and Southern India (SI). The coefficient of determination (r2) is found to be 0.68-0.78 and 0.70-0.78 over the CI and SI respectively. The weak correlation is evident over Northern India (NI) with r2 values of 0.1-0.3. Over Eastern India (EI), Good correlation at 800 hPa (r2 = 0.72) and 700 hPa (r2 = 0.66) whereas moderately weak correlation at 900 hPa (r2 = 0.48) has been observed. In contrast, Over Western India (WI), strong correlation is evident at 900 hPa (r2 = 0.64) and moderately weak association is found to be present at 800 hPa and 700 hPa. Model fairly reproduces seasonal cycle of CO in the lower troposphere over most of the Indian regions. However, during June to December, model shows overestimation over NI. The magnitude of overestimation is increasing linearly from 900 hPa to 700 hPa level. During April-June months, model results are coinciding with observed CO concentrations over SI

  20. Systemic application of carbon monoxide-releasing molecule 3 protects skeletal muscle from ischemia-reperfusion injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bihari, Aurelia; Cepinskas, Gediminas; Forbes, Thomas L; Potter, Richard F; Lawendy, Abdel-Rahman

    2017-12-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion (IR) is a limb- and life-threatening complication of acute limb ischemia and musculoskeletal trauma. Carbon monoxide-releasing molecules (CORMs) have recently been shown to protect microvascular perfusion and to reduce inflammation and injury in various ischemic animal models. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of water-soluble CORM-3 on the extent of IR-induced muscle injury. Wistar rats were randomized into three groups: sham (no ischemia), IR + CORM-3 (10 mg/kg intraperitoneally), and IR + inactive CORM-3 (iCORM-3; 10 mg/kg intraperitoneally). No-flow ischemia was induced by the application of a tourniquet to the hind limb for 2 hours; tourniquet release commenced the reperfusion phase. Both CORM-3 and iCORM-3 were injected immediately after tourniquet release. Temporal changes in microvascular perfusion, cellular tissue injury (ethidium bromide and bisbenzimide staining), and inflammatory response (leukocyte recruitment) within the extensor digitorum longus muscle were assessed using intravital video microscopy every 15 minutes for a total of 90 minutes after initiation of reperfusion. Systemic levels of tumor necrosis factor-α were also measured. Hind limb IR resulted in (1) a significant no-reflow phenomenon followed by progressive increase in microvascular perfusion deficit (21% ± 2% continuously perfused capillaries in IR vs 76% ± 4% in sham [P reperfusion [P injury (ethidium bromide and bisbenzimide staining of 0.52 ± 0.07 in IR vs 0.05 ± 0.03 in sham at 90 minutes of reperfusion [P reperfusion [P injury, and inflammatory activation. CORM-3 displays potent protective and anti-inflammatory effects in an experimental model of hind limb IR, suggesting a potential therapeutic application of CORMs in treatment of ischemic conditions. Copyright © 2017 Society for Vascular Surgery. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Shock compression of liquid carbon monoxide and methane to 90 GPa (900 kbar)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nellis, W.J.; Ree, F.H.; van Thiel, M.; Mitchell, A.C.

    1981-01-01

    Dynamic equation-of-state data for liquid CO and CH 4 were measured in the shock pressure range 5--92 GPa (50--920 kbar) using a two-stage light-gas gun. The liquids were shocked from initial states near their saturation curves at 77 and 111 K for CO and CH 4 , respectively. The experimental technique used to double-shock CH 4 is described. The CO data were examined by using three theoretical models: (1) a chemically nonreactive model, (2) a quasi-chemical-equilibrium model that allows CO to dissociate into gaseous species and graphite, and (3) a chemical-equilibrium model that also includes a dense carbon phase which exists at higher pressures and temperatures than graphite. This dense phase is assumed to be diamond. Our analysis shows that at low pressure chemical equilibrium takes much longer than a typical shock passage time. As a consequence, the experimental data initially follow the nonreactive Hugoniot to pressures well beyond the chemical dissociation limit. Both the experimental data and the Hugoniot computed with case (3) agree satisfactorily at high pressure. Further consequences of these observations to high-explosive studies are discussed. The theoretical analysis for the CH 4 data was presented in an earlier paper

  2. Deteriorations of pulmonary function, elevated carbon monoxide levels and increased oxidative stress amongst water-pipe smokers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Funda Karaduman Yalcin

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: A water pipe (hookah is a tobacco smoking tool which is thought to be more harmless than a cigarette, and there are no adequate studies about its hazards to health. Water-pipe smoking is threatening health of the youth in the world today. The objective of this study has been to investigate the carbon monoxide (CO levels in breath, examine the changes in pulmonary function tests (PFT and to assess the change of the oxidative stress parameters in blood after smoking a water pipe. Material and Methods: This study is a cross-sectional analytical study that has included 50 volunteers who smoke a water pipe and the control group of 50 volunteers who smoke neither a cigarette nor a water pipe. Carbon monoxide levels were measured in the breath and pulmonary function tests (PFTs were performed before and after smoking a water pipe. Blood samples were taken from either the volunteer control group or water-pipe smokers group after smoking a water pipe for the purpose of evaluation of the parameters of oxidative stress. Results: Carbon monoxide values were measured to be 8.08±7.4 ppm and 28.08±16.5 ppm before and after smoking a water pipe, respectively. This increment was found statistically significant. There were also significant reductions in PFTs after smoking a water pipe. Total oxidative status (TOS, total antioxidant status (TAS and oxidative stress index (OSI were found prominently higher after smoking a water pipe for the group of water-pipe smokers than for the control group. Conclusions: This study has shown that water-pipe smoking leads to deterioration in pulmonary function and increases oxidative stress. To the best of our knowledge this study is the only one that has shown the effect of water-pipe smoking on oxidative stress. More studies must be planned to show the side effects of water-pipe habit and protective policies should be planned especially for young people in Europe. Int J Occup Med Environ Health 2017;30(5:731

  3. Effect of multi-walled carbon nanotubes aspect ratio and temperature on the dielectric behavior of alternating alkene-carbon monoxide polyketone nanocomposites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Surrah, Adnan S.; Abdul Jawad, Saadi; Al-Ramahi, Esraa; Hallak, Awni B.; Khattari, Z.

    2015-04-01

    New alternating poly(propylene-alt-carbon monoxide/ethylene-alt-carbon monoxide) (PECO)/multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs) composites have been prepared. Dielectric permittivity, electric modulus and ac conductivity of the isolated materials were investigated as a function of fiber aspect ratio, frequency and temperature. For aspect ratio of 30 and 200, a transition from insulator to semiconductor was observed at frequency 1×104. However, for high aspect ratio sample (660), no transition was observed and the conductivity is frequency independent in the measured frequency range of 10-106 Hz. The conductivity increases from about 1×10-4 for the sample that contain fibers of aspect ratio 30 and reaches 5×10-2 (Ω m)-1 for aspect ratio was 660. This behavior can be modeled by a circuit that consists of a contact resistance in series with a parallel combination of resistance (R) and capacitance (C). The calculated activation energy for sample filled with fibers having aspect ratio 30 is about 0.26 eV and decreases to about 0.16 eV when the aspect ratio is 660.

  4. Tar, nicotine and carbon monoxide yield of UK cigarettes and the risk of non-muscle-invasive and muscle-invasive bladder cancer.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Osch, Frits H M; Pauwels, Charlotte G G M; Jochems, Sylvia H J; Fayokun, Ranti; James, Nicholas D; Wallace, D Michael A; Cheng, Kar-Keung; Bryan, Richard T; van Schooten, Frederik J; Zeegers, Maurice P

    2017-01-01

    Cigarette smoking is a major risk factor for bladder cancer (BC); however, the impact of cigarette content remains unclear. This study aims to investigate tar, nicotine and carbon monoxide (TNCO) yields of different filtered cigarettes in relation to BC risk. From the Bladder Cancer Prognosis

  5. Carbon monoxide column retrieval for clear-sky and cloudy atmospheres : A full-mission data set from SCIAMACHY 2.3 μm reflectance measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borsdorff, Tobias; De Brugh, Joost Aan; Hu, Haili; Nédélec, Philippe; Aben, Ilse; Landgraf, Jochen

    2017-01-01

    We discuss the retrieval of carbon monoxide (CO) vertical column densities from clear-sky and cloud contaminated 2311-2338 nm reflectance spectra measured by the Scanning Imaging Absorption Spectrometer for Atmospheric Chartography (SCIAMACHY) from January 2003 until the end of the mission in April

  6. Interaction of oxygen and carbon monoxide with Pt(111) at intermediate pressure and temperature : revisiting the fruit fly of surface science

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bashlakov, Dmytro

    2014-01-01

    This thesis uses the surface science approach to address questions regarding the interaction of oxygen with platinum and its subsequent reaction with carbon monoxide. A Pt(111) single crystal surface is used as a model for the catalyst. Chapter 1 provides an overview of the literature on the

  7. The climatology of carbon monoxide and water vapor on Mars as observed by CRISM and modeled by the GEM-Mars general circulation model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Michael D.; Daerden, Frank; Neary, Lori; Khayat, Alain

    2018-02-01

    Radiative transfer modeling of near-infrared spectra taken by the Compact Reconnaissance Imaging Spectrometer for Mars (CRISM) instrument onboard Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter (MRO) enables the column-integrated abundance of carbon monoxide (CO) and water vapor (H2O) to be retrieved. These results provide a detailed global description of the seasonal and spatial distribution of CO in the Mars atmosphere and new information about the interannual variability of H2O. The CRISM retrievals show the seasonally and globally averaged carbon monoxide mixing ratio to be near 800 ppm, but with strong seasonal variations, especially at high latitudes. At low latitudes, the carbon monoxide mixing ratio varies in response to the mean seasonal cycle of surface pressure and shows little variation with topography. At high latitudes, carbon monoxide is depleted in the summer hemisphere by a factor of two or more, while in the winter hemisphere there is relatively higher mixing ratio in regions with low-lying topography. Water vapor shows only modest interannual variations, with the largest observed difference being unusually dry conditions in the wake of the Mars Year 28 global dust storm. Modeling results from the GEM-Mars general circulation model generally reproduce the observed seasonal and spatial trends and provide insight into the underlying physical processes.

  8. Study of Hopcalite (CuMnOx Catalysts Prepared Through A Novel Route for the Oxidation of Carbon Monoxide at Low Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subhashish Dey

    2017-10-01

    How to Cite: Dey, S., Dhal, G.C., Mohan, D., Prasad, R. (2017. Study of Hopcalite (CuMnOx Catalysts Prepared through A Novel Route for the Oxidation of Carbon Monoxide at Low Temperature. Bulletin of Chemical Reaction Engineering & Catalysis, 12 (3: 393-407 (doi:10.9767/bcrec.12.3.882.393-407

  9. An Epidemiological Study of Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Rate and a Comparison with Other Poisonings Recorded in Mazandaran Department of Forensic Medicine, 2009-2011

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Shokrzadeh

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Carbon monoxide is an odorless, colorless and poisonous gas. Since there is currently no information on the prevalence of carbon monoxide poisoning in Mazandaran, this study aimed to investigate the prevalence of carbon monoxide poisoning and compare its prevalence with other poisonings recorded in Mazandaran Department of Forensic Medicine, from 2009 to 2011. Methods: This is a descriptive-analytical study, in which the information was received from Mazandaran Department of Forensic Medicine. Results: Among the 2446 human deaths in 2009, 2010, 2011, 237 deaths were due to poisoning and 27 (11.4% were due to carbon monoxide poisoning, which ranked third after narcotic and Aluminum phosphide intoxication. Poisoning in males was 1.7 times more than females. Co was the most common cause of deaths among people aged 21 to 30 years. Conclusion: Considering the fact that in most cases of poisoning deaths caused by CO (silent killer come by quietly and in a hidden manner, CO actually makes any defense and escape impossible for the person and despite seeing the shadow of death, that person will inevitably surrender and will be defeated. Therefore, it is necessary to educate and inform the public through media and educational institutions about the risks and sources of CO poisoning.

  10. Tropospheric Emission Spectrometer (TES) satellite observations of ammonia, methanol, formic acid, and carbon monoxide over the Canadian oil sands: validation and model evaluation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The wealth of air quality information provided by satellite infrared observations of ammonia (NH3), carbon monoxide (CO), formic acid (HCOOH), and methanol (CH3OH) is currently being explored and used for a number of applications, especially at regional or global scales. These ap...

  11. Measurements on high temperature fuel cells with carbon monoxide-containing fuel gases; Messungen an Hochtemperatur-Brennstoffzellen mit kohlenmonoxidhaltigen Brenngasen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Apfel, Holger

    2012-10-10

    In the present work the different power density of anode-supported high-temperature solid oxide fuel cells (ASC-SOFCs) were examined for carbon monoxide-containing fuels. In addition to wet hydrogen / carbon monoxide mixtures the cells were run with synthetic gas mixtures resembling the products of an autothermal reformer, and actual reformate generated by a 2 kW autothermal reformer. It was found that the power-voltage characteristics of an ASC depends primarily on the open circuit voltages of different gas mixtures, but is nearly independent of the hydrogen concentration of the fuel, although the reaction rates of other potential fuels within the gas mixture, namely carbon monoxide and methane, are much lower that the hydrogen reaction rate. The probable reason is that the main fuel for the electrochemical oxidation within the cell is hydrogen, while the nickel in the base layer of the anode acts as a reformer which replenishes the hydrogen by water reduction via carbon monoxide and methane oxidation.

  12. An analytical study of nitrogen oxides and carbon monoxide emissions in hydrocarbon combustion with added nitrogen, preliminary results

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bittker, D. A.

    1979-01-01

    The effect of combustor operating conditions on the conversion of fuel-bound nitrogen (FBN) to nitrogen oxides NO sub x was analytically determined. The effect of FBN and of operating conditions on carbon monoxide (CO) formation was also studied. For these computations, the combustor was assumed to be a two stage, adiabatic, perfectly-stirred reactor. Propane-air was used as the combustible mixture and fuel-bound nitrogen was simulated by adding nitrogen atoms to the mixture. The oxidation of propane and formation of NO sub x and CO were modeled by a fifty-seven reaction chemical mechanism. The results for NO sub x and CO formation are given as functions of primary and secondary stage equivalence ratios and residence times.

  13. Chronic exposure to carbon monoxide in two elderly patients using a kotatsu, a traditional Japanese charcoal-based heater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, Toshinori; Setsu, Koutaro; Takahashi, Tohru; Miyashita, Mitsuhiro; Sugiyama, Nobuhiro; Washizuka, Shinsuke; Murata, Shiho; Hanihara, Tokiji; Amano, Naoji

    2016-09-01

    We report on two elderly patients with cognitive impairments, for whom chronic carbon monoxide (CO) exposure was suspected based on elevated carboxyhaemoglobin levels in their serum. On their initial visits, cognitive impairment and brain magnetic resonance imaging findings in both patients were compatible with the diagnosis of Alzheimer's-type dementia. However, after discontinuation of the use of a kotatsu, a charcoal-based heater, their serum carboxyhaemoglobin levels normalized and their physical symptoms resolved. Their cognitive function also slightly improved. The causal relationship between physical symptoms and cognitive impairment after chronic CO poisoning is uncertain; however, it is possible that chronic exposure to low CO levels exacerbated the clinical manifestation in our patients. © 2015 The Authors. Psychogeriatrics © 2015 Japanese Psychogeriatric Society.

  14. A sulfur host based on titanium monoxide@carbon hollow spheres for advanced lithium-sulfur batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Zhen; Zhang, Jintao; Guan, Buyuan; Wang, Da; Liu, Li-Min; Lou, Xiong Wen David

    2016-10-20

    Lithium-sulfur batteries show advantages for next-generation electrical energy storage due to their high energy density and cost effectiveness. Enhancing the conductivity of the sulfur cathode and moderating the dissolution of lithium polysulfides are two key factors for the success of lithium-sulfur batteries. Here we report a sulfur host that overcomes both obstacles at once. With inherent metallic conductivity and strong adsorption capability for lithium-polysulfides, titanium monoxide@carbon hollow nanospheres can not only generate sufficient electrical contact to the insulating sulfur for high capacity, but also effectively confine lithium-polysulfides for prolonged cycle life. Additionally, the designed composite cathode further maximizes the lithium-polysulfide restriction capability by using the polar shells to prevent their outward diffusion, which avoids the need for chemically bonding all lithium-polysulfides on the surfaces of polar particles.

  15. Evaluation of carbon monoxide treatment in modified atmosphere packaging or vacuum packaging to increase color stability of fresh beef.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayasingh, P; Cornforth, D P; Carpenter, C E; Whittier, D

    2001-11-01

    Our goal was to obtain > 21 days red color stability for carbon monoxide (CO)-treated beef steaks in vacuum packaging (VP). In preliminary tests, pretreatment for 24 h in a 5% CO modified atmosphere package (MAP) was needed to maintain redness after re-packaging in VP. Pressure pretreatment with 5% CO for 2 h developed redness, but was impractical for large-scale application. Color stability and microbial load were then compared after treatment of steaks in 5% CO-MAP for 24 h, then VP; 100% CO-MAP for 1 h, then VP; steaks and ground beef in 0.5% CO-MAP; and steaks and ground beef in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) wrap. Steaks remained red for 5, 6, 8 and 10(6)cfu/cm(2)) at 5, 6, 7 and <2-weeks, respectively. Thus, extended color stability in VP was achieved by pretreatment with 5% CO for 24 h or 100% CO for 1 h.

  16. The measurement of carbon monoxide and methane in the National Capital Air Quality Control Region. I - Measurement systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebel, P. J.; Lamontagne, R. A.; Goldstein, H. W.

    1976-01-01

    The Carbon Monoxide Pollution Experiment (COPE) and the National Capital Air Quality Control Region (NCAQCR) undertook a series of measurements of atmospheric CO and CH4 to determine the accuracy of the airborne COPE Correlation Interfer4meter. The device, a modified Michelson interferometer, measures the atmospheric column density of CO and CH4 at 2.3 microns with tropospheric measurement sensitivities of 70 and 10 PPB, respectively. Data for evaluating the remote measurements included atmospheric column density measurements at a ground truth site using a van-mounted infrared Fourier spectrometer; continuous ground level gas chromatographic measurements; and chromatographic data from atmospheric grab samples collected by aircraft and at ground locations. The instruments and sampling techniques used in the experiment are described in detail.

  17. Exposures to high levels of carbon monoxide from wood-fired temazcal (steam bath) use in highland Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Lisa M; Clark, Michael; Cadman, Brie; Canúz, Eduardo; Smith, Kirk R

    2011-01-01

    The temazcal is a wood-fired steam bath used in the rural highlands of Guatemala for bathing and healing. We measured carbon monoxide (CO) among 288 participants in 72 temazcales. Participants were drawn from communities who participated in the RESPIRE (Randomized Exposure Study of Pollution Indoors and Respiratory Effects) chimney stove intervention trial. Temazcal CO exposures were extremely high, averaging 431 parts per million (time-weighted average). Compared to kitchen wood-smoke exposures, the temazcal contributes significantly to weekly exposures, despite the fact that the population spends less time in the temazcal than in the kitchen. This report 1) describes temazcal use patterns; 2) reports participants' signs and symptoms during temazcal use; 3) models the distribution of temazcal CO concentrations; 4) assesses reliability of exhaled breath CO as a biomarker of CO exposure; and 5) provides a proportional analysis of CO concentrations from temazcal use, as compared to kitchen concentrations.

  18. Methane-rich water induces cucumber adventitious rooting through heme oxygenase1/carbon monoxide and Ca(2+) pathways.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Weiti; Qi, Fang; Zhang, Yihua; Cao, Hong; Zhang, Jing; Wang, Ren; Shen, Wenbiao

    2015-03-01

    Methane-rich water triggered adventitious rooting by regulating heme oxygenase1/carbon monoxide and calcium pathways in cucumber explants. Heme oxygenase1/carbon monoxide (HO1/CO) and calcium (Ca(2+)) were reported as the downstream signals in auxin-induced cucumber adventitious root (AR) formation. Here, we observed that application of methane-rich water (MRW; 80% saturation) obviously induced AR formation in IAA-depleted cucumber explants. To address the universality, we checked adventitious rooting in soybean and mung bean explants, and found that MRW (50 and 10% saturation, respectively) exhibited the similar inducing results. To further determine if the HO1/CO system participated in MRW-induced adventitious rooting, MRW, HO1 inducer hemin, its activity inhibitor zinc protoporphyrin IX (ZnPP), and its catalytic by-products CO, bilirubin, and Fe(2+) were used to detect their effects on cucumber adventitious rooting in IAA-depleted explants. Subsequent results showed that MRW-induced adventitious rooting was blocked by ZnPP and further reversed by 20% saturation CO aqueous solution. However, the other two by-products of HO1, bilirubin and Fe(2+), failed to induce AR formation. Above responses were consistent with the MRW-induced increases of HO1 transcript and corresponding protein level. Further molecular evidence indicted that expression of marker genes, including auxin signaling-related genes and cell cycle regulatory genes, were modulated by MRW alone but blocked by the cotreatment with ZnPP, the latter of which could be significantly rescued by the addition of CO. By using the Ca(2+)-channel blocker and Ca(2+) chelator, the involvement of Ca(2+) pathway in MRW-induced adventitious rooting was also suggested. Together, our results indicate that MRW might serve as a stimulator of adventitious rooting, which was partially mediated by HO1/CO and Ca(2+) pathways.

  19. A mid-infrared laser absorption sensor for carbon monoxide and temperature measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderover, Jeremy

    A mid-infrared (mid-IR) absorption sensor based on quantum cascade laser (QCL) technology has been developed and demonstrated for high-temperature thermometry and carbon monoxide (CO) measurements in combustion environments. The sensor probes the high-intensity fundamental CO ro-vibrational band at 4.6 mum enabling sensitive measurement of CO and temperature at kHz acquisition rates. Because the sensor operates in the mid-IR CO fundamental band it is several orders of magnitude more sensitive than most of the previously developed CO combustion sensors which utilized absorption in the near-IR overtone bands and mature traditional telecommunications-based diode lasers. The sensor has been demonstrated and validated under operation in both scanned-wavelength absorption and wavelength-modulation spectroscopy (WMS) modes in room-temperature gas cell and high-temperature shock tube experiments with known and specified gas conditions. The sensor has also been demonstrated for CO and temperature measurements in an atmospheric premixed ethylene/air McKenna burner flat flame for a range of equivalence ratios (phi = 0.7-1.4). Demonstration of the sensor under scanned-wavelength direct absorption operation was performed in a room-temperature gas cell (297 K and 0.001-1 atm) allowing validation of the line strengths and line shapes predicted by the HITRAN 2004 spectroscopic database. Application of the sensor in scanned-wavelength mode, at 1-2 kHz acquisition bandwidths, to specified high-temperature shock-heated gases (950-3400 K, 1 atm) provided validation of the sensor for measurements under the high-temperature conditions found in combustion devices. The scanned-wavelength shock tube measurements yielded temperature determinations that deviated by only +/-1.2% (1-sigma deviation) with the reflected shock temperatures and CO mole fraction determinations that deviated by that specified CO mole fraction by only +/-1.5% (1-sigma deviation). These deviations are in fact smaller

  20. An infrared study of carbon monoxide complexes of hemocyanins. Evidence for the structure of the CO-binding site from vibrational analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deen, H. van der; Hoving, H.

    1979-01-01

    A vibrational analysis was carried out showing that the infrared experimental data of 13 C and 18 O carbon monoxide complexes of hemocyanin of Fager and Alben (Biochemistry 11 (1972) 4786) are consistent with a coordination of the carbon atom of CO to one of the two copper ions in the active site. This conclusion contradicts the original interpretation of Fager and Alben in which oxygen-coordination to copper was suggested. This vibrational analysis can also be applied to the study of Alben and Caughey (Biochemistry 7 (1968) 175) with 13 C and 18 O carbonyl hemoglobin, in which oxygen-coordination to iron was suggested. Carbonyl hemocyanins from several sources have also been studied by infrared spectroscopy. The single stretching vibration of CO bound to arthropodal (Cancer magister) hemocyanin (γsub(CO)) is at 2042.5 cm -1 , while γsub(CO) for gastropod (Helix pomatia of the phylum Mollusca) α and β hemocyanin is at 2064.5 cm -1 and 2062.5 cm -1 , respectively. The intensities of the CO stretching bands were all around 1.5 X 10 4 M -1 cm -2 . Calculations show that with the present attainable accuracy it is impossible to detect hydrogen bonding of exchangeable protons to small molecules bound to proteins (for example CO), by comparing its stretching frequencies in H 2 O and D 2 O buffers. (Auth.)