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Sample records for experimental atherosclerotic rabbits

  1. Ghrelin inhibits atherosclerotic plaque angiogenesis and promotes plaque stability in a rabbit atherosclerotic model.

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    Wang, Li; Chen, Qingwei; Ke, Dazhi; Li, Guiqiong

    2017-04-01

    Intraplaque angiogenesis associates with the instability of atherosclerotic plaques. In the present study, we investigated the effects of ghrelin on intraplaque angiogenesis and plaque instability in a rabbit model of atherosclerosis. The rabbits were randomly divided into three groups, namely, the control group, atherosclerotic model group, and ghrelin-treated group, with treatments lasting for 4 weeks. We found that the thickness ratio of the intima to media in rabbits of the ghrelin-treated group was significantly lower than that in rabbits of the atherosclerotic model group. The number of neovessels and the levels of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 (VEGFR2) decreased dramatically in rabbits of the ghrelin-treated group compared to those of the atherosclerotic model group. Ghrelin significantly decreased the plaque content of macrophages, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, and MMP-9, in a rabbit model of atherosclerosis. In addition, the level of the pro-inflammatory factor monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 was significantly lower in rabbits of the ghrelin-treated group than in rabbits of the atherosclerotic model group. In summary, ghrelin can inhibit intraplaque angiogenesis and promote plaque stability by down-regulating VEGF and VEGFR2 expression, inhibiting the plaque content of macrophages, and reducing MCP-1 expression at an advanced stage of atherosclerosis in rabbits. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Protective effect of policosanol on atherosclerotic lesions in rabbits with exogenous hypercholesterolemia

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    Arruzazabala M.L.

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Policosanol is a mixture of higher aliphatic alcohols purified from sugar cane wax, with cholesterol-lowering effects demonstrable in experimental models and in patients with type II hypercholesterolemia. The protective effects of policosanol on atherosclerotic lesions experimentally induced by lipofundin in rabbits and rats and spontaneously developed in stumptail monkeys have been described. The present study was conducted to determine whether policosanol administered orally to rabbits with exogenous hypercholesterolemia also protects against the development of atherosclerotic lesions. Male New Zealand rabbits weighing 1.5 to 2 kg were randomly divided into three experimental groups which received 25 or 200 mg/kg policosanol (N = 7 orally for 60 days with acacia gum as vehicle or acacia gum alone (control group, N = 9. All animals received a cholesterol-rich diet (0.5% during the entire period. Control animals developed marked hypercholesterolemia, macroscopic lesions and arterial intimal thickening. Intima thickness was significantly less (32.5 ± 7 and 25.4 ± 4 µm in hypercholesterolemic rabbits treated with policosanol than in controls (57.6 ± 9 µm. In most policosanol-treated animals, atherosclerotic lesions were not present, and in others, thickness of fatty streaks had less foam cell layers than in controls. We conclude that policosanol has a protective effect on the atherosclerotic lesions occurring in this experimental model.

  3. Cryotherapy increases features of plaque stability in atherosclerotic rabbits.

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    Verheye, Stefan; Roth, Lynn; De Meyer, Inge; Van Hove, Cor E; Nahon, Daniel; Santoianni, Domenic; Yianni, John; Martinet, Wim; Buchbinder, Maurice; De Meyer, Guido R Y

    2016-08-20

    In the last 10 years, cryotherapy has been investigated as a new technology to treat vascular disease. The efficiency of cryotherapy in stabilising atherosclerotic plaques has never been described. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the effect of catheter-based cryotherapy on atherosclerotic plaque composition in a rabbit model of atherosclerosis. Twenty-four New Zealand white rabbits were fed a 0.3% cholesterol-supplemented diet for 24 weeks. At two predefined sites of the atherosclerotic thoracic aorta, catheter-based cryotherapy, applying either single-dose, double-dose cryotherapy or control inflation, was performed after randomisation. Rabbits were continued on a cholesterol-supplemented diet for one day (acute) or four weeks (chronic). One day after cryotherapy, apoptotic cell death of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and endothelial cells (ECs) was observed, whereas macrophages were unaffected. Four weeks later, the amount of SMCs was restored, the EC layer was regenerated, and a subendothelial macrophage-free layer was formed, indicative of a more stable plaque. In addition, both the thickness and the type I collagen content of the fibrous cap were increased. The present study demonstrated that cryotherapy is feasible and appears to stabilise atherosclerotic plaques in a rabbit model.

  4. Anti-atherosclerotic effect of traditional fermented cheese whey in atherosclerotic rabbits and identification of probiotics.

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    Nabi, Xin-Hua; Ma, Chun-Yan; Manaer, Tabusi; Heizati, Mulalibieke; Wulazibieke, Baheti; Aierken, Latipa

    2016-08-24

    Traditional fermented cheese whey (TFCW), containing probiotics, has been used both as a dairy food with ethnic flavor and a medicine for cardiovascular disease, especially regulating blood lipid among Kazakh. We therefore investigated anti-atherosclerotic effects of TFCW in atherosclerotic rabbits and identified lactic acid bacteria (LAB) and yeasts in TFCW. Atherosclerotic rabbits were induced by administration of atherosclerotic diet for 12 weeks and divided randomly into three groups and treated for 4 weeks with Simvastatin (20 mg/kg) or TFCW (25 mg/kg) and (50 mg/kg). In addition, a normal control group and an atherosclerotic group were used for comparison. All drugs were intragastrical administered once daily 10 mL/kg for 4 weeks. Body weight (BW), lipid profiles, C-reactive protein (CRP), vascular cell adhesion molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1) were tested and theromatous plaques and the number of foam cells and infiltrating fibroblast cells in the thoracic aorta endothelium was evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin stainin. LAB and yeasts were isolated and purified by conventional techniques and identified using morphological and biochemical properties as well as gene sequences analysis. After 4 weeks of treatment, high and low dose TFCW decreased serum TC, TG, LDLC, CRP, VCAM-1 and ICAM-1 (P < 0.05) compared to atherosclerotic group, and increased HDL-C (P < 0.05) compared to normal controls. Histological analysis showed TFCW reduced VCAM-1 expression and formation of atheromatous plaques on the aortic endothelium of atherosclerotic rabbits. Seven classes of LBA from two different genera including Lactobacillus brevis, Lactobacillus kefianofaciens, Lactobacillus helveticus, Lactobacillus Casei, Lactobacillus plantarum, Lactobacillus kefiri and Lactococcus lactic as well as 2 classes of yeasts from two different genera including Saccharomyces unisporus and Issatchenkia orientalis were isolated and identified

  5. Lack of Atherosclerotic Lesion Progression on Severe Hyperlipidemic Rabbits

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    DIMAS ANDRIANTO

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In human, coronary heart disease causes by severe pathological atherosclerosis. In this study, we established animal model to study atherosclerosis caused by hyperlipidemia. This study therefore was undertaken to define the effect of increasing atherosclerosis risk factor, include body weight as well as age, cholesterol concentration and dietary fat in rabbit chow, and time of treatment. Male New Zealand White rabbits were divided into 4 groups; Group I and III were consisted of 2 months rabbit were fed with standard rabbit chow. To introduce atherosclerosis, the chow for Group II was contained 0.25% cholesterol and 5% palm oil; whereas the chow for group IV was contained 0.5% cholesterol and 5% coconut oil to induce higher atherosclerotic lesion. Results showed that group II and IV developed hyperlipidemia. However, aortic cholesterol concentration in those groups did not different significantly (P > 0.05. We suggest that low carbohydrate composition in diet, 50% lower compared to the previous researches, was able to increase high-density lipoprotein (HDL concentration. This study demonstrated the complex interactions between low carbohydrate diet and cholesterol metabolism and the dramatic effects of reducing atherosclerosis risk factor; however, even though hyperlipidemic condition was achieved, total plasma cholesterol HDL ratio was maintained low.

  6. Temporal and Quantitative Analysis of Atherosclerotic Lesions in Diet-Induced Hypercholesterolemic Rabbits

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    Qi Yu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The diet-induced atherosclerotic rabbit is an ideal model for atherosclerosis study, but temporal changes in atherosclerotic development in hypercholesterolemic rabbits are poorly understood. Japanese white rabbits were fed a high-cholesterol diet to induce sustained hypercholesterolemia, and each group of 10–12 animals was then sacrificed at 6, 12, 16, or 28 weeks. The rabbit aortas were harvested, and the sizes of the gross and intima atherosclerotic lesions were quantified. The cellular component of macrophages (Mφs and smooth muscle cells (SMCs in aortic intimal lesions was also quantified by immunohistochemical staining, and the correlation between plasma cholesterol levels and the progress of atherosclerotic lesions was studied. The ultrastructure of the atherosclerotic lesions was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM. Widely variable atherosclerotic plaques were found from 6 weeks to 28 weeks, and the lesional progress was closely correlated with cholesterol exposure. Interestingly, a relatively reduced accumulation of Mφ, an increased numbers of SMCs, and a damaged endothelial layer were presented in advanced lesions. Moreover, SMCs were closely correlated with cholesterol exposure and lesional progress for the whole period. Cholesterol exposure directly determines atherosclerotic progress in a rabbit model, and the changes in the cellular component of advanced lesions may affect plaque stability in an atherosclerotic rabbit model.

  7. Evaluation of the Effect of Andrographolide on Atherosclerotic Rabbits Induced by Porphyromonas gingivalis

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    Rami Al Batran

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemiologic evidence has demonstrated significant associations between atherosclerosis and Porphyromonas gingivalis (Pg. We had investigated the effect of andrographolide (AND on atherosclerosis induced by Pg in rabbits. For experimental purpose, we separated thirty male white New Zealand rabbits into 5 groups. Group 1 received standard food pellets; Groups 2–5 were orally challenged with Pg; Group 3 received atorvastatin (AV, 5 mg/kg, and Groups 4-5 received 10 and 20 mg/kg of AND, respectively, over 12 weeks. Groups treated with AND showed significant decrease in TC, TG, and LDL levels (P<0.05 and significant increase in HDL level in the serum of rabbits. Furthermore, the treated groups (G3–G5 exhibited reductions in interleukins (IL-1β and IL-6 and C-reactive protein (CRP as compared to atherogenicgroup (G2. The histological results showed that the thickening of atherosclerotic plaques were less significant in treated groups (G3–G5 compared with atherogenicgroup (G2. Also, alpha-smooth muscle actin (α-SMA staining decreased within the plaques of atherogenicgroup (G2, while it was increased in treated groups (G3–G5. Lastly, groups treated with AV and AND (G3–G5 showed significant reduction of CD36 expression (P<0.05 compared to atherogenicgroup (G2. These results substantially proved that AND contain antiatherogenic activity.

  8. Modeling of Experimental Atherosclerotic Plaque Delamination.

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    Leng, Xiaochang; Chen, Xin; Deng, Xiaomin; Sutton, Michael A; Lessner, Susan M

    2015-12-01

    A cohesive zone model (CZM) approach is applied to simulate atherosclerotic plaque delamination experiments in mouse abdominal aorta specimens. A three-dimensional finite element model is developed for the experiments. The aortic wall is treated as a fiber-reinforced, highly deformable, incompressible material, and the Holzapfel-Gasser-Ogden (HGO) model is adopted for the aortic bulk material behavior. Cohesive elements are placed along the plaque-media interface along which delamination occurs. The 3D specimen geometry is created based on images from the experiments and certain simplifying approximations. A set of HGO and CZM parameter values is determined based on values suggested in the literature and through matching simulation predictions of the load vs. load-point displacement curve with experimental measurements for one loading-delamination-unloading cycle. Using this set of parameter values, simulation predictions for four other loading-delamination-unloading cycles are obtained, which show good agreement with experimental measurements. The findings of the current study demonstrate the applicability of the CZM approach in arterial tissue failure simulations.

  9. Efecto morfológico y funcional vascular de los andrógenos endógenos en un modelo experimental en conejos ateroscleróticos Vascular morphologic and functional effect of endogenous androgens in an experimental atherosclerotic rabbits' model

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    Darío Echeverri

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Resumen: estudios clínicos y experimentales previos, sugieren que los andrógenos podrían tener un efecto adverso, neutral o benéfico, sobre la aterosclerosis y sus manifestaciones clínicas. Métodos: se realizó un estudio experimental aleatorizado y controlado en 40 conejos de raza Nueva Zelanda. 20 animales se sometieron a orquidectomía y 20 se alimentaron con dieta aterogénica durante 20 semanas. Se distribuyeron en cuatro grupos: 1: no castrados sometidos a dieta normal; 2: castrados sometidos a dieta normal; 3: no castrados sometidos a dieta aterogénica y 4: castrados sometidos a dieta aterogénica. Se hicieron mediciones de colesterol total y testosterona libre. Después de la eutanasia, se cuantificó en aorta la relajación arterial independiente de endotelio y dependiente de endotelio in-vitro, y se hicieron análisis histomorfométricos de la aorta torácica para cuantificar la formación de placa aterosclerótica. Resultados: los animales sometidos a dieta normal (n=20 tuvieron colesterol total de 51,1 ± 8,5 mg/dL y los sometidos a dieta aterogénica de 429,2 ± 262,0 mg/dL (p Summary: previous clinical and experimental studies suggest that androgens could have an adverse, neutral or beneficial effect on atherosclerosis and its clinical manifestations. Methods: an experimental, randomized controlled study in 40 New Zealand white male rabbits was realized. 20 rabbits underwent orchiectomy and 20 were fed with an atherogenic diet for 20 weeks. These were distributed in four groups: 1. non-castrated under normal diet, 2. castrated under normal diet, 3. non-castrated under atherogenic diet, and 4. castrated under atherogenic diet. Total cholesterol and free testosterone were measured. After euthanasia, arterial relaxation independent of endothelium was quantified in aorta, as well as the one depending on endothelium, in vitro, and histomorphometric analysis of thoracic aorta were made in order to quantify the atherosclerotic

  10. Effects of defibrotide on aorta and brain malondialdehyde and antioxidants in cholesterol-induced atherosclerotic rabbits.

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    Aydemir, E O; Duman, C; Celik, H A; Turgan, N; Uysal, A; Mutaf, I; Habif, S; Ozmen, D; Nişli, N; Bayindir, O

    2000-01-01

    The effects of a high-cholesterol diet in the presence and absence of defibrotide, a single-stranded polydeoxyribonucleotide compound, on the lipid peroxidation product malondialdehyde, endogenous antioxidant enzymes catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and the antioxidant thiol compound GSH were investigated. Forty male New Zeland white rabbits were divided into four groups each consisting of 10 rabbits. Group I received a regular rabbit chow diet and group II 1% cholesterol plus regular chow, group III was given defibrotide (60 mg/kg per day p.o. in water) and was fed with regular chow, and group IV received defibrotide plus 1% cholesterol for 9 weeks. Blood cholesterol and malondialdehyde, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and GSH were determined before starting the experimental diet regimen (basal). After 9 weeks, the same parameters were determined in blood, aorta, and brain tissues (end -experiment). Aortic tissue was examined under a light microscope for morphological alterations indicative of atherosclerosis. The increase in serum total cholesterol was greater in group II than group IV. Plasma malondialdehyde in group II was higher than in group III. Brain malondialdehyde in group II was higher than all other groups, and aortic malondialdehyde in this group was higher than group I and III. Serum catalase activity decreased in group II and increased in group III, compared with basal values. Brain catalase activity in group I was higher than group II, and aorta catalase in group IV was higher than in group I and III. Blood glutathione peroxidase activity in group III and IV was higher than basal. GSH concentrations decreased significantly in the cholesterol-fed groups (group II and IV). Histological alterations in the cholesterol-fed groups were more pronounced in group II. The increased levels of malondialdehyde in plasma, aorta, and brain tissue of group II suggest a role of oxygen free radicals in the pathogenesis of cholesterol-induced atherosclerosis. The

  11. EXPERIMENTAL LIPEMIA IN RABBITS

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    Boggs, Thomas R.; Morris, Roger S.

    1909-01-01

    In reviewing the literature, no description of a lipemia occurring in relation to simple hemorrhage was found, so that the observation of the phenomenon here recorded would seem to be new. Very high percentages of fat have been found in the blood of diabetics. Fischer's case showed 18.1 per cent total ether extract. Of this very little was free fat (0.0018 gm. potassium hydroxide per gram of fat); iodine absorption was 60.6 per cent.; cholesterin, 2.6 per cent. Chatin's case, cited by Fischer, showed 1.2 per cent. cholesterin, 66.5 per cent. olein, 32.2 per cent. margarin in the fat. Neisser and Derlin in the ether extract of blood from a patient with diabetic coma found 19.7 per cent. fat, with melting point of from 39° to 41° C.; iodine absorption was 53.6 per cent. Javal in a similar case found 25.4 per cent. of fat in ether extract of dry serum (perhaps by Soxhlet method); 21 per cent. of the fat was lecithin. Bleibtreu produced alimentary lipemia in geese by feeding barley and butter. Ether extract of serum showed 6 per cent. of fat. The serum was milky with invisible droplets. Iodine absorption was 57 to 58 per cent. The fat was quite different, chemically, from the fat in the food. Lipemia disappeared a few days after discontinuing the forced feeding. Our experiments suggest, by analogy, the possible occurrence of lipemia in human anemias. In this connection it is of interest to note that we have recently demonstrated a moderate lipemia in a case of marked secondary anemia from hemorrhoids. The emaciation in such cases, as contrasted with the well-recognized conservation of the fat in pernicious anemia, suggests in human pathology a still further analogy which we now have under investigation. The fat in our lipemic rabbits differs from fats described above in its insolubility, as well as in its "constants." The change after precipitation of calcium from the serum suggests that the fat may be present in the serum as a protein-calcium-lecithin combination

  12. Atherosclerotic plaque identification by virtual histology intravascular ultrasound in a rabbit abdominal aorta model of vulnerable plaque.

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    Lin, Qing-Fei; Luo, Yu-Kun; Zhao, Zi-Wen; Cai, Wei; Zhen, Xing-Chun; Chen, Liang-Long

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the utility of virtual histology intravascular ultrasound (VH-IVUS) for recognizing vulnerable plaque compared to histological pathological analysis. Four-month-old New Zealand rabbits (n = 16) were randomly divided into two groups: one fed a high-fat diet and subjected to balloon injury (experimental, n = 10) and one fed a high-fat diet alone (control, n = 6). Blood lipid profiles of overnight-fasted rabbits were measured at week 2 (beginning of study) and week 12 (end of study). At week 12, experimental group rabbits underwent IVUS under anaesthesia. Rabbits were sacrificed and a 5-cm segment of the abdominal aorta was removed. Arterial sections were subjected to pathological and immunohistochemical analyses. Serum lipid levels increased in all rabbits fed with high-fat diet, with low-density lipid cholesterol (LDL-C) levels increasing the most. Levels of six biomarkers (high sensitivity C-reactive protein, matrix metalloproteinase-3, interleukin [IL]-1, IL-10, tumour necrosis factor-α, and oxidized [ox]-LDL) showed no differences between the two groups at week 2, but were higher in the experimental group at week 12. A total of 276 atherosclerotic plaques in the experimental group were analysed. VH-IVUS had sensitivities of 87% and 92% for detection of noncalcified and calcified thin-cap fibroatheromas, respectively. VH-IVUS correctly identified 85% and 89% of noncalcified and calcified fibroatheromas, respectively. For detection of pathological intimal thickening, VH-IVUS showed a sensitivity of 79% and positive predictive value of 78%. Linear regression analysis showed a strong correlation between histology and VH-IVUS for the percent area of fibrous fibro-fatty tissue, necrotic calcified tissue, and confluent necrotic core. The intra-observer and inter-observer variability of the intimal and medial-adventitial boundaries was low. Endothelial injury followed by a high-fat diet in rabbits is a viable method for inducing

  13. Cervical Rotatory Manipulation Decreases Uniaxial Tensile Properties of Rabbit Atherosclerotic Internal Carotid Artery

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    Qi, Ji; Zhang, Lei; Chen, Chao; Mondal, Shubhro; Ping, Kaike; Chen, Yili

    2017-01-01

    Objective. To investigate the effects of one of the Chinese massage therapies, cervical rotatory manipulation (CRM), on uniaxial tensile properties of rabbit atherosclerotic internal carotid artery (ICA). Methods. 40 male purebred New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into CRM-Model group, Non-CRM-Model group, CRM-Normal group, and Non-CRM-Normal group. After modeling (atherosclerotic model) and intervention (CRM or Non-CRM), uniaxial tensile tests were performed on the ICAs to assess the differences in tensile mechanical properties between the four groups. Results. Both CRM and modeling were the main effects affecting physiological elastic modulus (PEM) of ICA. PEM in CRM-Model group was 1.81 times as much as Non-CRM-Model group, while the value in CRM-Model group was 1.34 times as much as CRM-Normal group. Maximum elastic modulus in CRM-Model group was 1.80 times as much as CRM-Normal group. Max strains in CRM-Model group and Non-CRM-Model group were 30.98% and 28.71% lower than CRM-Normal group and Non-CRM-Normal group, respectively. However, whether treated with CRM or not, the uniaxial tensile properties of healthy ICAs were not statistically different. Conclusion. CRM may decrease the uniaxial tensile properties of rabbit arteriosclerotic ICA, but with no effect on normal group. The study will aid in the meaningful explanation of the controversy about the harmfulness of CRM and the suitable population of CRM. PMID:28303160

  14. Cervical Rotatory Manipulation Decreases Uniaxial Tensile Properties of Rabbit Atherosclerotic Internal Carotid Artery

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    Shaoqun Zhang

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To investigate the effects of one of the Chinese massage therapies, cervical rotatory manipulation (CRM, on uniaxial tensile properties of rabbit atherosclerotic internal carotid artery (ICA. Methods. 40 male purebred New Zealand white rabbits were randomly divided into CRM-Model group, Non-CRM-Model group, CRM-Normal group, and Non-CRM-Normal group. After modeling (atherosclerotic model and intervention (CRM or Non-CRM, uniaxial tensile tests were performed on the ICAs to assess the differences in tensile mechanical properties between the four groups. Results. Both CRM and modeling were the main effects affecting physiological elastic modulus (PEM of ICA. PEM in CRM-Model group was 1.81 times as much as Non-CRM-Model group, while the value in CRM-Model group was 1.34 times as much as CRM-Normal group. Maximum elastic modulus in CRM-Model group was 1.80 times as much as CRM-Normal group. Max strains in CRM-Model group and Non-CRM-Model group were 30.98% and 28.71% lower than CRM-Normal group and Non-CRM-Normal group, respectively. However, whether treated with CRM or not, the uniaxial tensile properties of healthy ICAs were not statistically different. Conclusion. CRM may decrease the uniaxial tensile properties of rabbit arteriosclerotic ICA, but with no effect on normal group. The study will aid in the meaningful explanation of the controversy about the harmfulness of CRM and the suitable population of CRM.

  15. Tiaozhi Tongmai Granules reduce atherogenesis and promote the expression of ATP-binding cassette transporter A1 in rabbit atherosclerotic plaque macrophages and the liver

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    Qing Sun

    2014-07-01

    Conclusions: Tiaozhi Tongmai Granules appear to have an anti-atherogenic effect that is most likely mediated by simultaneously upregulating the protein expression of ABCA1 in rabbit atherosclerotic plaque macrophages and in the liver.

  16. Effect of sexual steroids on the calcium content of aortic atherosclerotic plaque of oophorectomized rabbits

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    J.M. Aldrighi

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available We determined the effect of conjugated equine estrogen plus medroxyprogesterone acetate on calcium content of aortic atherosclerotic lesions in oophorectomized adult New Zealand rabbits submitted to a cholesterol rich diet. Five groups of 10 animals each were studied: G1 = control, G2 = cholesterol diet only, G3 = diet plus conjugated equine estrogen (0.625 mg/day; G4 and G5 = diet, conjugated equine estrogen (0.625 mg/day plus medroxyprogesterone acetate (5 and 10 mg/day, respectively. Mean weight varied from 2.7 ± 0.27 to 3.1 ± 0.20 kg (P = 0.38 between groups at the beginning and 3.1 ± 0.27 to 3.5 ± 0.20 kg (P = 0.35 at the end of the experiment. Cholesterol and triglyceride levels were determined at the time of oophorectomy, 21 days after surgery (time 0, and at the end of follow-up of 90 days. The planimetric method was used to measure plaque and caryometric method for histopathologic examination of the aorta. Calcium content was determined by the method of von Kossa. A similar increase in cholesterol occurred in all treated groups without differences between them at the end of the study. Groups G4 and G5 had smaller areas of atherosclerotic lesions (2.33 ± 2.8 and 2.45 ± 2.1 cm², respectively than the groups receiving no progestogens (G2: 5.6 ± 4 and G3: 4.6 ± 2.8 cm²; P = 0.02. The relation between lesion area and total aorta area was smaller in groups treated with combined drugs compared to the groups receiving no progesterone (G4: 14.9 ± 13 and G5: 14.2 ± 13.4 vs G2: 35.8 ± 26 and G3: 25 ± 8 cm², respectively; P = 0.017. Oral conjugated equine estrogen (0.625 mg/day plus medroxyprogesterone acetate (5 or 10 mg/day provoked a greater reduction in atherosclerotic plaque area and calcium content in treated groups, suggesting a dose-dependent effect.

  17. Selective ablation of WHHLMI rabbit atherosclerotic plaque by quantum cascade laser in the 5.7 μm wavelength range for less-invasive laser angioplasty

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    Hashimura, Keisuke; Ishii, Katsunori; Akikusa, Naota; Edamura, Tadataka; Yoshida, Harumasa; Awazu, Kunio

    2013-06-01

    We investigated the potential of a compact and high-power quantum cascade laser (QCL) in the 5.7 μm wavelength range for less-invasive laser angioplasty. Atherosclerotic plaques consist mainly of cholesteryl esters. Radiation at a wavelength of 5.75 μm is strongly absorbed in C=O stretching vibration mode of cholesteryl esters. Our previous study achieved to make cutting differences between a normal artery and an atherosclerotic lesions using nanosecond pulsed laser by difference-frequency generation (DFG laser) at the wavelength of 5.75 μm. For applying this technique to clinical treatment, a compact laser device is required. In this study, QCL irradiation effects to a porcine normal aorta were compared with DFG laser. Subsequently, QCL irradiation effects on an atherosclerotic aorta of myocardial infarction-prone Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbit (WHHLMI rabbit) and a normal rabbit aorta were observed. As a result, the QCL could make cutting differences between the rabbit atherosclerotic and normal aortas. On the other hand, the QCL induced more thermal damage to porcine normal aorta than the DFG laser at the irradiation condition of comparable ablation depths. In conclusion, the possibility of less-invasive and selective treatment of atherosclerotic plaques using the QCL in the 5.7 μm wavelength range was revealed, although improvement of QCL was required to prevent the thermal damage of a normal artery.

  18. SCM-198 attenuates early atherosclerotic lesions in hypercholesterolemic rabbits via modulation of the inflammatory and oxidative stress pathways.

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    Zhang, Yanfei; Guo, Wei; Wen, Yadan; Xiong, Qinghui; Liu, Hongrui; Wu, Jian; Zou, Yunzeng; Zhu, Yizhun

    2012-09-01

    GPx in the aorta. In a rabbit atherosclerotic model, SCM-198 dose-dependently ameliorated the progression of atherosclerotic lesions and vascular dysfunction accompanied by the suppression of inflammatory factors and oxidative stress. These findings suggested that SCM-198 might be a potential agent for the treatment of atherosclerosis. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Identifying Vulnerable Atherosclerotic Plaque in Rabbits Using DMSA-USPIO Enhanced Magnetic Resonance Imaging to Investigate the Effect of Atorvastatin.

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    Chunmei Qi

    Full Text Available Rupture of an atherosclerotic plaque is the primary cause of acute cardiovascular and cerebrovascular syndromes. Early and non-invasive detection of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques (VP would be significant in preventing some aspects of these syndromes. As a new contrast agent, dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA modified ultra-small super paramagnetic iron oxide (USPIO was synthesized and used to identify VP and rupture plaque by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI.Atherosclerosis was induced in male New Zealand White rabbits by feeding a high cholesterol diet (n = 30. Group A with atherosclerosis plaque (n = 10 were controls. VP was established in groups B (n = 10 and C (n = 10 using balloon-induced endothelial injury of the abdominal aorta. Adenovirus-carrying p53 genes were injected into the aortic segments rich in plaques after 8 weeks. Group C was treated with atorvastatin for 8 weeks. Sixteen weeks later, all rabbits underwent pharmacological triggering, and imaging were taken daily for 5 d after DMSA-USPIO infusion. At the first day and before being killed, serum MMP-9, sCD40L, and other lipid indicators were measured.DMSA-USPIO particles accumulated in VP and rupture plaques. Rupture plaques appeared as areas of hyper-intensity on DMSA-USPIO enhanced MRI, especially T2*-weighted sequences, with a signal strength peaking at 96 h. The group given atorvastatin showed few DMSA-USPIO particles and had lower levels of serum indicators. MMP-9 and sCD40L levels in group B were significantly higher than in the other 2 groups (P <0.05.After successfully establishing a VP model in rabbits, DMSA-USPIO was used to enhance MRI for clear identification of plaque inflammation and rupture. Rupture plaques were detectable in this way probably due to an activating inflammatory process. Atorvastatin reduced the inflammatory response and stabilizing VP possibly by decreasing MMP-9 and sCD40L levels.

  20. Experimental Infection of Rabbits with Rabbit and Genotypes 1 and 4 Hepatitis E Viruses

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    Ma, H. X.; Zheng, L.; Liu, Y. B.; Zhao, C. Y.; Harrison, T. J.; Ma, Y. Y.; Sun, S. H.; Zhang, J. G.; Wang, Y. C.

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND: A recent study provided evidence that farmed rabbits in China harbor a novel hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotype. Although the rabbit HEV isolate had 77-79% nucleotide identity to the mammalian HEV genotypes 1 to 4, their genomic organization is very similar. Since rabbits are used widely experimentally, including as models of infection, we investigated whether they constitute an appropriate animal model for human HEV infection. METHODS: Forty-two SPF rabbits were divided randomly in...

  1. Thermal ablation of WHHLMI rabbit atherosclerotic plaque by quantum cascade laser in the 5.7-μm wavelength range

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    Hashimura, Keisuke; Ishii, Katsunori; Akikusa, Naota; Edamura, Tadataka; Yoshida, Harumasa; Awazu, Kunio

    2013-03-01

    We evaluated the utility of a compact and high-power quantum cascade laser (QCL) in the 5.7 μm wavelength range for less-invasive laser angioplasty. Atherosclerotic plaques mainly consist of cholesteryl esters. The wavelength of 5.75 μm is well absorbed in C=O stretching vibration mode of cholesteryl esters. Our previous study achieved to make cutting differences between a normal tunica intima of an artery and an atherosclerotic lesions using a nanosecond pulsed laser by difference-frequency generation (DFG laser) at the wavelength of 5.75 μm. For realizing a clinical application of this technique, a compact laser device is required. In this study, QCL irradiation effects to a porcine normal aorta were compared with DFG laser. In addition QCL irradiation effects to an atherosclerotic aorta of myocardial infarction-prone Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbit (WHHLMI rabbit) and a normal aorta were observed. As a result, the QCL could make cutting difference between the rabbit atherosclerotic aorta and the normal aorta. On the other hand, the QCL induced more thermal damage to porcine normal aorta than the DFG laser at the irradiation condition of comparable ablation depth. In conclusion, the possibility of less-invasive and selective treatment of atherosclerotic plaques using the QCL in the 5.7 μm wavelength range was revealed, although improvement of QCL was required to prevent the thermal damage of a normal artery.

  2. Role of Ox-LDL/LOX-1/NF-κB signaling pathway in regulation of atherosclerotic plaque growth by testosterone in male rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Shijun; Guo, Yuanyuan; Zhu, Ping; Yang, Tingshu

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of our study is to investigate the role of oxidized low density lipoprotein (Ox-LDL)/lectin-like oxidized low-density lipoprotein receptor 1 (LOX-1)/nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) signaling pathway in the regulation of atherosclerotic plaque growth by testosterone in male atherosclerotic rabbits. The male rabbit model was prepared by castration and feeding cholesterol-rich diet. Pathological sections of thoracic aorta were performed hematoxylin-eosin staining to observe aortic morphological changes. Total serum testosterone was measured with chemical luminescent method. Serum Ox-LDL, soluble intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (sICAM-1) and matrix metalloproteinases-2 (MMP2) were assayed using ELISA kit following the manufacturer's instructions. Serum tumor necrosis factor α (TNFα) and interleukin-6 (IL6) were assayed using radioimmunoassay. Expressions of LOX-1 of thoracic aorta were measured by RT-PCR, immunohistochemistry and Western blot methods respectively. There was no significant difference in Ox-LDL level between all groups. The LOX-1 mRNA and protein expression of thoracic aorta were significantly higher in the castrated rabbits as compared with the sham-operated ones, and testosterone replacement could reduce the mRNA and protein expression of LOX-1 of thoracic aorta in the castrated rabbits. PIA reduced artery intima thickness and plaque area in castrated rabbits, which was further enhanced by testosterone replacement. PDTC reduced artery intima thickness and plaque area in castrated rabbits, which couldn't be enhanced by testosterone replacement. Our study demonstrates that testosterone can regulate atherosclerotic plaque progression, affect expression of LOX-1 and NF-κB in thoracic aorta and play a role in atherosclerotic plaque growth via NF-κB rather than Ox-LDL or LOX-1 in male rabbits. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Experimental Infection of Rabbits with Rabbit and Genotypes 1 and 4 Hepatitis E Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongxia; Zheng, Lin; Liu, Yunbo; Zhao, Chenyan; Harrison, Tim J.; Ma, Yuyuan; Sun, Shuhua; Zhang, Jingang; Wang, Youchun

    2010-01-01

    Background A recent study provided evidence that farmed rabbits in China harbor a novel hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotype. Although the rabbit HEV isolate had 77–79% nucleotide identity to the mammalian HEV genotypes 1 to 4, their genomic organization is very similar. Since rabbits are used widely experimentally, including as models of infection, we investigated whether they constitute an appropriate animal model for human HEV infection. Methods Forty-two SPF rabbits were divided randomly into eleven groups and inoculated with six different isolates of rabbit HEV, two different doses of a second-passage rabbit HEV, and with genotype 1 and 4 HEV. Sera and feces were collected weekly after inoculation. HEV antigen, RNA, antibody and alanine aminotransferase in sera and HEV RNA in feces were detected. The liver samples were collected during necropsy subject to histopathological examination. Findings Rabbits inoculated with rabbit HEV became infected with HEV, with viremia, fecal virus shedding and high serum levels of viral antigens, and developed hepatitis, with elevation of the liver enzyme, ALT. The severity of disease corresponded to the infectious dose (genome equivalents), with the most severe hepatic disease caused by strain GDC54-18. However, only two of nine rabbits infected with HEV genotype 4, and none infected with genotype 1, developed hepatitis although six of nine rabbits inoculated with the genotype 1 HEV and in all rabbits inoculated with the genotype 4 HEV seroconverted to be positive for anti-HEV IgG antibody by 14 weeks post-inoculation. Conclusions These data indicate that rabbits are an appropriate model for rabbit HEV infection but are not likely to be useful for the study of human HEV. The rabbit HEV infection of rabbits may provide an appropriate parallel animal model to study HEV pathogenesis. PMID:20161794

  4. Experimental infection of rabbits with rabbit and genotypes 1 and 4 hepatitis E viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Hongxia; Zheng, Lin; Liu, Yunbo; Zhao, Chenyan; Harrison, Tim J; Ma, Yuyuan; Sun, Shuhua; Zhang, Jingang; Wang, Youchun

    2010-02-11

    A recent study provided evidence that farmed rabbits in China harbor a novel hepatitis E virus (HEV) genotype. Although the rabbit HEV isolate had 77-79% nucleotide identity to the mammalian HEV genotypes 1 to 4, their genomic organization is very similar. Since rabbits are used widely experimentally, including as models of infection, we investigated whether they constitute an appropriate animal model for human HEV infection. Forty-two SPF rabbits were divided randomly into eleven groups and inoculated with six different isolates of rabbit HEV, two different doses of a second-passage rabbit HEV, and with genotype 1 and 4 HEV. Sera and feces were collected weekly after inoculation. HEV antigen, RNA, antibody and alanine aminotransferase in sera and HEV RNA in feces were detected. The liver samples were collected during necropsy subject to histopathological examination. Rabbits inoculated with rabbit HEV became infected with HEV, with viremia, fecal virus shedding and high serum levels of viral antigens, and developed hepatitis, with elevation of the liver enzyme, ALT. The severity of disease corresponded to the infectious dose (genome equivalents), with the most severe hepatic disease caused by strain GDC54-18. However, only two of nine rabbits infected with HEV genotype 4, and none infected with genotype 1, developed hepatitis although six of nine rabbits inoculated with the genotype 1 HEV and in all rabbits inoculated with the genotype 4 HEV seroconverted to be positive for anti-HEV IgG antibody by 14 weeks post-inoculation. These data indicate that rabbits are an appropriate model for rabbit HEV infection but are not likely to be useful for the study of human HEV. The rabbit HEV infection of rabbits may provide an appropriate parallel animal model to study HEV pathogenesis.

  5. Experimental infection of rabbits with rabbit and genotypes 1 and 4 hepatitis E viruses.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxia Ma

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: A recent study provided evidence that farmed rabbits in China harbor a novel hepatitis E virus (HEV genotype. Although the rabbit HEV isolate had 77-79% nucleotide identity to the mammalian HEV genotypes 1 to 4, their genomic organization is very similar. Since rabbits are used widely experimentally, including as models of infection, we investigated whether they constitute an appropriate animal model for human HEV infection. METHODS: Forty-two SPF rabbits were divided randomly into eleven groups and inoculated with six different isolates of rabbit HEV, two different doses of a second-passage rabbit HEV, and with genotype 1 and 4 HEV. Sera and feces were collected weekly after inoculation. HEV antigen, RNA, antibody and alanine aminotransferase in sera and HEV RNA in feces were detected. The liver samples were collected during necropsy subject to histopathological examination. FINDINGS: Rabbits inoculated with rabbit HEV became infected with HEV, with viremia, fecal virus shedding and high serum levels of viral antigens, and developed hepatitis, with elevation of the liver enzyme, ALT. The severity of disease corresponded to the infectious dose (genome equivalents, with the most severe hepatic disease caused by strain GDC54-18. However, only two of nine rabbits infected with HEV genotype 4, and none infected with genotype 1, developed hepatitis although six of nine rabbits inoculated with the genotype 1 HEV and in all rabbits inoculated with the genotype 4 HEV seroconverted to be positive for anti-HEV IgG antibody by 14 weeks post-inoculation. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that rabbits are an appropriate model for rabbit HEV infection but are not likely to be useful for the study of human HEV. The rabbit HEV infection of rabbits may provide an appropriate parallel animal model to study HEV pathogenesis.

  6. Overexpression of Cholesteryl Ester Transfer Protein Increases Macrophage-Derived Foam Cell Accumulation in Atherosclerotic Lesions of Transgenic Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shoucui Gao

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available High levels of plasma high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C are inversely associated with the risk of atherosclerosis and other cardiovascular diseases; thus, pharmacological inhibition of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP is considered to be a therapeutic method of raising HDL-C levels. However, many CETP inhibitors have failed to achieve a clinical benefit despite raising HDL-C. In the study, we generated transgenic (Tg rabbits that overexpressed the human CETP gene to examine the influence of CETP on the development of atherosclerosis. Both Tg rabbits and their non-Tg littermates were fed a high cholesterol diet for 16 weeks. Plasma lipids and body weight were measured every 4 weeks. Gross lesion areas of the aortic atherosclerosis along with lesional cellular components were quantitatively analyzed. Overexpression of human CETP did not significantly alter the gross atherosclerotic lesion area, but the number of macrophages in lesions was significantly increased. Overexpression of human CETP did not change the plasma levels of total cholesterol or low-density lipoprotein cholesterol but lowered plasma HDL-C and increased triglycerides. These data revealed that human CETP may play an important role in the development of atherosclerosis mainly by decreasing HDL-C levels and increasing the accumulation of macrophage-derived foam cells.

  7. Effect of Quercus infectoria and Rosa damascena on lipid profile and atherosclerotic plaque formation in rabbit model of hyperlipidemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholamhoseinian, A; Shahouzehi, B; Joukar, S; Iranpoor, M

    2012-01-01

    Hyperlipidemia is the cause of many complications in the human societies. In this study, the effect of methanol extracts of Quercus infectoria (QI) galls and Rosa damascena (RD) Mill flower were studied on lipid profile and atherosclerotic plaques formation in hyperlipidemic rabbits. Thirty-six New Zeland white rabbits randomly divided into 6 groups as control (I), hyperlipidemic (II), hyperlipidemic+QI (III), hyperlipidemic+RD (IV), +Atorvastolin (V) and hyperlipidemic+Orlistat (VI) and were fed with high fat diet (0.5% cholesterol and 16% hydrogenated vegetable oil) for 45 days. At the end of the study period, lipid profile and plaque formation were assessed. Total Cholesterol (TC), Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL) and Triglyceride (TG) levels were significantly increased in hyperlipidemic group compared with control group (p < 0.001). Methanol extract consumption of Quercus infectoria significantly decreased plasma levels of TC, TG and LDL (p < 0.001). It also decreased plaques formation in semi lunar valve and thoracic aorta. Rosa damascena mill flower methanol extract moderately decreased the levels of TC, TG, LDL and plaques formation but it was not significant. HDL levels and weight of animals did not show significant difference among groups. Based on the doses used in this study, our finding indicated that QI but no RD methanol extract has anti atherogenic and hypolipidemic activities.

  8. Aterosclerose experimental em coelhos Experimental atherosclerosis in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleska C. Dornas

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Numerosas pesquisas têm sido realizadas utilizando modelos experimentais para estudar o desenvolvimento da aterosclerose com dieta induzindo hiperlipidemia. Devido ao fato de que coelhos são muito sensíveis a dietas ricas em colesterol e acumulam grandes quantidades no plasma, a utilização destes animais como modelo experimental para avaliar o desenvolvimento de aterosclerose é de grande relevância, trazendo informação sobre fatores que contribuem para progressão e regressão aplicadas a situações humanas. Sendo assim, nessa revisão a função aterogênica do colesterol é mostrada em trabalhos que incluem o coelho como modelo experimental, uma vez que este animal tornou-se o mais popular modelo experimental de aterosclerose.Many researches have been conducted in experimental models in order to study the development of atherosclerosis from hyperlipidemia-inducing diets. Since rabbits are very sensitive to cholesterol-rich diets and accumulate large amounts of cholesterol in their plasma, their use as experimental models to evaluate the development of atherosclerosis is highly relevant and brings information on factors that contribute to the progression and regression of this condition that can be applied to humans. As such, this review includes studies on the atherogenic function of cholesterol based on rabbits as the experimental model, since they have become the most largely used experimental model of atherosclerosis.

  9. The Arginine/ADMA Ratio Is Related to the Prevention of Atherosclerotic Plaques in Hypercholesterolemic Rabbits When Giving a Combined Therapy with Atorvastatine and Arginine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saskia J. H. Brinkmann

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Supplementation with arginine in combination with atorvastatin is more efficient in reducing the size of an atherosclerotic plaque than treatment with a statin or arginine alone in homozygous Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL rabbits. We evaluated the mechanism behind this feature by exploring the role of the arginine/asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA ratio, which is the substrate and inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase (NOS and thereby nitric oxide (NO, respectively. Methods: Rabbits were fed either an arginine diet (group A, n = 9, standard rabbit chow plus atorvastatin (group S, n = 8, standard rabbit chow plus an arginine diet with atorvastatin (group SA, n = 8 or standard rabbit chow (group C, n = 9 as control. Blood was sampled and the aorta was harvested for topographic and histological analysis. Plasma levels of arginine, ADMA, cholesterol and nitric oxide were determined and the arginine/ADMA ratio was calculated. Results: The decrease in ADMA levels over time was significantly correlated to fewer aortic lesions in the distal aorta and total aorta. The arginine/ADMA ratio was correlated to cholesterol levels and decrease in cholesterol levels over time in the SA group. A lower arginine/ADMA ratio was significantly correlated to lower NO levels in the S and C group. Discussion: A balance between arginine and ADMA is an important indicator in the prevention of the development of atherosclerotic plaques.

  10. Contribution of the WHHL rabbit, an animal model of familial hypercholesterolemia, to elucidation of the anti-atherosclerotic effects of statins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiomi, Masashi; Koike, Tomonari; Ito, Takashi

    2013-11-01

    This year marks the 40th year since the discovery of a mutant rabbit showing spontaneous hyperlipidemia, which is the proband of the Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbit strain, an animal model of familial hypercholesterolemia, and the first statin, a general term for inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl CoA reductase, a rate limiting enzyme in cholesterol biosynthesis. Nowadays, statins are the primary drug of choice for treating cardiovascular disease. Although several reviews have described clinical trials and in vitro studies of statins, the anti-atherosclerotic effects of statins on animal models have not been comprehensively reviewed. This review summarized the contribution of WHHL rabbits to elucidating the anti-atherosclerotic effects of statins in vivo. Studies using WHHL rabbits verified that statins suppress plaque destabilization by reducing unstable components (foam cells derived from macrophages, foam cell debris, and extracellular lipid accumulation), preventing smooth muscle cell reductions, and increasing the collagen content of plaques. In addition, the expression of matrix metalloproteinases and tissue factor are decreased in intimal macrophages by statin treatment. Lipid-lowering effects of statins alter plaque biology by reducing the proliferation and activation of macrophages, a prominent source of the molecules responsible for plaque instability and thrombogenicity. Although statins remain the standard treatment for cardiovascular disease, new therapeutics are eagerly awaited. WHHL rabbits will continue to contribute to the development of therapeutics. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Experimental Infections Of Domestic Rabbits ( Oryctolagus cuniculus ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Nigerian Journal of Animal Production ... Comparative study of single infections of domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) with Nigerian isolates of Trypanosoma brucei (Gboko strain), and Trypanosoma congolense (Binchi ... Eighteen rabbits of 10-14 weeks old weighing between 600-1200 grams were used for the study.

  12. Experimental toxoplasmosis in pregnant rabbits/ Toxoplasmose experimental em coelhas gestantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvimar José da Costa

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available The clinical, hematological, obstetrical, immunological and pathological aspects of the experimental toxoplasmosis were investigated in pregnant rabbits orally inoculated with Toxoplasma gondii oocysts. Pregnant rabbits showed to be highly sensible to the toxoplasmic infection. Abortion and death occurred in 100% of the inoculated rabbits. Fever peak was observed between 4o and 9o day pos-infection. Blood parameter showed alterations. Because the hyperacute character presented by the toxoplasmic infection, the humoral immune response was weak. The microscopic and macroscopic exams demonstrated, mainly, alterations in liver, kidney and lungs. These results suggested that pregnant rabbits, orally infected with oocysts of T. gondii are extremely susceptible to this parasite, showing severe alterations in several organs, as well as premature abortion and death.Neste ensaio foram comparados aspectos clínicos, obstétricos, imunológicos e patológicos entre coelhas gestantes inoculadas com oocistos de Toxoplasma gondii e coelhas gestantes não inoculadas. Os resultados obtidos demonstram ser a coelha gestante altamente sensível à infecção toxoplásmica. Aborto e óbito foram observados em 100% das coelhas infectadas, antes do término da gestação. Os aumentos máximos de temperatura corporal foram observados entre o quarto e o nono dia pós-inoculação (DPI. Alterações hematológicas também foram observadas. Devido ao caráter hiperagudo decorrente da infecção toxoplásmica, detectou-se resposta imune humoral nas coelhas infectadas somente no 7o DPI. Os exames anátomo-histopatológicos demonstraram, principalmente, alterações hepáticas, renais e pulmonares. Com base nos dados obtidos no estudo, comprovou-se que coelhas gestantes são extremamente sensíveis a oocistos de T. gondii, apresentando severas alterações em diversos órgãos, assim como aborto e óbito prematuro.

  13. Neurogenic cardiomyopathy in rabbits with experimentally induced rabies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kesdangsakonwut, S; Sunden, Y; Yamada, K; Nishizono, A; Sawa, H; Umemura, T

    2015-05-01

    Cardiomyopathies have been rarely described in rabbits. Here we report myocardial necrosis of the ventricular wall in rabbits with experimentally induced rabies. Myocardial lesions were found only in rabbits with brain lesions, and the severity of the cardiac lesions was proportional to that of the brain lesions. Neither the frequency nor the cumulative dose of anesthesia was related to the incidence or the severity of the myocardial lesions. The myocardial lesions were characterized by degeneration and/or necrosis of myocardial cells and were accompanied by contraction band necrosis, interstitial fibrosis, and infiltration of inflammatory cells. The brain lesions due to rabies virus infection were most prominent in the cerebral cortex, thalamus, hypothalamus, brainstem, and medulla. Rabies virus antigen was not found in the hearts of any rabbits. Based on these findings, the myocardial lesions were classified as neurogenic cardiomyopathy. © The Author(s) 2014.

  14. Reported analgesic administration to rabbits undergoing experimental surgical procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leach Matthew C

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background It has become widely accepted that whenever animals are used in scientific procedures, the 3Rs principle of replacement, reduction and refinement described by William Russell and Rex Burch should be adhered to. Animals should be replaced with non-sentient alternatives if possible, the number of animals used should be reduced and experimental procedures should be refined to minimise pain, suffering and distress. Administration of analgesic agents to animals undergoing surgical procedures is a refinement used to alleviate pain. In this study, a structured literature review was carried out to examine current trends in analgesic administration to rabbits undergoing experimental surgical procedures. Results 128 papers from 51 peer-reviewed journals were selected for inclusion in this review. Reporting administration of systemic analgesia to rabbits in peer-reviewed scientific papers increased significantly from 16% to 50% between 1995-1997 and 2005-2007 (P P Conclusions Although this review provides evidence that systemic analgesic administration to rabbits undergoing surgical procedures is increasing, rabbits do not always receive analgesia when they undergo experimental surgery. Other practices in rabbit perioperative care that could be improved, highlighted by this survey include: 1 changing the timing of analgesic administration by giving systemic analgesics pre- or perioperatively rather than only postoperatively, 2 using multimodal analgesia when pain is likely to be moderate to severe and 3 increasing the use of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and use of other techniques such as epidural analgesia particularly for orthopaedic procedures.

  15. Hypolipidemic effect of arborium plus in experimentally induced hypercholestermic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murty, Devarakonda; Rajesh, Enjamoori; Raghava, Doonaboina; Raghavan, Tangaraj Vijaya; Surulivel, Mukanthan Karupiah Munirajan

    2010-06-01

    Hypercholesteremia is one of the risk factors for coronary artery disease. The present study highlights the efficacy of the ayurvedic herbal formulation Arborium Plus [Hyppophae ramnoides L. fruit juice (S) and Rhododendron arboreum Sm. Linn flower juice (R) in a 1:4 ratio] on triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), low-density lipoprotein (LDL), atherogenic index (AI), high-density lipoprotein (HDL), and high-sensitivity c-reactive protein (hs CRP) in experimentally induced hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Four groups of rabbits were subjected to different treatments for 8 weeks: control group, CHOL group (1% w/w cholesterol for 8 weeks), S+R group (1% w/w cholesterol and Arborium Plus for 8 weeks), and A group (1% w/w cholesterol and atorvastatin for 8 weeks). The results showed significant increases in TG, TC, LDL, AI, and hs CRP in hypercholesterolemic rabbits which was significantly reduced in Arborium Plus-treated hypercholesterolemic rabbits. The data demonstrated that the Arborium Plus formulation was associated with hypolipidemic effects in experimentally induced hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

  16. Clinical course of psoroptosis in rabbits under their experimental infestation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yevgeniia Shyder

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Hereby we provide the results of observation of clinical pathology of psoroptosis in rabbits and morphological changes in blood under experimental infesting. Directly proportional dependence of clinic from the intensity of infestation was established. In both groups we could observe erythropenia, decrease of hemoglobin, monocytosis, increase of the stab neutrophils

  17. Haematological profile in salt loaded experimental rabbits treated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Haematological profile in salt loaded experimental rabbits treated with ethanol extract of Acalypha wilkesiana leaves. ... The PDF file you selected should load here if your Web browser has a PDF reader plug-in installed (for example, a recent version of Adobe Acrobat Reader). If you would like more information about how ...

  18. Experimental model of cutaneous radiation injury in rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meirelles, Rafael Panisi de Campos [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPM/UNIFESP), SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina; Hochman, Bernardo [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPM/UNIFESP), SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Medicina. Dept. de Cirurgia; Helene Junior, Americo; Fraga, Murillo Francisco Pires [Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas da Santa Casa de Sao Paulo (FCMSCSP), SP (Brazil). Dept. de Cirurgia. Divisao de Cirurgia Plastica; Lellis, Rute [Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas da Santa Casa de Sao Paulo (FCMSCSP), SP (Brazil). Divisao de Patologia; Ferreira, Lydia Masako, E-mail: rpcmeirelles@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: lydia.dcir@epm.br [Universidade Federal de Sao Paulo (EPM/UNIFESP), SP (Brazil). Escola Paulista de Mediciana. Divisao de Cirugia Plastica

    2013-07-01

    Purpose: to describe an experimental model of cutaneous radiation injury in rabbits. Methods: on this study eight six-month-old New Zealand male rabbits, with an average weight of 2.5kg were used. They were distributed in four groups (n=2 per group). The control group did not receive radiotherapy and the others received one radiotherapy session of 2000, 3000 and 4500 cGy, respectively. Photographic analysis and histopathological evaluation of the irradiated areas were carried out. Results: after 30 days, the animals from the control group had all their hair grown. In spite of that, the animals from group 2000 cGy had a 60-day alopecia and from group 3000 cGy, a 90-day alopecia. After the 30th day, the 3000cGy group demonstrated 90-day cutaneous radiation injuries, graded 3 and 4. One of the animals from group 4500 cGy died on the 7th day with visceral necrosis. The other from the same group had total skin necrosis. A progressive reduction of glands and blood vessels count and an increase on collagen deposition was observed. Conclusion: The proposed experimental model is reproducible. This study suggests that the dosage 4500cGy is excessive and the 3000 cGy is the most effective for this experimental model of cutaneous radiation injury in rabbits. (author)

  19. In vivo distribution of single chain variable fragment (scFv) against atherothrombotic oxidized LDL/β2-glycoprotein I complexes into atherosclerotic plaques of WHHL rabbits: Implication for clinical PET imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sasaki, Takanori; Kobayashi, Kazuko; Kita, Shoichi; Kojima, Kazuo; Hirano, Hiroyuki; Shen, Lianhua; Takenaka, Fumiaki; Kumon, Hiromi; Matsuura, Eiji

    2017-02-01

    Oxidized LDL (oxLDL) can exist as a complex with β2-glycoprotein I (β2GPI) in plasma/serum of patients with non-autoimmune atherosclerotic disease or antiphospholipid syndrome (APS). Nonetheless, direct in vivo evidence supporting the pathophysiological involvement of oxLDL/β2GPI complexes and specific autoantibody against the complexes in developing atherothrombosis has yet been established. In the present study, we demonstrated in vivo distribution of single chain variable fragment of IgG anti-oxLDL/β2GPI complexes (3H3-scFv) in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbits by PET/CT imaging. An antibody-based PET probe, 64Cu-3H3-scFv, was established, and WHHL rabbits were applied for a non-autoimmune atherosclerotic model to demonstrate in vivo distribution of the probe. 3H3-scFv has exhibits specificity towards β2GPI complexed with oxLDL but neither a free form of β2GPI nor oxLDL alone. Post-intravenous administration of 64Cu-3H3-scFv into WHHL rabbits has demonstrated a non-invasive approach for in vivo visualization of atherosclerotic lesion. The imaging probe achieved ideal blood clearance and distribution for optimal imaging capacity in 24h, significantly shorter than that of an intact IgG-based imaging probe. 64Cu-3H3-scFv targeted on atherosclerotic plaques in aortas of WHHL rabbits where extensive accumulation of lipid deposits was observed by lipid staining and autoradiography. The accumulation of 64Cu-3H3-scFv in aortic segments of WHHL rabbits was 2.8-folds higher than that of controls (p=0.0045). The present in vivo evidence supports the pathophysiological involvement of oxLDL/β2GPI complexes in atherosclerotic complications of WHHL rabbits. 64Cu-3H3-scFv represents a novel PET imaging probe for non-invasive pathophysiological assessment of oxLDL/β2GPI complexes accumulated in atherosclerotic plaques. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Adverse fetal outcomes in pregnant rabbits experimentally infected with rabbit hepatitis E virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahn, Hee-Seop; Han, Sang-Hoon; Kim, Yong-Hyun; Park, Byung-Joo; Kim, Dong-Hwi; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Song, Chang-Seon; Lee, Sang-Won; Choi, Changsun; Myoung, Jinjong; Choi, In-Soo

    2017-12-01

    Hepatitis E virus (HEV) causes severe hepatitis in pregnant women, with associated poor fetal outcomes. To study HEV viral pathogenesis, pregnant rabbits were infected with low- and high-dose rabbit HEV at 2 weeks gestation. HEV was identified in the serum, feces, and liver tissue of infected rabbits, and dose-dependent fetal mortality rates ranging from 67% to 80% were observed. The aspartate transaminase (AST)/alanine transaminase ratio was significantly higher (P rabbits than low-dose infected and negative control rabbits 14 days post infection (dpi). Tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) was significantly higher in low-dose (P rabbits (P rabbits produced significantly more interferon-γ (IFN-γ; P rabbits at 7 and 14 dpi. High levels of AST, TNF-α, and IFN-γ may substantially influence adverse fetal outcomes in pregnant rabbits infected with high-dose HEV. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Experimental bacterial meningitis in rabbit; evaluation with CT and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seo, Jeong Jin; Kang, Heoung Keun; Chu, Sung Nam; Kim, Yun Hyeon; Jeong, Yong Yeon; Chung, Hyon De [Chonnam Univ. Medical School, Kwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the usefulness of computed tomography(CT) and magnetic resonance imaging(MRI) in experimental bacterial meningitis. CT and MR images of experimental bacterial meningitis were obtained after inoculation of 1ml suspension of 10-6/ml Staphylococcus aureus directly into the supratentorial arachnoid space of 18 New Zealand white rabbits. Each animal was studied with both pre-enhanced and post-enhanced CT and MRI at 12, 24, 48 hours and 1 week. Cerebrospinal fluid of all of 18 rabbits were sampled and cultured for bacterial growth. All of 18 rabbits had the clinical symptoms such as neck stiffness and anorexia within 24 hours after the inoculation. Cerebrospinal fluid cultures were positive for Staphylococcus aureus growth. Gd-enhanced MRI exhibited diffuse enhancement along the thickened supratentorial meninges earlier than CT. In Gd-enhanced MRI, the mean contrast enhancement along the thickened supratentorial meninges earlier than CT. In Gd-enhanced MRI, the mean contrast enhancement ratio(CER) at supratentorial meninges increased to 1.93 at 12 hours and 2.99 at 24 hours from 1.06 at 0 hour. Histologic evaluation demonstrated inflammatory cell infiltration into the meninges. MRI also identified the complications of meningitis such as ependymitis and hydrocephalus more effectively than CT. These results indicated that Fd-enhanced MRI detectred earlier the abnormal findingfs of bacterial meningitis and evaluated more effectively the complications of meningitis compared with CT. MRI was more useful than CT in evaluation of the bacterial meningitis.

  2. Cysteinyl leukotriene signaling aggravates myocardial hypoxia in experimental atherosclerotic heart disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nobili, Elena; Salvado, M Dolores; Folkersen, Lasse Westergaard

    2012-01-01

    Cysteinyl-leukotrienes (cys-LT) are powerful spasmogenic and immune modulating lipid mediators involved in inflammatory diseases, in particular asthma. Here, we investigated whether cys-LT signaling, in the context of atherosclerotic heart disease, compromises the myocardial microcirculation and ...

  3. Haematological profile in salt loaded experimental rabbits treated ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study evaluates the haematological profile of salt loaded rabbits treated with Acalypha wilkesiana ethanolic leaf extract. Twenty-four rabbits were randomized into four groups (A - D) of six animals each. Group A-C were fed salt-loaded diet for 35 days, subsequently group B were treated with extract for 7 days. Group C ...

  4. An experimental model of urethral stricture in rabbits using holmium laser under urethroscopic direct visualization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Wei-Feng; Li, Cui-Ling; Zhang, Hui-Ping; Li, Ting-Ting; Zeng, Xiao-Yong

    2014-01-01

    To establish an experimental rabbit model of urethral stricture using holmium laser under direct urethroscopic visualization. Sixteen adult male New Zealand rabbits were divided into equally-sized control and experimental groups. All rabbits underwent retrograde urethrography and transurethral endoscopy with a 7.5 F urethroscope after intramuscular anesthetic injection. We used a holmium:YAG laser to injure the distal urethra in all rabbits in the experimental group under direct visualization. Thirty days after surgery, all animals were evaluated with retrograde urethrography and urethroscopy. The flow rate of the isolated urethras was measured to evaluate urethral stricture formation. One rabbit in the experimental group (12.5%) died of infection 4 days after surgery. Thirty days after surgery, retrograde urethrography and urethroscopy revealed strictures in all seven surviving rabbits (87.5%) in the experimental group. The mean flow rate of the isolated urethras was significantly lower in the experimental group than in the control group. A rabbit model of urethral stricture can be successfully established using holmium laser under direct urethroscopic visualization, providing an ideal object for research concerning the pathogenesis and molecular biology of urethral strictures. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Use of rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis) latex biomembrane in diaphragmatic injuries in rabbits - an experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Friolani, Milena [UNESP; Daleck, Carlos R. [UNESP; Repetti, Cláudia S. F.; Alessi, Antonio C. [UNESP

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the surgical use of the natural latex biomembrane in diaphragmatic injuries produced experimentally in rabbits. Fifteen healthy adult male and female New Zealand rabbits were employed. The rabbits were assigned to the experimental groups I, II, III, IV and V and analyzed on the 15th, 30th, 45th, 60th and 90th days post surgery, respectively. The surgical procedure consisted in the access to the diaphragm at the eighth right intercostal space, removal of a...

  6. Effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Hypericum perforatum on selected traditional and novel biochemical factors of cardiovascular diseases and atherosclerotic lesions in hypercholesterolemic rabbits: A comparison between the extract and lovastatin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Asgary

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Context: Evidence suggests that diets with high contents of cholesterol will increase serum lipoproteins and apolipoproteins, thereby increase risk of atherosclerosis. According to literature, some plants show hypolipidemic, hypocholestrolemic, and antiatherosclerotic activities. Aims: In this study, antiatherosclerotic effect of Hypericum perforatum hydroalcoholic extract on hypercholesterolemic rabbits was compared with that of lovastatin. Materials and Methods: Twenty five mature male New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into five groups of five and were fed for 60 days as follows: Standard diet (GroupI, standard diet and hydroalcoholic extract of Hypericum perforatum (150 mg/kg daily(GroupII, standard diet, hydroalcoholic extract of Hypericum perforatum (150 mg/ kg daily and cholesterol (1% of food content (Group III, standard diet and cholesterol (1% of food content(GroupIV, and finally standard diet, lovastatin (10 mg/kg, and cholesterol (1% of foodcontent (GroupV. Results: Hypericum perforatum extract significantly decreased the levels of apolipoprotein B(apoB, apolipoprotein B/apolipoprotein A (apoB/apoA, triglyceride, cholesterol, low density lipoprotein cholesterol, oxidized LDL, malondialdehyde, and C-reactive protein (CRP as well as atherosclerosis index, and increased high density lipoprotein and apoA in rabbits of Group III compared to the rabbits of Group IV. The effect of Hypericum perforatum extract in decreasing the level of some biochemical factors like apoB, apoB/apoA, and CRP was meaningfully more than that of lovastatin. Histopathological findings confirmed that hydroalcoholic extract of Hypericum perforatum restricted the atherosclerotic lesions. Conclusions: This study indicates that hydroalcoholic extract of Hypericum perforatum possesses hypolipidemic and anti-atherosclerotic effects and could be beneficial in the management of hyperlipidemia and atherosclerosis.

  7. Bone changes caused by experimental Solanum malacoxylon poisoning in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Ignacio Aguirre

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to describe the bone changes observed after a daily oral administration of the calcinogenic plant Solanum malacoxylon (syn. S. glaucophyllum (Sm during 9 days. The Sm-poisoned rabbits had an increase of bone resorption in the endosteal surface of the cortical zone and also in the surface covered by osteoblasts of the primary and secondary spongiosa of the trabecular bone compartment. Moreover, the epiphyseal growth plates in long bones appeared narrower than in the control rabbits, with reduction of the proliferative and hyperthrophic chondrocyte zones. The electron microscopic study revealed a significant decrease of proteoglycans in the hyperthrophic chondrocyte zone evidenced by a significant reduction of rutenium red positive granules in the poisoned rabbit. Altogether, these data suggest that cell differentiation may play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of Sm-induced bone lesions.

  8. Biochemical blood parameters in semi-adult rabbits experimentally ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Biochemical parameters in blood specimens obtained from semi-adult rabbits of both sexes fed crude oil contaminated diets were examined. The diets had crude oil inclusions of 0, 0.05, 0.10, 0.15 and 0.20%. Blood samples were obtained from the marginal ear vein of representatives in each treatment group and assayed ...

  9. Eimeria stiedai: Metabolism of lipids, proteins and glucose in experimentally infected rabbits, Oryctolagus cuniculus

    OpenAIRE

    Freitas, Fagner L. C.; Yamamoto, Beatriz L.; Freitas, Wagner L. C; Almeida, Katyane S; Machado, Rosangela Z. [UNESP; Machado, Célio R. [UNESP

    2010-01-01

    Rabbits were experimentally infected with sporulated Eimeria stiedai oocysts. A total of 50 white adult rabbits, New Zealand race, were distributed into two groups: Group A was infected with 1x10 4 sporulated Eimeria stiedai oocysts, while group B was inoculated with distilled water as a control. The animals generally displayed increased levels of total protein, globulin, total cholesterol, LDL-c and triacylglycerols; however, total levels of liver lipids and HDL-c decreased, and plasma gluco...

  10. Activity of diclazuril against coccidiosis in growing rabbits: experimental and field experiences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Monita Vereecken

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The efficacy of diclazuril in growing rabbits was investigated under experimental and field conditions. In a first experimental trial, the susceptibility of recent isolated French Eimeria field strains to in-feed use of diclazuril, salinomycin and robenidine was studied in fattening rabbits. Rabbits were challenged at the age of 31 d with a mixed inoculum of Eimeria magna, E. media and E. perforans. Production data and oocyst excretion were compared with an infected-untreated control group and an uninfected-untreated control group. Infection resulted in significantly lower production data and higher oocyst excretion in the infected-untreated control group. Salinomycin and diclazuril treated rabbits were able to control the infection, demonstrated also by comparable weight gain and final weight to those of the uninfected-untreated control rabbits and significantly higher than those of the infected-untreated control rabbits. Based on the production data and oocyst excretion, robenidine was not able to control the infection adequately. Economic performance (weight gain, feed intake, feed conversion and oocyst excretion were significantly worse than in the uninfected-untreated controls. In a second trial, a 1 yr longitudinal study was carried out in Italy to evaluate the excretion of coccidia in growing rabbits from 8 meat farms applying a 2-phase anticoccidial programme (diclazuril and robenidine. Parasitological parameters (oocyst counts and species identification were measured monthly. Seven of the 11 known coccidial rabbit species were identified. Variable levels of oocysts per gram were detected in the farms, but on all farms lower oocyst per gram and a reduced number of Eimeria spp. in rabbit faeces were recorded in the 8-mo treatment period with diclazuril.

  11. Cysteinyl leukotriene signaling aggravates myocardial hypoxia in experimental atherosclerotic heart disease.

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    Elena Nobili

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cysteinyl-leukotrienes (cys-LT are powerful spasmogenic and immune modulating lipid mediators involved in inflammatory diseases, in particular asthma. Here, we investigated whether cys-LT signaling, in the context of atherosclerotic heart disease, compromises the myocardial microcirculation and its response to hypoxic stress. To this end, we examined Apoe(-/- mice fed a hypercholesterolemic diet and analysed the expression of key enzymes of the cys-LT pathway and their receptors (CysLT1/CysLT2 in normal and hypoxic myocardium as well as the potential contribution of cys-LT signaling to the acute myocardial response to hypoxia. METHODS AND PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Myocardial biopsies from Apoe(-/- mice demonstrated signs of chronic inflammation with fibrosis, increased apoptosis and expression of IL-6, as compared to biopsies from C57BL/6J control mice. In addition, we found increased leukotriene C(4 synthase (LTC(4S and CysLT1 expression in the myocardium of Apoe(-/- mice. Acute bouts of hypoxia further induced LTC(4S expression, increased LTC(4S enzyme activity and CysLT1 expression, and were associated with increased extension of hypoxic areas within the myocardium. Inhibition of cys-LT signaling by treatment with montelukast, a selective CysLT1 receptor antagonist, during acute bouts of hypoxic stress reduced myocardial hypoxic areas in Apoe(-/- mice to levels equal to those observed under normoxic conditions. In human heart biopsies from 14 patients with chronic coronary artery disease mRNA expression levels of LTC(4S and CysLT1 were increased in chronic ischemic compared to non-ischemic myocardium, constituting a molecular basis for increased cys-LT signaling. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that CysLT1 antagonists may have protective effects on the hypoxic heart, and improve the oxygen supply to areas of myocardial ischemia, for instance during episodes of sleep apnea.

  12. Use of Spongostan™ for Prevention of Cranial Subdural Adhesions Following Craniotomy in an Experimental Rabbit Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozdol, Cagatay; Alagoz, Fatih; Yildirim, Ali Erdem; Korkmaz, Murat; Daglioglu, Ergun; Atilla, Pergin; Muftuoglu, Sevda; Belen, Ahmet Deniz

    2015-01-01

    Spongostan™ is a sterile, water-insoluble, porcine gelatin absorbable sponge, which is widely used as a hemostatic material. The aim of this study is to test the anti-fibrotic capacity of Spongostan™, using a craniotomy model in an experimental rabbit model. Eighteen rabbits were divided into two groups: Each group consisted of 9 rabbits, duratomy plus Spongostan™ (group 1), and duratomy without Spongostan™ (group 2). Right parietal bone was removed via trephine and low speed drill and dura was opened. On the group 1 rabbits, an appropriate piece of Spongostan™ was meticulously placed under dural layer. On group 2 rabbits, same procedures were repeated without Spongostan™. Histological sections were taken from each group and evaluated for degree of fibrosis and collagen fibers. There was marked increase in number of fibroblasts and collagen fibers in group 2 rabbits, however most of the rabbits in Spongostan™ group demonstrate scarce histopathological findings for fibrosis. We conclude that an appropriately placed subdural Spongostan™ over cerebral tissue may prevent postoperative surgical adhesions after neurosurgical operations.

  13. [Enteral resection in the nursing rabbit (an experimental study)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Villegas Alvarez, F; Cárdenas Orihuela, A; Vigueras Villaseñor, R M

    1994-01-01

    The response to enteral resection in human newborns and nursing babies depends on the site and magnitude of the resection: usually these patients have a satisfactory recovery although long term supportive measures are required in order to prevent nutritional and digestive complications. This study assessed the post-surgical response of six groups of nursing rabbits with 0, 40, 50, 60, 75 and 90% selective resection of the small intestine. A greater number of surgical complications was observed in those cases with more manipulation and greater resection. Villi hypertrophic was found at the distal extremes of the enteral remnants only with 40% jejunal resection and 75 and 90% jejunum-ileum resections. None of the groups showed growth interruption. Only in rabbits with resections greater than 60% a significant decrease in weight was found. Forty and sixty percent enteral resections, mainly proximal and distal respectively, did not yield weight or length deficits as compared with the control group.

  14. Blastema Tissue Formed at Experimentally-Created Rabbit Ear Hole

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    Mohamadreza Baghaban Eslaminejad

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available   Objective(s: Throughout evolution, mammalians have increasingly lost their ability to regenerate structures however rabbits are exceptional since they develop a blastema in their ear wound for regeneration purposes. Blastema consists of a group of undifferentiated cells capable of dividing and differentiating into the ear tissue. The objective of the present study is to isolate, culture expand, and characterize blastema progenitor cells in terms of their in vitro differentiation capacity.   Materials and Methods: Five New Zealand white male rabbits were used in the present study. Using a punching apparatus, a 4-mm hole was created in the animal ears. Following 4 days, the blastema ring which was created in the periphery of primary hole in the ears was removed and cultivated. The cells migrated from the blastema were expanded through 3 successive subcultures and characterized in terms of their potential differentiation, growth characteristics, and culture requirements. Results: The primary cultures tended to be morphologically heterogeneous having spindly-shaped fibroblast-like cells as well as flattened cells. Fibroblast-like cells survived and dominated the cultures. These cells tended to have the osteogenic, chondrogenic, and adipogenic differentiation potentials. They were highly colonogenic and maximum proliferation was achieved when the cells were plated at density of 100 cells/cm2 in a medium which contained 10% fetal bovine serum (FBS. Conclusion: Taken together, blastema tissue-derived stem cells from rabbit ear are of mesenchymal stem cell-like population. Studies similar to this will assist scientist better understanding the nature of blastema tissue formed at rabbit ear to regenerate the wound.

  15. Experimental infections of rabbits with proliferative and latent stages of Besnoitia besnoiti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liénard, Emmanuel; Pop, Loredana; Prevot, Françoise; Grisez, Christelle; Mallet, Virginie; Raymond-Letron, Isabelle; Bouhsira, Émilie; Franc, Michel; Jacquiet, Philippe

    2015-10-01

    Cattle besnoitiosis due to Besnoitia besnoiti is spreading across Europe and is responsible for severe economic losses in newly infected herds. Experimentally speaking, rabbits have been found to be susceptible to this parasite. The adaptation of B. besnoiti to rabbits may offer a new, easier and cheaper model of investigation for this disease. This study compared the virulence between tachyzoites and bradyzoites of B. besnoiti in rabbits. Eighteen New Zealand rabbits were allocated into three groups of six animals each. The rabbits from the control (group C), "tachyzoite" (group T) and "bradyzoite" (group B) groups were subcutaneously injected in the right flank with 66 μg of ovalbumin, 6.10(6) tachyzoites (125th passage on Vero cells) and 6.10(6) bradyzoites (collected from a natural infected cow) of B. besnoiti, respectively. Clinical follow-up and blood sampling for serological survey and qPCR were performed during 10 weeks until euthanasia. Molecular and immunohistochemistry examination was achieved on 25 samples of tissue per rabbit. Seroconversion occurred in group T without any clinical signs. Rabbits of group B exhibited a febrile condition (temperature above 40 °C from day 8 to day 11 following injection) with positive qPCR in blood. Cysts of B. besnoiti were found on skin samples and organs of rabbits from group B in tissue explored with threshold cycle (Ct) values below 30. These results suggest a higher virulence of bradyzoites in rabbits than Vero cell-cultivated tachyzoites. The proposed model could be used to assess the in vivo effectiveness of vaccine or drugs against cattle besnoitiosis.

  16. Femtosecond laser lenticule transplantation in rabbit cornea: experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Huiying; Zhu, Wenqing; Jiang, Alice C; Sprecher, Alicia J; Zhou, Xingtao

    2012-12-01

    To evaluate the feasibility of femtosecond laser-induced lenticule transplantation in the rabbit cornea and to observe the relative histologic characteristics of corneal tissue and nerve repair after transplantation. Eight healthy, purebred, New Zealand white rabbits underwent femtosecond laser small-incision lenticule extraction (SMILE) surgery in the right eye. Lenticules were inserted into a femtosecond laser-created corneal stromal pocket in the left eye, which was defined as femtosecond laser corneal lenticule transplantation. Postoperative observation and examination were completed to evaluate the surgery. In the early postoperative period, inflammation of the cornea was noted, tissue around the lenticule was edematous, and cells were activated. Tissue edema remained at postoperative day 10. By 1 month, edema had resolved, activated cells gradually became quiescent, and nerve fiber regeneration was observed. By 3 months, the lenticule integrated into the recipient cornea, extracellular matrix gradually cleared, and thicker nerve fibers were noted. By 6 months postoperative, morphology and distribution of the corneal stromal fibers were close to normal, and the number of nerve fibers was reduced. Femtosecond laser corneal lenticule transplantation in rabbits is feasible, as the lenticule was shown to thrive and integrate with the recipient stroma. Nerve regeneration begins after 1 month. Copyright 2012, SLACK Incorporated.

  17. Antistressor activity of Ocimum sanctum (Tulsi) against experimentally induced oxidative stress in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jyoti, S; Satendra, S; Sushma, S; Anjana, T; Shashi, S

    2007-01-01

    Fresh leaves of Ocimum sanctum (O. sanctum) were evaluated for antistress activity against experimentally induced oxidative stress in albino rabbits. Animals of the test group received supplementation of 2 g fresh leaves of O. sanctum per rabbit for 30 days. Anemic hypoxia was induced chemically by injecting the rabbits with 15 mg sodium nitrite per 100 g body weight intraperitoneally. Results indicated that O. sanctum administration blunted the changes in cardiorespiratory (BP, HR, RR) parameters in response to stress. A significant (p sanctum leaves. Significant increase (p sanctum. Oxidative stress led to a lesser depletion of reduced glutathione (28.80%) and plasma superoxide dismutase (23.04%) in O. sanctum-treated rabbits. The results of this study suggest that the potential antistressor activity of O. sanctum is partly attributable to its antioxidant properties.

  18. Experimental model of severe acute pancreatitis in rabbits Modelo experimental de pancreatite aguda grave em coelhos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Goldenberg

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To develop an experimental model of severe acute pancreatitis in rabbits through a pancreatic ductal injection of sodium taurocholate. METHODS: Twenty-four albino rabbits of the New Zealand lineage were distributed into four groups of six animals (A, B, C and S. The rabbits of three experimental groups (A, B and C were submitted to a laparatomy and received a pancreatic ductal injection of 1ml/kg sodium taurocholate 5%. Also, they were submitted to further laparatomies after 4h, 8h and 12h, respectively. The control group (S was subdivided into two groups of three animals: in subgroup S1 only the pancreatic duct catheterization was performed whereas in subgroup S2 the pancreatic duct catheterization as well as an injection of 1ml/kg physiologic solution 0.9% were carried out. After 12 hours, the rabbits were evaluated. In the re-intervention, blood was collected to determine the amylasemia and a pancreatectomy was carried out to investigate interstitial infiltration, steatonecrosis and necrosis of the organ, using an optical microscope. RESULTS: There was an elevation of amylase in all groups thus proving the existence of acute pancreatitis. The size of the interlobular septum increased progressively with a greater variation between group S1 (0.13 and group C (0. 53 (p=0.035. While all the animals in group A exhibited focal cellular necrosis, it was more intense in the rabbits of group B and culminated with a high proportion of severe pancreatic necrosis in group C animals. The difference in the intensity of cellular necrosis showed statistic significance (p=0.001. CONCLUSION: The proposed experimental model demonstrated its reproducibility and effectiveness in producing severe acute pancreatitis in rabbits.OBJETIVO: Desenvolver modelo experimental de pancreatite aguda grave em coelhos por meio da injeção de taurocolato de sódio no ducto pancreático. MÉTODOS: Vinte e quatro coelhos albinos da linhagem Nova Zelândia foram distribu

  19. Detection of larvae of Toxocara canis in milk: an experimental study in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vamilton Alvares Santarém

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Toxocariasis, caused most commonly by Toxocara canis, is an important cosmopolitan zoonosis. Paratenic hosts have been employed to provide knowledge regard to the transmission of toxocariasis. Transmammary transmission in murine experimentally infected was observed based on the recovery of larvae from the tissue. The aim of this study was to evaluate the possibility of transmammary transmission of Toxocara canis in rabbits by detecting larvae directly in milk. Seventeen sexually mature virgin white New Zealand female rabbits were divided into two groups. Twelve animals were orally inoculated with 1,000 T. canis embryonated eggs (infected group, and five animals remained uninfected (control group. One month following the infection, the females were mated. Manual collection of 500 ?L of milk from each rabbit was performed on days +7, +14 and +21 of lactation for three consecutive lactations. The recovery of larvae was determined via a centrifuge-sedimentation technique using ether and formalin solutions. ELISA test was run to confirm the production of anti-T. canis antibodies (IgG by infected rabbits. The presence of larvae was observed in milk samples from 5 (41.7% of the 12 infected rabbits. The total number of recovered larvae was 20, ranging from 1 to 4 larvae per lactation/rabbit. Larvae were recovered exclusively on days 7 and 14 of lactation. Recovery was verified in different lactations. No significant difference was observed with respect to the number of larvae either in the same lactation period or in different lactation periods. Anti-T. canis antibodies were detected in all infected rabbits. In conclusion, the presence of larvae in rabbit milk samples suggests the possibility of galactogenic transmission of T. canis in paratenic hosts. Moreover, the technique employed in this study allows for the recovery of larvae directly from milk.

  20. Upregulation of Relaxin after Experimental Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuichiro Kikkawa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Although relaxin causes vasodilatation in systemic arteries, little is known about its role in cerebral arteries. We investigated the expression and role of relaxin in basilar arteries after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH in rabbits. Methods. Microarray analysis with rabbit basilar artery RNA was performed. Messenger RNA expression of relaxin-1 and relaxin/insulin-like family peptide receptor 1 (RXFP1 was investigated with quantitative RT-PCR. RXFP1 expression in the basilar artery was investigated with immunohistochemistry. Relaxin concentrations in cerebrospinal fluid (CSF and serum were investigated with an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Using human brain vascular smooth muscle cells (HBVSMC preincubated with relaxin, myosin light chain phosphorylation (MLC was investigated with immunoblotting after endothelin-1 stimulation. Results. After SAH, RXFP1 mRNA and protein were significantly downregulated on day 3, whereas relaxin-1 mRNA was significantly upregulated on day 7. The relaxin concentration in CSF was significantly elevated on days 5 and 7. Pretreatment with relaxin reduced sustained MLC phosphorylation induced by endothelin-1 in HBVSMC. Conclusion. Upregulation of relaxin and downregulation of RXFP1 after SAH may participate in development of cerebral vasospasm. Downregulation of RXFP1 may induce a functional decrease in relaxin activity during vasospasm. Understanding the role of relaxin may provide further insight into the mechanisms of cerebral vasospasm.

  1. Protein changes in the retina following experimental retinal detachment in rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mandal, Nakul; Lewis, Geoffrey P; Fisher, Steven K

    2011-01-01

    Retinal detachment leads to the widespread cellular remodeling of the retina. The purpose of this study was to identify protein changes that accompany these cellular alterations by comparing the proteomic profiles of sham and experimentally detached rabbit retina. Elucidation of the proteins most...

  2. Effect of microplasmin on the clearance of vitreous haemorrhage from an experimental model in rabbits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gad Elkareem, Ashraf M.; de Smet, Marc D.

    2014-01-01

    Microplasmin is known to alter the structure of the vitreous gel. The current experiments were designed to assess its ability to enhance clearance of an experimentally induced vitreous haemorrhage, and to compare it to ovine hyaluronidase. Twenty-five rabbits were used for this experiment, divided

  3. Experimental coronary sclerosis induced by immobilization of rabbits: A new model of arteriosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tyavokin, V. V.; Tjawokin, W. W.

    1980-01-01

    A new method for producing arteriosclerosis with coronary insufficiency in rabbits by means of immobilization is described and discussed. The experimentally induced atherosclerosis develops due to hypodynamics imposed by the reduced muscular activity without overloading with exogenous cholesterol. The atherosclerosis and coronary insufficiency are associated. With variations in the duration and extent of immobilization, coronary insufficiency alone or with atherosclerosis can be produced.

  4. Primary and secondary experimental infestation of rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) with Sarcoptes scabiei from a wild rabbit: factors determining resistance to reinfestation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casais, Rosa; Dalton, Kevin P; Millán, Javier; Balseiro, Ana; Oleaga, Alvaro; Solano, Paloma; Goyache, Félix; Prieto, José Miguel; Parra, Francisco

    2014-06-16

    Studies of sarcoptic mange and immunity are hampered by lack of mite sources and natural infestation models. We have investigated the clinical and pathological signs, specific IgG response and acquired immunity in naïve New Zealand White rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) experimentally infested with Sarcoptes scabiei originally isolated from a clinically affected free-living European wild rabbit. Twenty rabbits were infested using two methods, direct contact for a 24 h period with a seeder rabbit simulating the natural process of infestation and application of a dressing holding approximately 1800 live mites on each hind limb (foot area) for a 24h period. Eight weeks post infestation, rabbits were treated with ivermectin and infestation cleared. Eight weeks later seventeen previously infested and four uninfested naïve controls were then re-exposed to the same S. scabiei variety using the same methods and followed for another 8 weeks. The progress of the disease was markedly more virulent in the animals infested by contact, indicating that the effective dose of mites managing to thrive and infest each rabbit by this method was higher. Nevertheless, infestation by contact resulted in partial protection to reexposure, rabbits developed high non-protective antibody titres upon reinfestation and presented severe clinical signs. However, rabbits reinfested by dressing developed lower IgG titres, and presented high levels of resistance to reinfestation, which might be due to induction of a strong local cellular response in the inoculation point that killed the mites and resulted in a lower mite effective dose, with subsequent reduced lesion development. Statistical analysis showed that sex, method of infestation and previous exposure are key factors determining the ability of rabbits to develop immunity to this disease. The rabbit-mange model developed will allow the further study of immunity and resistance to this neglected pathogen using a natural host system. Copyright

  5. Quantification of HTLV-I proviral load in experimentally infected rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kindt Thomas J

    2005-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Levels of proviral load in HTLV-1 infected patients correlate with clinical outcome and are reasonably prognostic. Adaptation of proviral load measurement techniques is examined here for use in an experimental rabbit model of HTLV-1 infection. Initial efforts sought to correlate proviral load with route and dose of inoculation and with clinical outcome in this model. These methods contribute to our continuing goal of using the model to test treatments that alleviate virus infection. Results A real-time PCR assay was used to measure proviral load in blood and tissue samples from a series of rabbits infected using HTLV-1 inocula prepared as either cell-free virus particles, infected cells or blood, or by naked DNA injection. Proviral loads from asymptomatically infected rabbits showed levels corresponding to those reported for human patients with clinically silent HTLV-1 infections. Proviral load was comparably increased in 50% of experimentally infected rabbits that developed either spontaneous benign or malignant tumors while infected. Similarly elevated provirus was found in organs of rabbits with experimentally induced acute leukemia/lymphoma-like disease. Levels of provirus in organs taken at necropsy varied widely suggesting that reservoirs of infections exist in non-lymphoid organs not traditionally thought to be targets for HTLV-1. Conclusion Proviral load measurement is a valuable enhancement to the rabbit model for HTLV-1 infection providing a metric to monitor clinical status of the infected animals as well as a means for the testing of treatment to combat infection. In some cases proviral load in blood did not reflect organ proviral levels, revealing a limitation of this method for monitoring health status of HTLV-1 infected individuals.

  6. Quantification of HTLV-I proviral load in experimentally infected rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Tong-Mao; Hague, Bishop; Caudell, David L; Simpson, R Mark; Kindt, Thomas J

    2005-01-01

    Background Levels of proviral load in HTLV-1 infected patients correlate with clinical outcome and are reasonably prognostic. Adaptation of proviral load measurement techniques is examined here for use in an experimental rabbit model of HTLV-1 infection. Initial efforts sought to correlate proviral load with route and dose of inoculation and with clinical outcome in this model. These methods contribute to our continuing goal of using the model to test treatments that alleviate virus infection. Results A real-time PCR assay was used to measure proviral load in blood and tissue samples from a series of rabbits infected using HTLV-1 inocula prepared as either cell-free virus particles, infected cells or blood, or by naked DNA injection. Proviral loads from asymptomatically infected rabbits showed levels corresponding to those reported for human patients with clinically silent HTLV-1 infections. Proviral load was comparably increased in 50% of experimentally infected rabbits that developed either spontaneous benign or malignant tumors while infected. Similarly elevated provirus was found in organs of rabbits with experimentally induced acute leukemia/lymphoma-like disease. Levels of provirus in organs taken at necropsy varied widely suggesting that reservoirs of infections exist in non-lymphoid organs not traditionally thought to be targets for HTLV-1. Conclusion Proviral load measurement is a valuable enhancement to the rabbit model for HTLV-1 infection providing a metric to monitor clinical status of the infected animals as well as a means for the testing of treatment to combat infection. In some cases proviral load in blood did not reflect organ proviral levels, revealing a limitation of this method for monitoring health status of HTLV-1 infected individuals. PMID:15910683

  7. Development of an experimental model of infected bone void in the ulna of rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lemos Azi, Matheus; Kfuri Junior, Mauricio; Martinez, Roberto; Salata, Luis Antonio; Paccola, Cleber Antonio Jansen

    2012-01-01

    Objective Develop a model that allowed the study of bone regeneration in infection conditions. Method A 15 mm defect was surgically created in the rabbit ulna and inoculated with 5x108 colony-forming units (CFU) of S. aureus. Surgical debridement was performed two weeks after and systemic gentamicin was administered for four weeks. Animals were followed up to 12 weeks to evaluate infection control and bone regeneration. Result Bone regeneration was inferior to 25% of the defect in radiological and histological analysis. Conclusion Infected bone defect of 15 mm in the rabbit ulna was unable to achieve full regeneration without further treatment. Level of Evidence V, Experimental Study. PMID:24453593

  8. Experimental infection of rabbits with bovine viral diarrhoea virus by a natural route of exposure

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Bovine viral diarrhoea virus (BVDV) is an important pathogen of cattle that can naturally infect a wide range of even-toed ungulates. Non-bovine hosts may represent reservoirs for the virus that have the potential to hamper BVDV eradication programs usually focused on cattle. Rabbits are very abundant in countries such as the United Kingdom or Australia and are often living on or near livestock pastures. Earlier reports indicated that rabbits can propagate BVDV upon intravenous exposure and that natural infection of rabbits with BVDV may occur but experimental proof of infection of rabbits by a natural route is lacking. Therefore, New Zealand White rabbits were exposed to a Scottish BVDV field strain intravenously, oro-nasally and by contaminating their hay with virus. None of the animals showed any clinical signs. However, the lymphoid organs from animals sacrificed at day five after exposure showed histological changes typical of transient infection with pestivirus. Most organ samples and some buffy coat samples were virus positive at day five but saliva samples remained negative. Development of antibodies was observed in all intravenously challenged animals, in all of the nebulised group and in four of six animals exposed to contaminated hay. To our knowledge this is the first report of BVDV propagation in a species other than ruminants or pigs after exposure to the virus by a natural route. However, to assess the role of rabbits as a potential reservoir for BVDV it remains to be determined whether persistent infection caused by intra-uterine infection is possible and whether BVDV is circulating in wild rabbit populations. PMID:24690167

  9. [Experimental research of correlation between anatomy structure of rabbit ear and creating hypertrophic scar animal model].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Gui-Ying; Xu, Bin; Cai, Jing-Long

    2008-05-01

    To observe the anatomy structure of rabbit ear and the effect of different operation methods and post-operative treatments on the formation of hypertrophic scar. The experimental animals were 25 New Zealand white rabbits. 6 pieces of full skin specimens were obtained from each of the ears in 5 rabbits for histological examination. 6 full-thickness skin wounds (d = 8 mm) were made on different sites of ventral side of each ear in the other 20 rabbits. The total number of the wounds was 240. 120 wounds in 10 rabbits were divided into 4 groups randomly to receive different treatments on day 7 postoperatively. No treatment was performed in the other 120 wounds. The wounds healing and the scar formation were observed for six months. The scars were harvested 4 weeks and 8 weeks after operation for pathologic examination and measurement of scar elevation index (SEI). Histological analysis showed that the anatomy structure was different in different sites of the rabbit ear. The best sites for creating hypertrophic scar model were on the medial margin of the middle- and inferior part of ear. The depth of the wound should reach the cartilage membrane of the ear to facilitate the formation of hypertrophic scar. The second strip crust on day 7 postoperatively enhanced the wounds healing and minimized the scar proliferation and hypertrophy. There is a close correlation between the anatomy structure of the ear and the creation of hypertrophic scar animal model. The wound site, the depth of wound and the post-operative treatment will affect the formation of hypertrophic scar. The study can help to improve the successful rate of creating hypertrophic scar animal model.

  10. Respiratory and neurological disease in rabbits experimentally infected with equid herpesvirus 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanitz, Fábio A; Cargnelutti, Juliana F; Anziliero, Deniz; Gonçalves, Kelley V; Masuda, Eduardo K; Weiblen, Rudi; Flores, Eduardo F

    2015-10-01

    Equid herpesvirus type 1 (EHV-1) is an important pathogen of horses worldwide, associated with respiratory, reproductive and/or neurological disease. A mouse model for EHV-1 infection has been established but fails to reproduce some important aspects of the viral pathogenesis. Then, we investigated the susceptibility of rabbits to EHV-1 aiming at proposing this species as an alternative model for EHV-1 infection. Weanling rabbits inoculated intranasal with EHV-1 Kentucky D (10(7) TCID50/animal) shed virus in nasal secretions up to day 8-10 post-inoculation (pi), presented viremia up to day 14 pi and seroconverted to EHV-1 (virus neutralizing titers 4 to 64). Most rabbits (75%) developed respiratory disease, characterized by serous to hemorrhagic nasal discharge and mild to severe dyspnea. Some animals (20%) presented neurological signs as circling, bruxism and opisthotonus. Six animals died during acute disease (days 3-6); infectious virus and/or viral DNA were detected in the lungs, trigeminal ganglia (TG), olfactory bulbs (OBs) and cerebral cortex/brain (CC). Histological examination showed necrohemorrhagic, multifocal to coalescent bronchointerstitial pneumonia and diffuse alveolar edema. In two rabbits euthanized at day 50 pi, latent EHV-1 DNA was detected in the OBs. Dexamethasone administration at day 50 pi resulted in virus reactivation, demonstrated by virus shedding, viremia, clinical signs, and increase in VN titers and/or by detection of virus DNA in lungs, OBs, TGs and/or CC. These results demonstrate that rabbits are susceptible to EHV-1 infection and develop respiratory and neurological signs upon experimental inoculation. Thus, rabbits may be used to study selected aspects of EHV-1 biology and pathogenesis, extending and complementing the mouse model. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The rabbit as an animal model for experimental surgery O coelho como modelo animal para cirurgia experimental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mônica Diuana Calasans-Maia

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available The white New Zealand rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus is frequently used as a model for in vivo studies. However, information on precautions when using this animal as an experimental model is limited. This review of the literature covers the gamut from the selection of the animal model all the way to its death, and describes procedures for transporting, raising, breeding, housing, administering anesthesia and handling so as to rationalize the utilization of this species while exploiting its unique characteristics. Based upon the literature and our own experience with white New Zealand rabbits, we conclude that the rabbit is an adequate model for experimental surgery.O coelho branco da Nova Zelândia (Oryctolagus cuniculus é freqüentemente utilizado como modelo em estudos in vivo. Contudo, as informações referentes aos cuidados no emprego deste animal como modelo experimental são limitadas. Esta revisão da literatura pretende rever a literatura desde a seleção do modelo animal até a sua morte, enfatizando, os procedimentos para transporte, criação, reprodução, comportamento, acomodação, anestesia e manejo dos animais, de forma a racionalizar a utilização desses animais reconhecendo as características próprias dessa espécie. Conclui-se que o coelho constitui um modelo adequado e viável para cirurgia experimental.

  12. Apendicite aguda: modelo experimental em coelhos Acute appendicitis: model experimental in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    João EBRAM-NETO

    2000-04-01

    Full Text Available Com objetivo de estudar experimentalmente as diversas fases evolutivas da apendicite aguda, foram utilizados 60 coelhos (Oryctogalus cuniculus, fêmeas, da linhagem Nova Zelândia, com peso variando de 2510 a 3040 gramas. Os animais foram divididos em dois grupos denominados controle e experimento, e estes subdivididos em três subgrupos com períodos de observação de 12, 24 e 48 horas. No grupo experimento foi realizada a oclusão do lume apendicular por meio de sutura seromuscular circular a 8 cm da extremidade distal do apêndice cecal, com fio de polipropileno 4-0. No controle foi feita somente a simulação da cirurgia. Os aspectos macroscópicos (aumento do tamanho, necrose, perfuração, aderência e secreção na cavidade abdominal bem como os microscópicos do grupo experimento, evidenciaram uma progressão das alterações anatomopatológicas mostrando haver uma relação entre a intensidade dos achados histopatológicos e o tempo de observação. Conclui-se que o método utilizado causa apendicite aguda com alterações anatomopatológicas distintas, de acordo com a fase evolutiva da doença.The evolving phases of acute appendicitis were studied experimentally. Sixty female rabbits (Oryctogalus cuniculus of New Zealand lineage weighing about 2510 to 3040 g were divided in two groups: a control group and experimental group. The experimental group was divided into three subgroups for observation after 12, 24 and 48 hours of the operation, that consisted on a 4-0 polypropylene circular suture at 8 cm from the distal part of the cecal appendix. The control group was sham operated. The macroscopic exam (increase of the appendix volume, necrosis, perfuration, adherence and secretion in the abdominal cavity and the microscopic finding showed a progression in the anatomopathological alterations. There was a close relationship between the histopathological findings and time after the appendiceal obstruction. We conclude that the method

  13. Immunobiological characterization of Graphidium strigosum experimental infection in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuquerella, M; Alunda, J M

    2009-01-01

    An experimental infection of rabbits with a wild isolate of the gastric nematode Graphidium strigosum was carried out. Animals (3.5 months age) were infected with 1,000 L3 administered by bucoesophagic catheter (five rabbits) or kept as uninfected control group (five animals). The infection was maintained for 3 months. Along the experimental period, some parasitological, hematological and immunological parameters were determined. Prepatent period of the infection ranged from 30 to 38 days and, at necropsy, average adult helminth counts were 430.75 +/- 126.12. No significant variations were found in packed cell volume, leukocyte, and eosinophil counts along the experimental period. Infection elicited a clear serum-specific IgG response, estimated by ELISA, during patency. Pooled sera from the patent period of the infection recognized some soluble antigens, particularly, a 67-kDa protein. Experimentally infected animals did not show cross recognition between G. strigosum, Haemonchus contortus, and Teladorsagia circumcincta. However, Western blot analysis with hyperimmune sera against H. contortus raised in rabbits and lambs showed cross reactivity between this helminth species and G. strigosum.

  14. Anatomic and histological study of the rabbit mandible as an experimental model for wound healing and surgical therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campillo, V-E; Langonnet, S; Pierrefeu, A; Chaux-Bodard, A-G

    2014-10-01

    The rabbit is one of the most widely used models for studying bone remodeling or dental implant osseointegration but very few data are available about the rabbit's mandible. The aim of this work was to describe the anatomy of the rabbit mandible and to estimate the available bone volume for experimental studies. First, with a dissection, the morphology of the mandible was described and the mental foramen, the position of the main salivary glands and muscular insertions were located. Then, by X-ray imaging, the position of the inferior alveolar canal, the dental root courses and volume and bone density were described. Finally, with frontal sections of the mandible body, the rabbit's dental and alveolar bone histological structure were assessed. Thus, the relevance of the rabbit mandible as an experimental model for wound healing or surgical therapies was discussed. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  15. Greater resistance of the rabbit antropyloric region to experimental acute gastric ischemia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Angélica B. Magalhães

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Gastric ischemia represents an important medical challenge in pathology and surgical practice. OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of acute gastric ischemia on different regions of the stomach. METHOD: Rabbit stomachs were subjected to devascularization of the greater and lesser curvatures for 3, 6 and 12 hours. After these periods, the stomachs were removed for macro and microscopic analysis. RESULTS: Hemorrhagic necrosis was more marked in the gastric fundus and body. In contrast, the antropylorus remained preserved in 100% of the rabbits after 3 hours of ischemia (group I, and in 80% of the rabbits after 6 and 12 hours of ischemia (groups II and III. Necrosis of the gastric body and fundus mucosa were observed in all animals after 6 and 12 hours of ischemia. CONCLUSION: We concluded that this experimental model of acute gastric ischemia was effective in producing hemorrhagic necrosis of the gastric fundus and body in rabbits even within a short period of time. Furthermore, the antropyloric region was preserved in most animals.

  16. Experimental model of a bone gap by radial ostectomy in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Cunha Lacreta Junior

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available A lot of experimental models have been used to study the process of a fracture's consolidation, but the problem is that due to anatomic, biologic and technical differences, these models do not always  have appropriate parameters for the exact species, for which the experiment was done. The rabbit is an experimental model that is widely used in studies involving bone physiopatology in the face of fractures and their different types of treatment, corresponding to approximately 35% of all the musculoskeletic system's scientific studies. Several surgical techniques have been used on rabbit's bone for experimental studies, and the partial ostectomy of the radius bone is one of them. In this study, 14 rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus familiaris, males, adults, of white New Zeland breed, neutered, with weight between three and four kilograms, were used. Clinically, the animals did not present any alterations that compromised the study. There were evaluated through radiographic exam on days zero, 30 and 60 after the surgery, visualizing the quality of the gap and the relevant alteration of bone proliferation. The histologic exam elucidated the neoformed bone architecture and its components. The efficacy of the techinique was proved and it could be reproduced for many purposes in orthopedic surgery.

  17. Experimentally induced acute uric acid nephropathy in rabbits: Findings of high resolution gray scale and doppler ultrasonographies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang, Ik; Chung, Soo Young; Lee, Kyung Won; Kim, Hong Dae; Ko, Eun Young; Won, Mi Sook; Noh, Jung Woo [Hallym University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Moon Hyang [Hanyang University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2001-12-15

    To evaluate changes of the high-resolution (HR) gray scale and doppler ultrasonographic (US) characteristics of experimentally induced acute uric acid (UA) nephropathy in rabbits. Acute UA nephropathy was induced in ten rabbits using supersaturated lithium carbonate solution. The rabbits were divided in two groups. Group I consisted of five rabbits, and they were injected with a single dose of 150 ml of saturated UA over one hour. During tis period, serial US studies of the kidneys of these rabbits were performed every ten minutes. Group II consisted of the remaining five rabbits, and three injections of 50 ml of saturated UA solution were given on the first, fifth and eight day and follow-up was done upto twenty fifth day. Sequential HR and Doppler US, renal biopsy and blood sampling were performed on day 1, 5, 8, 21, and 25 in the group II rabbits. In group I, HR and Doppler US examination revealed the normal resistive index without significant abnormality. On the other hand, US studies of group II showed poor renal corticomedullary differentiation, decreased renal blood flow and elevated resistive index. There was statistically significant correlation among US findings, histologic characteristics and chemical index (BUN, creatinine) of renal function. In addition, sequentially increased size and volume of the kidney were noted in both groups. HR gray scale and doppler US characteristics of experimentally induced acute UA nephropathy in rabbits were similar to those of acute renal failure caused by other well-known causes.

  18. Temporal evolution of mechanical properties of skeletal tissue regeneration in rabbits. An experimental study

    CERN Document Server

    Mokoko, Didier; Chabrand, Patrick

    2007-01-01

    Various mathematical models represent the effects of local mechanical environment on the regulation of skeletal regeneration. Their relevance relies on an accurate description of the evolving mechanical properties of the regenerating tissue. The object of this study was to develop an experimental model which made it possible to characterize the temporal evolution of the structural and mechanical properties during unloaded enchondral osteogenesis in the New Zealand rabbit, a standard animal model for studies of osteogenesis and chondrogenesis. A 25mm segment of tibial diaphysis was removed sub-periosteally from rabbits. The defect was repaired by the preserved periosteum. An external fixator was applied to prevent mechanical loading during osteogenesis. The regenerated skeletal tissues were studied by CT scan, histology and mechanical tests. The traction tests between 7 to 21 days post-surgery were done on formaldehyde-fixated tissue allowing to obtain force/displacement curves. The viscoelastic properties of ...

  19. Evaluation of arterial impairment after experimental gelatin sponge embolization in a rabbit renal model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oh, Jung Suk; Lee, Hae Gi; Chun, Ho Jong; Choi, Byung Gil; Choi, Yeong Jin [Seoul St. Mary' s Hospital, College of Medicine, The Catholic University of Korea, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2015-02-15

    Arterial stenosis is a major obstacle for subsequent interventional procedures. We hypothesized that the stenosis is caused by gelatin sponge embolization and performed an experimental study in a rabbit renal model. A total of 24 rabbits were embolized with porcine gelatin sponge particles injected into the renal arteries. Four rabbits were sacrificed on 1 day, 4 days, 1 week, 2 weeks, 3 weeks, and 4 weeks after embolization. Microscopic evaluations were performed on hematoxylin-eosin and smooth muscle actin immunohistochemical stained sections. Gelatin sponge particles were mainly observed in the segmental and interlobar arteries. Transmural inflammation of the embolized arterial wall and mild thickening of the media were observed 1 week after embolization. Resorption of the gelatin sponge and organization of thrombus accompanied by foreign body reactions, were observed from 2 to 4 weeks after embolization. Microscopic images of the 3 weeks group showed vessel lumens filled mostly with organized thrombi, resulting in severe stenosis. Additionally, vessels showed a thickened intima that contained migrating smooth muscle cells and accompanying interruption of the internal elastic lamina. The migrating smooth muscle cells were distributed around the recanalized arterial lumen. Gelatin sponge embolization may induce arterial stenosis by causing organized thrombus and intimal hyperplasia, which consists of migrating smooth muscle cells and intimal collagen deposits.

  20. Atypical myxomatosis--virus isolation, experimental infection of rabbits and restriction endonuclease analysis of the isolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Psikal, I; Smíd, B; Rodák, L; Valícek, L; Bendová, J

    2003-08-01

    Atypical form of myxomatosis, which caused non-lethal and clinically mild disease in domestic rabbits 1 month after immunization with a commercially available vaccine MXT, is described. The isolated myxoma virus designated as Litovel 2 (Li-2) did not induce systemic disease following subcutaneous and intradermal applications in susceptible experimental rabbits but led to the immune response demonstrated by ELISA. No severe disease was induced in those Li-2 inoculated rabbits by challenge with the virulent strains Lausanne (Lu) or Sanar (SA), while the control animals showed nodular form of myxomatosis with lethal course of the illness. Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) of genomic DNA with KpnI and BamHI endonucleases was used for genetic characterization of the Li-2 isolate, the vaccine strain MXT and both virulent strains Lu and SA, respectively. In general, RFLP analysis has shown to be informative for inferring genetic relatedness between myxoma viruses. Based on restriction endonuclease DNA fragment size distribution, it was evident that the pathogenic strain SA is genetically related to the reference strain Lu and the isolate Li-2 is more related, but not identical, to the vaccination strain MXT.

  1. Effect of Camel Milk on Oxidative Stresses in Experimentally Induced Diabetic Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esraa Tantawy

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Camel milk has an importance in the treatment of diabetes. It has been shown that the patients who drink camel milk daily, their need to insulin decrease. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the effect of camel milk in comparison with insulin treatment in experimentally-induced diabetes. This study was carried out on forty male New Zealand rabbits, divided into four groups with ten rabbits in each. The first group G1 was considered as control non-diabetic group and received only normal saline solution. The other animals were injected intravenously with alloxan for induction of diabetes mellitus and then divided into three groups' ten rabbits each as the follows: G2 considered as control diabetic and left untreated, G3 was considered as diabetic and treated with insulin, and G4 was considered as diabetic and received camel milk. At the end of the experiment (4 weeks, blood (whole blood & serum and tissue samples (liver, kidney and pancreas were collected from all the animals for analysis of: enzymatic SOD and catalase, non-enzymatic GSH antioxidant enzyme activities. Serum malondialdeyde, glucose, insulin and lipid profile also were analyzed. The results showed that the camel milk was effective in the treatment of diabetes in comparison to insulin treatment alone. In addition to its hypoglycemic effect, camel milk improved the diabetes-induced oxidative stress. The histopathological evaluations demonstrated that there was a regeneration in β cells and the islets of Langerhans among the pancreatic acini in rabbits receiving camel milk. Our findings suggested that the camel milk administration in case of insulin dependant diabetes mellitus might be recommended as an oral anti-diabetic remedy.

  2. Spermatheca gland extract of snail (Telescopium telescopium) has wound healing potential: an experimental study in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Saurabh; Ghosh, Debaki; Biswas, Tuhin Kanti; Dutta, Uttam; Das, Partho; Kundu, Subarna

    2008-12-01

    The effects of spermatheca gland extract of snail (Telescopium telescopium) to promote wound healing were studied in an animal model. The spermatheca gland extract of the snail was used as a topical medicament to treat experimentally created full thickness wounds in 12 rabbits (Oryctologous cuniculus). Wound healing was assessed on the basis of physical, histomorphological, and histochemical changes on days 0, 3, 7, and 14. Statistically significant differences were observed between the groups in all measured parameters. These exciting findings suggest that the data should be further tested in animal models to better understand the potential for wound healing in the spermatheca gland extract of the marine snail.

  3. [Effect of dextran of 250.000 molecular weight on experimental cholesterin-sclerosis in rabbits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ferenc, S; Arpád, H; Gábor, L

    1976-07-01

    Effect of dextran of 250000 molecular weight on experimental cholesterin-sclerosis of rabbits was studied. Doses of 120 (mg/week) kg and 1200 (mg/week) kg administered during 12 weeks have resulted a protective effect. When doses of 1200 (mg/week) kg have been administered--in the aortic adventitia intensive cellular reaction, no hitherto described was revealed, which was considered to be a sing of the exhaustion of RES. This publication authors regard as a preliminary one. To clear whether the cellular reaction observed is a dextran-specific or macro-moleculespecific one further investigations are needed.

  4. Experimental model of a bone gap by radial ostectomy in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Carlos Cunha Lacreta Junior

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A lot of experimental models have been used to study the process of a fracture’s consolidation, but the problem is that due to anatomic, biologic and technical differences, these models do not always have appropriate parameters for the exact species, for which the experiment was done. The rabbit is an experimental model that is widely used in studies involving bone physiopatology in the face of fractures and their different types of treatment, corresponding to approximately 35% of all the musculoskeletic system’s scientific studies. Several surgical techniques have been used on rabbit’s bone for experimental studies, and the partial ostectomy of the radius bone is one of them. In this study, 14 rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus familiaris, males, adults, of white New Zeland breed, neutered, with weight between three and four kilograms, were used. Clinically, the animals did not present any alterations that compromised the study. There were evaluated through radiographic exam on days zero, 30 and 60 after the surgery, visualizing the quality of the gap and the relevant alteration of bone proliferation. The histologic exam elucidated the neoformed bone architecture and its components. The efficacy of the techinique was proved and it could be reproduced for many purposes in orthopedic surgery.

  5. Increased permeability to polyethylene glycol 4000 in rabbits with experimental colitis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Seidman, E.G.; Hanson, D.G.; Walker, W.A.

    1986-01-01

    Little information is available regarding colonic permeability to macromolecules in health or disease states. In vivo permeability of rabbit colon to (/sup 14/C)polyethylene glycol 4000 (/sup 14/C-PEG) was examined in the presence of immune complex-mediated experimental colitis and compared with that of partially treated (control) and normal rabbits. Permeability was assessed by urinary /sup 14/C-PEG excretion after intrarectal administration of 0.1 mM solution of /sup 14/C-PEG (1 ml/kg, 7.5 X 10(6) cpm/ml). Experimental colitis greatly increased colonic permeability (p less than 0.001 in two-way analysis of variance) compared with control and normal groups (2.06% +/- 0.19%, 0.14% +/- 0.04%, and 0.01% +/- 0.004%, respectively, of rectally administered counts). Gel diffusion chromatography showed that absorbed /sup 14/C-PEG was excreted into urine unchanged, demonstrating its applicability as an inert, nonmetabolizable macromolecular probe. Urinary clearance after mesenteric vein administration of /sup 14/C-PEG was similar in normal animals and animals with colitis, implicating colonic absorption as the source of the group differences. Postmortem histology confirmed the acute colitis lesions in the experimental group. These findings support the hypothesis that nonspecific colonic inflammation is associated with significant alterations of mucosal permeability.

  6. Experimental inoculation of porcine circoviruses type 1 (PCV1) and type 2 (PCV2) in rabbits and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintana, Josefina; Balasch, Monica; Segalés, Joaquim; Calsamiglia, Maria; Rodríguez-Arrioja, Gabriela M; Plana-Durán, Juan; Domingo, Mariano

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this work was to investigate the susceptibility of rabbits and mice experimentally inoculated with porcine circoviruses type 1 (PCV1) and type 2 (PCV2) to infection and development of disease and/or lesions. Forty six New Zealand rabbits and 50 ICR-CDI mice were both divided into two groups comprising PCVI and PCV2 inoculated animals, and a third group inoculated with non-infected cell culture medium. Rabbits were inoculated intranasally while mice were inoculated intraperitoneally. Clinical signs and body weights were recorded at the start of the experiment and at necropsy. Animals were bled, euthanised and necropsied at days 0, 3, 7, 10, 14 and 20 post-inoculation and samples were collected for histopathological, serological, in situ hybridisation and PCR analysis. No clinical signs or gross and microscopic lesions compatible with PCV2 infections such as those seen in pigs were observed. No presence of PCV2 nucleic acid was detected in rabbits and mice by in situ hybridisation. Only one mouse inoculated with PCV1 seroconverted on day 20 P1. PCV1 and PCV2 genome was detected in serum by PCR in mice inoculated with each porcine circovirus, while rabbits were negative for both viral types. These studies indicated that porcine circoviruses did not cause any disease or microscopic lesions in inoculated rabbits and mice during the experimental period. However, intraperitoneally inoculated mice might have harboured PCV2 in circulation without evidence of viral replication.

  7. Imaging experimental infective endocarditis with indium-111-labeled blood cellular components. [Rabbits, aortic valve

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riba, A.L.; Thakur, M.L.; Gottschalk, A.; Andriole, V.T.; Zaret, B.L.

    1979-02-01

    The capability of radionuclide imaging to detect experimental aortic valve infective endocarditis was assessed with indium-111 (/sup 111/In)-labeled blood cells. Sequential cardiac imaging and tissue distribution studies were obtained in 17 rabbits with infective endocarditis after administration of /sup 111/In-platelets and in five after /sup 111/In-polymorphonuclear leukocytes. Forty-eight to 72 hours after platelet administration, in vivo imaging demonstrated abnormal /sup 111/In uptake in all animals in the region of the aortic valve in an anatomically distinct pattern. Images of the excised heart showed discrete cardiac uptake conforming to the in vivo image and gross pathological examination. /sup 111/In-platelet uptake in vegetations from the 17 animals averaged 240 +- 41 times greater than that in normal myocardium and 99 +- 15 times greater uptake in blood. In contrast, /sup 111/In-leukocyte cardiac imaging showed no abnormal aortic valve uptake 24 hours after tracer administration and the lesion myocardium activity ratio was only 5 +- 2 (3 +- 1 for lesion/blood activity). Four normal rabbits demonstrated neither positive /sup 111/In-platelet scintigraphs nor abnormal cardiac tissue uptake. Likewise, noncellular /sup 111/In was not concentrated to any significant extent in three animals with infective endocarditis. This study demonstrates that /sup 111/In-platelet, but not leukocyte cardiac imaging, is a sensitive technique for detecting experimental infective endocarditis. The imaging data conform to the cellular pathology of the infective endocarditis vegetation.

  8. The effects of Ethanol Extract of Propolis (EEP on the experimentally induced Candida keratitis in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahangari AA

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available "n 800x600 Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE AR-SA MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-priority:99; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0in 5.4pt 0in 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0in; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman","serif";} Background: Propolis (bee glue is a resinous substance obtained from bee hives living on various plant sources. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of ethanol extract of propolis (EEP on the experimentally induced Candidial keratitis in rabbits."n"nMethods: The alcoholic extract of propolis was prepared by 80% ethyl alcohol. After suppressing the immune system of 24 male rabbits, experimental Candida albicans keratitis was induced in the animals under local anesthesia and sterile conditions. The animals were later divided into four groups including the control or glycerin group and a nystatin and two 500 and 1000µg/ml EEP groups. Treatment continued for 21 days and after sacrificing the animals by humane methods, histopathological samples of the rabbits' eyes were prepared."n"nResults: Keratitis was developed in the eyes of all rabbits a week after the yeast inoculation. In the control group in which animals received glycerin, keratitis persisted until day 21. Clinical signs of keratitis disappeared in the Nystatin and 1000µg/ml EEP groups after 14 and 21 days, respectively. The clinical signs of keratitis partially ameliorated in the animals receiving 500µg/ml EEP. Histopathological examination revealed no differences between groups receiving nystatin or 1000µg/ml EEP."n"nConclusion: It is concluded that, ethanol extract of propolis could completely treat Candida albicans keratitis in 1000µg/ml concentrations. This extract can be used as a safe antifungal agent

  9. Kinetics of Anti-Phlebotomus perniciosus Saliva Antibodies in Experimentally Bitten Mice and Rabbits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inés Martín-Martín

    Full Text Available Sand flies are hematophagous arthropods that act as vectors of Leishmania parasites. When hosts are bitten they develop cellular and humoral responses against sand fly saliva. A positive correlation has been observed between the number of bites and antibody levels indicating that anti-saliva antibody response can be used as marker of exposure to sand flies. Little is known about kinetics of antibodies against Phlebotomus perniciosus salivary gland homogenate (SGH or recombinant salivary proteins (rSP. This work focused on the study of anti-P. perniciosus saliva antibodies in sera of mice and rabbits that were experimentally exposed to the bites of uninfected sand flies.Anti-saliva antibodies were evaluated by ELISA and Western blot. In addition, antibody levels against two P. perniciosus rSP, apyrase rSP01B and D7 related protein rSP04 were determined in mice sera. Anti-saliva antibody levels increased along the immunizations and correlated with the number of sand fly bites. Anti-SGH antibody levels were detected in sera of mice five weeks after exposure, and persisted for at least three months. Anti-apyrase rSP01B antibodies followed similar kinetic responses than anti-SGH antibodies while rSP04 showed a delayed response and exhibited a greater variability among sera of immunized mice. In rabbits, anti-saliva antibodies appeared after the second week of exposure and IgG antibodies persisted at high levels, even 7 months post-exposure.Our results contributed to increase the knowledge on the type of immune response P. perniciosus saliva and individual proteins elicited highlighting the use of rSP01B as an epidemiological marker of exposure. Anti-saliva kinetics in sera of experimentally bitten rabbits were studied for the first time. Results with rabbit model provided useful information for a better understanding of the anti-saliva antibody levels found in wild leporids in the human leishmaniasis focus in the Madrid region, Spain.

  10. Experimentally induced pyogenic arthritis of rabbit knees: comparative study of MR imaging and pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sung Hwan; Koh, Sung Hye; Chung, Hye Won; Lee, Kyung Won; Kim, Chong Jai; Kang, Heung Sik [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-12-01

    To compare the MR imaging findings of experimentally induced pyogenic arthritis of rabbit knees with the corresponding histopathologic findings. Infection was induced in 20 rabbit knees by direct intra-articular injection of staphylococcus aureus. The animals were divided into four groups of five rabbits each, and spin-echo sagittal T1- and T2-weighted images were obtained 3 days, 1 week, 2 weeks, and 4 weeks, respectively, after staphylococcal inoculation. MR-pathologic correlation was performed, with emphasis on intra-and extra-articular soft tissue lesion characteristics. Soft tissue lesion signal intensity (SI) was classified as low, iso, or high on the basis of that of muscle, and high SI was further subdivided into three categories. At T2-weighted imaging, all soft tissue lesion showed high SI. Pathologic examination revealed the presence of inflammatory cell infiltration (n=2), abscess (n=1), granulation tissue (n=3), fibrosis (n=11), edema (n=4), congestion (n=9), and joint fluid (n=11). Except for the abscess, these lesions were irregular in shape and had variable SI (grade 1-3) and at T2WI could not, therefore, be differentiated. In nine knees, extra-articular soft-tissue lesions were demonstrated at T2WI and correlated with infectious soft tissue lesions such as inflammatory cell infiltration, abscess, granulation tissues and fibrosis; and non-infectious reactive soft tissue changes such as edema and congestion. In pyogenic arthritis, the MR imaging features of soft tissue lesions varied and were nonspecific, depending on the histopathologic abnormalities observed. Our results indicate that in assessing the extent of pyogenic arthritis with MR imaging, caution is required.

  11. Experimental acrylonitrile butadiene styrene and polyamide evisceration implant: a rabbit clinical and histopathology study

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    D.C. Gomes Júnior

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The purpose of this study was to evaluate acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS and polyamide implants in rabbits submitted to evisceration at the macroscopic and microstructure level and to assess clinical response and histopathological changes as well. For the experimental study implants of 12mm diameter were prepared by rapid prototyping, weighed and the outer and inner surfaces evaluated macroscopically and by electron microscopy. In addition, a compression test was performed and ultrastructural damage was then determined. After evisceration of the left eyeball, nine New Zealand rabbits received ABS implants and nine others received polyamide implants. The animals were assessed daily for 15 days after surgery and every seven days until the end of the study (90 days. Histopathological evaluation was performed at 15, 45 and 90 days after surgery. The ABS implants weighed approximately 0.44g, while the polyamide ones weighed 0.61g. Scanning electron microscopy demonstrated that the ABS implants had regular-sized, equidistant micropores, while the polyamide ones showed micropores of various sizes. The force required to fracture the ABS implant was 14.39 ±0.60 Mpa, while for the polyamide one, it was 16.80 ±1.05 Mpa. Fifteen days after surgery, we observed centripetal tissue infiltration and scarce inflammatory infiltrate. Implants may be used in the filling of anophthalmic cavities, because they are inert, biocompatible and allow tissue integration.

  12. Serial correlation between the ultrasonographic and pathologic findings of intramuscular hemorrhaging in an experimental rabbit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ko, Kyung Ran [National Cancer Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Ryu, Kyung Nam; Park, Ji Seon; Jin, Wook; Sung, Dong Wook; Park, Yong Koo [KyungHee University Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2008-05-15

    To evaluate the serial ultrasonographic findings of experimental intramuscular hemorrhaging to determine if there is a correlation with the pathologic findings. An ultrasonography (US) was performed before and immediately after an intramuscular blood injection in nine rabbits. In addition, follow-up US images were obtained at 1, 4, 7, 10, 14, 21, and 28 days after the intramuscular blood injections in seven of the rabbits. The pathologic specimens, compared to the US findings on each date, and consisted of samples of left thigh muscle. A US, performed immediately after a blood injection, showed two patterns; 6 cases of hyperechoic muscle thickening and 3 cases of hyperechoic muscle thickening with extravasation between the epimysium and muscle bundle or within muscle bundle. A follow-up US showed a marked decrease in intramuscular hemorrhaging and microcalcifications, which appeared on the 4th, 7th and 10th day after the blood injection. The pathologic findings revealed several short echogenic lines in the muscular bundles which were hemosiderin. Moreover, a 28 day follow-up US revealed that the normal findings are correlated with the normal gross pathologic findings. The US findings of the intramuscular hemorrhaging, for each of the follow-up dates, in comparison to the pathologic findings, revealed a high correlation with the pathologic specimens. Consequently, a US transducer with high resolution can be considered as a helpful technique in the diagnosing and evaluating the follow-up treatment of intramuscular hemorrhaging.

  13. Experimental study on the toxicity of povidone-iodine solution in brain tissues of rabbits

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    Li, Shu-Hua; Wang, Yu; Gao, Hai-Bin; Zhao, Kun; Hou, Yu-Chen; Sun, Wei

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To determine whether Povidone-iodine was toxic to brain tissues by rinsing the cerebral cortex of New Zealand rabbits with Povidone-iodine Solution of different concentrations. Methods: 12 New Zealand rabbits were randomly divided into 4 groups (Group A, B, C and D, 3 rabbits each group). In each group, the left cerebral cortex of rabbits was rinsed with physiological saline after the craniotomy; in Group A and B, the right cerebral cortex of rabbits was also locally rinsed with Po...

  14. Darbepoetin alpha reduces oxidative stress and chronic inflammation in atherosclerotic lesions of apo E deficient mice in experimental renal failure.

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    Nicole Arend

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Cardiovascular morbidity and mortality is very important in patients with chronic renal failure. This occurs even in mild impairment of renal function and may be related to oxidative stress and chronic inflammation. The nephrectomized apo E knockout mouse is an accepted model for evaluating atherosclerosis in renal dysfunction. Erythropoietin derivates showed anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, this study evaluates the effects of Darbepoetin on markers of oxidative stress and chronic inflammation in atherosclerotic lesions in apo E knockout mice with renal dysfunction. METHODS: Apo E knockout mice underwent unilateral (Unx, n = 20 or subtotal (Snx, n = 26 nephrectomy or sham operation (Sham, n = 16. Mice of each group were either treated with Darbepoetin or saline solution, a part of Snx mice received a tenfold higher dose of Darbepoetin. The aortic plaques were measured and morphologically characterized. Additional immunhistochemical analyses were performed on tissue samples taken from the heart and the aorta. RESULTS: Both Unx and Snx mice showed increased expression of markers of oxidative stress and chronic inflammation. While aortic plaque size was not different, Snx mice showed advanced plaque stages when compared to Unx mice. Darbepoetin treatment elevated hematocrit and lowered Nitrotyrosin as one marker of oxidative stress, inflammation in heart and aorta, plaque stage and in the high dose even plaque cholesterol content. In contrast, there was no influence of Darbepoetin on aortic plaque size; high dose Darbepoetin treatment resulted in elevated renal serum parameters. CONCLUSION: Darbepoetin showed some protective cardiovascular effects irrespective of renal function, i.e. it improved plaque structure and reduced some signs of oxidative stress and chronic inflammation without affecting plaque size. Nevertheless, the dose dependent adverse effects must be considered as high Darbepoetin treatment

  15. Development and characterization of an experimental model of diet-induced metabolic syndrome in rabbit.

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    Oscar Julián Arias-Mutis

    Full Text Available Metabolic syndrome (MetS has become one of the main concerns for public health because of its link to cardiovascular disease. Murine models have been used to study the effect of MetS on the cardiovascular system, but they have limitations for studying cardiac electrophysiology. In contrast, the rabbit cardiac electrophysiology is similar to human, but a detailed characterization of the different components of MetS in this animal is still needed. Our objective was to develop and characterize a diet-induced experimental model of MetS that allows the study of cardiovascular remodeling and arrhythmogenesis. Male NZW rabbits were assigned to control (n = 15 or MetS group (n = 16, fed during 28 weeks with high-fat, high-sucrose diet. We measured weight, morphological characteristics, blood pressure, glycaemia, standard plasma biochemistry and the metabolomic profile at weeks 14 and 28. Liver histological changes were evaluated using hematoxylin-eosin staining. A mixed model ANOVA or unpaired t-test were used for statistical analysis (P<0.05. Weight, abdominal contour, body mass index, systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure increased in the MetS group at weeks 14 and 28. Glucose, triglycerides, LDL, GOT-AST, GOT/GPT, bilirubin and bile acid increased, whereas HDL decreased in the MetS group at weeks 14 and 28. We found a 40% increase in hepatocyte area and lipid vacuoles infiltration in the liver from MetS rabbits. Metabolomic analysis revealed differences in metabolites related to fatty acids, energetic metabolism and microbiota, compounds linked with cardiovascular disease. Administration of high-fat and high-sucrose diet during 28 weeks induced obesity, glucose intolerance, hypertension, non-alcoholic hepatic steatosis and metabolic alterations, thus reproducing the main clinical manifestations of the metabolic syndrome in humans. This experimental model should provide a valuable tool for studies into the mechanisms of cardiovascular

  16. Histopathological characterization of experimentally induced cutaneous loxoscelism in rabbits inoculated with Loxosceles similis venom

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    NB Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Envenomation by Loxosceles bites is characterized by dermonecrotic and/or systemic features that lead to several clinical signs and symptoms called loxoscelism. Dermonecrotic lesions are preceded by thrombosis of the dermal plexus. Recent studies show that atheromatous plaque is prone to thrombosis due to endothelial cell apoptosis. To the best of our knowledge, there are no reports of microscopic dermal lesion and endothelial cell apoptosis induced by Loxosceles similis venom in the literature. Thus, the aim of the present study is to describe histological lesions induced by L. similis venom in rabbit skin and to elucidate whether apoptosis of endothelial cells is involved in the pathogenesis of loxoscelism. Forty male rabbits were split into two groups: the control group (intradermally injected with 50 µL of PBS and the experimental group (intradermally injected with 0.5 µg of L. similis crude venom diluted in 50 µL of PBS. After 2, 4, 6 and 8 hours of injection, skin fragments were collected and processed for paraffin or methacrylate embedding. Sections of 5 µm thick were stained by HE, PAS or submitted to TUNEL reaction. Microscopically, severe edema, diffuse heterophilic inflammatory infiltrate, perivascular heterophilic infiltrate, thrombosis, fibrinoid necrosis of arteriolar wall and cutaneous muscle necrosis were observed. Two hours after venom injection, endothelial cells with apoptosis morphology were evidenced in the dermal plexus. Apoptosis was confirmed by TUNEL reaction. It seems that endothelial cell apoptosis and its consequent desquamation is an important factor that induces thrombosis and culminates in dermonecrosis, which is characteristic of cutaneous loxoscelism.

  17. Use of a gel biopolymer for the treatment of eviscerated eyes: experimental model in rabbits

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    Francisco de Assis Cordeiro-Barbosa

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate histologically the integration process of cellulose gel produced by Zoogloea sp when implanted into rabbits' eviscerated eyes. METHODS: This experimental study employed 36 eyes of 18 rabbits subjected to evisceration of their right eyes. The sclerocorneal bag was sutured and filled with biopolymer from sugar cane in the gel state. All animals were clinically examined by biomicroscopy until the day of their sacrifice which occurred on the 7th, 30th, 60th, 90th, 120th, or 240th day. The eyeballs obtained, including the left eyes considered controls were sent for histopathological study by optical macroscopy and microscopy. Tissue staining techniques used included hematoxylin-eosin, Masson trichrome (with aniline, Gomori trichrome, Van Gienson, Picrosirius red, and periodic acid-Schiff (PAS. RESULTS: No clinical signs of infection, allergy, toxicity, or extrusion were observed throughout the experiment. The corneas were relatively preserved. Macroscopic examination revealed a decrease of ~ 8% in the volume of the bulbs implanted with the biopolymer. After cutting, the sclerocorneal bag was solid, compact, elastic, and resistant to traction, with a smooth and whitish surface, and showed no signs of necrosis or liquefaction. The episcleral tissues were somewhat hypertrophied. The histological preparations studied in different colors revealed an initial lymphoplasmacytic infiltration, replaced by a fibroblastic response and proliferation of histiocytes, along with formation of giant cells. Few polymorphonuclearneutrophils and eosinophils were also found. Neovascularization and collagen deposition were present in all animals starting from day 30; although on the 240th day of the experiment the chronic inflammatory response, neovascularization and collagen deposition had not yet reached the center of the implant. CONCLUSION: In this model, the cellulose gel produced by Zoogloea sp proved to be biocompatible and integrated into the

  18. Technetium-99m stannous pyrophosphate imaging of experimental infective endocarditis. [Rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riba, A.L.; Downs, J.; Thakur, M.L.; Gottschalk, A.; Andriole, V.T.; Zaret, B.L.

    1978-07-01

    Technetium-99m stannous pyrophosphate (/sup 99m/Tc-PYP) cardiac scintigraphy was performed in 15 rabbits with experimental Streptococcus sanguis aortic-valve infective endocarditis. The animals were imaged five to seven days after the administration of bacteria, and in each case abnormal accumulation of the tracer was visualized in the region of the aortic valve. Three types of cardiac scintigraphic patterns were demonstrated: focal, multifocal, and extensive, each correlating well with the anatomical extent of the lesion as defined by gross pathology. Tissue distribution studies demonstrated a 30 +- 5.3 (mean +- SEM) fold excess of radionuclide uptake in the infective endocarditis lesion compared with that of normal myocardium. Imaging of excised hearts from four animals showed an excellent correlation with in vivo imaging as well as gross pathology. Five animals with nonbacterial thrombotic aortic valve endocarditis demonstrated similar scintigraphic and tissue distribution results. In contrast, four normal animals failed to demonstrate abnormal /sup 99m/Tc-PYP cardiac scintigrams or tissue uptake. This study demonstrates that /sup 99m/Tc-PYP cardiac scintigraphy is a sensitive technique to detect experimental aortic valve endocarditis.

  19. Experimental West Nile Virus Infection in Rabbits: An Alternative Model for Studying Induction of Disease and Virus Control

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    Willy W. Suen

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The economic impact of non-lethal human and equine West Nile virus (WNV disease is substantial, since it is the most common presentation of the infection. Experimental infection with virulent WNV strains in the mouse and hamster models frequently results in severe neural infection and moderate to high mortality, both of which are not representative features of most human and equine infections. We have established a rabbit model for investigating pathogenesis and immune response of non-lethal WNV infection. Two species of rabbits, New Zealand White (Oryctolagus cuniculus and North American cottontail (Sylvilagus sp., were experimentally infected with virulent WNV and Murray Valley encephalitis virus strains. Infected rabbits exhibited a consistently resistant phenotype, with evidence of low viremia, minimal-absent neural infection, mild-moderate neuropathology, and the lack of mortality, even though productive virus replication occurred in the draining lymph node. The kinetics of anti-WNV neutralizing antibody response was comparable to that commonly seen in infected horses and humans. This may be explained by the early IFNα/β and/or γ response evident in the draining popliteal lymph node. Given this similarity to the human and equine disease, immunocompetent rabbits are, therefore, a valuable animal model for investigating various aspects of non-lethal WNV infections.

  20. Experimental West Nile Virus Infection in Rabbits: An Alternative Model for Studying Induction of Disease and Virus Control

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suen, Willy W.; Uddin, Muhammad J.; Wang, Wenqi; Brown, Vienna; Adney, Danielle R.; Broad, Nicole; Prow, Natalie A.; Bowen, Richard A.; Hall, Roy A.; Bielefeldt-Ohmann, Helle

    2015-01-01

    The economic impact of non-lethal human and equine West Nile virus (WNV) disease is substantial, since it is the most common presentation of the infection. Experimental infection with virulent WNV strains in the mouse and hamster models frequently results in severe neural infection and moderate to high mortality, both of which are not representative features of most human and equine infections. We have established a rabbit model for investigating pathogenesis and immune response of non-lethal WNV infection. Two species of rabbits, New Zealand White (Oryctolagus cuniculus) and North American cottontail (Sylvilagus sp.), were experimentally infected with virulent WNV and Murray Valley encephalitis virus strains. Infected rabbits exhibited a consistently resistant phenotype, with evidence of low viremia, minimal-absent neural infection, mild-moderate neuropathology, and the lack of mortality, even though productive virus replication occurred in the draining lymph node. The kinetics of anti-WNV neutralizing antibody response was comparable to that commonly seen in infected horses and humans. This may be explained by the early IFNα/β and/or γ response evident in the draining popliteal lymph node. Given this similarity to the human and equine disease, immunocompetent rabbits are, therefore, a valuable animal model for investigating various aspects of non-lethal WNV infections. PMID:26184326

  1. Histopathological evaluation of urethroplasty with dorsal buccal mucosa: an experimental study in rabbits

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    Geovanne F. Souza

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: Buccal mucosa is a widely accepted tissue for urethroplasty. The exact healing and tissue integration process, mainly the histological characteristics of dorsal buccal mucosa graft urethroplasty when used dorsally to reconstruct the urethral plate has not previously been assessed, and thus we developed an experimental model to address this question. MATERIALS AND METHODS: In 12 New Zealand rabbits (weight 2.5 kg we surgically created a dorsal penile urethral defect. A buccal mucosa graft was sutured to the corpora and tunica albuginea, and the ventral urethra anastomosed to this new urethral plate. The animals were divided in three groups and sacrificed 1, 3 and 6 weeks after surgery (groups 1, 2 and 3. A retrograde urethrogram was obtained at autopsy in the last group and the penis analyzed histologically with hematoxylin-eosin and Masson's staining. RESULTS: The urethrograms showed no evidence of fistula or stricture. In group 1 the histopathological analysis showed submucosal lymph-mononuclear inflammatory edema, numerous eosinophils and squamous epithelium integrated into the adjacent urothelium. In group 2 there was no evidence of an inflammatory response but rather complete subepithelial hyaline healing, which was more marked in group 3. CONCLUSION: Healing of buccal mucosa grafts to reconstruct the urethral plate can be achieved by total integration of the squamous epithelium with the urothelium, maintaining the original histological properties of the graft with no fibrosis or retraction.

  2. Relationship between fibrosis and lactate dehydrogenase isoenzymes in the experimental hypertrophic heart of rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Revis, N.W.; Cameron, A.J.V.

    1978-06-01

    Cardiac hypertrophy was induced in rabbits by injecting either thyroxine or isoprenaline or by surgically constricting the abdominal aorta. An increase in heart weight was associated with a change in the lactate dehydrogenase isoenzyme pattern and an increase in fibrosis (as measured by hydroxyproline concentrations). Isoprenaline treatment led to a moderate increase in heart weight, a marked decrease in the heart/skeletal muscle subunit ratio of lactate dehydrogenase, and a marked increase in hydroxyproline. Thyroxine treatment led to a small increase in both heart weight and hydroxyproline and a small decrease in the heart/skeletal muscle subunit ratio. Coarctation of the aorta, in contrast, caused a marked increase in heart weight, a moderate decrease in heart/skeletal muscle subunit ratio, and a moderate increase in hydroxyproline. These results suggest that the decrease in the heart/skeletal muscle subunit ratio of lactate dehydrogenase in the experimental hypertrophic heart reflects the extent of myocardial fibrosis, rather than changes within the hypertrophied myocardial cells.

  3. Reconstruction with autologous pasteurized whole knee joint I: experimental study in a rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmed, Adel Refaat; Watanabe, Hideomi; Takagishi, Kenji

    2003-01-01

    Hyperthermia-treated bone has been used for skeletal reconstruction after resection of malignant bone tumors, and more favorable results have been seen after pasteurization than after autoclaving or boiling. Pasteurization destroys malignant cells while preserving the bone-inducing property. All previous experimental models have studied replantation of bone segments, but reconstruction of joints is more important clinically. We studied the effects of extracorporeal hyperthermia on the reintegration of autologous whole knee joint grafts over a period of 16 weeks in a rabbit model. The whole knee joint was resected from 32 animals, heat-treated at 65 degrees C for 30 min, and replanted. In the control group, resection and replantation were performed without heat treatment. Reintegration was assessed by macroscopic analysis, histology, histochemistry, and radiography. Reintegration of the pasteurized group showed excellent remodeling during the 16 weeks, similar to the control groups. Responses to the pasteurization and the subsequent reintegration of cartilage, menisci, and ligaments were similar at 4, 8, 12, and 16 weeks with no significant difference between the two groups, although cartilage degradation seemed to occur earlier in the study group than in the control group. These results suggest that pasteurization may be superior to other cell-lethal treatments for autotransplantation of the whole joint currently available.

  4. Use of an Ophthalmic Viscosurgical Device for Experimental Retinal Detachment in Rabbit Eyes

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    Satoshi Okinami

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the temporary tamponade effects of an ophthalmic viscosurgical device (OVD for experimental retinal tears, we performed vitrectomy in four rabbit eyes and created a posterior vitreous detachment and artificial retinal tear to produce retinal detachment. The retina was flattened with liquid perfluorocarbon (PFC, the area peripheral to the tear was photocoagulated, an OVD was applied to the retinal tear surface below the PFC and the PFC was removed by aspiration. In the control group, PFC was removed without application of OVD. At one, three and seven days postoperatively, funduscopy and optical coherence tomography (OCT were performed to examine the sealing process of the retinal tear. In OVD-treated eyes, the OVD remained on the retinal surface, and the retinal tear was patched for ≥ 3 days postoperatively. By seven days postoperatively, the OVD on the retinal surface had disappeared, and the retina was reattached. In control eyes, the edge of the retinal tear was rolled, and retinal detachment persisted. In OVD-treated eyes, the border of the retinal tear was indistinct, and the defect area was significantly decreased. These results show that application of an OVD effectively seals retinal tears and eliminates retinal detachments.

  5. Effects of flunixin meglumine on experimental tendon wound healing: A histopathological and mechanical study in rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Behfar, Mehdi; Hobbenaghi, Rahim; Sarrafzadeh-Rezaei, Farshid

    2013-01-01

    Tendons are frequently targets of injury in sports and work. Whether nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have beneficial effects on tendon healing is still a matter of debate. This study was conducted to evaluate effects of flunixin meglumine (FM) on tendon healing after experimentally induced acute trauma. Twenty eight adult male New Zealand White rabbits were subjected to complete transection of deep digital flexor tendons followed by suture placement. Treatment group received intramuscular injection of FM for three days, and controls received placebo. Subsequently, cast immobilization was continued for two weeks. Animals were sacrificed four weeks after surgery and tissue samples were taken. The histological evaluations revealed improved structural characteristics of neotendon formation including fibrillar linearity, fibrillar continuity and neovascularization in treatment group compared to those of controls (p 0.05). Mechanical evaluation revealed significant increase in load-related material properties including ultimate load, yield load, energy absorption and ultimate stress in treatment group compared to those of control group (p 0.05). The present study showed that intramuscular injection of FM resulted in improved structural and mechanical properties of tendon repairs and it could be an effective treatment for acute tendon injuries like severance and laceration. PMID:25568677

  6. Effects of flunixin meglumine on experimental tendon wound healing: A histopathological and mechanical study in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Behfar

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Tendons are frequently targets of injury in sports and work. Whether nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs have beneficial effects on tendon healing is still a matter of debate. This study was conducted to evaluate effects of flunixin meglumine (FM on tendon healing after experimentally induced acute trauma. Twenty eight adult male New Zealand White rabbits were subjected to complete transection of deep digital flexor tendons followed by suture placement. Treatment group received intramuscular injection of FM for three days, and controls received placebo. Subsequently, cast immobilization was continued for two weeks. Animals were sacrificed four weeks after surgery and tissue samples were taken. The histological evaluations revealed improved structural characteristics of neotendon formation including fibrillar linearity, fibrillar continuity and neovascularization in treatment group compared to those of controls (p 0.05. Mechanical evaluation revealed significant increase in load-related material properties including ultimate load, yield load, energy absorption and ultimate stress in treatment group compared to those of control group (p 0.05. The present study showed that intramuscular injection of FM resulted in improved structural and mechanical properties of tendon repairs and it could be an effective treatment for acute tendon injuries like severance and laceration.

  7. Contaminated osteochondral plugs: effect of different sterilizing solutions: an experimental study in the rabbit

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    Hamidreza Yazdi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available  Abstract Background: To determine the efficacy of different antiseptic solutions (Control group (I, Antibiotic solution (II, Chlorhexidine 0.4% (III, and povidone – iodine 10% (IV in sterilizing contaminated osteochondral plugs. Methods: Under sterile conditions, the femoral head and condyles of 20 rabbits were removed and cut into equal osteochondral pieces. A total of 200 osteochondral specimens were obtained. All 200 specimens were dropped on the operating room floor for fifteen seconds and assigned to one of four experimental groups. Group I samples were cultured after washing with normal saline solution (Control group. In other three groups, prior to culturing process, samples were placed in an antibiotic solution after washing with normal saline (Neomycin & Polymyxin (group II, Chlorhexidine 0.4% (group III, and povidone – iodine 10% (group IV, respectively. Results: In group I, 25 of 50 specimens had positive cultures. Of 50 specimens of group II, III and IV, no positive cultures were found after 10 days. Conclusion: all three agents including antibiotic solution, povidone-iodine 10% and chlorhexidine 0.4% seem effective in sterilizing the contaminated osteochondral samples. According to the literature, povidone-iodine has no negative effect on the cartilage metabolism and seems to be a proper choice of decontaminating solution for osteochondral plugs.To the best of the authors' knowledge, such a study on the contaminated osteochondral specimen has not been previously reported in the literature. 

  8. Effect of three different sanitizing solutions on the contaminated bone: an experimental study in the rabbit

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    Hamidreza Yazdi

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available  Abstract Background: To determine the efficacy of three different antiseptic solutions (Control group (I, Antibiotic solution – Neomycin and polymyxin (II, Chlorhexidine 0.4% (III, and povidone – iodine 10% (IV in disinfecting contaminated bone fragments. Methods: Under sterile conditions, the femora of 12 rabbits were removed and cut into six millimeter pieces. A total of 200 bone specimens were obtained. All 200 specimens were dropped on the operating room floor for fifteen seconds and assigned to one of four experimental groups. Group I samples were cultured after immersion in normal saline solution (Control group. In other three groups, prior to culture the samples, they were washed with normal saline for ninety seconds and placed in an antibiotic solution (Neomycin & Polymyxin (group II, Chlorhexidine 0.4% (group III, and povidone-iodine 10% (group IV respectively. Results: In group I, 22 of 50 specimens had positive cultures. Of 50 specimens of group II and IV, positive cultures were found in 3 and 2 grafts respectively after 10 days whereas no positive cultures were detected in any samples of group III. Conclusion: Chlorhexidine 0.4% seems to be the best antiseptic solution for discontaminating the contaminated bone samples although it did not have any significant difference with povidone-iodine and other antibiotic solution. 

  9. Role of mechanical compression on bone regeneration around a particulate bone graft material: an experimental study in rabbit calvaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Romanos, Georgios E; Delgado-Ruiz, Rafael A; Gómez-Moreno, Gerardo; López-López, Patricia J; Mate Sanchez de Val, Jose E; Calvo-Guirado, Jose Luis

    2015-04-12

    This experimental study was designed to analyze the effect of different compressive forces on the bone regeneration around a particulate bone graft material. Eighty 6-mm-diameter defects were created in the calvaria of 20 New Zealand rabbits (4 defects per rabbit calvaria). All the defects were filled with particles of synthetic bone. Two standardized compressive forces were then applied, 4.1 g to half the defects (Test A) and 8.2 g to the other half (Test B), all for 1 min. The graft sites were allowed to heal for 6 weeks, after which the rabbits were euthanized. The calvarium vault of each animal was extracted, radiographed, and prepared for histomorphometric analysis. The percentage of defect fill, bone density, new bone formation, and residual bone graft material were recorded, and the results were subjected to statistical analysis. Histological evaluation found that defect closure among the Test A (lower compression) group ranged from 38.34 (95% lower CI) to 55.8 (95% upper CI) (mean 47 ± 8.5%), while among the Test B group (higher compression), it ranged from 81.26 (95% lower CI) to 95.32 (mean 88 ± 7.3%). Significantly more closure was achieved for the Test B group (P particulate used to fill small defects created in rabbit calvaria appears to be beneficial. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Effect of a lytic bacteriophage on rabbits experimentally infected with pathogenic Escherichia coli

    OpenAIRE

    Zhao, J.; He, L; Pan, L.; Y. Liu; Yao, H; Bao, G.

    2017-01-01

    [EN] Pathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli) is severely threatening the rabbit industry in China, and the concern over antibiotic-resistant bacteria has given rise to an urgent need for antibiotic alternatives. In this study, a member (ZRP1) of the Myoviridae family was isolated from rabbit faeces using a strain of rabbit atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (ZR1) as host. The one-step growth curve indicated that the latent period was around 25 to 30 min and the burst size was 144±31 plaque-formi...

  11. The rabbit as an experimental and production animal: from genomics to proteomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Ingrid; Rogel-Gaillard, Claire; Spina, Domenico; Fontanesi, Luca; de Almeida, Andre M

    2014-03-01

    The rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) is an important animal species widely used for biomedical research purposes, meat production and as a pet animal. There are numerous biomedical and scientific applications that include important areas such as antibody production, muscle, eye and circulatory physiology. The use of proteomics has been limited when considering this species. The aim of this article is to provide a review on applications of proteomics to the rabbit species, including those that are most relevant and where rabbit is a key species: muscle and circulatory system physiology.

  12. Atherosclerotic changes of vessels caused by restriction of movement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gvishiani, G. S.; Kobakhidze, N. G.; Mchedlishvili, M. G.; Dekanosidze, T. I.

    1980-01-01

    The effect of restriction of movement on the development of atheroscelerosis was studied in rabbits. Drastic restriction of movement for 20 and 30 days causes atherosclerotic alterations of the aorta and shifts in ECG which are characteristic of coronary atherosclerosis. At the same time, shortening of the duration of blood coagulation and an increase in the content of catecholamines and beta-lipoproteids occur.

  13. Recording of unexpectedly high frequency vibrations of blood vessel walls in experimental arteriovenous fistulae of rabbits using a laser vibrometer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stehbens, W E; Liepsch, D W; Poll, A; Erhardt, W

    1995-01-01

    Because arteriovenous fistulae are associated with a palpable thrill and an audible murmur, the vibrational activity of the blood vessel walls about experimental arteriovenous fistulae in rabbits was investigated using, for the first time, a high-resolution laser vibrometer. Frequencies of mural vibrations up to 2200 Hz were recorded at different sites about the fistulae. The relationship of this vibratory activity of blood vessel walls to physiological and pathological conditions warrants further investigation.

  14. Effect of fish and krill oil supplementation on glucose tolerance in rabbits with experimentally induced obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanova, Zhenya; Bjørndal, Bodil; Grigorova, Natalia; Roussenov, Anton; Vachkova, Ekaterina; Berge, Kjetil; Burri, Lena; Berge, Rolf; Stanilova, Spaska; Milanova, Anelia; Penchev, Georgi; Vik, Rita; Petrov, Vladimir; Georgieva, Teodora Mircheva; Bivolraski, Boycho; Georgiev, Ivan Penchev

    2015-10-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the effect of fish oil (FO) and krill oil (KO) supplementation on glucose tolerance in obese New Zealand white rabbits. The experiments were carried out with 24 male rabbits randomly divided into four groups: KO-castrated, treated with KO; FO-castrated, treated with FO; C-castrated, non-treated; NC-non-castrated, non-treated. At the end of treatment period (2 months), an intravenous glucose tolerance test (IVGTT) was performed in all rabbits. Fasting blood glucose concentrations in FO and KO animals were significantly lower than in group C. The blood glucose concentrations in FO- and KO-treated animals returned to initial values after 30 and 60 min of IVGTT, respectively. In liver, carnitine palmitoyltransferase 2 (Cpt2) and 3-hydroxy-3-methyl-glutaryl-CoA synthase 2 (Hmgcs2) genes were significantly increased in FO-fed rabbits compared with the C group. Acetyl-CoA carboxylase alpha (Acaca) expression was significantly reduced in both KO- and FO-fed rabbits. In skeletal muscle, Hmgcs2 and Cd36 were significantly higher in KO-fed rabbits compared with the C group. Acaca expression was significantly lower in KO- and FO-fed rabbits compared with the C group. The present results indicate that FO and KO supplementation decreases fasting blood glucose and improves glucose tolerance in obese New Zealand white rabbits. This could be ascribed to the ameliorated insulin sensitivity and insulin secretion and modified gene expressions of some key enzymes involved in β-oxidation and lipogenesis in liver and skeletal muscle.

  15. Experimental Study of the Pathogenicity of Pasteurella multocida Capsular Type B in Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoch, S; Verma, L; Sharma, M; Asrani, R K; Kumar, S; Chahota, R; Verma, S

    2015-01-01

    The increased frequency of isolation of Pasteurella multocida capsular type B from rabbitries in north-western India prompted this investigation into the role of this organism in inducing disease in rabbits. Ten rabbits were divided into two groups of five animals. Group I rabbits were infected intranasally (IN) with 1 ml of inoculum containing 2 × 10(5) colony forming units/ml, while rabbits in group II were given 1 ml phosphate buffered saline IN. The rabbits in group I developed respiratory distress, increased rectal temperature and severe dyspnoea, with death occurring 24-48 h post infection. The main pathological findings were severe congestion and haemorrhage in the trachea, fibrinopurulent pneumonia, bacteraemia and septicaemia. The nasal secretions of all group I animals contained P. multocida. These observations indicate that in addition to P. multocida capsular types A and D, P. multocida capsular type B can also be highly pathogenic for rabbits. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Cell death during the postnatal morphogenesis of the normal rabbit kidney and in experimental renal polycystosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Porrero, J A; Ojeda, J L; Hurlé, J M

    1978-01-01

    We have studied, by means of optic and electron microscopy, the normal and abnormal cell death that takes place during the postnatal morphogenesis of rabbit kidney, and in the experimental renal polycystosis produced by methylprednisolone acetate. In the normal kidney intertubular cell death can be observed during the first 20 days of the postnatal development. However, cell death in the normal metanephric blastema is a very rare event. In the polycystic kidney numerous dead cells can be seen between the third and forty eighth days after injection. The topography and morphology of the dead cells depend on the stage in the evolution of the disease. In the 'stage of renal immaturity', dying and dead cells are present in the nephrogenic tissue, in the dilating collecting tubules and in the intertubular spaces. In this stage the cellular pathology is essentially nuclear. In the stage of tubular cysts, the dead cells are mostly located in the walls of cysts, with some dead cells, but mostly cellular debris in their lumina. At this stage the cellular pathology is basically cytoplasmic. The dead cells are eventually digested by what appear to be phagocytes of tubular epithelial origin. It is suggested that cell death is an important factor in the evolution of the lesions of renal polycystosis induced by corticosteroids, and probably in the initiation of the pathological process as well. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 Fig. 6 Fig. 7 Fig. 8 Fig. 9 Fig. 10 Fig. 11 Fig. 12 Fig. 13 Fig. 14 Fig. 15 Fig. 16 Fig. 17 Fig. 18 Fig. 19 PMID:670065

  17. Experimental study on the effect of controlled hypotension levels on rabbit CA1 neurons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Bingbing; Zhou, Diawei; Huang, Hongyan; Xiao, Xiaoshan

    2013-06-01

    The present study investigated the effect of controlled hypotension (CH) levels regulated by nitroprusside on hippocampal CA1 neurons. All experimental rabbits were randomly divided into five groups to perform CH for recording their vital signs and survived for a certain time. The arterial blood was collected to measure the serum levels of interleukin 6 and tumor necrosis factor α and then the brain tissues were perfused and sectioned to carry out hematoxylin-eosin staining, TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling fluorescence, c-fos immunohistochemistry, and ultrastructural observation of hippocampal neuronal mitochondria. All data were analyzed with SPSS13.0 software, and P < 0.05 was indicated as statistically significant. Heart rate, mean arterial pressure, and the dosage of sodium nitroprusside were not statistically significant between groups, but at T2, heart rate levels in groups II-IV were lower than those in groups I and V. Simultaneously, interleukin 6 was remarkably overexpressed in group II than in other groups at T2, whereas tumor necrosis factor α was higher in groups I-III than in groups IV and V. At the light and electronic microscopic levels, the CA1 regional neurons of group IV were more seriously damaged and deranged compared with other groups so was the expression of c-fos. However, fluorescence from TdT-mediated dUTP nick end labeling assay was more intensive in groups II-IV than that in other groups. Results further showed that Flameng scores of mitochondria were the highest in group IV, but they were not statistically significant among the other groups. The different levels of CH remarkably affected the functional activities of hippocampal CA1 neurons; with the decrease of mean arterial pressure, neuronal apoptosis, and c-fos expression was gradually increased and reached the peak in 45% of basic values of blood pressure. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Experimental Infection of New Zealand White Rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculi) with Leporid herpesvirus 4

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sunohara-Neilson, Janet R; Brash, Marina; Carman, Susy; Nagy, Éva; Turner, Patricia V

    2013-01-01

    Leporid herpesvirus 4 (LHV4) is a novel alphaherpesvirus recently identified in domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculi). Little is known about the pathogenesis or time course of disease induced by this virus. We therefore intranasally inoculated 22 female New Zealand white rabbits with 8.4 × 104 CCID50 of a clinical viral isolate. Rabbits were monitored for clinical signs, viral shedding in oculonasal secretions, and development and persistence of serum antibodies. Rabbits were euthanized at 3, 5, 7, 14, and 22 d postinfection (dpi) to evaluate gross and microscopic changes. Clinical signs were apparent between 3 to 8 dpi, and included oculonasal discharge, respiratory distress, and reduced appetite, and viral shedding occurred between 2 and 8 dpi. Seroconversion was seen at 11 dpi and persisted to the end of the study (day 22). Severe necrohemorrhagic bronchopneumonia and marked pulmonary edema were noted by 5 dpi and were most severe at 7 dpi. Pulmonary changes largely resolved by 22 dpi. In addition, multifocal splenic necrosis was present at 5 dpi and progressed to submassive necrosis by 7 dpi. Eosinophilic herpesviral intranuclear inclusion bodies were detected in the nasal mucosa, skin, spleen, and lung between 3 to 14 dpi. LHV4 is a pathogen that should be considered for rabbits that present with acute respiratory disease. LHV4 infection can be diagnosed based on characteristic microscopic changes in the lungs and spleen and by virus isolation. Serum antibody levels may be used to monitor viral prevalence in colonies. PMID:24210019

  19. Role of granulocytes in the prevention and therapy of experimental Streptococcus sanguis endocarditis in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meddens, M J; Thompson, J; Mattie, H; van Furth, R

    1984-01-01

    The contributions of granulocytes to the prevention and therapy of Streptococcus sanguis endocarditis with procaine benzylpenicillin (PBP) was investigated in rabbits. Depletion of granulocytes by treatment with mechlorethamine appeared to have no significant effect on either the prophylactic or therapeutic activities of PBP. Administration of 3,000 IU of PBP before inoculation with S. sanguis retarded the course of the endocarditis for only 24 h whether granulocytes were normal or depressed in numbers. Prophylaxis with either 15,000 or 30,000 IU of PBP was equally effective in non-granulocytopenic and granulocytopenic rabbits. Treatment of established infections with PBP at doses of 3,000 to 300,000 IU of PBP at 12-h intervals for 48 h was equally effective in rabbits with normal and depressed numbers of granulocytes. The effect of 3,000 IU of PBP was equivalent, however, to that of granulocytes alone, as shown by the fact that the numbers of CFU per gram of vegetation in the granulocytopenic rabbits treated with this dose of PBP and in the non-PBP-treated control rabbits were not significantly different. PMID:6712203

  20. Experimental use of semiconductor diode laser in contact transscleral cyclophotocoagulation in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schuman, J S; Jacobson, J J; Puliafito, C A; Noecker, R J; Reidy, W T

    1990-08-01

    Acute and long-term effects of contact transscleral semiconductor diode laser cyclophotocoagulation were studied in rabbits. Immediately following cyclophotocoagulation, light microscopy revealed coagulation necrosis of the ciliary pigmented and nonpigmented epithelia and stroma; destruction increased in relation to power. There was architectural disruption with higher energy levels. The findings with diode and continuous-wave contact neodymium-YAG lasers were similar. In rabbits treated and followed up for 6 weeks there was a decrease in intraocular pressure during the observation period (P less than .05, paired Student's t test). The gross and light microscopic examination revealed focal atrophy and fibrosis of the ciliary processes, with pigment-laden macrophages on the ciliary processes and in the outflow pathways. Higher energy levels caused lens capsule damage and vitritis. The diode laser produced ciliary destruction similar to the continuous-wave contact neodymium-YAG laser in rabbits, with significant intraocular pressure lowering during the 6-week follow-up.

  1. Haematological and biochemical changes in experimental Trypanosoma evansi infection in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivajothi, S; Rayulu, V C; Sudhakara Reddy, B

    2015-06-01

    New Zealand white rabbits (N = 4) were challenged with the local strain of Trypanosoma evansi. Each rabbit was infected with 5 × 10(5) trypanosomes subcutaneously. The infection was characterized by intermittent pyrexia, undulating parasitaemia, anorexia and emaciation. The infected rabbits were examined daily for development of clinical signs and infection status by wet blood-films made from the ear veins. Thick and thin blood smears were also examined daily until the end of the experiment for description of blood cells. Differential leukocyte count (DLC) was also done. The parasite was observed in the blood during the acute phase only. Leukocytosis in the acute phase followed by leukopenia during the chronic phase was recognized. Haematological studies revealed reduced TEC, Hb and PCV. The main changes in the erythrocytes were macrocytes, hypochromic cells, Howell-Jolly bodies, target cells, stomatocytes and burr cells. Serum chemistry revealed hypoproteinemia, hypocholesterolaemia, hypoglycemia, hyperbilirubinemia, elevated creatinine, BUN, increased AST and ALT.

  2. The effects of low-dose radiotherapy on fresh osteochondral allografts: An experimental study in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gönç, Uğur; Çetinkaya, Mehmet; Atabek, Mesut

    2016-10-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of low-dose fractionated radiotherapy on cartilage degeneration after distal femoral fresh massive osteochondral allograft transplantation. Twenty-four New Zealand White rabbits were divided into three groups of 8 rabbits each. All rabbits underwent distal femoral medial condyle fresh massive osteochondral allograft transplantation from California rabbits. The group 1 underwent transplantation without any preliminary process. The group 2 underwent fractionated local radiotherapy of 100 cGy for five days starting on the transplantation day. The group 3 included the rabbits to which the grafts transplanted after radiating in vitro by a single dose radiation of 1500 cGy. The hosts were sacrificed twelve weeks later. Anteroposterior and lateral radiographs were taken. Synovial tissue, cartilaginous tissue, and subchondral bone were assessed histopathologically. Nonunion was present in three cases of group 2 and one of group 3 in which cartilage degeneration was more severe. Synovial hypertrophy and pannus formation were more obvious in non-radiated rabbits. Hypocellularity and necrosis of the subchondral bone were rare in group 2. More cartilage tissue impairment was present in group 3 compared to group 1. In osteochondral massive allograft transplantations, the immune reaction of the host could be precluded with radiotherapy, and the side-effects can be prevented by low-dose fractionated regimen. The total dose of fractionated radiotherapy for an immune suppression should be adjusted not to damage the cartilage tissue, but to avoid articular degeneration in the long term. Copyright © 2016 Turkish Association of Orthopaedics and Traumatology. Production and hosting by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Comparison between two different experimental models of osteoarthritis in rabbits. Intra-articular collagenase injection and anterior cruciate ligament transection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermeto, Larissa Correa; Rossi, Rafael De; Jardim, Paulo Henrique de Affonseca; Santana, Aureo Evangelista; Rinaldi, Jaqueline de Carvalho; Justulin, Luis Antonio

    2016-09-01

    To compare two different experimental models of osteoarthritis in rabbits: intra-articular collagenase injection and anterior cruciate ligament transection. Ten adult rabbits were randomly divided in two groups: COLL (collagenase group) and ACLT (anterior cruciate ligament transection). The COLL group was treated with 0.5 ml collagenase solution (2mg collagenase/0.5 ml sterile PBS), and the ACTL group was subjected to anterior cruciate ligament. After six and twelve weeks, respectively, the animals in the COLL and ACTL groups were euthanized. The gross appearance and histological examinations conducted in the cartilage articular surface was blindly scored according to the criteria developed by Yoshimi et al. (1994) and Mankin et al. (1971), respectively. The gross morphologic observation, macroscopic score and histological examinations have demonstrated that the ACTL group presented the highest scores, and lesions more severe than those in the COLL group. Both methods, anterior cruciate ligament transection and collagenase, applied to the stifle joint of the rabbits have effectively induced degenerative changes in the cartilage tissue, through statistically significant analysis (p≤0.05). The ACTL method has presented more severe lesions.

  4. Detection of parenchymal abnormalities in experimentally induced acute pyelonephritis in rabbits using contrast-enhanced ultrasonography, CT, and MRI

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ryu, Jeong Ah; Kim, Bo Hyun; Kim, Seung Kwon; Seo, Jin Won [Dept. of Radiology, Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Sung [Laboratory Animal Research Center, Samsung Biomedical Research Institute, Sungkyunkwan University School of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-12-15

    We evaluated the efficacy of contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS) in detecting acute pyelonephritis (APN) using the rabbit kidney model and compared it with CT and MRI. This study was approved by the Institutional Review Board. In a total of 20 New Zealand White rabbits, APN was induced experimentally. CEUS, CT, and MRI were performed on the first, third, and seventh postoperative days. After imaging studies, the subjects were sacrificed and the pathological diagnosis of APN was confirmed in each animal by a pathologist. Imaging studies were obtained in eight animals, including eight CEUS, four computed tomography (CT), and four magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) images. CEUS depicted diffuse renal enlargement (7), diffuse heterogeneous parenchymal enhancement (6), and focal areas of decreased parenchymal enhancement (6). These findings were well correlated with the CT and MRI findings in five cases in which these studies were available. CT and MRI showed diffuse renal enlargement, diffuse heterogeneous parenchymal enhancement, focal areas of decreased parenchymal enhancement, focal contour bulging, and the finding of perinephric spread of infection. In a rabbit model, CEUS could depict the parenchymal lesions of APN similar to CT or MRI; however, it was limited in depicting the perinephric extension of inflammation.

  5. Surgery of the lateral nasal wall and ethmoid: effects on sinonasal growth: an experimental study in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verwoerd-Verhoef, Henriette L; Verwoerd, Carel D A

    2003-03-01

    To assess the impact of lateral nasal wall surgery on sinonasal growth Twenty young New Zealand White rabbits, 6 weeks of age, were included in this experimental study. Surgery was performed on two groups of ten animals each (series I and II). Entrance to the left nasal cavity is achieved through the nasal dorsum via mobilization and rotation of the left nasal bone. Series I: partial resection of the lateral nasal wall (including the ostium to the maxillary sinus) on the left side. Series II: partial resection of the lateral nasal wall and anterior ethmoid. Follow-up period was 20 weeks. Twenty rabbits served as controls. In series I, all skulls have grown normally. In series II the nasal dorsum has also developed symmetrically. Snout length and growth of upper jaw are normal; there is no malocclusion. Three skulls show a slight deviation of the nasal dorsum (two to the left, one to the right). Morphometric measurements of 20 points on the skulls show no significant difference between the control group and the experimental series I and II. This experimental study demonstrates that visually controlled partial resection of the bony sinonasal wall, with or without resection of the anterior ethmoid does not affect later development of nose and upper jaw on condition that eventually underlying cartilage is preserved. Contradictory results from other experimental studies, previously published and concerning negative effects of sinus surgery, might be attributed to surgical traumatization of intranasal cartilage structures, in particular, the upper lateral cartilages.

  6. Lymphatic vessels: an emerging actor in atherosclerotic plaque development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kutkut, Issa; Meens, Merlijn J; McKee, Thomas A; Bochaton-Piallat, Marie-Luce; Kwak, Brenda R

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic inflammatory disease of large- to medium-sized arteries and is the main underlying cause of death worldwide. The lymphatic vasculature is critical for processes that are intimately linked to atherogenesis such as the immune response and cholesterol metabolism. However, whether lymphatic vessels truly contribute to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis is less clear despite increasing research efforts in this field. PubMed and Ovid MEDLINE databases were searched. In addition, key review articles were screened for relevant original publications. Current knowledge about lymphatic vessels in the arterial wall came from studies that examined the presence and location of such vessels in human atherosclerotic plaque specimens, as well as in a variety of arteries in animal models for atherosclerosis (e.g. rabbits, dogs, rats and mice). Generally, three experimental approaches have been used to investigate the functional role of plaque-associated lymphatic vessels; experimental lymphostasis was used to investigate lymphatic drainage of the arterial wall, and more recently, studies with genetic interventions and/or surgical transplantation have been performed. Lymphatic vessels seem to be mostly present in the adventitial layer of the arterial walls of animals and humans. They are involved in reverse cholesterol transport from atherosclerotic lesions, and arteries with a dense lymphatic network seem naturally protected against atherosclerosis. Lymphangiogenesis is a process that is an important part of the inflammatory loop in atherosclerosis. However, how augmenting or impeding the distribution of lymphatic vessels impacts disease progression remains to be investigated in future studies. © 2014 Stichting European Society for Clinical Investigation Journal Foundation.

  7. Experimental Study of Percutaneous Ethanol Injection in the Rabbit Liver : Correlations Between Sonography and Pathology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Hye Won; Yoon, Yup; Ko, Young Tae; Lim, Joo Won; Kim, Youn Wha [Kyung Hee University Hospital, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Jae Hoon [Samsung Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-06-15

    To investigate the sonographic change and histopathologic correlation after percutaneous ethanol injection(PEI) of normal rabbit liver. Seven rabbits with normal livers were injected ethanol percutaneously under the guidance of ultrasound. Ethanol was injected to five rabbit livers at two different sites with one week interval in two week time period. The echogenecity of the lesion was compared with that of the adjacent normal liver parenchyma and classified into hypo-, iso-, and hyper echoic pattern. The resected specimens were analyzed according to the presence of coagulation necrosis, liquefactive necrosis, and granulation tissue. Sonography after PEI showed hyper echoic focus in all initial injection site which became isoechoic to the surrounding liver parenchyma with time, except for one case. However, one of the lesions became hypoechoic in a week. The isoechoic lesions on sonography were coagulation necrosis and granulation tissue on pathologic correlation. There was also more severe, periportal fibrosis within parenchyma adjacent isoechoic lesion, which became abundant with respect to time. The hypoechoic lesion was correlated with liquefactive necrosis. Histopathologic findings of normal rabbit livers after PEI are coagulation necrosis and granulation tissue. Although the histopathologic changes become progressive with time, the sonographic findings remain isoechoic to the surrounding liver parenchyma. Hypoechogenecity due to liquefactive necrosis may be helpful to differentiate the lesion from normal hepatic parenchyma

  8. HEMATOLOGICAL AND IMMUNOBIOCHEMICAL STUDY OF GREEN TEA AND GINGER EXTRACTS IN EXPERIMENTALLY INDUCED DIABETIC RABBITS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elkirdasy, Ahmed; Shousha, Saad; Alrohaimi, Abdulmohsen H; Arshad, M Faiz

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effects of the extract of green tea and/or ginger on some hematological and immunobiochemical profiles in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits. The results revealed that treatment of diabetic animals with extract of green tea and/or ginger elevated the decreased HDL-c and LDL-c but significantly decreased triglycerides, the elevated glucose and GOT concentrations. The result also displayed a non-significant increase in the levels of CRP and fibrinogen. The experiment also revealed that the elevated MDA and GSH level fell down to the normal control group. The result also showed that after green tea and/or ginger extract treatment, the lowered RBC, WBC counts, PCV, percentage of neutrophils were increased and the elevated MCV, MCH, and MCHC of diabetic rabbits were decreased to normal levels. Thus, the overall results may indicate that green tea and/or ginger extracts have a significant hypoglycemic effect in diabetic rabbits. In addition, the extracts may be capable of improving hyperlipidemia, the impaired kidney function and hemogram in alloxan-induced diabetic rabbits.

  9. Experimental study of sutureless vascular anastomosis with use of glued prosthesis in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vokrri, Lulzim; Qavdarbasha, Arsim; Rudari, Hajriz; Ahmetaj, Halil; Manxhuka-Kërliu, Suzana; Hyseni, Nexhmi; Porcu, Paolo; Cinquin, Philippe; Sessa, Carmine

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this study is to explore the feasibility and efficacy of a new technique for sutureless vascular anastomosis, using glued prosthesis, as a sole anastomosis fixation method in rabbits. Ten rabbits were randomly selected to conduct the experiment. Five rabbits underwent direct anastomosis of infrarenal abdominal aorta, with glued prosthesis. In five other rabbits, reconstruction was done by sutured anastomosis. All animals were immediately examined by echo-Doppler for patency of anastomosis. The burst pressure of the glued anastomosis was measured and compared with that of a sutured artery. The animals were euthanized, and tissue samples were taken for histological examination immediately after the experiment. Compared to conventional anastomoses, sutureless vascular anastomoses required shorter time of creation and significantly reduced blood loss (Pprosthesis, examined by echo-Doppler, were patent at the anastomotic site, except one, which was stenosed immediately after surgery. In the control group, except one with stenosis, all conventional anastomoses were patent. Mean burst pressure at the anastomotic site for sutureless anastomoses was lower than in control group. Macroscopically, the BioGlue did not demonstrate any adhesion to the surrounding tissue as it was covered by the vascular prosthesis. Histological examination showed low-grade inflammatory reaction in glued anastomoses versus no inflammatory reaction at the sutured anastomoses. This technique may provide a feasible and successful alternative in vascular surgery. However, further long-term studies are necessary to elucidate the break pressure and degree of inflammation at the anastomotic site.

  10. Effect of a lytic bacteriophage on rabbits experimentally infected with pathogenic Escherichia coli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Zhao

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Pathogenic Escherichia coli (E. coli is severely threatening the rabbit industry in China, and the concern over antibiotic-resistant bacteria has given rise to an urgent need for antibiotic alternatives. In this study, a member (ZRP1 of the Myoviridae family was isolated from rabbit faeces using a strain of rabbit atypical enteropathogenic E. coli (ZR1 as host. The one-step growth curve indicated that the latent period was around 25 to 30 min and the burst size was 144±31 plaque-forming unit/cell. The rate of phage-resistant mutation was 7×10–5±4×10–5. When the bacteriophage input at the multiplicity of infection (MOI was 0.1, 1 or 10, the growth of host E. coli in broth was inhibited for 5 h. A single intravenous injection of ZRP1 at MOI 0.1, 1 or 10 significantly prolonged the survival time of rabbits which simultaneously received a lethal dose of ZR1.

  11. Pectin nanocoating of titanium implant surfaces - an experimental study in rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gurzawska, Katarzyna Aleksandra; Dirscherl, Kai; Jørgensen, Bodil

    2017-01-01

    that may increase adhesion of bone proteins, and bone cells at the implant surface. Nanocoating with pectins, plant cell wall-derived polysaccharides, is frequently done using rhamnogalacturonan-I (RG-I). AIM: The aim of the study was to evaluate the effect of nanocoating titanium implants with plant cell......) into the left and right tibia of rabbits. Machined titanium implants without RG-I nanocoating were used as controls (n = 32). Total number of 128 implants was placed in tibias of 16 rabbits. Fluorochrome bone labels, calcein green and alizarin red S were given intravenously after 9 and 12 days, respectively....... The bone response to the nanocoated implants was analyzed qualitatively and quantitatively after 2, 4, 6, and 8 weeks of healing using light microscopy and histomorphometric methods. RESULTS: The RG-I coating influenced the surface chemical composition; wettability and roughness, making the surface more...

  12. Anchorage of titanium implants with different surface characteristics: an experimental study in rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotfredsen, K; Berglundh, T; Lindhe, J

    2000-01-01

    ) TiO2-blasted with particles of grain size 10 to 53 microns; (3) TiO2-blasted, grain size 63 to 90 microns; (4) TiO2-blasted, grain size 90 to 125 microns; (5) titanium plasma-sprayed (TPS). The surface topography was determined by the use of an optical instrument. Twelve rabbits, divided into two...... groups, had a total of 120 implants inserted in the tibiae. One implant from each of the five surface categories was placed within the left tibia of each rabbit. By a second operation, implants were installed in the right tibia, after 2 weeks in group A and after 3 weeks in group B. Fluorochrome labeling...

  13. The impact of nicotine on osseointegration. An experimental study in the femur and tibia of rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balatsouka, Dimitra; Gotfredsen, Klaus; Lindh, Christian H

    2005-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of an enhanced systematic dose of nicotine on osseointegration of titanium implants. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixteen female rabbits received either nicotine (n=8) or saline (n=8) administered subcutaneously via mini-osmotic pumps...... for 2 months. The pump delivered 6 mug/kg/min of nicotine for the animals in the test group. Blood was withdrawn and plasma cotinine levels were measured weekly. Thirty-two titanium implants were inserted into the femur and tibia of all rabbits after 4 weeks and after 6 weeks of nicotine....../placebo exposure. Thus, 2- and 4-week healing groups were created. Biomechanical evaluation by (i) resonance frequency analysis test (RFA) on all implants after insertion and before sacrifice and (ii) removal torque test (RMT) on tibial implants before sacrifice was performed. All implants placed in the femur were...

  14. Modulography: elasticity imaging of atherosclerotic plaques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R. Baldewsing (Radj)

    2006-01-01

    textabstractModulography is an experimental elasticity imaging method. It has potential to become an all-in-one in vivo tool (a) for detecting vulnerable atherosclerotic coronary plaques, (b) for assessing information related to their rupture-proneness and (c) for imaging their elastic material

  15. Neuroprotective effects of sildenafil in experimental spinal cord injury in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Kara

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Neuroprotective agents such as methylprednisolone and sildenafil may limit damage after spinal cord injury. We evaluated the effects of methylprednisolone and sildenafil on biochemical and histologic changes after spinal cord injury in a rabbit model. Female New Zealand rabbits (32 rabbits were allocated to 4 equal groups: laminectomy only (sham control or laminectomy and spinal trauma with no other treatment (trauma control or treatment with either methylprednisolone or sildenafil. Gelsolin and caspase-3 levels in cerebrospinal fluid and plasma were determined, and spinal cord histology was evaluated at 24 hours after trauma. There were no differences in mean cerebrospinal fluid or plasma levels of caspase-3 between the groups or within the groups from 0 to 24 hours after injury. From 0 to 24 hours after trauma, mean cerebrospinal fluid gelsolin levels significantly increased in the sildenafil group and decreased in the sham control and the trauma control groups. Mean plasma gelsolin level was significantly higher at 8 and 24 hours after trauma in the sildenafil than other groups. Histologic examination indicated that general structural integrity was better in the methylprednisolone in comparison with the trauma control group. General structural integrity, leptomeninges, white and grey matter hematomas, and necrosis were significantly improved in the sildenafil compared with the trauma control group. Caspase-3 levels in the cerebrospinal fluid and blood were not increased but gelsolin levels were decreased after spinal cord injury in trauma control rabbits. Sildenafil caused an increase in gelsolin levels and may be more effective than methylprednisolone at decreasing secondary damage to the spinal cord. 

  16. Eimeria stiedae: experimental infection in rabbits and the effect of treatment with toltrazuril and ivermectin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cam, Yücel; Atasever, Ayhan; Eraslan, Gökhan; Kibar, Murat; Atalay, Oznur; Beyaz, Latife; Inci, Abdullah; Liman, Bilal Cem

    2008-05-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the clinical, haematological, biochemical, lipid peroxidation, ultrasonographic and pathologic findings in hepatic coccidiosis induced by Eimeria stiedae in rabbits, and also to compare the treatment effects of both toltrazuril and ivermectin separately and in combination. In this study, 56 rabbits were divided into eight groups. The first group was designated as healthy control group. Rabbits were infected with 40.000 sporulated oocysts of E. stiedae. Groups 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8 were allocated as the infected control group, infected+toltrazuril-treated group, infected+ivermectin-treated group, infected+toltrazuril+ivermectin-treated group, non-infected+toltrazuril-treated group, non-infected+ivermectin-treated group, non-infected+toltrazuril+ivermectin-treated group, respectively. Haematocrit, Haemoglobin and MCV values as well as percentage of lymphocyte decreased in Groups 2 and 4 whereas leucocyte counts and percentage of granulocyte leucocyte increased. Serum GGT, ALT and AST activities increased but albumin value decreased. Plasma MDA concentrations increased whereas erythrocyte CAT, GSH-Px, and SOD activities decreased. Mean oocyst numbers in per gram faeces (epg values) increased in both groups during the study. Ultrasonographic examination revealed that the liver was enlarged and had hyperechogenic parenchyma. Bile ducts were dilated and hyperechogenic and the gall bladder was dilated. The livers of these animals were enlarged and typical macroscopic and microscopic findings of coccidiosis were present. Treatment with toltrazuril and toltrazuril+ivermectin combination were highly effective in reducing faecal oocyst output in infected rabbits. Haematological, biochemical and lipid peroxidation parameters and, ultrasonographic findings of the liver were close to control values for Groups 3 and 5. Necropsy of these animals showed no visible lesions related to hepatic coccidiosis although a few oocysts were detected

  17. Restoration of diaphragmatic function after diaphragm reinnervation by inferior laryngeal nerve; experimental study in rabbits

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    de Barros Angelique

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Objectives To assess the possibilities of reinnervation in a paralyzed hemidiaphragm via an anastomosis between phrenic nerve and inferior laryngeal nerve in rabbits. Reinnervation of a paralyzed diaphragm could be an alternative to treat patients with ventilatory insufficiency due to upper cervical spine injuries. Material and method Rabbits were divided into five groups of seven rabbits each. Groups I and II were respectively the healthy and the denervated control groups. The 3 other groups were all reinnervated using three different surgical procedures. In groups III and IV, phrenic nerve was respectively anastomosed with the abductor branch of the inferior laryngeal nerve and with the trunk of the inferior laryngeal nerve. In group V, the fifth and fourth cervical roots were respectively anastomosed with the abductor branch of the inferior laryngeal nerve and with the nerve of the sternothyroid muscle (originating from the hypoglossal nerve. Animals were evaluated 4 months later using electromyography, transdiaphragmatic pressure measurements, sonomicrometry and histological examination. Results A poor inspiratory activity was found in quiet breathing in the reinnervated groups, with an increasing pattern of activity during effort. In the reinnervated groups, transdiaphragmatic pressure measurements and sonomicrometry were higher in group III with no significant differencewith groups IV and V. Conclusion Inspiratory contractility of an hemidiaphragm could be restored with immediate anastomosis after phrenic nerve section between phrenic nerve and inferior laryngeal nerve.

  18. Experimental studies of sensitization to beryllium, zirconium, and aluminum compounds in the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, K Y; Bice, D; Hoffman, E; D'Amato, R; Salvaggio, J

    1977-06-01

    In a study designed to assess the potential sensitizing and granulomagenic capacities of selected metallic salts, rabbits were inoculated intradermally with zirconium aluminum glycinate (ZAG), sodium zirconium lactate (NZL), aluminum chlorhydrate (ACH), BeSO 4, and ovalbumin (OVA) by single and multiple injections. Animals immunized with BeSO4 and with OVA developed delayed skin reactivity as well as antigen-specific alveolar macrophage migration inhibition. Neither single nor multiple injections of ZAG or ACH resulted in clear-cut positive skin reactivity, macrophage migration inhibitory factor (MIF) production, or lymphocyte stimulation. Rabbits inoculated with multiple injections of NZL (500 microng) showed some marginally positive macrophage migration inhibition and skin reactivity. Histologically, ZAG and ACH were found to induce well-organized foreign-body granulomas after intradermal injection in both normal and inoculated rabbits. NZL and BeSO4 also induced skin granulomas, but these were less organized and distinct. Cell viability and ultrastructural studies indicated that BeSO4 was highly toxic for isolated alveolar macrophages in vitro at concentrations above 10 microng/ml, but NZL and ZAG did not exert such an effect at these dose levels. BeSO4 also depressed lymphocyte stimulation in sensitized animals which demonstrated delayed skin reactivity and macrophage migration inhibition.

  19. Nutritive value and anthelmintic effect of sainfoin pellets fed to experimentally infected growing rabbits.

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    Legendre, H; Hoste, H; Gidenne, T

    2017-09-01

    Alternative strategies to synthetic chemical drugs are needed in livestock and are a key issue in organic farming today. This study aimed at examining the potentialities of sainfoin, a legume rich in condensed tannins, as a nutraceutical that combines nutritive and antiparasitic effects in rabbits. To test the effect of infection with a helminth (I: infected groups; NI: not infected groups) and the effect of substituting 40% of the alfalfa in a control diet (C) with sainfoin (diet S), four groups of 16 weaned rabbits were arranged according to a 2×2 bifactorial design. The sainfoin diet differed from the control by its tannin concentration (1.8% v. 1.0% tannic acid equivalent) and its ADL concentration (84 v. 43 g/kg). For each diet, 16 rabbits were infected with 2125 third-stage larvae of Trichostrongylus colubriformis. Growth, feed intake, feed conversion ratio and nematode faecal egg counts (FECs) were controlled for 6 weeks. A digestibility trial was performed. After necropsy, adult worms and eggs in utero per female were counted and egg-hatching rate calculated. Growth tended to be lower for S groups than for C groups (38.2 v. 39.5 g/day; P=0.06). Feed intake was higher for S groups compared with C groups (+5.2 g dry matter/day; P<0.01), as was the feed conversion ratio (3.2 v. 2.9; P<0.001), probably in relation to the dietary ADL level. Protein digestibility was reduced in S groups compared with C groups (-6.0 points; P<0.001), probably associated with the effect of the tannin concentration. Digestibility of hemicelluloses was reduced in infected rabbits compared with non-infected ones (-5 points; P=0.01). Using the substitution method, the digestible energy of dehydrated sainfoin pellets used as raw material was calculated at 11.12 MJ/kg and digestible proteins at 110 g/kg. The infection did not produce any clinical signs of digestive disorders. No differences were observed according to the diet, neither in the number of adult worms (972; P=0.50), the

  20. [Impacts of early metoprolol intervention on connexin 43 and phosphorylated connexin 43 expression in rabbits with experimental myocardial infarction].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, M; Lu, Q; Jiang, J Q; Chen, Z N; Gong, Z G; Li, Z G; Fu, W W; Ding, S F

    2017-04-24

    infarction group was less than in sham group, which was significantly upregulated in in early treatment group and routine treatment group when compared with myocardial infarction group, and expression of p-Cx43 was significantly higher in early treatment group than in routine treatment group. (4)The p-Cx43/Cx43 ratio of protein was significantly lower in myocardial infarction group than in sham group (0.165±0.011 vs. 0.363±0.046, P treatment group (0.720±0.063) and routine treatment group (0.364±0.030) than in myocardial infarction group (both P treatment group than in routine treatment group ( P treatment, especially the early metoprolol treatment (within 24 hours after LAD ligation), could significantly improve VFT by ameliorating the distribution and dephosphorylation of myocardial Cx43 in rabbits with experimental myocardial infarction.

  1. Accidental and experimental salinomycin poisoning in rabbits Intoxicações natural e experimental por salinomicina em coelhos

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    Paulo Vargas Peixoto

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available An outbreak of salinomycin poisoning in rabbits is described. At least 27 out of 2,000 rabbits reared on a farm died after the coccidiostatic drug sulfaquinoxaline was substituted by salinomycin in the feed. An average of 26.9ppm salinomycin was detected in the ration given to the rabbits. Clinical signs included anorexia, apathy and bradykinesia, which progressed to incoordination and recumbency. Gross lesions consisted of pale areas in the skeletal muscles. The histopathological findings showed severe necrotic degenerative myopathy in association with infiltration of neutrophils and macrophages. One rabbit exhibited similar alterations in the myocardium. Mineralization was observed in the affected skeletal muscles in some cases. In order to verify if the poisoning was due to salinomycin, 20 rabbits were divided into five groups and a ration containing the drug at doses of 10, 25, 50, 75 and 100ppm was given. The administration of doses higher than 50ppm resulted in manifestation of the clinical signs seen in the outbreak of poisoning. It was concluded, that probably an error related to the mixture of salinomycin in the feed was the cause of deaths in the spontaneous outbreak of poisoning on the rabbit farm.Relata-se, pela primeira vez, um surto de intoxicação por salinomicina em coelhos. De 2000 animais, no mínimo 27 morreram após troca do coccidiostático sulfaquinoxalina pela salinomicina. A análise de parte da ração detectou 26,9ppm de salinomicina. Os sinais clínicos observados foram anorexia, apatia e lentidão com evolução para incoordenação dos movimentos e decúbito. As lesões macroscópicas consistiram de áreas pálidas na musculatura esquelética. O exame histopatológico evidenciou miopatia degenerativo-necrótica. Adicionalmente, verificou-se reação inflamatória constituída por neutrófilos e macrófagos. Um coelho apresentou lesões similares no miocárdio. Em alguns casos, mineralização estava presente nos m

  2. Comparison between fish and linseed oils administered orally for the treatment of experimentally induced keratoconjunctivitis sicca in rabbits

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    Danielle Alves Silva

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to compare the efficacy of two sources of omega 3 and 6, fish oil (FO and linseed oil (LO, orally administered, alone or in combination, for treating experimentally induced keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS in rabbits. Twenty-eight New Zealand rabbits were used in this study. Seven animals were allocated to the C group (negative control, and KCS was induced in 21 animals by topically applying 1% atropine sulfate drops for 7 days. Treatment with atropine was maintained throughout the study period (12 weeks. The rabbits were divided into 3 treatment groups containing 7 animals each: FO group, LO group and FLO group (FO and LO. The animals were evaluated using the Schirmer Tear Test I (STT I, Rose Bengal Test (RBT, fluorescein test (FT, tear film break-up time (TBUT, and conjunctival and histopathological analysis. There was a significant increase in STT I and TBUT values in treatment groups, but the increase occurred earlier in the FO group. The results of the RBT and FT were similar among treatment groups, except FT, in the FLO group, negative staining was only in 12 weeks. There was a significant decrease in the number of goblet cells in the FLO group compared with the other groups. The results demonstrated that orally administered of FO and LO improved the clinical signs of KCS. However, improvement occurred earlier in the FO group. Using oils in combination did not provide additional benefits. These results contribute to the future development of new oral formulations as adjuvant therapies for KCS.

  3. Experimental erbium: YAG laser photoablation of trabecular meshwork in rabbits: an in-vivo study.

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    Dietlein, T S; Jacobi, P C; Schröder, R; Krieglstein, G K

    1997-05-01

    Photoablative laser trabecular surgery has been proposed as an outflow-enhancing treatment for open-angle glaucoma. The aim of the study was to investigate the time course of repair response following low-thermal Erbium: YAG laser trabecular ablation. In 20 anaesthetized rabbits gonioscopically controlled ab-interno photoablation of the ligamenta pectinata and underlying trabecular meshwork (TM) was performed with a single-pulsed (200 microseconds) Erbium: YAG (2.94 microns) laser. The right eye received 12-15 single laser pulses (2 mJ) delivered through an articulated zirconium fluoride fiberoptic and a 200 microns (core diameter) quartz fiber tip, the left unoperated eye served as control. At time intervals of 30 minutes, 2, 10, 30, and 60 days after laser treatment, eyes were processed for light- and scanning electron microscopy. The applied energy density of 6-4 J cm-2 resulted in visible dissection of the ligamenta pectinata and reproducible microperforations of the TM exposing scleral tissue accompanied by blood reflux from the aqueous plexus. The initial ablation zones measured 154 +/- 36 microns in depth and 45 +/- 6 microns in width. Collateral thermal damage zones were 22 +/- 8 microns. At two days post-operative, ablation craters were still blood- and fibrin-filled. The inner surface of the craters were covered with granulocytes. No cellular infiltration of the collateral thermal damage zone was observed. At 10 days post-operative, progressive fibroblastic proliferation was observed, resulting in dense scar tissue formation with anterior synechiae, proliferating capillaries and loss of intertrabecular spaces inside the range of former laser treatment at 60 days post-operative. Trabecular microperforations were closed 60 days after laser treatment in all rabbits. IOP in treated and contralateral eyes did not significantly change its level during whole period of observation. Low-thermal infrared laser energy with minimal thermal damage to collateral

  4. Ultrastructural lesions in the myocardium and kidneys of rabbits in experimental acute Amorimia exotropica poisoning

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    Mauro P. Soares

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Amorimia exotropica is an important plant associated with sudden death in cattle in Southern Brazil. In order to understand the mechanisms by which A. exotropica causes acute lesions in the heart and kidney of intoxicated animals, an experiment was conducted to determine the histopathology and ultrastructure of myocardial and renal lesions of intoxicated rabbits. After receiving 18g/kg of dried plant, six rabbits died suddenly. At necropsy, the liver was swollen and no other macroscopic lesions were observed. Histologically, centrolobular and midzonal hepatocytes were vacuolated. These vacuoles were strong PAS stained positive, suggesting that they corresponded to glycogen accumulations. In some regions of the ventricular septum and ventricles were found vacuoles of different sizes and the kidneys of two rabbits showed vacuolar degeneration on distal convoluted tubules. Ultrastructurally, the myocardium had cardiomyocytes swelling with separation of myofibrils bundles and rupture and disorganization of the sarcomeres. The mitochondria displayed swelling, disorganization, disruption of the mitochondrial cristae, and electron-dense matrix. Some mitochondria exhibited eccentric projections of their membranes with disruption of both outer and inner membranes. The sarcoplasmic reticulum had no alterations, whereas the T-tubule system was occasionally dilated and ruptured. The kidneys had mitochondrial swelling with disorganization and disruption of the mitochondrial cristae. The vacuoles result from the swelling of the endoplasmatic reticulum and usually were located between two basolateral infoldings and mitochondria, occurring preferentially around the nucleus. The myocytes and T system damages induced by A. exotropica result in acute heart failure and death. Furthermore, this mechanism of cardiotoxicity may be common to all plant containing monofluoroacetate.

  5. US Features of Experimentally-induced Transient Ischemia and Infarct of Renal Segmental Artery of Rabbits

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    Park, Byung Kwan [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Seung Hyup; Moon, Min Hoan [Samsung Medical Center, Sungkyunkwan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-09-15

    The goal of this study was to analyze and compare the changes in renal parenchymal morphology and cortical perfusion following transient arterial ischemia and infarct in rabbits using ultrasonography (US). Six rabbits were divided into the ischemia (n=3) and infarct groups (n=3). In the ischemia group, a lower polar branch of the left renal artery was surgically ligated for a duration of 60 minutes and then released, in order to induce transient renal ischemia and reperfusion. In the infarct group, a lower polar branch of the left renal artery was permanently ligated without release, in order to induce renal infarction. Gray-scale and contrast-enhanced color/power Doppler US were performed in the two groups at specific times, namely before ligation, immediately after release or ligation (for the ischemia and infarct groups, respectively?), and on the 1st, 3rd, 7th, 14th and 28th postoperative days. The left kidneys of all rabbits were harvested after the last US, for the purpose of evaluating the pathologic correlations. In the US images, swelling, hypo- or hyperechoic areas of the involved parenchyma, tissue loss and perfusion defects were more predominant in the infarct group than in the ischemia group. In successive images, hyperechoic renal parenchyma with no reperfusion changed into renal infarct, while that with reperfusion became normal tissue. In the pathologic analysis, the specimens obtained from the ischemia group revealed mild parenchymal infarct with interstitial fibrosis, whereas those from the infarct group revealed extensive tissue loss and scarring in the involved area of the lower pole. Gray-scale and contrast-enhanced color/power Doppler US can demonstrate the morphological and hemodynamic changes in cases of renal ischemia and infarct

  6. Comparative Study of the Use of Intra-articular and Systemic Meloxicam to Control Experimentally Induced Osteoarthritis in Rabbit Knees

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    Valeria Trombini Vidotto

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to evaluate morphologic changes, as well as chondroprotective and intra-articular effects of meloxicam on joint repair in rabbits induced by experimental trochleoplasty, minimizing possible adverse side effects. Methods: Thirty-five rabbits were divided into four groups: the control group, which did not undergo surgery, and operated groups, which used different ways of administering the anti-inflammatory agent: systemic, 0.2 mg/kg; intra-articular, 0.5 mg/kg; positive group control, without meloxicam. Each operated group was divided according to the periods of 7 or 30 days evaluation after surgery. Results: Regarding macroscopic and histological evaluation of cartilage, after 30 days, most animals showed almost complete joint repair, the presence of few or no inflammatory cells; whereas part of the animals treated with meloxicam presented necrosis in the trochlear ridge and absence of inflammatory cells after 7 days. In positive control group, it was observed moderate inflammation and connective tissue proliferation. None of the animals in the operated groups showed irregularities 30 days after surgery. Conclusion: Either intra-articular or systemic, meloxicam revealed to be favorable to be used for joint repair and control of inflammatory reaction.

  7. Pressure-regulated volume control vs. volume control ventilation in healthy and injured rabbit lung: An experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porra, Liisa; Bayat, Sam; Malaspinas, Iliona; Albu, Gergely; Doras, Camille; Broche, Ludovic; Strengell, Satu; Peták, Ferenc; Habre, Walid

    2016-10-01

    It is not well understood how different ventilation modes affect the regional distribution of ventilation, particularly within the injured lung. We compared respiratory mechanics, lung aeration and regional specific ventilation ((Equation is included in full-text article.)) distributions in healthy and surfactant-depleted rabbits ventilated with pressure-regulated volume control (PRVC) mode with a decelerating inspiratory flow or with volume control (VC) mode. Randomised experimental study. New Zealand white rabbits (n = 8) were anaesthetised, paralysed and mechanically ventilated either with VC or PRVC mode (tidal volume: 7 ml kg; rate: 40 min; positive end-expiratory pressure (PEEP): 3 cmH2O), at baseline and after lung injury induced by lung lavage. Airway resistance (Raw), respiratory tissue damping (G) and elastance (H) were measured by low-frequency forced oscillations. Synchrotron radiation computed tomography during stable xenon wash-in was used to measure regional lung aeration and specific ventilation and the relative fraction of nonaerated, trapped, normally, poorly and hyperinflated lung regions. Lung lavage significantly elevated peak inspiratory pressure (PIP) (P lungs with, however, a significantly lower peak pressure. Our data suggest that the lower PIP on PRVC ventilation was because of the decelerating flow pattern rather than the ventilation distribution.

  8. Macrophage-targeted photodynamic detection of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamblin, Michael R.; Tawakol, Ahmed; Castano, Ana P.; Gad, Faten; Zahra, Touqir; Ahmadi, Atosa; Stern, Jeremy; Ortel, Bernhard; Chirico, Stephanie; Shirazi, Azadeh; Syed, Sakeena; Muller, James E.

    2003-06-01

    Rupture of a vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque (VP) leading to coronary thrombosis is the chief cause of sudden cardiac death. VPs are angiographically insignificant lesions, which are excessively inflamed and characterized by dense macrophage infiltration, large necrotic lipid cores, thin fibrous caps, and paucity of smooth muscle cells. We have recently shown that chlorin(e6) conjugated with maleylated albumin can target macrophages with high selectivity via the scavenger receptor. We report the potential of this macrophage-targeted fluorescent probe to localize in VPs in a rabbit model of atherosclerosis, and allow detection and/or diagnosis by fluorescence spectroscopy or imaging. Atherosclerotic lesions were induced in New Zealand White rabbit aortas by balloon injury followed by administration of a high-fat diet. 24-hours after IV injection of the conjugate into atherosclerotic or normal rabbits, the animals were sacrificed, and aortas were removed, dissected and examined for fluorescence localization in plaques by fiber-based spectrofluorimetry and confocal microscopy. Dye uptake within the aortas was also quantified by fluorescence extraction of samples from aorta segments. Biodistribution of the dye was studied in many organs of the rabbits. Surface spectrofluorimetry after conjugate injection was able to distinguish between plaque and adjacent aorta, between atherosclerotic and normal aorta, and balloon-injured and normal iliac arteries with high significance. Discrete areas of high fluorescence (up to 20 times control were detected in the balloon-injured segments, presumably corresponding to macrophage-rich plaques. Confocal microscopy showed red ce6 fluorescence localized in plaques that showed abundant foam cells and macrophages by histology. Extraction data on aortic tissue corroborated the selectivity of the conjugate for plaques. These data support the strategy of employing macrophage-targeted fluorescent dyes to detect VP by intravascular

  9. Detection of pulmonary fat embolism with dual-energy CT: an experimental study in rabbits

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    Tang, Chun Xiang; Zhou, Chang Sheng; Zhao, Yan E.; Han, Zong Hong; Qi, Li; Zhang, Long Jiang; Lu, Guang Ming [Medical School of Nanjing University, Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Schoepf, U.J. [Medical School of Nanjing University, Department of Medical Imaging, Jinling Hospital, Nanjing, Jiangsu (China); Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States); Mangold, Stefanie; Ball, B.D. [Medical University of South Carolina, Division of Cardiovascular Imaging, Department of Radiology and Radiological Science, Charleston, SC (United States)

    2017-04-15

    To evaluate the use of dual-energy CT imaging of the lung perfused blood volume (PBV) for the detection of pulmonary fat embolism (PFE). Dual-energy CT was performed in 24 rabbits before and 1 hour, 1 day, 4 days and 7 days after artificial induction of PFE via the right ear vein. CT pulmonary angiography (CTPA) and lung PBV images were evaluated by two radiologists, who recorded the presence, number, and location of PFE on a per-lobe basis. Sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of CTPA and lung PBV for detecting PFE were calculated using histopathological evaluation as the reference standard. A total of 144 lung lobes in 24 rabbits were evaluated and 70 fat emboli were detected on histopathological analysis. The overall sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 25.4 %, 98.6 %, and 62.5 % for CTPA, and 82.6 %, 76.0 %, and 79.2 % for lung PBV. Higher sensitivity (p < 0.001) and accuracy (p < 0.01), but lower specificity (p < 0.001), were found for lung PBV compared with CTPA. Dual-energy CT can detect PFE earlier than CTPA (all p < 0.01). Dual-energy CT provided higher sensitivity and accuracy in the detection of PFE as well as earlier detection compared with conventional CTPA in this animal model study. (orig.)

  10. Adipose derived stromal vascular fraction improves early tendon healing: an experimental study in rabbits

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    Mehdi Behfar

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Tendon never restores the complete biological and mechanical properties after healing. Bone marrow and recently adipose tissue have been used as the sources of mesenchymal stem cells, which have been proven to enhance tendon healing. Stromal vascular fraction (SVF, derived from adipose tissue by an enzymatic digestion, represents an alternative source of multipotent cells, which undergo differentiation into multiple lineages to be used in regenerative medicine. In the present study, we investigated potentials of this source on tendon healing. Twenty rabbits were divided into control and treatment groups. Five rabbits were used as donors of adipose tissue. The injury model was unilateral complete transection through the middle one third of deep digital flexor tendon. Immediately after suture repair, either fresh stromal vascular fraction from enzymatic digestion of adipose tissue or placebo was intratendinously injected into the suture site in treatments and controls, respectively. Cast immobilization was continued for two weeks after surgery. Animals were sacrificed at the third week and tendons underwent histological, immunohistochemical, and mechanical evaluations. By histology, improved fibrillar organization and remodeling of neotendon were observed in treatment group. Immunohistochemistry revealed an insignificant increase in collagen type III and I expression in treatments over controls. Mechanical testing showed significant increase in maximum load and energy absorption in SVF treated tendons. The present study showed that intratendinous injection of uncultured adipose derived stromal vascular fraction improved structural and mechanical properties of repaired tendon and it could be an effective modality for treating tendon laceration.

  11. Survival of block and fascial-wrapped diced cartilage grafts: an experimental study in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatemi, Mohammad Javad; Hasani, Mohammad Esmaeel; Rahimian, Shahram; Bateni, Hamid; Pedram, Mirsepehr; Mousavi, Seyed Jaber

    2012-09-01

    Cartilage grafts have become an integral part in plastic surgery. Classic autogenous cartilage harvesting techniques are associated with significant donor- and recipient-site morbidity. The use of cartilage micrografts wrapped in a sleeve was first developed to decrease the complication rates of block cartilage grafts. The aim of this study was to compare the resorption rate of solid block cartilage graft and diced cartilage wrapped in fascia graft in rabbits. In 12 rabbits, 1 solid block cartilage and 1 diced graft wrapped in fascia were implanted in subcutaneous pockets. By the end of the fourth month, the cartilage implants were dissected free and photographed and weighed exactly. Then specimens were stained with hematoxylin and eosin to determine their architectural characteristics. In the solid block cartilage graft group, the means ± standard deviation preimplant weight values were 5.34 ± 1.68. The weight was changed to 7.74 ± 3.26. The change was not statistically significant. In diced cartilage grafts wrapped in fascia, the means ± standard deviation preimplanted weight values were 8.13 ± 1.83. These values were changed to 2.79 ± 1.97, meaning statistically significant resorption of diced cartilage grafts wrapped in fascia (P technique will decline once the long-term results of pertaining clinical studies are available.

  12. EXPERIMENTAL TRIALS OF LIVE ATTENUATED AND INACTIVATED STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS VACCINES IN RABBITS

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    A. SHAKOOR, M. ATHAR, G. MUHAMMAD, S. U. RAHMAN1, A. A. BUTT2, I. HUSSAIN 2 AND R. AHMAD3

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted as a preliminary step on the rabbits for comparative efficacy of different vaccines of Staphylococcus aureus. Typical alpha-beta Staph. aureus species from a clinically affected mastitic buffalo was isolated. After proper identification based on cultural and morphological characteristics and API-Staph Trac system, a selected Staph. aureus isolate was used to prepare four different mastitis vaccines (Bacterin, oil-adjuvanted, dextran sulphate adjuvanted and live attenuated after confirmation for pathogenicity and antigenicity, followed by its safety and sterility evaluation. Vaccines were tried in 25 rabbits divided into 5 equal groups. A separate vaccine was administered s/c @ 0.2 ml per animal and boosted at 15 days later. It was found that IHA antibody titers were higher (GMT 32-128 in live attenuated, dextran sulphate adjuvanted (GMT 32-128 and oil-adjuvanted (GMT 16-64 than the bacterin treated (GMT 16-32 group. All the vaccines showed an apparent immune response than the unvaccinated control group.

  13. Effect of virgin fatty oil of Pistacia lentiscus on experimental burn wound's healing in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Djerrou, Zouhir; Maameri, Z; Hamdi-Pacha, Y; Serakta, M; Riachi, F; Djaalab, H; Boukeloua, A

    2010-04-03

    This study aimed to assess the efficiency of the virgin fatty oil of Pistacia lentiscus (PLVFO) for burn wounds healing. It was carried out on 6 adult male New Zealand rabbits. Four burn wounds of deep third degree were made on the back of each animal. The first was not treated and served as control (CRL group); the others were covered immediately after burning procedure by 0.5g of one of the following products: Vaseline gel (VAS group), Madecassol(®) cream 1% (MAD group) or 1ml of PLVFO (PLVFO group). The treatments were repeated once daily until complete healing. For four days post burns, the percentage of wound contraction was assessed. Also, the different healing times were noted. The results showed that both PLVFO and Madecassol(®) significantly accelerated wound healing activity compared to wounds dressed with Vaseline and the untreated wounds. However, the level of wound contraction was significantly higher and the healing time was faster in PLVFO group than those of the MAD group, VAS group and CRL group. The different epithelization periods obtained in days were respectively: 30±3.94 (PLVFO group), 33.5±3.78 (MAD group), 34.66±3.88 (VAS group) and 37.16±3.54 (CRL group). We conclude that Pistacia lentiscus virgin fatty oil promotes significantly (p< 0.05) wound contraction and reduces epithelization period in rabbit model.

  14. Mandibular distraction osteogenesis: a rabbit model using a novel experimental design.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Sebaei, Maisa O; Gagari, Eleni; Papageorge, Maria

    2005-05-01

    Distraction osteogenesis (DO) is a surgical procedure that targets bone regeneration and elongation, currently used in the treatment of many craniofacial deformities. The quest for optimization of DO clinical parameters has led to the development of a variety of animal models. Our study aims to establish a rabbit animal model of mandibular DO, in which the control osteotomy and distraction device are placed on the opposite hemimandible from the one being distracted, within the same animal host. Furthermore, we propose to histologically characterize the different stages or distraction and consolidation in the same animal model. Twenty-five rabbits underwent mandibular osteotomies and bilateral placement of distraction devices. After a latency of 3 days, the distraction device was activated on one side of each animal at a rate of 0.5 mm/12 hours for 7 days, while the other side remained inactive (control). This was followed by a consolidation period of 14 days. Five animals per time-point were killed on days 3, 7, 10, 17, and 24. Gross tissue analysis showed a 7-mm callus formation at the distracted side and a well-healed osteotomy in the non-distracted side. Clinically, a unilateral Class III malocclusion occurred in the distracted side. Histology at each time-point shows new bone formation and orientation of the bony spicules along the axis of the mechanical strain. We have established and characterized an animal model of mandibular DO that outlines valid biologic controls and provides thorough monitoring of the DO process.

  15. The development of an experimental model of contaminated muscle injury in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eardley, Will G P; Martin, Kevin R; Taylor, Chris; Kirkman, Emrys; Clasper, Jon C; Watts, Sarah A

    2012-12-01

    Extent of tissue trauma and contamination determine outcome in extremity injury. In contrast to fracture, osteomyelitis, and closed muscle injury studies, there are limited small animal models of extremity muscle trauma and contamination. To address this we developed a model of contaminated muscle injury in rabbits. Twenty-eight anesthetized New Zealand White rabbits underwent open controlled injury of the flexor carpi ulnaris (FCU). Twenty-two animals had subsequent contamination of the injured muscle with Staphylococcus aureus. All animals were sacrificed at 48 hours and the level of muscle injury and contamination determined by quantitative histological and microbiological analysis. A 1-kg mass dropped 300 mm onto the mobilized FCU resulted in localized necrosis of the muscle belly. Delivery of a mean challenge of 3.71 × 10(6) cfu/100 µL S aureus by droplet spread onto the injured muscle produced a muscle contamination of 8.79 × 10(6) cfu/g at 48 hours. Ipsilateral axillary lymph nodes demonstrated clinically significant activation. All animals had normal body temperature and hematological parameters throughout and blood and urinalysis culture at autopsy were negative for organisms. This model allows reproducible muscle injury and contamination with the organism ubiquitous to extremity wound infection at a level sufficient to allow quantitative assessment of subsequent wound care interventions without incurring systemic involvement.

  16. FELASA recommendations for the health monitoring of mouse, rat, hamster, guinea pig and rabbit colonies in breeding and experimental units.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mähler Convenor, M; Berard, M; Feinstein, R; Gallagher, A; Illgen-Wilcke, B; Pritchett-Corning, K; Raspa, M

    2014-07-01

    The microbiological quality of experimental animals can critically influence animal welfare and the validity and reproducibility of research data. It is therefore important for breeding and experimental facilities to establish a laboratory animal health monitoring (HM) programme as an integrated part of any quality assurance system. FELASA has published recommendations for the HM of rodent and rabbit colonies in breeding and experimental units (Nicklas et al. Laboratory Animals, 2002), with the intention of harmonizing HM programmes. As stated in the preamble, these recommendations need to be adapted periodically to meet current developments in laboratory animal medicine. Accordingly, previous recommendations have been revised and shall be replaced by the present recommendations. These recommendations are aimed at all breeders and users of laboratory mice, rats, Syrian hamsters, guinea pigs and rabbits as well as diagnostic laboratories. They describe essential aspects of HM, such as the choice of agents, selection of animals and tissues for testing, frequency of sampling, commonly used test methods, interpretation of results and HM reporting. Compared with previous recommendations, more emphasis is put on the role of a person with sufficient understanding of the principles of HM, opportunistic agents, the use of sentinel animals (particularly under conditions of cage-level containment) and the interpretation and reporting of HM results. Relevant agents, testing frequencies and literature references are updated. Supplementary information on specific agents and the number of animals to be monitored and an example of a HM programme description is provided in the appendices. © The Author(s) 2014 Reprints and permissions: sagepub.co.uk/journalsPermissions.nav.

  17. Experimental infection of the rabbit tick, Haemaphysalis leporispalustris, with the bacterium Rickettsia rickettsii, and comparative biology of infected and uninfected tick lineages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freitas, Luciana Helena T; Faccini, João Luiz H; Labruna, Marcelo B

    2009-04-01

    The present study consisted of two experiments that evaluated experimental infections of Haemaphysalis leporispalustris ticks by a Brazilian strain of Rickettsia rickettsii, and their effect on tick biology. In experiment I, ticks were exposed to R. rickettsii during the larval, nymphal or adult stages by feeding on rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) needle-inoculated with R. rickettsii, and thereafter reared on uninfected rabbits for the entire next tick generation. Regardless of the tick stage that acquired the infection, all subsequent tick stages were shown to be infected by PCR (infection rates varying from 1.3 to 41.7%), and were able to transmit R. rickettsii to uninfected rabbits, as demonstrated by rabbit seroconversion, guinea pig inoculation with rabbit blood, and PCR on rabbit blood. In Experiment II, ticks were exposed to R. rickettsii during the larval stage by feeding on rabbits co-infested with R. rickettsii-infected adult ticks, and thereafter reared on uninfected rabbits until the next generation of larvae. Again, all subsequent tick stages were shown to be infected by PCR (infection rates varying from 3.0 to 40.0%), and were able to transmit R. rickettsii to uninfected rabbits. Thus, it was demonstrated that larvae, nymphs, and adults of H. leporispalustris were able to acquire and maintain the R. rickettsii infection by transstadial and transovarial transmissions within the tick population, with active transmission of the bacterium to susceptible rabbits by all parasitic stages. Analyses of biological parameters of uninfected and R. rickettsii-infected tick lineages were performed in order to evaluate possible deleterious effects of R. rickettsii to the infected tick lineages. Surprisingly, all but one of the four R. rickettsii-experimental groups of the present study showed overall better biological performance than their sibling uninfected control ticks. Results of the present study showed that H. leporispalustris could support infection by a

  18. Resolvin E1 Attenuates Atherosclerotic Plaque Formation in Diet and Inflammation Induced Atherogenesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasturk, Hatice; Abdallah, Rima; Kantarci, Alpdogan; Nguyen, Daniel; Giordano, Nicholas; Hamilton, James; Van Dyke, Thomas E.

    2015-01-01

    Objective Epidemiological and recent clinical studies implicate periodontitis as an independent risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Previously, we demonstrated that rabbits with experimental periodontitis and cholesterol diet exhibit more aortic plaque compared to diet alone. We also showed that a proresolution mediator, Resolvin E1 (RvE1), reverses the experimental periodontitis. Here, we determined whether oral/topical application of RvE1 attenuates aortic atherosclerosis induced by both diet and periodontal inflammation. Approach and Results Thirty-nine rabbits on a 13-week regimen of 0.5% cholesterol diet were included. Periodontitis was induced by P. gingivalis in 24 rabbits and 15 rabbits were placed in no-periodontitis groups. Interventions were no-treatment, vehicle, and RvE1 treatment (4μg/site or 0.4 μg/site) topically applied 3-times/ week. At 13 weeks, both periodontitis and atherosclerosis were quantified. Atherosclerotic plaques were assessed by Sudan IV staining, histology and ex vivo MRI. Serum levels of C-reactive protein (CRP) were evaluated as a measure of systemic inflammation.RvE1, used as an oral/topical agent, significantly diminished atherogenesis and prevented periodontitis (pperiodontal inflammation, oral/topical application of RvE1 resulted in significantly less arterial plaque, a lower intima/media ratio, and decreased inflammatory cell infiltration compared to no-treatment (pperiodontitis and prevents vascular inflammation and atherogenesis in the absence of periodontitis. The inhibition of vascular inflammation with endogenous mediators of resolution of inflammation provides a novel approach in the prevention of atherogenic events. PMID:25792445

  19. Antipyretic effects of hydro-methanol extract of Melia azedarach Linn. seeds and Cucumis melo Linn. seeds in experimental rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sultana, Sabira; Akhtar, Naveed; Asif, Hafiz Muhammad

    2017-07-01

    To investigate the antipyretic activity of hydro-methanol extract of Melia azedarach Linn. (HMEMA) seeds and Cucumis melo Linn. (HMECM) seeds in experimental animals. Baker's yeast was used to induce fever in rabbits which were divided into six groups. The animal groups were thereafter administered distilled water (control), paracetamol (reference standard, 150mg/kg), HMEMA (250mg/kg), HMEMA (500mg/kg), HMECM (250mg/kg) and HMECM (500mg/kg) respectively. HMEMA and HMECM were also phytochemically screened for tannins, alkaloids, phenols, flavonoids, saponins and cardiac glycosides. Results indicate that hydro-methanol extract of M. azedarach Linn. Seeds (250mg/kg and 500mg/kg) significantly (pMelia azedarach L. seeds in treating fever. This property can be attributed to the presence of phytochemical constituents present in the hydro-methanol extract of Melia azedarach L. seeds and the exact mechanism need to be evaluated.

  20. The Efficiency of Vascular Embolization Using Alginate Gel : An Experimental Study in Rabbit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Woo Baek; Kang, Yeong Han [Dept. of Diagnostic Radiology, Daegu Catholic University Hospital, Daegu (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jong Ki [Dept. of Biomedical Engineering, Daegu Catholic University, Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2009-03-15

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the applicability of poly-L-guluronic alginate (PGA) gel in vascular embolization with angiography simulation. To prepare a gel-forming PGA from no guluronate-rich Laminaria japonica, a new acid hydrolysis method was employed with a lower HCL concentration (0.03 M) and a shorter treatment time (5 min). The obtained PGAs were selected based on gel stability and viscosity. Glass aneurysm model was used to simulate gel embolization in vitro. Then, finally, the PGA was used to embolize the renal vascular system by using a rabbit model and angiography. Glass aneurysm model was made to simulate gel embolization procedure. PGA solution was injected from pump through 2-way catheter. Subsequent injection of CaCl{sub 2} successfully formed gels inside aneurysm model that conforming to its inner contour. In rabbit model, first, renal artery and aorta leading to the right kidney were ligated to block blood flow, then conventional contrast agent was injected through aorta to check the arterial patency to the left kidney. In sequential artery injection method, PGA and CaCl{sub 2} were injected through renal artery sequentially via a single catheter. Re-injection of contrast agent after removing ligated aorta showed blood flow to the right kidney but no flow in the left kidney. This result demonstrated a complete blocking of blood flow due to gel formation in vascular bed of the left kidney. Instillation of calcium alginate into aneurysm model and arterial system in vivo produced an embolization that better fills and conforms to the contour of aneurysms or blocking vascular bed completely. Therefore, PGA was effective endovascular occlusion materials and provide an efficiency of vascular angiography.

  1. Enhanced osseointegration of titanium implants with nanostructured surfaces: an experimental study in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salou, Laëtitia; Hoornaert, Alain; Louarn, Guy; Layrolle, Pierre

    2015-01-01

    Titanium and its alloys are commonly used for dental implants because of their good mechanical properties and biocompatibility. The surface properties of titanium implants are key factors for rapid and stable bone tissue integration. Micro-rough surfaces are commonly prepared by grit-blasting and acid-etching. However, proteins and cells interact with implant surfaces in the nanometer range. The aim of this study was to compare the osseointegration of machined (MA), standard alumina grit-blasted and acid-etched (MICRO) and nanostructured (NANO) implants in rabbit femurs. The MICRO surface exhibited typical random cavities with an average roughness of 1.5 μm, while the NANO surface consisted of a regular array of titanium oxide nanotubes 37±11 nm in diameter and 160 nm thick. The MA and NANO surfaces had a similar average roughness of 0.5 μm. The three groups of implants were inserted into the femoral condyles of New Zealand White rabbits. After 4 weeks, the pull-out test gave higher values for the NANO than for the other groups. Histology corroborated a direct apposition of bone tissue on to the NANO surface. Both the bone-to-implant contact and bone growth values were higher for the NANO than for the other implant surfaces. Overall, this study shows that the nanostructured surface improved the osseointegration of titanium implants and may be an alternative to conventional grit-blasted and acid-etched surface treatments. Copyright © 2014 Acta Materialia Inc. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Microbiologic, Pharmacokinetic, and Clinical Effects of Corneal Collagen Cross-Linking on Experimentally Induced Pseudomonas Keratitis in Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cosar, C Banu; Kucuk, Mutlu; Celik, Ekrem; Gonen, Tansu; Akyar, Isin; Serteser, Mustafa; Tokat, Fatma; Ince, Umit

    2015-10-01

    To determine the effects of corneal collagen cross-linking (CXL) on the penetration of topical 0.5% moxifloxacin, on the number of colony-forming units (CFUs) in the cornea, and on the clinical course in a rabbit eye model of experimentally induced Pseudomonas aeruginosa keratitis. In this prospective animal study, experimental Pseudomonas corneal ulcers were induced in 56 corneas of 28 albino New Zealand rabbits. The corneas were randomly divided into the following 4 groups: the control group (14 eyes), the MOX group (moxifloxacin) (14 eyes), the MOX + CXL group (14 eyes), and the CXL group (14 eyes). On day 4 of the experiment, the eyes in the control group were enucleated and CFU counting was performed. On day 10 of the experiment, all eyes were enucleated and CFU counting was performed. In the MOX and MOX + CXL groups, the moxifloxacin level in the cornea, aqueous humor, iris, plasma, and serum was measured by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. The difference in the corneal CFU count between the MOX group and the MOX + CXL group was not significant (P = 0.317). Clinical improvement was greatest in the MOX + CXL group (P < 0.001). The mean corneal moxifloxacin level was 0.391 ± 0.09 μg·mg in the MOX group versus 0.291 ± 0.09 μg·mg in the MOX + CXL group; as such, CXL did not have a significant effect on antibiotic penetrance (P = 0.386). Clinical improvement was greatest in the MOX + CXL group. The synergistic effect of CXL on corneal ulcer treatment is not through antibiotic penetrance.

  3. Intracranial Atherosclerotic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Khan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial atherosclerotic disease (ICAD is the most common proximate mechanism of ischemic stroke worldwide. Approximately half of those affected are Asians. For diagnosis of ICAD, intra-arterial angiography is the gold standard to identify extent of stenosis. However, noninvasive techniques including transcranial ultrasound and MRA are now emerging as reliable modalities to exclude moderate to severe (50%–99% stenosis. Little is known about measures for primary prevention of the disease. In terms of secondary prevention of stroke due to intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis, aspirin continues to be the preferred antiplatelet agent although clopidogrel along with aspirin has shown promise in the acute phase. Among Asians, cilostazol has shown a favorable effect on symptomatic stenosis and is of benefit in terms of fewer bleeds. Moreover, aggressive risk factor management alone and in combination with dual antiplatelets been shown to be most effective in this group of patients. Interventional trials on intracranial atherosclerotic stenosis have so far only been carried out among Caucasians and have not yielded consistent results. Since the Asian population is known to be preferentially effected, focused trials need to be performed to establish treatment modalities that are most effective in this population.

  4. Third Prize: Comparison of radical nephrectomy, laparoscopic microwave thermotherapy, cryotherapy, and radiofrequency ablation for destruction of experimental VX-2 renal tumors in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eichel, Louis; Kim, Issac Y; Uribe, Carlos; Khonsari, Sephir; Basillote, Jay; Steward, Earl; Coad, James; Bischof, John; Rudie, Eric; Kluge, Stan; McDougall, Elspeth M; Clayman, Ralph V

    2005-11-01

    Currently available minimally invasive renal tumor-ablation procedures include cryotherapy, radiofrequency ablation, and microwave thermotherapy. In this study, we investigated the ability of these three approaches to destroy experimental renal tumors in rabbits. The mechanism of potential tumor metastasis was also explored. The VX-2 tumor line is an aggressive rabbit epidermoid tumor with a high metastatic potential. An initial experiment comparing cooled-tip microwave thermotherapy with cryotherapy and radical nephrectomy for treatment of small VX-2 tumors revealed that all microwave-treated rabbits had local recurrence and that several also had diffuse intraperitoneal carcinomatosis. In view of these results, a second experiment was performed in which 45 New Zealand White rabbits were implanted laparoscopically with VX-2 xenografts underneath the kidney capsule and divided into five groups of 9 each. The test groups were microwave thermotherapy with a 3.5-mm cooled-tip probe, microwave thermotherapy with a 3.5-mm noncooled- tip probe, radiofrequency ablation with a 1.5-mm cooled-tip probe, radiofrequency ablation with a 1.5- mm non-cooled tip probe, and cryotherapy with a 2.3-mm cryoprobe. The control groups were five rabbits that were not treated, five rabbits with tumors that had the tumor pierced with a probe but were untreated, and five rabbits that underwent nephrectomy after piercing of the tumor. Treatment was initiated 5 days after tumor implantation. One month later, all animals were euthanized and autopsied. At 5 days after tumor implantation, laparoscopic inspection revealed no visible peritoneal metastases. At 1 month, in the cooled and non-cooled microwave-thermotherapy groups, carcinomatosis occurred in five and six of nine animals, respectively. In comparison, carcinomatosis was detected in two of nine animals in the cryotherapy group at autopsy. With respect to cooled and non-cooled radiofrequency ablation, carcinomatosis was observed in four of

  5. High Field Atherosclerotic Plaque MRI

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Chun; Wang, Jinnan; Balu, Niranjan

    2012-01-01

    Manifestations of atherosclerotic plaque in different arterial beds range from perfusion deficits to overt ischemia such as stroke and myocardial infarction. Atherosclerotic plaque composition is known to be associated with its propensity to rupture and cause vascular events. MRI of atherosclerotic plaque using clinical 1.5T scanners can detect plaque composition. Plaque MRI at higher field strengths offers both opportunities and challenges to improving the high spatial-resolution and contras...

  6. Integration of fluoridated implants in onlay autogenous bone grafts - an experimental study in the rabbit tibia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dasmah, Amir; Kashani, Hossein; Thor, Andreas; Rasmusson, Lars

    2014-09-01

    Bone augmentation before treatment with endosseous implants is a common procedure for rehabilitation of the edentulous jaw. Both machined and surface modified implants have been used in one-stage and two-stage surgery protocols with varying results and survival rates. The influence of surface modification on the integration of implants has been documented in both non-grafted and grafted bone. The aim of this study was to compare the integration and stability of surface modified fluoridated vs. machined implants when placed simultaneously with an onlay bone graft. Eight rabbits were used in this study. A disc shaped bone graft was harvested from each side of the sagittal suture of the calvarial bone and fixed bi-cortically to the proximal tibial metaphysis by means of a dental implant, 9 mm long and 3.5 mm in diameter with a smooth machined surface as control and a blasted, fluoridated surface as test. Test and control sides were randomised. After a healing time of 8 weeks, the rabbits were sacrificed and the implants were removed en block for light microscopic analysis. Bone to implant contact (BIC) was registered as well as the amount of bone filling a rectangle indicating a region of interest (ROI) in the grafted area. Resonance frequency analysis (RFA) was conducted both at the time of surgery and at the end of the study. Our results showed statistically significant differences in BIC within the grafted area and the total bone to implant contact between the test and control sides in favour of the surface modified implants. The bone area filling the threads within a region of interest showed no statistically significant difference between the test and control sides. RFA showed higher implant stability with significant differences at the time of sacrifice in favour of the fluoridated implants. Surface modified fluoridated implants showed a higher degree of osseointegration and stability in onlay bone grafts compared with control implants with machined surface

  7. Evaluation of the toxicity of onyx compared with n-butyl 2-cyanoacrylate in the subarachnoid space of a rabbit model: an experimental research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bakar, Bulent [Kirikkale University, School of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Kirikkale (Turkey); Kirikkale University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Kirikkale (Turkey); Oruckaptan, Hakan H.; Hazer, Burcu D. [Hacettepe University, School of Medicine, Department of Neurosurgery, Ankara (Turkey); Saatci, Isil [Hacettepe University, School of Medicine, Department of Radiology, Ankara (Turkey); Atilla, Pergin; Muftuoglu, Sevda F. [Hacettepe University, School of Medicine, Department of Histology and Embriology, Ankara (Turkey); Kilic, Kamer [Hacettepe University, School of Medicine, Department of Biochemistry, Ankara (Turkey)

    2010-02-15

    The toxic effects of onyx, its solvent dimethyl sulphoxide (DMSO), and n-butyl 2-cyanoacrylate (NBCA) were evaluated after infusion into the subaracnoid space of a rabbit model. Each of the two various concentrations of onyx, pure DMSO, NBCA, and normal saline solution were percutaneously infused into the pontocerebellar cisternae of 39 domestic male albino rabbits, after which, the brain stems and medial cerebellar tissues were harvested for biochemical and histopathological studies. The specimens infused in various concentration of onyx, DMSO, and NBCA showed neural tissue necrosis and edema with inflammatory cell infiltration in the acute stage. Although the mean values of the lipid peroxidase in the control, saline, and NBCA groups were found to be almost similar, they were found to be low in the onyx and DMSO groups. This experimental study suggests that NBCA, and various concentrations of onyx and DMSO have toxic effects on the neural tissues of rabbits when infused into the subarachnoid space. (orig.)

  8. High-resolution intravascular magnetic resonance quantification of atherosclerotic plaque at 3T

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qian Di

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The thickness of fibrous caps (FCT of atherosclerotic lesions is a critical factor affecting plaque vulnerability to rupture. This study tests whether 3 Tesla high-resolution intravascular cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR employing tiny loopless detectors can identify lesions and accurately measure FCT in human arterial specimens, and whether such an approach is feasible in vivo using animal models. Methods Receive-only 2.2 mm and 0.8 mm diameter intravascular loopless CMR detectors were fabricated for a clinical 3 Tesla MR scanner, and the absolute signal-to-noise ratio determined. The detectors were applied in a two-step protocol comprised of CMR angiography to identify atherosclerotic lesions, followed by high-resolution CMR to characterize FCT, lesion size, and/or vessel wall thickness. The protocol was applied in fresh human iliac and carotid artery specimens in a human-equivalent saline bath. Mean FCT measured by 80 μm intravascular CMR was compared with histology of the same sections. In vivo studies compared aortic wall thickness and plaque size in healthy and hyperlipidemic rabbit models, with post-mortem histology. Results Histology confirmed plaques in human specimens, with calcifications appearing as signal voids. Mean FCT agreed with histological measurements within 13% on average (correlation coefficient, R = 0.98; Bland-Altman analysis, -1.3 ± 68.9 μm. In vivo aortic wall and plaque size measured by 80 μm intravascular CMR agreed with histology. Conclusion Intravascular 3T CMR with loopless detectors can both locate atherosclerotic lesions, and accurately measure FCT at high-resolution in a strategy that appears feasible in vivo. The approach shows promise for quantifying vulnerable plaque for evaluating experimental therapies.

  9. Pharmacokinetics of Naja sumatrana (Equatorial Spitting Cobra) Venom and Its Major Toxins in Experimentally Envenomed Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Michelle Khai Khun; Tan, Nget Hong; Sim, Si Mui; Fung, Shin Yee; Tan, Choo Hock

    2014-01-01

    Background The optimization of snakebite management and the use of antivenom depend greatly on the knowledge of the venom's composition as well as its pharmacokinetics. To date, however, pharmacokinetic reports on cobra venoms and their toxins are still relatively limited. In the present study, we investigated the pharmacokinetics of Naja sumatrana (Equatorial spitting cobra) venom and its major toxins (phospholipase A2, neurotoxin and cardiotoxin), following intravenous and intramuscular administration into rabbits. Principal findings The serum antigen concentration-time profile of the N. sumatrana venom and its major toxins injected intravenously fitted a two-compartment model of pharmacokinetics. The systemic clearance (91.3 ml/h), terminal phase half-life (13.6 h) and systemic bioavailability (41.9%) of N. sumatrana venom injected intramuscularly were similar to those of N. sputatrix venom determined in an earlier study. The venom neurotoxin and cardiotoxin reached their peak concentrations within 30 min following intramuscular injection, relatively faster than the phospholipase A2 and whole venom (Tmax = 2 h and 1 h, respectively). Rapid absorption of the neurotoxin and cardiotoxin from the injection site into systemic circulation indicates fast onsets of action of these principal toxins that are responsible for the early systemic manifestation of envenoming. The more prominent role of the neurotoxin in N. sumatrana systemic envenoming is further supported by its significantly higher intramuscular bioavailability (Fi.m. = 81.5%) compared to that of the phospholipase A2 (Fi.m. = 68.6%) or cardiotoxin (Fi.m. = 45.6%). The incomplete absorption of the phospholipase A2 and cardiotoxin may infer the toxins' affinities for tissues at the injection site and their pathological roles in local tissue damages through synergistic interactions. Conclusion/Significance Our results suggest that the venom neurotoxin is absorbed very rapidly and has the highest

  10. Pharmacokinetics of Naja sumatrana (equatorial spitting cobra) venom and its major toxins in experimentally envenomed rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Michelle Khai Khun; Tan, Nget Hong; Sim, Si Mui; Fung, Shin Yee; Tan, Choo Hock

    2014-06-01

    The optimization of snakebite management and the use of antivenom depend greatly on the knowledge of the venom's composition as well as its pharmacokinetics. To date, however, pharmacokinetic reports on cobra venoms and their toxins are still relatively limited. In the present study, we investigated the pharmacokinetics of Naja sumatrana (Equatorial spitting cobra) venom and its major toxins (phospholipase A2, neurotoxin and cardiotoxin), following intravenous and intramuscular administration into rabbits. The serum antigen concentration-time profile of the N. sumatrana venom and its major toxins injected intravenously fitted a two-compartment model of pharmacokinetics. The systemic clearance (91.3 ml/h), terminal phase half-life (13.6 h) and systemic bioavailability (41.9%) of N. sumatrana venom injected intramuscularly were similar to those of N. sputatrix venom determined in an earlier study. The venom neurotoxin and cardiotoxin reached their peak concentrations within 30 min following intramuscular injection, relatively faster than the phospholipase A2 and whole venom (Tmax=2 h and 1 h, respectively). Rapid absorption of the neurotoxin and cardiotoxin from the injection site into systemic circulation indicates fast onsets of action of these principal toxins that are responsible for the early systemic manifestation of envenoming. The more prominent role of the neurotoxin in N. sumatrana systemic envenoming is further supported by its significantly higher intramuscular bioavailability (Fi.m.=81.5%) compared to that of the phospholipase A2 (Fi.m.=68.6%) or cardiotoxin (Fi.m.=45.6%). The incomplete absorption of the phospholipase A2 and cardiotoxin may infer the toxins' affinities for tissues at the injection site and their pathological roles in local tissue damages through synergistic interactions. Our results suggest that the venom neurotoxin is absorbed very rapidly and has the highest bioavailability following intramuscular injection, supporting its role as the

  11. Pharmacokinetics of Naja sumatrana (equatorial spitting cobra venom and its major toxins in experimentally envenomed rabbits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michelle Khai Khun Yap

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The optimization of snakebite management and the use of antivenom depend greatly on the knowledge of the venom's composition as well as its pharmacokinetics. To date, however, pharmacokinetic reports on cobra venoms and their toxins are still relatively limited. In the present study, we investigated the pharmacokinetics of Naja sumatrana (Equatorial spitting cobra venom and its major toxins (phospholipase A2, neurotoxin and cardiotoxin, following intravenous and intramuscular administration into rabbits. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The serum antigen concentration-time profile of the N. sumatrana venom and its major toxins injected intravenously fitted a two-compartment model of pharmacokinetics. The systemic clearance (91.3 ml/h, terminal phase half-life (13.6 h and systemic bioavailability (41.9% of N. sumatrana venom injected intramuscularly were similar to those of N. sputatrix venom determined in an earlier study. The venom neurotoxin and cardiotoxin reached their peak concentrations within 30 min following intramuscular injection, relatively faster than the phospholipase A2 and whole venom (Tmax=2 h and 1 h, respectively. Rapid absorption of the neurotoxin and cardiotoxin from the injection site into systemic circulation indicates fast onsets of action of these principal toxins that are responsible for the early systemic manifestation of envenoming. The more prominent role of the neurotoxin in N. sumatrana systemic envenoming is further supported by its significantly higher intramuscular bioavailability (Fi.m.=81.5% compared to that of the phospholipase A2 (Fi.m.=68.6% or cardiotoxin (Fi.m.=45.6%. The incomplete absorption of the phospholipase A2 and cardiotoxin may infer the toxins' affinities for tissues at the injection site and their pathological roles in local tissue damages through synergistic interactions. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Our results suggest that the venom neurotoxin is absorbed very rapidly and has the highest

  12. Binding of the ligand [3H]MK-801 to the MK-801 binding site of the N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor during experimental encephalopathy from acute liver failure and from acute hyperammonemia in the rabbit

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    R.J. de Knegt (Robert); J. Kornhuber (Johannes); S.W. Schalm (Solko); K. Rusche (K.); P.F. Riederer (Peter); J. Tan (J.)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractBinding of the ligand [3H]MK-801 to the MK-801 binding site of the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor population on brain homogenates in rabbits was studied during experimental encephalopathy from acute liver failure and from acute hyperammonemia in the rabbit. Homogenates were

  13. Vaccinia viruses isolated from skin infection in horses produced cutaneous and systemic disease in experimentally infected rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cargnelutti, Juliana Felipetto; Schmidt, Candice; Masuda, Eduardo Kenji; Nogueira, Paula Rochelle Kurrle; Weiblen, Rudi; Flores, Eduardo Furtado

    2012-10-01

    The susceptibility of rabbits to two isolates of Vaccinia virus (VACV) recovered from cutaneous disease in horses in Southern Brazil was investigated. Rabbits were inoculated in the ear skin with both VACV isolates, either in single or mixed infection. All inoculated animals presented local skin lesions characterized by hyperaemia, papules, vesicles, pustules and ulcers. Infectious virus was detected in the lungs and intestine of rabbits that died during acute disease. Histological examination of the skin revealed changes characteristic of those associated with members of the genus Orthopoxvirus. These results demonstrate that rabbits develop skin disease accompanied by systemic signs upon intradermal inoculation of these two equine VACV isolates, either alone or in combination, opening the way for using rabbits to study selected aspects of the biology and pathogenesis of VACV infection. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Comparison of various SYSADOA for the osteoarthritis treatment: an experimental study in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permuy, María; Guede, David; López-Peña, Mónica; Muñoz, Fernando; Caeiro, José-Ramón; González-Cantalapiedra, Antonio

    2015-05-20

    Osteoarthritis is thought to be the most prevalent chronic and disabling joint disease in animals and humans and its treatment is a major orthopaedic challenge because there is no ideal drug treatment to preserve joint structure and function, as well as to ameliorate the symptomatology of the disease. The aim of the present study was to assess, using histology, histomorphometry and micro-CT, the effects of the treatment with several drugs of the SYSADOA group and a bisphosphonate in a model of early osteoarthritis, comparing all the results obtained. Osteoarthritis was surgically induced by anterior cruciate ligament transection and partial meniscectomy on one knee of 56 rabbits; treatment was started three weeks after surgery and lasted 8 weeks; at the end of this period, the animals were sacrificed. Animals were divided into seven groups (8 animals each), one for each regimen of treatment (glucosamine sulfate, chondroitin sulfate, hyaluronic acid, diacerein, risedronate and a combination of risedronate and glucosamine) and one for the control (placebo-treated) group. Following sacrifice, femoral osteochondral cylinders and synovial membrane samples were obtained for their evaluation by qualitative and quantitative histology and micro-CT. The model induced osteoarthritic changes in the knee joints and none of the treatments showed a significantly better efficacy over the others. Regarding cartilage thickness and volume, all the treatments achieved scores halfway between control groups, without statistical differences. Regarding the synovial membrane, diacerein and risedronate showed the best anti-inflammatory profile, whereas glucosamine and chondroitin did not present any effect standing the hyaluronic acid results between the others. Regarding the subchondral bone, there were no differences in thickness or volume, but risedronate, diacerein and hyaluronic acid seemed to have considerably modified the orientation of the trabecular lattice. Out of the different

  15. DETECTION OF MODIFIED LIPOPROTEINS IN ATHEROSCLEROTIC LESIONS OF HUMAN AORTA

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    P. V. Pigarevsky

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. Specific autoantibodies against acetylated, maleylated and malonic dialdehyde-(MDA-modified lipoproteins are detectable in human plasma. Immunization of rabbits with autologous, correspondingly modified low-density lipoproteins (LDLs did induce autoantibodies against acetylated, maleylated and MDA-modified lipoproteins. In atherosclerotic lesions from hyman aorta, the epitopes have been detected that were recognized by the antibodies to acetylated, maleylated, and MDA-modified LDLs. Such antigens were detected at all atherogenesis stages, beginning with the earliest lesions (lipid spots, and their deposition pattern was quite variable.Rabbit and human autoantibodies against acetylated, maleylated and MDA-modified lipoproteins recognized antigens in human atherosclerotic aorta. Modified proteins were localized both intra- and extracellular in tectum, superficial and deep layers of the atherosclerotic lesions. The most typical mode of depositions for all modified proteins si represented by extracellular deposits in the cap of lipid streaks and fibrous plaques, especially in transitional “shoulder” area.The intimal deposits of modified proteins shared similar features with distribution of apo-B-containing lipoproteins, like as of lipids detectable by Oil Red staining. The areas where modified proteins and apo-B-containing lipoproteins were revealed did often coincide with foci of IgG deposits. Modified proteins were not detectable in the non-affected segments of aortic intima.

  16. Protein C activation during the initial phase of experimental acute pancreatitis in the rabbit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottesen, L H; Bladbjerg, E-M; Osman, M

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Disturbances of coagulation and fibrinolysis are well-known systemic effects of acute necrotising pancreatitis (ANP). The purpose of this experimental study was to evaluate the initial events in the haemostatic activation during ANP in an animal model with relevance to the human situa...

  17. Isolation of Trichophyton mentogrophytes var mentogrophytes from naturally infected laboratory albino rats: experimental infection and treatment in rabbits

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    N. A. Issa

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study demonstrated for the first time the occurrence of dermatophytosis in naturally infected rats and from asymptomatic and from breeding boxes of white rats kept in animal housing of college of Veterinary Medicine, University of Dohuk, Iraq. The prevalence rate of infection was (28%, clinically infected rats characterized by appearance of scaly ovoid type lesions with crusty edge and patch of hair loss mostly seen on the back, neck and face of the infected rats, itching was reported in some rats. Only one species of the trichophyton, T. mentogrophytes var mentogrophytes was isolated with growth rate (85.71% of samples collected from clinically infected rats, and (28.57% from asymptomatic and from breeding cages, the growth was observed within the 21 days at 25ºC on Sabouraud's Dextrose Agar. Lacto phenol cotton blue staining slides of T. mentogrophytes var mentogrophytes revealed both microconidia and macroconidia. Microconidia found in numerous numbers often in dense cluster which were hyaline, smooth walled and predominantly spherical to sub spherical in shape, varying numbers of chlamydoconidia. Spiral hyphae and smooth, thin walled clavate shaped multicelled macroconidia were also present. The study also dealt with experimental infection in rabbits with T. mentogrophytes var mentogrophytes and treated by two drugs, natural herbal preparation of acidic pomegranate (Punica granatum fruit and synthetic nystatine ointment. The complete recovery of lesions was recorded after 14 days and 21 days of topical application of a pomegranate and nystatine ointment for 5 successive days respectively.

  18. Intravascular photoacoustic imaging of exogenously labeled atherosclerotic plaque through luminal blood

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeager, Doug; Karpiouk, Andrei; Wang, Bo; Amirian, James; Sokolov, Konstantin; Smalling, Richard; Emelianov, Stanislav

    2012-10-01

    Combined intravascular ultrasound and intravascular photoacoustic (IVUS/IVPA) imaging has been previously established as a viable means for assessing atherosclerotic plaque morphological and compositional characteristics using both endogenous and exogenous contrast. In this study, IVUS/IVPA imaging of atherosclerotic rabbit aortas following systemic injection of gold nanorods (AUNRs) with peak absorbance within the tissue optical window is performed. Ex vivo imaging results reveal a high photoacoustic signal from localized AUNRs in regions with atherosclerotic plaques. Corresponding histological staining further confirms the preferential extravasation of AUNRs in atherosclerotic regions with compromised luminal endothelium and acute inflammation. The ability to detect AUNRs using combined IVUS and photoacoustic imaging in the presence of luminal saline and luminal blood is evaluated using both spectroscopic and single wavelength IVPA imaging techniques. Results demonstrate that AUNR detection within the arterial wall can be achieved using both methods, even in the case of imaging through luminal blood.

  19. Keratinized versus non-keratinized preputial flap onlay urethroplasty: does it make any difference in the histological analysis? An experimental study in rabbits

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    Marnio Costa

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Purpose To compare the histological characteristics of keratinized versus non-keratinized onlay island flaps in an experimental rabbit model. Materials and Methods Sixteen male rabbits were randomly allocated into two experimental groups: keratinized and non-keratinized onlay island flaps. A defect was created in the ventral aspect of the penile urethra. In the keratinized group, a longitudinal island flap was harvested from the external prepuce and rotated to cover the urethral defect. In the non-keratinized group a transverse island flap was harvested from the inner prepuce. The animals were sacrificed after 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks. Results The flaps were viable in all animals, and no deaths were associated with the procedure. Two urethrocutaneous fistulas were identified, one in each experimental group. A similar pattern of fibrosis was identified in both groups. The keratinized epithelium of the external prepuce kept its histological aspect and keratin production. Both keratinized and non-keratinized groups presented a slight decrease on the epithelial thickness, however without a statistically significant difference between groups. Conclusions In this short-term rabbit model, we observed that the stratified squamous keratinized epithelium from the external prepuce kept its keratin production. There was no statistical influence of the flap type on the mean epithelial thickness.

  20. Plasma rico em plaquetas de coelhos: introdução a um modelo animal experimental Platelet-rich plasma in rabbits: introduction of one experimental animal model

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    Marco Antonio de Oliveira-Filho

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available RACIONAL: Muitas dúvidas ainda permanecem no que se refere às ações dos fatores de crescimento e do plasma rico em plaquetas sobre o mecanismo de reparação tissular. Há necessidade de serem esclarecidos pontos controversos ainda existentes. OBJETIVO: Obter o plasma rico em plaquetas em coelhos através de um método simplificado e ao mesmo tempo adequado, introduzindo um modelo experimental que possa ser utilizado em estudos posteriores. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 25 coelhas da raça Nova Zelândia e sem doenças prévias. Quinze mL de sangue de cada animal foi coletado, sendo 10 mL submetidos à dupla centrifugação. Para comprovar a efetividade do método proposto realizou-se contagem mecânica do sangue, bem como do produto final. RESULTADO: Obteve-se uma concentração média de plaquetas no plasma rico em plaquetas 687% maior que a contagem inicial observada no sangue venoso periférico. Para as variáveis: contagem inicial de plaquetas, contagem de plaquetas no plasma rico em plaquetas e enriquecimento, foram obtidos os limites de 95% de confiança para suas médias, sendo que, no que se refere ao percentual de enriquecimento, existe 95% de chance de que o intervalo de (530-844 contenha a média real de enriquecimento de plaquetas. CONCLUSÃO: O método simplificado utilizado permite a obtenção de plasma rico em plaquetas adequado permitindo seu uso em estudos dos fatores de crescimento nos mecanismos de reparação tecidual.BACKGROUND: Multiple uncertainties still exist about the action of the growth factors and the platelet-rich plasma on the mechanism of repair. AIM: To obtain the platelet-rich plasma in rabbits through a simplified and suitable method, creating an experimental model. METHODS: Twenty-five female New Zealand rabbits without previous diseases were used. Fifteen mL of blood of each rabbit was collected and 10 mL of the collected blood were twice centrifugated. To check the effectiveness of the proposed method

  1. In-vitro effects of PDE5 inhibitor and statin treatment on the contractile responses of experimental MetS rabbit's cavernous smooth muscle

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    Yasin Erden

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Hypercholesterolaemia promotes erectile dysfunction through increased superoxide formation and decreased nitric oxide bioactivity in cavernosal tissue. The role of nitric oxide on erectile function is well known. Statins have lipid lowering properties and can modulate endothelial nitric oxide bioavailability. Sildenafil, enhances smooth muscle relaxation in corpus cavernosum. We invastigated in-vitro effects of sildenafil and rosuvastatin on nonadrenergic, non-cholinergic and nitric oxide mediated cavernosal smooth musle relaxation in metabolic syndrome rabbits, since alterations in this pathway are recognised in diabetic and hypercholesterolemic erectile dysfunction. Methods: Ten male rabbits were fed a standart diet as control group, fourty male rabbits were fed a hypercholesterolemic diet for 12 weeks. Hypercholesterolemic group were divided for without treatment, rosuvastatin treatment, sildenafil teratment, and rosuvastatin + sildenafil treatment (N = 10 per groups. Results: Serum levels of cholesterol and glucose were significantly higher in the experimental group than in the control group (p < 0.05. After theraphy no differences were found among the groups in relaxation responses to sodium nitroprusside. The relaxation responses to carbachol and EFS were significantly reduced in metabolic syndrome group to control group (p < 0.05, but there were no differences between the other groups and control group. There was a significantly lower in-vitro relaxation response in the metabolic syndrome rabbits than in controls and the others (p < 0.05. Conclusion: Both agents improve in-vitro relaxation responses of erectile tissue from metabolic syndrome rabbits to endothelial non-adrenergic, non-cholinergic and nitric oxide. This finding supports to the results of other clinical studies with these drugs.

  2. Intermittent Dosing of Micafungin Is Effective for Treatment of Experimental Disseminated Candidiasis in Persistently Neutropenic Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petraitiene, Ruta; Petraitis, Vidmantas; Hope, William W; Walsh, Thomas J

    2015-12-01

    The current standard of treatment of invasive candidiasis with echinocandins requires once-daily therapy. To improve quality of life, reduce costs, and improve outcome, we studied the pharmacokinetics (PK), efficacy, and safety of alternate dosing regimens of micafungin (MFG) for the treatment of experimental subacute disseminated candidiasis. MFG was administered for 12 days starting 24 hours after intravenous inoculation of 1 × 10(3) Candida albicans blastoconidia. Study groups consisted of MFG at 1 mg/kg every 24 hours (MFG1), 2 mg/kg every 48 hours (MFG2), and 3 mg/kg every 72 hours (MFG3), and untreated controls. PK of MFG were determined on day 7 by high-performance liquid chromatography and modeled using nonparametric adaptive grid program. A 2-compartment PK model with volume of the central compartment (Vc), clearance (SCL), and the intercompartmental rate constants Kcp and Kpc was used. The fungal burden in 7 tissues was determined 312 hours after the initiation of therapy. PK of MFG were linear and the parameter means ± SD were Vc = 0.41 ± 0.18 L, Kcp = 2.80 ± 1.55/hour, Kpc = 1.71 ± 0.93/hour, and SCL = 0.16 ± 0.003 L/hour (r(2) = 0.99). The area under the plasma drug concentration - time curve for MFG1, MFG2, and MFG3 was 198.7 ± 19.8, 166.3 ± 36.7, and 192.8 ± 46.2 mg × hour/L, respectively (P = .24). All treatment groups showed significant and comparable resolution of (1→3)-β-D-glucan levels and clearance of C. albicans from liver, spleen, kidney, brain, lung, vitreous humor, and vena cava in comparison to untreated controls (P ≤ .05). There were no differences in hepatic or renal function among study groups. Less fractionated MFG regimens of every 48 and 72 hours are safe and as effective in experimental disseminated candidiasis as once-daily therapy in neutropenic hosts. © The Author 2015. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Infectious Diseases Society of America. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e

  3. Hernioplastia experimental em coelhos por meio de cartilagem auricular bovina conservada em glutaraldeído Rabbits experimental hernioplasty by means of bovine auricular cartilage preserved in glutaraldehyde

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    L.A.F. Silva

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se a viabilidade do emprego da cartilagem auricular bovina conservada em glutaraldeído a 4% na hernioplastia experimental, empregando-se seis coelhos adultos, machos, da raça Nova Zelândia. Para obtenção da hérnia incisional, removeu-se um segmento elíptico de 3cm de comprimento por 1cm de largura, no ponto central à primeira incisão, envolvendo fáscia e tecido muscular, na região da cicatriz umbilical. Dois animais de cada vez foram sacrificados aos 15, 30 e 45 dias após a cirurgia. Nos sacrificados aos 15 dias, observaram-se áreas focais de inflamação, caracterizadas por abscesso e fístula. À microscopia, observou-se área de inflamação e necrose próxima à periferia do implante. Nas amostras colhidas dos animais sacrificados aos 30 dias, não foram evidenciadas alterações clínicas relevantes. Desses, um animal apresentou à microscopia intensa proliferação fibroblástica, moderada neovascularização e células inflamatórias predominantemente mononucleares. Dos sacrificados aos 45 dias, em um ocorreu aderência de alça intestinal ao implante. É possível inferir que o material implantado apresentou satisfatória compatibilidade com o tecido receptor. Conclui-se que o implante de cartilagem auricular bovina conservada na hernioplastia experimental em coelhos apresentou evidências de boa integração tecidual e cicatrização, não havendo eliminação do material implantado.The auricular cartilage preserved in 4% glutaraldehyde was used for experimental hernioplasty in six male, adult, New Zealand rabbits. To create an incision hernia, an elliptic tissue fragment three centimeter-long and one-centimeter wide was removed at a point centrally located from the first incision, embracing fascia and muscle tissue, from the area of umbilical scar. Animals were euthanized, two at a time, 15, 30, or 45 days after surgery. In the animals euthanized after 15 days focal areas of inflammation were observed

  4. The Relationship between Oxygen Saturation and Color Alteration of a Compromised Skin Flap: Experimental Study on the Rabbit

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    Theddeus O. H. Prasetyono

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available BackgroundThe aim of this study was to collect important data on the time of oxygen saturation change in relation to skin flap color alteration using non-invasive pulse oximetry to evaluate its ability to provide continuous monitoring of skin flap perfusion.MethodsAn experimental study on the monitoring of blood perfusion of 20 tube-island groin flaps of 10 male New Zealand rabbits was performed using pulse oximetry. The animals were randomly assigned to one of two groups representing a blockage of either arterial or venous blood flow. The oxygen saturation change and clinical color alteration were monitored from the beginning of vessel clamping until the saturation became undetectable. The result was analyzed by the t-test using SSPS ver. 10.0.ResultsThe mean times from the vessel clamping until the saturation became undetectable were 20.19±2.13 seconds and 74.91±10.57 seconds for the artery and vein clamping groups, respectively. The mean time of the clinical alteration from the beginning of vein clamping was 34.5±11.72 minutes, while the alteration in flaps with artery clamping could not be detected until 2.5 hours after clamping.ConclusionsThe use of neonate-type reusable flex sensor-pulse oximetry is objective and effective in early detection of arterial and vein blockage. It provides real-time data on vessel occlusion, which in turn will allow for early salvaging. The detection periods of both arterial occlusion and venous congestion are much earlier than the color alteration one may encounter clinically.

  5. The Relationship between Oxygen Saturation and Color Alteration of a Compromised Skin Flap: Experimental Study on the Rabbit

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    Theddeus O. H. Prasetyono

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Background The aim of this study was to collect important data on the time of oxygensaturation change in relation to skin flap color alteration using non-invasive pulse oximetryto evaluate its ability to provide continuous monitoring of skin flap perfusion.Methods An experimental study on the monitoring of blood perfusion of 20 tube-islandgroin flaps of 10 male New Zealand rabbits was performed using pulse oximetry. The animalswere randomly assigned to one of two groups representing a blockage of either arterial orvenous blood flow. The oxygen saturation change and clinical color alteration were monitoredfrom the beginning of vessel clamping until the saturation became undetectable. The resultwas analyzed by the t-test using SSPS ver. 10.0.Results The mean times from the vessel clamping until the saturation became undetectablewere 20.19±2.13 seconds and 74.91±10.57 seconds for the artery and vein clamping groups,respectively. The mean time of the clinical alteration from the beginning of vein clampingwas 34.5±11.72 minutes, while the alteration in flaps with artery clamping could not bedetected until 2.5 hours after clamping.Conclusions The use of neonate-type reusable flex sensor-pulse oximetry is objective andeffective in early detection of arterial and vein blockage. It provides real-time data on vesselocclusion, which in turn will allow for early salvaging. The detection periods of both arterialocclusion and venous congestion are much earlier than the color alteration one may encounterclinically.

  6. Protective effect of exercise and alpha tocopherol on atherosclerosis promotion in hypercholesterolemic domestic rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekh, Mudhir S.; Mahmud, Almas M. R.

    2017-09-01

    This study was designed to determine effects of exercise training (Moderate and severe) and alpha tocopherol on lipid profiles and organ weights in hypercholesterolemic domestic rabbits. Hypercholesterolemia (HC) and atherosclerotic lesions were induced by feeding the male rabbits the standard chow supplemented with 1% cholesterol (atherogenic diet) for 36 days. Experimental rabbits were divided into seven groups: normal (T1), HC control (T2), HC plus alpha tocopherol (0.5mg /animal/day) (T3), HC plus moderate exercise 40 minutes/day (0.5km/day) 5 days/week (T4), HC plus severe exercise 40 minutes/day (1km/day) 5 days/week (T5), HC plus alpha tocopherol plus moderate exercise (T6) and HC plus alpha tocopherol plus severe exercise (T7). After the treatment period of 36th day, blood samples were collected and total cholesterol (TC), Triglyceride (TG), Very low-density lipoprotein (VLDL)-cholesterol, High-density lipoproteins (HDL)-cholesterol, Low-density lipoprotein (LDL)-cholesterol, serum glucose, body and organ weights were assayed and compared with hypercholesterolemic control. Combination of moderate exercise with alpha tocopherol produced significant reduction (P<0.01) in TG and high significant decrement (P<0.001), in VLDL-cholesterol, TC and LDL-cholesterol compared with hypercholesterolemic rabbits. Serum TC, LDL and VLDL (P<0.001) and TG (P<0.01) significantly increased when compared with normal rabbits diet, while, HDL decreased (P<0.05) significantly. Severe exercise group showed no significant change in all lipid profiles. However, the decrement in the above parameters was comparable with hypercholesterolemic rabbits in combination of severe exercise with alpha tocopherol. The results suggest that the combination of moderate exercise with alpha tocopherol can be exploited for prevention of atherosclerosis in hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

  7. Structural and biomechanical alterations in rabbit thoracic aortas are associated with the progression of atherosclerosis

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    Koletsis Efstratios

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Atherosclerosis is a diffuse and highly variable disease of arteries that alters the mechanical properties of the vessel wall through highly variable changes in its cellular composition and histological structure. We have analyzed the effects of acute atherosclerotic changes on the mechanical properties of the descending thoracic aorta of rabbits fed a 4% cholesterol diet. Methods Two groups of eight male New Zealand White rabbits were randomly selected and fed for 8 weeks either an atherogenic diet (4% cholesterol plus regular rabbit chow, or regular chow. Animals were sacrificed after 8 weeks, and the descending thoracic aortas were excised for pressure-diameter tests and histological evaluation to examine the relationship between aortic elastic properties and atherosclerotic lesions. Results All rabbits fed the high-cholesterol diet developed either intermediate or advanced atherosclerotic lesions, particularly American Heart Association-type III and IV, which were fatty and contained abundant lipid-filled foam cells (RAM 11-positive cells and fewer SMCs with solid-like actin staining (HHF-35-positive cells. In contrast, rabbits fed a normal diet had no visible atherosclerotic changes. The atherosclerotic lesions correlated with a statistically significant decrease in mean vessel wall stiffness in the cholesterol-fed rabbits (51.52 ± 8.76 kPa compared to the control animals (68.98 ± 11.98 kPa, especially in rabbits with more progressive disease. Conclusions Notably, stiffness appears to decrease with the progression of atherosclerosis after the 8-week period.

  8. Estudo da transmigração bacteriana na apendicite experimental em coelhos A study about bacterial transmigration in experimental Appendicitis in rabbits

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    ECF RAMOS

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Introdução: A queda extrínseca dos mecanismos de defesa de um hospedeiro é vista classicamente como uma infecção, que resulta na aquisição de um tecido normal, de um novo microorganismo, cuja virulência é fundamental para a sua patogenia.Na década de 50, estudos comprovaram que bactérias e endotoxinas podem ultrapassar a barreira intestinal e atingir a circulação, demonstrando ainda, que a flora intestinal representa uma importante fonte para o desenvolvimento da infecção sistêmica. Objetivo: o presente estudo visa avaliar a ocorrência de transmigração bacteriana em apendicite experimental induzida em coelhos, mediante a oclusão completa do apêndice vermiforme. Métodos: foram utilizados 24 coelhos brancos, da linhagem Nova Zelândia, com peso corporal variando de 2500 a 3000 gramas, sendo então divididos em 2 grupos. Os animais do Grupo I foram submetidos a laparotomia mediana e retirada de fragmentos do baço, rim esquerdo, pulmão direito, linfonodo abdominal, conteúdo da luz do apêndice vermiforme e sangue da veia porta para cultura. Os animais do Grupo II foram submetidos a laparotomia mediana e oclusão completa do apêndice vermiforme para a indução de apendicite e, após 24 horas, realizada a coleta do material nos moldes do Grupo I. Resultados: No Grupo controle (Grupo I, não se observou o crescimento de bactérias nas amostras analisadas. No Grupo experimento (Grupo II, observou-se o crescimento de Escherichia coli em todos os animais. Conclusão: Ocorreu transmigração bacteriana após 24 horas de observação em coelhos com apendicite experimental.The present study aims to evaluate the occurrence of the bacterial transmigration in induced ezxperimental appendicitis in rabbitis through complete oclusion of the vermiform appendix. 24 New Zealand white rabbits with a body weight ranging from 2500 to 3000 grams were used. They were divided into 2 groups. The animals from group I were submitted to a median

  9. An overview on development and application of an experimental platform for quantitative cardiac imaging research in rabbit models of myocardial infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Yuanbo; Bogaert, Jan; Oyen, Raymond; Ni, Yicheng

    2014-10-01

    To exploit the advantages of using rabbits for cardiac imaging research and to tackle the technical obstacles, efforts have been made under the framework of a doctoral research program. In this overview article, by cross-referencing the current literature, we summarize how we have developed a preclinical cardiac research platform based on modified models of reperfused myocardial infarction (MI) in rabbits; how the in vivo manifestations of cardiac imaging could be closely matched with those ex vivo macro- and microscopic findings; how these imaging outcomes could be quantitatively analyzed, validated and demonstrated; and how we could apply this cardiac imaging platform to provide possible solutions to certain lingering diagnostic and therapeutic problems in experimental cardiology. In particular, tissue components in acute cardiac ischemia have been stratified and characterized, post-infarct lipomatous metaplasia (LM) as a common but hardly illuminated clinical pathology has been identified in rabbit models, and a necrosis avid tracer as well as an anti-ischemic drug have been successfully assessed for their potential utilities in clinical cardiology. These outcomes may interest the researchers in the related fields and help strengthen translational research in cardiovascular diseases.

  10. A rabbit model of atherosclerosis at carotid artery: MRI visualization and histopathological characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ma, Zhan-Long; Teng, Gao-Jun; Chen, Jun; Zhang, Hong-Ying; Cao, Ai-Hong [Zhong-Da Hospital, Southeast University, Molecular Imaging Laboratory, Department of Radiology, Nanjing (China); Ni, Yicheng [University Hospitals, Catholic University of Leuven, Department of Radiology, Leuven (Belgium)

    2008-10-15

    To induce a rabbit model of atherosclerosis at carotid artery, to visualize the lesion evolution with magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and to characterize the lesion types by histopathology. Atherosclerosis at the right common carotid artery (RCCA) was induced in 23 rabbits by high-lipid diet following balloon catheter injury to the endothelium. The rabbits were examined in vivo with a 1.5-T MRI and randomly divided into three groups of 6 weeks (n=6), 12 weeks (n=8) and 15 weeks (n=9) for postmortem histopathology. The lesions on both MRI and histology were categorized according to the American Heart Association (AHA) classifications of atherosclerosis. Type I and type II of atherosclerotic changes were detected at week 6, i.e., nearly normal signal intensity (SI) of the injured RCCA wall without stenosis on MRI, but with subendothelial inflammatory infiltration and proliferation of smooth muscle cells on histopathology. At week 12, 75.0% and 62.5% of type III changes were encountered on MRI and histopathology respectively with thicker injured RCCA wall of increased SI on T{sub 1}-weighted and proton density (PD)-weighted MRI and microscopically a higher degree of plaque formation. At week 15, carotid atherosclerosis became more advanced, i.e., type IV and type V in 55.6% and 22.2% of the lesions with MRI and 55.6% and 33.3% of the lesions with histopathology, respectively. Statistical analysis revealed a significant agreement (p<0.05) between the MRI and histological findings for lesion classification (r=0.96). A rabbit model of carotid artery atherosclerosis has been successfully induced and noninvasively visualized. The atherosclerotic plaque formation evolved from type I to type V with time, which could be monitored with 1.5-T MRI and confirmed with histomorphology. This experimental setting can be applied in preclinical research on atherosclerosis. (orig.)

  11. Anti-Atherogenic Activity of Ethanolic Fraction of Terminalia arjuna Bark on Hypercholesterolemic Rabbits

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    Saravanan Subramaniam

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis which results from gradual deposition of lipids in medium and large arteries is a leading cause of mortality worldwide. Terminalia arjuna is a herb of Combretaceae family which contains hypolipidemic compounds and flavonoids with high antioxidative properties. This study was conducted to determine the effect of ethanolic fraction of T. arjuna on blood lipids and atherosclerosis in rabbits fed with high fat diet (HFD. Twenty New Zealand rabbits of either sex were randomly divided into five groups: the first two were normal diet group and HFD (21% fat group and the remaining three groups received high cholesterol diet supplemented with standard drug (Atorvastatin 10 mg kg−1 body weight, T. arjuna ethanolic fraction (100 and 200 mg kg−1 body weight, respectively. The concentration of total cholesterol (TC, low density lipoprotein (LDL cholesterol, triglycerides (TGs, very low density lipoprotein (VLDL cholesterol and high density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol was determined in rabbits at the start of the experiment, at the 14th, 30th days and at the end of the study. Anti-atherogenic index was calculated from the lipid profile of the rabbits before sacrifice. At the end of the experimental period, the aorta was removed for assessment of atherosclerotic plaques. Results show that T. arjuna significantly decreases TC, LDL and TG levels and increases HDL and lessens atherosclerotic lesion in aorta (P < .05. Hence T. arjuna extract can effectively prevent the progress of atherosclerosis. This is likely due to the effect of T. arjuna on serum lipoproteins and its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

  12. Anchorage of TiO2-blasted, HA-coated, and machined implants: an experimental study with rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gotfredsen, K; Wennerberg, A; Johansson, C

    1995-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the histometrical and biomechanical anchorage of TiO2-blasted implants and TiO2-blasted implants coated with hydroxyapatite. The control implants were machined. Twenty-six rabbits had a total of 156 implants placed in the proximal part of the tibia. Each ...

  13. In Vivo Efficacy of Moxifloxacin Compared with Cloxacillin and Vancomycin in a Staphylococcus aureus Rabbit Arthritis Experimental Model▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, Olivier; Caillon, Jocelyne; Arvieux, Cedric; Jacqueline, Cedric; Bugnon, Denis; Potel, Gilles; Hamel, Antoine

    2007-01-01

    We investigated the efficacies of moxifloxacin, cloxacillin, and vancomycin in a rabbit model of Staphylococcus aureus arthritis. No significant difference between therapeutic regimens was observed after a 7-day treatment. Oral moxifloxacin could be a suitable alternative to standard parenteral therapy for S. aureus arthritis. PMID:17576849

  14. In vivo efficacy of moxifloxacin compared with cloxacillin and vancomycin in a Staphylococcus aureus rabbit arthritis experimental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grossi, Olivier; Caillon, Jocelyne; Arvieux, Cedric; Jacqueline, Cedric; Bugnon, Denis; Potel, Gilles; Hamel, Antoine

    2007-09-01

    We investigated the efficacies of moxifloxacin, cloxacillin, and vancomycin in a rabbit model of Staphylococcus aureus arthritis. No significant difference between therapeutic regimens was observed after a 7-day treatment. Oral moxifloxacin could be a suitable alternative to standard parenteral therapy for S. aureus arthritis.

  15. CO2 vascular anastomosis of atherosclerotic and calcified arteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    White, John V.; Leefmans, Eric; Stewart, Gwendolyn J.; Katz, Mira L.; Comerota, Anthony J.

    1990-06-01

    The technique for CO2 laser fusion vascular anastomosis in normal vessels has been well established. Normal arterial wall has a predictable thermal response to the incident laser energy, with rapid heating and cooling of collagen within the arterial wall. Since atherosclerosis involves subendothelial cellular proliferation, lipid and calcium deposition, it may modify the thermal responsiveness of the arterial wall. To this study, CO2 laser fusion anastomoses were attempted in rabbits with non-calcific atherosclerosis and humans with calcific atherosclerosis. All anastomoses were successfully completed without alteration in technique despite the presence of plaque at the site of laser fusion. Histology of rabbit vessels revealed the classic laser fusion cap within the adventitia and persistent atherosclerotic plaque at the flow surface. Duplex imaging of patients post-operatively demonstrated long term anastomotic patency in 2 of 3 fistulae. These results suggest that neither non-calcified or calcified atherosclerosis significantly alters the arterial wall thermal responsiveness to CO2 laser energy or inhibits creation of laser fusion anastomoses. Therefore, this technique may be applicable to the treatment of patients with atherosclerotic occlusive disease.

  16. Structural Remodeling of Sympathetic Innervation in Atherosclerotic Blood Vessels: Role of Atherosclerotic Disease Progression and Chronic Social Stress.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Noller, Crystal M; Mendez, Armando J; Szeto, Angela; Boulina, Marcia; Llabre, Maria M; Zaias, Julia; Schneiderman, Neil; McCabe, Philip M

    2017-01-01

    The sympathetic nervous system (SNS) can undergo dramatic structural plasticity in response to behavioral factors and/or the presence of disease, leading to SNS hyperinnervation of peripheral tissues. The SNS has been proposed as an important mediator between stressful behavior and the progression of atherosclerosis in the vasculature. The present study examined whether structural remodeling of the SNS occurs in the vasculature in a genetically hyperlipidemic animal model of atherosclerosis, the Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbit (WHHL; relative to normolipidemic New Zealand white rabbits [NZW]), and whether SNS plasticity is driven by the progression of disease and/or by stressful social behavior. WHHL and NZW rabbits were assigned to an unstable or stable social environment for 4 months. Aortic atherosclerosis was assessed and SNS aortic innervation quantified using immunofluorescent microscopy. Numerous SNS varicosities were observed throughout the aorta in WHHLs and NZWs, extending into the vascular media and intima, an innervation pattern not previously reported. WHHLs exhibited significantly greater innervation than NZWs (F(1,41) = 55.3, p Social environment did not influence innervation in NZWs (aortic arch: p = .078, thoracic aorta: p = .34) or WHHLs (arch: p = .97, thoracic: p = .61). The findings suggest that hyperinnervation is driven largely by the progression of disease rather than social environment. SNS innervation patterns observed in atherosclerotic human and mouse aortas were consistent with the rabbit, suggesting that SNS hyperinnervation of the diseased vessel wall is a general feature across mammalian species.

  17. Effect of systemic administration of nicotine on healing in osseous defects. An experimental study in rabbits. Part II

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balatsouka, Dimitra; Gotfredsen, Klaus; Sørensen, Lars

    2006-01-01

    group lost weight, while the control group gained weight during the experiment. The prostaglandin E(2) levels in plasma increased significantly following nicotine exposure in the test group. No significant differences in the percentage of vessels and bone density in the osseous defects were found...... between the test and the control groups after 2 and 4 weeks of healing. CONCLUSIONS: In this experiment, systemic administration of nicotine over 4 or 6 weeks, respectively, influenced body weight and systemic prostaglandin E(2) levels but not the amount of blood vessels and the bone mineral density......OBJECTIVES: The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of systemic administration of nicotine on bone healing in osseous defects in the tibia of rabbits. MATERIAL AND METHODS: Sixteen female rabbits received nicotine (n=8; test group) or saline (n=8; control group) via subcutaneously...

  18. Effect of platelet-derived growth factor-BB on bone formation in calvarial defects: an experimental study in rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vikjaer, D; Blom, S; Hjørting-Hansen, E

    1997-01-01

    The effect of recombinant human platelet-derived growth factor-BB (rhPDGF-BB) on bone healing was examined in calvarial defects in rabbits. Bicortical circular (critical size) defects were prepared in the calvarial bone of 16 rabbits. The defects were closed on the dural side and covered externally...... with expanded polytetrafluoroethylene membranes to prevent interference with osteogenesis within the defect by the surrounding tissue and to keep the growth factor in place. A single dose of methylcellulose gel (4.4%) with (n = 8) or without rhPDGF-BB (50 micrograms/ml) (n = 8) was applied to the defects......, and the bone formation was evaluated after 8 weeks. Healing of defects in both groups was characterized by the presence of newly formed bone along the edges of the original defect and by a central area of fibrous connective tissue. The newly formed bone in the rhPDGF-BB treated defects had a trabecular...

  19. Effect of intraarticular stainless steel implants on the health of the rabbit knee joint: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stubbs, M; Zhang, H; Vrahas, M S; Baratta, R V; Zieske, A

    2000-11-01

    This study was designed to investigate the histologic changes to the knee joints of rabbits after insertion of a metal implant in retrograde fashion. Eighteen rabbits had a modified stainless steel screw implanted in one knee, with the other knee serving as a sham-operated control. The animals were killed after two, six, or twelve months. The histologic status of the cartilage and synovium were graded by the Modified Mankin and Mirra criteria, respectively. At the time of killing, every insertion site was covered by fibrous tissue. Statistical analysis showed no significant differences in histologic scores between implanted and control knees. Insertion of a stable, well-fixed implant results in no deleterious effect to the knee joint.

  20. Experimental study of plasmid TGF-beta 1 DNA gene transfer with lipofectamine into rabbit corneal epithelial cells in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiong; Hu, Yanhua; Jiang, Fagang; Chen, Hong

    2002-01-01

    To investigate whether the TGF-beta 1 plasmid DNA carried by lipofectamine could be introduced into cultured rabbit corneal epithelial cells, specific expression of the plasmid pMAM TGF-beta 1 in the cultured corneal epithelial cells was studied. Two days after 12 h of transfection of pMAMT-GF-beta 1 mediated by lipofectamine into the cultured corneal epithelial cells, the TGF-beta 1 protein expression specific for pMAMTGF-beta 1 in the cells was detected by means of immunohistochemical staining and the positive rate was 23.37%. The results suggested that foreign plasmid DNA could be effectively delivered into cultured rabbit corneal epithelial cells by means of lipofectamine, and this will provide a promising method of studying TGF-beta 1 on the mechanism of physiology and pathology concerned with corneal epithelial cells.

  1. Histology of experimental stress ulcer: the effect of cimetidine on adrenaline-induced gastric lesions in the rabbit.

    OpenAIRE

    Man, W K; Silcocks, P. B.; Waldes, R.; Spencer, J.

    1981-01-01

    The gastric mucosal injury produced by i.p. instillation of adrenaline in the rabbit was examined and assessed histologically. Mucosal lesions were classified by microscopy into two types bearing distinct histological features. In Type A oedema only was seen and in Type B erosion and/or haemorrhage were added. Statistical analysis revealed that mucosal lesions were related to adrenaline dose. Cimetidine was ineffective in protecting against the stress-related gastric lesion in the present rab...

  2. Usefulness of diagnostic ultrasound for detecting myofascial change of the hamstring muscles due to lmmobilization: Experimental study with caged rabbits

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Yoon Kyoo; Kim, Joo Hyun; Lee, Chang Hyung; Kim, Jung Ryul; Kim, Han Kyum [Korea University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2002-03-15

    To evaluate the usefulness of diagnostic ultrasound in the localization of soft tissue changes in the region of clinically suspected myofascial pain syndrome and to investigate the ultrasonographic and pathologic differences of the hamstring muscles between caged and freely mobile rabbits. A total of eight caged rabbits were used in this study. Four rabbits (age; two were 3-4 months, and the other two were 8-9 months) were raised in a small cage (40 X 50 X 30 cm), and the other four rabbits (age; two were 3-4 months while the other two 8-9 months) raised in a yard where they were free to move around. First, clinically identified myofascial trigger point-taut band or nodule was identified followed by diagnostic ultrasound examination of the hamstring and gluteus muscles and injection of Indian ink of the band or nodule. Biopsies were performed to include the hyperechoic regions as well as clinically identified myofascial trigger points, and the obtained specimens were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and masson-trichrome. The analysis of the results of the ultrasound study and pathologic study found correlation between the pathologic identification of myofascial trigger point and diagnostic ultrasound, where palpable nodules of caged animal, older more than younger one should greater extent of increment of echogenicity and degenerative pathologic changes such as fatty changes and appearance of hyaline fibers. Diagnostic ultrasound could be applied to identify or observe soft tissue changes in the regions of clinically identified myofascial trigger points. A pattern has emerged where soft tissue changes were ore likely to be observed in the caged animal where their movements were restricted and prone to fixed position. Further study to investigate the reversibility of pathologic changes of caged animal should be carried out.

  3. Experimental poisoning by Callaeum psilophyllum in rabbits and goatsIntoxicação experimental por Callaeum psilophyllum em coelhos e caprinos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amélia Lizziane Leite Duarte

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Callaeum (Mascagnia psilophyllum is found in the same regions than Amorimia (Mascagnia rigida, a sodium monofluoroacetate containing plant that cause sudden death associated with exercise in ruminants. With the objective to determine the toxicity of C. psilophyllum, leaves of the plant were administered to rabbits and goats. In rabbits doses of 6-12 g.kg-1 body weight caused tachycardia, dyspnea, and mydriasis. One rabbit, that ingested 10 g/kg, showed clinical signs similar to those caused by A. rigida in rabbits. Four goats showed diarrhea after the ingestion of green or dry leaves of the plant. Three died and one recovered. The results in rabbits suggest that C. psilophyllum contains fluoroacetate. However, clinical signs in goats suggest that C. psilophyllum contains another substance responsible for the digestive signs. Callaeum (Mascagnia psilophyllum é encontrada nas mesmas regiões que Amorimia (Mascagnia rigida, uma planta que contêm monofluoroacetato de sódio e causa morte súbita associada ao exercício em ruminantes. Com o objetivo de determinar a toxicidade de C. psilophyllum, folhas desta planta foram administradas a coelhos e caprinos. Em coelhos, doses de 6-12 g.kg-1 de peso corporal causaram taquicardia, dispneia e midríase. Um coelho, que ingeriu 10 g.kg-1, apresentou sinais clínicos semelhantes aos causados por A. rigida em coelhos. Em caprinos, quatro animais apresentaram diarreia após a ingestão de folhas verdes ou secas da planta. Três caprinos morreram e um se recuperou. Os resultados em coelhos sugerem que C. psilophyllum contêm fluoroacetato. No entanto, os sinais clínicos em caprinos sugerem que C. psilophyllum contêm outra substância responsável pelos sinais digestivos.

  4. Setup of a bone aging experimental model in the rabbit comparing changes in cortical and trabecular bone: Morphological and morphometric study in the femur.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazzaglia, Ugo E; Sibilia, Valeria; Congiu, Terenzio; Pagani, Francesca; Ravanelli, Marco; Zarattini, Guido

    2015-07-01

    Bone aging was studied in an experimental model (rabbit femur) in three populations aged 0.5, 1.5, and 7.5 years. Cortical bone histology was compared with a data set from a 1.5-month-old population of an earlier published paper. From 0.5-year-old onward, the mean femur length did not increase further. Thereafter, the mean marrow area increased and the cortical area decreased significantly with aging. This was associated with a structural pattern transformation from plexiform to laminar and then Haversian-like type. The distal meta-epiphysis bone trabecular density of the oldest populations also was significantly lower in specific regions of interest (ROI). Percentage sealed primary vascular canals in laminar bone significantly increased with aging without variation of percentage sealed secondary osteons. Remodeling rate reflected by the density of cutting cones did not significantly change among the age populations. These data suggest that laminar bone vascular pattern is more functional in the fast diaphyseal expansion but not much streamlined with the renewal of blood flow during secondary remodeling. Bone aging was characterized by: 1) secondary remodeling subendosteally; 2) increment of sealed primary vascular canals number; 3) increased calcium content of the cortex; 4) cortical and trabecular bone mass loss in specific ROIs. Taken together, the present data may give a morphological and morphometric basis to perform comparative studies on experimental models of osteoporosis in the rabbit. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  5. [Results of the IOP decrease after application of some mixtures of amino acids and antiglaucomatics in rabbits (a review of experimental publications)].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oláh, Z; Veselovský, J

    2011-01-01

    To summarise of experimental results performed on rabbit eyes focused to influence the physiological intraocular pressure (lOP) after application of some amino acids mixture with some regularly used antiglaucomatics. The experiments were performed on adult rabbits (female of the New Zealand White species). The applicated substances were: 10% solution of amino acids (L-lysin.2HCl.2H2O, L-arginine.HCL or L-glycine.HCL) in antiglau-comatics 0.5% timolol (Timoptol) or 0.005% latanoprost (Xalatan). This mixture was applicated to the left eye; right eye was used as control. The measurement of IOP and pupil diameter was performed before instillation, in 15th, 30th, 60th, 180th, 240th minute and 24 hours after application. Functional bioactivity of the used antiglaucomatics in case of decreased lOP is rising after interaction with the relevant specific amino acid. Glycine in timolol showed the highest effect on average decrease of the lOP physiological values (lOP decrease reached - 5,5 torr) followed by arginine in timolol (lOP decrease reached - 3,3 torr). The lOP decrease after other combinations of amino acids and antiglaucomatics was in average lower or nonsignificant. Through interaction between in vitro prepared mixture free amino acids and antiglaucomatics a new, biologically active substance (metabolite) is created. After instillation in experimental condition achieving stronger and longer decrease of the lOP compared with a single antiglaucomatic or amino acid.

  6. Iodine-125 Seeds Strand for Treatment of Tumor Thrombus in Inferior Vena Cava: An Experimental Study in a Rabbit Model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Wen, E-mail: wenzhangxiao@126.com; Yan, Zhiping, E-mail: Yan.zhiping@zs-hospital.sh.cn; Luo, Jianjun, E-mail: luo.jianjun@zs-hospital.sh.cn; Fang, Zhuting, E-mail: 470389481@qq.com; Wu, Linlin, E-mail: linlinzhifubao@126.com; Liu, QingXin, E-mail: liu.qingxin@zs-hospital.sh.cn; Qu, Xudong, E-mail: qu.xudong@zs-hospital.sh.cn; Liu, Lingxiao, E-mail: liu.lingxiao@zs-hospital.sh.cn; Wang, Jianhua, E-mail: wang.jianhua@zs-hospital.sh.cn [Fudan University, Department of Interventional Radiology, Zhongshan Hospital (China)

    2013-10-15

    Objective: The purpose of this study was to establish an animal model of implanted inferior vena cava tumor thrombus (IVCTT) and to evaluate the effect of linear iodine-125 seeds strand in treating implanted IVCTT. Methods: Tumor cell line VX{sub 2} was inoculated subcutaneously into New Zealand rabbit to develop the parent tumor. The tumor strip was inoculated into inferior vena cava (IVC) to establish the IVCTT model. The IVCTT was confirmed by multidetector computed tomography (MDCT) after 2 weeks. Twelve rabbits with IVCTT were randomly divided into two groups. Treatment group (group T; n = 6) underwent Iodine-125 seeds brachytherapy, and the control group (group C; n = 6) underwent blank seeds strand. The blood laboratory examination (including blood routine examination, hepatic and renal function), body weight, survival time, and IVCTT volume by MDCT were monitored. All rabbits were dissected postmortem, and the therapeutic effects were evaluated on the basis of histopathology. The proliferating cell nuclear antigen index (PI) and apoptosis index (AI) of IVCTT were compared between two groups. T test, Wilcoxon rank test, and Kaplan-Meier survival curve analysis were used. Results: The success rate of establishing IVCTT was 100 %. The body weight loss and cachexia of rabbits in group C appeared earlier than in group T. Body weight in the third week, the mean survival time, PI, AI in groups T and C were 2.23 {+-} 0.12 kg, 57.83 {+-} 8.68 days, (16.73 {+-} 5.18 %), (29.47 {+-} 7.18 %), and 2.03 {+-} 0.13 kg, 43.67 {+-} 5.28 days, (63.01 {+-} 2.01 %), (6.02 {+-} 2.93 %), respectively. There were statistically significant differences between group T and group C (P < 0.05). The IVCTT volume of group T was remarkably smaller than that of group C. Conclusions: Injecting and suspensory fixing VX2 tumor strip into IVC is a reliable method to establish IVCTT animal model. The linear Iodine-125 seeds strand brachytherapy was a safe and effective method for treating IVCTT

  7. A histopathologic and immunologic study of the course of syphilis in the experimentally infected rabbit. Demonstration of long-lasting cellular immunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker-Zander, S; Sell, S

    1980-11-01

    Inoculation of the causative agent of syphilis, Treponema pallidum into the testes of rabbits initiated the following sequence of events: 1) a rapid proliferation of organisms in the interstitial tissues of the testes, reaching a maximum at about 10-11 days after infection; 2) systemic spread of organisms primarily in the lymphoid organs; 3) a prompt immune response manifested by hyperplasia of T cell domains in draining lymph nodes and spleen, blast transformation responses of lymphoid cells to sonicates of T pallidum, the appearance of serum antibody, and the marked infiltration of the infected areas of the testes by T cells; 4) essential clearing of organisms identified by immunofluorescence from the infected site 10-14 days after infection associated with evolution of the inflammatory response from primarily a T cell infiltrate to a larger mononuclear cell type, and the immunofluorescent identification of presumptive T pallidum antigen in macrophages; 5) interstitial fibrosis or resolution 17-21 days after infection so that examination of infected testes from 1 to 24 months later reveals foci of tubular atrophy and fibrosis of varying size, alternating with regenerated tubules, separated by interstitial areas with only minimal fibrosis. During the long period of latency there is no evidence of atrophy or hypoplasia of the lymphoid organs and long-lasting T cell memory with regard to T pallidum sonicates is demonstrable. Reinfection of previously inoculated rabbits indicates partial protection at 25 days after infection followed by essentially complete protection after 55 days. It is concluded that there is a prompt and long-lasting immune response to T pallidum in experimentally infected rabbits. The main mechanism for destruction of infecting organisms appears to be T-cell-initiated macrophage-mediated destruction, but a role for antibody dependent phagocytosis cannot be ruled out. The reason that some organisms may survive in various body organs remains

  8. Comparison of 1% cyclosporine eye drops in olive oil and in linseed oil to treat experimentally-induced keratoconjunctivitis sicca in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leticia Rodrigues Parrilha

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTPurpose:To evaluate the effectiveness of topical 1% cyclosporine eye drops diluted in either of the two vehicles-olive and linseed oil-and that of the oils themselves in treating experimentally-induced keratoconjunctivitis sicca (KCS in rabbits.Methods:KCS was induced in 25 New Zealand rabbits using 1% atropine sulfate eye drops for 7 days before treatment and throughout the treatment period (12 weeks. The rabbits were divided into five groups: one control (C group without KCS induction and four treatment groups in which KCS was induced and treated topically with olive oil (O, linseed oil (L, cyclosporine in olive oil (CO, and cyclosporine in linseed oil (CL. The animals were evaluated using Schirmer tear test 1 (STT, the fluorescein test (FT, tear-film break-up time (TBUT, the rose bengal test (RBT, and histopathological analysis.Results:Values of STT and TBUT significantly decreased 1 week post-induction (p<0.05 and were similar to initial values after the 4th week of treatment, in all groups. After KCS induction, there was significantly less corneal damage in group L than in group CL, as assessed FT and RBT. Histopathology demonstrated that Groups L and CL presented less edema and corneal congestion. There was no significant difference in the goblet cell density (cells/mm2 between the groups (p=0.147.Conclusion:Cyclosporine diluted in olive oil or linseed oil was effective in the treatment of KCS, although it had better efficacy when diluted in linseed oil. Linseed oil presented better effectiveness, whether associated or not, than olive oil. These results may contribute to the creation of novel topical ophthalmic formulations for KCS treatment in future.

  9. Antithrombotic and Antiatherosclerotic Properties of Olive Oil and Olive Pomace Polar Extracts in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nektaria Tsantila

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Olive oil polar lipid (OOPL extract has been reported to inhibit atherosclerosis development on rabbits. Olive pomace polar lipid (PPL extract inhibits PAF activity in vitro and the most potent antagonist has been identified as a glycerylether-sn-2-acetyl glycolipid with common structural characteristics with the respective potent antagonist of OOPL. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of PPL on early atherosclerosis development on rabbits and to compare it with the antiatherosclerotic effect of OOPL. OOPL and PPL inhibition potency, towards both PAF action and PAF binding, was tested in vitro on washed rabbit platelets. Consequently, rabbits were divided into three groups (A, B, and C. All groups were fed atherogenic diet for 22 days. Atherogenic diets in groups B and C were enriched with OOPL and PPL, respectively. At the end of the experimental time, rabbits were euthanized and aortic samples were examined histopathologically. OOPL and PPL inhibited PAF-induced aggregation, as well as specific PAF binding, with PPL being more potent. Free and bound PAF levels and PAF-AH activity were significantly elevated at the end of the experimental time. Plasma total cholesterol, HDL cholesterol, LDL cholesterol, and triglycerides levels were also found increased. Groups B and C exhibited significantly increased values of EC50 compared to group A. Histopathological examination revealed that the development of early atherosclerosis lesions in groups B and C were significantly inhibited compared to group A. Significant differences were noted in the early atherosclerosis lesions between groups B and C, thus indicating that PPL exhibit its anti-atherosclerotic activity by blocking PAF receptor. Specific PAF antagonists with similar in vitro and in vivo bioactivity to those that have been previously reported in OOPL exist in PPL.

  10. A combination of experimental and numerical methods to investigate the role of strain rate on the mechanical properties and collagen fiber orientations of the healthy and atherosclerotic human coronary arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karimi, Alireza; Rahmati, Seyyed Mohammadali; Sera, Toshihiro; Kudo, Susumu; Navidbakhsh, Mahdi

    2017-03-04

    Atherosclerosis enables to alter not only the microstructural but also the physical properties of the arterial walls by plaque forming. Few studies so far have been conducted to calculate the isotropic or anisotropic mechanical properties of the healthy and atherosclerotic human coronary arteries. To date there is a paucity of knowledge on the mechanical response of the arteries under different strain rates. Therefore, the objective of the concurrent research was to comprehend whether the alteration in the strain rates of the human atherosclerotic arteries in comparison with the healthy ones contribute to the biomechanical behaviors. To do this, healthy and atherosclerotic human coronary arteries were removed from 18 individuals during autopsy. Histological analyses by both an expert histopathologist and an imaged-based recognizer software were performed to figure out the average angle of collagen fibers in the healthy and atherosclerotic arterial walls. Thereafter, the samples were subjected to 3 diverse strain rates, i.e., 5, 20, and 50 mm/min, until the material failure occurs. The stress-strain diagrams of the arterial tissues were calculated in order to capture their linear elastic and nonlinear hyperelastic mechanical properties. In addition, Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) was employed to predict the alteration of mean angle of collagen fibers during load bearing up to failure. The findings suggest that strain rate has a significant (p mechanical properties as well as the mean angle of collagen fibers of the atherosclerotic arteries, whereas no specific impact on the healthy ones. Furthermore, the mean angle of collagen fibers during the load bearing up to the failure at each strain rate was well predicted by the proposed ANNs code.

  11. Humoral and cell-mediated immune response to crude antigens of Dermatophilus congolensis during experimental infection of rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makinde, A A; Wilkie, B N

    1979-01-01

    Rabbits were infected with Dermatophilus congolensis and tested for humoral immune response by indirect haemagglutination and for cell-mediated immune response to crude antigens of D. congolensis. Lymphocyte transformation and macrophage migration inhibition assays were used as in vitro correlates of cell-mediated immune response while cutaneous delayed hypersensitivity was used in vivo. Endo-antigen and whole cell antigen were found to significantly induce cell-mediated immune response. In contrast, humoral responses were found to be more significantly induced by exo-antigen. A biphasic immune response was revealed by the lymphocyte transformation test.

  12. Anatomical features for an adequate choice of experimental animal model in biomedicine: II. Small laboratory rodents, rabbit, and pig.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lossi, Laura; D'Angelo, Livia; De Girolamo, Paolo; Merighi, Adalberto

    2016-03-01

    The anatomical features distinctive to each of the very large array of species used in today's biomedical research must be born in mind when considering the correct choice of animal model(s), particularly when translational research is concerned. In this paper we take into consideration and discuss the most important anatomical and histological features of the commonest species of laboratory rodents (rat, mouse, guinea pig, hamster, and gerbil), rabbit, and pig related to their importance for applied research. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. Experimental syringohydromyelia induced by adhesive arachnoiditis in the rabbit: changes in the blood-spinal cord barrier, neuroinflammatory foci, and syrinx formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kobayashi, Shigeru; Kato, Katsura; Rodríguez Guerrero, Alexander; Baba, Hisatoshi; Yoshizawa, Hidezo

    2012-06-10

    There are many histological examinations of syringohydromyelia in the literature. However, there has been very little experimental work on blood permeability in the spinal cord vessels and ultrastructural changes. We prepared an animal model of spinal adhesive arachnoiditis by injecting kaolin into the subarachnoid space at the eighth thoracic vertebra of rabbits. The animals were evaluated 4 months later. Of the 30 rabbits given kaolin injection into the cerebrospinal fluid, 23 showed complete circumferential obstruction. In the 7 animals with partial obstruction of the subarachnoid space, intramedullary changes were not observed. However, among the 23 animals showing complete obstruction of the subarachnoid space, dilatation of the central canal (hydromyelia) occurred in 21, and intramedullary syrinx (syringomyelia) was observed in 11. In animals with complete obstruction, fluorescence microscopy revealed intramedullary edema around the central canal, extending to the posterior columns. Electron microscopy of hydromyelia revealed a marked reduction of villi on the ependymal cells, separation of the ependymal cells, and cavitation of the subependymal layer. The dilated perivascular spaces indicate alterations of fluid exchange between the subarachnoid and extracellular spaces. Syringomyelia revealed that nerve fibers and nerve cells were exposed on the surface of the syrinx, and necrotic tissue was removed by macrophages to leave a syrinx. Both pathologies differ in their mechanism of development: hydromyelia is attributed to disturbed reflux of cerebrospinal fluid, while tissue necrosis due to disturbed intramedullary blood flow is considered to be involved in formation of the syrinx in syringomyelia.

  14. Evaluation of Healing Potential of Autogenous, Macroscopic Fat Deposited or Fat Free, Omental Graft in Experimental Radius Bone Defect in Rabbit: Radiological Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Nasrollahzadeh Masouleh, Iraj Sohrabi Haghdoost, Gholamreza Abedi Cham Heydari, Amirali Raissi* and Soroush Mohitmafi1

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed for evaluation of the difference between the ability of greater omentum graft with or without macroscopic fat deposition in acceleration of bone healing process. Adult female New Zealand white rabbits (n=15 were randomly divided into three equal groups. In groups A and B, the drilled hole on the left radius was filled by the omentum without and with macroscopic fat deposition, respectively while drilled hole on the right radius left intact for consideration as control. In group C, the drilled hole on the left and right radius was filled by the omentum sample with and without macroscopic fat deposition, respectively. Experimental bone defects on the radiuses were secured by the pieces of greater omentum, with or without macroscopic fat deposition, which obtained as an autogenous graft from each rabbit in accompany with control samples. Standardized serial radiography for evaluation of bone healing was performed and the difference in bone healing process in three groups of study was determined. According to the obtained data, the radius bones which filled by omentum without macroscopic fat deposition showed faster healing process than the radius bones which filled by omentum with macroscopic fat deposition (P<0.05.

  15. An experimental intraarticular implantation of woven carbon fiber pad into osteochondral defect of the femoral condyle in rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, H J; Han, C D; Kang, E S; Kim, N H; Yang, W I

    1991-06-01

    The defects of the articular cartilage structure are not replaced unless the subchondral plate has been breached. However, following the creation of a defect in the subchondral plate, the area is filled in with a fibrous tissue which gradually transforms to hyaline cartilage. The porous nontoxic materials of both biologic and synthetic origin have reportedly been used as matrices for repairing bone and cartilage. Following implantation, carbon fibre, chemically inert and well-tolerated by the body, induces a proliferation of ordered fibrous tissue. We implanted carbon fiber pads in osteochondral defects in rabbits. Those repairs were compared to control holes with no implants. The pads appeared to induce the gross appearance of a restored joint surface, mechanically strong to loading for periods from 2 to 6 weeks. Also, carbon fiber pads promoted the healing of the osteochondral defects in the rabbit femoral condyle, supplying well-organized cartilagenous tissue over repaired subchondral bone. The use of carbon fiber pads as implant material is suggested for the restoration of articular surface in osteoarthritis and osteochondritis dissecans.

  16. [The experimental study on inside-out vein graft for repairing inferior alveolar nerve defect in the rabbit].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, P; Li, H; Zhang, G

    2000-10-01

    This study describes a modification of the vein graft technique inside-out vein graft, creates an autogenous vein conduct with the collagen-rich and Schwann cells exposed to regenerating axons. To compare regeneration of inferior alveolar nerves through two conduits: inside-out vein graft and the standard vein graft. 18 adult white rabbits were selected and vena facialises of both sides were harvested. Turned the right vena facialis into inside-out vein and used to bridge an 8 mm defect created in the right inferior alveolar nerve. An 8 mm defect of the left inferior alveolar nerve was bridged by the standard vein graft. After rabbits sacrificed at 8, 14 and 20 weeks, the regenerating nerve cables were harvested from the conduits and performed histologic study. At 20 weeks, performed also electrophysiologic studies and statistical analysis of conductive velocities and histological results. Regenerating nerves connected with proximal and distal nerve stumps on both sides postoperation 8 weeks, a number of regenerating nerve fibers and thickness of axon were gradually increasing. At 20 weeks regenerating nerve on the inside-out vein graft side showed superior function results--faster conduction velocities (P nerve regeneration by an environment with collagen-rich and Schwann cells. The inside-out vein graft is an original way to repair inferior alveolar nerve.

  17. Rabbit models for the study of human atherosclerosis: from pathophysiological mechanisms to translational medicine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Jianglin; Kitajima, Shuji; Watanabe, Teruo; Xu, Jie; Zhang, Jifeng; Liu, Enqi; Chen, Y. Eugene

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory animal models play an important role in the study of human diseases. Using appropriate animals is critical not only for basic research but also for the development of therapeutics and diagnostic tools. Rabbits are widely used for the study of human atherosclerosis. Because rabbits have a unique feature of lipoprotein metabolism (like humans but unlike rodents) and are sensitive to a cholesterol diet, rabbit models have not only provided many insights into the pathogenesis and development of human atherosclerosis but also made a great contribution to translational research. In fact, rabbit was the first animal model used for studying human atherosclerosis, more than a century ago. Currently, three types of rabbit model are commonly used for the study of human atherosclerosis and lipid metabolism: (1) cholesterol-fed rabbits, (2) Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbits, analogous to human familial hypercholesterolemia due to genetic deficiency of LDL receptors, and (3) genetically modified (transgenic and knock-out) rabbits. Despite their importance, compared with the mouse, the most widely used laboratory animal model nowadays, the use of rabbit models is still limited. In this review, we focus on the features of rabbit lipoprotein metabolism and pathology of atherosclerotic lesions that make it the optimal model for human atherosclerotic disease, especially for the translational medicine. For the sake of clarity, the review is not an attempt to be completely inclusive, but instead attempts to summarize substantial information concisely and provide a guideline for experiments using rabbits. PMID:25277507

  18. Angiogenesis in the atherosclerotic plaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Caroline Camaré

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is a multifocal alteration of the vascular wall of medium and large arteries characterized by a local accumulation of cholesterol and non-resolving inflammation. Atherothrombotic complications are the leading cause of disability and mortality in western countries. Neovascularization in atherosclerotic lesions plays a major role in plaque growth and instability. The angiogenic process is mediated by classical angiogenic factors and by additional factors specific to atherosclerotic angiogenesis. In addition to its role in plaque progression, neovascularization may take part in plaque destabilization and thromboembolic events. Anti-angiogenic agents are effective to reduce atherosclerosis progression in various animal models. However, clinical trials with anti-angiogenic drugs, mainly anti-VEGF/VEGFR, used in anti-cancer therapy show cardiovascular adverse effects, and require additional investigations.

  19. Morphological features of coronary plaques in WHHLMI rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus), an animal model for familial hypercholesterolemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yamada, Satoshi; Koike, Tomonari; Nakagawa, Takayuki; Kuniyoshi, Nobue; Ying, Yu; Itabe, Hiroyuki; Yamashita, Atsushi; Asada, Yuji; Shiomi, Masashi

    2017-05-03

    In order to examine their suitability for studies on coronary atherosclerosis, we evaluated the features of coronary atherosclerotic plaques in myocardial infarction-prone Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHLMI) rabbits, a spontaneous animal model for coronary atherosclerosis and myocardial infarction. Coronary segments of the hearts of 187 WHHLMI rabbits (10-29 months old) were sectioned serially and stained histopathologically and immunohistologically. Progression of coronary lesions was prominent in rabbits that had died suddenly. The degree of coronary lesions of females was higher than that of males. Various types of atherosclerotic lesions were observed in the coronary arteries, such as plaques with a large lipid core covered by a thin fibrous cap, fatty streaks, early and advanced fibroatheromas, fibrous lesions, and advanced lesions with calcium accumulation and the vasa vasorum. In rabbits that had died suddenly, the frequencies of fibroatheromas or advanced lesions were higher than those of rabbits euthanized. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-positive macrophages were detected in gaps among endothelial cells at the plaque surface, beneath the fibrous cap of thin-capped fibroatheromas, and at the bottom of the intimal plaques in which the tunica media was attenuated. Immunohistological results suggest that MMP-positive macrophages are involved in the initiation, progression, and destabilization of coronary plaques, in addition to vascular remodeling, even in WHHLMI rabbits. In conclusion, coronary lesions in WHHLMI rabbits resemble human atherosclerotic lesions, and thus, the WHHLMI rabbit is a suitable animal model for studies on human coronary plaques.

  20. Effect of Riboflavin/UVA Collagen Cross-linking on Central Cornea, Limbus and Intraocular Pressure. Experimental Study in Rabbit Eyes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozobolis, Vassilios; Gkika, Maria; Sideroudi, Haris; Tsaragli, Efthymia; Lydataki, Stylliani; Naoumidi, Irini; Giatromanolaki, Alexandra; Mikropoulos, Dimitrios; Teus, Miguel; Labiris, Georgios

    The Purpose of present study was to investigate the effect of riboflavin/ultraviolet-A-induced collagen cross-linking (CXL) on central cornea, limbus and intraocular pressure (IOP). This was an animal experimental study. The right corneas of 10 rabbits were ultraviolet-A irradiated (3 mW/cm2 for 30 minutes) after de-epithelialization and instillation of 0.1% riboflavin / 20% Dextran drops. Left corneas served as controls. Samples were examined histologically one month postoperatively. Before and after treatment, IOP measurements were recorded bilaterally. At central cornea of eyes underwent CXL keratocyte repopulation, normal arrangement of collagen fibres and a statistically significant change in fibres diameter were detected, compared to controls. At limbus area, there were not any significant histological differences after CXL. There was no statistically significant difference between pre- and postoperative IOP in all eyes.

  1. Subchondral bone response to injected adipose-derived stromal cells for treating osteoarthritis using an experimental rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parrilli, A; Giavaresi, G; Ferrari, A; Salamanna, F; Desando, G; Grigolo, B; Martini, L; Fini, M

    2017-01-01

    Although articular cartilage is the target of osteoarthritis (OA), its deterioration is not always clearly associated with patient symptoms. Because a functional interaction between cartilage and bone is crucial, the pathophysiology of OA and its treatment strategy must focus also on subchondral bone. We investigated whether adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) injected into a joint at two different concentrations could prevent subchondral bone damage after the onset of mild OA in a rabbit model. We measured both volumetric and densitometric aspects of bone remodeling. Although OA can stimulate bone remodeling either catabolically or anabolically over time, the accelerated turnover does not allow complete mineralization of new bone and therefore gradually reduces its density. We measured changes in morphometric and densitometric bone parameters using micro-CT analysis and correlated them with the corresponding parameters in cartilage and meniscus. We found that ASCs promoted cartilage repair and helped counteract the accelerated bone turnover that occurs with OA.

  2. Neovascularization of the atherosclerotic plaque: interplay between atherosclerotic lesion, adventitia-derived microvessels and perivascular fat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Hinsbergh, Victor W. M.; Eringa, Etto C.; Daemen, Mat J. A. P.

    2015-01-01

    Neovascularization is a prominent feature in advanced human atherosclerotic plaques. This review surveys recent evidence for and remaining uncertainties regarding a role of neovascularization in atherosclerotic plaque progression. Specific emphasis is given to hypoxia, angiogenesis inhibition, and

  3. Use of platelet-rich plasma solution applied with composite chondrocutaneous graft technique: an experimental study in rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sevim, Kamuran Zeynep; Yazar, Memet; Irmak, Fatih; Tekkeşin, Merva Soluk; Yildiz, Kemalettin; Sirvan, Selami Serhat

    2014-07-01

    Composite chondrocutaneous grafts have been used widely for patients with cleft lip nasal deformity, alar defects, and septal perforations; however, the graft viability can be easily compromised. The aim of the present study was to extend the safe length of the composite chondrocutaneous grafts by enhancement of angiogenesis and re-epithelialization through platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and to investigate the changes that occur when PRP is administered to the graft and the recipient site. Composite grafts of critical sizes (1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 cm) were planned on the rabbit ears on 1 side. Group A consisted of grafts pretreated with PRP, group B consisted of recipient beds pretreated with PRP, and group C was the control group in which defects 1.5, 2.0, and 2.5 cm in size were formed on the right ears of the rabbits. On postoperative day 7, matching size chondrocutaneous grafts were adapted to the defect areas without PRP. In all groups, graft viability was evaluated 7 days after graft adaptation in group C and 14 days after PRP administration in groups A and B. Wound healing was scored histopathologically and immunohistologically using hematoxylin and eosin, CD34, and smooth muscle actin staining. The terminal transferase fluorescein-dUTP nick end labeling assay was performed to quantitatively demonstrate the apoptosis ratio among the groups. In groups A, B, and C, the mean graft survival of the 2.0-cm equilateral triangle-shaped composite grafts was 65.43% ± 15.7%, 78.12% ± 12.8%, and 41.31% ± 37.4%, respectively (P = .0364). PRP pretreatment accelerated composite graft survival in the 2.0-cm equilateral triangle grafts by increasing epithelial regeneration and fibrosis, inducing neovascularization, and ameliorating apoptosis rates. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgeons. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. The effect of recent vaccination on the dose-response to experimental Dermatophilus congolensis infection in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    How, S J; Lloyd, D H

    1990-02-01

    Dermatophilus congolensis infection of rabbits was used to investigate the effects of active immunity on epidermal challenge following vaccination. Rabbits (three groups of four) were vaccinated intradermally with live whole-cell preparations of D. congolensis strains SS18C and FD11 (groups SSVAC and FDVAC respectively); a third group (UNVAC) remained as unvaccinated controls. Two weeks after vaccination, separate 1.5-cm2 clipped and ether-swabbed skin sites were inoculated with a 10-fold dilution range (10(7) to 10(1) zoospores per cm2 of skin) of SS18C or FD11. Lesion scores at each site were calculated from the sum of individual scores (0 to 4+) for erythema, oedema and scab formation multiplied by the percentage of the inoculated area affected. A clear dose-response relationship between the size of inoculum and the severity of lesions was seen for both D. congolensis stains in the control group (UNVAC). In the SSVAC and FDVAC groups the lesions were less severe and developed more quickly. The number of zoospores required to cause infection in the vaccinated animals was up to 10,000-fold higher for homologous inoculated sites and 100-fold for heterologous sites. Serological analysis was carried out with an ELISA system. Vaccination and challenge resulted in increases in specific antibody against D. congolensis antigens. Cross-reacting antibody to the heterologous strain of D. congolensis used was demonstrated in both vaccinated groups but did not correlate with equal protection to homologous or heterologous challenge. The dose-response relationship demonstrated by this model enabled semi-quantitative analysis of the effects of vaccination on D. congolensis infective dose and severity of infection.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Topical application of sodium hyaluronate for preventing perivascular adhesion of the vein grafts in rabbits: An experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ming-ke GUO

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Objective To explore the effect of topical application of sodium hyaluronate on preventing perivascular adhesion of the vein grafts in rabbits. Methods Thirty-six male New Zealand white rabbits, aged 5 months, were randomly and equally divided into 2 groups: groups A and B. Arterial defect model was established by cutting about 1cm artery from the middle part of the dissected left common carotid artery. A section about 3cm was cut from the right external jugular vein, and the harvested vein was inverted and anastomosed end-to-end to the artery defect. After the anastomosis, the adventitia and two anastomoses of the grafted veins in group A were coated locally with 0.2ml sodium hyaluronate. The grafted veins were obtained 1, 2 and 4 weeks after the operation, with the perivascular adhesion of the vein grafts being examined macroscopically before the resection. HE staining and Masson staining were preformed for histological changes of grafted vein wall and the perivascular adhesion of the vein grafts. At 2, 4 weeks postoperation, the perivascular adhesions of the vein grafts were graded by the grading criteria of adhesion in macroscopic evaluation and histological evaluation. Results At 1, 2 and 4 weeks postoperatively, the macroscopic and histological observation found that the perivascular adhesions in group A were looser than those in group B. The macroscopic grade and histological grade were lower in group A than in group B, there was a significant difference between the two groups at 2 and 4 weeks postoperation (P<0.05. Conclusion Topical application of sodium hyaluronate can reduce the perivascular adhesion and is an ideal treatment strategy for preventing perivascular adhesion of vein grafts. DOI: 10.11855/j.issn.0577-7402.2017.08.14

  6. Identification of periodontal pathogens in atherosclerotic vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Larsen, Tove; Christiansen, Natalia

    2005-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that periodontitis may be associated with presence of atherosclerosis. DNA from periodontal pathogens has been detected in atherosclerotic lesions, but viable oral bacteria have not yet been isolated from atherosclerotic plaques. The purpose of the present study...... was to determine if viable oral bacteria could be isolated from atherosclerotic lesions and if DNA from periodontal pathogens could be detected by use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques....

  7. Estudo experimental da influência da atividade muscular da face sobre o esqueleto da mesoestrutura facial em coelhos Experimental study on the influence of facial muscle activity on the facial mesostructure bones in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andre Ricardo Mateus

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available A partir do conceito da matriz funcional, surgiu a hipótese de que são os tecidos moles atuando sobre determinada peça óssea que determinam o processo de crescimento facial. A possibilidade de modificar a influência muscular, seja na fase de desenvolvimento facial, seja em pós-operatórios de cirurgia corretiva é de grande importância preventiva e deveria ser mais bem investigada, uma vez que poderia subtrair o número e magnitude destes procedimentos. DESENHO DO ESTUDO: Experimental em coelhos. OBJETIVO: Estimar a relevância da atividade muscular sobre o esqueleto facial, em coelhos de experimentação, durante sua fase de desenvolvimento facial. MATERIAL E MÉTODO: Foram estudados 37 coelhos de 2 meses de idade, divididos em grupo de estudo e grupo controle e seguidos por um período de 4 meses. Os animais do grupo de estudo tiveram seus nervos faciais seccionados no seu ramo cervical unilateralmente. O esqueleto da mesoestrutura facial era retirado para estudo morfométrico por programa de computação gráfica em fotografias digitalizadas realizadas nas peças. Os resultados obtidos sofreram análise estatística comparativa. CONCLUSÃO: Ausência de atividade muscular em uma metade da face produz desvio lateral da mesoestrutura facial para o mesmo lado em coelhos em desenvolvimento.Based on the functional matrix concept, scientists developed the hypothesis that soft tissue acting on certain bone pieces determines the process of facial growth. The possibility to modify muscle influence in the phase of facial development, or in postoperative of corrective surgery is of great preventive importance and it should be better investigated, since it could reduce the number and impact of these procedures. STUDY DESIGN: experimental in rabbits. AIM: to estimate the relevance of facial muscle activity on facial bones in lab rabbits. MATERIALS AND METHODS: 37 rabbits of two months of age were studied, divided in a study group and a control

  8. Effects of Feeding Periods of High Cholesterol and Saturated Fat Diet on Blood Biochemistry and Hydroxyproline Fractions in Rabbits

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    N. J. Siddiqi

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypercholesterolemia and hypertriglyceridemia are considered as important risk factors during the atherosclerotic process. The aim of the present investigation was to study the total cholesterol (TC, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDLC, high density lipoprotein (HDL, triglyceride (TG, platelet levels and hydroxyproline fractions during the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. For this purpose, twenty five 12-weeks, New Zealand white male rabbits, were purchased, individually caged, and divided into either control group or cholesterol-fed group. The control group (n = 10 was fed 100 g/day of normal diet, ORC-4 (Oriental Yeast Co. Ltd., Tokyo, Japan for a period of 15 weeks. The cholesterol-fed group (n = 15 was fed a high cholesterol and saturated fat diet of ORC-4 containing 1% cholesterol plus 1% olive oil (100 g/day for periods of 5 (group 1, 10 (group 2 and 15 (group 3 weeks. Blood sample from each animal was taken at the end of the experimental period for the biochemical analysis. The results of the present study showed that TC, LDLC, TG, HDLC and platelets were significantly (P0.05. There was no significant (P>0.05 decrease of free serum hydroxyproline in group 3 rabbits when compared to control rabbits. On the other hand, group 3 rabbits showed a significant increase in peptide–bound and protein- bound Hyp by 517% (P0.05 change when compared to control rabbits. These results suggest that feeding rabbits high cholesterol and saturated fat diet for feeding periods of 5 , 10 and 15 weeks induced significant change in TC, LDLC, HDL, TG, platelet levels and various Hyp fractions in serum without any significant change in the total Hyp content.

  9. Fat and cholesterol diet induced lipid metabolic disorders and insulin resistance in rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, H; Zhang, C; Yang, W; Wang, Y; Lin, Y; Yang, P; Yu, Q; Fan, J; Liu, E

    2009-09-01

    Lipid disorder has been found to result in insulin resistance (IR). IR often is associated with other cardiovascular risk factors. However, the pathogenesis of human IR is not completely understood. The present study was designed to examine if rabbits were fed with a diet containing high fat and high-cholesterol diet (HFCD) could develop lipid disorder and subsequently IR. Male Japanese white rabbits were fed either a normal chow diet or HFCD for 20 weeks. Plasma levels of triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol (TC), glucose, and insulin were measured. To evaluate glucose metabolism, we performed an intravenous glucose tolerance test. In addition, we compared adipose tissue accumulation and aortic atherosclerosis lesions in HFCD-fed rabbits with those in control rabbits. In HFCD-fed rabbits there was an increase in plasma levels of TC and TG as well as visceral adipose tissue accumulation. Severe aortic atherosclerotic lesions were found in HFCD-fed rabbits. Although there were no differences in body weight, plasma insulin and blood pressure between the two groups, HFCD-fed rabbits showed higher insulin IR index compared to control rabbits. Our results showed that HFCD induced IR, increased adipose accumulation and atherosclerotic lesions in rabbits, suggesting that the HFCD-fed rabbits can serve as a model for the research on human IR and lipid metabolism abnormalities. J. A. Barth Verlag in Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart.New York.

  10. Urotensin II promotes atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed rabbits.

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    Yafeng Li

    Full Text Available Urotensin II (UII is a vasoactive peptide composed of 11 amino acids that has been implicated to contribute to the development of cardiovascular disease. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether UII affects the development of atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed rabbits. UII was infused for 16 weeks through an osmotic mini-pump into male Japanese White rabbits fed on a high-cholesterol diet. Plasma lipids and body weight were measured every 4 weeks. Aortic atherosclerotic lesions along with cellular components, collagen fibers, matrix metalloproteinase-1 and -9 were examined. Moreover, vulnerability index of atherosclerotic plaques was evaluated. UII infusion significantly increased atherosclerotic lesions within the entire aorta by 21% over the control (P = 0.013. Atherosclerotic lesions were increased by 24% in the aortic arch (P = 0.005, 11% in the thoracic aorta (P = 0.054 and 18% in the abdominal aorta (P = 0.035. These increases occurred without changes in plasma levels of total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides or body weight. Immunohistochemical staining revealed that macrophages and matrix metalloproteinase-9 were significantly enhanced by 2.2-fold and 1.6-fold in UII group. In vitro studies demonstrated that UII up-regulated the expression of vascular cell adhesion protein-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 in human umbilical vein endothelial cells, which was inhibited by the UII receptor antagonist urantide. In conclusion, our results showed that UII promotes the development of atherosclerotic lesions and destabilizes atherosclerotic plaques in cholesterol-fed rabbits.

  11. Kinetic analysis of experimental rabbit tumour and inflammation model with {sup 18}F-FDG PET/CT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, P. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Ninth People' s Hospital, Medical School of Jiaotong Univ., SH (China); Huang, G.; Dong, S.; Wan, L. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Renji Hospital, Medical School of Jiaotong Univ., SH (China)

    2009-07-01

    Non-specific accumulation of {sup 18}F-FDG by both tumour and inflammatory lesions can make diagnostic analysis difficult. Our aim was to explore the difference in {sup 18}F-FDG uptake kinetics between tumour and inflammatory cells. To this end, we investigated VX2 tumour lesions and inflammatory lesions in rabbits. Methods: Six rabbits with VX2 tumour cells transplanted into one forelimb muscle and inflammatory lesions induced by turpentine oil in the contralateral forelimb were scanned for 60 minutes post {sup 18}F-FDG injection. Imaging data was analyzed with the standard 2-tissue-compartment model. Parameters, VB, Ki, K1, k2, k3, k4, were compared between tumour and inflammatory lesions. SUV and dual time scan methods were also compared in the experiment. Results: Time activity curves of VX2 tumour lesions showed a characteristic pattern of gradually increasing {sup 18}F-FDG uptake up to 60 min, whereas, {sup 18}F-FDG uptake in inflammatory lesions increased more slowly than in tumours. Parameters estimated from the uptake process showed that forward transport constant, K1, and influx constant, Ki, values in VX2 tumour lesions (0.186 {+-} 0.053 and 0.048 {+-} 0.014, respectively) was significantly higher than that in inflammatory lesions (0.129 {+-} 0.024 and 0.022 {+-} 0.007, respectively) (p < 0.05). In contrast, mean values of VB, k2, k3 and k4 derived from VX2 tumours were not significantly different from that of inflammatory lesions. SUVs at 60 minutes post {sup 18}F-FDG injection were also significantly higher in the VX2 tumor lesions than in the inflammatory lesions. Retention index (RI) was not significantly different between VX2 tumours and inflammatory lesions (1.134 {+-} 0.076 vs. 1.060 {+-} 0.058, p > 0.05). Conclusion: Different kinetic parameters (Ki, K1, k3) exist between inflammatory and tumour lesions. (orig.)

  12. Experimental study on the rim-enhancing lesion of rabbit brain abscess : MR imaging and histopathologic correlation

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    Lee, Hee Jung; Suh, Soo Jhi; Kim, Sang Pyo; Joo, Yang Goo; Zeon, Seok Kil; Woo, Seong Ku [Keimyung Univ. School of Medicine, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    1996-11-01

    To evaluate on the basis of histopathologic carrelation the MR findings of mature brain abscess in the rabbit, with particular attention to rim-enhancing lesions. The evolution of abscess formation was obtained by the direct inoculation of Staphylococcus aureus into the gray-white matter junctions of the brains of 16 rabbits. The stages of brain abscesses were divided into four : early cerebritis (days 1 to 5 after inoculation of the organism);late cerebritis (days 6 to 14);early capsular (days 16 to 21);and late capsular (days 22 to 28). The available MR images showed 14 cases at the stage of early cerebritis, seven at the late cerebritis stage, three at the early capsular, and one at the late capsular stage. According to the known pathology of brain abscesses and on the basis of both MR imaging and histopathologic findings, the lesions were grouped according to whether they were found in the central necrotic, border, or peripheral zone. We analyzed the patterns of rim-enhancement (completeness of the rim, thickness, and margin) and the signal intensities of the abscess walls on MR images at each stage. Histopathologic correlation was performed in one case of each stage. We evaluated the presence or absence and degree of infiltration by inflammatory granulation tissue, microhemorrhage, reticulin, collagen, and hemosiderin of the abscess walls. Rim-enhancing lesions were present in three of 14 cases at the late cerebritis stage, in all three cases at the early capsular, in one at the late capsular, but in none at the early cerebritis stage. The enhancing pattern of the late cerebritis stage was irregular-margined incomplete rim-enhancement, with irregular thickness of the abscess walls (3/3). The enhancing pattern of the capsular stages was well-defined, complete rim-enhancement with uniform thickness of the abscess walls (3/4). The signal intensities of the abscess walls at the late cerebritis and early capsular stages were variable. The late capsular stage ws

  13. Alterações hematológicas em coelhos infectados experimentalmente pelo Trypanosoma evansi Hematological changes in rabbits experimentally infected by Trypanosoma evansi

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    Aleksandro Schafer da Silva

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar as alterações hematológicas em coelhos infectados experimentalmente pelo Trypanosoma evansi. Foram utilizados seis coelhos, machos, divididos em dois grupos, sendo o grupo controle composto de animais não infectados e o grupo teste formado por roedores infectados com T. evansi. Os animais foram mantidos em temperatura ambiente e analisados por 120 dias, através de cinco coletas de sangue nos dias 1, 20, 40, 60 e 120. As alterações hematológicas foram observadas na segunda e terceira coletas de sangue. Nos animais com parasitemia, foi observada uma redução no número de hemácias, de concentração de hemoglobina no hematócrito, na concentração de hemoglobina corpuscular média (CHCM, e um aumento do volume corpuscular médio (VCM, sugerindo uma anemia macrocítica hipocrômica no período de 20, 40 e 60 dias. Os coelhos infectados também apresentaram leucopenia e linfopenia, além de uma redução significativa no número de neutrófilos e monócitos, quando comparados com os animais do grupo controle.The present paper was aimed at evaluating hematological changes in rabbits experimentally infected by Trypanosoma evansi. Six male rabbits divided in to two groups were used, being the control group composed of non-infected animals and the test group composed of animals infected by T. evansi. The animals were kept at room temperature and were analyzed during 120 days, by blood collections on days 1, 20, 40, 60 and 120. Hematological changes were observed in the second and third blood collections and the animals with parasitism had a decrease in blood cells, hemoglobin concentration, hematocrit and mean capsular hemoglobin concentration (MCHC and an increase in the mean capsular volume (MCV suggesting a macrocytic hypocrhomic anemia on days 20, 40 and 60. The infected rabbits also presented leucopenia and lymphopenia, as well a significant decrease of neutrophil and monocite counts in comparison to

  14. Nuclear medicine and coronary artery disease: evaluation of tracers of myocardial perfusion and vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque; Medecine nucleaire et maladie coronarienne: evaluation de traceurs de la perfusion myocardique et de la plaque d'atherome vulnerable

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Broisat, A

    2005-04-15

    Coronary artery disease is one of the primary cause of mortality worldwide. Nuclear medicine is the major imaging technique for diagnosis and following of this disease. perfusion: nowadays, major radioactive agents used in clinical practice are myocardial perfusion tracers. The reference tracer is thallium-201. However, {sup 201}Tl presents some drawbacks. {sup 99m}Tcn-noet has been proposed for its replacement. This study shows that in contrast with previous studies realized in vitro on cardio myocytes, verapamil, an l-type calcium channel inhibitor, does not inhibit myocardial fixation of {sup 99m}Tcn-noet in vivo in dog. This data is in agreement with the hypothesis of a non specific endothelial fixation of this tracer. Moreover, this study shows that as a pure tracer of myocardial perfusion, {sup 99m}Tcn-noet can also be used to assess myocardial viability on a model of myocardial chronic infarction in rat. atherosclerosis: disruption of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques is the main event leading to coronary accidents. The second part of this study concerns the evaluation of new potential tracers of the vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque in an experimental model of rabbit with an inheritable hypercholesterolemia. The four tracers evaluated (b2702(r), b2702-I, b2702-Tc and Tc-raft-b2702) are synthetic peptides comprising the residues 75-84 of hla-b2702, a molecule known to link vcam-1, an adhesion molecule expressed in vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque. The autoradiography studies show that all tracers accumulate within atherosclerotic plaque expressing vcam- and that. i-b2702 shows the best plaque/control fixation ratio. (author)

  15. Oculoscopy in Rabbits and Rodents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jekl, Vladimir; Hauptman, Karel; Knotek, Zdenek

    2015-09-01

    Ophthalmic diseases are common in rabbits and rodents. Fast and definitive diagnosis is imperative for successful treatment of ocular diseases. Ophthalmic examination in rabbits and rodents can be challenging. Oculoscopy offers great magnification for the examination of the ocular structures in such animals, including the evaluation of cornea, anterior eye chamber, limbus, iris, lens, and retina. To date, oculoscopy has been described only sporadically and/or under experimental conditions. This article describes the oculoscopy technique, normal and abnormal ocular findings, and the most common eye disorders diagnosed with the aid of endoscopy in rabbits and rodents. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Identification of periodontal pathogens in atherosclerotic vessels

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fiehn, Nils-Erik; Larsen, Tove; Christiansen, Natalia

    2005-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown that periodontitis may be associated with presence of atherosclerosis. DNA from periodontal pathogens has been detected in atherosclerotic lesions, but viable oral bacteria have not yet been isolated from atherosclerotic plaques. The purpose of the present study...

  17. Desenvolvimento de um modelo experimental de falha óssea infectada na ulna de coelhos Development of an experimental model of infected bone void in the ulna of rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matheus Lemos Azi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Desenvolver um modelo experimental que permita estudar a regeneração de grandes falhas ósseas em condições de infecção. MÉTODO: Falhas ósseas segmentares de 15mm foram criadas cirurgicamente na ulna de 12 coelhos e inoculadas com 5x10(8 unidades formadoras de colônia (UFC de S. aureus. O desbridamento da infecção foi realizado duas semanas após, seguida da aplicação sistêmica de gentamicina por quatro semanas. Os animais foram acompanhados por um período de 12 semanas para avaliação do controle da infecção e da regeneração óssea. RESULTADOS: A regeneração espontânea foi inferior a 25% do defeito na avaliação radiográfica e histológica. CONCLUSÃO: A Falha óssea infectada de 15mm na ulna de coelhos é incapaz de alcançar a regeneração completa sem tratamentos adicionais. Nível de Evidência V, Estudo experimental.OBJECTIVE: Develop a model that allowed the study of bone regeneration in infection conditions. METHOD: A 15 mm defect was surgically created in the rabbit ulna and inoculated with 5x10(8 colony-forming units (CFU of S. aureus. Surgical debridement was performed two weeks after and systemic gentamicin was administered for four weeks. Animals were followed up to 12 weeks to evaluate infection control and bone regeneration. RESULT: Bone regeneration was inferior to 25% of the defect in radiological and histological analysis. CONCLUSION: Infected bone defect of 15 mm in the rabbit ulna was unable to achieve full regeneration without further treatment. Level of Evidence V, Experimental Study.

  18. Effect of surfactant on regional lung function in an experimental model of respiratory distress syndrome in rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayat, Sam; Porra, Liisa; Broche, Ludovic; Albu, Gergely; Malaspinas, Iliona; Doras, Camille; Strengell, Satu; Peták, Ferenc; Habre, Walid

    2015-08-01

    We assessed the changes in regional lung function following instillation of surfactant in a model of respiratory distress syndrome (RDS) induced by whole lung lavage and mechanical ventilation in eight anaesthetized, paralyzed, and mechanically ventilated New Zealand White rabbits. Regional specific ventilation (sV̇) was measured by K-edge subtraction synchrotron computed tomography during xenon washin. Lung regions were classified as poorly aerated (PA), normally aerated (NA), or hyperinflated (HI) based on regional density. A functional category was defined within each class based on sV̇ distribution (High, Normal, and Low). Airway resistance (Raw), respiratory tissue damping (G), and elastance (H) were measured by forced oscillation technique at low frequencies before and after whole lung saline lavage-induced (100 ml/kg) RDS, and 5 and 45 min after intratracheal instillation of beractant (75 mg/kg). Surfactant instillation improved Raw, G, and H (P < 0.05 each), and gas exchange and decreased atelectasis (P < 0.001). It also significantly improved lung aeration and ventilation in atelectatic lung regions. However, in regions that had remained normally aerated after lavage, it decreased regional aeration and increased sV̇ (P < 0.001) and sV̇ heterogeneity. Although surfactant treatment improved both central airway and tissue mechanics and improved regional lung function of initially poorly aerated and atelectatic lung, it deteriorated regional lung function when local aeration was normal prior to administration. Local mechanical and functional heterogeneity can potentially contribute to the worsening of RDS and gas exchange. These data underscore the need for reassessing the benefits of routine prophylactic vs. continuous positive airway pressure and early "rescue" surfactant therapy in very immature infants. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  19. Invasive and Ultrasound Based Monitoring of the Intracranial Pressure in an Experimental Model of Epidural Hematoma Progressing towards Brain Tamponade on Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Konstantinos Kasapas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. An experimental epidural hematoma model was used to study the relation of ultrasound indices, namely, transcranial color-coded-Doppler (TCCD derived pulsatility index (PI, optic nerve sheath diameter (ONSD, and pupil constriction velocity (V which was derived from a consensual sonographic pupillary light reflex (PLR test with invasive intracranial pressure (ICP measurements. Material and Methods. Twenty rabbits participated in the study. An intraparenchymal ICP catheter and a 5F Swan-Ganz catheter (SG for the hematoma reproduction were used. We successively introduced 0.1 mL increments of autologous blood into the SG until the Cushing reaction occurred. Synchronous ICP and ultrasound measurements were performed accordingly. Results. A constant increase of PI and ONSD and a decrease of V values were observed with increased ICP values. The relationship between the ultrasound variables and ICP was exponential; thus curved prediction equations of ICP were used. PI, ONSD, and V were significantly correlated with ICP (r2=0.84±0.076, r2=0.62±0.119, and r2=0.78±0.09, resp. (all P<0.001. Conclusion. Although statistically significant prediction models of ICP were derived from ultrasound indices, the exponential relationship between the parameters underpins that results should be interpreted with caution and in the current experimental context.

  20. Fluorescence imaging of macrophages in atherosclerotic plaques using plasmonic gold nanorose

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tianyi; Sapozhnikova, Veronika; Mancuso, J. Jacob; Willsey, Brian; Qiu, Jinze; Ma, Li L.; Li, Xiankai; Johnston, Keith P.; Feldman, Marc D.; Milner, Thomas E.

    2011-03-01

    Macrophages are one of the most important cell types involved in the progression of atherosclerosis which can lead to myocardial infarction. To detect macrophages in atherosclerotic plaques, plasmonic gold nanorose is introduced as a nontoxic contrast agent for fluorescence imaging. We report macrophage cell culture and ex vivo tissue studies to visualize macrophages targeted by nanorose using scanning confocal microscopy. Atherosclerotic lesions were created in the aorta of a New Zealand white rabbit model subjected to a high cholesterol diet and double balloon injury. The rabbit was injected with nanoroses coated with dextran. A HeNe laser at 633 nm was used as an excitation light source and a acousto-optical beam splitter was utilized to collect fluorescence emission in 650-760 nm spectral range. Results of scanning confocal microscopy of macrophage cell culture and ex vivo tissue showed that nanoroses produce a strong fluorescence signal. The presence of nanorose in ex vivo tissue was further confirmed by photothermal wave imaging. These results suggest that scanning confocal microscopy can identify the presence and location of nanorose-loaded macrophages in atherosclerotic plaques.

  1. Transauricular embolization of the rabbit coronary artery for experimental myocardial infarction: comparison of a minimally invasive closed-chest model with open-chest surgery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katsanos Konstantinos

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Introduction To date, most animal studies of myocardial ischemia have used open-chest models with direct surgical coronary artery ligation. We aimed to develop a novel, percutaneous, minimally-invasive, closed-chest model of experimental myocardial infarction (EMI in the New Zealand White rabbit and compare it with the standard open-chest surgical model in order to minimize local and systemic side-effects of major surgery. Methods New Zealand White rabbits were handled in conformity with the "Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals" and underwent EMI under intravenous anesthesia. Group A underwent EMI with an open-chest method involving surgical tracheostomy, a mini median sternotomy incision and left anterior descending (LAD coronary artery ligation with a plain suture, whereas Group B underwent EMI with a closed-chest method involving fluoroscopy-guided percutaneous transauricular intra-arterial access, superselective LAD catheterization and distal coronary embolization with a micro-coil. Electrocardiography (ECG, cardiac enzymes and transcatheter left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP measurements were recorded. Surviving animals were euthanized after 4 weeks and the hearts were harvested for Hematoxylin-eosin and Masson-trichrome staining. Results In total, 38 subjects underwent EMI with a surgical (n = 17 or endovascular (n = 21 approach. ST-segment elevation (1.90 ± 0.71 mm occurred sharply after surgical LAD ligation compared to progressive ST elevation (2.01 ± 0.84 mm;p = 0.68 within 15-20 min after LAD micro-coil embolization. Increase of troponin and other cardiac enzymes, abnormal ischemic Q waves and LVEDP changes were recorded in both groups without any significant differences (p > 0.05. Infarct area was similar in both models (0.86 ± 0.35 cm in the surgical group vs. 0.92 ± 0.54 cm in the percutaneous group;p = 0.68. Conclusion The proposed model of transauricular coronary coil embolization avoids

  2. A comparison of a cyanoacrylate [corrected] glue (Glubran) vs. fibrin sealant (Tisseel) in experimental models of partial pulmonary resection and lung incision [corrected] in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petter-Puchner, Alexander H; Simunek, Manuela; Redl, Heinz; Puchner, Katrin U; Van Griensven, Martijn

    2010-02-01

    Bronchopleural fistulas (BPF) and air leaks (AL) present major complications after pulmonary resection. Various tissue sealants have been proposed for their prevention, e.g., fibrin sealant (FS) and cyanoacrylate glues (CA). Contrary to the safety record of FS, substantial side effects such as foreign body reaction and impaired tissue integration have been reported for CA. This study compares the sealing efficacy and biocompatibility as well as side effects of FS and CA in experimental partial pulmonary resection and lung incision in rabbits. 26 New Zealand white rabbits (3 kg) were randomized to one of the three groups: partial pulmonary resection (A, acute model; n = 7 FS/ 7CA), lung incision [2 (B; n = 3 FS/ 3 CA)], and 14-day observation period (C; n = 3 FS/ 3 CA). In all groups (A, B, and C), FS was considered as control and CA as treatment. Surgery was carried out in general anaesthesia and mechanical ventilation. For partial lung resection a median thoracotomy was performed and the apex of the left median lobe was resected and the parenchymal surface covered with 0.09 ml of FS and CA. The thoracic cavity was filled with ringer solution after 5 minutes. The inspiratory minute volume (IMV) was increased by 0.02 l after every 4th inspiration. In groups B and C, a left lateral thoracotomy was performed in the 4th intercostal space and the left median lobe was incised with a scalpel. The incision was covered with 0.5 ml of FS or CA. At autopsy (B and C) the operation site was assessed macroscopically. Histology was performed in all animals. In terms of sealing purposes, FS and CA yielded comparable results in all groups. CA elicited a substantial increase of tissue temperature in the acute phase immediately after application (A). After 14 days CA residues were found, whereas FS was completely degraded. Histology showed a pronounced inflammatory response to CA but not to FS. We conclude that although the effect of airtight sealing was equally satisfying, our

  3. CAROTID ATHEROSCLEROTIC LESION IN YOUNG PATIENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. V. Pizova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: to determine the incidence of atherosclerotic lesions in the carotid and vertebral arteries of young patients from Doppler ultrasound data and to compare the quantitatively assessed traditional risk factors of coronary heart disease (CHD with severe extracranial artery atherosclerotic lesion.Subjects and methods. Doppler ultrasound was carried out evaluating structural changes in the aortic arch branches in 1563 railway transport workers less than 45 years of age. A separate sample consisted of 68 young people with carotid atherosclerotic changes, in whom traditional risk factors for CHD were studied, so were in a control group of individuals without atherosclerotic changes (n = 38.Results. Among the examinees, carotid atherosclerotic lesion was detected in 112 (7.1 % cases, the increase in the rate of atherosclerotic plaques in patients aged 35–45 years being 9.08 %; that in the rate of local intima-media thickness in those aged 31–40 years being 5.1 %. Smoking (particularly that along with hypercholesterolemia and a family history of cardiovascular diseases, obesity (along with low activity, and emotional overstrain were defined as important risk factors in the young patients. Moreover, factor analysis has shown that smoking,hypertension, and early cardiovascular pathology in the next of kin makes the greatest contribution to the development of carotid atherosclerotic lesion.Conclusion. Among the patients less than 45 years of age, carotid and vertebral artery atherosclerotic changes were found in 112 (7.1 % cases, which were more pronounced in male patients. Smoking, particularly along with hypercholesterolemia and genetic predisposition to cardiovascular diseases, was a risk factor that had the highest impact on the degree of atherosclerotic lesion in the aortic arch branches of the young patients.

  4. Anti-atherosclerotic effects of konjac

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidekatsu Yanai

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Definition: The Konjac plant comes from the genus Amorphophallus. Japanese food uses Konjac cake. Konjac contains almost no calories and a great amount of dietary fiber. Here, we reviewed possible anti-atherosclerotic effects of konjac, using the search Pubmed ®. Konjac ingestion is likely beneficially associated with obesity, blood pressure, lipid and glucose metabolism. However, evidence is lacking on the relationship between konjac ingestion and development of atherosclerotic diseases. To more fully understand the anti-atherosclerotic effects of konjac, future studies, preferably with larger numbers of subjects, will be performed.

  5. Genistein Supplementation Inhibits Atherosclerosis with Stabilization of the Lesions in Hypercholesterolemic Rabbits

    OpenAIRE

    Lee, Choong-Sik; Kwon, Su-Jin; Na, Sun-Young; Lim, Seung-Pyung; Lee, Jung-Hee

    2004-01-01

    The effect of genistein on aortic atherosclerosis was studied by immunohistochemistry with RAM-11 and HHF-35 antibodies and western blotting for matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) in New Zealand White rabbits. After provocation of atherosclerosis with hyperlipidemic diet, the rabbits were divided as hyperlipidemic diet group (HD), normal diet group (ND) and hyperlipidemic plus genistein diet group (HD+genistein) for 4 and half months. The average cross sectional area of atherosclerotic lesion...

  6. Neuropatogênese experimental da infecção pelo herpesvírus bovino tipo 5 em coelhos Experimental neuropathogenesis of bovine herpesvirus 5 infection in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Furtado Flores

    2009-01-01

    estudar diversos aspectos da infecção pelo BoHV-5.Several aspects of the biology of bovine herpesvirus 5 (BoHV-5 have been studied in rabbits, which develop acute infection and neurological disease upon experimental inoculation. The acute infection is followed by the establishment of latent infection, which can be naturally or artificially reactivated. The first experiments in rabbits established a protocol for virus inoculation and monitoring the infection, and characterized the main virological, clinical and pathological aspects of the acute infection. The pathogenesis of acute infection, from the initial viral replication at site of inoculation, pathways and kinetics of viral transport to the brain, distribution and virus replication in the central nervous system (CNS, cellular and tissue tropism, clinical signs and CNS pathology have been extensively studied using this animal model. Subsequently, several biological and molecular aspects of latent BoHV-5 infection have also been elucidated upon inoculation of rabbits. Rabbits have also been used to investigate the phenotype (neuroinvasiveness, neurogrowth of field isolates and recombinant vaccine candidates, protection by passive immunity, vaccine protection, the efficacy of anti-viral drugs and support therapies for neurological disease. This animal model was also used to investigate the origin and distribution of electric impulses involved in seizures - a hallmark of BoHV-5 induced neurological infection - and also to test the efficacy of anti-convulsivants. In spite of the possible differences between rabbits and cattle - the natural host of the virus - the observations taken from this experimental model have greatly contributed to the knowledge of the biology of BoHV-5 infection. The present article presents a review of the main published and unpublished results and observations by our group, comprising more than a decade of studies on the pathogenesis of BoHV-5 infection in the rabbit model.

  7. Triple immunofluorescence labeling of atherosclerotic plaque components in apoE/LDLR -/- mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajda, Mariusz; Jawień, Jacek; Mateuszuk, Lukasz; Lis, Grzegorz J; Radziszewski, Andrzej; Chłopicki, Stefan; Litwin, Jan A

    2008-01-01

    This paper presents a simple and reliable method of triple immunofluorescence staining that allows simultaneous detection of various cell types present in atherosclerotic plaque of apolipoprotein E and LDL receptor-double knockout (apoE/LDLR -/-) mice. We used combined direct and indirect procedures applying commercially available primary antibodies raised in different species to detect smooth muscle cells (Cy3-conjugated mouse anti-smooth muscle actin, SMA), macrophages (rat anti-CD68) and T lymphocytes (rabbit anti-CD3). Fixation of the material in acetone and modified incubation protocol employing nonfat dry milk in preincubation and incubation media significantly increased the intensity of labeling and effectively quenched the background. Our method offers an efficient way to detect qualitative as well as quantitative changes of macrophages, T lymphocytes and smooth muscle cells in atherosclerotic plaque of apoE/LDLR -/- mice during atherosclerosis development or in response to pharmacological treatment.

  8. Triple immunofluorescence labeling of atherosclerotic plaque components in apoE/LDLR -/- mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Stefan Chłopicki

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a simple and reliable method of triple immunofluorescence staining that allows simultaneous detection of various cell types present in atherosclerotic plaque of apolipoprotein E and LDL receptor-double knockout (apoE/LDLR -/- mice. We used combined direct and indirect procedures applying commercially available primary antibodies raised in different species to detect smooth muscle cells (Cy3-conjugated mouse anti-smooth muscle actin, SMA, macrophages (rat anti-CD68 and T lymphocytes (rabbit anti-CD3. Fixation of the material in acetone and modified incubation protocol employing nonfat dry milk in preincubation and incubation media significantly increased the intensity of labeling and effectively quenched the background. Our method offers an efficient way to detect qualitative as well as quantitative changes of macrophages, T lymphocytes and smooth muscle cells in atherosclerotic plaque of apoE/LDLR -/- mice during atherosclerosis development or in response to pharmacological treatment.

  9. The effect of Aloe vera leaf gel on fatty streak formation in hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dana, Nasim; Javanmard, Shaghayegh Haghjooy; Asgary, Sedigheh; Asnaashari, Hossein; Abdian, Narges

    2012-05-01

    Atherosclerosis is a complex disease that is associated with a variety of etiologic factors such as hyperlipidemia and inflammation. Aloe vera (Liliaceae family) has been used traditionally as an anti-inflammatory drug. The aims of this survey were to define the beneficial effects of Aloe vera leaf gel on some of the atherosclerosis risk factors, and also fatty streak formation in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. [corrected] 32 white male rabbits were randomly divided into four experimental groups (n = 8, each). During the study, the animals had a standard diet (control group), high cholesterol diet (HC group), high cholesterol diet with Aloe vera leaf gel (3.2%v/v) (HC+ Aloe group) and Aloe vera leaf gel (Aloe group) for 30 days. Fasting blood samples were collected from all animals at the beginning and end of the study. Then total cholesterol (TC), fasting blood sugar (FBS), triglyceride (TG) and CRP were measured before and after experimental periods. By the end of the study, the aortas were removed and investigated for atherosclerosis plaque formation. Significant differences were observed in TC and CRP levels of the high-cholesterol diet with Aloe vera and the high-cholesterol diet alone (p Aloe vera(p Aloe vera has beneficial effects on the prevention of fatty streak development; it may reduce the development of atherosclerosis through modification of risk factors. However, further studies are needed to understand the mechanisms whereby this plant exerts its anti-atherosclerotic effects.

  10. Autologous grafting of extraocular muscles: experimental study in rabbits Transplante autólogo de musculatura ocular extrínseca: estudo experimental em coelhos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Meireles-Teixeira

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To evaluate the feasibility of autologous extraocular muscle grafting as a type of muscle expansion surgery. METHODS: The left superior rectus muscle of twenty-nine rabbits was resected and this fragment was attached to the endpoint of the respective right superior rectus (test group. Thereafter, the superior rectus of the left eye was reattached to the sclera (control group. Both groups were examined during different postoperative periods in order to assess their outcomes. RESULTS: The presence of hyperemia was slightly more frequent in the grafted group. Secretion and muscle atrophy were negligible in both groups. Fibrosis was greater in grafted animals. These muscles were weaker than the control muscles, although the force required to split muscular parts was always greater than the physiological one. CONCLUSIONS: This surgical technique was reliable and useful if one intends to achieve muscle expansion without the intrinsic risks of dealing with heterologous/artificial materials.OBJETIVO: Avaliar a viabilidade do uso de segmentos de músculos oculares extrínsecos como expansores de tendões musculares. MÉTODOS: Vinte e nove coelhos tiveram seu músculo reto superior esquerdo ressecado e o fragmento de cada um foi transplantado para o reto superior contralateral (grupo-teste. Então, o reto superior esquerdo foi reinserido na esclera (grupo-controle. Os animais foram então examinados em diversos períodos pós-operatórios, até os seus sacrifícios, para que se avaliasse o desenrolar dessa técnica cirúrgica. RESULTADOS: A hiperemia foi maior entre os testes. A secreção e a atrofia muscular foram mínimas nos dois grupos. Houve maior presença de fibrose no grupo-teste, mas não tão expressiva a ponto de inviabilizar os efeitos da cirurgia. Esses músculos também se romperam mais facilmente do que os do grupo-controle, porém, a força de rompimento foi sempre bem maior do que aquela presente numa contração muscular normal

  11. Magnetic force microscopy of atherosclerotic plaque

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    T A Alexeeva; S V Gorobets; O Yu Gorobets; I V Demianenko; O M Lazarenko

    2014-01-01

    In this work by methods of scanning probe microscopy, namely by atomic force microscopy and magnetic force microscopy the fragments of atherosclerotic plaque section of different nature were investigated...

  12. Analysis of therapeutic benefits of antivenin at different time intervals after experimental envenomation in rabbits by venom of the brown spider (Loxosceles intermedia).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pauli, Isolete; Minozzo, João Carlos; da Silva, Paulo Henrique; Chaim, Olga Meiri; Veiga, Silvio Sanches

    2009-05-01

    Bites by the brown spider (Loxosceles spp.) are an important health problem in South America, where three species predominate (Loxosceles laeta, Loxosceles gaucho, Loxosceles intermedia). Brown spider bites (loxoscelism) induce a block of cutaneous necrosis and, less commonly, may cause fatal systemic poisoning. A variety of controversial protocols are used to treat loxoscelism, while treatment with antivenin is the only venom specific treatment. Here we studied the action of the venom as well as the response to the antivenin for Loxosceles through an experimental study that simulates bites of L. intermedia (bites of this species are the most common in Brazil). Beneficial effects are known for antivenin applied quickly (within 4 h) after envenomation. Here we wished to examine the temporal development of the brown spider bite as well as the temporal patterns of the action of the antivenin to determine the time limits for beneficial use of the antivenin after envenomation. This information is important since most patients only appear for treatment several hours after being bitten. New Zealand rabbits were experimentally exposed to the venom from brown spiders by the injection of venom from L. intermedia (2x minimum necrotic dose), followed at regular time intervals by antivenin. The use of the loxoscelic antivenin--CPPI (4 mL per animal)--minimized the effects of envenomation when applied for up to 12 h after the injection of the venom, as evaluated by cutaneous (erythrema, edema, ecchymosis and necrosis) and systemic (blood cell and platelet counts, hematimetrics and fibrinogen dosage) criteria. Also, antivenin reduced the size of the necrotic area when applied up to 48 h after envenomation. Thus, therapy with loxoscelic antivenin, CPPI, may provide beneficial results by interfering with envenomation well after the bite occurred and therefore may become an important tool for medical treatment of brown spider bites.

  13. General intravenous anesthesia for brachial plexus surgery in the rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reichert, P; Rutowski, R; Kielbowicz, Z; Kuryszko, J; Kielbowicz, M

    2013-01-01

    The rabbit is a good experimental model for brachial plexus surgery. The risks of death during anesthesia were significantly greater in rabbits than cats or dogs. This article presents the protocol of injectable anesthesia for a short surgical procedure, safe for the rabbit patient and convenient for the surgeon.

  14. The Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic rabbit is a suitable experimental model to study differences in tissue response between intimal and medical injury after balloon angioplasty

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Takagi, M.; Ueda, M.; Becker, A. E.; Takeuchi, K.; Takeda, T.

    1997-01-01

    The study evaluates whether the Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbit is an adequate model to study mechanisms that underlie differences in tissue response after postangioplasty injury. Postangioplasty studies of human coronary arteries have revealed that healing and restenotic processes

  15. Vaporization of atherosclerotic plaques by spark erosion

    OpenAIRE

    Slager, Cornelis J.; Essed, Catharina E.; Schuurbiers, Johan C.H.; Bom, Nicolaas; Serruys, Patrick W.; Meester, Geert T.

    1985-01-01

    textabstractAn alternative to the laser irradiation of atherosclerotic lesions has been developed. A pulsed electrocardiogram R wave-triggered electrical spark erosion technique is described. Controlled vaporization of fibrous and lipid plaques with minimal thermal side effects was achieved and documented histologically in vitro from 30 atherosclerotic segments of six human aortic autopsy specimens. Craters with a constant area and a depth that varied according to the duration of application ...

  16. Experimental Plan for EDF Energy Creep Rabbit Graphite Irradiations- Rev. 2 (replaces Rev. 0 ORNL/TM/2013/49).

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Burchell, Timothy D [ORNL

    2014-07-01

    The experimental results obtained here will assist in the development and validation of future models of irradiation induced creep of graphite by providing the following data: Inert creep stain data from low to lifetime AGR fluence Inert creep-property data (especially CTE) from low to lifetime AGR fluence Effect of oxidation on creep modulus (by indirect comparison with experiment 1 and direct comparison with experiment 3 NB. Experiment 1 and 3 are not covered here) Data to develop a mechanistic understanding, including oAppropriate creep modulus (including pinning and high dose effects on structure) oInvestigation of CTE-creep strain behavior under inert conditions oInformation on the effect of applied stress/creep strain on crystallite orientation (requires XRD) oEffect of creep strain on micro-porosity (requires tomography & microscopy) This document describes the experimental work planned to meet the requirements of project technical specification [1] and EDF Energy requests for additional Pre-IE work. The PIE work is described in detail in this revision (Section 8 and 9).

  17. Usefulness of high-resolution sonography in early diagnosis of rabbit clonorchiasis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Jae Hoon; Choi, Don Gil; Chung, Il Gyu; Phyun, Lae Hyun; Pyeun, Yong Seon [Sungkyunkwan University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hong, Sung Tae; Lee, Me Jeong [Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    1999-09-15

    To determine the role of high-resolution sonography in the early diagnosis of experimentally induced clonorchiasis in rabbits. We performed sonographic examination weekly in 22 lightly-infected rabbits (10 rabbits infected with 10 metacercariae, 6 rabbits infected with 20 metacercariae, and 6 rabbits infected with 40 metacercariae), and 10 heavily-infected rabbits (500 metacercariae). The sonographic criterion of diagnosis with dilatation of the intrahepatic ducts. We sacrificed lightly-infected rabbits and counted numbers of adult worms of clonorchis sinensis 9 weeks after infection. Sonographic abnormalities were found 3 weeks after infection in 2 lightly-infected rabbits and 5 heavily-infected rabbits. On sonography at 9 weeks after infection, we observed dilatation of the intrahepatic ducts in 11 (65%) of 17 lightly-infected rabbits and all of 10 heavily-infected rabbits. High-resolution sonography is very useful in early diagnosis of rabbits clonorchiasis.

  18. Morphometric analysis of the canal system of cortical bone: An experimental study in the rabbit femur carried out with standard histology and micro-CT.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pazzaglia, U E; Zarattini, G; Giacomini, D; Rodella, L; Menti, A M; Feltrin, G

    2010-02-01

    The osteonal pattern of cortical bone is gradually built around the intracortical vessels by the progression of the cutting cones (secondary remodelling); therefore, the central canal size can be used as index of the remodelling activity. An experimental model in the rabbit femur was used to investigate, through central canal morphometry and frequency distribution analysis, the remodelling activity, comparing the middle of the diaphysis (mid-shaft) with the extremity (distal-shaft) and at the same level sectors and layers of the cortex in transversal sections. The study documented a higher density of canals in the mid-shaft than in the distal-shaft and a higher remodelling in the distal-shaft. There were no significant differences between dorsal, ventral, medial and lateral sectors at both mid-shaft and distal-shaft levels, while the number of canals was higher in the sub-periosteal layers than in the sub-endosteal. A lower threshold of 40 microm(2) was observed in the central canal area. Sealed osteons in the midshaft were 22.43% of the total number of osteons of the central canal area between 40 and 200 microm(2) and 0.44% of those of the distal-shaft. Micro-CT allowed a 3D reconstruction of the vascular canal system, which confirmed the branched network pattern rather than the trim architecture of the traditional representation. Some aspects like the lower threshold of the central canal size and the sealed osteons documented the plasticity of the system and its capacity for adaptation to changes in the haemodynamic conditions.

  19. The Effect of a Polyvalent Antivenom on the Serum Venom Antigen Levels of Naja sputatrix (Javan Spitting Cobra) Venom in Experimentally Envenomed Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yap, Michelle Khai Khun; Tan, Nget Hong; Sim, Si Mui; Fung, Shin Yee; Tan, Choo Hock

    2015-10-01

    The treatment protocol of antivenom in snake envenomation remains largely empirical, partly due to the insufficient knowledge of the pharmacokinetics of snake venoms and the effects of antivenoms on the blood venom levels in victims. In this study, we investigated the effect of a polyvalent antivenom on the serum venom antigen levels of Naja sputatrix (Javan spitting cobra) venom in experimentally envenomed rabbits. Intravenous infusion of 4 ml of Neuro Polyvalent Snake Antivenom [NPAV, F(ab')2 ] at 1 hr after envenomation caused a sharp decline of the serum venom antigen levels, followed by transient resurgence an hour later. The venom antigen resurgence was unlikely to be due to the mismatch of pharmacokinetics between the F(ab')2 and venom antigens, as the terminal half-life and volume of distribution of the F(ab')2 in serum were comparable to that of venom antigens (p > 0.05). Infusion of an additional 2 ml of NPAV was able to prevent resurgence of the serum venom antigen level, resulting in a substantial decrease (67.1%) of the total amount of circulating venom antigens over time course of envenomation. Our results showed that the neutralization potency of NPAV determined by neutralization assay in mice may not be an adequate indicator of its capability to modulate venom kinetics in relation to its in vivo efficacy to neutralize venom toxicity. The findings also support the recommendation of giving high initial dose of NPAV in cobra envenomation, with repeated doses as clinically indicated in the presence of rebound antigenemia and symptom recurrence. © 2015 Nordic Association for the Publication of BCPT (former Nordic Pharmacological Society).

  20. Total fraction of mononuclear cell or stromal vascular fraction transplant associated with cellulosic membrane in experimental cutaneous wounds in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tiago Luis Eilers Treichel

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available A pele apresenta diversas funções importantes para o organismo. A manutenção de sua integridade é fundamental, entre outras, para impedir a penetração de microrganismos e a perda de líquidos essenciais à manutenção da vida. Por estar constantemente exposta ao meio ambiente, a pele é altamente susceptível a traumas que podem acarretar soluções de continuidade. A cicatrização da pele ferida deve ser rápida e diversas alternativas são buscadas, visando à redução do tempo de reparo a fim de garantir cicatriz funcional e esteticamente aceitável. Uma opção cada vez mais viável para reparar tecidos danificados é a terapia celular com células-tronco adultas. Os objetivos deste trabalho consistiram em avaliar o transplante da fração total de células mononucleares (FTCM da medula óssea (MO e da fração vascular estromal (FVE do tecido adiposo (TA, associado ao uso da membrana celulósica. Para realização deste experimento, 20 coelhos foram divididos aleatoriamente em quatro grupos com cinco animais cada. Após a indução da ferida cutânea experimental, o grupo A, não recebeu nenhum tratamento, o grupo B, recebeu apenas membrana celulósica e os grupos C e D, além de receberem a membrana, foram submetidos a transplante autólogo da FTCM, com valor total de células entre 6,92 x 10(6 a 4,91 x 10(7 e uma viabilidade de 82 a 97% ou da FVE, com valor total de células entre 9,6 x 10(5 e 6,5 x 10(6 e uma viabilidade de 66 a 87%, respectivamente. Ao final do período de avaliação, os três grupos tratados apresentaram diferença estatística significativa da área da ferida em relação ao grupo controle e o grupo que recebeu a FVE do tecido adiposo apresentou o menor tempo de cicatrização da ferida.

  1. Vorapaxar in atherosclerotic disease management.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Judy W M; Colucci, Vincent; Howard, Patricia A; Nappi, Jean M; Spinler, Sarah A

    2015-05-01

    To review the pharmacology, efficacy, and safety of vorapaxar, a protease activator receptor-1 (PAR-1) antagonist, in the management of atherosclerotic diseases. Peer-reviewed clinical trials and review articles were identified from MEDLINE and Current Content database (both 1966 to December 31, 2014) using the search terms vorapaxar and protease activator receptor antagonist. A total of 30 clinical studies were identified (16 clinical trials, including subanalyses, 14 related to pharmacology, pharmacokinetics, and pharmacodynamics and drug interactions). Two phase III clinical trials with vorapaxar have been published. In patients with non-ST segment elevation myocardial infarction (MI), vorapaxar failed to significantly reduce the primary efficacy end point (composite of cardiovascular death, MI, stroke, recurrent ischemia with hospitalization, and urgent coronary revascularization). Conversely, in a study of secondary prevention for patients with cardiovascular disease, the composite end point of cardiovascular death, MI, or stroke was significantly reduced. In both trials, the safety end points of major/minor bleeding were increased compared with placebo. In the secondary prevention trial, an increased incidence of intracranial hemorrhage led to the exclusion of patients with a prior history of stroke. Vorapaxar is approved for use with aspirin and/or clopidogrel in the secondary prevention of cardiovascular events in stable patients with peripheral arterial disease or a history of MI. However, the addition of vorapaxar to other antiplatelets can significantly increase the risk of bleeding. It is, therefore, essential to balance the need for further reduction of risk of thrombotic event with patient's individual bleeding risk. © The Author(s) 2015.

  2. N-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen and bone mineral density for early diagnosis of nonunion: An experimental study in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian-Ping Lin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The diagnosis and treatment of bone nonunion have been studied extensively. Diagnosis and treatment of nonunion are mainly performed based on the interpretation of clinico-radiographic findings, which depend on the clinician′s experience and the degree of bone callus formation during the fracture-healing process. However, resolution may be compromised when the bone mineral content is <25%. A feasible method of monitoring bone-healing is therefore needed. We monitored a rabbit model of bone nonunion by regular radiographic examinations, QCT detection, and biomarker concentrations. Materials and Methods: Twenty purebred New Zealand rabbits (10 male and 10 female, 5-6 months of age, 2.5-3.0 kg were divided into bone defect Group (I that 10 left radius bones underwent resection of 1.5 cm of mid-radius bone and bone fracture Group (II that another 10 left radius bones underwent only mid-radius fracture. Quantitative computed tomography detection of bone mineral density (BMD and serum markers of bone formation (osteocalcin [OC], bone-specific alkaline phosphatase and bone resorption (C- and N-terminal telopeptides of type I collagen (NTX and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase 5b were assayed. There are twenty rabbits (10 male and 10 females. The age was 5-6 months weighing 2.5-3.0 kg. The defect was created in middle 1/3 radius in 10 rabbits and fracture was created in middle 1/3 radius of 10 rabbits. Results: BMD and NTX concentrations were significantly lower at 5 weeks postoperatively compared to the preoperative values and were significantly different between the two groups. OC showed no significant difference before and after surgery. Conclusions: BMD and NTX concentrations may be useful for early detection of bone nonunion in rabbits.

  3. Reduction of tissue hyperplasia with a {sup 188}Re-MAG{sub 3}-filled balloon dilation: experimental study with a rabbit esophageal model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shin, Ji Hoon; Song, Ho Young; Moon, Dae Hyuk [Asan Medical Center, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)

    2004-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the feasibility and efficacy of beta-radiation therapy with a rhenium-188-mercaptoacetyltriglycine ({sup I88}Re-MAG{sub 3}) filled balloon to prevent tissue hyperplasia secondary to stent placement in a rabbit esophageal model. Fifteen rabbits were divided into the three study groups. The ten rabbits having the radioactive balloon dilation performed immediately after stent placement were scheduled to be sacrificed at six weeks; the 20 Gy (Group I, n = 5) or 40 Gy (Group II, n 5) at 1 mm away from the balloon surface were also sacrificed at six weeks. The remaining five rabbits that had conventional balloon dilation done immediately after stent placement were scheduled to be sacrificed six weeks later; this was the control group (Group III). At follow-up, we obtained esophagography and the histologic findings (epitheIial layer thickness, degree of destruction of the muscularis propria, and degree of submucosal inflammatory cell infiltration) at both the normal area and the mid-stent area for each esophageal specimen after sacrificing each rabbit. The differences among the three groups were statistically assessed using Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. There were no complications such as migration after stent placement. Nine of the rabbits died 1-3 weeks after stent placement and the stents were partially obstructed with a lot of residue, so it was impossible to compare the esophagographic findings among the three groups. Esophageal perforation (n = 6) and mucosal reddish changes (n = 5) of the esophagus adjacent to the stent were observed only for rabbits of group I or II. The esophageal mucosa displayed smoothness in group I and II, and the esophageal mucosa displayed nodularity in group III. The degree of destruction of the muscularis propria was significantly higher in group I or II when compared to group III (p<0.05). Beta-irradiation using a {sup l88}Re-MAG{sub 3}-filled balloon dilation has the potential for

  4. Atherosclerosis in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidaemic rabbits. Evaluation by macroscopic, microscopic and biochemical methods and comparison of atherosclerosis variables

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, B F; Mortensen, A; Hansen, J F

    1994-01-01

    estimation of aortic atherosclerosis extent and by biochemical analysis of aortic cholesterol content. No noteworthy atherosclerosis was demonstrated within 19 months in heterozygous rabbits. In homozygous rabbits, atherosclerotic lesions were seen from the age of 4 months and progressed with age. All 19......-month-old rabbits had severe atherosclerotic disease. As much as 64% of the variation in atherosclerosis extent/severity could be explained by serum cholesterol and age. A highly significant correlation between the various methods for quantitation of atherosclerosis extent and/or severity...... was demonstrated, suggesting that quantitative microscopy, macroscopic morphometry and determination of aortic cholesterol content may be equally valid as a measure of atherosclerosis in WHHL rabbits and are therefore interchangeable....

  5. Anti-atherosclerotic effects of tomatoes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hidekatsu Yanai

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available Tomatoes are rich in lycopene, which causes the red coloring of tomatoes. Several reports have suggested lycopene plays a role in the prevention of cardiovascular diseases. In this study, we systematically reviewed the interventional studies using tomatoes or tomato products to understandtheanti-atherosclerotic effects of the tomatoas a functional food. We found that a significantnumber of interventional studies reportedtheanti-atherosclerotic effects of tomatoes, includinganti-obesity effects, hypotensiveeffects, improvement of lipid/glucose metabolismand endothelial function, anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effect, and anti-platelet effect; however, the anti-platelet effect was disagreed uponby some studies. Furthermore, we discoveredcooking methods significantlyaffect anti-atherosclerotic effects of tomatoes.

  6. Cardiovascular magnetic resonance in carotid atherosclerotic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Huijun

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Atherosclerosis is a chronic, progressive, inflammatory disease affecting many vascular beds. Disease progression leads to acute cardiovascular events such as myocardial infarction, stroke and death. The diseased carotid alone is responsible for one third of the 700,000 new or recurrent strokes occurring yearly in the United States. Imaging plays an important role in the management of atherosclerosis, and cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR of the carotid vessel wall is one promising modality in the evaluation of patients with carotid atherosclerotic disease. Advances in carotid vessel wall CMR allow comprehensive assessment of morphology inside the wall, contributing substantial disease-specific information beyond luminal stenosis. Although carotid vessel wall CMR has not been widely used to screen for carotid atherosclerotic disease, many trials support its potential for this indication. This review summarizes the current state of knowledge regarding carotid vessel wall CMR and its potential clinical application for management of carotid atherosclerotic disease.

  7. Spring-mediated skull expansion: overall effects in sutural and parasutural areas. An experimental study in rabbits Expansão craniana com molas: efeitos globais nas áreas suturais e parassuturais. Estudo experimental em coelhos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo de Faria Valle Dornelles

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: The use of springs in cranial expansion has proven to be effective in the treatment of craniosynostosis. Spring-mediated expansion has been studied both in the sagittal and in parasagittal regions, especially in scaphocephaly. A rabbit model was used in the present study to analyze the effects of springs on the cranial vault and sutures. METHODS: Thirteen 4-week-old New Zealand rabbits were divided into 4 groups: in group I, only amalgam markers were used as control; in group II, amalgam markers were used and sagittal suturectomy was performed; in group III, amalgam markers were used, a sagittal suturectomy was performed and an expansible spring was fitted in the interparietal region and in group IV, markers were used and linear parasagittal craniectomy was carried out with springs. Animals were sacrificed after 2, 4, 8 and 12 weeks. Radiological control and histological analysis were performed in the area of spring implantation. RESULTS: In the groups using springs distraction of the craniectomy borders was greater than in those that did not use springs. New bone formation was observed in all groups, and was faster in group II. Bone growth started from the borders and depth. Bone regeneration presented a similar histological pattern in the groups with spring in the sagittal and parasagittal region. CONCLUSION: The rabbit model proved to be adequate for the analysis proposed by the study. The use of springs in the groups with sagittal and parasagittal osteotomy led to a similar distraction of amalgam markers and both groups had similar ossification histological pattern.OBJETIVO: O uso de molas na expansão craniana tem provado ser efetivo no tratamento da craniossinostoses. A expansão com molas tem sido estudada nas regiões sagital e parassagital, especialmente nas escafocefalias. Um modelo com coelho foi usado no presente estudo para analizar os efeitos das molas sobre a calota craniana e suturas. MÉTODOS: Treze coelhos Nova Zel

  8. POROUS POLYMER IMPLANTS FOR REPAIR OF FULL-THICKNESS DEFECTS OF ARTICULAR-CARTILAGE - AN EXPERIMENTAL-STUDY IN RABBIT AND DOG

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    JANSEN, HWB; VETH, RPH; NIELSEN, HKL; DEGROOT, JH; PENNINGS, AJ

    1992-01-01

    Full-thickness defects of articular cartilage were repaired by implantation of porous polymer implants in rabbits and dogs. The quality of the repair tissue was determined by collagen typing with antibodies. Implants with varying pore sizes and chemical composition were used. The effect of loading

  9. Experimental model of the formation of pelvic adhesions by videolaparoscopic in female rabbits Modelo experimental de formação de aderências pélvicas por videolaparoscopia em coelhas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosi Pereira Balbinotto

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To verify the frequency of postsurgical pelvic adhesion formation in an experimental animal model using videolaparoscopy. METHODS: Experimental study in a sample of 11 non-pregnant female rabbits, aged 5 to 7 months. After general anesthesia, access to the abdominal cavity was performed by an open puncture technique, with 10mm optics, placing two other 5 mm trochars under direct visualization, in the iliac fossae. Then a fragment of peritoneum was resected, followed by electrocauterization. In 21 days, the videolaparoscopy was repeated, and adhesion formation and score was looked at, with biopsies at the surgical site. RESULTS: 54 % of adhesion formation was observed, and the median score of adhesions was 6 (minimum of 3 and maximum of 10, all of them found in the bladder and the anterior abdominal wall. CONCLUSION: The method used presents a high frequency of intra-abdominal adhesion formation.OBJETIVO: Verificar a freqüência da formação de aderências pélvicas pós-cirúrgicas, em um modelo experimental animal, por videolaparoscopia. MÉTODOS: Estudo experimental, em uma amostra de 11 coelhas, não prenhas, com idade entre cinco e sete meses. Após anestesia geral, o acesso da cavidade abdominal foi efetuado por técnica de punção aberta, com óptica de 10 mm, colocando-se outros dois trocateres de 5 mm, sob visão direta, nas fossas ilíacas. Realizou-se, então, ressecção de fragmento de peritônio, seguida de cauterização com eletrocautério. Em 21 dias, foi repetida a videolaparoscopia, verificando-se a formação e escore de aderências e realizando-se biópsias do local da cirurgia. RESULTADOS: Observou-se 54,5% de formação de aderências, sendo o escore total mediano de aderências seis (mínimo de três e máximo de 10, todas encontradas na bexiga e na parede abdominal anterior. CONCLUSÃO: O procedimento utilizado apresentou alta freqüência de formação de aderências intra-abdominais.

  10. Atherosclerosis: contrast-enhanced MR imaging of vessel wall in rabbit model--comparison of gadofosveset and gadopentetate dimeglumine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobbes, Marc B I; Miserus, Robbert-Jan J H M; Heeneman, Sylvia; Passos, Valeria Lima; Mutsaers, Peter H A; Debernardi, Nicola; Misselwitz, Bernd; Post, Mark; Daemen, Mat J A P; van Engelshoven, Jos M A; Leiner, Tim; Kooi, Marianne E

    2009-03-01

    To investigate the potential of gadofosveset for contrast material-enhanced magnetic resonance (MR) imaging of plaque in a rabbit model of atherosclerosis. All experiments were approved by the animal ethics committee. Thirty-one New Zealand White rabbits were included in one of four study groups: animals with atherosclerosis imaged with gadofosveset (n = 10) or gadopentetate dimeglumine (n = 7) and control animals imaged with gadofosveset (n = 7) or gadopentetate dimeglumine (n = 7). Aortic atherosclerosis was induced through endothelial denudation combined with a cholesterol-enriched diet. Control rabbits underwent a sham surgical procedure and received a regular diet. After 8 weeks, pre- and postcontrast T1-weighted MR images of the aortic vessel wall were acquired. Relative signal enhancement was determined with dedicated software. Statistical analysis was performed by using a generalized linear mixed model. Immunohistochemical staining with CD31 and albumin was used to assess microvessel density and the albumin content of the vascular wall. Group differences were analyzed by using a chi(2) test. Gadofosveset spatial distribution and content within the vessel wall were determined with proton-induced x-ray emission (PIXE) analysis. Postcontrast signal enhancement was significantly greater for atherosclerotic than for control animals imaged with gadofosveset (P = .022). Gadopentetate dimeglumine could not enable discrimination between normal and atherosclerotic vessel walls (P = .428). PIXE analysis showed higher amounts of gadopentetate dimeglumine than gadofosveset in both atherosclerotic and normal rabbit aortas. Immunohistochemical staining revealed the presence of albumin and increased microvessel density in the vascular walls of atherosclerotic rabbits. These results suggest that gadofosveset can be used to differentiate between atherosclerotic and normal rabbit vessel walls. http://radiology.rsnajnls.org/cgi/content/full/250/3/682/DC1. RSNA, 2009

  11. Mathematical models for atherosclerotic plaque evolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bulelzai, M.A.K.

    2013-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a disease in which low density lipoproteins (LDL) accumulate in the arterial wall due to an inflammatory response, which is triggered by the oxidation of LDL molecules that are already present in the arterial wall. Progression of atherosclerotic plaques involves many components

  12. Vaporization of atherosclerotic plaques by spark erosion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.J. Slager (Cornelis); C.E. Essed; J.C.H. Schuurbiers (Johan); N. Bom (Klaas); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); G.T. Meester (Geert)

    1985-01-01

    textabstractAn alternative to the laser irradiation of atherosclerotic lesions has been developed. A pulsed electrocardiogram R wave-triggered electrical spark erosion technique is described. Controlled vaporization of fibrous and lipid plaques with minimal thermal side effects was achieved and

  13. Meniscectomia parcial como modelo experimental de osteoartrite em coelhos e efeito protetor do difosfato de cloroquina Partial meniscectomy as an experimental model of osteoarthritis in rabbits and protector effect of chloroquine diphosphate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula P. Velosa

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Estabelecer as alterações morfológicas e o remodelamento do tecido cartilaginoso na progressão da osteoartrite (OA experimental para estudar o efeito do difosfato de cloroquina na cartilagem osteoartrítica. MÉTODOS: A osteoartrite experimental foi induzida em coelhos por meio de meniscectomia parcial. Para analisar a evolução da doença experimental foram estudados três grupos de dez animais, sacrificados a 3, 14 e 22 semanas de indução da doença. Para avaliar o efeito do difosfato de cloroquina um grupo de animais (n = 6 foi tratado preventivamente com 3 mg/kg ao dia, iniciados um mês antes da indução da osteoartrite, e mantidos até o sacrifício (22 semanas. Realizou-se análise histológica das articulações (H&E, tricrômico de Masson e imunofluorescência para colágeno dos tipos I, II e XI. A intensidade da agressão articular foi quantificada pelo escore de Mankin. RESULTADOS: O modelo experimental reproduziu todas as alterações morfológicas observadas na osteoartrite humana. Animais que receberam difosfato de cloroquina não desenvolveram lesões histológicas observadas na OA. Neste grupo houve significante preservação da estrutura da cartilagem articular (p OBJECTIVE: The aim of this study was to develop an experimental model of osteoarthritis (OA that could reproduce morphologic alterations viewed in this disease and to study the effect of chloroquine diphosphate on cartilage remodeling. METHODS: osteoarthritis was induced in rabbits by performing partial meniscectomy. To establish the experimental disease evolution, three groups of ten animals were sacrificed at 3, 14, 22 weeks after disease induction. To evaluate the effect of chloroquine diphosfate in OA progression, a group of six animals was treated preventively with 3 mg/kg/day, started one month prior to osteoarthritis induction and kept until the day of sacrifice (22 weeks. Histopathological (Masson trychrome, H&E, biochemical and

  14. Effect of pancreatopeptidase E (elastase) on the suppression of intimal fibrous proliferation after arterial reconstruction in high cholesterol fed rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O-hara, M; Esato, K; Mohri, H

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of pancreatopeptidase E (Elastase) administration on the healing of anastomosed arteries. A segment of infrarenal aorta was resected and reanastomosed in rabbits. In the control group, rabbits were fed commercial chow (ORC 4). In the cholesterol group, rabbits were fed a diet of 1% cholesterol added to ORC 4. In the Elastase group, rabbits were fed the same diet as the cholesterol group but received intraabdominal injections of Elastase. The rabbits were kept for 4 months and the abdominal aorta was retrieved for examination. All anastomosed aortas were patent. The cholesterol group developed aneurysmal dilatation in one and stenosis of the anastomosed sites due to hypergranulation in the remaining rabbits. Neither aneurysmal nor stenotic changes were detected in the other groups. We concluded that the administration of Elastase suppressed cholesterol induced atherosclerotic changes at the anastomotic sites in these animals.

  15. Pharmacokinetics and atherosclerotic lesions targeting effects of tanshinone IIA discoidal and spherical biomimetic high density lipoproteins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wenli; He, Hongliang; Liu, Jianping; Wang, Ji; Zhang, Suyang; Zhang, Shuangshuang; Wu, Zimei

    2013-01-01

    High density lipoproteins (HDL) have been successfully reconstructed to deliver a large number of lipophilic drugs. Here, discoidal and spherical recombinant HDL loaded with cardiovascular drug tanshinone IIA (TA) were constructed (TA-d-rHDL and TA-s-rHDL), respectively. And next their in vitro physiochemical and biomimetic properties were characterized. Furthermore, pharmacokinetics, atherosclerotic lesions targeting effects and antiatherogenic efficacies were elaborately performed and compared in atherosclerotic New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits. In vitro characterizations results showed that both TA-d-rHDL and TA-s-rHDL had nano-size diameter, high entrapment efficiency (EE) and drug-loading capacity (DL). Additionally, similar to their native counterparts, TA-d-rHDL maintained remodeling behaviors induced by lecithin cholesterol acyltransferase (LCAT), and TA leaked during remodeling behaviors. Pharmacokinetic studies manifested that both TA-d-rHDL and TA-s-rHDL markedly improved pharmacokinetic behaviors of TA in vivo. Ex vivo imaging demonstrated that both d-rHDL and s-rHDL bound more avidly to atherosclerotic lesions than to normal vessel walls, and s-rHDL had better targeting effect than d-rHDL. Pharmacodynamic tests illustrated that both TA-d-rHDL and TA-s-rHDL had much stronger antiatherogenic efficacies than conventional TA nanostructured lipid carriers (TA-NLC), TA liposomes (TA-L) and commercially available preparation Sulfotanshinone Sodium Injection (SSI). Moreover, TA-s-rHDL had more potent antiatherogenic efficacies than TA-d-rHDL. Collectively our studies indicated that rHDL could be exploited as potential delivery vehicles of TA targeting atherosclerotic lesions as well as synergistically improving efficacies, especially for s-rHDL. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Topical 1% Nalbuphine on corneal sensivity and epitheilization after experimental lamellar keratectomy in rabbits Nalbufina 1% tópica sobre a sensibilidade e a epitelização corneal após ceratectomia lamelar experimental

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miguel Ladino Silva

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The present study was aimed to evaluate the effects of topical 1% nalbuphine on corneal sensitivity and re-epithelialization, after lamellar keratectomy in rabbits. All protocols were approved by the Animal Care Comission of São Paulo State University (Protocol 028793-08 and were conducted in accordance with the Institutional Animal Committee and the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO statement for the use of animals in research. Surgeries were performed on the left eye (Nalbuphine Group and on the right eye (Control Group. Two groups were formed (n=10 and corneas received either 30µl of 1% nalbuphine (NG or 30µl of 0,9% saline (CG. Treatments occurred at 7, 11, 15 and 19 hours. After the surgery, the corneas were stained with fluorescein and photographed daily; corneal touch threshold (CTT was assessed with Cochet-Bonnet aesthesiometer, at 7 and 19 hours, 20 minutes after treatments. Data were statistically compared with repeated measures ANOVA and Bonferroni post-hoc test, and T test (P0.05; however, a higher area under the curve for both parameters was observed in the NG (2771, in comparison to CG (2164. Topical 1% nalbuphine did not change significantly corneal sensitivity and re-epithelialization, after experimental lamellar keratectomy in rabbits.Avaliaram-se os efeitos da nalbufina 1% sobre o limiar de sensibilidade corneal (LSC e a epitelização corneal em coelhos submetidos à ceratectomia lamelar unilateral. Os procedimentos foram aprovados pela Comissão de Ética no Uso de Animais da Faculdade de Ciências Agrarias e Veterinárias da Universidade Estadual Paulista (Protocolo no 028793-08, de acordo com as normas do Institutional Animal Committee and the Association for Research in Vision and Ophthalmology (ARVO. Conceberam-se dois grupos (n=10 e os olhos foram tratados com 30µl de Nalbufina 1% (Olho esquerdo - GN ou com 30µl de solução salina (Olho direito - GC, às 7, 11, 15 e 19 horas das

  17. Ultrasound Tissue Characterization of Vulnerable Atherosclerotic Plaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eugenio Picano

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available A thrombotic occlusion of the vessel fed by ruptured coronary atherosclerotic plaque may result in unstable angina, myocardial infarction or death, whereas embolization from a plaque in carotid arteries may result in transient ischemic attack or stroke. The atherosclerotic plaque prone to such clinical events is termed high-risk or vulnerable plaque, and its identification in humans before it becomes symptomatic has been elusive to date. Ultrasonic tissue characterization of the atherosclerotic plaque is possible with different techniques—such as vascular, transesophageal, and intravascular ultrasound—on a variety of arterial segments, including carotid, aorta, and coronary districts. The image analysis can be based on visual, video-densitometric or radiofrequency methods and identifies three distinct textural patterns: hypo-echoic (corresponding to lipid- and hemorrhage-rich plaque, iso- or moderately hyper-echoic (fibrotic or fibro-fatty plaque, and markedly hyperechoic with shadowing (calcific plaque. Hypoechoic or dishomogeneous plaques, with spotty microcalcification and large plaque burden, with plaque neovascularization and surface irregularities by contrast-enhanced ultrasound, are more prone to clinical complications than hyperechoic, extensively calcified, homogeneous plaques with limited plaque burden, smooth luminal plaque surface and absence of neovascularization. Plaque ultrasound morphology is important, along with plaque geometry, in determining the atherosclerotic prognostic burden in the individual patient. New quantitative methods beyond backscatter (to include speed of sound, attenuation, strain, temperature, and high order statistics are under development to evaluate vascular tissues. Although not yet ready for widespread clinical use, tissue characterization is listed by the American Society of Echocardiography roadmap to 2020 as one of the most promising fields of application in cardiovascular ultrasound imaging

  18. The reservoir status of rabbits for the maintenance of Ehrlichia ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The reservoir status of rabbits for a strain of Ehrlichia ruminantium was investigated using six experimental and four controlled rabbits. Each of the experimental animals was intraperitoneally inoculated with 1.5 ml of infective blood from a febrile goat. The effect of the parasite on body weight, packed cell volume, total protein ...

  19. A histopathologic and immunologic study of the course of syphilis in the experimentally infected rabbit. Demonstration of long-lasting cellular immunity.

    OpenAIRE

    Baker-Zander, S.; Sell, S.

    1980-01-01

    Inoculation of the causative agent of syphilis, Treponema pallidum into the testes of rabbits initiated the following sequence of events: 1) a rapid proliferation of organisms in the interstitial tissues of the testes, reaching a maximum at about 10-11 days after infection; 2) systemic spread of organisms primarily in the lymphoid organs; 3) a prompt immune response manifested by hyperplasia of T cell domains in draining lymph nodes and spleen, blast transformation responses of lymphoid cells...

  20. Tendon Tissue Engineering and Its Role on Healing of the Experimentally Induced Large Tendon Defect Model in Rabbits: A Comprehensive In Vivo Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meimandi-Parizi, Abdolhamid; Oryan, Ahmad; Moshiri, Ali

    2013-01-01

    Healing of large tendon defects is challenging. We studied the role of collagen implant with or without polydioxanone (PDS) sheath on the healing of a large Achilles tendon defect model, in rabbits. Sixty rabbits were divided into three groups. A 2 cm gap was created in the left Achilles tendon of all rabbits. In the control lesions, no implant was used. The other two groups were reconstructed by collagen and collagen-PDS implants respectively. The animals were clinically examined at weekly intervals and their lesions were observed by ultrasonography. Blood samples were obtained from the animals and were assessed for hematological analysis and determination of serum PDGF level, at 60 days post injury (DPI). The animals were then euthanized and their lesions were assessed for gross and histopathology, scanning electron microscopy, biomechanical testing, dry matter and hydroxyproline content. Another 65 pilot animals were also studied grossly and histopathologically to define the host implant interaction and graft incorporation at serial time points. The treated animals gained significantly better clinical scoring compared to the controls. Treatment with collagen and collagen-PDS implants significantly increased the biomechanical properties of the lesions compared to the control tendons at 60DPI (Plesions (Ptendon. Implantation of the bioimplants had a significant role in initiating tendon healing and the implants were biocompatible, biodegradable and safe for application in tendon reconstructive surgery. The results of the present study may be valuable in clinical practice. PMID:24039851

  1. [Comparative analysis between sclera treated with glycerin and sclera treated with gamma irradiation, alkali and glycerin in the reconstruction of anophthalmic socket: experimental study in rabbits].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandes, José Byron Vicente Dias; Matayoshi, Suzana; Osaka, Junko Takano; Tolosa, Erasmo Castro Magalhães; Nunes, Tânia Pereira; Moura, Eurípedes da Mota

    2007-01-01

    To compare two sclera decontamination methods: treatment with glycerin versus treatment with gamma irradiation, alkali and glycerin, aiming to detect the clinical and histological alterations in rabbit anophthalmic sockets reconstructed with sclera-involved polymethylmethacrylate spheres. Thirty-nine New Zealand-breed rabbits were divided into two groups: group I, whose animals were submitted to enucleation of one eye and reconstruction with a polymethylmethacrylate sphere involved in glycerin-treated sclera; group II, where there was enucleation, and reconstruction performed with a polymethylmethacrylate sphere involved in sclera treated with gamma irradiation, alkali and glycerin. The two groups were observed at four moments, at 7, 21, 42 and 84 days after surgery. Preset times elapsed, the rabbits were euthanized, sockets were exenterated, the material was processed for embedment in paraffin, cut into 5 microm sections thick and stained with hematoxylin-eosin and Masson's trichrome techniques. The scleras were submitted to morphometric and semiquantitative analysis. Results were compared by Mann-Whitney's non-parametric test. Comparative analysis of vascularization of the surgical interface pointed out a significative difference in the evaluation done 21 days after the implant (Pglycerin reacted similarly to the traditionally used glycerin-treated sclera. The two treatments induced a similar inflammatory response. The formation of neovessels, thickness of fibrous capsule and of sclera developed differently in the two groups. Nevertheless, they presented similar results at the end of the 84-day observation period. There was no significant difference between the two groups, with regard to sclera preservation.

  2. Does myxomatosis still regulate numbers of rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus Linnaeus, 1758) in the United Kingdom?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trout, R C; Ross, J; Fox, A P

    1993-03-01

    Myxomatosis now kills a much smaller proportion of rabbit populations than in the past, while remaining an important regulatory factor, as shown experimentally. On two separate occasions, experimental reduction of the prevalence of the disease (by reducing infestations of the main vector, the rabbit flea) led to significant increases in numbers of rabbits surviving the winter.

  3. Tensile and compressive properties of fresh human carotid atherosclerotic plaques.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Maher, Eoghan

    2009-12-11

    Accurate characterisation of the mechanical properties of human atherosclerotic plaque is important for our understanding of the role of vascular mechanics in the development and treatment of atherosclerosis. The majority of previous studies investigating the mechanical properties of human plaque are based on tests of plaque tissue removed following autopsy. This study aims to characterise the mechanical behaviour of fresh human carotid plaques removed during endarterectomy and tested within 2h. A total of 50 radial compressive and 17 circumferential tensile uniaxial tests were performed on samples taken from 14 carotid plaques. The clinical classification of each plaque, as determined by duplex ultrasound is also reported. Plaques were classified as calcified, mixed or echolucent. Experimental data indicated that plaques were highly inhomogeneous; with variations seen in the mechanical properties of plaque obtained from individual donors and between donors. The mean behaviour of samples for each classification indicated that calcified plaques had the stiffest response, while echolucent plaques were the least stiff. Results also indicated that there may be a difference in behaviour of samples taken from different anatomical locations (common, internal and external carotid), however the large variability indicates that more testing is needed to reach significant conclusions. This work represents a step towards a better understanding of the in vivo mechanical behaviour of human atherosclerotic plaque.

  4. Does artificial ascites induce the heat-sink phenomenon during percutaneous radiofrequency ablation of the hepatic subcapsular area?: an in vivo experimental study using a rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young Sun; Rhim, Hyunchul; Choi, Dongil; Lim, Hyo K

    2009-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of the heat-sink phenomenon induced by artificial ascites on the size of the ablation zone during percutaneous radiofrequency (RF) ablation of the hepatic subcapsular area in an in vivo rabbit model. A total of 21 percutaneous rabbit liver RF ablations were performed with and without artificial ascites (5% dextrose aqueous solution). The rabbits were divided into three groups: a) control group (C, n = 7); b) room temperature ascites group (R, n = 7); and c) warmed ascites group (W, n = 7). The tip of a 1 cm, internally cooled electrode was placed on the subcapsular region of the hepatic dome via ultrasound guidance, and ablation was continued for 6 min. Changes in temperature of the ascites were monitored during the ablation. The size of the ablation zones of the excised livers and immediate complications rates were compared statistically between the groups (Mann-Whitney U test, Kruskal-Wallis test, linear-by-linear association, p = 0.05). One rabbit from the "W" group expired during the procedure. In all groups, the ascites temperatures approached their respective body temperatures as the ablations continued; however, a significant difference in ascites temperature was found between groups "W" and "R" throughout the procedures (39.2+/-0.4 degrees C in group W and 33.4+/-4.3 degrees C in group R at 6 min, p = 0.003). No significant difference was found between the size of the ablation zones (782.4+/-237.3 mL in group C, 1,172.0+/-468.9 mL in group R, and 1,030.6+/-665.1 mL in group W, p = 0.170) for the excised liver specimens. Diaphragmatic injury was identified in three of seven cases (42.9%) upon visual inspection of group "C" rabbits (p = 0.030). Artificial ascites are not likely to cause a significant heat-sink phenomenon in the percutaneous RF ablation of the hepatic subcapsular region.

  5. The Rabbit Stream Cipher

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesgaard, Martin; Vesterager, Mette; Zenner, Erik

    2008-01-01

    The stream cipher Rabbit was first presented at FSE 2003, and no attacks against it have been published until now. With a measured encryption/decryption speed of 3.7 clock cycles per byte on a Pentium III processor, Rabbit does also provide very high performance. This paper gives a concise...... description of the Rabbit design and some of the cryptanalytic results available....

  6. Incisor adjustment in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Cyndi

    2009-06-01

    Rabbit incisor teeth are open-rooted and, in healthy animals, grow continuously. Incisor adjustments are often necessary to maintain the health and well-being of rabbits with incisor malocclusion. This column will describe some techniques used to manage incisor malocclusion in the rabbit.

  7. Antihypercholesterolemic and antioxidant efficacies of zerumbone on the formation, development, and establishment of atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemn, Hassan Othman; Noordin, Muhammad Mustapha; Rahman, Heshu Sulaiman; Hazilawati, Hamza; Zuki, Abubakr; Chartrand, Max Stanley

    2015-01-01

    Owing to the high incidence of cholesterol-induced cardiovascular disease, particularly atherosclerosis, the current study was designed to investigate the preventive and therapeutic efficacies of dietary zerumbone (ZER) supplementation on the formation and development of atherosclerosis in rabbits fed with a high cholesterol diet. A total of 72 New Zealand white rabbits were divided randomly on two experimental studies carried out 8 weeks apart. The first experiment was designed to investigate the prophylactic efficacy of ZER in preventing early developed atheromatous lesion. The second experimental trial was aimed at investigating the therapeutic effect of ZER in reducing the atherosclerotic lesion progression and establishment. Sudanophilia, histopathological, and ultrastructural changes showed pronounced reduction in the plaque size in ZER-medicated aortas. On the other hand, dietary supplementation of ZER for almost 10 weeks as a prophylactic measure indicated substantially decreasing lipid profile values, and similarly, plaque size in comparison with high-cholesterol non-supplemented rabbits. Furthermore, the results of oxidative stress and antioxidant biomarker evaluation indicated that ZER is a potent antioxidant in suppressing the generation of free radicals in terms of atherosclerosis prevention and treatment. ZER significantly reduced the value of malondialdehyde and augmented the value of superoxide dismutase. In conclusion, our data indicated that dietary supplementation of ZER at doses of 8, 16, and 20 mg/kg alone as a prophylactic measure, and as a supplementary treatment with simvastatin, significantly reduced early plague formation, development, and establishment via significant reduction in serum lipid profile, together with suppression of oxidative damage, and therefore alleviated atherosclerosis lesions. PMID:26347047

  8. [Clinical science relating atherosclerotic diseases and hypertriglyceridemia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujioka, Yoshio

    2013-09-01

    Recent epidemiologic studies and meta-analysis with triglyceride levels are revealing that hypertriglyceridemia is associated with coronary heart diseases independent of other coronary risk factors, although the direct effect of serum triglycerides to atherosclerotic lesion is still uncertain. Multiple genetic and environmental factors from familial hyperlipidemia to food and alcohol intake are implicated in elevating triglycerides. Especially, a number of investigators demonstrated a relationship between atherosclerotic diseases and postprandial hyperlipidemia, which may lead to nonfasting TG elevation. The purpose of this article is to review several clinical studies relating serum fasting and nonfasting triglyceride levels and coronary heart disease, and to discuss whether hypertriglyceridemia initiates atherosclerosis or plays a role as a biomarker for metabolic abnormalities.

  9. Experimental study of the wound healing after irradiation. The decalcified freeze-dried homogeneous bone grafts in the irradiated rabbit mandible

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiraki, Shinichiro

    1988-05-01

    The author performed the following examination to investigate the effect of decalcified freeze-dried homogeneous bone grafts on the irradiated rabbit mandible. Group I : no-irradiation, bone defect only. Group II : no-irradiation, decalcified freeze-dried homogeneous bone grafts into bone defect. Group III : after irradiation, bone defect only. Group IV. : after irradiation, decalcified freeze-dried homogeneous bone grafts into bone defect. Each defect measured 6 x 3 x 5 mm was made in the inferior border of the rabbit mandible. In Group III and IV, bone defects were made 4 weeks after 36 Gy irradiation. Decalcified freeze-dried homogeneous bones were prepared in the manner described by Urist, et al. and then the crushed bone fragments were implanted into the bone defects. The rabbits were killed at 1, 2, 4, and 12 weeks postoperatively. Observation was done using H - E stain sections, labelling and microradiography. Group I showed more rapid new bone formation in the bone defects than Group II at 1 and 2 weeks postoperatively, but at 4 and 12 weeks new cortical bones were formed and there was little difference in the healing between Group I and II. In Group III and IV, new bone formation was almost never seen at 1 and 2 weeks. Group III showed thin cortical bone formation which carved into the bone marrow side, but Group IV showed the original shape and thickness of the inferior border at 12 weeks. The author thought that these results suggested the effect of the decalcified freeze-dried homogeneous bone grafts on the irradiated bones.

  10. Effects of prenatal and postnatal exposure to GSM-like radiofrequency on blood chemistry and oxidative stress in infant rabbits, an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgur, Elcin; Kismali, Gorkem; Guler, Goknur; Akcay, Aytac; Ozkurt, Guzin; Sel, Tevhide; Seyhan, Nesrin

    2013-11-01

    We aimed to investigate the potential hazardous effects of prenatal and/or postnatal exposure to 1800 MHz GSM-like radiofrequency radiation (RFR) on the blood chemistry and lipid peroxidation levels of infant rabbits. A total of 72 New Zealand female and male white rabbits aged 1-month were used. Thirty-six female and 36 male were divided into four groups which were composed of nine infants: (i) Group 1 were the sham exposure (control), (ii) Group 2 were exposed to RFR, 15 min daily for 7 days in the prenatal period (between 15th and 22nd days of the gestational period) (prenatal exposure group). (iii) Group 3 were exposed to RFR 15 min/day (14 days for male, whereas 7 days for female) after they reached 1-month of age (postnatal exposure group). (iv) Group 4 were exposed to RFR for 15 min daily during 7 days in the prenatal period (between 15th and 22nd days of the gestational period) and 15 min/day (14 days for male, whereas 7 days for female) after they reached 1-month of age (prenatal and postnatal exposure group). Results showed that serum lipid peroxidation level in both female and male rabbits changed due to the RFR exposure. However, different parameters of the blood biochemistry were affected by exposure in male and female infants. Consequently, the whole-body 1800 MHz GSM-like RFR exposure may lead to oxidative stress and changes on some blood chemistry parameters. Studies on RFR exposure during prenatal and postnatal periods will help to establish international standards for the protection of pregnants and newborns from environmental RFR.

  11. Tendon tissue engineering and its role on healing of the experimentally induced large tendon defect model in rabbits: a comprehensive in vivo study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdolhamid Meimandi-Parizi

    Full Text Available Healing of large tendon defects is challenging. We studied the role of collagen implant with or without polydioxanone (PDS sheath on the healing of a large Achilles tendon defect model, in rabbits. Sixty rabbits were divided into three groups. A 2 cm gap was created in the left Achilles tendon of all rabbits. In the control lesions, no implant was used. The other two groups were reconstructed by collagen and collagen-PDS implants respectively. The animals were clinically examined at weekly intervals and their lesions were observed by ultrasonography. Blood samples were obtained from the animals and were assessed for hematological analysis and determination of serum PDGF level, at 60 days post injury (DPI. The animals were then euthanized and their lesions were assessed for gross and histopathology, scanning electron microscopy, biomechanical testing, dry matter and hydroxyproline content. Another 65 pilot animals were also studied grossly and histopathologically to define the host implant interaction and graft incorporation at serial time points. The treated animals gained significantly better clinical scoring compared to the controls. Treatment with collagen and collagen-PDS implants significantly increased the biomechanical properties of the lesions compared to the control tendons at 60DPI (P<0.05. The tissue engineered implants also reduced peritendinous adhesion, muscle fibrosis and atrophy, and increased ultrasonographical echogenicity and homogenicity, maturation and differentiation of the collagen fibrils and fibers, tissue alignment and volume of the regenerated tissue compared to those of the control lesions (P<0.05. The implants were gradually absorbed and substituted by the new tendon. Implantation of the bioimplants had a significant role in initiating tendon healing and the implants were biocompatible, biodegradable and safe for application in tendon reconstructive surgery. The results of the present study may be valuable in

  12. Morpho-functional study of ionizing radiation effects on the rabbits` femoral vein; Avaliacao morfofuncional do efeito da radiacao ionizante sobre a veia femoral. Estudo experimental em coelhos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sakiyama, Mauro Yoshimitsu

    1995-12-31

    In this study we evaluate the effects of the ionizing radiation on the rabbits femoral vein. The samples of femoral vein were obtained from 56 New Zealand rabbits, male with ageing from 90 to 120 days, that were divided into 4 groups of 14 animals: one control group non-irradiated and three animal groups sacrificed 2 days, 14 days and 90 days after irradiation. In the three irradiated rabbits groups, each animal received the total dose 4000 cGy (rads) divided in 10 sessions of 400 cGy, a dose equivalent that utilized on clinical therapeutic. A morpho functional study of vein samples was carried out with: light microscopy: stained by hematoxin - eosin, Masson`s tricromic, and Verhoeff. Immunohistochemical: reactions of immunoperoxidase with monoclonal mouse anti-human endothelial cell factor CD-31 and anti-human Von Willebrand factor (factor VIII), to study the vein endothelium. Histomorphometry of elastic fiber system stained by Weigert`s resorcin-fuchsin with and without prior oxidation with oxone; for the study of mature, elaunin or pre-mature and oxytalan or young elastic fibers. Electronic microscopy: transmission and scanning. With the methodology utilized we observe changes in the femoral vein of the animals submitted to irradiation in relation to the control group, thus described: there is formation of vacuoles between the endothelium and the basal membrane, called sub endothelial vacuoles, in focal areas. The factor VIII and CD-31 endothelial antigens are preserved with no changes in their functions. Focal alterations are present in the endothelial surface with disorder in the setting and orientation of the endothelial cells. there is degeneration of the elastic fibers with significant decrease in their quantity in the stage, 2 days and 14 days after irradiation. There is increase in the quantity of elastic fibers in the late stage, 90 days after irradiation, tending to normality. In this present study, the changes described are not accompanied by venous

  13. [Is regression of atherosclerotic plaque possible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Páramo, José A; Civeira, Fernando

    As it is well-known, a thrombus evolving into a disrupted/eroded atherosclerotic plaque causes most acute coronary syndromes. Plaque stabilization via reduction of the lipid core and/or thickening of the fibrous cap is one of the possible mechanisms accounted for the clinical benefits displayed by different anti-atherosclerotic strategies. The concept of plaque stabilization was developed to explain how lipid-lowering agents could decrease adverse coronary events without substantial modifications of the atherosclerotic lesion ('angiographic paradox'). A number of imaging modalities (vascular ultrasound and virtual histology, MRI, optical coherence tomography, positron tomography, etc.) are used for non-invasive assessment of atherosclerosis; most of them can identify plaque volume and composition beyond lumen stenosis. An 'aggressive' lipid-lowering strategy is able to reduce the plaque burden and the incidence of cardiovascular events; this may be attributable, at least in part, to plaque-stabilizing effects. Copyright © 2016 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Publicado por Elsevier España, S.L.U. All rights reserved.

  14. Delivery of antifibroblast agents as adjuncts to filtration surgery. Part I--Periocular clearance of cobalt-57 bleomycin in experimental drug delivery: pilot study in the rabbit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kay, J.S.; Litin, B.S.; Woolfenden, J.M.; Chvapil, M.; Herschler, J.

    1986-10-01

    Antitumor and antifibroblast agents show promise as adjuncts after glaucoma filtration surgery in reducing postoperative scarring and failure. We used nuclear imaging in rabbits to investigate periocular clearance of one such agent (/sup 57/Co-bleomycin). Sub-Tenon injection was compared to other delivery techniques. Our results showed that a collagen sponge and a silastic disc implant with a microhole prolonged drug delivery when compared to sub-Tenon injection alone or injection with a viscosity enhancing agent (0.5% sodium hyaluronate). We theorize that if an antifibroblast agent can be delivered in small and sustained amounts after filtration surgery, this may prolong bleb longevity and avoid unnecessary drug toxicity.

  15. Effect of Monocular Deprivation on Rabbit Neural Retinal Cell Densities

    OpenAIRE

    Philip Maseghe Mwachaka; Hassan Saidi; Paul Ochieng Odula; Pamela Idenya Mandela

    2015-01-01

    Purpose: To describe the effect of monocular deprivation on densities of neural retinal cells in rabbits. Methods: Thirty rabbits, comprised of 18 subject and 12 control animals, were included and monocular deprivation was achieved through unilateral lid suturing in all subject animals. The rabbits were observed for three weeks. At the end of each week, 6 experimental and 3 control animals were euthanized, their retinas was harvested and processed for light microscopy. Photomicrographs of ...

  16. Erythrocyte Osmotic Fragility and Excitability Score in Rabbit fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    olayemitoyin

    of excitability score shows that rabbit on diet 1 and 2 had a lower value which was significantly (P < 0.05) lower than rabbits on ... heat stress in poultry (Minka et al. .... An excitability score of 4 was recorded in 70.00 ± 5.50 % in rabbit. Table 1: Composition of Experimental Diets. Ingredients. Dietary Treatment. T1. T2. T3. T4.

  17. Safety and Biocompatibility of a New High-Density Polyethylene-Based Spherical Integrated Porous Orbital Implant: An Experimental Study in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ivan Fernandez-Bueno

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose. To evaluate clinically and histologically the safety and biocompatibility of a new HDPE-based spherical porous orbital implants in rabbits. Methods. MEDPOR (Porex Surgical, Inc., Fairburn, GA, USA, OCULFIT I, and OCULFIT II (AJL Ophthalmic S.A., Vitoria, Spain implants were implanted in eviscerated rabbis. Animals were randomly divided into 6 groups (n=4 each according to the 3 implant materials tested and 2 follow-up times of 90 or 180 days. Signs of regional pain and presence of eyelid swelling, conjunctival hyperemia, and amount of exudate were semiquantitatively evaluated. After animals sacrifice, the implants and surrounding ocular tissues were processed for histological staining and polarized light evaluation. Statistical study was performed by ANOVA and Kaplan-Meier analysis. Results. No statistically significant differences in regional pain, eyelid swelling, or conjunctival hyperemia were shown between implants and/or time points evaluated. However, amount of exudate differed, with OCULFIT I causing the smallest amount. No remarkable clinical complications were observed. Histological findings were similar in all three types of implants and agree with minor inflammatory response. Conclusions. OCULFIT ophthalmic tolerance and biocompatibility in rabbits were comparable to the clinically used MEDPOR. Clinical studies are needed to determine if OCULFIT is superior to the orbital implants commercially available.

  18. Metabolic syndrome-associated sperm alterations in an experimental rabbit model: relation with metabolic profile, testis and epididymis gene expression and effect of tamoxifen treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchiani, Sara; Vignozzi, Linda; Filippi, Sandra; Gurrieri, Bruna; Comeglio, Paolo; Morelli, Annamaria; Danza, Giovanna; Bartolucci, Gianluca; Maggi, Mario; Baldi, Elisabetta

    2015-02-05

    The influence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) on sperm quality and function is debated. Using a well-established high fat diet (HFD) rabbit model resembling human MetS, including development of hypogonadism, we demonstrate that HFD decreased sperm motility, morphology and acrosome reaction in response to progesterone and increased sperm cholesterol content. All the above parameters were associated with most MetS features, its severity and plasma testosterone (T) at univariate analysis. After T adjustment, sperm morphology and motility retained a significant association, respectively, with mean arterial pressure and circulating cholesterol levels. MetS modified the expression of inflammatory and tissue remodelling genes in the testis and of aquaporins in the epididymis. In a multivariate analysis, sperm morphology resulted associated with testis expression of fibronectin and collagen type 1 genes, whereas motility with epididymis aquaporin 1 gene. Administration of tamoxifen, used in the treatment of idiopathic male infertility, to HFD rabbits partially restored motility, but further decreased morphology and increased spontaneous acrosome reaction, without restoring responsiveness to progesterone. Overall our results indicate that development of MetS produces detrimental effects on sperm quality and functionality by inducing metabolic disorders leading to alterations in testis and epididymis functions and evidence a role of hypertension as a new determinant of abnormal sperm morphology, in line with a previous human study from our group. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Safety and Biocompatibility of a New High-Density Polyethylene-Based Spherical Integrated Porous Orbital Implant: An Experimental Study in Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernandez-Bueno, Ivan; Di Lauro, Salvatore; Alvarez, Ivan; Lopez, Jose Carlos; Garcia-Gutierrez, Maria Teresa; Fernandez, Itziar; Larra, Eva; Pastor, Jose Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Purpose. To evaluate clinically and histologically the safety and biocompatibility of a new HDPE-based spherical porous orbital implants in rabbits. Methods. MEDPOR (Porex Surgical, Inc., Fairburn, GA, USA), OCULFIT I, and OCULFIT II (AJL Ophthalmic S.A., Vitoria, Spain) implants were implanted in eviscerated rabbis. Animals were randomly divided into 6 groups (n = 4 each) according to the 3 implant materials tested and 2 follow-up times of 90 or 180 days. Signs of regional pain and presence of eyelid swelling, conjunctival hyperemia, and amount of exudate were semiquantitatively evaluated. After animals sacrifice, the implants and surrounding ocular tissues were processed for histological staining and polarized light evaluation. Statistical study was performed by ANOVA and Kaplan-Meier analysis. Results. No statistically significant differences in regional pain, eyelid swelling, or conjunctival hyperemia were shown between implants and/or time points evaluated. However, amount of exudate differed, with OCULFIT I causing the smallest amount. No remarkable clinical complications were observed. Histological findings were similar in all three types of implants and agree with minor inflammatory response. Conclusions. OCULFIT ophthalmic tolerance and biocompatibility in rabbits were comparable to the clinically used MEDPOR. Clinical studies are needed to determine if OCULFIT is superior to the orbital implants commercially available. PMID:26689343

  20. Mucosal injury and. gamma. -irradiation produce persistent gastric ulcers in the rabbit. Evaluation of antiulcer drug binding to experimental ulcer sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokel, R.A.; Dickey, K.M. (Univ. of Kentucky, Lexington (USA))

    1991-05-01

    A method producing persistent gastric ulcers in the rhesus monkey by combined mucosal injury and {gamma}-irradiation was modified and evaluated in the rabbit. {gamma}-Irradiation (800-1000 cGy) immediately after removal of 2-mm-diameter sections of antral mucosa resulted in ulcer craters 5-7 days later. Ulcer sites were characterized by loss of the mucosa, muscularis mucosa, and much of the submucosa. The exposed submucosa was coated with fibrin and necrotic debris infiltrated with heterophils, the rabbit equivalent of neutrophils. These ulcers strongly resemble human chronic gastric ulcers. Binding of Carafate (sucralfate; Marion Laboratories, Inc., Kansas City, MO) and Maalox (magnesia-alumina oral suspension; Wm. H. Rorer, Inc., Ft. Washington, PA) to ulcer and nearby nonulcer sites in the antrum was assessed 1 hour after drug dosing. Drug binding was determined by aluminum quantitation of stomach wall punch biopsies at necropsy. Both drugs significantly increased aluminum bound to the stomach wall compared with vehicle treatment. Significantly more antiulcer drug was bound to ulcer sites than to nearby nonulcer sites only after sucralfate administration. This model of persistent gastric ulcer should be useful to further study gastric ulcer pathogenesis and treatment.

  1. Are percutaneous transgastric biopsies using 14-,16- and 18-G Tru-Cut needles safe? An experimental study in the rabbit

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akan, H.; Incesu, L.; Gunes, M. [Ondokuz Mayis University Medical School, Samsun (Turkey). Department of Radiology; Ozen, N.; Gumus, S. [Ondokuz Mayis University Medical School, Samsun (Turkey). Department of Surgery

    1998-05-01

    We evaluated perforation, peritonitis and bleeding after 14-, 16-, 18-G Tru-Cut needles were passed through the stomach in an animal model. Insertions were performed on seven anesthetized rabbits with 18-,16-and 14-G needles simulating the clinical technique. Diluted contrast medium with methylene blue (60mL) was administered through a nasogastric tube after the biopsy. Computed tomography (CT) scanning of the upper abdomen was performed 10 minutes after the insertion for leakage. The abdominal contents were inspected by laparotomy. There was no contrast medium leakage outside the gastrointestinal tract on CT images. Neither methylene blue nor other stomach content leakage was identified by laparotomy, even with manual squeezing. A tiny spot of blood was observed on the serosal surface of the stomach with the 18-G needle passes (five cases), whereas a relatively large haematoma was present with 14-G needle (four cases). Six of the rabbits survived and one died due to an inadvertant aortic injury. The results of the study show that transgastric route with an 1 8-G cutting needle can be used without fear of peritonitis and bleeding. Copyright (1998) Blackwell Science Pty Ltd 19 refs., 1 tab., 1 fig.

  2. The effect of sodium hyaluronate–chondroitin sulfate combined solution on cartilage formation in osteochondral defects of the rabbit knee: an experimental study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosun, Haci Bayram; Gürger, Murat; Gümüştaş, Seyit Ali; Uludag, Abuzer; Üçer, Özlem; Serbest, Sancar; Çelik, Suat

    2017-01-01

    Objective In focal cartilage lesions, multipotent mesenchymal stem cells in bone marrow are aimed to be moved into the defect area using subchondral drilling or microfracture method. However, repaired tissue insufficiently fills the defect area or cannot meet natural hyaline tissue functions, due to fibrous structure. We investigated the effect of a combined solution of sodium hyaluronate + chondroitin sulfate (HA+CS) administered intra-articularly after subchondral drilling on newly formed cartilage in rabbits with focal osteochondral defects. Materials and methods A total of 32 New Zealand White mature rabbits, whose weights ranged from 2.5 to 3 kg, were randomly divided into four groups. Full-thickness osteochondral defect was formed in the left-knee medial femur condyles of all rabbits. Subchondral drilling was then performed. The following treatment protocol was administered intra-articularly on knee joints on days 7, 14, and 21 after surgery: group 1, 0.3 mL combined solution of HA+CS (20 mg CS combined with 16 mg HA/mL); group 2, 0.3 mL HA (16 mg/mL); group 3, 0.3 mL CS (20 mg/mL); and group 4 (control group), 0.3 mL saline solution. In the sixth week, all animals were killed and then evaluated histopathologically and biochemically. Results There was significant articular cartilage formation in the HA+CS group compared to the HA, CS, and control groups. Hyaline cartilage formation was observed only in the HA+CS group. Cartilage-surface continuity and smoothness were significantly higher in the HA+CS and HA groups compared to the other groups. Normal cartilage mineralization was found to be significantly higher in the HA+CS group compared to the other groups. Increased levels of VEGFA and IL-1β in synovial fluid were observed in the HA+CS group. Conclusion After subchondral drilling, intra-articular HA-CS combination therapy is a good choice to promote better quality new cartilage-tissue formation in the treatment of focal osteochondral defects. PMID

  3. The effect of sodium hyaluronate-chondroitin sulfate combined solution on cartilage formation in osteochondral defects of the rabbit knee: an experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tosun, Haci Bayram; Gürger, Murat; Gümüştaş, Seyit Ali; Uludag, Abuzer; Üçer, Özlem; Serbest, Sancar; Çelik, Suat

    2017-01-01

    In focal cartilage lesions, multipotent mesenchymal stem cells in bone marrow are aimed to be moved into the defect area using subchondral drilling or microfracture method. However, repaired tissue insufficiently fills the defect area or cannot meet natural hyaline tissue functions, due to fibrous structure. We investigated the effect of a combined solution of sodium hyaluronate + chondroitin sulfate (HA+CS) administered intra-articularly after subchondral drilling on newly formed cartilage in rabbits with focal osteochondral defects. A total of 32 New Zealand White mature rabbits, whose weights ranged from 2.5 to 3 kg, were randomly divided into four groups. Full-thickness osteochondral defect was formed in the left-knee medial femur condyles of all rabbits. Subchondral drilling was then performed. The following treatment protocol was administered intra-articularly on knee joints on days 7, 14, and 21 after surgery: group 1, 0.3 mL combined solution of HA+CS (20 mg CS combined with 16 mg HA/mL); group 2, 0.3 mL HA (16 mg/mL); group 3, 0.3 mL CS (20 mg/mL); and group 4 (control group), 0.3 mL saline solution. In the sixth week, all animals were killed and then evaluated histopathologically and biochemically. There was significant articular cartilage formation in the HA+CS group compared to the HA, CS, and control groups. Hyaline cartilage formation was observed only in the HA+CS group. Cartilage-surface continuity and smoothness were significantly higher in the HA+CS and HA groups compared to the other groups. Normal cartilage mineralization was found to be significantly higher in the HA+CS group compared to the other groups. Increased levels of VEGFA and IL-1β in synovial fluid were observed in the HA+CS group. After subchondral drilling, intra-articular HA-CS combination therapy is a good choice to promote better quality new cartilage-tissue formation in the treatment of focal osteochondral defects.

  4. EFEITO DO LEVAMISOL E DO EXTRATO ETANÓLICO DE FOLHAS DE Momordica Charantia SOBRE A DERMATOFITOSE EXPERIMENTAL EM COELHOS EFFECT OF THE LEVAMISOLE AND THE ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF Momordica charantia LEAVES ON THE EXPERIMENTAL DERMATOPHYTOSIS IN RABBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivardo Facó

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do levamisol e do extrato etanólico das folhas de Momordica charantia na dermatofitose experimental. Para tanto, coe¬lhos jovens, Nova Zelândia, machos, divididos em grupos, receberam, por via oral, durante quinze dias consecutivos Tween 20 (1%, controle; n=5, levamisol (25 mg/Kg/PV; n=4 ou extrato etanólico de M. charantia (EE, 10 mg/Kg/PV, n=6 a partir do 15º dia inoculação por Microsporum canis. Foram realizadas as contagens total e diferencial de leucócitos do sangue periférico, cultivo do raspado de pele e avaliação histopatológica das lesões. O levamisol e o EE reduziram os escores de avaliação histológica das lesões provocadas pelo M. canis e não induziram modificação dos leucócitos circulantes. O tratamento com levamisol provocou alterações na pele infectada em relação ao controle (p<0,01, mas não diferiu do tratamento com EE, o qual não diferiu do controle que recebeu o veículo. Os resultados demonstraram que o levamisol teve melhor desempenho no tratamento da dermatofitose, enfatizando seu potencial imu¬nomodulador, enquanto o EE de M. charantia apresentou um efeito bastante promissor, indicando uma alternativa de tratamento da dermatofitose provocada pelo M. canis. PALAVRAS-CHAVES: Cucurbitaceae, imunomodulação, levamisol, Microsporum canis, Momordica charantia. The aim of this work was to evaluate the effect of levamisole and ethanolic extract of Momordica charantia leaves on experimental dermatophytosis. Young rabbits, New Zealand, males, were divided in groups that received by via oral during 15 days Tween 20 (1%, control; n=5, levamisole (25 mg/kg/LP; n=4 or ethanolic extract of M. charantia leaves (EE, 10 mg/kg/LP; n=6, beginning at 15th day of Microsporum canis inoculation. Total and differential blood circulating leukocyte counts, cultive of skin and histopatological evaluation of the lesions were realized. Levamisole and EE reduced the

  5. Self-expandable vascular stent covered with polyurethane membrane: an experimental preliminary study of a placement in the thoracic descending aorta of a rabbit using endovascular intervention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uematsu, M; Okada, M

    2000-04-01

    The effectiveness of self-expandable vascular endoprosthesis covered with polyurethane membrane for arterial substitution was examined in the descending thoracic aorta of a rabbit, followed by an observation period of 937 days. In this model there was no evidence of thrombus, aneurysmal formation, and/or infection. The self-expandable vascular stent covered with a polyurethane membrane showed long-term patency as well as excellent function, and the histological evaluation revealed endothelial cells covering all of the surface of the endoprosthesis, as was expected. Minimal intimal hyperplasia and no calcifica-tion were demonstrated in any portions. This study suggests that our newly designed self-expandable vascular stent covered with a polyurethane membrane could serve as a satisfactory vascular endoprosthesis with a good long-term patency for substitution. Furthermore, stenting using our model is a safe, simple technique, and an effective treatment for vascular remodeling.

  6. The effect of anterior cruciate ligament resection and immediate or delayed implantation of a meniscus prosthesis on knee joint biomechanics and cartilage. An experimental study in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommerlath, K G; Gillquist, J

    1993-04-01

    In a rabbit experiment with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) resection, immediate substitution of the medial meniscus with a prosthesis was compared with delayed prosthetic implantation after a postmeniscectomy period of three weeks. The knees with a prosthetic implant were compared with their contralateral joints as well as to joints with an intact ACL and menisci. Anterior cruciate ligament resection alone led to disturbed biomechanics and cartilage degeneration. Anterior cruciate ligament resection in combination with meniscus resection increased cartilage degeneration and led to more inferior biomechanics. Ingrowth and stable fixation was less frequent when the prosthesis was inserted three weeks after meniscus resection than when inserted immediately. Furthermore, in knees with delayed prosthetic implantation, only minor improvement in terms of cartilage protection was shown when compared with knees with resection only. In contrast, knees with immediate meniscus replacement demonstrated similar joint stiffness and stress relaxation characteristics and similar cartilage protection effects as knees with a nonresected medial meniscus.

  7. Induction of bone ingrowth with a micropore bioabsorbable suture anchor in rotator cuff tear: an experimental study in a rabbit model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Yun Gyeong; Kim, Jung-Han; Shin, Jung-Woog; Baik, Jong-Min; Choo, Hye-Jung

    2013-11-01

    The bioabsorbable suture anchor is probably one of the most commonly used tools in arthroscopic shoulder operations. However, there is controversy about whether the bioabsorbable anchor is replaced by bone. The object of this study is to evaluate bone ingrowth into the micropore bioabsorbable suture anchor and the differences in the biomechanical properties of a micropore anchor and a nonpore anchor. A total of 16 microsized holes (diameter, 250 ± 50 μm; depth, 0.2 mm) were made on the bioabsorbable anchors with a microdrill. Twelve adult New Zealand White rabbits were randomly divided into two groups: group A (n = 6), the nonpore bioabsorbable suture anchor group, and group pA (n = 6), the micropore bioabsorbable suture anchor group. Microcomputed tomography was used at 4 and 8 weeks postoperatively to evaluate ingrowth by bone volume fraction (BVF), which was measured by calculating the ratio of the total volume of bone ingrowth to that of the region of interest. For pullout strength testing, 3 additional rabbits (6 limbs) were used for mechanical testing. The mean BVF was higher in group pA (0.288 ± 0.054) than in group A (0.097 ± 0.006). The micropore anchor had a higher pullout strength (0.520 ± 0.294 N) than the nonpore anchor (0.275 ± 0.064 N). Micropore bioabsorbable suture anchors induced bone ingrowth and showed higher pullout strength, despite processing. Copyright © 2013 Journal of Shoulder and Elbow Surgery Board of Trustees. Published by Mosby, Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. A new safety concern for glaucoma treatment demonstrated by mass spectrometry imaging of benzalkonium chloride distribution in the eye, an experimental study in rabbits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Françoise Brignole-Baudouin

    Full Text Available We investigated in a rabbit model, the eye distribution of topically instilled benzalkonium_(BAK chloride a commonly used preservative in eye drops using mass spectrometry imaging. Three groups of three New Zealand rabbits each were used: a control one without instillation, one receiving 0.01%BAK twice a day for 5 months and one with 0.2%BAK one drop a day for 1 month. After sacrifice, eyes were embedded and frozen in tragacanth gum. Serial cryosections were alternately deposited on glass slides for histological (hematoxylin-eosin staining and immunohistological controls (CD45, RLA-DR and vimentin for inflammatory cell infiltration as well as vimentin for Müller glial cell activation and ITO or stainless steel plates for MSI experiments using Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight. The MSI results were confirmed by a round-robin study on several adjacent sections conducted in two different laboratories using different sample preparation methods, mass spectrometers and data analysis softwares. BAK was shown to penetrate healthy eyes even after a short duration and was not only detected on the ocular surface structures, but also in deeper tissues, especially in sensitive areas involved in glaucoma pathophysiology, such as the trabecular meshwork and the optic nerve areas, as confirmed by images with histological stainings. CD45-, RLA-DR- and vimentin-positive cells increased in treated eyes. Vimentin was found only in the inner layer of retina in normal eyes and increased in all retinal layers in treated eyes, confirming an activation response to a cell stress. This ocular toxicological study confirms the presence of BAK preservative in ocular surface structures as well as in deeper structures involved in glaucoma disease. The inflammatory cell infiltration and Müller glial cell activation confirmed the deleterious effect of BAK. Although these results were obtained in animals, they highlight the importance of the safety

  9. Host tissue reactions of non-demineralized autogenic and xenogenic dentin blocks implanted in a non-osteogenic environment. An experimental study in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Asfour, Adel; Farzad, Payam; Andersson, Lars; Joseph, Bobby; Dahlin, Christer

    2014-06-01

    Dentoalveolar ankylosis with osseous replacement is often seen after replantation of avulsed teeth, and this process may be used for preservation of alveolar crests after trauma. Its exact mechanisms with regard to osteoinductive properties are not yet fully understood and need to be systematically investigated. Dentin can possibly act as a slow-releasing carrier of bone morphogenic proteins (BMP), and this property of dentin has been proposed to be used as an alternative or supplement to bone grafting in the maxillofacial region. We aimed to initially asses host tissue reactions to dentin by implanting dentin blocks of autogenic and xenogenic human origin in rabbit connective tissue of the abdominal wall and femoral muscle. Animals were sacrificed after a period of 3 months, and histological processing, sectioning and examinations were carried out. Bone formation, cell counts and thickness of capsule surrounding the grafts were evaluated. Only minor signs of heterotopic bone formation were seen. There were no significant differences between autografts and xenografts or grafts implanted in connective tissue or muscle with regards to tissue reactions except for a significant difference (P = 0.018) in findings of more local inflammatory cells in relation to grafts placed in connective tissue in the autograft group. We conclude that during the time frame of this study, non-demineralized dentin, whether autogenous or xenogenic did not have the potential to induce bone formation when implanted in non-osteogenic areas such as the abdominal wall and abdominal muscle of rabbits. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Performance of growing rabbits fed graded levels of sugarcane peel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Twenty five growing rabbits of mixed breeds and average weight of 894g were used in a seven week feeding trial. Five experimental diets were formulated in which sugarcane peels (SCP) was included at 0, 10, 20, 30 and 40% levels to replace maize offal. The rabbits were balanced for weight and allotted to the treatments ...

  11. Supplemental value of avizyme in diets of rabbits containing graded ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Growth performance, nutrient retention and hematological parameters of rabbits fed graded levels of wheat offal supplemented with Avizyme were studied. A total of 24, 9-week old New Zealand rabbits were fed for 49 days (7 weeks) on four experimental diets. Avizyme was added at the rate of 1 g kg-1 of wheat offal based ...

  12. the assessment of fasciola gigantica infection in the rabbit ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this study, the rabbit was assessed as a laboratory host for the helminthes parasite, Fasciola gigantica. Three groups of rabbits were Infected experimentally with 5, 10 end 15 metacercariae of F. gigantica respectively. Clinical signs found included pale mucous membrane, progressive emaciation and rough hair coat.

  13. Performance characteristics of growing rabbits fed diet based on a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A feeding trial using twenty four cross bred 8-9 weeks old rabbits was conducted to investigate the effect of feeding cerelac waste - CW (a by-product of the infant food industry considered as waste) on the performance and organ characteristics of growing rabbits. Three experimental diets were formulated with diet 1 serving ...

  14. Effect of Garlic on Perfusion Scintigraphy of Rabbit's Lungs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Purpose: To study of the effect of garlic on rabbit's lungs, with the aid of perfusion scintigraphy, after experimentally-induced pulmonary embolism. Methods: Twelve adult rabbits were anesthetized. Prepared macroaggregated albumin- technetium 99m (99mTc-MAA) radiopharmaceutical was injected into the ear vein at a ...

  15. Growth indices and economic implications of weaned rabbits fed ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study assessed the performance and economic implications of rabbits fed Leucaena leucocephala leaf protein concentrate (LLPC) as protein source to replace soybean meal in rabbit diet. Five experimental diets were formulated in which LLPC replaced soybean meal at 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20% (representing 0, 1.20, 2.40, ...

  16. The combined therapy with chondroitin sulfate plus glucosamine sulfate or chondroitin sulfate plus glucosamine hydrochloride does not improve joint damage in an experimental model of knee osteoarthritis in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roman-Blas, Jorge A; Mediero, Aránzazu; Tardío, Lidia; Portal-Nuñez, Sergio; Gratal, Paula; Herrero-Beaumont, Gabriel; Largo, Raquel

    2017-01-05

    Osteoarthritis is the most common chronic joint disorder especially during aging. Although with controversies, glucosamine, both in its forms of sulfate and hydrochloride, and chondroitin sulfate are commonly employed to treat osteoarthritis. Due to the modest improve in the symptoms observed in patients treated with these drugs alone, a formulation combining both agents has been considered. The discrepant results achieved for pain control or structural improvement in osteoarthritis patients has been attributed to the quality of chemical formulations or different bias in clinical studies. The current study has been designed to test the effects of two different combined formulations with adequate pharmaceutical grade of these drugs in osteoarthritic joints, and to explore the underlying mechanisms modulated by both formulations in different osteoarthritis target tissues. Knee osteoarthritis was surgically induced in experimental rabbits. Some animals received the combined therapy (CT)1, (chondroitin sulfate 1200mg/day + glucosamine sulfate 1500mg/day), or the CT2 ((chondroitin sulfate 1200mg/day + glucosamine hydrochloride 1500mg/day). Neither CT1 nor CT2 significantly modified the cartilage damage or the synovial inflammation observed in osteoarthritic animals. Treatments were also unable to modify the presence of pro-inflammatory mediators, and the synthesis of metalloproteinases in the cartilage or in the synovium of osteoarthritic animals. Combined therapies did not modify the decrease in the subchondral bone mineral density observed in osteoarthritic rabbits. Therapies of chondroitin sulfate plus glucosamine sulfate or chondroitin sulfate plus glucosamine hydrochloride failed to improve structural damage or to ameliorate the inflammatory profile of joint tissues during experimental osteoarthritis. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Effect of stunning methods on quality of rabbit carcass and meat ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study was carried out to evaluate the effect of different stunning methods on the physicochemical and sensory characteristics of rabbit carcass and meat. Thirty six mature rabbits of mixed breeds and sexes with average weight of 1.5 – 2.0kg were used. The rabbits were randomly assigned to four experimental ...

  18. Simulation of human atherosclerotic femoral plaque tissue: the influence of plaque material model on numerical results

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-01-01

    Background Due to the limited number of experimental studies that mechanically characterise human atherosclerotic plaque tissue from the femoral arteries, a recent trend has emerged in current literature whereby one set of material data based on aortic plaque tissue is employed to numerically represent diseased femoral artery tissue. This study aims to generate novel vessel-appropriate material models for femoral plaque tissue and assess the influence of using material models based on experimental data generated from aortic plaque testing to represent diseased femoral arterial tissue. Methods Novel material models based on experimental data generated from testing of atherosclerotic femoral artery tissue are developed and a computational analysis of the revascularisation of a quarter model idealised diseased femoral artery from a 90% diameter stenosis to a 10% diameter stenosis is performed using these novel material models. The simulation is also performed using material models based on experimental data obtained from aortic plaque testing in order to examine the effect of employing vessel appropriate material models versus those currently employed in literature to represent femoral plaque tissue. Results Simulations that employ material models based on atherosclerotic aortic tissue exhibit much higher maximum principal stresses within the plaque than simulations that employ material models based on atherosclerotic femoral tissue. Specifically, employing a material model based on calcified aortic tissue, instead of one based on heavily calcified femoral tissue, to represent diseased femoral arterial vessels results in a 487 fold increase in maximum principal stress within the plaque at a depth of 0.8 mm from the lumen. Conclusions Large differences are induced on numerical results as a consequence of employing material models based on aortic plaque, in place of material models based on femoral plaque, to represent a diseased femoral vessel. Due to these large

  19. A Quantitative Model of Early Atherosclerotic Plaques Parameterized Using In Vitro Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thon, Moritz P; Ford, Hugh Z; Gee, Michael W; Myerscough, Mary R

    2018-01-01

    There are a growing number of studies that model immunological processes in the artery wall that lead to the development of atherosclerotic plaques. However, few of these models use parameters that are obtained from experimental data even though data-driven models are vital if mathematical models are to become clinically relevant. We present the development and analysis of a quantitative mathematical model for the coupled inflammatory, lipid and macrophage dynamics in early atherosclerotic plaques. Our modeling approach is similar to the biologists' experimental approach where the bigger picture of atherosclerosis is put together from many smaller observations and findings from in vitro experiments. We first develop a series of three simpler submodels which are least-squares fitted to various in vitro experimental results from the literature. Subsequently, we use these three submodels to construct a quantitative model of the development of early atherosclerotic plaques. We perform a local sensitivity analysis of the model with respect to its parameters that identifies critical parameters and processes. Further, we present a systematic analysis of the long-term outcome of the model which produces a characterization of the stability of model plaques based on the rates of recruitment of low-density lipoproteins, high-density lipoproteins and macrophages. The analysis of the model suggests that further experimental work quantifying the different fates of macrophages as a function of cholesterol load and the balance between free cholesterol and cholesterol ester inside macrophages may give valuable insight into long-term atherosclerotic plaque outcomes. This model is an important step toward models applicable in a clinical setting.

  20. ACE2 activity was increased in atherosclerotic plaque by losartan: Possible relation to anti-atherosclerosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yue Hui; Hao, Qing Qing; Wang, Xiao Yu; Chen, Xu; Wang, Nan; Zhu, Li; Li, Shu Ying; Yu, Qing Tao; Dong, Bo

    2015-06-01

    Angiotensin-converting enzyme 2 (ACE2) is a new member of the renin-angiotensin system (RAS) and it has been proposed that ACE2 is a potential therapeutic target for the control of cardiovascular disease. The effect of losartan on the ACE2 activity in atherosclerosis was studied. Atherosclerosis was induced in New Zealand white rabbits by high-cholesterol diet for 3 months. An Angiotensin II (Ang II) receptor blocker (losartan, 25 mg/kg/d) was given for 3 months. ACE2 activity was measured by fluorescence assay and the extent of atherosclerosis was evaluated by H&E and Oil Red O staining. In addition, the effect of losartan on ACE2 activity in smooth muscle cells (SMCs) in vitro was also evaluated. Losartan increased ACE2 activity in atherosclerosis in vivo and SMCs in vitro. Losartan inhibited atherosclerotic evolution. Addition of losartan blocked Ang II-induced down-regulation of ACE2 activity, and blockade of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK1/2) with PD98059 prevented Ang II-induced down-regulation of ACE2 activity. The results showed that ACE2 activity was regulated in atherosclerotic plaque by losartan, which may play an important role in treatment of atherosclerosis. The mechanism involves Ang II-AT1R-mediated mitogen-activated protein kinases, MAPKs (MAPKs) signaling pathway. © The Author(s) 2014.

  1. Effect of aguamiel (agave sap) on hematic biometry in rabbits and its antioxidant activity determination

    OpenAIRE

    Héctor Silos-Espino; José Luis Moreno Hernández-Duque; Fidel Guevara-Lara; Juan Florencio Gómez-Leyva; Luis Lorenzo Valera-Montero; Alejandro Nava-Cedillo; Catarino Perales-Segovia; Clara Lourdes Tovar-Robles

    2011-01-01

    In this work, we analysed the effect of aguamiel (sap from Agave salmiana) on haematic biometry in rabbits as well as its antioxidant activity with the objective of determining its nutritional value. Nine male Landrace 55-day-old rabbits were sorted into three groups of three rabbits each, which had access to fresh aguamiel, boiled aguamiel and water instead of aguamiel. Commercial rabbit food was supplied ad libitum to each experimental unit. Fresh aguamiel promoted weight increases of about...

  2. Overexpression of TGF-ß1 in macrophages reduces and stabilizes atherosclerotic plaques in ApoE-deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kurt Reifenberg

    Full Text Available Although macrophages represent the hallmark of both human and murine atherosclerotic lesions and have been shown to express TGF-ß1 (transforming growth factor β1 and its receptors, it has so far not been experimentally addressed whether the pleiotropic cytokine TGF-ß1 may influence atherogenesis by a macrophage specific mechanism. We developed transgenic mice with macrophage specific TGF-ß1 overexpression, crossed the transgenics to the atherosclerotic ApoE (apolipoprotein E knock-out strain and quantitatively analyzed both atherosclerotic lesion development and composition of the resulting double mutants. Compared with control ApoE(-/- mice, animals with macrophage specific TGF-ß1 overexpression developed significantly less atherosclerosis after 24 weeks on the WTD (Western type diet as indicated by aortic plaque area en face (p<0.05. Reduced atherosclerotic lesion development was associated with significantly less macrophages (p<0.05 after both 8 and 24 weeks on the WTD, significantly more smooth muscle cells (SMCs; p<0.01 after 24 weeks on the WTD, significantly more collagen (p<0.01 and p<0.05 after 16 and 24 weeks on the WTD, respectively without significant differences of inner aortic arch intima thickness or the number of total macrophages in the mice pointing to a plaque stabilizing effect of macrophage-specific TGF-ß1 overexpression. Our data shows that macrophage specific TGF-ß1 overexpression reduces and stabilizes atherosclerotic plaques in ApoE-deficient mice.

  3. Experimental Study of CT Guided 32P-CP-PLLA Microparticle Implantation in the Treatment of Rabbit VX2 Lung Tumor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donghui PAN

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background and objective 32P-chromic phosphate-poly (L-lactic acid (32P-CP-PLLA microparticle is a novel potent brachytherapy implant, which has good biocompatibility and biodegradability. The aim of this study is to investigate the changes of pathology and PET/CT images in VX2 rabbit tumor after treatment with intratumorol administration of 32P-CP-PLLA microparticles, and to explore the effects and influence of tumor growth and apoptosis related proteins in VX2 lung tumor treatment with 32P-CP-PLLA microparticles. Methods Twenty-four tumor bearing rabbits were randomly divided into 4 groups (6 in each group. Group 1, 2 and 3 were treated groups; group 4 was the control. Under CT guidance, 32P-CPPLLA microparticles were implanted into tumors. Low, medium and high treatment doses were 93 MBq (group 1, 185 MBq (group 2 and 370 MBq (group 3, respectively. 18F-FDG PET/CT was performed at d0, d3, d7 and d14 after intratumoral administration. In the control group, 18F-FDG PET/CT images were acquired at the same time points but without treatment. The standardized uptake value (SUV of tumor regions were calculated. After last PET/CT imaging, the rabbits were euthanized and the tumors were removed for histological and immunohistochemical examination. The pathology and the expression of apoptosis related proteins (bcl-2, bax were compared. Results No significant difference of SUVmax was observed between the treatment groups and the control group at d0. At d14, the SUVmax values for group 1, 2 and 3 were 0.80±0.10, 1.1±0.19 and 2.85±0.15, respectively, and were significantly lower than that of the control group (5.61±0.50(P < 0.05. Significant dose-response relationship was observed in SUVmax between group 1 and group 2, and the SUV values gradually decreased from d7 to d14 after treatment. In group 3, SUVmax gradually increased and reached a peak at d7 then significantly decreased. The SUVmax values of group 3 were significantly lower than those of

  4. Uptake of 11C-choline in mouse atherosclerotic plaques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laitinen, Iina E K; Luoto, Pauliina; Någren, Kjell

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the feasibility of (11)C-choline in the assessment of the degree of inflammation in atherosclerotic plaques.......The purpose of this study was to explore the feasibility of (11)C-choline in the assessment of the degree of inflammation in atherosclerotic plaques....

  5. Chlamydia pneumoniae infection enhances microglial activation in atherosclerotic mice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Voorend, M.; Ven, A.J.A.M. van der; Mulder, M.; Lodder, J.; Steinbusch, H.W.; Bruggeman, C.A.

    2010-01-01

    The presence of Chlamydia pneumoniae in murine brain tissue was studied in atherosclerotic and non-atherosclerotic mice, after peritoneal injection. Furthermore, we investigated whether increased permeability of the blood-brain barrier was implicated in cerebral C. pneumoniae infection and whether

  6. Atherosclerotic carotid plaque assessment with multidetector computed tomography angiography

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    T.T. de Weert (Thomas)

    2009-01-01

    textabstractThis thesis evaluates the role of MDCT angiography in 1) the depiction of atherosclerotic disease and subsequent luminal stenosis in the arteries that supplies the brain with blood, and 2) the assessment of atherosclerotic plaque features that have been related to plaque vulnerability.

  7. Pregnancy loss and later risk of atherosclerotic disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ranthe, Mattis Flyvholm; Andersen, Elisabeth Anne Wreford; Wohlfahrt, Jan

    2013-01-01

    Pregnancy losses and atherosclerotic disease may be etiologically linked through underlying pathology. We examined whether miscarriage and stillbirth increase later risk of myocardial infarction, cerebral infarction, and renovascular hypertension.......Pregnancy losses and atherosclerotic disease may be etiologically linked through underlying pathology. We examined whether miscarriage and stillbirth increase later risk of myocardial infarction, cerebral infarction, and renovascular hypertension....

  8. Endovascular treatment of symptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed I Hussain

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Symptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic disease (ICAD is responsible for approximately 10% of all ischemic strokes in the United States. The risk of recurrent stroke may be as high as 35% in patient with critical stenosis greater than 70% in diameter narrowing. Recent advances in medical and endovascular therapy have placed ICAD at the forefront of clinical stroke research to optimize the best medical and endovascular approach to treat this important underlying stroke etiology. Analysis of symptomatic ICAD studies lead to the question that whether angioplasty and or stenting is a safe, suitable and efficacious therapeutic strategy in patients with critical stenoses that are deemed refractory to medical management. Most of the currently available data in support of angioplasty and or stenting in high risk patients with severe symptomatic ICAD is in the form of case series and randomized trial results of endovascular therapy versus medical treatment are awaited. This is a comprehensive review of the state of the art in the endovascular approach with angioplasty and or stenting of symptomatic intracranial atherosclerotic disease.

  9. Tissue factor pathway inhibitor gene delivery using HVJ-AVE liposomes markedly reduces restenosis in atherosclerotic arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Xinhua; Yutani, Chikao; Ikeda, Yoshihiko; Enjyoji, Keiichi; Ishibashi-Ueda, Hatsue; Yasuda, Satoshi; Tsukamoto, Yoshitane; Nonogi, Hiroshi; Kaneda, Yasufumi; Kato, Hisao

    2002-12-01

    Tissue factor pathway inhibitor (TFPI), as a primary inhibitor of TF-induced coagulation, reduces neointimal formation and luminal stenosis by inhibiting coagulation and thrombosis after vessel wall injury. Here, we investigated the effect of TFPI gene delivery with a HVJ-AVE liposome vector on restenosis in atherosclerotic arteries after angioplasty in rabbits. We also evaluated the safety of the novel gene therapeutic strategy to prevent restenosis. Local iliac artery atherosclerosis was induced by a combination of balloon denudation and high-cholesterol diet in Japanese white rabbits, which were then subjected to angioplasty. Infusion of an HVJ-AVE liposome containing the TFPI gene or an "empty" pcDNA 3.1 expression vector, or HVJ-liposome vector only, or saline was performed at the site of angioplasty using a Dispatch((R)) catheter. Quantitative angiography and histopathology were performed before and after gene delivery and at 4 weeks follow-up. The safety of the gene therapy was evaluated over a 6-month observation period. TFPI mRNA and protein were detected in local TFPI gene transferred vessels after gene transfer. The mean minimal luminal diameter of the TFPI group was markedly greater than that of the control groups (PHVJ-AVE liposome-mediated TFPI gene transfer. HVJ-AVE liposome-mediated TFPI gene transfer significantly reduced neointimal hyperplasia, inhibited thrombosis, and attenuated vascular remodeling and lumimal stenosis after angioplasty in atherosclerotic arteries without any significant adverse effects.

  10. Fish polar lipids retard atherosclerosis in rabbits by down-regulating PAF biosynthesis and up-regulating PAF catabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasopoulou, Constantina; Tsoupras, Alexandros B; Karantonis, Haralabos C; Demopoulos, Constantinos A; Zabetakis, Ioannis

    2011-11-16

    Platelet activating factor (PAF) has been proposed as a key factor and initial trigger in atherosclerosis. Recently, a modulation of PAF metabolism by bioactive food constituents has been suggested. In this study we investigated the effect of fish polar lipid consumption on PAF metabolism. The specific activities of four PAF metabolic enzymes; in leukocytes, platelets and plasma, and PAF concentration; either in blood cells or plasma were determined. Samples were acquired at the beginning and at the end of a previously conducted study in male New Zealand white rabbits that were fed for 45 days with atherogenic diet supplemented (group-B, n = 6) or not (group-A, n = 6) with gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata) polar lipids.The specific activity of PAF-Acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH); a catabolic enzyme of PAF, was decreased in rabbits' platelets of both A and B groups and in rabbits' leukocytes of group A (p PAF in plasma was increased in both A and B groups in both leukocytes and platelets (p PAF-cholinephosphotransferase (PAF-CPT); a biosynthetic enzyme of PAF showed increased specific activity only in rabbits' leukocytes of group A (p PAF-acetyltransferase (Lyso-PAF-AT) specific activity (p > 0.05). Free and bound PAF levels increased in group A while decreased in group B (p PAF metabolism upon atherosclerotic conditions in rabbits leading to lower PAF levels and activity in blood of rabbits with reduced early atherosclerotic lesions compared to control group.

  11. Utilization of tropical rabbits

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The productive performance of rabbits was evaluated on diets of alfalfa meal and tropical forages. The results showed that rabbits can utilize high forage diets wlth little or no cereal grain. Several tropical legumes (Desmodium distortum, Macrop tilium lathyroides, Clitoria ternata and Cassra tora) have the same feeding ...

  12. Effect of vitamin E nutritional supplementation on the pathological changes induced in the ileum of rabbits by experimental infection with enteropathogenic Escherichia coli.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsalie, E; Kouzi, K; Poutahidis, T; Abas, Z; Sarris, K; Iliadis, N; Kaldrymidou, E

    2006-05-01

    A well-established rabbit model of enteropathogenic E. coli (EPEC) disease was used to examine whether vitamin E (VE) nutritional supplementation had an effect on the pathological changes induced in the bowel by EPEC. Quantitative methods were used to evaluate the influence of VE on bacterial colonization, intestinal mucosal architecture and inflammation, and intestinal epithelial proliferation and apoptosis. VE did not affect EPEC colonization and did not give significant protection against EPEC-induced changes and diarrhoea. Although VE had no effect on the EPEC-related increase of enterocyte apoptosis, it clearly contributed to an acceleration of epithelial cell proliferation in the ileal crypts. This finding may explain why ileal morphometry undertaken in this study showed that VE ameliorated somewhat the effects of EPEC on intestinal mucosal architecture. Quantitative studies on inflammatory cells in the intestinal mucosa revealed that VE nutritional supplementation resulted in an increased neutrophilic and mononuclear inflammatory cell response to EPEC infection, which did not contribute, however, to the clearance of infection.

  13. Damping Factor as a Diagnostic Parameter for Assessment of Osseointegration during the Dental Implant Healing Process: An Experimental Study in Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Sheng-Wei; Ho, Kuo-Ning; Chan, Ya-Hui; Chang, Kai-Jung; Lai, Wei-Yi; Huang, Haw-Ming

    2016-12-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the possibility of using damping factor (DF) analysis to provide additional information on osseointegration of dental implants during the healing period. A total of 30 dental implants were installed in the bilateral femoral condyles of 15 rabbits. A DF analyzer detected with an impulse-forced vibration method and a commercialized dental implant stability analyzer based on resonance frequency (RF) analysis were used to measure the implant stability immediately after implant placement and 1, 2, 4, and 8 weeks post-surgically. Results of DF and RF analyses at different time points were compared with the corresponding osseointegration performance of dental implants via micro-computed tomography (micro-CT), histological and histomorphometrical analysis. The DF values revealed a decrease with time and reached 0.062 ± 0.007 at 8 weeks after implantation, which is almost 50% lower than the initial value. Moreover, highly significant correlations between DF values and bone volume densities (R (2) = 0.9797) and percentages of bone-to-implant contact measured at trabecular bone area (R (2) = 0.9773) were also observed. These results suggested that DF analysis combined with RF analysis results in a more sensitive assessment of changes in the dental implant/bone complex during the healing period than RF analysis alone.

  14. Roles of the WHHL Rabbit in Translational Research on Hypercholesterolemia and Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsutomu Kobayashi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Conquering cardiovascular diseases is one of the most important problems in human health. To overcome cardiovascular diseases, animal models have played important roles. Although the prevalence of genetically modified animals, particularly mice and rats, has contributed greatly to biomedical research, not all human diseases can be investigated in this way. In the study of cardiovascular diseases, mice and rats are inappropriate because of marked differences in lipoprotein metabolism, pathophysiological findings of atherosclerosis, and cardiac function. On the other hand, since lipoprotein metabolism and atherosclerotic lesions in rabbits closely resemble those in humans, several useful animal models for these diseases have been developed in rabbits. One of the most famous of these is the Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL rabbit, which develops hypercholesterolemia and atherosclerosis spontaneously due to genetic and functional deficiencies of the low-density lipoprotein (LDL receptor. The WHHL rabbit has been improved to develop myocardial infarction, and the new strain was designated the myocardial infarction-prone WHHL (WHHLMI rabbit. This review summarizes the importance of selecting animal species for translational research in biomedical science, the development of WHHL and WHHLMI rabbits, their application to the development of hypocholesterolemic and/or antiatherosclerotic drugs, and future prospects regarding WHHL and WHHLMI rabbits.

  15. Development Of An Atherothrombotic Occlusion In The Rabbit Carotid Artery: Accessed By New Computerized B- Mode Ultrasound Image Processing Technology And Histopathology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein Mehrad

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Thrombus formation on a disrupted atherosclerotic soft plaque is a key event that leads to atherothrombosis. Atherothrombosis is one of the leading causes of acute coronary syndrome and ischemic stroke. Our ability to test new protocols for the treatment of atherothrombotic stenosis in humans is limited for obvious ethical reasons; therefore, a precise understanding of the mechanism of atherothrombotic occlusion in human carotid artery, which give rise to thrombosis, emboli and stroke, requires a suitable animal model that would mimic the same characteristics well. Aims: The aim of this study was to generate an easily reproducible and inexpensive experimental rabbit carotid model of atherothrombotic occlusion with morphological similarities to the human disease and the subsequent assessment of the reliability of new computerized B- mode ultrasound image processing technology in the study of lumen area stenosis in this model. Methods: Briefly, male New Zealand white rabbits were submitted to common carotid artery atherothrombotic occlusion by primary balloon injury followed 1.5% cholesterol- rich diet injury for eight weeks and finally perivascularly severe cold injury. All of the rabbits' arteries were imaged by B-mode ultrasound weekly, after which the rabbits were sacrificed, and their vessels were processed for histopathology. Ultrasound longitudinal view images from three cardiac cycles were processed by a new computerized analyzing method based on dynamic programming and maximum gradient algorithm for measurement of instantaneous changes in arterial wall thickness and lumen diameter in sequential ultrasound images. Results: Histopathology results showed progressive changes, from the lipid-laden cells and fibrous connective tissue proliferation, fibrolipid plaque formation, resulting in vessel wall thickening, remodeling, neovascularization and lumen narrowing (before perivascularly severe cold injury using liquid nitrogen up

  16. Bisphenol A exposure enhances atherosclerosis in WHHL rabbits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Fang

    Full Text Available Bisphenol A (BPA is an environmental endocrine disrupter. Excess exposure to BPA may increase susceptibility to many metabolic disorders, but it is unclear whether BPA exposure has any adverse effects on the development of atherosclerosis. To determine whether there are such effects, we investigated the response of Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL rabbits to 400-µg/kg BPA per day, administered orally by gavage, over the course of 12 weeks and compared aortic and coronary atherosclerosis in these rabbits to the vehicle group using histological and morphometric methods. In addition, serum BPA, cytokines levels and plasma lipids as well as pathologic changes in liver, adipose and heart were analyzed. Moreover, we treated human umbilical cord vein endothelial cells (HUVECs and rabbit aortic smooth muscle cells (SMCs with different doses of BPA to investigate the underlying molecular mechanisms involved in BPA action(s. BPA treatment did not change the plasma lipids and body weights of the WHHL rabbits; however, the gross atherosclerotic lesion area in the aortic arch was increased by 57% compared to the vehicle group. Histological and immunohistochemical analyses revealed marked increases in advanced lesions (37% accompanied by smooth muscle cells (60% but no significant changes in the numbers of macrophages. With regard to coronary atherosclerosis, incidents of coronary stenosis increased by 11% and smooth muscle cells increased by 73% compared to the vehicle group. Furthermore, BPA-treated WHHL rabbits showed increased adipose accumulation and hepatic and myocardial injuries accompanied by up-regulation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER stress and inflammatory and lipid metabolism markers in livers. Treatment with BPA also induced the expression of ER stress and inflammation related genes in cultured HUVECs. These results demonstrate for the first time that BPA exposure may increase susceptibility to atherosclerosis in WHHL rabbits.

  17. PHARMACOKINETIC VARIATIONS OF OFLOXACIN IN NORMAL AND FEBRILE RABBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. AHMAD, H. RAZA, G. MURTAZA AND N. AKHTAR

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of experimentally Escherichia coli-induced fever (EEIF on the pharmacokinetics of ofloxacin was evaluated. Ofloxacin was administered @ 20 mg.kg-1 body weight intravenously to a group of eight healthy rabbits and compared these results to values in same eight rabbits with EEIF. Pharmacokinetic parameters of ofloxacin in normal and febrile rabbits were determined by using two compartment open kinetic model. Peak plasma level (Cmax and area under the plasma concentration-time curve (AUC0-α in normal and febrile rabbits did not differ (P>0.05. However, area under first moment of plasma concentration-time curve (AUMC0-α in febrile rabbits was significantly (P<0.05 higher than that in normal rabbits. Mean values for elimination rate constant (Ke, elimination half life (t1/2β and apparent volume of distribution (Vd were significantly (P<0.05 lower in febrile rabbits compared to normal rabbits, while mean residence time (MRT and total body clearance (Cl of ofloxacin did not show any significant difference in the normal and febrile rabbits. Clinical significance of the above results can be related to the changes in the volume of distribution and elimination half life that illustrates an altered steady state in febrile condition; hence, the need for an adjustment of dosage regimen in EEIF is required.

  18. Pharmacokinetics of chloroquine in diabetic rabbits | Adelusi ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The pharmacokinetic parameters derived from diabetic rabbits have been compared to those of normal rabbits. Two sets of rabbits were used, normal rabbits and diabetic rabbits. The diabetic rabbits were obtained by inducing diabetes in rabbits using streptozotocin. Chloroquine at a dose of 10 mg/kg was administered to ...

  19. Antihypercholesterolemic and antioxidant efficacies of zerumbone on the formation, development, and establishment of atherosclerosis in cholesterol-fed rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hemn HO

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Hassan Othman Hemn,1,2 Muhammad Mustapha Noordin,1 Heshu Sulaiman Rahman,1,2 Hamza Hazilawati,1 Abubakr Zuki,1 Max Stanley Chartrand3  1Department of Pathology and Microbiology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Universiti Putra Malaysia, Serdang, Selangor, Malaysia; 2College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Sulaimani, Sulaimani City, Kurdistan, Republic of Iraq; 3DigiCare, Behavioral Research, Casa Grande, AZ, USA Abstract: Owing to the high incidence of cholesterol-induced cardiovascular disease, particularly atherosclerosis, the current study was designed to investigate the preventive and therapeutic efficacies of dietary zerumbone (ZER supplementation on the formation and development of atherosclerosis in rabbits fed with a high cholesterol diet. A total of 72 New Zealand white rabbits were divided randomly on two experimental studies carried out 8 weeks apart. The first experiment was designed to investigate the prophylactic efficacy of ZER in preventing early developed atheromatous lesion. The second experimental trial was aimed at investigating the therapeutic effect of ZER in reducing the atherosclerotic lesion progression and establishment. Sudanophilia, histopathological, and ultrastructural changes showed pronounced reduction in the plaque size in ZER-medicated aortas. On the other hand, dietary supplementation of ZER for almost 10 weeks as a prophylactic measure indicated substantially decreasing lipid profile values, and similarly, plaque size in comparison with high-cholesterol non-supplemented rabbits. Furthermore, the results of oxidative stress and antioxidant biomarker evaluation indicated that ZER is a potent antioxidant in suppressing the generation of free radicals in terms of atherosclerosis prevention and treatment. ZER significantly reduced the value of malondialdehyde and augmented the value of superoxide dismutase. In conclusion, our data indicated that dietary supplementation of ZER at doses of 8, 16, and 20 mg

  20. Coccidian and nematode infections influence prevalence of antibody to myxoma and rabbit hemorrhagic disease viruses in European rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bertó-Moran, Alejandro; Pacios, Isabel; Serrano, Emmanuel; Moreno, Sacramento; Rouco, Carlos

    2013-01-01

    The interaction among several parasites in European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) is crucial to host fitness and to the epidemiology of myxomatosis and rabbit hemorrhagic disease. These diseases have caused significant reductions in rabbit populations on the Iberian Peninsula. Most studies have focused on the epidemiology and pathogenesis of these viruses individually, and little is known about interactions between these viruses and other parasites. Taking advantage of an experimental restocking program in Spain, the effects of coccidian and nematode infections on the probability of having detectable antibody to myxoma and rabbit hemorrhagic disease viruses were tested in European wild rabbits. For 14 mo, we monitored rabbit abundance and parasite loads (coccidia and nematodes) in three reintroduced rabbit populations. While coccidian and nematode loads explained seasonal antibody prevalences to myxoma virus, the pattern was less clear for rabbit hemorrhagic disease. Contrary to expectations, prevalence of antibody to myxoma virus was inversely proportional to coccidian load, while nematode load seemed to play a minor role. These results have implications for viral disease epidemiology and for disease management intended to increase rabbit populations in areas where they are important for ecosystem conservation.

  1. Can Human Recombinant Epidermal Growth Factor Improve Ischemia and Induce Healing of Anastomosis in an Experimental Study in a Rabbit Model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şenocak, Rahman; Özer, Mustafa Tahir; Kaymak, Şahin; Kılbaş, Zafer; Günal, Armağan; Uyanık, Metin; Kozak, Orhan

    2017-04-01

    Anastomotic leaks following intestinal operations may cause devastating effects on patients. Ischemia may also occur at the intestinal walls in the presence of strangulations. In this study, we examined the effects of human recombinant (Hr)-epidermal growth factor (EGF) given at a single intramural dose into the intestinal walls and daily intraperitoneal cavity on ischemia and the healing process of anastomosis. Sixteen male New Zeland white rabbits were randomly divided into four groups (n = 4 in each group). In Group 1, two different segments of ileum were identified and, then, transected and the free ends were sutured each other. In the other groups, ischemia was induced by ligating the mesenteric vascular arcade. After the ischemic induction, Group 2 received intramural injections of %0.9 saline, Group 3 received intramural injections of a single dose of EGF, and Group 4 received intramural and intraperitoneal injections of EGF. Bursting pressures and tissue hydroxyproline levels were analyzed. Necrosis, fibroblastic activity, collagen deposition and neovascularization were also studied. The mean levels of bursting pressures in Group 4 (148.6 ± 25.3 mmHg) were higher than Group 2 (70 ± 21.5 mmHg) (p = 0.001). The mean level of bursting pressures was not statistically significant between Group 1 (170.1 ± 35 mmHg) and Group 4 (p = 0.073). Hydroxyproline levels in Group 2 were lower than Groups 3 and 4. There was a statistically significant difference in the mucosal ischemia, mucosal healing and degree of adhesion, but not in the mural anastomotic healing among the groups. Intramural injection with daily intraperitoneal administration of low-dose EGF enhances the bursting pressure and collagen accumulation in ischemic anastomosis, improving many histological variables associated with ischemic intestinal anastomosis.

  2. Effects of low-dose microwave on healing of fractures with titanium alloy internal fixation: an experimental study in a rabbit model.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dongmei Ye

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Microwave is a method for improving fracture repair. However, one of the contraindications for microwave treatment listed in the literature is surgically implanted metal plates in the treatment field. The reason is that the reflection of electromagnetic waves and the eddy current stimulated by microwave would increase the temperature of magnetic implants and cause heat damage in tissues. Comparing with traditional medical stainless steel, titanium alloy is a kind of medical implants with low magnetic permeability and electric conductivity. But the effects of microwave treatment on fracture with titanium alloy internal fixation in vivo were not reported. The aim of this article was to evaluate the security and effects of microwave on healing of a fracture with titanium alloy internal fixation. METHODS: Titanium alloy internal fixation systems were implanted in New Zealand rabbits with a 3.0 mm bone defect in the middle of femur. We applied a 30-day microwave treatment (2,450MHz, 25W, 10 min per day to the fracture 3 days after operation. Temperature changes of muscle tissues around implants were measured during the irradiation. Normalized radiographic density of the fracture gap was measured on the 10th day and 30th day of the microwave treatment. All of the animals were killed after 10 and 30 days microwave treatment with histologic and histomorphometric examinations performed on the harvested tissues. FINDINGS: The temperatures did not increase significantly in animals with titanium alloy implants. The security of microwave treatment was also supported by histology of muscles, nerve and bone around the implants. Radiographic assessment, histologic and histomorphometric examinations revealed significant improvement in the healing bone. CONCLUSION: Our results suggest that, in the healing of fracture with titanium alloy internal fixation, a low dose of microwave treatment may be a promising method.

  3. ALANINE - VALINE DYNAMICS IN PREGNANT RABBITS

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    USER

    [15N]-alanine and [15N]–valine dynamics were studied in 29 -30 days pregnant New-Zealand rabbits. Over the experimental period, there was no detectable significant difference of mean ± SD of alanine concentrations within the sampling intervals in maternal, umbilical venous and arterial blood samples suggesting that ...

  4. Muscle weakness causes joint degeneration in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehan Youssef, A; Longino, D; Seerattan, R; Leonard, T; Herzog, W

    2009-09-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of botulinum toxin type-A (BTX-A) induced quadriceps weakness on micro-structural changes in knee cartilage of New Zealand White (NZW) rabbits. Fifteen rabbits were divided randomly into an experimental and a sham control group. Each group received a unilateral single quadriceps muscle injection either with saline (sham control; n=4) or BTX-A (experimental; n=11). BTX-A injection produced significant quadriceps muscle weakness (Pmuscle mass (Pknee cartilage, assessed with the Mankin grading system, were the same for the injected and non-injected hind limbs of the experimental group animals. Sham injection had no effect on joint degeneration but all control animals showed some degenerative changes in the knee. Degenerative changes of the retro-patellar cartilage were more severe in the experimental compared to sham control group rabbits (P0.05). Quadriceps muscle weakness caused increased degeneration in the retro-patellar cartilage of NZW rabbits, providing evidence that muscle weakness might be a risk factor for the onset and progression of osteoarthritis (OA). Future work needs to delineate whether muscle weakness directly affects joint degeneration, or if changes in function and movement execution associated with muscle weakness are responsible for the increased rate of OA onset and progression observed here.

  5. Mix-breeding with HEV-infected swine induced inapparent HEV infection in SPF rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lin; Wang, Lin; Xia, Junke; Zhang, Yulin; Zeng, Hang; Liu, Peng; Zou, Qinghua; Wang, Ling; Zhuang, Hui

    2016-04-01

    Studies have shown that swine HEV (sHEV) and rabbit HEV (rHEV) can experimentally infect rabbits and swine, respectively. However, no published data have documented isolating sHEV strains from rabbits in natural environment so far. To clarify the possibility of natural cross-species transmission of sHEV to rabbits, the pigs with HEV infection were farmed along with SPF rabbits in the same enclosed space. Five of 10 rabbits had seroconversion for anti-HEV antibody from the third week after mix-breeding. However, HEV RNA remained undetectable in feces, serum, liver and bile of the ten rabbits; and no obvious elevation of ALT was observed. The results possibly suggested that sHEV might lead to an inapparent infection of SPF rabbits by fecal-oral route. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  6. Ophthalmic masquerades of the atherosclerotic carotids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupriya Arthur

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Patients with carotid atherosclerosis can present with ophthalmic symptoms. These symptoms and signs can be due to retinal emboli, hypoperfusion of the retina and choroid, opening up of collateral channels, or chronic hypoperfusion of the globe (ocular ischemic syndrome. These pathological mechanisms can produce many interesting signs and a careful history can bring out important past symptoms pointing toward the carotid as the source of the patient′s presenting symptom. Such patients are at high risk for an ischemic stroke, especially in the subsequent few days following their first acute symptom. It is important for clinicians to be familiar with these ophthalmic symptoms and signs caused by carotid atherosclerosis for making an early diagnosis and to take appropriate measures to prevent a stroke. This review elaborates the clinical features, importance, and implications of various ophthalmic symptoms and signs resulting from atherosclerotic carotid artery disease.

  7. The gut microbiome in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jie, Zhuye; Xia, Huihua; Zhong, Shi-Long

    2017-01-01

    The gut microbiota has been linked to cardiovascular diseases. However, the composition and functional capacity of the gut microbiome in relation to cardiovascular diseases have not been systematically examined. Here, we perform a metagenome-wide association study on stools from 218 individuals...... with atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ACVD) and 187 healthy controls. The ACVD gut microbiome deviates from the healthy status by increased abundance of Enterobacteriaceae and Streptococcus spp. and, functionally, in the potential for metabolism or transport of several molecules important for cardiovascular......), with liver cirrhosis, and rheumatoid arthritis. Our data represent a comprehensive resource for further investigations on the role of the gut microbiome in promoting or preventing ACVD as well as other related diseases.The gut microbiota may play a role in cardiovascular diseases. Here, the authors perform...

  8. Hepatitis E Virus in Farmed Rabbits, Wild Rabbits and Petting Farm Rabbits in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burt, Sara A; Veltman, Jorg; Hakze-van der Honing, Renate; Schmitt, Heike; van der Poel, Wim H M

    2016-09-01

    Rabbits have been suggested as a zoonotic source of Hepatitis E virus. Phylogenetic analysis of HEV isolates from farmed, wild and pet rabbits in the Netherlands (0, 60, and 23 % respectively) showed them to be grouped amongst published rabbit HEV sequences and distinct from most human isolates. Dutch rabbits are unlikely to be a zoonotic source.

  9. RabbitMQ essentials

    CERN Document Server

    Dossot, David

    2014-01-01

    This book is a quick and concise introduction to RabbitMQ. Follow the unique case study of Clever Coney Media as they progressively discover how to fully utilize RabbitMQ, containing clever examples and detailed explanations.Whether you are someone who develops enterprise messaging products professionally or a hobbyist who is already familiar with open source Message Queuing software and you are looking for a new challenge, then this is the book for you. Although you should be familiar with Java, Ruby, and Python to get the most out of the examples, RabbitMQ Essentials will give you the push y

  10. Multiphoton microscopic imaging of rabbit dorsal skin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Xiaoqin; Xu, Yahao; Hong, Zhipeng; Chen, Jing; Zhuo, Shuangmu; Chen, Jianxin

    2015-01-01

    Rabbits are often preferred to be experimental animals during the skin research. The visualizing and understanding the full-thickness structure of rabbit skin has significance in biology, medicine, and animal husbandry. In this study, multiphoton microscopy (MPM) was employed to examine the rabbit skin on the back, which was based on second harmonic generation and two-photon excited fluorescence. High-resolution images were achieved from the fresh, unfixed, and unstained tissues, showing detailed microstructure of the skin without the administration of exogenous contrast agents. The morphology and distribution of the main components of epidermis and dermis, such as keratin, collagen fibers, elastic fibers, and hair follicles, can be distinctly identified in MPM images. Since the changes in these components are tightly related to skin diseases and wound healing, the noninvasive nature of MPM enables it become a valuable tool in skin research for detecting and monitoring. © Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. Prescription diets for rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Proença, Laila Maftoum; Mayer, Jörg

    2014-09-01

    Dietary management can be used with drug therapy for the successful treatment of many diseases. Therapeutic nutrition is well-recognized in dogs and cats and is beginning to increase among other pet species, including rabbits. The nutritional component of some rabbit diseases (eg, urolithiasis) is not completely understood, and the clinician should evaluate the use of prescription diets based on the scientific literature and individual needs. Long-term feeding trials are needed to further evaluate the efficacy of prescription diets in rabbits. Prescription diets are available for selected diseases in rabbits, including diets for immediate-term, short-term, and long-term management. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Progestins used in hormonal replacement therapy display different effects in coronary arteries from New Zealand white rabbits

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Nina G; Pedersen, Susan H; Dalsgaard, Tórur

    2004-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was in an animal model to assess the vascular effects of different progestins commonly used in hormonal replacement treatment. METHODS: Fifty-six non-atherosclerotic, ovariectomized New Zealand white rabbits were randomized into seven groups: (1) medroxyprogester......OBJECTIVES: The aim of this study was in an animal model to assess the vascular effects of different progestins commonly used in hormonal replacement treatment. METHODS: Fifty-six non-atherosclerotic, ovariectomized New Zealand white rabbits were randomized into seven groups: (1......) medroxyprogesterone acetate (MPA), (2) norethisterone acetate (NETA), (3) conjugated equine estrogens (CEE), (4) 17-beta-estradiol (E2), (5) MPA+CEE , (6) NETA+E2 , (7) or placebo (n=8) and given hormonal treatment through the diet for 4 weeks. Ring segments from the left proximal coronary artery and from the distal...

  13. In silico analyses of metagenomes from human atherosclerotic plaque samples

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mitra, Suparna; Drautz-Moses, Daniela I; Alhede, Morten

    2015-01-01

    a challenge. RESULTS: To investigate microbiome diversity within human atherosclerotic tissue samples, we employed high-throughput metagenomic analysis on: (1) atherosclerotic plaques obtained from a group of patients who underwent endarterectomy due to recent transient cerebral ischemia or stroke. (2......) Presumed stabile atherosclerotic plaques obtained from autopsy from a control group of patients who all died from causes not related to cardiovascular disease. Our data provides evidence that suggest a wide range of microbial agents in atherosclerotic plaques, and an intriguing new observation that shows...... these microbiota displayed differences between symptomatic and asymptomatic plaques as judged from the taxonomic profiles in these two groups of patients. Additionally, functional annotations reveal significant differences in basic metabolic and disease pathway signatures between these groups. CONCLUSIONS: We...

  14. Correlation between aortic/carotid atherosclerotic plaques and cerebral infarction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Baojun; Sun, Shaoli; Liu, Guorong; Li, Yuechun; Pang, Jiangxia; Zhang, Jingfen; Yang, Lijuan; Li, Ruiming; Zhang, Hui; Jiang, Changchun; Li, Xiue

    2013-08-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the correlation between aortic/carotid atherosclerotic plaques and cerebral infarction. We examined 116 cases of cerebral infarction using transcranial Doppler ultrasound in order to exclude cerebrovascular stenosis. Transesophageal echocardiography and color Doppler ultrasound were used to detect aortic atherosclerotic plaques (AAPs) and carotid atherosclerotic plaques (CAPs). AAPs were detected in a total of 70 of the 116 cases (60.3%), including 56 with moderate/severe atherosclerotic changes (48.3%). The difference in the incidence of various types of infarction between APP severity levels was significant (PCAPs (55.2%), including 46 with unstable plaque (39.7%). The difference in the incidence of various types of infarction between CAP stability levels was significant (PCAP are significant causes of embolic infarction without stenosis in the internal carotid arteries.

  15. Fish polar lipids retard atherosclerosis in rabbits by down-regulating PAF biosynthesis and up-regulating PAF catabolism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasopoulou Constantina

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Platelet activating factor (PAF has been proposed as a key factor and initial trigger in atherosclerosis. Recently, a modulation of PAF metabolism by bioactive food constituents has been suggested. In this study we investigated the effect of fish polar lipid consumption on PAF metabolism. Results The specific activities of four PAF metabolic enzymes; in leukocytes, platelets and plasma, and PAF concentration; either in blood cells or plasma were determined. Samples were acquired at the beginning and at the end of a previously conducted study in male New Zealand white rabbits that were fed for 45 days with atherogenic diet supplemented (group-B, n = 6 or not (group-A, n = 6 with gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata polar lipids. The specific activity of PAF-Acetylhydrolase (PAF-AH; a catabolic enzyme of PAF, was decreased in rabbits' platelets of both A and B groups and in rabbits' leukocytes of group A (p 0.05. Free and bound PAF levels increased in group A while decreased in group B (p Conclusions Gilthead sea bream (Sparus aurata polar lipids modulate PAF metabolism upon atherosclerotic conditions in rabbits leading to lower PAF levels and activity in blood of rabbits with reduced early atherosclerotic lesions compared to control group.

  16. Anti-Atherogenic Properties of Allium ursinum Liophylisate: Impact on Lipoprotein Homeostasis and Cardiac Biomarkers in Hypercholesterolemic Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariann Bombicz

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation evaluates the capacity of Allium ursinum (wild garlic leaf lyophilisate (WGLL; alliin content: 0.261% to mitigate cardiovascular damage in hypercholesterolemic rabbits. New Zealand rabbits were divided into three groups: (i cholesterol-free rabbit chow (control; (ii rabbit chow containing 2% cholesterol (hypercholesterolemic, HC; (iii rabbit chow containing 2% cholesterol + 2% WGLL (hypercholesterolemic treated, HCT; for eight weeks. At the zero- and eight-week time points, echocardiographic measurements were made, along with the determination of basic serum parameters. Following the treatment period, after ischemia-reperfusion injury, hemodynamic parameters were measured using an isolated working heart model. Western blot analyses of heart tissue followed for evaluating protein expression and histochemical study for the atheroma status determination. WGLL treatment mediated increases in fractional shortening; right ventricular function; peak systolic velocity; tricuspidal annular systolic velocity in live animals; along with improved aortic and coronary flow. Western blot analysis revealed WGLL-associated increases in HO-1 protein and decreases in SOD-1 protein production. WGLL-associated decreases were observed in aortic atherosclerotic plaque coverage, plasma ApoB and the activity of LDH and CK (creatine kinase in plasma. Plasma LDL was also significantly reduced. The results clearly demonstrate that WGLL has complex cardioprotective effects, suggesting future strategies for its use in prevention and therapy for atherosclerotic disorders.

  17. How to manage hypertension with atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ricco, Jean-Baptiste; Belmonte, Romain; Illuminati, Guilio; Barral, Xavier; Schneider, Fabrice; Chavent, Bertrand

    2017-04-01

    The management of atherosclerotic renal artery stenosis (ARAS) in patients with hypertension has been the topic of great controversy. Major contemporary clinical trials such as the Cardiovascular Outcomes for Renal Artery lesions (CORAL) and Angioplasty and Stenting for Renal Atherosclerotic lesions (ASTRAL) have failed to show significant benefit of revascularization over medical management in controlling blood pressure and preserving renal function. We present here the implications and limitations of these trials and formulate recommendations for management of ARAS.

  18. Tear film break-up time in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Xiaojia E; Markoulli, Maria; Zhao, Zhenjun; Willcox, Mark D P

    2013-01-01

    Rabbits have a longer inter-blink time (approximately 10 minutes) compared with humans (five to eight seconds), suggesting that rabbits have a much more stable tear film. Using fluorescein, the tear break-up time of rabbits has been reported to be similar to that of humans. This study set out to measure the tear break-up time in rabbits using non-invasive methods and to establish the pattern of tear break-up compared to humans. The tear break-up time was measured and the pattern of tear break-up was observed in six New Zealand White rabbits on two separate occasions using both the Keeler Tearscope-plus(TM) and a slitlamp biomicroscope. The mean rabbit tear break-up time was 29.8 ± 3.4 (SD) minutes. This contrasts with the reports of human tear break-up time of eight to 30 seconds. The tear breaking spread very slowly and was often restricted to the area of the initial break. Rabbit tears have a significantly higher tear break-up time than humans and this aligns with previously demonstrated differences in inter-blink time between rabbits and humans. Understanding the underlying mechanisms of tear stability may lead to novel ways of increasing human tear film stability. © 2012 The Authors. Clinical and Experimental Optometry © 2012 Optometrists Association Australia.

  19. {sup 18}F-FDG PET and intravascular ultrasonography (IVUS) images compared with histology of atherosclerotic plaques: {sup 18}F-FDG accumulates in foamy macrophages

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishino, Seigo [Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited, Pharmaceutical Research Division, Fujisawa (Japan); Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited, Biomolecular Research Laboratories, Pharmaceutical Research Division, Fujisawa, Kanagawa (Japan); Ogawa, Mikako; Magata, Yasuhiro [Hamamatsu University School of Medicine, Medical Photonics Research Center, Hamamatsu (Japan); Mori, Ikuo; Nishimura, Satoshi; Ikeda, Shota; Sugita, Taku; Oikawa, Tatsuo; Horiguchi, Takashi [Takeda Pharmaceutical Company Limited, Pharmaceutical Research Division, Fujisawa (Japan)

    2014-04-15

    Intravascular ultrasonography (IVUS) and {sup 18}F-FDG PET have been used to evaluate the efficacy of antiatherosclerosis drugs. These two modalities image different characteristics of atherosclerotic plaques, and a comparison of IVUS and PET images with histology has not been performed. The aim of this study was to align IVUS and PET images using anatomic landmarks in Watanabe heritable hyperlipidaemic (WHHL) rabbits, enabling comparison of their depiction of aortic atherosclerosis. Cellular {sup 18}F-FDG localization was evaluated by {sup 3}H-FDG microautoradiography (micro-ARG). A total of 19 WHHL rabbits (7 months of age) were divided into three groups: baseline (n = 6), 3 months (n = 4), and 6 months (n = 9). PET, IVUS and histological images of the same aortic segments were analysed. Infiltration by foamy macrophages was scored from 0 to IV using haematoxylin and eosin (H and E) and antimacrophage immunohistochemical staining, and compared with {sup 3}H-FDG micro-ARG findings in two additional WHHL rabbits. IVUS images did not identify foamy macrophage deposition but revealed the area of intimal lesions (r = 0.87). {sup 18}F-FDG PET revealed foamy macrophage distribution in the plaques. The intensity of {sup 18}F-FDG uptake was correlated positively with the degree of foamy macrophage infiltration. Micro-ARG showed identical {sup 3}H-FDG accumulation in the foamy macrophages surrounding the lipid core of the plaques. F-FDG PET localized and quantified the degree of infiltration of foamy macrophages in atherosclerotic lesions. IVUS defined the size of lesions. {sup 18}F-FDG PET is a promising imaging technique for evaluating atherosclerosis and for monitoring changes in the composition of atherosclerotic plaques affecting their stability. (orig.)

  20. Hysteroscopy and the butyl-cyanoacrylate on experimental sterilization of rabbit uterine tubes Butil-cianoacrilato e histeroscopia na esterilização experimental de tubas uterinas de coelhas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henri Chaplin Rivoire

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To assess the sterilization effectiveness on uterine tube of rabbit by the cyanoacrylate adhesive. METHODS: Hysteroscopy tubal catheterization was performed randomly in 12 animals (24 uterine tubes assigned to the sham group (GS and 15 animals (30 uterine tubes to the n-butyl-cyanoacrylate (GB. The female rabbits were observed during 30, 90 and 180 days and mated to fertile males. The no pregnant rabbits were submitted to in vitro burst pressure test for patency by air insufflation (40 mmHg. The microscopic assessment was performed to parameters of damages in epithelium caused by the adhesive, the degree of inflammatory process, morphometry data values of tube diameter (UT (cm, mucosa thickness (MT and the myosalpinx thickness (MyT (mm. The mucosa cells densitometry (total optical density was expressed by the amount of DNA. The significance of the differences in histological scores and in thickness measurements were made by ANOVA test (P value OBJETIVO: Verificar a eficácia do adesivo de cianoacrilato na esterilização de tubas uterinas de coelhas. MÉTODOS: A cateterização tubária por histeroscopia foi realizada randomicamente em 12 animais (24 tubas uterinas formando o Grupo Sham (GS e 15 animais (30 tubas uterinas para o grupo do n-butil-cianoacrilato (GB. As coelhas foram observadas por 30, 90 e 180 dias e acasaladas com machos férteis. As tubas uterinas das fêmeas que não ficaram grávidas foram submetidas ao teste de pressão de rompimento in vitro, com insuflação de ar (40mmHg. A microscopia óptica estudou os danos causados ao epitélio pelo adesivo, o grau de processo inflamatório, a morfometria do diâmetro tubário (UT (cm, da mucosa (MT e do miosalpinge (MyT (mm. A densitometria das células da mucosa (Densidade Óptica Total foi expressa pela contagem do DNA. As significâncias dos diferentes escores histológicos e das medidas das camadas foram avaliadas pelo Teste de ANOVA (P<0,005. RESULTADOS: Em todos os

  1. Effects of noradrenaline and adenosine triphosphate on the degree on contrast enhancement in a rabbit model of atherosclerosis during contrast-enhanced ultrasonography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Jie; Deng, You-Bin; Liu, Kun; Wang, Yu-Bo

    2014-11-01

    The aim of the study is to assess the effects of vasoactive agents on the degree of contrast enhancement in experimental atherosclerotic plaque during contrast-enhanced ultrasonography (CEUS). Abdominal aortic atherosclerosis was induced in 25 New Zealand white rabbits by a combination of cholesterol-rich diet and balloon endothelial denudation. Standard ultrasonography and CEUS were performed at baseline and during intravenous infusion of noradrenaline or adenosine triphosphate (ATP). The degree of contrast enhancement of the plaque after injection of contrast material was quantified by calculating the enhanced intensity in the plaque. The infusion of noradrenaline induced significant increase in systolic blood pressure (84 ± 13 mm Hg vs. 112 ± 20 mm Hg, p = 0.011) and significant decrease in the enhanced intensity in the plaque (7.52 ± 1.32 dB vs. 5.88 ± 1.33 dB, p < 0.001) during CEUS. The infusion of ATP resulted in the significant decrease in systolic blood pressure (80 ± 13 mm Hg vs. 65 ± 11 mm Hg, p = 0.005) and increase in the enhanced intensity in the plaque (7.52 ± 1.32 dB vs. 8.84 ± 1.55 dB, p < 0.001) during CEUS. The degree of contrast enhancement within an experimental atherosclerotic plaque during CEUS can be influenced by vasoactive agents and hemodynamic status. Copyright © 2014 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Nutrition of the domestic rabbit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheeke, P R

    1976-08-01

    Recent studies on the nutritional needs of the rabbit were reviewed. Emphasis was placed on fiber utilization by rabbits, digestibility of forage protein, and unique aspects of mineral and vitamin requirements. In spite of the herbivorous nature of rabbits, their ability to digest fiber is low. Indigestible fiber may have a role in preventing enteritis. While lacking the ability to efficiently digest fiber, rabbits do make efficient use of forage protein, in contrast to most other monogastric animals. Differences in serum calcium homeostasis and calcium excretion as compared with other animals were discussed. The interrelationship between vitamin E and selenium appears different in the rabbit compared with other species. The limited information available on rabbit nutrition suggests that rabbits are unusual in their metabolism of several nutrients; because of their wide use in biological research, more extensive information on nutritional and metabolic characteristics of rabbits is needed.

  3. Celiac artery in New Zealand rabbit: anatomical study of its origin and arrangement for experimental research and surgical practice Artéria celíaca em coelhos Nova Zelândia: estudo anatômico de sua origem e arranjo para a pesquisa experimental e a prática cirúrgica

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Abidu-Figueiredo

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available Rabbits have been used as an experimental model in many diseases and for the study of toxicology, pharmacology and surgery in many universities. However, some aspects of their macro anatomy need a more detailed description, especially the abdominal and pelvic arterial vascular system, which has a huge variability in distribution and trajectory. Thirty cadaveric adult New Zealand rabbits, 13 male and 17 female, with an average weight and rostrum-sacral length of 2.5 kg and 40cm, respectively, were used. The thoracic aorta was cannulated and the vascular system was filled with stained latex S-65. The celiac artery and its proximal branches were dissected and lengthened in order to evidence origin and proximal ramifications. The celiac artery emerged between the 12th and 13th thoracic vertebra in 11 (36.7% rabbits; at the level of the 13th thoracic vertebra in 6 (20% rabbits; between the 13th thoracic vertebra and the 1st lumbar vertebra in 12 (40% rabbits; and at the level of the 1st lumbar vertebra in only one (3.3% rabbit. The mean length of the celiac artery was 0.5cm. The celiac artery first branch was the lienal artery, the second branch was the left gastric artery and the hepatic artery arose from the left gastric artery in all the dissected rabbits. No relation was observed between the celiac artery length and the rostrum-sacral length in rabbits. The number of left gastric and lienal artery branches and the distribution of celiac artery origin are not gender dependent.Os coelhos têm sido usados como modelo experimental em diferentes patologias e para estudos de toxicologia, farmacologia e cirurgia em várias universidades. Entretanto apesar de sua grande utilização, muitos aspectos de sua macroanatomia, em especial os que se referem ao sistema vascular arterial que irrigam as viscerais abdomino-pélvicas ainda carecem de uma descrição mais detalhada, pois os vasos arteriais apresentam grande variabilidade na sua distribuição e

  4. Radioisotopic perfusional assessment of blood circulation changes in skin under progressive expansion: experimental model with rabbits Avaliação da perfusão radio-isotópica das mudanças da circulação sanguínea na pele submetida à expansão progressiva: modelo experimental em coelhos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edith Kawano Horibe

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this experimental model with rabbits is investigating the variation of blood flow in the expanded skin versus expansion time. New Zealand breed rabbits are used. Two groups are studied: F-1 receiving expanders on the right tight and F-2 receiving expanders bilateraly. Progressively, five expansions are performed. The first radioiosotopic perfusional evaluation is performed just after the surgery and the following evaluation are performed at the second, sixth, thirteenth, twentieth and twenty-seventh post-surgical days. As radiotracer, technetium 99m are used in the chemical form of sodium pertechnetate. Scintillographic images are obtained by CGR scintillation camera. The quantitative analysis is done by calculation of the reperfusion rate.Este modelo experimental em coelhos tem como proposição investigar a variação do fluxo sanguíneo na pele expandida em relação ao tempo de expansão. Utilizam-se coelhos da raça Nova Zelândia. Estudam-se dois grupos: F-1 que recebe expansor na coxa direita e F-2 que recebe expansores bilateralmente. São feitas progressivamente cinco expansões. Realiza-se a primeira avaliação perfusional radioisotópica logo após o ato operatório e as seguintes no segundo, sexto, décimo-terceiro, vigésimo e vigésimo-sétimo dia pós-operatórios. Utiliza-se como radiotraçador o tecnécio 99m na forma química de pertecnetato de sódio. Obtêm-se as imagens cintilográficas em câmara de cintilação CGR. Faz-se a análise quantitativa pelo cálculo do Índice de reperfusão.

  5. Association of postalimentary lipemia with atherosclerotic manifestations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Tentor

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available We identified different lipemic and metabolic responses after the ingestion of a standardized meal by healthy adults and related them to atherosclerotic markers. Samples from 60 normolipidemic adults were collected before and after a liquid meal (40 g fat/m² body surface at 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 h for measurements of lipids, free fatty acids (FFA, insulin, cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP, autoantibodies to epitopes of oxidized LDL (oxLDL Ab, lipolytic activities, and apolipoprotein E polymorphism. Mean carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT was determined by Doppler ultrasound. The volunteers were classified into early (N = 39 and late (N = 31 triacylglycerol (TAG responders to the test meal. Late responders showed lower HDL cholesterol concentration at fasting and in the TAG peak, lower insulin and higher FFA concentrations compared to early responders. Multivariate regression analyses showed that mean cIMT was associated with gender (male and age in early responders and by cholesterol levels at the 6th hour in late responders. oxLDL Ab were explained by lipoprotein lipase and negatively by hepatic lipase and oxLDL Ab (fasting period by CETP (negative and FFA (positive. This study is the first to identify a postalimentary insulin resistance state, combined with a reduced CETP response exclusively among late responders, and the identification of the regulators of postalimentary atherogenicity. Further research is required to determine the metabolic mechanisms described in the different postalimentary phenotypes observed in this study, as well as in different pathological states, as currently investigated in our laboratory.

  6. Open surgery for atherosclerotic chronic mesenteric ischemia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kruger, Allan J; Walker, Philip J; Foster, Wallace J; Jenkins, Jason S; Boyne, Nicholas S; Jenkins, Julie

    2007-11-01

    This study was undertaken to document the results of our current practice of open mesenteric revascularization to enable comparison with the recent trend of percutaneous endovascular therapy for the treatment of chronic mesenteric ischemia. Patients were identified via operation code data as well ongoing audit data from 1992 until 2006. Only patients with a history of chronic mesenteric ischemia secondary to atherosclerosis for 3 months or longer were included in the study. Follow-up data have been collected prospectively and include clinical examination and history, as well as graft surveillance consisting of mesenteric duplex ultrasonography, computed tomography, and/or angiography every 6 months for 3 years and then yearly thereafter. Thirty-nine consecutive patients underwent 41 open revascularization procedures for chronic mesenteric ischemia, comprising 67 bypass grafts. The mean patient age was 65 years (range, 45-85 years), and 44% (n = 17) were male. Symptoms were present on average for 11 months (range, 4-48 months) before treatment. The average weight loss was 11.4 kg, and three patients (7.6%) also had evidence of ischemic enteritis. There was one perioperative death, thus giving a perioperative mortality rate of 2.5%. Perioperative morbidity occurred in five patients (12.2%). Primary graft patency was 92% at 5 years. Seven patients died during follow-up, which ranged from 4 to 161 months (mean, 39 months)-one (2.5%) from mesenteric ischemia. Two (5%) other patients have had recurrent mesenteric ischemic symptoms. Open surgical mesenteric revascularization by bypass grafting for atherosclerotic-induced chronic mesenteric ischemia can be performed with low mortality and morbidity and provides excellent long-term primary patency rates and symptom-free outcomes. Pending more data on the acute and long-term results of endovascular techniques, open mesenteric revascularization remains the gold standard for most patients with chronic mesenteric ischemia.

  7. Association of postalimentary lipemia with atherosclerotic manifestations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tentor, J. [Departamento de Patologia Clínica, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Nakamura, R.T. [Laboratório de Diagnóstico por Imagem, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Departamento de Radiologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Gidlund, M. [Laboratório de Imunofisiopatologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Barros-Mazon, S. [Departamento de Patologia Clínica, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil); Harada, L.M. [Laboratório de Lípides, Faculdade de Medicina, Universidade de São Paulo, São Paulo, SP (Brazil); Zago, V.S.; Oba, J.F.; Faria, E.C. de [Departamento de Patologia Clínica, Faculdade de Ciências Médicas, Universidade Estadual de Campinas, Campinas, SP (Brazil)

    2012-08-10

    We identified different lipemic and metabolic responses after the ingestion of a standardized meal by healthy adults and related them to atherosclerotic markers. Samples from 60 normolipidemic adults were collected before and after a liquid meal (40 g fat/m{sup 2} body surface) at 0, 2, 4, 6, and 8 h for measurements of lipids, free fatty acids (FFA), insulin, cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP), autoantibodies to epitopes of oxidized LDL (oxLDL Ab), lipolytic activities, and apolipoprotein E polymorphism. Mean carotid intima-media thickness (cIMT) was determined by Doppler ultrasound. The volunteers were classified into early (N = 39) and late (N = 31) triacylglycerol (TAG) responders to the test meal. Late responders showed lower HDL cholesterol concentration at fasting and in the TAG peak, lower insulin and higher FFA concentrations compared to early responders. Multivariate regression analyses showed that mean cIMT was associated with gender (male) and age in early responders and by cholesterol levels at the 6th hour in late responders. oxLDL Ab were explained by lipoprotein lipase and negatively by hepatic lipase and oxLDL Ab (fasting period) by CETP (negative) and FFA (positive). This study is the first to identify a postalimentary insulin resistance state, combined with a reduced CETP response exclusively among late responders, and the identification of the regulators of postalimentary atherogenicity. Further research is required to determine the metabolic mechanisms described in the different postalimentary phenotypes observed in this study, as well as in different pathological states, as currently investigated in our laboratory.

  8. The antiatherogenic effect of bixin in hypercholesterolemic rabbits is associated to the improvement of lipid profile and to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somacal, Sabrina; Figueiredo, Cassieli G; Quatrin, Andréia; Ruviaro, Amanda R; Conte, Lisiane; Augusti, Paula R; Roehrs, Miguel; Denardin, Ione T; Kasten, Jocieli; da Veiga, Marcelo L; Duarte, Marta M F; Emanuelli, Tatiana

    2015-05-01

    Hypercholesterolemia and oxidative stress have been implicated in the pathophysiology of atherosclerosis and coronary artery disease. We investigated whether the carotenoid bixin (BIX) may reduce oxidative damage, inflammatory response, and the atherosclerotic lesion induced by hypercholesterolemia in rabbits. Rabbits received regular chow (control) or a hypercholesterolemic diet (0.5% cholesterol) alone or supplemented with BIX (10, 30 or 100 mg/kg body weight, b.w.) or simvastatin (15 mg/kg b.w.) for 60 days. Treatment with BIX or simvastatin reduced the atherosclerotic lesions in cholesterol-fed rabbits (up to 55 and 96% reduction, respectively). This protective effect of BIX was accompanied by decrease in the levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha by 15%, interleukin 6 by 19%, lipid peroxidation by 60%, non-high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (non-HDL-C) by 37%, and triglycerides by 41%. BIX increased by 160% the HDL-C levels and decreased by 67% the atherogenic index of hypercholesterolemic rabbits. In atherosclerotic rabbits, the non-protein thiol groups content and the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, and thioredoxin reductase were increased in the aortic tissue, whereas paraoxonase activity was reduced in the serum. All these changes were completely prevented by BIX or simvastatin treatment. These results demonstrate that BIX reduces the extent of atherosclerotic lesions and this effect was associated with the decrease in oxidative stress, inflammatory response, and improvement of dyslipidemia, which were most effectively controlled after treatment with 10-30 mg BIX/kg b.w. BIX consumption may, therefore, be an adjuvant to prevent atherosclerosis reducing risk factors for coronary diseases.

  9. Hepatitis E Virus in Farmed Rabbits, Wild Rabbits and Petting Farm Rabbits in the Netherlands

    OpenAIRE

    Burt, Sara A.; Veltman, Jorg; Hakze-van der Honing, Renate; Schmitt, Heike; Poel, van der, J.J.

    2016-01-01

    Rabbits have been suggested as a zoonotic source of Hepatitis E virus. Phylogenetic analysis of HEV isolates from farmed, wild and pet rabbits in the Netherlands (23, 0, and 60?% respectively) showed them to be grouped amongst published rabbit HEV sequences and distinct from most human isolates. Dutch rabbits are unlikely to be a zoonotic source. Electronic supplementary material The online version of this article (doi:10.1007/s12560-016-9239-3) contains supplementary material, which is avail...

  10. Hepatitis E Virus in Farmed Rabbits, Wild Rabbits and Petting Farm Rabbits in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burt, S.A.|info:eu-repo/dai/nl/140114432; Veltman, Jorg; Hakze-van der Honing, Renate; Schmitt, Heike; van der Poel, Wim H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Rabbits have been suggested as a zoonotic source of Hepatitis E virus. Phylogenetic analysis of HEV isolates from farmed, wild and pet rabbits in the Netherlands (23, 0, and 60 % respectively) showed them to be grouped amongst published rabbit HEV sequences and distinct from most human isolates.

  11. Hepatitis E Virus in Farmed Rabbits, Wild Rabbits and Petting Farm Rabbits in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Burt, Sara A.; Veltman, Jorg; Hakze-van der Honing, Renate; Schmitt, Heike; Poel, van der Wim H.M.

    2016-01-01

    Rabbits have been suggested as a zoonotic source of Hepatitis E virus. Phylogenetic analysis of HEV isolates from farmed, wild and pet rabbits in the Netherlands (23, 0, and 60 % respectively) showed them to be grouped amongst published rabbit HEV sequences and distinct from most human isolates.

  12. Antiatherosclerotic and Cardioprotective Potential of Acacia senegal Seeds in Diet-Induced Atherosclerosis in Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heera Ram

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Acacia senegal L. (Fabaceae seeds are essential ingredient of “Pachkutta,” a specific Rajasthani traditional food. The present study explored antiatherosclerotic and cardioprotective potential of Acacia senegal seed extract, if any, in hypercholesterolemic diet-induced atherosclerosis in rabbits. Atherosclerosis in rabbits was induced by feeding normal diet supplemented with oral administration of cholesterol (500 mg/kg body weight/day mixed with coconut oil for 15 days. Circulating total cholesterol (TC, HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C, LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C, triglycerides, and VLDL-cholesterol (VLDL-C levels; atherogenic index (AI; cardiac lipid peroxidation (LPO; planimetric studies of aortal wall; and histopathological studies of heart, aorta, kidney, and liver were performed. Apart from reduced atherosclerotic plaques in aorta (6.34±0.72 and increased lumen volume (51.65±3.66, administration with ethanolic extract of Acacia senegal seeds (500 mg/kg/day, p.o. for 45 days to atherosclerotic rabbits significantly lowered serum TC, LDL-C, triglyceride, and VLDL-C levels and atherogenic index as compared to control. Atherogenic diet-induced cardiac LPO and histopathological abnormalities in aorta wall, heart, kidney, and liver were reverted to normalcy by Acacia senegal seed extract administration. The findings of the present study reveal that Acacia senegal seed extract ameliorated diet-induced atherosclerosis and could be considered as lead in the development of novel therapeutics.

  13. Genistein supplementation inhibits atherosclerosis with stabilization of the lesions in hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Choong-Sik; Kwon, Su-Jin; Na, Sun-Young; Lim, Seung-Pyung; Lee, Jung-Hee

    2004-10-01

    The effect of genistein on aortic atherosclerosis was studied by immunohistochemistry with RAM-11 and HHF-35 antibodies and western blotting for matrix metalloproteinase-3 (MMP-3) in New Zealand White rabbits. After provocation of atherosclerosis with hyperlipidemic diet, the rabbits were divided as hyperlipidemic diet group (HD), normal diet group (ND) and hyperlipidemic plus genistein diet group (HD+genistein) for 4 and half months. The average cross sectional area of atherosclerotic lesion was 0.269 mm2 after provocation. The lesion was progressed by continuous hyperlipidemic diet (10.06 mm2) but was increased mildly by genistein (0.997 mm2), and decreased by normal diet (0.228 mm2). The ratio of macrophages to smooth muscle cells in the lesion was not changed by genistein supplementation. The western blotting showed reduction of MMP-3 expression in HD+genistein and ND groups than HD group. The inhibition of atherogenesis by genistein was might be due to improve the endothelial dysfunction rather than direct action on macrophages and/or smooth muscle cells in the lesion, since endothelial dysfunction by lipid peroxidation was the main atherogenic factor in the hypercholesterolemic rabbits. The genistein supplementation also suggests that it helps the stabilization of the atherosclerotic lesion by inhibition of MMP-3 expression.

  14. Experimental lamellar keratoplasty in rabbits using microfibrilar cellulose membrane: clinical, morphological and immunohistochemical findings Ceratoplastia lamelar experimental em coelhos usando membrana microfibrilar de celulose: achados clínicos, morfológicos e imunoistoquímicos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Riacciardi Macedo

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available The clinical, histopathological and immunohistochemical features of the cornea were investigated in adult male New Zealand rabbits submitted to lamellar keratoplasty with microfibrillar cellulose membrane. Thirty animals were divided into five groups (n=6 and evaluated up to 60 days after surgery. Clinical examination revealed moderate manifestations of edema, blepharospasm and photophobia on the second day, which became mild or disappeared after the seventh day. This period was characterized clinically by repair of the corneal defect. Histopathological analysis showed the presence of a thin layer of squamous cells covering the damaged area as early as 7th day, accompanied by a mild infiltrate of polymorphonuclear cells. Blood vessels were observed in the epithelium after the 15th day, which had regressed by day 48. Ki67 antibody labeling showed an increase of proliferating cells in the epithelium by the 15th day and in the stroma by day 30. Remodeling and epithelial adhesion were observed during this period. Microfibrillar cellulose membrane (Bionext® used for lamellar keratoplasty was found to yield good results considering the good integration of the implant.Avaliaram-se aspectos clínicos, histopatógicos e imunoistoquímicos da córnes de coelhos da raça Nova Zelândia adultos e machos em ceratoplastias lamelares com membrana de celulose microfibrilar. Trinta animais distribuídos em cinco grupos (n=6 foram estudados por até 60 dias de pós-operatório. A avaliação clínica revelou manifestações moderadas de edema, blefaroespasmo e fotofobia ao segundo dia, evoluindo para formas discretas ou ausentes a partir do sétimo dia, período em que se observou, clinicamente, reparo do defeito corneal. A histopatologia revelou uma fina camada de células escamosas, recobrindo a área lesada já aos sete dias, com discreto infiltrado de células polimorfonucleares. Observaram-se vasos no epitélio a partir do 15o dia, com regressão ao 48o dia

  15. Characterization of atherosclerotic plaque by reflection spectroscopy and thermography: a comparison

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lilledahl, Magnus B.; Haugen, Olav A.; Randeberg, Lise L.; Svaasand, Lars O.

    2005-04-01

    Many methods for detecting and measuring vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques have been proposed. These include reflection spectroscopy, thermography, ultrasound, computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). This paper presents an analysis and a comparison of two of these methods, near-infrared reflection spectroscopy (NIRS) and thermography. Most of the published literature evaluate methods statistically. A more analytic approach will make it easier to compare the different methods and determine if the measured signal will be strong enough in a real measurement situation. This is the approach taken in this article. Eight samples of human aorta were examined by NIRS and subsequently prepared for histology. A total of 28 measurement points were selected. A measure of the lipid content based on reflection spectra is proposed. Comparisons of this lipid measure with histology show that the lipid content in the plaques yields relatively small changes in the value of this lipid-index. Reflectance spectra from models based on the diffusion approximation for total reflectance were simulated. Temperature measurements were performed on three Watanabe heritable hyperlipidemic (WHHL) rabbits and one New Zealand white (NZW) rabbit with a thermistor-type intravascular temperature sensor. The measurements gave no significant signals which correlated with the subsequent histology. A simple analytic model was developed which indicates that a temperature increase of more than 0.01-0.04 °C at the surface of a vessel wall, due to inflammation in a plaque, is unlikely. Such a small temperature difference will probably be obscured by normal variation in the vessel wall temperature.

  16. Rabbit Repellent Paint

    Data.gov (United States)

    US Fish and Wildlife Service, Department of the Interior — Five gallons of rabbit repellent paint were sent to George Wilson to be applied on the trees of the Tewaukon tree plot. Mr. Wilson requires a 3 or 4 in. brush for...

  17. Chondromalacia induced by patellar subluxation in the rabbit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Møller, B.N.; Møller-Larsen, F.; Frich, Lars Henrik

    1989-01-01

    A unilateral patellar malalignment was induced in 20 young and 20 mature rabbits by lateral displacement of the tibial tuberosity, the other knee serving as osteotomized in situ control. At 6 weeks, all the knees appeared macroscopically normal, but histologically definite cartilage degeneration...... was found on the experimental side. At 3 months, macroscopic changes occurred in 5 of 10 mature rabbits, and histologic cartilage degeneration was found in all the experimental knees, most pronounced in mature animals, and particularly in joint facets submitted to high pressure. This experimental model...

  18. Autocrine Human Urotensin II Enhances Macrophage-Derived Foam Cell Formation in Transgenic Rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sihai Zhao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Circulating urotensin II (UII is involved in the development of atherosclerosis. However, the role of autocrine UII in the development of atherosclerosis remains unclear. Here, we tested the hypothesis that autocrine UII would promote atherosclerosis. Transgenic rabbits were created as a model to study macrophage-specific expressing human UII (hUII and used to investigate the role of autocrine UII in the development of atherosclerosis. Transgenic rabbits and their nontransgenic littermates were fed a high cholesterol diet to induce atherosclerosis. Comparing the transgenic rabbits with their nontransgenic littermates, it was observed that hUII expression increased the macrophage-positive area in the atherosclerotic lesions by 45% and the positive area ratio by 56% in the transgenic rabbits. Autocrine hUII significantly decreased the smooth muscle cell-positive area ratio in transgenic rabbits (by 54%, without affecting the plasma levels of total cholesterol, triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, and glucose and adipose tissue contents. These results elucidated for the first time that autocrine UII plays an important role in the development of atherosclerosis by increasing the accumulation of macrophage-derived foam cell.

  19. Unstable atherosclerotic plaques contain T-cells that respond to Chlamydia pneumoniae

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Boer, O. J.; van der Wal, A. C.; Houtkamp, M. A.; Ossewaarde, J. M.; Teeling, P.; Becker, A. E.

    2000-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Atherosclerotic lesions are characterized by an immune mediated chronic inflammation. Seroepidemiological studies support a relationship between atherosclerotic disease and infection with C. pneumoniae; an association further endorsed by immunocytochemical and DNA directed studies.

  20. Cistoplastia experimental em coelhos (Oryctolagus cuniculus com peritônio bovino conservado em glicerol a 98% Experimental cystoplasty in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus with bovine peritoneum conserved in 98% glycerol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatiana Catelan de Oliveira

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo foi implantado um retalho de membrana peritoneal bovina em substituição a um fragmento da face ventral da bexiga de coelhos albinos, raça Nova Zelândia, adultos, machos não-castrados (n=12, com o intuito de avaliar o processo de reparação tecidual no que se refere à biocompatibilidade, à capacidade de reparação tecidual e a possíveis complicações. Aos sete, 14, 30 e 60 dias de pós-operatório, os animais foram eutanasiados, três em cada período, mediante o emprego de tiopental sódico (200mg kg-1, para posterior avaliação macroscópica e análise histopatológica da interface do implante com o tecido nativo. Macroscopicamente, foram observadas, em todos os períodos, aderências de estruturas adjacentes ao local do implante, presença de cálculos e ausência de sinais de rejeição. Sob microscopia de luz, aos sete, 14 e 30 dias de observação, o implante ainda estava presente, havia intensa reação inflamatória mista, neovascularização, fibroplasia e escassas fibras musculares, contudo, o epitélio e a lâmina própria não estavam reconstituídos. Aos 60 dias de avaliação, o implante não estava mais presente e todas as camadas vesicais encontravam-se reparadas. O implante foi biocompatível e forneceu arcabouço para orientação e desenvolvimento das camadas teciduais da bexiga, mediante processos de reparação, restabelecendo a estrutura do órgão.Bovine peritoneum was utilized to replace a section of ventral face of the bladder of New Zealand rabbits, adult and entire males (n=12 with the purpose of evaluating the tissue repair process in regard of its biocompatility, scar formation ability and possible complications. The animals were euthanized at 7, 14, 30 and 60 days post operative, three in each period, by the use of sodium thiopental (200mg kg-1, followed by macroscopic evaluation and histopathological analysis of the implant interface with the native tissue. Macroscopically it was observed

  1. Development of a new experimental model of intramuscular electrical stimulation of the diaphragm in rabbits Desenvolvimento de um novo modelo experimental de estimulação elétrica intramuscular do diafragma em coelhos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Guellner Ghedini

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available PURPOSE: To develop an animal model of diaphragmatic electrical stimulation able to generate an appropriate ventilatory support through the direct implantation of electrodes in the diaphragm (electroventilation. METHODS: Six New Zealand female rabbits (2-3 kg were placed on mechanical ventilation. Then, a laparotomy was performed in order to identify the motor points in each hemidiaphragm, followed by the implantation of the electrodes for diaphragmatic stimulation. We tested two types of electrodes according to the conduction of electrical stimulation: unipolar and bipolar. The electrodes were placed on different occasions in the same animals and tested with current intensities of 20, 26 and 32 mA. Each current intensity was repeated three times for 10 respiratory cycles with 1 minute interval between each cycle, and 5 minutes for new current intensity. We recorded the relationship between current intensity and inspiratory volume. RESULTS: The electrodes adequately stimulate the diaphragm and obtain inspired volumes using different intensity currents. The bipolar electrode generated inspiratory volumes as high as 4.5 times of baseline while the unipolar electrode reached up to 3.5 times of baseline. CONCLUSION: This model has proved to be effective for studying the performance of the diaphragm under different electrical stimulations using different set of electrodes.OBJETIVO: Desenvolver um modelo animal de estimulação elétrica diafragmática capaz de gerar um suporte ventilatório adequado através da implantação direta de eletrodos no diafragma (eletroventilação. MÉTODOS: Seis coelhas da raça Nova Zelândia (2-3 kg foram colocadas em ventilação mecânica. Através de uma laparotomia foram identificados os pontos motores em ambas as cúpulas diafragmáticas, seguido pela implantação dos eletrodos para estimulação diafragmática. Foram testados dois tipos de eletrodos de acordo com a condução do estímulo elétrico: unipolar e

  2. A bladder diverticulum model in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çelebi, Süleyman; Kuzdan, Özgür; Özaydın, Seyithan; Başdaş, Cemile Beşik; Özaydın, İpek; Erdoğan, Cankat; Sander, Serdar

    2016-10-01

    Shuttling of some of the bladder volume into the bladder diverticulum (BD) can cause urinary retention, lower urinary tract dysfunction, infection, and stone formation. This experimental study is the first to create a rabbit BD to study micturition physiology (urodynamics and pathology) that mimics clinical findings. The study included 16 New Zealand adult male rabbits in the BD group and 16 sham-operated controls. BD creation consisted of a lower midline laparotomy and bladder entry via the spacing between the detrusor muscle fibers and the mucosa, posterolaterally from the bladder wall. The detrusor was excised to provide a mucosal prolapsus, creating a narrow BD neck (Figure). The sham group underwent bladder exposure with a midline incision. All rabbits underwent urodynamic study preoperatively and postoperatively, consisting of postmicturition residue (PMR), maximum bladder capacity (MBC), voiding detrusor pressure (VPdet), filling detrusor pressure (FPdet), compliance, and urine flow (Qflow). The animals were then sacrificed and their bladders assessed for pathology and stone formation. Preoperative MBC, Pdet, and Qmax were within reference ranges. No animals had PMR or urinary tract infections (UTIs). The BD group showed urodynamic and pathologic bladder changes, including decreased (28%) cystometric bladder capacity and compliance (Sham: 26.8 ± 0.4; BD: 4.46 ± 1.08, p = 0.0001) and increased post-void residual PMR (8.3 ± 2.4 mL). Pathology revealed increased bladder detrusor thickness correlated with urodynamic findings of increased filling detrusor pressures (Sham: 1.58 ± 0.2; BD: 4.89 ± 0.93, p = 0.0001). Urodynamics revealed intermittent BD bladder contraction during the filling phases. Eight BD group rabbits had UTIs; five had stone formation (4-9 mm). In the literature, it has not been determined whether lower urinary tract disorders (LUTD) could cause diverticula, or if a congenital diverticula could be reason for LUTD. Anatomical

  3. Mycobacterial Infections in Rabbits: From the Wild to the Laboratory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arrazuria, R; Juste, R A; Elguezabal, N

    2017-08-01

    Tuberculous mycobacterial diseases such as leprosy and tuberculosis are ancient diseases that currently continue threatening human health in some countries. Non-tuberculous mycobacterial (NTM) infections cause a series of well-defined pathological entities, as well as some opportunistic diseases that have also increased worldwide, being more common among immunocompromised patients but rising also in immunocompetent individuals. Reports on natural infections by mycobacteria in rabbits are scarce and mainly involve NTM such as Mycobacterium avium subsp. avium in pigmy rabbits in the United States and Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis in wild rabbits in Europe. Rabbits have been used as laboratory animals through the years, both to generate immunological reagents and as infection models. Mycobacterial infection models have been developed in this animal species showing different susceptibility patterns to mycobacteria in laboratory conditions. The latent tuberculosis model and the cavitary tuberculosis model have been widely used to elucidate pathogenic mechanisms and to evaluate chemotherapy and vaccination strategies. Rabbits have also been used as bovine paratuberculosis infection models. This review aimed to gather both wildlife and experimental infection data on mycobacteriosis in rabbits to assess their role in the spread of these infections as well as their potential use in the experimental study of mycobacterial pathogenesis and treatment. © 2016 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  4. O uso da matriz óssea desmineralizada na reparação de lesões osteocondrais: estudo experimental em coelhos The use of demineralized bone matrix in the repair of osteochondral lesions: experimental study in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aldo José Fernando da Costa

    2001-12-01

    the use of the demineralized bone matrix in the repair of osteochondral lesions. The articular cartilage has little regeneration capacity because of its histological features and the absence of blood vessels. Implants of tissues and culture of chondrogenic cells have been used for the treatment of osteochondral lesions, but show technical difficulties of fixation and mechanical support of the subchondral region. The demineralized bone matrix can technically facilitate the fixation of these implants because it is a firm material with elastic features. Besides having osteogenic capacity and producing subchondral bone tissue and then working as mechanical support, it also has inductor factors of chondrogenesis. Osteochondral lesions were produced in the knees of 15 rabbits and the left knees were treated with the demineralized bone matrix, and the right knees were used like control of the study. Macroscopic and histological evaluations were made with 02, 04 and 06 weeks. In the lesions treated with the demineralized bone matrix it was obtained 100% of viability of the graft and the formation of a plain regular repair tissue which filled the lesion completely with DBM. The histological analysis revealed bone neoformation and integration of the graft with the bone tissue in the subchondral region, and in superficial region of the lesion occurred the induction of the formation of chondrogenic tissue. The conclusion of this study is that the demineralized bone matrix is useful in the repair of osteochondral lesions because of its capacity of bone induction, integration to the subchondral bone tissue and induction of the formation of chondrogenic tissue. It can be used as a component of a composite graft with chondrogenic tissue or culture of chondrogenic cells for the treatment of osteochondral lesions, and can decrease the technical difficulties of fixation and support of these implants.

  5. Laparoscopic ovariectomy in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. Al-Badrany

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A comparative evaluation of three different techniques of laparoscopic ovariectomy was carried out in 33 healthy female in rabbits, which included resection and removal of ovary after clip application, electrocautery of the ovary, then resection, and pulling ovary outside abdomen, ligation by silk, then ovary was removed. The ovaries and associated structures were better visualized by laparoscopy and all three techniques were carried out perfectly. All rabbits after operation were healthy and they were monitored for one month after operation. However, 3 of them died after operation, two of them died due to bleeding and the other of them died due to unknown causes. General anesthesia by using ketamine-xylazine i.m., was suitable for this technique, and the anesthesia provided good analgesia and good muscle relaxation. CO2 was used to establish pneumoperitoneum. In conclusion, resection and removal of the ovaries after clip application technique was found superior to the other two techniques.

  6. Antiinflammatory actions of inorganic nitrate stabilize the atherosclerotic plaque

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khambata, Rayomand S.; Ghosh, Suborno M.; Rathod, Krishnaraj S.; Thevathasan, Tharssana; Filomena, Federica; Xiao, Qingzhong; Ahluwalia, Amrita

    2017-01-01

    Reduced bioavailable nitric oxide (NO) plays a key role in the enhanced leukocyte recruitment reflective of systemic inflammation thought to precede and underlie atherosclerotic plaque formation and instability. Recent evidence demonstrates that inorganic nitrate (NO3−) through sequential chemical reduction in vivo provides a source of NO that exerts beneficial effects upon the cardiovascular system, including reductions in inflammatory responses. We tested whether the antiinflammatory effects of inorganic nitrate might prove useful in ameliorating atherosclerotic disease in Apolipoprotein (Apo)E knockout (KO) mice. We show that dietary nitrate treatment, although having no effect upon total plaque area, caused a reduction in macrophage accumulation and an elevation in smooth muscle accumulation within atherosclerotic plaques of ApoE KO mice, suggesting plaque stabilization. We also show that in nitrate-fed mice there is reduced systemic leukocyte rolling and adherence, circulating neutrophil numbers, neutrophil CD11b expression, and myeloperoxidase activity compared with wild-type littermates. Moreover, we show in both the ApoE KO mice and using an acute model of inflammation that this effect upon neutrophils results in consequent reductions in inflammatory monocyte expression that is associated with elevations of the antiinflammatory cytokine interleukin (IL)-10. In summary, we demonstrate that inorganic nitrate suppresses acute and chronic inflammation by targeting neutrophil recruitment and that this effect, at least in part, results in consequent reductions in the inflammatory status of atheromatous plaque, and suggest that this effect may have clinical utility in the prophylaxis of inflammatory atherosclerotic disease. PMID:28057862

  7. ATHEROSCLEROTIC CARDIOVASCULAR DISEASE IN OLDER ADULTS WITH DIABETES MELLITUS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzilay, Joshua I.; Mukamal, Kenneth J.; Kizer, Jorge R.

    2014-01-01

    Diabetes Mellitus exerts a strong effect on atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease risk into older age (beyond ages 70 to 74 years). This effect is particularly noticeable with regard to coronary artery disease and cerebral microvascular disease. Thus Diabetes Mellitus in older age deserves the same careful medical attention as it does in middle age. PMID:25453299

  8. Review: Mechanical Characterization of Carotid Arteries and Atherosclerotic Plaques

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korte, C.L. de; Fekkes, S.; Nederveen, A.J.; Manniesing, R.; Hansen, H.R.

    2016-01-01

    Cardiovascular disease (CVD) is a leading cause of death and is in the majority of cases due to the formation of atherosclerotic plaques in arteries. Initially, thickening of the inner layer of the arterial wall occurs. Continuation of this process leads to plaque formation. The risk of a plaque to

  9. Mast cells in atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease - Activators and actions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kovanen, Petri T; Bot, Ilze

    2017-10-12

    Mast cells are potent actors involved in inflammatory reactions in various tissues, including both in the intimal and the adventitial layers of atherosclerotic arteries. In the arterial intima, the site of atherogenesis, mast cells are activated to degranulate, and thereby triggered to release an abundance of preformed inflammatory mediators, notably histamine, heparin, neutral proteases and cytokines stored in their cytoplasmic secretory granules. Depending on the stimulus, mast cell activation may also launch prolonged synthesis and secretion of single bioactive molecules, such as cytokines and derivatives of arachidonic acid. The mast cell-derived mediators may impede the functions of different types of cells present in atherosclerotic lesions, and also compromise the structural and functional integrity of the intimal extracellular matrix. In the adventitial layer of atherosclerotic coronary arteries, mast cells locate next to peptidergic sensory nerve fibers, which, by releasing neuropeptides may activate mast cells to release vasoactive compounds capable of triggering local vasoconstriction. The concerted actions of arterial mast cells have the potential to contribute to the initiation and progression of atherosclerosis, and ultimately to destabilization and rupture of an advanced atherosclerotic plaque with ensuing atherothrombotic complications. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Atherosclerotic Plaque Destabilization in Mice: A Comparative Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Hartwig

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis-associated diseases are the main cause of mortality and morbidity in western societies. The progression of atherosclerosis is a dynamic process evolving from early to advanced lesions that may become rupture-prone vulnerable plaques. Acute coronary syndromes are the clinical manifestation of life-threatening thrombotic events associated with high-risk vulnerable plaques. Hyperlipidemic mouse models have been extensively used in studying the mechanisms controlling initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. However, the understanding of mechanisms leading to atherosclerotic plaque destabilization has been hampered by the lack of proper animal models mimicking this process. Although various mouse models generate atherosclerotic plaques with histological features of human advanced lesions, a consensus model to study atherosclerotic plaque destabilization is still lacking. Hence, we studied the degree and features of plaque vulnerability in different mouse models of atherosclerotic plaque destabilization and find that the model based on the placement of a shear stress modifier in combination with hypercholesterolemia represent with high incidence the most human like lesions compared to the other models.

  11. Acute type II cryoglobulinaemic vasculitis mimicking atherosclerotic peripheral vascular disease.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Saeed, A

    2012-01-31

    Atherosclerotic peripheral vascular disease is a common presenting cause for digital ischaemia in life long smokers. Acute severe Type II Cryoglobulinaemic vasculitis is a rare yet important cause, which may present with similar clinical features and which if undiagnosed may be rapidly fatal. Following the instigation of therapy with intravenous methylprednisolone and cyclophosphamide this patient made an excellent recovery.

  12. Mast cells mediate neutrophil recruitment during atherosclerotic plaque progression

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wezel, Anouk; Lagraauw, H Maxime; van der Velden, Daniël; de Jager, Saskia C A; Quax, Paul H A; Kuiper, Johan; Bot, Ilze

    AIMS: Activated mast cells have been identified in the intima and perivascular tissue of human atherosclerotic plaques. As mast cells have been described to release a number of chemokines that mediate leukocyte fluxes, we propose that activated mast cells may play a pivotal role in leukocyte

  13. Rabbit renotropic system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Areas, J.; Yun, G.C.; Rahmat, J.; Gersten, D.; Goel, R.; Preuss, H.G.

    1988-04-01

    Elevated levels of a specific renal growth factor, renotropin, have been associated with spontaneous hypertension. To examine this association more closely, we have undertaken the development of a better assay system to characterize and purify renotropin. Sera from rabbits prior to operation (control) and at a specified time after unilateral nephrectomy (uni) were examined for renotropic activity. Comparing the effects of uni to control sera in the same rabbit, significant stimulation of 3H-thymidine incorporation into the DNA of primary rabbit kidney cultures incubated in D-valine medium to eliminate fibroblast growth was noted: at 3 days postoperatively 73% (n = 13), at 7 days 103% (n = 39), at 10 days 130% (n = 31), at 21 days 101% (n = 24), at 42 days 89% (n = 13). All values were at least P less than 0.01. The stimulatory properties were dose-dependent but reached a plateau at high serum concentrations. Comparing CPM/mg protein in uni/control in different concentrations of sera 7 days postoperatively, uni versus control were 67/44 at 5% v/v, 139/72 at 10% v/v, 261/161 at 20% v/v, and 243/136 at 40% v/v. The renotropic effect of uni sera remained after dialysis in incubation medium and after sera were heated in boiling water for 5 minutes. Renal extracts obtained from growing kidneys 7 days postnephrectomy augmented renotropic activity. Atrial natriuretic factor, ouabain, PGF2 alpha, PGE1, and cAMP did not possess renotropic activity. We conclude that the primary rabbit kidney culture assay for renotropin is highly sensitive and will be an important tool to comprehend the role of renotropin in the pathogenesis of hypertension.

  14. Efeito da utilização de um centrifugado de medula óssea no tratamento de lesão muscular: estudo experimental em coelhos Effect of use of bone-marrow centrifugate on muscle injury treatment: experimental study on rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ferreira Fernandes Vieira

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: O objetivo deste estudo foi de avaliar o efeito de um centrifugado de medula óssea na cicatrização de lesão muscular em coelhos. MÉTODOS: Este estudo experimental envolveu a utilização de 15 coelhos machos, adultos, da raça Nova Zelândia Branco. Em cada animal, realizou-se uma lesão transversal na região média do músculo tibial anterior direito, onde se adicionou uma esponja de colágeno absorvível, embebida em um centrifugado de aspirado de medula óssea do osso ilíaco ipsilateral. O membro posterior esquerdo foi utilizado como controle, sendo submetido à mesma lesão; porém, neste caso, adicionando-se somente a esponja de colágeno absorvível. Após 30 dias, os animais foram sacrificados para o estudo da cicatrização muscular. As áreas de cicatrização muscular foram submetidas à análise histológica com histomorfometria, interessando-se a mensuração do número de células musculares em regeneração por micrômetro quadrado e a proporção de fibrose formada. RESULTADOS: O método de centrifugação utilizado neste estudo resultou em uma concentração média de células nucleadas maior que o número destas células nos aspirados originais, sem provocar destruição celular significativa. A adição do centrifugado de medula óssea não resultou em aumento significante do número de células musculares em regeneração em relação ao grupo controle. Também não houve diferença significante na proporção de fibrose formada em relação ao grupo controle. CONCLUSÃO: A administração de centrifugado de medula óssea utilizada neste estudo não favoreceu a cicatrização de lesão muscular em coelhos.OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of bone-marrow centrifugate on the healing of muscle injuries in rabbits. METHODS: This experimental study involved use of fifteen adult male New Zealand White rabbits. Each animal received a transverse lesion in the middle of the right

  15. Classification of atherosclerotic and non-atherosclerotic individuals using multiclass state vector machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Paulraj Ranjith; Priya, Mohan

    2014-01-01

    Coronary artery disease due to atherosclerosis is an epidemic in India. An estimated 1.3 million Indians died from this in 2000. The projected death from coronary artery disease by 2016 is 2.98 million. To build an effective model which assorts the individuals, whether they belong to the normal group, risk group and pathologic group regarding atherosclerosis in real time by doing necessary preprocessing techniques and to compare the performance with other state-of-the-art machine learning techniques. In this work we have employed STULONG dataset. We have made a deep case study in selecting the attributes which contributes for higher accuracy in predicting the target. The selected attributes includes missing values. Initially our work includes imputation of missing values using Iterative Principal Component Analysis (IPCA). The second step includes selecting best features using Fast Correlation Based Filter (FCBF). Finally the classifier Multiclass Support Vector Machine (SVM) with kernel Radial Basis Function (RBF) is used for classification of atherosclerotic community. For the subjects belonging to the classes of normal, risk and pathologic, our methodology has outperformed with an accuracy of 99.85%, 99.80% and 99.46% respectively. The combined optimization methods such as Iterative Principal Component Analysis (IPCA) for missing value imputation, Multiclass SVM for classifying normal, risk and pathologic community in real time has performed with overall accuracy of about 98.97%. The essential pre-processing technique, Fast Correlation Based Filter (FCBF) was employed to further intensifying the target.

  16. [Comparative study on the viscoelastic properties of phagocytes of atherosclerotic origin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Wei; Deng, Xiaoyan; Qin, Jian

    2009-12-01

    A micropipette aspiration technique was adopted in this study on the viscoelastic properties of phagocytes of atherosclerotic origin. A standard linear solid model (Kelvin model) was employed to fit the experimental data, and the 3 viscoelastic coefficients of the model were used to compare the mechanical properties of the phagocytes in different phases during atherosclerosis development. The experimental results indicated that prior to the formation of atherosclerosis, the deformability of the macrophages matured from monocytes decreased, and their rigidity increased. At the initial stage of atherosclerosis formation, the deformability of the foam-cells decreased further. We believe that the deterioration in the deformability of the cells might reduce their mobility within the arterial wall, thus leading to the genesis of atherosclerosis caused by the stagnation and accumulation of the cells laden with atherogenic lipids within the arterial wall. This finding may have important implication in the researches on arteriosclerosis.

  17. Ultrastructure of Reissner's membrane in the rabbit

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Qvortrup, K.; Rostgaard, Jørgen; Bretlau, P.

    1994-01-01

    Anatomy, Reissner's membrane, electron microscopy, tubulocisternal endoplasmic reticulum, subsurface cisterns, rabbit......Anatomy, Reissner's membrane, electron microscopy, tubulocisternal endoplasmic reticulum, subsurface cisterns, rabbit...

  18. Thiopental Sodium Anesthesia Following Premedication of Rabbits with Vitamin C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maryam Asfari

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Rabbits are widely used as laboratory animals for experimental surgery. Anesthesia of rabbits may present complications unless the method is easy to apply and safe to use. In present study, effects of different dosages of vitamin C on thiopental sodium induced anesthesia in 25 male New Zealand white rabbits were studied. In the animals that had not received vitamin C treatment before thiopental sodium induced general anesthesia, return mean time of front limb pedal, corneal and ear pinch reflexes were 6.40 ± 1.67, 6.60 ± 2.96 and 8.00 ± 2.58 minutes, respectively. Pre-treatment of rabbits with 30 and 240 mg kg-1 (IV of vitamin C followed by thiopental sodium 20 mg kg-1 (IV resulted in significant (P < 0.05 increase in front limb pedal reflex return mean time to 13.00 ± 2.24 and ear pinch to 11.60 ± 4.16 minutes, respectively. There was also significant (P < 0.05 decrease in the heart rate following induction of anesthesia in the animals pre-treated with 30 and 90 mg kg-1 (IV vitamin C and no change in the animals pre-treated with 240 mg kg-1 (IV vitamin C. Serum analysis indicated a significant (P < 0.05 increase in blood glucose. These results suggest that premedication of rabbits with vitamin C despite potentiating of thiopental sodium anesthesia in rabbits is not dose dependent.

  19. Associations with rabbits and rabbit meat of three different ethnic ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Associations with rabbits and rabbit meat of three different ethnic groups in Stellenbosch, South Africa. LC Hoffman, C Vosloo, P Nkhabutlane, DW Schutte. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  20. Chronic inflammatory diseases and atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease: Innocent bystanders or partners in crime?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Peter Riis

    2018-01-09

    Inflammation plays a significant role in atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease (CVD). Patients with chronic inflammatory diseases are at increased risk of CVD, but it is debated whether this association is causal or dependent on shared risk factors, other exposures, genes, and/or inflammatory pathways. The current review summarizes epidemiological, clinical, and experimental data supporting the role of shared inflammatory mechanisms between atherosclerotic CVD and rheumatoid arthritis, psoriasis, inflammatory bowel disease, and periodontitis, respectively, and provides insights to future prospects in this area of research. Awareness of the role of inflammation in CVD in patients with chronic inflammatory diseases and the potential for anti-inflammatory therapy, e.g., with tumor necrosis factor-α inhibitors, to also reduce atherosclerotic CVD has evolved into guideline-based recommendations. These include regular CVD risk assessment, aggressive treatment of traditional CVD risk factors, and recognition of reduced CVD as an added benefit of strict inflammatory disease control. At present, chronic inflammatory diseases would appear to qualify as partners in crime and not merely innocent bystanders to CVD, but definite incremental contributions of inflammation versus effects of the complex interplay with other CVD risk factors may never be fully elucidated and for the foreseeable future, inflammation is posed to maintain its current position as both a marker and a maker of CVD, with clinical utility both for identification of patient at risk of CVD and as target for therapy to reduce CVD. Copyright© Bentham Science Publishers; For any queries, please email at epub@benthamscience.org.

  1. The Role of Perivascular Adipose Tissue in Non-atherosclerotic Vascular Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuo Horimatsu

    2017-11-01

    Full Text Available Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT surrounds most large blood vessels and plays an important role in vascular homeostasis. PVAT releases various chemokines and adipocytokines, functioning in an endocrine and paracrine manner to regulate vascular signaling and inflammation. Mounting evidence suggests that PVAT plays an important role in atherosclerosis and hypertension; however, the role of PVAT in non-atherosclerotic vascular diseases, including neointimal formation, aortic aneurysm, arterial stiffness and vasculitis, has received far less attention. Increasing evidence suggests that PVAT responds to mechanical endovascular injury and regulates the subsequent formation of neointima via factors that promote smooth muscle cell growth, adventitial inflammation and neovascularization. Circumstantial evidence also links PVAT to the pathogenesis of aortic aneurysms and vasculitic syndromes, such as Takayasu's arteritis, where infiltration and migration of inflammatory cells from PVAT into the vascular wall may play a contributory role. Moreover, in obesity, PVAT has been implicated to promote stiffness of elastic arteries via the production of reactive oxygen species. This review will discuss the growing body of data and mechanisms linking PVAT to the pathogenesis of non-atherosclerotic vascular diseases in experimental animal models and in humans.

  2. Aspectos toxicológico, clínico-patológico e ultraestrutural das intoxicações iatrogênica e experimental por vitamina D em coelhos Toxicological, clinic-pathological and ultrastructural aspects of iatrogenic and experimental poisoning by vitamin D in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paulo V. Peixoto

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available São descritos aspectos toxicológicos, clínico-patológicos e ultraestruturais de coelhos intoxicados iatrogênica e experimentalmente por vitamina D por via subcutânea. Clinicamente, os animais evidenciaram sinais de insuficiência cardiovascular como ascite e edema pulmonar, hiporexia, anorexia, diarréia mucosa, emagrecimento e apatia. As clássicas alterações de mineralização e, por vezes, osseificação, do sistema cardiovascular, bem como as alterações de rins, pulmões, estômago, entre outros órgãos, foram reproduzidas com administrações subcutâneas de solução oleosa de colecalciferol (vitamina D3 não-ativada.Toxicological, clinic-pathological and ultrastructural aspects of iatrogenic and experimental subcutaneous poisoning in rabbits by vitamin D are described. Clinically the animals showed signs of cardiovascular insufficiency, as ascite and lung edema, hyporexia, anorexia, mucous diarrhoea, loss of weight and apathy. The classical alterations of minera-lization and, occasionally, ossification of the cardiovascular system, as well the lesions of kidneys, lungs, stomach, among other organs, were reproduced by the subcutaneous administration of an oily solution of cholecalciferol (non-activated vitamin D3.

  3. Welfare assessment in pet rabbits

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schepers, F.; Koene, P.; Beerda, B.

    2009-01-01

    One million pet rabbits are kept in The Netherlands, but there are no data available on their behaviour and welfare. This study seeks to assess the welfare of pet rabbits in Dutch households and is a first step in the development of a welfare assessment system. In an internet survey, housing

  4. The White Rabbit project

    CERN Document Server

    Serrano, J; Gousiou, E; van der Bij, E; Wlostowski, T; Daniluk, G; Lipinski, M

    2013-01-01

    White Rabbit (WR) is a multi-laboratory, multi- company collaboration for the development of a new Ethernet-based technology which ensures sub-nanosecond synchronisation and deterministic data transfer. The project uses an open source paradigm for the development of its hardware, gateware and software components. This article provides an introduction to the technical choices and an explanation of the basic principles underlying WR. It then describes some possible applications and the current status of the project. Finally, it provides insight on current developments and future plans.

  5. INFECTIOUS MYXOMATOSIS OF RABBITS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smadel, Joseph E.; Ward, S. M.; Rivers, Thomas M.

    1940-01-01

    A second soluble antigen, separable from the virus, occurs in extracts of infected skin and in the serum of rabbits acutely ill with infectious myxomatosis. Like the first antigen (A), the second (B) is heat labile and has certain characteristics of a globulin. The two antigens precipitate in different concentrations of ammonium sulfate and can be separated by this method. Neither of the antigens after being heated at 56°C. precipitates in the presence of specific antibody but each is capable of inhibiting the activity of its antibody. PMID:19871012

  6. Controlled doe exposure as biostimulation of buck rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-De Lara, R; Noguez-Estrada, J; Rangel-Santos, R; García-Muñiz, J G; Martínez-Hernández, P A; Fallas-López, M; Maldonado-Siman, E

    2010-12-01

    Female exposure of males could be a low-cost biostimulation option that benefits AI in commercial rabbit operations by improving buck rabbits reproductive performance. The objective of the study was to evaluate exposure of buck rabbits to females as a biostimulation option to improve reproductive potential. Treatments were: exposure (biostimulated) or not (control) of bucks to does. Bucks were New Zealand White, 15-month-old, sexually experienced and fertile. Experimental design was completely random with nine replications, experimental unit was one buck. Doe exposure was permanent using replacement pubertal does housed in an adjacent wire-mesh cage and changed for new ones every other week. Semen collection lasted 14 weeks (late winter and early spring) twice a week with two ejaculates at each collection. Analyses of variance were under a mixed model: treatments, ejaculate number and season were fixed and rabbit random effects and buck weight at each collection as covariable. Biostimulated bucks showed greater (Pdoe exposed bucks (treatment × ejaculate number, PDoe exposure is a biostimulation method that improves sexual drive and sperm production and quality of buck rabbits. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Dotted collar placed around carotid artery induces asymmetric neointimal lesion formation in rabbits without intravascular manipulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kivelä Antti

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Neointimal formation in atherosclerosis has been subject for intense research. However, good animal models mimicking asymmetrical lesion formation in human subjects have been difficult to establish. The aim of this study was to develop a model which would lead to the formation of eccentric lesions under macroscopically intact non-denuded endothelium. Methods We have developed a new collar model where we placed two cushions or dots inside the collar. Arterial lesions were characterized using histology and ultrasound methods. Results When this dotted collar was placed around carotid and femoral arteries it produced asymmetrical pressure on adventitia and a mild flow disturbance, and hence a change in shear stress. Our hypothesis was that this simple procedure would reproducibly produce asymmetrical lesions without any intraluminal manipulations. Intima/media ratio increased towards the distal end of the collar with the direction of blood flow under macroscopically intact endothelium. Macrophages preferentially accumulated in areas of the thickest neointima thus resembling early steps in human atherosclerotic plaque formation. Proliferating cells in these lesions and underlying media were scarce at eight weeks time point. Conclusion The improved dotted collar model produces asymmetrical human-like atherosclerotic lesions in rabbits. This model should be useful in studies regarding the pathogenesis and formation of eccentric atherosclerotic lesions.

  8. Imaging Modalities to Identity Inflammation in an Atherosclerotic Plaque.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goel, Sunny; Miller, Avraham; Agarwal, Chirag; Zakin, Elina; Acholonu, Michael; Gidwani, Umesh; Sharma, Abhishek; Kulbak, Guy; Shani, Jacob; Chen, On

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic, progressive, multifocal arterial wall disease caused by local and systemic inflammation responsible for major cardiovascular complications such as myocardial infarction and stroke. With the recent understanding that vulnerable plaque erosion and rupture, with subsequent thrombosis, rather than luminal stenosis, is the underlying cause of acute ischemic events, there has been a shift of focus to understand the mechanisms that make an atherosclerotic plaque unstable or vulnerable to rupture. The presence of inflammation in the atherosclerotic plaque has been considered as one of the initial events which convert a stable plaque into an unstable and vulnerable plaque. This paper systemically reviews the noninvasive and invasive imaging modalities that are currently available to detect this inflammatory process, at least in the intermediate stages, and discusses the ongoing studies that will help us to better understand and identify it at the molecular level.

  9. Imaging Modalities to Identity Inflammation in an Atherosclerotic Plaque

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sunny Goel

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis is a chronic, progressive, multifocal arterial wall disease caused by local and systemic inflammation responsible for major cardiovascular complications such as myocardial infarction and stroke. With the recent understanding that vulnerable plaque erosion and rupture, with subsequent thrombosis, rather than luminal stenosis, is the underlying cause of acute ischemic events, there has been a shift of focus to understand the mechanisms that make an atherosclerotic plaque unstable or vulnerable to rupture. The presence of inflammation in the atherosclerotic plaque has been considered as one of the initial events which convert a stable plaque into an unstable and vulnerable plaque. This paper systemically reviews the noninvasive and invasive imaging modalities that are currently available to detect this inflammatory process, at least in the intermediate stages, and discusses the ongoing studies that will help us to better understand and identify it at the molecular level.

  10. Effects of Anacetrapib in Patients with Atherosclerotic Vascular Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bowman, Louise; Hopewell, Jemma C; Chen, Fang

    2017-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Patients with atherosclerotic vascular disease remain at high risk for cardiovascular events despite effective statin-based treatment of low-density lipoprotein (LDL) cholesterol levels. The inhibition of cholesteryl ester transfer protein (CETP) by anacetrapib reduces LDL cholesterol...... vascular disease who were receiving intensive atorvastatin therapy and who had a mean LDL cholesterol level of 61 mg per deciliter (1.58 mmol per liter), a mean non-HDL cholesterol level of 92 mg per deciliter (2.38 mmol per liter), and a mean HDL cholesterol level of 40 mg per deciliter (1.03 mmol per...... was lower by 17 mg per deciliter (0.44 mmol per liter), a relative difference of -18%. There were no significant between-group differences in the risk of death, cancer, or other serious adverse events. CONCLUSIONS: Among patients with atherosclerotic vascular disease who were receiving intensive statin...

  11. Research Progress on the Risk Factors and Outcomes of Human Carotid Atherosclerotic Plaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiong, Xiang-Dong; Xiong, Wei-Dong; Xiong, Shang-Shen; Chen, Gui-Hai

    2017-03-20

    Atherosclerosis is an inflammatory process that results in complex lesions or plaques that protrude into the arterial lumen. Carotid atherosclerotic plaque rupture, with distal atheromatous debris embolization, causes cerebrovascular events. This review aimed to explore research progress on the risk factors and outcomes of human carotid atherosclerotic plaques, and the molecular and cellular mechanisms of human carotid atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability for therapeutic intervention. We searched the PubMed database for recently published research articles up to June 2016, with the key words of "risk factors", "outcomes", "blood components", "molecular mechanisms", "cellular mechanisms", and "human carotid atherosclerotic plaques". The articles, regarding the latest developments related to the risk factors and outcomes, atherosclerotic plaque composition, blood components, and consequences of human carotid atherosclerotic plaques, and the molecular and cellular mechanisms of human carotid atherosclerotic plaque vulnerability for therapeutic intervention, were selected. This review described the latest researches regarding the interactive effects of both traditional and novel risk factors for human carotid atherosclerotic plaques, novel insights into human carotid atherosclerotic plaque composition and blood components, and consequences of human carotid atherosclerotic plaque. Carotid plaque biology and serologic biomarkers of vulnerability can be used to predict the risk of cerebrovascular events. Furthermore, plaque composition, rather than lesion burden, seems to most predict rupture and subsequent thrombosis.

  12. Imaging Modalities to Identity Inflammation in an Atherosclerotic Plaque

    OpenAIRE

    Goel, Sunny; Miller, Avraham; Agarwal, Chirag; Zakin, Elina; Acholonu, Michael; Gidwani, Umesh; Sharma, Abhishek; Kulbak, Guy; Shani, Jacob; Chen, On

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a chronic, progressive, multifocal arterial wall disease caused by local and systemic inflammation responsible for major cardiovascular complications such as myocardial infarction and stroke. With the recent understanding that vulnerable plaque erosion and rupture, with subsequent thrombosis, rather than luminal stenosis, is the underlying cause of acute ischemic events, there has been a shift of focus to understand the mechanisms that make an atherosclerotic plaque unstabl...

  13. Acupuncture analgesia in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galeano, C; Leung, C Y; Robitaille, R; Roy-Chabot, T

    1979-02-01

    The aim of this study was to verify the validity and reliability of analgesia elicited by acupuncture stimulation in rabbits. Ninety-five experiments were performed using 21 adult animals. The reaction time of the avoidance response elicited by noxious heat stimulation on the snout, and the presence or absence of the start response elicited by pin-prick and clamping of the skin were studied. Bilateral electric acupuncture stimulation in the area of Tsu-san-li and Shang-chu-hsu points in the hind legs was used. The animals were either held in a soft bag, loosely attached by cords, or suspended in a hammock; the eyes were either free of blindfolded. On the basis of operational behavioral measurements, it was found that acupuncture stimulation did not produce analgesia in undisturbed, placid animals. However, during agitated or fighting periods and the immobility reflex-like state, sometimes associated with acupuncture maneuvers, long reaction times were observed. Pin-pricking and clamping stimulation of the skin were not reliable methods of noxious stimulation in the rabbit.

  14. Stress analysis of fracture of atherosclerotic plaques: crack propagation modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezvani-Sharif, Alireza; Tafazzoli-Shadpour, Mohammad; Kazemi-Saleh, Davood; Sotoudeh-Anvari, Maryam

    2017-08-01

    Traditionally, the degree of luminal obstruction has been used to assess the vulnerability of atherosclerotic plaques. However, recent studies have revealed that other factors such as plaque morphology, material properties of lesion components and blood pressure may contribute to the fracture of atherosclerotic plaques. The aim of this study was to investigate the mechanism of fracture of atherosclerotic plaques based on the mechanical stress distribution and fatigue analysis by means of numerical simulation. Realistic models of type V plaques were reconstructed based on histological images. Finite element method was used to determine mechanical stress distribution within the plaque. Assuming that crack propagation initiated at the sites of stress concentration, crack propagation due to pulsatile blood pressure was modeled. Results showed that crack propagation considerably changed the stress field within the plaque and in some cases led to initiation of secondary cracks. The lipid pool stiffness affected the location of crack formation and the rate and direction of crack propagation. Moreover, increasing the mean or pulse pressure decreased the number of cycles to rupture. It is suggested that crack propagation analysis can lead to a better recognition of factors involved in plaque rupture and more accurate determination of vulnerable plaques.

  15. Uniaxial tensile testing approaches for characterisation of atherosclerotic plaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walsh, M T; Cunnane, E M; Mulvihill, J J; Akyildiz, A C; Gijsen, F J H; Holzapfel, G A

    2014-03-03

    The pathological changes associated with the development of atherosclerotic plaques within arterial vessels result in significant alterations to the mechanical properties of the diseased arterial wall. There are several methods available to characterise the mechanical behaviour of atherosclerotic plaque tissue, and it is the aim of this paper to review the use of uniaxial mechanical testing. In the case of atherosclerotic plaques, there are nine studies that employ uniaxial testing to characterise mechanical behaviour. A primary concern regarding this limited cohort of published studies is the wide range of testing techniques that are employed. These differing techniques have resulted in a large variance in the reported data making comparison of the mechanical behaviour of plaques from different vasculatures, and even the same vasculature, difficult and sometimes impossible. In order to address this issue, this paper proposes a more standardised protocol for uniaxial testing of diseased arterial tissue that allows for better comparisons and firmer conclusions to be drawn between studies. To develop such a protocol, this paper reviews the acquisition and storage of the tissue, the testing approaches, the post-processing techniques and the stress-strain measures employed by each of the nine studies. Future trends are also outlined to establish the role that uniaxial testing can play in the future of arterial plaque mechanical characterisation. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Amputation of extremity in patients with atherosclerotic gangrene

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tsareva Yu.O.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim of investigation — to analyze the results of treatment of patients with atherosclerotic gangrene of a limb, to identify the causes of adverse outcomes amputation. Materials and methods: We analyzed the results of examination and treatment of 218 patients with atherosclerotic gangrene of the limb. Good outcome of amputation was considered the primary surgical wound healing of the stump. Suppuration, secondary healing, re-amputation and death we attributed to the adverse results of amputation. Results: The adverse outcomes of amputation due to technical errors in surgery, properly chosen level, inadequate drainage of the wound stump, an unsuccessful operation on the arteries of a limb, inadequate empirical antibiotic therapy, patient's age, functional capabilities of myocardium, the duration of critical ischemia, as well as the lack of psychological adaptation of patients before amputation. Conclusion: To decide the need for amputation in patients with atherosclerotic gangrene follows the assessment of possible vascular reconstructive surgery. In determining the level of amputation is necessary to objectively assess the degree of disruption of regional blood flow using multilevel manometry and laser Dopplerflowmetry. In preparation for amputation should be paid special attention to the correction of rheological and coagulation properties of blood, normalization of the functional state of the myocardium, as well as specialized psychotherapeutic training for timely and adequate psychological adaptation of the patient

  17. Complement factor C5a induces atherosclerotic plaque disruptions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wezel, Anouk; de Vries, Margreet R; Lagraauw, H Maxime; Foks, Amanda C; Kuiper, Johan; Quax, Paul HA; Bot, Ilze

    2014-01-01

    Complement factor C5a and its receptor C5aR are expressed in vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques; however, a causal relation between C5a and plaque rupture has not been established yet. Accelerated atherosclerosis was induced by placing vein grafts in male apoE−/− mice. After 24 days, when advanced plaques had developed, C5a or PBS was applied locally at the lesion site in a pluronic gel. Three days later mice were killed to examine the acute effect of C5a on late stage atherosclerosis. A significant increase in C5aR in the plaque was detectable in mice treated with C5a. Lesion size and plaque morphology did not differ between treatment groups, but interestingly, local treatment with C5a resulted in a striking increase in the amount of plaque disruptions with concomitant intraplaque haemorrhage. To identify the potential underlying mechanisms, smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells were treated in vitro with C5a. Both cell types revealed a marked increase in apoptosis after stimulation with C5a, which may contribute to lesion instability in vivo. Indeed, apoptosis within the plaque was seen to be significantly increased after C5a treatment. We here demonstrate a causal role for C5a in atherosclerotic plaque disruptions, probably by inducing apoptosis. Therefore, intervention in complement factor C5a signalling may be a promising target in the prevention of acute atherosclerotic complications. PMID:25124749

  18. Vulnerable atherosclerotic plaque detection by resonance Raman spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Cheng-hui; Boydston-White, Susie; Weisberg, Arel; Wang, Wubao; Sordillo, Laura A.; Perotte, Adler; Tomaselli, Vincent P.; Sordillo, Peter P.; Pei, Zhe; Shi, Lingyan; Alfano, Robert R.

    2016-12-01

    A clear correlation has been observed between the resonance Raman (RR) spectra of plaques in the aortic tunica intimal wall of a human corpse and three states of plaque evolution: fibrolipid plaques, calcified and ossified plaques, and vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques (VPs). These three states of atherosclerotic plaque lesions demonstrated unique RR molecular fingerprints from key molecules, rendering their spectra unique with respect to one another. The vibrational modes of lipids, cholesterol, carotenoids, tryptophan and heme proteins, the amide I, II, III bands, and methyl/methylene groups from the intrinsic atherosclerotic VPs in tissues were studied. The salient outcome of the investigation was demonstrating the correlation between RR measurements of VPs and the thickness measurements of fibrous caps on VPs using standard histopathology methods, an important metric in evaluating the stability of a VP. The RR results show that VPs undergo a structural change when their caps thin to 66 μm, very close to the 65-μm empirical medical definition of a thin cap fibroatheroma plaque, the most unstable type of VP.

  19. Molecular magnetic resonance imaging of atherosclerotic vessel wall disease

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Noerenberg, Dominik [Charite - University Medicine Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); University of Munich - Grosshadern, Department of Clinical Radiology, Munich (Germany); Ebersberger, Hans U. [Heart Center Munich-Bogenhausen, Department of Cardiology and Intensive Care Medicine, Munich (Germany); Diederichs, Gerd; Hamm, Bernd [Charite - University Medicine Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); Botnar, Rene M. [King' s College London, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, London (United Kingdom); Makowski, Marcus R. [Charite - University Medicine Berlin, Department of Radiology, Berlin (Germany); King' s College London, Division of Imaging Sciences and Biomedical Engineering, London (United Kingdom)

    2016-03-15

    Molecular imaging aims to improve the identification and characterization of pathological processes in vivo by visualizing the underlying biological mechanisms. Molecular imaging techniques are increasingly used to assess vascular inflammation, remodeling, cell migration, angioneogenesis and apoptosis. In cardiovascular diseases, molecular magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) offers new insights into the in vivo biology of pathological vessel wall processes of the coronary and carotid arteries and the aorta. This includes detection of early vascular changes preceding plaque development, visualization of unstable plaques and assessment of response to therapy. The current review focuses on recent developments in the field of molecular MRI to characterise different stages of atherosclerotic vessel wall disease. A variety of molecular MR-probes have been developed to improve the non-invasive detection and characterization of atherosclerotic plaques. Specifically targeted molecular probes allow for the visualization of key biological steps in the cascade leading to the development of arterial vessel wall lesions. Early detection of processes which lead to the development of atherosclerosis and the identification of vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques may enable the early assessment of response to therapy, improve therapy planning, foster the prevention of cardiovascular events and may open the door for the development of patient-specific treatment strategies. (orig.)

  20. Spontaneous fatal Human herpesvirus 1 encephalitis in two domestic rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Matos, Ricardo; Russell, Duncan; Van Alstine, William; Miller, Andrew

    2014-09-01

    Despite the particular susceptibility of the rabbit to experimental infection with Human herpesvirus 1 (HHV-1) and the high seroprevalence of HHV-1 in human beings, reports of natural infection in pet rabbits are rare. The current report describes 2 cases of HHV encephalitis in pet rabbits in North America. Antemortem clinical signs included seizures, ptyalism, and muscle tremors. Results of complete blood cell count and plasma biochemistry panel were unremarkable except for a mild leukocytosis in both cases. Both rabbits died after a short period of hospitalization. Rabbit 1 presented mild optic chiasm hemorrhage on gross examination, while rabbit 2 had no gross lesions. Histologic findings for both cases included lymphocytic and/or lymphoplasmacytic encephalitis with necrosis and the presence of intranuclear inclusion bodies in neurons and glial cells. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) analysis of affected brain tissue using primers specific for Human herpesvirus 1 and 2 confirmed diagnosis of HHV encephalitis for rabbit 1. Immunohistochemical staining (poly- and monoclonal) and PCR analysis using primers specific to HHV-1 confirmed the diagnosis of HHV-1 encephalitis for rabbit 2. The owner of rabbit 2 was suspected to be the source of infection due to close contact during an episode of herpes labialis. Given the high susceptibility of rabbits to experimental HHV-1, high seroprevalence of HHV-1 in human beings, and severity of clinical disease in this species, clinician awareness and client education is important for disease prevention. Human herpesvirus 1 encephalitis should be considered as a differential diagnosis for rabbits with neurologic disease. © 2014 The Author(s).

  1. Normal physiological and pathophysiological effects of trypan blue on the retinas of albino rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heilweil, Gad; Komarowska, Izabela; Zemel, Esther; Loewenstein, Anat; Perlman, Ido

    2010-08-01

    To determine whether intravitreal injection of trypan blue is toxic to the retina of the albino rabbit. Sixteen albino rabbits were studied for the effects of intravitreal trypan blue (eight with 0.06% solution and eight with 0.15% solution). Saline was injected into the fellow control eye of all rabbits. The electroretinogram and visual evoked potentials were recorded from each rabbit at different time intervals after injection. The rabbits were killed at the termination of the follow-up period, and their retinas were prepared for histologic examination under light microscopy. In all rabbits, short-term follow-up showed significant reduction of ERG responses in the experimental eye, with the b-wave more affected than the a-wave. Partial to complete recovery was observed during follow-up. After 4 weeks, negligible ERG deficit was observed in the rabbits treated with 0.06% trypan blue, whereas significant ERG deficit was measured in rabbits tested by the 0.15% trypan blue. No differences in flash VEP responses between experimental and control rabbit eyes were found. Light microscopy showed no significant histologic effects in the retinas exposed to the 0.06% solution. Marked disorganization of all retinal layers was observed in areas close to the site of injection in the rabbits injected with the 0.15% solution. Trypan blue exerts transient physiological effects on the distal retina of the rabbit, but in concentrations of 0.15% it can induce permanent toxic effects. Therefore, caution should be used when using this dye in vitreoretinal surgery.

  2. Performance characteristics of weaner rabbits on cassava peel ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    An eight-week trial was conducted to determine the optimum level of substitution of dried cassava peel meal (DCPM) for maize in rabbit diets balanced for varying energy, nitrogen and fibre contents. Six experimental diets were compounded such that DCPM replaced maize at 0%, 50%, 62.5%, 75%, 87.5% and 100% levels ...

  3. Chloronquine upsets electrolyte balance in the rabbit | Akpantah ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Chloroquine is still being used by some people for acute attack of malaria. The effect of long term chloroquine administration was studied on some blood parameters in the rabbits. This was undertaken to assess the study. After the acclimatization period, they were divided into a control group 'A' and six experimental groups, ...

  4. Comparative study of bridge plate associated to the intramedullary pin and the dynamic compression plate on the experimental osteotomy fixation of femoral in rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Clinical, radiographic, histological and scintigraphy analyses; Estudo comparativo da placa em ponte associada ao pino intramedular e da placa de compressao dinamica na fixacao de osteotomia experimental em femur de coelhos (Oryctolagus cuniculus). Analises clinica, radiografica, histologica e cintilografica

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borges, Natalie Ferreira

    2011-07-01

    The objectives were to benchmark and monitor the fracture healing of femoral osteotomy in rabbits after fixation with dynamic compression plate and bridge plate associated with intramedullary pin. Were used 14 New Zealand rabbits, four months old with mean weight of 3.5 pounds, from the Experimental Farm Professor Helio Barbosa of the Veterinary School of Minas Gerais Federal Univ. (UFMG). The animals were randomly divided into two groups (I and II). All rabbits underwent osteotomy across the middle third of right femur. In the group I was made to fix the osteotomy with the bridge plate (BP) associated with intramedullary pin, introduced the technique of minimal invasion. In group II, we used dynamic compression plate (DCP) via the conventional approach. Both groups were evaluated clinical, radiographic, histologic and scintigraphic findings. Clinical assessments were performed weekly until the 12{sup th} postoperative week and radiographic examinations were performed before, immediately after, at 15, 30, 45, 60 and 90 days. The bone scintigraphy were performed before and at 20, 50 and 90 days after surgery to monitor the bone metabolism qualitatively and quantitatively. Observed perfusion and bone healing process. After 90 days of study, there was histopathologic evaluation of the osteotomized area and the insertion of screws. In the region of the osteotomy was observed predominance of trabecular bone in group I and group II, the predominance of bone osteons, compatible with the original bone. On insertion of the screws did not differ between groups and there was cortical discontinuity, little necrosis and local hemorrhage. The two types of fixation have led to consolidation within the scheduled period, maturing in early fixation with DCP fixation compared with BP. Scintigraphy demonstrated by the indices of activity and image characteristics, the process of bone healing was significantly greater in animals undergoing early fixation with DCP. (author)

  5. Effects of experimental infections with larvae of Eustrongylides ignotus Jäegerskiold, 1909 and Contracaecum multipapillatum (Drasche, 1882 Baylis, 1920 in rabbits Efeitos de infecções experimentais em coelhos com larvas de Eustrongylides ignotus Jäegerskiold, 1909 e Contracaecum multipapillatum (Drasche, 1882 Baylis, 1920

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L.A. Barros

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available Rabbits were infected per os with 10 Eustrongylides ignotus L4 and with 50 Contracaecum multipapillatum L3 per rabbit, recovered from naturally infected freshwater fishes (Hoplias malabaricus in order to evaluate the patogenicity of these two nematode species in mammalian host. Two rabbits (20% infected with E. ignotus died before the fourth day post-inoculation (one after 51 and the other after 78 hours. Six rabbits (60% were inappetent until the fifth day following experimental inoculation. No clinical signs in rabbits inoculated with C. multipapillatum were observed; nevertheless, eight (80% animals were positive for this nematode species. Rabbits inoculated with E. ignotus, had gastric congestion with hematoma of the gastric wall in 60% of the cases. Peritoneum was congested in 20% of the animals with the presence of peritoneal abscess in 10% of the cases. All inoculated animals showed hyperemia of the gastric mucosa with hemorrhagic gastritis due to infections with E. ignotus. In C. multipapillatum inoculated animals, the hyperemia was followed by disruption of the epithelial mucosa in the sites of parasite attachment. In the gastric mucosa, miscellaneous leukocitary infiltrates, with multifocal necrosis reaching the submucosa in the infections with C. multipapillatum were observed under bright field microscopy. Perforating lesions in several organs, mainly in the gastric wall, pancreas and liver, always in the presence of a mixed inflammatory process, intensely fibrous, with hemorrhage and necrosis were observed in animals infected with E. ignotus.Coelhos foram infectados experimentalmente per os com 10 larvas L4 de Eustrogylides ignotus (n= 10 e 50 L3 de Contracaecum multipapillatum (n= 50 coletados em traíras (Hoplias malabaricus naturalmente parasitadas a fim de se avaliar a patogenicidade induzida por essas espécies de nematóides em mamíferos. Dois coelhos (20% infectados com E. ignotus morreram antes do quarto dia p

  6. [Secretion of ochratoxin A in rabbit milk].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galtier, P; Baradat, C; Alvinerie, M

    1977-01-01

    The excretion of ochratoxin A in rabbit female was examined after a single intravenous administration of toxin. For the highest dose (4 mg par kg), the level in milk reached 1 ppm. The mammary excretion was also studied while plasma concentration of ochratoxin A was constant; the percentages of protein bound toxin in plasma and milk were determined. The likeness of theoretical and experimental ratio between mycotoxin levels in milk and plasma ultrafiltrates allowed to conclude in favour of the passage through the blood-milk barrier by nonionic passive diffusion of the free toxin. In conclusion, authors discussed about the sanitary problem concerning the presence of ochratoxin A in domestical animal milks.

  7. Delineation of atherosclerotic plaque using subharmonic imaging filtering techniques and a commercial intravascular ultrasound system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sridharan, Anush; Eisenbrey, John R; Machado, Priscilla; deMuinck, Ebo D; Doyley, Marvin M; Forsberg, Flemming

    2013-01-01

    The ability to delineate atherosclerotic plaque from the surrounding tissue using custom-developed subharmonic imaging (SHI) digital filtering techniques was investigated in vivo using a commercially available system. Atherosclerosis was induced in the aorta of two Watanabe Heritable Hyperlipidemic rabbits following which injections of an ultrasound contrast agent (UCA) Definity (Lantheus Medical Imaging, N Billerica, Massachusetts) were administered. Imaging was performed using a Galaxy intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) scanner (Boston Scientific, Natick, Massachusetts) equipped with an Atlantis® SR Pro Imaging Catheter (Boston Scientific). Four preliminary band-pass filters were designed to isolate the subharmonic signal (from surrounding tissue) and applied to the radio-frequency (RF) data. Preliminary filter performances were compared in terms of vessel-tissue contrast-to-tissue ratio (CTR) and visual examination. Based on preliminary results, a subharmonic adaptive filter and a stopband (SB) filter were designed and applied to the RF data. Images were classified as fundamental, SHI, and SB. Four readers performed qualitative analysis of 168 randomly selected images (across all three imaging modes). The images were scored for overall image quality, image noise, plaque visualization, and vessel lumen visualization. A Wilcoxon signed-rank test was used to compare the scores followed by intraclass correlation (ICC) evaluation. Quantitative analysis was performed by calculating the CTRs for the vessel-to-plaque and vessel-to-tissue (compared using a paired student's t test). Qualitative analysis showed SHI and SB to have significantly less image noise relative to the fundamental mode (p < 0.001). Fundamental mode scored significantly higher than SHI and SB for the remaining three categories. ICC showed mixed results among reader evaluation for delineation of plaque. However, quantitatively, SHI produced the best vessel-plaque CTR.

  8. Dissociative anesthetic combination reduces intraocular pressure (IOP in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewaldo de Mattos-Junior

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was evaluate the effects of three anesthetic combinations, ketamine-midazolam, ketamine-xylazine and tiletamine-zolazepam, on IOP in rabbits. In a experimental, blind, randomized, crossover study, six rabbits were anesthetized with each of 3 treatments in random order. Groups KM (ketamine, 30 mg/kg + midazolam, 1 mg/kg; KX (ketamine, 30 mg/kg + xylazine, 3 mg/kg; and TZ (tiletamine + zolazepam, 20 mg/kg. The drugs were mixed in the same syringe injected intramuscularly (IM into the quadriceps muscle. IOP was measured before drug administration (baseline and at 5-minute intervals for 30 minutes. The data were analyzed by a 2-way repeated measures ANOVA followed by Bonferroni test. All groups had significant decreases in IOP compared to baseline (p 0.05. Administration of either ketamine-midazolam, ketamine-xylazine, or tiletamine-zolazepam similarly decrease IOP in rabbits within 30 minutes of injection.

  9. Renal Artery Stenting in Patients With Documented Resistant Hypertension and Atherosclerotic Renal Artery Stenosis (ANDORRA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2018-01-24

    Hypertension; Hypertension Resistant to Conventional Therapy; Angiographically Proven Grade III Unilateral or Bilateral Atherosclerotic Renal Artery Stenosis (ARAS) Greater Than or Equal to 60 Percent

  10. Handling and diet-induced atherosclerosis in rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jezierski, T; Mekking, P; Wiepkema, P R

    1993-07-01

    Atherosclerosis was induced in rabbits by feeding them a 2% cholesterol diet (CHOL) during a 5-week period. Twelve rabbits were fed with increasing amounts of CHOL food until the ad libitum level was reached, whereas in 24 other rabbits the food was limited to the amount eaten by the lowest consumer of the group to reduce individual variability in total amount of food consumed. Twice a day, half of the rabbits were handled carefully, the other half had normal laboratory practice contact with their caretaker. Feed intake and amount of atherosclerosis were determined for all experimental animals, while for the handled animals behavioural parameters and changes were recorded daily and per animal. On average the handled and non-handled rabbits took the same amount of food per week, although there were large individual differences. The handled animals showed some behavioural adaptation to being handled. Handling had no influence on atherosclerosis size; this latter measure was only roughly determined by the amount of CHOL food eaten.

  11. Doxycycline Stabilizes Vulnerable Plaque via Inhibiting Matrix Metalloproteinases and Attenuating Inflammation in Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Mei; Zhong, Lin; Chen, Wen Qiang; Ji, Xiao Ping; Zhang, Mei; Zhao, Yu Xia; Li, Li; Yao, Gui Hua; Zhang, Peng Fei; Zhang, Cheng; Zhang, Lei; Zhang, Yun

    2012-01-01

    Enhanced matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) activity is implicated in the process of atherosclerotic plaque instability. We hypothesized that doxycycline, a broad MMPs inhibitor, was as effective as simvastatin in reducing the incidence of plaque disruption. Thirty rabbits underwent aortic balloon injury and were fed a high-fat diet for 20 weeks. At the end of week 8, the rabbits were divided into three groups for 12-week treatment: a doxycycline-treated group that received oral doxycycline at a dose of 10 mg/kg/d, a simvastatin-treated group that received oral simvastatin at a dose of 5 mg/kg/d, and a control group that received no treatment. At the end of week 20, pharmacological triggering was performed to induce plaque rupture. Biochemical, ultrasonographic, pathologic, immunohistochemical and mRNA expression studies were performed. The results showed that oral administration of doxycycline resulted in a significant increase in the thickness of the fibrous cap of the aortic plaque whereas there was a substantial reduction of MMPs expression, local and systemic inflammation, and aortic plaque vulnerability. The incidence of plaque rupture with either treatment (0% for both) was significantly lower than that for controls (56.0%, Pdoxycycline-treated group and simvastatin-treated group in any serological, ultrasonographic, pathologic, immunohistochemical and mRNA expression measurement except for the serum lipid levels that were higher with doxycycline than with simvastatin treatment. In conclusion, doxycycline at a common antimicrobial dose stabilizes atherosclerotic lesions via inhibiting matrix metalloproteinases and attenuating inflammation in a rabbit model of vulnerable plaque. These effects were similar to a large dose of simvastatin and independent of serum lipid levels. PMID:22737253

  12. Complement factor C5a induces atherosclerotic plaque disruptions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wezel, Anouk; de Vries, Margreet R; Lagraauw, H Maxime; Foks, Amanda C; Kuiper, Johan; Quax, Paul H A; Bot, Ilze

    2014-10-01

    Complement factor C5a and its receptor C5aR are expressed in vulnerable atherosclerotic plaques; however, a causal relation between C5a and plaque rupture has not been established yet. Accelerated atherosclerosis was induced by placing vein grafts in male apoE(-/-) mice. After 24 days, when advanced plaques had developed, C5a or PBS was applied locally at the lesion site in a pluronic gel. Three days later mice were killed to examine the acute effect of C5a on late stage atherosclerosis. A significant increase in C5aR in the plaque was detectable in mice treated with C5a. Lesion size and plaque morphology did not differ between treatment groups, but interestingly, local treatment with C5a resulted in a striking increase in the amount of plaque disruptions with concomitant intraplaque haemorrhage. To identify the potential underlying mechanisms, smooth muscle cells and endothelial cells were treated in vitro with C5a. Both cell types revealed a marked increase in apoptosis after stimulation with C5a, which may contribute to lesion instability in vivo. Indeed, apoptosis within the plaque was seen to be significantly increased after C5a treatment. We here demonstrate a causal role for C5a in atherosclerotic plaque disruptions, probably by inducing apoptosis. Therefore, intervention in complement factor C5a signalling may be a promising target in the prevention of acute atherosclerotic complications. © 2014 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  13. SAP deficiency mitigated atherosclerotic lesions in ApoE(-/-) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Lingyun; Wu, Teng; Zeng, Cuiling; Li, Xiangli; Li, Xiaoqiang; Wen, Dingwen; Ji, Tianxing; Lan, Tian; Xing, Liying; Li, Jiangchao; He, Xiaodong; Wang, Lijing

    2016-01-01

    Serum amyloid P conpoent (SAP), a member of the pentraxin family, interact with pathogens and cell debris to promote their removal by macrophages and neutrophils and is co-localized with atherosclerotic plaques in patients. However, the exact mechanism of SAP in atherogenesis is still unclear. We investigated whether SAP influence macrophage recruitment and foam cell formation and ultimately affect atherosclerotic progression. we generated apoE(-/-); SAP(-/-) (DKO) mice and fed them western diet for 4 and 8 weeks to characterize atherosclerosis development. SAP deficiency effectively reduced plaque size both in the aorta (p = 0.0006 for 4 wks; p = 0.0001 for 8 wks) and the aortic root (p = 0.0061 for 4 wks; p = 0.0079 for 8wks) compared with apoE(-/-) mice. Meanwhile, SAP deficiency inhibited oxLDL-induced foam cell formation (p = 0.0004) compared with apoE(-/-) mice and SAP treatment increases oxLDL-induced foam cell formation (p = 0.002) in RAW cells. Besides, SAP deficiency reduced macrophages recruitment (p = 0.035) in vivo and in vitro (p = 0.026). Furthermore, SAP treatment enhanced CD36 (p = 0.007) and FcγRI (p = 0.031) expression induced by oxLDL through upregulating JNK and p38 MAPK phosphorylation whereas specific JNK1/2 inhibitor reduced CD36 (p = 0.0005) and FcγRI (P = 0.0007) expression in RAW cell. SAP deficiency also significantly decreased the expression of M1 and M2 macrophage markers and inflammatory cytokines in oxLDL-induced macrophages. SAP deficiency mitigated foam cell formation and atherosclerotic development in apoE(-/-) mice, due to reduction in macrophages recruitment, polarization and pro-inflammatory cytokines and inhibition the CD36/FcγR-dependent signaling pathway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Identification of Atherosclerotic Plaques in Carotid Artery by Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rocha, Rick; Villaverde, Antonio Balbin; Silveira, Landulfo; Costa, Maricília Silva; Alves, Leandro Procópio; Pasqualucci, Carlos Augusto; Brugnera, Aldo

    2008-04-01

    The aim of this work was to identify the presence of atherosclerotic plaques in carotid artery using the Fluorescence Spectroscopy. The most important pathogeny in the cardiovascular disorders is the atherosclerosis, which may affect even younger individuals. With approximately 1.2 million heart attacks and 750,000 strokes afflicting an aging American population each year, cardiovascular disease remains the number one cause of death. Carotid artery samples were obtained from the Autopsy Service at the University of São Paulo (São Paulo, SP, Brazil) taken from cadavers. After a histopathological analysis the 60 carotid artery samples were divided into two groups: normal (26) and atherosclerotic plaques (34). Samples were irradiated with the wavelength of 488 nm from an Argon laser. A 600 μm core optical fiber, coupled to the Argon laser, was used for excitation of the sample, whereas another 600 optical fiber, coupled to the spectrograph entrance slit, was used for collecting the fluorescence from the sample. Measurements were taken at different points on each sample and then averaged. Fluorescence spectra showed a single broad line centered at 549 nm. The fluorescence intensity for each sample was calculated by subtracting the intensity at the peak (550 nm) and at the bottom (510 nm) and then data were statistically analyzed, looking for differences between both groups of samples. ANOVA statistical test showed a significant difference (p<0,05) between both types of tissues, with regard to the fluorescence peak intensities. Our results indicate that this technique could be used to detect the presence of the atherosclerotic in carotid tissue.

  15. Salusins: Potential Use as a Biomarker for Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Diseases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kengo Sato

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Human salusin-α and salusin-β are related peptides produced from prosalusin. Bolus injection of salusin-β into rats induces more profound hypotension and bradycardia than salusin-α. Central administration of salusin-β increases blood pressure via release of norepinephrine and arginine-vasopressin. Circulating levels of salusin-α and salusin-β are lower in patients with essential hypertension. Salusin-β exerts more potent mitogenic effects on human vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs and fibroblasts than salusin-α. Salusin-β accelerates inflammatory responses in human endothelial cells and monocyte-endothelial adhesion. Human macrophage foam cell formation is stimulated by salusin-β but suppressed by salusin-α. Chronic salusin-β infusion into apolipoprotein E-deficient mice enhances atherosclerotic lesions; salusin-α infusion reduces lesions. Salusin-β is expressed in proliferative neointimal lesions of porcine coronary arteries after stenting. Salusin-α and salusin-β immunoreactivity have been detected in human coronary atherosclerotic plaques, with dominance of salusin-β in macrophage foam cells, VSMCs, and fibroblasts. Circulating salusin-β levels increase and salusin-α levels decrease in patients with coronary artery disease. These findings suggest that salusin-β and salusin-α may contribute to proatherogenesis and antiatherogenesis, respectively. Increased salusin-β and/or decreased salusin-α levels in circulating blood and vascular tissue are closely linked with atherosclerosis. Salusin-α and salusin-β could be candidate biomarkers and therapeutic targets for atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases.

  16. Surgical Treatment of Atherosclerotic Lesions of the Subclavian Artery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohn, Lawrence H.; Fogarty, Thomas J.; Daily, Pat O.; Silverman, James F.; Shumway, Norman E.

    1972-01-01

    Of eight patients with atherosclerotic lesions (seven occlusive, one aneurysmal) of the subclavian artery, five were operated upon because of the subclavian steal and three for severe ischemia of the hand and fingers. Removal or bypass of these lesions was uniformly successful in relieving symptoms. In most cases transcervical carotid-subclavian saphenous vein bypass graft is the treatment of choice, provided no carotid obstruction exists or, if there is obstruction, it can be dealt with at operation. ImagesFigure 1.Figure 2.Figure 3. PMID:4639853

  17. Atherosclerotic plaque detection by confocal Brillouin and Raman microscopies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Zhaokai; Basagaoglu, Berkay; Yakovlev, Vladislav V.

    2015-02-01

    Atherosclerosis, the development of intraluminal plaque, is a fundamental pathology of cardiovascular system and remains the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide. Biomechanical in nature, plaque rupture occurs when the mechanical properties of the plaque, related to the morphology and viscoelastic properties, are compromised, resulting in intraluminal thrombosis and reduction of coronary blood flow. In this report, we describe the first simultaneous application of confocal Brillouin and Raman microscopies to ex-vivo aortic wall samples. Such a non-invasive, high specific approach allows revealing a direct relationship between the biochemical and mechanical properties of atherosclerotic tissue.

  18. Periodontal disease and risk of atherosclerotic coronary heart disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakajima, Takako; Yamazaki, Kazuhisa

    2009-07-01

    Atherosclerosis is an important component of coronary heart disease (CHD), which is the leading cause of death worldwide, including in Japan. Because atherosclerotic processes are typified by chronic inflammatory responses, which are similar to those elicited by chronic infection, the role of infection in promoting or accelerating atherosclerosis has received considerable focus. Increasing evidence supports the notion that periodontitis is associated with increased risk of atherosclerosis through dysfunction of endothelial cells induced by either periodontopathic bacteria or their products, or inflammatory mediators derived from infected periodontal tissue. Here we review whether periodontitis represents a risk factor for CHD or atherosclerosis, particularly in a Japanese population.

  19. The Role of Dermcidin Isoform 2: A Two-Faceted Atherosclerotic Risk Factor for Coronary Artery Disease and the Effect of Acetyl Salicylic Acid on It

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeshwary Ghosh

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Hypertension and diabetes mellitus are considered to be two major atherosclerotic risk factors for coronary artery disease (CAD. A stress-induced protein identified to be dermcidin isoform 2 of Mr. 11 kDa from blood plasma of hypertensive persons when injected (0.1 μM in rabbits increased the systolic pressure by 77% and diastolic pressure by 45% over the controls within 2 h. Ingestion of acetyl salicylic acid (150 mg/70 kg by these subjects reduced systolic (130 mm Hg and diastolic pressures (80 mm Hg with reduction of plasma dermcidin level to normal ranges (9 nM. The protein was found to be a potent activator of platelet cyclooxygenase and inhibited insulin synthesis. Aspirin was found to reduce hypertension by reduction of plasma dermcidin level, neutralized the effect of cyclooxygenase, and restored the pancreatic insulin synthesis through NO synthesis. These results indicated that dermcidin could be a novel atherosclerotic risk factor for its hypertensive and diabetogenic effects.

  20. Lipid lowering and anti-atherosclerotic properties of Tinospora ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    No foam cell formation was visible in aorta of rabbits treated with TCAE in dose dependent manner. However, there was visible foam cell formation in the aorta of hyperlipidemia group. In conclusion, this study suggests that supplementation of 450 mg/kg of T. crispa extract would be able to reduce or retard the progression ...

  1. Role of tissue engineered collagen based tridimensional implant on the healing response of the experimentally induced large Achilles tendon defect model in rabbits: a long term study with high clinical relevance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Tendon injury is one of the orthopedic conditions poses with a significant clinical challenge to both the surgeons and patients. The major limitations to manage these injuries are poor healing response and development of peritendinous adhesions in the injured area. This study investigated the effectiveness of a novel collagen implant on tendon healing in rabbits. Results Seventy five mature White New-Zealand rabbits were divided into treated (n = 55) and control (n = 20) groups. The left Achilles tendon was completely transected and 2 cm excised. The defects of the treated animals were filled with collagen implants and repaired with sutures, but in control rabbits the defects were sutured similarly but the gap was left untreated. Changes in the injured and normal contralateral tendons were assessed weekly by measuring the diameter, temperature and bioelectrical characteristics of the injured area. Clinical examination was done and scored. Among the treated animals, small pilot groups were euthanized at 5, 10, 15, 20, 30, 40 and 60 (n = 5 at each time interval) and the remainder (n = 20) and the control animals at 120 days post injury (DPI). The lesions of all animals were examined at macroscopic and microscopic levels and the dry matter content, water delivery and water uptake characteristics of the lesions and normal contralateral tendons of both groups were analyzed at 120 DPI. No sign of rejection was seen in the treated lesions. The collagen implant was invaded by the inflammatory cells at the inflammatory phase, followed by fibroplasia phase in which remnant of the collagen implant were still present while no inflammatory reaction could be seen in the lesions. However, the collagen implant was completely absorbed in the remodeling phase and the newly regenerated tendinous tissue filled the gap. Compared to the controls, the treated lesions showed improved tissue alignment and less peritendinous adhesion, muscle atrophy and fibrosis

  2. The White Rabbit Project

    CERN Document Server

    Serrano, J; Cattin, M; Garcia Cota, E; Lewis, J; Moreira, P; Wlostowski, T; Gaderer, G; Loschmidt, P; Dedic, J; Bär, R; Fleck, T; Kreider, M; Prados, C; Rauch, S

    2009-01-01

    Reliable, fast and deterministic transmission of control information in a network is a need formany distributed systems. One example is timing systems, where a reference frequency is used to accurately schedule time-critical messages. TheWhite Rabbit (WR) project is a multi-laboratory and multi-company effort to bring together the best of the data transfer and timing worlds in a completely open design. It takes advantage of the latest developments for improving timing over Ethernet, such as IEEE 1588 (Precision Time Protocol) and Synchronous Ethernet. The presented approach aims for a general purpose, fieldbus-like transmission system, which provides deterministic data and timing (sub-ns accuracy and ps jitter) to around 1000 stations. It automatically compensates for fiber lengths in the order of 10 km. This paper describes the WR design goals and the specification used for the project. It goes on to describe the central component of the WR system structure - the WR switch - with theoretical considerations a...

  3. Growth performance and meat quality of rabbits under different feeding regimes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Kamran; Khan, Sarzamin; Khan, Rajwali; Sultan, Asad; Khan, Nazir Ahmad; Ahmad, Naseer

    2016-12-01

    This study evaluated the growth, carcass characteristics and meat quality of indigenous rabbits in northern Pakistan. Weaned rabbits (age 35 days, weight 323 g) of four distinct phenotypes (white, black and white, brown and black) were fed four experimental diets: alfalfa hay (AH), berseem fodder (BF), BF supplemented with low-level concentrate (50 %; LLC) and high-level concentrate (75 %; HLC). Each experimental diet was fed to 48 rabbits, 12 of each phenotype, in a randomized complete block design. The duration of the experiment was 55 days, including 1 week of adaptation. Rabbits fed the BF and AH diets had poor body weight gain (P rabbits fed the LLC and HLC diets. Feed conversion efficiency was best in the LLC (4.47) and HLC (4.58) groups. Average carcass yield (743 g) and carcass dressing percentage (56.2) were higher (P rabbit meat was lowest (P rabbits do not necessarily need high levels of concentrates but can be well fattened with low-level concentrates along with forages.

  4. Contrast enhancement by lipid-based MRI contrast agents in mouse atherosclerotic plaques; a longitudinal study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    den Adel, Brigit; van der Graaf, Linda M.; Que, Ivo; Strijkers, Gustav J.; Löwik, Clemens W.; Poelmann, Robert E.; van der Weerd, Louise

    2013-01-01

    The use of contrast-enhanced MRI to enable in vivo specific characterization of atherosclerotic plaques is increasing. In this study the intrinsic ability of two differently sized gadolinium-based contrast agents to enhance atherosclerotic plaques in ApoE(-/-) mice was evaluated with MRI. We

  5. Experience With Intravascular Ultrasound Imaging Of Human Atherosclerotic Arteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallery, John A.; Gessert, James M.; Maciel, Mario; Tobis, John M.; Griffith, James M.; Berns, Michael W.; Henry, Walter L.

    1989-08-01

    Normal human arteries have a well-defined structure on intravascular images. The intima appears very thin and is most likely represented by a bright reflection arising from the internal elastic lamina. The smooth muscle tunica media is echo-lucent on the ultrasound image and appears as a dark band separating the intima from the adventitia. The adventitia is a brightly reflective layer of variable thickness. The thickness of the intima, and therefore of the atherosclerotic plaque can be accurately measured from the ultrasound images and correlates well with histology. Calcification within the wall of arteries is seen as bright echo reflection with shadowing of the peripheral wall. Fibrotic regions are highly reflective but do not shadow. Necrotic liquid regions within advanced atherosclerotic plaques are seen on ultrasound images as large lucent zones surrounded by echogenic tissue. Imaging can be performed before and after interventional procedures, such as laser angioplasty, balloon angioplasty and atherectomy. Intravascular ultrasound appears to provide an imaging modality for identifying the histologic characteristics of diseased arteries and for quantifying plaque thickness. It might be possible to perform such quantification to evaluate the results of interventional procedures.

  6. Activation of calpain-1 in human carotid artery atherosclerotic lesions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pedro Luis M

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background In a previous study, we observed that oxidized low-density lipoprotein-induced death of endothelial cells was calpain-1-dependent. The purpose of the present paper was to study the possible activation of calpain in human carotid plaques, and to compare calpain activity in the plaques from symptomatic patients with those obtained from patients without symptoms. Methods Human atherosclerotic carotid plaques (n = 29, 12 associated with symptoms were removed by endarterectomy. Calpain activity and apoptosis were detected by performing immunohistochemical analysis and TUNEL assay on human carotid plaque sections. An antibody specific for calpain-proteolyzed α-fodrin was used on western blots. Results We found that calpain was activated in all the plaques and calpain activity colocalized with apoptotic cell death. Our observation of autoproteolytic cleavage of the 80 kDa subunit of calpain-1 provided further evidence for enzyme activity in the plaque samples. When calpain activity was quantified, we found that plaques from symptomatic patients displayed significantly lower calpain activity compared with asymptomatic plaques. Conclusion These novel results suggest that calpain-1 is commonly active in carotid artery atherosclerotic plaques, and that calpain activity is colocalized with cell death and inversely associated with symptoms.

  7. Soy isoflavones enhance coronary vascular reactivity in atherosclerotic female macaques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honoré, E K; Williams, J K; Anthony, M S; Clarkson, T B

    1997-01-01

    To examine the effects of soy phytoestrogens on coronary vascular reactivity in atherosclerotic male and female rhesus monkeys. A prospective, randomized, blinded, controlled study. Comparative Medicine Clinical Research Center of an academic medical center. Twenty-two young adult rhesus monkeys with pre-existing diet-induced atherosclerosis. Monkeys were fed soy-based diets for 6 months identical in composition, except that the isoflavones were extracted from one flow-isoflavone) and intact in the other (high-isoflavone). Quantitative coronary angiography was performed at the end of the study period. Females in the low-isoflavone group under went a second angiography after an acute IV dose of genistein. Percent change in diameter of the proximal left circumflex coronary artery in response to intracoronary acetylcholine and nitroglycerin, compared with control diameter. Arteries from males constricted in response to acetylcholine. Arteries from females in the low-isoflavone group constricted (-6.2% +/- 2.8%, mean +/- SEM), whereas arteries from females in the high-isoflavone group dilated (6.4% +/- 1.2%, mean +/- SEM). Intravenous administration of genistein caused dilation in the previously constricting low-isoflavone females (3.3% +/- 2.8%). Like mammalian estrogens, dietary soy isoflavones enhance the dilator response to acetylcholine of atherosclerotic arteries in female monkeys.

  8. Evaluation of statin therapy on endothelial function in hypercholesterolemic rabbits by automatic measurement of arterial wall movement using ultrasound images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rahmani-Cherati, Tavoos; Mokhtari-Dizaji, Manijhe; Vajhi, Alireza; Rostami, Abdorrazzagh

    2014-10-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate arterial endothelial function, assessed as acetylcholine-mediated dilation (AMD), in a hypercholesterolemic atherosclerotic rabbit model to investigate the effects of atorvastatin in the atherosclerotic process, using a new computerized analysis model and ultrasound images. Twenty-seven rabbits were fed a high-cholesterol (2%) diet for 6 wk and then divided into three groups for an additional 9 wk: Group A received regular chow food, group B received a 2% cholesterol-rich diet plus atorvastatin drug, and group C received regular chow food plus atorvastatin. Ultrasound examinations of endothelial function of the rabbit abdominal aorta artery were performed immediately after the 6 weeks (0 wk) and then 3, 6 and 9 wk after that. For off-line analysis, a computerized analysis method for evaluating instantaneous changes in the wall of the rabbit abdominal aorta was used. As parameters of improvement resulting from treatment, endothelium-dependent acetylcholine-induced dilation and endothelium-independent nitroglycerin-induced dilation were evaluated in treated rabbits. Differences among groups were tested using analysis of variance. On histopathology, intima-media thickness decreased after treatment in all groups. There were no significant differences in arterial diameter and blood velocity changes among treated rabbits at 0, 3, 6 and 9 wk of treatment in all groups, except in end-diastolic velocity, radial strain percentage, pulse index and resistance index in group C. In group A, AMD did not significantly improve after 3, 6 and 9 wk, as compared with 0 wk. Atorvastatin treatment significantly increased AMD (18%) at 3 wk in group B, compared with week 0. AMD significantly increased after 3 (26%), 6 (124%) and 9 (182%) wk in group C, compared with 0 wk. It is concluded that the new automatic method enables accurate and repeated evaluation of endothelial function during the progression and regression of atherosclerosis. Also, the

  9. Modelling atherosclerosis by proteomics: Molecular changes in the ascending aortas of cholesterol-fed rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Jingshu; Jüllig, Mia; Middleditch, Martin J; Cooper, Garth J S

    2015-09-01

    The cholesterol-fed rabbit is commonly used as a model to study the vascular effects of hypercholesterolemia and resulting atherosclerotic lesions. Here we undertook a proteomic case-control investigation of ascending aortas from male New Zealand White rabbits after 10 weeks on a high-cholesterol (2% w/w) diet (HCD, n = 5) or control diet (n = 5), in order to determine the changes in response to the HCD. Histology confirmed intimal thickening in the HCD group consistent with atherosclerosis, and LC-MS/MS analysis of individually-obtained ascending aortic extracts labelled with isobaric (iTRAQ) tags enabled the identification and quantitation of 453 unique proteins above the 1% false discovery rate threshold. Of 67 proteins showing significant differences in relative abundance (p atherosclerosis. This and additional novel observations merit further investigation as these perturbations may play important and as yet undiscovered roles in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis in rabbits as well as humans. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Respiratory and cardiovascular effects of buprenorphine in conscious rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafford, Heidi L; Schadt, James C

    2008-07-01

    To quantify the respiratory and cardiovascular effects of intravenous or subcutaneous buprenorphine in conscious rabbits. Prospective experimental trial. Eight healthy, young adult New Zealand white rabbits (four female). Rabbits were instrumented with intraabdominal arterial and venous catheters and diaphragmatic electromyographic electrodes 2 weeks before experiments. Arterial blood pressure, arterial blood gases, heart rate and respiratory rate were monitored during experiments. Buprenorphine (0.06 mg) was administered either intravenously or subcutaneously to conscious rabbits. Respiratory and cardiovascular parameters were compared to baseline at 10 and 22 minutes after intravenous buprenorphine administration, and at 30, 60, and 90 minutes after subcutaneous buprenorphine administration. Buprenorphine administration, at a dose of approximately 0.02 mg kg(-1), did not change blood pressure or heart rate. However, respiratory rate decreased from 252 +/- 26 to 39 +/- 26 breaths minute(-1) (mean +/- SD), and from 306 +/- 38 to 90 +/- 38 breaths minute(-1) following intravenous and subcutaneous administration of buprenorphine, respectively. Subsequent to intravenous and subcutaneous buprenorphine, arterial oxygen tension decreased from 88 +/- 4 to 72 +/- 4 mmHg (11.7 +/- 0.5 to 9.6 +/- 0.5 kPa) and from 87 +/- 3 to 77 +/- 3 mmHg (11.6 +/- 0.4 to 10.3 +/- 0.4 kPa), respectively. Buprenorphine, by either route of administration, increased arterial carbon dioxide tension from 36 to 41 mmHg (4.8-5.5 kPa) and increased the alveolar-arterial oxygen gradient from 15 to > or =20 mmHg (2 to > or =2.7 kPa). Buprenorphine administration decreased respiratory rate and produced mild hypoxemia in conscious rabbits. While these changes were well tolerated by healthy animals, caution should be exercised when administering buprenorphine to rabbits predisposed to respiratory depression.

  11. Associations of Osteocalcin, Osteoprotegerin, and Calcitonin with Inflammation Biomarkers in Atherosclerotic Plaques of Coronary Arteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Polonskaya, Ya V; Kashtanova, E V; Murashov, I S; Volkov, A M; Kurguzov, A V; Chernyavsky, A M; Ragino, Yu I

    2017-04-01

    We studied associations of osteocalcin, osteoprotegerin, and calcitonin with markers of inflammation in atherosclerotic plaques in coronary arteries and assessed the influence of these biomolecules on calcification of atherosclerotic plaques. The initial stage of calcification of atherosclerotic plaques is characterized by activation of inflammatory processes, which is seen from increased levels of proinflammatory biomarkers (IL-6, IL 8, TNF-α, and IL-1β). Progressive calcification of atherosclerotic plaques is accompanied by insignificant accumulation of calcitonin and osteoprotegerin. The exception is osteocalcin, its concentration significantly increased during calcification. The results suggest that severe vascular calcification can be regarded as non-specific marker of atherosclerosis. Instability of atherosclerotic plaques is associated with higher level of calcification.

  12. Production of Polyclonal Antibodies in Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    1995-10-01

    Increased hemosiderin pigment within splenic macrophages was seen in four of the rabbits. The reports by the histopathologist are included in Appendix A...hypoplasia in the spleens of all five rabbits and varying levels of increased U I I Page 21 hemosiderin pigment within splenic macrophages in four of the...99 and 443. Increased hemosiderin pigment within splenic macrophages was noted in 5/6 rabbits and was especially prominent in rabbit #99. I

  13. Confiabilidade de um método de análise histológica da degeneração discal experimental em coelhos Confiabilidad de un método para el análisis histológico de la degeneración discal experimental en conejos Reliability of a method for histological analysis of experimental disc degeneration in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliano Neves Vialle

    2011-01-01

    Zealand fueron sometidos a procedimiento de inducción de la degeneración discal a través de punción directa de tres discos intervertebrales (DIV consecutivos con aguja 18G bajo anestesia. Al fin de dos meses, se colectó la columna vertebral completa de cada conejo y se procedió a la preparación de las piezas para análisis histológico de los discos intervertebrales (Experimentales y Controles, siendo coloreadas por el método hematoxilina-eosina. Las láminas histológicas fueron evaluadas cuanto a ocurrencia de degeneración a través del análisis de los siguientes criterios: presencia de vasos sanguíneos; presencia de protrusión del núcleo pulposo (NP a través del anillo fibroso (AF; y rotura de las fibras del AF. RESULTADOS: Al final de los procesos de eutanasia, remoción y preparación histológica de la columna, se obtuvieron 60 DIV viables para evaluación de degeneración. De este total, 25 piezas eran de DIV experimentales y 35 piezas de DIV control. La presencia de vaso sanguíneo fue observada en 18 de los 25 DIV degenerados, con concordancia de Kappa = 0,95 entre los observadores. La presencia de la extrusión del NP fue identificada en 19 de los 25 DIV experimentales, con concordancia de Kappa = 0,78 entre los observadores. Con relación a la rotura de las fibras del AF, se puede identificar la positividad en 24 de los 25 DIV degenerados, con concordancia entre los observadores de Kappa = 0,65. CONCLUSIÓN: Este modelo de evaluación histológica de la degeneración experimental del DIV se mostró viable, con alto grado de concordancia entre los observadores en la identificación de la degeneración discal.OBJECTIVE: To validate a method for histological evaluation of disc degeneration in rabbits based on the reliability of interobserver analysis. METHODS: Thirteen New Zealand white rabbits underwent a procedure to induce disc degeneration through direct puncture of three consecutive intervertebral discs (IVD with an 18G needle under anesthesia

  14. European Rabbits as Reservoir for Coxiella burnetii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Barrio, David; Maio, Elisa; Vieira-Pinto, Madalena; Ruiz-Fons, Francisco

    2015-06-01

    We studied the role of European rabbits (Oryctolagus cuniculus) as a reservoir for Coxiella burnetii in the Iberian region. High individual and population seroprevalences observed in wild and farmed rabbits, evidence of systemic infections, and vaginal shedding support the reservoir role of the European rabbit for C. burnetii.

  15. Effect of Dietary Cholesterol and Cholesterol Oxides on Blood Cholesterol, Lipids, and the Development of Atherosclerosis in Rabbits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hur, Sun Jin; Min, Byungrok; Nam, Ki Chang; Lee, Eun Joo; Ahn, Dong Uk

    2013-01-01

    Two studies were conducted to determine the effects of dietary cholesterol (CHO) and cholesterol oxides (COPs) on the development of atherosclerosis and the changes in fatty acid and blood characteristics in rabbits. In the first study, forty male New Zealand white rabbits were divided into 5 groups and fed commercial rabbit chow with no added CHO or COPs, 1 g CHO, 0.9 g CHO + 0.1 g COPs, 0.8 g CHO + 0.2 g COPs, or 0.5 g CHO + 0.5 g COPs per kg diet. In the second study, 24 male New Zealand White rabbits were divided into 3 groups and fed a diet containing 2 g CHO, 1.6 g CHO + 0.4 g COPs, or 1.2 g CHO + 0.8 g COPs per kg diet. All diets induced atherosclerotic lesions in the rabbits’ ascending thoracic aorta. The serum CHO and triglyceride levels (p < 0.05) increased significantly with the increased levels of CHO in the diets. Dietary CHO or COPs did not influence high-density lipoprotein CHO levels. The ratio of saturated fatty acid to unsaturated fatty acid increased as the level of dietary CHO and COPs increased. PMID:23774834

  16. Transgenic Rabbits Expressing Ovine PrP Are Susceptible to Scrapie

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sarradin, Pierre; Viglietta, Céline; Limouzin, Claude; Andréoletti, Olivier; Daniel-Carlier, Nathalie; Barc, Céline; Leroux-Coyau, Mathieu; Berthon, Patricia; Chapuis, Jérôme; Rossignol, Christelle; Gatti, Jean-Luc; Belghazi, Maya; Labas, Valérie; Vilotte, Jean-Luc; Béringue, Vincent; Lantier, Frédéric; Laude, Hubert; Houdebine, Louis-Marie

    2015-01-01

    Transmissible spongiform encephalopathies (TSEs) are a group of neurodegenerative diseases affecting a wide range of mammalian species. They are caused by prions, a proteinaceous pathogen essentially composed of PrPSc, an abnormal isoform of the host encoded cellular prion protein PrPC. Constrained steric interactions between PrPSc and PrPC are thought to provide prions with species specificity, and to control cross-species transmission into other host populations, including humans. Transgenetic expression of foreign PrP genes has been successfully and widely used to overcome the recognized resistance of mouse to foreign TSE sources. Rabbit is one of the species that exhibit a pronounced resistance to TSEs. Most attempts to infect experimentally rabbit have failed, except after inoculation with cell-free generated rabbit prions. To gain insights on the molecular determinants of the relative resistance of rabbits to prions, we generated transgenic rabbits expressing the susceptible V136R154Q171 allele of the ovine PRNP gene on a rabbit wild type PRNP New Zealand background and assessed their experimental susceptibility to scrapie prions. All transgenic animals developed a typical TSE 6–8 months after intracerebral inoculation, whereas wild type rabbits remained healthy more than 700 days after inoculation. Despite the endogenous presence of rabbit PrPC, only ovine PrPSc was detectable in the brains of diseased animals. Collectively these data indicate that the low susceptibility of rabbits to prion infection is not enciphered within their non-PrP genetic background. PMID:26248157

  17. Real-Time Imaging of Rabbit Retina with Retinal Degeneration by Using Spectral-Domain Optical Coherence Tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muraoka, Yuki; Ikeda, Hanako Ohashi; Nakano, Noriko; Hangai, Masanori; Toda, Yoshinobu; Okamoto-Furuta, Keiko; Kohda, Haruyasu; Kondo, Mineo; Terasaki, Hiroko; Kakizuka, Akira; Yoshimura, Nagahisa

    2012-01-01

    Background Recently, a transgenic rabbit with rhodopsin Pro 347 Leu mutation was generated as a model of retinitis pigmentosa (RP), which is characterized by a gradual loss of vision due to photoreceptor degeneration. The purpose of the current study is to noninvasively visualize and assess time-dependent changes in the retinal structures of a rabbit model of retinal degeneration by using speckle noise-reduced spectral-domain optical coherence tomography (SD-OCT). Methodology/Principal Findings Wild type (WT) and RP rabbits (aged 4–20 weeks) were investigated using SD-OCT. The total retinal thickness in RP rabbits decreased with age. The thickness of the outer nuclear layer (ONL) and between the external limiting membrane and Bruch's membrane (ELM–BM) were reduced in RP rabbits around the visual streak, compared to WT rabbits even at 4 weeks of age, and the differences increased with age. However, inner nuclear layer (INL) thickness in RP rabbits did not differ from that of WT during the observation period. The ganglion cell complex (GCC) thickness in RP rabbits increased near the optic nerve head but not around the visual streak in the later stages of the observation period. Hyper-reflective change was widely observed in the inner segments (IS) and outer segments (OS) of the photoreceptors in the OCT images of RP rabbits. Ultrastructural findings in RP retinas included the appearance of small rhodopsin-containing vesicles scattered in the extracellular space around the photoreceptors. Conclusions/Significance In the current study, SD-OCT provided the pattern of photoreceptor degeneration in RP rabbits and the longitudinal changes in each retinal layer through the evaluation of identical areas over time. The time-dependent changes in the retinal structure of RP rabbits showed regional and time-stage variations. In vivo imaging of RP rabbit retinas by using SD-OCT is a powerful method for characterizing disease dynamics and for assessing the therapeutic effects

  18. Study of pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) peel extract containing anthocyanins on fatty streak formation in the renal arteries in hypercholesterolemic rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharifiyan, Fatemeh; Movahedian-Attar, Ahmad; Nili, Nafiseh; Asgary, Sedigheh

    2016-01-01

    The influence of the supplementation of pomegranate peel extract containing anthocyanins on atherosclerotic plaque formation induced by hypercholesterolemia was investigated in renal arteries in rabbits. After the determination of polyphenol and anthocyanin's content of P. granatum peel hydroalcoholic extract, 30 male rabbits were randomly divided into three groups. They were fed basic diet, hypercholesterolemic diet and hypercholesterolemic diet along with P. granatum peel extract (polyphenolic content for each rabbit 1 g/kg diet) for 2 month. Blood samples were collected at the begging, middle and end of the study in order to measure lipid concentration and oxidative and antioxidative status variables, and renal arteries were taken for the assessment of atherosclerotic plaques at the end of the study. The results reveal that P. granatum peel extract significantly increases serum antioxidant capacity in the extract recipient group in comparison with hypercholesterolemic control (P 0.05). The results of this study indicate that consumption of pomegranate peel extract containing anthocyanins (polyphenol content 1 g/kg diet) despite of a significant increase in serum antioxidant capacity cannot protect the kidneys from hypercholesterolemia-induced damages during the treatment period.

  19. Disorders of the Reproductive Tract of Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harcourt-Brown, Frances Margaret

    2017-05-01

    Disorders of the reproductive tract are common in rabbits. Conditions are different in rabbits that are farmed for their meat or fur and those that are kept as pets. Farmed rabbits suffer from infections and diseases associated with pregnancy. Congenital abnormalities are more likely to be recognized and treated in pet rabbits. Pet rabbits suffer from age-related changes to their genital tract (hyperplasia, neoplasia, or hernias). Neutering is an important part of prevention and treatment of reproductive disorders. Knowledge of normal male and female reproductive anatomy is essential to prevent complications. These are described and illustrated. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Evidence-Based Advances in Rabbit Medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Summa, Noémie M; Brandão, João

    2017-09-01

    Rabbit medicine has been continuously evolving over time with increasing popularity and demand. Tremendous advances have been made in rabbit medicine over the past 5 years, including the use of imaging tools for otitis and dental disease management, the development of laboratory testing for encephalitozoonosis, or determination of prognosis in rabbits. Recent pharmacokinetic studies have been published, providing additional information on commonly used antibiotics and motility-enhancer drugs, as well as benzimidazole toxicosis. This article presents a review of evidence-based advances for liver lobe torsions, thymoma, and dental disease in rabbits and controversial and new future promising areas in rabbit medicine. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. CD154: the atherosclerotic risk factor in rheumatoid arthritis?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Atherosclerosis, now regarded as a chronic inflammatory disease of the arterial wall, and its clinical manifestations have increasingly been associated with rheumatoid arthritis (RA), supporting the notion that autoimmune diseases and vascular disorders share common etiological features. Indeed, evidence pertaining to this matter indicates that inflammation and its multiple components are the driving force behind the pathogenesis of these disorders. Interestingly, CD154 and its receptors have emerged as major players in the development of RA and atherosclerosis, which raises the possibility that this axis may represent an important biological link between both complications. Indeed, CD154 signaling elicits critical inflammatory responses that are common to the pathogenesis of both diseases. Here, we provide an overview of the traditional and disease-related interrelations between RA and vascular abnormalities, while focusing on CD154 as a potential mediator in the development of atherosclerotic events in RA patients. PMID:23433179

  2. The Evolving Paradigm in the Management of Intracranial Atherosclerotic Disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ali K. Ozturk

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Intracranial atherosclerotic disease (ICAD is a major cause of ischemic stroke worldwide and represents a significant health problem. The pathogenesis and natural history of ICAD are poorly understood, and rigorous treatment paradigms do not exist as they do for extracranial atherosclerosis. Currently, the best treatment for ICAD remains aspirin therapy, but many patients who are placed on aspirin continue to experience recurrent strokes. As microsurgical and endovascular techniques continue to evolve, the role of extracranial to intracranial bypass operations and stenting are increasingly being reconsidered. We performed a PubMed review of the English literature with a particular focus on treatment options for ICAD and present evidence-based data for the role of surgery and stenting in ICAD against medical therapy alone.

  3. Gene expression and 18FDG uptake in atherosclerotic carotid plaques

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Sune Folke; Græbe, Martin; Hag, Anne Mette Fisker

    2010-01-01

    by carotid endarterectomy. The gene expression of markers of vulnerability - CD68, IL-18, matrix metalloproteinase 9, cathepsin K, GLUT-1, and hexokinase type II (HK2) - were measured in plaques by quantitative PCR. RESULTS: In a multivariate linear regression model, GLUT-1, CD68, cathepsin K, and HK2 gene......) and an additional ipsilateral internal carotid artery stenosis of greater than 60% were recruited. FDG uptake in the carotids was determined by PET/computed tomography and expressed as mean and maximal standardized uptake values (SUVmean and SUVmax). The atherosclerotic plaques were subsequently recovered...... destabilization. Accordingly, FDG-PET could prove to be an important predictor of cerebrovascular events in patients with carotid plaques....

  4. Triglyceride-Rich Lipoproteins and Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nordestgaard, Børge G

    2016-01-01

    Scientific interest in triglyceride-rich lipoproteins has fluctuated over the past many years, ranging from beliefs that these lipoproteins cause atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) to being innocent bystanders. Correspondingly, clinical recommendations have fluctuated from a need...... that triglyceride-rich lipoproteins are causally associated with ASCVD and all-cause mortality. Finally, genetic evidence also demonstrates that high concentrations of triglyceride-rich lipoproteins are causally associated with low-grade inflammation. This suggests that an important part of inflammation...... in atherosclerosis and ASCVD is because of triglyceride-rich lipoprotein degradation and uptake into macrophage foam cells in the arterial intima. Taken together, new insights now strongly suggest that elevated triglyceride-rich lipoproteins represent causal risk factors for low-grade inflammation, ASCVD, and all...

  5. Low-density lipoproteins cause atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ference, Brian A.; Ginsberg, Henry N.; Graham, Ian

    2017-01-01

    Aims To appraise the clinical and genetic evidence that low-density lipoproteins (LDLs) cause atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD). Methods and results We assessed whether the association between LDL and ASCVD fulfils the criteria for causality by evaluating the totality of evidence from...... genetic studies, prospective epidemiologic cohort studies, Mendelian randomization studies, and randomized trials of LDL-lowering therapies. In clinical studies, plasma LDL burden is usually estimated by determination of plasma LDL cholesterol level (LDL-C). Rare genetic mutations that cause reduced LDL...... receptor function lead to markedly higher LDL-C and a dose-dependent increase in the risk of ASCVD, whereas rare variants leading to lower LDL-C are associated with a correspondingly lower risk of ASCVD. Separate meta-analyses of over 200 prospective cohort studies, Mendelian randomization studies...

  6. The role of Visfatin in atherosclerotic peripheral arterial obstructive disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pitoulias, Matthaios G; Skoura, Lemonia; Pitoulias, Apostolos G; Chatzidimitriou, Dimitris; Margariti, Apostolia; Arsenakis, Minas; Pitoulias, Georgios A

    2017-03-01

    Visfatin is an adipokine molecule acting as an essential coenzyme in multiple cellular redox reactions. The increased serum levels of Visfatin have been correlated with metabolic syndrome and endothelial homeostasis. In this study we investigate the possible relationship of Visfatin serum levels with the severity and location of atherosclerotic peripheral arterial occlusive disease (PAOD). Study protocol included 45 consecutive PAOD and 20 Control patients with age >55years old. Definition of PAOD was based in Rutherord's classification (RC). End-stage PAOD patients (RC-V & -VI) were excluded from study. Data were collected prospectively and included age, gender, atherosclerotic risk factors and the body mass index (BMI). In PAOD patients recorded the PAOD's clinical stage and the presence of carotid stenosis >50%. PAOD patients divided in two subgroups, those with mild (RC-I & -II) and moderate disease (RC-III & -IV). In all serum samples Visfatin was measured, blindly, twice by anosoenzymatic technique. Statistical analysis was performed by non-parametric Mann-Whitney U test, Pearson's chi-square, One Way Anova and Kruskall-Wallis tests, as appropriate. The mean Visfatin value in PAOD and Control groups were 38.5±16.0 and 13.9±3.8ng/ml respectively (p0.05). Univariate analysis showed that severity of PAOD (mild vs severe), presence of carotid stenosis >50% and multilevel disease significantly affected outcomes (p=0.018, p=0.010 and p=0.006 respectively). In multivariate regression analysis severity of PAOD was the solely factor with strong correlation with high visfatin values (p=0.001). High Visfatin levels seem to be strongly correlated with the presence and severity of PAOD. Further and in depth investigation is needed to define the possible role of Visfatin in atherosclerosis and it's value as a potential prognostic biomarker of PAOD. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Dietary carnosine prevents early atherosclerotic lesion formation in apolipoprotein E-null mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barski, Oleg A; Xie, Zhengzhi; Baba, Shahid P; Sithu, Srinivas D; Agarwal, Abhinav; Cai, Jian; Bhatnagar, Aruni; Srivastava, Sanjay

    2013-06-01

    Atherosclerotic lesions are associated with the accumulation of reactive aldehydes derived from oxidized lipids. Although inhibition of aldehyde metabolism has been shown to exacerbate atherosclerosis and enhance the accumulation of aldehyde-modified proteins in atherosclerotic plaques, no therapeutic interventions have been devised to prevent aldehyde accumulation in atherosclerotic lesions. We examined the efficacy of carnosine, a naturally occurring β-alanyl-histidine dipeptide, in preventing aldehyde toxicity and atherogenesis in apolipoprotein E-null mice. In vitro, carnosine reacted rapidly with lipid peroxidation-derived unsaturated aldehydes. Gas chromatography mass-spectrometry analysis showed that carnosine inhibits the formation of free aldehydes 4-hydroxynonenal and malonaldialdehyde in Cu(2+)-oxidized low-density lipoprotein. Preloading bone marrow-derived macrophages with cell-permeable carnosine analogs reduced 4-hydroxynonenal-induced apoptosis. Oral supplementation with octyl-D-carnosine decreased atherosclerotic lesion formation in aortic valves of apolipoprotein E-null mice and attenuated the accumulation of protein-acrolein, protein-4-hydroxyhexenal, and protein-4-hydroxynonenal adducts in atherosclerotic lesions, whereas urinary excretion of aldehydes as carnosine conjugates was increased. The results of this study suggest that carnosine inhibits atherogenesis by facilitating aldehyde removal from atherosclerotic lesions. Endogenous levels of carnosine may be important determinants of atherosclerotic lesion formation, and treatment with carnosine or related peptides could be a useful therapy for the prevention or the treatment of atherosclerosis.

  8. Effect of Monocular Deprivation on Rabbit Neural Retinal Cell Densities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mwachaka, Philip Maseghe; Saidi, Hassan; Odula, Paul Ochieng; Mandela, Pamela Idenya

    2015-01-01

    To describe the effect of monocular deprivation on densities of neural retinal cells in rabbits. Thirty rabbits, comprised of 18 subject and 12 control animals, were included and monocular deprivation was achieved through unilateral lid suturing in all subject animals. The rabbits were observed for three weeks. At the end of each week, 6 experimental and 3 control animals were euthanized, their retinas was harvested and processed for light microscopy. Photomicrographs of the retina were taken and imported into FIJI software for analysis. Neural retinal cell densities of deprived eyes were reduced along with increasing period of deprivation. The percentage of reductions were 60.9% (P < 0.001), 41.6% (P = 0.003), and 18.9% (P = 0.326) for ganglion, inner nuclear, and outer nuclear cells, respectively. In non-deprived eyes, cell densities in contrast were increased by 116% (P < 0.001), 52% (P <