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Sample records for experimental breeder reactor-1

  1. Optimization of binary breeder reactor. 1. Sodium void reactivity and Doppler effect in a new model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, J.A. do; Dias, A.F.; Ishiguro, Y.

    1985-01-01

    A model for the Binary Breeder Reactor (BBR) is examined for the inherent safety characteristics, sodium void reactivity and Doppler effect in the beginning of cycle and a hypothetical end of cycle. In addition to the standard fueling mode of the BBR, two others are considered: U 238 /U 233 -alternate fueling, and U 238 /PU-normal fueling of LMFBRs. (Author) [pt

  2. Experimental Breeder Reactor I Preservation Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Julie Braun

    2006-10-01

    Experimental Breeder Reactor I (EBR I) is a National Historic Landmark located at the Idaho National Laboratory, a Department of Energy laboratory in southeastern Idaho. The facility is significant for its association and contributions to the development of nuclear reactor testing and development. This Plan includes a structural assessment of the interior and exterior of the EBR I Reactor Building from a preservation, rather than an engineering stand point and recommendations for maintenance to ensure its continued protection.

  3. Design activities of a fusion experimental breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, J.; Feng, K.; Sheng, G.

    1999-01-01

    The fusion reactor design studies in China are under the support of a fusion-fission hybrid reactor research Program. The purpose of this program is to explore the potential near-term application of fusion energy to support the long-term fusion energy on the one hand and the fission energy development on the other. During 1992-1996 a detailed consistent and integral conceptual design of a Fusion Experimental Breeder, FEB was completed. Beginning from 1996, a further design study towards an Engineering Outline Design of the FEB, FEB-E, has started. The design activities are briefly given. (author)

  4. Design activities of a fusion experimental breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, J.; Feng, K.; Sheng, G.

    2001-01-01

    The fusion reactor design studies in China are under the support of a fusion-fission hybrid reactor research Program. The purpose of this program is to explore the potential near-term application of fusion energy to support the long-term fusion energy on the one hand and the fission energy development on the other. During 1992-1996 a detailed consistent and integral conceptual design of a Fusion Experimental Breeder, FEB was completed. Beginning from 1996, a further design study towards an Engineering Outline Design of the FEB, FEB-E, has started. The design activities are briefly given. (author)

  5. Management of Waste from the Fusion Experimental Breeder

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1998-01-01

    <正> Fusion breeder might be an essential intermediate application of fusion energy at earlier term, which has the potential to provide plenty of commercial fissile fuel. Based on fusion physics and technologies available at present and in near future, the realistic Fusion Experimental Breeder, FEB-E was designed. The obiectives of the FEB-E are to demonstrate the engineering feasibility of

  6. Experience with EBR-II [Experimental Breeder Reactor] driver fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seidel, B.R.; Porter, D.L.; Walters, L.C.; Hofman, G.L.

    1986-01-01

    The exceptional performance of Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) metallic driver fuel has been demonstrated by the irradiation of a large number of elements under steady-state, transient overpower, and loss-of-flow conditions. High burnup with high reliability has been achieved by a close coupling of element design and materials selection. Quantification of reliability has allowed full utilization of element lifetime. Improved design and duct materials currently under test are expected to increase the burnup from 8 to 14 at.%

  7. Instrumentation and control improvements at Experimental Breeder Reactor II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Christensen, L.J.; Planchon, H.P.

    1993-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to describe instrumentation and control (I ampersand C) system improvements at Experimental Breeder Reactor 11 (EBR-11). The improvements are focused on three objectives; to keep the reactor and balance of plant (BOP) I ampersand C systems at a high level of reliability, to provide diagnostic systems that can provide accurate information needed for analysis of fuel performance, and to provide systems that will be prototypic of I ampersand C systems of the next generation of liquid metal reactor (LMR) plants

  8. Tritium system design studies of fusion experimental breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deng Baiquan; Huang Jinhua

    2003-01-01

    A summary of the tritium system design studies for the engineering outline design of a fusion experimental breeder (FEB-E) is presented. This paper is divided into three sections. In first section, the geometry, loading features and tritium concentrations in liquid lithium of tritium breeding zones of blanket are described. The tritium flow chart corresponding to the tritium fuel cycle system has been constructed, and the inventories in ten subsystems are calculated using SWITRIM code in section 2. Results show that the necessary initial tritium storage to start up FEB-E with fusion power of 143 MW is about 319 g. In final section, the tritium leakage issues under different operation circumstances have been analyzed. It was found that the potential danger of tritium leakage could be resulted from the exhausted gas of the diverter system. It is important to elevate the tritium burnup fraction and reduce the tritium throughput. (authors)

  9. EBR-2 [Experimental Breeder Reactor-2] test programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sackett, J.I.; Lehto, W.K.; Lindsay, R.W.; Planchon, H.P.; Lambert, J.D.B.; Hill, D.J.

    1990-01-01

    The Experimental Breeder Reactor-2 (EBR-2) is a sodium cooled power reactor supplying about 20 MWe to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) grid and, in addition, is the key component in the development of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR). EBR-2's testing capability is extensive and has seen four major phases: (1) demonstration of LMFBR power plant feasibility, (2) irradiation testing for fuel and material development, (3) testing the off-normal performance of fuel and plant systems and (4) operation as the IFR prototype, developing and demonstrating the IFR technology associated with fuel and plant design. Specific programs being carried out in support of the IFR include advanced fuels and materials development, advanced control system development, plant diagnostics development and component testing. This paper discusses EBR-2 as the IFR prototype and the associated testing programs. 29 refs

  10. Design and R and D activities on ceramic breeder blanket for fusion experimental reactors in JAERI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kurasawa, T.; Takatsu, H.; Sato, S.; Nakahira, M.; Furuya, K.; Hashimoto, T.; Kawamura, H.; Kuroda, T.; Tsunematsu, T.; Seki, M.

    1995-01-01

    Design and R and D activities on ceramic breeder blanket of a fusion experimental reactor have been progressed in JAERI. A layered pebble bed type ceramic breeder blanket with water cooling is a prime candidate concept. Design activities have been concentrated on improvement of the design by conducting detailed analyses and also by fabrication procedure consideration based on the current technologies. A wide variety of R and Ds have also been conducted in accordance with the design activities. Development of fabrication technology of the blanket box structure and its mechanical testing, elementary testing on thermal performances of the pebble bed, and engineering-oriented material tests of breeder and beryllium pebbles are the main achievements during the last two years. (orig.)

  11. Experimental program for the Fast Breeder Blanket Facility, FBBF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, K.O.; Clikeman, F.M.; Johnson, R.H.; Borg, R.C.

    1976-01-01

    The work performed in the reporting period was primarily concerned with the development of the experimental program (Task A) and with the pre-analysis of future loadings and the impact upon the permanent loading of the two converter regions, which contain 4.8 percent enriched UO 2 rods. It appears necessary that a neutron poison (B 4 C) be placed in the converter (transformer) regions in order to hold, also for future loadings, the k/sub eff/ of a hypothetically flooded FBBF well below 1. Since it is planned to use the same welded converter regions for all experiments, the required B 4 C loading needs to be determined prior to the first blanket loading. Further the equipment needs have been identified (Task D), the 252 Cf-source has been requested on a loan basis (Task E). First discussions with ANL on blanket experiments have been initiated

  12. Li2O-pebble type tritium breeding blanket for fusion experimental reactor, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tone, Tatsuzo; Iida, Hiromasa; Tanaka, Yoshihisa

    1984-01-01

    The fusion experimental reactor is the next stage device in Japan, which is planned to be constructed following the critical plasma experimental device JT-60 being constructed at present. The breeding blanket installed in nuclear fusion reactors is one of most important structures, and it is required to satisfy the fundamental performance of producing and continuously recovering tritium as the nuclear fusion fuel, and other requirement in good coordination. The Li 2 O pebble type breeding blanket that Kawasaki Heavy Industries Ltd. has examined is the concept for resolving the problems of the mass transfer and thermal stress cracking of Li 2 O, which are important in blanket design. In this paper, the concept and characteristics of this breeding blanket are discussed from the viewpoint of the breeding and continuous recovery of tritium, the ease of manufacture and the maintenance of soundness. The breeding blanket is composed of breeding region, tritium purge region, cooling region, plasma stabilizing conductors and blanket container. Li 2 O is excellent in its tritium breeding performance and heat conductivity. The functions required for the breeding blanket, the fundamental structure, the examples of breeding blanket concept, the selection of breeding blanket concept, the characteristics of Li 2 O pebble type blanket and its future prospect are described. (Kako, I.)

  13. Scram reliability under seismic conditions at the Experimental Breeder Reactor II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roglans, J.; Wang, C.Y.; Hill, D.J.

    1993-01-01

    A Probabilistic Risk Assessment of the Experimental Breeder Reactor II has recently been completed. Seismic events are among the external initiating events included in the assessment. As part of the seismic PRA a detailed study has been performed of the ability to shutdown the reactor under seismic conditions. A comprehensive finite element model of the EBR-II control rod drive system has been used to analyze the control rod system response when subjected to input seismic accelerators. The results indicate the control rod drive system has a high seismic capacity. The estimated seismic fragility for the overall reactor shutdown system is dominated by the primary tank failure

  14. Data handling at EBR-II [Experimental Breeder Reactor II] for advanced diagnostics and control work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lindsay, R.W.; Schorzman, L.W.

    1988-01-01

    Improved control and diagnostics systems are being developed for nuclear and other applications. The Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) Division of Argonne National Laboratory has embarked on a project to upgrade the EBR-II control and data handling systems. The nature of the work at EBR-II requires that reactor plant data be readily available for experimenters, and that the plant control systems be flexible to accommodate testing and development needs. In addition, operational concerns require that improved operator interfaces and computerized diagnostics be included in the reactor plant control system. The EBR-II systems have been upgraded to incorporate new data handling computers, new digital plant process controllers, and new displays and diagnostics are being developed and tested for permanent use. In addition, improved engineering surveillance will be possible with the new systems

  15. Fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heinzel, V.

    1975-01-01

    The author gives a survey of 'fast breeder reactors'. In detail the process of breeding, the reasons for the development of fast breeders, the possible breeder reactors, the design criteria, fuels, cladding, coolant, and safety aspects are reported on. Design data of some experimental reactors already in operation are summarized in stabular form. 300 MWe Prototype-Reactors SNR-300 and PFR are explained in detail and data of KWU helium-cooled fast breeder reactors are given. (HR) [de

  16. Implementation of multivariable control techniques with application to Experimental Breeder Reactor II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkan, R.C.

    1990-06-01

    After several successful applications to aerospace industry, the modern control theory methods have recently attracted many control engineers from other engineering disciplines. For advanced nuclear reactors, the modern control theory may provide major advantages in safety, availability, and economic aspects. This report is intended to illustrate the feasibility of applying the linear quadratic Gaussian (LQG) compensator in nuclear reactor applications. The LQG design is compared with the existing classical control schemes. Both approaches are tested using the Experimental Breeder Reactor 2 (EBR-2) as the system. The experiments are performed using a mathematical model of the EBR-2 plant. Despite the fact that the controller and plant models do not include all known physical constraints, the results are encouraging. This preliminary study provides an informative, introductory picture for future considerations of using modern control theory methods in nuclear industry. 10 refs., 25 figs

  17. Frequency response testing at Experimental Breeder Reactor II using discrete-level periodic signals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rhodes, W.D.; Larson, H.A.

    1990-01-01

    The Experimental Breeder Reactor 2 (EBR-2) reactivity-to-power frequency-response function was measured with pseudo-random, discrete-level, periodic signals. The reactor power deviation was small with insignificant perturbation of normal operation and in-place irradiation experiments. Comparison of results with measured rod oscillator data and with theoretical predictions show good agreement. Moreover, measures of input signal quality (autocorrelation function and energy spectra) confirm the ability to enable this type of frequency response determination at EBR-2. Measurements were made with the pseudo-random binary sequence, quadratic residue binary sequence, pseudo-random ternary sequence, and the multifrequency binary sequence. 10 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs

  18. EBR-II [Experimental Breeder Reactor-II] system surveillance using pattern recognition software

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mott, J.E.; Radtke, W.H.; King, R.W.

    1986-02-01

    The problem of most accurately determining the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) reactor outlet temperature from currently available plant signals is investigated. Historically, the reactor outlet pipe was originally instrumented with 8 temperature sensors but, during 22 years of operation, all these instruments have failed except for one remaining thermocouple, and its output had recently become suspect. Using pattern recognition methods to compare values of 129 plant signals for similarities over a 7 month period spanning reconfiguration of the core and recalibration of many plant signals, it was determined that the remaining reactor outlet pipe thermocouple is still useful as an indicator of true mixed mean reactor outlet temperature. Application of this methodology to investigate one specific signal has automatically validated the vast majority of the 129 signals used for pattern recognition and also highlighted a few inconsistent signals for further investigation

  19. EBR-2 [Experimental Breeder Reactor-2], IFR [Integral Fast Reactor] prototype testing programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lehto, W.K.; Sackett, J.I.; Lindsay, R.W.; Planchon, H.P.; Lambert, J.D.B.

    1990-01-01

    The Experimental Breeder Reactor-2 (EBR-2) is a sodium cooled power reactor supplying about 20 MWe to the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) grid and, in addition, is the key component in the development of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR). EBR-2's testing capability is extensive and has seen four major phases: (1) demonstration of LMFBR power plant feasibility, (2) irradiation testing for fuel and material development. (3) testing the off-normal performance of fuel and plant systems and (4) operation as the IFR prototype, developing and demonstrating the IFR technology associated with fuel and plant design. Specific programs being carried out in support of the IFR include advanced fuels and materials development and component testing. This paper discusses EBR-2 as the IFR prototype and the associated testing programs. 29 refs

  20. Experimental studies of U-Pu-Zr fast reactor fuel pins in EBR-II [Experimental Breeder Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahl, R.G.; Porter, D.L.; Lahm, C.E.; Hofman, G.L.

    1988-01-01

    The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) is a generic reactor concept under development by Argonne National Laboratory. Much of the technology for the IFR is being demonstrated at the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) on the Department of Energy site near Idaho Falls, Idaho. The IFR concept relies on four technical features to achieve breakthroughs in nuclear power economics and safety: (1) a pool-type reactor configuration, (2) liquid sodium cooling, (3) metallic fuel, and (4) an integral fuel cycle with on-site reprocessing. The purpose of this paper will be to summarize our latest results of irradiation testing uranium-plutonium-zirconium (U-Pu-Zr) fuel in the EBR-II. 10 refs., 13 figs., 2 tabs

  1. Experimental studies of U-Pu-Zr fast reactor fuel pins in the Experimental Breeder Reactor 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pahl, R.G.; Porter, D.L.; Lahm, C.E.; Hofman, G.L.

    1990-01-01

    Argonne National Laboratory's Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept has been under demonstration in the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) since February 1985. Irradiation tests of U-Zr and U-Pu-Zr fuel pins to >15 at. pct burnup have demonstrated their viability as driver fuel prototypes in innovative design liquid metal reactors. A number of technically challenging irradiation effects have been observed and are now under study. Microstructural changes in the fuel are dominated early in exposure by grain boundary cavitation and fission gas bubble growth, producing large amounts of swelling. Irradiation creep and swelling of the austenitic (D9) and martensitic (HT-9) candidate cladding alloys have been measured and correlate well with property modeling efforts. Chemical interaction between the fuel and cladding alloys has been characterized to assess the magnitude of cladding wastage during steady-state irradiation. Significant interdiffusion of the uranium and zirconium occurs producing metallurgically distinct zones in the fuel

  2. Structure and experimental program for SNEAK 12 - an assembly for fast breeder safety experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Helm, F.

    1979-01-01

    The critical assembly SNEAK 12 and its foreseen experimental program have the main purpose to check the validity of neutron physics calculational methods used in the analysis of accidental situations of fast breeder reactors. In the investigation of accidental courses configurations have to be considered, which are caused by assembly deformation and meltdown and which are characterized by irregular fuel and structural material arrangements with cavities and empty channels. The reactivity differences between the unperturbed core and a series of perturbed configurations have to be determined. The individual configurations have to be chosen in such a way, that the calculational methods for the different aspects of the accident sequence (formation of cavities and channels, relocation of fissile and fertile material and steel) can be tested one by one. Two different cores are foreseen: SNEAK 12A as a one-zone core with enriched uranium fuel and SNEAK 12B with a central test zone with plutonium-uranium mixed-oxide fuel surrounded by a driver zone of enriched uranium. The report describes these cores and their assemblies, and the experimental program is outlined

  3. Operation of the water-to-sodium leak detection system at the experimental breeder reactor II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Osterhout, M.M.

    1978-01-01

    A water-to-sodium leak detection system was installed at the Experimental Breeder Reactor II in April 1975. The system is designed for early detection of steam generator leaks, using hydrogen meters at the sodium outlets of the evaporators and superheaters. The leak detectors operate by measuring the rate of diffusion of hydrogen from the liquid sodium through a nickel membrane into a dynamic vacuum system. The advantages of this detection system are rapid response time, high sensitivity, stability, and reliability. The system was operated on an experimental basis for the first two years. During this period, data were obtained on detector stability, reliability, maintenance needs, computer interface requirements, calibration, and background hydrogen-level fluctuations. A generic defect in the original detectors was also discovered, requiring redesign of the units. When the new units were installed and proven to be reliable, the system was made fully operational. The data from the hydrogen meters are now used as the primary basis for detection of water-to-sodium leaks

  4. Current status of experimental breeder reactor-II [EBR-II] shutdown planning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McDermott, M. D.; Griffin, C. D.; Michelbacher, J. A.; Earle, O. K.

    2000-01-01

    The Experimental Breeder Reactor--II (EBR-II) at Argonne National Laboratory--West (ANL-W) in Idaho, was shutdown in September, 1994 as mandated by the US Department of Energy. This sodium cooled reactor had been in service since 1964, and was to be placed in an industrially and radiologically safe condition for ultimate decommissioning. The deactivation of a liquid metal reactor presents unique concerns. The first major task associated with the project was the removal of all fueled assemblies. In addition, sodium must be drained from systems and processed for ultimate disposal. Residual quantities of sodium remaining in systems must be deactivated or inerted to preclude future hazards associated with pyrophoricity and generation of potentially explosive hydrogen gas. A Sodium Process Facility was designed and constructed to react the elemental sodium from the EBR-II primary and secondary systems to sodium hydroxide for disposal. This facility has a design capacity to allow the reaction of the complete inventory of sodium at ANL-W in less than two years. Additional quantities of sodium from the Fermi-1 reactor are also being treated at the Sodium Process Facility. The sodium environment and the EBR-II configuration, combined with the radiation and contamination associated with thirty years of reactor operation, posed problems specific to liquid metal reactor deactivation. The methods being developed and implemented at EBR-II can be applied to other similar situations in the US and abroad

  5. Advanced automation concepts applied to Experimental Breeder Reactor-II startup

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berkan, R.C.; Upadhyaya, B.R.; Bywater, R.L.

    1991-08-01

    The major objective of this work is to demonstrate through simulations that advanced liquid-metal reactor plants can be operated from low power by computer control. Development of an automatic control system with this objective will help resolve specific issues and provide proof through demonstration that automatic control for plant startup is feasible. This paper presents an advanced control system design for startup of the Experimental Breeder Reactor-2 (EBR-2) located at Idaho Falls, Idaho. The design incorporates recent methods in nonlinear control with advanced diagnostics techniques such as neural networks to form an integrated architecture. The preliminary evaluations are obtained in a simulated environment by a low-order, valid nonlinear model. Within the framework of phase 1 research, the design includes an inverse dynamics controller, a fuzzy controller, and an artificial neural network controller. These three nonlinear control modules are designed to follow the EBR-2 startup trajectories in a multi-input/output regime. They are coordinated by a supervisory routine to yield a fault-tolerant, parallel operation. The control system operates in three modes: manual, semiautomatic, and fully automatic control. The simulation results of the EBR-2 startup transients proved the effectiveness of the advanced concepts. The work presented in this paper is a preliminary feasibility analysis and does not constitute a final design of an automated startup control system for EBR-2. 14 refs., 43 figs

  6. Liquid metal reactor deactivation as applied to the experimental breeder reactor - II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Earle, O. K.; Michelbacher, J. A.; Pfannenstiel, D. F.; Wells, P. B.

    1999-01-01

    The Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) at Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) was shutdown in September, 1994. This sodium cooled reactor had been in service since 1964, and by the US Department of Energy (DOE) mandate, was to be placed in an industrially and radiologically safe condition for ultimate decommissioning. The deactivation of a liquid metal reactor presents unique concerns. The first major task associated with the project was the removal of all fueled assemblies. In addition, sodium must be drained from systems and processed for ultimate disposal. Residual quantities of sodium remaining in systems must be deactivated or inerted to preclude future hazards associated with pyrophoricity and generation of potentially explosive hydrogen gas. A Sodium Process Facility (SPF) was designed and constructed to react the elemental sodium from the EBR-II primary and secondary systems to sodium hydroxide for disposal. This facility has a design capacity to allow the reaction of the complete inventory of sodium at ANL-W in less than two years. Additional quantities of sodium from the Fermi-1 reactor are also being treated at the SPF

  7. Concept and basic performance of an in-pile experimental reactor for fast breeder reactors using fast driver core

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Obara, Toru; Sekimoto, Hiroshi

    1997-01-01

    The possibility of an in-pile experimental reactor for fast breeder reactors using a fast driver core is investigated. The driver core is composed of a particle bed with diluted fuel. The results of various basic analyses show that this reactor could perform as follows: (1) power peaking at the outer boundary of test core does not take place for large test core; (2) the radial power distribution in test fuel pin is expected to be the same as a real reactor; (3) the experiments with short half width pulse is possible; (4) for the ordinary MOX core, enough heating-up is possible for core damage experiments; (5) the positive effects after power burst can be seen directly. These are difficult for conventional thermal in-pile experimental reactors in large power excursion experiments. They are very attractive advantages in the in-pile experiments for fast breeder reactors. (author)

  8. Theoretical and experimental investigation of the nonlinear structural dynamics of Fast Breeder Reactor fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liebe, R.

    1978-04-01

    This study describes theoretical and experimental investigations of the dynamic deformation behavior of single and clustered fuel elements under local fault conditions in a Fast Breeder Reactor core. In particular an energetic molten-fuel-coolant-interaction (FCI) is assumed in one subassembly with corresponding pressure pulses, which may rupture the wrapper and load the adjacent fuel elements impulsively. Associated coherent structural deformation may exceed tolerable and damage the control rods. To attack the outlined coupled fluid-structure-interaction problem it is assumed, that the loading at the structures is known in space and time, and that there is no feedback from the deformation response. Then current FCI-knowledge and experience from underwater core model explosion tests is utilized to estimate upper limits of relevant pulse characteristics. As a first step the static carrying capacity of the rigid-plastic hexagonal wrapper tube is calculated using the methods of limit analysis. Then for a general dynamic simulation of the complete elastoplastic subassembly response the concept of a discrete nonlinear hinge is introduced. A corresponding physical lumped parameter hinge model is presented, and general equations of motion are derived using D'Alembert's principle. Application to the static and dynamic analysis of a single complete fuel element includes the semiempirical modelling of the fuel-pin bundle by a homogeneous compressible medium. Most important conclusions are concerning the capability of the theoretical models, the failure modes and threshold load levels of single as well as clustered SNR-300 fuel elements and the safety relevant finding, that only limited deformations are found in the first row around the incident element. This shows in agreement with explosion test results that the structured and closely spaced fuel elements constitute an effective, inherent barrier against extreme dynamic loadings. (orig.) [de

  9. 04 - Sodium cooled fast breeder fourth-generation reactors - The experimental reactor ALLEGRO, the other ways for fast breeder fourth-generation reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2012-12-01

    The authors first present the technology of gas-cooled fast breeder reactors (basic principles, specific innovations, feasibility studies, fuel element, safety) and notably the ALLEGRO project (design options and expected performances, preliminary safety demonstration). Then, they present the lead-cooled fast-breeder reactor technology: interests and obstacles, return on experience, the issue of lead density, neutron assessment, transmutation potential, dosimetry, safety chemical properties and compatibility with the fuel, water, air and steels. The next part addresses the technology of molten-salt fast-breeder reactors: choice of the liquid fuel and geometry, reactor concept (difficulties, lack of past R and D), demonstration and demonstrators, international context

  10. Power and power-to-flow reactivity transfer functions in EBR-II [Experimental Breeder Reactor II] fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grimm, K.N.; Meneghetti, D.

    1989-01-01

    Reactivity transfer functions are important in determining the reactivity history during a power transient. Overall nodal transfer functions have been calculated for different subassembly types in the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II). Steady-state calculations for temperature changes and, hence, reactivities for power changes have been separated into power and power-to-flow-dependent terms. Axial nodal transfer functions separated into power and power-to-flow-dependent components are reported in this paper for a typical EBR-II fuel pin. This provides an improved understanding of the time dependence of these components in transient situations

  11. Some study on radiation resistance and reliability of piston ring of waste gas compressor for fast breeder experimental reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Muramatsu, Takio; Hidaka, Tsukasa

    1976-01-01

    In the fast breeder experimental reactor ''Joyo'', the gaseous wastes such as reactor cover argon, reactor seal nitrogen gas, fuel handling waste gas etc. shall be collected, compressed and storaged for decaying their activity. Compressors applied in the above process have new type oilless piston rings of Teflon filled with graphite, which might be affected by radioactivity of the waste gases. This report deals with some study on the gamma iradiation effects on the plastic piston rings such as tensile strength, elongation, shock and hardness effects under several irradiation doses and on durability test of the irradiated piston rings under the same compression ratio. (auth.)

  12. Dynamic simulation of the air-cooled decay heat removal system of the German KNK-II experimental breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schubert, B.K.

    1984-07-01

    A Dump Heat Exchanger and associated feedback control system models for decay heat removal in the German KNK-II experimental fast breeder reactor are presented. The purpose of the controller is to minimize temperature variations in the circuits and, hence, to prevent thermal shocks in the structures. The basic models for the DHX include the sodium-air thermodynamics and hydraulics, as well as a control system. Valve control models for the primary and intermediate sodium flow regulation during post shutdown conditions are also presented. These models have been interfaced with the SSC-L code. Typical results of sample transients are discussed

  13. Comparison of diffusion and transport theory analysis with experimental results in fast breeder test reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sathyabama, N.; Mohanakrishnan, P.; Lee, S.M.

    1994-01-01

    A systematic analysis has been performed by 3 dimensional diffusion and transport methods to calculate the measured control rod worths and subassembly wise power distribution in fast breeder test reactor. Geometry corrections (rectangular to hexagonal and diffusion to transport corrections are estimated for multiplication factors and control rod worths. Calculated control rod worths by diffusion and transport theory are nearly the same and 10% above measured values. Power distribution in the core periphery is over predicted (15%) by diffusion theory. But, this over prediction reduces to 8% by use of the S N method. (authors). 9 refs., 4 tabs., 3 fig

  14. Evaluation of tiamulin and lincomycin for the treatment of broiler breeders experimentally infected with the intestinal spirochaete Brachyspira pilosicoli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephens, C P; Hampson, D J

    2002-06-01

    Brachyspira pilosicoli strain CPSp1 isolated from a chicken in a broiler breeder flock in Queensland was used to experimentally infect 30 individually caged 22-week-old Cobb 500 broiler breeder hens. Another 10 birds were sham-inoculated with sterile broth. All birds failed to become colonized. At 29 weeks of age, all birds were transferred to a diet containing 50 parts/10(6) zinc bacitracin (ZnB) and were re-challenged with the same B. pilosicoli strain at 32 weeks of age, weekly for 5 weeks. The majority of the inoculated birds then became colonized, confirming previous findings that ZnB can increase susceptibility to colonization with B. pilosicoli. The control group remained uninfected. Infected groups tended to have an increased faecal water content and faecal staining of eggshells. Ten birds were then treated by crop tube with 25 mg/kg body weight tiamulin for 5 days, and 10 birds with 20 mg/kg body weight lincomycin for 5 days. Both treatments removed the infection, while untreated birds remained infected. The results support previous observations that ZnB at 50 parts/10(6) in the diet increases the susceptibility of birds to B. pilosicoli infection, and demonstrated the usefulness of both tiamulin and lincomycin for treatment of infection with B. pilosicoli in adult birds.

  15. An option for the Brazilian nuclear project: necessity of fast breeder reactors and core design for an experimental fast reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiguro, Y.

    1983-01-01

    In order to assure the continued utilization of fission energy, development of fast breeder reactors (FBRs) is a necessity. Binary fueled LMFBRs are proposed as the best type for future Brazilian nuclear systems. The inherent safety characteristics are superior to current FBRs and an efficient utilization of the abundant thorium is possible. A first step and a basic tool for the development of FBR technologies is the construction and operation of an experimental fast reactor (EFR). A series of core designs for a 90 MW EFR is studied and possible options and the magnitudes of principal parameters are identified. Flexible modifications of the core and sufficiently high fast fluxes for fuel and materials irradiations appear possible. (Author) [pt

  16. Activation calculation and environmental safety analysis for fusion experimental breeder (FEB)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaiming, Feng [Southwest Inst. of Physics, Leshan, SC (China)

    1996-04-01

    An activation calculation code FDKR and decay chain data library AFDCDLIB are used to calculate the radioactivity, decay heat, dose rate and biological hazard potential (BHP) form activation products, actinides and fission products in a Fusion Experiment Breeder (FEB). The code and library are introduced briefly, and calculation results and decay curves of related hazards after one year operation with 150 MW fusion power are given. The total radioactivity inventory, decay heat and BHP are 5.74 x 10{sup 20} Bq, 8.34 MW and 4.08 x 10{sup 8} km{sup 3} of air, respectively, at shutdown. Results obtained show that the first wall of FEB can meet the nuclear waste disposal criteria for the NRC 10 CFR61 Class C after a few weeks from shutdown. The inventory of important actinides for the fuel reprocessing, such as {sup 232}U and {sup 237}Np were also calculated. It was shown that their concentrations do not excess the limit value of environmental safety required. (9 refs., 4 figs., 9 tabs.).

  17. Construction of PREMUX and preliminary experimental results, as preparation for the HCPB breeder unit mock-up testing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernández, F., E-mail: francisco.hernandez@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology (INR) (Germany); Kolb, M. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Applied Materials (IAM-WPT) (Germany); Annabattula, R. [Indian Institute of Technology Madras (IITM), Department of Mechanical Engineering (India); Weth, A. von der [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology (INR) (Germany)

    2014-10-15

    Highlights: • PREMUX has been constructed as preparation for a future out-of-pile thermo-mechanical qualification of a HCPB breeder unit mock-up. • The rationale and constructive details of PREMUX are reported in this paper. • PREMUX serves as a test rig for the new heater system developed for the HCPB-BU mock-up. • PREMUX will be used as benchmark for the thermal and thermo-mechanical models developed in ANSYS for the pebble beds of the HCPB-BU. • Preliminary results show the functionality of PREMUX and the good agreement of the measured temperatures with the thermal model developed in ANSYS. - Abstract: One of the European blanket designs for ITER is the Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) blanket. The core of the HCPB-TBM consists of so-called breeder units (BUs), which encloses beryllium as neutron multiplier and lithium orthosilicate (Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4}) as tritium breeder in form of pebble beds. After the design phase of the HCPB-BU, a non-nuclear thermal and thermo-mechanical qualification program for this device is running at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. Before the complex full scale BU testing, a pre-test mock-up experiment (PREMUX) has been constructed, which consists of a slice of the BU containing the Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} pebble bed. PREMUX is going to be operated under highly ITER-relevant conditions and has the following goals: (1) as a testing rig of new heater concept based on a matrix of wire heaters, (2) as benchmark for the existing finite element method (FEM) codes used for the thermo-mechanical assessment of the Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} pebble bed, and (3) in situ measurement of thermal conductivity of the Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} pebble bed during the tests. This paper describes the construction of PREMUX, its rationale and the experimental campaign planned with the device. Preliminary results testing the algorithm used for the temperature reconstruction of the pebble bed are reported and compared qualitatively with first analyses

  18. Experimental programme in support of the development of the European ceramic-breeder-inside-tube test-blanket: present status and future work

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Proust, E.; Roux, N.; Flament, T.; Anzidei, L.; ENEA, Frascati; Casadio, S.; Dell'orco, G.

    1992-01-01

    Four DEMO blanket classes are under investigation within the framework of the European Test-Blanket Development Programme. One of them is featured by the use of lithium ceramic breeder pellets contained inside externally helium cooled tubes. This paper summarizes the main achievements to date of the experimental programme supporting the development of this class of blanket. It also gives an outline of the areas of the breeder material, beryllium, tritium control, and thermomechanical tests, the future work envisaged for the 92-94 period. 53 refs

  19. Fusion breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.

    1982-01-01

    The fusion breeder is a fusion reactor designed with special blankets to maximize the transmutation by 14 MeV neutrons of uranium-238 to plutonium or thorium to uranium-233 for use as a fuel for fission reactors. Breeding fissile fuels has not been a goal of the US fusion energy program. This paper suggests it is time for a policy change to make the fusion breeder a goal of the US fusion program and the US nuclear energy program. The purpose of this paper is to suggest this policy change be made and tell why it should be made, and to outline specific research and development goals so that the fusion breeder will be developed in time to meet fissile fuel needs

  20. Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) Fuel-Performance Test Facility (FPTF)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pardini, J.A.; Brubaker, R.C.; Veith, D.J.; Giorgis, G.C.; Walker, D.E.; Seim, O.S.

    1982-01-01

    The Fuel-Performance Test Facility (FPTF) is the latest in a series of special EBR-II instrumented in-core test facilities. A flow control valve in the facility is programmed to vary the coolant flow, and thus the temperature, in an experimental-irradiation subassembly beneath it and coupled to it. In this way, thermal transients can be simulated in that subassembly without changing the temperatures in surrounding subassemblies. The FPTF also monitors sodium flow and temperature, and detects delayed neutrons in the sodium effluent from the experimental-irradiation subassembly beneath it. This facility also has an acoustical detector (high-temperature microphone) for detecting sodium boiling

  1. DIissolution of low enriched uranium from the experimental breeder reactor-II fuel stored at the Idaho National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daniel, G. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Rudisill, T. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Almond, P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); O' Rourke, P. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-06-28

    The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) is actively engaged in the development of electrochemical processing technology for the treatment of fast reactor fuels using irradiated fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) as the primary test material. The research and development (R&D) activities generate a low enriched uranium (LEU) metal product from the electrorefining of the EBR-II fuel and the subsequent consolidation and removal of chloride salts by the cathode processor. The LEU metal ingots from past R&D activities are currently stored at INL awaiting disposition. One potential disposition pathway is the shipment of the ingots to the Savannah River Site (SRS) for dissolution in H-Canyon. Carbon steel cans containing the LEU metal would be loaded into reusable charging bundles in the H-Canyon Crane Maintenance Area and charged to the 6.4D or 6.1D dissolver. The LEU dissolution would be accomplished as the final charge in a dissolver batch (following the dissolution of multiple charges of spent nuclear fuel (SNF)). The solution would then be purified and the 235U enrichment downblended to allow use of the U in commercial reactor fuel. To support this potential disposition path, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) developed a dissolution flowsheet for the LEU using samples of the material received from INL.

  2. Removal of radioactive sodium from experimental breeder reactor-II components and conversion to a disposable solid waste: alcohol recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Krusl, J.R.; Washburn, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    Radioactive sodium is removed from Experimental Breeder Reactor-II components by immersing the components in denatured alcohol until the sodium has reacted with the alcohol. The resulting radioactive sodium-alcohol solution must be processed to separate and convert the sodium to a solid waste for disposal. A process was developed and is described that converts radioactive sodium dissolved in alcohol to a dry powdered carbonate waste product and recovers the alcohol for reuse. The sodium-alcohol waste solution, after adjustment for proper sodium and water content, is fed to a wiped-film evaporator operated at 190 0 C and maintained with a CO 2 atmosphere that converts the dissolved sodium to anhydrous Na 2 CO 3 . The end product, about85 to 90 wt% Na 2 CO 3 , is directed into a 208-l (55-gal) drum for disposal. Alcohol distilled during the process is condensed, collected, and dried for immediate reuse. The composition of the alcohol is not altered in the process

  3. Alternative breeder reactor technologies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spinrad, B.I.

    1978-01-01

    The significance of employing breeder reactors to stretch the world resources of nuclear fuels is briefly discussed, and the various types of breeder concepts are described. General descriptions, advantages, and disadvantages of the liquid metal cooled fast breeder, gas cooled fast breeder, molten salt breeder, thermal breeders, and spectral-shift control reactors are presented. Aspects of safeguarding fissile material connected with breeder operation are examined. 31 references

  4. Experimental simulation of fragmentation and stratification of core debris on the core catcher of a fast breeder reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pillai, Dipin S.; Vignesh, R. [Indian Institute of Technology, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (India); Sudha, A. Jasmin, E-mail: jasmin@igcar.gov.in [Safety Engineering Division, Reactor Design Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102, Tamil Nadu (India); Pushpavanam, S.; Sundararajan, T. [Indian Institute of Technology, Chennai, Tamil Nadu (India); Nashine, B.K.; Selvaraj, P. [Safety Engineering Division, Reactor Design Group, Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, Kalpakkam 603 102, Tamil Nadu (India)

    2016-05-15

    Highlights: • Fragmentation of two simultaneous metals jets in a bulk coolant analysed. • Particle size from experiments compared with theoretical analysis. • Jet breakup modes explained using dimensionless numbers. • Settling aspects of aluminium and lead debris on collector plate studied. • Results analysed in light of core debris settling on core catcher in a FBR. - Abstract: The complex and coupled phenomena of two simultaneous molten metal jets fragmenting inside a quiescent liquid pool and settling on a collector plate are experimentally analysed in the context of safety analysis of a fast breeder reactor (FBR) in the post accident heat removal phase. Following a hypothetical core melt down accident in a FBR, a major portion of molten nuclear fuel and clad/structural material which are collectively termed as ‘corium’ undergoes fragmentation in the bulk coolant sodium in the lower plenum of the reactor main vessel and settles on the core catcher plate. The coolability of this decay heat generating debris bed is dependent on the particle size distribution and its layering i.e., stratification. Experiments have been conducted with two immiscible molten metals of different densities poured inside a coolant medium to understand their fragmentation behaviour and to assess the possibility of formation of a stratified debris bed. Molten aluminium and lead have been used as simulants in place of molten stainless steel and nuclear fuel to facilitate easy handling. This paper summarizes the major findings from these experiments. The fragmentation of the two molten metals are explained in the light of relevant dimensionless numbers such as Reynolds number and Weber Number. The mass median diameter of the fragmented debris is predicted from nonlinear stability analysis of slender jets for lead jet and using Rayleigh's classical theory of jet breakup for aluminium jet. The agreement of the predicted values with the experimental results is good. These

  5. International breeder reactor development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Traube, K.

    1976-01-01

    For more than a decade, sodium cooled breeder reactors have now been in the focus of advanced nuclear power development in the major industrialized countries. In the sixties, a total of seven small experimental nuclear power stations were commissioned. Two of these have been shut down in the meantime, the others continue to work satisfactorily, their main purpose being the development of fuel elements. The years 1972-1974 saw the commissioning of the prototype power stations in the 300 MWe power category in France, the United Kingdom and the Soviet Union. Presently, other experimental reactors are under construction in the Federal Republic of Germany, Italy, Japan, the United States, plus another Soviet 600 MWe prototype reactor and the SNR 300 DeBeNeLux prototype at Kalkar. A comparison of the technological features either implemented or planned in the prototype and experimental power plants and of their fuel elements reveals a remarkable similarity in the basic concepts pursued in different countries. The two types of breeder reactors, viz. the loop and the pool types, show a closer resemblance to each other than do pressurized and boilling water reactors. The growing awareness of administrative problems emerging in the approaching phase of the introduction of large breeder power stations in a number of European countries has recently led to a streamlining effort in the structure of industries and to tentative steps towards international cooperation on a broad basis. (orig.) [de

  6. Coated ceramic breeder materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tam, Shiu-Wing; Johnson, Carl E.

    1987-01-01

    A breeder material for use in a breeder blanket of a nuclear reactor is disclosed. The breeder material comprises a core material of lithium containing ceramic particles which has been coated with a neutron multiplier such as Be or BeO, which coating has a higher thermal conductivity than the core material.

  7. Set-up of a pre-test mock-up experiment in preparation for the HCPB Breeder Unit mock-up experimental campaign

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernández, F., E-mail: francisco.hernandez@kit.edu [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology (INR) (Germany); Kolb, M. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Applied Materials (IAM-WPT) (Germany); Ilić, M.; Kunze, A. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology (INR) (Germany); Németh, J. [KFKI Research Institute for Particle and Nuclear Physics (Hungary); Weth, A. von der [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT), Institute for Neutron Physics and Reactor Technology (INR) (Germany)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: ► As preparation for the HCPB-TBM Breeder Unit out-of-pile testing campaign, a pre-test experiment (PREMUX) has been prepared and described. ► A new heater system based on a wire heater matrix has been developed for imitating the neutronic volumetric heating and it is compared with the conventional plate heaters. ► The test section is described and preliminary thermal results with the available models are presented and are to be benchmarked with PREMUX. ► The PREMUX integration in the air cooling loop L-STAR/LL in the Karlsruhe Institute for Technology is shown and future steps are discussed. -- Abstract: The complexity of the experimental set-up for testing a full-scaled Breeder Unit (BU) mock-up for the European Helium Cooled Pebble Bed Test Blanket Module (HCPB-TBM) has motivated to build a pre-test mock-up experiment (PREMUX) consisting of a slice of the BU in the Li{sub 4}SiO{sub 4} region. This pre-test aims at verifying the feasibility of the methods to be used for the subsequent testing of the full-scaled BU mock-up. Key parameters needed for the modeling of the breeder material is also to be determined by the Hot Wire Method (HWM). The modeling tools for the thermo-mechanics of the pebble beds and for the mock-up structure are to be calibrated and validated as well. This paper presents the setting-up of PREMUX in the L-STAR/LL facility at the Karlsruhe Institute of Technology. A key requirement of the experiments is to mimic the neutronic volumetric heating. A new heater concept is discussed and compared to several conventional heater configurations with respect to the estimated temperature distribution in the pebble beds. The design and integration of the thermocouple system in the heater matrix and pebble beds is also described, as well as other key aspects of the mock-up (dimensions, layout, cooling system, purge gas line, boundary conditions and integration in the test facility). The adequacy of these methods for the full-scaled BU

  8. Interaction of CREDO [Centralized Reliability Data Organization] with the EBR-II [Experimental Breeder Reactor II] PRA [probabilistic risk assessment] development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, M.S.; Ragland, W.A.

    1989-01-01

    The National Academy of Sciences review of US Department of Energy (DOE) class 1 reactors recommended that the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II), operated by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL), develop a level 1 probabilistic risk assessment (PRA) and make provisions for level 2 and level 3 PRAs based on the results of the level 1 PRA. The PRA analysis group at ANL will utilize the Centralized Reliability Data Organization (CREDO) at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to support the PRA data needs. CREDO contains many years of empirical liquid-metal reactor component data from EBR-II. CREDO is a mutual data- and cost-sharing system sponsored by DOE and the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuels Development Corporation of Japan. CREDO is a component based data system; data are collected on components that are liquid-metal specific, associated with a liquid-metal environment, contained in systems that interface with liquid-metal environments, or are safety related for use in reliability/availability/maintainability (RAM) analyses of advanced reactors. The links between the EBR-II PRA development effort and the CREDO data collection at EBR-II extend beyond the sharing of data. The PRA provides a measure of the relative contribution to risk of the various components. This information can be used to prioritize future CREDO data collection activities at EBR-II and other sites

  9. Feasibility of processing the experimental breeder reactor-II driver fuel from the Idaho National Laboratory through Savannah River Site's H-Canyon facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Magoulas, V. E. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2017-07-28

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was requested to evaluate the potential to receive and process the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) uranium (U) recovered from the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) driver fuel through the Savannah River Site’s (SRS) H-Canyon as a way to disposition the material. INL recovers the uranium from the sodium bonded metallic fuel irradiated in the EBR-II reactor using an electrorefining process. There were two compositions of EBR-II driver fuel. The early generation fuel was U-5Fs, which consisted of 95% U metal alloyed with 5% noble metal elements “fissium” (2.5% molybdenum, 2.0% ruthenium, 0.3% rhodium, 0.1% palladium, and 0.1% zirconium), while the later generation was U-10Zr which was 90% U metal alloyed with 10% zirconium. A potential concern during the H-Canyon nitric acid dissolution process of the U metal containing zirconium (Zr) is the explosive behavior that has been reported for alloys of these materials. For this reason, this evaluation was focused on the ability to process the lower Zr content materials, the U-5Fs material.

  10. Accelerator breeder concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bartholomew, G.A.; Fraser, J.S.; Garvey, P.M.

    1978-10-01

    The principal components and functions of an accelerator breeder are described. The role of the accelerator breeder as a possible long-term fissile production support facility for CANDU (Canada Deuterium Uranium) thorium advanced fuel cycles and the Canadian research and development program leading to such a facility are outlined. (author)

  11. Breeder development and breeder strategies worldwide; Brueterentwicklung und Brueterstrategien weltweit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marth, W. [Stabsabteilung Finanzen/Controlling, Bereich Stillegung Nuklearer Anlagen, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe GmbH (Germany)

    1997-05-01

    Fast breeders are currently operated in six countries. In addition, a breeder power plant is under construction in China. The largest plant in operation is the 1250 MWe Superphenix in France. After considerable commissioning problems, it has meanwhile attained a good availability. However, its operating license was revoked on legal grounds; one of the main reasons for that decision was the absence of a public inquiry. The operation of several fast breeders in Russia and Kazakhstan has been almost entirely devoid of problems for years. In contrast, the situation in Japan is somewhat confused at the moment, as the Japanese prototype breeder, MONJU, suffered a sodium leakage accident in 1995 and has since been down. The Indian FBTR experimental breeder is troubled by many technical problems in its commissioning phase. The American FFTR fast reactor has been kept in a hot, but non-nuclear, state for years because the politicians cannot agree on its destiny. The fate of the German SNR-300 prototype breeder is well known: For six years, no operating permit was granted to the Kalkar Nuclear Power Station. After the plant had been decommissioned in 1991 for political reasons, it was dismantled in part and has recently been converted into a fun park. (orig.) [Deutsch] In sechs Laendern werden derzeit Schnelle Brueter betrieben; in China ist darueber hinaus ein Brueterkraftwerk im Bau. Die groesste betriebene Anlage ist der 1250-MWe-Superphenix in Frankreich. Nach betraechtlichen Inbetriebsnahmeproblemen hat er inzwischen eine gute Verfuegbarkeit erreicht; aus juristischen Gruenden wurde im jedoch die Betriebsgenehmigung entzogen, wobei das Fehlen einer oeffentlichen Anhoerung die wesentliche Rolle spielt. Ziemlich problemlos ist seit Jahren der Betrieb mehrerer Schneller Brueter in Russland und Kasachstan. Demgegenueber ist die Situation in Japan derzeit etwas verworren: Der dortige Prototyp Monju erlitt 1995 einen Natriumleckagestoerfall und ist seitdem abgeschaltet. Der

  12. Fast Breeder Reactor studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.; Kittel, J.H.; Fauske, H.K.; Lineberry, M.J.; Stevenson, M.G.; Amundson, P.I.; Dance, K.D.

    1980-07-01

    This report is a compilation of Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) resource documents prepared to provide the technical basis for the US contribution to the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation. The eight separate parts deal with the alternative fast breeder reactor fuel cycles in terms of energy demand, resource base, technical potential and current status, safety, proliferation resistance, deployment, and nuclear safeguards. An Annex compares the cost of decommissioning light-water and fast breeder reactors. Separate abstracts are included for each of the parts

  13. Fast Breeder Reactor studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.; Kittel, J.H.; Fauske, H.K.; Lineberry, M.J.; Stevenson, M.G.; Amundson, P.I.; Dance, K.D.

    1980-07-01

    This report is a compilation of Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) resource documents prepared to provide the technical basis for the US contribution to the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation. The eight separate parts deal with the alternative fast breeder reactor fuel cycles in terms of energy demand, resource base, technical potential and current status, safety, proliferation resistance, deployment, and nuclear safeguards. An Annex compares the cost of decommissioning light-water and fast breeder reactors. Separate abstracts are included for each of the parts.

  14. Ceramic breeder materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.E.

    1990-01-01

    The breeding blanket is a key component of the fusion reactor because it directly involves tritium breeding and energy extraction, both of which are critical to development of fusion power. The lithium ceramics continue to show promise as candidate breeder materials. This promise was recognized by the International Thermonuclear Reactor (ITER) design team in its selection of ceramics as the first option for the ITER breeder material. Blanket design studies have indicated properties in the candidate materials data base that need further investigation. Current studies are focusing on tritium release behavior at high burnup, changes in thermophysical properties with burnup, compatibility between the ceramic breeder and beryllium multiplier, and phase changes with burnup. Laboratory and in-reactor tests, some as part of an international collaboration for development of ceramic breeder materials, are underway. 32 refs., 1 fig., 1 tab

  15. Alternative breeder and near-breeder systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Critoph, E.

    1983-01-01

    Nuclear power reactor systems have been developed over the last three decades to the point where they are economically competitive, safe and reliable sources of electrical energy. However, with our present knowledge of fissile resources, there is no assurance that the commercially proven reactor systems, using their current fuel cycles, could play a major role in supplying the total world energy needs of the next, and subsequent, centuries. There is a wide consensus that such assurance requires development of reactor systems with very significantly improved fuel resource utilization. The best known of these, and the one currently receiving the lion's share of attention and effort, is the fast breeder reactor (FBR). This paper reviews the characteristics, development status and planned programmes for alternative concepts to the FBR that meet the requirement for large improvement in fuel resource utilization, i.e. alternative breeder and near-breeder systems. These include: heavy-water reactors operating on thorium fuel cycles, light-water high-conversion and breeder reactors, high-temperature gas-cooled reactors operating on thorium fuel cycles, molten salt reactors and heavy-water suspension reactors. Any attempt to make a logical choice for exploitation among these various alternatives involves a consideration of the interplay between reactor system characteristics on the one hand and a forecast of political and economic environments on the other. The reactor breeding (or conversion) ratio has received a great deal of emphasis, but an optimum choice depends also on a consideration of several other factors, including out- and in-reactor specific fuel inventories, fuel fabrication and reprocessing costs, reactor capital cost and load factor, fuel resources and demand growth rate of capacity. Possible variations in this optimum choice with time and regional location are discussed

  16. The fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Patterson, W.

    1990-01-01

    The author criticises the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority's fast breeder reactor programme in his evidence to the House of Commons Select Committee on Energy in January 1990. He argues for power generation by renewable means and greater efficiency in the use rather than in the generation of electricity. He refutes the arguments for nuclear power on the basis of reduced global warming as he claims support technology produces significant amounts of carbon dioxide in any case. Serious doubts are raised about the costs of a fast breeder reactor programme compared to, say, generation by pressurised water reactors. The idea of a uranium scarcity in several decades is also refuted. The reliability of fast breeder reactor technology is called into question. He argues against reprocessing plutonium for economic, health and safety reasons. (UK)

  17. Breeder: now or never

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, P.M.

    1978-01-01

    The timing of the commercial introduction of the liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) will be an important factor in its ability to supply a significant fraction of the nation's future electrical needs. The number of breeders we can build initially will be limited by the size of our low-cost uranium resources and by the rate at which light water reactors (LWRs) are placed in service. Since this uranium resource is fixed in size while electrical demand will grow geometrically, it is clear that the sooner the breeder is introduced commercially the larger will be the fraction of electrical demand it can supply. An early commercial introduction on an adequate scale requires full-scale resumption of LWR construction and redirection of LMFBR development programs toward a near-term commercial prototype

  18. The fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keck, O.

    1984-01-01

    Nowadays the fast-breeder reactor is a negative symbol of advanced technology which is getting out of control and, due to its complexity, is incomprehensible for politicians and therefore by-passes the established order. The author lists the most important decisions over state aid to the fast-breeder-reactors up until the mid-seventies and uses documents from the appropriate advisory bodies as reference. He was also aided by interviews with those directly involved with the project. The empirical facts forces us to discard our traditional view of the relationship between state and industry with regard to advanced technology. The author explains that it is impossible to find any economic value in the fast-breeder reactor. The insight gained through this project allows him to draw conclusions which apply to all aspects of state aid to advanced technology. (orig.) [de

  19. Breeders. Les surregenerateurs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1978-01-01

    The interest lying in the nuclear energy as a source of electric power is recalled with a view to the consumption of primary energy and electric power; the position of France is particularly discussed. The fast breeder reactor is presented and the state of development of this type of reactor in France is discussed with the planning of the Creys-Malville power plant. The problems successively examined are concerned with: fuel cycle, radioactivity and effluents, breeder safety, licensing procedures, sodium coolant, plutonium, fuel reprocessing, environmental impact and waste management.

  20. Fast breeder project (PSB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-07-01

    Activities performed during the 1st quarter of 1976 at or on behalf of the Gesellschaft fuer Kernforschung mbH, Karlsruhe, within the framework of the Fast Breeder Project are given a survey. The following project subdivisions are dealt with: Fuel rod development; materials testing and developments; corrosion studies and coolant analyses; physical experiments; reactor theory; safety of fast breeders; instrumentation and signal processing for core monitoring; effects on the environment; sodium technology tests; thermodynamic and fluid flow tests in gas. (HR) [de

  1. Competitive breeder power plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Winkleblack, R.K.

    1984-01-01

    To utilize the fissile material that is accumulating in the utilities' spent fuel pools, breeder plants must be less expensive than current LWR costs (or utilities will not buy nuclear plants in the near future) and also be highly reliable. The fundamental differences between LWRs and LMFBRs are discussed and recommendations are made for making the most of these differences to design a superior breeder plant that can sell in the future, opening the way to U.S. utilities becoming self-sufficient for fuel supply for centuries

  2. Prospects of ceramic tritium breeder materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roth, E.; Roux, N.; Conservatoire National des Arts et Metiers; CEA Centre d'Etudes Nucleaires de Saclay, 91 - Gif-sur-Yvette

    1989-01-01

    In this paper the authors examine the prospects of the main ceramics proposed as breeder materials for fusion reactors, i.e. Li-2O, Li-2ZrO-3, LiAlO-2, Li-4SiO-4. To do so they review terms of reference of contemplated blankets for NET, ITER and DEMO, and the proposed blanket concepts and materials. Issues respective to the use of each breeder material are examined, and from this review it is concluded that ceramics are the most favorable breeder materials whose use can be contemplated as well for a driver blanket for NET or ITER and for a DEMO blanket. Ceramics are then compared between themselves and it is seen that, subject to the confirmation of recent experimental results, lithium zirconate could be used with advantage in any of the present blanket concepts, except in those employing lithium at its natural isotopic abundance, in which case only Li-2O can be used. However in specific cases, or in parts of a blanket, other ceramics may be profitably employed. As a general conclusion suggestions are made to further improve ceramic breeder performances, and it is recommended to intensify also work on problems that have to be solved in order to operate ceramic breeder blankets e.g. tritium extraction and recovery systems and conditions of beryllium use. (author). 37 refs.; 12 tabs

  3. European DEMO BOT solid breeder blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalle Donne, M.

    1994-11-01

    The BOT (Breeder Outside Tube) Solid Breeder Blanket for a fusion DEMO reactor is presented. This is one of the four blanket concepts under development in the frame of the European fusion technology program with the aim to select in 1995 the two most promising ones for further development. In the paper the reference blanket design and external loops are described as well as the results of the theoretical and experimental work in the fields of neutronics, thermohydraulics, mechanical stresses, tritium control and extraction, development and irradiation of the ceramic breeder material, beryllium development, ferromagnetic forces caused by disruptions, safety and reliability. An outlook is given on the remaining open questions and on the required R and D program. (orig.) [de

  4. Project fast breeder (PSB)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-01-01

    The annual report of the fast breeder project (PSB) contains contributions of the participating institutes on the four subjects: 1) Development of oxidic fuel rods and materials for the SNR line, 2) Physics and safety investigations for the SNR line, 3) Carbidic fuel elements, and 4) Back-up solution with gaseous coolant. (HK) [de

  5. Plasma focus breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikuta, Kazunari.

    1981-09-01

    Instead of using linear accelerators, it is possible to breed fissile fuels with the help of high current plasma focus device. A mechanism of accelerating proton beam in plasma focus device to high energy would be a change of inductance in plasma column because of rapid growth of plasma instability. A possible scheme of plasma focus breeder is also proposed. (author)

  6. The accelerator breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johansson, E.

    1986-01-01

    Interactions of high-energy particles with atomic nuclei, in particular heavy ones, leads to a strong emission of neutrons. Preferably these high-energy particles are protons or deuterons obtained from a linear accelerator. The neutrons emitted are utilized in the conversion of U238 to Pu239 or of Th232 to U233. The above is the basis of the accelerator breeder, a concept studied abroad in many variants. No such breeder has, however, so far been built, but there exists vast practical experience on the neutron production and on the linear accelerator. Some of the variants mentioned are described in the report, after a presentation of general characteristics for the particle-nucleus interaction and for the linear accelerator. (author)

  7. Breeder reactor fuel reprocessing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Trauger, D.B.

    1983-01-01

    The time cycle for breeder reactor development and deployment is longer than the planning horizons for most private industry and governments. The potential advantage and possible desperate need for widely deployed breeder reactors in the future seems to dictate that suitable long-term development and deployment programs be established to provide an adequate base of technology and in time to meet the need. The problems of failing to do so and being confronted with a major requirement for nuclear energy could result in very serious economic and social disruption. The cost of maintaining the needed program, although substantial, is certainly modest compared with the potential problems which could ensue should we fail to proceed

  8. Molten salt breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-01-01

    MSBR Study Group formed in October 1974 has studied molten salt breeder reactor and its various aspects. Usage of a molten salt fuel, extremely interesting as reactor chemistry, is a great feature to MSBR; there is no need for separate fuel making, reprocessing, waste storage facilities. The group studied the following, and these results are presented: molten salt technology, molten salt fuel chemistry and reprocessing, reactor characteristics, economy, reactor structural materials, etc. (Mori, K.)

  9. Fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waltar, A.E.; Reynolds, A.B.

    1981-01-01

    This book describes the major design features of fast breeder reactors and the methods used for their design and analysis. The foremost objective of this book is to fulfill the need for a textbook on Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) technology at the graduate level or the advanced undergraduate level. It is assumed that the reader has an introductory understanding of reactor theory, heat transfer, and fluid mechanics. The book is expected to be used most widely for a one-semester general course on fast breeder reactors, with the extent of material covered to vary according to the interest of the instructor. The book could also be used effectively for a two-quarter or a two-semester course. In addition, the book could serve as a text for a course on fast reactor safety since many topics other than those appearing in the safety chapters relate to FBR safety. Methodology in fast reactor design and analysis, together with physical descriptions of systems, is emphasized in this text more than numerical results. Analytical and design results continue to change with the ongoing evolution of FBR design whereas many design methods have remained fundamentally unchanged for a considerable time

  10. Swiss breeder research programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1992-01-01

    A new initiative for a Swiss Fast Breeder Research Program has been started during 1991. This was partly the consequence of a vote in Fall 1990, when the Swiss public voted for maintaining nuclear reactors in operation, but also for a moratorium of 10 years, within which period no new reactor project should be proposed. On the other hand the Swiss government decided to keep the option 'atomic reactors' open and therefore it was essential to have programmes which guaranteed that the knowledge of reactor technology could be maintained in the industry and the relevant research organisations. There is also motivation to support a Swiss Breeder Research Program on the part of the utilities, the licensing authorities and the Paul Scherrer Institute (PSI). The utilities recognise the breeder reactor as an advanced reactor system which has to be developed further and might be a candidate, somewhere in the future, for electricity production. In so far they have great interest that a know-how base is maintained in our country, with easy access for technical questions and close attention to the development of this reactor type. The licensing authorities have a legitimate interest that an adequate knowledge of the breeder reactor type and its functions is kept at their disposal. PSI and the former EIR have had for many years a very successful basic research programme concerning breeder reactors, and were in close cooperation with EFR. The activities within this programme had to be terminated owing to limitations in personnel and financial resources. The new PSI research programme is based upon two main areas, reactor physics and reactor thermal hydraulics. In both areas relatively small but valuable basic research tasks, the results of which are of interest to the breeder community, will be carried out. The lack of support of the former Breeder Programme led to capacity problems and finally to a total termination. Therefore one of the problems which had to be solved first was

  11. Fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ollier, J.L.

    1987-01-01

    The first industrial-scale fast breeder reactor (FBR) is the Superphenix I at Crays-Melville. It was designed and built by Novatome, a French company, and Ansaldo, an Italian company. The advantages of FBRs are summarized. The status of Superphenix and the testing schedule is given. The stages in its power escalation in 1986 are given. The article is optimistic about the future for FBRs and expects FBRs to take over from PWRs at the beginning of the 21st Century. To achieve economic viability, European financial cooperation for the research and development programme is advocated. (UK)

  12. Experimental study of the large-scale axially heterogeneous liquid-metal fast breeder reactor at the fast critical assembly: Power distribution measurements and their analyses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Iijima, S.; Obu, M.; Hayase, T.; Ohno, A.; Nemoto, T.; Okajima, S.

    1988-01-01

    Power distributions of the large-scale axially heterogeneous liquid-metal fast breeder reactor were studied by using the experiment results of fast critical assemblies XI, XII, and XIII and the results of their analyses. The power distributions were examined by the gamma-scanning method and fission rate measurements using /sup 239/Pu and /sup 238/U fission counters and the foil irradiation method. In addition to the measurements in the reference core, the power distributions were measured in the core with a control rod inserted and in a modified core where the shape of the internal blanket was determined by the radial boundary. The calculation was made by using JENDL-2 and the Japan Atomic Energy Research Institute's standard calculation system for fast reactor neutronics. The power flattening trend, caused by the decrease of the fast neutron flux, was observed in the axial and radial power distributions. The effect of the radial boundary shape of the internal blanket on the power distribution was determined in the core. The thickness of the internal blanket was reduced at its radial boundary. The influence of the internal blanket was observed in the power distributions in the core with a control rod inserted. The calculation predicted the neutron spectrum harder in the internal blanket. In the radial distributions of /sup 239/Pu fission rates, the space dependency of the calculated-to-experiment values was found at the active core close to the internal blanket

  13. The fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Collier, J.

    1990-01-01

    The arguments for and against the fast breeder reactor are debated. The case for the fast reactor is that the world energy demand will increase due to increasing population over the next forty years and that the damage to the global environment from burning fossil fuels which contribute to the greenhouse effect. Nuclear fission is the only large scale energy source which can achieve a cut in the use of carbon based fuels although energy conservation and renewable sources will also be important. Fast reactors produce more energy from uranium than other types of (thermal) reactors such as AGRs and PWRs. Fast reactors would be important from about 2020 onwards especially as by then many thermal reactors will need to be replaced. Fast reactors are also safer than normal reactors. The arguments against fast reactors are largely economic. The cost, especially the capital cost is very high. The viability of the technology is also questioned. (UK)

  14. The fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, D.A.; Baker, M.A.W.; Hall, R.S.

    1990-01-01

    Following submission of written evidence, the Energy Committee members asked questions of three witnesses from the Central Electricity Generating Board and Nuclear Electric (which will be the government owned company running nuclear power stations after privatisation). Both questions and answers are reported verbatim. The points raised include where the responsibility for the future fast reactor programme should lie, with government only or with private enterprise or both and the viability of fast breeder reactors in the future. The case for the fast reactor was stated as essentially strategic not economic. This raised the issue of nuclear cost which has both a construction and a decommissioning element. There was considerable discussion as to the cost of building a European Fast reactor and the cost of the electricity it would generate compared with PWR type reactors. The likely demand for fast reactors will not arrive for 20-30 years and the need to build a fast reactor now is questioned. (UK)

  15. Automated breeder fuel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldmann, L.H.; Frederickson, J.R.

    1983-01-01

    The objective of the Secure Automated Fabrication (SAF) Project is to develop remotely operated equipment for the processing and manufacturing of breeder reactor fuel pins. The SAF line will be installed in the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF). The FMEF is presently under construction at the Department of Energy's (DOE) Hanford site near Richland, Washington, and is operated by the Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC). The fabrication and support systems of the SAF line are designed for computer-controlled operation from a centralized control room. Remote and automated fuel fabriction operations will result in: reduced radiation exposure to workers; enhanced safeguards; improved product quality; near real-time accountability, and increased productivity. The present schedule calls for installation of SAF line equipment in the FMEF beginning in 1984, with qualifying runs starting in 1986 and production commencing in 1987. 5 figures

  16. Fast breeder reactor research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Full text: The meeting was attended by 15 participants from seven countries and two international organizations. The Eighth Annual Meeting of the International Working Group on Fast Reactors (IWGFR) was attended by representatives from France, Fed. Rep. Germany, Italy, Japan, United Kingdom, Union of Soviet Socialist Republics and the United States of America - countries that have made significant progress in developing the technology and physics of sodium cooled fast reactors and have extensive national programmes in this field - as well as by representatives of the Commission of the European Communities and the IAEA. The design of fast-reactor power plants is a more difficult task than developing facilities with thermal reactors. Different reactor kinetics and dynamics, a hard neutron spectrum, larger integral doses of fuel and structural material irradiation, higher core temperatures, the use of an essentially novel coolant, and, as a result of all these factors, the additional reliability and safety requirements that are imposed on the planning and operation of sodium cooled fast reactors - all these factors pose problems that can be solved comprehensively only by countries with a high level of scientific and technical development. The exchange of experience between these countries and their combined efforts in solving the fundamental problems that arise in planning, constructing and operating fast reactors are promoting technical progress and reducing the relative expenditure required for various studies on developing and introducing commercial fast reactors. For this reason, the meeting concentrated on reviewing and discussing national fast reactor programmes. The situation with regard to planning, constructing and operating fast experimental and demonstration reactors in the countries concerned, the experience accumulated in operating them, the difficulties arising during operation and ways of over-coming them, the search for optimal designs for the power

  17. Economic analysis of fusion breeders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Delene, J.G.

    1985-01-01

    This paper presents a study of the economic performance of Fission/Fusion Hybrid devices. This work takes fusion breeder cost estimates and applies methodology and cost factors used in the fission reactor programs to compare fusion breeders with Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBR). The results of the analysis indicate that the Hybrid will be in the same competitive range as proposed LMFBRs and have the potential to provide economically competitive power in a future of rising uranium prices. The sensitivity of the results to variations in key parameters is included

  18. International strategies for breeder development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zaleski, C.P.; Zebroski, E.L.

    1992-01-01

    This paper studies the perspectives of breeder reactors development. The near term context has led some experts to the conclusion that breeder reactor technology is too far ahead of its time. Some have compared breeders to the supersonic airplane, Concorde: good technical performance but failure in its economic dimensions. In this paper, the author points out the major shortcomings of such an assessment which may be valid in the short time. However, with a short-term market-dominated perspective that uses an 8% discount rate, one can neglect every thing that is going to happen in 50 years. 6 refs., 11 figs

  19. Canadian accelerator breeder system development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schriber, S.O.

    1982-11-01

    A shortage of fissile material at a reasonable price is expected to occur in the early part of the twenty-first century. Converting fertile material to fissile material by electronuclar methods is an option that can extend th world's resources of fissionable material, supplying fuel for nuclear power stations. This paper presents the rationale for electronuclear breeders and describes the Canadian development program for an accelerator breeder facility that could produce 1 Mg of fissile material per year

  20. Fast breeder fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-07-01

    This contribution is prepared for the answer to the questionnaire of working group 5, subgroup B. B.1. is the short review of the fast breeder fuel cycles based on the reference large commercial Japanese LMFBR. The LMFBRs are devided into two types. FBR-A is the reactor to be used before 2000, and its burnup and breeding ratio are relatively low. The reference fuel cycle requirement is calculated based on the FBR-A. FBR-B is the one to be used after 2000, and its burnup and breeding ratio are relatively high. B.2. is basic FBR fuel reprocessing scheme emphasizing the differences with LWR reprocessing. This scheme is based on the conceptual design and research and development work on the small scale LMFBR reprocessing facility of Japan. The facility adopts a conventional PUREX process except head end portions. The report also describes the effects of technical modifications of conventional reprocessing flow sheets, and the problems to be solved before the adoption of these alternatives

  1. Tritium-assisted fusion breeders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan, E.; Miley, G.H.

    1983-08-01

    This report undertakes a preliminary assessment of the prospects of tritium-assisted D-D fuel cycle fusion breeders. Two well documented fusion power reactor designs - the STARFIRE (D-T fuel cycle) and the WILDCAT (Cat-D fuel cycle) tokamaks - are converted into fusion breeders by replacing the fusion electric blankets with 233 U producing fission suppressed blankets; changing the Cat-D fuel cycle mode of operation by one of the several tritium-assisted D-D-based modes of operation considered; adjusting the reactor power level; and modifying the resulting plant cost to account for the design changes. Three sources of tritium are considered for assisting the D-D fuel cycle: tritium produced in the blankets from lithium or from 3 He and tritium produced in the client fission reactors. The D-D-based fusion breeders using tritium assistance are found to be the most promising economically, especially the Tritium Catalyzed Deuterium mode of operation in which the 3 He exhausted from the plasma is converted, by neutron capture in the blanket, into tritium which is in turn fed back to the plasma. The number of fission reactors of equal thermal power supported by Tritium Catalyzed Deuterium fusion breeders is about 50% higher than that of D-T fusion breeders, and the profitability is found to be slightly lower than that of the D-T fusion breeders

  2. The development of breeder reactors in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Segawa, M.

    1984-01-01

    In the framework of a global analysis of the various available sources of energy, Japan has reserved a prominent place to the nuclear energy and, in the long-term view, to the breeder reactor which will be due for commercial deployment in 20)10. To achieve these objectives, three stages are envisaged, one of the experimental reactor Joyo (in service), one of the demonstration reactor Monju (its construction has been decided), and one of the pre-commercial reactor (due to be taken in hand at the beginning of the Nineties). Efforts will be made in parallel concerning the fuel cycle [fr

  3. Reprocessing in breeder fuel cycles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, W.D.; Groenier, W.S.

    1982-01-01

    Over the past decade, the United States has developed plans and carried out programs directed toward the demonstration of breeder fuel reprocessing in connection with the first breeder demonstration reactor. A renewed commitment to moving forward with the construction of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBR) has been made, with startup anticipated near the end of this decade. While plans for the CRBR and its associated fuel cycle are still being firmed up, the basic research and development programs required to carry out the demonstrations have continued. This paper updates the status of the reprocessing plans and programs. Policies call for breeder recycle to begin in the early to mid-1990's. Contents of this paper are: (1) evolving plans for breeder reprocessing (demonstration reprocessing plant, reprocessing head-end colocated at an existing facility); (2) relationship to LWR reprocessing; (3) integrated equipment test (IET) facility and related hardware development activities (mechanical considerations in shearing and dissolving, remote operations and maintenance demonstration phase of IET, integrated process demonstration phase of IET, separate component development activities); and (4) supporting process R and D

  4. International cooperation on breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gray, J.E.; Kratzer, M.B.; Leslie, K.E.; Paige, H.W.; Shantzis, S.B.

    1978-01-01

    In March 1977, as the result of discussions which began in the fall of 1976, the Rockefeller Foundation requested International Energy Associates Limited (IEAL) to undertake a study of the role of international cooperation in the development and application of the breeder reactor. While there had been considerable international exchange in the development of breeder technology, the existence of at least seven major national breeder development programs raised a prima facie issue of the adequacy of international cooperation. The final product of the study was to be the identification of options for international cooperation which merited further consideration and which might become the subject of subsequent, more detailed analysis. During the course of the study, modifications in U.S. breeder policy led to an expansion of the analysis to embrace the pros and cons of the major breeder-related policy issues, as well as the respective views of national governments on those issues. The resulting examination of views and patterns of international collaboration emphasizes what was implicit from the outset: Options for international cooperation cannot be fashioned independently of national objectives, policies and programs. Moreover, while similarity of views can stimulate cooperation, this cannot of itself provide compelling justification for cooperative undertakings. Such undertakings are influenced by an array of other national factors, including technological development, industrial infrastructure, economic strength, existing international ties, and historic experience

  5. Breeder--now or never

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Murphy, P.M.

    1978-01-01

    The timing of the commercial introduction of the LMFBR (Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor) will be an important factor in its ability to supply a significant fraction of the nation's future electrical needs. The number of breeders we can build initially will be limited by the size of our low-cost urnium resources and by the rate at which LWR's (Light Water Reactors) are placed in service. Since this uranium resource is fixed in size while electrical demand will grow geometrically, it is clear that the sooner the breeder is introduced commercially the larger will be the fraction of electrical demand that it can supply. An early commercial introduction on an adequate scale requires full-scale resumption of LWR construction and redirection of LMFBR development programs toward a near-term commercial prototype

  6. The breeder reactor and Europe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daglish, J.

    1979-01-01

    A report is given of a conference on the breeder reactor and Europe held in Lucerne, Switzerland from 14 - 17 October 1979 sponsored by the Swiss Association for Atomic Energy and the Association of European Atomic Forums. The underlying theme of the conference was the question that if nuclear power is to play a major role in meeting world energy needs in the long term, thermal reactors must in time be complemented with more advanced reactor systems that conserve uranium resources which are huge but not unlimited. This is not questioned; disagreement begins with discussion of the desirability of the breeder, and how fast and how far the introduction of such reactors should go. Aspects considered at the conference which are especially dealt with in this review are; why breed, commercial aspects, alternatives to the LMFBR, how to build a fast reactor, the breeder programmes in Europe, Britain, the Soviet Union, Japan and the United States. (U.K.)

  7. Fusion Breeder Program interim report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.; Lee, J.D.; Neef, W.

    1982-01-01

    This interim report for the FY82 Fusion Breeder Program covers work performed during the scoping phase of the study, December, 1981-February 1982. The goals for the FY82 study are the identification and development of a reference blanket concept using the fission suppression concept and the definition of a development plan to further the fusion breeder application. The context of the study is the tandem mirror reactor, but emphasis is placed upon blanket engineering. A tokamak driver and blanket concept will be selected and studied in more detail during FY83

  8. The German fast breeder programme and fuel cycle activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marth, W.; Lahr, H.

    1982-01-01

    After a review of the German experimental power plant KNK II, the present status of the prototype SNR 300 project is described, including its political and licensing aspects. Breeder cooperation with France is gaining momentum. Research and development in core physics and fuel development and implications for the reprocessing of spent fuel are discussed. (author)

  9. Neutronics analysis of Nigerian Research Reactor-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Azande, T.S.; Balogun, G.I.

    2010-01-01

    Feasibility studies for the conversion of the Nigerian Research Reactor-1 (NIRR-1) have been performed using WIMS and CITATION codes (Azande et al, 2009 and Balogun, 2003) at the Centre for Energy Research and Training (CERT), Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria Kaduna State. In this work, the neutronics analysis of NIRR-1 core concerning mass loading of U-235 in the core, shut down margin (SDM), safety reactivity factor (SRF), control rod worth, and control rod critical depth of insertion were investigated at low enrichment. Two fuel types (UAl 4 and UO 2 ) were considered and the uranium densities required for the conversion of NIRR-1 core to low enrichment were computed to be 1201g/cc with 20% enrichment, 1144 g/cc with 19.75% enrichment, 1274 g/cc with 15% enrichment, 1448 g/cc with 10% enrichment for UAl 4 fuel type and 1141g/cc with 20% enrichment, 1144 g/cc with 19.75% enrichment, 1216 g/cc with 15% enrichment, and 1389 g/cc with 10% enrichment for UO 2 fuel type. Signi ficantly, higher uranium densities are required to convert NIRR-1 from HEU to LEU - indicating a drastic review of the NIRR-1 core.

  10. Comparison of inventory of tritium in various ceramic breeder blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishikawa, M.; Beloglazov, S.; Nakashima, N.; Hashimoto, K.; Enoeda, M.

    2002-01-01

    It has been pointed out by the present authors that it is essential to understand such mass transfer steps as diffusion of tritium in the grain of breeder material, absorption of water vapor into bulk of the grain, and adsorption of water on surface of the grain, together with the isotope exchange reaction between hydrogen in purge gas and tritium on surface of breeder material and the isotope exchange reaction between water vapor in purge gas and tritium on surface, for estimation of the tritium inventory in a uniform ceramic breeder blanket under the steady-state condition. It has been also pointed out by the present authors that the water formation reaction on the surface of ceramic breeder materials at introduction of hydrogen can give effect on behavior of bred tritium and lithium transfer in blanket. The tritium inventory for various ceramic breeder blankets are compared in this study basing on adsorption capacity, absorption capacity, isotope exchange capacity, and isotope exchange reactions on the Li 2 O, LiAlO 2 , Li 2 ZrO 3 , Li 4 SiO 4 and Li 2 TiO 3 surface experimentally obtained by the present authors. Effect of each mass transfer steps on the shape of release curve of bred tritium at change of the operational conditions is also discussed from the observation at out pile experiment in KUR. (orig.)

  11. Breeder reactors over the world

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1985-01-01

    After a short recall on the development of research programs, this paper reviews the fast breeder reactor operating, in construction or in project over the world (USA, France, Italy, RFG, India, Japan and U.K.). Thermal and electrical power output, and operation data are given [fr

  12. Astrid (fast breeder nuclear reactor)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    2014-01-01

    This document presents ASTRID (Advanced Sodium Technological Reactor for Industrial Demonstration), a French project of sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor, fourth generation reactor which should be fuelled by uranium 238 rather than uranium 235, and should therefore need less extracted natural uranium to produce electricity. The operation principle of fast breeder reactors is described. They notably directly consume plutonium, allow an easier radioactive waste management as they transform long life radioactive elements into shorter life elements by transmutation. The regeneration process is briefly described, and the various operation modes are evoked (iso-generator, sub-generator, and breeder). Some peculiarities of sodium-cooled reactors are outlined. The Astrid operation principle is described, its main design innovations outlined. Various challenges are discussed regarding safety of supply and waste processing, and the safety of future reactors. Major actors are indicated: CEA, Areva, EDF, SEIV Alcen, Toshiba, Rolls Royce, and Comex. Some key data are indicated: expected lifetime, expected availability rate, cost. The projected site is Marcoule and fast breeder reactors operated or under construction in the world are indicated. The document also proposes an overview of the background and evolution of reactors of 4. generation

  13. Training experience at Experimental Breeder Reactor II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Driscoll, J.W.; McCormick, R.P.; McCreery, H.I.

    1978-01-01

    The EBR-II Training Group develops, maintains,and oversees training programs and activities associated with the EBR-II Project. The group originally spent all its time on EBR-II plant-operations training, but has gradually spread its work into other areas. These other areas of training now include mechanical maintenance, fuel manufacturing facility, instrumentation and control, fissile fuel handling, and emergency activities. This report describes each of the programs and gives a statistical breakdown of the time spent by the Training Group for each program. The major training programs for the EBR-II Project are presented by multimedia methods at a pace controlled by the student. The Training Group has much experience in the use of audio-visual techniques and equipment, including video-tapes, 35 mm slides, Super 8 and 16 mm film, models, and filmstrips. The effectiveness of these techniques is evaluated in this report

  14. Chemical surveillance of commercial fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stamm, H.H.; Stade, K.Ch.

    1988-01-01

    After BN-600 (USSR) and SUPERPHENIX (France) were started succesfully, the international development of LMFBRs is standing at the doorstep of commercial use. For commercial use of LMFBRs cost reductions for construction and operation are highly desirable and necessary. Several nations developing breeder reactors have joined in a common effort in order to reach this aim by standardization and harmonization. On the base of more than 20 years of operation experience of experimental reactors (EBR-II, FFTF, RAPSODIE, DFR, BR-5/BR-10, BOR-60, JOYO, KNK-II) and demonstration plants (PHENIX, PFR, BN-350), possibilities for standardization in chemical surveillance of commercial breeder reactors without any loss of availability, reliability and reactor safety will be discussed in the following chapters. Loop-type reactors will be considered as well as pool-type reactors, although all commercial plants under consideration so far (SUPERPHENIX II, BN-800, BN-1600, CFBR, SNR-2, EFR) include pool-type reactors only. Table 1 gives a comparison of the Na inventories of test reactors, prototype plants and commercial LMFBRs

  15. Fast breeder reactor fuel reprocessing in France

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bourgeois, M.; Le Bouhellec, J.; Eymery, R.; Viala, M.

    1984-08-01

    Simultaneous with the effort on fast breeder reactors launched several years ago in France, equivalent investigations have been conducted on the fuel cycle, and in particular on reprocessing, which is an indispensable operation for this reactor. The Rapsodie experimental reactor was associated with the La Hague reprocessing plant AT1 (1 kg/day), which has reprocessed about one ton of fuel. The fuel from the Phenix demonstration reactor is reprocessed partly at the La Hague UP2 plant and partly at the Marcoule pilot facility, undergoing transformation to reprocess all the fuel (TOR project, 5 t/y). The fuel from the Creys Malville prototype power plant will be reprocessed in a specific plant, which is in the design stage. The preliminary project, named MAR 600 (50 t/y), will mobilize a growing share of the CEA's R and D resources, as the engineering needs of the UP3 ''light water'' plant begins to decline. Nearly 20 tonnes of heavy metals irradiated in fast breeder reactors have been processed in France, 17 of which came from Phenix. The plutonium recovered during this reprocessing allowed the power plant cycle to be closed. This power plant now contains approximately 140 fuel asemblies made up with recycled plutonium, that is, more than 75% of the fuel assemblies in the Phenix core

  16. Fast breeder fuel element development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marth, W.; Muehling, G.

    1983-08-01

    This report is a compilation of the papers which have been presented during a seminar ''Fast Breeder Fuel Element Development'' held on November 15/16, 1982 at KfK. The papers give a survey of the status, of the obtained results and of the necessary work, which still has to be done in the frame of various development programmes for fast breeder fuel elements. In detail the following items were covered by the presentations: - the requirements and boundary conditions for the design of fuel pins and elements both for the reference concept of the SNR 300 core and for the large, commercial breeder type of the future (presentation 1,2 and 6); - the fabrication, properties and characterization of various mixed oxide fuel types (presentations 3,4 and 5); - the operational fuel pin behaviour, limits of different design concepts and possible mechanism for fuel pin failures (presentations (7 and 8); - the situation of cladding- and wrapper materials development especially with respect to the high burn-up values of commercial reactors (presentations 9 and 10); - the results of the irradiation experiments performed under steady-state and non-stationary operational conditions and with failed fuel pins (presentations 11, 12, 13 and 14). (orig./RW) [de

  17. Steam explosions in sodium cooled breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lundell, B.

    1982-01-01

    Steam explosion is considered a physical process which transport heat from molten fuel to liquid coolant so fast that the coolant starts boiling in an explosion-like manner. The arising pressure waves transform part of the thermal energy to mechanical energy. This can stress the reactor tank and threaten its hightness. The course of the explosion has not been theoretical explained. Experimental results indicate that the probability of steam explosions in a breeder reactor is small. The efficiency of the transformation of the heat of fusion into mechanical energy in substantially lower than the theoretical maximum value. The mechanical stress from the steam explosion on the reactor tank does not seem to jeopardize its tightness. (G.B.)

  18. Breeding blanket development. Tritium release from breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tsuchiya, Kunihiko; Kawamura, Hiroshi; Nagao, Yoshiharu

    2006-01-01

    Engineering data on neutron irradiation performance of tritium breeders are needed to design the breeding blanket of fusion reactor. In this study, tritium release experiments of the breeders were carried out to examine the effects of various parameters (such as sweep gas flow rate, hydrogen content in sweep gas, irradiation temperature and thermal neutron flux) on tritium generation and release behavior. Lithium titanate (Li 2 TiO 3 ) is considered as a candidate tritium breeder in the blanket design of International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). As for the shape of the breeder material, a small spherical form is preferred to reduce the thermal stress induced in the breeder. Li 2 TiO 3 pebbles of about 170g in total weight and with 0.3 and 2 mm in diameter were manufactured by a wet process, and an assembly packed with the binary Li 2 TiO 3 pebbles was irradiated in Japan Materials Testing Reactor (JMTR). The tritium was generated in the Li 2 TiO 3 pebble bed and released from the pebble bed, and was swept downstream using the sweep gas for on-line analysis of tritium content. Concentration of total tritium and gaseous tritium (HT or T 2 gas) released from the Li 2 TiO 3 pebble bed were measured by ionization chambers, and the ratio of (gaseous tritium)/(total tritium) was evaluated. The sweep gas flow rate was changed from 100 to 900cm 3 /min, and hydrogen content in the sweep gas was changed from 100 to 10000 ppm. Furthermore, thermal neutron flux was changed using a window made of hafnium (Hf) neutron absorber. The irradiation temperature at an outer region of the Li 2 TiO 3 pebble bed was held between 200 and 400degC. The main results of this experiment are summarized as follows. 1) When the temperature at the outside edge of the Li 2 TiO 3 pebble bed exceeded 100degC, the tritium release from the Li 2 TiO 3 pebble bed started. The ratio of the tritium release rate and the tritium generation rate (normalized tritium release rate: R/G) reached

  19. Liquid metal cooled fast breeder nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gatley, J.A.

    1979-01-01

    Breeder fuel sub-assemblies with electromagnetic brakes and fluidic valves for liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactors are described. The electromagnetic brakes are of relatively small proportions and the valves are of the controlled vortex type. The outlet coolant temperature of at least some of the breeder sub-assemblies are maintained by these means substantially constant throughout the life of the fuel assembly without severely pressurising the sub-assembly. (UK)

  20. Thermal conductivity of fusion solid breeder materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, Y.Y.; Tam, S.W.

    1986-06-01

    Several simple and useful formulae for estimating the thermal conductivity of lithium-containing ceramic tritium breeder materials for fusion reactor blankets are given. These formulae account for the effects of irradiation, as well as solid breeder configuration, i.e., monolith or a packed bed. In the latter case, a coated-sphere concept is found more attractive in incorporating beryllia (a neutron multiplier) into the blanket than a random mixture of solid breeder and beryllia spheres

  1. Status and prospects of thermal breeders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-08-01

    The main objective of this cooperative study and of this report is to evaluate the extent to which thermal breeders might complement or serve as an alternative to fast breeders in solving the long-term nuclear fuel supply problem. A secondary objective is to consider in a general way issues such as proliferation, safety, environmental impacts, economics, power plant availability, and fuel cycle versatility to determine whether thermal breeder reactors offer advantages or disadvantages with respect to such issues

  2. Fast breeder reactor safety : a perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kale, R.D.

    1992-01-01

    Taking into consideration India's limited reserves of natural and vast reserves of thorium, the fast reactor route holds a great promise for India's energy supply in future. The fast reactor fueled with 239 Pu/ 238 U (unused or depleted) produces (breeds) more fissionable fuel material 239 Pu than it consumes. Calculations show that a fast breeder reactor (FBR) increases energy potential of natural uranium by about 60 times. As the fast reactor can also convert 232 Th into 233 U which is a fissionable material, it can make India's thorium reserves a source of almost inexhaustible energy supply for a long time to come. Significant advantage of FBR plants cooled by sodium and their world-wide operating experience are reviewed. There are two main safety issues of FBR, one nuclear and the other non-nuclear. The nuclear issue concerns core disruptive accident and the non-nuclear one concerns the high chemical energy potential of sodium. These two issues are analysed and it is pointed that they are manageable by current design, construction and operational practices. Main findings of safety research during the last six to eight years in West European Countries and United States of America (US) are summarised. Three stage engineered safety provision incorporated into the design of the sodium cooled Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) commissioned at Kalpakkam are explained. The important design safety features of FBTR such as primary system containment, emergency core cooling, plant protection system, inherent safety features achieved through reactivity coefficients, and natural convection cooling are discussed. Theoretical analysis and experimental research in fast reactor safety carried out at the Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research during the past some years are reviewed. (M.G.B.)

  3. Thermal properties and application of potential lithium silicate breeder materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skokan, A.; Wedemeyer, H.; Vollath, D.; Gunther, E.

    1987-01-01

    Phase relations, thermal stability and preparation methods of the Li 2 O-rich silicates Li 8 SiO 6 and ''Li 6 SiO 5 '' have been investigated experimentally, the application of these compounds as solid breeder materials is discussed. In the second part of this contribution, the results of thermal expansion measurements on the silicates Li 2 SiO 3 , Li 4 SiO 4 and Li 8 SiO 6 are presented

  4. Thermal properties and application of potential lithium silicate breeder materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skokan, A.; Wedemeyer, H.; Vollath, D.; Guenther, E.

    1986-01-01

    Phase relations, thermal stability and preparation methods of the Li 2 O-rich silicates Li 8 SiO 6 and 'Li 6 SiO 5 ' have been investigated experimentally, the application of these compounds as solid breeder materials is discussed. In the second part of this contribution, the results of thermal expansion measurements on the silicates Li 2 SiO 3 , Li 4 SiO 4 and Li 8 SiO 6 are presented. (author)

  5. Progress in tritium retention and release modeling for ceramic breeders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raffray, A.R.; Federici, G.; Billone, M.C.; Tanaka, S.

    1994-01-01

    Tritium behavior in ceramic breeder blankets is a key design issue for this class of blanket because of its impact on safety and fuel self-sufficiency. Over the past 10-15 years, substantial theoretical and experimental efforts have been dedicated world-wide to develop a better understanding of tritium transport in ceramic breeders. Models that are available today seem to cover reasonably well all the key physical transport and trapping mechanisms. They have allowed for reasonable interpretation and reproduction of experimental data and have helped in pointing out deficiencies in material property data base, in providing guidance for future experiments, and in analyzing blanket tritium behavior. This paper highlights the progress in tritium modeling over the last decade. Key tritium transport mechanisms are briefly described along with the more recent and sophisticated models developed to help understand them. Recent experimental data are highlighted and model calibration and validation discussed. Finally, example applications to blanket cases are shown as illustration of progress in the prediction of ceramic breeder blanket tritium inventory

  6. The GBR reactor an economically competitive Breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chermanne, J.

    1974-01-01

    In this article the design is described of a 1200 MWe fast breeder, gas-cooled reactor (GBR-4), prepared by a group of experts of the Gas Breeder Reactor Association and used as a reference system for economical and safety evaluations, as well as for defining the research and development program focussed on such concept and the specifications of the prospective demonstrative plant

  7. in meat production III. Feeder - breeder dimorphism

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Feeder- breeder dimorphism is advantageous when large offspring for slaughter is obtained from small breeding animals. The effect of feeder- breeder dimorphism on herd efficiency is evaluated for terminal crossbreeding and growth modification by biotechnological or dietary means. Selection criteria for breeds or lines in ...

  8. Clinch River breeder project gets boost

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, W.H.

    1982-01-01

    Progress on the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant project, the United States' next step in developing liquid metal fast breeder technology is examined including consideration of Plant design, component fabrication and testing, construction schedule, funding, fuel cycle development and licensing. (U.K.)

  9. U.S. and foreign breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, E.H.

    1977-01-01

    The running battle between Congress and the Administration over the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) Project has provoked an increased interest in domestic and foreign breeder reactor programs. Perhaps an understanding of the history of breeders here and abroad will serve to place the CRBRP in perspective and allow some analysis of how the U.S. appears on the global canvas. Breeder reactor technology has, for the most part, settled down to concentration on the liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR). This is the result of 32 years of experience with reactors employing a fast neutron flux and even longer experience with liquid metal coolants. However, a number of U.S. utilities are sponsoring a gas cooled fast reactor program as an alternative technology to the LMFBR. This development program is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy

  10. Thermal breeder fuel enrichment zoning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Capossela, H.J.; Dwyer, J.R.; Luce, R.G.; McCoy, D.F.; Merriman, F.C.

    1992-01-01

    A method and apparatus for improving the performance of a thermal breeder reactor having regions of higher than average moderator concentration are disclosed. The fuel modules of the reactor core contain at least two different types of fuel elements, a high enrichment fuel element and a low enrichment fuel element. The two types of fuel elements are arranged in the fuel module with the low enrichment fuel elements located between the high moderator regions and the high enrichment fuel elements. Preferably, shim rods made of a fertile material are provided in selective regions for controlling the reactivity of the reactor by movement of the shim rods into and out of the reactor core. The moderation of neutrons adjacent the high enrichment fuel elements is preferably minimized as by reducing the spacing of the high enrichment fuel elements and/or using a moderator having a reduced moderating effect. 1 figure

  11. Breeder nutrition and offspring performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Calini

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Vertical integration in poultry industry strongly emphasizes the importance of cost control at all levels. In the usual broiler production operations, the costs involved with the production of the hatching egg or the day old chick are negligible if seen in the perspective of the cost per kg of live bird. From a research point of view, anyway, the greatest attention is usually given to the performance of broiler breeders, and most of the research in the field is focused on the improvement of their relative performance, mainly in terms of saleable chicks produced per hen, while less attention has been given to the quality of the chick and to the improvement of its growth performances, even if these last parameters have an effective impact on the overall economics of the poultry growing business. Most of the data available is quite dated, as can be seen from some recent reviews, and in general little attention is given to the impact of parental nutrition on the subsequent broiler performance. It is in fact more usual to find data about dam nutrition influence on egg fertility and hatchability than on subsequent progeny performance. The objectives of this review were to assess, on the basis of published reports, the effects of selected nutrients and anti-nutrients normally prevailing in commercial broiler breeder feeds - vitamins, micro-minerals, mycotoxins, - trying to pinpoint which could be the positive and the negative effects of both on the subsequent broiler performance, with a particular attention to the impact on immune function and carcass yield.

  12. Digestible Threonine Levels in the Starter Diet of Broilers Derived from Breeders of Different Ages

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    CBGS Tanure

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of digestible threonine supplementation in the starter diet on the performance, intestinal parameters, and nutrient metabolism of broilers derived from breeders of different ages. In total, 480 one-day-old Cobb chicks, derived from 38-or 49-week-oldbreeders, were housed in experimental battery cages until 21 days of age and fed four different threonine levels (800, 900, 1,000, or 1,100 mg/kg in the starter feed. A completely randomized experimental design in a 2x4 factorial arrangement (breeder age x threonine levels was applied, totaling eight treatments with five replicates of 12 birds each. Broilers from older breeders fed 800 mg digestible threonine/kg of diet presented higher weight gain, with a positive linear effect. There was also an interaction between breeder age and threonine levels for the weight gain of 21-d-old broilers supplemented at maximum level of 1,003 mg Thr/kg diet during the starter phase. There was no effect of breeder age or threonine levels on nutrient metabolism during the period of 17-21 days. There was no influence of breeder age or threonine levels in the starter diet on intestinal morphometric measurements, absorption area, or percentage of goblet cells.

  13. Comparison of early socialization practices used for litters of small-scale registered dog breeders and nonregistered dog breeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korbelik, Juraj; Rand, Jacquie S; Morton, John M

    2011-10-15

    OBJECTIVE-To compare early socialization practices between litters of breeders registered with the Canine Control Council (CCC) and litters of nonregistered breeders advertising puppies for sale in a local newspaper. DESIGN-Retrospective cohort study. Animals-80 litters of purebred and mixed-breed dogs from registered (n = 40) and non-registered (40) breeders. PROCEDURES-Registered breeders were randomly selected from the CCC website, and nonregistered breeders were randomly selected from a weekly advertising newspaper. The litter sold most recently by each breeder was then enrolled in the study. Information pertaining to socialization practices for each litter was obtained through a questionnaire administered over the telephone. RESULTS-Registered breeders generally had more breeding bitches and had more litters than did nonregistered breeders. Litters of registered breeders were more likely to have been socialized with adult dogs, people of different appearances, and various environmental stimuli, compared with litters of nonregistered breeders. Litters from registered breeders were also much less likely to have been the result of an unplanned pregnancy. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE-Among those breeders represented, litters of registered breeders received more socialization experience, compared with litters of nonregistered breeders. People purchasing puppies from nonregistered breeders should focus on socializing their puppies between the time of purchase and 14 weeks of age. Additional research is required to determine whether puppies from nonregistered breeders are at increased risk of behavioral problems and are therefore more likely to be relinquished to animal shelters or euthanized, relative to puppies from registered breeders.

  14. Fast breeder reactors--lecture 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marshall, W.; Davies, L.M.

    1986-01-01

    This paper discusses the economics of fast breeder reactors. An algebraic background is presented which represents the various views expressed by different nations regarding the cost of fast breeder reactors and their associated fuel cycle services, the timescale by which they might be available, and the simultaneous variations in the price of uranium. Actual presentations made by individual countries in recent discussions serve to verify the general nature of this present discussion. It is assumed that if nuclear power is to make a long term contribution to the needs of the world, the introduction of fast breeder reactors is both essential and necessary

  15. On the economics of fusion breeders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Greenspan, E.

    1984-01-01

    The potential for improving the economics of tandem mirror fusion breeders by assisting them with tritium produced in the control of the client light water reactors and/or by operating them with polarized plasma is assessed. Also assessed is the promise of a Starfire tokamak and a compact reversed field pinch fusion driver for fusion breeder applications. All three approaches are found to promise a significant reduction in the cost of fusion breeder produced fissile fuel, potentially making the FB-LWR system economically competitive with conventional nuclear energy systems. (orig.) [de

  16. On fusion and fission breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandt, B.; Schuurman, W.; Klippel, H.Th.

    1981-02-01

    Fast breeder reactors and fusion reactors are suitable candidates for centralized, long-term energy production, their fuel reserves being practically unlimited. The technology of a durable and economical fusion reactor is still to be developed. Such a development parallel with the fast breeder is valuable by reasons of safety, proliferation, new fuel reserves, and by the very broad potential of the development of the fusion reactor. In order to facilitate a discussion of these aspects, the fusion reactor and the fast breeder reactor were compared in the IIASA-report. Aspects of both reactor systems are compared

  17. Study on tritium recovery from breeder materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moriyama, H.; Moritani, K.

    1997-01-01

    For the development of fusion reactor blanket systems, some of the key issues on the tritium recovery performance of solid and liquid breeder materials were studied. In the case of solid breeder materials, a special attention was focussed on the effects of irradiation on the tritium recovery performance, and tritium release experiments, luminescence measurements of irradiation defects and modeling studies were systematically performed. For liquid breeder materials, tritium recovery experiments from molten salt and liquid lithium were performed, and the technical feasibility of tritium recovery methods was discussed. (author)

  18. Overview of EU activities on DEMO liquid metal breeder blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giancarli, L.; Proust, E.; Malang, S.; Reimann, J.; Perujo, A.

    1994-01-01

    The present paper gives an overview of both design and experimental activities within the European Union (EU) concerning the development of liquid metal breeder blankets for DEMO. After several years of studies on breeding blankets, two blanket concepts are presently considered, both using the eutectic Pb-17Li: the dual-coolant concept and the water-cooled concept. The analysis of such concepts has permitted to identify the experimental areas where further data are required. Tritium control and MHD-issues are, at present, the activities on which is devoted the greatest effort within the EU. (authors). 4 figs., 4 tabs., 39 refs

  19. Integral measurement of fission products capture in fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martin Deidier, Loick.

    1979-12-01

    For the SUPERPHENIX reactor project, it was necessary to know fission products capture with about 10% accuracy in the fast breeder reactor spectra. In this purpose, integral measurements have been carried out on the main separated products by different experimental technics (oscillation, activation and irradiation methods), but particularly on irradiated fuel pins from RAPSODIE and PHENIX reactors in order to directly obtain total effect of fission products. Same tendencies have been observed for both enriched uranium fuel and LMFBR characteristic plutonium fuel. All experimental results have been introduced in CARNAVAL cross section set [fr

  20. Reasons for opposition to the breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Timbal-Duclaux, Louis

    1979-01-01

    The author gives a sociological analysis of the opposition to breeder reactors in France, stressing that the antinuclear groups main thrust of protest against the Super-Phenix has dimished since its apex two years ago [fr

  1. Major welfare issues in broiler breeders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de I.C.; Guemene, D.

    2011-01-01

    Under current practices, broiler parent stock (broiler breeders) encounter several welfare problems, such as feed restriction and injury during mating. Intensive selection for production traits, especially growth rate, is associated with increased nutritious requirement and thus feed consumption,

  2. Philosophy of safety evaluation on fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    This is the report submitted from the special subcommittee on reactor safety standard to the Nuclear Safety Commission on October 14, 1980, and it was decided to temporarily apply this concept to the safety examination on fast breeder reactors. The examination and discussion of this report were performed by taking the prototype reactor ''Monju'' into consideration, which is to be the present target, referring to the philosophy of the safety evaluation on fast breeder reactors in foreign countries and based on the experiences in the fast experimental reactor ''Joyo''. The items applicable to the safety evaluation for liquid metal-cooled fast breeder reactors (LMFBR) as they are among the existing safety examination guidelines are applied. In addition to the existing guidelines, the report describes the matters to be considered specifically for core, fuel, sodium, sodium void, reactor shut-down system, reactor coolant boundary, cover gas boundary and others, intermediate cooling system, removal of decay heat, containment vessels, high temperature structures, and aseismatic property in the safety design of LMFBR's. For the safety evaluation for LMFBR's, the abnormal transient changes in operation and the phenomena to be evaluated as accidents are enumerated. In order to judge the propriety of the criteria of locating LMFBR facilities, the serious and hypothetical accidents are decided to be evaluated in accordance with the guideline for reactor location investigation. (Wakatsuki, Y.)

  3. Present status of the Liquid Breeder Validation Module for IFMIF

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Casal, Natalia; Mas, Avelino; Mota, Fernando; García, Ángela; Rapisarda, David; Nomen, Oriol; Arroyo, Jose Manuel; Abal, Javier; Mollá, Joaquín; Ibarra, Ángel

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • The LBVM will be used to perform irradiation experiments on functional materials for fusion reactors. • It houses 16 experimental rigs, each one containing a EUROFER capsule partially filled with lithium lead, at 300–550 °C. • A helium purge gas will sweep the tritium permeated through the capsule walls to a tritium measuring station. • A helium cooling system will keep tritium diffusion within safe margins and guarantee its mechanical integrity. • Thermal hydraulic and mechanical calculations, the module instrumentation and aspects as safety or RAMI are presented. -- Abstract: One of the objectives of IFMIF (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility), as stated in its specifications, is the validation of breeder blanket concepts for DEMO design. The so-called Liquid Breeder Validation Module (LBVM) will be used in IFMIF to perform experiments under irradiation on functional materials related to liquid breeder concepts for future fusion reactors. This module, not considered in previous IFMIF design phases, is currently under design by CIEMAT in the framework of the IFMIF/EVEDA project. In this paper, the present status of the design of the LBVM is presented

  4. Present status of the Liquid Breeder Validation Module for IFMIF

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Casal, Natalia, E-mail: natalia.casal@ciemat.es [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión por Confinamiento Magnético – CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Mas, Avelino; Mota, Fernando; García, Ángela; Rapisarda, David [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión por Confinamiento Magnético – CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Nomen, Oriol [Institut de Recerca en Energia de Catalunya (IREC), Barcelona (Spain); Centre de Disseny d’Equips Industrials (CDEI), Technical University of Catalonia (UPC), Barcelona (Spain); Arroyo, Jose Manuel [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión por Confinamiento Magnético – CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain); Abal, Javier [Fusion Energy Engineering Laboratory (FEEL), Technical University of Catalonia (UPC) Barcelona-Tech, Barcelona (Spain); Mollá, Joaquín; Ibarra, Ángel [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión por Confinamiento Magnético – CIEMAT, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2013-10-15

    Highlights: • The LBVM will be used to perform irradiation experiments on functional materials for fusion reactors. • It houses 16 experimental rigs, each one containing a EUROFER capsule partially filled with lithium lead, at 300–550 °C. • A helium purge gas will sweep the tritium permeated through the capsule walls to a tritium measuring station. • A helium cooling system will keep tritium diffusion within safe margins and guarantee its mechanical integrity. • Thermal hydraulic and mechanical calculations, the module instrumentation and aspects as safety or RAMI are presented. -- Abstract: One of the objectives of IFMIF (International Fusion Materials Irradiation Facility), as stated in its specifications, is the validation of breeder blanket concepts for DEMO design. The so-called Liquid Breeder Validation Module (LBVM) will be used in IFMIF to perform experiments under irradiation on functional materials related to liquid breeder concepts for future fusion reactors. This module, not considered in previous IFMIF design phases, is currently under design by CIEMAT in the framework of the IFMIF/EVEDA project. In this paper, the present status of the design of the LBVM is presented.

  5. Production aspects of broiler breeders submitted to different drinker types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LP Colvero

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was of evaluate the influence of different drinker types on the egg production, water intake, mortality, poultry litter relative humidity, egg weight, eggshell percentage, and egg specific gravity of broiler breeders. The experiment was carried out in a commercial farm with 37- to 44-wk-old broiler breeders. A randomized block experimental design, consisting of two treatments (bell or nipple drinkers with four replicates of 4.000 females each, was applied. Data were submitted to analysis of variance, and means were compared by the test of Student-Newman-Keuls at 5% significance level. Birds submitted to nipple drinkers presented lower water intake (p0.05 of drinker type on egg production or mortality. Poultry litter relative humidity was lower (p<0.05 under the nipple-drinker system. Birds drinking from bell drinkers produced heavier eggs (p<0.05 between weeks 39 and 40. Hens drinking from bell drinkers laid eggs with higher specific gravity and eggshell percentage. It was concluded that nipple drinkers can be used for broiler breeders during lay.

  6. Role of fast breeders in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Oyama, A.; Tomabechi, K.

    1978-09-01

    To meet increasing future energy demand in Japan utilization of fission energy should be promoted. In particular it is of vital importance to develop and utilize FBRs as soon as possible in order to save the natural uranium needed. If one considers the commercial introduction of FBRs in the mid-1990s in Japan, a delay of only one year will eventually result in an additional demand for natural uranium of more than 20,000 tons, because several LWRs will have to be installed instead. Ten years have passed since the development of FBRs in Japan was initiated as a national project with the highest priority and now the experimental fast reactor JOYO is successfully being operated at 50MW and the prototype fast breeder reactor MONJU has reached the stage of proceeding to construction with a schedule of operation in the mid-1980s. Following operation of MONJU, construction of a large demonstration reactor of 1000 - 15000 MW(e) will be undertaken. Some 2 - 3 years after the construction of the demonstration reactor, a series of reactors will be constructed similar in size and design to promote commercialization of LMFBRs. Strong efforts will be made to put this programme into practice. It is expected that LMFBRs will play an important role in mitigating the serious problem of energy supply in Japan foreseeable around the turn of the century

  7. Liquid metal cooled fast breeder nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thatcher, G.; Mitchell, A.J.

    1981-01-01

    Fuel sub-assemblies for liquid metal-cooled fast breeder reactors are described which each incorporate a fluid flow control valve for regulating the rate of flow through the sub-assembly. These small electro-magnetic valves seek to maintain the outlet coolant temperature of at least some of the breeder sub-assemblies substantially constant throughout the life of the fuel assembly without severely pressurising the sub-assembly. (U.K.)

  8. Breeder reactor fuel fabrication system development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, D.W.; Fritz, R.L.; McLemore, D.R.; Yatabe, J.M.

    1981-01-01

    Significant progress has been made in the design and development of remotely operated breeder reactor fuel fabrication and support systems (e.g., analytical chemistry). These activities are focused by the Secure Automated Fabrication (SAF) Program sponsored by the Department of Energy to provide: a reliable supply of fuel pins to support US liquid metal cooled breeder reactors and at the same time demonstrate the fabrication of mixed uranium/plutonium fuel by remotely operated and automated methods

  9. Universal Fast Breeder Reactor Subassembly Counter manual

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menlove, H.O.; Eccleston, G.W.; Swansen, J.E.; Goris, P.; Abedin-Zadeh, R.; Ramalho, A.

    1984-08-01

    A neutron coincidence counter has been designed for the measurement of fast breeder reactor fuel assemblies. This assay system can accommodate the full range of geometries and masses found in fast breeder subassemblies under IAEA safeguards. The system's high-performance capability accommodates high plutonium loadings of up to 16 kg. This manual describes the system and its operation and gives performance and calibration parameters for typical applications

  10. Universal Fast Breeder Reactor Subassembly Counter manual

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menlove, H.O.; Eccleston, G.W.; Swansen, J.E.; Goris, P.; Abedin-Zadeh, R.; Ramalho, A.

    1984-08-01

    A neutron coincidence counter has been designed for the measurement of fast breeder reactor fuel assemblies. This assay system can accommodate the full range of geometries and masses found in fast breeder subassemblies under IAEA safeguards. The system's high-performance capability accommodates high plutonium loadings of up to 16 kg. This manual describes the system and its operation and gives performance and calibration parameters for typical applications.

  11. Steam generator tubing development for commercial fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sessions, C.E.; Uber, C.F.

    1981-01-01

    The development work to design, manufacture, and evaluate pre-stressed double-wall 2/one quarter/ Cr-1 Mo steel tubing for commercial fast breeder reactor steam generator application is discussed. The Westinghouse plan for qualifying tubing vendors to produce this tubing is described. The results achieved to date show that a long length pre-stressed double-wall tube is both feasible and commercially available. The evaluation included structural analysis and experimental measurement of the pre-stress within tubes, as well as dimensional, metallurgical, and interface wear tests of tube samples produced. This work is summarized and found to meet the steam generator design requirements. 10 refs

  12. Status of the DEBENE fast breeder reactor development, March 1979

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daeunert, U.; Kessler, G.

    1979-01-01

    Status report of the Fast-breeder reactor development in Germany covers the following: description of the political situation in Federal republic of germany during 1978; international cooperation in the field of fast reactor technology development; operation description of the KNK-II fast core experimental power plant; status of construction of the SNR-300; results of the research and development programs concerned with fuel element, cladding, absorber rods and core structural materials development; sodium effects; neutron irradiation effects on SS properties; reactor physics related to experiments in fast critical assemblies; fast reactor safety issues; core disruption accidents; sodium boiling experiments, measuring methods developed; component tests

  13. Status of the DEBENE fast breeder reactor development, March 1979

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daeunert, U; Kessler, G

    1979-07-01

    Status report of the Fast-breeder reactor development in Germany covers the following: description of the political situation in Federal republic of germany during 1978; international cooperation in the field of fast reactor technology development; operation description of the KNK-II fast core experimental power plant; status of construction of the SNR-300; results of the research and development programs concerned with fuel element, cladding, absorber rods and core structural materials development; sodium effects; neutron irradiation effects on SS properties; reactor physics related to experiments in fast critical assemblies; fast reactor safety issues; core disruption accidents; sodium boiling experiments, measuring methods developed; component tests.

  14. A worldwide survey of fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hennies, H.H.

    1986-01-01

    While the completion of the SNR 300 was accompanied by manifold discussions on questions relevant to safety and energy policies in the Federal Republic of Germany and as a result considerable scheduling delays and exceeding of budgets were recorded, breeder reactor technology has been progressing worldwide. The transition from the development phase with small trial reactors to the construction and operation of large performance reactors was completed systematically, in particular in France and the Soviet Union. Even though the uranium supply situation does not make a short-term and comprehensive employment of fast breeder reactors essential, technology has meanwhile been advanced to such a level and extensive operating experience is on hand to enable the construction and safe operation of fast breeder reactors. A positive answer has long been found to the question of the realization of a breeding rate to guarantee the breeding effect. There remain now the endeavors to achieve a reduction in investment and fuel cycle costs. (orig.) [de

  15. Liquid metal cooled fast breeder nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Duncombe, E.; Thatcher, G.

    1979-01-01

    The invention described relates to a liquid metal cooled fast breeder nuclear reactor in which the fuel assembly has an inner zone comprised mainly of fissile material and a surrounding outer zone comprised mainly of breeder material. According to the invention the sub-assemblies in the outer zone include electro-magnetic braking devices (magnets, pole pieces and armature) for regulating the flow of coolant through the sub-assemblies. The magnetic fields of the electro-magnetic breaking devices are temperature sensitive so that as the power output of the breeder sub-assemblies increases the electro-magnetic resistance to coolant flow is reduced thereby maintaining the temperature of the coolant outlets from the sub-assemblies substantially constant. (UK)

  16. Fast breeder reactors an engineering introduction

    CERN Document Server

    Judd, A M

    1981-01-01

    Fast Breeder Reactors: An Engineering Introduction is an introductory text to fast breeder reactors and covers topics ranging from reactor physics and design to engineering and safety considerations. Reactor fuels, coolant circuits, steam plants, and control systems are also discussed. This book is comprised of five chapters and opens with a brief summary of the history of fast reactors, with emphasis on international and the prospect of making accessible enormous reserves of energy. The next chapter deals with the physics of fast reactors and considers calculation methods, flux distribution,

  17. Coatings for fast breeder reactor components

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, R.N.

    1984-04-01

    Several types of metallurgical coatings are used in the unique environments of the fast breeder reactor. Most of the coatings have been developed for tribological applications, but some also serve as corrosion barriers, diffusion barriers, or radionuclide traps. The materials that have consistently given the best performance as tribological coatings in the breeder reactor environments have been coatings based on chromium carbide, nickel aluminide, or Tribaloy 700 (a nickel-base hard-facing alloy). Other coatings that have been qualified for limited applications include chromium plating for low temperature galling protection and nickel plating for radionuclide trapping

  18. Alternative nuclear fuel cycles and gas-cooled breeders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pellaud, B.; Dahlberg, R.C.

    1979-01-01

    The authors assert that it is prudent to concurrently develop more than one breeder system and to develop advanced converter reactors along with breeders. They provide arguments to support these assertions. (Auth.)

  19. Status and prospects of advanced fissile fuel breeders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kostoff, R.N.

    1979-01-01

    Fusion--fission hybrid systems, fast breeder systems, and accelerator breeder systems were compared on a common basis using a simple economic model. Electricity prices based on system capital costs only were computed, and were plotted as functions of five key breeder system parameters. Nominally, hybrid system electricity costs were about twenty-five percent lower than fast breeder system electricity costs, and fast breeder system electricity costs were about forty percent lower than accelerator breeder system electricity costs. In addition, hybrid system electricity costs were very insensitive to key parameter variations on the average, fast breeder system electricity costs were moderately sensitive to key parameter variations on the average, and accelerator breeder system electricity costs were the most sensitive to key parameter variations on the average

  20. Progress report on fast breeder reactor development at PNC, Japan, October - December, 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-03-01

    Following the completion of building construction and equipment installation for the experimental fast breeder reactor ''Joyo'' at PNC's Oarai Engineering Center, hydrostatic pressure and leak tests were conducted on the reactor vessel. For the prototype fast breeder reactor ''Monju'', specification was finalized after the design adjustment. For the period from October to December, 1974, the following matters are described: construction of the Joyo, design of the Monju, reactor physics, components and equipments, instruments and control, sodium technology, fuel and material research and development, safety research and development, and steam generator. (Mori, K.)

  1. Materials data base and design equations for the UCLA solid breeder blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharafat, S.; Amodeo, R.; Ghoniem, N.M.

    1986-02-01

    The materials and properties investigated for this blanket study are listed. The phenomenological equations and mathematical fits for all materials and properties considered are given. Efforts to develop a swelling equation based on the few experimental data points available for breeder materials are described. The sintering phenomena for ceramics is investigated

  2. A review of fusion breeder blanket technology, part 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jackson, D.P.; Selander, W.N.; Townes, B.M.

    1985-01-01

    This report presents the results of a study of fusion breeder blanket technology. It reviews the role of the breeder blanket, the current understanding of the scientific and engineering bases of liquid metal and solid breeder blankets and the programs now underway internationally to resolve the uncertainities in current knowledge. In view of existing national expertise and experience, a solid breeder R and D program for Canada is recommended

  3. Japanese contributions to ITER testing program of solid breeder blankets for DEMO

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuroda, Toshimasa; Yoshida, Hiroshi; Takatsu, Hideyuki; Maki, Koichi; Mori, Seiji; Kobayashi, Takeshi; Suzuki, Tatsushi; Hirata, Shingo; Miura, Hidenori.

    1991-04-01

    ITER Conceptual Design Activity (CDA), which has been conducted by four parties (Japan, EC, USA and USSR) since May 1988, has been finished on December 1990 with a great achievement of international design work of the integrated fusion experimental reactor. Numerous issues of physics and technology have been clarified for providing a framework of the next phase of ITER (Engineering Design Activity; EDA). Establishment of an ITER testing program, which includes technical test issues of neutronics, solid breeder blankets, liquid breeder blankets, plasma facing components, and materials, has been one of the goals of the CDA. This report describes Japanese proposal for the testing program of DEMO/power reactor blanket development. For two concepts of solid breeder blanket (helium-cooled and water-cooled), identification of technical issues, scheduling of test program, and conceptual design of test modules including required test facility such as cooling and tritium recovery systems have been carried out as the Japanese contribution to the CDA. (author)

  4. Operability design review of prototype large breeder reactor (PLBR) designs. Final report, September 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beakes, J.H.; Ehman, J.R.; Jones, H.M.; Kinne, B.V.T.; Price, C.M.; Shores, S.P.; Welch, J.K.

    1981-09-01

    Prototype Large Breeder Reactor (PLBR) designs were reviewed by personnel with extensive power plant operations experience. Fourteen normal and off-normal events, such as startup, shutdown, refueling, reactor scram and loss of feedwater, were evaluated using an operational evaluation methodology which is designed to facilitate talk-through sessions on operational events. Human factors engineers participated in the review and assisted in developing and refining the review methodologies. Operating experience at breeder reactor facilities such as Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II), Enrico Fermi Atomic Power Plant - Unit 1, and the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) was gathered, analyzed, and used to determine whether lessons learned from operational experience had been incorporated into the PLBR designs. This eighteen month effort resulted in approximately one hundred specific recommendations for improving the operability of PLBR designs

  5. Advanced liquid metal fast breeder reactor designs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sayles, C.W.

    1978-01-01

    Fast Breeder reactor power plants in the 1000-1200 MW(e) range are being built overseas and are being designed in this country. While these reactors have many characteristics in common, a variety of different approaches have been adopted for some of the major features. Some of those alternatives are discussed

  6. Possible types of breeders with thorium cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiguro, Y.; Gouveia, A.S. de

    1981-01-01

    Neutronics calculations of simplified homogeneous reactor models show the possibility that metal-fueled LMFBRs and coated particle fueled gas cooled reactors achieve doubling times of around 10 years with the thorium cycle. Three concepts of gas-cooled thorium cycle breeders are discussed. (Author) [pt

  7. Possible types of breeders with thorium cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiguro, Y.; Gouveia, A.S. de.

    1981-02-01

    Neutronics calculations of simplified homogeneous reactor models show the possibility that metal-fueled LMFBRs and coated particle fueled gas cooled reactors achieve reactor doubling times of around 10 years with the thorium cycle. Three concepts of gas-cooled thorium cycle breeders are discused. (Author) [pt

  8. Fast breeder reactor at Kalkar. Pt. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degen, G.

    1979-02-01

    After a brief description of the previous development of the case the legal decisions are documented and commented on. The concept of the then FDP-Minister of Economy of North Rhine Westphalia (Riemer, Pu-combustion plant) is presented and the prospects and risk for the fast breeder reactor after the 3. partial construction license are discussed. (orig./HP) [de

  9. Modelling energy utilisation in broiler breeder hens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabello, C B V; Sakomura, N K; Longo, F A; Couto, H P; Pacheco, C R; Fernandes, J B K

    2006-10-01

    1. The objective of this study was to determine a metabolisable energy (ME) requirement model for broiler breeder hens. The influence of temperature on ME requirements for maintenance was determined in experiments conducted in three environmental rooms with temperatures kept constant at 13, 21 and 30 degrees C using a comparative slaughter technique. The energy requirements for weight gain were determined based upon body energy content and efficiency of energy utilisation for weight gain. The energy requirements for egg production were determined on the basis of egg energy content and efficiency of energy deposition in the eggs. 2. The following model was developed using these results: ME = kgW0.75(806.53-26.45T + 0.50T2) + 31.90G + 10.04EM, where kgW0.75 is body weight (kg) raised to the power 0.75, T is temperature ( degrees C), G is weight gain (g) and EM is egg mass (g). 3. A feeding trial was conducted using 400 Hubbard Hi-Yield broiler breeder hens and 40 Peterson males from 31 to 46 weeks of age in order to compare use of the model with a recommended feeding programme for this strain of bird. The application of the model in breeder hens provided good productive and reproductive performance and better results in feed and energy conversion than in hens fed according to strain recommendation. In conclusion, the model evaluated predicted an ME intake which matched breeder hens' requirements.

  10. Progress in the neutronic core conversion (HEU-LEU) analysis of Ghana research reactor-1.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anim-Sampong, S.; Maakuu, B. T.; Akaho, E. H. K.; Andam, A.; Liaw, J. J. R.; Matos, J. E.; Nuclear Engineering Division; Ghana Atomic Energy Commission; Kwame Nkrumah Univ. of Science and Technology

    2006-01-01

    The Ghana Research Reactor-1 (GHARR-1) is a commercial version of the Miniature Neutron Source Reactor (MNSR) and has operated at different power levels since its commissioning in March 1995. As required for all nuclear reactors, neutronic and thermal hydraulic analysis are being performed for the HEU-LEU core conversion studies of the Ghana Research Reactor-1 (GHARR-1) facility, which is a commercial version of the Miniature Neutron Source Reactor (MNSR). Stochastic Monte Carlo particle transport methods and tools (MCNP4c/MCNP5) were used to fine-tune a previously developed 3-D MCNP model of the GHARR-1 facility and perform neutronic analysis of the 90.2% HEU reference and candidate LEU (UO{sub 2}, U{sub 3}Si{sub 2}, U-9Mo) fresh cores with varying enrichments from 12.6%-19.75%. In this paper, the results of the progress made in the Monte Carlo neutronic analysis of the HEU reference and candidate LEU fuels are presented. In particular, a comparative performance assessment of the LEU with respect to neutron flux variations in the fission chamber and experimental irradiation channels are highlighted.

  11. Unusual occurrences in fast breeder test reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapoor, R.P.; Srinivasan, G.; Ellappan, T.R.; Ramalingam, P.V.; Vasudevan, A.T.; Iyer, M.A.K.; Lee, S.M.; Bhoje, S.B.

    2000-01-01

    Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) is a 40 MWt/13.2 MWe sodium cooled mixed carbide fuelled reactor. Its main aim is to generate experience in the design, construction and operation of fast reactors including sodium systems and to serve as an irradiation facility for the development of fuel and structural materials for future fast reactors. It achieved first criticality in Oct 85 with Mark I core (70% PuC - 30% UC). Steam generator was put in service in Jan 93 and power was raised to 10.5 MWt in Dec 93. Turbine generator was synchronised to the grid in Jul 97. The indigenously developed mixed carbide fuel has achieved a burnup of 44,000 MW-d/t max at a linear heat rating of 320 W/cm max without any fuel clad failure. The commissioning and operation of sodium systems and components have been smooth and performance of major components, viz., sodium pumps, intermediate heat exchangers and once through sodium heated steam generators (SG) have been excellent. There have been three minor incidents of Na/NaK leaks during the past 14 years, which are described in the paper. There have been no incident of a tube leak in SG. However, three incidents of water leaks from water / steam headers have been detailed. The plant has encountered some unusual occurrences, which were critically analysed and remedial measures, in terms of system and procedural modifications, incorporated to prevent recurrence. This paper describes unusual occurrences of fuel handling incident of May 1987, main boiler feed pump seizure in Apr 1992, reactivity transients in Nov 1994 and Apr 1995, and malfunctioning of the core cover plate mechanism in Jul 1995. These incidents have resulted in long plant shutdowns. During the course of investigation, various theoretical and experimental studies were carried out for better understanding of the phenomena and several inspection techniques and tools were developed resulting in enriching the technology of sodium cooled reactors. FBTR has 36 neutronic and process

  12. Modeling of tritium behavior in ceramic breeder materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kopasz, J.P.; Tam, S.W.; Johnson, C.E.

    1988-11-01

    Computer models are being developed to predict tritium release from candidate ceramic breeder materials for fusion reactors. Early models regarded the complex process of tritium release as being rate limited by a single slow step, usually taken to be tritium diffusion. These models were unable to explain much of the experimental data. We have developed a more comprehensive model which considers diffusion and desorption from the grain surface. In developing this model we found that it was necessary to include the details of the surface phenomena in order to explain the results from recent tritium release experiments. A diffusion-desorption model with a desorption activation energy which is dependent on the surface coverage was developed. This model provided excellent agreement with the results from the CRITIC tritium release experiment. Since evidence suggests that other ceramic breeder materials have desorption activation energies which are dependent on surface coverage, it is important that these variations in activation energy be included in a model for tritium release. 17 refs., 12 figs

  13. Group size adjustment to ecological demand in a cooperative breeder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zöttl, Markus; Frommen, Joachim G; Taborsky, Michael

    2013-04-07

    Environmental factors can determine which group size will maximize the fitness of group members. This is particularly important in cooperative breeders, where group members often serve different purposes. Experimental studies are yet lacking to check whether ecologically mediated need for help will change the propensity of dominant group members to accept immigrants. Here, we manipulated the perceived risk of predation for dominant breeders of the cooperatively breeding cichlid fish Neolamprologus pulcher to test their response to unrelated and previously unknown immigrants. Potential immigrants were more readily accepted if groups were exposed to fish predators or egg predators than to herbivorous fish or control situations lacking predation risk. Our data are consistent with both risk dilution and helping effects. Egg predators were presented before spawning, which might suggest that the fish adjust acceptance rates also to a potential future threat. Dominant group members of N. pulcher apparently consider both present and future need of help based on ecological demand. This suggests that acceptance of immigrants and, more generally, tolerance of group members on demand could be a widespread response to ecological conditions in cooperatively breeding animals.

  14. Effective thermal conductivity of advanced ceramic breeder pebble beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pupeschi, S., E-mail: simone.pupeschi@kit.edu; Knitter, R.; Kamlah, M.

    2017-03-15

    As the knowledge of the effective thermal conductivity of ceramic breeder pebble beds under fusion relevant conditions is essential for the development of solid breeder blanket concepts, the EU advanced and reference lithium orthosilicate material were investigated with a newly developed experimental setup based on the transient hot wire method. The effective thermal conductivity was investigated in the temperature range RT–700 °C. Experiments were performed in helium and air atmospheres in the pressure range 0.12–0.4 MPa (abs.) under a compressive load up to 6 MPa. Results show a negligible influence of the chemical composition of the solid material on the bed’s effective thermal conductivity. A severe reduction of the effective thermal conductivity was observed in air. In both atmospheres an increase of the effective thermal conductivity with the temperature was detected, while the influence of the compressive load was found to be small. A clear dependence of the effective thermal conductivity on the pressure of the filling gas was observed in helium in contrast to air, where the pressure dependence was drastically reduced.

  15. Reactivity feedback coefficients Pakistan research reactor-1 using PRIDE code

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mansoor, Ali; Ahmed, Siraj-ul-Islam; Khan, Rustam [Pakistan Institute of Engineering and Applied Sciences, Islamabad (Pakistan). Dept. of Nuclear Engineering; Inam-ul-Haq [Comsats Institute of Information Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan). Dept. of Physics

    2017-05-15

    Results of the analyses performed for fuel, moderator and void's temperature feedback reactivity coefficients for the first high power core configuration of Pakistan Research Reactor - 1 (PARR-1) are summarized. For this purpose, a validated three dimensional model of PARR-1 core was developed and confirmed against the reference results for reactivity calculations. The ''Program for Reactor In-Core Analysis using Diffusion Equation'' (PRIDE) code was used for development of global (3-dimensional) model in conjunction with WIMSD4 for lattice cell modeling. Values for isothermal fuel, moderator and void's temperature feedback reactivity coefficients have been calculated. Additionally, flux profiles for the five energy groups were also generated.

  16. Alternative reproductive tactics in female striped mice: Solitary breeders have lower corticosterone levels than communal breeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hill, Davina L; Pillay, Neville; Schradin, Carsten

    2015-05-01

    Alternative reproductive tactics (ARTs), where members of the same sex and population show distinct reproductive phenotypes governed by decision-rules, have been well-documented in males of many species, but are less well understood in females. The relative plasticity hypothesis (RPH) predicts that switches between plastic ARTs are mediated by changes in steroid hormones. This has received much support in males, but little is known about the endocrine control of female ARTs. Here, using a free-living population of African striped mice (Rhabdomys pumilio) over five breeding seasons, we tested whether females following different tactics differed in corticosterone and testosterone levels, as reported for male striped mice using ARTs, and in progesterone and oestrogen, which are important in female reproduction. Female striped mice employ three ARTs: communal breeders give birth in a shared nest and provide alloparental care, returners leave the group temporarily to give birth, and solitary breeders leave to give birth and do not return. We expected communal breeders and returners to have higher corticosterone, owing to the social stress of group-living, and lower testosterone than solitary breeders, which must defend territories alone. Solitary breeders had lower corticosterone than returners and communal breeders, as predicted, but testosterone and progesterone did not differ between ARTs. Oestrogen levels were higher in returners (measured before leaving the group) than in communal and solitary breeders, consistent with a modulatory role. Our study demonstrates hormonal differences between females following (or about to follow) different tactics, and provides the first support for the RPH in females. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Development of a fresh plutonium fuel container for a prototype fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohtake, T.; Takahashi, S.; Mishima, T.; Kurakami, J.; Yamamoto, Y.; Ohuchi, Y.

    1989-01-01

    Japan gives a good deal of encouragement to development of a fast breeder reactor (which is considered as the most likely candidate for nuclear power generation) to secure long-term energy source. And, following an experimental fast breeder reactor Joyo, a prototype fast breeder reactor Monju is now under vigorous construction. Related to development of the prototype fast breeder reactor, it is necessary and important to develop transport container which is used for transporting fresh fuel assemblies from Plutonium Fuel Production Facility to the Monju power plant. Therefore, the container is now being developed by Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC). Currently, shipment and vibration tests, handling performance tests, shielding performance tests and prototype container tests are executed with prototype containers fabricated according to a final design, in order to experimentally confirm soundness of transport container and its contents, and propriety of design technique. This paper describes the summary of general specifications and structures of this container and the summary of preliminary safety analysis of package

  18. Optimized materials for the future breeder line

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ohrt, E.; Heesen, E. te

    1991-01-01

    This paper presents a survey of developments which form part of ongoing activities for the construction of breeder plants. Following a brief introduction it describes the history of an internationally coordinated material for the major components of a European breeder. Some material properties which are of importance for the design are discussed. The task of finding a suitable filler metal for steel 316L(N) (1.4909) is considered in greater detail. In this case too, selection criteria are the mechanical properties of the weld metal, its chemical and thermal resistance and its behaviour during welding. Finally, processes which are absolutely necessary in the construction phase of a power plant are discussed in the outlook. These have not been optimized to date and will therefore be the subject of internationally distributed activities in the subsequent phase. (orig.)

  19. Progress on solid breeder TBM at SWIP

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feng, K.M.; Pan, C.H.; Zhang, G.S.; Luo, T.Y.; Zhao, Z.; Chen, Y.J.; Ye, X.F.; Hu, G.; Wang, P.H.; Yuan, T.; Feng, Y.J.; Xiang, B.; Zhang, L.; Wang, Q.J.; Cao, Q.X.; Li, Z.X.; Wang, F.

    2010-01-01

    Current progress on the design and R and D of Chinese helium-cooled solid breeder test blanket module, CN HCSB TBM is presented. The updated design on structural, neutronics, thermal-hydraulics and safety analysis has been completed. In order to accommodate the HCSB TBM ancillary system, the design and necessary R and Ds corresponding sub-systems have being developed. Current status on the development of function materials, structure material and the helium test loop are also presented. The Chinese low-activation ferritic/martensitic steels CLF-1, which is the structural material for the HCSB TBM is being manufactured by industry. The neutron multiplier Be and tritium breeder Li 4 SiO 4 pebbles are being prepared in laboratory scale.

  20. Safeguards challenges of Fast Breeder Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ko, H. S.

    2010-01-01

    Although the safeguards system of Sodium Fast Reactor (SFR) seems similar to that of Light Water Reactor (LWR), it was raised safeguards challenges of SFR that resulted from the visual opacity of liquid sodium, chemical reactivity of sodium and other characteristics of fast reactor. As it is the basic concept stage of the safeguards of SFR in Korea, this study tried to analyze the latest similar study of safeguards issues of the Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) at Joyo and Monju in Japan. For this reason, this study is to introduce some potential safeguards challenges of Fast Breeder Reactor. With this analysis, future study could be to address the safeguards challenges of SFR in Korea

  1. Nuclear data needs for plutonium breeders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hammer, P.

    1979-01-01

    This paper aims at summarizing the present major nuclear data needs for fast breeders. The corresponding requirements are deduced from the target accuracies which are associated to the design, operation and safety related parameters. Due to the fact that these target accuracies may somewhat change from one country to another the requirements quoted here must be considered more as the present order of magnitudes than as precise figures. The maximum admissible uncertainties which are asked presently for the nuclear data are due in particular to: the necessity of reducing the supplementary investment costs which account the present neutronic uncertainties; the necessity of improving the optimization studies devoted to the future commercial fast breeders: these studies involve the comparison of neutronics performances of new concepts, such as the heterogeneous core concept, to the classical one

  2. The fast breeder reactor Rapsodie (1962)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vautrey, L.; Zaleski, C.P.

    1962-01-01

    In this report, the authors describe the Rapsodie project, the French fast breeder reactor, as it stands at construction actual start-up. The paper provides informations about: the principal neutronic and thermal characteristics, the reactor and its cooling circuits, the main handling devices of radioactive or contaminated assemblies, the principles and means governing reactor operation, the purposes and locations of miscellaneous buildings. Rapsodie is expected to be critical by 1964. (authors) [fr

  3. Pool type liquid metal fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guthrie, B.M.

    1978-08-01

    Various technical aspects of the liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR), specifically pool type LMFBR's, are summarized. The information presented, for the most part, draws upon existing data. Special sections are devoted to design, technical feasibility (normal operating conditions), and safety (accident conditions). A survey of world fast reactors is presented in tabular form, as are two sets of reference reactor parameters based on available data from present and conceptual LMFBR's. (auth)

  4. BREEDER: a microcomputer program for financial analysis of a large-scale prototype breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Giese, R.F.

    1984-04-01

    This report describes a microcomputer-based, single-project financial analysis program: BREEDER. BREEDER is a user-friendly model designed to facilitate frequent and rapid analyses of the financial implications associated with alternative design and financing strategies for electric generating plants and large-scale prototype breeder (LSPB) reactors in particular. The model has proved to be a useful tool in establishing cost goals for LSPB reactors. The program is available on floppy disks for use on an IBM personal computer (or IBM look-a-like) running under PC-DOS or a Kaypro II transportable computer running under CP/M (and many other CP/M machines). The report documents version 1.5 of BREEDER and contains a user's guide. The report also includes a general overview of BREEDER, a summary of hardware requirements, a definition of all required program inputs, a description of all algorithms used in performing the construction-period and operation-period analyses, and a summary of all available reports. The appendixes contain a complete source-code listing, a cross-reference table, a sample interactive session, several sample runs, and additional documentation of the net-equity program option

  5. History and evolution of the breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carle, R.

    1989-01-01

    The concept of the breeder reactor is almost as old as the idea of the nuclear reactor itself. From the very first years following the discovery of nuclear fission, scientists and technicians tried to turn mankind's eternal dream into reality; that is, enjoy an abundant source of energy without using up our raw material reserves. Nuclear energy offered several solutions to realize this dream. One of them, fusion, seemed out of our grasp in the near future. But fission of 235 U was possible, and the Manhattan Project soon furnished ample proof of this theory. However, everyone working in this field was conscious of the fact that thermal neutron reactors make very inefficient use of the energy potential contained in natural uranium. The solution was to use in a core sufficiently rich in fissile matter, the excess neutrons to convert the 238 U, so poorly used by other types of reactors, into fissile 239 Pu. Regeneration, or 'breeding' of fuel, can multiply the energy drawn from a ton of uranium by a factor of 50 to 100. This would enable us to ward off the specter of an energy shortage and the rapid depletion of uranium mines. As early as 1945 in Los Alamos, Enrico Fermi stated: 'The country which first develops a breeder reactor will have a great competitive edge in atomic energy.' The development of the breeder reactor in the USA and around the world is discussed

  6. Gas-cooled breeder reactor safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chermanne, J.; Burgsmueller, P. [Societe Belge pour l' Industrie Nucleaire, Brussels

    1981-01-15

    The European Association for the Gas-cooled Breeder Reactor (G B R A), set-up in 1969 prepared between 1972 and 1974 a 1200 MWe Gas-cooled Breeder Reactor (G B R) commercial reference design G B R 4. It was then found necessary that a sound and neutral appraisal of the G B R licenseability be carried out. The Commission of the European Communities (C E C) accepted to sponsor this exercise. At the beginning of 1974, the C E C convened a group of experts to examine on a Community level, the safety documents prepared by the G B R A. A working party was set-up for that purpose. The experts examined a ''Preliminary Safety Working Document'' on which written questions and comments were presented. A ''Supplement'' containing the answers to all the questions plus a detailed fault tree and reliability analysis was then prepared. After a final study of this document and a last series of discussions with G B R A representatives, the experts concluded that on the basis of the evidence presented to the Working Party, no fundamental reasons were identified which would prevent a Gas-cooled Breeder Reactor of the kind proposed by the G B R A achieving a satisfactory safety status. Further work carried out on ultimate accident have confirmed this conclusion. One can therefore claim that the overall safety risk associated with G B R s compares favourably with that of any other reactor system.

  7. Gas cooled fast breeder reactors using mixed carbide fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kypreos, S.

    1976-09-01

    The fast reactors being developed at the present time use mixed oxide fuel, stainless-steel cladding and liquid sodium as coolant (LMFBR). Theoretical and experimental designing work has also been done in the field of gas-cooled fast breeder reactors. The more advanced carbide fuel offers greater potential for developing fuel systems with doubling times in the range of ten years. The thermohydraulic and physics performance of a GCFR utilising this fuel is assessed. One question to be answered is whether helium is an efficient coolant to be coupled with the carbide fuel while preserving its superior neutronic performance. Also, an assessment of the fuel cycle cost in comparison to oxide fuel is presented. (Auth.)

  8. Thermal hydraulic and safety analyses for Pakistan Research Reactor-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bokhari, I.H.; Israr, M.; Pervez, S.

    1999-01-01

    Thermal hydraulic and safety analysis of Pakistan Research Reactor-1 (PARR-1) utilizing low enriched uranium (LEU) fuel have been performed using computer code PARET. The present core comprises of 29 standard and 5 control fuel elements. Results of the thermal hydraulic analysis show that the core can be operated at a steady-state power level of 10 MW for a flow rate of 950 m 3 /h, with sufficient safety margins against ONB (onset of nucleate boiling) and DNB (departure from nucleate boiling). Safety analysis has been carried out for various modes of reactivity insertions. The events studied include: start-up accident; accidental drop of a fuel element in the core; flooding of a beam tube with water; removal of an in-pile experiment during reactor operation etc. For each of these transients, time histories of reactor power, energy released and clad surface temperature etc. were calculated. The results indicate that the peak clad temperatures remain well below the clad melting temperature during these accidents. It is therefore concluded that the reactor can be safely operated at 10 MW without compromising safety. (author)

  9. Stability analysis of the Ghana Research Reactor-1 (GHARR-1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Della, R.; Alhassan, E.; Adoo, N.A.; Bansah, C.Y.; Nyarko, B.J.B.; Akaho, E.H.K.

    2013-01-01

    Highlights: • We developed a theoretical model to study the stability of the Ghana Research Reactor-1. • The neutronics transfer function was described by the point kinetics model for a single group of delayed neutrons. • The thermal hydraulics transfer function was based on the modified lumped parameter concept. • A computer code, RESA (REactor Stability Analysis) was developed. • Results show that the closed-loop transfer function was stable and well damped for variable operating power levels. - Abstract: A theoretical model has been developed to study the stability of the Ghana Research Reactor one (GHARR-1). The closed-loop transfer function of GHARR-1 was established based on the model, which involved the neutronics and the thermal hydraulics transfer functions. The reactor kinetics was described by the point kinetics model for a single group of delayed neutrons, whilst the thermal hydraulics transfer function was based on the modified lumped parameter concept. The inherent internal feedback effect due to the fuel and the coolant was represented by the fuel temperature coefficient and the moderator temperature coefficient respectively. A computer code, RESA (REactor Stability Analysis), entirely in Java was developed based on the model for systems analysis. Stability analysis of the open-loop transfer function of GHARR-1 based on the Nyquist criterion and Bode diagrams using RESA, has shown that the closed-loop transfer function was marginally stable for variable operating power levels. The relative stability margins of GHARR-1 were also identified

  10. IAEA coordinated research program on `harmonization and validation of fast reactor thermomechanical and thermohydraulic codes using experimental data`. 1. Thermohydraulic benchmark analysis on high-cycle thermal fatigue events occurred at French fast breeder reactor Phenix

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muramatsu, Toshiharu [Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corp., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Engineering Center

    1997-06-01

    A benchmark exercise on `Tee junction of Liquid Metal Fast Reactor (LMFR) secondary circuit` was proposed by France in the scope of the said Coordinated Research Program (CRP) via International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA). The physical phenomenon chosen here deals with the mixture of two flows of different temperature. In a LMFR, several areas of the reactor are submitted to this problem. They are often difficult to design, because of the complexity of the phenomena involved. This is one of the major problems of the LMFRs. This problem has been encountered in the Phenix reactor on the secondary loop, where defects in a tee junction zone were detected during a campaign of inspections after an operation of 90,000 hours of the reactor. The present benchmark is based on an industrial problem and deal with thermal striping phenomena. Problems on pipes induced by thermal striping phenomena have been observed in some reactors and experimental facilities coolant circuits. This report presents numerical results on thermohydraulic characteristics of the benchmark problem, carried out using a direct numerical simulation code DINUS-3 and a boundary element code BEMSET. From the analysis with both the codes, it was confirmed that the hot sodium from the small pipe rise into the cold sodium of the main pipe with thermally instabilities. Furthermore, it was indicated that the coolant mixing region including the instabilities agrees approximately with the result by eye inspections. (author)

  11. A manufacturer's view of the US breeder program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arnold, W.H.

    1982-01-01

    A liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) was selected for development in a program to develop breeder reactors in general. The LMFBR is a sodium-cooled fast reactor which operates at a high conversion ratio of fertile-to-fissile material while generating electricity at a high thermal efficiency. The breeder has the added capacity to operate on the plutonium in Light Water Reactor spent fuel, and on U-238. A governmental/industrial infrastructure must be developed. Criteria for breeder deployment are listed. Construction of the Clinch River Breeder reactor is a necessary step in the progression to a mature breeder. Then the large prototype LMFBR should be built. Foreign collaboration is considered. Finally, a capital cost analysis indicates LMFBR cost-effectiveness

  12. Processing and waste disposal representative for fusion breeder blanket systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finn, P.A.; Vogler, S.

    1987-01-01

    This study is an evaluation of the waste handling concepts applicable to fusion breeder systems. Its goal is to determine if breeder blanket waste can be disposed of in shallow land burial, the least restrictive method under US Nuclear Regulatory regulations. The radionuclides expected in the materials used in fusion reactor blankets are described, as are plans for reprocessing and disposal of the components of different breeder blankets. An estimate of the operating costs involved in waste disposal is made

  13. Burnup characteristics of binary breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, A.F.; Nascimento, J.A. do; Ishiguro, Y.

    1983-01-01

    Burnup calculations of a binary breeder reactor have been done for two cases of fueling. In one case the U 233 /TH fueled inner core and the Pu/U-fueled outer core have the same number of fuel assemblies. In the other case two outermost rings in the inner core are Pu/U-fueled. The second case is considered for an initial phase of thorim cycle introduction when the supply of U 233 could be limited. Results show an efficient breeding on the thorium cycle in both cases. (Author) [pt

  14. Automated manufacturing of breeder reactor fuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyman, D.H.; Benson, E.M.; Bennett, D.W.

    1983-09-01

    The Secure Automated Fabrication (SAF) line is an automated, remotely controlled breeder fuel pin fabrication process which is to be installed in the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF). The FMEF is presently under construction at Hanford and is scheduled for completion in 1984. The SAF line is scheduled for startup in 1987 and will produce mixed uranium-plutonium oxide fuel pins for the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). Radiological protection requirements, computer control equipment, use of robotics, and the fabrication process is described

  15. Liquid metal cooled fast breeder nuclear reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Scott, D.

    1979-01-01

    A liquid metal cooled fast breeder nuclear reactor has a core comprising a plurality of fuel assemblies supported on a diagrid and submerged in a pool of liquid metal coolant within a containment vessel, the diagrid being of triple component construction and formed of a short cylindrical plenum mounted on a conical undershell and loosely embraced by a fuel store carrier. The plenum merely distributes coolant through the fuel assemblies, the load of the assemblies being carried by the undershell by means of struts which penetrate the plenum. The reactor core, fuel store carrier and undershell provide secondary containment for the plenum. (UK)

  16. Gas-cooled fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yoshida, Hiroyuki

    1982-07-01

    Almost all the R D works of gas-cooled fast breeder reactor in the world were terminated at the end of the year 1980. In order to show that the R D termination was not due to technical difficulties of the reactor itself, the present paper describes the reactor plant concept, reactor performances, safety, economics and fuel cycle characteristics of the reactor, and also describes the reactor technologies developed so far, technological problems remained to be solved and planned development schedules of the reactor. (author)

  17. Advanced breeder cycle uses metallic fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chang, Y.I.

    1991-01-01

    Scientists from Argonne National Laboratory have been developing a concept called the Integral fast Reactor (IFR). This fast breeder reactor could effectively increase Uranium resources a hundred fold making nuclear power essentially an inexhaustible energy source. The IFR is outlined. In the IFR, the inherent properties of liquid metal cooling are combined with a new metallic fuel which is allowed to swell and gives an improved burnup level and a radically different refining process to allow breakthroughs in passive safety, fuel cycle economics and waste management. (author)

  18. Utilizing FFTF: the keystone for breeder development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ziff, J.J.; Arneson, S.O.

    1981-05-01

    This paper describes the role of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) in the US Department of Energy sponsored Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) Program. The programs that are in place to ensure that the FFTF fulfills its role as an essential key to the development of LMFBR technology are delineated. A detailed FFTF Operating Plan has been developed to present in integrated form the strategy for gaining maximum useful information from the planned FFTF operations. The three principal areas of FFTF Utilization: Plant Utilization, Irradiation Testing, and Safety, combine to form the overall FFTF Operating Plan. Primary areas where FFTF is already making major contributions to LMFBR development are described

  19. Tritium dynamics in fusion reactor solid breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Violante, V.

    1986-01-01

    In the field of the NET research progrm, the chemical and diffusive processes involved in solid ceramic breeder materials have been analysed. A mathematical model describing the phenomena has been developed to obtain a quantitative evaluation for a first design approach. The data obtained by means of the above mentioned model are in good agreement with the data obtained by other research groups working in Europe and in United States. The computer codes BLANKET2, MC2, FWBC, have been developed to simulate the phenomena

  20. ITER solid breeder blanket materials database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billone, M.C.; Dienst, W.; Noda, K.; Roux, N.

    1993-11-01

    The databases for solid breeder ceramics (Li 2 ,O, Li 4 SiO 4 , Li 2 ZrO 3 and LiAlO 2 ) and beryllium multiplier material are critically reviewed and evaluated. Emphasis is placed on physical, thermal, mechanical, chemical stability/compatibility, tritium, and radiation stability properties which are needed to assess the performance of these materials in a fusion reactor environment. Correlations are selected for design analysis and compared to the database. Areas for future research and development in blanket materials technology are highlighted and prioritized

  1. Tritium behaviour in ceramic breeder blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, J.M.

    1989-01-01

    Tritium release from the candidate ceramic materials, Li 2 O, LiA10 2 , Li 2 SiO 3 , Li 4 SiO 4 and Li 2 ZrO 3 , is being investigated in many blanket programs. Factors that affect tritium release from the ceramic into the helium sweep gas stream include operating temperature, ceramic microstructure, tritium transport and solubility in the solid. A review is presented of the material properties studied and of the irradiation programs and the results are summarized. The ceramic breeder blanket concept is briefly reviewed

  2. Basic characteristics of an efficient fusion breeder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, C W; Harms, A A [McMaster Univ., Hamilton, Ontario (Canada). Dept. of Physics

    1977-01-01

    Some reactor physics characteristics of an efficient fusion breeder, consisting of an integrated fusion-fission reactor system with fissile and fusile fuel linkages, are examined. Core parameters of existing fission reactors and proposed fusion reactors are used to determine the system fissile fuel breeding gain, the fissile fuel doubling time, the nuclear fuel production capacity and the ratio of fusion-to-fission thermal power. It is concluded that such a symbiotic reactor configuration possesses considerable merit from the standpoint of long-term supply of fissile fuel and provides new options for the development of the next generation of nuclear energy systems.

  3. Considerations on techniques for improving tritium confinement in helium-cooled ceramic breeder blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuetterer, M.A.; Raepsaet, X.; Proust, E.; Leger, D.

    1994-01-01

    Tritium control issues such as the development of permeation barriers and the choice of the coolant and purge-gas chemistry are of crucial importance for solid breeder blankets. In order to quantify these problems for the helium-cooled ceramic breeder-inside-tube (BIT) blanket concept, the tritium leakage into the coolant was evaluated and the consequent tritium losses into the steam circuit were determined. The results indicate that under certain specified conditions the total tritium release from the coolant can be limited to approximately 10 Ci/d, but only on the assumption that experimental data for tritium permeation barriers can be attained under realistic operating conditions. An experimental study on the impact of the gas chemistry on tritium losses is proposed. (author) 8 refs.; 2 figs

  4. Evaluation of the efficacy of an autogenous Escherichia coli vaccine in broiler breeders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Li, Lili; Thøfner, Ida; Christensen, Jens Peter

    2017-01-01

    vaccine in broiler breeders. Three groups of 28 weeks old broiler breeders (unvaccinated, vaccinated once and twice, respectively) were challenged with a homologous E. coli strain (same strain as included in the vaccine) or a heterologous challenge strain in an experimental ascending model. The clinical...... infection, significant protection of an autogenous E. coli vaccine against neither a homologous nor a heterologous E. coli challenge could not be documented.......In poultry production Escherichia coli autogenous vaccines are often used. However, the efficacy of autogenous E. coli vaccinations has not been evaluated experimentally in chickens after start of lay. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the protective effect of an autogenous E. coli...

  5. Activation analysis of tritium breeder lithium lead irradiated by fusion neutrons in FDS-II

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mingliang Chen

    2006-01-01

    R-and-D of fusion materials, especially their activation characteristics, is one of the key issues for fusion research in the world. Research on activation characteristics for low activation materials, such as reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steels, vanadium alloys and SiCf/SiC composites, is being done throughout the world to ensure the attractiveness of fusion power regarding safety and environmental aspects. However, there is less research on the activation characteristics of the other important fusion materials, such as tritium breeder etc.. Lithium lead (Li 17 Pb 83 ) is presently considered as a primary candidate tritium breeder for fusion power reactors because of its attractive characteristics. It can serve as a tritium breeder, neutron multiplier and coolant in the blanket at the same time. The radioactivity of Li 17 Pb 83 by D-T fusion neutrons in FDS-II has been calculated and analyzed. FDS-II is a concept design of fusion power reactor, which consists of fusion core with advanced plasma parameters extrapolated from the ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor) and two candidates of liquid lithium breeder blankets (named SLL and DLL blankets). The neutron transport and activation calculation are carried out based on the one-dimensional model for FDS-II with the home-developed multi-functional code system VisualBUS and the multi-group data library HENDL1.0/MG and European Activation File EAF-99. The effects of irradiation time on the activation characteristics of Li 17 Pb 83 were analyzed and it concludes that the irradiation time has an important effect on the activation level of Li 17 Pb 83 . Furthermore, the results were compared with the activation levels of other tritium breeders, such as Li 4 SiO 4 , Li 2 TiO 3 , Li 2 O and Li etc., under the same irradiation conditions. The dominant nuclides to dose rate and activity of Li 17 Pb 83 were analyzed as well. Tritium generated by Li has a great contribution to the afterheat and

  6. Status and program of development of the fast breeder reactor system in the U.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roberts, R.W.

    1977-01-01

    The U.S. Energy Research and Development Administration's highest priority breeder concept is the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR). Its objective is the development of a broad technological and engineering base with extensive utility and industrial involvement which will establish a timely capability for a competitive and commercial breeder industry. In addition to technological development, an integral part of the LMFBR program is the transfer of LMFBR technology to the nuclear industry and the parallel development of utility capability. An important indicator of the effectiveness of this program is the successful construction and operation of a number of LMFBR experimental and test reactors and associated non-nuclear test facilities such as those located at Santa Susana, California, the Argonne (III). National Laboratory and the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory at Richland, Washington. A principal element of the U.S. fast breeder reactor program is the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). The largest test reactor facility in the world, the FFTF will focus on the testing of fuels and material. The FFTF, being built at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory, is scheduled for completion in the late 1970's. The next step toward timely commercial breeder capability is to implement a program for a large-scale demonstration of this concept. A 380 megawatt electrical demonstration plant - designated the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) - will be constructed and operated near Oak Ridge, Tennessee, under a cooperative arrangement of industrial contractors, utilities, and the Government. The completion date is 1983. The estimated cost of the CRBRP project is 1.95 billion dollars. This includes the cost of design, construction, related research and development, and five years of operation - the full timespan from the project's beginning in 1972 through completion. The Nation's principal electric utilities have strongly endorsed the

  7. Fast Breeder Project status report, 1974

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueper, R.

    A compilation of the papers read at the Status Report of the Fast Breeder Project at the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center on March 26, 1974 is presented. The first papers present a general survey of the present state of research and development work performed by the German, Belgian, and Netherlands research centers on the SNR 300 Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (Kalkar Nuclear Power Station), on the SNR follow-on program, alternative fuels and coolants and basic problems, on work performed by industry with respect to the licensing procedure and construction of the SNR 300, and on commissioning and the planned conversion of KNK, the Compact Sodium Cooled Nuclear Reactor. The detailed papers deal with results elaborated at the institutes of GfK Karlsruhe, SCK/CEN Mol, RCN Petten, and TNO Apeldoorn. Most of these efforts have been concentrated upon fuel pin and materials development and on the physics and safety of fast reactors. The status report concludes with a reference to the future program under the Project. (U.S.)

  8. Prototype fast breeder reactor main options

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bhoje, S.B.; Chellapandi, P.

    1996-01-01

    Fast reactor programme gets importance in the Indian energy market because of continuous growing demand of electricity and resources limited to only coal and FBR. India started its fast reactor programme with the construction of 40 MWt Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR). The reactor attained its first criticality in October 1985. The reactor power will be raised to 40 MWt in near future. As a logical follow-up of FBTR, it was decided to build a prototype fast breeder reactor, PFBR. Considering significant effects of capital cost and construction period on economy, systematic efforts are made to reduce the same. The number of primary and secondary sodium loops and components have been reduced. Sodium coolant, pool type concept, oxide fuel, 20% CW D9, SS 316 LN and modified 9Cr-1Mo steel (T91) materials have been selected for PFBR. Based on the operating experience, the integrity of the high temperature components including fuel and cost optimization aspects, the plant temperatures are recommended. Steam temperature of 763 K at 16.6 MPa and a single TG of 500 MWe gross output have been decided. PFBR will be located at Kalpakkam site on the coast of Bay of Bengal. The plant life is designed for 30 y and 75% load factor. In this paper the justifications for the main options chosen are given in brief. (author). 2 figs, 2 tabs

  9. Coincidence measurements of FFTF breeder fuel subassemblies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Eccleston, G.W.; Foley, J.E.; Krick, M.; Menlove, H.O.; Goris, P.; Ramalho, A.

    1984-04-01

    A prototype coincidence counter developed to assay fast breeder reactor fuel was used to measure four fast-flux test facility subassemblies at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory in Richland, Washington. Plutonium contents in the four subassemblies ranged between 7.4 and 9.7 kg with corresponding 240 Pu-effective contents between 0.9 and 1.2 kg. Large count rates were observed from the measurements, and plots of the data showed significant multiplication in the fuel. The measured data were corrected for deadtime and multiplication effects using established formulas. These corrections require accurate knowledge of the plutonium isotopics and 241 Am content in the fuel. Multiplication-corrected coincidence count rates agreed with the expected count rates based on spontaneous fission-neutron emission rates. These measurements indicate that breeder fuel subassemblies with 240 Pu-effective contents up to 1.2 kg can be nondestructively assayed using the shift-register electronics with the prototype counters. Measurements using the standard Los Alamos National Laboratory shift-register coincidence electronics unit can produce an assay value accurate to +-1% in 1000 s. The uncertainty results from counting statistics and deadtime-correction errors. 3 references, 8 figures, 8 tables

  10. Superphenix: Is the fast breeder dream over -- or over yonder?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1997-01-01

    A detailed history of France's Superphenix commercial fast breeder reactor project is presented. Important project milestones are discussed from the project's conception in 1971 to its current status. Recommendations of the Castaing Commission on the project and future plans for use of the reactor are outlined. In addition, world wide fast breeder projects are listed and discussed

  11. Physical study of experimental fusion breeder FEB divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Yukun; Zhou Xiaobing; Huang Jinhua; Feng Kaiming; Deng Peizhi; Huo Tiejun

    1999-10-01

    The physical study of FEB divertor is presented. In order to improve the impurity control and increase ion-neutral interactions in the divertor, the configuration of the divertor is optimized to be the close type in the engineering design activity compared with the open type in the early conceptual activity. The operation mode of the divertor is designed to be partial detached plasma mode under conditions of combination gas-puffing with impurity injection. The position of gas-puffing is optimized to be at the torus mid-plane with NEWT1D code from the viewpoint of impurity retention and radiation in the scrape-off layer/divertor region. Boron is chosen as the injected impurity. The effect of boron impurity injection is evaluated from the reduced heat load on the divertor target. The plasma pressure drop along the scrape-off layer/divertor region is estimated with the two-point transport model and impurity radiation model in the dynamic gas target concept. The simulation results show that the plasma pressure drop factor f p is not only related to the radiation fraction f rad but also related greatly to the stagnation point density n s

  12. Ferritic steels for the first generation of breeder blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diegele, E.

    2009-01-01

    Materials development in nuclear fusion for in-vessel components, i.e. for breeder blankets and divertors, has a history of more than two decades. It is the specific in-service and loading conditions and the consequentially required properties in combination with safety standards and social-economic demands that create a unique set of specifications. Objectives of Fusion for Energy (F4E) include: 1) To provide Europe's contribution to the ITER international fusion energy project; 2) To implement the Broader Approach agreement between Euratom and Japan; 3) To prepare for the construction and demonstration of fusion reactors (DEMO). Consequently, activities in F4E focus on structural materials for the first generations of breeder blankets, i.e. ITER Test Blanket Modules (TBM) and DEMO, whereas a Fusion Materials Topical Group implemented under EFDA coordinates R and D on physically based modelling of irradiation effects and R and D in the longer term (new and /or higher risk materials). The paper focuses on martensitic-ferritic steels and (i) reviews briefly the challenges and the rationales for the decisions taken in the past, (ii) analyses the status of the main activities of development and qualification, (iii) indicates unresolved issues, and (iv) outlines future strategies and needs and their implications. Due to the exposure to intense high energy neutron flux, the main issue for breeder materials is high radiation resistance. The First Wall of a breeder blanket should survive 3-5 full power years or, respectively in terms of irradiation damage, typically 50-70 dpa for DEMO and double figures for a power plant. Even though the objective is to have the materials and key fabrication technologies needed for DEMO fully developed and qualified within the next two decades, a major part of the task has to be completed much earlier. Tritium breeding test blanket modules will be installed in ITER with the objective to test DEMO relevant technologies in fusion

  13. The effects of a reduced balanced protein diet on litter moisture, pododermatitis and feather condition of female broiler breeders over three generations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, C; Lesuisse, J; Schallier, S; Clímaco, W; Wang, Y; Bautil, A; Everaert, N; Buyse, J

    2017-11-02

    Protein content reduction in broiler breeder diets has been increasingly investigated. However, broiler breeders reared on low protein diets are characterized by a deterioration of the feather condition. Furthermore, polydipsia induced by controlled feed intake increases litter moisture and as a consequence pododermatitis. This project aimed to study the litter moisture, pododermatitis and feather condition of breeders fed with a 25% reduced balanced protein (RP) diet during the rearing and laying period over three successive generations. The experiment started with two treatments for the F0 generation: control (C) group fed with standard C diets and RP group fed with RP diets. The female F0-progeny of each treatment was divided into the two dietary treatments as well, resulting in four treatments for the F1 generation: C/C, C/RP, RP/C and RP/RP (breeder feed in F0/F1 generation). The RP diet fed breeders received on average 10% more feed than C diet fed breeders to achieve the same target BW. The female F1-progeny of each treatment were all fed with C diets which resulted in four treatments for the F2 generation: C/C/C, C/RP/C, RP/C/C and RP/RP/C (breeder feed in F0/F1/F2 generation). Litter moisture, footpad and hock dermatitis were recorded at regular intervals throughout the experimental period in all three generations. For the F0 and F1 generation, the pens of breeders receiving C diets had significantly higher litter moisture than the RP diets fed groups (Pdiets had poorer feather condition than those receiving the C diets (Pdiets to broiler breeders improved litter condition and hence reduced FDO whereas impaired feather condition. Furthermore, positive transgenerational effects of the maternal RP diets on the feather condition may be inferred, hence potentially altering the welfare status.

  14. The need for high performance breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vaughan, R.D.; Chermanne, J.

    1977-01-01

    It can be easily demonstrated, on the basis of realistic estimates of continued high oil costs, that an increasing portion of the growth in energy demand must be supplied by nuclear power and that this one might account for 20% of all the energy production by the end of the century. Such assumptions lead very quickly to the conclusion that the discovery, extraction and processing of the uranium will not be able to follow the demand; the bottleneck will essentially be related to the rate at which the ore can be discovered and extracted, and not to the existing quantities nor their grade. Figures as high as 150.000 T/annum and more would be quickly reached, and it is necessary to wonder already now if enough capital can be attracted to meet these requirements. There is only one solution to this problem: improve the conversion ratio of the nuclear system and quickly reach the breeding; this would lead to the reduction of the natural uranium consumption by a factor of about 50. However, this condition is not sufficient; the commercial breeder must have a breeding gain as high as possible because the Pu out-of-pile time and the Pu losses in the cycle could lead to an unacceptable doubling time for the system, if the breeding gain is too low. That is the reason why it is vital to develop high performance breeder reactors. The present paper indicates how the Gas-cooled Breeder Reactor [GBR] can meet the problems mentioned above, on the basis of recent and realistic studies. It briefly describes the present status of GBR development, from the predecessors in the gas cooled reactor line, particularly the AGR. It shows how the GBR fuel takes mostly profit from the LMFBR fuel irradiation experience. It compares the GBR performance on a consistent basis with that of the LMFBR. The GBR capital and fuel cycle costs are compared with those of thermal and fast reactors respectively. The conclusion is, based on a cost-benefit study, that the GBR must be quickly developed in order

  15. Method for cooling a breeder reactor and breeder reactor for applying the method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gast, K.

    1977-01-01

    The fuel assemblies of the fission zone and the breeder subassemblies in the radial breeding blanket are supported on a double bottom. The coolant gets into the interspace of the double bottom below the blanket. This part of the space is separated from the interspace of the double bottom below the fission zone. Each breeder subassembly consists of a twin tube. The coolant enters the inner tube, flows through it upwards in axial direction, is then deflected on the upper end, and afterwards, in the annulus of the twin tube, flows down again in axial direction into the inlet region, below the double bottom. From there on it flows upwards through the fuel assemblies of the fission zone from below. Thereby a uniformly high coolant outlet temperature is obtained. (DG) [de

  16. Scenario for commercialization of fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumaoka, Yoshio; Sato, Morihiko

    1989-01-01

    To realize the commercialization of fast breeder reactors (FBRs), it is essential to reduce construction costs to the same level as those for the current light water reactors. For this target to be attained, a highly important factor is to reduce to the lowest-levels possible the quantities of materials and volume of the buildings required for the primary and secondary sodium loops of the FBR. In this direction, an innovative compact FBR plant concept which holds promise for commercialization has been developed by introducing the pooltype reactor concept with the shortest possible secondary sodium loops, realized by coupling electromagnetic pumps with the steam generators. In comparison with the French Super Phenix reactor, for example, the construction of this 1,300-MWe FBR plant could be achieved with half the material quantities and plant volume required by the former type. (author)

  17. Superalloy applications in the fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, R.W.

    1976-01-01

    The economics of the LMFBR are dependent on the breeding of new fuel in the reactor core and this can be improved by the use of advanced alloys as core structural components. The environment of the core makes superalloys a natural choice for these components, but phenomena related directly to neutron irradiation necessitate extensive testing. Consequently, commercially-available superalloys, together with a number of developmental alloys are being tested in existing LMFBR's and by simulation techniques to determine the best alloy for use in the LMFBR core. It presently appears that such materials will indeed be capable of the performance required, and will greatly facilitate the commercial realization of the fast breeder reactor

  18. Thermal baffle for fast-breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rylatt, J.A.

    1977-01-01

    A liquid-metal-cooled fast-breeder reactor includes a bridge structure for separating hot outlet coolant from relatively cool inlet coolant consisting of an annular stainless steel baffle plate extending between the core barrel surrounding the core and the thermal liner associated with the reactor vessel and resting on ledges thereon, there being inner and outer circumferential webs on the lower surface of the baffle plate and radial webs extending between the circumferential webs, a stainless steel insulating plate completely covering the upper surface of the baffle plate and flex seals between the baffle plate and the ledges on which the baffle plate rests to prevent coolant from washing through the gaps therebetween. The baffle plate is keyed to the core barrel for movement therewith and floating with respect to the thermal liner and reactor vessel. 3 claims, 2 figures

  19. Neutronic studies of a 233U breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hansen, L.F.; Maniscalco, J.A.

    1978-09-01

    Neutronic calculations have been carried out to design a laser fusion driven hybrid blanket which maximizes 233 U production per unit of thermal energy (>1 kg/MW/sub T/-year) with acceptable fusion energy multiplication (M/sub F/ approx. 4). Two hybrid blankets, a thorium and a uranium--thorium blanket, are discussed in detail and their performance is evaluated by incorporating them into an existing hybrid design (the LLL/Bechtel design). The performance of these two blankets is discussed in terms of their energy multiplication, tritium breeding and fissile fuel production. The neutronic calculations have been done for two neutron libraries, the ENDF/B-IV and the ENDL with differences no larger than 10% in the results. An estimate is given of the number of equivalent thermal power fission reactors (LWR, HWR, SSCR, and HTGR) that these fusion breeders can fuel

  20. The economics of fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapin, M.

    1990-01-01

    The overall status of the fast breeder reactor (FBR) system is periodically reviewed in France. In 1983, a report was prepared on the status and prospects of the FBR system at the request of the then Minister of Industry. Five years later, Electricite de France (EdF) and the French Atomic Energy Commission (CEA) jointly updated this report. The FBR reactor system economic considerations mentioned here are taken from the work performed in 1987-88 for this updating. The position in 1983 is reviewed to highlight concrete developments. Developments that have occurred since then are presented, along with the prospects that today enable us to define better the technical and economic potential of the FBR system. In conclusion, the effects of these findings on desirable directions are discussed, in particular with regard to European FBR cooperation. (author)

  1. Fusion breeder sphere - PAC blanket design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sullivan, J.D.; Palmer, B.J.F.

    1987-11-01

    There is a considerable world-wide effort directed toward the production of materials for fusion reactors. Many ceramic fabrication groups are working on making lithium ceramics in a variety of forms, to be incorporated into the tritium breeding blanket which will surround the fusion reactor. Current blanket designs include ceramic in either monolithic or packed sphere bed (sphere-pac) forms. The major thrust at AECL is the production of lithium aluminate spheres to be incorporated in a sphere-pac bed. Contemporary studies on breeder blanket design offer little insight into the requirements on the sizes of the spheres. This study examined the parameters which determine the properties of pressure drop and coolant requirements. It was determined that an optimised sphere-pac bed would be composed of two diameters of spheres: 75 weight % at 3 mm and 25 weight % at 0.3 mm

  2. Breeder control fusion reactor. Topical interview

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schlueter, A [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Plasmaphysik, Garching/Muenchen (Germany, F.R.)

    1977-09-01

    The energy sources of the future are extremely controversial. The consumption of fossil fuel shall decrease during the next decades, because exhaustion of the resources, pollution, increase of CO/sub 2/ in the atmosphere and other reasons. But at present the question it not yet settled which alternative energy system should replace the fossil fuel. First of all nuclear energy in the form of fission reactions seems to come into operation to a larger extent. The next step may be the controlled thermonuclear fusion reaction. Furthermore, a comparison between fusion and fission is given which shows that fusion would bring about less risks than the breeders. An advantage of the fusion reactor would be the fact that the fuel cycle is closed. Unfortunately, the physical questions are not as yet satisfactorily clarified so that one cannot be sure whether a fusion reactor can really be built.

  3. Recent research activities on functional ceramics for insulator, breeder and optical sensing systems in fusion reactors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nagata, S., E-mail: nagata@imr.tohoku.ac.jp [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Katsui, H.; Hoshi, K. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Tsuchiya, B. [Meijo University, Faculty of Science and Technology, Nagoya (Japan); Toh, K. [J-PARC Center Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai (Japan); Zhao, M.; Shikama, T. [Institute for Materials Research, Tohoku University, Sendai (Japan); Hodgson, E.R. [Euratom/CIEMAT Fusion Association, Madrid (Spain)

    2013-11-15

    The paper presents a brief overview of current research activities on functional ceramic materials for insulating components, tritium breeder and optical sensing systems, mainly carried out at Institute for Materials Research (IMR), Tohoku University. Topics include recent experimental results related to the electrical degradation and optical changes in typical oxide ceramics (e.g. Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} and SiO{sub 2}) concerning radiolytic effects. Hydrogen effects on the electrical conductivity in the Perovskite-type oxide ceramics and the interaction between hydrogen and irradiation induced defects in ternary Li oxides used as breeder materials, were dynamically observed under the irradiation environment. Further attention is focused on several challenging qualifications required for an advanced sensing system using optical characteristics (e.g., thermoluminescence in SiO{sub 2} core fiber, neutron-induced long lasting emission from oxides doped with rare-earth elements, and gasochromic coloration phenomenon of WO{sub 3})

  4. Brewer's Grain from Cameroon Brewery in Breeder Chicken Rations : Effect on Productive and Reproductive Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mafeni, MJ.

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the effect of brewer's dried grain (BDG on the productive and reproductive traits in breeder chickens, 120 laying hens and 12 cocks of ISA commercial breed were subjected to dietary treatments containing 0, 10, 20, and 30 % levels of BDG. Feed and water were provided ad libitum over the 5-months experimental period. Reproductive and productive traits such as egg production, egg weight, albumen height, shell weight, semen quantity fertility and hatchability of fertile eggs were measured. Results indicated that when BDG was fed at the 30 % level in the ration, the hen-day egg production (50.6 % was significantly (P of inclusion. There was a significant (P 0.05 was noticed between treatments for ratio of shell weight to egg weight, albumen height, semen quantity and fertility. The results suggest that although the 30 % level of BDG can be tolerated, the 20 %, level of BDG inclusion is more appropriate for breeder birds.

  5. Programme and current status of fast breeder reactor development in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Suita, T.; Oyama, A.

    1977-01-01

    In 1967 the Japan Atomic Energy Commission revised her long term programme after a two year study for giving principles to her nuclear energy development programme, which indicated the dominant role of nuclear energy mid 1980's in the electric power generation and stressed the necessity of developing fast breeder reactors. It also recommended to organize a nucleus to undertake this nation-wide project, bringing together the total capability available throughout the country. Accordingly, the Power Reactor and Nuclear Fuel Development Corporation (PNC) was established in 1967 to develop two sodium-cooled fast reactors, an experimental fast reactor of about 100 MW thermal and a prototype fast breeder reactor of about 300 MW electrical, both using mixed oxide fuels. Construction of the experimental fast reactor started in 1970 and was essentially completed at the end of in 1974. The precommissioning test was followed in parallel with re-evaluating quality assurance of all systems. Physics test will be initiated around the end of 1976. The conceptual design of the prototype fast breeder reactor is now toward its final stage. Surveys on its proposed site have just started. Construction will start in 1978. Beside R and D works conducted by many organizations in Japan as well as under the international cooperation, several key test facilities were installed by PNC itself to conduct in-sodium test of full-size prototype components including 50 MW steam generators and post-irradiation-examination of fuels and materials. Recently an interim report was issued to an ad-hoc committee organized by JAEC to evaluate future prospect of the fuel cycle and power reactors. This recommended start of construction of the prototype reactor as scheduled and the large demonstration reactor to be followed to the prototype. Thus the fast breeder reactor is indicated as the most indispensable in 1990's

  6. Carter's breeder policy has failed, claims Westinghouse manager

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1979-01-01

    Nuclear nations developing liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) technology have not been dissuaded by President Carter's efforts to stop the breeder program as a way to control the proliferation of nuclear weapons. There is no evidence that Carter's policy of moral persuasion has had any impact on their efforts. A review of the eight leading countries cites their extensive progress in the areas of breeder technology and fuel reprocessing, while the US has made only slight gains. The Fast Flux Test Facility at Hanford is near completion, but the Clinch River project has been slowed to a minimum

  7. 3rd quarterly report 1976 of the Fast Breeder Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-12-01

    The report describes activities which were performed within the framework of the Fast Breeder Project at the Gesellschaft fuer Kernforschung mbH Karlsruhe (GfK) or on behalf of the GfK during the third quarter. It contains contributions on the following subjects: Fuel rod development, material studies and development, corrosion tests and coolant analyses, physical experiments, reactor theory, safety of fast breeders, instrumentation and signal processing for core monitoring, environmental impacts, sodium technology tests, thermo- and fluid-dynamic tests in gas, tests concerning gas-cooled breeders. (HR) [de

  8. Uranium utilization of light water cooled reactors and fast breeders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stojadinovic, Timm

    1991-08-01

    The better uranium utilization of fast breeder reactors as compared with water cooled reactors is one argument in favour of the breeder introduction. This report tries to quantify this difference. It gives a generally valid formalism for the uranium utilization as a function of the fuel burnup, the conversion rate, fuel cycle losses and the fuel enrichment. On the basis of realistic assumptions, the ratio between the utilizations of breeder reactors to that of light water cooled reactors (LWR) amounts to 180 for the open LWR cycle and 100 in case of plutonium recycling in LWRs

  9. Alternative cycles and fast breeders, a look to the future

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dahlberg, R.C.

    1979-01-01

    The various nuclear strategies that have been proposed to eke out available uranium are briefly summarised. A recent approach is to develop the concept of a 'transitional symbiosis strategy' which accepts the principle of the fast breeder/advanced converter for the long-range future, and to suggest that advanced converters be designed to be near-breeders. Some of the issues affecting strategic planning in the transitional period are reviewed further. The need for the thorium cycle in both advanced converters (or near breeders) and fast reactors is emphasised. This type of high temperature gas-cooled reactor appears to be the technology most suited for symbiosis with FBRs. (UK)

  10. Symbiosis of near breeder HTR's with hybrid fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Seifritz, W.

    1978-07-01

    In this contribution to INFCE a symbiotic fusion/fission reactor system, consisting of a hybrid beam-driven micro-explosion fusion reactor (HMER) and associated high-temperature gas-cooled reactors (HTR) with a coupled fuel cycle, is proposed. This system is similar to the well known Fast Breeder/Near Breeder HTR symbiosis except that the fast fission breeder - running on the U/Pu-cycle in the core and the axial blankets and breeding the surplus fissile material as U-233 in its radial thorium metal or thorium oxide blankets - is replaced by a hybrid micro-explosion DT fusion reactor

  11. Monte Carlo simulation of core physics parameters of the Nigeria Research Reactor-1 (NIRR-1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jonah, S.A. [Reactor Engineering Section, Centre for Energy Research and Training, Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, P.M.B. 1014 (Nigeria)], E-mail: jonahsa2001@yahoo.com; Liaw, J.R.; Matos, J.E. [RERTR Program, Nuclear Engineering Division, Argonne National Laboratory, 9700 S. Cass Avenue, Argonne, IL 60439 (United States)

    2007-12-15

    The Monte Carlo N-Particle (MCNP) code, version 4C (MCNP4C) and a set of neutron cross-section data were used to develop an accurate three-dimensional computational model of the Nigeria Research Reactor-1 (NIRR-1). The geometry of the reactor core was modeled as closely as possible including the details of all the fuel elements, reactivity regulators, the control rod, all irradiation channels, and Be reflectors. The following reactor core physics parameters were calculated for the present highly enriched uranium (HEU) core: clean cold core excess reactivity ({rho}{sub ex}), control rod (CR) and shim worth, shut down margin (SDM), neutron flux distributions in the irradiation channels, reactivity feedback coefficients and the kinetics parameters. The HEU input model was validated by experimental data from the final safety analyses report (SAR). The model predicted various key neutronics parameters fairly accurately and the calculated thermal neutron fluxes in the irradiation channels agree with the values obtained by foil activation method. Results indicate that the established Monte Carlo model is an accurate representation of the NIRR-1 HEU core and will be used to perform feasibility for conversion to low enriched uranium (LEU)

  12. A comparison of fusion breeder/fission client and fission breeder/fission client systems for electrical energy production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Land, R.J.; Parish, T.A.

    1983-01-01

    A parametric study that evaluated the economic performance of breeder/client systems is described. The linkage of the breeders to the clients was modelled using the stockpile approach to determine the system doubling time. Since the actual capital costs of the breeders are uncertain, a precise prediction of the cost of a breeder was not attempted. Instead, the breakeven capital cost of a breeder relative to the capital cost of a client reactor was established by equating the cost of electricity from the breeder/client system to the cost of a system consisting of clients alone. Specific results are presented for two breeder/client systems. The first consisted of an LMFBR with LWR clients. The second consisted of a DT fusion reactor (with a 238 U fission suppressed blanket) with LWR clients. The economics of each system was studied as a function of the cost of fissile fuel from a conventional source. Generally, the LMFBR/LWR system achieved relatively small breakeven capital cost ratios; the maximum ratio computed was 2.2 (achieved at approximately triple current conventional fissile material cost). The DTFR/LWR system attained a maximum breakeven capital cost ratio of 4.5 (achieved at the highest plasma quality (ignited device) and triple conventional fissile cost)

  13. Determination of the theoretical and experimental zero-power frequency response of Ghana Research Reactor-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Intsiful, J.D.K.; Akaho, E.H.K.; Tetteh, G.K.

    1997-12-01

    The frequency response measurements of a reactor at low power help in determining the kinetic parameters of a reactor and ultimately in investigating its stability with respect to small perturbations in reactivity. In this report, we present the results of the zero-power frequency response measurements of GHARR-1 by rod method and its analytical analogue. The comparison in calculated and measured values is reasonably good in the frequency range used (author)

  14. A review of prospects for an accelerator breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fraser, J.S.; Hoffman, C.R.; Schriber, S.O.; Garvey, P.M.; Townes, B.M.

    1981-12-01

    The scientific feasibility, engineering practicability and economic prospects for an Accelerator Breeder are reviewed. The scientific feasibiliity of high power accelerator components rests on a firm basis as a result of technical advances made in recent years but there is a need to combine all components in a demonstration model working under realistic conditions. The engineering practicability of Accelerator Breeder components should be tested in a staged development culminating in a full-scale demonstration plant. The economic assessment depends on calculations of allowed and estimated capital costs of an Accelerator Breeder for a CANDU system operating on the Th-U fuel cycle. The results indicate that the ratio of estimated to allowed capital cost is approximately 3.5 for a breeder with a 2% enriched uranium metal blanket and for separated U235 valued at 48 $/g

  15. Staphylococcus agnetis, a potential pathogen in broiler breeders

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Louise Ladefoged; Thøfner, Ida; Bisgaard, Magne

    2017-01-01

    In this study, four broiler parent flocks have been followed from the onset of the production period (week 20) until slaughter (week 60). Every week, approximately ten dead broiler breeders, randomly selected among birds dead on their own, were collected and subjected to a full post mortem analysis...... including bacteriological examination. In total 997 breeders were investigated and for the first time Staphylococcus agnetis was isolated in pure culture from cases of endocarditis and septicemia from 16 broiler breeders. In addition, the cloacal flora from newly hatched chickens originating from the same...... from both broiler breeders and broilers. Three isolates were whole genome sequenced to obtain knowledge on virulence genes. The isolates harbored a number of genes encoding different fibrinogen binding proteins and toxins which might be important for virulence. The present findings demonstrate that S...

  16. Tritium breeders and tritium permeation barrier coatings for fusion reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamawaki, Michio; Kawamura, Hiroshi; Tsuchiya, Kunihiko

    2004-01-01

    A state of R and D of tritium breeders and tritium permeation barrier coatings for fusion reactor is explained. A list of candidate for tritium breeders consists of ceramics containing lithium, for examples, Li 2 O, Li 2 TiO 3 , Li 2 ZrO 3 , Li 4 SiO 4 and LiAlO 2 . The characteristics and form are described. The optimum particle size is from 1 to 10 μm. The production technologies of tritium breeders in the world are stated. Characteristics of ceramics with lithium as tritium breeders are compared. TiC, TiN/TiC, Al 2 O 3 and Cr 2 O 3 -SiO 2 -P 2 O 5 are tritium permeation barrier coating materials. These production methods and evaluation of characteristics are explained. (S.Y.)

  17. Neutronic optimization of solid breeder blankets for STARFIRE design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gohar, Y.; Abdou, M.A.

    1980-01-01

    Extensive neutronic tradeoff studies were carried out to define and optimize the neutronic performance of the different solid breeder options for the STARFIRE blanket design. A set of criteria were employed to select the potential blanket materials. The basic criteria include the neutronic performance, tritium-release characteristics, material compatibility, and chemical stability. Three blanket options were analyzed. The first option is based on separate zones for each basic blanket function where the neutron multiplier is kept in a separate zone. The second option is a heterogeneous blanket type with two tritium breeder zones. In the first zone the tritium breeder is assembled in a neutron multiplier matrix behind the first wall while the second zone has a neutron moderator matrix instead of the neutron multiplier. The third blanket option is similar to the second concept except the tritium breeder and the neutron multiplier form a homogeneous mixture

  18. Plant dynamics and safety analysis of fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ertel, V.

    1982-01-01

    Some general features of sodium cooled fast breeders which influence the thermohydraulics and differ from LWR'S are discussed. Using the SNR-300 as a reference, some thermohydraulic transients from normal operation and from design accidents are presented. (orig.)

  19. Overview of pool hydraulic design of Indian prototype fast breeder ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Flow sheet of prototype fast breeder reactor. ... over, the main vessel that houses radioactive primary sodium is free of any ..... with superficial velocity components in porous media. ..... The attenuation within thermal boundary layer was found.

  20. Development of an EBIS charge breeder for the Rare Isotope Science Project

    Science.gov (United States)

    Son, Hyock-Jun; Park, Young-Ho; Kondrashev, Sergey; Kim, Jongwon; Lee, Bong Ju; Chung, Moses

    2017-10-01

    In Korea, a heavy ion accelerator facility called RAON is being designed to produce various rare isotopes for the Rare Isotope Science Project (RISP) (Jeong, 2016) [1], (Moon, 2014) [2]. This facility is designed to use both In-flight Fragment (IF) and Isotope Separation On-Line (ISOL) techniques in order to produce a wide variety of RI beams for nuclear physics experiments. An Electron Beam Ion Source (EBIS) will be used for charge breeding of Rare Isotope (RI) beams in the ISOL system. The charge-to-mass ratio (q/A) of the RI beams after charge breeding is ≥1/4. The highly charged RI beams will be accelerated by a linac post-accelerator and delivered to a low energy (∼18 MeV/u) experimental hall or the IF system. The RAON EBIS will use a 3 A electron gun and a 6 T superconducting solenoid for high capacity, high efficiency, and short breeding time. In front of the charge breeder, an RFQ cooler-buncher will be used to deliver a bunched beam with small emittance to the EBIS charge breeder. The main design of the RAON EBIS has been carried out on the basis of several beam analyses and technical reviews. In this paper, current progress of the development of the RAON EBIS charge breeder will be presented.

  1. Neutronics Experiment on A HCPB Breeder Blanket Mock-Up

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paola Batistoni, P.; Angelone, M.; Bettinali, L.

    2006-01-01

    A neutronics experiment has been performed in the frame of European Fusion Technology Program on a mock-up of the EU Test Blanket Module (TBM), Helium Cooled Pebble Bed (HCPB) concept, with the objective to validate the capability of nuclear data to predict nuclear responses, such as the tritium production rate (TPR), with qualified uncertainties. The experiment has been carried out at the FNG 14-MeV neutron source in collaboration between ENEA, Technische Universitaet Dresden, Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe, J. Stefan Institute Ljubljana and with the participation of JAEA. The mock-up, designed in such a way to replicate all relevant nuclear features of the TBM-HCPB, consisted of a steel box containing beryllium block and two intermediate steel cassettes, filled with of Li 2 CO 3 powder, replicating the breeder insert main characteristics: radial thickness, distance between ceramic layers, thickness of ceramic layers and of steel walls. In the experiment, the TPR has been measured using Li 2 CO 3 pellets at various depths at two symmetrical positions at each depth, one in the upper and one in the lower cassette. Twelve pellets were used at each position to determine the TPR profile through the cassette. Three independent measurements were performed by ENEA, TUD/VKTA and JAEA. The neutron flux in the beryllium layer was measured as well using activation foils. The measured tritium production in the TBM (E) was compared with the same quantity (C) calculated by the MCNP.4c using a very detailed model of the experimental set up, and using neutron cross sections from the European Fusion File (EFF ver.3.1) and from the Fusion Evaluated Nuclear Data Library (FENDL ver. 2.1, ITER reference neutron library). C/E ratios were obtained with a total uncertainty on the C/E comparison less than 9% (2 s). A sensitivity and uncertainty analysis has also been performed to evaluate the calculation uncertainty due to the uncertainty on neutron cross sections. The results of such

  2. Past and present role of fast breeder reactors in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomabechi, K.

    1978-01-01

    To meet increasing future energy demand in Japan utilization of fission energy should be promoted. In particular it is of vital importance to develop and utilize FBRs as soon as possible in order to save the natural uranium needed. If one considers the commercial introduction of FBRs in the mid-1990s in Japan, a delay of only one year will eventually result in an additional demand for natural uranium of more than 20,000 tonnes, because several LWRs will have to be installed instead. Ten years have passed since the development of FBRs in Japan was initiated as a national project with the highest priority and now the experimental fast reactor JOYO is successfully being commissioned and the prototype fast breeder reactor MONJU has reached the stage of proceeding to construction. Experience gained from past development work encourages further strong effort towards the commercialization of FBRs. This paper briefly reviews the important role to be played by FBRs, the development programme for FBRs, and the experience gained so far from the programme in Japan. (author)

  3. Flow induced vibrations in liquid metal fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-01-01

    Flow induced vibrations are well known phenomena in industry. Engineers have to estimate their destructive effects on structures. In the nuclear industry, flow induced vibrations are assessed early in the design process, and the results are incorporated in the design procedures. In many cases, model testing is used to supplement the design process to ensure that detrimental behaviour due to flow induced vibrations will not occur in the component in question. While these procedures attempt to minimize the probability of adverse performance of the various components, there is a problem in the extrapolation of analytical design techniques and/or model testing to actual plant operation. Therefore, sodium tests or vibrational measurements of components in the reactor system are used to provide additional assurance. This report is a general survey of experimental and calculational methods in this area of structural mechanics. The report is addressed to specialists and institutions in industrialized and developing countries who are responsible for the design and operation of liquid metal fast breeder reactors. 92 refs, 90 figs, 8 tabs

  4. Status of fast breeder reactor development in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hueber, R.; Kathol, W.; Kempken, M.

    1991-01-01

    The KNK, the sodium cooled compact reactor is an experimental nuclear power plant of 20 MW electric power. Since 1977, it has been operated with fast reactor cores as KNK II. The KNK II/3 core was designed. The core fabrication has been largely completed. In 1990, the KNK II plant achieved a time availability of 56%. On January 8, 1991 KNK II was shut down for inspection. Since pre-nuclear commissioning was completed the Kalkar Nuclear Power Station SNR 300 has been operated in a mode similar to that of a power station. In March 1991 the financing partners decided not to prolong the standby phase because they do not think that the last construction permit and the operation permit will be issued within a definite period of time. The partners were convinced that the lack of progress in the licensing procedure was not caused by basic safety deficiencies of the project but by the way the licensing procedure was executed. The German fast breeder programme is now concentrated on contributions to the European Fast Reactor. (author)

  5. Core disruptive accident analysis in prototype fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chellapandi, P.; Velusamy, K.; Kannan, S.E.; Singh, Om Pal; Chetal, S.C.; Bhoje, S.B.

    2002-01-01

    Liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactors, in particular, pool type have many inherent and engineered safety features and hence a core disruptive accident (CDA) involving melt down of the whole core is a very low probable event ( -6 /ry). The important mechanical consequences such as straining of the main vessel including top shield, structural integrity of safety grade decay heat exchangers (DHX) and intermediate heat exchangers (IHX) sodium release to reactor containment building (RCB) through the penetrations in the top shield, sodium fire and consequent temperature and pressure rise in RCB are theoretically analysed using computer codes. Through the analyses with these codes, it is demonstrated that an energetic CDA capability to the maximum 100 MJ mechanical energy in PFBR can be well contained in the primary containment. The sodium release to RCB is 350 kg and pressure rise in RCB is ∼10 kPa. In order to raise the confidence on the theoretical predictions, very systematic experimental program has been carried out. Totally 67 tests were conducted. This experimental study indicated that the primary containment is integral. The main vessel can withstand the energy release of ∼1200 MJ. The structural integrity of IHX and DHX is assured up to 200 MJ. The transient force transmitted to reactor vault is negligible. The average water leak measured under simulated tests for 122 MJ work potential is about 1.8 kg and the maximum leak is 2.41 kg. Extrapolation of the measured maximum leak based on simulation principles yields ∼ 233 kg of sodium leak in the reactor. Based on the above-mentioned theoretical and experimental investigations, the design pressure of 20 kPa is used for PFBR

  6. Status of the breeder fuel cycle in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, W.D.

    1985-01-01

    This paper reviews the status and plans for the fast reactor fuel cycle in the United States. The United States is undertaking a complete reexamination of its entire breeder program strategy, and the direction of the new program is not yet clear. Studies in progress to examine the associated fuel cycle strategies as they relate to the overall emerging breeder strategy are described. The present status of and recent developments in the fuel cycle R and D programs are summarized

  7. Development of Liquid Type Breeder Technology for ITER-TBM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jung, Ki Sok; Hong, Bong Geun; Lee, Dong Won

    2008-07-15

    In relation to liquid type TBM technology development, various works are performed. We established a test loop concept to test the MHD effects and materials compatibility for the Pb-17Li breeder material. For the loop construction, electromagnetic pump and storage tank for the Pb-17Li loop was manufactured and some technical requirements are summarised. As a reference, technical literatures relevant to the liquid type TBM materials and the tritium extraction from breeder materials are also surveyed.

  8. Processing and waste disposal needs for fusion breeder blankets system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finn, P.A.; Vogler, S.

    1988-01-01

    We evaluated the waste disposal and recycling requirements for two types of fusion breeder blanket (solid and liquid). The goal was to determine if breeder blanket waste can be disposed of in shallow land burial, the least restrictive method under U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission regulations. Described in this paper are the radionuclides expected in fusion blanket materials, plans for reprocessing and disposal of blanket components, and estimates for the operating costs involved in waste disposal. (orig.)

  9. Growth rates of breeder reactor fuel. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, K.O.

    1979-01-01

    During the contract period, a consistent formalism for the definition of the growth rates (and thus the doubling time) of breeder reactor fuel has been developed. This formalism was then extended to symbiotic operation of breeder and converter reactors. Further, an estimation prescription for the growth rate has been developed which is based upon the breeding worth factors. The characteristics of this definition have been investigated, which led to an additional integral concept, the breeding bonus

  10. Exploding the myths about the fast breeder reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burns, S.

    1979-01-01

    This paper discusses the facts and figures about the effects of conservation policies, the benefits of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor demonstration plant, the feasibility of nuclear weapons manufacture from reactor-grade plutonium, diversion of plutonium from nuclear plants, radioactive waste disposal, and the toxicity of plutonium. The paper concludes that the U.S. is not proceeding with a high confidence strategy for breeder development because of a variety of false assumptions.

  11. The development of the gas cooled fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalle Donne, M.; Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe

    1975-01-01

    A survey of the present technological state is given on the basis of the developments made so far. Some milestones of development - e.g. the German gas breeder memorandum, the Gas Breeder Reactor Association the results of the BR-2 radiation experiments and of GfK-KWU design and safety studies - are described. The problems connected with a large store of plutonium are also discussed. (UA/AK) [de

  12. Plutonium Worlds. Fast Breeders, Systems Analysis and Computer Simulation in the Age of Hypotheticality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Vehlken

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available This article examines the media history of one of the hallmark civil nuclear energy programs in Western Germany – the development of Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR technology. Promoted as a kind of perpetuum mobile of the Atomic Age, the "German Manhattan Project" not only imported big science thinking. In its context, nuclear technology was also put forth as an avantgarde of scientific inquiry, dealing with the most complex and critical technological endeavors. In the face of the risks of nuclear technology, German physicist Wolf Häfele thus announced a novel epistemology of "hypotheticality". In a context where traditional experimental engineering strategies became inappropiate, he called for the application of advanced media technologies: Computer Simulations (CS and Systems Analysis (SA generated computerized spaces for the production of knowledge. In the course of the German Fast Breeder program, such methods had a twofold impact. One the one hand, Häfele emphazised – as the "father of the German Fast Breeder" – the utilization of CS for the actual planning and construction of the novel reactor type. On the other, namely as the director of the department of Energy Systems at the International Institute for Applied Systems Analysis (IIASA, Häfele advised SA-based projections of energy consumption. These computerized scenarios provided the rationale for the conception of Fast Breeder programs as viable and necessary alternative energy sources in the first place. By focusing on the role of the involved CS techniques, the paper thus investigates the intertwined systems thinking of nuclear facilities’s planning and construction and the design of large-scale energy consumption and production scenarios in the 1970s and 1980s, as well as their conceptual afterlives in our contemporary era of computer simulation.

  13. CerealsDB 2.0: an integrated resource for plant breeders and scientists

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilkinson Paul A

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Food security is an issue that has come under renewed scrutiny amidst concerns that substantial yield increases in cereal crops are required to feed the world’s booming population. Wheat is of fundamental importance in this regard being one of the three most important crops for both human consumption and livestock feed; however, increase in crop yields have not kept pace with the demands of a growing world population. In order to address this issue, plant breeders require new molecular tools to help them identify genes for important agronomic traits that can be introduced into elite varieties. Studies of the genome using next-generation sequencing enable the identification of molecular markers such as single nucleotide polymorphisms that may be used by breeders to identify and follow genes when breeding new varieties. The development and application of next-generation sequencing technologies has made the characterisation of SNP markers in wheat relatively cheap and straightforward. There is a growing need for the widespread dissemination of this information to plant breeders. Description CerealsDB is an online resource containing a range of genomic datasets for wheat (Triticum aestivum that will assist plant breeders and scientists to select the most appropriate markers for marker assisted selection. CerealsDB includes a database which currently contains in excess of 100,000 putative varietal SNPs, of which several thousand have been experimentally validated. In addition, CerealsDB contains databases for DArT markers and EST sequences, and links to a draft genome sequence for the wheat variety Chinese Spring. Conclusion CerealsDB is an open access website that is rapidly becoming an invaluable resource within the wheat research and plant breeding communities.

  14. Accelerator breeders, will they replace liquid metal fast breeders (question mark)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grand, P.; Powell, J.R.; Steinberg, M.; Takahashi, H.

    1983-01-01

    Advances in accelerator technology make accelerator breeding of fissile fuel more and more attractive. Brookhaven studies indicate that accelerator breeders could be implemented commercially within twenty years and that the resulting AB-LWR fuel cycle cost is competitive with that of the LMFBR. This cost competitiveness would be greatly enhanced with more advanced converters. Feasibility studies carried out at Brookhaven over the last few years addressed principally the question of neutronics and engineering feasibility of the target system, technical issues of accelerator technology and cost/benefit analysis

  15. Accelerator molten-salt breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, Kazuo; Kuroi, Hideo; Kato, Yoshio; Oomichi, Toshihiko.

    1979-01-01

    Purpose: To obtain fission products and to transmute transuranium elements and other radioactive wastes by the use of Accelerator Molten-Salt Breeder Reactor. Constitution: Beams from an accelerator pipe at one end of a target vessel is injected through a window into target molten salts filled inside of the target vessel. The target molten salts are subjected to pump recycling or spontaneous convection while forcively cooled by blanket molten salts in an outer vessel. Then, energy is recovered from the blanket molten salts or the target molten salts at high temperatures through electric power generation or the like. Those salts containing such as thorium 232 and uranium 238 are used as the blanket molten salts so that fission products may be produced by neutrons generated in the target molten salts. PbCl 2 -PbF 2 and LiF-BeF 2 -ThF 4 can be used as the target molten salts and as the blanket molten salts respectively. (Seki, T.)

  16. Breeder reactor program in the USA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brewer, S.

    1978-01-01

    In the United States, commercial fuel reprocessing and demonstration test of plutonium breeder reactors were now postponed. LMFBR project and schedule of FFTF and afterwards await the results of INFCE. However, this is not discarding the development of LMFBRs. With the existing energy resources, the United States can have the opportunity to make careful and thorough study. Emphasis is placed on the research and development on new alternative types of fuel. FFTF going to be operated soon should provide effective means for the developments of FBR fuel and materials. High priority is to be retained for the test and development of sodium system hardwares. The nuclear proliferation problem is not related to heat transfer and secondary systems; it is associated with the selection of fuel and fuel cycle. The whole program is centered around LMFBR design and development. The target output will be 600 x 10 3 -- 700 x 10 3 MW. In the United States, now is the time to develop excellent products and to study the nuclear proliferation problem more carefully. (Mori, K.)

  17. Liquid metal tribology in fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wild, E.; Mack, K.J.; Gegenheimer, M.

    1984-11-01

    Liquid Metal Cooled Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBR) require mechanisms operating in various sodium liquid and sodium vapor environments for extended periods of time up to temperatures of 900 K under different chemical properties of the fluid. The design of tribological systems in those reactors cannot be based on data and past experience of so-called conventional tribology. Although basic tribological phenomena and their scientific interpretation apply in this field, operating conditions specific to nuclear reactors and prevailing especially in the nuclear part of such facilities pose special problems. Therefore, in the framework of the R and D-program accompanying the construction phase of SNR 300 experiments were carried out to provide data and knowledge necessary for the lay-out of friction systems between mating surfaces of contacting components. Initially, screening tests isolated material pairs with good slipping properties and maximum wear resistance. Those materials were subjected to comprehensive parameter investigations. A multitude of laboratory scale tests have been performed under largely reactor specific conditions. Unusual superimpositions of parameters were analyzed and separated to find their individual influence on the friction process. The results of these experiments were made available to the reactor industry as well as to factories producing special tribo-materials. (orig.) [de

  18. The future of the Fast Breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lefevre, J.C.

    1990-01-01

    Fast Breeder Reactors (FBRs) can produce more fissile nuclei than they consume whilst, at the same time, generating energy using fast neutrons. By conversion of uranium isotope 238 into a fissionable fuel, FBRs provide over 60 times more energy than can be extracted from the uranium reserves by thermal reactors. Their development is therefore an essential objective in the next century, particularly for those industrialised countries that have little or no energy resources of their own. The European countries which have been engaged in the development of FBRs for more than 25 years have decided to collaborate in an advanced design, the European Fast Reactor (EFR) which uses the best of previous national projects and draws on extensive operating experience from FBR plants in Europe. The naturally safe characteristics and technological features of sodium-cooled Fast Reactors will be fully utilised in an EFR design which meets the same safety level as the Light Water Reactors (LWRs). Owing to technical progress and series construction effect, the EFR is expected to achieve competitiveness with contemporary LWRs with the higher capital cost of the Fast Reactor offset by its markedly lower fuel cycle cost. (author)

  19. Preliminary design of a Binary Breeder Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Garcia C, E. Y.; Francois, J. L.; Lopez S, R. C.

    2014-10-01

    A binary breeder reactor (BBR) is a reactor that by means of the transmutation and fission process can operates through the depleted uranium burning with a small quantity of fissile material. The advantages of a BBR with relation to other nuclear reactor types are numerous, taking into account their capacity to operate for a long time without requiring fuel reload or re-arrangement. In this work four different simulations are shown carried out with the MCNPX code with libraries Jeff-3.1 to 1200 K. The objective of this study is to compare two different models of BBR: a spherical reactor and a cylindrical one, using two fuel cycles for each one of them (U-Pu and Th-U) and different reflectors for the two different geometries. For all the models a super-criticality state was obtained at least 10.9 years without carrying out some fuel re-arrangement or reload. The plutonium-239 production was achieved in the models where natural uranium was used in the breeding area, while the production of uranium-233 was observed in the cases where thorium was used in the fertile area. Finally, a behavior of stationary wave reactor was observed inside the models of spherical reactor when contemplating the power uniform increment in the breeding area, while inside the cylindrical models was observed the behavior of a traveling wave reactor when registering the displacement of the burnt wave along the cylindrical model. (Author)

  20. Lithium mass transport in ceramic breeder materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blackburn, P.E.; Johnson, C.E.

    1990-01-01

    The objective of this activity is to measure the lithium vaporization from lithium oxide breeder material under differing temperature and moisture partial pressure conditions. Lithium ceramics are being investigated for use as tritium breeding materials. The lithium is readily converted to tritium after reacting with a neutron. With the addition of 1000 ppM H 2 to the He purge gas, the bred tritium is readily recovered from the blanket as HT and HTO above 400 degree C. Within the solid, tritium may also be found as LiOT which may transport lithium to cooler parts of the blanket. The pressure of LiOT(g), HTO(g), or T 2 O(g) above Li 2 O(s) is the same as that for reactions involving hydrogen. In our experiments we were limited to the use of hydrogen. The purpose of this work is to investigate the transport of LiOH(g) from the blanket material. 8 refs., 1 fig., 3 tabs

  1. Fusion breeder: its potential role and prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, J.D.

    1981-01-01

    The fusion breeder is a concept that utilizes 14 MeV neutrons from D + T → n(14.1 MeV) + α(3.5 MeV) fusion reactions to produce more fuel than the tritium (T) needed to sustain the fusion process. This excess fuel production capacity is used to produce fissile material (Pu-239 or U-233) for subsequent use in fission reactors. We are concentrating on a class of blankets we call fission suppressed. The blanket is the region surrounding the fusion plasma in which fusion neutrons interact to produce fuel and heat. The fission-suppressed blanket uses non-fission reactions (mainly (n,2n) or (n,n't)) to generate excess neutrons for the production of net fuel. This is in contrast to the fast fission class of blankets which use (n,fiss) reactions to generate excess neutrons. Fusion reactors with fast fission blankets are commony known as fusion-fission hybrids because they combine fusion and fission in the same device

  2. Environmental Enrichment for Broiler Breeders: An Undeveloped Field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anja B. Riber

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Welfare problems, such as hunger, frustration, aggression, and abnormal sexual behavior, are commonly found in broiler breeder production. To prevent or reduce these welfare problems, it has been suggested to provide stimulating enriched environments. We review the effect of the different types of environmental enrichment for broiler breeders, which have been described in the scientific literature, on behavior and welfare. Environmental enrichment is defined as an improvement of the environment of captive animals, which increases the behavioral opportunities of the animal and leads to improvements in biological function. This definition has been broadened to include practical and economic aspects as any enrichment strategy that adversely affects the health of animals (e.g., environmental hygiene, or that has too many economic or practical constraints will never be implemented on commercial farms and thus never benefit animals. Environmental enrichment for broiler breeders often has the purpose of satisfying the behavioral motivations for feeding and foraging, resting, and/or encouraging normal sexual behavior. Potentially successful enrichments for broiler breeders are elevated resting places, cover panels, and substrate (for broiler breeders housed in cage systems. However, most of the ideas for environmental enrichment for broiler breeders need to be further developed and studied with respect to the use, the effect on behavior and welfare, and the interaction with genotype and production system. In addition, information on practical use and the economics of the production system is often lacking although it is important for application in practice.

  3. Status of fast breeder reactor development in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosen, S

    1979-07-01

    This document was prepared by the Office of the Program Director for Nuclear Energy, U.S. Department of Energy (USDOE). It sets forth the status and current activities for the development of fast breeder technology in the United States. In April 1977 the United States announced a change in its nuclear energy policy. Concern about the potential for the proliferation of nuclear weapons capability emerged as a major issue in considering whether to proceed with the development, demonstration and eventual deployment of breeder reactor energy systems. Plutonium recycle and the commercialization of the fast breeder were deferred indefinitely. This led to a reorientation of the nuclear fuel cycle program which was previously directed toward the commercialization of fuel reprocessing and plutonium recycle to the investigation of a full range of alternative fuel cycle technologies. Two major system evaluation programs, the Nonproliferation Alternative Systems Assessment Program (NASAP), which is domestic, and the International Nuclear Fuel Cycle Evaluation (INFCE), which is international, are assessing the nonproliferation advantages and other characteristics of advanced reactor concepts and fuel cycles. These evaluations will allow a decision in 1981 on the future direction of the breeder program. In the interim, the technologies of two fast breeder reactor concepts are being developed: the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) and the Gas Cooled Fast Reactor (CFR). The principal goals of the fast breeder program are: LMFBR - through a strong R and D program, consistent with US nonproliferation objectives and anticipated national electric energy requirements, maintain the capability to commit to a breeder option; investigate alternative fuels and fuel cycles that might offer nonproliferation advantages; GCFR - provide a viable alternative to the LMFBR that will be consistent with the developing U.S. nonproliferation policy; provide GCFR technology and other needed

  4. Fast breeder physics and nuclear core design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marth, W.; Schroeder, R.

    1983-07-01

    This report gathers the papers that have been presented on January 18/19, 1983 at a seminar ''Fast breeder physics and nuclear core design'' held at KfK. These papers cover the results obtained within about the last five years in the r+d program and give some indication, what still has to be done. To begin with, the ''tools'' of the core designer, i.e. nuclear data and neutronics codes are covered in a comprehensive way, the seminar emphasized the applications, however. First of all the accuracies obtained for the most important parameters are presented for the design of homogeneous and heterogeneous cores of about 1000 MWe, they are based on the results of critical experiments. This is followed by a survey on activities related to the KNK II reactor, i.e. calculations concerning a modification of the core as well as critical experiments done with respect to re-loads. Finally, work concerning reactivity worths of accident configurations is presented: the generation of reactivity worths for the input of safety-related calculations of a SNR 2 design, and critical experiments to investigate the requirements for the codes to be used for these calculations. These papers are accompanied by two contributions from the industrial partners. The first one deals with the requirements to nuclear design methods as seen by the reactor designer and then shows what has been achieved. The latter one presents state, trends, and methods of the SNR 2 design. The concluding remarks compare the state of the art reached within DeBeNe with international achievements. (orig.) [de

  5. Status of the solid breeder materials database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Billone, M.C.; Dienst, W.; Lorenzetto, P.; Noda, K.; Roux, N.

    1995-01-01

    The databases for solid breeder ceramics (Li 2 O, Li 4 SiO 4 , Li 2 ZrO 3 , and LiAlO 2 ) and beryllium multiplier material were critically reviewed and evaluated as part of the ITER/CDA design effort (1988-1990). The results have been documented in a detailed technical report. Emphasis was placed on the physical, thermal, mechanical, chemical stability/compatibility, tritium retention/release, and radiation stability properties which are needed to assess the performance of these materials in a fusion reactor environment. Materials properties correlations were selected for use in design analysis, and ranges for input parameters (e.g., temperature, porosity, etc.) were established. Also, areas for future research and development in blanket materials technology were highlighted and prioritized. For Li 2 O, the most significant increase in the database has come in the area of tritium retention as a function of operating temperature and purge flow composition. The database for postirradiation inventory from purged in-reactor samples has increased from four points to 20 points. These new data have allowed an improvement in understanding and modeling, as well as better interpretation of the results of laboratory annealing studies on unirradiated and irradiated material. In the case of Li 2 ZrO 3 , relatively little data were available on the sensitivity of the mechanical properties of this ternary ceramic to microstructure and moisture content. The increase in the database for this material has allowed not only better characterization of its properties, but also optimization of fabrication parameters to improve its performance. Some additional data are also available for the other two ternary ceramics to aid in the characterization of their performance. In particular, the thermal performance of these materials, as well as beryllium, in packed-bed form has been measured and characterized

  6. Status of fast breeder development in Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heusener, G.

    1992-01-01

    The German Minister for Research and Technology (BMFT), Dr. Heinz Riesenhuber, announced on March 20, 1991 that SNR 300, the fast breeder power plant at Kalkar, shall be abandoned. This message followed a top level meeting between BMFT officials and senior managers of Siemens, RWE, PreuBenElektra und Bayernwerk. BMFT, vendor Siemens and the three utilities had carried the interim finance costs of DM 105 million yearly since 1989. The licensing procedure had been obstructed during a long time by the responsible authorities. For several years the licensing process for the last permits on nuclear operation of KKW Kalkar had been held up by the government of the state of North Rhine-Westphalia (NWR). Licensing of nuclear power plants is the responsibility of the states, according to the German Atomic Act. The state of NRW turned against the SNR 300 project when the Social Democratic Party (SPD) started questioning nuclear power in 1985. Until then 17 partial licenses for SNR 300 had been granted, each time including an overall project approval. One of the consequences of the demise of SNR-300 was that Interatom GmbH, a subsidiary of Siemens AG, has been integrated into the division KWU of the Siemens AG on 1 October, 1991. For SNR 300 the turn-key contracts to the supplier company were cancelled by the operator on April 10, 1991 following the political termination of the SNR-300 Project. On August 23, 1991 after the termination of the SNR project, KfK decided to shutdown the KNK II reactor for final decommissioning

  7. Status of fast breeder development in Germany

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Heusener, G [Kernforschungszentrum Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe (Germany)

    1992-07-01

    The German Minister for Research and Technology (BMFT), Dr. Heinz Riesenhuber, announced on March 20, 1991 that SNR 300, the fast breeder power plant at Kalkar, shall be abandoned. This message followed a top level meeting between BMFT officials and senior managers of Siemens, RWE, PreuBenElektra und Bayernwerk. BMFT, vendor Siemens and the three utilities had carried the interim finance costs of DM 105 million yearly since 1989. The licensing procedure had been obstructed during a long time by the responsible authorities. For several years the licensing process for the last permits on nuclear operation of KKW Kalkar had been held up by the government of the state of North Rhine-Westphalia (NWR). Licensing of nuclear power plants is the responsibility of the states, according to the German Atomic Act. The state of NRW turned against the SNR 300 project when the Social Democratic Party (SPD) started questioning nuclear power in 1985. Until then 17 partial licenses for SNR 300 had been granted, each time including an overall project approval. One of the consequences of the demise of SNR-300 was that Interatom GmbH, a subsidiary of Siemens AG, has been integrated into the division KWU of the Siemens AG on 1 October, 1991. For SNR 300 the turn-key contracts to the supplier company were cancelled by the operator on April 10, 1991 following the political termination of the SNR-300 Project. On August 23, 1991 after the termination of the SNR project, KfK decided to shutdown the KNK II reactor for final decommissioning.

  8. Liquid metal cooled fast breeder nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Durston, J.G.

    1976-01-01

    It is stated that in a liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactor wherein the core, intermediate heat exchangers and liquid metal pumps are immersed in a pool of coolant such as Na, the intermediate heat exchangers are suspended from the roof, and ducting is provided in the form of a core tank or shroud interconnected with 'pods' housing the intermediate exchangers for directing coolant from the core over the heat exchanger tubes and thence back to the main pool of liquid metal. Seals are provided between the intermediate heat exchanger shells and the walls of their 'pods' to prevent liquid metal flow by-passing the heat exchanger tube bundles. As the heat exchangers must be withdrawable for servicing, and because linear differential thermal expansion of the heat exchanger and its 'pod' must be accommodated the seals hitherto have been of the sliding kind, generally known as 'piston ring type seals'. These present several disadvantages; for example sealing is not absolute, and the metal to metal seal gives rise to wear and fretting by rubbing and vibration. This could lead to seizure or jamming by the deposition of impurities in the coolant. Another difficulty arises in the need to accommodate lateral thermal expansion of the ducting, including the core tank and 'pods'. Hitherto some expansion has been allowed for by the use of expansible bellow pairs in the interconnections, or alternatively by allowing local deformations of the core tank 'pods'. Such bellows must be very flexible and hence constitute a weak section of the ducting, and local deformations give rise to high stress levels that could lead to premature failure. The arrangement described seeks to overcome these difficulties by use of a gas pocket trapping means to effect a seal against vertical liquid flow between the heat exchanger shell and the wall of the heat exchanger housing. Full details of the arrangement are described. (U.K.)

  9. Effect of vaccinating breeder chickens with a killed Salmonella vaccine on Salmonella prevalences and loads in breeder and broiler chicken flocks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berghaus, R D; Thayer, S G; Maurer, J J; Hofacre, C L

    2011-05-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of vaccination of breeder chickens on Salmonella prevalences and loads in breeder and broiler chicken flocks. Chickens housed on six commercial breeder farms were vaccinated with a killed Salmonella vaccine containing Salmonella Typhimurium, Salmonella Enteritidis, and Salmonella Kentucky. Unvaccinated breeders placed on six additional farms served as controls. Eggs from vaccinated and unvaccinated breeder flocks were kept separately in the hatchery, and the resulting chicks were used to populate 58 commercial broiler flock houses by using a pair-matched design. Vaccinated breeder flocks had significantly higher Salmonella-specific antibody titers than did the unvaccinated breeder flocks, although they did not differ significantly with respect to environmental Salmonella prevalences or loads. Broiler flocks that were the progeny of vaccinated breeders had significantly lower Salmonella prevalences and loads than broiler flocks that were the progeny of unvaccinated breeders. After adjusting for sample type and clustering at the farm level, the odds of detecting Salmonella in samples collected from broiler flocks originating from vaccinated breeders were 62% lower (odds ratio [95% confidence interval] = 0.38 [0.21, 0.68]) than in flocks from unvaccinated breeders. In addition, the mean load of culture-positive samples was lower in broilers from vaccinated breeders by 0.30 log most probable number per sample (95% confidence interval of -0.51, -0.09; P = 0.004), corresponding to a 50% decrease in Salmonella loads. In summary, vaccination of broiler breeder pullets increased humoral immunity in the breeders and reduced Salmonella prevalences and loads in their broiler progeny, but did not significantly decrease Salmonella in the breeder farm environment.

  10. Compendium of computer codes for the safety analysis of fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-10-01

    The objective of the compendium is to provide the reader with a guide which briefly describes many of the computer codes used for liquid metal fast breeder reactor safety analyses, since it is for this system that most of the codes have been developed. The compendium is designed to address the following frequently asked questions from individuals in licensing and research and development activities: (1) What does the code do. (2) To what safety problems has it been applied. (3) What are the code's limitations. (4) What is being done to remove these limitations. (5) How does the code compare with experimental observations and other code predictions. (6) What reference documents are available

  11. United States Department of Energy breeder reactor staff training domestic program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1984-01-01

    Two US DOE projects in the Pacific Northwest offer unique on-the-scene training opportunities at sodium-cooled fast-reactor plants: the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) near Richland, Washington, which has operated successfully in a wide range of irradiation test programs since 1980; and the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) near Idaho Falls, Idaho, which has been in operation for approximately 20 years. Training programs have been especially designed to take advantage of this plant experience. Available courses are described

  12. Optimal reactor strategy for commercializing fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yamaji, Kenji; Nagano, Koji

    1988-01-01

    In this paper, a fuel cycle optimization model developed for analyzing the condition of selecting fast breeder reactors in the optimal reactor strategy is described. By dividing the period of planning, 1966-2055, into nine ten-year periods, the model was formulated as a compact linear programming model. With the model, the best mix of reactor types as well as the optimal timing of reprocessing spent fuel from LWRs to minimize the total cost were found. The results of the analysis are summarized as follows. Fast breeder reactors could be introduced in the optimal strategy when they can economically compete with LWRs with 30 year storage of spent fuel. In order that fast breeder reactors monopolize the new reactor market after the achievement of their technical availability, their capital cost should be less than 0.9 times as much as that of LWRs. When a certain amount of reprocessing commitment is assumed, the condition of employing fast breeder reactors in the optimal strategy is mitigated. In the optimal strategy, reprocessing is done just to meet plutonium demand, and the storage of spent fuel is selected to adjust the mismatch of plutonium production and utilization. The price hike of uranium ore facilitates the commercial adoption of fast breeder reactors. (Kako, I.)

  13. Optimization of binary breeder reactor VI - An acceptable project of binary breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ishiguro, Y.; Dias, A.F.

    1986-05-01

    A binary breeder reactor that achieves desired characteristics reasonably well has been developed. Its design and characteristics are reported. Previous models showed several complications that result from introduction of 233 U/Th fuel in the core of a LMFBR, compared to purely Pu/U fueled ones. In this new model, the core is made larger to achieve higher breeding ratios and longer refueling intervals, the number of fuel assemblies is increased to accomodate a larger number of control rod assemblies required to compensate for reactivity losses and to control oscillations of the power densities, and, consequently, the fuel inventories are higher. High fuel burnups are achieved without too much complications in the refueling schedule and the power densities can be maintained reasonably constant over an operational cycle. Low sodium void reactivity reduce the potential for severe accidents and a reasonably efficient utilization of thorium can be realized. (Author) [pt

  14. Liquid metal cooled fast breeder nuclear reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barnes, S.

    1976-01-01

    Reference is made to liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactors of the 'pool' kind. In this type of reactor the irradiated fuel is lowered into a transfer rotor for removal to storage facilities, this rotor normally having provision for the temporary storage of 20 irradiated fuel assemblies, each within a stainless steel bucket. For insertion or withdrawal of a fuel assembly the rotor is rotated to bring the fuel assembly to a loading or discharging station. The irradiated fuel assembly is withdrawn from the rotor within its bucket and the total weight is approximately 1000 kg, which is lifted about 27 m. In the event of malfunction the combination falls back into the rotor with considerable force. In order to prevent damage to the rotor fracture pins are provided, and to prevent damage to the reactor vessel and other parts of the reactor structure deformable energy absorbing devices are provided. After a malfunction the fractured pins and the energy absorbing devices must be replaced by remote control means operated from outside the reactor vault - a complex operation. The object of the arrangement described is to provide improved energy absorbing means for fuel assemblies falling into a fuel transfer rotor. The fuel assemblies are supported in the rotor by elastic means during transfer to storage and a hydraulic dash pot is provided in at least one position below the rotor for absorbing the energy of a falling fuel assembly. It is preferable to provide dash pots immediately below a receiving station for irradiated fuel assemblies and immediately below a discharge station. Each bucket is carried in a container that is elastically supported in the transfer rotor on a helical coil compression spring, so that, in the event of a malfunction the container and bucket are returned to their normal operating position after the force of the falling load has been absorbed by the dash pot. The transfer rotor may also be provided with recoil springs to absorb the recoil energy

  15. Safety of the liquid-metal cooled fast breeder reactor and aspects of its fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessler, G.; Papp, R.; Huebel, D.

    1977-01-01

    Design and construction of the sodium-cooled fast reactors KNK-II (20MW(e)) and SNR-300 (300MW(e)) determine the status of safety engineering and safety R and D of LMFBRs in the Federal Republic of Germany. Both prototype fast power reactors have to go through a civil licensing process similar to that applied to present LWRs. A multilevel safety - or defence in depth - approach is applied to the design and construction of fast power reactors. All design data of the fast reactor plant are confirmed by extensive experimental programmes. Design limits of the plant are thoroughly discussed during the licensing process. Important safety R and D programmes have been and are still being performed. A very conservative safety analysis for hypothetical core and other plant accidents is used for present prototype fast reactors. The paper reviews the future trend of development of theoretical methods for accident analysis and the application of experimental results, especially in view of large commercial-type LMFBRs. The safety approach applied to the LMFBR plant is safe operation under normal operating conditions and safe shutdown under off-normal conditions. The consequences of releases of radioactivity to the environment meet the given standards. No chemical reprocessing plant for fast breeder fuel is in operation in the FRG at present; however, R and D work on investigation of all aspects and problem areas of the fast breeder fuel cycle are under way. Systems studies on safety aspects of the fast breeder fuel cycle (transport, reprocessing, fuel fabrication) and its impact on the environment have been performed and the main consequences of these studies are presented in the paper. (author)

  16. Status of liquid metal cooled fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1985-01-01

    This document represents a compilation of the information on the status of fast breeder reactor development. It is intended to provide complete and authoritative information for academic, energy, industrial and planning organizations in the IAEA Member States. The Report also provides extended reference and bibliography lists. A summarized overview of the national programmes of LMFBR development is given in Chapter II. Chapter III on LMFBR experience provides a brief description and purpose of all fast reactors - experimental, demonstration and commercial size - that have been or are planned for construction and operation. Fast reactor physics is dealt with in Chapter IV. Besides the basic facts and definitions of neutronics and the compilation and measurement of nuclear data, a broad range of the calculation methods, codes, and the state of the art is described. In Chapter V, fuels and materials are described. The emphasis is on the design and development experience gained with mixed oxide fuel pins and subassemblies. Structural materials, blanket elements and absorber materials are also discussed. Chaper VI presents a broad overview of the technical and engineering aspects of LMFBR power plants. LMFBR core design is described in detail, followed by the components of the main heat transport system, the refuelling equipment, and auxiliary systems. Chapter VII on safety is a compilation of the current safety design concepts of LMFBRs and new trends in safety criteria and safety goals. The chapter concludes with risk analyses of LMFBR technology. In Chapter VIII, the systems approach has been emphasized in the consideration of the whole LMFBR fuel cycle. Special emphasis is placed on safeguards aspects and the environmental impact of the LMFBR fuel cycle. Chapter IX describes deployment considerations of LMFBRs. Special emphasis is placed on economic aspects of the LMFBR power plant and its related fuel cycle. Finally, Chapter X provides an overall summary and a

  17. European in-pile investigations on fast breeder reactor safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailly, J.; Penet, F.; Teague, H.J.

    1977-01-01

    Because of the difficulties faced by the various organisations responsible for the design and safety analysis of fast reactors, in the conception and execution of perfectly representative experiments corresponding to the various hypothetical accidents considered, the European experts in this field have chosen to adopt a more fundamental approach. By the coordination of the efforts in the different countries and pooling the results, it appears that sufficient data can be assembled to permit them to: isolate the influence of the principle parameters on the course of an accident and to have an appreciation of the possibilities for detection and propagation; and validate calculational models of the essential phenomena, and determine the values of the adjustable parameters used in accident codes. The present paper does not propose to give an exhaustive description of the European experimental programmes, nor of the possibilities for exploiting the results in safety analysis. The aim is simply to show with the aid of results already obtained or expected from the immediate programme, that it should be possible to answer certain fundamental questions concerning those accidents at present considered most important. Particular consideration is given to local blockages (SCARABEE, DFR and MOL 7C programmes), unprotected loss of pumps leading to cooling failure, and inlet blockage (SCARABEE and CABRI), and reactivity excursions (CABRI and VIPER). In addition it is planned to study, as part of the SCARABEE programme, the long-term post-accident behaviour of fuel in some simple configurations. It is shown that these various results should lead to a great improvement in our understanding of the progress of the hypothetical accidents taken into account in the design of fast breeder reactors [fr

  18. Dynamics and control of molten-salt breeder reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikram Singh

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary results of the dynamic analysis of a two-fluid molten-salt breeder reactor (MSBR system are presented. Based on an earlier work on the preliminary dynamic model of the concept, the model presented here is nonlinear and has been revised to accurately reflect the design exemplified in ORNL-4528. A brief overview of the model followed by results from simulations performed to validate the model is presented. Simulations illustrate stable behavior of the reactor dynamics and temperature feedback effects to reactivity excursions. Stable and smooth changes at various nodal temperatures are also observed. Control strategies for molten-salt reactor operation are discussed, followed by an illustration of the open-loop load-following capability of the molten-salt breeder reactor system. It is observed that the molten-salt breeder reactor system exhibits “self-regulating” behavior, minimizing the need for external controller action for load-following maneuvers.

  19. Dynamics and control of molten-salt breeder reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sing, Vikram; Lish, Matthew R.; Chvala, Ondrej; Upadhyaya, Belle R. [Dept. of Nuclear Engineering, University of Tennessee, Knoxville (United States)

    2017-08-15

    Preliminary results of the dynamic analysis of a two-fluid molten-salt breeder reactor (MSBR) system are presented. Based on an earlier work on the preliminary dynamic model of the concept, the model presented here is nonlinear and has been revised to accurately reflect the design exemplified in ORNL-4528. A brief overview of the model followed by results from simulations performed to validate the model is presented. Simulations illustrate stable behavior of the reactor dynamics and temperature feedback effects to reactivity excursions. Stable and smooth changes at various nodal temperatures are also observed. Control strategies for molten-salt reactor operation are discussed, followed by an illustration of the open-loop load-following capability of the molten-salt breeder reactor system. It is observed that the molten-salt breeder reactor system exhibits “self-regulating” behavior, minimizing the need for external controller action for load-following maneuvers.

  20. Light water breeder reactor using a uranium-plutonium cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radkowsky, A.; Chen, R.

    1990-01-01

    This patent describes a light water receptor (LWR) for breeding fissile material using a uranium-plutonium cycle. It comprises: a prebreeder section having plutonium fuel containing a Pu-241 component, the prebreeder section being operable to produce enriched plutonium having an increased Pu-241 component; and a breeder section for receiving the enriched plutonium from the prebreeder section, the breeder section being operable for breeding fissile material from the enriched plutonium fuel. This patent describes a method of operating a light water nuclear reactor (LWR) for breeding fissile material using a uranium-plutonium cycle. It comprises: operating the prebreeder to produce enriched plutonium fuel having an increased Pu-241 component; fueling a breeder section with the enriched plutonium fuel to breed the fissile material

  1. The uranium market and its relevance for the fast breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marth, W.

    1982-01-01

    Uranium is a very particular element: the technology of light water nuclear power plants is based on its existence, and the doubts with respect to the long-term availability form the basis for the development of fast breeder reactor. At the same time uranium is a merchandise obedient to the laws of the market, which are based on offer and demand, which are however also affected by influences outside the market, particularly in the last time. Here an attempt is made to describe these peculiarities of the uranium market for the past, the presence and the visual future, and to give some insight into the economic field around the breeder reactor, as the uranium market is of great relevance for the introduction of the breeder as an electric power producing system. (orig.) [de

  2. Environmental assessment for Breeder Reprocessing Engineering Test (BRET): Revision 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lerch, R.E.

    1989-03-01

    This Environmental Assessment (EA) is for the proposed installation and operation of an integrated breeder fuel reprocessing test system in the shielded cells of the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF) at Hanford and the associated modifications to the FMEF to accommodate BRET. These modifications would begin in FY-1986 subject to Congressional authorization. Hot operations would be scheduled to start in the early 1990's. The system, called the Breeder Reprocessing Engineering Test (BRET), is being designed to provide a test capability for developing the demonstrating fuel reprocessing, remote maintenance, and safeguards technologies for breeder reactor fuels. This EA describes (1) the action being proposed, (2) the existing environment which would be affected, (3) the potential environmental impacts from normal operations and severe accidents from the proposed action, (4) potential conflicts with federal, state, regional, and/or local plans for the area, and (5) environmental implications of alternatives considered to the proposed action. 41 refs., 10 figs., 31 tabs

  3. Feeding broiler breeders to improve their welfare whilst maintaining productivity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenfeldt, Sanna; Nielsen, Birte Lindstrøm

    of their litter may have affected their thermoregulation. This experiment indicates that high fibre diets can alleviate the feeling of hunger currently experienced by broiler breeders, and a high ratio of insoluble fibre can reduce stereotypies and may improve the well-being of the birds.......In the present experiment different types of fibre sources were used in high fibre diets to increase feeding quantity whilst limiting the growth of broiler breeders to industry recommended levels. Using scatter feeding, three diets (CON, commercial control diet; INF, high insoluble fibre content......; and SOF, high soluble fibre content) were each fed to 10 groups of 12 broiler breeder chickens (age: 2 to 15 weeks). Similar growth rates were obtained on different quantities of food (e.g. food allocation in week 14: approx. 80, 100, and 130 g/d for CON, INF, and SOF, respectively) with all birds...

  4. Comparative economics of the breeder and light water reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chow, B.G.

    1980-01-01

    The issue of breeder timing is studied in this article via a breakeven analysis in which the key driving variables are conveniently segregated into two groups, with uranium price providing the linkage. In one group, the technical and cost characteristics of reactors and fuel cycles determine the uranium breakeven price. In the other group, nuclear demand projections and the uranium supply schedule determine the time paths of uranium price for a given composition of reactor types. The author finds that, even if proliferation risk is ignored, the breeder is not economically competitive with a 30%-improved once-through light water reactor before the year 2030 in the USA and in the world outside communist areas as a whole in 90% of the cases examined. In the exceptional cases, the penalty of delaying commercial breeder introduction to 2030 is small and well within the noise level of long-term energy planning. (author)

  5. R + D work on gas-cooled breeder development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalle Donne, M.; Dorner, S.; Jacobs, G.; Meyer, L.; Rehme, K.; Schumacher, G.; Wilhelm, D.

    1978-01-01

    The development work for the gas-cooled breeder in the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center may be assigned to two different groups: a) Investigations on fuel elements. b) Studies concerning the safety of gas-cooled fast breeder reactors. To the first group there belongs the work related to the: - heat transfer between fuel elements and coolant gas, - influence of increased content of water vapor in helium or the fuel rods. The second group concerns: - establishing a computer code for transient calculations in the primary and secondary circuit of a gas-cooled fast breeder reactor, - steam reactivity coefficients, - the core destruction phase of hypothetical accidents, - the core-catcher using borax. (orig./RW) [de

  6. On the history of the Fast Breeder Project

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Marth, W.

    1981-07-01

    The evolution of the Fast Breeder Project from its beginning at the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center to the present cooperation of various organisations especially in the Federal Republic of Germany, the Netherlands, Belgium and France is described in its historical context. Where as the emphasis was on physical studies of fast neutron cores in the early phase, technological and safety problems gained importance in the subsequent development. The increasing collaboration with industry and the support by government funds resulted in the design and start of construction of the prototype SNR 300. The objectives and the reasoning underlying important intermediate decisions are described. In the meantime, licensing and funding problems have become decisive for the project schedule. The present report also gives an account of the international and national political aspects which influence the breeder reactor development. In the annex all fast breeder publications of the Karlsruhe Nuclear Research Center are listed. (orig.) [de

  7. Uranium alloys for using in fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moura Neto, C.; Pires, O.S.

    1988-08-01

    The U-Zr and U-Ti alloys are studied, given emphasis to the high solute solubility in gamma phase of uranium, which is suitable for using as metal fuel in fast breeder reactors. The alloys were prepared in electron beam furnaces and submitted to X-ray diffraction, X-ray fluorescence, microhardness, optical metallography, and chemical analysis. The obtained values are good agreements with the literature data. The study shows that the U-Zr presents better characteristics than the U-Ti for using as fuel in fast breeder reactors. (M.C.K.) [pt

  8. Inherent safe fast breeder reactors and actinide burners, metallic fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dorner, S.; Schumacher, G.

    1991-04-01

    Nuclear power without breeder strategy uses the possibilities for the energy supply only to a small extend compared to the possibilities of fast breeder reactors, which offer an energy supply for thousands of years. Moreover, a fast neutron device offers the opportunity to run an actinide-burner that could improve the situation of waste management. Within this concept metallic fuel could play a key role. The present report shows some important aspects of the concept like the pyrometallic reprocessing, the behaviour of metallic fuel during a core meltdown accident and others. The report should contribute to the discussion of these problems and initialize further work

  9. Modeling delayed neutron monitoring systems for fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bunch, W.L.; Tang, E.L.

    1983-10-01

    The purpose of the present work was to develop a general expression relating the count rate of a delayed neutron monitoring system to the introduction rate of fission fragments into the sodium coolant of a fast breeder reactor. Most fast breeder reactors include a system for detecting the presence of breached fuel that permits contact between the sodium coolant and the mixed oxide fuel. These systems monitor for the presence of fission fragments in the sodium that emit delayed neutrons. For operational reasons, the goal is to relate the count rate of the delayed neutron monitor to the condition of the breach in order that appropriate action might be taken

  10. Secure Automated Fabrication: an overview of remote breeder fuel fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nyman, D.H.; Graham, R.A.

    1983-10-01

    The Secure Automated Fabrication (SAF) line is an automated, remotely controlled breeder fuel pin fabrication process which is to be installed in the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF). The FMEF is presently under construction at Hanford and is scheduled for completion in 1984. The SAF line is scheduled for startup in 1987 and will produce mixed uranium-plutonium fuel pins for the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF) and the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP). The fabrication line and support systems are described

  11. Prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni in poultry breeder flocks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ludovico Dipineto

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to present the preliminary results of a study about the prevalence of Campylobacter jejuni in poultry breeder flocks. It was examined three different breeder flocks of Bojano in Molise region. A total of 360 cloacal swabs and 80 enviromental swabs was collected. Of the 3 flocks studied, 6.9% tested were positive for Campylobacter spp. The most-prevalent isolated species is C. jejuni (8.2%. Only 3 of the 360 cloacal swabs samples examined were associated with C. coli. The environmental swabs resulted negative. This results confirms again that poultry is a reservoir of this germ.

  12. Generating the flux map of Nigeria Research Reactor-1 for efficient ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    One of the main uses to which the Nigeria Research Reactor-1 (NIRR-1) will be put is neutron activation analysis. The activation analyst requires information about the flux level at various points within and around the reactor core to enable him identify the point of optimum flux (at a given operating power) for any irradiation ...

  13. The development of a cavitation free sodium pump for the breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baladi, J.Y.; Nyilas, C.P.

    1986-01-01

    The sodium pumps for a liquid metal fast breeder reactor must be designed for exceptionally high reliability and long life. The principal adverse factor which tends to limit the primary pump life is cavitation which becomes potentially severe under off-design flow conditions caused by the requirement of two loop operations which resulted in a large operating flow range. This problem prompted an extensive study which included experimental investigations of scaled down and full size pumps. The investigations involved visual observations, acoustic signature recordings, and physical characteristic measurements of the model and full size impellers. The blade configuration of the model was modified several times. This paper describes the test facilities erected for this study, discusses the experimental techniques employed, and presents a sample of the experimental results

  14. Simulation and design of an electron beam ion source charge breeder for the californium rare isotope breeder upgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clayton Dickerson

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available An electron beam ion source (EBIS will be constructed and used to charge breed ions from the californium rare isotope breeder upgrade (CARIBU for postacceleration into the Argonne tandem linear accelerator system (ATLAS. Simulations of the EBIS charge breeder performance and the related ion transport systems are reported. Propagation of the electron beam through the EBIS was verified, and the anticipated incident power density within the electron collector was identified. The full normalized acceptance of the charge breeder with a 2 A electron beam, 0.024π  mm mrad for nominal operating parameters, was determined by simulating ion injection into the EBIS. The optics of the ion transport lines were carefully optimized to achieve well-matched ion injection, to minimize emittance growth of the injected and extracted ion beams, and to enable adequate testing of the charge bred ions prior to installation in ATLAS.

  15. U.S. reference paper on national decisions on breeder development and deployment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-10-01

    Factors involved in making national decisions on the deployment of breeder reactor systems are identified in terms of a nation's potential for electrification, capital resources, the available industrial and manpower infrastructure and importance attached to energy independence and the degree to which a breeder program can help realize this objective in the time scale of interest. The specific factors analysed are: the high capital cost of the breeder and the one-time transition costs to bring the breeder to maturity the high breeder research, development and demonstration costs, the impact of discount rate, and the fuel cycle costs, e.g. indigeneous facilities or purchase of services. A principal conclusion of this paper is that nations may find it more economical to continue to deploy LWRs for a number of years rather than to consider the breeder option because of the initial high breeder capital cost and high breeder R and D costs

  16. Irradiaiton facilities for testing solid and liquid blanket breeder materials with in-situ tritium release measurements in the HFR Petten

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conrad, R.; Debarberis, L.

    1991-01-01

    Lithium-based tritium breeder materials for solid and liquid fusion reactor blanket concepts are being tested in the High Flux Reactor (HFR) Petten with in-situ tritium release measurements since 1985, within the European Fusion Technology Programme and the BEATRIX-I programme. Ceramic breeder materials are being tested in the EXOTIC and COMPLIMENT experimental programmes and the liquid breeder material, Pb-17Li, is being tested in the LIBRETTO experimental programme. The in-pile experiments are performed with irradiation facilities developed by the Joint Research Centre (JRC) Petten. The irradiation vehicles are multi-channel rigs. The sample holders consist of independent, fully instrumented and triple contained capsules. The out-of-pile experimental equipment consist of twelve independent circuits for on-line tritium release and tritium permeation measurements and eight independent circuits for temperature control. The experimental achievements obtained so far contribute to the selection of candidate tritium breeder materials for blanket concepts of near future machines like NET, ITER and DEMO. (orig.)

  17. Vitamin and trace mineral content in feed of breeders and their progeny: effects of growth, feed conversion and severity of malabsorption syndrome of broilers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rebel, J.M.J.; Dam, van J.T.P.; Zekarias, B.; Balk, F.R.M.; Post, J.; Minambres, A.F.; Huurne, ter A.A.H.M.

    2004-01-01

    1. A study was conducted to investigate the effects of several vitamins and trace elements supplemented to basal breeder and broiler feed to the immune system. Effects were tested in control chickens and in chickens experimentally infected with malabsorption syndrome (MAS). 2. Vitamins and trace

  18. Status and prospects of thermal breeders and their effect on fuel utilization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1979-01-01

    The report evaluates the extent to which thermal breeders and near-breeders might complement fast breeders or serve as an alternative in solving the long-term nuclear fuel supply problem. It considers in a general way issues such as proliferation, safety, environmental impacts, economics, power plant availability and fuel cycle versatility in order to determine whether thermal breeder reactors offer advantages or disadvantages with respect to such issues.

  19. Status and prospects of thermal breeders and their effect on fuel utilization

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1979-01-01

    The report evaluates the extent to which thermal breeders and near-breeders might complement fast breeders or serve as an alternative in solving the long-term nuclear fuel supply problem. It considers in a general way issues such as proliferation, safety, environmental impacts, economics, power plant availability and fuel cycle versatility in order to determine whether thermal breeder reactors offer advantages or disadvantages with respect to such issues

  20. Fast breeder fuel cycle, worldwide and French prospects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapin, M.

    1982-01-01

    A review is given of fast breeder fuel cycle development from both the technological and the economical points of view. LMFBR fuel fabrication, reactor operation, spent fuel storage and transportation, reprocessing and fuel cycle economics are topics considered. (U.K.)

  1. Feeding broiler breeder flocks in relation to bird welfare aspects

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, de I.C.; Krimpen, van M.M.

    2011-01-01

    To ensure health and reproductive capacity of the birds, broiler breeders are fed restricted during the rearing period, and to a lesser extent also during the production period. Although restricted feeding improves health and thereby bird welfare, on the other hand the birds are chronically hungry

  2. Impact of nutrition on welfare aspects of broiler breeder flocks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krimpen, van M.M.; Jong, de I.C.

    2014-01-01

    To ensure health and reproductive performance, broiler breeders are feed restricted during the rearing period and, to a lesser extent, during the production period. Although restricted feeding improves health and bird welfare, on the other hand the birds are chronically hungry and suffer from

  3. Levels of safety satisfactory for commercialization of the breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ferguson, R.L.

    1979-01-01

    A brief discussion is presented of the Department of Energy's LMFBR safety program and the safety levels which DOE believes would be satisfactory for the commercialization of the breeder are indicated. Some observations are offered on the Three Mile Island accident and some of its implications are discussed for the LMFBR program

  4. Utilization of large electromagnetic pumps in the fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Deverge, C.; Lefrere, J.P.; Peturaud, P.; Sauvage, M.

    1984-04-01

    After an overview concerning the induction annular electromagnetic pumps and the dimensioning methods usually utilized, development of these components for a fast breeder integrated reactor is considered: - utilization of cooled EMP in the intermediate circuit, - utilization of immersed pumps, coupled with the intermediate exchanger, for the primary pumping; dimensioning, energetic aspects, and effects on the power plant geometrical configurations [fr

  5. Multiple recycling of fuel in prototype fast breeder reactor

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In the FBR closed fuel cycle, possibility of multi-recycle has been recognized. In the present study, Pu-239 equivalence approach is used to demonstrate the feasibility of achieving near constant input inventory of Pu and near stable Pu isotopic composition after a few recycles of the same fuel of the prototype fast breeder ...

  6. Symposium on key questions about the fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Except for several introductions on various aspects of the fast breeder reactor development this paper contains the full texts of the discussions held in the sub-groups panels on resp. technical matters, environment and health, society, politics and economics. The main issues of each discussion are summarized

  7. Conceptual design study for a mirror fusion breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang Jinhua; Deng Boquan; Li Guiqing

    1986-01-01

    A mirror fusion breeder, CHD, has been designed for providing plenty of nuclear fuel for light water reactors to meet the needs for rapid development of nuclear power in the first half of next century. The breeder is able to support the nuclear fuel needs for more than 10 LWRs of equal scale in power with fuel enriched directly in CHD without reprocessing. Measures are taken to flatten the power density distribution in the blanket so that fission is suppressed in the region close to the plasma, and by this way fuel production is enhanced for this direct enriched fusion breeder. In order to reduce the MHD pressure drop, LiPb flows in the blanket axially. Though the tritium inventory in the reactor is very low, special material and design have to be developed to reduce the permeation of tritium through the coolant pipes. The cost of electricity from the system, consisting of 11 LWR plants and one fusion breeder is predicted to be 1.05 times of that from a traditional LWR plant. This figure is insensitive both to the cost of CHD and its support ratio

  8. Environmental Enrichment for Broiler Breeders: An Undeveloped Field

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Riber, Anja B.; Jong, de Ingrid; Weerd, van de Heleen A.; Steenfeldt, Sanna

    2017-01-01

    Welfare problems, such as hunger, frustration, aggression, and abnormal sexual behavior, are commonly found in broiler breeder production. To prevent or reduce these welfare problems, it has been suggested to provide stimulating enriched environments. We review the effect of the different types of

  9. Technology of the production of breeder fuel elements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Funke, P.

    1976-01-01

    A survey is presented of the fabrication of oxide and carbide fuels and of the fuel rod for fast breeders (KNK, SNR-300). The advantages of the chosen methods are explained. The main points of development concerning the oxide fuel rod are gone into. The process sequence for plutonium oxide and plutonium carbide processing is presented in a flow chart. (HR) [de

  10. Methodology for estimating sodium aerosol concentrations during breeder reactor fires

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fields, D.E.; Miller, C.W.

    1985-01-01

    We have devised and applied a methodology for estimating the concentration of aerosols released at building surfaces and monitored at other building surface points. We have used this methodology to make calculations that suggest, for one air-cooled breeder reactor design, cooling will not be compromised by severe liquid-metal fires

  11. Utilisation of synthetic amino acids by broiler breeder hens | Nonis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was conducted to examine the response of broiler breeder hens to feeds supplemented with synthetic lysine and methionine when fed once or twice daily during peak production. Replacing intact protein with increasing amounts of free lysine and methionine, up to 2.3 g/kg feed, had no effect on feed intake, ...

  12. Core catcher cooling for a gas-cooled fast breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dalle Donne, M.; Dorner, S.; Schretzmann, K.

    1976-01-01

    Water, molten salts, and liquid metals are under discussion as coolants for the core catcher of a gas-cooled fast breeder. The authors state that there is still no technically mature method of cooling a core melt. However, the investigations carried out so far suggest that there is a solution to this problem. (RW/AK) [de

  13. the contrasting attitudes of plant breeders and molecular biologists ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Socialization into disciplinary cultures, organizational factors and individual anxieties seem to inhibit inter-disciplinary collaboration. The majority of rice breeders and a small group of molecular biologists emphasize the relative merits of marker-assisted selection (MAS) in the near term vis-à-vis the currently controversial ...

  14. Semen bacterial flora of Rhode Island Breeder cocks in Zaria ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The semen used in this study was collected from 77 Rhode Island Breeder cocks reared in battery cages under intensive management from a private farm in Zaria, Kaduna State, Nigeria using the back massage procedure, 27 of the 77 semen samples (35.1%) contained bacterial isolates. None of the samples grew fungi.

  15. Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant Project: construction schedule

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Purcell, W.J.; Martin, E.M.; Shivley, J.M.

    1982-01-01

    The construction schedule for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant and its evolution are described. The initial schedule basis, changes necessitated by the evaluation of the overall plant design, and constructability improvements that have been effected to assure adherence to the schedule are presented. The schedule structure and hierarchy are discussed, as are tools used to define, develop, and evaluate the schedule

  16. Fission-suppressed hybrid reactor: the fusion breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.; Lee, J.D.; Coops, M.S.

    1982-12-01

    Results of a conceptual design study of a 233 U-producing fusion breeder are presented. The majority of the study was devoted to conceptual design and evaluation of a fission-suppressed blanket and to fuel cycle issues such as fuel reprocessing, fuel handling, and fuel management. Studies in the areas of fusion engineering, reactor safety, and economics were also performed

  17. Rough passage in USA for first breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Norman, C.

    1975-01-01

    The present status of the liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) programme in the USA is reviewed, including administrative and technical problems. This programme is stated to be the highest priority energy research and development project supported by public funds, estimated at present to cost more than 10,000 million dollars, but it is beset by difficulties and criticism. (U.K.)

  18. DeBeNe Test Facilities for Fast Breeder Development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Storz, R.

    1980-10-01

    This report gives an overview and a short description of the test facilities constructed and operated within the collaboration for fast breeder development in Germany, Belgium and the Netherlands. The facilities are grouped into Sodium Loops (Large Facilities and Laboratory Loops), Special Equipment including Hot Cells and Reprocessing, Test Facilities without Sodium, Zero Power Facilities and In-pile Loops including Irradiation Facilities

  19. Towards commercial fast breeder reactors the first 1200 MWe unit

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Banal, M.; Carle, R.

    The public probably thinks of these fast breeder reactors in terms of their rising unit capacity: RAPSODIE 20 MW (thermal), raised to 40 MW, PHENIX 25 MWe, and now 1200 MWe. However, the purposes of the project and the framework of construction have been fundamentally different in each case. Design parameters and the development program of the LMFBR are presented. (auth)

  20. Broiler breeders should not be reared on long photoperiods | Lewis ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This trial compared the responses of four broiler breeder genotypes to a typical lighting programme advocated for birds in lightproof housing with the provision of 14-h photoperiods to 20 weeks and 16 h in lay. The long-day rearing resulted in a 26-d delay in sexual maturation, seven fewer eggs to 60 weeks, a 2.5-g ...

  1. Status of fast breeder reactor development in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horton, K [U.S. Department of Energy, Washington, DC (United States)

    1981-05-01

    The energy policy of the United States is aimed at shifting as rapidly as practicable from an oil dependent economy to one that relies heavily on other fuels and energy sources. Nuclear power Is now and is expected to continue to be an important factor in achieving this goal. If nuclear power is to contribute to a solution of future energy needs, demonstration of the breeder reactor as a viable source of essentially inexhaustible energy supply is essential. The US DOE program for development of the fast breeder reactor has witnessed some notable events in the past year. Foremost among these Is the successful operational testing of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), located at.the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory. The reactor reached full design power of 400 MW(t) on December 21, 1980, and has performed remarkably close to design specifications. Design of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP), a 375 MW(e) LMFBR, is now over 80 percent complete. About $530 million in components have been ordered; component deliveries total approximately $124 million; work-in-process totals another $204 million. Construction of the plant, however, has been suspended since 1977. With the concurrence of the U.S. Congress and approvals from the appropriate authorities work on the safety review and site clearing for construction can resume. The Conceptual Design Study for a large, 1000 MW(e) LMFBR Large Developmental Plant was recently completed on a schedule commensurate with submission of a full report to the Congress at the end of March, 1981. This report is the culmination of a study which began in October, 1978 and involved contributions from U.S. reactor manufacturers and US DOE laboratories. The US DOE is carrying forward a comprehensive technology development program. This effort provides direct support to the FFTF and CRBRP projects and to the LDP. It also supports technology development which is generic to the overall LMFBR program. Funding for breeder

  2. Status of fast breeder reactor development in the United States

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, K.

    1981-01-01

    The energy policy of the United States is aimed at shifting as rapidly as practicable from an oil dependent economy to one that relies heavily on other fuels and energy sources. Nuclear power Is now and is expected to continue to be an important factor in achieving this goal. If nuclear power is to contribute to a solution of future energy needs, demonstration of the breeder reactor as a viable source of essentially inexhaustible energy supply is essential. The US DOE program for development of the fast breeder reactor has witnessed some notable events in the past year. Foremost among these Is the successful operational testing of the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), located at.the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory. The reactor reached full design power of 400 MW(t) on December 21, 1980, and has performed remarkably close to design specifications. Design of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP), a 375 MW(e) LMFBR, is now over 80 percent complete. About $530 million in components have been ordered; component deliveries total approximately $124 million; work-in-process totals another $204 million. Construction of the plant, however, has been suspended since 1977. With the concurrence of the U.S. Congress and approvals from the appropriate authorities work on the safety review and site clearing for construction can resume. The Conceptual Design Study for a large, 1000 MW(e) LMFBR Large Developmental Plant was recently completed on a schedule commensurate with submission of a full report to the Congress at the end of March, 1981. This report is the culmination of a study which began in October, 1978 and involved contributions from U.S. reactor manufacturers and US DOE laboratories. The US DOE is carrying forward a comprehensive technology development program. This effort provides direct support to the FFTF and CRBRP projects and to the LDP. It also supports technology development which is generic to the overall LMFBR program. Funding for breeder

  3. "Wandering in the Desert": The Clinch River Breeder Reactor Debate in the U.S. Congress, 1972-1983.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Michael

    2018-01-01

    The experimental Clinch River breeder reactor, approved by the U.S. Congress in 1970 for construction in East Tennessee, would have used plutonium instead of uranium. The project drew the ire of environmentalists who insisted that plutonium was too dangerous for commercial use, along with opponents of nuclear proliferation. Tennessee's representatives in Congress, however, desired the jobs that the project would create, and formed legislative coalitions to ensure continued appropriations for the project. Funding lasted until 1983, when fiscal conservatives, concerned about ballooning cost projections, joined with environmentalists to defund the breeder. Interpretations of U.S. nuclear policy in the 1980s have often revolved around the Three Mile Island meltdown's aftermath, but Clinch River was not affected by the incident. Instead, the Clinch River controversy revolved around other unrelated issues. The Clinch River story therefore offers a corrective to accounts that privilege national public opinion at the expense of other variables.

  4. Mature Turkey Breeder Hens Exposed to Pandemic Influenza H1N1: Resultant Effects on Morbidity, Mortality, and Fecundity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Evans, Robert; Bommineni, Yugendar; Falk, Jonathan; Blackway, Adam; Young, Brent; Isenhart, Connie

    2015-03-01

    During the artificial insemination process, turkey breeder hens may become infected with influenza virus acquired from humans. The virus has been shown, through experimental infection, to localize in the reproductive tract, with limited dissemination in other tissues. A limited number of hens were used during these studies, and the overall flock morbidity, mortality, and fecundity were not able to be determined. The current case follows the progression of clinical signs in a flock of commercial breeder hens from onset of egg production losses in one house through the subsequent drops in four remaining houses. Each house contained approximately 3000 hens and followed a sequential loss of shell quality, reduced numbers of eggs, and fertility, while mild clinical signs were observed and mortality was slightly increased in a house with concurrent fowl cholera (Pasturella multocida) infection.

  5. Linear accelerator-breeder (LAB): a preliminary analysis and proposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-01-01

    The development and demonstration of a Linear Accelerator-Breeder (LAB) is proposed. This would be a machine which would use a powerful linear accelerator to produce an intense beam of protons or deuterons impinging on a target of a heavy element, to produce spallation neutrons. These neutrons would in turn be absorbed in fertile 238 U or 232 Th to produce fissile 239 Pu or 233 U. Though a Linear Accelerator-Breeder is not visualized as competitive to a fast breeder such as the LMFBR, it would offer definite benefits in improved flexibility of options, and it could probably be developed more rapidly than the LMFBR if fuel cycle problems made this desirable. It is estimated that at a beam power of 300 MW a Linear Accelerator-Breeder could produce about 1100 kg/year of fissile 239 Pu or 233 U, which would be adequate to fuel from 2,650 to 15,000 MW(e) of fission reactor capacity depending on the fuel cycle used. A two-year design study is proposed, and various cost estimates are presented. The concept of the Linear Accelerator-Breeder is not new, having been the basis for a major AEC project (MTA) a number of years ago. It has also been pursued in Canada starting from the proposal for an Intense Neutron Generator (ING) several years ago. The technical basis for a reasonable design has only recently been achieved. The concept offers an opportunity to fill an important gap that may develop between the short-term and long-term energy options for energy security of the nation

  6. The nuclear question at the start of the '80s: the breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Owen, R.; Svensson, B.

    1980-01-01

    The four newspaper articles and the letter cover the following matters: general introduction about breeder reactors and the situation in Swedish politics; visit to Dounreay to discuss breeder reactors (breeding, safety, plutonium production, radiation protection); PuO 2 -UO 2 mixed fuel; description of breeder reactors; efficiency in use of U-235; DFR and PFR; breeder reactors in Swedish politics (arguments for and against nuclear power in general, breeder reactors in particular); discussion of the future of nuclear power in Sweden. (U.K.)

  7. Symbiotic molten-salt systems coupled with accelerator molten-salt breeder (AMSB) or inertial-confined fusion hybrid molten-salt breeder (IHMSB) and their comparison

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukawa, K.

    1984-01-01

    Two types of breeder systems are proposed. One is the combined system of Accelerator Molten-Salt Breeder (AMSB) and Molten-Salt Converter Reactor (MSCR), and the other is the combined system of Inertial-confined Fusion Hybrid Molten-Salt Breeder (IHMSB) and modified MSCR. Both apply the molten-fluorides and have technically deep relations. AMSB would be much simpler and have already high technical feasibility. This will become economical the Th breeder system having a doubling time shorter than ten years and distributing any size of power stations MSCR. (orig.) [de

  8. Power transients of Ghana research reactor-1 using PARET/ANL thermal hydraulic code

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ampomah-Amoaka, E.; Akaho, E.H.K.; Anim-Sampong, S.; Nyarko, B.J.B.

    2010-01-01

    PARET/ANL(Version 7.3 of 2007) thermal-hydraulic code was used to perform transient analysis of the Ghana Research Reactor-1.The reactivities inserted were 2.1mk and 4mk.The peak power of 5.81kW was obtained for 2.1 mk insertion whereas the peak power for 4mk insertion of reactivity was 92.32kW.These results compare closely with experiments and theoretical studies conducted previously.

  9. Progress Report on Sodium Cooled Fast Breeder Reactor Development in Japan, April 1975

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tomabechi, K.

    1975-01-01

    The progress of the sodium cooled fast Breeder Reactor development in Japan in the past 12 months can be summarized as follows. Installation of all the components of the Experimental Fast Reactor, ''JOYO'', was completed in the end of the last year and various commissioning tests of the reactor began in January 1975. It is planned to charge sodium into the reactor in coming fall and the first criticality experiment is currently planned in the summer 1976. Most of the research and development works for ''JOYO'' are nearing completion. These include an endurance test of 3 prototype primary sodium pump for 12,000 hours. 86 core fuel subassemblies and 220 blanket subassemblies, a sufficient number for composing the initial core, have already been fabricated. Concerning the Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor, ''MONJU'', design activity as well as relevant research and development works are continued. A siting problem exists and it is hoped to be resolved soon. Of the research and development works, a significant achievement in the past 12 months can be a successful operation at full power of the 50 MW Steam Generator Test Facility. This facility was put into operation at full power in June 1974. No leak of water into sodium has been experienced with operation of the steam generator tested. The steam generator is being dismantled for a detailed inspection originally planned

  10. Current Design of the Flange Type Hydrogen Permeation Sensor in Liquid Breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lee, E. H.; Jin, H. G.; Yoon, J. S.; Kim, S. K.; Lee, D. W.; Lee, H. G.

    2015-01-01

    In 2004, A. Ciampichetti et al. proposed a hollow capsule shape permeation sensor and they theoretically and experimentally evaluated the performance of the sensor made of Nb membrane at test condition of 500 .deg. C. However, the evaluation result showed the measured hydrogen permeation flux in the sensor much lower than the predicted one and they concluded that, the result is due to the formation of an oxide layer on the sensor membrane surface. Three years later, A. Ciampichetti et al. observed that a hollow capsule shape permeation sensor has too long response time to measure hydrogen concentration in liquid breeder. However, they suggested optimizing the sensor geometry with the reduction of the ratio 'total sensor volume/permeation surface' to overcome the low hydrogen permeating flux. For development of the liquid breeding technologies in nuclear fusion, the permeation sensor to measure tritium concentration in liquid metal breeder has been developed. Lee et al. proposed a flange type permeation sensor to dramatically reduce the ratio sensor 'inside volume/permeation surface' and to remove membrane welding during sensor manufacture process. However, the flange type sensor has problem with sealing. In present study, the modified flange sensor design with a metallic C-ring spring gasket is introduced. The modified sensor will be verified and evaluated under high temperature conditions by end of 2015

  11. Pu utilization in fast-breeder and in light-water reactors in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mangiagalli, D.; Cicognani, F.; Pistella, F.; Testa, G.; Villani, A.; Ariemma, A.; Castelli, G.F.; Linari, A.; Paoletti Gualandi, M.; Musso, B.

    1977-01-01

    The paper illustrates the most important activities carried out in Italy for the development of fast breeder reactors and its fuel as well as for plutonium recycle in light water reactors. The Italian strategy is based, on one hand, on the short-term commercialization of fast breeder reactors, and on the other, on the adoption of the technology of the Phenix prototype whose further development will be ensured by the joint Italian and French efforts as insured by the important agreements signed by CNEN, NIRA (Nucleare Italiana Reattori Avanzati) and Italian manufacturing industries with CEA and the main French industries. The paper also includes the main results of the ENEL Demonstration Program on Pu prototypes introduced in the Garigliano BWR in 1968 and 1970, and of the destructive and non-destructive analyses on said fuel, as well as of the analyses carried out by CNEN on prototypical fuel fabricated by CNEN and irradiated in various reactors. Furthermore, the paper deals with design and licensing aspects of the 46 Pu-island assembly reload introduced in the Garigliano reactors in 1975 and of a batch of 8 all Pu assemblies loaded in the Trino Vercellese PWR in 1976. Subsequently, the experimental activities planned for the near future both on high burn-up prototypes and on industrial fuel after one cycle of operation are examined [fr

  12. Progress report on fast breeder reactor development in Japan, October - December 1976

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1977-03-01

    As for the fast breeder experimental reactor ''Joyo'', the remodeling works for the bearings of primary main circulation pump and the support bands of hanger support have finished. Preparatory arrangement was made for the second performance test, such as preheating the primary cooling system and filling sodium in it. Construction, installation and adjustment of test and inspection apparatuses required after the criticality experiment are in progress. The lining work for the temporary storage pool for solid wastes, the enlarging work for the operation control building, and construction of the brake equipment for cooler blower were over. As for the operation control, operation, inspection and maintenance of each system required for the modeling work are being carried out, and new parts to take the place of old ones were provided. The analysis of the core characteristics and the development of operation-monitoring codes are in progress. The coordination design work (4) for the fast breeder prototype reactor ''Monju'' has been started, and the preliminary design work (2) for the demonstration reactor is going on. Geological, meteorological and seismic researches carried out at the proposed construction site for ''Monju''. The researches and developments on reactor physics, structural components, instrumentation and control, sodium technology, fuel materials, safety and steam generators are in progress. (Kako, I.)

  13. IAMBUS, a computer code for the design and performance prediction of fast breeder fuel rods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toebbe, H.

    1990-05-01

    IAMBUS is a computer code for the thermal and mechanical design, in-pile performance prediction and post-irradiation analysis of fast breeder fuel rods. The code deals with steady, non-steady and transient operating conditions and enables to predict in-pile behavior of fuel rods in power reactors as well as in experimental rigs. Great effort went into the development of a realistic account of non-steady fuel rod operating conditions. The main emphasis is placed on characterizing the mechanical interaction taking place between the cladding tube and the fuel as a result of contact pressure and friction forces, with due consideration of axial and radial crack configuration within the fuel as well as the gradual transition at the elastic/plastic interface in respect to fuel behavior. IAMBUS can be readily adapted to various fuel and cladding materials. The specific models and material correlations of the reference version deal with the actual in-pile behavior and physical properties of the KNK II and SNR 300 related fuel rod design, confirmed by comparison of the fuel performance model with post-irradiation data. The comparison comprises steady, non-steady and transient irradiation experiments within the German/Belgian fuel rod irradiation program. The code is further validated by comparison of model predictions with post-irradiation data of standard fuel and breeder rods of Phenix and PFR as well as selected LWR fuel rods in non-steady operating conditions

  14. Progress report on fast breeder reactor development in Japan, July - September 1977

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1978-06-01

    As for the experimental fast breeder reactor ''Joyo'', the low power performance tests have been continued, and the measurements of reactor noise, the reactivity of fuel assemblies, power distribution and Na-void effect have been made. Efforts have been exerted to develop the required maintenance equipments, to manufacture the transfer rotor maintenance facilities, and to construct the spent fuel storing and cooling facilities. The analysis and calculation of the core characteristics have been in progress. The design work on the prototype fast breeder reactor ''Monju'' has been continued, and the development of the computer codes for the design has progressed. Informations have been gathered regarding the technological developments of LMFBRs overseas. The surveys on the site for ''Monju'' have been carried out. The design and research works on the demonstration reactor were started, and the general design factors such as the steam condition and the plant layout have been studied. As for the research and development of reactor physics, structural components, instrumentation and control, sodium technology, fuel materials, structural materials, safety, and steam generators, the progresses are reported in detail. High performance neutron detectors for nuclear instrumentation have been under development, and the tagging gas method for fuel failure detection and location system has been tested. (Kako, I.)

  15. Influence of gas pressure on the effective thermal conductivity of ceramic breeder pebble beds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai, Weijing [School of Civil Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney (Australia); Pupeschi, Simone [Institute for Applied Materials, Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT) (Germany); Hanaor, Dorian [School of Civil Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney (Australia); Institute for Materials Science and Technologies, Technical University of Berlin (Germany); Gan, Yixiang, E-mail: yixiang.gan@sydney.edu.au [School of Civil Engineering, The University of Sydney, Sydney (Australia)

    2017-05-15

    Highlights: • This study explicitly demonstrates the influence of the gas pressure on the effective thermal conductivity of pebble beds. • The gas pressure influence is shown to correlated to the pebble size. • The effective thermal conductivity is linked to thermal-mechanical properties of pebbles and packing structure. - Abstract: Lithium ceramics have been considered as tritium breeder materials in many proposed designs of fusion breeding blankets. Heat generated in breeder pebble beds due to nuclear breeding reaction must be removed by means of actively cooled plates while generated tritiums is recovered by purge gas slowly flowing through beds. Therefore, the effective thermal conductivity of pebble beds that is one of the governing parameters determining heat transport phenomenon needs to be addressed with respect to mechanical status of beds and purge gas pressure. In this study, a numerical framework combining finite element simulation and a semi-empirical correlation of gas gap conduction is proposed to predict the effective thermal conductivity. The purge gas pressure is found to vary the effective thermal conductivity, in particular with the presence of various sized gaps in pebble beds. Random packing of pebble beds is taken into account by an approximated correlation considering the packing factor and coordination number of pebble beds. The model prediction is compared with experimental observation from different sources showing a quantitative agreement with the measurement.

  16. Influence of gas pressure on the effective thermal conductivity of ceramic breeder pebble beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dai, Weijing; Pupeschi, Simone; Hanaor, Dorian; Gan, Yixiang

    2017-01-01

    Highlights: • This study explicitly demonstrates the influence of the gas pressure on the effective thermal conductivity of pebble beds. • The gas pressure influence is shown to correlated to the pebble size. • The effective thermal conductivity is linked to thermal-mechanical properties of pebbles and packing structure. - Abstract: Lithium ceramics have been considered as tritium breeder materials in many proposed designs of fusion breeding blankets. Heat generated in breeder pebble beds due to nuclear breeding reaction must be removed by means of actively cooled plates while generated tritiums is recovered by purge gas slowly flowing through beds. Therefore, the effective thermal conductivity of pebble beds that is one of the governing parameters determining heat transport phenomenon needs to be addressed with respect to mechanical status of beds and purge gas pressure. In this study, a numerical framework combining finite element simulation and a semi-empirical correlation of gas gap conduction is proposed to predict the effective thermal conductivity. The purge gas pressure is found to vary the effective thermal conductivity, in particular with the presence of various sized gaps in pebble beds. Random packing of pebble beds is taken into account by an approximated correlation considering the packing factor and coordination number of pebble beds. The model prediction is compared with experimental observation from different sources showing a quantitative agreement with the measurement.

  17. Current Design of the Flange Type Hydrogen Permeation Sensor in Liquid Breeder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, E. H.; Jin, H. G.; Yoon, J. S.; Kim, S. K.; Lee, D. W. [Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Lee, H. G. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-10-15

    In 2004, A. Ciampichetti et al. proposed a hollow capsule shape permeation sensor and they theoretically and experimentally evaluated the performance of the sensor made of Nb membrane at test condition of 500 .deg. C. However, the evaluation result showed the measured hydrogen permeation flux in the sensor much lower than the predicted one and they concluded that, the result is due to the formation of an oxide layer on the sensor membrane surface. Three years later, A. Ciampichetti et al. observed that a hollow capsule shape permeation sensor has too long response time to measure hydrogen concentration in liquid breeder. However, they suggested optimizing the sensor geometry with the reduction of the ratio 'total sensor volume/permeation surface' to overcome the low hydrogen permeating flux. For development of the liquid breeding technologies in nuclear fusion, the permeation sensor to measure tritium concentration in liquid metal breeder has been developed. Lee et al. proposed a flange type permeation sensor to dramatically reduce the ratio sensor 'inside volume/permeation surface' and to remove membrane welding during sensor manufacture process. However, the flange type sensor has problem with sealing. In present study, the modified flange sensor design with a metallic C-ring spring gasket is introduced. The modified sensor will be verified and evaluated under high temperature conditions by end of 2015.

  18. Proceedings of the fifteenth international workshop on ceramic breeder blanket interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tanigawa, Hisashi; Enoeda, Mikio

    2010-03-01

    This report is the Proceedings of 'the Fifteenth International Workshop on Ceramic Breeder Blanket Interactions' which was held as a workshop on ceramic breeders Under the IEA Implementing Agreement on the Nuclear Technology of Fusion Reactors. This workshop was held in Sapporo, Japan on 3-4, Sept. 2009. Twenty six participants from EU, Japan, India, Russia and USA attended the workshop. The scope of the workshop included 1) evolutions in ceramic breeder blanket design, 2) progress in ceramic breeder material development, 3) irradiation testing, 4) breeder material properties, 5) out-of-pile pebble bed experiment, 6) modeling of the thermal, mechanical and tritium transfer behavior of pebble beds and 7) interfacing issues of solid breeder blanket development. By this workshop, advance of key technologies for solid breeder blanket development was shared among the participants. Also, desired direction of further investigation and development was recognized. The 20 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  19. Proceedings of the fifteenth international workshop on ceramic breeder blanket interactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tanigawa, Hisashi; Enoeda, Mikio [Japan Atomic Energy Agency, Fusion Research and Development Directorate, Naka, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2010-03-15

    This report is the Proceedings of 'the Fifteenth International Workshop on Ceramic Breeder Blanket Interactions' which was held as a workshop on ceramic breeders Under the IEA Implementing Agreement on the Nuclear Technology of Fusion Reactors. This workshop was held in Sapporo, Japan on 3-4, Sept. 2009. Twenty six participants from EU, Japan, India, Russia and USA attended the workshop. The scope of the workshop included 1) evolutions in ceramic breeder blanket design, 2) progress in ceramic breeder material development, 3) irradiation testing, 4) breeder material properties, 5) out-of-pile pebble bed experiment, 6) modeling of the thermal, mechanical and tritium transfer behavior of pebble beds and 7) interfacing issues of solid breeder blanket development. By this workshop, advance of key technologies for solid breeder blanket development was shared among the participants. Also, desired direction of further investigation and development was recognized. The 20 of the presented papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  20. Beryllium data base for in-pile mockup test on blanket of fusion reactor, (1)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kawamura, Hiroshi; Ishitsuka, Etsuo (Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Oarai, Ibaraki (Japan). Oarai Research Establishment); Sakamoto, Naoki; Kato, Masakazu; Takatsu, Hideyuki.

    1992-11-01

    Beryllium has been used in the fusion blanket designs with ceramic breeder as a neutron multiplier to increase the net tritium breeding ratio (TBR). The properties of beryllium, that is physical properties, chemical properties, thermal properties, mechanical properties, nuclear properties, radiation effects, etc. are necessary for the fusion blanket design. However, the properties of beryllium have not been arranged for the fusion blanket design. Therefore, it is indispensable to check and examine the material data of beryllium reported previously. This paper is the first one of the series of papers on beryllium data base, which summarizes the reported material data of beryllium. (author).

  1. Manufacture of core sub-assemblies and fertile fuel assemblies for Indian fast breeder programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jayaraj, R.N.

    2009-01-01

    Full text: Utilization of the vast reserves of thorium in the Fast Reactors has been the prime goal of nuclear power programme in India. Nuclear Fuel Complex (NFC) has successfully fabricated axial and radial blanket assemblies for the Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) containing thoria. Development of technologies for the manufacture of thoria pellets involved characterization of powder obtained by oxalate precipitation and calcination with the addition of small quantities of magnesium during oxalate precipitation. This has resulted in achieving desired sintered densities. Though the magnesia doped thoria has yielded specified densities by sintering the pellets at ∼1600 deg. C, experimental works on activated sintering of the thoria powders containing small quantities of Nb 2 O 5 has yielded similar densities when sintered in air at much lower temperatures. Doping of ThO 2 by Nb 2 O 5 is expected to give rise to oxygen interstitials or vacancies. A higher valency additive like Nb 2 O 5 and an oxidizing atmosphere has resulted in substantially lowering the sintering temperature while a lower valency additive and a reducing sintering atmosphere requires higher sintering temperature. Increase in the diffusion coefficient of thorium is likely to be responsible for activated sintering. Several experimental works on compaction of thoria powder revealed that the desired green density could be achieved at a moderate pressure of 140 MPa. An increase in inter-particle contact is evident by an increase in the green density and also in the specific surface area as the compaction pressure is increased. The compactability and sinterability characteristics seem to be affected by long storage of powder. Ball milling of powder prior to pre-compaction and granulation is found, in addition to breaking the agglomerates, to restore the original characteristics of the powder. The technique of thermal etching has been successfully used for examining the microstructural features of

  2. Real time simulation method for fast breeder reactors dynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miki, Tetsushi; Mineo, Yoshiyuki; Ogino, Takamichi; Kishida, Koji; Furuichi, Kenji.

    1985-01-01

    The development of multi-purpose real time simulator models with suitable plant dynamics was made; these models can be used not only in training operators but also in designing control systems, operation sequences and many other items which must be studied for the development of new type reactors. The prototype fast breeder reactor ''Monju'' is taken as an example. Analysis is made on various factors affecting the accuracy and computer load of its dynamic simulation. A method is presented which determines the optimum number of nodes in distributed systems and time steps. The oscillations due to the numerical instability are observed in the dynamic simulation of evaporators with a small number of nodes, and a method to cancel these oscillations is proposed. It has been verified through the development of plant dynamics simulation codes that these methods can provide efficient real time dynamics models of fast breeder reactors. (author)

  3. The tripartite fast breeder programme: a utility/industry view

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Brandstetter, A.; Eitz, A.W.

    1976-01-01

    The first phase of fast breeder development in Europe was conducted mainly on an independent basis but from the size of major national RandD programmes the desirability of broadening the basis of participation became evident. In 1968 inter-governmental agreements between Germany, Belgium and Holland led the research centres to enter into cooperation agreements, and utilities and industries to form organisation structures for building and operating breeder power stations with the SNR 300 as prototype. The SNR 300 is a turnkey contract incorporating many commercial features and requiring a firm basis of cooperation between the utility and the manufacturer. It is also subject to very strict licensing procedure. The unique contractual and licensing aspects, and the important consequences of both, are examined. Costs are discussed. The importance of increased collaborate efforts for demonstration plants is stressed and participation agreements relative to Superphenix and SNR-2 are illustrated. (U.K.)

  4. Consideration on risk reduction of future breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vossebrecker, H.

    1990-09-01

    An overall concept of risk minimization of future sodium-cooled fast breeder reactors is presented in this report. Since shutdown reliability is of vital importance for the breeder safety, a so-called third shutdown level is proposed in addition to the two independent fast shutdown systems. It is basically a group of passive and active measures, which are capable to bring the reactor to safe conditions in all conceivable accident-initiating events and in case of total failure of the two actual shutdown systems. Core disruptions as a result of shutdown failure are therefore beyond the scope of technical imagination. Measures are also foreseen to combat other conceivable causes of core disruption, in particular to achieve residual heat removal with essentially passive systems by making use of the good natural circulation capacity of sodium. On top of that, since absolute safety can never be claimed, damage-limiting containment measures are discussed

  5. Test reactor: basic to U.S. breeder reactor development

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miller, B.J.; Harness, A.J.

    1975-01-01

    Long-range energy planning in the U. S. includes development of a national commercial breeder reactor program. U. S. development of the LMFBR is following a conservative sequence of extensive technology development through use of test reactors and demonstration plants prior to construction of commercial plants. Because materials and fuel technology development is considered the first vital step in this sequence, initial U. S. efforts have been directed to the design and construction of a unique test reactor. The Fast Flux Test Facility, FFTF, is a 400 MW(t) reactor with driver fuel locations, open test locations, and closed loops for higher risk experiments. The FFTF will provide a prototypic LMFBR core environment with sufficient instrumentation for detailed core environmental characterization and a testing capability substituted for breeder capability. The unique comprehensive fuel and materials testing capability of the FFTF will be key to achieving long-range objectives of increased power density, improved breeding gain and shorter doubling times. (auth)

  6. Past and present role of fast breeder reactors in Italy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Castelli, G.; Cicognani, G.; Ghilardotti, G.; Musso, B.

    1978-01-01

    The paper describes the programme that is under development in Italy for fast breeder reactors. The Italian engagement in the construction of the Creys-Malville plant is discussed as well as the work at present under way in R and D activities and on the PEC reactor. The roles of the different organizations involved in the fast breeder reactor programme are also considered with particular attention to the activities carried out by AGIP NUCLEARE, CNEN, ENEL, NIRA and by the manufacturing companies. An overall picture of the different agreements between European countries is also given with reference to the construction of the Creys-Malville plant and to research and industrial development activities. (author)

  7. Conceptual design of Indian molten salt breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayan, P.K.; Basak, A.; Dulera, I.V.; Vaze, K.K.; Basu, S.; Sinha, R.K.

    2014-01-01

    The fuel in a molten salt breeder reactor is in the form of a continuously circulating molten salt. Fluoride based salts have been almost universally proposed. A crucial part for achieving reasonable breeding in such reactors is the need to reprocess the salt continuously, either online or in batch mode. This constitutes a major technological challenge for this type of reactors. India has recently started carrying out fundamental studies so as to arrive at a conceptual design of Indian Molten Salt Breeder Reactor (IMSBR). Presently various design options and possibilities are being studied from the point of view of reactor physics and thermal hydraulic design. In parallel fundamental studies as regards various molten salts have also been initiated. This paper would discuss conceptual design of these reactors, as well as associated issues and technologies

  8. Role of the breeder in long-term energy economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosobud, R.F.; Daly, T.A.; Chang, Y.I.

    1982-01-01

    Private and public decisions affecting the use of nuclear and other energy technologies over a long-run time horizon were studied using the ETA-MACRO model which provides for economic- and energy-sector interactions. The impact on the use of competing energy technologies of a public decision to apply benefit-cost analysis to the production of carbon dioxide that enters the atmosphere is considered. Assuming the public choice is to impose an appropriate penalty tax on those technologies which generate CO 2 and to allow decentralized private decisions to choose the optimal mix of energy technologies that maximize a nonlinear objective function subject to constraints, the study showed that breeder technology provides a much-larger share of domestically consumed energy. Having the breeder technology available as a substitute permits control of CO 2 without significant reductions in consumption or gross national product growth paths

  9. The French liquid metal fast breeder reactor programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rapin, M.

    1980-01-01

    The strong French LMFBR development and the corresponding success obtained up to now show that there is no technical insuperable barrier to fast breeder construction. This satisfactory evolution is in fact the conjunction of a strong incentive due to the lack of other resources, a firm and permanent stand of the government, and an obstinate effort of all the teams involved in the LMFBR field. The changeover to industrial level should be helped by the simplicity of the French organization for fast breeder. Finally, the development of LMFBR on a larger scale is helped by international agreements through which the present French know-how can be put at the disposal of other partners, and the general knowledge can be improved by setting common R and D programmes. A quite successful example of such agreements is given by the German-French agreement, and we hope that new partners will join us soon. (orig.) [de

  10. Filbe molten salt research for tritium breeder applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anderl, R.A.; Petti, D.A.; Smolik, G.R.

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents an overview of Flibe (2Lif·BeF 2 ) molten salt research activities conducted at the INEEL as part of the Japan-US JUPITER-II joint research program. The research focuses on tritium/chemistry issues for self-cooled Flibe tritium breeder applications and includes the following activities: (1) Flibe preparation, purification, characterization and handling, (2) development and testing of REDOX strategies for containment material corrosion control, (3) tritium behavior and management in Flibe breeder systems, and (4) safety testing (e.g., mobilization of Flibe during accident scenarios). This paper describes the laboratory systems developed to support these research activities and summarizes key results of this work to date. (author)

  11. Environmental Enrichment for Broiler Breeders: An Undeveloped Field

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Riber, Anja Brinch; Jong, Ingrid de; van de Werd, Heleen A.

    2017-01-01

    Welfare problems, such as hunger, frustration, aggression, and abnormal sexual behavior, are commonly found in broiler breeder production. To prevent or reduce these welfare problems, it has been suggested to provide stimulating enriched environments. We review the effect of the different types...... of environmental enrichment for broiler breeders, which have been described in the scientific literature, on behavior and welfare. Environmental enrichment is defined as an improvement of the environment of captive animals, which increases the behavioral opportunities of the animal and leads to improvements...... in biological function. This definition has been broadened to include practical and economic aspects as any enrichment strategy that adversely affects the health of animals (e.g., environmental hygiene), or that has too many economic or practical constraints will never be implemented on commercial farms...

  12. Solid breeder test blanket module design and analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ying, A. [University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1597 (United States)]. E-mail: ying@fusion.ucla.edu; Abdou, M. [University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1597 (United States); Calderoni, P. [University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1597 (United States); Sharafat, S. [University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1597 (United States); Youssef, M. [University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1597 (United States); An, Z. [University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1597 (United States); Abou-Sena, A. [University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1597 (United States); Kim, E. [University of California Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1597 (United States); Reyes, S. [LANL, Livermore, CA (United States); Willms, S. [LANL, Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kurtz, R. [PNNL, Richland, WA (United States)

    2006-02-15

    This paper presents the design and analysis for the US ITER solid breeder blanket test articles. Objectives of solid breeder blanket testing during the first phase of the ITER operation focus on exploration of fusion break-in phenomena and configuration scoping. Specific emphasis is placed on first wall structural response, evaluation of neutronic parameters, assessment of thermomechanical behavior and characterization of tritium release. The tests will be conducted with three unit cell arrays/sub-modules. The development approach includes: (1) design the unit cell/sub-module for low temperature operations and (2) refer to a reactor blanket design and use engineering scaling to reproduce key parameters under ITER wall loading conditions, so that phenomena under investigation can be measured at a reactor-like level.

  13. Fast breeder reactors: Experience and trends. V. 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1986-01-01

    The IAEA Symposium on ''Fast Breeder Reactors: Experience and Future Trends'' was held, at the invitation of the Government of France, in Lyons, France, on 22-26 July 1985. It was hosted by the French Commissariat a l'energie atomique and Electricite de France. The purpose of the Symposium was to review the experience gained so far in the field of LMFBRs, taking into account the constructional, operational, technological, economic and fuel cycle aspects, and to consider the developmental trends as well as the international co-operation in fast breeder reactor design and utilization. The Symposium was attended by almost 400 participants (340 participants, 35 observers and 20 journalists) from 25 countries and five international organizations. More than 80 papers were presented and discussed during six regular sessions and four poster sessions. A separate abstract was prepared for each of these papers

  14. Project of a binary breeder reactor and its inherent safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, J.A. do; Dias, A.F.; Ishiguro, Y.

    1983-01-01

    A core layout for the binary breeder reactor (BBR) is developed based on the results of preliminary burnup calculations. The apparent breeding ratio, in the U 233 /Th fueled inner core, is low due to the accumulation of Pa-233 in the first few months of operation. The loss of reactivity during this time is around 3%. The BBR requires more reactivity control than Pu/U-fueled LMFBRs and the core layout developed has 19 control rod assemblies in the inner core. Three aspects related to the inherent safety of the Binary Breeder Reactor have been studied: the radial distribution of the sodium-void reactivity zone-wise Doppler reactivity and the fractions of delayed neutrons. The results show excellent characteristics for the BRB safety. (Author) [pt

  15. Radioactive waste management at a Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrams, C.S.; Fryer, R.H.; Witbeck, L.C.

    1979-01-01

    This paper presents the radioactive waste production and management at a Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II), which is operated for the US Department of Energy by the Argonne National Laboratory at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL). Since this facility, in addition to supplying power has been used to demonstrate the breeder, fuel cycling, and recently operations with defective fuel elements, various categories of waste have been handled safely over some 14 years of operation. Liquid wastes are processed such that the resulting effluent can be discharged to an uncontrolled area. Solid wastes up to 10,000 R/hr are packaged and shipped contamination-free to a disposal site or interim storage with exposures to personnel approximately 10 mrem. Gaseous waste discharges are low such as 143 Ci of noble gases in 1978 and do not have a significant effect on the environment even with operations with breached fuel

  16. Feasibility study on the thorium fueled boiling water breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    PetrusTakaki, N.

    2012-01-01

    The feasibility of (Th,U)O 2 fueled, boiling water breeder reactor based on conventional BWR technology has been studied. In order to determine the potential use of water cooled thorium reactor as a competitive breeder, this study evaluated criticality, breeding and void reactivity coefficient in response to changes made in MFR and fissile enrichments. The result of the study shows that while using light water as moderator, low moderator to fuel volume ratio (MFR=0.5), it was possible to breed fissile fuel in negative void reactivity condition. However the burnup value was lower than the value of the current LWR. On the other hand, heavy water cooled reactor shows relatively wider feasible breeding region, which lead into possibility of designing a core having better neutronic and economic performance than light water with negative void reactivity coefficient. (authors)

  17. Status of national programmes on fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1991-09-01

    The present document contains information on the status of fast breeder reactor development and on worldwide activities in this advanced nuclear power technology during 1990 as reported at the 24th meeting of the IWGFR in Tsuruga, Japan, 15-18 April 1991. The publication is intended to provide information regarding the current status of LMFBR development in IAEA Member States and CEC. Figs and tabs

  18. Status of national programmes on fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1990-09-01

    The present document contains information on the status of fast breeder reactor development and on worldwide activities in this advanced nuclear power technology during 1989 as reported at the 23rd meeting of the IWGFR in Vienna, April 1990. The publication is intended to provide information regarding the current status of LMFBR development in IAEA Member States. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 11 papers presented by the participants of this meeting. Refs, figs and tabs

  19. Evaluation of organic moderator/coolants for fusion breeder blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Romero, J.B.

    1980-03-01

    Organic coolants have several attractive features for fusion breeder blanket design. Their apparent compatibility with lithium and their ideal physical and nuclear properties allows straight-forward, high performance designs. Radiolytic damage can be reduced to about the same order as comparable fission systems by using multiplier/stripper blanket designs. Tritium recovery from the organic should be straightforward, but additional data is needed to make a better assessment of the economics of the process

  20. Some basic concepts of fast breeder reactor safeguards

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tkharev, E.; Walford, F.J.

    1987-04-01

    The range of discussion topics of this report is restricted to a few key areas of safeguards importance at Fast Breeder Reactors (FBR) only. The differences between thermal and fast reactors that may have safeguards significance in the case of FBRs are listed. The FBR principles of design are mentioned. The relevant safeguards objectives and criteria are given. The fundamental issues for safeguarding FBR are treated. An outline safeguards approach is presented. Model inspection activities are mentioned. 4 figs

  1. Haemorrhagic enteritis seroconversion in turkey breeders: field observations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raffaella Ceruti

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Seroconversion to viral haemorrhagic enteritis (HE was studied in seven flocks of turkey breeders (17.974 birds in total, after 20 weeks of the onset of egg production. They showed no clinical signs, and mortality rate was normal. However, the infection caused a drop in egg production lasting about five weeks (-2.32 eggs laid during this period, but had no effect on hatching parameters.

  2. Apparatus for power and breeding distribution measurements in breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goldstein, N.P.; Sun, K.H.

    1975-01-01

    A detection system is disclosed herein for the measurement of power and breeding distribution inside a breeder reactor. Small diameter BeO balls comprising oxides of 235 U and 238 U are inserted into the reactor for activation and withdrawn to be counted in a Ge(Li) counter. Measurements of the activated fission and 239 Np gamma rays yield the desired distributions. (Official Gazette)

  3. Tritium inventory and permeation in liquid breeder blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reiter, F.

    1990-01-01

    This report reviews studies of the transport of hydrogen isotopes in the DEMO relevant water-cooled Pb-17Li blanket to be tested in NET and in a self-cooled blanket which uses Pb-17Li or Flibe as a liquid breeder material and V or Fe as a first wall material. The time dependences of tritium inventory and permeation in these blankets and of deuterium and tritium recycling in the self-cooled blanket are presented and discussed

  4. Lithium ceramics as the solid breeder material in fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hollenberg, G.W.; Reuther, T.C.; Johnson, C.E.

    1982-03-01

    Fusion blanket designs have for almost a decade considered the use of a solid breeder relying on available data and assumed performance. The conclusion from these studies is that acceptable neutronic and thermal hydraulic performance can be achieved. In the future, it will be necessary to establish that a particular material can tolerate the thermal and irradiation environment of the fusion blanket while still providing the required functions of tritium recovery, power production and neutron shielding

  5. Status of national programmes on fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1989-07-01

    The twenty-second Annual Meeting of the International Working Group on Fast Reactors took place in Vienna, 18-21 April 1989. Nineteen representatives from twelve Member States and International Organizations attended the Meeting. This publication is a collection of presentations in which the participants reported the status of their national programmes on fast breeder reactors. A separate abstract was prepared for each of the twelve papers from this collections. Refs, figs, tabs and 1 graph

  6. Fast breeder reactors: can we learn from experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keck, O.

    1981-01-01

    An economic analysis of FBRs, in particular the long-term benefits to be expected, with reference to the experience of the West German fast breeder reactor programme suggests ways of bringing more realism into governmental decisions on the development of new reactor types. It is suggested that if reactor manufacturers and utilities financed commercial-size demonstration plants from their own funds, then the government would get more realistic advice. (U.K.)

  7. Breeding nuclear fuels with accelerators: replacement for breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Grand, P.; Takahashi, H.

    1984-01-01

    One application of high energy particle accelerators has been, and still is, the production of nuclear fuel for the nuclear energy industry; tantalizing because it would create a whole new industry. This approach to producing fissile from fertile material was first considered in the early 1950's in the context of the nuclear weapons program. A considerable development effort was expended before discovery of uranium ore in New Mexico put an end to the project. Later, US commitment to the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBR) killed any further interest in pursuing accelerator breeder technology. Interest in the application of accelerators to breed nuclear fuels, and possibly burn nuclear wastes, revived in the late 1970's, when the LMFBR came under attack during the Carter administration. This period gave the opportunity to revisit the concept in view of the present state of the technology. This evaluation and the extensive calculational modeling of target designs that have been carried out are promising. In fact, a nuclear fuel cycle of Light Water Reactors and Accelerator Breeders is competitive to that of the LMFBR. At this time, however, the relative abundance of uranium reserves vs electricity demand and projected growth rate render this study purely academic. It will be for the next generation of accelerator builders to demonstate the competitiveness of this technology versus that of other nuclear fuel cycles, such as LMFBR's or Fusion Hybrid systems. 22 references, 1 figure, 5 tables

  8. Dounreay: more is at stake than just the fast breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Holmes, A.

    1988-01-01

    The British government's policy on nuclear power is to support and encourage an expansion of the nuclear energy programme. However, the Conservative government has said it will withdraw its funding from the fast breeder reactor research programme based at Dounreay in Scotland. Once the Electricity supply industry has been privatised it will not finance the fast breeder reactor programme either. So it seems likely that the research will be discontinued after 5 years and the reprocessing plant planned for Dounreay will never be built. This highlights the basic ambiguity that has existed for a long time over the fast breeder programme and has forced a decision. A similar problem exists generally with the United Kingdom Atomic Energy Authority which has continued to thrive despite many failures. The reasons for this are explained. Privatisation may be the spur to the demise of the UKAEA so it no longer enjoys such a favoured position. The decision to kill off the FBR is just one consequence of this. Others may be a change of attitude to the decommissioning of the Windscale prototype advanced gas cooled reactor, and the fusion project, including JET. (U.K.)

  9. Axial and radial distribution of neutron fluxes in the irradiation channels of the Ghana Research Reactor-1 using foil activation analysis and Monte Carlo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Abrefah, G.R.

    2009-02-01

    The Monte-Carlo method and experimental methods were used to determine the neutron fluxes in the irradiation channels of the Ghana Research Reactor -1. The MCNP5 code was used for this purpose to simulate the radial and axial distribution of the neutron fluxes within all the ten irradiation channels. The results obtained were compared with the experimental results. After the MCNP simulation and experimental procedure, it was observed that axially, the fluxes rise to a peak before falling and then finally leveling out. Axially and radially, it was also observed that the fluxes in the centre of the channels were lower than on the sides. Radially, the fluxes dip in the centre while it increases steadily towards the sides of the channels. The results have shown that there are flux variations within the irradiation channels both axially and radially. (au)

  10. Isotope exchange reaction on solid breeder materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baba, A.; Nishikawa, M.; Eguchi, T.; Kawagoe, T.

    2000-01-01

    Lithium ceramic materials such as Li 2 O, LiAlO 2 , Li 2 ZrO 3 , Li 2 TiO 3 and Li 4 SiO 4 are considered to be as candidate for the tritium breeding material in a deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion reactor. In the recent blanket designs, helium gas with hydrogen or deuterium is planned to be used as the blanket purge gas to reduce tritium inventory and promote tritium release from the breeding material. In addition, the rate of isotope exchange reaction between hydrogen isotopes in the purge gas and tritium on the surface of the breeding material is necessary to analyze the tritium release behavior from the breeding materials. However, the rate of isotope exchange reactions between hydrogen isotopes in the purge gas and tritium on the surface of those materials has not been quantified until recently. Recently, the present authors quantified the rate of isotope exchange reaction on Li 2 O and Li 2 ZrO 3 . The overall mass transfer coefficients representing the isotope exchange reaction between H 2 and D 2 O on breeding materials or the same between D 2 and H 2 O are experimentally obtained in this study. Comparison to isotope exchange reaction rates on various breeding materials is also performed in this study. Discussions about the effects of temperature, concentration of hydrogen in the purge gas or flow rate of the purge gas on the conversion of tritiated water to tritium gas are also performed

  11. The experimental sodium facility NAVA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Langenbrunner, H.; Grunwald, G.; May, R.

    1976-01-01

    Within the framework of preparations for the introduction of sodium cooled fast breeder reactors an experimental sodium facility was installed at the Central Institute of Nuclear Research at Rossendorf. Design, engineering aspects and operation of this facility are described; operating experience is briefly discussed. (author)

  12. A model of gas cavity breakup behind a blockage in fast breeder reactor subassembly geometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fukuzawa, Y.

    1980-05-01

    A semi-empirical model has been developed to describe the transient behaviour of a gas cavity due to breakup behind a blockage in Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor subassembly geometry. The main mechanisms assumed for gas cavity breakup in the present model are as follows: The gas cavity is broken up by the pressure fluctuation at the interface due to turbulence in the liquid. The centrifugal force on the liquid opposes breakup. The model is able to describe experimental results on the transient behaviour of a gas cavity due to breakup after the termination of gas injection. On the basis of the present model the residence time of a gas cavity behind a blockage in sodium is predicted and the dependence of the residence time on blockage size is discussed. (orig.) [de

  13. Heat transfer from the roughened surface of gas cooled fast breeder reactor fuel element

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tang, I.M.

    1979-01-01

    The temperature distributions and the augmentation of heat transfer performance by artificial roughening of a gas cooled fast breeder reactor (GCFR) fuel rod cladding are studied. Numerical solutions are based on the axisymmetric assumption for a two-dimensional model for one rib pitch of axial distance. The local and axial clad temperature distributions are obtained for both the rectangular and ramp rib roughened surface geometries. The transformation of experimentally measured convective heat transfer coefficients, in terms of Stanton number, into GCFR values is studied. In addition, the heat transfer performance of a GCFR fuel rod cladding roughened surface design is evaluated. Approximate analytical solution for correlating an average Stanton number is also obtained and satisfactorily compared with the corresponding numerical result for a GCFR design. The analytical correlation is useful in assessing roughened surface heat transfer performance in scoping studies and conceptual design

  14. Fission and corrosion product behaviour in liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1993-02-01

    It is intended that this review will be useful not only to scientists but also to those concerned with design, day-to-day operation of plant, with liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs), safety and decommissioning. Because of this, the review has been widened to include not only the mass transfer behaviour of the various radionuclides in experimental and operating systems, but also the monitoring of the various species, the methods of measurement and the development of methods to control the build-up of the more important long half-life species in operating plants. The information used in the review has been taken from open literature sources to provide an up-to-date presentation of the behaviour of the various isotopes in LMFBRs. 172 refs, 14 figs, 22 tabs

  15. Experience of secondary cooling system modification at fast breeder reactor MONJU

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ito, Keisuke; Nakatsuji, M.; Matsuno, Hiroki; Matsui, K.; Tone, T.

    2007-01-01

    The prototype fast breeder reactor MONJU has been shut down since the secondary sodium leak accident which occurred in December 1995. After the accident, the investigation of its cause and the comprehensive review were performed and the various counter measures against the sodium leak were also discussed. The main modification works of MONJU started in September 2005. The work should adopt suitable methods to treat sodium, since MONJU uses chemically active sodium as a coolant. Considering the chemical activity of sodium, MONJU learned the modification methods from the experimental fast reactor JOYO and precedent plants of overseas and adopted plastic bags when the sodium boundary is opened, management of oxygen concentration in the plastic bags, a slightly positive control of the cover gas pressure, compress cut by the roll cutters to prevent the entry of the chips, etc.. Owing to introduction of these methods, the modification works have proceeded almost on schedule without troubles. (author)

  16. Experience of secondary cooling system modification at prototype fast breeder reactor MONJU (Translated document)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kisohara, Naoyuki; Sakamoto, Yoshihiko

    2010-09-01

    The prototype fast breeder reactor MONJU has been shut down since the secondary sodium leak accident that occurred in December 1995. After the accident, an investigation into the cause and a comprehensive safety review of the plant were conducted, and various countermeasures for sodium leak were examined. Modification work commenced in September 2005. Since sodium, a chemically active material, is used as coolant in MONJU, the modification work required work methods suitable for the handling of sodium. From this perspective, the use of a plastic bag when opening the sodium boundary, oxygen concentration control in a plastic bag, slightly-positive pressure control of cover gas in the systems, pressing and cutting with a roller cutter to prevent the incorporation of metal fillings, etc. were adopted, with careful consideration given to experience and findings from previous modification work at the experimental fast reactor JOYO and plants abroad. Owing to these work methods, the modification work proceeded close to schedule without incident. (author)

  17. Fast Breeder Blanket Facility FBBF. Annual report, January 1, 1981-December 31, 1981

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clikeman, F.M.

    1982-07-01

    This annual report contains a summmary of fission rate, spectra, and gamma-ray heating rate measurements made in the first blanket of the Purdue Fast Breeder Blanket Facility. The first blanket consisted of aluminum clad, natural UO 2 fuel rods with a secondary cladding of stainless steel or aluminum. The blanket was arranged in two concentric regions around the neutron source and converter regions. A neutron diffusion code, 2DB, and a Monte Carlo code, VIM, both using homogeneous cross section groups have been used to calculate the reaction rates. Calculated to experimental values for a number of important reactions are presented. A modified method of applying Bondarenko self-shielding factors to correct for the self shielding of resonance energy neutrons in aluminum, stainless steel and UO 2 has improved the agreement between the calculations and experiment, but does not account for all of the differences

  18. Diversion analysis and safeguards measures for liquid metal fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Persiani, P.J.

    1981-10-01

    The general objective of the study is to perform a diversion analysis and an assessment of the available safeguards methods and systems for verifying inventory and flow of nuclear material in accessible and inaccessible areas of liquid-metal fast breeder reactor, LMFBR, systems. The study focuses primarily on the assembly-handling operations, assembly storage facilities, and reactor operations facilities relating to existing and/or near-term planned experimental, demonstration and prototypal reactor plants. The safeguards systems and methods presented are considered to be feasible for development and for implementation within the resource limitation of the IAEA and are considered to be consistent with the objectives, requirements, and constraints of the IAEA as outlined in the IAEA documents INFCIRC/153 and INFCIRC/66-Rev-2

  19. Theory, design, and operation of liquid metal fast breeder reactors, including operational health physics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adams, S.R.

    1985-10-01

    A comprehensive evaluation was conducted of the radiation protection practices and programs at prototype LMFBRs with long operational experience. Installations evaluated were the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), Richland, Washington; Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II), Idaho Falls, Idaho; Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR) Dounreay, Scotland; Phenix, Marcoule, France; and Kompakte Natriumgekuhlte Kernreak Toranlange (KNK II), Karlsruhe, Federal Republic of Germany. The evaluation included external and internal exposure control, respiratory protection procedures, radiation surveillance practices, radioactive waste management, and engineering controls for confining radiation contamination. The theory, design, and operating experience at LMFBRs is described. Aspects of LMFBR health physics different from the LWR experience in the United States are identified. Suggestions are made for modifications to the NRC Standard Review Plan based on the differences

  20. Theory, design, and operation of liquid metal fast breeder reactors, including operational health physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, S.R.

    1985-10-01

    A comprehensive evaluation was conducted of the radiation protection practices and programs at prototype LMFBRs with long operational experience. Installations evaluated were the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF), Richland, Washington; Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II), Idaho Falls, Idaho; Prototype Fast Reactor (PFR) Dounreay, Scotland; Phenix, Marcoule, France; and Kompakte Natriumgekuhlte Kernreak Toranlange (KNK II), Karlsruhe, Federal Republic of Germany. The evaluation included external and internal exposure control, respiratory protection procedures, radiation surveillance practices, radioactive waste management, and engineering controls for confining radiation contamination. The theory, design, and operating experience at LMFBRs is described. Aspects of LMFBR health physics different from the LWR experience in the United States are identified. Suggestions are made for modifications to the NRC Standard Review Plan based on the differences.

  1. Fast Breeder Blanket Facility. Quarterly progress report, July 1, 1978--September 30, 1978

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Clikeman, F.M.

    1978-09-01

    This quarterly progress report summarizes work done at Purdue University's Fast Breeder Blanket Facility for the Department of Energy during the months July to September 1978. The summary includes reports on the models and methods used to characterize the FBBF facility. Using the reported models and calculational methods and computer codes a new cross section set has been generated, self-shielded for 300 0 K for use in all FBBF calculations using the 2DB computer code. The summary includes reports of the reproducability of foil activation data and measurements of the azmuthal symmetry of the facility. The status of the development of technique for the experimental measurements and preliminary foil activation measurements are also reviewed

  2. Reproductive performance of breeder quails fed diets supplemented with L-cysteine-coated iron oxide nanoparticles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohammadi, H; Farzinpour, A; Vaziry, A

    2017-04-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of L-cysteine-coated iron oxide nanoparticles on reproductive performance in breeder quails. The five treatment diets consisted of (i) negative control diet not supplemented with iron, (ii) positive control diet supplemented with 60 mg/kg of Fe 3 O 4 and (iii) experimental diets supplemented with 0.6, 6 and 60 mg/kg of L-cysteine-coated iron oxide nanoparticles. A total of 100 seven-day-old quail chicks were weighed and randomly placed to five groups of five replicate cages. Four quails (one male and three females) were raised in each cage (50 × 15 × 17 cm). Egg production, feed consumption and egg weight were recorded daily and calculated on a hen per day basis. Egg components, fertility, hatchability and day-old chicks hatched from their eggs were measured at the end of the experiment. The percentage of egg production and egg mass of the 6 mg/kg Fe 3 O 4 -Cys NPs group were significantly higher than those of the control groups. Throughout the experimental period, the highest weekly egg weight was recorded for the 60 mg/kg Fe 3 O 4 -Cys NPs group. Fertility was improved by diet supplemented with iron, both FeSO 4 and Fe 3 O 4 -Cys NPs. The breeder fed Fe 3 O 4 -Cys NPs had the highest day-old chicks weight. The results of this study showed that Fe 3 O 4 nanoparticles that were coated by L-cysteine could improve availability and utilization of iron in diet. Finally, it was proposed that Fe 3 O 4 -Cys NPs could be used as feed additives in quails. © 2017 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  3. Acoustic monitoring of sodium boiling in a liquid metal fast breeder reactor from autoregressive models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Geraldo, Issa Cherif; Bose, Tanmoy; Pekpe, Komi Midzodzi; Cassar, Jean-Philippe; Mohanty, A.R.; Paumel, Kévin

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The work deals with sodium boiling detection in a liquid metal fast breeder reactor. • The authors choose to use acoustic data instead of thermal data. • The method is designed to not to be disturbed by the environment noises. • A real time boiling detection methods are proposed in the paper. - Abstract: This paper deals with acoustic monitoring of sodium boiling in a liquid metal fast breeder reactor (LMFBR) based on auto regressive (AR) models which have low computational complexities. Some authors have used AR models for sodium boiling or sodium–water reaction detection. These works are based on the characterization of the difference between fault free condition and current functioning of the system. However, even in absence of faults, it is possible to observe a change in the AR models due to the change of operating mode of the LMFBR. This sets up the delicate problem of how to distinguish a change in operating mode in absence of faults and a change due to presence of faults. In this paper we propose a new approach for boiling detection based on the estimation of AR models on sliding windows. Afterwards, classification of the models into boiling or non-boiling models is made by comparing their coefficients by two statistical methods, multiple linear regression (LR) and support vectors machines (SVM). The proposed approach takes into account operating mode information in order to avoid false alarms. Experimental data include non-boiling background noise data collected from Phenix power plant (France) and provided by the CEA (Commissariat à l’Energie Atomique et aux énergies alternatives, France) and boiling condition data generated in laboratory. High boiling detection rates as well as low false alarms rates obtained on these experimental data show that the proposed method is efficient for boiling detection. Most importantly, it shows that the boiling phenomenon introduces a disturbance into the AR models that can be clearly detected

  4. Examination of the use of the breeder reactor to enhance security of energy supply. Final report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jones, G.S.; Chow, B.G.

    1980-01-01

    Early commercialization of the breeder reactor has been justified in terms of its promise for lessening a nation's dependence on imported uranium. The relationship between breeder timing (assuming a vigorous but not instantaneous breeder penetration rate) and the reduction in uranium requirements is examined using Japan as an example. Comparing early and delayed breeder introductions (2006 and 2026 respectively in the high growth projections), the difference in cumulative uranium requirements is slight through the year 2045; for both scenarious, annual requirements remain high. The early breeder introduction strategy is more attractive when it incorporates a 30 percent improved LWR. However, given the unlikelihood of sufficient funding for the development of both designs, the optimal strategy for Japan is stockpiling uranium for an improved LWR and delaying introduction of the breeder

  5. Selection of Breeding Stock among Australian Purebred Dog Breeders, with Particular Emphasis on the Dam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veronika Czerwinski

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available Every year, thousands of purebred domestic dogs are bred by registered dog breeders. Yet, little is known about the rearing environment of these dogs, or the attitudes and priorities surrounding breeding practices of these dog breeders. The objective of this study was to explore some of the factors that dog breeders consider important for stock selection, with a particular emphasis on issues relating to the dam. Two-hundred and seventy-four Australian purebred dog breeders, covering 91 breeds across all Australian National Kennel Club breed groups, completed an online survey relating to breeding practices. Most breeders surveyed (76% reported specialising in one breed of dog, the median number of dogs and bitches per breeder was two and three respectively, and most breeders bred two litters or less a year. We identified four components, relating to the dam, that were considered important to breeders. These were defined as Maternal Care, Offspring Potential, Dam Temperament, and Dam Genetics and Health. Overall, differences were observed in attitudes and beliefs across these components, showing that there is variation according to breed/breed groups. In particular, the importance of Maternal Care varied according to dog breed group. Breeders of brachycephalic breeds tended to differ the most in relation to Offspring Potential and Dam Genetics and Health. The number of breeding dogs/bitches influenced breeding priority, especially in relation to Dam Temperament, however no effect was found relating to the number of puppies bred each year. Only 24% of breeders used their own sire for breeding. The finding that some breeders did not test for diseases relevant to their breed, such as hip dysplasia in Labrador Retrievers and German Shepherds, provides important information on the need to educate some breeders, and also buyers of purebred puppies, that screening for significant diseases should occur. Further research into the selection of breeding dams

  6. Composite beryllium-ceramics breeder pin elements for a gas cooled solid blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carre, F.; Chevreau, G.; Gervaise, F.; Proust, E.

    1986-06-01

    Helium coolant have main advantages compared to water for solid blankets. But limitations exist too and the development of attractive helium cooled blankets based on breeder pin assemblies has been essentially made possible by the derivation from recent CEA neutronic studies of an optimized composite beryllium/ceramics breeder arrangement. Description of the proposed toroidal blanket layout for Net is made together with the analysis of its main performance. Merits of the considered composite Be/ceramics breeder elements are discussed

  7. Experiences with fast breeder reactor education in laboratory and short course settings

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waltar, A.E.

    1983-01-01

    The breeder reactor industry throughout the world has grown impressively over the last two decades. Despite the uncertainties in some national programs, breeder reactor technology is well established on a global scale. Given the magnitude of this technological undertaking, there has been surprisingly little emphasis on general breeder reactor education - either at the university or laboratory level. Many universities assume the topic too specialized for including appropriate courses in their curriculum - thus leaving students entering the breeder reactor industry to learn almost exclusively from on-the-job experience. The evaluation of four course presentations utilizing visual aids is presented

  8. Status of French breeder development and German-French cooperation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vendryes, G.

    1978-01-01

    The development of fast breeder reactors in France is at present characterized by the successful operation of the 250 MW reactor, Phenix, and the speedy progress made in construction of the 1200 MW Superphenix plant. The technical concept of Superphenix is a logical extension of the Phenix concept, i.e., the pool type sodium cooled breeder reactor. While the only change in the primary system has been an increase in capacity, the main modification over Phenix is the change from small modular steam generators to four large units. The development of the work to date does not cast any doubt upon the envisaged date of first criticality in the second half of 1982. The basis of German-French cooperation is a joint declaration by the then Ministers for Research of the two countries on February 13, 1976 in which the Ministers had expressed themselves in favor of close cooperation between both countries in the development of safe, reliable and economic fast breeder reactors. On this basis, the two governments, the research centers and the industrial partners in the two countries, including the previous partners in Belgium, the Netherlands and Italy, agreed on the general principles of this cooperation. Meanwhile, the cooperation formalized in 1977 has been activated. Both in research and development and among planning and building industries the exchange of know-how and cooperation is in full swing. The joint company, SERENA, is the pool for the know-how introduced by the partners and the sole representative of the partners in the scheme. (orig.) 891 UA [de

  9. Ochratoxicosis in White Leghorn breeder hens: Production and breeding performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zahoor Ul Hassan*, Muhammad Zargham Khan, Ahrar Khan, Ijaz Javed1, Umer Sadique2 and Aisha Khatoon

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to evaluate the effect of Ochratoxin A (OTA upon production and breeding parameters in White Leghorn (WL breeder hens. For this purpose, 84 WL breeder hens were divided into seven groups (A-G. The hens in these groups were maintained on feed contaminated with OTA @ 0.0 (control, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, 3.0, 5.0 and 10.0 mg/Kg, respectively for 21 days. These hens were artificially inseminated with semen obtained from healthy roosters kept on OTA free feed. Egg production and their quality parameters were recorded. Fertile eggs obtained from each group were set for incubation on weekly basis. At the end of the experiment, hens in each group were killed to determined gross and microscopic lesions in different organs. OTA residue concentrations were determined in extracts of liver, kidneys and breast muscles by immunoaffinity column elution and HPLC-Fluorescent detection techniques. Feeing OTA contaminated diet resulted in a significant decrease in egg mass and egg quality parameters. Liver and kidneys showed characteristic lesions of ochratoxicosis. Residue concentration (ng/g of OTA in the hens fed 10 mg/kg OTA, was the highest in liver (26.336±1.16 followed by kidney (8.223±0.85 and were least in breast muscles (1.235±0.21. Embryonic mortalites were higher, while hatachabilites of the chicks were lower in the groups fed higher doses of OTA. Feeding OTA contaminated diets to breeder hen resulted in residues accumulation in their tissues along with significantly reduced production and breeding performance.

  10. Test measurements on the RF charge breeder device BRIC

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Variale, Vincenzo; Boggia, Antonio; Clauser, Tarcisio; Raino, Antonio; Valentino, Vincenzo; Verrone, Grazia; Bak, Petr; Kustenzov, Gennady; Skarbo, Boris; Tiunov, Michael

    2004-01-01

    The 'charge state breeder' BRIC (BReeding Ion Charge) is based on an EBIS source and it is designed to accept Radioactive Ion Beam (RIB) with charge state +1, in a slow injection mode, to increase their charge state up to +n. BRIC has been developed at the INFN section of Bari (Italy) during these last 3 years with very limited funds. Now, it has been assembled at the LNL (Italy) where are in progress the first tests as stand alone source and where, in the future, with some implementation, it will be tested as charge breeder at ISOL/TS facility of that laboratory. BRIC could be considered as a solution for the charge state breeder of the SPES project under study also at the LNL. The new feature of BRIC, with respect to the classical EBIS, is given by the insertion, in the ion drift chamber, of a radio frequency (RF) - quadrupole aiming to filter the unwanted masses and then making a more efficient containment of the wanted ions. In this paper, the first ion charge state measurements and analysis and the effect of the RF field applied on the ion chamber will be reported and discussed. The first RF test measurements seem confirm, as foreseen by simulation results carried out previously, that a selective containment can be obtained. However, most accurate measurements needed to study with more details the effect. For this reason, few implementations of the system are in order to improve the accuracy of the measurements. The proposed modifications of the BRIC device, then, will be also presented and shortly discussed

  11. The development of a cavitation free sodium pump for the breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baladi, J.Y.; Nyilas, C.P.

    1986-12-01

    The sodium pumps for a liquid metal fast breeder reactor must be designed for exceptionally high reliability and long life. The principal adverse factor which tends to limit the primary pump life is cavitation which becomes potentially severe under off-design flow conditions caused by the requirement of two loop operations which resulted in a large operating flow range. This problem prompted an extensive study which included experimental investigations of scaled down and full size pumps. The investigations involved visual observations, acoustic signature recordings, and physical characteristic measurements of the model and full size impellers. The blade configuration of the model was modified several times. After each modification intensive testing was conducted with feedback to established design criteria. The results obtained from the final configuration showed excellent cavitation performance. This configuration was then machined on the full scale impeller and tested. The results confirmed acceptable performance in the entire range of operating conditions. This paper describes the test facilities erected for this study, discusses the experimental techniques employed, and presents the experimental techniques employed, and presents a sample of the experimental results

  12. Optimization of binary breeder reactor V - Binary breeder reactors with two and four zones and a conventional LMFBR - (Pu/U) of two zones

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dias, A.F.; Ishiguro, Y.

    1986-04-01

    Comparative analyses of a commercial-size Pu/U-fueled liquid metal fast breeder reactor and two binary breeder reactors with different numbers of enrichment zones have been done. Principal parameters of comparison are safety and breeding characteristics and reactivity losses during an operational cycle. The comparison shows that in a binary breeder reactor, good breeding characteristics in both cycles, Pu/U and U/Th, in addition to a possibility of an efficient utilization of thorium, and superior inherent safety than current LMFBRs can be achieved. (Author) [pt

  13. Breeder design for enhanced performance and safety characteristics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, G.J.; Atefi, B.; Yang, J.W.; Galperin, A.; Segev, M.

    1980-01-01

    A fast breeder reactor design has been created which offers a considerably extended fuel cycle and excellent performance characteristics. An example of a core designed to operate on a ten-year fuel cycle is described in some detail. Use of metal fuel along with a moderator such as beryllium oxide dispersed throughout the core provides both design flexibility and safety advantages such as a strong Doppler feedback and limited sodium void reactivity gain. Local power variations are small for the entire cycle; control requirements are also modest, and fuel cycle costs are low

  14. Safety design study of fast breeder reactors in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Miura, M.; Inagaki, T.

    1992-01-01

    This paper reports on two fast breeder reactor (FBR) concepts, the tank type and the loop type, that have been studied as possible reactor designs to be used for a demonstration FBR (DFBR). The basic principle fo the DFBR design is to ensure plant safety through a defense-in-depth methodology. Improvements in the seismic and thermal stress designs have been attempted for both reactor concepts. The system design study strives to maximize the reliability of the safety-related systems and to rationalize commercialization of the plant

  15. Tritium transport and release from lithium ceramic breeder materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, C.E.; Kopasz, J.P.; Tam, S.W.

    1994-01-01

    In an operating fusion reactor,, the tritium breeding blanket will reach a condition in which the tritium release rate equals the production rate. The tritium release rate must be fast enough that the tritium inventory in the blanket does not become excessive. Slow tritium release will result in a large tritium inventory, which is unacceptable from both economic and safety viewpoints As a consequence, considerable effort has been devoted to understanding the tritium release mechanism from ceramic breeders and beryllium neutron multipliers through theoretical, laboratory, and in-reactor studies. This information is being applied to the development of models for predicting tritium release for various blanket operating conditions

  16. Calculation of the evolution of molten salt breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Esteves, Fernando de Avelar

    1999-01-01

    A forecast for the future electrical consumption in Brazil and forecast of the nuclear electrical generation demand are discussed in this paper, which includes also an analysis on advanced nuclear reactors concept to supply that demand. This paper presents a concise description of the Molten Salt Breeder Reactor, considered the most appropriated to meet that demand. This paper also presents the burnup calculation modeling, including the operation modeling of this type of reactor from an initial load o 233 U up to the equilibrium cycle, the results of these calculations and its analysis. (author)

  17. Refueling system for the gas-cooled fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hawke, B.C.

    1980-05-01

    Criteria specifically related to the handling of Gas-Cooled Fast Breeder Reactor (GCFR) fuel are briefly reviewed, and the most significant requirements with which the refueling system must comply are discussed. Each component of the refueling system is identified, and a functional description of the fuel handling machine is presented. An illustrated operating sequence describing the various functions involved in a typical refueling cycle is presented. The design status of components and subsystems selected for conceptual development is reviewed, and anticipated refueling time frames are given

  18. Liquid Li-Pb-Bi, a new tritium breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rogers, A.G.; Benedict, B.L.; Clemmer, R.G.

    1981-01-01

    In light of their potential utility as tritium breeder-blanket materials, a study was conducted to identify and characterize low-melting phases in the lithium-lead-bismuth system. It is found that a low-melting ternary phase field did in fact exist, e.g., compositions with less than or equal to 20 atom percent lithium and Pb/Bi = 0.773 melted at or below 140 0 C. In addition, the qualitative reactivity of Li-Bi-Pb alloys with water was tested, and although minimal evidence of exothermic chemical reaction was observed, a physical vapor explosion did occur in one of the tests

  19. Challenges and achievements - Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor construction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Subramani, V.A.; Dhere, S.S.; Manoharan, V.; Subbaraman, P.

    2010-01-01

    Prototype fast breeder reactor presently under construction poses several challenges in materials, design and construction. The civil structure and equipment are of very large size and complex in nature. This paper presents the features of the design and construction of the PFBR excavation, raft, civil structure of the nuclear island connected buildings and reactor vault. This paper also brings out the details of the large size equipment of special stainless steel and handling structure for their lifting and placement inside the reactor vault. The paper is divided into three parts viz. introduction, challenges and achievements during construction of civil structures and erection of large size components. (author)

  20. Application of an LP model to breeder strategy studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Till, C.E.; Chang, Y.I.

    1979-01-01

    The paper discusses the relationships between the capital cost differential (FBR--LWR) allowable for economic breeder introduction and energy demand, resource availability (through price--quantity schedule), and economic environment for a range of future projections. The ALPS linear programming reactor systems analysis code, developed by Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory, was used for economic optimizations where they were done, and where they were not it provided a useful tool to compute the discounted total system power cost over the planning horizon for a given set of reactor mix and cost parameters

  1. Reliability modeling of Clinch River breeder reactor electrical shutdown systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schatz, R.A.; Duetsch, K.L.

    1974-01-01

    The initial simulation of the probabilistic properties of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) electrical shutdown systems is described. A model of the reliability (and availability) of the systems is presented utilizing Success State and continuous-time, discrete state Markov modeling techniques as significant elements of an overall reliability assessment process capable of demonstrating the achievement of program goals. This model is examined for its sensitivity to safe/unsafe failure rates, sybsystem redundant configurations, test and repair intervals, monitoring by reactor operators; and the control exercised over system reliability by design modifications and the selection of system operating characteristics. (U.S.)

  2. Clinch River Breeder Reactor secondary control rod system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McKeehan, E.R.; Sim, R.G.

    1977-01-01

    The shutdown system for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBR) includes two independent systems--a primary and a secondary system. The Secondary Control Rod System (SCRS) is a new design which is being developed by General Electric to be independent from the primary system in order to improve overall shutdown reliability by eliminating potential common-mode failures. The paper describes the status of the SCRS design and fabrication and testing activities. Design verification testing on the component level is largely complete. These component tests are covered with emphasis on design impact results. A prototype unit has been manufactured and system level tests in sodium have been initiated

  3. Ceramic sphere-pac breeder design for fusion blankets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gierszewski, P.J.; Sullivan, J.D.

    1991-01-01

    Randomly packed beds of ceramic spheres are a practical approach to surrounding fusion plasmas with tritium-breeding material. This paper examines the general properties of sphere-pac beds for application in fusion breeder blankets. The design considerations and models are reviewed for packing, tritium breeding and recovery, thermal conductivity, purge-gas pressure drop, mechanical behavior and fabrication. The design correlations are compared against available fusion ceramic data. Specific conclusions are that ternary (three-size) beds are not attractive for fusion blankets, and that the fusion spheres should be as large as possible subject primarily to packing constraints. (orig.)

  4. Production behavior of irradiation defects in solid breeder materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moriyama, Hirotake; Moritani, Kimikazu [Kyoto Univ. (Japan)

    1998-03-01

    The irradiation effects in solid breeder materials are important for the performance assessment of fusion reactor blanket systems. For a clearer understanding of such effects, we have studied the production behavior of irradiation defects in some lithium ceramics by an in-situ luminescence measurement technique under ion beam irradiation. The luminescence spectra were measured at different temperatures, and the temperature-transient behaviors of luminescence intensity were also measured. The production mechanisms of irradiation defects were discussed on the basis of the observations. (author)

  5. Fissile fuel dynamics of breeder/converter reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harms, A.A.

    1978-01-01

    The long-term fissile fuel dynamics for a hierarchy of fission reactors covering the range from pure-burners to super-breeders is examined. It is found that the breeding gains of the core and blanket can be used to identify several distinct fissile fuel histories and elucidate the importance of fuel cycle characteristics such as the time dependence of the fissile fuel doubling time. On this basis, a self-sufficient fission reactor is introduced and its determining characteristics are identified. (author)

  6. Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor plant maintenance and equipment design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swannack, D.L.

    1982-01-01

    This paper provides a summary of maintenance equipment considerations and actual plant handling experiences from operation of a sodium-cooled reactor, the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). Equipment areas relating to design, repair techniques, in-cell handling, logistics and facility services are discussed. Plant design must make provisions for handling and replacement of components within containment or allow for transport to an ex-containment area for repair. The modular cask assemblies and transporter systems developed for FFTF can service major plant components as well as smaller units. The plant and equipment designs for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor (CRBR) plant have been patterned after successful FFTF equipment

  7. Analysis of a sustainable gas cooled fast breeder reactor concept

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Akansha; Chirayath, Sunil S.; Tsvetkov, Pavel V.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • A Thorium-GFBR breeder for actinide recycling ability, and thorium fuel feasibility. • A mixture of 232 Th and 233 U is used as fuel and LWR used fuel is used. • Detailed neutronics, fuel cycle, and thermal-hydraulics analysis has been presented. • Run this TGFBR for 20 years with breeding of 239 Pu and 233 U. • Neutronics analysis using MCNP and Brayton cycle for energy conversion are used. - Abstract: Analysis of a thorium fuelled gas cooled fast breeder reactor (TGFBR) concept has been done to demonstrate the self-sustainability, breeding capability, actinide recycling ability, and thorium fuel feasibility. Simultaneous use of 232 Th and used fuel from light water reactor in the core has been considered. Results obtained confirm the core neutron spectrum dominates in an intermediate energy range (peak at 100 keV) similar to that seen in a fast breeder reactor. The conceptual design achieves a breeding ratio of 1.034 and an average fuel burnup of 74.5 (GWd)/(MTHM) . TGFBR concept is to address the eventual shortage of 235 U and nuclear waste management issues. A mixture of thorium and uranium ( 232 Th + 233 U) is used as fuel and light water reactor used fuel is utilized as blanket, for the breeding of 239 Pu. Initial feed of 233 U has to be obtained from thorium based reactors; even though there are no thorium breeders to breed 233 U a theoretical evaluation has been used to derive the data for the source of 233 U. Reactor calculations have been performed with Monte Carlo radiation transport code, MCNP/MCNPX. It is determined that this reactor has to be fuelled once every 5 years assuming the design thermal power output as 445 MW. Detailed analysis of control rod worth has been performed and different reactivity coefficients have been evaluated as part of the safety analysis. The TGFBR concept demonstrates the sustainability of thorium, viability of 233 U as an alternate to 235 U and an alternate use for light water reactor used fuel as a

  8. Elements for evaluation of fast breeder reactor's potential in Argentina

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gho, C.J.

    1985-01-01

    Fast Breeder Reactors (FBR) main features are presented in a general form, including their physical principles, the history of their evolution, their relevant technological aspects and the basis for their comparison to other energy sources. This is completed with descriptions of typical reactors and a model of FBR penetration in the Argentine electrical network. It is recommended to form a multidisciplinary board to study which position should be taken with respect to this type of reactors. In the author's opinion a Research activity should be started and gradually increased for passing to Development activities after a short while. (Author) [es

  9. Human factors engineering in Clinch River Breeder plant design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Planchon, H.P. Jr.; Kaushal, N.N.; Snider, J.

    1982-01-01

    The Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) Project formed a Control Room Task Force to ensure that lessons learned from the Three Mile Island accident are incorporated into the design. The charter for the Control Room Task Force was to review plant operations from the control room. The focus was on the man-machine interface to ensure that the systems' designs and operator actions meshed to properly support plant operation during normal and off-normal conditions. Specific items included for review are described. This paper describes the methodology utilized to accomplish the Task Forces' objectives and the results of the review

  10. Neutron cross section measurements for the Fast Breeder Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Block, R.C.

    1979-06-01

    This research was concerned with the measurement of neutron cross sections of importance to the Fast Breeder Reactor. The capture and total cross sections of fission products ( 101 102 104 Ru, 143 145 Nd, 149 Sm, 95 97 Mo, Cs, Pr, Pd, 107 Pd, 99 Tc) and tag gases (Kr, 78 80 Kr) were measured up to 100 keV. Filtered neutron beams were used to measure the capture cross section of 238 U (with an Fe filter) and the total cross section of Na (with a Na filter). A radioactive neutron capture detector was developed. A list of publications is included

  11. Inclusion of canthaxanthin and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol in the diet of broiler breeders on performance and incubation parameters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinicius Duarte

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this experiment was to evaluate the effects of a diet containing canthaxanthin and 25-hydroxycholecalciferol (25-OH-D3 on the production and reproductive performances of Cobb 500 broiler breeders aged 53 to 61 weeks. The study included 36,000 Cobb 500 female and 3,600 male broiler breeders aging 51 weeks. The birds were housed in three poultry houses divided into four plots, totaling 12 experimental units each containing 3,000 females and 300 males. The birds received the following treatments: control diet (without the studied additives or the control diet with the addition of 60mg kg-1feed of 25-(OH-D3 and canthaxanthin feed (6mg of canthaxanthin and 2,760,000IU of 25-(OH-D3 per kg of feed per the supplier's recommendations. The experimental design used was a randomized complete block design with two treatments and six replicates. The results were subjected to analysis of variance followed by the F-test. The treatments had no effect on egg production, usability of eggs and number of incubatable eggs per bird housed. The inclusion of canthaxanthin and 25-(OH-D3 in the diet reduced embryonic mortality while increasing egg yolk pigmentation, hatching percentage, and number of viable chicks produced per bird. Therefore, the use of 60mg kg-1of 25-(OH-D3 plus canthaxanthin is recommended in the diet of Cobb 500 broiler breeders aging 53 to 61 weeks to improve important reproductive traits that have great economic impacts on poultry farms

  12. Evaluation of the trial design studies for an advanced marine reactor, (1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-03-01

    The trial design of three type reactors, semi-integrated, integrated and integrated (self-pressurized) type, was carried out in order to clarify the reactor type for the advanced marine reactor that would be developed for its realization in future and in order to extract its research and development theme. The trial design was carried and finished as for the three type reactors in same specifications in order to improve the following characteristics, small in size, light in weight, high in safety and reliability, and economic. In this report, a comparison and review of the following items are described as for the above three type reactors, (1) specifications, (2) shielding, (3) refueling, (4) in-service inspection, (5) analysis of the transients and accidents, (6) piping systems, (7) control systems, (8) dynamic analysis, (9) overall comparison, (10) research and development theme and theme for study in future. (author)

  13. Burn-up dependent steady-state thermal hydraulic analysis of Pakistan research reactor-1

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Atta

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The burn-up dependent steady-state thermal hydraulic analysis of Pakistan research reactor-1, reference operating core, has been carried out utilizing standard computer codes WIMS/D4, CITATION, and RELAP5/MOD3.4. Reactor codes WIMS/D4 and CITATION have been used for the calculations of neutronic parameters including peaking factors and power profiles at different burn-up considering a xenon free core and also the equilibrium xenon values. RELAP5/MOD3.4 code was utilized for the determination of peak fuel centerline, clad and coolant temperatures to ensure the safety of the reactor throughout the cycle. The calculations reveal that the reactor is safe and no nucleate boiling will commence at any part of the core throughout the cycle and that the safety margin increases with burnup as peaking factors decrease.

  14. Materials requirements for liquid metal fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bennett, J.W.; Horton, K.E.

    1978-01-01

    Materials requirements for Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactors (LMFBRs) are quite varied with requisite applications ranging from ex-reactor components such as piping, pumps, steam generators and heat exchangers to in-reactor components such as heavy section reactor vessels, core structurals, fuel pin cladding and subassembly flow ducts. Requirements for ex-reactor component materials include: good high temperature tensile, creep and fatigue properties; compatibility with high temperature flowing sodium; resistance to wear, stress corrosion cracking, and crack propagation; and good weldability. Requirements for in-reactor components include most of those cited above for ex-reactor components as supplemented by the following: resistance to radiation embrittlement, swelling and radiation enhanced creep; good neutronics; compatibility with fuel and fission product materials; and resistance to mass transfer via flowing sodium. Extensive programs are currently in place in a number of national laboratories and industrial contractors to address the materials requirements for LMFBRs. These programs are focused on meeting the near term requirements of early LMFBRs such as the Fast Flux Test Facility and the Clinch River Breeder Reactor as well as the longer term requirements of larger near-commercial and fully-commercial reactors

  15. Design and development of ceramic breeder demo blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Enoeda, M.; Sato, S.; Hatano, T.

    2001-01-01

    Ceramic breeder blanket development has been widely conducted in Japan from fundamental researches to project-oriented engineering scaled development. A long term R and D program has been launched in JAERI since 1996 as a course of DEMO blanket development. The objectives of this program are to provide engineering data base and fabrication technologies of the DEMO blanket, aiming at module testing in ITER currently scheduled to start from the beginning of the ITER operation as a near-term target. Two types of DEMO blanket systems, water cooled blanket and helium cooled blanket, have been designed to be consistent with the SSTR (Steady State Tokamak Reactor) which is the reference DEMO reactor design in JAERI. Both of them utilize packed small pebbles of breeder Li 2 O or Li 2 TiO 3 as a candidate) and neutron multiplier (Be) and rely on the development of advanced structural materials (a reduced activation ferritic steel F82H) compatible with high temperature operation. (author)

  16. Investigation of base isolation for fast breeder reactor building

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morishita, M.; Kobatake, M.; Ohta, K.; Okada, Y.

    1989-01-01

    Achievement of great rationalization for seismic-resistant design of equipment system is necessary and indispensable from the viewpoints of economical and structural validity for a fast breeder reactor to be made practical. The method of reducing seismic loads on the building and equipment by application of base isolation may be an effective method, but in application to nuclear facilities, it will become necessary to examine the feasibility to actual design considering the severe seismic design requirements in Japan. With these considerations as the background, the authors carried out analytical studies from various viewpoints such as restoring force characteristics of base isolation device, influence of input earthquake motion, soil-structure interaction in base- isolated structure, etc. in case of providing base isolation system for a fast breeder reactor building. Based on these analytical studies, vibration tests on a base-isolated structure using a triaxial shaking table and simulation analyses of the tests were performed attempting to verify the effectiveness of the base isolation system and appropriateness of the analysis method. Results are presented

  17. Fabrication of metallic fuel for fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saify, M.T.; Jha, S.K.; Abdulla, K.K.; Kumar, Arbind; Mittal, R.K.; Prasad, R.S.; Mahule, N.; Kumar, Arun; Prasad, G.J.

    2012-01-01

    Natural uranium oxide fuelled PHWRs comprises of first stage of Indian nuclear power programme. Liquid metal fast breeder reactors fuelled by Pu (from PHWR's) form the second stage. A shorter reactor doubling time is essential in order to accelerate the nuclear power growth in India. Metallic fuels are known to provide shorter doubling times, necessitating to be used as driver fuel for fast breeder reactors. One of the fabrication routes for metallic fuels having random grain orientation, is injection casting technique. The technique finds its basis in an elementary physical concept - the possibility of supporting a liquid column within a tube, by the application of a pressure difference across the liquid interface inside and outside the tube. At AFD, BARC a facility has been set-up for injection casting of uranium rods in quartz tube moulds, demoulding of cast rods, end-shearing of rods and an automated inspection system for inspection of fuel rods with respect to mass, length, diameter and diameter variation along the length and internal and external porosities/voids. All the above facilities have been set-up in glove boxes and have successfully been used for fabrication of uranium bearing fuel rods. The facility has been designed for fabrication and inspection of Pu-bearing metallic fuels also, if required

  18. Alternative fuels for the French fast breeder reactors programme

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bailly, H.; Bernard, H.; Mansard, B.

    1989-01-01

    French fast breeder reactors use mixed oxide as reference fuel. A great deal of experience has been gained in the behaviour and manufacture of oxide fuel, which has proved to be the most suitable fuel for future commercial breeder reactors. However, France is maintaining long-term alternative fuels programme, in order to be in a position to satisfy eventually new future reactor design and operational requirements. Initially, the CEA in France developed a carbide-based, sodium-bonded fuel designed for a high specific power. The new objective of the alternative fuels programme is to define a fuel which could replace the oxide without requiring any significant changes to the operating conditions, fuel cycle processes or facilities. The current program concentrates on a nitride-based, helium-bonded fuel, bearing in mind the carbide solution. The paper describes the main characteristics required, the manufacturing process as developed, the inspection methods, and the results obtained. Present indications are that the industrial manufacture of mixed nitride is feasible and that production costs for nitride and oxide fuels would be not significantly different. (author) 8 refs., 2 figs

  19. Analysis of fuel sodium interaction in a fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tezuka, M.; Suzuki, K.; Sasanuma, K.; Nagasima, K.; Kawaguchi, O.

    A code ''SUGAR'' has been developed to evaluate molten Fuel Sodium Interaction (FSI) in a fast breeder reactor. This code computes thermohydrodynamic behavior by heat transfer from fuel to sodium and dynamic deformation of reactor structures simultaneously. It was applied to evaluate FSI in local fuel melting accident in a fuel assembly and in core disassembly accident for the 300MWe fast breeder reactor under development in Japan. The analytical methods of the SUGAR code are mainly shown in the following: 1) the thermal and dynamic model of FSI is mainly based on Cho-Wright's model; 2) the axial and radial expansions of surroundings of FSI region are calculated with one-dimensional and compressive hydrodynamics equation; 3) the structure response is calculated with one-dimensional and dynamic stress equation. Our studies show that mass of fuel interacted with sodium, ratio of fuel mass to sodium mass, fuel particle size, heat transfer coefficient from fuel to sodium, and structure's force have great effect on pressure amplitude and deformation of reactor structures

  20. Instrumentation and control of the fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Juengst, U.

    1982-01-01

    Generally the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) in comparison to the Leight Water Reactors hasn't exceptionally different requirements to the instrumentation and control systems. There fore the paper restricts itself to outline the peculiarities of LMFBR's exemplified at the design of the German Breeder SNR-300 beeing under construction. The special sodium instrumentation for temperature level, flow and pressure in the main systems is described. The automatic control system enabled the plant to follow the bad demand of the grid immidiately. The nuclear power production itself is stabilized by inherent coefficients of the core. An exceptional high reliability of the shut down systems is necessary; there fore all LMFBR's have two completely independant and diverse shut down systems. In the SNR-300 also the control of decay heat removal and the active safety systems for enclosure of radioactivity are distributed to two independent and diverse plant protection systems (PPS) so that the first system covered the accidents due to internal events and the second systems managed the external events such as earthquake and aircraft crash. (orig.)

  1. Interim Report on Fluid-Fuel Thermal Breeder Reactors (Revised)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    MacPherson, H. G.; Alexander, L. G.; Carter, W. L.; Chapman, R. H.; Kinyon, B. W.; Miller, J. W.

    1960-01-01

    The merits of aqueous-homogeneous ), graphite-moderated molten salt (MSBR) , and graphite-moderated liquid-bismuth (LBBR) breeder reactors operated at nearly comparable fuel-cycle costs (~1.5 mills/kwhr) were evaluated. The net electrical plant capability was assumed to be 1000 MwE, and the fuel and fertile streams were processed continuously on-site. The specific powers based on fuel were 1.2, 1.2, and 0.5 MwE/kg respectively, and 5.9, 3.7, and 5.3 MwE/tonne based on thorium. Net breeding ratios were 1.10, 1.07, and 1.07, giving doubling times of 5-1/2, 11, and 25 full power years . The fuel-cycle costs at the design points selected were 1.4, 1.3, and 1.6 mills/kwhr . The AHBR has an advantage in breeding ratio and doubling time because D 2 O is superior to graphite as a moderator in breeder reactors. MSBR has an advantage in fuel-cycle costs and in inventory of uranium in the fertile stream as a result of using a solution blanket.

  2. Role of the breeder in long term energy economics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kosobud, R.F.; Chang, Y.I.; Daly, T.A.

    1982-01-01

    In this study the authors report the results of their study of private and public decisions affecting the use of nuclear and other energy technologies over a long run time horizon. For this purpose, the authors employ the well known ETA-MACRO model which provides for economic and energy sector interactions. In this first of their planned series of studies, they consider the impact on the use of competing energy technologies of a public decision to apply benefit-cost analysis to the production of carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) that enters the atmosphere. Assuming the public choice is to impose an appropriate penalty tax on those technologies which generate CO 2 and to allow decentralized private decisions to choose the optimal mix of energy technologies that maximize a nonlinear objective function subject to constraints, the authors find that the breeder technology is chosen to provide a much larger share of domestically consumed energy. Having the breeder technology available as a substitute permits control of CO 2 without significant reductions in consumption or gross national product growth paths

  3. The uranium-plutonium breeder reactor fuel cycle

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Salmon, A.; Allardice, R.H.

    1979-01-01

    All power-producing systems have an associated fuel cycle covering the history of the fuel from its source to its eventual sink. Most, if not all, of the processes of extraction, preparation, generation, reprocessing, waste treatment and transportation are involved. With thermal nuclear reactors more than one fuel cycle is possible, however it is probable that the uranium-plutonium fuel cycle will become predominant; in this cycle the fuel is mined, usually enriched, fabricated, used and then reprocessed. The useful components of the fuel, the uranium and the plutonium, are then available for further use, the waste products are treated and disposed of safely. This particular thermal reactor fuel cycle is essential if the fast breeder reactor (FBR) using plutonium as its major fuel is to be used in a power-producing system, because it provides the necessary initial plutonium to get the system started. In this paper the authors only consider the FBR using plutonium as its major fuel, at present it is the type envisaged in all, current national plans for FBR power systems. The corresponding fuel cycle, the uranium-plutonium breeder reactor fuel cycle, is basically the same as the thermal reactor fuel cycle - the fuel is used and then reprocessed to separate the useful components from the waste products, the useful uranium and plutonium are used again and the waste disposed of safely. However the details of the cycle are significantly different from those of the thermal reactor cycle. (Auth.)

  4. Mechanical design of a light water breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fauth, W.L. Jr.; Jones, D.S.; Kolsun, G.J.; Erbes, J.G.; Brennan, J.J.; Weissburg, J.A.; Sharbaugh, J.E.

    1976-01-01

    In a light water reactor system using the thorium-232--uranium-233 fuel system in a seed-blanket modular core configuration having the modules arranged in a symmetrical array surrounded by a reflector blanket region, the seed regions are disposed for a longitudinal movement between the fixed or stationary blanket region which surrounds each seed region. Control of the reactor is obtained by moving the inner seed region thus changing the geometry of the reactor, and thereby changing the leakage of neutrons from the relatively small seed region into the blanket region. The mechanical design of the Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) core includes means for axially positioning of movable fuel assemblies to achieve the neutron economy required of a breeder reactor, a structure necessary to adequately support the fuel modules without imposing penalties on the breeding capability, a structure necessary to support fuel rods in a closely packed array and a structure necessary to direct and control the flow of coolant to regions in the core in accordance with the heat transfer requirements. 4 claims, 24 drawing figures

  5. Enhancing the growth performance of replacement female breeder goats through modification of feeding program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. A. Ghani

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The study was conducted at a smallholder goat farm located in Labu, Negeri Sembilan, Malaysia. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of proper feeding program on growth performances of replacement breeder goats. Materials and Methods: A total of 30 healthy female boer cross goats at the age of 4 months old with average initial live body weight (BW of 20.05±0.5 kg were used for on-farm feeding trial to evaluate the growth performance as preparation for breeding purposes. The experimental goats were divided into two groups of 15 animals each labeled as control and treatment groups, which were kept under intensive farming system. Goats in control group were fed with normal routine feeding protocol practiced by the farmer, while goats in the treatment group were fed with new feed formulation. Throughout the experimental period, on-farm monitoring and data collection were carried out. Initial BW and body condition score (BCS were recorded before the start of the experiment while final BW and BCS were gained after 7 months of the experimental period. Average daily gain (ADG was calculated after the experiment end. Data on BW, ADG, and BCS were recorded from both groups for every 2 weeks and reported monthly. The feed intake for the control group was 2.8 kg/animal/day which practiced by the farmer and 3.2 kg/animal/day as new feed formulation for the treatment group. Results: After 7 months of the experimental period, final BW shows an improvement in treatment group (39.1±1.53 kg compared with control group (32.3±1.23 kg. The ADG in treatment group also gives promising result when comparing with control group. Goats in treatment group significantly attained better ADG than control group which were 126.7 g/day and 83.3 g/day, respectively. For the BCS, goats in the treatment group had shown an improvement where 86.67% (13 out of 15 of the group had BCS =3 (1-5 scoring scale and only 66.67% (10 out of 15 of the control group had

  6. The fast breeder reactor: what is security and freedom worth to us

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1975-01-01

    Risks for governmental and non-governmental proliferation of nuclear weapons as a consequence of the development of fast breeder reactor technology are discussed. Polemological as well as sociological and political analyses together with ecological consequences lead to the conclusion that the fast breeder is not necessary for energy production and socially unacceptable

  7. Economical efficiency estimation of the power system with an accelerator breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rublev, O.V.; Komin, A.V.

    1990-01-01

    The review deals with economical indices of nuclear power system with an accelerator breeder producing secondary nuclear fuel. Electric power cost was estimated by the method of discounted cost. Power system with accelerator breeder compares unfavourably with traditional nuclear power systems with respect to its capitalized cost

  8. Egg fertility and hatchability in Avians broiler-breeder hens under ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Impact of temperature and humidity in different month of lay was evaluated on fertility and hatchability in broiler breeder hens reared in Sapele, Nigeria. Six million, six hundred and nineteen thousand, seven hundred and forty six eggs from flocks of Avians broiler-breeder hens reared between 2005 and 2006 in a farm ...

  9. Respiratory diseases and allergic sensitization in swine breeders: a population-based cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galli, Luigina; Facchetti, Susanna; Raffetti, Elena; Donato, Francesco; D'Anna, Mauro

    2015-11-01

    The daily occupation as a swine breeder involves exposure to several bacterial components and organic dusts and inhalation of a large amount of allergens. To investigate the risk of respiratory diseases and atopy in swine breeders compared with the general population living in the same area. A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted in an agricultural area of northern Italy that enrolled a random sample of resident male breeders and non-breeders. Demographic features, comorbidities, and presence of allergic respiratory disease were retrieved through interview. Prick tests for common allergens were performed. An evaluation of pollen and mold in air samples taken inside and outside some swine confinement buildings also was performed. One hundred one male breeders (78 native-born, mean age ± SD 43.0 ± 11.1 years) and 82 non-breeders (43.0 ± 11.1 years) were enrolled. When restricting the analysis to native-born subjects, breeders vs non-breeders showed a lower prevalence of respiratory allergy (12.8% vs 31.1%, respectively, P = .002), asthma (6.4% vs 15.8%, P = .059), rhinitis (16.7% vs 51.2%, P increase, and might decrease, the risk of pollen sensitization and allergic disease. Copyright © 2015 American College of Allergy, Asthma & Immunology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Body composition and reproduction in broiler breeders: impact of feeding strategies

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Emous, van R.A.

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT

    Key words: broiler breeder, feeding strategies, body composition, reproduction, behavior

    Nowadays, welfare issues in broiler breeders associated with nutrition and reproductive characteristics, are becoming increasingly challenging. Due to genetic selection

  11. Molecular characterization of chicken infectious anemia viruses detected from breeder and broiler chickens in South Korea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, H-R; Kwon, Y-K; Bae, Y-C; Oem, J-K; Lee, O-S

    2010-11-01

    In South Korea, 32 sequences of chicken infectious anemia virus (CIAV) from various flocks of breeder and commercial chickens were genetically characterized for the first time. Phylogenetic analysis of the viral protein 1 gene, including a hypervariable region of the CIAV genome, indicated that Korean CIAV strains were separated into groups II, IIIa, and IIIb. Strains were commonly identified in great-grandparent and grandparent breeder farms as well as commercial chicken farms. In the field, CIAV strains from breeder farms had no clinical effects, but commercial farm strains were associated with depression, growth retardation, and anemia regardless of the group from which the strain originated. In addition, we identified 7 CIAV genomes that were similar to vaccine strains from vaccinated and unvaccinated breeder flocks. These data suggest that further studies on pathogenicity and vaccine efficacy against the different CIAV group are needed, along with continuous CIAV surveillance and genetic analysis at breeder farms.

  12. Sodium flow measurement in large pipelines of sodium cooled fast breeder reactors with bypass type flow meters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rajan, K.K.; Jayakumar, T.; Aggarwal, P.K.; Vinod, V.

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • Bypass type permanent magnet flow meters are more suitable for sodium flow measurement. • A higher sodium velocity through the PMFM sensor will increase its sensitivity and resolution. • By modifying the geometry of bypass line, higher sodium velocity through sensor is achieved. • With optimized geometry the sensitivity of bypass flow meter system was increased by 70%. - Abstract: Liquid sodium flow through the pipelines of sodium cooled fast breeder reactor circuits are measured using electromagnetic flow meters. Bypass type flow meter with a permanent magnet flow meter as sensor in the bypass line is selected for the flow measurement in the 800 NB main secondary pipe line of 500 MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR), which is at the advanced stage of construction at Kalpakkam. For increasing the sensitivity of bypass flow meters in future SFRs, alternative bypass geometry was considered. The performance enhancement of the proposed geometry was evaluated by experimental and numerical methods using scaled down models. From the studies it is observed that the new configuration increases the sensitivity of bypass flow meter system by around 70%. Using experimentally validated numerical tools the volumetric flow ratio for the bypass configurations is established for the operating range of Reynolds numbers.

  13. Effects of breeder turnover and harvest on group composition and recruitment in a social carnivore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ausband, David E; Mitchell, Michael S; Waits, Lisette P

    2017-09-01

    Breeder turnover can influence population growth in social carnivores through changes to group size, composition and recruitment. Studies that possess detailed group composition data that can provide insights about the effects of breeder turnover on groups have generally been conducted on species that are not subject to recurrent annual human harvest. We wanted to know how breeder turnover affects group composition and how harvest, in turn, affects breeder turnover in cooperatively breeding grey wolves (Canis lupus Linnaeus 1758). We used noninvasive genetic sampling at wolf rendezvous sites to construct pedigrees and estimate recruitment in groups of wolves before and after harvest in Idaho, USA. Turnover of breeding females increased polygamy and potential recruits per group by providing breeding opportunities for subordinates although resultant group size was unaffected 1 year after the turnover. Breeder turnover had no effect on the number of nonbreeding helpers per group. After breeding male turnover, fewer female pups were recruited in the new males' litters. Harvest had no effect on the frequency of breeder turnover. We found that breeder turnover led to shifts in the reproductive hierarchies within groups and the resulting changes to group composition were quite variable and depended on the sex of the breeder lost. We hypothesize that nonbreeding females direct help away from non-kin female pups to preserve future breeding opportunities for themselves. Breeder turnover had marked effects on the breeding opportunities of subordinates and the number and sex ratios of subsequent litters of pups. Seemingly subtle changes to groups, such as the loss of one individual, can greatly affect group composition, genetic content, and short-term population growth when the individual lost is a breeder. © 2017 The Authors. Journal of Animal Ecology © 2017 British Ecological Society.

  14. Development of experimental apparatus for evaluating corrosion resistance of cladding materials applied for advanced power reactor. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inohara, Yasuto; Ioka, Ikuo; Fukaya, Kiyoshi; Tachibana, Katsumi; Suzuki, Tomio; Kiuchi, Kiyoshi

    2001-03-01

    On the development of cladding materials for advanced power reactors, it is important to clarify long performance and to control the compatibility to high temperature water at heat conducting surfaces under heavy irradiation. On the present study, the high temperature water loop with an autoclave was made for examining the corrosion behavior up to the super critical water range and for developing the simulation testing technique under irradiation in the hot cell. The loop is applicable to immersion tests in the temperature and pressure ranges up to 450degC and 25 MPa that are covered the surface temperature range of fuel claddings. One of the characteristics of this apparatus is a pair of sapphire windows of autoclave for in-situ observations, and a phase transition from water to super critical water conditions was clearly verified through these windows. In this apparatus, it is possible to control the temperature, pressure and Dissolved Oxygen (DO) within a fluctuations of few % on three phases, namely, water, steam and super critical water. (author)

  15. Characterizing the tribological behaviour of fast breeder reactor materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Depierre, J.; Raffailhac, J.

    1984-04-01

    The object of these tests is to define the behaviour of material couples working in conditions as representative as possible of reactor operation. For this purpose a certain number of test installations have been developed to simulate the most typical cases of friction encountered: plane to plane geometry, rotational bearings, guiding bearings. Endurance tests have also been carried out on ball bearings and ballscrews samples. As said before, the test conditions attempt to reproduce as faithfully as possible the environment of the materials used in fast breeder reactors, particularly in: - using purified liquid sodium, and maintaining it isotherm, respectively at three temperature levels: 180, 400 and 550 0 C; - or using argon containing sodium aerosol particles. Some typical values of friction coefficients and rates of wear obtained during the tests with certain couples of materials are given here as examples. The aims which are currently guiding the direction of the tests are also briefly described

  16. Decontamination before dismantling a fast breeder reactor primary cooling system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Costes, J.R.; Antoine, P.; Gauchon, J.P.

    1997-01-01

    The large-scale decontamination of FBR sodium loops is a novel task, as only a limited number of laboratory-scale results are available to date. The principal objective of this work is to develop a suitable decontamination procedure for application to the primary loops of the RAPSODIE fast breeder reactor as part of decommissioning to Stage 2. After disconnecting the piping from the main vessel, the pipes were treated by circulating chemical solutions and the vessels by spraying. The dose rate in the areas to be dismantled was divided by ten. A decontamination factor of about 300 was obtained, and should allow austenitic steel parts to be melted in special furnaces for unrestricted release. (author)

  17. Tritium adsorption/release behaviour of advanced EU breeder pebbles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kolb, Matthias H.H., E-mail: matthias.kolb@kit.edu; Rolli, Rolf; Knitter, Regina

    2017-06-15

    The tritium loading of current grades of advanced ceramic breeder pebbles with three different lithium orthosilicate (LOS)/lithium metatitanate (LMT) compositions (20–30 mol% LMT in LOS) and pebbles of EU reference material, was performed in a consistent way. The temperature dependent release of the introduced tritium was subsequently investigated by temperature programmed desorption (TPD) experiments to gain insight into the desorption characteristics. The obtained TPD data was decomposed into individual release mechanisms according to well-established desorption kinetics. The analysis showed that the pebble composition of the tested samples does not severely change the release behaviour. Yet, an increased content of lithium metatitanate leads to additional desorption peaks at medium temperatures. The majority of tritium is released by high temperature release mechanisms of chemisorbed tritium, while the release of physisorbed tritium is marginal in comparison. The results allow valuable projections for the tritium release behaviour in a fusion blanket.

  18. Tritium adsorption/release behaviour of advanced EU breeder pebbles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolb, Matthias H. H.; Rolli, Rolf; Knitter, Regina

    2017-06-01

    The tritium loading of current grades of advanced ceramic breeder pebbles with three different lithium orthosilicate (LOS)/lithium metatitanate (LMT) compositions (20-30 mol% LMT in LOS) and pebbles of EU reference material, was performed in a consistent way. The temperature dependent release of the introduced tritium was subsequently investigated by temperature programmed desorption (TPD) experiments to gain insight into the desorption characteristics. The obtained TPD data was decomposed into individual release mechanisms according to well-established desorption kinetics. The analysis showed that the pebble composition of the tested samples does not severely change the release behaviour. Yet, an increased content of lithium metatitanate leads to additional desorption peaks at medium temperatures. The majority of tritium is released by high temperature release mechanisms of chemisorbed tritium, while the release of physisorbed tritium is marginal in comparison. The results allow valuable projections for the tritium release behaviour in a fusion blanket.

  19. Project of a binary breeder reactor and its inherent safety

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nascimento, J.A. do; Dias, A.F.; Ishiguro, Y.

    1983-01-01

    A core layout for the binary breeder reactor (BBR) is developed based on the results of preliminary burnup calculations. In the U 233 /TH fueled inner core, the apparent breeding ratio is low due to the accumulation of Pa-233 in the first few months of operation. The loss of reactivity during this time is approximatelly 3%. The BBR requires more reactivity control than Pu/U-fueled LMFBRs and the core layout developed has 19 control rod assemblies in the inner core. Three aspects related to the inherent safety of the BBR have been studied: radial distribution of the sodium-void reactivity, zone-wise Doppler reactivity, and the delayed neutron fractions. Results show excellent safety characteristics of the BBR. (Author) [pt

  20. UF6 breeder reactor power plants for electric power generation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rust, J.H.; Clement, J.D.; Hohl, F.

    1976-01-01

    The reactor concept analyzed is a 233 UF 6 core surrounded by a molten salt (Li 7 F, BeF 2 , ThF 4 ) blanket. Nuclear survey calculations were carried out for both spherical and cylindrical geometries. A maximum breeding ratio of 1.22 was found. Thermodynamic cycle calculations were performed for a variety of Rankine cycles. Optimization of a Rankine cycle for a gas core breeder reactor employing an intermediate heat exchanger gave a maximum efficiency of 37 percent. A conceptual design is presented along with a system layout for a 1000 MW stationary power plant. The advantages of the GCBR are as follows: (1) high efficiency, (2) simplified on-line reprocessing, (3) inherent safety considerations, (4) high breeding ratio, (5) possibility of burning all or most of the long-lived nuclear waste actinides, and (6) possibility of extrapolating the technology to higher temperatures and MHD direct conversion

  1. Nuclear instrumentation systems in prototype fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vijayakumaran, P.M.; Nagaraj, C.P.; Paramasivan-Pillai, C.; Ramakrishnan, R.; Sivaramakrishna, M.

    2004-01-01

    The nuclear instrumentation systems of the Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR) primarily comprise of global Neutron Flux Monitoring, Failed Fuel Detection and Location, Radiation Monitoring and Post-Accident Monitoring. High temperature fission chambers are provided at in-vessel locations for monitoring neutron flux. Failed fuel detection and location is by monitoring the cover gas for fission gases and primary sodium for delayed neutrons. Signals of the core monitoring detectors are used to initiate SCRAM (safety action) to protect the reactor from various postulated initiating events. Radiation levels in all potentially radioactive areas are monitored to act as an early warning system to keep the release of radioactivity to the environment and exposure to personnel well below the permissible limits. Fission Chambers and Gamma Ionisation Chambers are located in the reactor vault concrete for monitoring the neutron flux and gamma radiation levels during and after an accident. (authors)

  2. Fast breeder reactors secondary piping potential sodium leakage rate assessment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Alicino, F.; Cardini, S.

    1989-01-01

    In the liquid metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRs) it must always be taken under control any possible air-sodium contact, because of the elevated air-sodium reactivity. This requires that LMFBRs be carefully designed so that over the entire plant life such an event can't occur in an uncontrolled way. For these reactors the operating conditions usually impose that a lot of life be spent in the creep regime and moreover generally severe hot and cold thermal transients are anticipated, which increases the potential of crack propagation. Then, a useful means to ascertain if this event can occur is to adopt a fracture mechanics approach. This paper presents a computer program to perform fracture mechanics calculations

  3. Clinch river breeder reactor plant steam generator water quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Hoesen, D.; Lowe, P.A.

    1975-01-01

    The recent problems experienced by some LWR Steam Generators have drawn attention to the importance of system water quality and water/ steam side corrosion. Several of these reactor plants have encountered steam generator failures due to accelerated tube corrosion caused, in part, by poor water quality and corrosion control. The CRBRP management is aware of these problems, and the implications that they have for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CPBRP) Steam Generator System (SGS). Consequently, programs are being implemented which will: 1) investigate the corrosion mechanisms which may be present in the CRBRP SGS; 2) assure steam generator integrity under design and anticipated off-normal water quality conditions; and 3) assure that the design water quality levels are maintained at all times. However, in order to understand the approach being used to examine this potential problem, it is first necessary to look at the CRBRP SGS and the corrosion mechanisms which may be present

  4. Clinch river breeder reactor plant steam generator water quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Van Hoesen, D; Lowe, P A

    1975-07-01

    The recent problems experienced by some LWR Steam Generators have drawn attention to the importance of system water quality and water/ steam side corrosion. Several of these reactor plants have encountered steam generator failures due to accelerated tube corrosion caused, in part, by poor water quality and corrosion control. The CRBRP management is aware of these problems, and the implications that they have for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CPBRP) Steam Generator System (SGS). Consequently, programs are being implemented which will: (1) investigate the corrosion mechanisms which may be present in the CRBRP SGS; (2) assure steam generator integrity under design and anticipated off-normal water quality conditions; and (3) assure that the design water quality levels are maintained at all times. However, in order to understand the approach being used to examine this potential problem, it is first necessary to look at the CRBRP SGS and the corrosion mechanisms which may be present.

  5. Raw materials problems in connection with fast breeder type reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hirsch, H.; Kreusch, J.

    1981-01-01

    The power supply by the FBR type reactors which depends upon the availability of essential raw materials such as Cr and Mo for structural and special steels is supposed to be less ensured than supply by fossil-fueled power plants. This contribution tries to verify this statement by means of estimates of the annual Cr and Mo demand, of the resources, production and consumption as well as by a study of the possibilities of recycling and substituting Cr and Mo. The only realistic alternative to the fast breeder type reactor is supposed to be a soft path of development according to the principle of decentralization, utilization of renewable energy sources regard to environmental protection, and use of less sophisticated technology. (DG) [de

  6. Conceptual design of reactor assembly of prototype fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selvaraj, A.; Balasubramaniyan, V.; Raghupathy, S.; Elango, D.; Sodhi, B.S.; Chetal, S.C.; Bhoje, S.B.

    1996-01-01

    The conceptual design of Reactor Assembly of 500 MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (as selected in 1985) was reviewed with the aim of 'simplification of design', 'Compactness of the reactor assembly' and 'ease in construction'. The reduction in size has been possible by incorporating concentric core arrangement, adoption of elastomer seals for Rotatable plugs, fuel handling with one transfer arm type mechanism, incorporation of mechanical sealing arrangement for IHX at the penetration in Inner vessel redan and reduction in number of components. The erection of the components has been made easier by adopting 'hanging' support for roof slab with associated changes in the safety vessel design. This paper presents the conceptual design of the reactor assembly components. (author). 8 figs, 2 tabs

  7. Seismic design criteria for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morrone, A.; Bitner, J.L.; Sigal, G.B.

    1975-01-01

    The general criteria for seismic resistant design for structures, systems and components of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant (CRBRP) are presented and discussed. Site dependency of the maximum ground accelerations for the Operating Basis Earthquake and the Safe Shutdown Earthquake is described from the viewpoint of historical records and geological and seismological studies for the CRBRP site. The respective ground response spectra are derived by normalization of the latest AEC Regulatory standard shapes to these maximum ground accelerations. Modeling and analytical techniques and requirements are given. In addition, loading conditions and categories, loading combinations, earthquake direction effects and allowable damping values are defined. A discussion of the testing criteria which considers both single and multiple frequency test motions, and basic test procedures for single frequency sine beat testing is presented. (U.S.)

  8. Radiocesium in reindeer breeders in Northern Norway since 1965

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selnaes, T.D.; Strand, P.

    1995-01-01

    Reindeer breeders in Kautokeino, Northern Norway, have been monitored for whole body content of 137 Cs every years since 1965. The group was chosen because of it's large intake of reindeer meat (65 kg/year). The same group has been monitored throughout the years. Some supplements have been made, to maintain the average age within the group. Whole body countings have been performed with a scintillation detector and i single- or multichannel analyzer. The highest values were monitored in 1966, when the average body content of 137 Cs was 39,500 Bq for men, and 18,600 Bq for women. Whole body contents are today around 2,000 Bq, giving a calculated whole body dose of 0.1 mSv/year. 5 refs., 4 figs

  9. Fuel Summary Report: Shippingport Light Water Breeder Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Illum, D.B.; Olson, G.L.; McCardell, R.K.

    1999-01-01

    The Shippingport Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) was a small water cooled, U-233/Th-232 cycle breeder reactor developed by the Pittsburgh Naval Reactors to improve utilization of the nation's nuclear fuel resources in light water reactors. The LWBR was operated at Shippingport Atomic Power Station (APS), which was a Department of Energy (DOE) (formerly Atomic Energy Commission)-owned reactor plant. Shippingport APS was the first large-scale, central-station nuclear power plant in the United States and the first plant of such size in the world operated solely to produce electric power. The Shippingport LWBR was operated successfully from 1977 to 1982 at the APS. During the five years of operation, the LWBR generated more than 29,000 effective full power hours (EFPH) of energy. After final shutdown, the 39 core modules of the LWBR were shipped to the Expended Core Facility (ECF) at Naval Reactors Facility at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL). At ECF, 12 of the 39 modules were dismantled and about 1000 of more than 17,000 rods were removed from the modules of proof-of-breeding and fuel performance testing. Some of the removed rods were kept at ECF, some were sent to Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-W) in Idaho and some to ANL-East in Chicago for a variety of physical, chemical and radiological examinations. All rods and rod sections remaining after the experiments were shipped back to ECF, where modules and loose rods were repackaged in liners for dry storage. In a series of shipments, the liners were transported from ECF to Idaho Nuclear Technology Engineering Center (INTEC), formerly the Idaho Chemical Processing Plant (ICPP). The 47 liners containing the fully-rodded and partially-derodded core modules, the loose rods, and the rod scraps, are now stored in underground dry wells at CPP-749

  10. Immediate relation of ING to fast breeder reactor programs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, W B

    1969-07-01

    The future large-scale use of nuclear energy is linked in the United States and other major countries to their fast breeder reactor development. Very serious basic problems have been discovered within the last two years, limiting the life in the high fast neutron flux at appropriate temperatures of materials, in particular of metals suitable for fuel cladding in sodium coolant. There is therefore a most urgent need for materials testing facilities under controlled conditions of temperature and neutron flux at sufficiently high ratings to match or surpass those required in commercially competitive fast breeder reactors. None of the test facilities yet planned for 1976 or sooner in the western world appears to match these conditions. The problem is mainly the difficulty of providing the high neutron flux effectively continuously. The spallation reaction in heavy elements was chosen as the basis of ING - the intense neutron generator, because it is the only known reaction that promises a fast neutron source density that is higher than can be controlled from the fission process. It is suggested that several countries will wish to consider urgently whether they should also explore the spallation reaction for the purpose of a fast neutron irradiation test facility. In view of the discontinuance of the ING project in Canada a favourable opportunity will exist over the next few months 10 obtain from Canada by direct personal contact details of the significant study that has been carried on for ING over the last five years. In the event that satisfactory materials are established within the lifetime of the spallation facilities they may continue to be used for the production of selected isotopes more profitably produced in high neutron fluxes. The facilities may be also used for the desirable preirradiation of thorium reactor fuel. The other research purposes planned for ING could also be served. (author)

  11. Immediate relation of ING to fast breeder reactor programs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lewis, W.B.

    1969-01-01

    The future large-scale use of nuclear energy is linked in the United States and other major countries to their fast breeder reactor development. Very serious basic problems have been discovered within the last two years, limiting the life in the high fast neutron flux at appropriate temperatures of materials, in particular of metals suitable for fuel cladding in sodium coolant. There is therefore a most urgent need for materials testing facilities under controlled conditions of temperature and neutron flux at sufficiently high ratings to match or surpass those required in commercially competitive fast breeder reactors. None of the test facilities yet planned for 1976 or sooner in the western world appears to match these conditions. The problem is mainly the difficulty of providing the high neutron flux effectively continuously. The spallation reaction in heavy elements was chosen as the basis of ING - the intense neutron generator, because it is the only known reaction that promises a fast neutron source density that is higher than can be controlled from the fission process. It is suggested that several countries will wish to consider urgently whether they should also explore the spallation reaction for the purpose of a fast neutron irradiation test facility. In view of the discontinuance of the ING project in Canada a favourable opportunity will exist over the next few months 10 obtain from Canada by direct personal contact details of the significant study that has been carried on for ING over the last five years. In the event that satisfactory materials are established within the lifetime of the spallation facilities they may continue to be used for the production of selected isotopes more profitably produced in high neutron fluxes. The facilities may be also used for the desirable preirradiation of thorium reactor fuel. The other research purposes planned for ING could also be served. (author)

  12. Study on enhancement of heat transfer of reactor vessel auxiliary cooling system of fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nishi, Yoshihisa; Kinoshita, Izumi; Ueda, Nobuyuki; Furuya, Masahiro

    1996-01-01

    A reactor vessel auxiliary cooling system (RVACS), which is one of the decay heat removal systems of the fast breeder reactor (FBR), has passive safety as well as high reliability. However, the heat removal capability is relatively small, because its heat exchange is dependent on the natural convection of the air. The objectives of this report are to propose a heat transfer medium to enhance the heat transfer and to confirm the heat transfer performance of this system by experimental and analytical studies. From these studies, the following main results were obtained. (1) A porous plate with 5 mm thickness, 5 mm pore diameter, 92% porosity, was found to have the highest enhancement of heat transfer. (2) The heat transfer enhancement was demonstrated by large scale heat transfer experiments. Also, the heat transfer correlations, which can be used in the plant transient analyses, were derived from the experimental results. (3) Analysing the transient conditions of conventional pool-type FBR by means of the system analysis code, the applicable range of this system was assumed from the capability of the RVACS with porous plates. As a result, this type of RVACS was found to be applicable to conventional pool-type FBRs with capacity of about 500 MWe or less. (author)

  13. Methods of preventing fast breeder reactor shield plug from adhesion of sodium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hashiguchi, Koh; Hara, Johji; Nei, Hiromichi; Daiku, Motoichi; Wagatsuma, Kenji

    1980-01-01

    The shield plug, which is located at the upper part of a reactor vessel of a sodium-cooled fast breeder reactor, is composed of a rotating and a stationary plug. Fuel exchange is performed easily by the rotation of the rotating plug. The vapor or mist of sodium evaporated from liquid sodium deposits on the gap surfaces of the rotating and stationary plugs and is solidified or changed into a solid reactant. If such condition continues for a long period, harmful effects are exerted on the fuel exchange operation. In order to develop methods of preventing the sodium deposition, investigation was made on the phenomenon of sodium deposition. By the use of the testing equipment simulating the shield plug, deposition tests and specimen measurements were made for different gap width test section size and condition. On the basis of the effects of these parameters clarified by experiments, the effectiveness of three kinds of mechanism for preventing sodium deposition were investigated experimentally. In addition, by using a thermo-siphon analogical model, analysis was performed to deduce experimental equations for sodium deposition. (author)

  14. Engineering development studies for molten-salt breeder reactor processing No. 18

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hightower, J.R. Jr.

    1975-03-01

    A water--mercury system was used to study the effect of geometric variations on mass transfer rates in rectangular contractors similar to those proposed for the molten-salt breeder reactor (MSBR) fuel reprocessing scheme. Since mass transfer rates were not accurately predicted by the Lewis correlation, other correlations were investigated. A correlation which was found to fit the experimental results is given. Mass transfer rates are being measured in a fluoride salt--bismuth contactor. Experimental results indicate that the mass transfer rates in the salt--bismuth system fall between the Lewis correlation and the modified correlation given above. Autoresistance heating tests were continued in the fluorinator mock-up using LiF--BeF 2 --ThF 4 (72-16-12 mole percent) salt. The equipment was returned to operating condition, and five experiments were run. Although correct steady-state operation was not achieved, the results were encouraging. A two-dimensional electrical analog was constructed to study current flow through the electrode sidearm and other critical areas of the test vessel. These studies indicate that no regions of abnormally high current density existed in the first nine runs with the present autoresistance heating equipment. Localized heating had previously been the suspected cause for the failure to achieve proper operation of this equipment. (U.S.)

  15. Multigenerational effects of a reduced balanced protein diet during the rearing and laying period of broiler breeders. 1. Performance of the F1 breeder generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lesuisse, J; Li, C; Schallier, S; Clímaco, W L S; Bautil, A; Everaert, N; Buyse, J

    2018-05-01

    Studies on mammals and poultry showed that maternal dietary treatments can alter the offspring performance. However, in contrast to rodent studies, little is known about multigenerational dietary manipulations in broiler breeders. The presented research aimed to investigate the effects of a reduction of 25% in the dietary crude protein (CP) level in the F0 generation on the body composition and reproductive performance of F1 broiler breeders. In the F0 generation, breeders were fed either a control (C) or reduced balanced protein (RP) diet, 25% reduction in crude protein and amino acids. Female F0-progeny of each treatment were fed a C or RP diet, resulting in 4 treatments in the F1 breeder generation: C/C, C/RP, RP/C, and RP/RP. The reproductive performance of breeders fed RP diets was negatively influenced by the dietary CP reduction in the F1 generation (P diets in the F0 generation showed a significantly reduced reproductive capacity compared to their control fed counterparts (P diets in the F1 generation were characterized by higher plasma T3 concentrations (P diets in the F0 generation needed lower feed allocations in the laying phase to maintain a similar body weight. Egg weight was reduced for the C/RP and RP/RP breeders. At 34 wk of age, eggs from C/RP and RP/RP breeders showed a reduced proportional albumen weight, whereas no effects on egg composition were found at 42 wk of age. It was concluded that prenatal protein undernutrition triggered hens to relocate more energy towards growth and maintenance and less towards reproductive capacity.

  16. Thermomechanical analysis of solid breeders in sphere-pac, plate, and pellet configurations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, J.P.; Ghoniem, N.M.

    1986-02-01

    The first configuration studied is called sphere-pac. It features small breeder spheres of three different diameters, thus allowing efficient packing and minimal void fraction. The concept originated as an attempt to minimize thermal stresses in the breeder and improve the predictability of the breeder-structure interface heat conduction. In general the breeder is made as thin as possible, to maximize the breeding ratio, so the cladding's integrity will likely be the life-limiting issue of this concept. The third breeder configuration is in the form of pellets cladded by steel tubes. The major thermomechanical issue of the pin-type designs is cracking, which would impair the thermal performance of the blanket. Fortunately, the pins can be sized to prevent cracking under normal operation. In this report we have treated each blanket generically, dealing with basic issues rather than design specifics. Our basic philosophy is to avoid cracking of the breeder if at all possible. It can be argued that cracking could be allowed, but this would sacrifice predictability of the blanket thermal performance and tritium release characteristics. Proper design can and should minimize breeder cracking

  17. Status of fast breeder reactor development in the United States of America - April 1984

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, K.E.

    1984-01-01

    The Breeder Technology program continues to produce viable information on fuel performance, nuclear systems technology, and power conversion technology. The unique testing capabilities design into the FFTF have resulted in well-validated materials and fuels irradiation information that has confirmed and extended previous data bases. Current directions for the research and development program are to improve the technology for power conversion systems, components, instrumentation, and materials technology to the point where cost reduction and reliability potentials are realized. Operation of the breeder test facility complex at the Hanford Engineering Development Laboratory (HEDL), the Energy Technology Engineering Center (ETEC), and the Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) continues to provide the experience base and test capability for the breeder R and D effort. International cooperation will be even more important in the future than in the past for several reasons. Significant new investments still have to be made in breeder R and D to improve designs, achieve economic competitiveness and to develop practical breeder fuel cycle capabilities. Progress can be accelerated, redundancies avoided, and economics achieved if nations coordinate their programs, and where possible, divide up the work. In addition, there is clear mutual benefit in encouraging the countries involved in breeder development to harmonize standards and regulations related to safety. It is also important that the advanced nations work together closely in assuring that adequate international safeguards, export controls, and national physical security measures keep pace with breeder reactor and fuel cycle developments

  18. Nuclear and thermal analyses of supercritical-water-cooled solid breeder blanket for fusion DEMO reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yanagi, Yoshihiko; Sato, Satoshi; Enoeda, Mikio; Hatano, Toshihisa; Kikuchi, Shigeto; Kuroda, Toshimasa; Kosaku, Yasuo; Ohara, Yoshihiro [Japan Atomic Energy Research Inst., Naka, Ibaraki (Japan). Naka Fusion Research Establishment

    2001-11-01

    Within a design study of a fusion DEMO reactor aiming at demonstrating technologies of fusion power plant, supercritical water is applied as a coolant of solid breeder blanket to attain high thermal efficiency. The blanket has multi-layer composed of solid breeder pebbles (Li{sub 2}O) and neutron multiplier pebbles (Be) which are radially separated by cooling panels. The first wall and the breeding region are cooled by supercritical water below and above the pseudo-critical temperature, respectively. Temperature distribution and tritium breeding ratio (TBR) have been estimated by one-dimensional nuclear and thermal calculations. The local TBR as high as 1.47 has been obtained after optimization of temperature distribution in the breeder region under the following conditions: neutron wall loading of 5 MW/m{sup 2}, {sup 6}Li enrichment of 30% and coolant temperature at inlet of breeder region of 380degC. In the case of the higher coolant temperature 430degC of the breeder region the local TBR was reduced to be 1.40. This means that the net TBR higher than 1.0 could be expected with the supercritical-water-cooled blanket, whose temperature distribution in the breeder region would be optimized by following the coolant temperature, and where a coverage of the breeder region is assumed to be 70%. (author)

  19. Time-integrated thyroid dose for accidental releases from Pakistan Research Reactor-1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raza, S Shoaib; Iqbal, M; Salahuddin, A; Avila, R; Pervez, S

    2004-01-01

    The two-hourly time-integrated thyroid dose due to radio-iodines released to the atmosphere through the exhaust stack of Pakistan Research Reactor-1 (PARR-1), under accident conditions, has been calculated. A computer program, PAKRAD (which was developed under an IAEA research grant, PAK/RCA/8990), was used for the dose calculations. The sensitivity of the dose results to different exhaust flow rates and atmospheric stability classes was studied. The effect of assuming a constant activity concentration (as a function of time) within the containment air volume and an exponentially decreasing air concentration on the time-integrated dose was also studied for various flow rates (1000-50,000 m 3 h -1 ). The comparison indicated that the results were insensitive to the containment air exhaust rates up to or below 2000 m 3 h -1 , when the prediction with the constant activity concentration assumption was compared to an exponentially decreasing activity concentration model. The results also indicated that the plume touchdown distance increases with increasing atmospheric stability. (note)

  20. Neutron Flux Variation in the Nigeria Research Reactor-1 (NIRR-1)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yahaya, M.; Ahmed, Y.A.

    2013-01-01

    In order to ascertain the level of flux variation in one of the inner irradiation channels of the Nigeria Research Reactor-1 (NIRR-1), the irradiation container used for routine activation analysis was employed with copper wires as flux monitors. Measurements were carried out with copper wires arranged in axial direction to determine the thermal neutron flux at selected positions using absolute foil activation method. Our results show that there exists a slight flux variation from one position to another ranging from (4.57±0.21) x 10 11 to (5.20± 0.20) x 10 11 cm -2 s -1 .Individual foil shows slight flux variation from one position to another in the same irradiation container but they all pointed toward a level of consistency in variation in spite of the recent installation of the cadmium lined irradiation channel. The values obtained in this work are in good agreement with the previously measured value of (5.14±0.24) x 10 11 cm -2 s -1 after commissioning of NIRR-1 (Jonah et al., 2005). This shows that the cadmium lined installation does not affect the flux stability. In order to improve the accuracy of NAA using NIRR-l facility, there is need for flux corrections to be made by MNSR users during NAA particularly for samples in the axial position for long irradiation.

  1. Use of EBR-II as a principal fast breeder reactor irradiation test facility in the U.S

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Staker, R.G.; Seim, O.S.; Beck, W.N.; Golden, G.H.; Walters, L.C.

    1975-01-01

    The EBR-II as originally designed and operated by the Argonne National Laboratory was successful in demonstrating the operation of a sodium-cooled fast breeder power plant with a closed fuel reprocessing cycle. Subsequent operation has been as an experimental facility where thousands of irradiation tests have been performed. Conversion to this application entailed the design and fabrication of special irradiation subassemblies for in-core irradiations, additions to existing facilities for out-of-core irradiations, and additions to existing facilities for out-of-core experiments. Experimental subassemblies now constitute about one third of the core, and changes in the core configuration occur about monthly, requiring neutronic and thermal-hydraulics analyses and monitoring of the reactor dynamic behavior. The surveillance programs provided a wealth of information on irradiation induced swelling and creep, in-reactor fracture behavior, and the compatibility of materials with liquid sodium. (U.S.)

  2. Development of a new cellular solid breeder for enhanced tritium production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharafat, Shahram; Williams, Brian; Ghoniem, Nasr; Ghoniem, Adam; Shimada, Masashi; Ying, Alice

    2016-01-01

    Highlights: • A new cellular solid breeder is presented with 2 to 3× the thermal conductivity and substantially higher density (∼90%) compared with pebble beds. • The cellular solid breeder contains an internal network of interconnected open micro-channels (∼50 –100 μm diam.) for efficient tritium release. • Cellular breeders are made by melt-infiltrating Li-based ceramic materials into an open-cell carbon foam followed by removal of the foam. • High temperature (750 °C and 40 °C/mm) cyclic compression tests demonstrated good structural integrity (no cracking) and low Young’s modulus of of <5 GPa. • Deuterium absorption–desorption release rates were comparable with those from pebble beds with similar characteristic T-diffusion lengths. - Abstract: A new high-performance cellular solid breeder is presented that has several times the thermal conductivity and is substantially denser compared with sphere-packed breeder beds. The cellular breeder is fabricated using a patented process of melt-infiltrating ceramic breeder material into an open-cell carbon foam. Following solidification the carbon foam is removed by oxidation. This process results in a near 90% dense robust freestanding breeder in a block configuration with an internal network of open interconnected micro-channels for tritium release. The network of interconnected micro-channels was investigated using X-ray tomography. Aside from increased density and thermal conductivity relative to pebble beds, high temperature sintering is eliminated and thermal durability is increased. Cellular breeder morphology, thermal conductivity, specific heat, porosity levels, high temperature mechanical properties, and deuterium charging-desorption rates are presented.

  3. Development of a new cellular solid breeder for enhanced tritium production

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sharafat, Shahram, E-mail: sharams@gmail.com [University of California Los Angeles, 420 Westwood Pl., Los Angeles, CA 90095-1587 (United States); Williams, Brian [Ultramet, Pacoima, CA 91331-2210 (United States); Ghoniem, Nasr [University of California Los Angeles, 420 Westwood Pl., Los Angeles, CA 90095-1587 (United States); Ghoniem, Adam [Digital Materials Solutions, Inc., Westwood, CA 90024 (United States); Shimada, Masashi [Idaho National Laboratory, Idaho Falls, ID 83415 (United States); Ying, Alice [University of California Los Angeles, 420 Westwood Pl., Los Angeles, CA 90095-1587 (United States)

    2016-11-01

    Highlights: • A new cellular solid breeder is presented with 2 to 3× the thermal conductivity and substantially higher density (∼90%) compared with pebble beds. • The cellular solid breeder contains an internal network of interconnected open micro-channels (∼50 –100 μm diam.) for efficient tritium release. • Cellular breeders are made by melt-infiltrating Li-based ceramic materials into an open-cell carbon foam followed by removal of the foam. • High temperature (750 °C and 40 °C/mm) cyclic compression tests demonstrated good structural integrity (no cracking) and low Young’s modulus of of <5 GPa. • Deuterium absorption–desorption release rates were comparable with those from pebble beds with similar characteristic T-diffusion lengths. - Abstract: A new high-performance cellular solid breeder is presented that has several times the thermal conductivity and is substantially denser compared with sphere-packed breeder beds. The cellular breeder is fabricated using a patented process of melt-infiltrating ceramic breeder material into an open-cell carbon foam. Following solidification the carbon foam is removed by oxidation. This process results in a near 90% dense robust freestanding breeder in a block configuration with an internal network of open interconnected micro-channels for tritium release. The network of interconnected micro-channels was investigated using X-ray tomography. Aside from increased density and thermal conductivity relative to pebble beds, high temperature sintering is eliminated and thermal durability is increased. Cellular breeder morphology, thermal conductivity, specific heat, porosity levels, high temperature mechanical properties, and deuterium charging-desorption rates are presented.

  4. Updated reference design of a liquid metal cooled tandem mirror fusion breeder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berwald, D.H.; Whitley, R.H.; Garner, J.K.; Gromada, R.J.; McCarville, T.J.; Moir, R.W.; Lee, J.D.; Bandini, B.R.; Fulton, F.J.; Wong, C.P.C.; Maya, I.; Hoot, C.G.; Schultz, K.R.; Miller, L.G.; Beeston, J.M.; Harris, B.L.; Westman, R.A.; Ghoniem, N.M.; Orient, G.; Wolfer, M.; DeVan, J.H.; Torterelli, P.

    1985-09-01

    Detailed studies of key techinical issues for liquid metal cooled fusion breeder (fusion-fission hybrid blankets) have been performed during the period 1983-4. Based upon the results of these studies, the 1982 reference liquid metal cooled tandem mirror fusion breeder blanket design was updated and is described. The updated reference blankets provides increased breeding and lower technological risk in comparison with the original reference blanket. In addition to the blanket design revisions, a plant concept, cost, and fuel cycle economics assessment is provided. The fusion breeder continues to promise an economical source of fissile fuel for the indefinite future.

  5. Updated reference design of a liquid metal cooled tandem mirror fusion breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berwald, D.H.; Whitley, R.H.; Garner, J.K.

    1985-09-01

    Detailed studies of key techinical issues for liquid metal cooled fusion breeder (fusion-fission hybrid blankets) have been performed during the period 1983-4. Based upon the results of these studies, the 1982 reference liquid metal cooled tandem mirror fusion breeder blanket design was updated and is described. The updated reference blankets provides increased breeding and lower technological risk in comparison with the original reference blanket. In addition to the blanket design revisions, a plant concept, cost, and fuel cycle economics assessment is provided. The fusion breeder continues to promise an economical source of fissile fuel for the indefinite future

  6. Contributions of fast breeder test reactor to the advanced technology in India

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kapoor, R.P.

    2001-01-01

    Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) is a 40 MWt/13.2 MWe loop type, sodium cooled, plutonium rich mixed carbide fuelled reactor. Its operation at Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research, since first criticality in 1985, has contributed immensely to the advancement of this multidisciplinary and complex fast breeder technology in the country. It has also given a valuable operational feedback for the design of 500 MWe Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor. This paper highlights FBTR's significant contributions to this important technology which has a potential to provide energy security to the country in future. (author)

  7. Chemical form of tritium released from solid breeder materials and the influences of it on a bred tritium recovery systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Furukubo, Y.; Nishikawa, M.; Nishida, Y.; Kinjyo, T.; Tanifuji, Takaaki; Kawamura, Yoshinori; Enoeda, Mikio

    2004-01-01

    The ratio of HTO in total tritium was measured at release of the bred tritium to the purge gas with hydrogen using the thermal release after irradiation method, where neutron irradiation was performed at JRR-3 reactor in JAERI or KUR reactor in Kyoto University. It is experimentally confirmed in this study that not a small portion of bred tritium is released to the purge gas in the form of HTO form ceramic breeder materials even when hydrogen is added to the purge gas. The chemical composition is to be decided by the competitive reaction at the grain surface of a ceramic breeder material where desorption reaction, isotope exchange reaction 1, isotope exchange reaction 2 and water formation reaction are considered to take part. Observation in this study implies that it is necessary to have a bred tritium recovery system applicable for both HT and HTO form to recover whole bred tritium. The chemical composition also decides the amount of tritium transferable to the cooling water of the electricity generation system through the structural material in the blanket system. Permeation behavior of tritium through some structural materials at various conditions are also discussed. (author)

  8. Experimental thermal hydraulics in support of FBR

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padmakumar, G.; Anand Babu, C.; Kalyanasundaram, P.; Vaidyanathan, G.

    2009-01-01

    The thermal hydraulic design plays a crucial role for the safe and economical deployment of Liquid Metal Cooled Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR). Robust experimental programmes are required in support of LMFBR thermal hydraulics design. The philosophy of testing has been to construct small scale models to understand the physical behaviour and to build larger scale models to optimize the component design. The experiments are conducted either in sodium or using a simulant like water/air. The paper gives a brief account of the various thermal hydraulic experiments carried out in support of the design of Prototype Fast Breeder Reactor (PFBR). (author)

  9. Bi-stability in accelerator driven 233U breeders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ghosh, Biplab; Degweker, S.B.

    2011-01-01

    Research on Accelerator Driven Systems (ADSs) is being carried out around the world primarily with the objective of waste transmutation. Presently, the volume of waste in India is small and therefore there is little incentive to develop ADS based waste transmutation technology immediately. On the other hand, the indigenous U availability is limited and hence there is a strong incentive for breeding. Moreover the large Th deposits in the country provide a clear incentive to develop Th related technologies. Th has the additional advantage that it produces very little trans-uranic waste. While Pu fuelled fast reactors using advanced metallic fuel can have high breeding ratios due to the hard spectrum in such reactors, Th fuelled critical reactors can at best be self sustaining or marginal breeders. A possible way to improve the breeding of Th fueled reactors is to use an external neutron source as is done in ADSs. ADSs can not only give improved breeding but also permit greater flexibility in type of fuel that may be used and have the potential to considerably simplify the Th fuel cycle as in the case of the Th burner. In this paper we study various issues associated with breeding in ADSs such as the energy economics of breeding in ADSs using various types of neutron sources and the effect of the reactor spectrum and the discharge fluence (or irradiation time) of the fuel on the breeding performance. We show that even with non-fissioning, non-power- producing targets such as Pb or LBE it is possible to choose the fuel irradiation time so that the breeder produces sufficient power to drive the accelerator and export the balance to the grid, without significantly diminishing the 233 U breeding rate. By increasing the discharge fluence (irradiation time) it is possible to increase the power. However, the 233 U production rate falls off rapidly to about half its maximum value. This is the Th burner region. As the equations governing the breeding process are non

  10. Ultraviolet light and mating behaviour in domestic broiler breeders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, E K; Prescott, N B; Cook, P; White, R P; Wathes, C M

    2001-03-01

    1. The perception of UVA light (320 commercial house lighting. One function may be the mediation of sexually related signalling or communication. 2. In experiment 1, two groups of 41 adult broiler breeders (four cockerels, 37 hens) were kept under conventional fluorescent light, with or without fluorescent UVA supplementation amounting to 16.9% of the total spectral power output of the luminaires. Each light environment was approximately iso-illuminant as perceived by the birds. The two groups were exposed to the light environments alternately for five 2-day periods in a cross-over design. Mating behaviour, production measures and time budgets were recorded on the second day of each period. 3. A UVA-enriched environment increased the number of attempted matings (1.27 vs 0.99 matings/cockerel.h) and locomotion (5.3 vs 3.7 min/bird.hour). 4. In a second experiment, 10 hens were allowed to choose between four cockerels lit under different power levels of UVA (1.6%, 14.6%, 43.5%, 57.5% of the total spectral power output of the luminaires) in a four-armed maze. Again, each light environment was approximately iso-illuminant as perceived by the birds. Each hen was allowed to make one choice per day over four days, with the position of the cockerels and the UVA levels interchanged each day. This schedule was repeated with the same hens for two other groups of four cockerels. 5. At a distance of no less than 60 cm from the cockerel, the hens spent most time inspecting whichever cockerel was lit by 1.6% or 14.6% UVA (1.33 vs 1.37 vs 1.22 vs 1.16 log seconds/hen.choice, respectively for increasing UVA level). Similarly, when allowed to approach closer to the cockerels, the hens spent most time in the arm which contained a cockerel lit by 14.6% UVA light, (1.62 vs 1.88 vs 1.69 vs 1.51 log s/hen.choice, respectively for increasing UVA level). 6. UVA is clearly implicated in the transmission of sexual signals or communication which may have implications for the welfare and

  11. The effect of age at photostimulation of male broiler breeders on ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Male broiler breeders were photostimulated at different ages (56, 77, 98, 119, 147 ... the period of growth prior to achieving sexual maturity to observe their response to ... However, males reached sexual maturity at an earlier age than females, ...

  12. Multiple recycling of fuel in prototype fast breeder reactor in a closed ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Our previous study in this regard for the prototype fast breeder reactor ... This study aims at finding the feasibility of multiple recycling of PFBR fuel with external ...... maximum allowable Pu content in fuel based on chemistry/metallurgical ...

  13. Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant: a building block in nuclear technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormack, M.

    1979-01-01

    Interest in breeder reactors dates from the Manhatten Project to the present effort to build the Clinch River Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) demonstration plant. Seven breeder-type reactors which were built during this time are described and their technological progress assessed. The Clinch River Breeder Reactor Project (CRBRP) has been designed to demonstrate that it can be licensed, can operate on a large power grid, and can provide industry with important experience. As the next logical step in LMFBR development, the project has suffered repeated cancellation efforts with only minor modifications to its schedule. Controversies have developed over the timing of a large-scale demonstration plant, the risks of proliferation, economics, and other problems. Among the innovative developments adopted for the CRBRP is a higher thermal efficiency potential, the type of development which Senator McCormack feels justifies continuing the project. He argues that the nuclear power program can and should be revitalized by continuing the CRBRP

  14. Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant: a building block in nuclear technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCormack, M.

    1979-01-01

    Interest in breeder reactors dates from the Manhatten Project to the present effort to build the Clinch River Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor (LMFBR) demonstration plant. Seven breeder-type reactors which were built during this time are described and their technological progress assessed. The Clinch River Breeder Reactor Project (CRBRP) has been designed to demonstrate that it can be licensed, can operate on a large power grid, and can provide industry with important experience. As the next logical step in LMFBR development, the project has suffered repeated cancellation efforts with only minor modifications to its schedule. Controversies have developed over the timing of a large-scale demonstration plant, the risks of proliferation, economics, and other problems. Among the innovative developments adopted for the CRBRP is a higher thermal efficiency potential, the type of development which Senator McCormack feels justifies continuing the project. He argues that the nuclear power program can and should be revitalized by continuing the CRBRP.

  15. Joint care can outweigh costs of nonkin competition in communal breeders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bebbington, Kat; Fairfield, Eleanor A; Spurgin, Lewis G.; Kingma, Sjouke A.; Dugdale, Hannah; Komdeur, Jan; Richardson, David

    Competition between offspring can greatly influence offspring fitness and parental investment decisions, especially in communal breeders where unrelated competitors have less incentive to concede resources. Given the potential for escalated conflict, it remains unclear what mechanisms facilitate the

  16. Joint care can outweigh costs of nonkin competition in communal breeders

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bebbington, Kat; Fairfield, Eleanor A.; Spurgin, Lewis G.; Kingma, Sjouke A.; Dugdale, Hannah; Komdeur, Jan; Richardson, David S.

    2018-01-01

    Competition between offspring can greatly influence offspring fitness and parental investment decisions, especially in communal breeders where unrelated competitors have less incentive to concede resources. Given the potential for escalated conflict, it remains unclear what mechanisms facilitate the

  17. Application of discrete element method to study mechanical behaviors of ceramic breeder pebble beds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An Zhiyong; Ying, Alice; Abdou, Mohamed

    2007-01-01

    In this paper, the discrete element method (DEM) approach has been applied to study mechanical behaviors of ceramic breeder pebble beds. Directly simulating the contact state of each individual particle by the physically based interaction laws, the DEM numerical program is capable of predicting the mechanical behaviors of non-standard packing structures. The program can also provide the data to trace the evolution of contact characteristics and forces as deformation proceeds, as well as the particle movement when the pebble bed is subjected to external loadings. Our numerical simulations focus on predicting the mechanical behaviors of ceramic breeder pebble beds, which include typical fusion breeder materials in solid breeder blankets. Current numerical results clearly show that the packing density and the bed geometry can have an impact on the mechanical stiffness of the pebble beds. Statistical data show that the contact forces are highly related to the contact status of the pebbles

  18. Reflections on the introduction of fast breeder reactors in the DeBeNeLux states

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schroeder, R.; Wagner, J.

    1975-06-01

    This report gives a survey of the impact of introducing sodium-cooled fast breeder reactors in the Federal Republic of Germany and the BeNeLux countries (DeBeNeLux region). The supply situation with respect to electric and thermal energy is studied in particular, together with aspects of economy and environmental impact. The potential and consequences of a breeder economy, the present status and future r+d work are discussed. In addition to sodium-cooled fast breeder reactors with oxide or carbide fuel, alternative solutions are touched: 1) light water and high temperature reactors, 2) helium-cooled fast breeder reactors, 3) geothermal energy, solar energy and fusion energy. (orig.) [de

  19. Dispersion strengthened ferritic alloy for use in liquid-metal fast breeder reactors (LMFBRS)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fischer, J.J.

    1978-01-01

    A dispersion-strengthened ferritic alloy is provided which has high-temperature strength and is readily fabricable at ambient temperatures, and which is useful as structural elements of liquid-metal fast breeder reactors. 4 tables

  20. Sistema fuzzy para estimativa do bem-estar de matrizes pesadas System fuzzy for estimate of welfare of broiler breeders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Danilo F. Pereira

    2008-12-01

    controller's development passed for five distinct steps: 1 organization of the experimental data; 2 observation of the videos in interview with specialist; 3 creation of the relevancy functions according to the interviews and the literature revision; 4 frequency simulation of occurrences and average times of expression of the classified behaviors such as indicators of welfare using regression equation from the literature, and 5 construction of rules, simulation and validation of the controller step by step, comparing the results between the simulations. The developed controller satisfactorily estimated the welfare of broiler breeders, having in its version with larger number of rules, estimated about 80% of the experimental data correctly when compared with the answers expected by a specialist. The system can be used as mathematician-computational instrument to support decisions in broiler breeders housing.

  1. Status and development programme of the fast breeder reactor system in the Federal Republic of Germany

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Daeunert, U.; Kessler, G.

    1977-01-01

    The Federal Republic of Germany depends on imports of raw materials for energy purposes, and special importance is therefore given to nuclear energy for reasons of energy policy. Against the background of a nuclear power station capacity amounting to 24,000MW(e) in 1976 (power stations being either on order, under construction or actually in operation), the fast breeder reactor (FBR) is outstandingly significant in the Federal Republic for the economic use both of the uranium and the plutonium accumulating in light-water reactors (LWRs). Work in this sector started in the FRG in 1960. Important stages in development were: the initial activities on the plutonium critical SNEAK at Karlsruhe; successful operation of the KNK 20-MW(e) experimental reactor (sodium-cooled) with the KNK II (plutonium core) follow-up stage; costruction of the 300-MW(e) FBR prototype nuclear power station at Kalkar; and initial planning carried out for a 1300-MW(e) FBR demonstration nuclear power station. A viable infrastructure for safety assessment must go hand in hand with the development of new reactor systems. Prototype reactors in the FRG are therefore already subjected to the same strict licensing procedures under nuclear legislation as are commercial nuclear power stations. Several years' practical experience have shown that this was the right approach. It was recognized in the FRG early on that major long-term technological projects could no longer be implemented by unaided single nations. The SNR-300 FBR prototype project combines the efforts of the governments, power supply companies, reactor manufacturers and nuclear research centres of the FRG, Belgium and the Netherlands. The agreement signed in 1971 by the Rheinisch-Westfaelische Elektrizitaetswerke AG (FRG), Ente Nazionale per l'Energia Elettrica (Italy) and Electricite de France (France) power supply companies on the joint construction of the Super-Phenix and SNR-2 FBR demonstration nuclear power stations, and the German

  2. Identification of potential safety-related incidents applicable to a breeder fuel reprocessing plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, W.C.

    1980-01-01

    The current emphasis on safety in all phases of the nuclear fuel cycle requires that safety features be identified and included in designs of nuclear facilities at the earliest possible stage. A popular method for the early identification of these safety features is the Preliminary Hazards Analysis. An extension of this analysis is to illustrate the nature of a hazard by its effects in accident situations, that is, to identify what are called safety-related incidents. Some useful tools are described which have been used at the Savannah River Laboratory, SRL, to make Preliminary Hazards Analyses as well as safety analyses of facilities for processing spent nuclear fuels from both power and production reactors. These tools have also been used in safety studies of waste handling operations at the Savannah River Plant. The tools are the SRL Incidents Data Bank and the What If meeting. The application of this methodology to a proposed facility which has breeder fuel reprocessing capability, the Hot Experimental Facility (HEF) is illustrated

  3. Materials data base and design equations for the UCLA solid breeder blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sharafat, S.; Amodeo, R.; Ghoniem, N.M.

    1986-01-01

    The need for a complete and coherent material data base for fusion reactor systems has been an important issue for some time now. Since the choices for materials used in fusion reactors are becoming more apparent, it is important to be able to quickly access this data to facilitate reactor design. The philosophy of a data base is one of expansion and modification. This will lead to a constantly growing collection of most recently acquired information. Based on this philosophy special care has been given to the structure, the accessibility and ease of modification. The data base is developed primarily for use on Personal Computers (PC's). In Section 10.2. materials and properties investigated for this blanket study are listed. Section 10.3. is a list of phenomenological equations and mathematical fits for all materials and properties considered. Section 10.4. describes the authors efforts to develop a swelling equations based on the few experimental data points available for breeder materials. In Section 10.5. the sintering phenomena for ceramics is investigated

  4. Thermal hydraulics in the hot pool of Fast Breeder Test Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Padmakumar, G.; Pandey, G.K.; Vaidyanathan, G.

    2009-01-01

    Sodium cooled Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) of 40 MWt/13 MWe capacity is in operation at Kalpakkam, near Chennai. Presently it is operating with a core of 10.5 MWt. Knowledge of temperatures and flow pattern in the hot pool of FBTR is essential to assess the thermal stresses in the hot pool. While theoretical analysis of the hot pool has been conducted by a three-dimensional code to access the temperature profile, it involves tuning due to complex geometry, thermal stresses and vibration. With this in view, an experimental model was fabricated in 1/4 scale using acrylic material and tests were conducted in water. Initially hydraulic studies were conducted with ambient water maintaining Froude number similarity. After that thermal studies were conducted using hot and cold water maintaining Richardson similitude. In both cases Euler similarity was also maintained. Studies were conducted simulating both low and full power operating conditions. This paper discusses the model simulation, similarity criteria, the various thermal hydraulic studies that were carried out, the results obtained and the comparison with the prototype measurements.

  5. Advanced methods comparisons of reaction rates in the Purdue Fast Breeder Blanket Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hill, R.N.; Ott, K.O.

    1988-01-01

    A review of worldwide results revealed that reaction rates in the blanket region are generally underpredicted with the discrepancy increasing with penetration; however, these results vary widely. Experiments in the large uniform Purdue Fast Breeder Blanket Facility (FBBF) blanket yield an accurate quantification of this discrepancy. Using standard production code methods (diffusion theory with 50 group cross sections), a consistent Calculated/Experimental (C/E) drop-off was observed for various reaction rates. A 50% increase in the calculated results at the outer edge of the blanket is necessary for agreement with experiments. The usefulness of refined group constant generation utilizing specialized weighting spectra and transport theory methods in correcting this discrepancy was analyzed. Refined group constants reduce the discrepancy to half that observed using the standard method. The surprising result was that transport methods had no effect on the blanket deviations; thus, transport theory considerations do not constitute or even contribute to an explanation of the blanket discrepancies. The residual blanket C/E drop-off (about half the standard drop-off) using advanced methods must be caused by some approximations which are applied in all current methods. 27 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab

  6. Advanced concepts under development in the United States Breeder-Fuel-Reprocessing Program

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burch, W.D.

    1981-01-01

    Advanced concepts and techniques for the fuel reprocessing step are being developed. These concepts have been incorporated into the conceptual design of a Hot Experimental Facility (HEF), which is intended to demonstrate reprocessing of the first US breeder demonstration reactor. To achieve system reliability and reduce occupational doses, a concept of totally remote operation and maintenance (termed Remotex) has been conceived and is being developed. In this concept, maintenance and mechanical operations are accomplished with remotely operated bilateral force-reflecting electronic master/slave manipulators. Suitable transport systems, coupled with remote closed-circuit television viewing, are provided to extend man's capabilities into the hostile cell environment. New equipment concepts are being developed for the fuel dismantling and shearing step, a high-temperature dry process termed voloxidation to remove tritium, a continuous rotary dissolver, and for an improved centrifugal solvent contractor. Techniques have been developed, using engineering-scale equipment with active tracers for retention of 85 Kr, radioiodine, 14 C, and 3 H

  7. Interim report of the subcommittee on putting fast breeder reactors in practical use

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1983-01-01

    Light water reactors are expected to be the main power reactors in Japan for considerably long period hereafter, however, the basic policy of long term energy utilization is to use the plutonium and depleted uranium recovered by the reprocessing of spent fuel for fast breeder reactors, in view of the effective use of energy resources and the energy security. At present, the experimental FBR ''Joyo'' is in operation, and the preparation work was started for the prototype FBR ''Monju'', aiming at the criticality at the end of fiscal 1990. In the discussion, it was confirmed that for the practical use of FBRs, the improvement of their economy is the most important. But the construction cost for the Monju and the type of the demonstration FBR are not yet decided, and there are many uncertain elements. The demand and supply of uranium and the prospect of FBR development, the appropriate way of FBR development in Japan, the trend of FBR development in Japan and foreign countries, the evaluation of the economy of FBRs and the time of putting in practical use, the schedule of FBR development, the cost reduction in FBRs, the fuel cycle and others are reported. (Kako, I.)

  8. Techniques developed to evaluate the fracture toughness offast breeder reactor duct

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huang, F.H.; Wire, G.L.

    1979-01-01

    Large changes in strength and ductility of metals after irradiation are known to occur. The fracture toughness of irradiated metals, which is related to the combined strength and ductility of a material, may be significantly reduced and the potential for unstable crack extension increased. Therefore, the resistance of cladding and duct materials to fracture after exposure to fast neutron environments is of concern. Existing Type 316 stainless steel irradiated ducts are relatively thin and since this material retains substantial ductility, even after irradiation, the fracture behavior of the duct material cannot be analyzed by linear elastic fracture mechanics techniques. Instead, the multispecimen R-curve method and J-integral analysis were used to develop an experimental approach to evaluate the fracture toughness of thin breeder reactor duct materials irradiated at elevated temperatures. Alloy A-286 was chosen for these experiments because the alloy exhibits elastic/plastic behavior and the fracture toughness data of thicker (12 mm) specimens were available for comparison. Technical problems associated with specimen buckling and remote handling were treated in this work. The results are discussed in terms of thickness criterion for plane strain

  9. Compatibility of 316L stainless steel with tritium breeders for fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Broc, M.; Fauvet, P.; Flament, T.; Sannier, J.

    1986-06-01

    Compatibility problems with structural materials are a concern for the choice of the tritium breeder for fusion reactors. In the frame of the European Programme on Fusion Technology, two types of blankets are considered: liquid (eutectic lithium-lead alloy at 0.68 wt % Li: 17Li83Pb) and solid (lithium aluminate or silicate) breeders. This paper is devoted to compatibility studies of 316L stainless steel with 17Li83Pb alloy and γ-LiA10 2 ceramic

  10. Y2K issues for real time computer systems for fast breeder test reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Swaminathan, P.

    1999-01-01

    Presentation shows the classification of real time systems related to operation, control and monitoring of the fast breeder test reactor. Software life cycle includes software requirement specification, software design description, coding, commissioning, operation and management. A software scheme in supervisory computer of fast breeder test rector is described with the twenty years of experience in design, development, installation, commissioning, operation and maintenance of computer based supervision control system for nuclear installation with a particular emphasis on solving the Y2K problem

  11. Be-Breeder - an application for analysis of genomic data in plant breeding

    OpenAIRE

    Matias,Filipe Inácio; Granato,Italo Stefanine Correa; Dequigiovanni,Gabriel; Fritsche-Neto,Roberto

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Be-Breeder is an application directed toward genetic breeding of plants, developed through the Shiny package of the R software, which allows different phenotype and molecular (marker) analysis to be undertaken. The section for analysis of molecular data of the Be-Breeder application makes it possible to achieve quality control of genotyping data, to obtain genomic kinship matrices, and to analyze genome selection, genome association, and genetic diversity in a simple manner on line. ...

  12. Integrated fuel-cycle models for fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, K.O.; Maudlin, P.J.

    1981-01-01

    Breeder-reactor fuel-cycle analysis can be divided into four different areas or categories. The first category concerns questions about the spatial variation of the fuel composition for single loading intervals. Questions of the variations in the fuel composition over several cycles represent a second category. Third, there is a need for a determination of the breeding capability of the reactor. The fourth category concerns the investigation of breeding and long-term fuel logistics. Two fuel-cycle models used to answer questions in the third and fourth area are presented. The space- and time-dependent actinide balance, coupled with criticality and fuel-management constraints, is the basis for both the Discontinuous Integrated Fuel-Cycle Model and the Continuous Integrated Fuel-Cycle Model. The results of the continuous model are compared with results obtained from detailed two-dimensional space and multigroup depletion calculations. The continuous model yields nearly the same results as the detailed calculation, and this is with a comparatively insignificant fraction of the computational effort needed for the detailed calculation. Thus, the integrated model presented is an accurate tool for answering questions concerning reactor breeding capability and long-term fuel logistics. (author)

  13. Molten Salt Breeder Reactor Analysis Based on Unit Cell Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jeong, Yongjin; Choi, Sooyoung; Lee, Deokjung [Ulsan National Institute of Science and Technology, Ulsan (Korea, Republic of)

    2014-05-15

    Contemporary computer codes like the MCNP6 or SCALE are only good for solving a fixed solid fuel reactor. However, due to the molten-salt fuel, MSR analysis needs some functions such as online reprocessing and refueling, and circulating fuel. J. J. Power of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) suggested in 2013 a method for simulating the Molten Salt Breeder Reactor (MSBR) with SCALE, which does not support continuous material processing. In order to simulate MSR characteristics, the method proposes dividing a depletion time into short time intervals and batchwise reprocessing and refueling at each step. We are applying this method by using the MCNP6 and PYTHON and NEWT-TRITON-PYTHON and PYTHON code systems to MSBR. This paper contains various parameters to analyze the MSBR unit cell model such as the multiplication factor, breeding ratio, change of amount of fuel, amount of fuel feeding, and neutron flux distribution. The result of MCNP6 and NEWT module in SCALE show some difference in depletion analysis, but it still seems that they can be used to analyze MSBR. Using these two computer code system, it is possible to analyze various parameters for the MSBR unit cells such as the multiplication factor, breeding ratio, amount of material, total feeding, and neutron flux distribution. Furthermore, the two code systems will be able to be used for analyzing other MSR model or whole core models of MSR.

  14. Development of high performance core for large fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Inoue, Kotaro; Kawashima, Katsuyuki; Watari, Yoshio.

    1982-01-01

    Subsequently to the fast breeder prototype reactor ''Monju'', the construction of a demonstration reactor with 1000 MWe output is planned. This research aims at the establishment of the concept of a large core with excellent fuel breeding property and safety for a demonstration and commercial reactors. For the purpose, the optimum specification of fuel design as a large core was clarified, and the new construction of a core was examined, in which a disk-shaped blanket with thin peripheral edge is introduced at the center of a core. As the result, such prospect was obtained that the time for fuel doubling would be 1/2, and the energy generated in a core collapse accident would be about 1/5 as compared with a large core using the same fuel as ''Monju''. Generally, as a core is enlarged, the rate of breeding lowers. If a worst core collapse accident occurs, the scale of accident will be very large in the case of a ''Monju'' type large core. In an unhomogeneous core, an internal blanket is provided in the core for the purpose of improving the breeding property and safety. Hitachi Ltd. developed the concept of a large core unhomogeneous in axial direction and proposed it. The research on the fuel design for a large core, an unhomogeneous core and its core collapse accident is reported. (Kako, I.)

  15. Method to manufacture spherical fuel and breeder particles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Huschka, H.; Kadner, M.

    1976-01-01

    Optimum properties of the pyrolytic carbon cladding layer deposited on fuel and breeder cores are best achieved by forming the layers into exact spherical shells. It is necessary to have a uniform shperical shape of the cores to be coated. This is achieved by converting an oscillating liquid jet flowing out of one or several nozzles, of uranium and/or thorium solutions which drop into an ammonia solution at a quantity of over 3000 drops per minute. The drops prior to plunging into the ammonia solution, according to the invention, firstly run through an ammonia gasfree fall to acquire the shperical shape, then they fall through a zone flowed-through by ammonia gas. The ammonia gas is introduced into the dropping zone so that it flows in the opposite direction to falling and so that in addition a horizontal cross-flowing of the gas between the drops is guaranteed. The spherical drops are thus hardened before entering the ammonia solution. They are then washed as usual, dried and sintered. 4 examples are given to prepare thorium dioxide, uranium carbide and (U,Th) mixed oxide particles. (IHOE) [de

  16. Progress report on fast breeder reactor development in Japan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1976-05-01

    Following the completion of the in-argon, high temperature test, the in-sodium functional test of Joyo has set in. The fabrication of the equipments for monitoring the flow rate and temperature in the center channel and the power distribution was finished. The modification of design of the prototype fast breeder reactor Monju came into its phase 3. The interim report on the check-up and review of the Monju project by the Government is now ready. Various calculation codes were developed or are in development stage. The mock-up assembly FCA 7-1 has been built, which consists of the Pu-fueled sector region simulating the Monju core and the U-235-fueled driver region. Various reactor physics experiments have been carried out in this assembly. Also, the calculation methods for reactor physics parameters have been developed, and the detailed calculation on the main shield of Joyo was performed. The situation of the developments of the components for Joyo and Monju and the measuring and control systems is shown. Almost all the existing sodium test facilities in Oarai Engineering Center were in service without any trouble, and the new test facility named ''Carbon transfer test loop'' was commissioned. The progress in the fields of sodium technology, fuel and material, safety and steam generators is reported. (Kako, I.)

  17. Improved alloys for a liquid metal fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1981-01-01

    An alloy is specified suitable for use at elevated temperatures and especially in a liquid metal fast breeder reactor consisting essentially of a nickel-chromium steel having a specified range of composition of C, Mn, Si, Zr, V, Ni, Cr, Ti, Al, Mo, B, and the balance iron with incidental impurities, the alloy exhibiting a swelling at peak swelling temperature of less than 10% wherein the matrix composition has after heat treatment at a temperature within the range of 1000 0 C to 1100 0 C for about one half hour followed by aging at a temperature within the range of from 700 0 C to 815 0 C for a time period of between 10 to 24 hours, the longer hours being associated with the lower temperatures and vice-versa, and after the removal of the non-equilibrium gamma prime and other precipitated phases a composition within a specified range of composition of Ni, Cr, Ti, Al, Mo, the balance being essentially iron. (U.K.)

  18. Decay heat removal for the liquid metal fast breeder reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zemanick, P.P.; Brown, N.W.

    1975-01-01

    The functional and reliability requirements of the decay heat removal systems are described. The reliability requirement and its rationale as adequate assurance that public health and safety are safeguarded are presented. The means by which the reliability of the decay heat removal systems are established to meet their requirement are identified. The heat removal systems and their operating characteristics are described. The discussion includes the overflow heat removal service and its role in decay heat removal if needed. The details of the systems are described to demonstrate the elements of redundancy and diversity in the systems design. The quantitative reliability assessment is presented, including the reliability model, the most important assumptions on which the analysis is based, sources of failure data, and the preliminary numerical results. Finally, the qualitative analyses and administrative controls will be discussed which ensure reliability attainment in design, fabrication, and operation, including minimization of common mode failures. A component test program is planned to provide reliability data on selected critical heat removal system equipment. This test plan is described including a definition of the test parameters of greatest interest and the motivation for the test article selection. A long range plan is also in place to collect plant operational data and the broad outlines of this plan are described. A statement of the high reliability of the Clinch River Breeder reactor Plant decay heat removal systems and a summary of the supporting arguments is presented. (U.S.)

  19. Method of advancing research and development of fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1988-01-01

    In the long term plan of atomic energy development and utilization, fast breeder reactors are to be developed as the main of the future nuclear power generation in Japan, and when their development is advanced, it has been decided to positively aim at building up the plutonium utilization system using FBRs superior to the uranium utilization system using LWRs. Also it has been decided that the development of FBRs requires to exert incessant efforts for a considerable long period under the proper cooperation system of government and people, and as for its concrete development, hereafter the deliberation is to be carried out in succession by the expert subcommittee on FBR development projects of the Atomic Energy Commission. The subcommittee was founded in May, 1986, to deliberate on the long term promotion measures for FBR development, the measures for promoting the research and development, the examination of the basic specification of a demonstration FBR, the measures for promoting international cooperation, and other important matters. As the results of investigation, the situation around the development of FBRs, the fundamentals at the time of promoting the research and development, the subjects of the research and development and so on are reported. (Kako, I.)

  20. Fast breeder cladding tubes provided with helical fins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgaertner, E.; Hoffmann, H.; Miller, H.; Jacobi, O.; Bojarski, E.; Freund, D.; Reiser, H.

    1977-04-01

    Development of fast breeder tubes with helical fins started around 1966. The development was initiated mainly by the search for a more favorable alternative to the conventional spacers such as grids and spiral wires. First of all the possibility was investigated of fabricating them on an industrial scale. The first thermohydraulic and fluiddynamic tests were made in parallel by AEG, GfK and Interatom. Besides the possibility of industrial fabrication the problems of non-destructive testing for geometry and material defects had to be treated with priority. In this report the different stages of development are shown and, finally, two rather large projects are described. These projects are the study ready for the licensing procedure concerning the irradiation of finned tube oxide fuel elements in KNK II and the already completed 19-rod fuel element bundle irradiation experiment Mol 7D of GfK performed in the 500 kW sodium loop of the Belgian BR2 reactor. In this BR2 experiment the maximum target burnup of 85,000 MWd/t of oxide was attained without trouble. (orig.) [de

  1. Ageing management practice in Fast Breeder Test Reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, G.; Ramanathan, V.; Swaminathan, P.R.; Babu, A.; Rajasekarappa, E.; Rajendran, B.; Ramalingam, P.V.

    2006-01-01

    Fast Breeder Test Reactor is a 40 MWt, sodium cooled, PuC-UC fuelled fast reactor, located at Kalpakkam, India. The reactor went critical in October 85 with Mark I core rated for 10.5 MWt at a peak LHR of 320 W/cm. The reactor core was progressively enlarged and TG was synchronized to the grid in July 97. The present core has 41 fuel subassemblies rated for 15.7 MWt at a peak LHR of 320 W/cm. The reactor has so far been operated for 33000 h and has seen 660 EFPD of operation corresponding to peak LHR of 320 W/cm. The peak burnup reached by the carbide fuel is 127 GWd/t, without any fuel clad failure. The four sodium pumps have been operating satisfactorily for a cumulative time of more than 5,00,000 h. Creep, fatigue and fluence govern the life of the nuclear systems. Because of the reduced power and temperature at which the reactor has so far been operated, there is little ageing of the nuclear systems. The life of the nuclear components is being monitored by periodic surveillance. Periodic assessment of the fluence seen by reactor components is being made. The conventional systems have been in service for the past 19 years. Civil structures are 25 years old. These have been maintained by periodic preventive maintenance and replacement / repair wherever required. This paper details the various ageing management practices in FBTR. (author)

  2. Feasibility study of a fission-suppressed tokamak fusion breeder

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Moir, R.W.; Lee, J.D.; Neef, W.S.

    1984-12-01

    The preliminary conceptual design of a tokamak fissile fuel producer is described. The blanket technology is based on the fission suppressed breeding concept where neutron multiplication occurs in a bed of 2 cm diameter beryllium pebbles which are cooled by helium at 50 atmospheres pressure. Uranium-233 is bred in thorium metal fuel elements which are in the form of snap rings attached to each beryllium pebble. Tritium is bred in lithium bearing material contained in tubes immersed in the pebble bed and is recovered by a purge flow of helium. The neutron wall load is 3 MW/m 2 and the blanket material is ferritic steel. The net fissile breeding ratio is 0.54 +- 30% per fusion reaction. This results in the production of 4900 kg of 233 U per year from 3000 MW of fusion power. This quantity of fuel will provide makeup fuel for about 12 LWRs of equal thermal power or about 18 1 GW/sub e/ LWRs. The calculated cost of the produced uranium-233 is between $23/g and $53/g or equivalent to $10/kg to $90/kg of U 3 O 8 depending on government financing or utility financing assumptions. Additional topics discussed in the report include the tokamak operating mode (both steady state and long pulse considered), the design and breeding implications of using a poloidal divertor for impurity control, reactor safety, the choice of a tritium breeder, and fuel management

  3. Thermodynamics of ceramic breeder materials for fusion reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Goetzmann, O.

    1989-05-01

    Based on known or deduced phase relationships in ternary lithium oxygen systems such as Li-Al-O, Li-Si-O and Li-Zr-O, the unknown free enthalpy of formation values of ternary compounds are calculated starting from the known data of the compounds of the binary border systems. Criterion for the data assessment is interconsistency of the data of all the compounds within a given multi-component system. With the help of these data the development of partial pressures during the breeding process can be calculated for all the compounds of interest. In order to facilitate a compatibility assessment the quaternary systems Cr-Li-Si-O, Fe-Li-Si-O and Be-Li-Si-O were also investigated and thermodynamic data of pertinent ternary and quaternary compounds determined. Both the partial pressure development and the compatibility behaviour of a lithium containing compound are criteria for its qualification as a breeder material for a fusion reactor. (orig.) [de

  4. Fast breeder reactor-block antiseismic design and verification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Martelli, A.; Forni, M.

    1988-02-01

    The Specialists' Meeting on ''Fast Breeder Reactor-Block Antiseismic Design and Verification'' was organized by the ENEA Fast Reactor Department in co-operation with the International Working Group (IWGFR) of the International Atomic Energy Agency (IAEA), according to the recommendations of the 19th IAEA/IWGFR Meeting. It was held in Bologna, at the Headquarters of the ENEA Fast Reactor Department, on October 12-15, 1987, in the framework of the Celebrations for the Ninth Centenary of the Bologna University. The proceedings of the meeting consists of three parts. Part 1 contains the introduction and general comments, the agenda of the meeting, session summaries, conclusions and recommendations and the list of participants. Part 2 contains 8 status reports of Member States participating in the Working Group. Contributed papers were published in Part 3 and were further subdivided into 5 sessions as follows: whole reactor-block analysis (4 papers); whole reactor-block analysis (sloshing and buckling, seismic isolation effects) (8 papers); detailed core analysis (6 papers); shutdown systems and core structural and functional verifications (6 papers); component and piping analysis (7 papers). A separate abstract was prepared for each of the 8 status reports and 31 contributed papers. Refs, figs and tabs

  5. Method and device for fire extinction of fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yokota, Norikatsu; Shimoyashiki, Shigehiro; Hikichi, Takayoshi; Sato, Yoshihiko.

    1986-01-01

    Purpose: To effectively restrain fires with coolant in liquid-metal fast breeder reactors. Method: The core material of fire-extinguishing agent is coated with a non-combustible material and capsulated to prevent moisture absorption and at the same time the capsule thus made is coated with a suitable material to restrain a fire with a coolant. A desirable coating material to be used is a material which is little reactive to sodium; for example such a low-melting point metal as Pb or Sn, or paraffin, or sodium-silicate should be used. For the core material, Na 2 CO 3 , NaCl sand are recommendable materials. The core material thus made will never absorb moisture during long-time storage and has no hazard to promote a fire likely to be caused by moisture absorption. Furthermore, the coating material and the core material act to each other, restraining a sodium fire. The fire-extinguishing agent, being granular and capsulated, is easy to transport, thereby reducing a cost required for disposition. (Kamimura, M.)

  6. Possible role of fast breeder reactor for global warming mitigation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ikeda, Kazumi; Hatano, Mamoru; Tashimo, Masanori; Sekimoto, Hiroshi

    2003-01-01

    Our optimization model forecasts that Fast Breeder Reactor (FBR) could be introduced as early as 2030 when nuclear power generation becomes price-competitive in the energy market. If such a scenario realizes in the future, nuclear power will be able to supply as much as 30% of total primary energy in 2100. The model also forecasts that nuclear power will contribute to reduce 6 GtC of CO 2 emission, if it completely replaces coal of the same energy. If the option of FBR is abandoned, we expect that carbon tax almost doubles in 2100 from 280 $/tC to 540 $/tC. High-burnup of LWR decreases the initial capacity of FBR plants because FBR and its fuel cycle need about seven tons of plutonium per GWe. Thus, the high-burnup of Light Water Reactor (LWR) would decrease the production of plutonium per watt-hour of electricity generation and reduce the capacity of FBR plants in the near future. However, the introduction of high breeding FBR can solve the above deficiency problem of plutonium. In other words, high breeding FBR can not only work as a catalyst for increasing the FBR plants with improved nuclear energy technology, but also contribute to reduce the greenhouse gas emission since renewable energy may be not enough in Japan. (author)

  7. Preliminary RAMI analysis of WCLL blanket and breeder systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Arroyo, Jose Manuel; Brown, Richard; Harman, Jon; Rosa, Elena; Ibarra, Angel

    2015-01-01

    Highlights: • Preliminary RAMI model for WCLL has been developed. • Critical parts and parameters influencing WCLL availability have been focused. • Necessary developments of tools/models to represent system performance have been identified. - Abstract: DEMO will be a prototype fusion reactor designed to prove the capability to produce electrical power in a commercially acceptable way. One of the key factors in that endeavor is the achievement of certain level of plant availability. Therefore, RAMI (Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Inspectability) will be a key element in the engineering development of DEMO. Some studies have been started so as to develop the tools and models to assess different design alternatives from RAMI point of view. The main objective of these studies is to be able to evaluate the influence of different parameters on DEMO availability and to focus the critical parts that should be further researched and improved in order to develop a high-availability oriented DEMO design. A preliminary RAMI analysis of the Water Cooled Lithium-Lead (WCLL) blanket and breeder concept for DEMO has been developed. The amounts of single elements that may fail (e.g. more than 180,000 C-shaped tubes) and the mean down time associated to failures inside the vacuum vessel (around 3 months) have been highlighted as the critical parameters influencing the system availability. On the other hand, the necessary developments of tools/models to better represent the system performance have been identified and proposed for future work.

  8. Preliminary RAMI analysis of WCLL blanket and breeder systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arroyo, Jose Manuel, E-mail: josemanuel.arroyo@ciemat.es [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión por Confinamiento Magnético – CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain); Brown, Richard [Culham Centre for Fusion Energy, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon (United Kingdom); Harman, Jon [EFDA Close Support Unit, Garching (Germany); Rosa, Elena; Ibarra, Angel [Laboratorio Nacional de Fusión por Confinamiento Magnético – CIEMAT, Madrid (Spain)

    2015-10-15

    Highlights: • Preliminary RAMI model for WCLL has been developed. • Critical parts and parameters influencing WCLL availability have been focused. • Necessary developments of tools/models to represent system performance have been identified. - Abstract: DEMO will be a prototype fusion reactor designed to prove the capability to produce electrical power in a commercially acceptable way. One of the key factors in that endeavor is the achievement of certain level of plant availability. Therefore, RAMI (Reliability, Availability, Maintainability and Inspectability) will be a key element in the engineering development of DEMO. Some studies have been started so as to develop the tools and models to assess different design alternatives from RAMI point of view. The main objective of these studies is to be able to evaluate the influence of different parameters on DEMO availability and to focus the critical parts that should be further researched and improved in order to develop a high-availability oriented DEMO design. A preliminary RAMI analysis of the Water Cooled Lithium-Lead (WCLL) blanket and breeder concept for DEMO has been developed. The amounts of single elements that may fail (e.g. more than 180,000 C-shaped tubes) and the mean down time associated to failures inside the vacuum vessel (around 3 months) have been highlighted as the critical parameters influencing the system availability. On the other hand, the necessary developments of tools/models to better represent the system performance have been identified and proposed for future work.

  9. Assessment of residual life of fast breeder test reactor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Srinivasan, G.

    2016-01-01

    The Fast Breeder Test Reactor (FBTR) is a loop type sodium cooled fast reactor and has been in operation since 1985. As a part of regulatory requirement for relicensing, residual life assessment had to be carried out. The systems are made of SS 316, and designed for creep and fatigue. The design life for creep is 100,000 h at 550°C. The design fatigue cycle for operation from shutdown to full power varies from component to component. In general, most of the components are designed for 2000 cycles. The reactor has operated mostly below the design temperatures. It is seen that enough creep-fatigue life is available for the non-replaceable, permanent components. The residual life was found to be governed by the residual ductility of the Grid Plate supporting the core after neutron irradiation. Fast flux measurements were carried out at the grid plate location. Samples were irradiated and tensile tested. Results indicate the allowable dpa for a 10% residual ductility criterion as 4.37. This gave a residual life of ~ 6 Effective Full Power Years for the reactor as of Feb 2012. Measures to reduce the neutron dose on the grid plate are being taken. (author)

  10. Decay Heat Removal for the Liquid Metal Fast Breeder Reactor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zemanick, P. P.; Brown, N. W.

    1975-10-15

    The functional and reliability requirements of the decay heat removal systems are described. The reliability requirement and its rationale as adequate assurance that public health and safety are safeguarded are presented. The means by which the reliability of the decay heat removal systems are established to meet their requirement are identified. The heat removal systems and their operating characteristics are described. The discussion includes the overflow heat removal service and its role in decay heat removal if needed. The details of the systems are described to demonstrate the elements of redundancy and diversity in the systems design. The quantitative reliability assessment is presented, including the reliability model, the most important assumptions on which the analysis is based, sources of failure data, and the preliminary numerical results. Finally, the qualitative analyses and administrative controls will be discussed which ensure reliability attainment in design, fabrication, and operation, including minimization of common mode failures. A component test program is planned to provide reliability data on selected critical heat removal system equipment. This test plan is described including a definition of the test parameters of greatest interest and the motivation for the test article selection. A long range plan is also in place to collect plant operational data and the broad outlines of this plan are described. The paper closes with a statement of the high reliability of the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant decay heat removal systems and a summary of the supporting arguments. (author)

  11. Study on hydrogen production using the fast breeder reactors (FBR)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kani, Yoshio

    2003-01-01

    As the fast breeder reactor (FBR) can effectively convert uranium-238 difficult to carry out nuclear fission at thermal neutron reactors to nuclear fissionable plutonium-239 to use it remarkable upgrading of application on uranium can be performed, to be expected for sustainable energy source. And, by reuse minor actinides of long half-life nuclides in reprocessed high level wasted solutions for fuels of nuclear reactors, reduction of radioactive poison based on high level radioactive wastes was enabled. As high temperature of about 800 centigrade was required on conventional hydrogen production, by new hydrogen production technique even at operation temperature of sodium-cooled FBR it can be enabled. Here were described for new hydrogen production methods applicable to FBR on palladium membrane hydrogen separation method carrying out natural gas/steam modification at reaction temperature of about 500 centigrade, low temperature thermo-chemical method expectable simultaneous simplification of production process, and electrolysis method expected on power load balancing. (G.K.)

  12. Risk-assessment methodology for fast breeder reactors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ott, K.O.

    1976-04-01

    The methods applied or proposed for risk assessment of nuclear reactors are reviewed, particularly with respect to their applicability for risk assessment of future commercial fast breeder reactors. All methods are based on the calculation of accident consequences for relatively few accident scenarios. The role and general impact of uncertainties in fast-reactor accident analysis are discussed. The discussion shows the need for improvement of the methodology. A generalized and improved risk-assessment methodology is outlined and proposed (accident-spectra-progression approach). The generalization consists primarily of an explicit treatment of uncertainties throughout the accident progression. The results of this method are obtained in form of consequence distributions. The width and shape of the distributions depend in part on the superposition of the uncertainties. The first moment of the consequence distribution gives an improved prediction of the ''average'' consequence. The higher-consequence moments can be used for consideration of risk aversion. The assessment of the risk of one or a certain number of nuclear reactors can only provide an ''isolated'' risk assessment. The general problem of safety risk assessment and its relation to public acceptance of certain modes of power production is a much broader problem area, which is also discussed

  13. Heat-pulse flowmeter for a liquid breeder blanket

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kondo, Masatoshi; Shibano, Kyohei; Tanaka, Teruya; Muroga, Takeo

    2013-01-01

    Liquid metals Li, Pb-17Li and Sn-20Li are candidate liquid breeders in fusion reactors. The development of a flowmeter that can be applied to high-temperature liquid metals is an important issue. A heat-pulse flowmeter is proposed in the present study. Its basic performance was investigated by means of a loop experiment with Pb-17Li and a numerical simulation. The temperature distribution in flowing Pb-17Li was obtained by local transient heating of the outer surface of a loop tube. The temperature distribution gradually changed and resembled the movement of a hot spot, which had a higher temperature than its surroundings. This hot spot moved along the flow and passed through the tips of the thermocouples. The change in temperature distribution with the movement of the hot spot was monitored by three thermocouples exposed to the Pb-17Li flow. The results of the loop experiments were numerically simulated by assuming a certain flow rate, and the temperature profile obtained in the loop experiment was in agreement with the simulation results. The time taken by the hot spot to pass through the tips of the thermocouples was measured and simulated, and the correlation between this time and the average flow velocity was evaluated. The results indicated the average flow velocity can be obtained using the heat-pulse flowmeter proposed in this study. (author)

  14. Selection of steam generator materials for sodium cooled fast breeders

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berge, P.

    1977-01-01

    The sodium water heat exchangers are now considered as the stumbling block in the development of liquid metal cooled fast breeders, due to the risk of sodium-water reactions. The selection of the materials for these tube-bundles has been very broad, for the different existing, or in-project, reactors in the world: low alloy 2 1/4 Cr - 1 Mo steels (unstabilized or stabilized); 9 Cr - 1 Mo ferritic steel; 18 Cr - 10 Ni austenitic stainless steels; alloy 800. On can also add other ferritic steels, as 9 Cr - 2 Mo stabilized, which are studied for this application. In the framework of the E.D.F.-C.E.A. working group a major effort was undertaken to study the characteristics of these various materials with respect to the main criteria governing construction of the tube bundles and their performance in service: mechanical characteristics at high temperature; fabrication and welding; behavior with respect to mass transfer in sodium; carburization and decarburization; corrosion resistance. The main lines and results of this program are described [fr

  15. Helper effects on breeder allocations to direct care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kushnick, Geoff

    2012-01-01

    Mothers receive childcare and productive assistance from allomaternal helpers in many societies. Although much effort has been aimed toward showing helper effects on maternal reproductive success, less has been directed toward highlighting the full range of potential effects on breeder behavior. I present a model of optimal maternal care with helpers, and tests of derived hypotheses with data collected among the Karo Batak-a group of Indonesian agriculturalists. To test the model's predictions I compared the effect of women receiving help from patrilateral versus matrilateral kin because those kin may provide help with different maternal responsibilities. The model predicts a decrease in maternal allocation to care that is substitutable with the helper contribution and the helper assists with that type of care; it predicts an increase in care that is nonsubstitutable with the helper contribution or substitutable care when the helper assists with other responsibilities. With the exception of one other, most models have failed to account for an increase. Analyses of time spent carrying children supported the model. With matrilateral helpers, women increased carrying; with patrilateral helpers, they decreased it. Time spent farmworking showed the opposite pattern, suggesting that matrilateral helpers effectively decrease costs, nudging optimal maternal care upward. Patterns of breastfeeding provided little support for the model. The results do, however, suggest potential proximate mechanisms by which helpers influence maternal reproductive success in cooperative breeding societies. Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  16. Molten Salt Breeder Reactor Analysis Based on Unit Cell Model

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeong, Yongjin; Choi, Sooyoung; Lee, Deokjung

    2014-01-01

    Contemporary computer codes like the MCNP6 or SCALE are only good for solving a fixed solid fuel reactor. However, due to the molten-salt fuel, MSR analysis needs some functions such as online reprocessing and refueling, and circulating fuel. J. J. Power of Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) suggested in 2013 a method for simulating the Molten Salt Breeder Reactor (MSBR) with SCALE, which does not support continuous material processing. In order to simulate MSR characteristics, the method proposes dividing a depletion time into short time intervals and batchwise reprocessing and refueling at each step. We are applying this method by using the MCNP6 and PYTHON and NEWT-TRITON-PYTHON and PYTHON code systems to MSBR. This paper contains various parameters to analyze the MSBR unit cell model such as the multiplication factor, breeding ratio, change of amount of fuel, amount of fuel feeding, and neutron flux distribution. The result of MCNP6 and NEWT module in SCALE show some difference in depletion analysis, but it still seems that they can be used to analyze MSBR. Using these two computer code system, it is possible to analyze various parameters for the MSBR unit cells such as the multiplication factor, breeding ratio, amount of material, total feeding, and neutron flux distribution. Furthermore, the two code systems will be able to be used for analyzing other MSR model or whole core models of MSR

  17. Postvaccinal reovirus infection with high mortality in breeder chicks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chénier, Sonia; Boulianne, Martine; Gagnon, Carl A

    2014-12-01

    A broiler breeder flock was subcutaneously vaccinated at the hatchery with a live avian orthoreovirus (ARV) vaccine against viral arthritis. Chicks began to die at 3 days of age and postmortem examination revealed massive subcutaneous hemorrhages and edema on the dorsal aspect of the neck at the site of vaccination, a severe necrotic hepatitis, and pulmonary edema. Microscopically, the main lesion was a multifocal vacuolar degeneration and necrosis of randomly distributed small groups of hepatocytes with presence of apoptotic and multinucleated syncytial cells. Necrotic foci were also found in the lungs as well as a hemorrhagic, granulomatous, and heterophilic cellulitis and myositis of the neck and a generalized depletion and lymphocytolysis of lymphoid organs. At 8 days of age, birds also began to show hock swelling histologically characterized by a fibrinoleucocytic inflammation of the articulation and tendon sheaths, with hyperplasia of the synovial membrane, and lymphoplasmocytic infiltration. PCR and viral culture of livers were positive for ARV. Partial sequencing of the S1 gene from the virus isolate showed 99.2% to 99.8% homology with three vaccinal strains (ARV S1133, 1733, and 2408). Viral particles compatible with reovirus virions were observed at transmission electron microscopy. Investigation at the hatchery revealed that chicks were inadvertently administered an S1133 reovirus vaccine labeled for water administration in 10- to 17-week-old chickens. This human error is most likely the reason for this unusually severe viremic reovirus infection that affected this flock at such an early age.

  18. Effect of Incubator Type and Broiler Breeder Age on Hatchability and Chick Quality

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ICS Araújo

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the effect of broiler breeder age and incubator type on hatching parameters, hatch window, embryo diagnosis results, and hatchling physical quality. The treatments consisted of a combination of three broiler breeder ages (29, 35 and 59 weeks of age and two incubator types (single stage, SS; or and multiple stage, MS. A completely randomized design in a 3x2 factorial arrangement was applied. In Experiment I, 1,896 eggs were used and 360 eggs in Experiment II. There was an interaction between breeder age and incubator type only for hatchling physical quality score. Independently of incubator type, hatchability rate, late embryo mortality, and egg contamination were higher in the eggs laid by older breeders (59-wk-old. Early mortality (0-4 days was higher in the embryos from young breeders (29-wk-old. A shorter hatch window birth was obtained in the SS incubator, resulting in higher hatchling body weight relative to egg weight, and better hatchling physical quality score. Both types of incubators provide good conditions for embryo development; however, the physical quality of chicks derived from eggs from intermediate-aged breeders (35-wk-old is better when eggs are incubated in SS incubators.

  19. Proceedings of the sixth international workshop on ceramic breeder blanket interactions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Noda, Kenji

    1998-03-01

    This report is the Proceedings of ''the Sixth International Workshop on Ceramic Breeder Blanket Interactions'' which was held as a workshop on ceramic breeders under Annex II of IEA Implementing Agreement on a Programme of Research and Development on Fusion Materials, and Japan-US Workshop 97FT4-01. This workshop was held in Mito city, Japan on October 22-24, 1997. About forty experts from EU, Japan, USA, and Chile attended the workshop. The scope of the workshop included the following: 1) fabrication and characterization of ceramic breeders, 2) properties data for ceramic breeders, 3) tritium release characteristics, 4) modeling of tritium behavior, 5) irradiation effects on performance behavior, 6) blanket design and R and D requirements, 7) hydrogen behavior in materials, and 8) blanket system technology and structural materials. In the workshop, information exchange was performed for fabrication technology of ceramic breeder pebbles in EU and Japan, data of various properties of Li 2 TiO 3 , tritium release behavior of Li 2 TiO 3 and Li 2 ZrO 3 including tritium diffusion, modeling of tritium release from Li 2 ZrO 3 in ITER condition, helium release behavior from Li 2 O, results of tritium release irradiation tests of Li 4 SiO 4 pebbles in EXOTIC-7, R and D issues for ceramic breeders for ITER and DEMO blankets, etc. The 23 of the papers are indexed individually. (J.P.N.)

  20. Reactor core conversion studies of Ghana: Research Reactor-1 and proposal for addition of safety rod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Odoi, H.C.

    2014-06-01

    The inclusion of an additional safety rod in conjunction with a core conversion study of Ghana Research Reactor-1 (GHARR-1) was carried out using neutronics, thermal hydraulics and burnup codes. The study is based on a recommendation by Integrated Safety Assessment for Research Reactors (INSARP) mission to incorporate a safety rod to the reactor safety system as well as the need to replace the reactor fuel with LEU. Conversion from one fuel type to another requires a complete re-evaluation of the safety analysis. Changes to the reactivity worth, shutdown margin, power density and material properties must be taken into account, and appropriate modifications made. Neutronics analysis including burnup was studied followed by thermal hydraulics analyses which comprise steady state and transients. Four computer codes were used for the analysis; MCNP, REBUS, PLTEP and PARET. The neutronics analysis revealed that the LEU core must be operated at 34 Kw in order to attain the flux of 1.0E12 n/cm 2 .s as the nominal flux of the HEU core. The auxiliary safety rod placed at a modified irradiation site gives a better worth than the cadmium capsules. For core excess reactivity of 4 mk, 348 fuel pins would be appropriate for the GHARR-1 LEU core. Results indicate that flux level of 1.0E12 n/cm 2 .s in the inner irradiation channel will not be compromised, if the power of the LEU core is increased to 34 kW. The GHARR-1 core using LEU-U0 2 -12.5% fuel can be operated for 23 shim cycles, with cycles length 2.5 years, for over 57 years at the 17 kW power level. All 23 LEU cycles meet the ∼ 4.0 mk excess reactivity required at the beginning of cycle . For comparison, the MNSR HEU reference core can also be operated for 23 shim cycles, but with a cycle length of 2.0 years for just over 46 years at 15.0kW power level. It is observed that the GHARR-1 core with LEU UO 2 fuel enriched to 12.5% and a power level of 34 kW can be operated ∼25% longer than the current HEU core operated at