Sample records for experimental assessment numerical

  1. Breast cancer detection using interferometric MUSIC: experimental and numerical assessment. (United States)

    Ruvio, Giuseppe; Solimene, Raffaele; Cuccaro, Antonio; Gaetano, Domenico; Browne, Jacinta E; Ammann, Max J


    In microwave breast cancer detection, it is often beneficial to arrange sensors in close proximity to the breast. The resultant coupling generally changes the antenna response. As an a priori characterization of the radio frequency system becomes difficult, this can lead to severe degradation of the detection efficacy. The purpose of this paper is to demonstrate the advantages of adopting an interferometric multiple signal classification (I-MUSIC) approach due to its limited dependence from a priori information on the antenna. The performance of I-MUSIC detection was measured in terms of signal-to-clutter ratio (SCR), signal-to-mean ratio (SMR), and spatial displacement (SD) and compared to other common linear noncoherent imaging methods, such as migration and the standard wideband MUSIC (WB-MUSIC) which also works when the antenna is not accounted for. The data were acquired by scanning a synthetic oil-in-gelatin phantom that mimics the dielectric properties of breast tissues across the spectrum 1-3 GHz using a proprietary breast microwave multi-monostatic radar system. The phantom is a multilayer structure that includes skin, adipose, fibroconnective, fibroglandular, and tumor tissue with an adipose component accounting for 60% of the whole structure. The detected tumor has a diameter of 5 mm and is inserted inside a fibroglandular region with a permittivity contrast εr-tumor/εr-fibroglandular MUSIC method from antenna characterizations. The datasets were processed by using I-MUSIC, noncoherent migration, and wideband MUSIC under equivalent conditions (i.e., operative bandwidth, frequency samples, and scanning positions). SCR, SMR, and SD figures were measured from all reconstructed images. In order to benchmark experimental results, numerical simulations of equivalent scenarios were carried out by using CST Microwave Studio. The three numerical datasets were then processed following the same procedure that was designed for the experimental case. Detection

  2. Control strategies for friction dampers: numerical assessment and experimental investigations.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Coelho H.T.


    Full Text Available The use of friction dampers has been proposed in a wide variety of mechanical systems for which it is not possible to apply viscoelastic materials, fluid based dampers or others viscous dampers. An important example is the application of friction dampers in aircraft engines to reduce the blades vibration amplitudes. In most cases, friction dampers have been studied in a passive way, however, a significant improvement can be achieved by controlling the normal force in the dampers. The aim of this paper is to study three control strategies for friction dampers based on the hysteresis cycle. The first control strategy maximizes the energy removal in each harmonic oscillation cycle, by calculating the optimum normal force based on the last displacement peak. The second control strategy combines the first one with the maximum energy removal strategy used in the smart spring devices. Finally, is presented the strategy which homogenously modulates the friction force. Numerical studies were performed with these three strategies defining the performance metrics. The best control strategy was applied experimentally. The experimental test rig was fully identified and its parameters were used for the numerical simulations. The obtained results show the good performance for the friction damper and the selected strategy.

  3. Numerical modelling and experimental assessment of concrete spalling in fire

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Shamalta, M.; Breunese, A.; Peelen, W.; Fellinger, J.


    In this paper, the phenomenon of spalling of concrete in fire has been studied using a numerical model. Spalling is the violent or non-violent breaking off of layers or pieces of concrete when it is exposed to high temperatures as experienced in fires. The types and mechanisms of spalling have been

  4. Nitrogen diffusion and nitrogen depth profiles in expanded austenite: experimental assessment, numerical simulation and role of stress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Thomas; Dahl, Kristian Vinter; Somers, Marcel A. J.


    The present paper addresses the experimental assessment of the concentration dependent nitrogen diffusion coefficient in stress free expanded austenite foils from thermogravimetry, the numerical simulation of nitrogen concentration depth profiles on growth of expanded austenite into stainless ste...

  5. Experimental and Numerical Assessment of the Dynamical Behaviour of a Footbridge Under Human-Induced Loads

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Santos da Silva José Guilherme


    Full Text Available This research aims to perform an experimental and numerical assessment of an existing pedestrian footbridge located in the campus of the State University of Rio de Janeiro (UERJ, Rio de Janeiro/RJ, Brazil. The structural system is based on an internal reinforced concrete footbridge spanning 24.5m, constituted by concrete beams and slabs and being currently used for pedestrian crossing. The modal testing of the structure was performed by dynamic monitoring through accelerometers installed on the structure as well as by a vibrometer device based on Laser Doppler Vibrometry using the SIMO and SISO acquisition techniques, respectively. Then, these experimental results were calibrated with a numerical model by the use of finite element method (FEM through the ANSYS program. Afterwards, a forced vibration analysis was performed on the structure based on human-induced loads considering two control groups: the first one is intended to excite the investigated footbridge to cause resonance motion with a controlled step frequency and the second one is related to freely random people crossing the footbridge as it occurs normally during its real life. Thus, the structural system dynamic response in terms of peak accelerations values were evaluated and compared to the current human comfort criteria.

  6. Experimental and numerical assessment of low-frequency current distributions from UMTS and GSM mobile phones. (United States)

    Gosselin, Marie-Christine; Kühn, Sven; Kuster, Niels


    The evaluation of the exposure from mobile communication devices requires consideration of electromagnetic fields (EMFs) over a broad frequency range from dc to GHz. Mobile phones in operation have prominent spectral components in the low-frequency (LF) and radio-frequency (RF) ranges. While the exposure to RF fields from mobile phones has been comprehensively assessed in the past, the LF fields have received much less attention. In this study, LF fields from mobile phones are assessed experimentally and numerically for the global system for mobile (GSM) and universal mobile telecommunications system (UMTS) communication systems and conclusions about the global (LF and RF) EMF exposure from both systems are drawn. From the measurements of the time-domain magnetic fields, it was found that the contribution from the audio signal at a normal speech level, i.e., -16 dBm0, is the same order of magnitude as the fields induced by the current bursts generated from the implementation of the GSM communication system at maximum RF output level. The B-field induced by currents in phones using the UMTS is two orders of magnitude lower than that induced by GSM. Knowing that the RF exposure from the UMTS is also two orders of magnitude lower than from GSM, it is now possible to state that there is an overall reduction of the exposure from this communication system.

  7. Experimental and numerical assessment of ignition delay period for pure diesel and biodiesel B20 (United States)

    Aldhaidhawi, Mohanad; Brabec, Marek; Lucian, Miron; Chiriac, Radu; Bădescu, Viorel


    The ignition delay period for a compression ignition engine fueled alternatively with pure diesel and with biodiesel B20 has been experimentally and numerically investigated. The engine was operated under full load conditions for two speeds, 1400 rpm speed for maximum brake torque and 2400 rpm speed for maximum brake power. Different parameters suggested as important to define the start of combustion have been considered before the acceptance of a certain evaluation technique of ignition delay. Correlations between these parameters were analyzed and concluded about the best method to identify the start of combustion. The experimental results were further compared with the ignition delay predicted by some correlations. The results showed that the determined ignition delays are in good agreement with those of the Arrhenius type expressions for pure diesel fuel, while for biodiesel B20 the correlation results are significantly different than the experimental results.

  8. Integrating experimental and numerical methods for a scenario-based quantitative assessment of subsurface energy storage options (United States)

    Kabuth, Alina; Dahmke, Andreas; Hagrey, Said Attia al; Berta, Márton; Dörr, Cordula; Koproch, Nicolas; Köber, Ralf; Köhn, Daniel; Nolde, Michael; Tilmann Pfeiffer, Wolf; Popp, Steffi; Schwanebeck, Malte; Bauer, Sebastian


    Within the framework of the transition to renewable energy sources ("Energiewende"), the German government defined the target of producing 60 % of the final energy consumption from renewable energy sources by the year 2050. However, renewable energies are subject to natural fluctuations. Energy storage can help to buffer the resulting time shifts between production and demand. Subsurface geological structures provide large potential capacities for energy stored in the form of heat or gas on daily to seasonal time scales. In order to explore this potential sustainably, the possible induced effects of energy storage operations have to be quantified for both specified normal operation and events of failure. The ANGUS+ project therefore integrates experimental laboratory studies with numerical approaches to assess subsurface energy storage scenarios and monitoring methods. Subsurface storage options for gas, i.e. hydrogen, synthetic methane and compressed air in salt caverns or porous structures, as well as subsurface heat storage are investigated with respect to site prerequisites, storage dimensions, induced effects, monitoring methods and integration into spatial planning schemes. The conceptual interdisciplinary approach of the ANGUS+ project towards the integration of subsurface energy storage into a sustainable subsurface planning scheme is presented here, and this approach is then demonstrated using the examples of two selected energy storage options: Firstly, the option of seasonal heat storage in a shallow aquifer is presented. Coupled thermal and hydraulic processes induced by periodic heat injection and extraction were simulated in the open-source numerical modelling package OpenGeoSys. Situations of specified normal operation as well as cases of failure in operational storage with leaking heat transfer fluid are considered. Bench-scale experiments provided parameterisations of temperature dependent changes in shallow groundwater hydrogeochemistry. As a

  9. numerical and numerical and experimental modeling of the static

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    recommendation for subsequent experiments and analysis of these types of structural elements. In this paper a report of numerical and experimental modeling of the static response of thin-walled reinforced concrete box girder bridges is given. The work is executed to verify the validity of a software developed by the authors ...

  10. Experimental and Numerical Assessment of the Multi-physics Dynamic Response for a MEMS Accelerometer at Various Gaps

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ardito, Raffaele; De Masi, Biagio; Cerini, Fabrizio; Ferrari, Marco; Ferrari, Vittorio; Russo, Alfio; Urquia, Mikel Azpeitia; Sedmik, R.


    The dynamic response of a MEMS accelerometer can be influenced by several multi-physics effects, especially if the gaps between the shuttle and the stator attain sub-micrometric values. The present paper aims at tackling the aforementioned issues by means of a suitable experimental procedure, which

  11. Hybrid Experimental-Numerical Stress Analysis. (United States)


    A. 1. and Riley# W. F., Introduction to Pho hanics, Pren- tics -Hall, Englewood Cliffs# 1965P pp. 185-186. 8. Rao, G. V., "Experimental-numerical...Naw1 o a. CA *924 Loe Amnl*&. Ca 10024 Profesor T. V. Cosng Or. IF. Sm#Amv Or. M. P. gtesProfeesr Ulert pried University of Agree on"ser si pmlo

  12. Numerical and experimental evaluation of performance of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Sadhana; Volume 42; Issue 4. Numerical and experimental ... Apart from variouspressure, temperature, flow and torque measurements, the interface between the sealing and working fluid for the experiments was captured and recorded using a high speed camera at 26,000 frames per second. Geometrical ...

  13. Numerical and experimental evaluation of performance of ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T V Sanand

    Numerical and experimental evaluation of performance of centrifugal seals. T V SANAND1,* , P PRADEEP KUMAR2, P UNNIKRISHNAN NAIR1 and PAUL P GEORGE1. 1 Liquid Propulsion System Centre, Indian Space Research Organisation,. Valiamala, Thiruvananthapuram 695547, India. 2 Department of Aerospace ...

  14. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Strawberry Drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fuat TAN


    Full Text Available Strawberry drying was investigated experimentally and numerically in this study. In the experiments, samples of strawberry slices with 1 cm thicknesses were used to investigate the effect of the drying air velocity. 5-hour experiments were conducted for three different velocities (0.5, 1 and 2m/s at 70°C air temperature. It was observed that increasing the drying air velocity up to 2 m/s decreased the drying duration by 17% on average.  Moreover, the data obtained from the experimental study were compared to the numerical results. The results were found compatible with each other. Finally, the effect of air temperature and product thickness on drying was examined numerically.

  15. Experimental and numerical analysis of convergent nozzlex (United States)

    Srinivas, G.; Rakham, Bhupal


    In this paper the main focus was given to convergent nozzle where both the experimental and numerical calculations were carried out with the support of standardized literature. In the recent years the field of air breathing and non-air breathing engine developments significantly increase its performance. To enhance the performance of both the type of engines the nozzle is the one of the component which will play a vital role, especially selecting the type of nozzle depends upon the vehicle speed requirement and aerodynamic behavior at most important in the field of propulsion. The convergent nozzle flow experimental analysis done using scaled apparatus and the similar setup was arranged artificially in the ANSYS software for doing the flow analysis across the convergent nozzle. The consistent calculation analysis are done based on the public literature survey to validate the experimental and numerical simulation results of convergent nozzle. Using these two experimental and numerical simulation approaches the best fit results will bring up to meet the design requirements. However the comparison also made to meet the reliability of the work on design criteria of convergent nozzle which can entrench in the field of propulsion applications.

  16. Experimental and numerical investigations on melamine wedges. (United States)

    Schneider, S


    Melamine wedges are often used as acoustic lining material for anechoic chambers. It was proposed here to study the effects of the mounting conditions on the acoustic properties of the melamine wedges used in the large anechoic chamber at the LMA. The results of the impedance tube measurements carried out show that the mounting conditions must be taken into account when assessing the quality of an acoustic lining. As it can be difficult to simulate these mounting conditions in impedance tube experiments, a numerical method was developed, which can be used to complete the experiments or for parametric studies. By combining the finite and the boundary element method, it is possible to investigate acoustic linings with almost no restrictions as to the geometry, material behavior, or mounting conditions. The numerical method presented here was used to study the acoustic properties of the acoustic lining installed in the anechoic chamber at the LMA. Further experiments showed that the behavior of the melamine foam is anisotropic. Numerical simulations showed that this anisotropy can be used to advantage when designing an acoustic lining.

  17. Propagation of steel corrosion in concrete: Experimental and numerical investigations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Michel, Alexander; Otieno, M.; Stang, Henrik


    This paper focuses on experimental and numerical investigations of the propagation phase of reinforcement corrosion to determine anodic and cathodic Tafel constants and exchange current densities, from corrosion current density and corrosion potential measurements. The experimental program includ...

  18. Numerical Modeling and Experimental Testing of a Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zurkinden, Andrew Stephen; Kramer, Morten; Ferri, Francesco

    numerical values for comparison with the experimental test results which were carried out in the same time. It is for this reason why Chapter 4 does consist exclusively of numerical values. Experimental values and measured time series of wave elevations have been used throughout the report in order to a...

  19. Numerical and experimental investigations on supersonic ejectors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bartosiewicz, Y.; Aidoun, Z. [CETC-Varennes, Natural Resources Canada (Canada); Desevaux, P. [CREST-UMR 6000, Belfort (France); Mercadier, Y. [Sherbrooke Univ. (Canada). THERMAUS


    Supersonic ejectors are widely used in a range of applications such as aerospace, propulsion and refrigeration. The primary interest of this study is to set up a reliable hydrodynamics model of a supersonic ejector, which may be extended to refrigeration applications. The first part of this work evaluated the performance of six well-known turbulence models for the study of supersonic ejectors. The validation concentrated on the shock location, shock strength and the average pressure recovery prediction. Axial pressure measurements with a capillary probe performed previously [Int. J. Turbo Jet Engines 19 (2002) 71; Conference Proc., 10th Int. Symp. Flow Visualization, Kyoto, Japan, 2002], were compared with numerical simulations while laser tomography pictures were used to evaluate the non-mixing length. The capillary probe has been included in the numerical model and the non-mixing length has been numerically evaluated by including an additional transport equation for a passive scalar, which acted as an ideal colorant in the flow. At this point, the results show that the k-omega-sst model agrees best with experiments. In the second part, the tested model was used to reproduce the different operation modes of a supersonic ejector, ranging from on-design point to off-design. In this respect, CFD turned out to be an efficient diagnosis tool of ejector analysis (mixing, flow separation), for design, and performance optimization (optimum entrainment and recompression ratios). (Author)

  20. Magnetic Guarding: Experimental and Numerical Results (United States)

    Heinrich, Jonathon; Font, Gabriel; Garrett, Michael; Rose, D.; Genoni, T.; Welch, D.; McGuire, Thomas


    The magnetic field topology of Lockheed Martin's Compact Fusion Reactor (CFR) concept requires internal magnetic field coils. Internal coils for similar devices have leveraged levitating coils or coils with magnetically guarded supports. Magnetic guarding of supports has been investigated for multipole devices (theoretically and experimentally) without conclusive results. One outstanding question regarding magnetic guarding of supports is the magnitude and behavior of secondary plasma drifts resulting from magnetic guard fields (grad-B drifts, etc). We present magnetic-implicit PIC modeling results and preliminary proof of concept experimental results on magnetic guarding of internal-supports and the subsequent reduction in total plasma losses.

  1. Blast mitigation experimental and numerical studies

    CERN Document Server


    Presents experimental methods of material and structural response to dynamic blast loads Includes computational analysis of material and structural response to dynamic blast loads Offers mitigation measures for structures in various environments Relates lab experiments to larger field tests Features more than 150 illustrations

  2. Experimental and numerical investigations on nitrogen species ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The transport of nitrogen coming from wastewater applied agricultural field is a major problem in assessing the vulnerability of groundwater contamina- tion. In this study, laboratory column experiments are conducted in order to simulate the paddy, groundnut and wheat irrigation with wastewater. The experiments ...

  3. Experimental and numerical investigations on nitrogen species ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The transport of nitrogen coming from wastewater applied agricultural field is a major problem in assessing the vulnerability of groundwater contamination. In this study, laboratory column experiments are conducted in order to simulate the paddy, groundnut and wheat irrigation with wastewater. The experiments are carried ...

  4. Experimental and numerical analysis of cylindrical straw drying

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goryl Wojciech


    Full Text Available The paper presents experimental and numerical results of the heat and mass transfer in a cylindrical bale of straw. The experimental measurements were made in a specialized stand of straw driers. Flue gasses, comes from straw combustion in the biomass boiler, are used as a drying medium. There were made measurements of humidity and temperature inside the cylindrical straw bale during the drying process. The results were used to prepare the drying rate curve. Moreover, data were used to validate the numerical model of straw drying. The numerical model was performed to depict the heat and mass transfer inside the straw bale. Furthermore, the model was used to optimize the drying process. The paper presents result of experimental and numerical drying rates of cylindrical straw bale and heat and mass transfer in its interior. As a result of the work numerical model was obtained. It satisfactorily describes the mechanisms inside the drying straw bale.

  5. Experimental and numerical study of high intensity argon cluster beams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korobeishchikov, N. G.; Kalyada, V. V.; Shmakov, A. A.; Zarvin, A. E. [Department of Applied Physics, Novosibirsk State University, 2, Pirogova str., Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation); Skovorodko, P. A. [Department of Applied Physics, Novosibirsk State University, 2, Pirogova str., Novosibirsk, 630090, Russia and Kutateladze Institute of Thermophysics SB RAS,1, Lavrentyev Ave., Novosibirsk, 630090 (Russian Federation)


    Experimental and numerical investigations of expansion of argon with homogeneous condensation in supersonic conical nozzle and in free jet behind it were carried out. Optimal parameters (stagnation pressure, nozzle-skimmer distance) for the formation of cluster beam with maximum intensity were determined. Two available models for nonequilibrium nucleation were tested. The numerical results are in satisfactory agreement with the measured data.

  6. Experimental and numerical studies of high-velocity impact fragmentation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kipp, M.E.; Grady, D.E.; Swegle, J.W.


    Developments are reported in both experimental and numerical capabilities for characterizing the debris spray produced in penetration events. We have performed a series of high-velocity experiments specifically designed to examine the fragmentation of the projectile during impact. High-strength, well-characterized steel spheres (6.35 mm diameter) were launched with a two-stage light-gas gun to velocities in the range of 3 to 5 km/s. Normal impact with PMMA plates, thicknesses of 0.6 to 11 mm, applied impulsive loads of various amplitudes and durations to the steel sphere. Multiple flash radiography diagnostics and recovery techniques were used to assess size, velocity, trajectory and statistics of the impact-induced fragment debris. Damage modes to the primary target plate (plastic) and to a secondary target plate (aluminum) were also evaluated. Dynamic fragmentation theories, based on energy-balance principles, were used to evaluate local material deformation and fracture state information from CTH, a three-dimensional Eulerian solid dynamics shock wave propagation code. The local fragment characterization of the material defines a weighted fragment size distribution, and the sum of these distributions provides a composite particle size distribution for the steel sphere. The calculated axial and radial velocity changes agree well with experimental data, and the calculated fragment sizes are in qualitative agreement with the radiographic data. A secondary effort involved the experimental and computational analyses of normal and oblique copper ball impacts on steel target plates. High-resolution radiography and witness plate diagnostics provided impact motion and statistical fragment size data. CTH simulations were performed to test computational models and numerical methods.

  7. Experimental and numerical study on condensation in transonic steam flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Majkut Mirosław


    Full Text Available The present paper describes an experimental and numerical study of steam condensing flow in a linear cascade of turbine stator blades. The experimental research was performed on the facility of a small scale steam power plant located at Silesian University of Technology in Gliwice, Poland. The test rig of the facility allows us to perform the tests of steam transonic flows for the conditions corresponding to these which prevail in the low-pressure (LP condensing steam turbine stages. The experimental data of steam condensing flow through the blade-to- blade stator channel were compared with numerical results obtained using the in-house CFD numerical code TraCoFlow. Obtained results confirmed a good quality of the performed experiment and numerical calculations.

  8. Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Fracture Processes in Concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schlangen, H.E.J.G.


    A combined experimental and numerical approach is adopted to investigate fracture processes in concrete. The experimental programme focuses on the failure of concrete subjected to mixed mode I and II loading. The influence of shear load on the nucleation and propagation of cracks in concrete is

  9. Numerical and experimental investigation of geometric parameters in projection welding

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, Lars; Zhang, Wenqi; Bay, Niels


    Resistance projection welding is widely used for joining of workpieces with almost any geometric combination. This makes standardization of projection welding impossible. In order to facilitate industrial applications of projection welding, systematic investigations are carried out on the geometric...... parameters by numerical modeling and experimental studies. SORPAS, an FEM program for numerical modeling of resistance welding, is developed as a tool to help in the phase of product design and process optimization in both spot and projection welding. A systematic experimental investigation of projection...... on the numerical and experimental investigations of the geometric parameters in projection welding, guidelines for selection of the geometry and material combinations in product design are proposed. These will be useful and applicable to industry....

  10. Experimental and numerical investigation of thermal flow meter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cebula Artur


    Full Text Available The paper presents analytical and numerical model calculation results of the temperature distribution along the thermal flow meter. Results show a very good conformity between numerical and analytical model. Apart from the calculation results the experimental investigations are presented. The author performed the test where a temperature of duct wall surface was measured. The relation between mass flow rate in terms of the duct surface temperature difference was developed.

  11. Numerical modeling of nitrogen oxide emission and experimental verification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szecowka Lech


    Full Text Available The results of nitrogen reduction in combustion process with application of primary method are presented in paper. The reduction of NOx emission, by the recirculation of combustion gasses, staging of fuel and of air was investigated, and than the reduction of NOx emission by simultaneous usage of the mentioned above primary method with pulsatory disturbances.The investigations contain numerical modeling of NOx reduction and experimental verification of obtained numerical calculation results.

  12. Steel Fibers Reinforced Concrete Pipes - Experimental Tests and Numerical Simulation (United States)

    Doru, Zdrenghea


    The paper presents in the first part a state of the art review of reinforced concrete pipes used in micro tunnelling realised through pipes jacking method and design methods for steel fibres reinforced concrete. In part two experimental tests are presented on inner pipes with diameters of 1410mm and 2200mm, and specimens (100x100x500mm) of reinforced concrete with metal fibres (35 kg / m3). In part two experimental tests are presented on pipes with inner diameters of 1410mm and 2200mm, and specimens (100x100x500mm) of reinforced concrete with steel fibres (35 kg / m3). The results obtained are analysed and are calculated residual flexural tensile strengths which characterise the post-cracking behaviour of steel fibres reinforced concrete. In the third part are presented numerical simulations of the tests of pipes and specimens. The model adopted for the pipes test was a three-dimensional model and loads considered were those obtained in experimental tests at reaching breaking forces. Tensile stresses determined were compared with mean flexural tensile strength. To validate tensile parameters of steel fibres reinforced concrete, experimental tests of the specimens were modelled with MIDAS program to reproduce the flexural breaking behaviour. To simulate post - cracking behaviour was used the method σ — ε based on the relationship stress - strain, according to RILEM TC 162-TDF. For the specimens tested were plotted F — δ diagrams, which have been superimposed for comparison with the similar diagrams of experimental tests. The comparison of experimental results with those obtained from numerical simulation leads to the following conclusions: - the maximum forces obtained by numerical calculation have higher values than the experimental values for the same tensile stresses; - forces corresponding of residual strengths have very similar values between the experimental and numerical calculations; - generally the numerical model estimates a breaking force greater

  13. Experimental and numerical investigation of v-shape plates ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Experimental and numerical investigation of v-shape plates subjected to blast loadings. M.N. Hafizi, M.S. Risby, S.T. Umar, A.S.M. Sohaimi, S. Khalis, K.S. Tan. Abstract. No Abstract. Full Text: EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT EMAIL FREE FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT · AJOL African Journals ...

  14. Experimental and numerical investigations of flow through free ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)


    Jun 5, 2010 ... tional fluid dynamics (CFD) Fluent package (ANSYS, 2006) to numerically simulate the hydraulic performance and flow struc- ture throughout the double baffled gate distributors. The final stage involved the analysis of the experimental and simulated data and the production of a user-friendly spreadsheet to ...

  15. Numerical and Experimental Study of Electromagnetically Driven Vortical Flows

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kenjeres, S.; Verdoold, J.; Tummers, M.J.; Hanjalic, K.; Kleijn, C.R.


    The paper reports on numerical and experimental investigations of electromagnetically driven vortical flows of an electrically conductive fluid in a generic setup. Two different configurations of permanent magnets are considered: a 3-magnet configuration in which the resulting Lorentz force is

  16. Experimental validation of numerical sensitivities in a deep drawing simulation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van den Boogaard, Antonius H.; Carleer, B.D.; Atzema, E.H.; ter Wijlen, E.V.


    Deep drawing of a benchmark B-pillar is numerically modelled and experimentally performed with varying blankholder force and several blank shape parameters. The most influential parameters are selected for optimisation. Direct application of Autoform sigma software was used to determine

  17. Experimental and numerical investigation on two-phase flow instabilities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruspini, Leonardo Carlos


    Two-phase flow instabilities are experimentally and numerically studied within this thesis. In particular, the phenomena called Ledinegg instability, density wave oscillations and pressure drop oscillations are investigated. The most important investigations regarding the occurrence of two-phase flow instabilities are reviewed. An extensive description of the main contributions in the experimental and analytical research is presented. In addition, a critical discussion and recommendations for future investigations are presented. A numerical framework using a hp-adaptive method is developed in order to solve the conservation equations modelling general thermo-hydraulic systems. A natural convection problem is analysed numerically in order to test the numerical solver. Moreover, the description of an adaptive strategy to solve thermo-hydraulic problems is presented. In the second part of this dissertation, a homogeneous model is used to study Ledinegg, density wave and pressure drop oscillations phenomena numerically. The dynamic characteristics of the Ledinegg (flow excursion) phenomenon are analysed through the simulation of several transient examples. In addition, density wave instabilities in boiling and condensing systems are investigated. The effects of several parameters, such as the fluid inertia and compressibility volumes, on the stability limits of Ledinegg and density wave instabilities are studied, showing a strong influence of these parameters. Moreover, the phenomenon called pressure drop oscillations is numerically investigated. A discussion of the physical representation of several models is presented with reference to the obtained numerical results. Finally, the influence of different parameters on these phenomena is analysed. In the last part, an experimental investigation of these phenomena is presented. The designing methodology used for the construction of the experimental facility is described. Several simulations and a non

  18. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Rock Dynamic Fracture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aliasghar Mirmohammadlou


    Full Text Available Rapid development of engineering activities expands through a variety of rock engineering processes such as drilling, blasting, mining and mineral processing. These activities require rock dynamic fracture mechanics method to characterize the rock behavior. Dynamic fracture toughness is an important parameter for the analysis of engineering structures under dynamic loading. Several experimental methods are used for determination of dynamic fracture properties of materials. Among them, the Hopkinson pressure bar and the drop weight have been frequently used for rocks. On the other hand, numerical simulations are very useful in dynamic fracture studies. Among vast variety of numerical techniques, the powerful extended finite element method (XFEM enriches the finite element approximation with appropriate functions extracted from the fracture mechanics solution around a crack-tip. The main advantage of XFEM is its capability in modeling different on a fixed mesh, which can be generated without considering the existence of discontinuities. In this paper, first, the design of a drop weight test setup is presented. Afterwards, the experimental tests on igneous (basalt and calcareous (limestone rocks with single-edge-cracked bend specimen are discussed. Then, each experimental test is modeled with the XFEM code. Finally, the obtained experimental and numerical results are compared. The results indicate that the experimentally predicted dynamic fracture toughness has less than 8 percent difference with calculated dynamic fracture toughness from extended finite element method

  19. Numerical and experimental study in piping system dead legs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deutsch, E.; Barcouda, M.; Rousset, J.L. [Electricite de France (EDF), 78 - Chatou (France). Lab. National d`Hydraulique; Mallez, C.


    This paper deals with an experimental and numerical study of the isothermal flow at the junction of a zero flow-rate pipe connected to high Reynolds number piping system. The motivation is to understand and model the hydraulic behaviour of various auxiliary lines connected to the primary circuit of Pressurised Water Reactors. Experimental data have been obtained on a hydraulic mock-up using flow visualisation method and particle image velocimetry (PIV). These qualitative results show an helicoidal flow extending along the auxiliary pipe. Numerical calculations performed with the 3D ESTET code are presented and contrast the performance of the k-epsilon eddy viscosity model and a second moment closure turbulence model. Fine (1 500 000) mesh were used. The numerical results obtained using the second moment closure turbulence model confirm the swirl flow structure into the dead leg observed on the mock-up. On the other hand the k-epsilon eddy viscosity model is not able to predict the vortex penetration along the auxiliary pipe. These results illustrate the necessity to use second moment closure turbulence model to simulate flows in piping system dead legs. Unfortunately the powerful of the vortex is very sensitive to geometric details of the junction and gives difficulties for quantitative comparisons of the numerical results with experimental data. (author)

  20. Sensible Heat Transfer during Droplet Cooling: Experimental and Numerical Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emanuele Teodori


    Full Text Available This study presents the numerical reproduction of the entire surface temperature field resulting from a water droplet spreading on a heated surface, which is compared with experimental data. High-speed infrared thermography of the back side of the surface and high-speed images of the side view of the impinging droplet were used to infer on the solid surface temperature field and on droplet dynamics. Numerical reproduction of the phenomena was performed using OpenFOAM CFD toolbox. An enhanced volume of fluid (VOF model was further modified for this purpose. The proposed modifications include the coupling of temperature fields between the fluid and the solid regions, to account for transient heat conduction within the solid. The results evidence an extremely good agreement between the temporal evolution of the measured and simulated spreading factors of the considered droplet impacts. The numerical and experimental dimensionless surface temperature profiles within the solid surface and along the droplet radius, were also in good agreement. Most of the differences were within the experimental measurements uncertainty. The numerical results allowed relating the solid surface temperature profiles with the fluid flow. During spreading, liquid recirculation within the rim, leads to the appearance of different regions of heat transfer that can be correlated with the vorticity field within the droplet.

  1. Numerical and experimental investigation of nonswirling and swirling confined jets (United States)

    Brondum, D. C.; Bennett, J. C.; Weinberg, B. C.; Mcdonald, H.


    An investigation of the influence of large scale structures on the flow development for coaxial jets with sudden expansion (with and without swirl) is presented. Both an experimental study and numerical predictions were performed for a configuration corresponding to that considered by Johnson and Bennett and Roback and Johnson. The effects of large scale structures on the swirling and nonswirling flows are documented, in particular their influence on turbulence modeling and the numerical simulation. The ensemble-averaged, time-dependent Navier-Stokes equations are solved by an LBI procedure to predict the turbulent flow field. Effects of artificial dissipation and placement of the upstream boundary in the numerical computation are also discussed.

  2. Numerical and Experimental Study of Pump Sump Flows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Liang Chuang


    Full Text Available The present study analyzes pump sump flows with various discharges and gate submergence. Investigations using a three-dimensional large eddy simulation model and an acoustic Doppler velocimeter are performed. Flow patterns and velocity profiles in the approaching flow are shown to describe the flow features caused by various discharges and gate submergence. The variation of a large-scale spanwise vortex behind a sluice gate is examined and discussed. The suction effect on approaching flow near the pipe column is examined using numerical modeling. To gain more understanding of the vortices variation, a comparison between time-averaged and instantaneous flow patterns is numerically conducted. Additionally, swirl angle, a widely used index for evaluating pump efficiency, is experimentally and numerically examined under various flow conditions. The results indicate that the pump becomes less efficient with increasing discharge and gate submergence. The fluctuation of the free surface over the pump sump is also discussed.

  3. Numerical and Experimental Analyses of Residual Stresses in

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Jan Langkjær; Hattel, Jesper; Lorentzen, Torben


    been done using the novel non-destructive technique of neutron diffraction.The thermal model takes into account the moving heat source in the V-shaped weld. The heat source is modelled by filler material being added continuously in connection with a body flux. In order to obtain a more realistic weld......Butt-welding in one pass with SMAW of two 10mm mild steel plates is investigated. In order to predict the residual stress fields associated with the welding procedure, a finite element model in 3D has been developed in ABAQUS. This model applies a sequential thermal and mechanical numerical...... analysis. In order to evaluate and refine the model parameters for the thermal analysis, the numerical results from this analysis are compared with experimental measurements of the temperature. To evaluate the predicted stress/strain fields, the mechanical model has been validated experimentally. This has...

  4. Numerical and experimental investigation of turbine blade film cooling (United States)

    Berkache, Amar; Dizene, Rabah


    The blades in a gas turbine engine are exposed to extreme temperature levels that exceed the melting temperature of the material. Therefore, efficient cooling is a requirement for high performance of the gas turbine engine. The present study investigates film cooling by means of 3D numerical simulations using a commercial code: Fluent. Three numerical models, namely k-ɛ, RSM and SST turbulence models; are applied and then prediction results are compared to experimental measurements conducted by PIV technique. The experimental model realized in the ENSEMA laboratory uses a flat plate with several rows of staggered holes. The performance of the injected flow into the mainstream is analyzed. The comparison shows that the RANS closure models improve the over-predictions of center-line film cooling velocities that is caused by the limitations of the RANS method due to its isotropy eddy diffusivity.

  5. An Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Puff Hydrodynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saidi MS


    Full Text Available The permeability of a tobacco rod in a cigarette increases as it converts into char and ash in the coal. The hot coal introduces a significant resistance to the air flow when air passes through. Through a series of experiments, the cigarette burn line and burn rate, the centerline temperature, and the pressure drop were measured for continuous puffing conditions. The gas viscosity was calculated from the temperature distribution inside the cigarette and applying Sutherland's law. Then, the experimental setup was mathematically modeled from a commercially available CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics code and, by matching the numerical and experimental results, the changes in coal and filter permeability during puffing were estimated. The numerical simulation successfully reproduced the results of experiments on the air flow through the coal, ventilation holes and paper wrapper.

  6. Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Confined Turbulent Multiple Transverse Jets (United States)


    swirling , homogeneous or heterogeneous cross flow , compressible or incompressible, etc 2.” The research results presented in this paper numerically...future. This subdomain uses 2.2M hexahedral only grid elements. The upstream boundary is a fully- developed pipe flow boundary condition that is...varied while the jet flow is held constant. The experimental measurements were made at a distance of three main pipe diameters D downstream of the

  7. Biofouling in forward osmosis systems: An experimental and numerical study

    KAUST Repository

    Bucs, Szilard


    This study evaluates with numerical simulations supported by experimental data the impact of biofouling on membrane performance in a cross-flow forward osmosis (FO) system. The two-dimensional numerical model couples liquid flow with solute transport in the FO feed and draw channels, in the FO membrane support layer and in the biofilm developed on one or both sides of the membrane. The developed model was tested against experimental measurements at various osmotic pressure differences and in batch operation without and with the presence of biofilm on the membrane active layer. Numerical studies explored the effect of biofilm properties (thickness, hydraulic permeability and porosity), biofilm membrane surface coverage, and biofilm location on salt external concentration polarization and on the permeation flux. The numerical simulations revealed that (i) when biofouling occurs, external concentration polarization became important, (ii) the biofilm hydraulic permeability and membrane surface coverage have the highest impact on water flux, and (iii) the biofilm formed in the draw channel impacts the process performance more than when formed in the feed channel. The proposed mathematical model helps to understand the impact of biofouling in FO membrane systems and to develop possible strategies to reduce and control biofouling. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

  8. Biofouling in forward osmosis systems: An experimental and numerical study. (United States)

    Bucs, Szilárd S; Valladares Linares, Rodrigo; Vrouwenvelder, Johannes S; Picioreanu, Cristian


    This study evaluates with numerical simulations supported by experimental data the impact of biofouling on membrane performance in a cross-flow forward osmosis (FO) system. The two-dimensional numerical model couples liquid flow with solute transport in the FO feed and draw channels, in the FO membrane support layer and in the biofilm developed on one or both sides of the membrane. The developed model was tested against experimental measurements at various osmotic pressure differences and in batch operation without and with the presence of biofilm on the membrane active layer. Numerical studies explored the effect of biofilm properties (thickness, hydraulic permeability and porosity), biofilm membrane surface coverage, and biofilm location on salt external concentration polarization and on the permeation flux. The numerical simulations revealed that (i) when biofouling occurs, external concentration polarization became important, (ii) the biofilm hydraulic permeability and membrane surface coverage have the highest impact on water flux, and (iii) the biofilm formed in the draw channel impacts the process performance more than when formed in the feed channel. The proposed mathematical model helps to understand the impact of biofouling in FO membrane systems and to develop possible strategies to reduce and control biofouling. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Interlaminate Deformation in Thermoplastic Composite Laminates: Experimental-Numerical Correlation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fang Y.


    Full Text Available The interlaminar deformation behaviors of thermoplastic AS4/PEEK composite laminates subjected to static tensile loading are investigated by means of microscopic moiré interferometry with high spatial resolution. The fully threedimensional orthotropic elastic-plastic analysis of interlaminar deformation for the thermoplastic laminates is developed in this paper, and used to simulate the stress-strain curves of tensile experiment for its angle-ply laminates. Under uniaxial tensile loading, the 3D orthotropic elastic-plastic FE analysis and microscopic moiré interferometry of interlaminar deformations are carried out for the [±25]S4 laminates. The quantitative local-filed experimental results of interlaminar shear strain and displacements at freeedge surface of the laminate are compared with corresponding numerical results of the orthotropic elastic-plastic FE model. It is indicated that the numerical tensile stressstrain curves of angle-ply laminates computed with 3D orthotropic elastic-plastic model are agree with experimental results. The numerical interlaminar displacement U and shear strain γxz are also consistent with the experimental results obtained by moiré interferometry. It is expected the elastic-plastic interlaminar stresses and deformations analysis for the optimal design and application of AS4/PEEK laminates and its structures.

  10. Experimental and numerical study of radial flow and its contribution to wake development of a HAWT


    Micallef, D.; Akay, B.; Sant, van 't, L.E.; Simao Ferreira, C.J.; Van Bussel, G.J.W.


    The scope of this work was to investigate radial flow component for a Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine in axial flow conditions and to assess its impact on the turbine operation. This was done by means of Particle Image Velocimetry and numerical simulation with a 3D unsteady potential-flow panel model. A direct comparison between the numerical and experimental radial velocity results show differences in the tip and root regions. These differences have important implications on the wake developmen...

  11. Experimental and numerical study of globe valve housing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mitrovic Nenad R.


    Full Text Available Complex structure experimental analysis has always been a huge challenge for researchers. Conventional experimental methods (e.g., strain gauges give only limited data sets regarding measurement on critical areas with high geometrical discontinuities. A 3D Digital Image Correlation method is an optical method that overcomes the limitations of conventional methods and enables full-field displacement and strain measurement of geometrically complex structures. System Aramis, based on Digital Image Correlation method, is used for experimental analysis and numerical model verification in this paper. Investigated complex structure is sphere/cylinder junction on globe valve housing subjected to axial loading. The highest experimentally measured von Mises strain values around 0.15% are recorded on cylinder/sphere intersection. Von Mises strain values on cylindrical and spherical part are several times smaller than on intersection itself. It is important to emphasize that, to the authors’ best knowledge, this is the first paper showing experimental results of 3D full and strain field of geometrically complex structure (sphere/cylinder intersection on the intersection itself on pressure equipment. It is proven that 3D Digital Image Correlation method is fast and versatile method for recording strain during loading of complex structures. [Project of the Serbian Ministry of Education, Science and Technological Development, Grant no. TR35031 and Grant no. TR35040

  12. Numerical and Experimental Investigations of a Rotating Heat Pipe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jankowski, Todd A. [Univ. of New Mexico, Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    Rotating and revolving heat pipes have been used in a variety of applications including heat pipe heat exchangers, cooling of rotating electrical machines, and heat removal in high speed cutting operations. The use of heat pipes in rotating environments has prompted many analytical, numerical, and experimental investigations of the heat transfer characteristics of these devices. Past investigations, however, have been restricted to the study of straight heat pipes. In this work, a curved rotating heat pipe is studied numerically and experimentally. In certain types of rotating machines, heat generating components, which must be cooled during normal operation, are located at some radial distance from the axis of rotation. The bent heat pipe studied here is shown to have advantages when compared to the conventional straight heat pipes in these off-axis cooling scenarios. The heat pipe studied here is built so that both the condenser and evaporator sections are parallel to the axis of rotation. The condenser section is concentric with the axis of rotation while the evaporator section can be placed in contact with off-axis heat sources in the rotating machine. The geometry is achieved by incorporating an S-shaped curve between the on-axis rotating condenser section and the off-axis revolving evaporator section. Furthermore, the heat pipe uses an annular gap wick structure. Incorporating an annular gap wick structure into the heat pipe allows for operation in a non-rotating environment. A numerical model of this rotating heat pipe is developed. The analysis is based on a two-dimensional finite-difference model of the liquid flow coupled to a one-dimensional model of the vapor flow. Although the numerical model incorporates many significant aspects of the fluid flow, the flow in the actual heat pipe is expected to be threedimensional. The rotating heat pipe with the S-shaped curve is also studied experimentally to determine how well the numerical model captures the key

  13. A numerical and experimental study of confined swirling jets (United States)

    Nikjooy, M.; Mongia, H. C.; Samuelsen, G. S.; Mcdonell, V. G.


    A numerical and experimental study of a confined strong swirling flow is presented. Detailed velocity measurements are made using a two-component laser Doppler velocimeter (LDV) technique. Computations are performed using a differential second-moment (DSM) closure. The effect of inlet dissipation rate on calculated mean and turbulence fields is investigated. Various model constants are employed in the pressure-strain model to demonstrate their influences on the predicted results. Finally, comparison of the DSM calculations with the algebraic second-monent (ASM) closure results shows that the DSM is better suited for complex swirling flow analysis.

  14. Numerical and experimental investigations of laser forming processes (United States)

    Li, Wenchuan


    Laser forming is a recently developed and highly flexible metal forming process. It uses laser-induced thermal distortion to shape a metal workpiece without hard tooling or external forces. A number of issues concerning laser forming are not yet fully understood. Understanding these aspects of laser forming is a challenging problem of considerable academic interest and practical applications. Efforts are made to advance knowledge in these areas. Numerical simulation models using finite element analysis are developed. The simulation results are compared to, and are consistent with, the experimental observations under a wide range of conditions. The laser forming process is investigated under the condition of constant line energy. Under this condition, the effects of velocity on temperature, net energy input, strain rate and internal flow stress are studied. Their collective effects on deformation and microstructure are presented. The influence of the strain rate in laser forming is investigated. To isolate and effectively study the strain rate effects, which are temperature dependent, a "constant peak temperature" method is developed with the aid of the numerical modeling and solution. Under the constant peak temperature condition, the effects of strain rate on forming efficiency, residual stress and hardness of the formed parts are studied. A new laser-scanning scheme is postulated to obtain convex forming insensitive to the initial state. This postulate is validated by experimental and numerical results. Effects of the scanning scheme parameters on the certainty of the convex forming, and dependence of the bending angle on the Fourier number, laser power, and velocity are further investigated. Mechanisms of the process of laser bending of tubes are examined to better understand the deformation characteristics such as wall thickness variation, cross-section ovalization, bending radius, and asymmetry. Factors important to these characteristics are experimentally and

  15. Experimental and numerical research on forging with torsion (United States)

    Petrov, Mikhail A.; Subich, Vadim N.; Petrov, Pavel A.


    Increasing the efficiency of the technological operations of blank production is closely related to the computer-aided technologies (CAx). On the one hand, the practical result represents reality exactly. On the other hand, the development procedure of new process development demands unrestricted resources, which are limited on the SMEs. The tools of CAx were successfully applied for development of new process of forging with torsion and result analysis as well. It was shown, that the theoretical calculations find the confirmation both in praxis and during numerical simulation. The mostly used constructional materials were under study. The torque angles were stated. The simulated results were evaluated by experimental procedure.

  16. Floor Heating with Displacement Ventilation: An Experimental and Numerical Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Causone, Francesco; Olesen, Bjarne W.; Corgnati, S.P.


    The effect of floor heating combined with displacement ventilation (DV) on thermal indoor environments and indoor air quality (IAQ) was studied by means of CFD. The numerical model was validated with experimental data. A typical office room was simulated, and one of the occupants was considered...... to simulate different kinds of contaminant sources, under the same boundary conditions. It was found that DV does not guarantee a better IAQ than full mixing when contaminant sources are not linked to heat sources, even when floor heating is used. Contaminants produced by powerful heat sources require high...

  17. Combustion Behaviour of Pulverised Wood - Numerical and Experimental Studies. Part 1 Numerical Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elfasakhany, A.; Xue-Song Bai [Lund Inst. of Tech. (Sweden). Dept. of Heat and Power Engineering


    This report describes a theoretical/numerical investigation of the particle motion and the particle drying, pyrolysis, oxidation of volatile and char in a pulverised biofuel (wood) flame. This work, along with the experimental measurement of a pulverised wood flame in a vertical furnace at TPS, is supported by the Swedish Energy Agency, STEM. The fundamental combustion process of a pulverised wood flame with determined size distribution and anisotropy character is studied. Comprehensive submodels are studied and some models not available in the literature are developed. The submodels are integrated to a CFD code, previously developed at LTH. The numerical code is used to simulate the experimental flame carried out at TPS (as sub-task 2 within the project). The sub-models describe the drying, devolatilization, char formation of wood particles, and the oxidation reaction of char and the gas phase volatile. At the present stage, the attention is focused on the understanding and modelling of non-spherical particle dynamics and the drying, pyrolysis, and oxidation of volatile and char. Validation of the sub-models against the experimental data is presented and discussed in this study. The influence of different factors on the pulverised wood flame in the TPS vertical furnace is investigated. This includes shape of the particles, the effect of volatile release, as well as the orientation of the particles on the motion of the particles. The effect of particle size on the flame structure (distribution of species and temperature along the axis of the furnace) is also studied. The numerical simulation is in close agreement with the TPS experimental data in the concentrations of species O{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} as well as temperature. Some discrepancy between the model simulations and measurements is observed, which suggests that further improvement in our understanding and modeling the pulverised wood flame is needed.

  18. Selective Laser Treatment on Cold-Sprayed Titanium Coatings: Numerical Modeling and Experimental Analysis (United States)

    Carlone, Pierpaolo; Astarita, Antonello; Rubino, Felice; Pasquino, Nicola; Aprea, Paolo


    In this paper, a selective laser post-deposition on pure grade II titanium coatings, cold-sprayed on AA2024-T3 sheets, was experimentally and numerically investigated. Morphological features, microstructure, and chemical composition of the treated zone were assessed by means of optical microscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and energy dispersive X-ray spectrometry. Microhardness measurements were also carried out to evaluate the mechanical properties of the coating. A numerical model of the laser treatment was implemented and solved to simulate the process and discuss the experimental outcomes. Obtained results highlighted the key role played by heat input and dimensional features on the effectiveness of the treatment.

  19. Advanced experimental and numerical techniques for cavitation erosion prediction

    CERN Document Server

    Chahine, Georges; Franc, Jean-Pierre; Karimi, Ayat


    This book provides a comprehensive treatment of the cavitation erosion phenomenon and state-of-the-art research in the field. It is divided into two parts. Part 1 consists of seven chapters, offering a wide range of computational and experimental approaches to cavitation erosion. It includes a general introduction to cavitation and cavitation erosion, a detailed description of facilities and measurement techniques commonly used in cavitation erosion studies, an extensive presentation of various stages of cavitation damage (including incubation and mass loss), and insights into the contribution of computational methods to the analysis of both fluid and material behavior. The proposed approach is based on a detailed description of impact loads generated by collapsing cavitation bubbles and a physical analysis of the material response to these loads. Part 2 is devoted to a selection of nine papers presented at the International Workshop on Advanced Experimental and Numerical Techniques for Cavitation Erosion (Gr...

  20. Experimental and numerical investigation of cylindrical and hemispherical jet formation (United States)

    Betney, Matthew; Foster, Peta; Ringrose, Tim; Edwards, Thomas; Tully, Brett; Doyle, Hugo; Hawker, Nicholas; First Light Fusion Ltd. Team


    This paper presents a detailed investigation of the formation of jets in cylindrical and spherical cavities, when impacted by shocks at extreme pressures. As the shock pressure increases the effects of material strength lessen in proportion. Beyond a certain magnitude the behaviour is referred to as "hydrodynamic". In this domain both cylindrical and spherical cavities involute to form jets, which go on to strike the leeward cavity wall, compressing the cavity contents to high pressures and temperatures. In this study, the jet formation process is isolated by cutting hemispherical and half-cylindrical cavities from the rear side of PMMA and copper blocks. This allows direct measurement of the jet speed and shape using high speed imaging, providing data against which numerical models may be compared. Shock waves at pressures of up to 30 GPa are formed in the targets by the impact of projectiles from a two-stage light gas gun, at velocities of up to 7 km/s. Numerically, the jet formation process is modelled using our in-house front-tracking code. This code uses Lagrangian hypersurfaces to model the interfaces between different media, with an underlying Eulerian mesh used to model the bulk flow. Detailed comparisons between numerical and experimental results are presented.

  1. Numerical and experimental investigation of vortical flow-flame interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Najm, H.N.; Schefer, R.W.; Milne, R.B.; Mueller, C.J. [Sandia National Labs., Livermore, CA (United States); Devine, K.D.; Kempka, S.N. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)


    A massively parallel coupled Eulerian-Lagrangian low Mach number reacting flow code is developed and used to study the structure and dynamics of a forced planar buoyant jet flame in two dimensions. The numerical construction uses a finite difference scheme with adaptive mesh refinement for solving the scalar conservation equations, and the vortex method for the momentum equations, with the necessary coupling terms. The numerical model construction is presented, along with computational issues regarding the parallel implementation. An experimental acoustically forced planar jet burner apparatus is also developed and used to study the velocity and scalar fields in this flow, and to provide useful data for validation of the computed jet. Burner design and laser diagnostic details are discussed, along with the measured laboratory jet flame dynamics. The computed reacting jet flow is also presented, with focus on both large-scale outer buoyant structures and the lifted flame stabilization dynamics. A triple flame structure is observed at the flame base in the computed flow, as is theoretically expected, but was not observable with present diagnostic techniques in the laboratory flame. Computed and experimental results are compared, along with implications for model improvements.

  2. Experimental and numerical studies of rotating drum grate furnace

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basista Grzegorz


    Full Text Available Waste material from the meat industry can be taken into account as a biofuel. Studies confirm, that calorific value is higher and ash content is lower comparing to some conventional fuels. EU directives regulate details of thermal disposal of the waste material from the meat industry - especially in range of the process temperature and time of the particle presence in area of the combustion zone. The paper describes design of the rotating drum grate stove, dedicated to thermal disposal of the meat wastes as well as solid biomass (pellet, small bricket, wood chips combustion. Device has been developed in frames of cooperation between AGH University of Science and Technology (Krakow, Poland and producer focused on technologies of energy utilization of biomass in distributed generation. Results of measurements of selected operational parameters performed during startup of the furnace have been presented and discussed. Furthermore, numerical model of the combustion process has been developed to complement experimental results in range of the temperature and oxygen distribution in the area of the combustion chamber. ANSYS CFX solver has been applied to perform simulations including rotational domain related with specifics of operation of the device. Results of numerical modelling and experimental studies have been summarized and compared.

  3. Numerical and experimental studies of droplet-gas flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Joesang, Aage Ingebret


    This thesis considers droplet-gas flow by the use of numerical methods and experimental verification. A commercial vane separator was studied both numerical and by experiment. In addition some efforts are put into the numerical analysis of cyclones. The experimental part contains detailed measurements of the flow field between a pair of vanes in a vane separator and droplet size measurements. LDA (Laser Doppler Anemometry) was used to measure the velocity in two dimensions and corresponding turbulence quantities. The results from the LDA measurements are considered to be of high quality and are compared to numerical results obtained from a CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) analysis. The simulation showed good agreement between the numerical and experimental results. Combinations of different turbulence models; the standard k-epsilon model and the Reynold Stress Mode, different schemes; first order and higher order scheme and different near wall treatment of the turbulence; the Law of the wall and the Two-Layer Zonal model were used in the simulations. The Reynold Stress Model together with a higher order scheme performed rather poorly. The recirculation in parts of the separator was overpredicted in this case. For the other cases the overall predictions are satisfactory. PDA (Phase Doppler Anemometry) measurements were used to study the changes in the droplet size distribution through the vane separator. The PDA measurements show that smaller droplets are found at the outlet than present at the inlet. In the literature there exists different mechanisms for explaining the re-entrainment and generation of new droplets. The re-entrainments mechanisms are divided into four groups where droplet-droplet interaction, droplet break-up, splashing of impinging droplet and re-entrainment from the film are defined as the groups of re-entrainment mechanisms. Models for these groups are found in the literature and these models are tested for re-entrainment using the operational

  4. Experimental and numerical studies of two arterial wall delamination modes. (United States)

    Leng, Xiaochang; Zhou, Boran; Deng, Xiaomin; Davis, Lindsey; Lessner, Susan M; Sutton, Michael A; Shazly, Tarek


    Arterial wall dissection, which results from various pathophysiological processes, can lead to the occurrence of large area delamination in the aortic wall that can potentially block blood flow and lead to deleterious clinical conditions. Despite its critical clinical relevance, few studies have focused on investigating the failure mode of delamination in the arterial wall. In this study, we quantify the energy release rate of the medial layer of a porcine abdominal aorta via two delamination experiments: the mixed-mode delamination experiment and the "T"-shaped delamination experiment. A cohesive zone model (CZM) is applied to simulate the arterial wall delamination and Holzapfel-Gasser-Ogden (HGO) material model is used to capture the bulk arterial material behavior. A set of parameter values for the HGO and CZM models are identified through matching simulation predictions of the load vs. load-point displacement curve with experimental measurements. Then the parameter values and critical energy release rates obtained from experiments are used as input data for simulation predictions for two arterial wall delamination experiments. The simulation predictions show that the delamination front matches well with experimental measurements. Moreover, the mixed-mode delamination experiment reveals a shear mode-dominated failure event, whereas the "T"-shaped delamination experiment is an opening failure process. The integration of experimental data and numerical predictions of arterial delamination events provides a comprehensive description of distinct failure modes and aids in the prediction of aortic dissection. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  5. Experimentation and numerical simulation of steel fibre reinforced concrete pipes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    de la Fuente, Albert


    Full Text Available The results concerning on an experimental and a numerical study related to SFRCP are presented. Eighteen pipes with an internal diameter of 600 mm and fibre dosages of 10, 20 and 40 kg/m3 were manufactured and tested. Some technological aspects were concluded. Likewise, a numerical parameterized model was implemented. With this model, the simulation of the resistant behaviour of SFRCP can be performed. In this sense, the results experimentally obtained were contrasted with those suggested by means MAP reaching very satisfactory correlations. Taking it into account, it could be said that the numerical model is a useful tool for the optimal design of the SFRCP fibre dosages, avoiding the need of the systematic employment of the test as an indirect design method. Consequently, the use of this model would reduce the overall cost of the pipes and would give fibres a boost as a solution for this structural typology.

    En este artículo se presentan los resultados principales de un estudio experimental y numérico del comportamiento de tubos hormigón reforzado con fibras de acero (THFA. Se fabricaron y ensayaron 18 tubos de 600 mm de diámetro con cuantías de 10, 20 y 40 kg/m3 de fibras, concluyéndose varios aspectos tecnológicos relacionados con la fabricación y el ensayo así como del comportamiento resistente. Por otra parte, se ha desarrollado el modelo numérico MAP que permite la simulación del comportamiento resistente de THFA sometidos al ensayo de aplastamiento. Los resultados han sido satisfactorios para cualquier régimen de carga, permitiendo concluir que el modelo es una herramienta útil para el diseño óptimo de este tipo de tubos. Se concluye que el uso del modelo conduce a una reducción del coste del armado y da un impulso al uso de fibras como elemento de refuerzo en esta tipología estructural.

  6. Experimental and numerical investigation of a simplified exhaust model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balázs Vehovszky


    Full Text Available A simplified experimental equipment was built to investigate heat radiation and free convection around hot exhaust pipe. Temperatures were measured on the surface of the pipe as like as on heat insulating and -reflecting aluminum shield. Special care was taken to the temperature measuring method: result proved that inappropriate fixing of measuring thermocouples lead to an error of up to 30 % in the temperature-increase values. A detailed 1D numerical model was set up and parametrized so as to the calculation results can be fitted to measured temperature values. In this way thermal properties of the surfaces – as emissivities, absorption coefficients and convective heat transfer coefficients – were determined for temperature sweeps and stationary state cases. The used methods are to be further improved for real automotive parts and higher temperatures.

  7. Border Collision Route to Quasiperiodicity: Numerical Investigation and Experimental Confirmation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhusubaliyev, Zhanybai; Mosekilde, Erik; Maity, S.


    periodicity, e.g., a period-5 focus. This article also contains a discussion of torus destruction via a homoclinic bifurcation in the piecewise-linear normal map. Using a dc–dc converter with two-level control as an example, we report the first experimental verification of the direct transition......Numerical studies of higher-dimensional piecewise-smooth systems have recently shown how a torus can arise from a periodic cycle through a special type of border-collision bifurcation. The present article investigates this new route to quasiperiodicity in the two-dimensional piecewise-linear normal...... form map. We have obtained the chart of the dynamical modes for this map and showed that border-collision bifurcations can lead to the birth of a stable closed invariant curve associated with quasiperiodic or periodic dynamics. In the parameter regions leading to the existence of an invariant closed...

  8. Numerical and Experimental Study of Friction Loss in Hydrostatic Motor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Rasmus Mørk; Hansen, Michael R.; Mouritsen, Ole Ø.


    This paper presents a numerical and experimental study of the losses in a hydrostatic motor principle. The motor is designed so that the structural de ections and lubricating regimes between moving surfaces and, subsequently, the leakage and friction losses, can be controlled during operation....... This is done by means of additional pressure volumes that in uence the stator de ection. These pressures are referred to as compensation pressures and the main emphasis is on friction or torque loss modeling of the motor as a function of the compensation pressures and the high and low pressures related...... to the load torque. The torque loss modeling is identied as a Stribeck curve which depends on gap height. The asperity friction is decreasing exponentially with an increase in gap height. The parameters of the torque loss model are based on prototype measurements that include the structural de ections...

  9. Numerical simulation and experimental study of explosive projectile devices (United States)

    Selivanov, V. V.; Gryaznov, E. F.; Goldenko, N. A.; Sudomoev, A. D.; Feldstein, V. A.


    A study of explosive-throwing device (ETD) was undertaken to simulate the hypervelocity impact of space debris fragments (SDF) and meteoroids with spacecrafts. The principle of operation of an ETD is based on the cumulative effect in combination with the cut-off head of the cumulative jet, which enables one to simulate a compact particle, such as a meteoroid or a fragment of space debris. Different design schemes of ETD with different composition explosive charge initiation schemes with notably low speeds of the jet cut-off are explored, and a method to control the particle velocity is proposed. Numerical simulation of device modes and basic technical characteristics of experimental testing are investigated.

  10. Experimental and numerical study of micro deep drawing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luo Liang


    Full Text Available Micro forming is a key technology for an industrial miniaturisation trend, and micro deep drawing (MDD is a typical micro forming method. It has great advantages comparing to other micro manufacturing methods, such as net forming ability, mass production potential, high product quality and complex 3D metal products fabrication capacity. Meanwhile, it is facing difficulties, for example the so-called size effects, once scaled down to micro scale. To investigate and to solve the problems in MDD, a combined micro blanking-drawing machine is employed and an explicit-implicit micro deep drawing model with a voronoi blank model is developed. Through heat treatment different grain sizes can be obtained, which affect material's properties and, consequently, the drawing process parameters, as well as produced cups' quality. Further, a voronoi model can provide detailed material information in simulation, and numerical simulation results are in accordance with experimental results.

  11. Experimental approach to validation of an analytical and numerical thermal analysis of a travelling wave tube (United States)

    Wiejak, W.; Wymysłowski, A.


    Travelling Wave Tube (TWT) is an electronic vacuum microwave device, which is used as a high power microwave amplifier, mainly in telecommunication purposes, e.g. radar systems. TWT's is an alternative solution in comparison to semiconductor devices in case of high power and high frequency applications. Thermal behaviour of TWT is one of the key aspects influencing its reliability and working parameters. The main goal of the research was to perform analytical, experimental and numerical analysis of a temperature distribution of a low band TWT in case of a typical working condition. Because the theoretical analysis seems to be very complex thus it was decided to compare the experimental results with the numerical simulations as well as with the simplified analytical formulas. As a first step of the presented research, the analytical analysis and numerical modelling of the helix TWT was carried out. The objective of the thermal analysis was to assess the temperature distribution in different parts of the helix TWT assembly during the extreme standard and working conditions. As a second stage of the research the numerical results were validated by the experimental measurements, which were carried out using a specially designed TWT test samples and corresponding experimental measurement tools.

  12. On numerical integration for effective stress assessment at notches

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Enrico Maggiolini


    Full Text Available This paper presents a numerical method for non-local stress assessment by means of a general FE tool and the local stress field. Unlike usual calculations by means of a numerical PDE solver, a more general numerical integration is used. Different solutions are compared theoretically and numerically by evaluating the results obtained by two different FEM commercial software. The application of the non-local tension field is applied to the strength assessment of notches, welded joints and cracks.

  13. Numerical and experimental investigations on unsteady aerodynamics of flapping wings (United States)

    Yu, Meilin

    The development of a dynamic unstructured grid high-order accurate spectral difference (SD) method for the three dimensional compressible Navier-Stokes (N-S) equations and its applications in flapping-wing aerodynamics are carried out in this work. Grid deformation is achieved via an algebraic blending strategy to save computational cost. The Geometric Conservation Law (GCL) is imposed to ensure that grid deformation will not contaminate the flow physics. A low Mach number preconditioning procedure is conducted in the developed solver to handle the bio-inspired flow. The capability of the low Mach number preconditioned SD solver is demonstrated by a series of two dimensional (2D) and three dimensional (3D) simulations of the unsteady vortex dominated flow. Several topics in the flapping wing aerodynamics are numerically and experimentally investigated in this work. These topics cover some of the cutting-edge issues in flapping wing aerodynamics, including the wake structure analysis, airfoil thickness and kinematics effects on the aerodynamic performances, vortex structure analysis around 3D flapping wings and the kinematics optimization. Wake structures behind a sinusoidally pitching NACA0012 airfoil are studied with both experimental and numerical approaches. The experiments are carried out with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and two types of wake transition processes, namely the transition from a drag-indicative wake to a thrust-indicative wake and that from the symmetric wake to the asymmetric wake are distinguished. The numerical results from the developed SD solver agree well with the experimental results. It is numerically found that the deflective direction of the asymmetric wake is determined by the initial conditions, e.g. initial phase angle. As most insects use thin wings (i. e., wing thickness is only a few percent of the chord length) in flapping flight, the effects of airfoil thickness on thrust generation are numerically investigated by simulating

  14. Numerical and experimental design of coaxial shallow geothermal energy systems (United States)

    Raghavan, Niranjan

    Geothermal Energy has emerged as one of the front runners in the energy race because of its performance efficiency, abundance and production competitiveness. Today, geothermal energy is used in many regions of the world as a sustainable solution for decreasing dependence on fossil fuels and reducing health hazards. However, projects related to geothermal energy have not received their deserved recognition due to lack of computational tools associated with them and economic misconceptions related to their installation and functioning. This research focuses on numerical and experimental system design analysis of vertical shallow geothermal energy systems. The driving force is the temperature difference between a finite depth beneath the earth and its surface stimulates continuous exchange of thermal energy from sub-surface to the surface (a geothermal gradient is set up). This heat gradient is captured by the circulating refrigerant and thus, tapping the geothermal energy from shallow depths. Traditionally, U-bend systems, which consist of two one-inch pipes with a U-bend connector at the bottom, have been widely used in geothermal applications. Alternative systems include coaxial pipes (pipe-in-pipe) that are the main focus of this research. It has been studied that coaxial pipes have significantly higher thermal performance characteristics than U-bend pipes, with comparative production and installation costs. This makes them a viable design upgrade to the traditional piping systems. Analytical and numerical heat transfer analysis of the coaxial system is carried out with the help of ABAQUS software. It is tested by varying independent parameters such as materials, soil conditions and effect of thermal contact conductance on heat transfer characteristics. With the above information, this research aims at formulating a preliminary theoretical design setup for an experimental study to quantify and compare the heat transfer characteristics of U-bend and coaxial

  15. Comparison of Laboratory Experimental Data to XBeach Numerical Model Output (United States)

    Demirci, Ebru; Baykal, Cuneyt; Guler, Isikhan; Sogut, Erdinc


    generating data sets for testing and validation of sediment transport relationships for sand transport in the presence of waves and currents. In these series, there is no structure in the basin. The second and third series of experiments were designed to generate data sets for development of tombolos in the lee of detached 4m-long rubble mound breakwater that is 4 m from the initial shoreline. The fourth series of experiments are conducted to investigate tombolo development in the lee of a 4m-long T-head groin with the head section in the same location of the second and the third tests. The fifth series of experiments are used to investigate tombolo development in the lee of a 3-m-long rubble-mound breakwater positioned 1.5 m offshore of the initial shoreline. In this study, the data collected from the above mentioned five experiments are used to compare the results of the experimental data with XBeach numerical model results, both for the "no-structure" and "with-structure" cases regarding to sediment transport relationships in the presence of only waves and currents as well as the shoreline changes together with the detached breakwater and the T-groin. The main purpose is to investigate the similarities and differences between the laboratory experimental data behavior with XBeach numerical model outputs for these five cases. References: Baykal, C., Sogut, E., Ergin, A., Guler, I., Ozyurt, G.T., Guler, G., and Dogan, G.G. (2015). Modelling Long Term Morphological Changes with XBeach: Case Study of Kızılırmak River Mouth, Turkey, European Geosciences Union, General Assembly 2015, Vienna, Austria, 12-17 April 2015. Gravens, M.B. and Wang, P. (2007). "Data report: Laboratory testing of longshore sand transport by waves and currents; morphology change behind headland structures." Technical Report, ERDC/CHL TR-07-8, Coastal and Hydraulics Laboratory, US Army Engineer Research and Development Center, Vicksburg, MS. Roelvink, D., Reniers, A., van Dongeren, A., van Thiel de

  16. Numerical and experimental study of bistable plates for morphing structures (United States)

    Nicassio, F.; Scarselli, G.; Avanzini, G.; Del Core, G.


    This study is concerned with the activation energy threshold of bistable composite plates in order to tailor a bistable system for specific aeronautical applications. The aim is to explore potential configurations of the bistable plates and their dynamic behavior for designing novel morphing structure suitable for aerodynamic surfaces and, as a possible further application, for power harvesters. Bistable laminates have two stable mechanical shapes that can withstand aerodynamic loads without additional constraint forces or locking mechanisms. This kind of structures, when properly loaded, snap-through from one stable configuration to another, causing large strains that can also be used for power harvesting scopes. The transition between the stable states of the composite laminate can be triggered, in principle, simply by aerodynamic loads (pilot, disturbance or passive inputs) without the need of servo-activated control systems. Both numerical simulations based on Finite Element models and experimental testing based on different activating forcing spectra are used to validate this concept. The results show that dynamic activation of bistable plates depend on different parameters that need to be carefully managed for their use as aircraft passive wing flaps.

  17. Field, experimental, and numerical studies of deformation localization bands (United States)

    Petit, J.-P.; Chemenda, A.


    Characterization and Formation Mechanisms of Deformation Localization Bands(Shear, Compaction, and Dilatancy): Field and Experimental Data,Theoretical Analysis and Numerical Models;Montpellier, France, 9-10 May 2011. The origin of fractures and discontinuities in rocks has been for decades a subject of common interest in both the academic world and industry, as these features influence hydrocarbon reservoir production. Fractures (notably joints) and deformation bands are usually analyzed on a separate basis. Joints have commonly been interpreted as mode I fractures susing fracture mechanics, whereas the bifurcation theory has been used for deformation bands. This diversity was called into question by the research carried on by the Geo-FracNet consortium sponsored by Total and Shell International. New findings (A. I. Chemenda et al., J. Geophys. Res., 116, B04401, doi:10.1029/2010JB008104, 2011, and references therein) suggest that at least a part of joints could have been formed as dilatancy (dilation) bands, i.e., due not to the strong effective tensile stress concentration at the opening fracture tip but to the porosity increase and decohesion (perigranular and/ or intragranular grain breakage) of the material within a band several grains thick. The band (material damage and dilatancy within it) can propagate along the strike without opening and can eventually be opened.

  18. Online assessment of dimensional numerical answers using STACK in science (United States)

    Sangwin, C. J.; Harjula, M.


    In this article we report research into the computer representation and automatic assessment of expressions which are dimensional numerical quantities. We consider how machines represent and manipulate dimensional numerical data. Through action research we examine how students enter dimensional numerical data into a machine for online assessment, and examine the properties of such answers which practical teachers seek to establish. We consider the extent to which these properties can be established automatically, and report the outcomes of our action research: extensions to the STACK online assessment system which implement both syntactic and semantic layers to represent dimensional numerical quantities in a form suitable for online assessment.

  19. Experimental results for an experimental condensation heat exchanger with a spiral minichanel tube. Comparison to numerical imulations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hrubý J.


    Full Text Available The paper describes new results for an experimental heat exchanger equipped with a single corrugated capillary tube, basic information about the measurements and the experimental setup. Some of the results were compared with numerical simulations.

  20. Numerical analysis and experimental verification of elastomer bending process with different material models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kut Stanislaw


    Full Text Available The article presents the results of tests in order to verifying the effectiveness of the nine selected elastomeric material models (Neo-Hookean, Mooney with two and three constants, Signorini, Yeoh, Ogden, Arruda-Boyce, Gent and Marlow, which the material constants were determined in one material test - the uniaxial tension testing. The convergence assessment of nine analyzed models were made on the basis of their performance from an experimental bending test of the elastomer samples from the results of numerical calculations FEM for each material models. To calculate the material constants for the analyzed materials, a model has been generated by the stressstrain characteristics created as a result of experimental uniaxial tensile test with elastomeric dumbbell samples, taking into account the parameters received in its 18th cycle. Using such a calculated material constants numerical simulation of the bending process of a elastomeric, parallelepipedic sampleswere carried out using MARC / Mentat program.

  1. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of a Double-Acting Offshore Vessel Performance in Level Ice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Biao Su


    Full Text Available In this paper a numerical model and experimental data are used to investigate the level ice performance of a double-acting intervention vessel. The icebreaking capability and maneuverability in level ice are analyzed by evaluating the behavior of the vessel when it is running both ahead and astern. The paper also presents the implementation of a random crack size model for more realistic icebreaking behavior, giving more consistent evaluation of the vessel's performance in various ice conditions. The numerical simulations are firstly conducted in model-scale for a direct comparison with the experimental results. The scaling of ship speed and ice resistance is then discussed by comparing the simulation results in both full-scale and model-scale. The effect on the vessel's performance of the different properties of scaled model ice and full-scale sea ice is also assessed.

  2. Numerical and experimental investigation of bump foil mechanical behaviour

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Jon Steffen; Cerda Varela, Alejandro Javier; Santos, Ilmar


    Corrugated foils are utilized in air foil bearings to introduce compliance and damping thus accurate mathematical predictions are important. A corrugated foil behaviour is investigated experimentally as well as theoretically. The experimental investigation is performed by compressing the foil...

  3. Experimental and numerical study of the pressure drop for ITER blanket shield block

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ha, Min-Su; Kim, Sawoong; Jung, Hun-Chea; Shim, Hee-Jin; Ahn, Hee-Jae


    Highlights: • The results of the experiment and the numerical analysis are compared. • The numerical analysis results are lower than the experimental results. • The margin of the pressure drop is suggested. - Abstract: The blanket shield block (SB) is located inside the ITER vacuum chamber, and the main function is to provide the thermal and nuclear shielding to the vacuum vessel and external components. The SB is foreseen to undergo a significant heat load which is a body load throughout the whole thickness of the SB under normal operation conditions. Therefore, the cooling configuration in SB should be designed very carefully based on the various experiences. The pressure drop in the cooling design is one of the most important factors to balance a water distribution of overall blanket cooling system. In order to verify the pressure drop characteristic and validate the design methodology of SB, experiment and numerical analysis are performed and compared their results. These results would be a benchmarking of the numerical results with experimental results to assess the gap between calculations and experiments.

  4. Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Steel Joints in Round Wood

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mikolášek David


    Full Text Available The paper analyses a drawn steel joint in round logs for which several types of reinforcements have been proposed. The load-carrying capacity of the reinforcements have been tested in laboratories. At the same time, numerical modelling has been performed - it has focused, in particular, on rigidity of the joints during the loading process. Physical and geometrical nonlinearities have been taken into account. The Finite Element Method and 3D computation models have been used in the numerical calculations.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Okyar KAYA


    Full Text Available In this study, the pressure drop of helical square duct which has 8x8 mm dimension, a pitch of b =12 mm was investigated both experimentally and numerically with the similar experimental boundary conditions. SIMPLE algorithm, PRESTO pressure-velocity interpolation option, RNG k-? turbulent model and Gauss Siedel iteration method were used in numerical computations which were done by FLUENT® programme. As a result it was understood that the maximum difference between numerical and experimental data is about 5 %. The experimental and numerical results were compared and validated with the results in the literature.

  6. Mechanical behaviour of the heel pad: experimental and numerical approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Matteoli, Sara; Fontanella, C. G.; Virga, A.

    The aim of the present work was to investigate the stress relaxation phenomena of the heel pad region under different loading conditions. A 31-year-old healthy female was enrolled in this study and her left foot underwent both MRI and experimental compression tests. Experimental results were...

  7. Experimental and numerical analysis for optimal design parameters ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rajneesh Kaushal

    Finally, the relations established are confirmed experimentally to validate the models. The relations thus established are ... Additionally, the present study is among the first attempts to reveal the effect of humidity on the performance of falling film evaporator. .... and accuracies of instruments used. 2.2 Experimental procedure.

  8. The ideal flip-through impact: experimental and numerical investigation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bredmose, Henrik; Hunt-Raby, A.; Jayaratne, R.


    Results from a physical experiment and a numerical computation are compared for a flip-through type wave impact on a vertical face, typical of a seawall or breakwater. The physical wave was generated by application of the focused-wave group technique to the amplitudes of a JONSWAP spectrum, with ...

  9. Experimental and numerical investigations of flow through free ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studying the flow patterns and behaviour of double baffled gates under different flow heads is important to improve their performance, which could help in widening the range of their application. In the present study, physical and numerical investigations were conducted on the double baffled gate. A 3D Acoustic Doppler ...

  10. Experimental and Numerical analysis of Metallic Bellow for Acoustic Performance (United States)

    Panchwadkar, Amit A.; Awasare, Pradeep J., Dr.; Ingle, Ravidra B., Dr.


    Noise will concern about the work environment of industry. Machinery environment has overall noise which interrupts communication between the workers. This problem of miscommunication and health hazard will make sense to go for noise attenuation. Modification in machine setup may affect the performance of it. Instead of that, Helmholtz resonator principle will be a better option for noise reduction along the transmission path. Resonator has design variables which gives resonating frequency will help us to confirm the frequency range. This paper deals with metallic bellow which behaves like inertial mass under incident sound wave. Sound wave energy is affected by hard boundary condition of resonator and bellow. Metallic bellow is used in combination with resonator to find out Transmission loss (TL). Microphone attachment with FFT analyzer will give the frequency range for numerical analysis. Numerical analysis of bellow and resonator is carried out to summarize the acoustic behavior of bellow. Bellow can be numerically analyzed to check noise attenuation for centrifugal blower. An impedance tube measurement technique is performed to validate the numerical results for assembly. Dimensional and shape modification can be done to get the acoustic performance of bellow.

  11. Numerical experimentation on convective coolant flow in Ghana ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Numerical experiments on one dimensional convective coolant flow during steady state operation of the Ghana Research Reactor-1 (GHARR-I) were performed to determine the thermal hydraulic parameters of temperature, density and flow rate. The computational domain was the reactor vessel, including the reactor core.

  12. Experimental and numerical investigation of chloride ingress in cracked concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Šavija, B.


    Chloride induced corrosion of reinforcing steel is recognized as the most common deterioration mechanism affecting reinforced concrete structures. As such, it has been in focus of research for more than thirty years. Numerous studies of chloride ingress, corrosion initiation, and corrosion

  13. Numerical differentiation of experimental data: local versus global methods (United States)

    Ahnert, Karsten; Abel, Markus


    In the context of the analysis of measured data, one is often faced with the task to differentiate data numerically. Typically, this occurs when measured data are concerned or data are evaluated numerically during the evolution of partial or ordinary differential equations. Usually, one does not take care for accuracy of the resulting estimates of derivatives because modern computers are assumed to be accurate to many digits. But measurements yield intrinsic errors, which are often much less accurate than the limit of the machine used, and there exists the effect of "loss of significance", well known in numerical mathematics and computational physics. The problem occurs primarily in numerical subtraction, and clearly, the estimation of derivatives involves the approximation of differences. In this article, we discuss several techniques for the estimation of derivatives. As a novel aspect, we divide into local and global methods, and explain the respective shortcomings. We have developed a general scheme for global methods, and illustrate our ideas by spline smoothing and spectral smoothing. The results from these less known techniques are confronted with the ones from local methods. As typical for the latter, we chose Savitzky-Golay-filtering and finite differences. Two basic quantities are used for characterization of results: The variance of the difference of the true derivative and its estimate, and as important new characteristic, the smoothness of the estimate. We apply the different techniques to numerically produced data and demonstrate the application to data from an aeroacoustic experiment. As a result, we find that global methods are generally preferable if a smooth process is considered. For rough estimates local methods work acceptably well.

  14. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Compact Dielectric Wakefield Accelerators (United States)


    macroparticles. Additionally the laser is chosen to have a transverse rms spot size of σc = 0.8 mm and rms duration of σt = 1 ps. A solenoidal lens is...photocathode laser . . . . . . . . . . 24 3.3 Experimental realization of a linearly-ramped bunch with a multifrequency linac...Experimental Setup . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37 5.2 Simulation and Analysis of a THz pulse propagation in a SLAB DLW

  15. Numerical-experimental investigation of PE/EVA foam injection molded parts (United States)

    Spina, Roberto

    The main objective of the presented work is to propose a robust framework to test foaming injection molded parts, with the aim of establishing a standard testing cycle for the evaluation of a new foam material based on numerical and experimental results. The research purpose is to assess parameters influencing several aspects, such as foam morphology and compression behavior, using useful suggestions from finite element analysis. The investigated polymeric blend consisted of a mixture of low density polyethylenes (LDPEs), a high-density polyethylene (HDPE), an ethylene-vinyl acetate (EVA) and an azodicarbonamide (ADC). The thermal, rheological and compression properties of the blend are fully described, as well as the numerical models and the parameters of the injection molding process.

  16. Numerical and experimental microscale analysis of the incremental forming process (United States)

    Szyndler, Joanna; Delannay, Laurent; Muszka, Krzysztof; Madej, Lukasz


    Development of the 2D concurrent multiscale numerical model of novel incremental forming (IF) process is the main aim of the paper. The IF process is used to obtain light and durable integral parts, especially useful in aerospace or automotive industries. Particular attention in the present work is put on numerical investigation of material behavior at both, macro and micro scale levels. A Finite Element Method (FEM) supported by Digital Material Representation (DMR) concept is used during the investigation. Also, the Crystal Plasticity (CP) theory is applied to describe material flow at the grain level. Examples of obtained results both from the macro and micro scales are presented in the form of strain distributions, grain shapes and pole figures at different process stages. Moreover, Electron Backscatter Diffraction (EBSD) analysis is used to obtain detailed information regarding material morphology changes during the incremental forming for the comparison purposes.

  17. Experimental and numerical study on ice resistance for icebreaking vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Hu


    Full Text Available Ice resistance is defined as the time average of all longitudinal forces due to ice acting on the ship. Estimation of ship’s resistance in ice-covered waters is very important to both designers and shipbuilders since it is closely related to propulsion of a ship and it determines the engine power of the ship. Good ice performance requires ice resistance should be as low as possible to allow different manoeuvres. In this paper, different numerical methods are presented to calculate ice resistance, including semi-analytical method and empirical methods. A model test of an icebreaking vessel that was done in an ice basin has been introduced for going straight ahead in level ice at low speed. Then the comparison between model test results and numerical results are made. Some discussions and suggestions are presented as well to provide an insight into icebreaking vessel design at early stage.

  18. Experimental and numerical investigation of wave ferrofluid convection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bozhko, A.A. [Department of Physics, Perm State University, Bukirev Str. 15, 614990 Perm (Russian Federation)]. E-mail:; Putin, G.F. [Department of Physics, Perm State University, Bukirev Str. 15, 614990 Perm (Russian Federation); Tynjaelae, T. [Department of Energy and Environmental Engineering, Lappeenranta Univeristy of Technology, P.O. Box 20, Lappeenranta 53851 (Finland); Sarkomaa, P. [Department of Energy and Environmental Engineering, Lappeenranta Univeristy of Technology, P.O. Box 20, Lappeenranta 53851 (Finland)


    The stability of buoyancy-driven shear flow in an inclined layer of a ferrocolloid is investigated for different values of inclinations and homogeneous longitudinal magnetic fields. Near the onset of Rayleigh convection of ferrofluid layer inclined with respect to gravity, the wave oscillatory regimes were observed in experiments and numerical simulations. Visualization of convection patterns is provided by a temperature-sensitive liquid crystal film. As experiments testify, the origin of traveling wave regimes in ferrofluid is due to concentration gradients caused by gravity sedimentation of the magnetic particles. To study the effects of initial concentration gradient of particles, on convective instabilities, finite volume numerical simulations using a two-phase mixture model were carried out for the same setup. The most fascinating effect in ferrofluid convection is spontaneous formation of localized states, those where the convection chaotically focuses in confined regions and is absent in the remainder of cavity.

  19. Numerical Modeling of a Ducted Rocket Combustor With Experimental Validation


    Hewitt, Patrick


    The present work was conducted with the intent of developing a high-fidelity numerical model of a unique combustion flow problem combining multi-phase fuel injection with substantial momentum and temperature into a highly complex turbulent flow. This important problem is very different from typical and more widely known liquid fuel combustion problems and is found in practice in pulverized coal combustors and ducted rocket ramjets. As the ducted rocket engine cycle is only now finding wides...

  20. Granite rock fragmentation at percussive drilling - experimental and numerical investigation


    Saadati, Mahdi; Forquin, Pascal; Weddfelt, Ken; Larsson, Per-Lennart; Hild, François


    International audience; The aim of this study is to numerically model the fracture system at percussive drilling. Due to the complex behavior of rock materials, a continuum approach is employed relying upon a plasticity model with yield surface locus as a quadratic function of the mean pressure in the principal stress space coupled with an anisotropic damage model. In particular, Bohus granite rock is investigated and the material parameters are defined based on previous experiments. This inc...

  1. Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Hybrid Rocket Motors Transient Behavior


    Barato, Francesco


    As the space business is shifting from pure performances to affordability a renewed interest is growing about hybrid rocket propulsion. Hybrid rocket motors are attractive for their inherent advantages like simplicity, reliability, safety and reduced costs. Moreover hybrid motors are easy to throttle and thus they are ideal candidate when soft-landing or energy management capabilities are required. This thesis is mainly involved with a theoretical/numerical study of hybrid transie...

  2. Dethridge wheel for pico-scale hydropower generation: An experimental and numerical study (United States)

    Paudel, Shakun; Saenger, Nicole


    This study aims to assess the potential of the Dethridge wheel for developing power from very low head sites in open channel flow. The Dethridge wheel has been in use since early 20th century for measuring flow in irrigation canals. Being robust and simple in design, this technology served as a reliable flow metering solution for more than a century. Working in a similar principle to the conventional waterwheel, this wheel could be a viable option of power generation for decentralized application in remote areas. Two different methods, experimental and numerical, are used for investigating the potential of the wheel. An experimental approach in which a physical model of the Dethridge wheel is built and tested at the hydraulics laboratory of Darmstadt University of Applied Sciences. Whereas a three dimensional numerical model of the Dethridge wheel is simulated using a commercial Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) code Flow-3D. Efficiency of around 60% is achieved in the model tests. Computed results are also in good agreement with the physical model results. The results from the physical and the numerical model are presented in this paper.

  3. Numerical and experimental investigation of swirling flow in a conical diffuser

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Štefan


    Full Text Available The decelerated swirling flow often breaks down into helical structure which is unstable and causes unsteady velocity and pressure fields. The numerical and experimental investigation of this flow pattern is carried out on the experimental apparatus consisting of the swirl generator (producing a strong swirling flow and the transparent conical diffuser (where the helical structure can be observed. The open source CFD software OpenFOAM employing realizable k-epsilon turbulence model is used for the numerical simulations. The experimental measurements are focused on LDA measurements of velocity profiles in the diffuser cross-sections. Agreements between numerical end experimental results are discussed.

  4. Experimental and numerical analysis for optimal design parameters ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Later, the response surface curves are studied using ANOVA. Finally, the relations established are confirmed experimentally to validate the models. The relations thus established are beneficent in furtherance of designing evaporators. Additionally, the presentstudy is among the first attempts to reveal the effect of humidity ...

  5. Numerical and experimental investigations of water hammers in nuclear industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R Messahel


    Full Text Available In nuclear and petroleum industries, supply pipes are often exposed to high pressure loading which can cause to the structure high strains, plasticity and even, in the worst scenario, failure. Fast Hydraulic Transient phenomena such as Water Hammers (WHs are of this type. It generates a pressure wave that propagates in the pipe causing high stress. Such phenomena are of the order of few msecs and numerical simulation can offer a better understanding and an accurate evaluation of the dynamic complex phenomenon including fluid-structure interaction, multi-phase flow, cavitation … For the last decades, the modeling of phase change taking into account the cavitation effects has been at the centre of many industrial applications (chemical engineering, mechanical engineering, … and has a direct impact on the industry as it might cause damages to the installation (pumps, propellers, control valves, …. In this paper, numerical simulation using FSI algorithm and One-Fluid Cavitation models ("Cut-Off" and "HEM (Homogeneous Equilibrium Model Phase-Change" introduced by Saurel et al. [1] of WHs including cavitation effects is presented.

  6. Assessment of Available Numerical Tools for Dynamic Mooring Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thomsen, Jonas Bjerg; Eskilsson, Claes; Ferri, Francesco

    cover their capabilities. The result of the assessments should make it possible to choose relevant software that will be used throughout the project and also in general use for mooring design of WECs. The report is a part of Work Package 1 : "Task 1.2: Assessment of Available Numerical Tools for Dynamic......This report covers a preliminary assessment of available numerical tools to be used in upcoming full dynamic analysis of the mooring systems assessed in the project _Mooring Solutions for Large Wave Energy Converters_. The assessments tends to cover potential candidate software and subsequently...... Mooring Analysis" and "Milestone 1: Acquisition of Selected Numerical Tools" of the project and was produced by Aalborg University in cooperation with Chalmers University of Technology....

  7. Numerical and Experimental Case Study of Blasting Works Effect (United States)

    Papán, Daniel; Valašková, Veronika; Drusa, Marian


    This article introduces the theoretical and experimental case study of dynamic monitoring of the geological environment above constructed highway tunnel. The monitored structure is in this case a very important water supply pipeline, which crosses the tunnel and was made from steel tubes with a diameter of 800 mm. The basic dynamic parameters had been monitored during blasting works, and were compared with the FEM (Finite Element Method) calculations and checked by the Slovak standard limits. A calibrated FEM model based on the experimental measurement data results was created and used in order to receive more realistic results in further predictions, time and space extrapolations. This case study was required and demanded by the general contractor company and also by the owner of water pipeline, and it was an answer of public safety evaluation of risks during tunnel construction.

  8. Experimental and Numerical Studies of Magnetorheological (MR Damper

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. K. Mangal


    Full Text Available The design of a MR damper, consisting of piston and cylinder arrangement, is presented in this paper. In this paper, a 2D axisymmetric model based on finite element method (FEM concept has been developed on the ANSYS platform to analyze and examine the MR damper characteristics. Based on the FEM model, a prototype of the MR damper is fabricated and tested experimentally in the semi active vibration laboratory of the department. The comparison of both these model analyses indicates that the FEM based model is effectively portraying the experimental behavior of the MR damper in terms of its damping force. The results obtained in this paper will be helpful for the designers to create more efficient and reliable MR dampers and also to predict its damping force characteristics.

  9. Experimental and numerical investigation of gas phase freeboard combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, J.; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Meyer, K.E.


    Experimental data for velocity field, temperatures, and gas composition have been obtained from a 50 kW axisymmetric non-swirling natural gas fired combustion setup under two different settings. The reactor was constructed to simulate the conditions in the freeboard of a grate-fired boiler but un...... of more advanced chemical mechanisms did not improve the prediction of the overall combustion process but did provide additional information about species (especially H(2) and radicals), which is desirable for postprocessing pollutant formation.......Experimental data for velocity field, temperatures, and gas composition have been obtained from a 50 kW axisymmetric non-swirling natural gas fired combustion setup under two different settings. The reactor was constructed to simulate the conditions in the freeboard of a grate-fired boiler...... but under well-defined conditions. The experimental results are compared to computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling predictions, using the eddy dissipation model (EDM) its well as the eddy dissipation concept (EDC). The use of EDC allows for implementation of more advanced combustion schemes; we have...

  10. Boiling heat transfer on fins – experimental and numerical procedure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orzechowski T.


    Full Text Available The paper presents the research methodology, the test facility and the results of investigations into non-isothermal surfaces in water boiling at atmospheric pressure, together with a discussion of errors. The investigations were conducted for two aluminium samples with technically smooth surfaces and thickness of 4 mm and 10 mm, respectively. For the sample of lower thickness, on the basis of the surface temperature distribution measured with an infrared camera, the local heat flux and the heat transfer coefficient were determined and shown in the form of a boiling curve. For the thicker sample, for which 1-D model cannot be used, numerical calculations were conducted. They resulted in obtaining the values of the local heat flux on the surface the invisible to the infrared, camera i.e. on the side on which the boiling of the medium proceeds.

  11. Numerical and experimental study of hydrostatic displacement machine

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Rasmus Mørk; Hansen, Michael; Mouritsen, Ole Ø.


    This paper presents a simulation tool to determine the structural deflections and corresponding leakage flow in a hydrostatic displacement motor. The simulation tool is applied to a new motor principle that is categorized as an extreme low-speed high-torque motor with dimensions that calls...... for attention to the volumetric efficiency. To counteract structural deflections the motor is equipped with compensation pressure volumes that may be used to limit the leakage flow across the end faces of the circular rotor. This leakage flow is investigated by solving Reynolds equation for the pressure...... distribution across both end faces. The fluid pressure is combined with structural calculations in a fluid structural interaction simulation, which evaluates the influence of structural deflections on the gaps and the leakage flow. The numerical work is validated by prototype tests. Both deflections...

  12. Numerical modeling of experimental human fibrous cap delamination. (United States)

    Leng, Xiaochang; Davis, Lindsey A; Deng, Xiaomin; Sutton, Michael A; Lessner, Susan M


    Fibrous cap delamination is a critical process during the rupture of atherosclerotic plaque, which often leads to severe life-threatening clinical consequences such as myocardial infarction or stroke. In this study a finite element modeling and simulation approach is presented that enables the study of fibrous cap delamination experiments for the purpose of understanding the fibrous cap delamination process. A cohesive zone model (CZM) approach is applied to simulate delamination of the fibrous cap from the underlying plaque tissue. A viscoelastic anisotropic (VA) model for the bulk arterial material behavior is extended from existing studies so that the hysteresis phenomenon observed in the fibrous cap delamination experiments can be captured. A finite element model is developed for the fibrous cap delamination experiments, in which arterial layers (including the fibrous cap and the underlying plaque tissue) are represented by solid elements based on the VA model and the fibrous cap-underlying plaque tissue interface is characterized by interfacial CZM elements. In the CZM, the delamination process is governed by an exponential traction-separation law which utilizes critical energy release rates obtained directly from the fibrous cap delamination experiments. A set of VA model parameter values and CZM parameter values is determined based on values suggested in the literature and through matching simulation predictions of the load vs. load-point displacement curve with one set of experimental measurements. Using this set of parameter values, simulation predictions for other sets of experimental measurements are obtained and good agreement between simulation predictions and experimental measurements is observed. Results of this study demonstrate the applicability of the viscoelastic anisotropic model and the CZM approach for the simulation of diseased arterial tissue failure processes. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Experimental and numerical investigation of gas phase freeboard combustion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jimmy; Jensen, Peter Arendt; Hvid, S.L.


    In part 1 of the present work (10.1021/ef900752a), experimental data and computational fluid dynamics (CFD) modeling predictions for velocity field, temperatures, and major species were compared fora 50 kW axisymmetric, non-swirling natural gas Fired combustion setup, constructed to simulate...... modeling approaches, including global schemes and analytically reduced mechanisms, were tested in the CFD calculations. In addition, the simplified schemes were compared to reference calculations with a detailed mechanism under isothermal plug flow reactor conditions. While none of the global ammonia...

  14. Self heating during stretch blow molding: An experimental numerical comparison (United States)

    Luo, Yun-Mei; Chevalier, Luc; Monteiro, Eric; Utheza, Françoise


    The great influence of temperature on polymer's behavior is well known and, for example, a 10°C increase can lead to a 10 time reduction of the viscosity. The necessity to take into account the self heating phenomena appears then to be crucial for thermoforming process simulation and in particular for ISBM of PET. An original anisotropic visco-hyperelastic model coupled with temperature has been developed [1,2], identified from equibiaxial and constant width tension tests [3] and can be used to evaluate this self-heating phenomenon. In order to provide validation of the model and its capacity to predict accurately final bubble shape, self-heating value and induced mechanical properties, free blowing of a preform has been carried out with temperature measured using a thermal camera. Results are discussed and compared with numerical simulation prediction. At room temperature, tension specimens have been cut from the different blown bubbles and induced modulus where measured in three directions: longitudinal and hoop directions and also 45° from both previous ones and an elastic orthotropic behavior is identified. The effect of the self heating on the free blown shapes and induced modulus is discussed.

  15. Experimental and Numerical Failure Analysis of Adhesive Composite Joints

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhad Asgari Mehrabadi


    Full Text Available In the first section of this work, a suitable data reduction scheme is developed to measure the adhesive joints strain energy release rate under pure mode-I loading, and in the second section, three types of adhesive hybrid lap-joints, that is, Aluminum-GFRP (Glass Fiber Reinforced Plastic, GFRP-GFRP, and Steel-GFRP were employed in the determination of adhesive hybrid joints strengths and failures that occur at these assemblies under tension loading. To achieve the aims, Double Cantilever Beam (DCB was used to evaluate the fracture state under the mode-I loading (opening mode and also hybrid lap-joint was employed to investigate the failure load and strength of bonded joints. The finite-element study was carried out to understand the stress intensity factors in DCB test to account fracture toughness using J-integral method as a useful tool for predicting crack failures. In the case of hybrid lap-joint tests, a numerical modeling was also performed to determine the adhesive stress distribution and stress concentrations in the side of lap-joint. Results are discussed in terms of their relationship with adhesively bonded joints and thus can be used to develop appropriate approaches aimed at using adhesive bonding and extending the lives of adhesively bonded repairs for aerospace structures.

  16. Experimental and numerical investigation of reactive shock-accelerated flows

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonazza, Riccardo [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States). Dept. of Engineering Physics


    The main goal of this program was to establish a qualitative and quantitative connection, based on the appropriate dimensionless parameters and scaling laws, between shock-induced distortion of astrophysical plasma density clumps and their earthbound analog in a shock tube. These objectives were pursued by carrying out laboratory experiments and numerical simulations to study the evolution of two gas bubbles accelerated by planar shock waves and compare the results to available astrophysical observations. The experiments were carried out in an vertical, downward-firing shock tube, 9.2 m long, with square internal cross section (25×25 cm2). Specific goals were to quantify the effect of the shock strength (Mach number, M) and the density contrast between the bubble gas and its surroundings (usually quantified by the Atwood number, i.e. the dimensionless density difference between the two gases) upon some of the most important flow features (e.g. macroscopic properties; turbulence and mixing rates). The computational component of the work performed through this program was aimed at (a) studying the physics of multi-phase compressible flows in the context of astrophysics plasmas and (b) providing a computational connection between laboratory experiments and the astrophysical application of shock-bubble interactions. Throughout the study, we used the FLASH4.2 code to run hydrodynamical and magnetohydrodynamical simulations of shock bubble interactions on an adaptive mesh.

  17. Experimental and numerical comparison of absorption optimization in small rooms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wincentz, Jakob Nygård; Garcia, Julian Martinez-Villalba; Jeong, Cheol-Ho


    A vast majority of modern music is recorded and produced in small control room environments of volumes of around 50 m3 . Several problems occur when controlling the room acoustics of such small spaces. First, the room modes will produce strong peaks and dips particularly at lower frequencies......, and even in the sweet spot position the listening experience can be easily deteriorated. Second, when designing or refurbishing small rooms it is hard to adequately predict the reverberation time by using Sabine’s formula due to highly non-diffuse conditions and using a statistical approach below...... the Schroeder frequency. This project investigates experimentally changes in the room acoustic parameters by altering the positioning and orientation of porous materials in a small room, which are compared with finite element method (FEM) simulations. FEM is able to take into account the exact room geometry...

  18. Experimental assessment of corneal anisotropy. (United States)

    Elsheikh, Ahmed; Brown, Michael; Alhasso, Daad; Rama, Paolo; Campanelli, Marino; Garway-Heath, David


    To determine the variation of corneal biomechanical properties with anatomical orientation. Strip specimens extracted from fresh porcine corneas were tested under uniaxial tension with strain rates representing static and dynamic loading conditions. The specimens were extracted from the vertical, horizontal, and 45 degrees diagonal directions. The load elongation results were used to derive the stress-strain behavior of each specimen. The average behavior for specimens taken in each anatomical direction was determined along with the effect of strain rate. Specimens from a small number of human corneas were included in the study to verify the findings. Specimens extracted from the vertical direction of porcine and human corneas demonstrated the highest strength (fracture stress) followed by horizontal then diagonal specimens. Vertical specimens were 10% to 20% stronger than horizontal specimens in porcine and human corneas. At low strain rates (1%/min), vertical specimens displayed similar stiffness (resistance to deformation) to horizontal specimens but greater stiffness than diagonal specimens. On increasing the strain rate to 500%/min, the stiffness behavior matched that of strength with vertical specimens being 10% to 20% stiffer than horizontal specimens in porcine and human corneas. The corneal anisotropic behavior is compatible with the preferential orientation of stromal fibrils in the vertical and horizontal directions. Quantifying the effect of this nonuniform fibril organization on corneal anisotropic behavior will be useful in developing numerical models of the cornea for applications where its integrity is compromised such as in simulating refractive surgery procedures.

  19. An experimental and numerical investigation on wave-mud interactions (United States)

    Hsu, W. Y.; Hwung, H. H.; Hsu, T. J.; Torres-Freyermuth, A.; Yang, R. Y.


    Wave attenuation over a mud (kaolinite) layer is investigated via laboratory experiments and numerical modeling. The rheological behavior of kaolinite exhibits hybrid properties of a Bingham and pseudoplastic fluid. Moreover, the measured time-dependent velocity profiles in the mud layer reveal that the shear rate under wave loading is highly phase dependent. The measured shear rate and rheological data allow us to back-calculate the time-dependent viscosity of the mud layer under various wave loadings, which is also shown to fluctuate up to 1 order of magnitude during one wave period. However, the resulting time-dependent bottom stress is shown to only fluctuate within 25% of its mean. The back-calculated wave-averaged bottom stress is well correlated with the wave damping rate in the intermediate-wave energy condition. The commonly adopted constant viscosity assumption is then evaluated via linear and nonlinear wave-mud interaction models. When driving the models with measured wave-averaged mud viscosity (forward modeling), the wave damping rate is generally overpredicted under the low wave energy condition. On the other hand, when a constant viscosity is chosen to match the observed wave damping rate (inverse modeling), the predicted velocity profiles in the mud layer are not satisfactory and the corresponding viscosity is lower than the measured value. These discrepancies are less pronounced when waves become more energetic. Differences between the linear and nonlinear model results become significant under low-energy conditions, suggesting an amplification of wave nonlinearity due to non-Newtonian rheology. In general, the constant viscosity assumption for modeling wave-mud interaction is only appropriate for more energetic wave conditions.

  20. Experimental and numerical study of smoke propagation through a vent separating two mechanically ventilated rooms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Audouin, Laurent; Pretrel, Hugues; Vaux, Samuel [Institut de Radioprotection et de Surete Nucleaire (IRSN), Saint Paul Lez Durance (France)


    The paper presents an experimental and numerical study about smoke propagation through a horizontal opening between two superposed compartments, as can be encountered in nuclear installations, in case of a fire taking place in the lower room. The experimental configuration proposed in this study consists in two rooms mechanically ventilated and connected each other by a horizontal opening. The fire source is simulated by a propane burner located in the lower room. The inlet ventilation duct is located in the lower room and the exhaust ventilation duct is located in the upper room. For such experimental configuration, several flow regimes at the horizontal opening connecting the two rooms can be encountered depending on the fire power, the opening size (diameter, depth) and the ventilation set-up (location of inlet/outlet ducts, flow rate). Indeed, flow at the opening is governed by buoyant forces due to the hot gases produced by the fire, the inertia effect due to the forced ventilation and the momentum effect due to smoke flow nearby the horizontal opening (for instance, ceiling jet or thermal plume from fire). Consequently, such complex mixed (natural/ forced) convective flows are still a challenge for CFD fire codes to make properly calculations of these experimental scenarios. The objective of this paper is to assess the capability of ISIS code (CFD) to simulate the behaviour of smoke propagation inside these two superposed compartments. Results of this study are presented with details (especially, thermal stratification and flow rates through the horizontal vent) and are discussed thoroughly.

  1. Lessons learned from combined experimental and numerical modelling of urban floods (United States)

    Archambeau, Pierre; Bruwier, Martin; Finaud-Guyot, Pascal; Erpicum, Sébastien; Pirotton, Michel; Dewals, Benjamin


    little influence on the water depths obtained in the experiments. However, tailored numerical tests demonstrate that this is a direct consequence of the distorted nature of the experimental setup. Indeed, the ratio between the water depth and the street width is close to 1 in the experiments, while it would be at least one order of magnitude lower in real-world conditions, even for extreme floods. Finally, remote sensing data, such as digital elevation models, are generally available on a regular grid, which makes it convenient to use also a Cartesian grid for hydraulic modelling. We show here that the discretization of the geometry of the buildings on such a Cartesian grid has a major influence on the modelling accuracy (overestimation of the overall flow resistance). An extended shallow-water model based on non-isotropic porosity parameters is shown to improve substantially the prediction of the discharge partition in-between the streets. It is therefore considered as a valuable tool to advance urban flood modelling in practice. From the lessons learned here, we recommend that future research focuses on the design and exploitation of a less distorted experimental model, as well as on the analysis of extra flow processes such as transient conditions and interactions between overland flow and pressurized flow in underground passages. References Arrault, A., Finaud-Guyot, P., Archambeau, P., Bruwier, M., Erpicum, S., Pirotton, M., & Dewals, B. (2016). Hydrodynamics of long-duration urban ?oods: experiments and numerical modelling. Natural Hazards & Earth System Sciences, 16, 1413-1429. Beckers, A., Dewals, B., Erpicum, S., Dujardin, S., Detrembleur, S., Teller, J., Pirotton, M., & Archambeau, P. (2013). Contribution of land use changes to future flood damage along the river Meuse in the Walloon region. Natural Hazards & Earth System Sciences, 13, 2301-2318. Bruwier, M., Erpicum, S., Pirotton, M., Archambeau, P., & Dewals, B. (2015). Assessing the operation rules of a

  2. A hybrid numerical-experimental study of fluid transport by migrating zooplankton aggregations (United States)

    Martinez, Monica; Dabiri, John; Nawroth, Janna; Gemmell, Brad; Collins, Samantha


    Zooplankton aggregations that undergo diel vertical migrations have been hypothesized to play an important role in local nutrient transport and global ocean dynamics. The degree of the contributions of these naturally occurring events ultimately relies on how efficiently fluid is transported and eventually mixed within the water column. By implementing solutions to the Stokes equations, numerical models have successfully captured the time-averaged far-field flow of self-propelled swimmers. However, discrepancies between numerical fluid transport estimates and field measurements of individual jellyfish suggest the need to include near-field effects to assess the impact of biomixing in oceanic processes. Here, we bypass the inherent difficulty of modeling the unsteady flow of active swimmers while including near-field effects by integrating experimental velocity data of zooplankton into our numerical model. Fluid transport is investigated by tracking a sheet of artificial fluid particles during vertical motion of zooplankton. Collective effects are addressed by studying different swimmer configurations within an aggregation from the gathered data for a single swimmer. Moreover, the dependence of animal swimming mode is estimated by using data for different species of zooplankton.

  3. An experimental and numerical simulation study of an active solar wall enhanced with phase change materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dionysios I. Kolaitis


    Full Text Available Solar walls can be used to increase the overall energy efficiency of a building. Phase Change Materials (PCM are capable of increasing the effective thermal mass of building elements, thus decreasing the overall energy consumption. Recently, the incorporation of PCM in a solar wall has been proposed, aiming to increase the total energy efficiency of the system. The main scope of this work is to investigate the thermal behaviour of a PCM-enhanced solar wall (PCMESW, using experimental and numerical simulation techniques. A prototype PCMESW is installed in a large-scale test facility and is exposed to dynamically changing climate conditions. A broad range of sensors, used to monitor the time-evolution of several important physical parameters, is employed to assess the dynamic response of the PCMESW. In addition, a Computational Fluid Dynamics tool is used to numerically investigate the thermal behaviour of the PCMESW prototype. Predictions of the developing flow- and thermal-field in the PCMESW’s air cavity are validated by means of comparison with the obtained measurements; in general, good levels of agreement are observed. Results of the numerical simulations may support the design optimization process of innovative PCMESW systems.  

  4. Experimental and numeric study of aluminum wire explosion in vacuum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tkachenko, S.I.; Khattatov, T.A.; Tilikin, I.N. [MIPT, Dolgoprudny, Moscow Region (Russian Federation); Romanova, V.M.; Mingaleev, A.R.; Ter-Oganesyan, A.E.; Shelkovenko, T.A.; Pikuz, S.A. [P.N. Lebedev Physical Institute RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation); Olhovskaya, O.G.; Krukovskij, A.Y.; Gasilov, V.A.; Novikov, V.G. [IMM RAS, Moscow (Russian Federation)


    Full text of publication follows: Distribution of matter in the discharge channel formed upon a nanosecond electrical explosion of Al wire in vacuum was studied experimentally and theoretically. Several series of experiments with 25 {mu}m diameter 12 mm long wires were performed; the charging voltage, the current amplitude and current rise rate were U{sub 0} = 20 kV, Imax {approx} 10 kA and dI/dt = 50 A/ns, respectively [1]. 'Shadow and Schlieren' images of the discharge channel were obtained using optical probing at the second harmonic of a YAG: Nd{sup +3} laser ({lambda} = 0.532 {mu}m, {tau} {approx} 70 ps). Simultaneous use of optical and UV diagnostics made it possible to distinguish qualitatively different regions of the discharge channel, such as the current-carrying plasma layers and the region occupied by a weakly conducting cold matter. The simulations were performed using a program containing the Braginsky two temperature magnetic gas-dynamic model: Lagrange-Euler code RAZRYAD-2.5 [2] on the basis of homogeneous, conservative and implicit differences of MHD schemes. Radiation energy exchange is accounted for in a multi-group (from the spectrum) approximation, using a radiation diffusion model. Heat- and electro- conductivity anisotropy in magnetic field is taken into account. Tables of thermal-physical and optical properties of aluminum were used in calculations in the present work [3]. The influence of radiation on the distribution of the parameters of matter (temperature, density) and current density in the discharge channel was studied. Several variants with differing amounts of radiation of spectral groups were evaluated. The obtained results are compared with experimental data. This work was supported in part by the RFBR 08-08-00688, 09-02-01532, and the ESC FIAN.; [1]. S.I. Tkachenko et. al., Plasma Physics Reports, 2009, Vol. 35, No. 9, pp. 734-753; [2]. V.A. Gasilov et. al., Mathematical Modelling, 2003, v. 15, No 9, pp. 107-124; [3]. A

  5. Numerical and experimental investigation of enhancement of heat transfer in dimpled rib heat exchanger tube (United States)

    Kumar, Anil; Maithani, Rajesh; Suri, Amar Raj Singh


    In this study, numerical and experimental investigation has been carried out for a range of system and operating parameters in order to analyse the effect of dimpled rib on heat and fluid flow behaviours in heat exchanger tube. Tube has, stream wise spacing ( x/ d d ) range of 15-35, span wise spacing ( y/ d d ) range of 15-35, ratio of dimpled depth to print diameter ( e/ d d ) of 1.0 and Reynolds number ( Re n ) ranges from 4000 to 28,000. Simulations were carried out to obtain heat and fluid flow behaviour of smooth and rough tube, using commercial CFD software, ANSYS 16.0 (Fluent). Renormalization k - ɛ model was employed to assess the influence of dimpled on turbulent flow and velocity field. Simulation results show that, the enhancement of 3.18 times in heat transfer and 2.87 times enhancement in thermal hydraulic performance as a function of stream wise direction ( x/ d d ) of 15 and span wise direction ( y/ d d ) of 15 respectively. Comparison between numerical and experimental simulation results showed that good agreement as the data fell within ±10% error band.

  6. Experimental and numerical modeling of wind flow over complex topography (United States)

    Rasouli, Ashkan

    Wind mapping is of utmost importance in various wind engineering, wind environment, and wind energy applications. The available wind atlases usually provide wind data with low resolutions relative to the wind turbine height and size and usually neglect the effect of topographic features with relatively large or sudden changes in elevation. Developing a cost effective methodology to predict the wind patterns and to obtain wind maps over any topographic terrain is absolutely needed for wind turbine/farm siting. As the previous analytic and empirical attempts to resolve the flow over topographic features were limited to basic geometries that hardly exist in nature, applying Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) measurement techniques in wind tunnel and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) techniques in numerical simulation of the flow over topography seems to be the best alternative solution to the problem. PIV measurements and CFD simulations are carried out on a 1:3000 scale model of complex topographic area. Three distinct topographic features are investigated: a valley, a ridge and a hill. The PIV measurements compare well with hot-wire based mean velocity profiles for the three cases. Moreover, the turbulence intensity profiles match well for flow regions without recirculation. The ridge wake region shows discrepancies between the two techniques which are attributed to the complexity of the flow in this region and limitations of both techniques. A procedure incorporating Geographic Information System (GIS) and surface modeling techniques is introduced to build the CFD model of a complex terrain starting from the existing topography maps with desired resolutions. Moreover, a new approach is made to simulate the terrain roughness up to ultimate roughness heights, by implementing arrays of bell-shaped roughness elements in the CFD model. The velocity profiles and velocity vectors were compared with the PIV measurements and were found to be in good agreement near the ground

  7. Stability and bearing capacity of arch-shaped corrugated shell elements: experimental and numerical study

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    A. Piekarczuk; K. Malowany; P. Więch; M. Kujawińska; P. Sulik


    .... For each model the comparison of numerical and experimental results has been made for samples of a single-wave trapezoidal profile with corrugated web and lower flanges subjected to compression and bending...

  8. An Experimental-Numerical Study of Small Scale Flow Interaction with Bioluminescent Plankton

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Latz, Michael


    Numerical and experimental approaches were used to investigate the effects of quantified flow stimuli on bioluminescence sUmulatidn at the small length and time scales appropriate for individual plankton...

  9. Experimental and numerical study of the switching dynamics of Raman fiber lasers (United States)

    Cierullies, S.; Krause, M.; Renner, H.; Brinkmeyer, E.


    We present an experimental and numerical survey of the switching behavior of cascaded Raman fiber lasers (RFLs). When these lasers are switched on, the output power shows a pulsing behavior where the pulse powers strongly exceed the steady-state output powers. The influence of the pump-laser and fiber properties of a RFL on this dynamical behavior is investigated both experimentally and numerically, where experiments and simulations showed good qualitative agreement.

  10. Experimental and numerical analysis of Al6063 duralumin using Taylor impact test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grązka M.


    Full Text Available The paper presents results of experimental and numerical analysis of dynamic behaviour Al6063 duralumin. Dynamical experiments were made using Taylor impact test. Experimental results at next step of study were used in numerical analyses of dynamic yield stress of tested material and model parameters of the Johnson–Cook constitutive equation. The main aim of this analysis is to find out dynamical properties of Al6063 duralumin tested in Taylor impact test.

  11. Experimental and numerical analysis of thermal striping in automotive brake discs


    Augustins, L; Hild, Francois; Billardon, R; Boudevin, S


    International audience; In the present study, thermal striping development on friction bands of brake discs is investigated through an experimental and numerical analysis. A test consisting of a series of several hundred severe brakings was carried out on a specific bench at PSA Peugeot Citroën. The experimental observations of the crack network evolution and a numerical analysis of a brake disc with a single crack helped to propose a macroscopic criterion capable of predicting the criticalit...

  12. Seismic response of a full-scale wind turbine tower using experimental and numerical modal analysis (United States)

    Kandil, Kamel Sayed Ahmad; Saudi, Ghada N.; Eltaly, Boshra Aboul-Anen; El-khier, Mostafa Mahmoud Abo


    Wind turbine technology has developed tremendously over the past years. In Egypt, the Zafarana wind farm is currently generating at a capacity of 517 MW, making it one of the largest onshore wind farms in the world. It is located in an active seismic zone along the west side of the Gulf of Suez. Accordingly, seismic risk assessment is demanded for studying the structural integrity of wind towers under expected seismic hazard events. In the context of ongoing joint Egypt-US research project "Seismic Risk Assessment of Wind Turbine Towers in Zafarana wind Farm Egypt" (Project ID: 4588), this paper describes the dynamic performance investigation of an existing Nordex N43 wind turbine tower. Both experimental and numerical work are illustrated explaining the methodology adopted to investigate the dynamic behavior of the tower under seismic load. Field dynamic testing of the full-scale tower was performed using ambient vibration techniques (AVT). Both frequency domain and time domain methods were utilized to identify the actual dynamic properties of the tower as built in the site. Mainly, the natural frequencies, their corresponding mode shapes and damping ratios of the tower were successfully identified using AVT. A vibration-based finite element model (FEM) was constructed using ANSYS V.12 software. The numerical and experimental results of modal analysis were both compared for matching purpose. Using different simulation considerations, the initial FEM was updated to finally match the experimental results with good agreement. Using the final updated FEM, the response of the tower under the AQABA earthquake excitation was investigated. Time history analysis was conducted to define the seismic response of the tower in terms of the structural stresses and displacements. This work is considered as one of the pioneer structural studies of the wind turbine towers in Egypt. Identification of the actual dynamic properties of the existing tower was successfully performed

  13. Linear quadratic Gaussian control for adaptive optics and multiconjugate adaptive optics: experimental and numerical analysis. (United States)

    Petit, Cyril; Conan, Jean-Marc; Kulcsár, Caroline; Raynaud, Henri-François


    We present a comprehensive analysis of the linear quadratic Gaussian control approach applied to adaptive optics (AO) and multiconjugated AO (MCAO) based on numerical and experimental validations. The structure of the control law is presented and its main properties discussed. We then propose an extended experimental validation of this control law in AO and a simplified MCAO configuration. Performance is compared with end-to-end numerical simulations. Sensitivity of the performance regarding tuning parameters is tested. Finally, extension to full MCAO and laser tomographic AO (LTAO) through numerical simulation is presented and analyzed.

  14. 3D strain map of axially loaded mouse tibia: a numerical analysis validated by experimental measurements. (United States)

    Stadelmann, Vincent A; Hocke, Jean; Verhelle, Jensen; Forster, Vincent; Merlini, Francesco; Terrier, Alexandre; Pioletti, Dominique P


    A combined experimental/numerical study was performed to calculate the 3D octahedral shear strain map in a mouse tibia loaded axially. This study is motivated by the fact that the bone remodelling analysis, in this in vivo mouse model should be performed at the zone of highest mechanical stimulus to maximise the measured effects. Accordingly, it is proposed that quantification of bone remodelling should be performed at the tibial crest and at the distal diaphysis. The numerical model could also be used to furnish a more subtle analysis as a precise correlation between local strain and local biological response can be obtained with the experimentally validated numerical model.

  15. On the mechanics of cerebral aneurysms: experimental research and numerical simulation (United States)

    Parshin, D. V.; Kuianova, I. O.; Yunoshev, A. S.; Ovsyannikov, K. S.; Dubovoy, A. V.


    This research extends existing experimental data for CA tissues [1, 2] and presents the preliminary results of numerical calculations. Experiments were performed to measure aneurysm wall stiffness and the data obtained was analyzed. To reconstruct the geometry of the CAs, DICOM images of real patients with aneurysms and ITK Snap [3] were used. In addition, numerical calculations were performed in ANSYS (commercial software, License of Lavrentyev Institute of Hydrodynamics). The results of these numerical calculations show a high level of agreement with experimental data from previous literature.

  16. A new clinical tool for assessing numerical abilities in neurological diseases: Numerical Activities of Daily Living

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlo eSemenza


    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to build an instrument, the Numerical Activities of Daily Living (NADL, designed to identify the specific impairments in numerical functions that may cause problems in everyday life. These impairments go beyond what can be inferred from the available scales evaluating activities of daily living in general, and are not adequately captured by measures of the general deterioration of cognitive functions as assessed by standard clinical instruments like the MMSE and MoCA. We assessed a control group (n = 148 and a patient group affected by a wide variety of neurological conditions (n = 175, with NADL along with IADL, MMSE, and MoCA. The NADL battery was found to have satisfactory construct validity and reliability, across a wide age range. This enabled us to calculate appropriate criteria for impairment that took into account age and education. It was found that neurological patients tended to overestimate their abilities as compared to the judgment made by their caregivers, assessed with objective tests of numerical abilities.

  17. A new clinical tool for assessing numerical abilities in neurological diseases: numerical activities of daily living (United States)

    Semenza, Carlo; Meneghello, Francesca; Arcara, Giorgio; Burgio, Francesca; Gnoato, Francesca; Facchini, Silvia; Benavides-Varela, Silvia; Clementi, Maurizio; Butterworth, Brian


    The aim of this study was to build an instrument, the numerical activities of daily living (NADL), designed to identify the specific impairments in numerical functions that may cause problems in everyday life. These impairments go beyond what can be inferred from the available scales evaluating activities of daily living in general, and are not adequately captured by measures of the general deterioration of cognitive functions as assessed by standard clinical instruments like the MMSE and MoCA. We assessed a control group (n = 148) and a patient group affected by a wide variety of neurological conditions (n = 175), with NADL along with IADL, MMSE, and MoCA. The NADL battery was found to have satisfactory construct validity and reliability, across a wide age range. This enabled us to calculate appropriate criteria for impairment that took into account age and education. It was found that neurological patients tended to overestimate their abilities as compared to the judgment made by their caregivers, assessed with objective tests of numerical abilities. PMID:25126077

  18. Comprehensive Mechanisms for Combustion Chemistry: An Experimental and Numerical Study with Emphasis on Applied Sensitivity Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dryer, Frederick L.


    This project was an integrated experimental/numerical effort to study pyrolysis and oxidation reactions and mechanisms for small-molecule hydrocarbon structures under conditions representative of combustion environments. The experimental aspects of the work were conducted in large-diameter flow reactors, at 0.3 to 18 atm pressure, 500 to 1100 K temperature, and 10-2 to 2 seconds reaction time. Experiments were also conducted to determine reference laminar flame speeds using a premixed laminar stagnation flame experiment and particle image velocimetry, as well as pressurized bomb experiments. Flow reactor data for oxidation experiments include: (1)adiabatic/isothermal species time-histories of a reaction under fixed initial pressure, temperature, and composition; to determine the species present after a fixed reaction time, initial pressure; (2)species distributions with varying initial reaction temperature; (3)perturbations of a well-defined reaction systems (e.g. CO/H2/O2 or H2/O2)by the addition of small amounts of an additive species. Radical scavenging techniques are applied to determine unimolecular decomposition rates from pyrolysis experiments. Laminar flame speed measurements are determined as a function of equivalence ratio, dilution, and unburned gas temperature at 1 atm pressure. Hierarchical, comprehensive mechanistic construction methods were applied to develop detailed kinetic mechanisms which describe the measurements and literature kinetic data. Modeling using well-defined and validated mechanisms for the CO/H2/Oxidant systems and perturbations of oxidation experiments by small amounts of additives were also used to derive absolute reaction rates and to investigate the compatibility of published elementary kinetic and thermochemical information. Numerical tools were developed and applied to assess the importance of individual elementary reactions to the predictive performance of the

  19. Numerical and Experimental Investigations on a Three-Dimensional Rod-Plate Impact

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jianyao Wang


    Full Text Available There are a few numerical simulation methods available for impact problems. However, most numerical results are not validated experimentally. The goal of this paper is to examine how well the simulation results correspond to the physical reality. In this work, normal and oblique impacts of a hemispherical-tip rod on a square plate are investigated both numerically and experimentally. In the numerical approach, finite element method is used to discretize the contact bodies to describe the deformation precisely combined with the floating reference frame method to describe the rigid motion. In the experimental study, strain gauges and Laser Doppler Vibrometers are employed to measure the high-frequency impact responses. Detailed comparative studies between numerical and experimental results are performed. In the case of normal impact, great attention is given to investigate the influence of finite element mesh size on the simulation accuracy and a “Prediction-Refinement” discretization strategy is proposed for obtaining a mesh which is optimal for impact dynamics. In the case of oblique impact, the influence of Coulomb’s friction coefficient is investigated additionally. It shows that the numerical results are in good agreement with the experimental results for both normal and oblique impacts.

  20. An experimental and numerical study of the atmospheric stability impact on wind turbine wakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Machefaux, Ewan; Larsen, Gunner Chr.; Koblitz, Tilman


    In this paper, the impact of atmospheric stability on a wind turbine wake is studied experimentally and numerically. The experimental approach is based on full-scale (nacelle based) pulsed lidar measurements of the wake flow field of a stall-regulated 500 kW turbine at the DTU Wind Energy, Risø c...

  1. Restoration of a 17th-century harpsichord to playable condition: a numerical and experimental study. (United States)

    Le Moyne, Sylvie; Le Conte, Sandie; Ollivier, François; Frelat, Joël; Battault, Jean-Claude; Vaiedelich, Stéphane


    The Music Museum in Paris recently acquired a harpsichord made by Ioannes Couchet in Antwerp in 1652. This instrument is considered to be a masterpiece and is protected as a "National Treasure." It was restored with the aim to be played again in concert. An experimental and numerical study of the vibraoacoustic behavior of this harpsichord is presented. A numerical modal analysis was performed with a finite element model. For the experimental part, impact nearfield acoustical holography was used. Experimental eigenmodes are compared to literature and to the finite element results. An application of the model for restoration studies is also proposed. © 2012 Acoustical Society of America.

  2. Assessment of the Contour Method for 2-D Cross Sectional Residual Stress Measurements of Friction Stir Welded Parts of AA2024-T3—Numerical and Experimental Comparison

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sonne, Mads Rostgaard; Carlone, Pierpaolo; Hattel, Jesper Henri


    The contour method is one of the newest techniques for obtaining residual stress fields from friction stir welded (FSW) parts, experimentally. This method has many advantages; however, edge effects coming from the process itself might introduce artifacts in the obtained results, and this was slig......The contour method is one of the newest techniques for obtaining residual stress fields from friction stir welded (FSW) parts, experimentally. This method has many advantages; however, edge effects coming from the process itself might introduce artifacts in the obtained results......, and consequently this should not be interpreted as a misleading result of the contour method. Edge effects from the cutting process involved in the contour method should, however, be taken into consideration, most likely resulting in the residual stresses observed near the surfaces of the cross section being less...

  3. Numerical modeling of an experimental shock tube for traumatic brain injury studies (United States)

    Phillips, Michael; Regele, Jonathan D.


    Unfortunately, Improvised Explosive Devices (IEDs) are encountered commonly by both civilians and military soldiers throughout the world. Over a decade of medical history suggests that traumatic brain injury (TBI) may result from exposure to the blast waves created by these explosions, even if the person does not experience any immediate injury or lose consciousness. Medical researchers study the exposure of mice and rats to blast waves created in specially designed shock tubes to understand the effect on brain tissue. A newly developed table-top shock tube with a short driver section has been developed for mice experiments to reduce the time necessary to administer the blast radiation and increase the amount of statistical information available. In this study, numerical simulations of this shock tube are performed to assess how the blast wave takes its shape. The pressure profiles obtained from the numerical results are compared with the pressure histories from the experimental pressure transducers. The results show differences in behavior from what was expected, but the blast wave may still be an effective means of studying TBI.

  4. Experimental and Numerical Research of Stress-Strain State of Homogeneous Soil Massif at Interaction with Single Barrette (United States)

    Ter-Martirosyan, Z. G.; Ter-Martirosyan, A. Z.; Sidorov, V. V.


    Deep foundations are used for the design of high-rise buildings due to a large pressure transfer on the soil base. The foundations of buildings sometimes use barrettes which are able to perceive significant vertical and horizontal loads due to improved lateral surface. Barrettes have increased load bearing capacity as compared with large diameter piles. In modern practice the interaction between barrettes and soil is investigated by analytical and numerical methods and has no sufficient experimental confirmation. The review of experimental methods for the research of the intense stress-strain state of the uniform soil massif at interaction with elements of a deep foundation is provided in this article. Experimental research are planned with the use of laboratory stand for the purpose of qualitative data obtaining on the interaction barrettes with an assessment of a settlement model adequacy and also at the research of the intense stress-strain state by numerical methods.

  5. Experimental and numerical investigations on the direct contact condensation phenomenon in horizontal flow channels and its implications in nuclear safety

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ceuca, Sabin Cristian [Gesellschaft fuer Anlagen- und Reaktorsicherheit (GRS) gGmbH, Garching (Germany); Laurinavicius, Darius [Lithuanian Energy Institute, Kaunas (Lithuania)


    The complex direct contact condensation phenomenon is investigated in horizontal flow channels both experimentally and numerically with special emphasis on its implications on safety assessment studies. Under certain conditions direct contact condensation can act as the driving force for the water hammer phenomenon with potentially local devastating results, thus posing a threat to the integrity of the affected NPP components. New experimental results of in-depth analysis of the direct contact condensation phenomena obtained in Kaunas at the Lithuanian Energy Institute will be presented. The German system code ATHLET employing for the calculation of the heat transfer coefficient a mechanistic model accounting for two different eddy length scales, combined with the interfacial area transport equation will be assessed against condensation induced water hammer experimental data from the integral thermal-hydraulic experimental facility PMK-2, located at the KFKI Atomic Energy Research Institute in Budapest Hungary.

  6. Propagation of a channelized debris-flow: experimental investigation and parameters identification for numerical modelling (United States)

    Termini, Donatella


    Recent catastrophic events due to intense rainfalls have mobilized large amount of sediments causing extensive damages in vast areas. These events have highlighted how debris-flows runout estimations are of crucial importance to delineate the potentially hazardous areas and to make reliable assessment of the level of risk of the territory. Especially in recent years, several researches have been conducted in order to define predicitive models. But, existing runout estimation methods need input parameters that can be difficult to estimate. Recent experimental researches have also allowed the assessment of the physics of the debris flows. But, the major part of the experimental studies analyze the basic kinematic conditions which determine the phenomenon evolution. Experimental program has been recently conducted at the Hydraulic laboratory of the Department of Civil, Environmental, Aerospatial and of Materials (DICAM) - University of Palermo (Italy). The experiments, carried out in a laboratory flume appositely constructed, were planned in order to evaluate the influence of different geometrical parameters (such as the slope and the geometrical characteristics of the confluences to the main channel) on the propagation phenomenon of the debris flow and its deposition. Thus, the aim of the present work is to give a contribution to defining input parameters in runout estimation by numerical modeling. The propagation phenomenon is analyzed for different concentrations of solid materials. Particular attention is devoted to the identification of the stopping distance of the debris flow and of the involved parameters (volume, angle of depositions, type of material) in the empirical predictive equations available in literature (Rickenmanm, 1999; Bethurst et al. 1997). Bethurst J.C., Burton A., Ward T.J. 1997. Debris flow run-out and landslide sediment delivery model tests. Journal of hydraulic Engineering, ASCE, 123(5), 419-429 Rickenmann D. 1999. Empirical relationships

  7. Numerical and Experimental Study of Ti6Al4V Components Manufactured Using Powder Bed Fusion Additive Manufacturing (United States)

    Zielinski, Jonas; Mindt, Hans-Wilfried; Düchting, Jan; Schleifenbaum, Johannes Henrich; Megahed, Mustafa


    Powder bed fusion additive manufacturing of titanium alloys is an interesting manufacturing route for many applications requiring high material strength combined with geometric complexity. Managing powder bed fusion challenges, including porosity, surface finish, distortions and residual stresses of as-built material, is the key to bringing the advantages of this process to production main stream. This paper discusses the application of experimental and numerical analysis towards optimizing the manufacturing process of a demonstration component. Powder characterization including assessment of the reusability, assessment of material consolidation and process window optimization is pursued prior to applying the identified optima to study the distortion and residual stresses of the demonstrator. Comparisons of numerical predictions with measurements show good correlations along the complete numerical chain.

  8. Preface of "The Second Symposium on Border Zones Between Experimental and Numerical Application Including Solution Approaches By Extensions of Standard Numerical Methods" (United States)

    Ortleb, Sigrun; Seidel, Christian


    In this second symposium at the limits of experimental and numerical methods, recent research is presented on practically relevant problems. Presentations discuss experimental investigation as well as numerical methods with a strong focus on application. In addition, problems are identified which require a hybrid experimental-numerical approach. Topics include fast explicit diffusion applied to a geothermal energy storage tank, noise in experimental measurements of electrical quantities, thermal fluid structure interaction, tensegrity structures, experimental and numerical methods for Chladni figures, optimized construction of hydroelectric power stations, experimental and numerical limits in the investigation of rain-wind induced vibrations as well as the application of exponential integrators in a domain-based IMEX setting.

  9. Numerical fatigue life assessment of cardiovascular stents: A two-scale plasticity-damage model (United States)

    Santos, H. A. F. A.; Auricchio, F.; Conti, M.


    Cardiovascular disease has become a major global health care problem in the last decades. To tackle this problem, the use of cardiovascular stents has been considered a promising and effective approach. Numerical simulations to evaluate the in vivo behavior of stents are becoming more and more important to assess potential failures. As the material failure of a stent device has been often associated with fatigue issues, numerical approaches for fatigue life assessment of stents have gained special interest in the engineering community. Numerical fatigue life predictions can be used to modify the design and prevent failure without making and testing numerous physical devices, thus preventing from undesired fatigue failures. We present a numerical fatigue life model for the analysis of cardiovascular balloon-expandable stainless steel stents that can hopefully provide useful information either to be used for product improvement or for clinicians to make life-saving decisions. This model incorporates a two-scale continuum damage mechanics model and the so-called Soderberg fatigue failure criterion. We provide numerical results for both Palmaz-Schatz and Cypher stent designs and demonstrate that a good agreement is found between the numerical and the available experimental results.

  10. Numerical and experimental behaviour of adhesive joints subjected to peeling load (United States)

    De Luca, A.; Senatore, F.; Greco, A.


    In this paper, a numerical model, based on finite element theory, useful to model the stress-strain state for a bonded single lap joint under peeling load has been presented. The numerical FE model has been developed by means of Abaqus® code in order to reproduce some experimental tests. For FE model validation purpose, the numerical results have been compared with the experimental ones and a good correlation has been achieved. In more detail, the adhesive layer has been modeled by means of cohesive elements. Such elements present some numerical difficulties related to the dependence from the own element size. So, a procedure useful to solve such mesh-dependence has been proposed.

  11. Numerical modelling and experimental study of liquid evaporation during gel formation (United States)

    Pokusaev, B. G.; Khramtsov, D. P.


    Gels are promising materials in biotechnology and medicine as a medium for storing cells for bioprinting applications. Gel is a two-phase system consisting of solid medium and liquid phase. Understanding of a gel structure evolution and gel aging during liquid evaporation is a crucial step in developing new additive bioprinting technologies. A numerical and experimental study of liquid evaporation was performed. In experimental study an evaporation process of an agarose gel layer located on Petri dish was observed and mass difference was detected using electronic scales. Numerical model was based on a smoothed particle hydrodynamics method. Gel in a model was represented as a solid-liquid system and liquid evaporation was modelled due to capillary forces and heat transfer. Comparison of experimental data and numerical results demonstrated that model can adequately represent evaporation process in agarose gel.

  12. Experimental Study and Numerical Modeling of Wave Induced Pore Pressure Attenuation Inside a Rubble Mound Breakwater

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Troch, Peter; Rouck, Julien De; Burcharth, Hans Falk


    attenuation is studied using experimental data (in Section 2) and using a numerical wave flume (in Section 3). The experimental study includes the analysis of large scale data from a physical breakwater model and prototype data from the Zeebrugge breakwater. The large scale data are taken from literature...... and have been re-analysed in detail with respect to the attenuation characteristics. The analysis follows the method by Burcharth et al. (1999) and confirms the practical calculation method for the attenuation of the pore pressure in the core given in this reference. The attenuation of pore pressures...... in a breakwater core is also studied in the numerical wave flume VOFbreak. The numerical results are compared to the results from the experimental study....

  13. Experimental and numerical investigation of a louvered fin and elliptical tube compact heat exchanger

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooranachandran Karthik


    Full Text Available In the present work, an experimental investigation is carried out to analyze the heat transfer characteristics of a louvered fin and elliptical tube compact heat exchanger used as a radiator in an internal combustion engine. Experiments are conducted by positioning the radiator in an open-loop wind tunnel. A total of 24 sets of air, water flow rate combinations are tested, and the temperature drops of air and water were acquired. A numerical analysis has been carried out using Fluent software (a general purpose computational fluid dynamics simulation tool for three chosen data from the experiments. The numerical air-side temperature drop is compared with those of the experimental values. A good agreement between the experimental and numerical results validates the present computational methodology.

  14. The Numerical-Experimental Enhanced Analysis of HOT MCT Barrier Infrared Detectors (United States)

    Jóźwikowski, K.; Piotrowski, J.; Jóźwikowska, A.; Kopytko, M.; Martyniuk, P.; Gawron, W.; Madejczyk, P.; Kowalewski, A.; Markowska, O.; Martyniuk, A.; Rogalski, A.


    We present the results of numerical simulations and experimental data of band gap-engineered higher operating temperature mercury cadmium telluride barrier photodiodes working in a middle wavelength infrared radiation and a long wavelength infrared radiation range of an infrared radiation spectrum. Detailed numerical calculations of the detector performance were made with our own computer software taking into account Shockley Hall Read, Auger, band-to-band and trap-assisted tunneling and dislocation-related currents. We have also simulated a fluctuation phenomena by using our Langevin-like numerical method to analyze shot, diffusion, generation-recombination and 1/ f noise.

  15. Incorporation of experimentally derived friction laws in numerical simulations of earthquake generated tsunamis (United States)

    Murphy, Shane; Spagnuolo, Elena; Lorito, Stefano; Di Toro, Giulio; Scala, Antonio; Festa, Gaetano; Nielsen, Stefan; Piatanesi, Alessio; Romano, Fabrizio; Aretusini, Stefano


    Seismological, tsunami and geodetic observations have shown that subduction zones are complex systems where the properties of earthquake rupture vary with depth. For example nucleation and high frequency radiation generally occur at depth but low frequency radiation and large tsunami-genic slip appear to occur in the shallow crustal depth. Numerical simulations used to describe these features predominantly use standardised theoretical equations or experimental observations often assuming that their validity extends to all slip-rates, lithologies and tectonic environments. However recent rotary-shear experiments performed on a range of diverse materials and experimental conditions highlighted the large variability of the evolution of friction during slipping pointing to a more complex relationship between material type, slip rate and normal stress. Simulating dynamic rupture using a 2D spectral element methodology on a Tohoku like fault, we apply experimentally derived friction laws (i.e. thermal slip distance friction law, Di Toro et al. 2011) Choice of parameters for the friction law are based on expected material type (e.g. cohesive and non-cohesive clay rich material representative of an accretionary wedge), the normal stress which is controlled by the interaction between the regional stress field and the fault geometry. The shear stress distribution on the fault plane is fractal with the yield stress dependent on the static coefficient of friction and the normal stress, parameters that are dependent on the material type and geometry. We use metrics such as the slip distribution, ground motion and fracture energy to explore the effect of frictional behaviour, fault geometry and stress perturbations and its potential role in tsunami generation. Preliminary results will be presented. This research is funded by the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement n° 603839 (Project ASTARTE - Assessment, Strategy and Risk Reduction

  16. An Experimental and Numerical Study of Long Wave Run-Up on a Plane Beach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ulrike Drähne


    Full Text Available This research is to facilitate the current understanding of long wave dynamics at coasts and during on-land propagation; experimental and numerical approaches are compared against existing analytical expressions for the long wave run-up. Leading depression sinusoidal waves are chosen to model these dynamics. The experimental study was conducted using a new pump-driven wave generator and the numerical experiments were carried out with a one-dimensional discontinuous Galerkin non-linear shallow water model. The numerical model is able to accurately reproduce the run-up elevation and velocities predicted by the theoretical expressions. Depending on the surf similarity of the generated waves and due to imperfections of the experimental wave generation, riding waves are observed in the experimental results. These artifacts can also be confirmed in the numerical study when the data from the physical experiments is assimilated. Qualitatively, scale effects associated with the experimental setting are discussed. Finally, shoreline velocities, run-up and run-down are determined and shown to largely agree with analytical predictions.

  17. Experimental measurements of subsoil–structure interaction and 3D numerical models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jana Labudkova


    Full Text Available Use of combination of experimental measurements, tests in situ and numerical modelling is optimal approach to obtain reliable results of subsoil–structure interaction. Input data for numerical analyses were obtained by experimental loading tests of three different types of concrete slabs. Loading was performed out using experimental equipment. The unique experimental equipment was constructed in the area of Faculty of Civil Engineering, VŠB-TU Ostrava. Analyses of interaction of reinforced concrete slabs with subsoil were solved by application of inhomogeneous half-space. The main focus was to verify the aptness of application of inhomogeneous half-space in relation to the slab deformations in comparison of different types of reinforcements of concrete slab.

  18. Experimental and Numerical Research on Cylindrical Tubes under Outer Cylindrical Explosive Waves


    Sui Yaguang; Zhang Dezhi; Tang Shiying; Chen Bo


    Cylindrical explosive loading has an important application in explosive working, researching on weapon damage, and explosive-driving load. This study uses experimental and numerical methods to study the response of long and thin tubes when subjected to cylindrical explosive loading. The flake-like charge and multipoint initiation technique were adopted to load cylindrical explosive waves. Experimental results showed that the method could produce uniform deformation in certain parts of the lon...

  19. Experimental and Numerical Study on Pressure Distribution of 90° Elbow for Flow Measurement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beibei Feng


    Full Text Available Numerical simulation is performed to investigate the pressure distribution of helium gas under high pressure and high temperature for 10 MW High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR-10. Experimental studies are first conducted on a self-built test system to investigate the static pressure distribution of a 90° elbow and validate the credibility of the computational approach. The 90° elbow is designed and manufactured geometrically the same as HTGR-10. Based on the experimental data, comparison of static pressure of inner wall and outer wall of 90° elbow with numerical results is carried out to verify the numerical approach. With high agreement between experimental results and numerical results of water flowing through 90° elbow, flow characteristics of helium gas under high pressure and high temperature are investigated on the confirmed numerical approach for flow measurement. And wall pressure distribution of eight cross sections of 90° elbow is given in detail to represent the entire region of the elbow.

  20. An experimental and numerical study on jack-up dynamic behavior

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Liu, P.


    This paper presents the more salient results of an experimental and numerical study on jack-up dynamic behavior. The laboratory studies of three principle jack-up platform models were carried out in both regular and irregular waves. The data from irregular wave tests were analyzed in both the

  1. Numerical and experimental investigation of NO{sub x} formation in lean premixed combustion of methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bengtsson, K.; Benz, P.; Marti, T.; Schaeren, R.; Schlegel, A. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)


    A high pressure jet-stirred reactor has been built and employed to investigate NO{sub x} formation in lean premixed combustion of methane/air. Experimental results are compared with numerical predictions using the model of a perfectly stirred reactor and elementary reaction mechanisms. Four reaction mechanisms are considered with respect to NO{sub x} formation. (author) 3 figs., 6 refs.

  2. A comparison between numerical predictions and theoretical and experimental results for laminar core-annular flow

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beerens, J.C.; Ooms, G.; Pourquie, M.J.B.M.; Westerweel, J.


    high-viscosity liquid core surrounded by a laminar low-viscosity liquid annular layer through a vertical pipe. The numerical results are compared with theoretical results from linear stability calculations and with experimental data. The comparison is good and the general conclusion of our study is

  3. Unsteady experimental and numerical analysis of a two-phase closed thermosyphon at different filling ratios

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jafari, Davoud; Filippeschi, Sauro; Franco, Alessandro; Di Marco, Paolo


    This paper deals with the experimental analysis and numerical simulation of a two-phase closed thermosyphon (TPCT) in the aim to predict its transient performances. A concern in the design and operation of the TPCT is evaluating working fluid loading charge to maximize performance while avoiding

  4. Experimental measurements and numerical modeling of marginal burning in live chaparral fuel beds (United States)

    X. Zhou; D.R. Weise; S Mahalingam


    An extensive experimental and numerical study was completed to analyze the marginal burning behavior of live chaparral shrub fuels that grow in the mountains of southern California. Laboratory fire spread experiments were carried out to determine the effects of wind, slope, moisture content, and fuel characteristics on marginal burning in fuel beds of common...

  5. Inertial confinement fusion for energy: overview of the ongoing experimental, theoretical and numerical studies (United States)

    Jacquemot, S.


    This paper provides an overview of the results presented at the 26th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference in the field of inertial confinement fusion for energy, covering its various experimental, numerical/theoretical and technological facets, as well as the different paths towards ignition that are currently followed worldwide.

  6. Experimental and numerical study of MILD combustion in a lab-scale furnace

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Huang, X.; Tummers, M.J.; Roekaerts, D.J.E.M.; Scherer, Viktor; Fricker, Neil; Reis, Albino


    Mild combustion in a lab-scale furnace has been experimentally and numerically studied. The furnace was operated with Dutch natural gas (DNG) at 10 kW and at an equivalence ratio of 0.8. OH∗chemiluminescence images were taken to characterize the reaction zone. The chemiluminescence intensity is

  7. Buckling and Fracture Investigation of Debonded Sandwich Columns: An Experimental and Numerical Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berggreen, Christian; Carlsson, Leif A.; Avilés, F.


    An experimental and numerical study of in-plane compression of foam core sandwich columns with implanted trough width face/core debond is presented. Experiments were conducted for columns with two different face thicknesses over different cores and debond lengths. The debonded region was monitore...

  8. Numerical Analysis and Experimental Verification of Stresses Building up in Microelectronics Packaging

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rezaie Adli, A.R.


    This thesis comprises a thorough study of the microelectronics packaging process by means of various experimental and numerical methods to estimate the process induced residual stresses. The main objective of the packaging is to encapsulate the die, interconnections and the other exposed internal

  9. A numerical and experimental study of stress and crack development in kiln-dried wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Finn; Ormarsson, Sigurdur


    Numerical and experimental investigations were carried out on well defined log-disc samples of Norway spruce consisting of both heartwood and sapwood, with the aim of gaining more adequate knowledge of stress and fracture generation during the drying process. Use of thin discs enabled a well-cont...

  10. A numerical and experimental study of stress and crack development in kiln-dried wood

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larsen, Finn; Ormarsson, Sigurdur


    Numerical and experimental investigations were carried out on well defined log-disc samples of Norway spruce consisting of both heartwood and sapwood, with the aim of gaining more adequate knowledge of stress and fracture generation during the drying process. Use of thin discs of a log enabled a ...

  11. Experimental and numerical investigation of a packed-bed thermal energy storage device (United States)

    Yang, Bei; Wang, Yan; Bai, Fengwu; Wang, Zhifeng


    This paper presents a pilot-scale setup built to study a packed bed thermal energy storage device based on ceramic balls randomly poured into a cylindrical tank while using air as heat transfer fluid. Temperature distribution of ceramic balls throughout the packed bed is investigated both experimentally and numerically. Method of characteristic is adopted to improve the numerical computing efficiency, and mesh independence is verified to guarantee the accuracy of numerical solutions and the economy of computing time cost at the same time. Temperature in tests is as high as over 600 °C, and modeling prediction shows good agreements with experimental results under various testing conditions when heat loss is included and thermal properties of air are considered as temperature dependent.

  12. Numerical and Experimental Modal Control of Flexible Rotor Using Electromagnetic Actuator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edson Hideki Koroishi


    Full Text Available The present work is dedicated to active modal control applied to flexible rotors. The effectiveness of the corresponding techniques for controlling a flexible rotor is tested numerically and experimentally. Two different approaches are used to determine the appropriate controllers. The first uses the linear quadratic regulator and the second approach is the fuzzy modal control. This paper is focused on the electromagnetic actuator, which in this case is part of a hybrid bearing. Due to numerical reasons it was necessary to reduce the size of the model of the rotating system so that the design of the controllers and estimator could be performed. The role of the Kalman estimator in the present contribution is to estimate the modal states of the system and to determine the displacement of the rotor at the position of the hybrid bearing. Finally, numerical and experimental results demonstrate the success of the methodology conveyed.

  13. U-drawing of Fortiform 1050 third generation steels. Numerical and experimental results (United States)

    Saenz de Argandoña, E.; Galdos, L.; Mendiguren, J.; Otero, I.; Mugarra, E.


    Elasto-plastic behavior of the third generation Fortiform 1050 steel has been analysed using cyclic tension-compression tests. At the same time, the pseudo elastic modulus evolution with plastic strain was analysed using cyclic loading and unloading tests. From the experiments, it was found that the cyclic behavior of the steel is strongly kinematic and elastic modulus decrease with plastic strain is relevant for numerical modelling. In order to numerically analyse a U-Drawing process, strip drawing tests have been carried out at different contact pressures and Filzek model has been used to fit the experimental data and implement a pressure dependent friction law in Autoform software. Finally, numerical predictions of springback have been compared with the experimentally ones obtained using a sensorized U-Drawing tooling. Different material and contact models have been examined and most influencing parameters have been identified to model the forming of these new steels.

  14. Experimental and numerical simulation analysis of heat transfer on a closed enclosure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Minea


    Full Text Available The main objective of this work was to evaluate the behavior of an oval heated closed enclosure, when variable radiant panels were introduced. The experimental investigation showed that their efficiency was depending on their position. An experimental investigation, as well as numerical simulation was carried out. Totally, 24 test runs were performed from which the maximal heating temperature was measured. The experimental findings were also compared to the simulation results and a reasonable agreement was observed. Finally, based on the results of this study, a correlation was developed to predict the inner configuration for heat transfer enhancement of an oval furnace.

  15. Numerical and Experimental Investigations of the Flow in a Stationary Pelton Bucket (United States)

    Nakanishi, Yuji; Fujii, Tsuneaki; Kawaguchi, Sho

    A numerical code based on one of mesh-free particle methods, a Moving-Particle Semi-implicit (MPS) Method has been used for the simulation of free surface flows in a bucket of Pelton turbines so far. In this study, the flow in a stationary bucket is investigated by MPS simulation and experiment to validate the numerical code. The free surface flow dependent on the angular position of the bucket and the corresponding pressure distribution on the bucket computed by the numerical code are compared with that obtained experimentally. The comparison shows that numerical code based on MPS method is useful as a tool to gain an insight into the free surface flows in Pelton turbines.

  16. Experimental and Numerical Determination of Hot Forming Limit Curve of Advanced High-Strength Steel (United States)

    Ma, B. L.; Wan, M.; Liu, Z. G.; Li, X. J.; Wu, X. D.; Diao, K. S.


    This paper studied the hot formability of the advanced high-strength steel B1500HS. The hot Nakazima tests were conducted to obtain the forming limit curve (FLC), and the sheet temperatures were recorded to analyze temperature distributions during deformation. Meanwhile, the numerical simulations of hot Nakazima tests were performed to compare with the experimental ones. By utilizing the commercial software, Abaqus, the punch force-displacement curve, sheet temperature distribution at the time of the maximum punch load and temperature path of the necked element were investigated from both of experiments and numerical simulations. The FLCs from experiment and numerical simulation showed a good agreement. The temperature path of the necked element on each FLC specimen was different due to the numerical stretching time and stress state. This study demonstrated the predictive capability of finite element simulation on hot stamping.

  17. Comparison of results of experimental research with numerical calculations of a model one-sided seal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joachimiak Damian


    Full Text Available Paper presents the results of experimental and numerical research of a model segment of a labyrinth seal for a different wear level. The analysis covers the extent of leakage and distribution of static pressure in the seal chambers and the planes upstream and downstream of the segment. The measurement data have been compared with the results of numerical calculations obtained using commercial software. Based on the flow conditions occurring in the area subjected to calculations, the size of the mesh defined by parameter y+ has been analyzed and the selection of the turbulence model has been described. The numerical calculations were based on the measurable thermodynamic parameters in the seal segments of steam turbines. The work contains a comparison of the mass flow and distribution of static pressure in the seal chambers obtained during the measurement and calculated numerically in a model segment of the seal of different level of wear.

  18. Experimental and Numerical Vibrational Analysis of a Horizontal-Axis Micro-Wind Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Castellani


    Full Text Available Micro-wind turbines are energy conversion technologies strongly affected by fatigue, as a result of their size and the variability of loads, induced by the unsteady wind conditions, and modulated by a very high rotational speed. This work is devoted to the experimental and numerical characterization of the aeroelastic behavior of a test-case horizontal-axis wind turbine (HAWT with a 2 m rotor diameter and a maximum power production of 3 kW. The experimental studies have been conducted at the wind tunnel of the University of Perugia and consisted of accelerometer measurements at the tower and the tail fin. The numerical setup was the Fatigue, Aerodynamics, Structures, and Turbulence (FAST code for aeroelastic simulations, which was fed as input with the same wind conditions employed in the wind tunnel tests. The experimental and numerical analyses were coupled with the perspective of establishing a reciprocal feedback, and this has been accomplished. On one hand, the numerical model is important for interpreting the measured spectrum of tower oscillations and, for example, inspires the detection of a mass unbalance at the blades. On the other hand, the measurements inspire the question of how to interpret the interaction between the blades and the tower. The experimental spectrum of tail fin vibrations indicates that secondary elements, in terms of weight, can also transmit to the tower, giving meaningful contributions to the vibration spectra. Therefore, an integrated numerical and experimental approach is not only valuable but is also unavoidable, to fully characterize the dynamics of small wind-energy conversion systems.

  19. Intercellular ultrafast Ca2+ wave in vascular smooth muscle cells: numerical and experimental study (United States)

    Quijano, J. C.; Raynaud, F.; Nguyen, D.; Piacentini, N.; Meister, J. J.


    Vascular smooth muscle cells exhibit intercellular Ca2+ waves in response to local mechanical or KCl stimulation. Recently, a new type of intercellular Ca2+ wave was observed in vitro in a linear arrangement of smooth muscle cells. The intercellular wave was denominated ultrafast Ca2+ wave and it was suggested to be the result of the interplay between membrane potential and Ca2+ dynamics which depended on influx of extracellular Ca2+, cell membrane depolarization and its intercel- lular propagation. In the present study we measured experimentally the conduction velocity of the membrane depolarization and performed simulations of the ultrafast Ca2+ wave along coupled smooth muscle cells. Numerical results reproduced a wide spectrum of experimental observations, including Ca2+ wave velocity, electrotonic membrane depolarization along the network, effects of inhibitors and independence of the Ca2+ wave speed on the intracellular stores. The numerical data also provided new physiological insights suggesting ranges of crucial model parameters that may be altered experimentally and that could significantly affect wave kinetics allowing the modulation of the wave characteristics experimentally. Numerical and experimental results supported the hypothesis that the propagation of membrane depolarization acts as an intercellular messenger mediating intercellular ultrafast Ca2+ waves in smooth muscle cells.

  20. Experimental and numerical modelling of ductile crack propagation in large-scale shell structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Bo Cerup; Törnquist, R.


    This paper presents a combined experimental-numerical procedure for development and calibration of macroscopic crack propagation criteria in large-scale shell structures. A novel experimental set-up is described in which a mode-I crack can be driven 400 mm through a 20(+) mm thick plate under fully....... The applicability of the often-used equivalent strain criterion is discussed versus a more rationally based criterion which takes into account the stress tri-axiality. A large-scale grounding experiment is also simulated showing very good agreement with measurements. The performance of the proposed model...... is in general good and it is believed that the presented results and experimental-numerical calibration procedure can be of use in practical finite-element simulations of collision and grounding events with the use of shell elements. As discussed, the paper provides a clean framework for further development...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The aim of the present work is to analyse experimental and numerically the swirling turbulent flow in conical diffusers. The experimental part is made with Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV, where two geometries 5 and 10° semi-angles are analysed. We obtain information of the mean flow, in the axial and also in the cross sections of the swirling flow. In each PIV plane, two velocity components are obtained. Using the same conditions of the experimental apparatus, it is numerical simulation using CFX 14. We used Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS for solve the closing problem and Shear Stress Transport (SST turbulence modelling. In comparing the results, it was observed that the data had good quantitative agreement.

  2. Laser-assisted bending of Titanium Grade-2 sheets: Experimental analysis and numerical simulation (United States)

    Gisario, Annamaria; Mehrpouya, Mehrshad; Venettacci, Simone; Barletta, Massimiliano


    External force laser-assisted bending of Titanium Grade-2 flat sheets to achieve sharp bending angles (>140°) with small fillet radii is herein investigated. In particular, the influence of the operational parameters, laser power, scan speed, number of passes, on bending angles and fillet radii of the metal substrates is analysed. The experimental results show that shaping of the substrates can be performed with great reliability, being springback largely minimised in broad operational ranges. Exploratory Data Analysis (EDA) allows the design of first approximation technological models and, in turn, the development of 3d processing maps. Based on the experimental findings, numerical modelling of the bending process by the Finite Element Method (FEM) through ABAQUS/Explicit software is also developed. The numerical model is found to match with great accuracy the experimental results, being it also extremely flexible and responsive to the change of the operational parameters.

  3. Experimental and numerical investigation of a draft tube cone at lower runner speeds (United States)

    Bosioc, Alin I.; Tanasa, Constantin


    The variable demand on the energy market enforces that hydraulic turbine to operate at different regimes, far from the best efficiency point. An experimental test rig was developed in our laboratory in order to reproduce these regimes. As a result, the investigated flow regimes allow us to quantify the flow behavior from part load operation to full load operation. The paper focuses on experimental and numerical investigations of mean velocity profiles and of stagnant region developed in the centre of draft tube cone. First the numerical results are validated against experimental results. At the end a qualitative analysis of the streamline pattern is complemented, giving us an evaluation of the stagnant region from the draft tube cone at different runner speeds.

  4. Experimental and Numerical Evaluation of Direct Tension Test for Cylindrical Concrete Specimens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jung J. Kim


    Full Text Available Concrete cracking strength can be defined as the tensile strength of concrete subjected to pure tension stress. However, as it is difficult to apply direct tension load to concrete specimens, concrete cracking is usually quantified by the modulus of rupture for flexural members. In this study, a new direct tension test setup for cylindrical specimens (101.6 mm in diameter and 203.2 mm in height similar to those used in compression test is developed. Double steel plates are used to obtain uniform stress distributions. Finite element analysis for the proposed test setup is conducted. The uniformity of the stress distribution along the cylindrical specimen is examined and compared with rectangular cross section. Fuzzy image pattern recognition method is used to assess stress uniformity along the specimen. Moreover, the probability of cracking at different locations along the specimen is evaluated using probabilistic finite element analysis. The experimental and numerical results of the cracking location showed that gravity effect on fresh concrete during setting time might affect the distribution of concrete cracking strength along the height of the structural elements.

  5. Numerical and Experimental Investigation on the Structural Behaviour of a Horizontal Stabilizer under Critical Aerodynamic Loading Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Sepe


    Full Text Available The aim of the proposed research activity is to investigate the mechanical behaviour of a part of aerospace horizontal stabilizer, made of composite materials and undergoing static loads. The prototype design and manufacturing phases have been carried out in the framework of this research activity. The structural components of such stabilizer are made of composite sandwich panels (HTA 5131/RTM 6 with honeycomb core (HRH-10-1/8-4.0; the sandwich skins have been made by means of Resin Transfer Moulding (RTM process. In order to assess the mechanical strength of this stabilizer, experimental tests have been performed. In particular, the most critical inflight recorded aerodynamic load has been experimentally reproduced and applied on the stabilizer. A numerical model, based on the Finite Element Method (FEM and aimed at reducing the experimental effort, has been preliminarily developed to calibrate amplitude, direction, and distribution of an equivalent and simpler load vector to be used in the experimental test. The FEM analysis, performed by using NASTRAN code, has allowed modelling the skins of the composite sandwich plates by definition of material properties and stack orientation of each lamina, while the honeycomb core has been modelled by using an equivalent orthotropic plate. Numerical and experimental results have been compared and a good agreement has been achieved.

  6. Experimental and numerical study of radial flow and its contribution to wake development of a HAWT


    Micallef, Daniel; Akay, Busra; Sant, Tonio; Ferreira, Carlos Simao; Bussel, Van Gerard; ; European Wind Energy Conference and Exhibition 2011


    The scope of this work was to investigate radial flow component for a Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine in ax- ial flow conditions and to assess its impact on the turbine operation. This was done by means of Parti- cle Image Velocimetry and numerical simulation with a 3D unsteady potential-flow panel model. A direct comparison between the numerical and experimen- tal radial velocity results show differences in the tip and root regions. These differences have important ...

  7. Bending and Shear Experimental Tests and Numerical Analysis of Composite Slabs Made Up of Lightweight Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. P. Alvarez Rabanal


    Full Text Available The aim of this paper is to understand the structural behaviour of composite slabs. These composite slabs are made of steel and different kinds of concrete. The methodology used in this paper combines experimental studies with advanced techniques of numerical simulations. In this paper, four types of concrete were used in order to study their different structural strengths in composite slabs. The materials used were three lightweight concretes, a normal concrete, and a cold conformed steel deck which has embossments to increase the adherence between concrete and steel. Furthermore, two lengths of slabs were studied to compare structural behaviours between short and long slabs. m-k experimental tests were carried out to obtain the flexural behaviour of the composite slabs. These tests provide dimensionless coefficients to compare different sizes of slabs. Nonlinear numerical simulations were performed by means of the finite element method (FEM. Four different multilinear isotropic hardening laws were used to simulate the four concretes. Coulomb friction contact was used to model the coefficient of friction between steel and concrete. Finally, a chemical bond was included to consider sliding resistance in the contact surface between steel and concrete. Experimental and numerical results are in good agreement; therefore, numerical models can be used to improve and optimize lightweight composite slabs.

  8. Experimental and Numerical Evaluation of Progressive Collapse Behavior in Scaled RC Beam-Column Subassemblage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasool Ahmadi


    Full Text Available An experimental test was carried out on a 3/10 scale subassemblage in order to investigate the progressive collapse behavior of reinforced concrete (RC structures. Investigation of alternative load paths and resistance mechanisms in scaled subassemblage and differences between the results of full-scale and scaled specimens are the main goals of this research. Main characteristics of specimen response including load-displacement curve, mechanism of formation and development of cracks, and failure mode of the scaled specimen had good agreement with the full-scale specimen. In order to provide a reliable numerical model for progressive collapse analysis of RC beam-column subassemblages, a macromodel was also developed. First, numerical model was validated with experimental tests in the literature. Then, experimental results in this study were compared with validated numerical results. It is shown that the proposed macromodel can provide a precise estimation of collapse behavior of RC subassemblages under the middle column removal scenario. In addition, for further evaluation, using the validated numerical model, parametric study of new subassemblages with different details, geometric and boundary conditions, was also done.

  9. Experimental and numerical investigations of sedimentation of porous wastewater sludge flocs. (United States)

    Hriberšek, M; Zajdela, B; Hribernik, A; Zadravec, M


    The paper studies the properties and sedimentation characteristics of sludge flocs, as they appear in biological wastewater treatment (BWT) plants. The flocs are described as porous and permeable bodies, with their properties defined based on conducted experimental study. The derivation is based on established geometrical properties, high-speed camera data on settling velocities and non-linear numerical model, linking settling velocity with physical properties of porous flocs. The numerical model for derivation is based on generalized Stokes model, with permeability of the floc described by the Brinkman model. As a result, correlation for flocs porosity is obtained as a function of floc diameter. This data is used in establishing a CFD numerical model of sedimentation of flocs in test conditions, as recorded during experimental investigation. The CFD model is based on Euler-Lagrange formulation, where the Lagrange formulation is chosen for computation of flocs trajectories during sedimentation. The results of numerical simulations are compared with experimental results and very good agreement is observed. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Experimental and Numerical Study of Water Entry Supercavity Influenced by Turbulent Drag-Reducing Additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen-Xing Jiang


    Full Text Available The configurational and dynamic characteristics of water entry supercavities influenced by turbulent drag-reducing additives were studied through supercavitating projectile approach, experimentally and numerically. The projectile was projected vertically into water and aqueous solution of CTAC with weight concentrations of 100, 500, and 1000 ppm, respectively, using a pneumatic nail gun. The trajectories of the projectile and the supercavity configuration were recorded by a high-speed CCD camera. Besides, water entry supercavities in water and CTAC solution were numerically simulated based on unsteady RANS scheme, together with application of VOF multiphase model. The Cross viscosity model was adopted to represent the fluid property of CTAC solution. It was obtained that the numerical simulation results are in consistence with experimental data. Numerical and experimental results all show that the length and diameter of supercavity in drag-reducing solution are larger than those in water, and the drag coefficient is smaller than that in water; the maintaining time of supercavity is longer in solution as well. The surface tension plays an important role in maintaining the cavity. Turbulent drag-reducing additives have the potential in enhancement of supercavitation and drag reduction.

  11. Numerical Simulation and Experimental Validation of Failure Caused by Vibration of a Fan (United States)

    Zhou, Qiang; Han, Wu; Feng, Jianmei; Jia, Xiaohan; Peng, Xueyuan


    This paper presents the root cause analysis of an unexpected fracture occurred on the blades of a motor fan used in a natural gas reciprocating compressor unit. A finite element model was established to investigate the natural frequencies and modal shapes of the fan, and a modal test was performed to verify the numerical results. It was indicated that the numerical results agreed well with experimental data. The third order natural frequency was close to the six times excitation frequency, and the corresponding modal shape was the combination of bending and torsional vibration, which consequently contributed to low-order resonance and fracture failure of the fan. The torsional moment obtained by a torsional vibration analysis of the compressor shaft system was exerted on the numerical model of the fan to evaluate the dynamic stress response of the fan. The results showed that the stress concentration regions on the numerical model were consistent with the location of fractures on the fan. Based on the numerical simulation and experimental validation, some recommendations were given to improve the reliability of the motor fan.

  12. Quantitative numerical and experimental studies of the shock accelerated heterogeneous bubbles motion (United States)

    Layes, G.; Le Métayer, O.


    This work deals with quantitative comparisons between experimental and numerical results for shock-bubbles interactions. The bubbles are filled with three different gases (nitrogen, krypton and helium) surrounded by air in order to investigate all kind of density jumps across the interface. For each case, three incident shock wave intensities are also studied. The experiments are led by using a shock tube coupled with a visualization diagnostic device: the T80 shock tube [G. Jourdan, L. Houas, L. Schwaederlé, G. Layes, R. Carrey, and F. Diaz, "A new variable inclination shock tube for multiple investigations," Shock Waves 13, 501 (2004)]. Considering the same initial and geometrical conditions, the numerical results are obtained with the help of a recent numerical method: the discrete equations method [R. Abgrall and R. Saurel, "Discrete equations for physical and numerical compressible multiphase mixtures," J. Comput. Phys. 186, 361 (2003); R. Saurel, S. Gavrilyuk, and F. Renaud, "A multiphase model with internal degrees of freedom: Application to shock-bubble interaction," J. Fluid Mech. 495, 283 (2003); A. Chinnayya, E. Daniel, and R. Saurel, "Modelling detonation waves in heterogeneous energetic materials," J. Comput. Phys. 196, 490 (2004); O. Le Métayer, J. Massoni, and R. Saurel, "Modelling evaporation fronts with reactive Riemann solvers," J. Comput. Phys. 205, 567 (2005)], devoted to the computation of interface problems as well as multiphase mixtures. For each configuration, the quantitative comparisons are in good agreement showing the capability of both methods (numerical and experimental) to describe complex physical flows.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Filatau


    Full Text Available Unsteady numerical model of borehole heat exchanger heat regime was developed. General numerical modeling results are borehole heat flux, heat carrier inlet temperature and average soil temperature distribution. Proposed model is based on solution of heat conduction equation in transient plane axially symmetric formulation with boundary conditions for borehole heat exchanger and undisturbed soil domain. Solution method is finite difference method. Numerical model is verified with comparisons numerical results and experimental data from developed laboratory installation for simulation unsteady heat regime of horizontal positioned U-shape ground heat exchanger in sand medium.Cooling of water is organized in ground exchanger in experiment. Experiment includes two steps. Thermal properties of sand is determined at the first stage. Thermal conductivity of sand is determined by stationary plate method, thermal diffusivity is determined by regular regime method using cylindrical calorimeter. Determined properties are used further in processing of experimental results at second step for analysis of transient work of ground heat exchanger. Results of four experiments are analyzed with different duration and time behavior of mass flow and heat carrier temperature. Divergences of experimental and simulated results for temperature of heat carrier changes in the range 0,5–1,8 %, for sand temperature in the range 1,0–2,3 %, for heat flux in the range 3,6–5,4 %. Experimental results can be used for validation of other simulation methods of ground heat exchangers. Presented numerical model can be used for analyzing of heat supply systems with heat pumps.

  14. Numerical and Experimental Studies on the Explosive Welding of Tungsten Foil to Copper. (United States)

    Zhou, Qiang; Feng, Jianrui; Chen, Pengwan


    This work verifies that the W foil could be successfully welded on Cu through conventional explosive welding, without any cracks. The microstructure was observed through scanning electron microscopy (SEM), optical microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS). The W/Cu interface exhibited a wavy morphology, and no intermetallic or transition layer was observed. The wavy interface formation, as well as the distributions of temperature, pressure and plastic strain at the interface were studied through numerical simulation with Smoothed Particle Hydrodynamics (SPH). The welding mechanism of W/Cu was analyzed according to the numerical results and experimental observation, which was in accordance with the indentation mechanism proposed by Bahrani.

  15. Experimental and Numerical Investigations in Shallow Cut Grinding by Workpiece Integrated Infrared Thermopile Array

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Reimers


    Full Text Available The purpose of our study is to investigate the heat distribution and the occurring temperatures during grinding. Therefore, we did both experimental and numerical investigations. In the first part, we present the integration of an infrared thermopile array in a steel workpiece. Experiments are done by acquiring data from the thermopile array during grinding of a groove in a workpiece made of steel. In the second part, we present numerical investigations in the grinding process to further understand the thermal characteristic during grinding. Finally, we conclude our work. Increasing the feed speed leads to two things: higher heat flux densities in the workpiece and higher temperature gradients in the material.

  16. Numerical and Experimental Calibration of a Calorimetric Sample Cell Dedicated to Nuclear Heating Measurements (United States)

    Brun, J.; Reynard-Carette, C.; Lyoussi, A.; Merroun, O.; Carette, M.; Janulyte, A.; Zerega, Y.; Andre, J.; Bignan, G.; Chauvin, J.-P.; Fourmentel, D.; Gonnier, C.; Guimbal, P.; Malo, J.-Y.; Villard, J.-F.


    Online nuclear measurements inside experimental channels of material testing reactors (MTRs) are needed for experimental works (to design mock-ups) and for numerical works (input data) in order to better understanding complex phenomena occurring during the accelerated ageing of materials and the irradiation of nuclear fuels. In this paper, we focus only on one kind of measurements: nuclear heating performed by means of a radiometric calorimeter. The aims of numerical and experimental works are firstly to optimize the sensor response: in particular the sensitivity for new energy deposit ranges (new lower nuclear heating level in the reflector), and then to miniaturize and adapt this sensor for irradiation conditions in the Jules Horowitz Reactor (JHR). A calorimeter, developed previously by the CEA, is studied. It corresponds to a graphite differential calorimeter. It is used with a nonadiabatic mode called heat flow mode too. Experimental calibration of the sample cell is presented. In that case, energy deposit is simulated by Joule effect and the sample cell is inserted into a bath at a regulated temperature and controlled flow. The response of the sensor is discussed versus electrical power imposed for two flow rates. Numerical works show the influence of the gas conductivity and of specific dimensions on the cell sensitivity.

  17. An Experimental and Numerical Study of Low Velocity Impact of Unsaturated Polyester/Glass Fibre Composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sanita ZIKE


    Full Text Available In this paper validation of experimental and numerical results of low-velocity impact tests of unsaturated polyester/glass fibre composite laminate has been carried out. Impact response of composite laminates was experimentally studied with drop-tower Instron 9250HV determining impact force, energy absorption and deflection. In addition, quasi-static testing equipment Zwick Z100 has been used to determine material mechanical properties to ensure good input data for numerical predictions. Numerical model has been created with the finite element commercial code ANSYS/LS-DYNA to simulate impact response of composite laminate. Also non-destructive ultrasonic B- and C- scan imagining with USPC 3010 system has been used to identify the deformation regions in the specimens and compare to simulation results. During the impact test all samples were perforated, showing brittle response followed by matrix cracking and delamination. Overall good agreement between experimental and simulation results was achieved, comparing impact characterizing parameters as load, energy and deflection. Discrepancy has been observed between ultrasonic scanning and simulation code ANSYS/LS-DYNA results of rupture and delamination. Simulation shows less uniform and larger deformation than it was experimentally observed.

  18. Experimental and numerical analysis of fluid flow in pipe - like conduits (United States)

    Mendo-Pérez, Gerardo M.; Arciniega-Ceballos, Alejandra; Guzmán-Vázquez, José E.; Sánchez-Sesma, Francisco J.


    Volcanic activity is complex and it is a good example of multiscale phenomenon due to the sundry processes that occur at different scales while fluids ascend from the magmatic reservoirs to volcanic vents. Several processes occur at their own time scale and within a wide range of strengths. Each process contributes with its particular elastic response to the overall stress-strain field of the conduit dynamics. In this work, we present experimental and numerical analysis of fluid flowing through pipe-like conduits in order to understand the dynamic of the volcanic eruptions and its effects on the seismic signals. We focused on the elastic response of cylindrical conduits due to the flow of viscous Newtonian fluids (0.001 and 1 Pa s) passing through them. We compared signals obtained experimentally with those calculated by numerical modeling. The experimental signals are recorded with high dynamic range piezoelectric sensors located along the conduit where the fluid flows due to a sudden pressure drop. The numerical counterparts are calculated through a scheme that involves the continuity and motion equations for fluids, where the fluid couples with the surrounding solid; the excitation function simulates a pressure drop, in the range of the experimental values. In both, the excitation is considered an instantaneous pressure drop from maximum 3 bar to ambient pressure. The analysis of these observations included video recording of the process with a high speed camera. The dynamic behavior of experimental and numerical simulations present high similarity with field volcanic signals associated with pressurization processes. Our studies contributes to the understanding volcanic phenomenon and its effects on field base seismograms.

  19. Examining pitch and numerical magnitude processing in congenital amusia: A quasi-experimental pilot study. (United States)

    Nunes-Silva, Marilia; Moura, Ricardo; Lopes-Silva, Júlia Beatriz; Haase, Vitor Geraldi


    Congenital amusia is a developmental disorder associated with deficits in pitch height discrimination or in integrating pitch sequences into melodies. This quasi-experimental pilot study investigated whether there is an association between pitch and numerical processing deficits in congenital amusia. Since pitch height discrimination is considered a form of magnitude processing, we investigated whether individuals with amusia present an impairment in numerical magnitude processing, which would reflect damage to a generalized magnitude system. Alternatively, we investigated whether the numerical processing deficit would reflect a disconnection between nonsymbolic and symbolic number representations. This study was conducted with 11 adult individuals with congenital amusia and a control comparison group of 6 typically developing individuals. Participants performed nonsymbolic and symbolic magnitude comparisons and number line tasks. Results were available from previous testing using the Montreal Battery of Evaluation of Amusia (MBEA) and a pitch change detection task (PCD). Compared to the controls, individuals with amusia exhibited no significant differences in their performance on both the number line and the nonsymbolic magnitude tasks. Nevertheless, they showed significantly worse performance on the symbolic magnitude task. Moreover, individuals with congenital amusia, who presented worse performance in the Meter subtest, also presented less precise nonsymbolic numerical representation. The relationship between meter and nonsymbolic numerical discrimination could indicate a general ratio processing deficit. The finding of preserved nonsymbolic numerical magnitude discrimination and mental number line representations, with impaired symbolic number processing, in individuals with congenital amusia indicates that (a) pitch height and numerical magnitude processing may not share common neural representations, and (b) in addition to pitch processing, individuals with

  20. Experimental and numerical study of the flow field around a small car

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobrev Ivan


    Full Text Available This paper presents the aerodynamic study of a small car, which participated in Shell Ecomarathon Europe competition in the Urban Concept Hydrogen class. The goal is to understand the flow field around the vehicle. First, the flow is studied numerically using computational aerodynamics. The numerical simulation is carried out by means of CFD Fluent in order to obtain the drag force experienced by the vehicle and also the flow field. Then the flow field around the car is studied in a wind tunnel by means of particle image velocimetry (PIV. The comparison of the flow fields obtained numerically and experimentally shows good correspondence. The obtained results are very helpful for future car development and permit to improve the drag and to obtain a good stability.

  1. Experimental and numerical investigation of the internal kinetics of a surf-zone plunging breaker

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Emarat, Narumon; Forehand, David I.M.; Christensen, Erik Damgaard


    for surfzone breaking waves have been reported. In this study, a comparison is made between the experimental and numerical investigation of the internal kinematics of a surf-zone plunging breaker. The full-field velocity measuring technique known as Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) is used in the experiments...... that this was due to the small amount of smoothing applied in the BIM to enable it to continue to supply input data to the Navier–Stokes solver well beyond the breaking of the wave. In addition, some small differences were also found between the numerically predicted velocity distributions and those measured...... in the experiments. These disagreements occurred mostly in the aerated region and it is proposed that they could be caused by errors in the PIV velocity data due to air bubble effects. However, they could also be attributed to the fact that no turbulence model is used in the numerical scheme and it is these aerated...

  2. Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Egg-Shaped Sewer Pipes Flow Performance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manuel Regueiro-Picallo


    Full Text Available A Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD model was developed to analyze the open-channel flow in a new set of egg-shaped pipes for small combined sewer systems. The egg-shaped cross-section was selected after studying several geometries under different flow conditions. Once the egg-shaped cross-section was defined, a real-scale physical model was built and a series of partial-full flow experiments were performed in order to validate the numerical simulations. Furthermore, the numerical velocity distributions were compared with an experimental formulation for analytic geometries, with comparison results indicating a satisfactory concordance. After the hydraulic performance of the egg-shaped pipe was analyzed, the numerical model was used to compare the average velocity and shear stress against an equivalent area circular pipe under low flow conditions. The proposed egg shape showed a better flow performance up to a filling ratio of h/H = 0.25.

  3. Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Temperature Effect on Thickness Distribution in Warm Hydroforming of Aluminum Tubes (United States)

    Hashemi, Seyed Jalal; Moslemi Naeini, Hassan; Liaghat, Gholamhosein; Azizi Tafti, Roohollah; Rahmani, Farzad


    Reduction of weight and increase of corrosion resistance are among the advantageous applications of aluminum alloys in automotive industry. Producing complicated components with several parts as a uniform part not only increases their strength but also decreases the production sequences and costs. However, achieving this purpose requires sufficient formability of the material. Tube hydroforming is an alternative process to produce complex products. In this process, the higher the material formability the more uniform will be the thickness distribution. In this research, tube hydroforming of aluminum alloy (AA1050) at various temperatures has been investigated numerically to study temperature effect on thickness distribution of final product. Also a warm hydroforming set-up has been designed and manufactured to evaluate numerical results. According to numerical and experimental results in the case of free bulging, unlike the constrained bulging, increase of the process temperature causes more uniform thickness distribution and therefore increases the material formability.

  4. Numerical and Experimental Study of a Cooling for Vanes in a Small Turbine Engine (United States)

    Šimák, Jan; Michálek, Jan


    This paper is concerned with a cooling system for inlet guide vanes of a small turbine engine which are exposed to a high temperature gas leaving a combustion chamber. Because of small dimensions of the vanes, only a simple internal cavity and cooling holes can be realized. The idea was to utilize a film cooling technique. The proposed solution was simulated by means of a numerical method based on a coupling of CFD and heat transfer solvers. The numerical results of various scenarios (different coolant temperature, heat transfer to surroundings) showed a desired decrease of the temperature, especially on the most critical part - the trailing edge. The numerical data are compared to results obtained by experimental measurements performed in a test facility in our institute. A quarter segment model of the inlet guide vanes wheel was equipped with thermocouples in order to verify an effect of cooling. Despite some uncertainty in the results, a verifiable decrease of the vane temperature was observed.

  5. Numerical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Boumaza


    Full Text Available Transient convection heat transfer is of fundamental interest in many industrial and environmental situations, as well as in electronic devices and security of energy systems. Transient fluid flow problems are among the more difficult to analyze and yet are very often encountered in modern day technology. The main objective of this research project is to carry out a theoretical and numerical analysis of transient convective heat transfer in vertical flows, when the thermal field is due to different kinds of variation, in time and space of some boundary conditions, such as wall temperature or wall heat flux. This is achieved by the development of a mathematical model and its resolution by suitable numerical methods, as well as performing various sensitivity analyses. These objectives are achieved through a theoretical investigation of the effects of wall and fluid axial conduction, physical properties and heat capacity of the pipe wall on the transient downward mixed convection in a circular duct experiencing a sudden change in the applied heat flux on the outside surface of a central zone.

  6. Experimental and numerical studies of turbulent flow in an in-line tube bundles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aounalah Mohamed


    Full Text Available In the present paper an experimental and a numerical simulation of the turbulent flow in an in-line tube bundles have been performed. The experiments were carried out using a subsonic wind tunnel. The pressure distributions along the tubes (22 circumferential pressure taping were determined for a variation of the azimuthal angle from 0 to 360deg. The drag and lift forces are measured using the TE 44 balance. The Navier-Stokes equations of the turbulent flow are solved using Reynolds Stress and K-ε, turbulence models (RANS provided by Fluent CFD code. An adapted grid using static pressure, pressure coefficient and velocity gradient, furthermore, a second order upwind scheme were used. The obtained results from the experimental and numerical studies show a satisfactory agreement.

  7. Experimental and Numerical Research on Cylindrical Tubes under Outer Cylindrical Explosive Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sui Yaguang


    Full Text Available Cylindrical explosive loading has an important application in explosive working, researching on weapon damage, and explosive-driving load. This study uses experimental and numerical methods to study the response of long and thin tubes when subjected to cylindrical explosive loading. The flake-like charge and multipoint initiation technique were adopted to load cylindrical explosive waves. Experimental results showed that the method could produce uniform deformation in certain parts of the long tube, but partial spall injuries occurred after the explosion. The macroscopic and microscopic deformation of tubes were analyzed. Numerical simulations were conducted to investigate the detailed response of the tube subjected to a cylindrical explosive wave. The results indicate that the collision of explosive waves brought inconsistencies in pressure and velocity. The pressure and velocity in the collision region were significantly higher than those of other parts, which caused the collision region to be easily damaged.

  8. Laminar flow in radial flow cell with small aspect ratios: Numerical and experimental study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Detry, J. G.; Deroanne, C.; Sindic, M.


    be applied for experiments performed at higher Reynolds numbers. The present study is a numerical analysis of the radial axisymmetrical flow for aspect ratios of 0.125, 0.25, 0.5 and 1 with inlet pipe Reynolds numbers varying from 0 to 2000, aiming at computing the wall shear stress distribution at any......Studies on the effect of wall shear stress on soil and biofilm attachment and removal from a surface are one of the many applications of radial axisymmetrical flow. The particular nature of this flow allows taking advantage of a wide range of wall shear Stress applied at the analyzed surface...... investigations. The experimental positions of these recirculation zones corresponded well to the numerical predictions. Based on this work, a map of the flow for the different aspect ratios was developed, which can be particularly interesting for the design of experimental devices involving axisymmetrical flow....

  9. A numerical and experimental study on a parallel plate ice bank

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ismail, K.A.R.; Quispe, O.C.; Henriquez, J.R. [FEM UNICAMP, Campinas (Brazil). Departamento de Engenharia Termica e de Fluidos


    This paper presents the results of an experimental and numerical study on ice banks of the parallel plate type with the objective of identifying the relative importance of the geometrical and operational parameters and their influence on the performance of the ice bank. The model is based upon one dimensional formulation of the phase change problem and its numerical solution was realized using the finite difference method and a fixed grid scheme. The model predictions were compared with experiments, an analytical solution and an approximate model based upon the integral heat balance method. The energy stored, the interface position and the time for complete solidification are presented and discussed in terms of the initial temperature of the phase change material, the wall temperature of the cold plate and the gap between the plates. The effectiveness and NTU of the experimental unit are also presented and discussed. (author)

  10. Particle Shape Effect on Macroscopic Behaviour of Underground Structures: Numerical and Experimental Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Szarf Krzysztof


    Full Text Available The mechanical performance of underground flexible structures such as buried pipes or culverts made of plastics depend not only on the properties of the structure, but also on the material surrounding it. Flexible drains can deflect by 30% with the joints staying tight, or even invert. Large deformations of the structure are difficult to model in the framework of Finite Element Method, but straightforward in Discrete Element Methods. Moreover, Discrete Element approach is able to provide information about the grain-grain and grain-structure interactions at the microscale. This paper presents numerical and experimental investigations of flexible buried pipe behaviour with focus placed on load transfer above the buried structure. Numerical modeling was able to reproduce the experimental results. Load repartition was observed, being affected by a number of factors such as particle shape, pipe friction and pipe stiffness.

  11. Experimental and numerical simulation of passive decay heat removal by sump cooling after core melt down

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knebel, J.U.; Mueller, U. [Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe - Technik und Umwelt Inst. fuer Angewandte Thermo- und Fluiddynamik (IATF), Karlsruhe (Germany)


    This article presents the basic physical phenomena and scaling criteria of passive decay heat removal from a large coolant pool by single-phase natural circulation. The physical significance of the dimensionless similarity groups derived is evaluated. The results are applied to the SUCO program that experimentally and numerically investigates the possibility of a sump cooling concept for future light water reactors. The sump cooling concept is based on passive safety features within the containment. The work is supported by the German utilities and the Siemens AG. The article gives results of temperature and velocity measurements in the 1:20 linearly scaled SUCOS-2D test facility. The experiments are backed up by numerical calculations using the commercial software Fluent. Finally, using the similarity analysis from above, the experimental results of the model geometry are scaled-up to the conditions in the prototype, allowing a statement with regard to the feasibility of the sump cooling concept. (author)

  12. [Numerical flow simulation : A new method for assessing nasal breathing]. (United States)

    Hildebrandt, T; Osman, J; Goubergrits, L


    The current options for objective assessment of nasal breathing are limited. The maximum they can determine is the total nasal resistance. Possibilities to analyze the endonasal airstream are lacking. In contrast, numerical flow simulation is able to provide detailed information of the flow field within the nasal cavity. Thus, it has the potential to analyze the nasal airstream of an individual patient in a comprehensive manner and only a computed tomography (CT) scan of the paranasal sinuses is required. The clinical application is still limited due to the necessary technical and personnel resources. In particular, a statistically based referential characterization of normal nasal breathing does not yet exist in order to be able to compare and classify the simulation results.

  13. A comparison between numerical predictions and theoretical and experimental results for laminar core-annular flow


    Beerens, J.C.; Ooms, G.; Pourquie, M.J.B.M.; Westerweel, J.


    high-viscosity liquid core surrounded by a laminar low-viscosity liquid annular layer through a vertical pipe. The numerical results are compared with theoretical results from linear stability calculations and with experimental data. The comparison is good and the general conclusion of our study is that it is very well possible to simulate laminar core-annular flow in a pipe using the volume-of-fluid method.

  14. Experimental and Numerical Characterization of a Hybrid Fabry-Pérot Cavity for Temperature Sensing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aitor Lopez-Aldaba


    Full Text Available A hybrid Fabry-Pérot cavity sensing head based on a four-bridge microstructured fiber is characterized for temperature sensing. The characterization of this cavity is performed numerically and experimentally in the L-band. The sensing head output signal presents a linear variation with temperature changes, showing a sensitivity of 12.5 pm/°C. Moreover, this Fabry-Pérot cavity exhibits good sensitivity to polarization changes and high stability over time.

  15. Numerical analysis of temperature field during hardfacing process and comparison with experimental results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lazić Vukić N.


    Full Text Available The three-dimensional transient nonlinear thermal analysis of the hard facing process is performed by using the finite element method. The simulations were executed on the open source Salome platform using the open source finite element solver Code_Aster. The Gaussian double ellipsoid was selected in order to enable greater possibilities for the calculation of the moving heat source. The numerical results were compared with available experimental results.

  16. Numerical and experimental investigation of industrial electrostatic precipitators; Etude numerique et experimentale d`electrofiltres industriels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tochon, P.


    This work deals with electrostatic precipitators or ESP used for gas-solid particles separation. By means of a dust-controlled testing loop created and realised at the GRETh`s plate-form (Research Group on Heat Exchangers) and a numerical model developed during this work from TRIO software, the study of the performances of different ESP geometries has been carried out. Many electrical, hydraulic and particular parameters governing solid particles collection under ionised electric field have been identified, measured and modelled. The numerical model, ratified with experimental data obtained during this study and from literature, allows to describe local and global phenomena occurring in any geometries. Furthermore, parametric studies have been carried out in order to propose some optimised geometries. allowing to increase collection efficiencies. At least, on-site measurements with CETIAT (Centre Technique des Industries Aerauliques et Thermiques) allow to identify dust particles likely to be thrown out to the atmosphere, and troubles peculiar to large scales industrial plants. The numerical model has also been tested on these data. At the end of this study, an efficient dust-controlled experimental tool, PACIFIC loop, and a numerical simulation allowing ESP sizing are available. (author)

  17. Experimental Validation of Numerical Simulations for an Acoustic Liner in Grazing Flow (United States)

    Tam, Christopher K. W.; Pastouchenko, Nikolai N.; Jones, Michael G.; Watson, Willie R.


    A coordinated experimental and numerical simulation effort is carried out to improve our understanding of the physics of acoustic liners in a grazing flow as well our computational aeroacoustics (CAA) method prediction capability. A numerical simulation code based on advanced CAA methods is developed. In a parallel effort, experiments are performed using the Grazing Flow Impedance Tube at the NASA Langley Research Center. In the experiment, a liner is installed in the upper wall of a rectangular flow duct with a 2 inch by 2.5 inch cross section. Spatial distribution of sound pressure levels and relative phases are measured on the wall opposite the liner in the presence of a Mach 0.3 grazing flow. The computer code is validated by comparing computed results with experimental measurements. Good agreements are found. The numerical simulation code is then used to investigate the physical properties of the acoustic liner. It is shown that an acoustic liner can produce self-noise in the presence of a grazing flow and that a feedback acoustic resonance mechanism is responsible for the generation of this liner self-noise. In addition, the same mechanism also creates additional liner drag. An estimate, based on numerical simulation data, indicates that for a resonant liner with a 10% open area ratio, the drag increase would be about 4% of the turbulent boundary layer drag over a flat wall.

  18. The numerical and experimental simulation of hypervelocity flow around the HYFLEX vehicle forebody (United States)

    Johnston, I. A.; Tuttle, S. L.; Jacobs, P. A.; Shimoda, T.

    Numerical and experimental techniques are used to model the flow and pressure distribution around the forebody of the HYFLEX hypersonic flight vehicle. We compare numerical simulation results with modified Newtonian theory and flight data to determine the accuracy of the computational fluid dynamics (CFD) technique used. The numerical simulations closely match the trends in flight data, and show that real gas effects have a small but significant influence on the nose pressure distribution. We also present pressure results from a scale-model tested in a shock tunnel, and compare them with simulation results. For the shock tunnel experiment, the model was placed such that part of the upper surface was in a region of the test flow where nonuniformities were significant, and it was shown that the numerical simulation could adequately capture these experimental flow features. The binary scaling parameter (describing the similarity in species dissociation between flight and model) was used to design the scale-model tests in the shock tunnel, and its effectiveness is discussed. We find that matching the flight Mach number in the shock tunnel experiment is not critical for reproducing flight pressure data, so long as flight velocity is matched, and binary scaling is maintained.

  19. Numerical and experimental investigations of drag force on scaled car model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponnusamy Nallusamy Selvaraju


    Full Text Available The numerical simulation and wind tunnel experiment were involved to observe the aerodynamic characteristics of car model. The investigation of aerodynamic characteristics on car model were difficult by using wind tunnel. It provides more comprehensive experimental data as a reference to validate the numerical simulation. In the wind tunnel experiments, the pressures on various ports over the car model were measured by using pressure scanner (64 bit channels. The drag force was calculated based on experimental and computational results. The realizable k-e model was employed to compute the aerodynamic drag and surface pressure distribution over a car model simulated at various wind velocity. The tetrahedron mesh approach was used to discretize the computational domain for accuracy. The computational results showed a good agreement with the experimental data and the results revealed that the induced aerodynamic drag determines the best car shape. In order to reveal the internal connection between the aerodynamic drag and wake vortices, the turbulent kinetic, re-circulation length, position of vortex core, and velocity profile in the wake were investigated by numerical analysis.

  20. An Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Bifurcations in a Kolmogorov-Like Flow

    CERN Document Server

    Tithof, Jeffrey; Pallantla, Ravi; Grigoriev, Roman O; Schatz, Michael F


    We present a combined experimental and numerical study of the primary and secondary bifurcations for a Kolmogorov-like flow. The experimental system is a quasi-two-dimensional incompressible fluid flow consisting of two immiscible layers of fluid for which electromagnetic forces drive a shear flow that approximates Kolmogorov flow. The two-dimensional (2D) direct numerical simulations (DNS) integrate a depth-averaged version of the full three-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations Suri ${\\it et}$ ${\\it al.}$ (2014), which contains a (non-unity) prefactor on the advection term, previously unaccounted for in all studies. Specifically, we present three separate 2D DNS: one that is doubly-periodic, one that is singly-periodic, and one that is non-periodic (i.e. no-slip is imposed at the lateral boundaries). All parameters are directly calculated or measured from experimental quantities. We show that inclusion of the advection term prefactor substantially improves agreement between experiment and numerics. However, g...

  1. Carbon nanotube thin film strain sensors: comparison between experimental tests and numerical simulations (United States)

    Lee, Bo Mi; Loh, Kenneth J.


    Carbon nanotubes can be randomly deposited in polymer thin film matrices to form nanocomposite strain sensors. However, a computational framework that enables the direct design of these nanocomposite thin films is still lacking. The objective of this study is to derive an experimentally validated and two-dimensional numerical model of carbon nanotube-based thin film strain sensors. This study consisted of two parts. First, multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-Pluronic strain sensors were fabricated using vacuum filtration, and their physical, electrical, and electromechanical properties were evaluated. Second, scanning electron microscope images of the films were used for identifying topological features of the percolated MWCNT network, where the information obtained was then utilized for developing the numerical model. Validation of the numerical model was achieved by ensuring that the area ratios (of MWCNTs relative to the polymer matrix) were equivalent for both the experimental and modeled cases. Strain sensing behavior of the percolation-based model was simulated and then compared to experimental test results.

  2. An experimental and numerical investigation of velocity in an enclosed residential complex parking area (United States)

    Ashrafi, Khosro; Motlagh, Majid Shafie Pour; Mousavi, Monireh Sadat; Niksokhan, Mohhamad hosein; Vosoughifar, Hamid Reza


    The aim of the present research is analysis of velocity vector and magnitude in an enclosed residential complex parking in Tehran. Velocity parameters are key factor and can be helpful in proposing solutions to improve indoor air quality. Since The flow pattern determines that how and where the pollutants propagate. In this research at first, the proportion of vehicular exhaust emissions is estimated and then experimental and numerical analyses are performed. In experimental analysis, a full-scale experiment of parking area has been used; velocity is measured by calibrated measuring devices. Samples were performed in several times. In order to perform numerical calculation, a 3-dimensional model was created by Fluent software that solves flow equations with finite volume method. In this research, the flow condition is assumed to be incompressible and turbulent. Standard k-ɛ scheme was selected as turbulence modeling. In the Computational Fluid Dynamics technique the geometry of parking area is generated in ICEM-CFD software and hexahedral mesh type is used. Velocity vectors and magnitudes in an enclosed residential complex parking in Tehran are estimated. The findings obtained from numerical simulation are in complete accord with experimental results.

  3. Experimental and numerical investigation on the performance of an internally cooled dehumidifier (United States)

    Turgut, Oguz Emrah; Çoban, Mustafa Turhan


    Liquid desiccant based dehumidifiers are important components of the air conditioning applications. Internally cooled dehumidifiers with liquid desiccants are deemed to be superior to the adiabatic types, thanks to the cooling medium which takes away the latent heat of vaporization occured when moist air contacts with liquid desiccant. However, its utilization in industrial applications is restricted due to the inherent corrosive characteristics of the liquid desiccants. In this study, an experimental chamber is built for epoxy coated plate fin type dehumidifier which is used in order to diminish the corrosive effect of the lithium chloride aqueous solution. Dehumidification effectiveness and moisture removal rate, two parameter indices, are adopted to measure the performance of the air conditioning system. The effect of inlet operating parameters on moisture removal rates is extensively analyzed. Two dimensional numerical model adapted from the conservation principles is utilized for obtainment of output parameters. Experimental results are compared with the numerical model and comparisons show that numerical outputs agrees with the experimental results. And also, dehumidification performance of lithium chloride and lithium bromide aqueous solutions are evaluated and compared against each other.

  4. Comparison of numerical and experimental results of the flow in the U9 Kaplan turbine model (United States)

    Petit, O.; Mulu, B.; Nilsson, H.; Cervantes, M.


    The present work compares simulations made using the OpenFOAM CFD code with experimental measurements of the flow in the U9 Kaplan turbine model. Comparisons of the velocity profiles in the spiral casing and in the draft tube are presented. The U9 Kaplan turbine prototype located in Porjus and its model, located in Älvkarleby, Sweden, have curved inlet pipes that lead the flow to the spiral casing. Nowadays, this curved pipe and its effect on the flow in the turbine is not taken into account when numerical simulations are performed at design stage. To study the impact of the inlet pipe curvature on the flow in the turbine, and to get a better overview of the flow of the whole system, measurements were made on the 1:3.1 model of the U9 turbine. Previously published measurements were taken at the inlet of the spiral casing and just before the guide vanes, using the laser Doppler anemometry (LDA) technique. In the draft tube, a number of velocity profiles were measured using the LDA techniques. The present work extends the experimental investigation with a horizontal section at the inlet of the draft tube. The experimental results are used to specify the inlet boundary condition for the numerical simulations in the draft tube, and to validate the computational results in both the spiral casing and the draft tube. The numerical simulations were realized using the standard k-e model and a block-structured hexahedral wall function mesh.

  5. Experimental and numerical study of drill bit drop tests on Kuru granite (United States)

    Fourmeau, Marion; Kane, Alexandre; Hokka, Mikko


    This paper presents an experimental and numerical study of Kuru grey granite impacted with a seven-buttons drill bit mounted on an instrumented drop test machine. The force versus displacement curves during the impact, so-called bit-rock interaction (BRI) curves, were obtained using strain gauge measurements for two levels of impact energy. Moreover, the volume of removed rock after each drop test was evaluated by stereo-lithography (three-dimensional surface reconstruction). A modified version of the Holmquist-Johnson-Cook (MHJC) material model was calibrated using Kuru granite test results available from the literature. Numerical simulations of the single drop tests were carried out using the MHJC model available in the LS-DYNA explicit finite-element solver. The influence of the impact energy and additional confining pressure on the BRI curves and the volume of the removed rock is discussed. In addition, the influence of the rock surface shape before impact was evaluated using two different mesh geometries: a flat surface and a hyperbolic surface. The experimental and numerical results are compared and discussed in terms of drilling efficiency through the mechanical specific energy. This article is part of the themed issue 'Experimental testing and modelling of brittle materials at high strain rates'.

  6. Experimental and numerical study of radial flow and its contribution to wake development of a HAWT

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Micallef, D.; Akay, B.; Sant, T.; Simao Ferreira, C.J.; Van Bussel, G.J.W.


    The scope of this work was to investigate radial flow component for a Horizontal Axis Wind Turbine in axial flow conditions and to assess its impact on the turbine operation. This was done by means of Particle Image Velocimetry and numerical simulation with a 3D unsteady potential-flow panel model.

  7. Numerical and experimental predictions of fine-soil erosion, transport and trapping in embankment dam (United States)

    Kanarska, Y.; Lomov, I.; Ezzedine, S. M.; Antoun, T. H.; Glascoe, L. G.


    A determination of the safety of dam structures requires the characterization of fine-soil erosion processes and the ability of filter layers to capture fine-soil particles to prevent dam failure. We investigated numerically and experimentally different aspects of this problem at a grain scale. The numerical method was based on Lagrange multiplier technique (Kanarska et al., 2011). The particle-particle interactions were implemented using explicit force-displacement interactions for frictional inelastic particles similar to the distinct element method (DEM) (Cundall and Strack, 1979), with some modifications using the volume of the overlapping region as the input to the contact forces. The first set of numerical tests was performed to describe the response of a granular bed to forcing by a fluid, which flows over the crack surface. We investigated how particle properties, such as size and shape, affect threshold values for critical shear stresses and mean velocities. A good agreement between numerical results and experiments was found. A general constitutive erosion law, critical shear stresses, and erosion velocities were derived and validated against the available experimental range of conditions for different particle sizes, particle shapes, and flow conditions. We confirmed that a linear relationship between particle mass fluxes and shear stresses well describes soil behavior. A second set of numerical and experimental tests to investigate sediment trapping in the filter layers was also performed. The laboratory experiments on soil transport and trapping in granular media were conducted in constant-head flow chamber filled with filter media. We investigated how particle properties and amplitude of the applied hydraulic gradient affect clogging criteria and changes in hydraulic conductivity of the medium. The numerical results were validated against available experimental data. We started with spherical particles. In the future, we are planning to investigate

  8. Mechanical behavior of a sandwich with corrugated GRP core: numerical modeling and experimental validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. Tumino


    Full Text Available In this work the mechanical behaviour of a core reinforced composite sandwich structure is studied. The sandwich employs a Glass Reinforced Polymer (GRP orthotropic material for both the two external skins and the inner core web. In particular, the core is designed in order to cooperate with the GRP skins in membrane and flexural properties by means of the addition of a corrugated laminate into the foam core. An analytical model has been developed to replace a unit cell of this structure with an orthotropic equivalent thick plate that reproduces the in plane and out of plane behaviour of the original geometry. Different validation procedures have been implemented to verify the quality of the proposed method. At first a comparison has been performed between the analytical model and the original unit cell modelled with a Finite Element mesh. Elementary loading conditions are reproduced and results are compared. Once the reliability of the analytical model was assessed, this homogenised model was implemented within the formulation of a shell finite element. The goal of this step is to simplify the FE analysis of complex structures made of corrugated core sandwiches; in fact, by using the homogenised element, the global response of a real structure can be investigated only with the discretization of its mid-surface. Advantages are mainly in terms of time to solution saving and CAD modelling simplification. Last step is then the comparison between this FE model and experiments made on sandwich beams and panels whose skins and corrugated cores are made of orthotropic cross-ply GRP laminates. Good agreement between experimental and numerical results confirms the validity of the proposed model.

  9. Comparative numerical and experimental study of two combined wind and wave energy concepts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Gao


    Full Text Available With a successful and rapid development of offshore wind industry and increased research activities on wave energy conversion in recent years, there is an interest in investigating the technological and economic feasibility of combining offshore wind turbines (WTs with wave energy converters (WECs. In the EU FP7 MARINA Platform project, three floating combined concepts, namely the spar torus combination (STC, the semi-submersible flap combination (SFC and the oscillating water column (OWC array with a wind turbine, were selected and studied in detail by numerical and experimental methods. This paper summarizes the numerical modeling and analysis of the two concepts: STC and SFC, the model tests at a 1:50 scale under simultaneous wave and wind excitation, as well as the comparison between the numerical and experimental results. Both operational and survival wind and wave conditions were considered. The numerical analysis was based on a time-domain global model using potential flow theory for hydrodynamics and blade element momentum theory (for SFC or simplified thrust force model (for STC for aerodynamics. Different techniques for model testing of combined wind and wave concepts were discussed with focus on modeling of wind turbines by disk or redesigned small-scale rotor and modeling of power take-off (PTO system for wave energy conversion by pneumatic damper or hydraulic rotary damper. In order to reduce the uncertainty due to scaling, the numerical analysis was performed at model scale and both the numerical and experimental results were then up-scaled to full scale for comparison. The comparison shows that the current numerical model can well predict the responses (motions, PTO forces, power production of the combined concepts for most of the cases. However, the linear hydrodynamic model is not adequate for the STC concept in extreme wave conditions with the torus fixed to the spar at the mean water level for which the wave slamming on the

  10. Numerical methods for assessment of the ship's pollutant emissions (United States)

    Jenaru, A.; Acomi, N.


    The maritime transportation sector constitutes a source of atmospheric pollution. To avoid or minimize ships pollutant emissions the first step is to assess them. Two methods of estimation of the ships’ emissions are proposed in this paper. These methods prove their utility for shipboard and shore based management personnel from the practical perspective. The methods were demonstrated for a product tanker vessel where a permanent monitoring system for the pollutant emissions has previously been fitted. The values of the polluting agents from the exhaust gas were determined for the ship from the shipyard delivery and were used as starting point. Based on these values, the paper aimed at numerical assessing of ship's emissions in order to determine the ways for avoiding environmental pollution: the analytical method of determining the concentrations of the exhaust gas components, by using computation program MathCAD, and the graphical method of determining the concentrations of the exhaust gas components, using variation diagrams of the parameters, where the results of the on board measurements were introduced, following the application of pertinent correction factors. The results should be regarded as a supporting tool during the decision making process linked to the reduction of ship's pollutant emissions.

  11. An Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Fluidized Bed Gasification of Solid Waste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharmina Begum


    Full Text Available Gasification is a thermo-chemical process to convert carbon-based products such as biomass and coal into a gas mixture known as synthetic gas or syngas. Various types of gasification methods exist, and fluidized bed gasification is one of them which is considered more efficient than others as fuel is fluidized in oxygen, steam or air. This paper presents an experimental and numerical investigation of fluidized bed gasification of solid waste (SW (wood. The experimental measurement of syngas composition was done using a pilot scale gasifier. A numerical model was developed using Advanced System for Process ENgineering (Aspen Plus software. Several Aspen Plus reactor blocks were used along with user defined FORTRAN and Excel code. The model was validated with experimental results. The study found very similar performance between simulation and experimental results, with a maximum variation of 3%. The validated model was used to study the effect of air-fuel and steam-fuel ratio on syngas composition. The model will be useful to predict the various operating parameters of a pilot scale SW gasification plant, such as temperature, pressure, air-fuel ratio and steam-fuel ratio. Therefore, the model can assist researchers, professionals and industries to identify optimized conditions for SW gasification.

  12. Experimental and numerical investigations of aerodynamic loads and 3D flow over non-rotating MEXICO blades

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zhang, Y.; Gillebaart, T.; van Zuijlen, A.H.; van Bussel, G.J.W.; Bijl, H.


    This paper presents the experimental and numerical study on MEXICO wind turbine blades. Previous work by other researchers shows that large deviations exist in the loads comparison between numerical predictions and experimental data for the rotating MEXICO wind turbine. To reduce complexities and

  13. Correlation between vibration amplitude and tool wear in turning: Numerical and experimental analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balla Srinivasa Prasad


    Full Text Available In this paper, a correlation between vibration amplitude and tool wear when in dry turning of AISI 4140 steel using uncoated carbide insert DNMA 432 is analyzed via experiments and finite element simulations. 3D Finite element simulations results are utilized to predict the evolution of cutting forces, vibration displacement amplitudes and tool wear in vibration induced turning. In the present paper, the primary concern is to find the relative vibration and tool wear with the variation of process parameters. These changes lead to accelerated tool wear and even breakage. The cutting forces in the feed direction are also predicted and compared with the experimental trends. A laser Doppler vibrometer is used to detect vibration amplitudes and the usage of Kistler 9272 dynamometer for recording the cutting forces during the cutting process is well demonstrated. A sincere effort is put to investigate the influence of spindle speed, feed rate, depth of cut on vibration amplitude and tool flank wear at different levels of workpiece hardness. Empirical models have been developed using second order polynomial equations for correlating the interaction and higher order influences of various process parameters. Analysis of variance (ANOVA is carried out to identify the significant factors that are affecting the vibration amplitude and tool flank wear. Response surface methodology (RSM is implemented to investigate the progression of flank wear and displacement amplitude based on experimental data. While measuring the displacement amplitude, R-square values for experimental and numerical methods are 98.6 and 97.8. Based on the R-square values of ANOVA it is found that the numerical values show good agreement with the experimental values and are helpful in estimating displacement amplitude. In the case of predicting the tool wear, R-square values were found to be 97.69 and 96.08, respectively for numerical and experimental measures while determining the tool

  14. Experimental and Numerical Study on the Cold Start Performance of a Single PEM Fuel Cell

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calvin H. Li


    Full Text Available A combined experimental and analytical investigation of single proton exchange membrane (PEM fuel cells, during cold start, has been conducted. The temperature influence on the performance of a single PEM fuel cell and the cold start failure of the PEM fuel cell was evaluated experimentally to determine the failure mechanisms and performance. The voltage, current, and power characteristics were investigated as a function of the load, the hydrogen fuel flow rate, and the cell temperature. The characteristics of cold start for a single PEM fuel cell were analyzed, and the various failure mechanisms were explored and characterized. In an effort to better understand the operational behavior and failure modes, a numerical simulation was also developed. The results of this analysis were then compared with the previously obtained experimental results and confirmed the accuracy of the failure mechanisms identified.

  15. Experimental study and numerical modelling of a 3 × 100G DP-QPSK superchannel (United States)

    Konyshev, V. A.; Leonov, A. V.; Nanii, O. E.; Novikov, A. G.; Skvortsov, P. V.; Treshchikov, V. N.; Ubaydullaev, R. R.


    Crosstalk effects are studied experimentally in a DWDM line with 100G DP-QPSK channels at a frequency convergence of the channels (three channels with a frequency separation of 50, 37.5 and 33 GHz) in the C-band. Spans of 100 km in length are used, with the number of spans varying from one to six. The required optical signal-to-noise ratio (OSNRR) is determined experimentally for a different number of spans, interchannel intervals and input power. We propose a theoretical model based on the numerical modelling that describes the influence of adjacent channels at a strong convergence. The model is calibrated using the obtained experimental data. Based on the proposed model, we calculate the maximal value of the spectral efficiency in systems with a dense arrangement of 100G DP-QPSK channels (~3.2 bit s-1 Hz-1).

  16. Both experimental study and numerical modelling of the effect of temperature gradient on CO2 injection (United States)

    Corvisier, J.; Lagneau, V.; Jobard, E.; Sterpenich, J.; Pironon, J.


    to a more important carbonates dissolution, thus to increases of CO2 fugacity and consequently of the global pressure. Furthermore, the calcium content tends to be greater in this cold-dissolution zone then Ca diffuses towards the hotter zone locally and it implies calcite precipitation. As evidence of this phenomenon, plugs, related to massive calcite precipitation, are observed in these regions and newly crystallized calcite can be seen on SEM images. In order to clearly understand the reasons of the observed behaviour, numerical computations performed with the reaction-transport code HYTEC have to be run. Several scenarios can thus be simulated to check various assumptions. Firstly, different initial repartitions of the CO2 can be tested: in some kind of reservoir in the cold/injection zone or everywhere in the autoclave (due to high initial pressure gradient). Secondly, the competition between the implied processes, their respective kinetics and their temperature dependance can be assessed too: thermodynamics and/or kinetics of chemical reactions and transport kinetics (diffusion). Modeling becomes then of great help to interpret the experimental results and even to better design the evolution of the experimental set-up.

  17. Numerical and experimental investigation of the 3D free surface flow in a model Pelton turbine (United States)

    Fiereder, R.; Riemann, S.; Schilling, R.


    This investigation focuses on the numerical and experimental analysis of the 3D free surface flow in a Pelton turbine. In particular, two typical flow conditions occurring in a full scale Pelton turbine - a configuration with a straight inlet as well as a configuration with a 90 degree elbow upstream of the nozzle - are considered. Thereby, the effect of secondary flow due to the 90 degree bending of the upstream pipe on the characteristics of the jet is explored. The hybrid flow field consists of pure liquid flow within the conduit and free surface two component flow of the liquid jet emerging out of the nozzle into air. The numerical results are validated against experimental investigations performed in the laboratory of the Institute of Fluid Mechanics (FLM). For the numerical simulation of the flow the in-house unstructured fully parallelized finite volume solver solver3D is utilized. An advanced interface capturing model based on the classic Volume of Fluid method is applied. In order to ensure sharp interface resolution an additional convection term is added to the transport equation of the volume fraction. A collocated variable arrangement is used and the set of non-linear equations, containing fluid conservation equations and model equations for turbulence and volume fraction, are solved in a segregated manner. For pressure-velocity coupling the SIMPLE and PISO algorithms are implemented. Detailed analysis of the observed flow patterns in the jet and of the jet geometry are presented.

  18. Numerical Modeling of Local Scouring Around Group Bridge Piers and Compared with Experimental Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Mahjoob


    Full Text Available Bridges are the most important structures in river engineering. One of the most causes in bridges destruction is local scouring around the bridge piers. Many bridges failed in the world because of the extreme scour around piers, which have caused to disappear a lot of investments. Then, it is essential to predict the scour depth around bridge piers. In this research, the Fluent three-dimensional numerical model was used to investigate the scouring around the group cylindrical pier in clear water and uniform sand bed conditions. In this model, sedimentary flow was considered as two-phase flow (water - sand and Eulerian two-phase model was used. To estimate the parameters of flow turbulence in the water phase, the RNG K-ε model was used. To evaluate and verify the numerical model, the computational results were compared with experimental data. The maximum scour depth in front of the first pier on a numerical model equal to 12.5 cm and in experimental model equal to 12 cm have been measured. Also scour depth at the second pier less than that at the first pier and scour depth at the third pier has been less than the values of the first and second pier .The results showed that the two phase model can simulate the scour phenomena around the pier.

  19. Experimental and numerical analysis of unsteady pressure pulsation in a centrifugal pump with slope volute

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Ning; Yang, Minguan; Gao, Bo; Li, Zhong; Ni, Dan [Jiangsu University, Zhenjiang (China)


    This study experimentally and numerically investigates the unsteady flow in a centrifugal pump with special slope volute under various conditions to illustrate the detailed flow structures and pressure pulsation within the model pump. Whole flow passage is considered during the numerical simulation; pressure pulsation signals are extracted using nine fast-response pressure transducers. The Root mean square (RMS) method is introduced to deal with the discrete components at f{sub BPF} of the different monitoring points along the volute casing, which is an effective attempt to evaluate the overall pulsating level of the model pump. Results show that numerical method can predict the components at f{sub BPF} effectively; however, it has limited ability in capturing noise frequencies motivated by unsteady separate flow and non-linear interaction effect. Around the nominal flow rate, the predicted amplitudes at f{sub BPF} agree well with the experimental results, showing larger difference at the off-design conditions. To predict the pulsating level of the components at f{sub BPF}, two fitted equations of the RMS values versus the flow rate and specific speed are carried out, which would be very helpful in evaluating the pressure pulsation level in the centrifugal pump.

  20. The experimental and numerical study of indirect effect of a rifle bullet on the bone. (United States)

    Zhang, Xiaoyun; Xu, Cheng; Wen, Yaoke; Luo, Shaomin


    We study the transient indirect effect of a rifle bullet on bone in the gelatin-bone composite target experimentally and computationally. The process of a 56 type 7.62-mm rifle bullet penetrating the composite target has been simulated using numerical method. The experiment provided the criteria for verifying the correctness of the numerical model. We have obtained tomographic data of bone by CT scans, and also defined the bone as different layers by the gray scale to simulate its heterogeneity. The computed results are in good agreement with the experimental data. Effects of the impact velocity and bone location on damage caused to the composite target have also been studied. The numerical results imply the follows: When the velocity of bullet increases, the stress on bone also increases with the earlier pressure peak; When the bone is located in a certain distance from the trajectory, it will not be fractured, although it is affected by the stress wave. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Numerical and experimental study of turbulent Rayleigh-Benard convection of water in a cubical cavity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valencia, L.; Pallares, J.; Cuesta, I.; Grau, F.X. [University Rovira i Virgili, Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, Tarragona (Spain)


    Experimental measurements and numerical simulations of natural convection in a partially conducting cubical cavity heated from below and cooled from above are reported at turbulent Rayleigh numbers (Ra=10{sup 7} and Ra=7 x 10{sup 7}) and water as a convective fluid (Pr=6.0). The numerical simulations were carried out with a second order finite volume code without any turbulence model because the time-steps and grid sizes used are adequate for the time and spatial resolution requirements reported in previous direct numerical simulations of Rayleigh-Benard flows. The Boussinesq approximation was considered in the simulations according to the thermal conditions and the dimensions of the cavities used in the experiments. The Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) technique was used to measure the two velocity components parallel to a vertical mid-plane of the cavity. If the heat conduction through the sidewalls is considered in the simulations, there is a general agreement between the predicted time averaged local velocities and those experimentally measured in the vertical mid-planes. (authors)

  2. Biofilm formation by the oral pioneer colonizer Streptococcus gordonii: an experimental and numerical study. (United States)

    Rath, Henryke; Feng, Dianlei; Neuweiler, Insa; Stumpp, Nico S; Nackenhorst, Udo; Stiesch, Meike


    For decades, extensive research efforts have been conducted to improve the functionality and stability of implants. Especially in dentistry, implant treatment has become a standard medical practice. The treatment restores full dental functionality, helping patients to maintain high quality of life. However, about 10% of the patients suffer from early and late device failure due to peri-implantitis, an inflammatory disease of the tissues surrounding the implant. Peri-implantitis is caused by progressive microbial colonization of the device surface and the formation of microbial communities, so-called biofilms. This infection can ultimately lead to implant failure. The causative agents for the inflammatory disease, periodontal pathogenic biofilms, have already been extensively studied, but are still not completely understood. As numerical simulations will have the potential to predict oral biofilm formation precisely in the future, for the first time, this study aimed to analyze Streptococcus gordonii biofilms by combining experimental studies and numerical simulation. The study demonstrated that numerical simulation was able to precisely model the influence of different nutrient concentration and spatial distribution of active and inactive biomass of the biofilm in comparison with the experimental data. This model may provide a less time-consuming method for the future investigation of any bacterial biofilm. © FEMS 2017. All rights reserved. For permissions, please e-mail:

  3. Numerical Ship Hydrodynamics : an assessment of the Gothenburg 2010 Workshop

    CERN Document Server

    Stern, Frederick; Visonneau, Michel


    This book assesses the state-of-the-art in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) applied to ship hydrodynamics and provides guidelines for the future developments in the field based on the Gothenburg 2010 Workshop. It presents ship hull test cases, experimental data and submitted computational methods, conditions, grids and results.  Analysis is made of errors for global (resistance, sinkage and trim and self-propulsion) and local flow (wave elevations and mean velocities and turbulence) variables, including standard deviations for global variables and propeller modeling for self-propulsion. The effects of grid size and turbulence models are evaluated for both global and local flow variables. Detailed analysis is made of turbulence modeling capabilities for capturing local flow physics. Errors are also analyzed for head-wave seakeeping and forward speed diffraction, and calm-water forward speed-roll decay. Resistance submissions are used to evaluate the error and uncertainty by means of a systematic verificatio...

  4. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Flow Properties of Supersonic Helium-Air Jets (United States)

    Miller, Steven A. E.; Veltin, Jeremy


    Heated high speed subsonic and supersonic jets operating on- or off-design are a source of noise that is not yet fully understood. Helium-air mixtures can be used in the correct ratio to simulate the total temperature ratio of heated air jets and hence have the potential to provide inexpensive and reliable flow and acoustic measurements. This study presents a combination of flow measurements of helium-air high speed jets and numerical simulations of similar helium-air mixture and heated air jets. Jets issuing from axisymmetric convergent and convergent-divergent nozzles are investigated, and the results show very strong similarity with heated air jet measurements found in the literature. This demonstrates the validity of simulating heated high speed jets with helium-air in the laboratory, together with the excellent agreement obtained in the presented data between the numerical predictions and the experiments. The very close match between the numerical and experimental data also validates the frozen chemistry model used in the numerical simulation.

  5. Numerical Modeling and Experimental Analysis of Scale Horizontal Axis Marine Hydrokinetic (MHK) Turbines (United States)

    Javaherchi, Teymour; Stelzenmuller, Nick; Seydel, Joseph; Aliseda, Alberto


    We investigate, through a combination of scale model experiments and numerical simulations, the evolution of the flow field around the rotor and in the wake of Marine Hydrokinetic (MHK) turbines. Understanding the dynamics of this flow field is the key to optimizing the energy conversion of single devices and the arrangement of turbines in commercially viable arrays. This work presents a comparison between numerical and experimental results from two different case studies of scaled horizontal axis MHK turbines (45:1 scale). In the first case study, we investigate the effect of Reynolds number (Re = 40,000 to 100,000) and Tip Speed Ratio (TSR = 5 to 12) variation on the performance and wake structure of a single turbine. In the second case, we study the effect of the turbine downstream spacing (5d to 14d) on the performance and wake development in a coaxial configuration of two turbines. These results provide insights into the dynamics of Horizontal Axis Hydrokinetic Turbines, and by extension to Horizontal Axis Wind Turbines in close proximity to each other, and highlight the capabilities and limitations of the numerical models. Once validated at laboratory scale, the numerical model can be used to address other aspects of MHK turbines at full scale. Supported by DOE through the National Northwest Marine Renewable Energy Center.

  6. Experimental and Numerical Investigation on Hydrodynamic Response of Spar with Wind Turbine under Regular Waves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Nallayarasu


    Full Text Available The necessity of offshore wind turbines to generate wind power is multifold and well known. The focus of offshore based wind farms are mainly due to abundant availability of unobstructed wind power and land use restriction. Therefore, the development of floating type supports for offshore wind turbines is getting more attention. In this paper the experimental and numerical investigation on the motion response of Spar supporting the wind turbine under regular waves is presented. The experiments were conducted in three stages viz. (a Spar with stationary wind turbine under regular waves. b Spar with rotating wind turbine under calm sea conditions. c Spar with rotating turbine under regular waves. Numerical simulation of the Spar response due to incident waves and the wind turbine torque is carried out using AQWA software. The results obtained from experiments are then compared with that obtained from numerical analysis. The measured Response Amplitude Operator (RAO compares well with that obtained from numerical analysis. The comparison of measured response and simulated response for wind turbine rotation case shows reasonable match. The combined effect of wind turbine rotation and incident wave on the hull response is 10%, 16% and 32% higher than that of the response due to incident wave alone for heave, surge and pitch responses respectively.

  7. Experimental and numerical study on hysteretic performance of SMA spring-friction bearings (United States)

    Zhuang, Peng; Xue, Suduo; Nie, Pan; Wang, Wenting


    This paper presents an experimental and numerical study to investigate the hysteretic performance of a new type of isolator consisting of shape memory alloy springs and friction bearing called an SMA spring-friction bearing (SFB). The SFB is a sliding-type isolator with SMA devices used for the seismic protection of engineering structures. The principle of operation of the isolation bearing is introduced. In order to explore the possibility of applying SMA elements in passive seismic control devices, large diameter superelastic tension/compression NiTi SMA helical springs used in the SFB isolator were developed. Mechanical experiments of the SMA helical spring were carried out to understand its superelastic characteristics. After that, a series of quasi-static tests on a single SFB isolator prototype were conducted to measure its force-displacement relationships for different loading conditions and study the corresponding variation law of its mechanical performance. The experimental results demonstrate that the SFB exhibits full hysteretic curves, excellent energy dissipation capacity, and moderate recentering ability. Finally, a theoretical model capable of emulating the hysteretic behavior of the SMA-based isolator was then established and implemented in MATLAB software. The comparison of the numerical results with the experimental results shows the efficacy of the proposed model for simulating the response of the SFB.

  8. Experimental Preparation and Numerical Simulation of High Thermal Conductive Cu/CNTs Nanocomposites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhsan Ali Samer


    Full Text Available Due to the rapid growth of high performance electronics devices accompanied by overheating problem, heat dissipater nanocomposites material having ultra-high thermal conductivity and low coefficient of thermal expansion was proposed. In this work, a nanocomposite material made of copper (Cu reinforced by multi-walled carbon nanotubes (CNTs up to 10 vol. % was prepared and their thermal behaviour was measured experimentally and evaluated using numerical simulation. In order to numerically predict the thermal behaviour of Cu/CNTs composites, three different prediction methods were performed. The results showed that rules of mixture method records the highest thermal conductivity for all predicted composites. In contrast, the prediction model which takes into account the influence of the interface thermal resistance between CNTs and copper particles, has shown the lowest thermal conductivity which considered as the closest results to the experimental measurement. The experimentally measured thermal conductivities showed remarkable increase after adding 5 vol.% CNTs and higher than the thermal conductivities predicted via Nan models, indicating that the improved fabrication technique of powder injection molding that has been used to produced Cu/CNTs nanocomposites has overcome the challenges assumed in the mathematical models.

  9. Numerical and experimental investigations on HAZ formation in 9% Cr steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zoellner, A.; Bauer, M. [Stuttgart Univ. (Germany). MPA; Bhaduri, A.K. [IGCAR, Kalpakkam (India)


    In modern power plants, components made of martensitic heat resistant 9-12 wt. % chromium steels are used for their high creep strength, good hot work- and weldability and excellent economic efficiency ratio. By welding these components, the heat affected zone (HAZ) is of major importance as it shows very poor creep strength in general. This decrease is believed to be caused by a change in the material's microstructure i.e. size and number of precipitates, dislocation density, etc. As the microstructural processes in the HAZ leading to the decrease in creep strength are not fully understood yet, better knowledge of the HAZ's dimension and extent will help to develop optimization strategies to increase the lifetime of welded components. On this account, a research program was launched recently investigating an actual welding process with a large number of thermocouples at different positions from the fusion line and at different wall thicknesses (close to the root, mid wall, close to final pass). For a better understanding analytical calculations based on Rosenthal's solution of Fourier's partial differential equation for heat flux and a finite element heat flux simulation are performed and validated with the experimental findings. After a description of the experimental setup and the used mathematical and numerical models the obtained temperature-time and temperaturedistance diagrams are reviewed. The paper gives a comparison of experimental, analytical and numerical results and discusses the potential of theoretical HAZ determination. (orig.)

  10. Experimental and Numerical Research Activity on a Packed Bed TES System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Cascetta


    Full Text Available This paper presents the results of experimental and numerical research activities on a packed bed sensible thermal energy storage (TES system. The TES consists of a cylindrical steel tank filled with small alumina beads and crossed by air used as the heat transfer fluid. Experimental tests were carried out while varying some operating parameters such as the mass flow rate, the inlet–outlet temperature thresholds and the aspect ratio (length over diameter. Numerical simulations were carried out using a one-dimensional model, specifically developed in the Matlab-Simulink environment and a 2D axisymmetric model based on the ANSYS-Fluent platform. Both models are based on a two-equation transient approach to calculate fluid and solid phase temperatures. Thermodynamic properties were considered to be temperature-dependent and, in the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD model, variable porosity of the bed in the radial direction, thermal losses and the effective conductivity of the alumina beads were also considered. The simulation results of both models were compared to the experimental ones, showing good agreement. The one-dimensional model has the advantage of predicting the axial temperature distribution with a very low computational cost, but it does not allow calculation of the correct energy stored when the temperature distribution is strongly influenced by the wall. To overcome this problem a 2D CFD model was used in this work.

  11. Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Damage in Woven GFRP Composites Under Large-deflection Bending (United States)

    Ullah, Himayat; Harland, Andy R.; Silberschmidt, Vadim V.


    Textile-reinforced composites such as glass fibre-reinforced polymer (GFRP) used in sports products can be exposed to different in-service conditions such as large bending deformation and multiple impacts. Such loading conditions cause high local stresses and strains, which result in multiple modes of damage and fracture in composite laminates due to their inherent heterogeneity and non-trivial microstructure. In this paper, various damage modes in GFRP laminates are studied using experimental material characterisation, non-destructive micro-structural damage evaluation and numerical simulations. Experimental tests are carried out to characterise the behaviour of these materials under large-deflection bending. To obtain in-plane shear properties of laminates, tensile tests are performed using a full-field strain-measurement digital image correlation technique. X-ray micro computed tomography (Micro CT) is used to investigate internal material damage modes - delamination and cracking. Two-dimensional finite element (FE) models are implemented in the commercial code Abaqus to study the deformation behaviour and damage in GFRP. In these models, multiple layers of bilinear cohesive-zone elements are employed to study the onset and progression of inter-ply delamination and intra-ply fabric fracture of composite laminate, based on the X-ray Micro CT study. The developed numerical models are capable to simulate these features with their mechanisms as well as subsequent mode coupling observed in tests and Micro CT scanning. The obtained results of simulations are in agreement with experimental data.

  12. A Numerical/Experimental Study on the Impact and CAI Behaviour of Glass Reinforced Compsite Plates (United States)

    Perillo, Giovanni; Jørgensen, Jens K.; Cristiano, Roberta; Riccio, Aniello


    This paper focuses on the development of an advance numerical model specifically for simulating low velocity impact events and related stiffness reduction on composite structures. The model is suitable for low cost thick composite structures like wind turbine blade and maritime vessels. The model consist of a combination of inter and intra laminar models. The intra-laminar model present a combination of Puck and Hashin failure theories for the evaluation of the fibre and matrix failure. The inter-laminar damage is instead simulated by Cohesive Zone Method based on energy approach. Basic material properties, easily measurable according to standardized tests, are required. The model has been used to simulate impact and compression after impact tests. Experimental tests have been carried out on thick E-Glass/Epoxy composite commonly used in the wind turbine industry. The clustering effect as well as the consequence of the impact energy have been experimentally tested. The accuracy of numerical model has been verified against experimental data showing a very good accuracy of the model.

  13. RC structures strengthened by metal shear panels: experimental and numerical analysis (United States)

    De Matteis, G.; Formisano, A.; Mazzolani, F. M.


    Metal shear panels (MSPs) may be effectively used as a lateral load resisting system for framed structures. In the present paper, such a technique is applied for the seismic protection of existing RC buildings, by setting up a specific design procedure, which has been developed on the basis of preliminary full-scale experimental tests. The obtained results allowed the development of both simplified and advanced numerical models of both the upgraded structure and the applied shear panels. Also, the proposed design methodology, which is framed in the performance base design philosophy, has been implemented for the structural upgrading of a real Greek existing multi-storey RC building. The results of the numerical analysis confirmed the effectiveness of the proposed technique, also emphasising the efficiency of the implemented design methodology.

  14. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Thermoacoustic Sources Related to High-Frequency Instabilities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathieu Zellhuber


    Full Text Available Flame dynamics related to high-frequency instabilities in gas turbine combustors are investigated using experimental observations and numerical simulations. Two different combustor types are studied, a premix swirl combustor (experiment and a generic reheat combustor (simulation. In both cases, a very similar dynamic behaviour of the reaction zone is observed, with the appearance of transverse displacement and coherent flame wrinkling. From these observations, a model for the thermoacoustic feedback linked to transverse modes is proposed. The model splits heat release rate fluctuations into distinct contributions that are related to flame displacement and variations of the mass burning rate. The decomposition procedure is applied on the numerical data and successfully verified by comparing a reconstructed Rayleigh index with the directly computed value. It thus allows to quantify the relative importance of various feedback mechanisms for a given setup.

  15. Experimental study of surface defects on automotive doors during flanging and their numerical prediction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garabed J.


    Full Text Available Surface defects can develop on automotive exterior panels after drawing and flanging steps, during springback and may alter significantly the vehicle quality. These defects are characterized by a depth below 0.5 mm and are then difficult to detect or predict numerically. This study focuses on a L-shaped part designed on purpose to reproduce at a small scale surface defects that occur after flanging. Dimensions of these defects are measured from profiles obtained with a tridimensional measuring machine. The investigation of the influence of the flanging height and flanging speed shows than neither of these parameters have impact on the surface defect . The numerical simulation of the flanging process predict the surface defect but with a lower depth than the experimental defect.

  16. Benchmarking in a rotating annulus: a comparative experimental and numerical study of baroclinic wave dynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Vincze, Miklos; Achatz, Ulrich; von Larcher, Thomas; Baumann, Martin; Hertel, Claudia; Remmler, Sebastian; Beck, Teresa; Alexandrov, Kiril; Egbers, Christoph; Froehlich, Jochen; Heuveline, Vincent; Hickel, Stefan; Harlander, Uwe


    The differentially heated rotating annulus is a widely studied tabletop-size laboratory model of the general mid-latitude atmospheric circulation. The two most relevant factors of cyclogenesis, namely rotation and meridional temperature gradient are quite well captured in this simple arrangement. The radial temperature difference in the cylindrical tank and its rotation rate can be set so that the isothermal surfaces in the bulk tilt, leading to the formation of baroclinic waves. The signatures of these waves at the free water surface have been analyzed via infrared thermography in a wide range of rotation rates (keeping the radial temperature difference constant) and under different initial conditions. In parallel to the laboratory experiments, five groups of the MetStr\\"om collaboration have conducted numerical simulations in the same parameter regime using different approaches and solvers, and applying different initial conditions and perturbations. The experimentally and numerically obtained baroclinic wa...

  17. Experimental and numerical studies on super-cavitating flow of axisymmetric cavitators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Byoung-Kwon Ahn


    Full Text Available Recently underwater systems moving at high speed such as a super-cavitating torpedo have been studied for their practical advantage of the dramatic drag reduction. In this study we are focusing our attention on super-cavitating flows around axisymmetric cavitators. A numerical method based on inviscid flow is developed and the results for several shapes of the cavitator are presented. First using a potential based boundary element method, we find the shape of the cavitator yielding a sufficiently large enough cavity to surround the body. Second, numerical predictions of supercavity are validated by comparing with experimental observations carried out in a high speed cavitation tunnel at Chungnam National University (CNU CT.

  18. Experimental and Numerical Investigations on Deformation of Cylindrical Shell Panels to Underwater Explosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Ramajeyathilagam


    Full Text Available Experimental and numerical investigations on cylindrical shell panels subjected to underwater explosion loading are presented. Experiments were conducted on panels of size 0.8 × 0.6 × 0.00314 m and shell rise-to-span ratios h/l = 0.0, 0.05, 0.1 , using a box model set-up under air backed conditions in a shock tank. Small charges of PEK I explosive were employed. The plastic deformation of the panels was measured for three loading conditions. Finite element analysis was carried out using the CSA/GENSA [DYNA3D] software to predict the plastic deformation for various loading conditions. The analysis included material and geometric non-linearities, with strain rate effects incorporated based on the Cowper-Symonds relation. The numerical results for plastic deformation are compared with those from experiments.

  19. Experimental and numerical studies on pressure drop in reverse electrodialysis: Effect of unit cell configuration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Sung Kook; Choi, Kyung Soo [Advanced Combustion Laboratory, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Chan Soo; Hwang, Kyo Sik; Han, Ji Hyung; Kim, Han Ki; Jeong, Nam Jo [Jeju Global Research Center, Korea Institute of Energy Research, Jeju (Korea, Republic of)


    Experimental and numerical studies on pressure drop in Reverse electrodialysis (RED) were performed. In this study, a module with 200 unit cells is considered for the demonstration of bench-scale RED module and two different unit cell configurations are utilized. Pressure drop through the module is measured by varying flow rates. For evaluating the hydrodynamic characteristics in the unit cell, a numerical simulation is also conducted and the simplified method using a porous media model is employed to simulate the channel filled with spacer. Due to the insertion of spacer and narrow channel, great pressure loss occurs along the unit cell. Based on estimated pressure data, high pressure difference between seawater and fresh water channel takes place locally in the unit cell configuration with crossflow direction, leading to a leakage problem through the membrane and finally degradation in the output power. Consequently, it is confirmed that the unit cell configuration is one of the important design parameters in a RED module.

  20. Experimental investigation and numerical modelling of positive corona discharge: ozone generation (United States)

    Yanallah, K; Pontiga, F; Fernández-Rueda, A; Castellanos, A


    The spatial distribution of the species generated in a wire-cylinder positive corona discharge in pure oxygen has been computed using a plasma chemistry model that includes the most significant reactions between electrons, ions, atoms and molecules. The plasma chemistry model is included in the continuity equations of each species, which are coupled with Poisson's equation for the electric field and the energy conservation equation for the gas temperature. The current-voltage characteristic measured in the experiments has been used as an input data to the numerical simulation. The numerical model is able to reproduce the basic structure of the positive corona discharge and highlights the importance of Joule heating on ozone generation. The average ozone density has been computed as a function of current intensity and compared with the experimental measurements of ozone concentration determined by UV absorption spectroscopy.

  1. The Three-Dimensional Numerical Simulation and Experimental Research on Screw Compressor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    He Xueming


    Full Text Available This paper presents the mathematical model of screw compressors’ working process, in which the internal flow domains are divided into three kinds of fluids—the inlet fluid, the primitive volume fluid, and outlet fluid. Grid interface method and dynamic mesh technique of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD theory were utilized to simulate the suction, compression, and discharge process in order to model the dynamic characteristics of the flow domains in a screw compressor. To verify that the model is numerically accurate and the simulation method is effective, experiments on the pressure-volume changes in screw compressor were carried out. The result has shown that the simulation data is in good agreement with the experimental data. Therefore, the numerical calculation model and the simulation method can be very useful for the screw compressor design and research.

  2. Numerical Simulation and Experimental Study of Deep Bed Corn Drying Based on Water Potential

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhe Liu


    Full Text Available The concept and the model of water potential, which were widely used in agricultural field, have been proved to be beneficial in the application of vacuum drying model and have provided a new way to explore the grain drying model since being introduced to grain drying and storage fields. Aiming to overcome the shortcomings of traditional deep bed drying model, for instance, the application range of this method is narrow and such method does not apply to systems of which pressure would be an influential factor such as vacuum drying system in a way combining with water potential drying model. This study established a numerical simulation system of deep bed corn drying process which has been proved to be effective according to the results of numerical simulation and corresponding experimental investigation and has revealed that desorption and adsorption coexist in deep bed drying.

  3. Experimental and numerical analysis of the cooling performance of water spraying systems during a fire.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    YaoHan Chen

    Full Text Available The water spray systems are effective protection systems in the confined or unconfined spaces to avoid the damage to building structures since the high temperature when fires occur. NFPA 15 and 502 have suggested respectively that the factories or vehicle tunnels install water spray systems to protect the machinery and structures. This study discussed the cooling effect of water spray systems in experimental and numerical analyses. The actual combustion of woods were compared with the numerical simulations. The results showed that although the flame continued, the cooling effects by water spraying process within 120 seconds were obvious. The results also indicated that the simulation results of the fifth version Fire Dynamics Simulator (FDS overestimated the space temperature before water spraying in the case of the same water spray system.

  4. Experimental and numerical study of the nonlinear response of optical multilayers. (United States)

    Amotchkina, Tatiana; Trubetskov, Michael; Pervak, Vladimir


    Dielectric multilayer coatings exhibiting steep reflectance in an extremely narrow transition zone, highly sensitive to any variations of layer refractive indices and therefore suitable for studying the nonlinear properties are produced and characterized. Increase of reflectance at growing intensity reveals the presence of the optical Kerr effect. A new method calculating intensity dependent spectral characteristics of multilayer optical coatings in the case of nonlinear interaction with high intensity laser pulses is developed. The method is based on the numerical solution of a boundary-value problem derived from the system of Maxwell equations describing the propagation of light through a multilayer system. The method opens a way to synthesis of optical coatings with predictable nonlinear properties. Comparison of our numerical modelling with experimental data enabled us to accurately determine the Kerr coefficients n2 of the widely-used thin-film materials Ta2O5 and Nb2O5.

  5. Non-Linear Numerical Modeling and Experimental Testing of a Point Absorber Wave Energy Converter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zurkinden, Andrew Stephen; Ferri, Francesco; Beatty, S.


    A time domain model is applied to a three-dimensional point absorber wave energy converter. The dynamical properties of a semi-submerged hemisphere oscillating around a pivot point where the vertical height of this point is above the mean water level are investigated. The numerical model includes.......e. H/λ≤0.02. For steep waves, H/λ≥0.04 however, the relative velocities between the body and the waves increase thus requiring inclusion of the non-linear hydrostatic restoring moment to effectively predict the dynamics of the wave energy converter. For operation of the device with a passively damping......-linear effect is investigated by a simplified formulation proportional to the quadratic velocity. Results from experiments are shown in order to validate the numerical calculations. All the experimental results are in good agreement with the linear potential theory as long as the waves are sufficiently mild i...

  6. Numerical and experimental study of blowing jet on a high lift airfoil (United States)

    Bobonea, A.; Pricop, M. V.


    Active manipulation of separated flows over airfoils at moderate and high angles of attack in order to improve efficiency or performance has been the focus of a number of numerical and experimental investigations for many years. One of the main methods used in active flow control is the usage of blowing devices with constant and pulsed blowing. Through CFD simulation over a 2D high-lift airfoil, this study is trying to highlight the impact of pulsed blowing over its aerodynamic characteristics. The available wind tunnel data from INCAS low speed facility are also beneficial for the validation of the numerical analysis. This study intends to analyze the impact of the blowing jet velocity and slot geometry on the efficiency of an active flow control.

  7. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Effect of Air Stability on Exhaled Air Dispersion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Xu, Chunwen; Gong, Guangcai; Nielsen, Peter Vilhelm


    As more and more investigations have reported the influence of thermal stratification indoors on contaminant dispersion, this paper focuses on investigating this phenomenon from the perspective of air stability which is defined in accordance with atmospheric stability. One breathing thermal manikin...... studies. As the thermal stratification under displacement ventilation blocks the vertical movement of exhaled air, the exhaled contaminant may be trapped between temperature stratifications. As the dispersion of contaminant is closely related to the health of human indoors, the temperature structure...... was used for experimental study, and a numerical person was built to simulate the manikin. The velocity, temperature and concentration of tracer gas in exhaled air are affected by air stability to different degrees. The similarity of this effect among these parameters can also be observed through numerical...

  8. Experimental and numerical study of mean zonal flows generated by librations of a rotating spherical cavity

    CERN Document Server

    Sauret, Alban; Morize, Cyprien; Bars, Michael Le; 10.1017/S0022112010004052


    We study both experimentally and numerically the steady zonal flow generated by longitudinal librations of a spherical rotating container. This study follows the recent weakly nonlinear analysis of Busse (2010), developed in the limit of small libration frequency - rotation rate ratio, and large libration frequency - spin-up time product. Using PIV measurements as well as results from axisymmetric numerical simulations, we confirm quantitatively the main features of Busse's analytical solution: the zonal flow takes the form of a retrograde solid body rotation in the fluid interior, which does not depend on the libration frequency nor on the Ekman number, and which varies as the square of the amplitude of excitation. We also report the presence of an unpredicted prograde flow at the equator near the outer wall.

  9. Experimental and numerical limits in parameter studies of a hydro-aeroelastic vibration phenomenon (United States)

    Seidel, Christian


    Rain-wind induced vibrations are a hydro-aeroelastic vibration phenomenon that occurs when rain and wind act simultaneously on cables, hangars and ropes. The vibration phenomena may induce oscillations with large amplitudes, thus the fatigue of construction elements is possible. The paper presents a possible fluid-mechanical interpretation of rain-wind induced vibrations. Based on this interpretation a mechanical model is deduced, in order to enable numerical investigations. In order to account for the unsteady aerodynamics a hybrid method is used, which records the lift and drag coefficients as well as the distributions of pressure and shear stress from experiments in the wind tunnel. The complex system of nonlinear differential equations is analysed concerning the stability of solutions. As an example demonstrating the border zones between numerical and experimental investigations, a parameter study for the influence of the cylinder diameter on the onset wind velocity is shown.

  10. Numerical simulation and experimental research of the integrated high-power LED radiator (United States)

    Xiang, J. H.; Zhang, C. L.; Gan, Z. J.; Zhou, C.; Chen, C. G.; Chen, S.


    The thermal management has become an urgent problem to be solved with the increasing power and the improving integration of the LED (light emitting diode) chip. In order to eliminate the contact resistance of the radiator, this paper presented an integrated high-power LED radiator based on phase-change heat transfer, which realized the seamless connection between the vapor chamber and the cooling fins. The radiator was optimized by combining the numerical simulation and the experimental research. The effects of the chamber diameter and the parameters of fin on the heat dissipation performance were analyzed. The numerical simulation results were compared with the measured values by experiment. The results showed that the fin thickness, the fin number, the fin height and the chamber diameter were the factors which affected the performance of radiator from primary to secondary.

  11. Experimental measurement and numerical analysis on resonant characteristics of piezoelectric disks with partial electrode designs. (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Chih; Ma, Chien-Ching


    Three experimental techniques are used in this study to access the influence of the electrode arrangement on the resonant characteristics of piezoceramic disks. These methods, including the amplitude-fluctuation electronic speckle pattern interferometry (AF-ESPI), laser Doppler vibrometer-dynamic signal analyzer (LDV-DSA), and impedance analysis, are based on the measurement of full-field displacement, pointwise displacement, and electric impedance, respectively. In this study, one full electrode design and three nonsymmetrical partial electrode designs of piezoelectric disks are investigated. Because the clear fringe patterns measured by the AF-ESPI method will be shown only at resonant frequencies, both the resonant frequencies and the corresponding vibration mode shapes are successfully obtained at the same time for out-of-plane and in-plane motions. The second experimental method is the impedance analysis, which is used to measure the resonant and antiresonant frequencies. In addition to these experimental methods, LDV-DSA is used to determine the resonant frequencies of the vibration mode with out-of-plane motion. From the experimental results, the dependence of electrode design on the vibration frequencies and mode shapes is addressed. Numerical computations based on the finite element method are presented, and the results are compared with the experimental measurements. The effect of different designs of electrode is more significant in the in-plane modes than that in the out-of-plane modes.

  12. Experimental and numerical study of premixed hydrogen/air flame propagating in a combustion chamber. (United States)

    Xiao, Huahua; Sun, Jinhua; Chen, Peng


    An experimental and numerical study of dynamics of premixed hydrogen/air flame in a closed explosion vessel is described. High-speed shlieren cinematography and pressure recording are used to elucidate the dynamics of the combustion process in the experiment. A dynamically thickened flame model associated with a detailed reaction mechanism is employed in the numerical simulation to examine the flame-flow interaction and effect of wall friction on the flame dynamics. The shlieren photographs show that the flame develops into a distorted tulip shape after a well-pronounced classical tulip front has been formed. The experimental results reveal that the distorted tulip flame disappears with the primary tulip cusp and the distortions merging into each other, and then a classical tulip is repeated. The combustion dynamics is reasonably reproduced in the numerical simulations, including the variations in flame shape and position, pressure build-up and periodically oscillating behavior. It is found that both the tulip and distorted tulip flames can be created in the simulation with free-slip boundary condition at the walls of the vessel and behave in a manner quite close to that in the experiments. This means that the wall friction could be unimportant for the tulip and distorted tulip formation although the boundary layer formed along the sidewalls has an influence to a certain extent on the flame behavior near the sidewalls. The distorted tulip flame is also observed to be produced in the absence of vortex flow in the numerical simulations. The TF model with a detailed chemical scheme is reliable for investigating the dynamics of distorted tulip flame propagation and its underlying mechanism. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Experimental setting affects the performance of guppies in a numerical discrimination task. (United States)

    Gatto, Elia; Lucon-Xiccato, Tyrone; Savaşçı, Beste Başak; Dadda, Marco; Bisazza, Angelo


    A recent study found that guppies (Poecilia reticulata) can be trained to discriminate 4 versus 5 objects, a numerical discrimination typically achieved only by some mammals and birds. In that study, guppies were required to discriminate between two patches of small objects on the bottom of the tank that they could remove to find a food reward. It is not clear whether this species possesses exceptional numerical accuracy compared with the other ectothermic vertebrates or whether its remarkable performance was due to a specific predisposition to discriminate between differences in the quality of patches while foraging. To disentangle these possibilities, we trained guppies to the same numerical discriminations with a more conventional two-choice discrimination task. Stimuli were sets of dots presented on a computer screen, and the subjects received a food reward upon approaching the set with the larger numerosity. Though the cognitive problem was identical in the two experiments, the change in the experimental setting led to a much poorer performance as most fish failed even the 2 versus 3 discrimination. In four additional experiments, we varied the duration of the decision time, the type of stimuli, the length of training, and whether correction was allowed in order to identify the factors responsible for the difference. None of these parameters succeeded in increasing the performance to the level of the previous study, although the group trained with three-dimensional stimuli learned the easiest numerical task. We suggest that the different results with the two experimental settings might be due to constraints on learning and that guppies might be prepared to accurately estimate patch quality during foraging but not to learn an abstract stimulus-reward association.

  14. Experimental and numerical study of a premixed flame stabilized by a rectangular section cylinder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailly, P.; Garreton, D. [Electricite de France (EDF), 92 - Clamart (France); Bruel, P.; Champion, M. et al. [Ecole Nationale Superieure de Mecanique et d`Aerotechnique (ENSMA), 86 - Poitiers (France)


    A numerical and experimental study of a turbulent reactive zone stabilized by a rectangular cross-section cylinder positioned in a fully developed turbulent channel flow of a propane-air mixture is presented. Such a flow geometry has been chosen because it features most of the phenomena (recirculation zones, flame stabilization, wall-flame interactions) present in systems of practical interest. The flow is experimentally investigated with a 2-D laser Doppler velocimeter and thin compensated thermocouples. The modelling of the reactive flow is based on a modified Bray-Moss-Libby combustion model associated with a Reynolds-Stress turbulence model. The resulting set of equations is solved by a finite difference Navier-Stokes code on a rectilinear mesh. The comparison between numerical nd experimental results shows that the use of a full second-order model with dedicated equations for both the Reynolds stresses and the scalar turbulent flux does not lead to a significant improvement of the numerical results. Indeed, although the longitudinal scalar turbulent flux exhibits a non-gradient behaviour, the evolution of the mean progress variable introduced by the Bray-Moss-Libby model appears to be mainly controlled by the transverse scalar gradient which follows in all cases a gradient like behaviour. Additional measurements and calculations are required to precise the exact range of mass flow rate, equivalence ratio and obstacle bluffness over which such a tendency can be observed. Nevertheless, the tentative conclusion of this study is that, as soon as a refinement of the modelling of reactive flows in combustors which involve flameholders similar to the one investigated in this study is needed, the use of a Reynolds-Stress model should be the first necessary step. Then, depending on the exact nature of the flow geometry, a second phase should consist in evaluating the need for the use of a full second order model like the one presented in this study. (authors) 25 refs.

  15. Influence of Impeller Geometry on the Unsteady Flow in a Centrifugal Fan: Numerical and Experimental Analyses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Younsi


    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to evaluate the influence of design parameters on the unsteady flow in a forward-curved centrifugal fan and their impact on the aeroacoustic behavior. To do so, numerical and experimental studies have been carried out on four centrifugal impellers designed with various geometrical parameters. The same volute casing has been used to study these impellers. The effects on the unsteady flow behavior related to irregular blade spacing, blade count and radial distance between the impeller periphery and the volute tongue have been studied. The numerical simulations of the unsteady flow have been carried out using computational fluid dynamics (CFD tools based on the unsteady Reynolds averaged Navier Stokes (URANS approach. The study is focused on the unsteadiness induced by the aerodynamic interaction between the volute and the rotating impeller blades. In order to predict the acoustic pressure at far field, the unsteady flow variables provided by the CFD calculations have been used as inputs in the Ffowcs Williams-Hawkings equations (FW-H. The experimental part of this work concerns measurement of aerodynamic performance of the fans using a test bench built according to ISO 5801 (1997 standard. In addition to this, pressure microphones have been flush mounted on the volute tongue surface in order to measure the wall pressure fluctuations. The sound pressure level (SPL measurements have been carried out in an anechoic room in order to remove undesired noise reflections. Finally, the numerical results have been compared with the experimental measurements and a correlation between the wall pressure fluctuations and the far field noise signals has been found.

  16. Experimental and numerical study of the micro-mechanical failure in composites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ashouri Vajari, Danial; Martyniuk, Karolina; Sørensen, Bent F.


    and by numerical modeling by means of the finite element analysis. Two fibers embedded in the matrix are subjected to a remote transverse tensile load (see Fig. 1a). The trapezoidal cohesive zone model proposed by Tvergaard and Hutchinson [14] is used to model the fracture of the fiber-matrix interfaces......The fibre/matrix interfacial debonding is found to be the first microscale failure mechanism leading to subsequent macroscale transverse cracks in composite materials under tensile load. In this paper, the micromechanical interface failure in fiber-reinforced composites is studied experimentally...

  17. Experimental and numerical analysis of corrosion induced cover cracking in reinforced concrete beam


    Richard, Benjamin; Quiertant, Marc; Bouteiller, Véronique; Adelaide, Lucas; PERRAIS, Maxime; Tailhan, Jean-Louis; Cremona, Christian


    This paper aims to present both experimental and numerical studies of the corrosion induced cracking pattern evolution of a reinforced concrete sample subjected to accelerated corrosion. The sample was a concrete beam (1000x250x100 mm3) reinforced with two rebars (20 mm diameter; 25 mm cover). The beam was not mechanically loaded. The corrosion process was applied on 500 mm rebar length on the central part. Rebars were intentiostatically corroded using a current density of 100µA/cm² of steel,...

  18. Numerical and experimental studies of the carbon etching in EUV-induced plasma

    CERN Document Server

    Astakhov, D I; Lee, C J; Ivanov, V V; Krivtsun, V M; Yakushev, O; Koshelev, K N; Lopaev, D V; Bijkerk, F


    We have used a combination of numerical modeling and experiments to study carbon etching in the presence of a hydrogen plasma. We model the evolution of a low density EUV-induced plasma during and after the EUV pulse to obtain the energy resolved ion fluxes from the plasma to the surface. By relating the computed ion fluxes to the experimentally observed etching rate at various pressures and ion energies, we show that at low pressure and energy, carbon etching is due to chemical sputtering, while at high pressure and energy a reactive ion etching process is likely to dominate.

  19. Experimental and Numerical Study on Shock Layer Radiation for Planetary Entry Flights


    山田, 剛治; 吾郷, 祥太; 久保, 優斗; 松野, 隆; 川添, 博光; Yamada, Gouji; Ago, Shota; Kubo, Yuto; Matsuno, Takashi; Kawazoe, Hiromitsu


    In this study, shock layer radiation is investigated by experimental and numerical approach. Radiation profiles of N2, N2(+), and N are observed in two test conditions of initial pressure and velocity by time-resolved emission spectroscopy. Flow properties behind shock front are computed by the CFD code with two-temperature thermochemical model. The results are used as inputs for the radiation analysis code “SPRADIAN 2” to derive the radiation profiles behind shock front along the line of sig...

  20. Experimental and numerical study of multi- phase flow in a coaxial air jet (United States)

    Payne, Graham Arthur

    The ultimate goal of this work was to optimize a polymer flame deposition process by developing an experimentally verified numerical model of it. This process consisted of injecting a polymer powder into an air/propane flame where the powder was heated enough to soften it before it was projected on to a substrate to provide a protective coating. Intermediate goals towards the final goal were identified. This thesis was based on four papers with each paper reporting the results of the work on an intermediate goal. The first paper reported on work with the turbulentcoaxial air jet created by shutting off the flow of propane and polymer particles to the torch head. Experimental measurements of the flow field were compared to the results of numerical simulations using different Reynolds Average Navier Stokes (RANS) models. The k-epsilon realizable model provided the best agreement with the axial velocity measurements, but all the RANS models predicted a recirculation zone immediately downstream of the central jet that did not exist. The next paper described two phase flow created by the introduction of polymer particles into the air stream to the central air jet. A sheet of laser light and high speed digital imaging were used to determine the particle velocities, which varied widely because the particle size and shapes varied widely. The radial particle distribution was roughly Gaussian. The third paper described the use of the large eddy simulation (LES) turbulence model in Fluent to try to improve the agreement between experiment and numerical results. The LES results did not predict any recirculation zones, but agreement with experimental axial velocities was worse than with the RANS simulation results. Overall, no numerical model's results agreed with all experimental results within 10%, so their further development was abandoned. The fourth paper described mixing when propane was replaced with air or CO2 and seeded with fine water/glycerine droplets. These jets

  1. Numerical and experimental investigation of flow and scour around a half-buried sphere

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dixen, Martin; Sumer, B. Mutlu; Fredsøe, Jørgen


    The paper describes the results of a numerical and experimental investigation of flow and scour around a half-buried sphere exposed to a steady current. Hot-film bed shear stress and Laser Doppler Anemometer measurements were made with a half sphere mounted on the smooth bed in an open channel......-buried sphere in currents. The morphologic model includes a sediment-transport description, and a description of surface-layer sand slides for bed slopes exceeding the angle of repose. The sediment transport description includes, for the first time, the effect of externally-generated turbulence (induced...

  2. Final report for CAFDA project entitled, Experimental and numerical investigation of accelerated fluid interface

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenough, J.A.; Jacobs, J.W.; Marcus, D.L.


    The main thrust of this collaborative effort can be summarized as an attempt to use the strengths of physical experiments and numerical simulations in understanding the dynamics of accelerated interfaces. Laboratory experiments represent the true nature of the physical processes and the simulations represent a model of these processes. We have taken the first steps toward this goal through development and calibration of new experimental techniques as well as validation and direct, systematic, and quantitative comparison with computational results. This report summarizes accomplishments made towards these goals. More detailed information is provided in reprints appended to this document.

  3. An experimental and numerical investigation of flat panel display cell using magnetic fluid

    CERN Document Server

    Seo, J W; Park, S J; Lee, H S


    Optical and fluid dynamical properties of magnetic fluid have been studied experimentally and numerically using a test device with a water-base magnetite magnetic fluid. It has been found that the 3.5 mu m thick fluid film absorbs most of the incoming visible light and can be actuated fast enough to realize display devices. The computational simulation shows that the surface tension of the liquid plays the most dominant roles for the test device, and a device that can actuate the magnetic fluid magnetically is proposed.

  4. Numerical simulation of current experimental 100 Gbit s{sup -1} DWDM communication lines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yushko, O V; Redyuk, A A; Fedoruk, M P [Novosibirsk State University, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation); Nanii, O E [Lomonosov Moscow State University, Faculty of Physics, Moscow (Russian Federation); Treshchikov, V N [T8 LLC, ul.Krasnobogatyrskaya 44/1, office 826, 107076 Moscow (Russian Federation)


    We report the results of experimental and numerical studies of the maximum length of multi-span DP-QPSK DWDM communication lines (channel rate of 100 Gbit s{sup -1}) with 100-kmlong uniform and combined spans. The use of the combined spans (50 km of SSMF fibre and 50 km of NZDSF fibre) has allowed the maximum line length to be increased up to 6700 km, which is 60% higher than in the case of homogeneous SSMF- and NZDSF-based spans. (optical transmission of information)

  5. Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Screw Fixation in Anterior Cruciate Ligament Reconstruction (United States)

    Chizari, Mahmoud; Wang, Bin; Snow, Martyn; Barrett, Mel


    This paper reports the results of an experimental and finite element analysis of tibial screw fixation in anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction. The mechanical properties of the bone and tendon graft are obtained from experiments using porcine bone and bovine tendon. The results of the numerical study are compared with those from mechanical testing. Analysis shows that the model may be used to establish the optimum placement of the tunnel in anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction by predicting mechanical parameters such as stress, strain and displacement at regions in the tunnel wall.

  6. Numerical and experimental study of mode I delamination failure in composite laminates


    Castillo, German; Mesas, Álvaro; García, Felipe


    Congreso celebrado en la Escuela de Arquitectura de la Universidad de Sevilla desde el 24 hasta el 26 de junio de 2015. Delamination is one of the most critical failure mechanisms in laminated composites. Usually it is assumed that delamination grows in a combination of modes I and II, but dominated by the mode I. In this work an experimental and numerical study of mode I delamination of laminated glass/epoxy [0/90]8S manufactured by resin infusion has been carried out. The value of ha...

  7. Shape Effect of Crushed Sand Filler on Rheology: A Preliminary Experimental and Numerical Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spangenberg, Jon; Cepuritis, Rolands; Hovad, Emil


    Two types of filler from crushed sand were mixed with cement paste with constant superplasticizer dosage per mass of cement to investigate how their shape affects the rheology. The fillers were mylonitic quartz diorite and limestone produced using Vertical Shaft Impact (VSI) crusher and air...... for the two filler types. Subsequently, a discrete element model was utilized to simulate the experimental data, thereby providing an initial step toward a numerical tool that can assist when proportioning self-compacting concrete with high volumes of crushed sand fines....

  8. Experimental and numerical studies on the mixing at the intersection of millimetric channels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etcheverry, F; Cachile, M [LIA-Grupo de Medios Porosos, Facultad de Ingenieria, UBA, Buenos Aires (Argentina); Gomba, J M [Instituto de Fisica Arroyo Seco, UNCPBA, Tandil (Argentina); Wolluschek, C, E-mail: [Mecanica de Fluidos e Ingenieria Termica, Centro tecnologico Cemitec, Noain, Navarra (Spain)


    In this work, experimental and numerical results on the effect of diffusion and geometrical dispersion on the mixing of confluent flows are presented. Two channels with an internal diameter D{sub h} = 4 mm intersect with an angle {alpha} = 30,60,90,120,150,180{sup 0}. The experimental setup allows to accurately control the flow rate and assures a constant flow at both inlets. The mixing properties are studied by injecting pure water in one inlet and colored water at the other. The effects of the inlet flow and the intersection angle on the diffusion of ink is analyzed. We observed that the mixing by convection is only important for {alpha} = 180{sup 0}. For other angles, diffusion is the main mechanism for mixing.

  9. Temperature Regulation of Photovoltaic Module Using Phase Change Material: A Numerical Analysis and Experimental Investigation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasan Mahamudul


    Full Text Available This work represents an effective design of a temperature regulated PV module by integrating phase change materials for Malaysian weather condition. Through the numerical analysis and experimental investigation it has been shown that if a PCM layer of width 0.02 m of RT 35 is used as a cooling arrangement with a PV module, the surface temperature of the module is reduced by 10°C, which remains constant for a period of 4–6 hours. This reduction of temperature implies the increase in conversion efficiency of the module. Experiment as well as investigation has been carried out considering typical Malaysian weather. Obtained result has been validated by using experimental prototype and comparative analysis.

  10. Numerical and Experimental Study of Producing Two-Step Flanges by Extrusion with a Movable Sleeve

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Winiarski G.


    Full Text Available The paper presents a new metal forming process for producing two-step external flanges on hollow parts. With this method, the flange is extruded by a movable sleeve, which moves in the opposite direction to the punch. This reduces the phenomenon of buckling of the tube wall, which allows extruding flanges with relatively large volumes. The new method was applied to produce a two-step flange on the end of a tubular billet made of 6060 aluminum alloy. This cold metal forming process was designed based on numerical simulations and experimental tests. The effect of the basic technological parameters on metal flow was investigated and limitations of the process were identified. The experimental results confirmed the possibility of forming a two-step flange with a diameter that is approximately twice as big as the external diameter of the tubular billet.

  11. Numerical and experimental study of the effects of noise on the permutation entropy

    CERN Document Server

    Quintero-Quiroz, C; Torrent, M C; Masoller, Cristina


    We analyze the effects of noise on the permutation entropy of dynamical systems. We take as numerical examples the logistic map and the R\\"ossler system. Upon varying the noise strengthfaster, we find a transition from an almost-deterministic regime, where the permutation entropy grows slower than linearly with the pattern dimension, to a noise-dominated regime, where the permutation entropy grows faster than linearly with the pattern dimension. We perform the same analysis on experimental time-series by considering the stochastic spiking output of a semiconductor laser with optical feedback. Because of the experimental conditions, the dynamics is found to be always in the noise-dominated regime. Nevertheless, the analysis allows to detect regularities of the underlying dynamics. By comparing the results of these three different examples, we discuss the possibility of determining from a time series whether the underlying dynamics is dominated by noise or not.

  12. Experimental measurements and numerical simulation of permittivity and permeability of Teflon in X band

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriano Luiz de Paula


    Full Text Available Recognizing the importance of an adequate characterization of radar absorbing materials, and consequently their development, the present study aims to contribute for the establishment and validation of experimental determination and numerical simulation of electromagnetic materials complex permittivity and permeability, using a Teflon® sample. The present paper branches out into two related topics. The first one is concerned about the implementation of a computational modeling to predict the behavior of electromagnetic materials in confined environment by using electromagnetic three-dimensional simulation. The second topic re-examines the Nicolson-Ross-Weir mathematical model to retrieve the constitutive parameters (complex permittivity and permeability of a homogeneous sample (Teflon®, from scattering coefficient measurements. The experimental and simulated results show a good convergence that guarantees the application of the used methodologies for the characterization of different radar absorbing materials samples.

  13. Numerical and experimental study on a pulsed-dc plasma jet (United States)

    Liu, X. Y.; Pei, X. K.; Lu, X. P.; Liu, D. W.


    A numerical and experimental study of plasma jet propagation in a low-temperature, atmospheric-pressure, helium jet in ambient air is presented. A self-consistent, multi-species, two-dimensional axially symmetric plasma model with detailed finite-rate chemistry of helium-air mixture composition is used to provide insights into the propagation of the plasma jet. The obtained simulation results suggest that the sheath forms near the dielectric tube inner surface and shields the plasma channel from the tube surface. The strong electric field at the edge of the dielectric field enhances the ionization in the air mixing layer; therefore, the streamer head becomes ring-shaped when the streamer runs out of the tube. The avalanche-to-streamer transition is the main mechanism of streamer advancement. Penning ionization dominates the ionization reactions and increases the electrical conductivity of the plasma channel. The simulation results are supported by experimental observations under similar discharge conditions.

  14. Comparison between conventional and "clinical" assessment of experimental lung fibrosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McClelland Grant B


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF is a treatment resistant disease with poor prognosis. Numerous compounds have been demonstrated to efficiently prevent pulmonary fibrosis (PF in animal models but only a few were successful when given to animals with established fibrosis. Major concerns of current PF models are spontaneous resolution and high variability of fibrosis, and the lack of assessment methods that can allow to monitor the effect of drugs in individual animals over time. We used a model of experimental PF in rats and compare parameters obtained in living animals with conventional assessment tools that require removal of the lungs. Methods PF was induced in rats by adenoviral gene transfer of transforming growth factor-beta. Morphological and functional changes were assessed for up to 56 days by micro-CT, lung compliance (measured via a mechanical ventilator and VO2max and compared to histomorphometry and hydroxyproline content. Results Standard histological and collagen assessment confirmed the persistent fibrotic phenotype as described before. The histomorphological scores correlated both to radiological (r2 = 0.29, p 2 = 0.51, p 2max did not correlate with fibrosis. Conclusion The progression of pulmonary fibrosis can be reliably assessed and followed in living animals over time using invasive, non-terminal compliance measurements and micro-CT. This approach directly translates to the management of patients with IPF and allows to monitor therapeutic effects in drug intervention studies.

  15. Shear Behavior of 3D Woven Hollow Integrated Sandwich Composites: Experimental, Theoretical and Numerical Study (United States)

    Zhou, Guangming; Liu, Chang; Cai, Deng'an; Li, Wenlong; Wang, Xiaopei


    An experimental, theoretical and numerical investigation on the shear behavior of 3D woven hollow integrated sandwich composites was presented in this paper. The microstructure of the composites was studied, then the shear modulus and load-deflection curves were obtained by double lap shear tests on the specimens in two principal directions of the sandwich panels, called warp and weft. The experimental results showed that the shear modulus of the warp was higher than that of the weft and the failure occurred in the roots of piles. A finite element model was established to predict the shear behavior of the composites. The simulated results agreed well with the experimental data. Simultaneously, a theoretical method was developed to predict the shear modulus. By comparing with the experimental data, the accuracy of the theoretical method was verified. The influence of structural parameters on shear modulus was also discussed. The higher yarn number, yarn density and dip angle of the piles could all improve the shear modulus of 3D woven hollow integrated sandwich composites at different levels, while the increasing height would decrease the shear modulus.

  16. Modelling polymeric deformable granular materials - from experimental data to numerical models at the grain scale (United States)

    Teil, Maxime; Harthong, Barthélémy; Imbault, Didier; Peyroux, Robert


    Polymeric deformable granular materials are widely used in industry and the understanding and the modelling of their shaping process is a point of interest. This kind of materials often presents a viscoelasticplastic behaviour and the present study promotes a joint approach between numerical simulations and experiments in order to derive the behaviour law of such granular material. The experiment is conducted on a polystyrene powder on which a confining pressure of 7MPa and an axial pressure reaching 30MPa are applied. Between different steps of the in-situ test, the sample is scanned in an X-rays microtomograph in order to know the structure of the material depending on the density. From the tomographic images and by using specific algorithms to improve the images quality, grains are automatically identified, separated and a finite element mesh is generated. The long-term objective of this study is to derive a representative sample directly from the experiments in order to run numerical simulations using a viscoelactic or viscoelastic-plastic constitutive law and compare numerical and experimental results at the particle scale.

  17. Microfluidic emulsification at cross-junction: experimental and numerical study using Blue (United States)

    Roumpea, Evangelia; Kovalchuk, Nina M.; Kahouadji, Lyes; Xie, Zhihua; Chinaud, Maxime; Simmons, Mark J. H.; Matar, Omar K.; Angeli, Panagiota


    Liquid-liquid drop formation in a cross-junction device is investigated both experimentally and numerically. Experiments are performed using 5 cSt silicone oil as the continuous phase and 52% glycerol/ 48% water mixture containing surfactants as the dispersed phase. Both a high-speed camera and a two-colour micro-PIV technique were used to obtain the different flow regimes i.e. squeezing, dripping, jetting and threading and to study the velocity fields of the two phases simultaneously. The dependence of the drop size on flow rate follows a power law with different exponents for small and large drops. Numerical simulations using the code Blue, a massive parallel solver for simulations of fully three-dimensional multiphase flows, were also performed taking into account the properties of the liquids used in the experiments and the precise geometry of the microfluidic chips. The simulation results agreed very well with the surfactant-free solution. The numerical simulations taking into account the surfactant are ongoing. EPSRC, UK, MEMPHIS program Grant (EP/K003976/1), RAEng Research Chair (OKM).

  18. Numerical and experimental simulation of linear shear piezoelectric phased arrays for structural health monitoring (United States)

    Wang, Wentao; Zhang, Hui; Lynch, Jerome P.; Cesnik, Carlos E. S.; Li, Hui


    A novel d36-type piezoelectric wafer fabricated from lead magnesium niobate-lead titanate (PMN-PT) is explored for the generation of in-plane horizontal shear waves in plate structures. The study focuses on the development of a linear phased array (PA) of PMN-PT wafers to improve the damage detection capabilities of a structural health monitoring (SHM) system. An attractive property of in-plane horizontal shear waves is that they are nondispersive yet sensitive to damage. This study characterizes the directionality of body waves (Lamb and horizontal shear) created by a single PMN-PT wafer bonded to the surface of a metallic plate structure. Second, a linear PA is designed from PMN-PT wafers to steer and focus Lamb and horizontal shear waves in a plate structure. Numerical studies are conducted to explore the capabilities of a PMN-PT-based PA to detect damage in aluminum plates. Numerical simulations are conducted using the Local Interaction Simulation Approach (LISA) implemented on a parallelized graphical processing unit (GPU) for high-speed execution. Numerical studies are further validated using experimental tests conducted with a linear PA. The study confirms the ability of an PMN-PT phased array to accurately detect and localize damage in aluminum plates.

  19. Numerical and Experimental Study of a Cooling for Vanes in a Small Turbine Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Šimák Jan


    Full Text Available This paper is concerned with a cooling system for inlet guide vanes of a small turbine engine which are exposed to a high temperature gas leaving a combustion chamber. Because of small dimensions of the vanes, only a simple internal cavity and cooling holes can be realized. The idea was to utilize a film cooling technique. The proposed solution was simulated by means of a numerical method based on a coupling of CFD and heat transfer solvers. The numerical results of various scenarios (different coolant temperature, heat transfer to surroundings showed a desired decrease of the temperature, especially on the most critical part – the trailing edge. The numerical data are compared to results obtained by experimental measurements performed in a test facility in our institute. A quarter segment model of the inlet guide vanes wheel was equipped with thermocouples in order to verify an effect of cooling. Despite some uncertainty in the results, a verifiable decrease of the vane temperature was observed.

  20. Numerical and experimental study on the steady cone-jet mode of electro-centrifugal spinning (United States)

    Hashemi, Ali Reza; Pishevar, Ahmad Reza; Valipouri, Afsaneh; Pǎrǎu, Emilian I.


    This study focuses on a numerical investigation of an initial stable jet through the air-sealed electro-centrifugal spinning process, which is known as a viable method for the mass production of nanofibers. A liquid jet undergoing electric and centrifugal forces, as well as other forces, first travels in a stable trajectory and then goes through an unstable curled path to the collector. In numerical modeling, hydrodynamic equations have been solved using the perturbation method—and the boundary integral method has been implemented to efficiently solve the electric potential equation. Hydrodynamic equations have been coupled with the electric field using stress boundary conditions at the fluid-fluid interface. Perturbation equations were discretized by a second order finite difference method, and the Newton method was implemented to solve the discretized non-linear system. Also, the boundary element method was utilized to solve electrostatic equations. In the theoretical study, the fluid was described as a leaky dielectric with charges only on the surface of the jet traveling in dielectric air. The effect of the electric field induced around the nozzle tip on the jet instability and trajectory deviation was also experimentally studied through plate-plate geometry as well as point-plate geometry. It was numerically found that the centrifugal force prevails on electric force by increasing the rotational speed. Therefore, the alteration of the applied voltage does not significantly affect the jet thinning profile or the jet trajectory.

  1. Benchmarking in a rotating annulus: a comparative experimental and numerical study of baroclinic wave dynamics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miklos Vincze


    Full Text Available The differentially heated rotating annulus is a widely studied tabletop-size laboratory model of the general mid-latitude atmospheric circulation. The two most relevant factors of cyclogenesis, namely rotation and meridional temperature gradient are quite well captured in this simple arrangement. The radial temperature difference in the cylindrical tank and its rotation rate can be set so that the isothermal surfaces in the bulk tilt, leading to the formation of baroclinic waves. The signatures of these waves at the free water surface have been analyzed via infrared thermography in a wide range of rotation rates (keeping the radial temperature difference constant and under different initial conditions. In parallel to the laboratory experiments, five groups of the MetStröm collaboration have conducted numerical simulations in the same parameter regime using different approaches and solvers, and applying different initial conditions and perturbations. The experimentally and numerically obtained baroclinic wave patterns have been evaluated and compared in terms of their dominant wave modes, spatio-temporal variance properties and drift rates. Thus certain “benchmarks” have been created that can later be used as test cases for atmospheric numerical model validation.

  2. Numerical model and experimental validation of the heat transfer in air cooled solar photovoltaic panel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranganathan Senthil Kumar


    Full Text Available In this paper, a meticulous numerical model is developed and simulated using computational fluid dynamics technique so as to analyse the heat transfer and temperature distribution on each layer of the air cooled solar photovoltaic panel. The proposed numerical model comprises of bottom air cooling layer and diverse layers of solar panel such as glass, ethyl vinyl acetate, photovoltaic cell, and tedlar. The discrete ordinates model is employed to apply the solar load in the numerical computation. The computational fluid dynamics simulated average temperatures are compared with the experimental measured values and found to be in commendable agreement. The RMSE1, RMSE2, and R-squared values were obtained for top glass, tedlar and outlet air temperature is 1.112949, 0.022619, 0.998175, 0.993115, 0.019556, 0.998451, and 0.077683, 0.022618, 0.988113, respectively. The top glass and photovoltaic cell contour clearly visuvalizes the temperature distribution through out the layer. It is also found that the maximum top glass, photovoltaic cell, tedlar and outlet air temperature of photovoltaic-thermal system are about 58.06°C, 58.39°C, 59.44°C, and 45.48°C, respectively.

  3. Approximate numerical abilities and mathematics: Insight from correlational and experimental training studies. (United States)

    Hyde, D C; Berteletti, I; Mou, Y


    Humans have the ability to nonverbally represent the approximate numerosity of sets of objects. The cognitive system that supports this ability, often referred to as the approximate number system (ANS), is present in early infancy and continues to develop in precision over the life span. It has been proposed that the ANS forms a foundation for uniquely human symbolic number and mathematics learning. Recent work has brought two types of evidence to bear on the relationship between the ANS and human mathematics: correlational studies showing individual differences in approximate numerical abilities correlate with individual differences in mathematics achievement and experimental studies showing enhancing effects of nonsymbolic approximate numerical training on exact, symbolic mathematical abilities. From this work, at least two accounts can be derived from these empirical data. It may be the case that the ANS and mathematics are related because the cognitive and brain processes responsible for representing numerical quantity in each format overlap, the Representational Overlap Hypothesis, or because of commonalities in the cognitive operations involved in mentally manipulating the representations of each format, the Operational Overlap hypothesis. The two hypotheses make distinct predictions for future work to test. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Experimental and numerical investigations on spray structure under the effect of cavitation phenomenon in a microchannel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghorbani, Morteza; Sadaghiani, Abdolali Khalili; Yidiz, Mehmet; Kosar, Ali [Sabanci University, Tuzla, Istanbul (Turkmenistan)


    In this study, the effect of upstream pressure on cavitation flows inside a microchannel with an inner diameter of 152 μm and resulting spray structure were experimentally and numerically investigated. The effects of bubble number density on two-phase flow hydrodynamics were studied using the numerical approach, where transient model was utilized to obtain the changes in vapor quality inside the microchannel and velocity field near the inlet and outlet of the nozzle. Spray visualization was carried out at a distance of 4.5 mm from the tip of the microchannel using the high speed visualization system. The experimental results showed that the spray cone angle increased with upstream pressure, and beyond the upstream pressure of 50 bar, the liquid jet flow changed to the cloudy spray flow. The bubble collapse was recorded at upstream pressures of 100 and 120 bar, where the cavitation bubbles extended to the outlet of the microchannel, and their collapse took place around the spray.

  5. Numerical and experimental study on the motion characteristics of single bubble in a complex channel (United States)

    Sun, Tao; Li, Weizhong; Dong, Bo


    This paper is an extended study from previous work. In this study, the focus is paid to the dynamics of bubble rising and deformation in a complex channel, while the previous work is in straight channel. For this purpose, a three-dimensional lattice Boltzmann method (LBM) is employed to simulate the dynamics behaviour of a bubble rising in a complex channel consisting of three half-round throats. To validate the numerical method, a visual experiment was carried out by means of a high-speed digital camera and computer image processing technology. The behaviour of the rising bubble through glycerine solution in a complex channel was recorded. Some physical parameters such as rising velocities, trajectory and shapes of the bubble were calculated and processed based on the experimental data. In the same conditions, the trajectory, shapes and rising velocities of the bubble were simulated during its rising process by the proposed LBM. The numerical results are in good agreement with the experimental results. It demonstrates that LBM used in this work is feasible for simulating two-phase flow in such a complex channel.

  6. Numerical and Experimental Investigation on a Thermo-Photovoltaic Module for Higher Efficiency Energy Generation (United States)

    Karami-Lakeh, Hossein; Hosseini-Abardeh, Reza; Kaatuzian, Hassan


    One major problem of solar cells is the decrease in efficiency due to an increase in temperature when operating under constant irradiation of solar energy. The combination of solar cell and a thermoelectric generator is one of the methods proposed to solve this problem. In this paper, the performance of thermo-photovoltaic system is studied experimentally as well as through numerical simulation. In the experimental part, design, manufacture and test of a novel thermo-photovoltaic system assembly are presented. Results of the assembled system showed that with reduction of one degree (Centigrade) in the temperature of solar cell under investigation, and about 0.2 % increase in the efficiency will be obtained in comparison with given efficiency at that specified temperature. The solar cell in a hybrid-assembled system under two cooling conditions (air cooling and water cooling) obtained an efficiency of 8 % and 9.5 %, respectively, while the efficiency of a single cell under the same radiation condition was 6 %. In numerical simulation part, photo-thermoelectric performance of system was analyzed. Two methods for evaluation of thermoelectric performance were used: average properties and finite element method. Results of simulation also demonstrate an increase in solar cell efficiency in the combined system in comparison with that of the single cell configuration.

  7. Experimental and numerical investigation of fuel mixing effects on soot structures in counterflow diffusion flames

    KAUST Repository

    Choi, Byungchul


    Experimental and numerical analyses of laminar diffusion flames were performed to identify the effect of fuel mixing on soot formation in a counterflow burner. In this experiment, the volume fraction, number density, and particle size of soot were investigated using light extinction/scattering systems. The experimental results showed that the synergistic effect of an ethylene-propane flame is appreciable. Numerical simulations showed that the benzene (C6H6) concentration in mixture flames was higher than in ethylene-base flames because of the increase in the concentration of propargyl radicals. Methyl radicals were found to play an important role in the formation of propargyl, and the recombination of propargyl with benzene was found to lead to an increase in the number density for cases exhibiting synergistic effects. These results imply that methyl radicals play an important role in soot formation, particularly with regard to the number density. © 2011 The Korean Society of Automotive Engineers and Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

  8. Bioimpedance measurements in dentistry to detect inflammation: numerical modelling and experimental results. (United States)

    Cosoli, G; Scalise, L; Tricarico, G; Russo, P; Cerri, G


    Bioimpedance measurements represent an advantageous method to evaluate the physio-pathological conditions of biological tissues and their use is spreading in different application fields, from the evaluation of body composition to the vital signs monitoring, passing through the individuation of cancer tissues and the detection of different substances (e.g. glucose measurements in people affected by diabetes). In fact, tissues electric properties vary with their conditions; for example, electrical conductivity increases when there is an inflammatory process, because of the presence of oedema, hyperaemia and infiltration. Inflammatory phenomena are frequent in dentistry, in diseases like periodontitis and peri-implantitis; however, at present the diagnosis is mainly done with the naked eye, by observing the gingiva redness and swelling. The aim of this work is to prove the feasibility of the inflammation detection by means of bioimpedance measurements. Both numerical simulations and preliminary experimental measurements provide significant outcomes in differentiating between healthy and inflamed tissues. Percentage differences in the impedance modulus equal to 4-20% (numerical simulations) and 35-56% (experimental measurements), respectively, depending on the considered conditions (e.g. electrodes characteristics and inflammation severity), were found. Such a measure could be integrated in electromedical devices designed, for example, for the therapy of peri-implantitis, in order to personalise the therapeutic dose in terms of intensity and duration and focusing it on the impaired area, minimising the effects on the surrounding tissues.

  9. Three-dimensional numerical and experimental studies on transient ignition of hybrid rocket motor (United States)

    Tian, Hui; Yu, Ruipeng; Zhu, Hao; Wu, Junfeng; Cai, Guobiao


    This paper presents transient simulations and experimental studies of the ignition process of the hybrid rocket motors (HRMs) using 90% hydrogen peroxide (HP) as the oxidizer and polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) and Polyethylene (PE) as fuels. A fluid-solid coupling numerically method is established based on the conserved form of the three-dimensional unsteady Navier-Stokes (N-S) equations, considering gas fluid with chemical reactions and heat transfer between the fluid and solid region. Experiments are subsequently conducted using high-speed camera to record the ignition process. The flame propagation, chamber pressurizing process and average fuel regression rate of the numerical simulation results show good agreement with the experimental ones, which demonstrates the validity of the simulations in this study. The results also indicate that the flame propagation time is mainly affected by fluid dynamics and it increases with an increasing grain port area. The chamber pressurizing process begins when the flame propagation completes in the grain port. Furthermore, the chamber pressurizing time is about 4 times longer than the time of flame propagation.

  10. Experimental and numerical thermal-hydraulics investigation of a molten salt reactor concept core

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yamaji, Bogdan; Aszodi, Attila [Budapest Univ. of Technology and Economics (Hungary). Inst. of Nuclear Techniques


    In the paper measurement results of experimental modelling of a molten salt fast reactor concept will be presented and compared with three-dimensional computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulation results. Purpose of this article is twofold, on one hand to introduce a geometry modification in order to avoid the disadvantages of the original geometry and discuss new measurement results. On the other hand to present an analysis in order to suggest a method of proper numerical modelling of the problem based on the comparison of calculation results and measurement data for the new, modified geometry. The investigated concept has a homogeneous cylindrical core without any internal structures. Previous measurements on the scaled and segmented plexiglas model of the concept core and simulation results have shown that this core geometry could be optimized for better thermal-hydraulics characteristics. In case of the original geometry strong undesired flow separation could develop, that could negatively affect the characteristics of the core from neutronics point of view as well. An internal flow distributor plate was designed and installed with the purpose of optimizing the flow field in the core by enhancing its uniformity. Particle image velocimetry (PIV) measurement results of the modified experimental model will be presented and compared to numerical simulation results with the purpose of CFD model validation.

  11. Experimental and numerical study of underwater beam propagation in a Rayleigh-Bénard turbulence tank. (United States)

    Nootz, Gero; Matt, Silvia; Kanaev, Andrey; Judd, Kyle P; Hou, Weilin


    The propagation of a laser beam through Rayleigh-Bénard (RB) turbulence is investigated experimentally and by way of numerical simulation. For the experimental part, a focused laser beam transversed a 5  m×0.5  m×0.5  m water filled tank lengthwise. The tank is heated from the bottom and cooled from the top to produce convective RB turbulence. The effect of the turbulence on the beam is recorded on the exit of the beam from the tank. From the centroid motion of the beam, the index of refraction structure constant Cn2 is determined. For the numerical efforts RB turbulence is simulated for a tank of the same geometry. The simulated temperature fields are converted to the index of refraction distributions, and Cn2 is extracted from the index of refraction structure functions, as well as from the simulated beam wander. To model the effect on beam propagation, the simulated index of refraction fields are converted to discrete index of refraction phase screens. These phase screens are then used in a split-step beam propagation method to investigate the effect of the turbulence on a laser beam. The beam wander as well as the index of refraction structure parameter Cn2 determined from the experiment and simulation are compared and found to be in good agreement.

  12. Numerical and Experimental Investigations on the Hydrodynamic Performance of a Tidal Current Turbine (United States)

    Su, Xiaohui; Zhang, Jiantao; Zhao, Yong; Zhang, Huiying; Zhao, Guang; Cao, Yao


    In this paper, numerical and experimental investigations are presented on the hydrodynamic performance of a horizontal tidal current turbine (TCT) designed and made by our Dalian University of Technology (DUT) research group. Thus it is given the acronym: DUTTCT. An open source CFD solver, called PimpleDyMFoam, is employed to perform numerical simulations for design analysis, while experimental tests are conducted in a DUT towing tank. The important factors, including self-starting velocity, tip speed ratio (TSR) and yaw angle, which play important roles in the turbine output power, are studied in the investigations. Results obtained show that the maximum power efficiency of the newly developed turbine (DUTTCT) could reach up to 47.6% and all its power efficiency is over 40% in the TSR range from 3.5 to 6; the self-starting velocity of DUTTCT is about 0.745m/s; the yaw angle has negligible influence on its efficiency as it is less than 10°.

  13. Numerical and experimental investigation on the performance of lean burn catalytic combustion for gas turbine application (United States)

    Yin, Juan; Weng, Yi-wu; Zhu, Jun-qiang


    This manuscript presents our numerical and experimental results regarding the performance characteristics of lean burn catalytic combustion for gas turbine application. The reactant transport was assumed to be controlled by both bulk diffusion as well as surface kinetics, implemented by means of an approximate reaction rate equation and empirical coefficients to incorporate reaction mechanism. Experimental and numerical results were compared to examine the effects of methane mole fraction, inlet temperature, operating pressure, velocity and hydrogen species on combustion intensity. The results indicate that inlet temperature is the most significant parameter that impacts operation of the catalytic combustor and the most effective methods for improving the methane conversion are increasing the inlet temperature and increasing the methane mole fraction. Simulations from 1D heterogeneous plug flow model can capture the trend of catalytic combustion and describe the behavior of the catalytic monolith in detail. The addition of hydrogen will provide heat release by the exothermic combustion reaction so that the reactants reach a temperature at which methane oxidation can light-off.

  14. Experimental and numerical studies of microwave-plasma interaction in a MWPECVD reactor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Massaro


    Full Text Available This work deals with and proposes a simple and compact diagnostic method able to characterize the interaction between microwave and plasma without the necessity of using an external diagnostic tool. The interaction between 2.45 GHz microwave and plasma, in a typical ASTeX-type reactor, is investigated from experimental and numerical view points. The experiments are performed by considering plasmas of three different gas mixtures: H2, CH4-H2 and CH4-H2-N2. The two latter are used to deposit synthetic undoped and n-doped diamond films. The experimental setup equipped with a matching network enables the measurements of very low reflected power. The reflected powers show ripples due to the mismatching between wave and plasma impedance. Specifically, the three types of plasma exhibit reflected power values related to the variation of electron-neutral collision frequency among the species by changing the gas mixture. The different gas mixtures studied are also useful to test the sensitivity of the reflected power measurements to the change of plasma composition. By means of a numerical model, only the interaction of microwave and H2 plasma is examined allowing the estimation of plasma and matching network impedances and of reflected power that is found about eighteen times higher than that measured.

  15. Dynamic Behaviour of the Patented Kobold Tidal Current Turbine: Numerical and Experimental Aspects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. P. Coiro


    Full Text Available This paper provides a summary of the work done at DPA on numerical and experimental investigations of a novel patented vertical axis and variable pitching blades hydro turbine designed to harness energy from marine tidal currents. Ponte di Archimede S.p.A. Company, located in Messina, Italy, owns the patented KOBOLD turbine that is moored in the Messina Strait, between the mainland and Sicily. The turbine has a rotor with a diameter of 6 meters, three vertical blades of 5 meters span with a 0.4 m chord ad hoc designed curved airfoil, producing high lift with no cavitation. The rated power is 160 kW with 3.5 m/s current speed, which means 25% global system efficiency. The VAWT and VAWT_DYN computer codes, based on Double Multiple Steamtube, have been developed to predict the steady and dynamic performances of a cycloturbine with fixed or self-acting variable pitch straight-blades. A theoretical analysis and a numerical prediction of the turbine performances as well as experimental test results on both a model and the real scale turbine will be presented and discussed. 

  16. Numerical and experimental approaches to study soil transport and clogging in granular filters (United States)

    Kanarska, Y.; Smith, J. J.; Ezzedine, S. M.; Lomov, I.; Glascoe, L. G.


    Failure of a dam by erosion ranks among the most serious accidents in civil engineering. The best way to prevent internal erosion is using adequate granular filters in the transition areas where important hydraulic gradients can appear. In case of cracking and erosion, if the filter is capable of retaining the eroded particles, the crack will seal and the dam safety will be ensured. Numerical modeling has proved to be a cost-effective tool for improving our understanding of physical processes. Traditionally, the consideration of flow and particle transport in porous media has focused on treating the media as continuum. Practical models typically address flow and transport based on the Darcy's law as a function of a pressure gradient and a medium-dependent permeability parameter. Additional macroscopic constitutes describe porosity, and permeability changes during the migration of a suspension through porous media. However, most of them rely on empirical correlations, which often need to be recalibrated for each application. Grain-scale modeling can be used to gain insight into scale dependence of continuum macroscale parameters. A finite element numerical solution of the Navier-Stokes equations for fluid flow together with Lagrange multiplier technique for solid particles was applied to the simulation of soil filtration in the filter layers of gravity dam. The numerical approach was validated through comparison of numerical simulations with the experimental results of base soil particle clogging in the filter layers performed at ERDC. The numerical simulation correctly predicted flow and pressure decay due to particle clogging. The base soil particle distribution was almost identical to those measured in the laboratory experiment. It is believed that the agreement between simulations and experimental data demonstrates the applicability of the proposed approach for prediction of the soil transport and clogging in embankment dams. To get more precise understanding of

  17. Energy-based numerical models for assessment of soil liquefaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Amir Hossein Alavi


    Full Text Available This study presents promising variants of genetic programming (GP, namely linear genetic programming (LGP and multi expression programming (MEP to evaluate the liquefaction resistance of sandy soils. Generalized LGP and MEP-based relationships were developed between the strain energy density required to trigger liquefaction (capacity energy and the factors affecting the liquefaction characteristics of sands. The correlations were established based on well established and widely dispersed experimental results obtained from the literature. To verify the applicability of the derived models, they were employed to estimate the capacity energy values of parts of the test results that were not included in the analysis. The external validation of the models was verified using statistical criteria recommended by researchers. Sensitivity and parametric analyses were performed for further verification of the correlations. The results indicate that the proposed correlations are effectively capable of capturing the liquefaction resistance of a number of sandy soils. The developed correlations provide a significantly better prediction performance than the models found in the literature. Furthermore, the best LGP and MEP models perform superior than the optimal traditional GP model. The verification phases confirm the efficiency of the derived correlations for their general application to the assessment of the strain energy at the onset of liquefaction.

  18. An Experimentally Validated Numerical Modeling Technique for Perforated Plate Heat Exchangers. (United States)

    White, M J; Nellis, G F; Kelin, S A; Zhu, W; Gianchandani, Y


    Cryogenic and high-temperature systems often require compact heat exchangers with a high resistance to axial conduction in order to control the heat transfer induced by axial temperature differences. One attractive design for such applications is a perforated plate heat exchanger that utilizes high conductivity perforated plates to provide the stream-to-stream heat transfer and low conductivity spacers to prevent axial conduction between the perforated plates. This paper presents a numerical model of a perforated plate heat exchanger that accounts for axial conduction, external parasitic heat loads, variable fluid and material properties, and conduction to and from the ends of the heat exchanger. The numerical model is validated by experimentally testing several perforated plate heat exchangers that are fabricated using microelectromechanical systems based manufacturing methods. This type of heat exchanger was investigated for potential use in a cryosurgical probe. One of these heat exchangers included perforated plates with integrated platinum resistance thermometers. These plates provided in situ measurements of the internal temperature distribution in addition to the temperature, pressure, and flow rate measured at the inlet and exit ports of the device. The platinum wires were deposited between the fluid passages on the perforated plate and are used to measure the temperature at the interface between the wall material and the flowing fluid. The experimental testing demonstrates the ability of the numerical model to accurately predict both the overall performance and the internal temperature distribution of perforated plate heat exchangers over a range of geometry and operating conditions. The parameters that were varied include the axial length, temperature range, mass flow rate, and working fluid.

  19. Numerical and Experimental Investigations on Mechanical Behavior of Composite Corrugated Core (United States)

    Dayyani, Iman; Ziaei-Rad, Saeed; Salehi, Hamid


    Tensile and flexural characteristics of corrugated laminate panels were studied using numerical and analytical methods and compared with experimental data. Prepreg laminates of glass fiber plain woven cloth were hand-laid by use of a heat gun to ease the creation of the panel. The corrugated panels were then manufactured by using a trapezoidal machined aluminium mould. First, a series of simple tension tests were performed on standard samples to evaluate the material characteristics. Next, the corrugated panels were subjected to tensile and three-point bending tests. The force-displacement graphs were recorded. Numerical and analytical solutions were proposed to simulate the mechanical behavior of the panels. In order to model the energy dissipation due to delamination phenomenon observed in tensile tests in all members of corrugated core, plastic behavior was assigned to the whole geometry, not only to the corner regions. Contrary to the literature, it is shown that the three-stage mechanical behavior of composite corrugated core is not confined to aramid reinforced corrugated laminates and can be observed in other types such as fiber glass. The results reveal that the mechanical behavior of the core in tension is sensitive to the variation of core height. In addition, for the first time, the behavior of composite corrugated core was studied and verified in bending. Finally, the analytical and numerical results were validated by comparing them with experimental data. A good degree of correlation was observed which showed the suitability of the finite element model for predicting the mechanical behavior of corrugated laminate panels.

  20. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Ethanol/Diethyl Ether Mixtures in a CI Engine

    KAUST Repository

    Sivasankaralingam, Vedharaj


    The auto-ignition characteristics of diethyl ether (DEE)/ethanol mixtures are investigated in compression ignition (CI) engines both numerically and experimentally. While DEE has a higher derived cetane number (DCN) of 139, ethanol exhibits poor ignition characteristics with a DCN of 8. DEE was used as an ignition promoter for the operation of ethanol in a CI engine. Mixtures of DEE and ethanol (DE), i.e., DE75 (75% DEE + 25% ethanol), DE50 (50% DEE + 50% ethanol) and DE25 (25% DEE + 75% ethanol), were tested in a CI engine. While DE75 and DE50 auto-ignited at an inlet air pressure of 1.5 bar, DE25 failed to auto-ignite even at boosted pressure of 2 bar. The peak in-cylinder pressure for diesel and DE75 were comparable, while DE50 showed reduced peak in-cylinder pressure with delayed start of combustion (SOC). Numerical simulations were conducted to study the engine combustion characteristics of DE mixture. A comprehensive detailed chemical kinetic model was created to represent the combustion of DE mixtures. The detailed mechanism was then reduced using standard direct relation graph (DRG-X) method and coupled with 3D CFD code, CONVERGE, to simulate the experimental data. The simulation results showed that the effects of physical properties on DE50 combustion are negligible. Simulations of DE50 mixture revealed that the combustion is nearly homogenous, while diesel (n-heptane used as a surrogate) and DE75 showed similar combustion behavior with flame liftoff and diffusion controlled combustion. Diesel exhibited auto-ignition at an equivalence ratio of 2, while DE75 and DE50 showed auto-ignition in the equivalence ratio range of 1-1.5 and 0-1, respectively. The experiments and numerical simulations demonstrate how the high reactivity of DEE supports the auto-ignition of ethanol, while ethanol acts as a radical scavenger.

  1. An Experimentally Validated Numerical Modeling Technique for Perforated Plate Heat Exchangers (United States)

    Nellis, G. F.; Kelin, S. A.; Zhu, W.; Gianchandani, Y.


    Cryogenic and high-temperature systems often require compact heat exchangers with a high resistance to axial conduction in order to control the heat transfer induced by axial temperature differences. One attractive design for such applications is a perforated plate heat exchanger that utilizes high conductivity perforated plates to provide the stream-to-stream heat transfer and low conductivity spacers to prevent axial conduction between the perforated plates. This paper presents a numerical model of a perforated plate heat exchanger that accounts for axial conduction, external parasitic heat loads, variable fluid and material properties, and conduction to and from the ends of the heat exchanger. The numerical model is validated by experimentally testing several perforated plate heat exchangers that are fabricated using microelectromechanical systems based manufacturing methods. This type of heat exchanger was investigated for potential use in a cryosurgical probe. One of these heat exchangers included perforated plates with integrated platinum resistance thermometers. These plates provided in situ measurements of the internal temperature distribution in addition to the temperature, pressure, and flow rate measured at the inlet and exit ports of the device. The platinum wires were deposited between the fluid passages on the perforated plate and are used to measure the temperature at the interface between the wall material and the flowing fluid. The experimental testing demonstrates the ability of the numerical model to accurately predict both the overall performance and the internal temperature distribution of perforated plate heat exchangers over a range of geometry and operating conditions. The parameters that were varied include the axial length, temperature range, mass flow rate, and working fluid. PMID:20976021

  2. Spatially Resolved Experimental and Numerical Investigation of the Flow through the Intake Port of an Internal Combustion Engine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hartmann Frank


    Full Text Available Modern spark-ignited internal combustion engines have intake ports designed to introduce high levels of so-called “tumble” charge motion. Correspondingly high shear rates can lead to high fluctuations and turbulence within the combustion chamber. A suitable test case to characterize the intake flow is a steady-state flow bench. Although routinely used in the engine development process to determine the global discharge coefficients, only a few detailed numerical and experimental studies use this test case to analyze the flow in the vicinity of the valve with high spatial and temporal resolution. In this paper, we combined highly resolved two-dimensional, two-component Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV measurements and numerical simulations using a Detached-Eddy Simulation (DES model to characterize engine-relevant flow features on a flow bench. The spatial resolution of numerical simulations on two different grids is assessed and compared to that of the PIV measurement. The results of simulations and experiment are then compared in terms of their mean and fluctuation velocity fields and the jet orientation. A detailed study of the area around the valve seats investigates the validity of wall functions in this region. Finally, we examine structures induced by vortex-shedding at the valve stem and if they are transported into the combustion chamber.

  3. Experimental and Numerical Analyses of New Massive Wooden Shear-Wall Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luca Pozza


    Full Text Available Three innovative massive wooden shear-wall systems (Cross-Laminated-Glued Wall, Cross-Laminated-Stapled Wall, Layered Wall with dovetail inserts were tested and their structural behaviour under seismic action was assessed with numerical simulations. The wall specimens differ mainly in the method used to assemble the layers of timber boards composing them. Quasi-static cyclic loading tests were carried out and then reproduced with a non-linear numerical model calibrated on the test results to estimate the most appropriate behaviour factor for each system. Non-linear dynamic simulations of 15 artificially generated seismic shocks showed that these systems have good dissipative capacity when correctly designed and that they can be assigned to the medium ductility class of Eurocode 8. This work also shows the influence of deformations in wooden panels and base connectors on the behaviour factor and dissipative capacity of the system.

  4. Experimental assessment of advanced Stirling component concepts (United States)

    Ziph, B.


    The results of an experimental assessment of some advanced Stirling engine component concepts are presented. High performance piston rings, reciprocating oil scrapers and heat pipes with getters and with mechanical couplings were tested. The tests yielded the following results: (1) Bonded, split, pumping piston rings, in preliminary testing, proved a promising concept, exhibiting low leakage and friction losses. Solid piston rings proved impractical in view of their sensitivity to the operating temperature; (2) A babbit oil scraper in a compliant housing performed well in atmospheric endurance testing. In pressurized tests the scraper did not perform well as a containment seal. The latter tests suggest modifications which may adapt Ti successfully to that application; and (3) Heat pipe endurance tests indicated the adequacy of simple, inexpensive fabrication and filling procedures. Getters were provided to increase the tolerance of the heat pipes to the presence of air and commercially available couplings were demonstrated to be suitable for heat pipe application. In addition to the above tests, the program also included a design effort for a split shaft applicable to a swashplate driven engine with a pressurized crank-case. The design is aimed, and does accomplish, an increase in component life to more than 10,000 hours.

  5. Experimental assessment of advanced Stirling component concepts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ziph, B.


    This final report presents the results of an experimental assessment of some advanced Stirling engine component concepts. Under this program, high performance piston rings, reciprocating oil scrapers and heat pipes with getters and with mechanical couplings were tested. The tests yielded the following results: (1) Bonded, split, pumping piston rings, in preliminary testing, proved a promising concept, exhibiting low leakage and friction losses. Solid piston rings proved impractical in view of their sensitivity to the operating temperature. (2) A babbit oil scraper in a compliant housing performed well in atmospheric endurance testing. In pressurized tests the scraper did not perform well as a containment seal. The latter tests suggest modifications which may adapt Ti successfully to that application. (3) Heat pipe endurance tests indicated the adequacy of simple, inexpensive fabrication and filling procedures. Getters were proved to increase the tolerance of the heat pipes to the presence of air, and commercially available couplings were demonstrated to be suitable for heat pipe application. In addition to the above tests, the program also included a design effort for a split shaft applicable to a swashplate driven engine with a pressurized crankcase. The design is aimed, and does accomplish, an increase in component life to more than 10,000 h.

  6. Experimental and numerical analysis of coastal protection provided by natural ecosystems (United States)

    Maza, M.; Lara, J. L.; Losada, I. J.; Nepf, H. M.


    The risk of flooding and erosion is increasing for many coastal areas owing to global and regional changes in climate conditions together with increasing exposure and vulnerability. After hurricane Katrina (2005) and Sandy (2012) and the tsunami in Indonesia (2004), coastal managers have become interested in low environmental impact alternatives, or nature-based solutions, to protect the coast. Although capacity for coastal ecosystems to damp flow energy has been widely recognized, they have not been firmly considered in the portfolio of coastal protection options. This is mainly due to the complexity of flow-vegetation interaction and of quantifying the value of coastal protection provided by these ecosystems. This complex problem involves different temporal and spatial scales and disciplines, such as engineering, ecology and economics. This work aims to make a step forward in better understanding the physics involved in flow-vegetation interaction leading to new formulations and parameterizations to address some unsolved questions in literature: the representation of plants and field properties; the influence of wave parameters on the relevant processes; the role of the combined effect of waves and currents and the effect of extreme events on vegetation elements. The three main coastal vegetated ecosystems (seagrasses, saltmarshes and mangroves) are studied with an experimental and numerical approach. Experimental analysis is carried out using mimics and real vegetation, considering different flow and vegetation parameters and characterizing flow energy attenuation for the different scenarios. Numerical simulations are performed using 2-D and 3-D Navier-Stokes models in which the effect of vegetation is implemented and validated. These models are used to extend experimental results by simulating different vegetation distributions and analyzing variables such as high-spatial-resolution free surface and velocity data and forces exerted on vegetation elements.

  7. Experimental and numerical analysis of pressure pulses characteristics in a Francis turbine with partial load

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yexiang, X; Zhengwei, W; Zongguo, Y; Jin, Z, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Hydroscience and Engineering and Department of Thermal Engineering, Tsinghua University Beijing, 100084 (China)


    This study experimentally and numerically investigates the pressure pulses characteristics and unsteady flow behavior in a Francis turbine with partial load. Unsteady wall pressure measurements with partial load condition are performs to investigate thoroughly pressure fields in the spiral case, runner head cover and straight draft tube dynamically. The unsteady Reynolds- averaged Navier-Stokes equations with the k-{omega}based SST turbulence model were used to model the unsteady flow within the entire flow passage of the Francis turbine. The dominate frequency of the predicted pressure pulses at runner inlet agree with the experimental results in the head cover. The influence of the blade passing frequency causes the simulated peak-to-peak amplitudes in the runner inlet to be larger than in the head cover. The measured and predicted pressure pulses at different positions along the runner are comparable. The predicted pressure fluctuations in the draft tube agree well with the experimental results. However the peak-to-peak amplitudes in the spiral case are not as well predicted so the calculation domain and the inlet boundary conditions need to be improved. At the most unstable operating condition, the pulse in the flow passage are due to the rotor-stator interference (RSI) between the runner and the guide vanes, the blade channel vortex in the runner blade passage and the vortex rope in the draft tube. The unsteady flow patterns in the turbine, including the blade channel vortex in the runner and the helical vortex rope in the draft tube, are classified numerically.

  8. Experimental and numerical analysis of pressure pulses characteristics in a Francis turbine with partial load (United States)

    Yexiang, X.; Zhengwei, W.; Zongguo, Y.; Jin, Z.


    This study experimentally and numerically investigates the pressure pulses characteristics and unsteady flow behavior in a Francis turbine with partial load. Unsteady wall pressure measurements with partial load condition are performs to investigate thoroughly pressure fields in the spiral case, runner head cover and straight draft tube dynamically. The unsteady Reynolds- averaged Navier-Stokes equations with the k-ωbased SST turbulence model were used to model the unsteady flow within the entire flow passage of the Francis turbine. The dominate frequency of the predicted pressure pulses at runner inlet agree with the experimental results in the head cover. The influence of the blade passing frequency causes the simulated peak-to-peak amplitudes in the runner inlet to be larger than in the head cover. The measured and predicted pressure pulses at different positions along the runner are comparable. The predicted pressure fluctuations in the draft tube agree well with the experimental results. However the peak-to-peak amplitudes in the spiral case are not as well predicted so the calculation domain and the inlet boundary conditions need to be improved. At the most unstable operating condition, the pulse in the flow passage are due to the rotor-stator interference (RSI) between the runner and the guide vanes, the blade channel vortex in the runner blade passage and the vortex rope in the draft tube. The unsteady flow patterns in the turbine, including the blade channel vortex in the runner and the helical vortex rope in the draft tube, are classified numerically.

  9. Combined Experimental and Numerical Simulations of Thermal Barrier Coated Turbine Blades Erosion (United States)

    Hamed, Awate; Tabakoff, Widen; Swar, Rohan; Shin, Dongyun; Woggon, Nthanial; Miller, Robert


    A combined experimental and computational study was conducted to investigate the erosion of thermal barrier coated (TBC) blade surfaces by alumina particles ingestion in a single stage turbine. In the experimental investigation, tests of particle surface interactions were performed in specially designed tunnels to determine the erosion rates and particle restitution characteristics under different impact conditions. The experimental results show that the erosion rates increase with increased impingement angle, impact velocity and temperature. In the computational simulations, an Euler-Lagrangian two stage approach is used in obtaining numerical solutions to the three-dimensional compressible Reynolds Averaged Navier-Stokes equations and the particles equations of motion in each blade passage reference frame. User defined functions (UDF) were developed to represent experimentally-based correlations for particle surface interaction models which were employed in the three-dimensional particle trajectory simulations to determine the particle rebound characteristics after each surface impact. The experimentally based erosion UDF model was used to predict the TBC erosion rates on the turbine blade surfaces based on the computed statistical data of the particles impact locations, velocities and angles relative to the blade surface. Computational results are presented for the predicted TBC blade erosion in a single stage commercial APU turbine, for a NASA designed automotive turbine, and for the NASA turbine scaled for modern rotorcraft operating conditions. The erosion patterns in the turbines are discussed for uniform particle ingestion and for particle ingestion concentrated in the inner and outer 5 percent of the stator blade span representing the flow cooling the combustor liner.

  10. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Fiber Reinforced Laminated Composites Subject to Low-Velocity Impact (United States)

    Thorsson, Solver I.

    Foreign object impact on composite materials continues to be an active field due to its importance in the design of load bearing composite aerostructures. The problem has been studied by many through the decades. Extensive experimental studies have been performed to characterize the impact damage and failure mechanisms. Leaders in aerospace industry are pushing for reliable, robust and efficient computational methods for predicting impact response of composite structures. Experimental and numerical investigations on the impact response of fiber reinforced polymer matrix composite (FRPC) laminates are presented. A detailed face-on and edge-on impact experimental study is presented. A novel method for conducting coupon-level edge-on impact experiments is introduced. The research is focused on impact energy levels that are in the vicinity of the barely visible impact damage (BVID) limit of the material system. A detailed post-impact damage study is presented where non-destructive inspection (NDI) methods such as ultrasound scanning and computed tomography (CT) are used. Detailed fractography studies are presented for further investigation of the through-the-thickness damage due to the impact event. Following the impact study, specimens are subjected to compression after impact (CAI) to establish the effect of BVID on the compressive strength after impact (CSAI). A modified combined loading compression (CLC) test method is proposed for compression testing following an edge-on impact. Experimental work on the rate sensitivity of the mode I and mode II inter-laminar fracture toughness is also investigated. An improved wedge-insert fracture (WIF) method for conducting mode I inter-laminar fracture at elevated loading rates is introduced. Based on the experimental results, a computational modeling approach for capturing face-on impact and CAI is developed. The model is then extended to edge-on impact and CAI. Enhanced Schapery Theory (EST) is utilized for modeling the full

  11. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of the Tracer Gas Methodology in the Case of a Naturally Cross-Ventilated Building

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nikolopoulos, Nikos; Nikolopoulos, Aristeidis; Larsen, Tine Steen


    in this area of scientific research is provided, using the numerical predictions as a reference. It is concluded that velocity measurements in the inlet window are of high accuracy when the flow in this region has a steady character, whilst the accuracy of the tracer gas methodology depends significantly......The paper presents the investigation of a naturally cross – ventilated building using both experimental and numerical methods with the parameters being the free-stream and the incidence angle of the wind to the openings of the building. The experimental methodology calculates the air change rate......, focusing on the time dependent character of the induced flow field. The numerical results are compared with corresponding experimental data for the three aforementioned experimental methodologies in the case of a full scale building inside a wind-tunnel. The numerical investigation reveals that for large...

  12. Experimental and numerical investigation of a scalable modular geothermal heat storage system (United States)

    Nordbeck, Johannes; Bauer, Sebastian; Beyer, Christof


    Storage of heat will play a significant role in the transition towards a reliable and renewable power supply, as it offers a way to store energy from fluctuating and weather dependent energy sources like solar or wind power and thus better meet consumer demands. The focus of this study is the simulation-based design of a heat storage system, featuring a scalable and modular setup that can be integrated with new as well as existing buildings. For this, the system can be either installed in a cellar or directly in the ground. Heat supply is by solar collectors, and heat storage is intended at temperatures up to about 90°C, which requires a verification of the methods used for numerical simulation of such systems. One module of the heat storage system consists of a helical heat exchanger in a fully water saturated, high porosity cement matrix, which represents the heat storage medium. A lab-scale storage prototype of 1 m3 volume was set up in a thermally insulated cylinder equipped with temperature and moisture sensors as well as flux meters and temperature sensors at the inlet and outlet pipes in order to experimentally analyze the performance of the storage system. Furthermore, the experimental data was used to validate an accurate and spatially detailed high-resolution 3D numerical model of heat and fluid flow, which was developed for system design optimization with respect to storage efficiency and environmental impacts. Three experiments conducted so far are reported and analyzed in this work. The first experiment, consisting of cooling of the fully loaded heat storage by heat loss across the insulation, is designed to determine the heat loss and the insulation parameters, i.e. heat conductivity and heat capacity of the insulation, via inverse modelling of the cooling period. The average cooling rate experimentally found is 1.2 °C per day. The second experiment consisted of six days of thermal loading up to a storage temperature of 60°C followed by four days

  13. Experimental and numerical investigation of thermosyphone performance in HVAC system applications (United States)

    Eidan, Adel A.; Najim, Saleh E.; Jalil, Jalal M.


    An experimental and numerical investigations are conducted on a Two Phase Closed Thermosyphon (TPCT) charged with six working fluids; namely (water, methanol, ethanol, acetone, butanol and R134a) with filling ratios (40, 50, 60, 70 and 100 %). The TPCT is made from a 0.016 m diameter copper tube, which consists of a 0.15 m evaporator, 0.1 m adiabatic and 0.15 m condenser sections, respectively. Thermocouples are located in the core and on the wall of the TPCT. The main objectives of the experimental investigation are to analyze the effect of the working fluid and filling ratio (liquid inventory) under heat inputs (20-120 W) with a fixed condenser cooling temperature of (25 °C) on the thermal performance of the TPCT. The results are compared with a simulation model using finite difference method in three dimensional cylindrical coordinates by using FORTRAN. The correlations of the phase change for the TPCT based on the theory of thermal resistance are used in the evaporator and condenser sections. The agreement between theoretical and experimental results is shown to be accurate within 10 %. The results showed that the maximum heat transport ability is associated with using of water and acetone where it is compared with other fluids under the same range of operating temperatures of 35-50 °C. This is the range between lowest and highest temperatures for the sub-tropical climates.

  14. Experimental and Numerical Study of Hydrodynamic Characteristics of Gullies for Buildings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Der-Chang Lo


    Full Text Available The miniaturization of a gully for building drainage system is attempted by installing a streamlined bump in the discharge pipe to maintain the minimum water trap height of 50 mm. The hydrodynamic performances of the air–water flows with or without glass balls through the two types of four-entry gullies with beveled or vertical nozzle flows are experimentally and numerically studied. The images of air–water–solid flow, maximum flow rates, self-purification properties and sustainable water traps subject to static and dynamic loadings are experimentally detected. The predictions of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD unravel the characteristic flow structures to assist the interpretation of experimental results. In this respect, the observed entrained air bubbles and clustered glass balls in each gully correspond favorably to the regions with negative static pressures and weak flow momentums as disclosed by the CFD predictions. The measured ratios between discharged and supplied glass balls are consistently higher for the gully with beveled nozzle flows. The less efficient transportation of glass balls out of the drum for the gully with downward nozzle flow is attributed to the larger pressure gradients with considerable air entrainments. The relaxations of the form and friction drags over the nozzle-tip region and the reductions of air entrainments are essential for upgrading the maximum flow rate and the self-purification performance of a miniaturized gully.

  15. Spatial and temporal features of density-dependent contaminant transport: experimental investigation and numerical modeling. (United States)

    Zoia, Andrea; Latrille, Christelle; Beccantini, Alberto; Cartadale, Alain


    We investigate the spatial and temporal features of variable-density contaminant plumes migration in porous materials. Our analysis is supported by novel experimental results concerning concentration profiles inside a vertical column setup that has been conceived at CEA to this aim. The experimental method relies on X-ray spectrometry, which allows determining solute profiles as a function of time at several positions along the column. The salient outcomes of the measurements are elucidated, with focus on miscible fluids in homogeneous saturated media. The role of the injected solution molarity is evidenced. As molarity increases, the solutes plume transport progressively deviates from the usual Fickian behavior, and pollutants distribution becomes skewed in the direction dictated by gravity. By resorting to a finite elements approach, we numerically solve the nonlinear equations that rule the pollutants migration: a good agreement is found between the simulated profiles and the experimental data. At high molarity, a strong dependence on initial conditions is found. Finally, we qualitatively explore the (unstable) interfacial dynamics between the dense contaminant plume and the lighter resident fluid that saturates the column, and detail its evolution for finite-duration contaminant injections.

  16. Experimental and Numerical Study of Low Temperature Methane Steam Reforming for Hydrogen Production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Khzouz


    Full Text Available Low temperature methane steam reforming for hydrogen production, using experimental developed Ni/Al2O3 catalysts is studied both experimentally and numerically. The catalytic activity measurements were performed at a temperature range of 500–700 °C with steam to carbon ratio (S/C of 2 and 3 under atmospheric pressure conditions. A mathematical analysis to evaluate the reaction feasibility at all different conditions that have been applied by using chemical equilibrium with applications (CEA software and in addition, a mathematical model focused on the kinetics and the thermodynamics of the reforming reaction is introduced and applied using a commercial finite element analysis software (COMSOL Multiphysics 5.0. The experimental results were employed to validate the extracted simulation data based on the yields of the produced H2, CO2 and CO at different temperatures. A maximum hydrogen yield of 2.7 mol/mol-CH4 is achieved at 700 °C and S/C of 2 and 3. The stability of the 10%Ni/Al2O3 catalyst shows that the catalyst is prone to deactivation as supported by Thermogravimetric Analysis TGA results.

  17. Beamforming in a reverberant environment using numerical and experimental steering vector formulations (United States)

    Fischer, J.; Doolan, C.


    The effect of acoustic reflections on beamforming maps and their correction is investigated in this paper. By replacing the usual steering vector expression in the beamforming algorithm with an adapted one, the effect of reflections can be reduced. Two formulations of the steering vectors are considered. The first makes use of an experimental Green's function, which is obtained by measuring simultaneously the signal of a speaker and of a 31-channel acoustic array in a hard-walled test-section. The second formulation is based on the assumption that the reflections can be modeled by a set of monopoles located at the image source positions. This numerical model is first validated by comparing the obtained Green's function with the experimental one. Then, the beamforming algorithm is modified by using the different steering vector formulations. In addition, the deconvolution algorithm Clean-SC has been used and implemented with the different formulations. The best results in terms of location and resolution accuracy were obtained when using the experimental Green's function formulation.

  18. Experimental and numerical analysis of Izod impact test of cortical bone tissue (United States)

    Abdel-Wahab, A. A.; Silberschmidt, V. V.


    Bones can only sustain loads until a certain limit, beyond which they fail. Usually, the reasons for bone fracture are traumatic falls, sports injuries, and engagement in transport or industrial accidents. A proper treatment of bones and prevention of their fracture can be supported by in-depth understanding of deformation and fracture behavior of this tissue in such dynamic events. In this paper, a combination of experimental and numerical analysis was carried out in order to comprehend the fracture behavior of cortical bone tissue. Experimental tests were performed to study the transient dynamic behavior of cortical bone tissue under impact bending loading. The variability of absorbed energy for different cortex positions and notch depths was studied using Izod impact tests. Also, Extended Finite-Element Method implemented into the commercial finite-element software Abaqus was used to simulate the crack initiation and growth processes in a cantilever beam of cortical bone exposed to impact loading using the Izod loading scheme. The simulation results show a good agreement with the experimental data.

  19. Numerical Simulations and Experimental Measurements of Scale-Model Horizontal Axis Hydrokinetic Turbines (HAHT) Arrays (United States)

    Javaherchi, Teymour; Stelzenmuller, Nick; Seydel, Joseph; Aliseda, Alberto


    The performance, turbulent wake evolution and interaction of multiple Horizontal Axis Hydrokinetic Turbines (HAHT) is analyzed in a 45:1 scale model setup. We combine experimental measurements with different RANS-based computational simulations that model the turbines with sliding-mesh, rotating reference frame and blame element theory strategies. The influence of array spacing and Tip Speed Ratio on performance and wake velocity structure is investigated in three different array configurations: Two coaxial turbines at different downstream spacing (5d to 14d), Three coaxial turbines with 5d and 7d downstream spacing, and Three turbines with lateral offset (0.5d) and downstream spacing (5d & 7d). Comparison with experimental measurements provides insights into the dynamics of HAHT arrays, and by extension to closely packed HAWT arrays. The experimental validation process also highlights the influence of the closure model used (k- ω SST and k- ɛ) and the flow Reynolds number (Re=40,000 to 100,000) on the computational predictions of devices' performance and characteristics of the flow field inside the above-mentioned arrays, establishing the strengths and limitations of existing numerical models for use in industrially-relevant settings (computational cost and time). Supported by DOE through the National Northwest Marine Renewable Energy Center (NNMREC).

  20. Experimental and numerical investigation of liquid-metal free-surface flows in spallation targets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Batta, A., E-mail: [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany Hermann-von-Helmholtz-PLATZ 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Class, A.G.; Litfin, K.; Wetzel, Th. [Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Germany Hermann-von-Helmholtz-PLATZ 1, 76344 Eggenstein-Leopoldshafen (Germany); Moreau, V.; Massidda, L. [CRS4 Centre for Advanced Studies, Research and Development in Sardinia, Polaris, Edificio 1, 09010 Pula, CA (Italy); Thomas, S.; Lakehal, D. [ASCOMP GmbH Zurich, Zurich (Switzerland); Angeli, D.; Losi, G. [DIEF – Department of Engineering “Enzo Ferrari”, University of Modena and Reggio Emilia, via Vignolese 905, 41125 Modena (Italy); Mooney, K.G. [University of Massachusetts Amherst, Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering, Amherst (United States); Van Tichelen, K. [SCK-CEN, Belgian Nuclear Research Centre, Boeretang 200, 2400 Mol (Belgium)


    Highlights: • Experimental study of free surface for lead bismuth eutectic target. • Numerical investigation of free surface of a liquid metal target. • Advanced free surface modelling. - Abstract: Accelerator Driven Systems (ADS) are extensively investigated for the transmutation of high-level nuclear waste within many worldwide research programs. The first advanced design of an ADS system is currently developed in SCK• CEN, Mol, Belgium: the Multi-purpose hYbrid Research Reactor for High-tech Applications (MYRRHA). Many European research programs support the design of MYRRHA. In the framework of the Euratom project ‘Thermal Hydraulics of Innovative nuclear Systems (THINS)’ a liquid-metal free-surface experiment is performed at the Karlsruhe Liquid Metal Laboratory (KALLA) of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT). The experiment investigates a full-scale model of the concentric free-surface spallation target of MYRRHA using Lead Bismuth Eutectic (LBE) as coolant. In parallel, numerical free surface models are developed and tested which are reviewed in the article. A volume-of-fluid method, a moving mesh model, a free surface model combining the Level-Set method with Large-Eddy Simulation model and a smoothed-particle hydrodynamics approach are investigated. Verification of the tested models is based on the experimental results obtained within the THINS project and on previous water experiments performed at the University Catholic de Louvain (UCL) within the Euratom project ‘EUROpean Research Programme for the TRANSmutation of High Level Nuclear Waste in Accelerator Driven System (EUROTRANS)’. The design of the target enables a high fluid velocity and a stable surface at the beam entry. The purpose of this paper is to present an overview of both experimental and numerical results obtained for free surface target characterization. Without entering in technical details, the status, the major achievements and lessons for the future with respect to

  1. Direct modeling of coda wave interferometry: comparison of numerical and experimental approaches (United States)

    Azzola, Jérôme; Masson, Frédéric; Schmittbuhl, Jean


    The sensitivity of coda waves to small changes of the propagation medium is the principle of the coda waves interferometry, a technique which has been found to have a large range of applications over the past years. It exploits the evolution of strongly scattered waves in a limited region of space, to estimate slight changes like the wave velocity of the medium but also the location of scatterer positions or the stress field. Because of the sensitivity of the method, it is of a great value for the monitoring of geothermal EGS reservoir in order to detect fine changes. The aim of this work is thus to monitor the impact of different scatterer distributions and of the loading condition evolution using coda wave interferometry in the laboratory and numerically by modelling the scatter wavefield. In the laboratory, we analyze the scattering of an acoustic wave through a perforated loaded plate of DURAL. Indeed, the localized damages introduced behave as a scatter source. Coda wave interferometry is performed computing correlations of waveforms under different loading conditions, for different scatter distributions. Numerically, we used SPECFEM2D (a 2D spectral element code, (Komatitsch and Vilotte (1998)) to perform 2D simulations of acoustic and elastic seismic wave propagation and enables a direct comparison with laboratory and field results. An unstructured mesh is thus used to simulate the propagation of a wavelet in a loaded plate, before and after introduction of localized damages. The linear elastic deformation of the plate is simulated using Code Aster. The coda wave interferometry is performed similarly to experimental measurements. The accuracy of the comparison of the numerically and laboratory obtained results is strongly depending on the capacity to adapt the laboratory and numerical simulation conditions. In laboratory, the capacity to illuminate the medium in a similar way to that used in the numerical simulation deeply conditions among others the

  2. Experimental and numerical study of the fragmentation of expanding warhead casings by using different numerical codes and solution techniques

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John F. Moxnes


    Full Text Available There has been increasing interest in numerical simulations of fragmentation of expanding warheads in 3D. Accordingly there is a pressure on developers of leading commercial codes, such as LS-DYNA, AUTODYN and IMPETUS Afea, to implement the reliable fracture models and the efficient solution techniques. The applicability of the Johnson–Cook strength and fracture model is evaluated by comparing the fracture behaviour of an expanding steel casing of a warhead with experiments. The numerical codes and different numerical solution techniques, such as Eulerian, Lagrangian, Smooth particle hydrodynamics (SPH, and the corpuscular models recently implemented in IMPETUS Afea are compared. For the same solution techniques and material models we find that the codes give similar results. The SPH technique and the corpuscular technique are superior to the Eulerian technique and the Lagrangian technique (with erosion when it is applied to materials that have fluid like behaviour such as the explosive and the tracer. The Eulerian technique gives much larger calculation time and both the Lagrangian and Eulerian techniques seem to give less agreement with our measurements. To more correctly simulate the fracture behaviours of the expanding steel casing, we applied that ductility decreases with strain rate. The phenomena may be explained by the realization of adiabatic shear bands. An implemented node splitting algorithm in IMPETUS Afea seems very promising.

  3. Numerical microstructure prediction for an aluminium casting and its experimental validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Unterreiter Guenter


    Full Text Available Virtual manufacturing based on through-process modelling becomes an evolving research area which aims at integrating diverse simulation tools to realize computer-aided design, analysis, prototyping and manufacturing. Numerical prediction of the as-cast microstructure is an initial and critical step in the whole through-process modelling chain for engineering components. A commercial software package with the capability of calculating important microstructure features for aluminium alloys is used to simulate a G-AlSi7MgCu0.5 laboratory casting. The simulated microstructure, namely grain size, secondary dendrite arm spacing and diverse phase fractions are verified experimentally. Correspondence and discrepancies are reported and discussed.

  4. Experimental and numerical analysis of air and radiant cooling systems in offices

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Corgnati, S. P.; Perino, M.; Fracastoro, G. V.


    This paper analyses office cooling systems based on all air mixing ventilation systems alone or coupled with radiant ceiling panels. This last solution may be effectively applied to retrofit all air systems that are no longer able to maintain a suitable thermal comfort in the indoor environment......, for example in offices with high thermal loads. This study was performed by means of CFD simulations previously validated through an experimental campaign performed in a full scale test room, simulating a typical two-desk office equipped with an all air mixing ventilation system. The numerical studies were...... then extended to the coupled mixing ventilation and cold radiant ceiling panels. In particular, attention was drawn on the evaluation of the main supply jet properties (throw and penetration length) and on the draft risk caused by the cold air drop into the occupied zone. The study shows that such a problem can...

  5. Experimental and numerical study of wave-induced backfilling beneath submarine pipelines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bayraktar, Deniz; Ahmad, Joseph; Eltard-Larsen, Bjarke


    ). The time series of scour depths are closely monitored through video recordings. Systematic analysis of these has resulted in aclosed form expression for the backfilling time scale, which is demonstrated to be a full order of magnitude greater than the well-known time scale of scour (with both governed...... primarily by the Shields parameter).The developed expression is strictly valid for the current-to-wave backfilling scenarios considered, while likely serving as an upper limit for more general wave-induced backfilling circumstances. The experiments are complemented by similar backfilling simulations...... utilizing a fully-coupled hydrodynamic and morphodynamic CFD model. The numerical simulations demonstrate the ability of the model to predict backfilling towards expected equilibrium scour depths based on the new wave climate, with time scales reasonably inline with experimental expectations....

  6. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Termination Impedance Effects in Wireless Power Transfer via Metamaterial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giovanni Puccetti


    Full Text Available This paper presents an investigation of the transmitted power in a wireless power transfer system that employs a metamaterial. Metamaterials are a good means to transfer power wirelessly, as they are composed of multiple inductively-coupled resonators. The system can be designed and matched simply through magneto-inductive wave theory, particularly when the receiver inductor is located at the end of the metamaterial line. However, the power distribution changes significantly in terms of transmitted power, efficiency and frequency if the receiver inductor slides along the line. In this paper, the power distribution and transfer efficiency are analysed, studying the effects of a termination impedance in the last cell of the metamaterial and improving the system performance for the resonant frequency and for any position of the receiver inductor. Furthermore, a numerical characterisation is presented in order to support experimental tests and to predict the performance of a metamaterial composed of spiral inductor cells with very good accuracy.

  7. Cross-Validation of Numerical and Experimental Studies of Transitional Airfoil Performance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frere, Ariane; Hillewaert, Koen; Sarlak, Hamid


    CFD methodologies, in com- bination with wind tunnel experiments. Large-Eddy Simulations (LES) performed with a novel high order code based on the Discontinuous Galerkin Method are compared to LES from the well established wind turbine CFD code EllipSys3D. Both codes are considering natural transition......The aerodynamic performance characteristic of airfoils are the main input for estimating wind turbine blade loading as well as annual energy production of wind farms. For transitional flow regimes these data are difficult to obtain, both experimentally as well as numerically, due to the very high...... sensitivity of the flow to perturbations, large scale separation and performance hysteresis. The objective of this work is to improve the understanding of the transitional airfoil flow performance by studying the S826 NREL airfoil at low Reynolds numbers (Re = 4:104 and 1:105) with two inherently different...

  8. Numerical and experimental study on multi-pass laser bending of AH36 steel strips (United States)

    Fetene, Besufekad N.; Kumar, Vikash; Dixit, Uday S.; Echempati, Raghu


    Laser bending is a process of bending of plates, small sized sheets, strips and tubes, in which a moving or stationary laser beam heats the workpiece to achieve the desired curvature due to thermal stresses. Researchers studied the effects of different process parameters related to the laser source, material and workpiece geometry on laser bending of metal sheets. The studies are focused on large sized sheets. The workpiece geometry parameters like sheet thickness, length and width also affect the bend angle considerably. In this work, the effects of width and thickness on multi-pass laser bending of AH36 steel strips were studied experimentally and numerically. Finite element model using ABAQUS® was developed to investigate the size effect on the prediction of the bend angle. Microhardness and flexure tests showed an increase in the flexural strength as well as microhardness in the scanned zone. The microstructures of the bent strips also supported the physical observations.

  9. Weakly swirling flow in a model of blood vessel with stenosis: Numerical and experimental study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yakov A. Gataulin


    Full Text Available Investigation of weakly swirling flow in a model of a blood vessel with asymmetrical stenosis has been performed using both experimental flow measurement techniques (ultrasound Doppler and computational fluid dynamics methods. A special attention is paid to getting data for the length of the reverse-flow zone occurring past the stenosis. It has been established that the laminar steady-state flow model is acceptable for numerical analysis of flow past the given-geometry stenosis at Reynolds number values less than 300. At higher values of this parameter, application of the semi-empirical k-ω SST turbulence model is preferable. It has been shown that flow swirl can lead to an increase of the reverse-flow zone.

  10. Experimental and Numerical Studies of Solar Chimney for Ventilation in Low Energy Buildings

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zha, Xinyu; Zhang, Jun; Qin, Menghao


    As an effective way to protect environment and save energy in buildings, passive ventilation method has generated intense interest for improving indoor thermal environment in recent years. Among these passive ventilation solutions, design of solar chimney in buildings is a promising approach...... the performance of a full-scale solar chimney in a real building in East-ern China. The measured performance is compared with theoretical calculation and numerical simulation. In a solar chimney of 6.2m length, 2.8m width and 0.35m air gap, the experimental results show that air flow rate of 70.6 m3/h~1887.6 m3/h...... can be achieved during the daytime in the testing day. Comparing measured value with theoretical value, the flow rate is generally lower than the theoretical value. By data analysis, the suggested discharge coefficient Cd of solar energy in real engineering project is 0.51. With the use...

  11. A Numerical Method of Large-Scale Concrete Displacing Boom Dynamic and Experimental Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wu Ren


    Full Text Available Concrete displacing boom is large-scale motion manipulator. During the long distance pouring the postures needs to frequently change. This makes the real-time dynamic analysis and health monitoring difficult. Virtual spring-damper method is adopted to establish the equivalent hydraulic actuator model. Besides boom cylinder joint clearance is taken into account. Then transfer matrix method is used to build the multibody concrete placing boom model by dividing the system into two substructures. Next typical working conditions displacements and accelerations during the pouring process are studied. The results of the numerical method are correct and feasible compared with Recurdyn software and the experimental ones. So it provides reference to the real-time monitoring and structure design for such light weight large scale motion manipulators.

  12. Turbine blade boundary layer separation suppression via synthetic jet: An experimental and numerical study (United States)

    Bernardini, C.; Carnevale, M.; Manna, M.; Martelli, F.; Simoni, D.; Zunino, P.


    The present paper focuses on the analysis of a synthetic jet device (with a zero net massflow rate) on a separated boundary layer. Separation has been obtained on a flat plate installed within a converging-diverging test section specifically designed to attain a local velocity distribution typical of a high-lift LPT blade. Both experimental and numerical investigations have been carried out. Unsteady RANS results have been compared with experiments in terms of time-averaged velocity and turbulence intensity distributions. Two different Reynolds number cases have been investigated, namely Re = 200, 000 and Re = 70, 000, which characterize low-pressure turbine operating conditions during take-off/landing and cruise. A range of synthetic jet aerodynamic parameters (Strouhal number and blowing ratio) has been tested in order to analyze the features of control — separated boundary layer interaction for the aforementioned Reynolds numbers.

  13. Numerical and experimental evaluation of a compact sensor antenna for healthcare devices. (United States)

    Alomainy, A; Yang Hao; Pasveer, F


    The paper presents a compact planar antenna designed for wireless sensors intended for healthcare applications. Antenna performance is investigated with regards to various parameters governing the overall sensor operation. The study illustrates the importance of including full sensor details in determining and analysing the antenna performance. A globally optimized sensor antenna shows an increase in antenna gain by 2.8 dB and 29% higher radiation efficiency in comparison to a conventional printed strip antenna. The wearable sensor performance is demonstrated and effects on antenna radiated power, efficiency and front to back ratio of radiated energy are investigated both numerically and experimentally. Propagation characteristics of the body-worn sensor to on-body and off-body base units are also studied. It is demonstrated that the improved sensor antenna has an increase in transmitted and received power, consequently sensor coverage range is extended by approximately 25%.

  14. Numerical investigation and experimental validation of physically based advanced GTN model for DP steels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fansi, Joseph, E-mail: [University of Liège, Departement ArGEnCo, Division MS2F, Chemin des Chevreuils 1, Liège 4000 (Belgium); Arts et Métiers ParisTech, LEM3, UMR CNRS 7239, 4 rue A. Fresnel, 57078 Metz cedex 03 (France); ArcelorMittal R and D Global Maizières S.A., voie Romaine, Maizières-Lès-Metz 57238 (France); Balan, Tudor [Arts et Métiers ParisTech, LEM3, UMR CNRS 7239, 4 rue A. Fresnel, 57078 Metz cedex 03 (France); Lemoine, Xavier [Arts et Métiers ParisTech, LEM3, UMR CNRS 7239, 4 rue A. Fresnel, 57078 Metz cedex 03 (France); ArcelorMittal R and D Global Maizières S.A., voie Romaine, Maizières-Lès-Metz 57238 (France); Maire, Eric; Landron, Caroline [INSA de Lyon, MATEIS CNRS UMR5510, 7 Avenue Jean Capelle, Villeurbanne 69621 (France); Bouaziz, Olivier [ArcelorMittal R and D Global Maizières S.A., voie Romaine, Maizières-Lès-Metz 57238 (France); Ecole des Mines de Paris, Centre des Matériaux, CNRS UMR 7633, BP 87, Evry Cedex 91003 (France); Ben Bettaieb, Mohamed [Ensicaen, 6 Boulevard du Maréchal Juin, 14050 CAEN Cedex 4 (France); Marie Habraken, Anne [University of Liège, Departement ArGEnCo, Division MS2F, Chemin des Chevreuils 1, Liège 4000 (Belgium)


    This numerical investigation of an advanced Gurson–Tvergaard–Needleman (GTN) model is an extension of the original work of Ben Bettaiebet al. (2011 [18]). The model has been implemented as a user-defined material model subroutine (VUMAT) in the Abaqus/explicit FE code. The current damage model extends the previous version by integrating the three damage mechanisms: nucleation, growth and coalescence of voids. Physically based void nucleation and growth laws are considered, including an effect of the kinematic hardening. These new contributions are based and validated on experimental results provided by high-resolution X-ray absorption tomography measurements. The current damage model is applied to predict the damage evolution and the stress state in a tensile notched specimen experiment.

  15. Experimental and numerical investigation of sprays in two stroke diesel Engines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dam, Bjarke Skovgård


    The control of the injected spray is important when optimizing performance and reducing emissions from diesel engines. The research community has conducted extensive research especially on smaller four stroke engines, but so far only little has been done on sprays in large two stroke engines...... have different scales and other designs than those used in the literature, so extending results from the literature will require experiments on this particular type of setup. Numerical investigations of diesel sprays are performed using the Eulerian/Lagrangian engine CFD code Kiva. In agreement...... and an injection system identical to those of large two stroke diesel engines. Specially designed single hole nozzles enables in nozzle pressure measurements. A number of experimental methods are successfully tested, including a high speed imaging system using reflected light, a low cost shadowgraph system...

  16. Failure of uniformly compression loaded debond damaged sandwich panels — An experimental and numerical study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Moslemian, Ramin; Quispitupa, Amilcar; Berggreen, Christian


    This paper deals with the failure of compression-loaded sandwich panels with an implanted circular face/core debond. Uniform compression tests were conducted on intact sandwich panels with three different types of core material (H130, H250 and PMI) and on similar panels with circular face....../core debonds having three different diameters. The strains and out-of-plane displacements of the panel surface were monitored using the digital image correlation technique. Mixed mode bending tests were conducted to determine the fracture toughness of the face/core interface of the panels. Finite element...... analysis and linear elastic fracture mechanics were employed to determine the critical buckling load and compression strength of the panels. Modeling approaches and failure criteria are discussed. Numerically determined crack propagation loads in most of the cases show a fair agreement with experimental...

  17. Experimental and numerical response of rigid slender blocks with geometrical defects under seismic excitation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathey Charlie


    Full Text Available The present work investigates on the influence of small geometrical defects on the behavior of slender rigid blocks. A comprehensive experimental campaign was carried out on one of the shake tables of CEA/Saclay in France. The tested model was a massive steel block with standard manufacturing quality. Release, free oscillations tests as well as shake table tests revealed a non-negligible out-of-plane motion even in the case of apparently plane initial conditions or excitations. This motion exhibits a highly reproducible part for a short duration that was used to calibrate a numerical geometrically asymmetrical model. The stability of this model when subjected to 2 000 artificial seismic horizontal bidirectional signals was compared to the stability of a symmetrical one. This study showed that the geometrical imperfections slightly increase the rocking and overturning probabilities under bidirectional seismic excitations in a narrow range of peak ground acceleration.

  18. Experimental and Numerical Study on Single-Bolted Cold-Formed Angles under Tension and Compression

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zacharias C. Fasoulakis


    Full Text Available Angle sections are commonly designed to bear only axial force, usually neglecting the additional bending moments resulting from the eccentric connection and the shift of the effective centroid. The current work deals with the capacity of single-bolted equal angle sections made from cold-formed steel. The experimental investigation presented herein includes tension and compression tests that subsequently are compared with the corresponding code provisions. Numerical analyses are also presented based on a detailed finite element simulation. Finally, a reliability analysis is implemented in order to demonstrate the reliability of the design rules for cold-formed steel angle columns. Results indicate a small discrepancy on the strength prediction in general by EN 1993-1-3, as well as by the AISI for slender columns and a more conservative one by EN 1993-1-1. A comparison of the above results is clearly illustrated herein in graphical forms.

  19. Experimental and numerical analysis of convective heat losses from spherical cavity receiver of solar concentrator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shewale Vinod C.


    Full Text Available Spherical cavity receiver of solar concentrator is made up of Cu tubing material having cavity diameter 385 mm to analyze the different heat losses such as conduction, convection and radiation. As the convection loss plays major role in heat loss analysis of cavity receiver, the experimental analysis is carried out to study convective heat loss for the temperature range of 55-75°C at 0°, 15°, 30°, 45°, 60°, and 90° inclination angle of downward facing cavity receiver. The numerical analysis is carried out to study convective heat loss for the low temperature range (55-75°C as well as high temperature range (150-300 °C for no wind condition only. The experimental set-up mainly consists of spherical cavity receiver which is insulated with glass wool insulation to reduce the heat losses from outside surface. The numerical analysis is carried out by using CFD software and the results are compared with the experimental results and found good agreement. The result shows that the convective loss increases with decrease in cavity inclination angle and decreases with decrease in mean cavity receiver temperature. The maximum losses are obtained at 0° inclination angle and the minimum losses are obtained at 90° inclination angle of cavity due to increase in stagnation zone in to the cavity from 0° to 90° inclination. The Nusselt number correlation is developed for the low temperature range 55-75°C based on the experimental data. The analysis is also carried out to study the effect of wind speed and wind direction on convective heat losses. The convective heat losses are studied for two wind speeds (3 m/s and 5 m/s and four wind directions [α is 0° (Side-on wind, 30°, 60°, and 90° (head-on wind]. It is found that the convective heat losses for both wind speed are higher than the losses obtained by no wind test. The highest heat losses are found for wind direction α is 60° with respect to receiver stand and lowest heat losses are found

  20. Formation of shrinkage porosity during solidification of steel: Numerical simulation and experimental validation (United States)

    Riedler, M.; Michelic, S.; Bernhard, C.


    The phase transformations in solidification of steel are accompanied by shrinkage and sudden changes in the solubility of alloying elements, resulting in negative side effects as micro- and macrosegregation and the formation of gas and shrinkage porosities. This paper deals with the numerical and experimental simulation of the formation of shrinkage porosity during the solidification of steel. First the physical basics for the mechanism of shrinkage pore formation will be discussed. The main reason for this type of porosity is the restraint of fluid flow in the mushy zone which leads to a pressure drop. The pressure decreases from the dendrite tip to the root. When the pressure falls below a critical value, a pore can form. The second part of the paper deals with different approaches for the prediction of the formation of shrinkage porosity. The most common one according to these models is the usage of a simple criterion function, like the Niyama criterion. For the computation of the porosity criterion the thermal gradient, cooling rate and solidification rate must be known, easily to determine from numerical simulation. More complex simulation tools like ProCAST include higher sophisticated models, which allow further calculations of the shrinkage cavity. Finally, the different approaches will be applied to a benchmark laboratory experiment. The presented results deal with an ingot casting experiment under variation of taper. The dominant influence of mould taper on the formation of shrinkage porosities can both be demonstrated by the lab experiment as well as numerical simulations. These results serve for the optimization of all ingot layouts for lab castings at the Chair of Ferrous Metallurgy.

  1. Comparative analysis of results from experimental and numerical studies on concrete strength

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mkrtychev Oleg


    Full Text Available Some results of numerical experiments of testing concrete cubes and prisms on unconfined compression, and the comparison of results obtained with experimental and specified data, are presented in the article. When performing calculations of structures in a nonlinear setting, it is very important to choose adequate deformation diagrams or material models. Because of the fact that there are no instructions how to use the diagrams of concrete and armature deformation in collaboration of steel and concrete, the simulation of reinforced concrete structures by finite elements of the same type without any assumptions is impossible. Numerical experiments have been performed in the LS-DYNA software package. This software package allows simulating the collaboration of concrete and steeling with the help of three-dimensional (for concrete and rod (for the reinforcement finite elements. As samples, a cube and a prism with dimensions of 150×150×150 mm and 150×150×600 mm, respectively, have been taken. The samples are simulated by solid finite elements. For the simulation of concrete, the non-linear CSCM (Continuous Surface Cap Model material is used. The tests were carried out with samples of the following classes of concrete as for cylinder compressive strength: C12, C16, C20, C25, C30, C35. This corresponds to the following classes of cube compression strength: B15, B20, B25, B30, B37, B45. The tests have been carried out considering the friction coefficients between the plates of a testing machine, and a sample. The performed researches have shown that the destruction nature of the samples in a numerical experiment corresponds to the failure nature in real tests. The investigated model of CSCM concrete can be used in the calculation of concrete and reinforced concrete structures with acceptable accuracy for main classes of concrete.

  2. Experimental and numerical investigation of liquid jet impingement on superhydrophobic and hydrophobic convex surfaces (United States)

    Kibar, Ali


    Experiments and numerical simulations were carried out to examine the vertical impingement a round liquid jet on the edges of horizontal convex surfaces that were either superhydrophobic or hydrophobic. The experiments examine the effects on the flow behaviour of curvature, wettability, inertia of the jet, and the impingement rate. Three copper pipes with outer diameters of 15, 22, and 35 mm were investigated. The pipes were wrapped with a piece of a Brassica oleracea leaf or a smooth Teflon sheet, which have apparent contact angles of 160° and 113°. The Reynolds number ranged from 1000 to 4500, and the impingement rates of the liquid jets were varied. Numerical results show good agreement with the experimental results for explaining flow and provide detailed information about the impingement on the surfaces. The liquid jet reflected off the superhydrophobic surfaces for all conditions. However, the jet reflected or deflected off the hydrophobic surface, depending on the inertia of the jet, the curvature of the surface, and the impingement rate. The results suggest that pressure is not the main reason for the bending of the jet around the curved hydrophobic surface.

  3. Confined wetting of FoCa clay powder/pellet mixtures: Experimentation and numerical modeling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maugis, P. [Commissariat Energie Atom, DMT, MTMS, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, (France); Imbert, C. [Commissariat Energie Atom, DPC, SCCME, F-91191 Gif Sur Yvette, (France)


    Potential geological nuclear waste disposals must be properly sealed to prevent contamination of the biosphere by radionuclides. In the framework of the RESEAL project, the performance of a bentonite shaft seal is currently studied at Mol (Belgium). This paper focuses on the hydro-mechanical physical behavior of centimetric, unsaturated samples of the backfilling material - a mixture of FoCa-clay powder and pellets - during odometer tests. The hydro-mechanical response of the samples is observed experimentally, and then compared to numerical simulations performed by our Cast3M Finite Element code. The generalized Darcy's law and the Barcelona Basic Model mechanical model formed the physical basis of the numerical model and the interpretation. They are widely used in engineered barriers modeling. Vertical swelling pressure and water intake were measured throughout the test. Although water income presents a monotonous increase, the swelling pressure evolution is marked by a peak, and then a local minimum before increasing again to an asymptotic value. This unexpected behavior is explained by yielding rather than by heterogeneity. It is satisfactorily reproduced by the model after parameter calibration. Several samples with different heights ranging from 5 to 12 cm show the same hydro-mechanical response, apart from a dilatation of the time scale. The interest of the characterization of centimetric samples to predicting the efficiency of a metric sealing is discussed. (authors)

  4. Experimental and Numerical Studies of Controlling Thermal Cracks in Mass Concrete Foundation by Circulating Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wenchao Liu


    Full Text Available This paper summarizes an engineering experience of solving the problem of thermal cracking in mass concrete by using a large project, Zhongguancun No.1 (Beijing, China, as an example. A new method is presented for controlling temperature cracks in the mass concrete of a foundation. The method involves controlled cycles of water circulating between the surface of mass concrete foundation and the atmospheric environment. The temperature gradient between the surface and the core of the mass concrete is controlled at a relatively stable state. Water collected from the well-points used for dewatering and from rainfall is used as the source for circulating water. Mass concrete of a foundation slab is experimentally investigated through field temperature monitoring. Numerical analyses are performed by developing a finite element model of the foundation with and without water circulation. The calculation parameters are proposed based on the experiment, and finite element analysis software MIDAS/CIVIL is used to calculate the 3D temperature field of the mass concrete during the entire process of heat of hydration. The numerical results are in good agreement with the measured results. The proposed method provides an alternative practical basis for preventing thermal cracks in mass concrete.

  5. Experimental and numerical study of Bondura® 6.6 PIN joints (United States)

    Berkani, I.; Karlsen, Ø.; Lemu, H. G.


    Pin joints are widely used in heavy-duty machinery such as aircrafts, cranes and offshore drilling equipment to transfer multi-dimensional shear forces. Their strength and service life depend on the clamping force in the contact region that is provided by interference fits. Though the interference fits provide full contact at the pin-hole interface under pretension loads, the contact interface reduces when the pin is subjected to an external load and hence a smaller contact surface leads to dramatic increase of the contact stress. The PIN joint of Bondura® Technology, investigated in this study, is an innovative solution intended to reduce the slack at the contact surface of the pin joint of heavy-duty machinery by using tapered sleeves on each end of the PIN. The study is aimed to better understand the contact pressure build-up and stress distribution in the supporting contact surface under pre-loading of the joint and the influence of temperature difference between part assembly and operation conditions. Numerical simulation using finite element method and diverse experimental tests were conducted. The numerical simulation and the test results, particularly the tests conducted with lubricated joints, show good conformance.

  6. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of Forced Convection in a Double Skin Façade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tuğba İnan


    Full Text Available Flow and heat transfer of the air cavity between two glass façades designed in the box window type of double skin façade (DSF was evaluated in a test room which was set up for measurements in the laboratory environment and analyzed under different working conditions by using a computational fluid dynamics tool. Using data from the experimental studies, the verification of the numerical studies was conducted and the air flow and heat transfer in the cavity between the two glass façades were examined numerically in detail. The depth to height of the cavity, the aspect ratio, was changed between 0.10 and 0.16, and was studied for three different flow velocities. Reynolds and average Nusselt numbers ranging from 28,000 to 56,500 and 134 to 272, respectively, were calculated and a non-dimensional correlation between Reynolds and Nusselt numbers was constructed to evaluate the heat transfer from the cavity (except inlet and outlet sections air to the inside environment and it could be used the box window type of DSF applications having relatively short cavities.

  7. Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Near-Field Mixing in Parallel Dual Round Jets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xie Zheng


    Full Text Available Parallel underexpanded round jets system has been widely used in engineering applications, and the flow field structures are very complex because of the jets interaction. In this paper, we studied the near-field mixing phenomenon in parallel dual underexpanded jets numerically by solving the Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes Equations. The numerical results agree well with experimental data acquired by particle image velocimetry. Similar to plane jets, to some degree, two round jets are deflected towards the dual nozzle symmetry plane; the flow field can also be divided into three regions. Meanwhile, attempts have been made to predict merge point and combine point locations on certain cross profile of computational domain by correlating them with jet spacing and jet pressure ratio. The jet spacing plays an important role in jets interaction, and jet interaction decreases with the increase in jet spacing. The jets interaction in terms of merge (combine point and pressure varies significantly while the jet spacing differs. Additionally, as pressure ratio increases, the effect of jet interaction decreases, and the merge (combine point location moves downstream.

  8. Residual stresses and deformation in dissimilar girth welds: numerical simulations and experimental verifications

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pasquale, P.; Burget, W.; Pfeiffer, W. [Fraunhofer-Institut fuer Werkstoffmechanik (IWM), Freiburg im Breisgau (Germany)


    Weld fabrication of dissimilar girth welds made of the austenitic steel X3 CrNiMoN 17-13, the ferritic 9% Cr-steel X10 CrMoVNb 9-1 and a Ni-weld metal was simulated numerically based on the application of the program system SYSWELD+. A three-dimensional (3D) and an axisymmetrical finite element model of the girth weld were established. According to the real dissimilar weld the model is divided into three different material zones, the austenitic, the ferritic and the Ni-weld metal zone neglecting the heat-affected zone in the ferritic base metal. The results obtained in this study are presented in terms of temperature distributions during welding and just after welding. The residual stresses calculated for the dissimilar girth welds are shown both for the axial and the circumferential orientations. The calculated residual stress distributions are compared to residual stresses measured by X-ray diffraction. It is shown that the calculated residual stresses are in good agreement with the residual stresses determined experimentally. Residual stress distributions in dissimilar girth welds are discussed on the basis of variable weld fabrication conditions and different boundary conditions selected for the numerical calculations. (orig.)

  9. Numerical simulation and experimental validation of arc welding of DMR-249A steel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rishi Pamnani


    Full Text Available The thermo-mechanical attributes of DMR-249A steel weld joints manufactured by shielded metal arc welding (SMAW and activated gas tungsten arc welding (A-GTAW processes were studied using Finite Element Model (FEM simulation. The thermal gradients and residual stresses were analyzed with SYSWELD software using double ellipsoidal heat source distribution model. The numerically estimated temperature distribution was validated with online temperature measurements using thermocouples. The predicted residual stresses profile across the weld joints was compared with the values experimentally measured using non-destructive techniques. The measured and predicted thermal cycles and residual stress profile was observed to be comparable. The residual stress developed in double sided A-GTAW joint were marginally higher in comparison to five pass SMAW joint due to phase transformation associated with high heat input per weld pass for A-GTAW process. The present investigations suggest the applicability of numerical modeling as an effective approach for predicting the thermo-mechanical properties influenced by welding techniques for DMR-249A steel weld joints. The tensile, impact and micro-hardness tests were carried to compare the welds. Considering benefits of high productivity and savings of labor and cost associated with A-GTAW compared to SMAW process, the minor variation in residual stress build up of A-GTAW joint can be neglected to develop A-GTAW as qualified alternative welding technique for DMR-249A steel.

  10. Numerical simulation and experimental research of a flexible caudal fin by piezoelectric fiber composite

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuan-Lin Guan


    Full Text Available A flexible caudal fin made of the macro fiber composites and the carbon fiber orthotropic composite was investigated by the numerical simulations and the experiments. First, a three-dimensional numerical simulation procedure was adopted to research the torsion propulsion mode of the caudal fin and the impact of the water for the structural torsion frequency of the caudal fin. Then, a two-dimensional unsteady fluid computational method was used to analyze the hydrodynamic performance with the periodic swing of the caudal fin on the torsion mode. Based on the simulation results, the flow field was demonstrated and discussed. The interaction between the caudal fin and the water was explained. Finally, the laser vibrometer system was built to verify the torsion propulsion mode. Meanwhile, the application of the caudal fin was realized on the torsion propulsion, and the measured system was established to demonstrate the performance of the caudal fin. The established simulation procedures and experimental methods in this study may provide guidance to the fins made of the composite materials during the structural design and the investigation of the flow field characteristics with the movement of the fins.

  11. Numerical and experimental research on pentagonal cross-section of the averaging Pitot tube (United States)

    Zhang, Jili; Li, Wei; Liang, Ruobing; Zhao, Tianyi; Liu, Yacheng; Liu, Mingsheng


    Averaging Pitot tubes have been widely used in many fields because of their simple structure and stable performance. This paper introduces a new shape of the cross-section of an averaging Pitot tube. Firstly, the structure of the averaging Pitot tube and the distribution of pressure taps are given. Then, a mathematical model of the airflow around it is formulated. After that, a series of numerical simulations are carried out to optimize the geometry of the tube. The distribution of the streamline and pressures around the tube are given. To test its performance, a test platform was constructed in accordance with the relevant national standards and is described in this paper. Curves are provided, linking the values of flow coefficient with the values of Reynolds number. With a maximum deviation of only  ±3%, the results of the flow coefficient obtained from the numerical simulations were in agreement with those obtained from experimental methods. The proposed tube has a stable flow coefficient and favorable metrological characteristics.

  12. An Experimental and Numerical Study on Embedded Rebar Diameter in Concrete Using Ground Penetrating Radar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md Istiaque Hasan


    Full Text Available High frequency ground penetrating radar (GPR has been widely used to detect and locate rebars in concrete. In this paper, a method of estimating the diameter of steel rebars in concrete with GPR is investigated. The relationship between the maximum normalized positive GPR amplitude from embedded rebars and the rebar diameter was established. Concrete samples with rebars of different diameters were cast and the maximum normalized amplitudes were recorded using a 2.6 GHz GPR antenna. Numerical models using GPRMAX software were developed and verified with the experimental data. The numerical models were then used to investigate the effect of dielectric constant of concrete and concrete cover on the maximum normalized amplitude. The results showed that there is an approximate linear relationship between the rebar diameter and the maximum GPR normalized amplitude. The developed models can be conveniently used to estimate the embedded rebar diameters in existing concrete with GPR scanning; if the concrete is homogeneous, the cover depth is known and the concrete dielectric constant is also known. The models will be highly beneficial in forensic investigations of existing concrete structures with unknown rebar sizes and locations.

  13. Numerical and experimental study of the thermal stress of silicon induced by a millisecond laser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Xi; Qin Yuan; Wang Bin; Zhang Liang; Shen Zhonghua; Lu Jian; Ni Xiaowu


    A spatial axisymmetric finite element model of single-crystal silicon irradiated by a 1064 nm millisecond laser is used to investigate the thermal stress damage induced by a millisecond laser. The transient temperature field and the thermal stress field for 2 ms laser irradiation with a laser fluence of 254 J/cm{sup 2} are obtained. The numerical simulation results indicate that the hoop stresses along the r axis on the front surface are compressive stress within the laser spot and convert to tensile stress outside the laser spot, while the radial stresses along the r axis on the front surface and on the z axis are compressive stress. The temperature of the irradiated center is the highest temperature obtained, yet the stress is not always highest during laser irradiation. At the end of the laser irradiation, the maximal hoop stress is located at r=0.5 mm and the maximal radial stress is located at r=0.76 mm. The temperature measurement experiments are performed by IR pyrometer. The numerical result of the temperature field is consistent with the experimental result. The damage morphologies of silicon under the action of a 254 J/cm{sup 2} laser are inspected by optical microscope. The cracks are observed initiating at r=0.5 mm and extending along the radial direction.

  14. Experimental and numerical investigation of cracking behavior of cortical bone in cutting. (United States)

    Alam, K


    Bone cutting is a well-known surgical procedure in orthopaedics and dentistry for fracture treatment and reconstruction. Common complications associated with the process are mechanical damage linked with excessive levels of penetration force. Larger forces may produce minor cracks in bone which may seriously affect strength of fixation and may delay the healing process. This paper investigates cracking behavior in the microstructure of cortical bone in cutting using experimental and numerical techniques. Experiments were performed on cortical bone to study the mechanics of crack propagation and evaluate the extent of crack with the drilling force and amount of penetration. Finite element (FE) simulations were performed to visualize the extension and arrest of the cracks in bone microstructure. The length of crack was found to be strongly influenced by the drilling force and amount of drill penetration. Osteon were seen to deflect the cracks at their boundaries. Crack propagation in bone microstructure was observed to depend on anatomical direction. Numerical simulations predicted the direction of crack propagation and found osteon boundaries to act as barrier to the cracks. Lower drilling force may be used in cutting the bone to avoid cracks in the bone tissue. A detailed FE model based on fracture data of cortical bone is to be produced to simulate cracking of bone microstructure.

  15. Numerical and Experimental Studies of Transient Natural Convection with Density Inversion (United States)

    Mizutani, Satoru; Ishiguro, Tatsuji; Kuwahara, Kunio


    In beer manufacturing process, we cool beer in storage tank down from 8 to -1 ^circC. The understanding of cooling process is very important for designing a fermentation tank. In this paper, flow and temperature distribution in a rectangular enclosure was studied. The unsteady incompressible Navier-Stokes equations were integrated by using the multi-directional third-order upwind finite difference method(MUFDM). A parabolic density-temperature relationship was assumed in water which has the maximum density at 3.98 ^circC. Cooling down from 8 to 0 ^circC of water in 10 cm cubical enclosure (Ra=10^7) was numerically done by keeping a vertical side wall at 0 ^circC. Vortex was caused by density inversion of water which was cooled bellow 4 ^circC, and it rose near the cold wall and reached water surface after 33 min from the start of cooling. Finally, cooling proceeded from upper surface. At the aim of verifing the accuracy of the numerical result, temperature distribution under the same condition was experimentally visualized using temperature sensitive liquid crystal. The results will be presented by using video movie. Comparison between the computation and the experiment showed that the present direct simulation based on the MUFDM was powerful tool for the understanding of the natural convection with density inversion and the application of cooling phenomenon to the design of beer storage tanks.

  16. Numerical and experimental investigation of dielectric recovery in supercritical N2 (United States)

    Zhang, J.; Markosyan, A. H.; Seeger, M.; van Veldhuizen, E. M.; van Heesch, E. J. M.; Ebert, U.


    A supercritical (SC) nitrogen (N2) switch is designed and tested. The dielectric strength and recovery rate of the SC switch are investigated by experiments. In order to theoretically study the discharge and recovery process of the SC N2 switch under high repetition rate operation, a numerical model is developed. For SC N2 with initial parameters of p = 80.9 bar and T = 300 K, the simulation results show that within several nanoseconds after the streamer bridges the switch gap, the spark is fully developed and this time depends on the applied electric field between electrodes. During the whole discharge process, the maximum temperature in the channel is about 20 000 K. About 10 µs after the spark excitation of 200 ns duration, the temperature on the axis decays to Taxis ⩽ 1500 K, mainly contributed by the gas expansion and heat transfer mechanisms. After 100 µs, the dielectric strength of the gap recovers to above half of the cold breakdown voltage due to the temperature decay in the channel. Both experimental and numerical investigations indicate that supercritical fluid is a good insulating medium that has a proved high breakdown voltage and fast recovery speed.

  17. Numerical and experimental investigation on novel systems for harvesting tidal current energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coiro, D.P. [Naples Univ., Naples (Italy). Dept. of Aerospace Engineering


    Theoretical and experimental tidal current energy investigations currently being conducted at an aerospace engineering department in Italy were presented. The department has set up a test site to harness marine and river current energy in the Messina Strait. A vertical axis hydro turbine developed by the department has been installed at the site. This presentation provided details of unsteady viscous numerical studies conducted to examine flow curvature effects on the turbine's airfoils and rotor design. Numerical studies were also conducted to develop a new generator and optimize the hydrodynamic efficiency of the turbine's rotor. The use of flow increasers to double output power was also examined. The aim of the study was to prove that the vertical axis turbine is capable of reaching the same efficiency levels as horizontal axis turbines. The department is also designing a 300 kW horizontal axis turbine that operates as an underwater ocean kite anchored at the bottom with a winched chain. Details of studies conducted to measure rotational speed, rotor torque, and thrust were presented, as well as details of tests performed at various depths and velocities in order to obtain cavitation numbers for the full-scale turbine. Details of computational fluid dynamics (CFD) studies of the turbine modelled as an actuator disk were also included. tabs., figs.

  18. Experimental and numerical study for seawater intrusion remediation in heterogeneous coastal aquifer. (United States)

    Ahmed, Abdelkader T


    The contamination of fresh groundwater by saltwater intrusion (SWI) becomes a worldwide alarming problem, which threatens all countries depending on groundwater abstraction from coastal areas. Various control and treatment strategies have been suggested to prevent SWI. The construction of subsurface physical barriers is one of the most practical implementation methods to prevent SWI. In this work, the use of subsurface dam as a remediation and protection tool was investigated in a heterogeneous aquifer via lab scale experiments and numerical simulation. The experiments depended on a novel automated imaged analysis method for SWI measurements. Glass beads of different grain sizes were used in sandbox experiments. The simulation works adopted the SEAWAT code for validation of the experimental results and making numerical sensitivity analyses for affecting parameters. Results proved the significant impact of using sub water dams with heterogonous aquifers. The remediation impacts of the dam was captured clearly in preventing and backwashing of the existed SWI. The results revealed also that the heterogeneous aquifers with high permeability in the bottom boundary behave closer to the homogenous aquifers in SWI than those having low hydraulic conductivity in the bottom. Sensitivity analyses results showed that the closer dam to seawater boundary led to the quicker and more effective backwashing process. Results exhibited also that the dam height with 50% of the aquifer dam has the ability to hold the seawater so long as the hydraulic gradient is high and dams with 67% of aquifer height prevent the saltwater intrusion completely. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Numerical and experimental study on the thermal shock strength of Tungsten by laser irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dai Zhijun [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan); Department of Engineering Mechanics, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai 200240 (China)], E-mail:; Mutoh, Yoshiharu [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan); Sujatanond, Supamard [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Nagaoka University of Technology, Nagaoka, Niigata 940-2188 (Japan); Department of Industrial Engineering, Thammasat University, Pathum-thani 12120 (Thailand)


    The purpose of this paper is to investigate the thermal shock property of Tungsten through finite element method and laser irradiation experiments. A finite element model is developed to simulate the thermal shock behavior of Tungsten irradiated by a laser beam. An axis-symmetric model is adopted to perform the numerical simulation with the finite element code ABAQUS. The element removal and reactivation methods are used to simulate the melting and solidification processes, where the latent heat of Tungsten is introduced to consider the additional heat due to phase change. Distributions of the radial and circumferential stresses are discussed in detail. In addition, a three dimensional finite element model is also developed to calculate the value of K{sub I}. Variations of K{sub I} at the tip points of a radial crack with time in the cooling process are obtained. The critical power density curves are presented by taking the tensile strength criterion. Finally the thermal shock experiments are performed. Good agreements between the numerical solutions and the experimental results are achieved. It is concluded that the critical power density curves can be a measure to evaluate the thermal shock strength of Tungsten.

  20. Novel permanent magnet linear motor with isolated movers: analytical, numerical and experimental study. (United States)

    Yan, Liang; Peng, Juanjuan; Jiao, Zongxia; Chen, Chin-Yin; Chen, I-Ming


    This paper proposes a novel permanent magnet linear motor possessing two movers and one stator. The two movers are isolated and can interact with the stator poles to generate independent forces and motions. Compared with conventional multiple motor driving system, it helps to increase the system compactness, and thus improve the power density and working efficiency. The magnetic field distribution is obtained by using equivalent magnetic circuit method. Following that, the formulation of force output considering armature reaction is carried out. Then inductances are analyzed with finite element method to investigate the relationships of the two movers. It is found that the mutual-inductances are nearly equal to zero, and thus the interaction between the two movers is negligible. A research prototype of the linear motor and a measurement apparatus on thrust force have been developed. Both numerical computation and experiment measurement are conducted to validate the analytical model of thrust force. Comparison shows that the analytical model matches the numerical and experimental results well.

  1. Novel permanent magnet linear motor with isolated movers: Analytical, numerical and experimental study (United States)

    Yan, Liang; Peng, Juanjuan; Jiao, Zongxia; Chen, Chin-Yin; Chen, I.-Ming


    This paper proposes a novel permanent magnet linear motor possessing two movers and one stator. The two movers are isolated and can interact with the stator poles to generate independent forces and motions. Compared with conventional multiple motor driving system, it helps to increase the system compactness, and thus improve the power density and working efficiency. The magnetic field distribution is obtained by using equivalent magnetic circuit method. Following that, the formulation of force output considering armature reaction is carried out. Then inductances are analyzed with finite element method to investigate the relationships of the two movers. It is found that the mutual-inductances are nearly equal to zero, and thus the interaction between the two movers is negligible. A research prototype of the linear motor and a measurement apparatus on thrust force have been developed. Both numerical computation and experiment measurement are conducted to validate the analytical model of thrust force. Comparison shows that the analytical model matches the numerical and experimental results well.

  2. Experimental and Numerical Evaluation of Rock Dynamic Test with Split-Hopkinson Pressure Bar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kang Peng


    Full Text Available Feasibility of rock dynamic properties by split-Hopkinson pressure bar (SHPB was experimentally and numerically evaluated with ANSYS/LS-DYNA. The effects of different diameters, different loading rates, and different propagation distances on wave dispersion of input bars in SHPB with rectangle and half-sine wave loadings were analyzed. The results show that the dispersion effect on the diameter of input bar, loading rate, and propagation distance under half-sine waveform loading is ignorable compared with the rectangle wave loading. Moreover, the degrees of stress uniformity under rectangle and half-sine input wave loadings are compared in SHPB tests, and the time required for stress uniformity is calculated under different above-mentioned loadings. It is confirmed that the stress uniformity can be realized more easily using the half-sine pulse loading compared to the rectangle pulse loading, and this has significant advantages in the dynamic test of rock-like materials. Finally, the Holmquist-Johnson-Concrete constitutive model is introduced to simulate the failure mechanism and failure and fragmentation characteristics of rock under different strain rates. And the numerical results agree with that obtained from the experiment, which confirms the effectiveness of the model and the method.

  3. Additive-manufactured sandwich lattice structures: A numerical and experimental investigation (United States)

    Fergani, Omar; Tronvoll, Sigmund; Brøtan, Vegard; Welo, Torgeir; Sørby, Knut


    The utilization of additive-manufactured lattice structures in engineered products is becoming more and more common as the competitiveness of AM as a production technology has increased during the past several years. Lattice structures may enable important weight reductions as well as open opportunities to build products with customized functional properties, thanks to the flexibility of AM for producing complex geometrical configurations. One of the most critical aspects related to taking AM into new application areas—such as safety critical products—is currently the limited understanding of the mechanical behavior of sandwich-based lattice structure mechanical under static and dynamic loading. In this study, we evaluate manufacturability of lattice structures and the impact of AM processing parameters on the structural behavior of this type of sandwich structures. For this purpose, we conducted static compression testing for a variety of geometry and manufacturing parameters. Further, the study discusses a numerical model capable of predicting the behavior of different lattice structure. A reasonably good correlation between the experimental and numerical results was observed.

  4. A novel embeddable spherical smart aggregate for structural health monitoring: part II. Numerical and experimental verifications (United States)

    Kong, Qingzhao; Fan, Shuli; Mo, Y. L.; Song, Gangbing


    The newly developed spherical smart aggregate (SSA) based on a radially polarized spherical piezoceramic shell element has unique omnidirectional actuating and sensing capabilities that can greatly improve the detection aperture and provide additional functionalities in health monitoring applications in concrete structures. Detailed fabrication procedures and electrical characterization of the SSA have been previously studied (Part I). In this second paper (Part II), the functionalities of the SSA used in both active sensing and passive sensing approaches were investigated in experiments and numerical simulations. One SSA sample was embedded in a 1 ft3 concrete specimen. In the active sensing approach, the SSA was first utilized as an actuator to generate stress waves and six conventional smart aggregates (SA) mounted on the six faces of the concrete cube were utilized as sensors to detect the wave response. Conversely, the embedded SSA was then utilized as a sensor to successively detect the wave response from each SA. The experimentally obtained behavior of the SSA was then compared with the numerical simulation results. Further, a series of impact tests were conducted to verify the performance of the SSA in the detection of the impact events from different directions. Comparison with the wave response associated with different faces of the cube verified the omnidirectional actuating and sensing capabilities of the SSA.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paweł LONKWIC


    Full Text Available The paper investigates the effect of various disk spring package configurations on brake load of safety progressive gears. The numerical analysis is performed using the Abaqus/CAE software and the designed 3D models. The numerical results are then verified in experimental tests. The tests also examine the effect of lubrication on brake load of spring packages. In addition, the paper investigates the work conditions of safety progressive gears at emergency braking. The experimental results show agreement with the numerical results.

  6. Deorbit efficiency assessment through numerical simulation of electromagnetic tether devices

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexandru IONEL


    Full Text Available This paper examines the deorbit efficiency of an electromagnetic tether deorbit device when used to deorbit an upper stage at end of mission from low Earth orbit. This is done via a numerical simulation in Matlab R2013a, using ode45, taking into account perturbations on the upper stage’s trajectory. The perturbations taken into account are the atmospheric drag, the 3rd body (Sun and Moon, and Earth’s gravitational potential expanded into spherical harmonics.

  7. Experimental and numerical study of control of flow separation of a symmetric airfoil with trapped vortex cavity (United States)

    Shahid, Abdullah Bin; Mashud, Mohammad


    This paper summarizes the experimental campaign and numerical analysis performed aimed to analyze the potential benefit available employing a trapping vortex cell system on a high thickness symmetric aero-foil without steady suction or injection mass flow. In this work, the behavior of a two dimensional model equipped with a span wise adjusted circular cavity has been researched. Pressure distribution on the model surface and inside and the complete flow field round the model have been measured. Experimental tests have been performed varying the wind tunnel speed and also the angle of attack. For numerical analysis the two dimensional model of the airfoil and the mesh is formed through ANSYS Meshing that is run in Fluent for numerical iterate solution. In the paper the performed test campaign, the airfoil design, the adopted experimental set-up, the numerical analysis, the data post process and the results description are reported, compared a discussed.

  8. Effect of solid distribution on elastic properties of open-cell cellular solids using numerical and experimental methods. (United States)

    Zargarian, A; Esfahanian, M; Kadkhodapour, J; Ziaei-Rad, S


    Effect of solid distribution between edges and vertices of three-dimensional cellular solid with an open-cell structure was investigated both numerically and experimentally. Finite element analysis (FEA) with continuum elements and appropriate periodic boundary condition was employed to calculate the elastic properties of cellular solids using tetrakaidecahedral (Kelvin) unit cell. Relative densities between 0.01 and 0.1 and various values of solid fractions were considered. In order to validate the numerical model, three scaffolds with the relative density of 0.08, but different amounts of solid in vertices, were fabricated via 3-D printing technique. Good agreement was observed between numerical simulation and experimental results. Results of numerical simulation showed that, at low relative densities (numerical simulation and considering the relative density and solid fraction in vertices, empirical relations were derived for Young׳s modulus and Poisson׳s ratio. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. 2D transient granular flows over obstacles: experimental and numerical work (United States)

    Juez, Carmelo; Caviedes-Voullième, Daniel; Murillo, Javier; García-Navarro, Pilar


    Landslides are an ubiquitous natural hazard, and therefore human infrastructure and settlements are often at risk in mountainous regions. In order to better understand and predict landslides, systematic studies of the phenomena need to be undertaken. In particular, computational tools which allow for analysis of field problems require to be thoroughly tested, calibrated and validated under controlled conditions. And to do so, it is necessary for such controlled experiments to be fully characterized in the same terms as the numerical model requires. This work presents an experimental study of dry granular flow over a rough bed with topography which resembles a mountain valley. It has an upper region with a very high slope. The geometry of the bed describes a fourth order polynomial curve, with a low point with zero slope, and afterwards a short region with adverse slope. Obstacles are present in the lower regions which are used as model geometries of human structures. The experiments consisted of a sudden release a mass of sand on the upper region, and allowing it to flow downslope. Furthermore, it has been frequent in previous studies to measure final states of the granular mass at rest, but seldom has transient data being provided, and never for the entire field. In this work we present transient measurements of the moving granular surfaces, obtained with a consumer-grade RGB-D sensor. The sensor, developed for the videogame industry, allows to measure the moving surface of the sand, thus obtaining elevation fields. The experimental results are very consistent and repeatable. The measured surfaces clearly show the distinctive features of the granular flow around the obstacles and allow to qualitatively describe the different flow patterns. More importantly, the quantitative description of the granular surface allows for benchmarking and calibration of predictive numerical models, key in scaling the small-scale experimental knowledge into the field. In addition, as

  10. A Combined Numerical and Experimental Analysis on Erythrocyte Damage Mechanism in Microscale Flow

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Di Zhang


    Full Text Available An experimental system was designed and completed to realize the visualization of erythrocyte suspension microscale flow in microchannel and obtain the geometric parameters. The numerical simulation of the flow in the microchannel was accomplished to obtain the distribution of the physical parameters. Combined with the experimental data, the fitted curves of the physical parameters and geometric parameters on the axis were achieved. By analyzing the energy balance of the erythrocyte, the curve of the elasticity modulus of the erythrocyte membrane was obtained. The mechanism of the hemolysis caused by collision was expounded. Besides, the comparison among different cases was completed, illustrating the influence of the flow rate on hemolysis. The result shows that the predominant force of longitudinal compression is the pressure difference per erythrocyte. The curve of the elasticity modulus indicates that the membrane elasticity rapidly decreases as the erythrocyte approaches to the wall. The erythrocyte membrane loses elasticity, indicating that the contractile protein is fragile to the compressive loading, which increases significantly with a higher flow rate, making the erythrocyte membrane more likely to fracture.

  11. Experimental and numerical investigation of laser forming of cylindrical surfaces with arbitrary radius of curvature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Safari


    Full Text Available In this work, laser forming of cylindrical surfaces with arbitrary radius of curvature is investigated experimentally and numerically. For laser forming of cylindrical surfaces with arbitrary radius of curvature, a new and comprehensive method is proposed in this paper. This method contains simple linear irradiating lines and using an analytical method, required process parameters for laser forming of a cylindrical surface with a specific radius of curvature is proposed. In this method, laser output power, laser scanning speed and laser beam diameter are selected based on laser machine and process limitations. As in the laser forming of a cylindrical surface, parallel irradiating lines are needed; therefore key parameter for production of a cylindrical surface with a specific radius of curvature is the number of irradiating lines. Hence, in the proposed analytical method, the required number of irradiating lines for production of a cylindrical surface with a specific radius of curvature is suggested. Performance of the proposed method for production of cylindrical surface with a specific radius of curvature is verified with experimental tests. The results show that using proposed analytical method, cylindrical surfaces with any radius of curvature can be produced successfully.

  12. Experimental and Numerical Simulations of Phase Transformations Occurring During Continuous Annealing of DP Steel Strips (United States)

    Wrożyna, Andrzej; Pernach, Monika; Kuziak, Roman; Pietrzyk, Maciej


    Due to their exceptional strength properties combined with good workability the Advanced High-Strength Steels (AHSS) are commonly used in automotive industry. Manufacturing of these steels is a complex process which requires precise control of technological parameters during thermo-mechanical treatment. Design of these processes can be significantly improved by the numerical models of phase transformations. Evaluation of predictive capabilities of models, as far as their applicability in simulation of thermal cycles thermal cycles for AHSS is considered, was the objective of the paper. Two models were considered. The former was upgrade of the JMAK equation while the latter was an upgrade of the Leblond model. The models can be applied to any AHSS though the examples quoted in the paper refer to the Dual Phase (DP) steel. Three series of experimental simulations were performed. The first included various thermal cycles going beyond limitations of the continuous annealing lines. The objective was to validate models behavior in more complex cooling conditions. The second set of tests included experimental simulations of the thermal cycle characteristic for the continuous annealing lines. Capability of the models to describe properly phase transformations in this process was evaluated. The third set included data from the industrial continuous annealing line. Validation and verification of models confirmed their good predictive capabilities. Since it does not require application of the additivity rule, the upgrade of the Leblond model was selected as the better one for simulation of industrial processes in AHSS production.

  13. Dynamic strength and failure of 430F stainless steel determined by combined experimental-numerical method (United States)

    Paris, Vitaly; Cohen, Amitay; Porat, Elkana; Fridman, Pinhas; Harpenes, Zvi; Yosef-Hai, Arnon; Levi-Hevroni, David


    Dynamic flow stress of metals is well known to depend significantly on the strain rate. Strain to failure behavior of ductile metals can be influenced by both the stress triaxiality and the strain rate. While either compressive or tensile Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar system (SHPB) are commonly used to obtain flow stress and failure data for metals, experimental methodologies to obtain such data under conditions of shear loading are less based. In the present study we have investigated the effect of strain rate on the flow stress and strain to failure of 430F stainless steel at strain rates ranging from 400 to 16000 1/sec using shear disc specimens (SDS) incorporated into standard SHPB system. The SDS sample is a disc having axisymmetric slits on its both flat faces which is sheared during the test by ring and cylinder-shaped adaptors mounted between the bars. The analysis of the data was performed by matching the experimental signals with results of numerical modeling of the tests. The obtained flow stress versus strain rate data were fitted with Cowper-Symonds model. The results indicate strong dependence of flow stress of 430F steel on strain rate in the investigated range of rates. The strain to failure data demonstrates a noticeable decrease with increase of the strain rate.

  14. Numerical and Experimental Dynamic Analysis of IC Engine Test Beds Equipped with Highly Flexible Couplings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cocconcelli


    Full Text Available Driveline components connected to internal combustion engines can be critically loaded by dynamic forces due to motion irregularity. In particular, flexible couplings used in engine test rig are usually subjected to high levels of torsional oscillations and time-varying torque. This could lead to premature failure of the test rig. In this work an effective methodology for the estimation of the dynamic behavior of highly flexible couplings in real operational conditions is presented in order to prevent unwanted halts. The methodology addresses a combination of numerical models and experimental measurements. In particular, two mathematical models of the engine test rig were developed: a torsional lumped-parameter model for the estimation of the torsional dynamic behavior in operative conditions and a finite element model for the estimation of the natural frequencies of the coupling. The experimental campaign addressed torsional vibration measurements in order to characterize the driveline dynamic behavior as well as validate the models. The measurements were achieved by a coder-based technique using optical sensors and zebra tapes. Eventually, the validated models were used to evaluate the effect of design modifications of the coupling elements in terms of natural frequencies (torsional and bending, torsional vibration amplitude, and power loss in the couplings.

  15. Experimental and numerical simulation of the acquisition of chemical remanent magnetization and the Thellier procedure (United States)

    Shcherbakov, V. P.; Sycheva, N. K.; Gribov, S. K.


    The results of the Thellier-Coe experiments on paleointensity determination on the samples which contain chemical remanent magnetization (CRM) created by thermal annealing of titanomagnetites are reported. The results of the experiments are compared with the theoretical notions. For this purpose, Monte Carlo simulation of the process of CRM acquisition in the system of single-domain interacting particles was carried out; the paleointensity determination method based on the Thellier-Coe procedure was modeled; and the degree of paleointensity underestimation was quantitatively estimated based on the experimental data and on the numerical results. Both the experimental investigations and computer modeling suggest the following main conclusion: all the Arai-Nagata diagrams for CRM in the high-temperature area (in some cases up to the Curie temperature T c) contain a relatively long quasi-linear interval on which it is possible to estimate the slope coefficient k and, therefore, the paleointensity. Hence, if chemical magnetization (or remagnetization) took place in the course of the magnetomineralogical transformations of titanomagnetite- bearing igneous rocks during long-lasting cooling or during repeated heatings, it can lead to incorrect results in determining the intensity of the geomagnetic field in the geological past.

  16. Experimental and Numerical Investigations on the Mechanical Characteristics of Carbon Fiber Sensors. (United States)

    Bashmal, Salem; Siddiqui, Mohammed; Arif, Abul Fazal M


    Carbon fiber-based materials possess excellent mechanical properties and show linear piezoresistive behavior, which make them good candidate materials for strain measurements. They have the potential to be used as sensors for various applications such as damage detection, stress analysis and monitoring of manufacturing processes and quality. In this paper, carbon fiber sensors are prepared to perform reliable strain measurements. Both experimental and computational studies were carried out on commercially available carbon fibers in order to understand the response of the carbon fiber sensors due to changes in the axial strain. Effects of parameters such as diameter, length, and epoxy-hardener ratio are discussed. The developed numerical model was calibrated using laboratory-based experimental data. The results of the current study show that sensors with shorter lengths have relatively better sensitivity. This is due to the fact short fibers have low initial resistance, which will increase the change of resistance over initial resistance. Carbon fibers with low number of filaments exhibit linear behavior while nonlinear behavior due to transverse resistance is significant in fibers with large number of filaments. This study will allow researchers to predict the behavior of the carbon fiber sensor in real life and it will serve as a basis for designing carbon fiber sensors to be used in different applications.

  17. The Numerical and Experimental Analysis of Ballizing Process of Steel Tubes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dyl T.


    Full Text Available This paper presents chosen results of experimental and numerical research of ballizing process of the steel tubes. Ballizing process is a method of burnishing technology of an internal diameter by precisely forcing a ball through a slightly undersized pre-machined tubes. Ballizing process is a fast, low-cost process for sizing and finishing tubes. It consists of pressing a slightly oversized ball through an unfinished tube to quickly bring the hole to desired size. The ball is typically made from a very hard material such as tungsten carbide or bearing steel. Ballizing process is by cold surface plastic forming of the surface structure, thereby leaving a layer of harder material and reducing its roughness. After theoretical and experimental analysis it was determined that the smaller the diameter of the balls, the bigger intensity of stress and strain and strain rate. The paper presents influence of ballizing process on the strain and stress state and on the surface roughness reduction rate of the steel tubes.

  18. Experimental and numerical investigations of ionic liquid-aqueous flow in microchannel (United States)

    Li, Qi; Tsaoulidis, Dimitrios; Angeli, Panagiota


    The hydrodynamic characteristics of plug flow of an ionic liquid-aqueous two-phase system in a microchannel were studied experimentally and numerically. A mixture of 0.2M N-octyl(plenyl)-N,N-diisobutylcarbamoylmethyphosphine oxide (CMOP)- 1.2 M Tri-n-butylphosphate (TBP) in room temperature ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium bis[(trifluoromethyl)sulfonyl]amide ([C4min][NTf2]), and a nitric acid solution of 1M were chosen. These fluids are relevant Eu(III) separation by extraction from nitric acid solutions. The two liquid phases were introduced into microchannels of 0.2 and 0.5mm internal diameter through a T-junction inlet. The flow pattern was visualized during plug formation at the inlet section and further downstream by means by bright field planar micro-Particle Image Velocimetry. Key features of plug flow, such as plug velocity, film thickness, plug length and recirculation intensity were measured under various experimental conditions. To gain further understanding of the 3-D flow field, Computation Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations approach were also conducted.

  19. Experimental demonstration of bow-shock instability and its numerical analysis (United States)

    Kikuchi, Y.; Ohnishi, N.; Ohtani, K.


    An experimental demonstration was carried out in a ballistic range at high Mach numbers with the low specific heat ratio gas hydrofluorocarbon HFC-134a to observe the unstable bow-shock wave generated in front of supersonic blunt objects. The shadowgraph images obtained from the experiments showed instability characteristics, in which the disturbances grow and flow downstream and the wake flow appears wavy because of the shock oscillation. Moreover, the influence of the body shape and specific heat ratio on the instability was investigated for various experimental conditions. Furthermore, the observed features, such as wave structure and disturbance amplitude, were captured by numerical simulations, and it was demonstrated that computational fluid dynamics could effectively simulate the physical instability. In addition, it was deduced that the shock instability is induced by sound emissions from the edge of the object. This inference supports the dependence of the instability on the specific heat ratio and Mach number because the shock stand-off distance is affected by these parameters and limits the sound wave propagation.

  20. The absorption factor of crystalline silicon PV cells: A numerical and experimental study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santbergen, R.; van Zolingen, R.J.C. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Eindhoven University of Technology, P.O. Box 513, 5600MB Eindhoven (Netherlands)


    The absorption factor of a PV cell is defined as the fraction of incident solar irradiance that is absorbed by the cell. This absorption factor is one of the major parameters determining the cell temperature under operational conditions. Experimentally the absorption factor can be derived from reflection and transmission measurements. The spectral reflection and transmission factors were measured for a set of crystalline silicon (c-Si) samples with a gradually increasing complexity. The experimental results agree very well with the results from a 2D numerical model that was developed. It was found that the AM1.5 absorption factor of a typical encapsulated c-Si photovoltaic cell is as high as 90.5%. Insight was gained in the cell parameters that influence this absorption factor. The presence of texture at the front of the c-Si wafer of sufficient steepness is essential to achieve such a high absorption factor. Sub-bandgap solar irradiance ({lambda}>1.1{mu} m) is mainly absorbed in the very thin emitter by means of free-carrier absorption. By minimizing reflective losses over the entire solar spectrum, the AM1.5 absorption of c-Si cells can theoretically be increased to 93.0%. The effect on the annual yield of PV and PV/thermal systems is quantified. (author)

  1. Experimental, Numerical and Analytical Characterization of Slosh Dynamics Applied to In-Space Propellant Storage, Management and Transfer (United States)

    Storey, Jedediah M.; Kirk, Daniel; Gutierrez, Hector; Marsell, Brandon; Schallhorn, Paul; Lapilli, Gabriel D.


    Experimental and numerical results are presented from a new cryogenic fluid slosh program at the Florida Institute of Technology (FIT). Water and cryogenic liquid nitrogen are used in various ground-based tests with an approximately 30 cm diameter spherical tank to characterize damping, slosh mode frequencies, and slosh forces. The experimental results are compared to a computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model for validation. An analytical model is constructed from prior work for comparison. Good agreement is seen between experimental, numerical, and analytical results.

  2. Experimental and numerical studies on two-stage combustion of biomass

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Houshfar, Eshan


    In this thesis, two-stage combustion of biomass was experimentally/numerically investigated in a multifuel reactor. The following emissions issues have been the main focus of the work: 1- NOx and N2O 2- Unburnt species (CO and CxHy) 3- Corrosion related emissions.The study had a focus on two-stage combustion in order to reduce pollutant emissions (primarily NOx emissions). It is well known that pollutant emissions are very dependent on the process conditions such as temperature, reactant concentrations and residence times. On the other hand, emissions are also dependent on the fuel properties (moisture content, volatiles, alkali content, etc.). A detailed study of the important parameters with suitable biomass fuels in order to optimize the various process conditions was performed. Different experimental studies were carried out on biomass fuels in order to study the effect of fuel properties and combustion parameters on pollutant emissions. Process conditions typical for biomass combustion processes were studied. Advanced experimental equipment was used in these studies. The experiments showed the effects of staged air combustion, compared to non-staged combustion, on the emission levels clearly. A NOx reduction of up to 85% was reached with staged air combustion using demolition wood as fuel. An optimum primary excess air ratio of 0.8-0.95 was found as a minimizing parameter for the NOx emissions for staged air combustion. Air staging had, however, a negative effect on N2O emissions. Even though the trends showed a very small reduction in the NOx level as temperature increased for non-staged combustion, the effect of temperature was not significant for NOx and CxHy, neither in staged air combustion or non-staged combustion, while it had a great influence on the N2O and CO emissions, with decreasing levels with increasing temperature. Furthermore, flue gas recirculation (FGR) was used in combination with staged combustion to obtain an enhanced NOx reduction. The

  3. Thermodiffusion in concentrated ferrofluids: Experimental and numerical results on magnetic thermodiffusion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sprenger, Lisa, E-mail:; Lange, Adrian; Odenbach, Stefan [Institute of Fluid Mechanics, Chair of Magnetofluiddynamics, Measuring and Automation Technology, TU Dresden, 01062 Dresden (Germany)


    Ferrofluids consist of magnetic nanoparticles dispersed in a carrier liquid. Their strong thermodiffusive behaviour, characterised by the Soret coefficient, coupled with the dependency of the fluid's parameters on magnetic fields is dealt with in this work. It is known from former experimental investigations on the one hand that the Soret coefficient itself is magnetic field dependent and on the other hand that the accuracy of the coefficient's experimental determination highly depends on the volume concentration of the fluid. The thermally driven separation of particles and carrier liquid is carried out with a concentrated ferrofluid (φ = 0.087) in a horizontal thermodiffusion cell and is compared to equally detected former measurement data. The temperature gradient (1 K/mm) is applied perpendicular to the separation layer. The magnetic field is either applied parallel or perpendicular to the temperature difference. For three different magnetic field strengths (40 kA/m, 100 kA/m, 320 kA/m) the diffusive separation is detected. It reveals a sign change of the Soret coefficient with rising field strength for both field directions which stands for a change in the direction of motion of the particles. This behaviour contradicts former experimental results with a dilute magnetic fluid, in which a change in the coefficient's sign could only be detected for the parallel setup. An anisotropic behaviour in the current data is measured referring to the intensity of the separation being more intense in the perpendicular position of the magnetic field: S{sub T‖} = −0.152 K{sup −1} and S{sub T⊥} = −0.257 K{sup −1} at H = 320 kA/m. The ferrofluiddynamics-theory (FFD-theory) describes the thermodiffusive processes thermodynamically and a numerical simulation of the fluid's separation depending on the two transport parameters ξ{sub ‖} and ξ{sub ⊥} used within the FFD-theory can be implemented. In the case of a parallel aligned magnetic field

  4. An Experimental and Numerical Study of Diesel Spray Impingement on a Flat Plate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Le; Torelli, Roberto; Zhu, Xiucheng; Scarcelli, Riccardo; Som, Sibendu; Schmidt, Henry; Naber, Jeffrey; Lee, Seong-Young


    Combustion systems with advanced injection strategies have been extensively studied, but there still exists a significant fundamental knowledge gap on fuel spray interactions with the piston surface and chamber walls. This paper is meant to provide detailed data on spray-wall impingement physics and support the spray-wall model development. The experimental work of spray-wall impingement with non-vaporizing spray characterization, was carried out in a high pressure-temperature constant-volume combustion vessel. The simultaneous Mie scattering of liquid spray and schlieren of liquid and vapor spray were carried out. Diesel fuel was injected at a pressure of 1500 bar into ambient gas at a density of 22.8 kg/m3 with isothermal conditions (fuel, ambient, and plate temperatures of 423 K). A Lagrangian-Eulerian modeling approach was employed to characterize the spray-gas and spray-wall interactions in the CONVERGE framework by means of a Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) formulation. A set of turbulence and spray break-up model constants was identified to properly match the aforementioned measurements of liquid penetration within their experimental confidence intervals. An accuracy study on varying the minimum mesh size was also performed to ensure the grid convergence of the numerical results. Experimentally validated computational fluid dynamics (CFD) simulations were then used to investigate the local spray characteristics in the vicinity of the wall with a particular focus on Sauter Mean Diameter (SMD) and Reynolds and Weber numbers. The analysis was performed by considering before- and after-impingement conditions in order to take in account the influence of the impinged wall on the spray morphology.

  5. Experimental and numerical characterization of wind-induced pressure coefficients on nuclear buildings and chimney exhausts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ricciardi, Laurent, E-mail:; Gélain, Thomas; Soares, Sandrine


    Highlights: • Experiments on scale models of nuclear buildings and chimney exhausts were performed. • Pressure coefficient fields on buildings are shown for various wind directions. • Evolution of pressure coefficient vs U/W ratio is given for various chimney exhausts. • RANS simulations using SST k–ω turbulence model were performed on most studied cases. • A good agreement is overall observed, with Root Mean Square Deviation lower than 0.15. - Abstract: Wind creates pressure effects on different surfaces of buildings according to their exposure to the wind, in particular at external communications. In nuclear facilities, these effects can change contamination transfers inside the building and can even lead to contamination release into the environment, especially in damaged (ventilation stopped) or accidental situations. The diversity of geometries of facilities requires the use of a validated code for predicting pressure coefficients, which characterize the wind effect on the building walls and the interaction between the wind and chimney exhaust. The first aim of a research program launched by the French Institut de Radioprotection et de Sûreté Nucléaire (IRSN), was therefore to acquire experimental data of the mean pressure coefficients for different geometries of buildings and chimneys through wind tunnel tests and then to validate a CFD code (ANSYS CFX) from these experimental results. The simulations were performed using a steady RANS approach and a two-equation SST k–ω turbulence model. After a mesh sensitivity study for one configuration of building and chimney, a comparison was carried out between the numerical and experimental values for other studied configurations. This comparison was generally satisfactory, averaged over all measurement points, with values of Root Mean Square Deviations lower than 0.15 for most cases.

  6. Assessment of Soil Liquefaction Potential Based on Numerical Method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Choobasti, A. Janalizadeh; Vahdatirad, Mohammad Javad; Torabi, M.


    , a zone of the corridor of Tabriz urban railway line 2 susceptible to liquefaction was recognized. Then, using numerical analysis and cyclic stress method using QUAKE/W finite element code, soil liquefaction potential in susceptible zone was evaluated based on design earthquake....... simplified method have been developed over the years. Although simplified methods are available in calculating the liquefaction potential of a soil deposit and shear stresses induced at any point in the ground due to earthquake loading, these methods cannot be applied to all earthquakes with the same...

  7. Numerical and experimental analysis of resistance projection welding of square nuts to sheets

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Chris Valentin; Zhang, Wenqi; Martins, Paulo A.F.


    as the authors are aware, the first ever three-dimensional simulation of the projection welding of square nuts to sheets by means of finite element analysis. Results are compared with experimental observations and measurements produced by the authors with the aim and objective of assessing the accuracy......Projection welding of nuts to sheets is a widely utilized manufacturing process in the automotive industry. The process entails challenges due the necessity of joining different sheet thicknesses and nut sizes made from dissimilar materials, and due to the fact of experiencing large local...... materials and applications require a new level of understanding of the process by combining finite element modelling and experimentation. This paper draws from the challenge of developing a three-dimensional computer program for electro-thermo-mechanical modeling of resistance welding and presents, as far...

  8. An experimental data set for benchmarking 1-D, transient heat and moisture transfer models of hygroscopic building materials. Part II: Experimental, numerical and analytical data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talukdar, Prabal [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Indian Institute of Technology Delhi, Hauz Khas, New Delhi 110016 (India); Osanyintola, Olalekan F. [XXL Engineering Ltd., 101-807 Manning Road NE, Calgary, AB (Canada); Olutimayin, Stephen O.; Simonson, Carey J. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Saskatchewan, 57 Campus Drive, Saskatoon, SK (Canada)


    This paper presents the experimental results on spruce plywood and cellulose insulation using the transient moisture transfer (TMT) facility presented in Part I [P. Talukdar, S.O. Olutmayin, O.F. Osanyintola, C.J. Simonson, An experimental data set for benchmarking 1-D, transient heat and moisture transfer models of hygroscopic building materials-Part-I: experimental facility and property data, Int. J. Heat Mass Transfer, in press, doi:10.1016/j.ijheatmasstransfer.2007.03.026] of this paper. The temperature, relative humidity and moisture accumulation distributions within both materials are presented following different and repeated step changes in air humidity and different airflow Reynolds numbers above the materials. The experimental data are compared with numerical data, numerical sensitivity studies and analytical solutions to increase the confidence in the experimental data set. (author)

  9. Experimental assessment of bacterial storage yield

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Karahan-Gül, Ö.; Artan, N.; Orhon, D.


    An experimental procedure was developed for the respirometric determination of bacterial storage yield as defined in the Activated Sludge Model No. 3. The proposed approach is based on the oxygen utilization rate (OUR) profile obtained from a batch test and correlates the area under the OUR curve...... to the amount of oxygen associated with substrate storage. Model simulation was used to evaluate the procedure for different initial experimental conditions. The procedure was tested on acetate. The same storage yield value of 0.76 gCOD/gCOD was calculated for two experiments, starting with different F/M ratios...

  10. Assessing numerical methods for molecular and particle simulation. (United States)

    Shang, Xiaocheng; Kröger, Martin; Leimkuhler, Benedict


    We discuss the design of state-of-the-art numerical methods for molecular dynamics, focusing on the demands of soft matter simulation, where the purposes include sampling and dynamics calculations both in and out of equilibrium. We discuss the characteristics of different algorithms, including their essential conservation properties, the convergence of averages, and the accuracy of numerical discretizations. Formulations of the equations of motion which are suited to both equilibrium and nonequilibrium simulation include Langevin dynamics, dissipative particle dynamics (DPD), and the more recently proposed "pairwise adaptive Langevin" (PAdL) method, which, like DPD but unlike Langevin dynamics, conserves momentum and better matches the relaxation rate of orientational degrees of freedom. PAdL is easy to code and suitable for a variety of problems in nonequilibrium soft matter modeling; our simulations of polymer melts indicate that this method can also provide dramatic improvements in computational efficiency. Moreover we show that PAdL gives excellent control of the relaxation rate to equilibrium. In the nonequilibrium setting, we further demonstrate that while PAdL allows the recovery of accurate shear viscosities at higher shear rates than are possible using the DPD method at identical timestep, it also outperforms Langevin dynamics in terms of stability and accuracy at higher shear rates.

  11. A numerical and experimental study of oblique impact of ultra-high pressure abrasive water jet

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Can Kang


    Full Text Available An investigation of the abrasive water jet with an emphasis on the oblique impact of abrasive particles on the target plate is performed. Ultra-high jet pressure necessitates a close examination of the phenomena featured by small spatial and temporal scales. The effect of oblique impact is assessed from both numerical and practical aspects. Numerical simulation, implemented using the commercial code LS-DYNA, allows a detailed inspection of transient stress wave propagation inside the target plate. And impact experiments facilitate a qualitative description of resultant footprints of oblique water jet. Different incident angles of abrasive particles are adopted and a comparison is thereby unfolded. The results indicate that rebound, embedding, and penetration of single abrasive particle are three representative final operation states. Adjacent to the abrasive particle, the response of the target plate to oblique impact is reflected by von Mises stress distribution and plate deformation as well. Oblique impact arouses non-symmetrical stress wave distributions and distinct unbalanced node displacements at the two sides of the abrasive particle. As for the target plate, global surface morphology is in accordance with predicted effects. The most favorable surface roughness is not associated with vertical impact, and it hinges upon the selection of standoff distance. Furthermore, variation of surface roughness with incident angle is not monotonous.

  12. Numerical Investigation of Pressure Fluctuation in Centrifugal Pump Volute Based on SAS Model and Experimental Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Qiaorui Si


    Full Text Available This paper presents an investigation of pressure fluctuation of a single-suction volute-type centrifugal pump, particularly volute casing, by using numerical and experimental methods. A new type of hybrid Reynolds-averaged Navier-Stokes/Large Eddy Simulation, referred to as the shear stress transport-scale-adaptive simulation (SAS model, is employed to study the unsteady flow. Statistical analysis method is adopted to show the pressure fluctuation intensity distribution in the volute channel. A test rig for pressure pulsation measurement is built to validate the numerical simulation results using eight transient pressure sensors in the middle section of the volute wall. Results show that the SAS model can accurately predict the inner flow field of centrifugal pumps. Radial force acting on the impeller presents a star distribution related to the blade number. Pressure fluctuation intensity is strongest near the tongue and shows irregular distribution in the pump casing. Pressure fluctuation is distributed symmetrically at the cross-section of the volute casing because the volute can eliminate the rotational movement of the liquid discharged from the impeller. Blade passing frequency and its multiples indicate the dominant frequency of the monitoring points within the volute, and the low-frequency pulsation, particularly in the shaft component, increases when it operates at off-design condition, particularly with a small flow rate. The reason is that the vortex wave is enhanced at the off-design condition, which has an effect on the axle and is presented in the shaft component in the frequency domain.

  13. Numerical and Experimental Studies on the Heat Transfer Performance of Copper Foam Filled with Paraffin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huanpei Zheng


    Full Text Available Abstract: The pore-scale numerical works on the effective thermal conductivity and melting process of copper foam filled with paraffin, and a phase-change material (PCM with low thermal conductivity, were conducted by utilizing the two-dimensional (2D hexahedron Calmidi-Mahajan (C-M model and the three-dimensional (3D dodecahedron Boomsma-Poulikakos (B-P model. The unidirectional heat transfer experiment was established to investigate the effective thermal conductivity of the composite. The simulation results of the effective thermal conductivity of the composite in 2D C-M model were 6.93, 5.41, 4.22 and 2.75 W/(m·K, for porosity of 93%, 95%, 96% and 98% respectively, while the effective thermal conductivity of the composite in 3D B-P model were 7.07, 5.24, 3.07 and 1.22 W/(m·K. The simulated results were in agreement with the experimental data obtained for the composite. It was found that the copper foam can effectively enhance the thermal conductivity of the paraffin, i.e., the smaller the porosity of copper foam, the higher the effective thermal conductivity of the composite. In addition, the Fluent Solidification/Melting model was applied to numerically investigate the melting process of the paraffin in the pore. Lastly, the solid–liquid interface development, completely melted time and temperature field distribution of paraffin in the pore of copper foam were also discussed.

  14. Numerical and Experimental Low-Velocity Impact Behaivor of Sandwich Plates with Viscoelastic Core

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soroush Sadeghnejad


    Full Text Available A numerical and experimental low-velocity impact behavior of sandwich plates have been presently studied with regard to the compressibility and viscoelasticity features of their cores. Face sheets were assumed to be anisotropic composites or isotropic aluminum materials and a viscoelastic behavior has been considered for core. The boundary conditions are assumed to be simply supported or rigid. Abaqus, as FEM software, and its python script programming feature, have been used to model the specimens. To model hyper-viscoelastic nonlinear behavior of the core, Ogden hyper-foam elasticity and Prony series approach are manipulated. To solve the numerical problem, dynamic explicit solver option with sufficient solving amplitude has been used. Prony series have been used to model the core time-dependent behavior. In conjunction with a simple indentation experiment, FEM used to formulate a novel method for finding the Prony series coefficients. By performing some low-velocity impact experiments, the impact force and displacement of the composite sandwich plates have been investigated. The results indicate that increasing the structural damping increases the contact time and missing energy and decreases the stored energy of the system. The structures with composite face sheets have a minimum ratio of upper face sheet displacement to lower face sheet displacement in comparison to those with the isotropic face sheets. Impact behavior of isotropic face sheet specimens are more flattened than that of the composite face sheets. In addition, the specific energy stored in the sandwich plates with composite face sheets, on different supports, is greater than that stored in the aluminum face sheets.

  15. Experimental and numerical investigations of internal heat transfer in an innovative trailing edge blade cooling system: stationary and rotation effects, part 2: numerical results (United States)

    Beniaiche, Ahmed; Ghenaiet, Adel; Carcasci, Carlo; Facchini, Bruno


    This paper presents a numerical validation of the aero-thermal study of a 30:1 scaled model reproducing an innovative trailing edge with one row of enlarged pedestals under stationary and rotating conditions. A CFD analysis was performed by means of commercial ANSYS-Fluent modeling the isothermal air flow and using k- ω SST turbulence model and an isothermal air flow for both static and rotating conditions (Ro up to 0.23). The used numerical model is validated first by comparing the numerical velocity profiles distribution results to those obtained experimentally by means of PIV technique for Re = 20,000 and Ro = 0-0.23. The second validation is based on the comparison of the numerical results of the 2D HTC maps over the heated plate to those of TLC experimental data, for a smooth surface for a Reynolds number = 20,000 and 40,000 and Ro = 0-0.23. Two-tip conditions were considered: open tip and closed tip conditions. Results of the average Nusselt number inside the pedestal ducts region are presented too. The obtained results help to predict the flow field visualization and the evaluation of the aero-thermal performance of the studied blade cooling system during the design step.

  16. Experimental and numerical investigation of slabs on ground subjected to concentrated loads (United States)

    Øverli, Jan


    An experimental program is presented where a slab on ground is subjected to concentrated loading at the centre, the edges and at the corners. Analytical solutions for the ultimate load capacity fit well with the results obtained in the tests. The non-linear behaviour of the slab is captured by performing nonlinear finite element analyses. The soil is modelled as a no-tension bedding and a smeared crack approach is employed for the concrete. Through a parametric study, the finite element model has been used to assess the influence of subgrade stiffness and shrinkage. The results indicate that drying shrinkage can cause severe cracking in slabs on grade.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edwan Anderson Ariza Echeverri


    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to analyze the distribution of residual stresses resulting from the combination of volumetric changes due to heat gradients and phase changes occurring during the quenching process of an AISI/SAE 4140 steel cylinder. The mathematical model used for this objective is the AC3 modeling software of thermal treatments (transformation curves, cooling curves and microstructure, whose results were input in an finite element model, considering thermalmechanical coupling and non-linear elastic-plastic behavior, aiming the assessment of residual stresses in quenched 4140 steel cylinders. The observed microstructure confirms quantitatively and qualitatively the previsions of the AC3 Software. The results of the modeling are compared with the residual stresses measurements made using X-Ray diffraction techniques. The finite element numerical simulation shows the existence of 350 MPa compressive residual stresses in the surface region and indicates that the most significant stresses are tangential.

  18. Numerical Ship Hydrodynamics: An Assessment of the Gothenburg 2010 Workshop

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Larsson, Lars; Stern, Frederick (Professor of engineering); Visonneau, Michel


    "This book assesses the state-of-the-art in computational fluid dynamics (CFD) applied to ship hydrodynamics and provides guidelines for the future developments in the field based on the Gothenburg 2010 Workshop...

  19. Experimental and numerical determination of the mechanical response of teeth with reinforced posts. (United States)

    Papadopoulos, Triantafillos; Papadogiannis, Dimitris; Mouzakis, Dionysios E; Giannadakis, Konstantinos; Papanicolaou, George


    The aim of this study was to evaluate the mechanical behavior of endodontically treated teeth restored with fiber reinforced composite posts versus titanium posts, by both experimental testing and numerical simulation (finite element analysis (FEA)). Forty maxillary central incisors were endodontically treated to a size 45 file and then obturated using gutta-percha points and sealer with the lateral condensation technique. The teeth were divided into four groups of ten teeth each. All the posts were of similar dimensions. The first group was restored using carbon fiber reinforced posts (CB), the second and third groups were restored using glass fiber reinforced posts (DP and FW, respectively), and the fourth group (control group) was restored using conventional titanium posts (PP). Half of the specimens of every group were submitted to hydrothermal cycling (2000 cycles, at 5 °C and 55 °C, respectively). All specimens were loaded until failure at a 45° angle with respect to the longitudinal axis at a cross head speed of 0.5 mm min(-1). A two-dimensional finite element model was designed in order to simulate the experimentally obtained results. Mechanical testing revealed that teeth restored with titanium posts exhibited the highest fracture strength. Debonding of the core was the main failure mode observed in glass fiber posts, whereas vertical root fractures were observed in the titanium posts. FEA revealed that the maximum stresses were developed at the interface between the post, dentin and the composite core critical regions in all three cases. Hydrothermal cycling had no significant effect on the fracture behavior of fiber reinforced composite posts.

  20. Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Infragravity Waves in a Dissipative Beach (United States)

    Conde, M. A.; Otero Diaz, L.; Restrepo L, J. C.; Ortiz R, J. C.; Osorio Arías, A.; Ruiz Merchan, J. K.; Montaño Muñoz, J. K.


    For experimental analysis of infragravity waves in a dissipative beach we carried out a field campaign. A crosshore array of pressure sensors, located outside the surf zone and inside the surf zone, was used. These sensors measured for 12 hours continuously with a rate of 1 Hz by 3 days. A Fourier analysis was applied to the free surface data to identify infragravity energy. A FIR filter was applied to obtain the infragravity signal along the array of pressure sensors; we found an increase in the height of the infragravity wave as it approaches to the coast of almost 50%. The evolution of the infragravity wave signal was analyzed outside and inside the surf zone for the biggest wave event recorded in the field campaign, finding a significant increase in the height of the infragravity wave. Finally, using a wavelet analysis we observed that as the infragravity wave was approaching to the coast, the energy within the infragravity frequencies increase for lower frequencies. For the numerical analysis of infragravity waves in the dissipative beach, we use the SWASH model that is a non-hydrostatic model which phase-resolves the free surface and fluid motions throughout the water column. The model was validated (Willmott index of 95% of agreement between the simulated and measured time series) with data from the experimental array of pressure sensors. We ran the model by changing the boundary condition to analyze the swash oscillation in the selected beach. We found that the model was able to predict the swash oscillation and confirms that in a dissipative beach the energy in the swash zone was dominated by the infragravity energy. These results help to understand the role of infragravity regime in coastal flooding processes and morphological changes in natural beaches.

  1. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of the Dynamic Seat Comfort in Aircrafts (United States)

    Ciloglu, Hakan

    This research focuses on the dynamic seat comfort in aircrafts specifically during takeoff, landing and cruise through turbulence flight conditions. The experiments are performed using a multi axis shaker table in the Automotive Centre of Excellence (ACE) at the University of Ontario Institute of Technology subjected to sample takeoff, landing and cruise vibration recordings obtained onboard of an actual flight. The input vibrations introduced to the aircraft seats during actual flight conditions and during the experiments in the ACE are compared and it is concluded that the given flight conditions were successfully replicated for the interest of this thesis. The experiments are conducted with two different aircraft seats, economy class and business class. Furthermore, to investigate the importance of seat cushion characteristics in addition to economy and business class seat cushions, three laboratory made cushions were included in the investigation as well. Moreover, the effect of passenger weight is also discussed by conducting the experiments with 1 and 2 identical dummies. It is concluded that static seat properties play a significant role in the comfort perception level as well as flight conditions. Among the three flight condition, landing appeared to be the most uncomfortable case comparing to takeoff and cruise. In addition to experimental work, a numerical study to simulate the flight conditions is undertaken with the initial work of CAD modelling. The simulated responses of the seat is partially matching with experimental results due to unknown parameters of the cushion and the connections of the aircraft seat that cannot be created in the CAD model due to unknown manufacturing processes.

  2. Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Stop-Bands in Finite and Infinite Periodic One-Dimensional Structures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Domadiya, Parthkumar Gandalal; Manconi, Elisabetta; Vanali, Marcello


    vibration and noise transmission. The aim of this paper is to investigate, numerically and experimentally, stop-bands in periodic one-dimensional structures. Two methods for pre-dicting stop-bands are described: the first method applies to infinite periodic structures using a wave approach; the second...... method deals with the evaluation of a vibration level difference (VLD) in a finite periodic structure embedded within an infinite one-dimensional waveguide. This VLD is defined to predict the performance in terms of noise and vibration insulation of periodic cells embedded in an otherwise uniform...... structure. Numerical examples are presented, and results are discussed and validated experimentally. Very good agreement between the numerical and experimental models in terms of stop-bands is shown. In particular, the results show that the stop-bands obtained using a wave approach (applied to a single cell...

  3. Numerical simulation and experimental validation of internal heat exchanger influence on CO{sub 2} trans-critical cycle performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigola, Joaquim; Ablanque, Nicolas; Perez-Segarra, Carlos D.; Oliva, Assensi [Centre Tecnologic de Transferencia de Calor (CTTC), Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya (UPC), ETSEIAT, C. Colom 11, 08222 Terrassa (Barcelona) (Spain)


    The present paper is a numerical and experimental comparative study of the whole vapour compression refrigerating cycle in general, and reciprocating compressors in particular, with the aim of showing the possibilities that CO{sub 2} offers for commercial refrigeration, considering a single-stage trans-critical cycle using semi-hermetic reciprocating compressors under small cooling capacity systems. The present work is focussed on the influence of using an internal heat exchanger (IHX) in order to improve the cycle performance under real working conditions. In order to validate the numerical results, an experimental unit specially designed and built to analyze trans-critical refrigerating equipments considering IHX has been built. Both numerical results and experimental data show reasonable good agreement, while the comparative global values conclude the improvement of cooling capacity and COP when IHX is considered in the CO{sub 2} trans-critical cycle. (author)

  4. Optimal Control of Diesel Engines: Numerical Methods, Applications, and Experimental Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Asprion


    become complex systems. The exploitation of any leftover potential during transient operation is crucial. However, even an experienced calibration engineer cannot conceive all the dynamic cross couplings between the many actuators. Therefore, a highly iterative procedure is required to obtain a single engine calibration, which in turn causes a high demand for test-bench time. Physics-based mathematical models and a dynamic optimisation are the tools to alleviate this dilemma. This paper presents the methods required to implement such an approach. The optimisation-oriented modelling of diesel engines is summarised, and the numerical methods required to solve the corresponding large-scale optimal control problems are presented. The resulting optimal control input trajectories over long driving profiles are shown to provide enough information to allow conclusions to be drawn for causal control strategies. Ways of utilising this data are illustrated, which indicate that a fully automated dynamic calibration of the engine control unit is conceivable. An experimental validation demonstrates the meaningfulness of these results. The measurement results show that the optimisation predicts the reduction of the fuel consumption and the cumulative pollutant emissions with a relative error of around 10% on highly transient driving cycles.

  5. Experimental and numerical analysis of clamped joints in front motorbike suspensions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vincenzi N.


    Full Text Available Clamped joints are shaft-hub connections used, as an instance, in front motorbike suspensions to lock the steering plates with the legs and the legs with the wheel pin, by means of one or two bolts. The preloading force, produced during the tightening process, should be evaluated accurately, since it must lock safely the shaft, without overcoming the yielding point of the hub. Firstly, friction coefficients have been evaluated on “ad-hoc designed” specimens, by applying the Design of Experiment approach: the applied tightening torque has been precisely related to the imposed preloading force. Then, the tensile state of clamps have been evaluated both via FEM and by leveraging some design formulae proposed by the Authors as function of the preloading force and of the clamp geometry. Finally, the results have been compared to those given by some strain gauges applied on the tested clamps: the discrepancies between numerical analyses, the design formulae and the experimental results remains under a threshold of 10%.

  6. Experimental and numerical studies on penetration of shaped charge into concrete and pebble layered targets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C Wang


    Full Text Available Experiments on penetrating into concrete and pebble layered targets were performed by shaped charge with different cone angles, liner wall thicknesses, length to diameter ratios and charge diameters at different standoffs. Based on the experimental data, the influence of shaped charge’s structural parameters on crater diameter, hole diameter, crater depth and penetration depth was analyzed in detail. Meanwhile, formation and penetration processes of all shaped charges were simulated by AUTODYN software for investigating the more intrinsic mechanisms, in which the numerical models are the same as those set up in the experiments. The results obtained in this paper indicate that there are obvious differences between jetting projectile charge (JPC and explosively formed projectile (EFP in penetrating into multi-layer targets. For the same charge diameter, the values of hole diameter formed by EFP were much larger than JPC. However, for the same standoff, the penetration depth caused by JCP were larger than EFP. The interfacial effect exists in the penetration progress of JPC.

  7. Experimental and numerical study on the optical properties and agglomeration of nanoparticle suspensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Otanicar, Todd, E-mail:; Hoyt, Jordan; Fahar, Maryam [University of Tulsa, Department of Mechanical Engineering (United States); Jiang, Xuchuan [University of New South Wales, School of Materials Science and Engineering (Australia); Taylor, Robert A. [University of New South Wales, School of Mechanical and Manufacturing Engineering (Australia)


    Nanoparticles have garnered significant interest because of their ability to enhance greatly the optical properties of the base fluid in which they are suspended. The optical properties of nanoparticles are sensitive to the materials used, as well as to the host medium. Most fluids exhibit refractive indices that are highly temperature-dependent, resulting in nanoparticle suspensions which also exhibit temperature-dependent optical properties. Previous work has shown that temperature increases result in decreased absorption in nanoparticle suspensions. Here, we expand previous work to include core–shell particles due to the potential spectral shifts in optical properties that will arise from the base fluid with temperature changes and the role of agglomeration under temperature cycling through both experimental and numerical efforts. Thermal cycling tests for silica and gold, the constituents of the core–shell nanoparticles used in this study, were tested to determine the extent of particle agglomeration resulting from up to 200 accelerated heating cycles. Optical properties were recorded after heating two base fluids (water and ethylene glycol) with multiple surfactants for silver nanospheres and silica–gold core–shell nanoparticles. It was found that the temperature results in a small increase in the transmittance for both particle types and a blue shift in the spectral transmittance for core–shell nanoparticles. Further, the coupling effect of temperature and agglomeration played a significant role in determining both the spectral properties—particularly the resulting transmittance—of the silver nanoparticle suspensions.

  8. Study of the flow field past dimpled aerodynamic surfaces: numerical simulation and experimental verification (United States)

    Binci, L.; Clementi, G.; D’Alessandro, V.; Montelpare, S.; Ricci, R.


    This work presents the study of the flow field past of dimpled laminar airfoil. Fluid dynamic behaviour of these elements has been not still deeply studied in the scientific community. Therefore Computational Fluid-Dynamics (CFD) is here used to analyze the flow field induced by dimples on the NACA 64-014A laminar airfoil at Re = 1.75 · 105 at α = 0°. Reynolds Averaged Navier–Stokes (RANS) equations and Large-Eddy Simulations (LES) were compared with wind tunnel measurements in order to evaluate their effectiveness in the modeling this kind of flow field. LES equations were solved using a specifically developed OpenFOAM solver adopting an L–stable Singly Diagonally Implicit Runge–Kutta (SDIRK) technique with an iterated PISO-like procedure for handling pressure-velocity coupling within each RK stage. Dynamic Smagorinsky subgrid model was employed. LES results provided good agreement with experimental data, while RANS equations closed with \\[k-ω -γ -\\overset{}{\\mathop{{{\\operatorname{Re}}θ, \\text{t}}}} \\] approach overstimates laminar separation bubble (LSB) extension of dimpled and un–dimpled configurations. Moreover, through skin friction coefficient analysis, we found a different representation of the turbulent zone between the numerical models; indeed, with RANS model LSB seems to be divided in two different parts, meanwhile LES model shows a LSB global reduction.

  9. Pinch off and reconnection in liquid/liquid flows: joint experimental and numerical studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellen K. Longmire; John S. Lowengrub


    Liquid/liquid systems appear in applications involving transport, mixing, and separation of petroleum, chemical, and waste products. Breakup and coalescence transitions often determine flow regimes as well as reaction and separation rates. Because they occur over very small time and length scales compared with the larger scales that dominate the flow, they are difficult to quantify experimentally and simulate numerically. Thus far, no accurate models exist for engineers to predict these flows. Experiments and computations were performed so that accurate engineering models can be developed. Jet pinch off and drop coalescence were examined in mixtures of water/glycerin and silicone oil. Index matching, laser sheet illumination, and the PIV method were applied to obtain visualization and velocity field sequences through transitions. The computations used a novel, physically-based method that captures interface breakup and coalescence automatically without resorting to ad-hoc cut-and-connect methods. To achieve enhanced accuracy near transitions, new adaptive time and space meshes were developed. The computations were validated through direct comparison with the experiments. The detailed results should lead to improved understanding of transition behavior. This understanding is needed to develop engineering models of multiphase flows. Such predictive models will lead to extensive cost savings in device and process design.

  10. A Numerical and Experimental Study of Damage Growth in a Composite Laminate (United States)

    McElroy, Mark; Ratcliffe, James; Czabaj, Michael; Wang, John; Yuan, Fuh-Gwo


    The present study has three goals: (1) perform an experiment where a simple laminate damage process can be characterized in high detail; (2) evaluate the performance of existing commercially available laminate damage simulation tools by modeling the experiment; (3) observe and understand the underlying physics of damage in a composite honeycomb sandwich structure subjected to low-velocity impact. A quasi-static indentation experiment has been devised to provide detailed information about a simple mixed-mode damage growth process. The test specimens consist of an aluminum honeycomb core with a cross-ply laminate facesheet supported on a stiff uniform surface. When the sample is subjected to an indentation load, the honeycomb core provides support to the facesheet resulting in a gradual and stable damage growth process in the skin. This enables real time observation as a matrix crack forms, propagates through a ply, and then causes a delamination. Finite element analyses were conducted in ABAQUS/Explicit(TradeMark) 6.13 that used continuum and cohesive modeling techniques to simulate facesheet damage and a geometric and material nonlinear model to simulate core crushing. The high fidelity of the experimental data allows a detailed investigation and discussion of the accuracy of each numerical modeling approach.

  11. Experimental and numerical modeling research of rubber material during microwave heating process (United States)

    Chen, Hailong; Li, Tao; Li, Kunling; Li, Qingling


    This paper aims to investigate the heating behaviors of block rubber by experimental and simulated method. The COMSOL Multiphysics 5.0 software was utilized in numerical simulation work. The effects of microwave frequency, power and sample size on temperature distribution are examined. The effect of frequency on temperature distribution is obvious. The maximum and minimum temperatures of block rubber increase first and then decrease with frequency increasing. The microwave heating efficiency is maximum in the microwave frequency of 2450 MHz. However, more uniform temperature distribution is presented in other microwave frequencies. The influence of microwave power on temperature distribution is also remarkable. The smaller the power, the more uniform the temperature distribution on the block rubber. The effect of power on microwave heating efficiency is not obvious. The effect of sample size on temperature distribution is evidently found. The smaller the sample size, the more uniform the temperature distribution on the block rubber. However, the smaller the sample size, the lower the microwave heating efficiency. The results can serve as references for the research on heating rubber material by microwave technology.

  12. A Numerical and Experimental Study of Ejector Internal Flow Structure and Geometry Modification for Maximized Performance (United States)

    Falsafioon, Mehdi; Aidoun, Zine; Poirier, Michel


    A wide range of industrial refrigeration systems are good candidates to benefit from the cooling and refrigeration potential of supersonic ejectors. These are thermally activated and can use waste heat recovery from industrial processes where it is abundantly generated and rejected to the environment. In other circumstances low cost heat from biomass or solar energy may also be used in order to produce a cooling effect. Ejector performance is however typically modest and needs to be maximized in order to take full advantage of the simplicity and low cost of the technology. In the present work, the behavior of ejectors with different nozzle exit positions has been investigated using a prototype as well as a CFD model. The prototype was used in order to measure the performance advantages of refrigerant (R-134a) flowing inside the ejector. For the CFD model, it is assumed that the ejectors are axi-symmetric along x-axis, thus the generated model is in 2D. The preliminary CFD results are validated with experimental data over a wide range of conditions and are in good accordance in terms of entrainment and compression ratios. Next, the flow patterns of four different topologies are studied in order to discuss the optimum geometry in term of ejector entrainment improvement. Finally, The numerical simulations were used to find an optimum value corresponding to maximized entrainment ratio for fixed operating conditions.

  13. Shape Effect of Crushed Sand Filler on Rheology: A Preliminary Experimental and Numerical Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Spangenberg, Jon; Cepuritis, Rolands; Hovad, Emil


    Two types of filler from crushed sand were mixed with cement paste with constant superplasticizer dosage per mass of cement to investigate how their shape affects the rheology. The fillers were mylonitic quartz diorite and limestone produced using Vertical Shaft Impact (VSI) crusher and air class...... for the two filler types. Subsequently, a discrete element model was utilized to simulate the experimental data, thereby providing an initial step toward a numerical tool that can assist when proportioning self-compacting concrete with high volumes of crushed sand fines.......Two types of filler from crushed sand were mixed with cement paste with constant superplasticizer dosage per mass of cement to investigate how their shape affects the rheology. The fillers were mylonitic quartz diorite and limestone produced using Vertical Shaft Impact (VSI) crusher and air...... to 0.1 mm. The two filler types were tested with a range of chi-values (volume of cement divided by total volume of solids). The flowability of the matrix increased with decreasing aspect ratios of the filler. However, the chi-value at which the maximum volume fraction threshold was obtained varied...

  14. Optimal Pulse Configuration Design for Heart Stimulation. A Theoretical, Numerical and Experimental Study. (United States)

    Hardy, Neil; Dvir, Hila; Fenton, Flavio

    Existing pacemakers consider the rectangular pulse to be the optimal form of stimulation current. However, other waveforms for the use of pacemakers could save energy while still stimulating the heart. We aim to find the optimal waveform for pacemaker use, and to offer a theoretical explanation for its advantage. Since the pacemaker battery is a charge source, here we probe the stimulation current waveforms with respect to the total charge delivery. In this talk we present theoretical analysis and numerical simulations of myocyte ion-channel currents acting as an additional source of charge that adds to the external stimulating charge for stimulation purposes. Therefore, we find that as the action potential emerges, the external stimulating current can be reduced accordingly exponentially. We then performed experimental studies in rabbit and cat hearts and showed that indeed exponential truncated pulses with less total charge can still induce activation in the heart. From the experiments, we present curves showing the savings in charge as a function of exponential waveform and we calculated that the longevity of the pacemaker battery would be ten times higher for the exponential current compared to the rectangular waveforms. Thanks to Petit Undergraduate Research Scholars Program and NSF# 1413037.

  15. Revisiting Formability and Failure of AISI304 Sheets in SPIF: Experimental Approach and Numerical Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Centeno


    Full Text Available Single Point Incremental Forming (SPIF is a flexible and economic manufacturing process with a strong potential for manufacturing small and medium batches of highly customized parts. Formability and failure in SPIF have been intensively discussed in recent years, especially because this process allows stable plastic deformation well above the conventional forming limits, as this enhanced formability is only achievable within a certain range of process parameters depending on the material type. This paper analyzes formability and failure of AISI304-H111 sheets deformed by SPIF compared to conventional testing conditions (including Nakazima and stretch-bending tests. With this purpose, experimental tests in SPIF and stretch-bending were carried out and a numerical model of SPIF is performed. The results allow the authors to establish the following contributions regarding SPIF: (i the setting of the limits of the formability enhancement when small tool diameters are used, (ii the evolution of the crack when failure is attained and (iii the determination of the conditions upon which necking is suppressed, leading directly to ductile fracture in SPIF.

  16. Tensile stress generation by optical breakdown in tissue: Experimental investigations and numerical simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, A. [Medizinisches Laserzentrum Luebeck (Germany); Scammon, R.J.; Godwin, R.P. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)


    Biological tissue is more susceptible to damage from tensile stress than to compressive stress. Tensile stress may arise through the thermoelastic response of laser-irradiated media. Optical breakdown, however, has to date been exclusively associated with compressive stress. The authors show that this is appropriate for water, but not for tissues for which the elastic-plastic material response needs to be considered. The acoustic transients following optical breakdown in water and cornea were measured with a fast hydrophone and the cavitation bubble dynamics, which is closely linked to the stress wave generation, was documented by flash photography. Breakdown in water produced a monopolar acoustic signal and a bubble oscillation in which the expansion and collapse phases were symmetric. Breakdown in cornea produced a bipolar acoustic signal coupled with a pronounced shortening of the bubble expansion phase and a considerable prolongation of its collapse phase. The tensile stress wave is related to the abrupt end of the bubble expansion. Numerical simulations using the MESA-2D code were performed assuming elastic-plastic material behavior in a wide range of values for the shear modulus and yield strength. The calculations revealed that consideration of the elastic-plastic material response is essential to reproduce the experimentally observed bipolar stress waves. The tensile stress evolves during the outward propagation of the acoustic transient and reaches an amplitude of 30--40% of the compressive pulse.

  17. SSI on the Dynamic Behaviour of a Historical Masonry Building: Experimental versus Numerical Results

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesca Ceroni


    Full Text Available A reliable procedure to identify the dynamic behaviour of existing masonry buildings is described in the paper, referring to a representative case study: a historical masonry palace located in Benevento (Italy. Since the building has been equipped with a permanent dynamic monitoring system by the Department of Civil Protection, some of the recorded data, acquired in various operating conditions, have been analysed with basic instruments of the Operational Modal Analysis in order to identify the main eigenfrequencies and vibration modes of the structure. The obtained experimental results have been compared to the numerical outcomes provided by three detailed Finite Element (FE models of the building. The influence of Soil-Structure Interaction (SSI has been also introduced in the FE model by a sub-structure approach where concentrated springs were placed at the base of the building to simulate the effect of soil and foundation on the global dynamic behaviour of the structure. The obtained results evidence that subsoil cannot a priori be disregarded in identifying the dynamic response of the building.

  18. Experimental Analysis and Evaluation of the Numerical Prediction of Wake Characteristics of Tidal Stream Turbine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuquan Zhang


    Full Text Available It is important to understand tidal stream turbine performance and flow field, if tidal energy is to advance. The operating condition of a tidal stream turbine with a supporting structure has a significant impact on its performance and wake recovery. The aim of this work is to provide an understanding of turbine submerged depth that governs the downstream wake structure and its recovery to the free-stream velocity profile. An experimentally validated numerical model, based on a computational fluid dynamics (CFD tool, was present to obtain longitudinal, transverse and vertical velocity profiles. Wake characteristics measurements have been carried out in an open channel at Hohai University. The results indicate that varying the turbine proximity to the water surface introduces differential mass flow rate around the rotor that could make the wake persist differently downstream. CFD shows the same predicted wake recovery tendency with the experiments, and an agreement from CFD and experiments is good in the far-wake region. The results presented demonstrate that CFD is a good tool to simulate the performance of tidal turbines particularly in the far-wake region and that the turbine proximity to the water surface has an effect on the wake recovery.

  19. Numerical and Experimental Studies on Nonlinear Dynamics and Performance of a Bistable Piezoelectric Cantilever Generator

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kangkang Guo


    Full Text Available A piezo-magneto-elastically coupled distributed-parameter model of a bistable piezoelectric cantilever generator is developed by using the generalized Hamilton principle. The influence of the spacing between two adjacent magnets on the static bifurcation characteristics of the system is studied and the range of magnet spacing corresponding to the bistable states is obtained. Numerical and experimental studies are carried out to analyze the bifurcation, response characteristics, and their impact on the electrical output performance under varying external excitations. Results indicate that interwell limit cycle motion of the beam around the two centers corresponds to optimum power output; interwell chaotic motion and multiperiodic motion including intrawell oscillations are less effective. At a given frequency, the phenomena of symmetric-breaking and amplitude-phase modulation are observed with increase of base excitation. Both period-doubling bifurcation and intermittency routes to chaotic motion in the bistable system are found. It can be observed that the power output is not proportional to the excitation level because of the bifurcation behaviours.

  20. Experimental and Numerical Investigation of an Overheated Aluminum Droplet Wetting a Zinc-Coated Steel Surface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Gatzen


    Full Text Available Wetting steel surfaces with liquid aluminum without the use of flux can be enabled by the presence of a zinc-coating. The mechanisms behind this effect are not yet fully understood. Research results on single aluminum droplets falling on commercial galvanized steel substrates revealed the good wetting capability of zinc coatings independently from the coating type. The final wetting angle and length are apparently linked to the time where zinc is liquefied during its contact with the overheated aluminum melt. This led to the assumption that the interaction is basically a fluid dynamic effect of liquid aluminum getting locally alloyed by zinc. A numerical model was developed to describe the transient behavior of droplet movement and mixing with the liquefied zinc layer to understand the spreading dynamics. The simulations reveal a displacement of the molten zinc after the impact of the droplet, which ultimately leads to an accumulation of zinc in the outer weld toe after solidification. The simulation approach neglects the effect of evaporating zinc, resulting in a slight overestimation of the final droplet width. However, in terms of spreading initiation during the first milliseconds, the simulation is in good correlation with experimental observations and demonstrates the reason for the good wetting in the presence of zinc coatings.

  1. Experimental and numerical characterization of thermal bridges in prefabricated building walls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zalewski, Laurent; Lassue, Stephane; Boukhalfa, Kamel [Univ Lille Nord de France, F-59000 Lille (France); UArtois, LGCgE, F-62400 Bethune (France); Rousse, Daniel [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ecole de Technologie Superieure, Montreal (Canada)


    This work is a contribution to the characterization of the thermal efficiency of complex walls of buildings with respect to the ever increasing requirements in thermal insulation. The work specifically concerns the quantitative evaluation of heat losses by thermal bridges. The support of the study is the envelope of industrial light construction walls containing a metal framework, an insulating material inserted in between metal trusses, water and vapor barriers, and the internal and external facings. This article presents first the infrared thermography method which is used to visualize the thermal bridges as well as a genuine complementary experimental method allowing for the determination of the quantitative aspects of the heat losses through the envelope. Tangential-gradient heat fluxmeters, which create little disturbance in the measurements, are used in the context of laboratory and in full-scale insitu experiments. Then, the article presents a simple yet accurate prediction with a three-dimensional numerical method that could be used for the design of specific installations and parametric studies. (author)

  2. Numerical and Experimental Investigation on the Performance of a Thermoelectric Cooling Automotive Seat (United States)

    Su, Chuqi; Dong, Wenbin; Deng, Yadong; Wang, Yiping; Liu, Xun


    Heating, ventilating and air conditioning (HVAC) is the most significant auxiliary load in vehicles and largely increases extra emissions. Therefore, thermoelectric cooling automotive seat, a relatively new technology, is used in an attempt to reduce HVAC consumption and improve thermal comfort. In this study, three design schemes of the thermoelectric cooler (TEC) are proposed. Then the numerical simulation is used to analyze their heat transfer performance, and evaluate the improvement of the seat cooling in terms of the occupant back thermal comfort. Moreover, an experiment is conducted to validate the accuracy of the simulation results. The experimental results show that: (1) an average reduction in air temperature of 4°C in 60 s is obtained; (2) the temperature of the occupant's back drops from 33.5°C to 25.7°C in cooperation with the HVAC system; (3) back thermal comfort is greatly improved. As expected, the thermoelectric cooling automotive seat is able to provide an improvement in the occupant's thermal comfort at a reduced energy consumption rate, which makes it promising for vehicular application.

  3. The use of experimental bending tests to more accurate numerical description of TBC damage process (United States)

    Sadowski, T.; Golewski, P.


    Thermal barrier coatings (TBCs) have been extensively used in aircraft engines to protect critical engine parts such as blades and combustion chambers, which are exposed to high temperatures and corrosive environment. The blades of turbine engines are additionally exposed to high mechanical loads. These loads are created by the high rotational speed of the rotor (30 000 rot/min), causing the tensile and bending stresses. Therefore, experimental testing of coated samples is necessary in order to determine strength properties of TBCs. Beam samples with dimensions 50×10×2 mm were used in those studies. The TBC system consisted of 150 μm thick bond coat (NiCoCrAlY) and 300 μm thick top coat (YSZ) made by APS (air plasma spray) process. Samples were tested by three-point bending test with various loads. After bending tests, the samples were subjected to microscopic observation to determine the quantity of cracks and their depth. The above mentioned results were used to build numerical model and calibrate material data in Abaqus program. Brittle cracking damage model was applied for the TBC layer, which allows to remove elements after reaching criterion. Surface based cohesive behavior was used to model the delamination which may occur at the boundary between bond coat and top coat.

  4. Experimental and Numerical Study on Performance of Ducted Hydrokinetic Turbines with Pre-Swirl Stator Blades. (United States)

    Gish, Andrew


    Ducts (also called shrouds) have been shown to improve performance of hydrokinetic turbines in some situations, bringing the power coefficient (Cp) closer to the Betz limit. Here we investigate optimization of the duct design as well as the addition of stator blades upstream of the turbine rotor to introduce pre-swirl in the flow. A small scale three-bladed turbine was tested in a towing tank. Three cases (bare turbine, with duct, and with duct and stators) were tested over a range of flow speeds. Important parameters include duct cross-sectional shape, blade-duct gap, stator cross-sectional shape, and stator angle. For each test, Cp was evaluated as a function of tip speed ratio (TSR). Experimental results were compared with numerical simulations. Results indicate that ducts and stators can improve performance at slower flow speeds and lower the stall speed compared to a bare turbine, but may degrade performance at higher speeds. Ongoing efforts to optimize duct and stator configurations will be discussed.

  5. Experimental and Numerical Research of a Novel Combustion Chamber for Small Gas Turbine Engines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hybl R.


    Full Text Available New combustion chamber concept (based on burner JETIS-JET Induced Swirl for small gas turbine engine (up to 200kW is presented in this article. The combustion chamber concept is based on the flame stabilization by the generated swirl swirl generated by two opposite tangentially arranged jet tubes in the intermediate zone, this arrangement replaces air swirler, which is very complicated and expensive part in the scope of small gas turbines with annular combustion chamber. The mixing primary jets are oriented partially opposite to the main exhaust gasses flow, this enhances hot product recirculation and fuel-air mixing necessary for low NOx production and flame stability. To evaluate the designed concept a JETIS burner demonstrator (methane fuel was manufactured and atmospheric experimental measurements of CO, NOx for various fuel nozzles and jet tubes the configuration were done. Results of these experiments and comparison with CFD simulation are presented here. Practical application of the new chamber concept in small gas turbine liquid fuel combustor was evaluated (verified on 3 nozzles planar combustor sector test rig at atmospheric conditions results of the experiment and numerical simulation are also presented.

  6. Sound absorption of porous substrates covered by foliage: experimental results and numerical predictions. (United States)

    Ding, Lei; Van Renterghem, Timothy; Botteldooren, Dick; Horoshenkov, Kirill; Khan, Amir


    The influence of loose plant leaves on the acoustic absorption of a porous substrate is experimentally and numerically studied. Such systems are typical in vegetative walls, where the substrate has strong acoustical absorbing properties. Both experiments in an impedance tube and theoretical predictions show that when a leaf is placed in front of such a porous substrate, its absorption characteristics markedly change (for normal incident sound). Typically, there is an unaffected change in the low frequency absorption coefficient (below 250 Hz), an increase in the middle frequency absorption coefficient (500-2000 Hz) and a decrease in the absorption at higher frequencies. The influence of leaves becomes most pronounced when the substrate has a low mass density. A combination of the Biot's elastic frame porous model, viscous damping in the leaf boundary layers and plate vibration theory is implemented via a finite-difference time-domain model, which is able to predict accurately the absorption spectrum of a leaf above a porous substrate system. The change in the absorption spectrum caused by the leaf vibration can be modeled reasonably well assuming the leaf and porous substrate properties are uniform.

  7. Numerical and Experimental Investigation into Hot Forming of Ultra High Strength Steel Sheet (United States)

    Liu, Hongsheng; Liu, Wei; Bao, Jun; Xing, Zhongwen; Song, Baoyu; Lei, Chengxi


    Hot forming of ultra high strength steel (UHSS) sheet metal grade 22MnB5 boron for channel components using water cooling is studied on a laboratory scale. After hot forming, the different microstructures such as martensite, bainite, and pearlite in formed component are produced, which are closely related with mechanical properties of formed component. The effect of forming start temperature and the contact state between blank and die on the microstructure evolution is investigated. In addition, the effect of processing parameters, such as forming start temperature and blank holder force (BHF), on the final quality of component, i.e., springback, that happens after hot forming of UHSS is investigated. It can be concluded that the forming start temperature has a significant effect on the final mechanical properties of formed components. The effect of forming start temperature on springback is examined in detail under a wide range of operating conditions. The higher the BHF and the forming start temperature, the lower is the springback after hot forming. Furthermore, thermo-mechanically coupled finite element analysis model encompassing heating of sheet blank, forming and quenching are developed for hot forming process. The stress distributions on sheet blank under different conditions during hot forming are compared to gain a fundamental understanding of the mechanism of springback. Comparisons show that numerical simulation results have good agreement with experimental results.

  8. Fast Hybrid MPPT Technique for Photovoltaic Applications: Numerical and Experimental Validation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gianluca Aurilio


    Full Text Available In PV applications, under mismatching conditions, it is necessary to adopt a maximum power point tracking (MPPT technique which is able to regulate not only the voltages of the PV modules of the array but also the DC input voltage of the inverter. Such a technique can be considered a hybrid MPPT (HMPPT technique since it is neither only distributed on the PV modules of the PV array or only centralized at the input of the inverter. In this paper a new HMPPT technique is presented and discussed. Its main advantages are the high MPPT efficiency and the high speed of tracking which are obtained by means of a fast estimate of the optimal values of PV modules voltages and of the input inverter voltage. The new HMPPT technique is compared with simple HMPPT techniques based on the scan of the power versus voltage inverter input characteristic. The theoretical analysis and the results of numerical simulations are widely discussed. Moreover, a laboratory test system, equipped with PV emulators, has been realized and used in order to experimentally validate the proposed technique.

  9. Temperature Mapping of 3D Printed Polymer Plates: Experimental and Numerical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Charoula Kousiatza


    Full Text Available In Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM, which is a common thermoplastic Additive Manufacturing (AM method, the polymer model material that is in the form of a flexible filament is heated above its glass transition temperature (Tg to a semi-molten state in the head’s liquefier. The heated material is extruded in a rastering configuration onto the building platform where it rapidly cools and solidifies with the adjoining material. The heating and rapid cooling cycles of the work materials exhibited during the FDM process provoke non-uniform thermal gradients and cause stress build-up that consequently result in part distortions, dimensional inaccuracy and even possible part fabrication failure. Within the purpose of optimizing the FDM technique by eliminating the presence of such undesirable effects, real-time monitoring is essential for the evaluation and control of the final parts’ quality. The present work investigates the temperature distributions developed during the FDM building process of multilayered thin plates and on this basis a numerical study is also presented. The recordings of temperature changes were achieved by embedding temperature measuring sensors at various locations into the middle-plane of the printed structures. The experimental results, mapping the temperature variations within the samples, were compared to the corresponding ones obtained by finite element modeling, exhibiting good correlation.

  10. Numerical simulation and experimental research on interaction of micro-defects and laser ultrasonic signal (United States)

    Guo, Hualing; Zheng, Bin; Liu, Hui


    In the present research, the mechanism governing the interaction between laser-generated ultrasonic wave and the micro-defects on an aluminum plate has been studied by virtue of numerical simulation as well as practical experiments. Simulation results indicate that broadband ultrasonic waves are caused mainly by surface waves, and that the surface waves produced by micro-defects could be utilized for the detection of micro-defects because these waves reflect as much information of the defects as possible. In the research, a laser-generated ultrasonic wave testing system with a surface wave probe has been established for the detection of micro-defects, and the surface waves produced by the defects with different depths on an aluminum plate have been tested by using the system. The interaction between defect depth and the maximum amplitude of the surface wave and that between defect depth and the center frequency of the surface wave have also been analyzed in detail. Research results indicate that, when the defect depth is less than half of the wavelength of the surface wave, the maximum amplitude and the center frequency of the surface wave are in linear proportion to the defect depth. Sound consistency of experimental results with theoretical simulation indicates that the system as established in the present research could be adopted for the quantitative detection of micro-defects.

  11. Temperature Mapping of 3D Printed Polymer Plates: Experimental and Numerical Study. (United States)

    Kousiatza, Charoula; Chatzidai, Nikoleta; Karalekas, Dimitris


    In Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM), which is a common thermoplastic Additive Manufacturing (AM) method, the polymer model material that is in the form of a flexible filament is heated above its glass transition temperature (Tg) to a semi-molten state in the head's liquefier. The heated material is extruded in a rastering configuration onto the building platform where it rapidly cools and solidifies with the adjoining material. The heating and rapid cooling cycles of the work materials exhibited during the FDM process provoke non-uniform thermal gradients and cause stress build-up that consequently result in part distortions, dimensional inaccuracy and even possible part fabrication failure. Within the purpose of optimizing the FDM technique by eliminating the presence of such undesirable effects, real-time monitoring is essential for the evaluation and control of the final parts' quality. The present work investigates the temperature distributions developed during the FDM building process of multilayered thin plates and on this basis a numerical study is also presented. The recordings of temperature changes were achieved by embedding temperature measuring sensors at various locations into the middle-plane of the printed structures. The experimental results, mapping the temperature variations within the samples, were compared to the corresponding ones obtained by finite element modeling, exhibiting good correlation.

  12. Numerical and Experimental Study on Working Mechanics of Pear-Shaped Casing Swage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanhua Lin


    Full Text Available Pear-shaped casing swage (PCS repair technology is highly efficient in repairing deformed casing and the value of repairing force is a very important parameter for designing and optimizing the casing swage and structure parameters. A new three-dimensional simulation analysis of casing swage in the well and the finite element analysis (FEA model of 7′′ API deformed casing and PCS are established based on the elastic-plastic mechanics, the finite element theory, and application of numerical simulation analysis for the actual process of repairing deformed casing. According to the model, the repairing force required to repair the deformed casing is obtained; furthermore, the correlation between the repairing force and confining pressure is obtained. Meanwhile, the repairing test of deformed casing was performed by using PCS in the lab. Experimental results are consistent with simulation results. It indicated that the mechanical model can provide theoretical guidance for design and optimization of the structure of tool and reshaping technological parameters.

  13. Experimental and Numerical Method for the Analysis of Warm Titanium Sheet Stamping of an Automotive Component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Fiorentino


    Full Text Available Product design involves many aspects as geometry and material or mechanical requirements that have to be chosen on the base of the part requirements. Manufacturing process is the link between them representing a fundamental aspect of the product design process. Designers and technicians have a consolidated set of tools and knowledge based on long time experience, but the request of more new performing products characterized by more complex geometries or harder to form materials as Titanium alloys stimulated the use of numerical models. They allow us to study the product feasibility but they require reliable inputs for their development and validation. The present research focuses on sheet stamping processes and proposes a methodology that uses the Nakazima test to characterize the formability of the material and to develop and validate the model. In particular, the method is applied to cold (20°C and warm (300°C stamping of a complex automotive component made of CP Titanium. After characterizing the material and validating the model at the different temperatures, the stamping process is studied and results are compared. In particular, this approach allowed joining the experimental tests required to develop and validate the model, therefore reducing the resources required for the product design.

  14. Temperature Mapping of 3D Printed Polymer Plates: Experimental and Numerical Study (United States)

    Kousiatza, Charoula; Chatzidai, Nikoleta; Karalekas, Dimitris


    In Fused Deposition Modeling (FDM), which is a common thermoplastic Additive Manufacturing (AM) method, the polymer model material that is in the form of a flexible filament is heated above its glass transition temperature (Tg) to a semi-molten state in the head’s liquefier. The heated material is extruded in a rastering configuration onto the building platform where it rapidly cools and solidifies with the adjoining material. The heating and rapid cooling cycles of the work materials exhibited during the FDM process provoke non-uniform thermal gradients and cause stress build-up that consequently result in part distortions, dimensional inaccuracy and even possible part fabrication failure. Within the purpose of optimizing the FDM technique by eliminating the presence of such undesirable effects, real-time monitoring is essential for the evaluation and control of the final parts’ quality. The present work investigates the temperature distributions developed during the FDM building process of multilayered thin plates and on this basis a numerical study is also presented. The recordings of temperature changes were achieved by embedding temperature measuring sensors at various locations into the middle-plane of the printed structures. The experimental results, mapping the temperature variations within the samples, were compared to the corresponding ones obtained by finite element modeling, exhibiting good correlation. PMID:28245557

  15. Compressive Behavior of 3D Woven Composite Stiffened Panels: Experimental and Numerical Study (United States)

    Zhou, Guangming; Pan, Ruqin; Li, Chao; Cai, Deng'an; Wang, Xiaopei


    The structural behavior and damage propagation of 3D woven composite stiffened panels with different woven patterns under axial-compression are here investigated. The panel is 2.5D interlock woven composites (2.5DIWC), while the straight-stiffeners are 3D woven orthogonal composites (3DWOC). They are coupled together with the Z-fibers from the stiffener passing straight thought the thickness of the panel. A "T-shape" model, in which the fiber bundle structure and resin matrix are drawn out to simulate the real situation of the connection area, is established to predict elastic constants and strength of the connection region. Based on Hashin failure criterion, a progressive damage model is carried out to simulate the compressive behavior of the stiffened panel. The 3D woven composite stiffened panels are manufactured using RTM process and then tested. A good agreement between experimental results and numerical predicted values for the compressive failure load is obtained. From initial damage to final collapse, the panel and stiffeners will not separate each other in the connection region. The main failure mode of 3D woven composite stiffened panels is compressive failure of fiber near the loading end corner.

  16. Experimental and numerical simulation of passive decay heat removal by sump cooling after cool melt down

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knebel, J.U.; Kuhn, D.; Mueller, U. [Institut fuer Angewandet Thermo- und Fluiddynamik (IATF) (Germany)


    This article presents the basic physical phenomena and scaling criteria of passive decay heat removal from a large coolant pool by single-phase and two-phase natural circulation. The physical significance of the dimensionless similarity groups derived is evaluated. The above results are applied to the SUCO program that is performed at the Forschungszentrum Karlsruhe. The SUCO program is a three-step series of scaled model experiments investigating the possibility of a sump cooling concept for future light water reactors. The sump cooling concept is based on passive safety features within the containment. The work is supported by the German utilities and the Siemens AG. The article gives results of temperature and velocity measurements in the 1:20 linearly scaled SUCOS-2D test facility. The experiments are backed up by numerical calculations using the commercial software package Fluent. Finally, using the similarity analysis from above, the experimental results of the model geometry are scaled-up to the conditions in the prototype, allowing a first statement with regard to the feasibility of the sump cooling concept. 11 refs., 9 figs., 3 tabs.

  17. Prediction of the Individual Wave Overtopping Volumes of a Wave Energy Converter using Experimental Testing and First Numerical Model Results

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Victor, L.; Troch, P.; Kofoed, Jens Peter


    For overtopping wave energy converters (WECs) a more efficient energy conversion can be achieved when the volumes of water, wave by wave, that enter their reservoir are known and can be predicted. A numerical tool is being developed using a commercial CFD-solver to study and optimize...... nearshore 2Dstructure. First numerical model results are given for a specific test with regular waves, and are compared with the corresponding experimental results in this paper....

  18. Numerical researches of DGRP-type experimental frames using the finite elements method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.V. Mikhaylovskiy


    Full Text Available One of the most common types of structures made of glulam beams is curved frames. A lot of industrial plants and public buildings are built using curved frames. The using of such frames in buildings with an aggressive environment showed their great reliability. However, with all the advantages of curved frames with glulam beams their using is constrained by imperfect methods of stress analysis based on the principles of calculation of structures with solid wood. The need for careful study and improvement of methods of calculation of Curved frames determines the relevance of researched topic. Aim: The aim of this research is to study the numerous researches of pilot frame for further improving of methods of stress analysis in the cornice nodes of curved frames. Materials and Methods: In order to achieve this goal the theoretical displacements and component stress state were determined using experimental elastic characteristics of the frames material. Glulam beams compared to a solid closer to trans tropic design scheme of symmetry, according to which the mechanical and elastic properties of building materials in planes perpendicular direction along the wood fibers are equivalent. For reliable determination of the parameters of the stress-strain state in the elements of any shape, getting of quality pictures of stress distribution along the length of the frame and establishing patterns of changes in stress in the composition of the assembly, the software system LIRA-CAD has been used, where a model of orthogonal anisotropy (orthotropy in the plate finite elements has been realized. Results: Analyzing the results, we can conclude that the overall coincidence between theoretical and experimental data is satisfactory. Arguably, the strained state of frames obtained by theoretical calculation with taking into account the real physical and mechanical characteristics of the experimental designs material is significant. Given that in the compressed

  19. Numerical assessment of pulsating water jet in the conical diffusers (United States)

    Tanasa, Constantin; Ciocan, Tiberiu; Muntean, Sebastian


    The hydraulic fluctuations associated with partial load operating conditions of Francis turbines are often periodic and characterized by the presence of a vortex rope. Two types of pressure fluctuations associated with the draft tube surge are identified in the literature. The first is an asynchronous (rotating) pressure fluctuation due to the precession of the helical vortex around the axis of the draft tube. The second type of fluctuation is a synchronous (plunging) fluctuation. The plunging fluctuations correspond to the flow field oscillations in the whole hydraulic passage, and are generally propagated overall in the hydraulic system. The paper introduced a new control method, which consists in injecting a pulsating axial water jet along to the draft tube axis. Nevertheless, the great calling of this control method is to mitigate the vortex rope effects targeting the vortex sheet and corresponding plunging component. In this paper, is presented our 3D numerical investigations with and without pulsating axial water jet control method in order to evaluate the concept.

  20. The compressible adjoint equations in geodynamics: derivation and numerical assessment (United States)

    Ghelichkhan, Siavash; Bunge, Hans-Peter


    The adjoint method is a powerful means to obtain gradient information in a mantle convection model relative to past flow structure. While the adjoint equations in geodynamics have been derived for the conservation equations of mantle flow in their incompressible form, the applicability of this approximation to Earth is limited. Here we introduce the compressible adjoint equations for the conservation equations in the anelastic-liquid approximation. Our derivation applies an operator formulation in Hilbert spaces, to connect to recent work in seismology (Fichtner et al. 2006) and geodynamics (Horbach et al. 2014), where the approach was used to derive the adjoint equations for the wave equation and incompressible mantle flow. We present numerical tests of the newly derived equations based on twin experiments, focusing on three simulations. A first, termed Compressible, assumes the compressible forward and adjoint equations, and represents the consistent means of including compressibility effects. A second, termed Mixed, applies the compressible forward equation, but ignores compressibility effects in the adjoint equations, where the incompressible equations are used instead. A third simulation, termed Incompressible, neglects compressibility effects entirely in the forward and adjoint equations relative to the reference twin. The compressible and mixed formulations successfully restore earlier mantle flow structure, while the incompressible formulation yields noticeable artifacts. Our results suggest the use of a compressible formulation, when applying the adjoint method to seismically derived mantle heterogeneity structure.

  1. Numerical and Experimental Investigation of Computed Tomography of Chemiluminescence for Hydrogen-Air Premixed Laminar Flames

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Lv


    Full Text Available Computed tomography of chemiluminescence (CTC is a promising technique for combustion diagnostics, providing instantaneous 3D information of flame structures, especially in harsh circumstance. This work focuses on assessing the feasibility of CTC and investigating structures of hydrogen-air premixed laminar flames using CTC. A numerical phantom study was performed to assess the accuracy of the reconstruction algorithm. A well-designed burner was used to generate stable hydrogen-air premixed laminar flames. The OH⁎ chemiluminescence intensity field reconstructed from 37 views using CTC was compared to the OH⁎ chemiluminescence distributions recorded directly by a single ICCD camera from the side view. The flame structures in different flow velocities and equivalence ratios were analyzed using the reconstructions. The results show that the CTC technique can effectively indicate real distributions of the flame chemiluminescence. The height of the flame becomes larger with increasing flow velocities, whereas it decreases with increasing equivalence ratios (no larger than 1. The increasing flow velocities gradually lift the flame reaction zones. A critical cone angle of 4.76 degrees is obtained to avoid blow-off. These results set up a foundation for next studies and the methods can be further developed to reconstruct 3D structures of flames.

  2. Experimental and numerical characterization of scalable cellulose nano-fiber composite (United States)

    Barari, Bamdad

    results showed an improvement in the glass transition temperature of the anisotropic samples compared to the isotropic ones. For flow modeling in the CNF-based porous medium, the closure formulation, developed as a part of the derivation of Darcy's law developed by Whitaker [1], was used to develop novel numerical and experimental methods for estimating the permeability and absorption characteristics of a porous medium with a given pore-level microstructure. The permeability of such a porous medium was estimated numerically while the absorption characteristics were analyzed through experiments. In order to use real micrograph in permeability simulations, 2D SEM pictures of the CNF-based porous media were considered. The falling head permeameter was used for measuring the experimental permeability in order to test the accuracy of the permeability tensor obtained by the proposed numerical simulation. The permeability values were also compared with the theoretical models of Kozeny-Carman. A good agreement between the numerical, experimental and analytical methods demonstrated the accuracy of the closure formulation and the resulting simulation. These results also present the closure formulation based method as a viable method to estimate the permeability of porous media using 2D SEM micrographs; such a method harnesses the micro-macro coupling and is marked with absence of any constitutive-relation based assumption for such upscaling. Such a method is also faster, less expensive and less problematic than the corresponding 3D micro-CT scan based method because of much smaller degrees-of-freedom, memory and storage requirements. Under the absorption characteristics study, absorption characteristics of paper-like CNF porous medium was modeled using theoretical derivation of governing equation for single-phase flow and swelling behavior and absorption coefficient were investigated through experiments. In derivation part, unique form of mass conservation was developed using

  3. The Numerical Calculation and Experimental Measurement of the Inductance Parameters for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor in Electric Vehicle (United States)

    Jiang, Chao; Qiao, Mingzhong; Zhu, Peng


    A permanent magnet synchronous motor with radial magnetic circuit and built-in permanent magnet is designed for the electric vehicle. Finite element numerical calculation and experimental measurement are adopted to obtain the direct axis and quadrature axis inductance parameters of the motor which are vital important for the motor control. The calculation method is simple, the measuring principle is clear, the results of numerical calculation and experimental measurement are mutual confirmation. A quick and effective method is provided to obtain the direct axis and quadrature axis inductance parameters of the motor, and then improve the design of motor or adjust the control parameters of the motor controller.

  4. Numerical modeling of an estuary: A comprehensive skill assessment (United States)

    Warner, J.C.; Geyer, W.R.; Lerczak, J.A.


    Numerical simulations of the Hudson River estuary using a terrain-following, three-dimensional model (Regional Ocean Modeling System (ROMS)) are compared with an extensive set of time series and spatially resolved measurements over a 43 day period with large variations in tidal forcing and river discharge. The model is particularly effective at reproducing the observed temporal variations in both the salinity and current structure, including tidal, spring neap, and river discharge-induced variability. Large observed variations in stratification between neap and spring tides are captured qualitatively and quantitatively by the model. The observed structure and variations of the longitudinal salinity gradient are also well reproduced. The most notable discrepancy between the model and the data is in the vertical salinity structure. While the surface-to-bottom salinity difference is well reproduced, the stratification in the model tends to extend all the way to the water surface, whereas the observations indicate a distinct pycnocline and a surface mixed layer. Because the southern boundary coindition is located near the mouth the estuary, the salinity within the domain is particularly sensitive to the specification of salinity at the boundary. A boundary condition for the horizontal salinity gradient, based on the local value of salinity, is developed to incorporate physical processes beyond the open boundary not resolved by the model. Model results are sensitive to the specification of the bottom roughness length and vertical stability functions, insofar as they influence the intensity of vertical mixing. The results only varied slightly between different turbulence closure methods of k-??, k-??, and k-kl. Copyright 2005 by the American Geophysical Union.

  5. Numerous Numerals. (United States)

    Henle, James M.

    This pamphlet consists of 17 brief chapters, each containing a discussion of a numeration system and a set of problems on the use of that system. The numeration systems used include Egyptian fractions, ordinary continued fractions and variants of that method, and systems using positive and negative bases. The book is informal and addressed to…

  6. Experimental Validation of a Risk Assessment Method

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vriezekolk, E.; Etalle, Sandro; Wieringa, Roelf J.

    [Context and motivation] It is desirable that require- ment engineering methods are reliable, that is, that methods can be repeated with the same results. Risk assessments methods, however, often have low reliability when they identify risk mitigations for a sys- tem based on expert judgement.

  7. Assessment of Efficiency and Performance in Tsunami Numerical Modeling with GPU (United States)

    Yalciner, Bora; Zaytsev, Andrey


    Non-linear shallow water equations (NSWE) are used to solve the propagation and coastal amplification of long waves and tsunamis. Leap Frog scheme of finite difference technique is one of the satisfactory numerical methods which is widely used in these problems. Tsunami numerical models are necessary for not only academic but also operational purposes which need faster and accurate solutions. Recent developments in information technology provide considerably faster numerical solutions in this respect and are becoming one of the crucial requirements. Tsunami numerical code NAMI DANCE uses finite difference numerical method to solve linear and non-linear forms of shallow water equations for long wave problems, specifically for tsunamis. In this study, the new code is structured for Graphical Processing Unit (GPU) using CUDA API. The new code is applied to different (analytical, experimental and field) benchmark problems of tsunamis for tests. One of those applications is 2011 Great East Japan tsunami which was instrumentally recorded on various types of gauges including tide and wave gauges and offshore GPS buoys cabled Ocean Bottom Pressure (OBP) gauges and DART buoys. The accuracy of the results are compared with the measurements and fairly well agreements are obtained. The efficiency and performance of the code is also compared with the version using multi-core Central Processing Unit (CPU). Dependence of simulation speed with GPU on linear or non-linear solutions is also investigated. One of the results is that the simulation speed is increased up to 75 times comparing to the process time in the computer using single 4/8 thread multi-core CPU. The results are presented with comparisons and discussions. Furthermore how multi-dimensional finite difference problems fits towards GPU architecture is also discussed. The research leading to this study has received funding from the European Union's Seventh Framework Programme (FP7/2007-2013) under grant agreement No

  8. Clean Sampling of an Englacial Conduit at Blood Falls, Antarctica - Some Experimental and Numerical Results (United States)

    Kowalski, Julia; Francke, Gero; Feldmann, Marco; Espe, Clemens; Heinen, Dirk; Digel, Ilya; Clemens, Joachim; Schüller, Kai; Mikucki, Jill; Tulaczyk, Slawek M.; Pettit, Erin; Berry Lyons, W.; Dachwald, Bernd


    results of its deployment at Blood Falls. In contrast to conventional melting-probe applications, which can only melt vertically, the IceMole realized an oblique melting path to penetrate the englacial conduit. Experimental and numerical results on melting at oblique angles are rare. Besides reporting on the IceMole technology and the field deployment itself, we will compare and discuss the observed melting behavior with re-analysis results in the context of a recently developed numerical model. Finally, we will present our first steps in utilizing the model to infer on the ambient cryo-environment.

  9. Experimental assessment of human corneal hysteresis. (United States)

    Elsheikh, Ahmed; Wang, Defu; Rama, Paolo; Campanelli, Marino; Garway-Heath, David


    Hysteresis is a viscoelastic property characterized by the difference in behavior under loading and unloading. The aim of the study was to determine corneal hysteresis using experimental means. Twenty-nine human corneas with 50-95 year age were subjected to cycles of pressure loading and unloading. Two pressure application rates were adopted to approximate static and dynamic loading conditions. The behavior under both loading and unloading was found to stiffen with increased age. The unloading behavior appeared to be largely independent of the pressure level at which unloading started. The difference between the behavior patterns under loading and unloading was quantified and used as a measure of corneal hysteresis. The hysteresis area was significantly larger with faster loading and with decreased age. The trend for hysteresis to decrease with age is in agreement with previous clinical observations. Hysteresis was also found to increase with faster pressure application.

  10. Numerical and experimental investigation of VG flow control for a low-boom inlet (United States)

    Rybalko, Michael

    The application of vortex generators (VGs) for shock/boundary layer interaction flow control in a novel external compression, axisymmetric, low-boom concept inlet was studied using numerical and experimental methods. The low-boom inlet design features a zero-angle cowl and relaxed isentropic compression centerbody spike, resulting in defocused oblique shocks and a weak terminating normal shock. This allows reduced external gas dynamic waves at high mass flow rates but suffers from flow separation near the throat and a large hub-side boundary layer at the Aerodynamic Interface Plane (AIP), which marks the inflow to the jet engine turbo-machinery. Supersonic VGs were investigated to reduce the shock-induced flow separation near the throat while subsonic VGs were investigated to reduce boundary layer radial distortion at the AIP. To guide large-scale inlet experiments, Reynolds-Averaged Navier-Stokes (RANS) simulations using three-dimensional, structured, chimera (overset) grids and the WIND-US code were conducted. Flow control cases included conventional and novel types of vortex generators at positions both upstream of the terminating normal shock (supersonic VGs) and downstream (subsonic VGs). The performance parameters included incompressible axisymmetric shape factor, post-shock separation area, inlet pressure recovery, and mass flow ratio. The design of experiments (DOE) methodology was used to select device size and location, analyze the resulting data, and determine the optimal choice of device geometry. Based on the above studies, a test matrix of supersonic and subsonic VGs was adapted for a large-scale inlet test to be conducted at the 8'x6' supersonic wind tunnel at NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC). Comparisons of RANS simulations with data from the Fall 2010 8'x6' inlet test showed that predicted VG performance trends and case rankings for both supersonic and subsonic devices were consistent with experimental results. For example, experimental surface oil

  11. Analytical, numerical, and experimental studies of viscoelastic effects on the performance of soft piezoelectric nanocomposites. (United States)

    Li, Jing; Zhu, Zhiren; Fang, Lichen; Guo, Shu; Erturun, Ugur; Zhu, Zeyu; West, James E; Ghosh, Somnath; Kang, Sung Hoon


    Piezoelectric composite (p-NC) made of a polymeric matrix and piezoelectric nanoparticles with conductive additives is an attractive material for many applications. As the matrix of p-NC is made of viscoelastic materials, both elastic and viscous characteristics of the matrix are expected to contribute to the piezoelectric response of p-NC. However, there is limited understanding of how viscoelasticity influences the piezoelectric performance of p-NC. Here we combined analytical and numerical analyses with experimental studies to investigate effects of viscoelasticity on piezoelectric performance of p-NC. The viscoelastic properties of synthesized p-NCs were controlled by changing the ratio between monomer and cross-linker of the polymer matrix. We found good agreement between our analytical models and experimental results for both quasi-static and dynamic loadings. It is found that, under quasi-static loading conditions, the piezoelectric coefficients (d 33 ) of the specimen with the lowest Young's modulus (∼0.45 MPa at 5% strain) were ∼120 pC N -1 , while the one with the highest Young's modulus (∼1.3 MPa at 5% strain) were ∼62 pC N -1 . The results suggest that softer matrices enhance the energy harvesting performance because they can result in larger deformation for a given load. Moreover, from our theoretical analysis and experiments under dynamic loading conditions, we found the viscous modulus of a matrix is also important for piezoelectric performance. For instance, at 40 Hz and 50 Hz the storage moduli of the softest specimen were ∼0.625 MPa and ∼0.485 MPa, while the loss moduli were ∼0.108 MPa and ∼0.151 MPa, respectively. As piezocomposites with less viscous loss can transfer mechanical energy to piezoelectric particles more efficiently, the dynamic piezoelectric coefficient (d' 33 ) measured at 40 Hz (∼53 pC N -1 ) was larger than that at 50 Hz (∼47 pC N -1 ) though it has a larger storage modulus. As an application of our findings

  12. Numerical modeling and experimental investigation of laser-assisted machining of silicon nitride ceramics (United States)

    Shen, Xinwei

    Laser-assisted machining (LAM) is a promising non-conventional machining technique for advanced ceramics. However, the fundamental machining mechanism which governs the LAM process is not well understood so far. Hence, the main objective of this study is to explore the machining mechanism and provide guidance for future LAM operations. In this study, laser-assisted milling (LAMill) of silicon nitride ceramics is focused. Experimental experience reveals that workpiece temperature in LAM of silicon nitride ceramics determines the surface quality of the machined workpiece. Thus, in order to know the thermal features of the workpiece in LAM, the laser-silicon nitride interaction mechanism is investigated via heating experiments. The trends of temperature affected by the key parameters (laser power, laser beam diameter, feed rate, and preheat time) are obtained through a parametric study. Experimental results show that high operating temperature leads to low cutting force, good surface finish, small edge chipping, and low residual stress. The temperature range for brittle-to-ductile transition should be avoided due to the rapid increase of fracture toughness. In order to know the temperature distribution at the cutting zone in the workpiece, a transient three-dimensional thermal model is developed using finite element analysis (FEA) and validated through experiments. Heat generation associated with machining is considered and demonstrated to have little impact on LAM. The model indicates that laser power is one critical parameter for successful operation of LAM. Feed and cutting speed can indirectly affect the operating temperatures. Furthermore, a machining model is established with the distinct element method (or discrete element method, DEM) to simulate the dynamic process of LAM. In the microstructural modeling of a beta-type silicon nitride ceramic, clusters are used to simulate the rod-like grains of the silicon nitride ceramic and parallel bonds act as the

  13. Numerical and Experimental Characterizations of Damping Properties of SMAs Composite for Vibration Control Systems (United States)

    Biffi, Carlo Alberto; Bassani, P.; Tuissi, A.; Carnevale, M.; Lecis, N.; LoConte, A.; Previtali, B.


    Shape memory alloys (SMAs) are very interesting smart materials not only for their shape memory and superelastic effects but also because of their significant intrinsic damping capacity. The latter is exhibited upon martensitic transformations and especially in martensitic state. The combination of these SMA properties with the mechanical and the lightweight of fiberglass-reinforced polymer (FGRP) is a promising solution for manufacturing of innovative composites for vibration suppression in structural applications. CuZnAl sheets, after laser patterning, were embedded in a laminated composite between a thick FGRP core and two thin outer layers with the aim of maximizing the damping capacity of the beam for passive vibration suppression. The selected SMA Cu66Zn24Al10 at.% was prepared by vacuum induction melting; the ingot was subsequently hot-and-cold rolled down to 0.2 mm thickness tape. The choice of a copper alloy is related to some advantages in comparison with NiTiCu SMA alloys, which was tested for the similar presented application in a previous study: lower cost, higher storage modulus and consequently higher damping properties in martensitic state. The patterning of the SMA sheets was performed by means of a pulsed fiber laser. After the laser processing, the SMA sheets were heat treated to obtain the desired martensitic state at room temperature. The transformation temperatures were measured by differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). The damping properties were determined, at room temperature, on full-scale sheet, using a universal testing machine (MTS), with cyclic tensile tests at different deformation amplitudes. Damping properties were also determined as a function of the temperature on miniature samples with a dynamical mechanical analyzer (DMA). Numerical modeling of the laminated composite, done with finite element method analysis and modal strain energy approaches, was performed to estimate the corresponding total damping capacity and then

  14. A numerical analysis and experimental demonstration of a low degradation conductive bridge resistive memory device

    KAUST Repository

    Berco, Dan


    This study investigates a low degradation metal-ion conductive bridge RAM (CBRAM) structure. The structure is based on placing a diffusion blocking layer (DBL) between the device\\'s top electrode (TE) and the resistive switching layer (RSL), unlike conventional CBRAMs, where the TE serves as a supply reservoir for metallic species diffusing into the RSL to form a conductive filament (CF) and is kept in direct contact with the RSL. The properties of a conventional CBRAM structure (Cu/HfO2/TiN), having a Cu TE, 10 nm HfO2 RSL, and a TiN bottom electrode, are compared with a 2 nm TaN DBL incorporating structure (Cu/TaN/HfO2/TiN) for 103 programming and erase simulation cycles. The low and high resistive state values for each cycle are calculated and the analysis reveals that adding the DBL yields lower degradation. In addition, the 2D distribution plots of oxygen vacancies, O ions, and Cu species within the RSL indicate that oxidation occurring in the DBL-RSL interface results in the formation of a sub-stoichiometric tantalum oxynitride with higher blocking capabilities that suppresses further Cu insertion beyond an initial CF formation phase, as well as CF lateral widening during cycling. The higher endurance of the structure with DBL may thus be attributed to the relatively low amount of Cu migrating into the RSL during the initial CF formation. Furthermore, this isomorphic CF displays similar cycling behavior to neural ionic channels. The results of numerical analysis show a good match to experimental measurements of similar device structures as well

  15. A study on the optimization of the angle of curvature for a Ranque-Hilsch vortex tube, using both experimental and full Reynolds stress turbulence numerical modelling (United States)

    Rafiee, Seyed Ehsan; Ayenehpour, Sabah; Sadeghiazad, M. M.


    The working tube is a main part of vortex tube which the compressed fluid is injected into this part tangentially. An appropriate design of working tube geometry leads to better efficiency and performance of vortex tube. In the experimental investigation, the parameters are focused on the working tube angle, inlet pressure and number of nozzles. The effect of the working tube angle is investigated in the range of θ = 0-120°. The experimental tests show that we have an optimum model between θ = 0 and θ = 20°. The most objective of this investigation is the demonstration of the successful use of CFD in order to develop a design tool that can be utilized with confidence over a range of operating conditions and geometries, thereby providing a powerful tool that can be used to optimize vortex tube design as well as assess its utility in the field of new applications and industries. A computational fluid dynamics model was employed to predict the performances of the air flow inside the vortex tube. The numerical investigation was done by full 3D steady state CFD-simulation using FLUENT6.3.26. This model utilizes the Reynolds stress model to solve the flow equations. Experiments were also conducted to validate results obtained for the numerical simulation. First purpose of numerical study in this case was validation with experimental data to confirm these results and the second was the optimization of experimental model to achieve the highest efficiency.

  16. Application of experimental design in geothermal resources assessment of Ciwidey-Patuha, West Java, Indonesia (United States)

    Ashat, Ali; Pratama, Heru Berian


    The successful Ciwidey-Patuha geothermal field size assessment required integration data analysis of all aspects to determined optimum capacity to be installed. Resources assessment involve significant uncertainty of subsurface information and multiple development scenarios from these field. Therefore, this paper applied the application of experimental design approach to the geothermal numerical simulation of Ciwidey-Patuha to generate probabilistic resource assessment result. This process assesses the impact of evaluated parameters affecting resources and interacting between these parameters. This methodology have been successfully estimated the maximum resources with polynomial function covering the entire range of possible values of important reservoir parameters.

  17. Numerical and experimental studies of ethanol flames and autoignition theory for higher alkanes (United States)

    Saxena, Priyank

    In order to enhance the fuel efficiency of an engine and to control pollutant formation, an improved understanding of the combustion chemistry of the fuels at a fundamental level is paramount. This knowledge can be gained by developing detailed reaction mechanisms of the fuels for various combustion processes and by studying combustion analytically employing reduced-chemistry descriptions. There is a need for small detailed reaction mechanisms for alkane and alcohol fuels with reduced uncertainties in their combustion chemistry that are computationally cheaper in multidimensional CFD calculations. Detailed mechanisms are the starting points in identifying reduced-chemistry descriptions of combustion processes to study problems analytically. This research includes numerical, experimental and analytical studies. The first part of the dissertation consists of numerical and experimental studies of ethanol flames. Although ethanol has gained popularity as a possible low-pollution source of renewable energy, significant uncertainties remain in its combustion chemistry. To begin to address ethanol combustion, first a relatively small detailed reaction mechanism, commonly known as the San Diego Mech, is developed for the combustion of hydrogen, carbon monoxide, formaldehyde, methane, methanol, ethane, ethylene, and acetylene, in air or oxygen-inert mixtures. This mechanism is tested for autoignition, premixed-flame burning velocities, and structures and extinction of diffusion flames and of partially premixed flames of many of these fuels. The reduction in uncertainties in the combustion chemistry can best be achieved by consistently updating a reaction mechanism with reaction rate data for the elementary steps based on newer studies in literature and by testing it against as many experimental conditions as available. The results of such a testing for abovementioned fuels are reported here along with the modifications of reaction-rate parameters of the most important

  18. Numerical simulation and experimental validation of liquid water behaviors in a proton exchange membrane fuel cell cathode with serpentine channels (United States)

    Le, Anh Dinh; Zhou, Biao; Shiu, Huan-Ruei; Lee, Chun-I.; Chang, Wen-Chen

    The volume-of-fluid (VOF) approach is one of the most promising methods of investigating water transport and water management in proton exchange membrane fuel cells (PEMFCs). A general PEMFC model combined with the VOF method has been developed by our group to simulate the mechanisms of fluid flows, mass and heat transport, and electrochemical reactions in a PEMFC, and it is necessary to validate the numerical model through experiments. In this paper, both the numerical model and an experimental visualization that can simulate the motion and transport behavior of liquid water in a cathode flow channel of a PEMFC are presented. Direct optical visualization is used in this work to capture the droplets' motions with high spatial and temporal resolutions. The numerical model and experimental setup have similar geometric dimensions and operating conditions, and the results of the experiment are in good agreement with numerical simulations. Moreover, the physics of droplet and liquid water behavior based on certain material and liquid properties and the operating conditions in the fuel cell channel are also addressed. This analysis also offers some basic understanding of the mechanism of liquid droplet dynamics in numerical and experimental studies of micro-fluidics.

  19. Numerical assessment for a broadband and tuned noise using hybrid mufflers and a simulated annealing method (United States)

    Chiu, Min-Chie


    A broadband noise hybridized with pure tones often occurs in practical engineering work. However, assessments of a muffler's optimal shape design that would simultaneously overcome a broadband noise hybridized with multiple tones within a constrained space were rarely addressed. In order to promote the best acoustical performance in mufflers, five kinds of the hybrid mufflers composed of a reactive unit, a dissipative unit, and Helmholtz resonator (HR) units will be proposed. Moreover, to strengthen the noise elimination at the pure tone, mufflers having parallel multiple-sectioned HRs or having multiple HR connections in series (muffler D and muffler E) will be also presented in the noise abatement. On the basis of the plane wave theory, the four-pole system matrix used to evaluate the acoustic performance of a multi-tone hybrid Helmholtz muffler will be presented. A numerical case for eliminating broadband noise hybridized with a pure tone emitted from a machine room using five kinds of mufflers (muffler A-E) will also be introduced. To find the best acoustical performance of a space-constrained muffler, a numerical assessment using a simulated annealing (SA) method is adopted. To verify the availability of the SA optimization, a numerical optimization of muffler A at a pure tone (280 Hz) is exemplified. Before the SA operation can be carried out, the accuracy of the mathematical model will be checked using the experimental data. The influences of the sound transmission loss (STL) with respect to N1-array HR and the STL with respect to one-array HR sectioned in N2 divisions have also been assessed. Also, the influence of the STL with respect to the design parameters such as the ratio of d1/d2, the diameter of the perforated hole (dH), the porosity (p%) of the perforated plate, and the outer diameter (d2) of the dissipative unit has been analyzed. Consequently, a successful approach in eliminating a broadband noise hybridized with a pure tone using optimally

  20. Numerical and Experimental Study of Fan and Pad Evaporative Cooling System in a Greenhouse with Tomato Crop

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sapounas, A.; Nikita-Martzopoulou, Ch.; Martzopoulos, G.


    An experimental greenhouse equipped with fan and pad evaporative cooling is simulated numerically using a commercial CFD code. The main aspects of evaporative cooling systems, in terms of heat and mass transfer and both the external and internal climatic conditions were integrated to set up the

  1. Gas-solid two-phase turbulent flow in a circulating fluidized bed riser: an experimental and numerical study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, Y.; van Sint Annaland, M.; Deen, N.G.; Kuipers, J.A.M.


    Hydrodynamics of gas-particle two-phase turbulent flow in a circulating fluidized bed riser is studied experimentally by Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) and numerically with the use of a 3D discrete hard sphere particle model (DPM). Mean particle velocities and RMS velocities are obtained and the

  2. Gas−Solid Turbulent Flow in a Circulating Fluidized Bed Riser: Experimental and Numerical Study of Monodisperse Particle Systems

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    He, Y.; Deen, N.G.; van Sint Annaland, M.; Kuipers, J.A.M.


    Hydrodynamics of gas-particle two-phase turbulent flow in a circulating fluidized bed riser is studied experimentally by particle image velocimetry (PIV) and numerically with the use of a 3D discrete hard sphere particle model (DPM). The influence of the superficial gas velocity and the solids flux

  3. Experimental and numerical investigations of oscillations in extracted material parameters for finite Bragg stacks using the NRW method

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Clausen, Niels Christian Jerichau; Arslanagic, Samel; Breinbjerg, Olav


    A 1D dielectric finite Bragg stack situated in a rectangular waveguide and illuminated by the fundamental TE10 mode is examined analytically, numerically, and experimentally. Calculated as well as measured scattering parameters are used to extract the effective/equivalent material parameters for ...

  4. Experimental and Numerical Evaluation of the By-Pass Flow in a Catalytic Plate Reactor for Hydrogen Production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sigurdsson, Haftor Örn; Kær, Søren Knudsen


    Numerical and experimental study is performed to evaluate the reactant by-pass flow in a catalytic plate reactor with a coated wire mesh catalyst for steam reforming of methane for hydrogen generation. By-pass of unconverted methane is evaluated under different wire mesh catalyst width to reactor...

  5. Assessing the differences between numerical methods and real experiments for the evaluation of reach envelopes of the human body

    CERN Document Server

    Delangle, Mathieu; Poirson, Emilie


    The use of static human body dimensions to assess the human accessibility is an essential part of an ergonomic approach in user-centered design. Assessments of reach capability are commonly performed by exercising external anthropometry of human body parts, which may be found in anthropometric databases, to numerically define the reach area of an intended user population. The result is a reach envelope determined entirely by the segment lengths, without taking into account external variables, as the nature of the task or the physical capacities of the subject, which may influence the results. Considering the body as a simple assembly of static parts of different anthropometry is limiting. In this paper, the limit of validity of this approach is assessed by comparing the reach envelopes obtained by this method to those obtained with a simple two-dimensional experimental reaching task of a panel of subjects. Forty subjects experimentally evaluated the reach, first with the body constrained and second unconstrai...

  6. Numerical and experimental investigation of an airfoil with load control in the wake of an active grid (United States)

    Fischer, A.; Lutz, T.; Kramer, E.; Cordes, U.; Hufnagel, K.; Tropea, C.; Kampers, G.; Hölling, M.; Peinke, J.


    A new passive load reduction system, using coupled leading and trailing edge flaps, was developed at TU Darmstadt and investigated experimentally and numerically. The experiments were performed in the wind tunnel of the University of Oldenburg, where sinusoidal inflow conditions, representing for example the tower blockage effect, were created by means of an active grid. The numerical investigations were performed at the University of Stuttgart, using a quasi two-dimensional setup and a block structured CFD solver. In the present paper, a brief description of the experimental setup is given, whereas the numerical setup, in particular the realisation of the wind tunnel conditions, is presented in more detail. Moreover, a comparison between the measured and simulated loads for an airfoil with and without adaptive camber concept is discussed.

  7. Experimentation and numerical simulation of steel fibre reinforced concrete pipes; Experimentacion y simulacion numerica de tubos de hormigon con fibras

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuente, A. de la; Domingues de Figueiredo, A.; Aguado, A.; Molins, C.; Chama Neto, P. J.


    The results concerning on an experimental and a numerical study related to SFRCP are presented. Eighteen pipes with an internal diameter of 600 mm and fibre dosages of 10, 20 and 40 kg/m3 were manufactured and tested. Some technological aspects were concluded. Likewise, a numerical parameterized model was implemented. With this model, the simulation of the resistant behaviour of SFRCP can be performed. In this sense, the results experimentally obtained were contrasted with those suggested by means MAP reaching very satisfactory correlations. Taking it into account, it could be said that the numerical model is a useful tool for the optimal design of the SFRCP fibre dosages, avoiding the need of the systematic employment of the test as an indirect design method. Consequently, the use of this model would reduce the overall cost of the pipes and would give fibres a boost as a solution for this structural typology. (Author) 27 refs.

  8. Experimental and numerical investigations on the density profile of CO2 laser-produced Sn plasma for an EUVL source (United States)

    Tao, Y.; Ueno, Y.; Yuspeh, S.; Burdt, R. A.; Amin, N.; Shaikh, N. M.; Tillack, M. S.; Najmabadi, F.


    Experimentally observed density profile of CO2 laser-produced Sn plasma was compared with that predicted by one dimensional hydrodynamic radiation numerical code. Experimental data showed a much smaller corona and a much shorter shift distance of the critical density from the initial target surface as compared with those predicted by an isothermal model and the numerical simulation. The possible reason may come from thin localized laser deposition region, less energy transport into the corona and into the dense region beyond the critical density. This research suggests that more efforts to understand the fundamental dominating the interaction of CO2 laser with high Z plasma are necessary to form a more solid foundation for the application of numerical method to the development of the EUVL source.

  9. Numerical Methods Are Feasible for Assessing Surgical Techniques: Application to Astigmatic Keratotomy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ariza-Gracia, M.A.; Ortilles, A.; Cristobal, J.A.; Rodriguez, J.F.; Calvo, B.


    The present study proposes an experimental-numerical protocol whose novelty relies on using both the inflation and the indentation experiments simultaneously to obtain a set of material parameters which accounts for both deformation modes of the cornea: the physiological (biaxial tension) and the non-physiological (bending). The experimental protocol characterizes the corneal geometry and the mechanical response of the cornea when subjected to the experimental tests using an animal model (New Zealand rabbit's cornea). The numerical protocol reproduces the experimental tests by means of an inverse finite element methodology to obtain the set of material properties that minimizes both mechanical responses at the same time. To validate the methodology, an Astigmatic Keratotomy refractive surgery is performed on 4 New Zealand rabbit corneas. The pre and post-surgical topographies of the anterior corneal surface were measured using a MODI topographer (CSO, Italy) to control the total change in astigmatism. Afterwards, the surgery is numerically reproduced to predict the overall change of the cornea. Results showed an acceptable numerical prediction, close to the average experimental correction, validating the material parameters obtained with the proposed protocol. (Author)

  10. Numerical Predictions and Experimental Results of Air Flow in a Smooth Quarter-Scale Nacelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Fires in aircraft engine nacelles must be rapidly suppressed to avoid loss of life and property. The design of new and retrofit suppression systems has become significantly more challenging due to the ban on production of Halon 1301 for environmental concerns. Since fire dynamics and the transport of suppressants within the nacelle are both largely determined by the available air flow, efforts to define systems using less effective suppressants greatly benefit from characterization of nacelle air flow fields. A combined experimental and computational study of nacelle air flow therefore has been initiated. Calculations have been performed using both CFD-ACE (a Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) model with a body-fitted coordinate grid) and WLCAN (a CFD-based fire field model with a Cartesian ''brick'' shaped grid). The flow conditions examined in this study correspond to the same Reynolds number as test data from the full-scale nacelle simulator at the 46 Test Wing. Pre-test simulations of a quarter-scale test fixture were performed using CFD-ACE and WLCAN prior to fabrication. Based on these pre-test simulations, a quarter-scale test fixture was designed and fabricated for the purpose of obtaining spatially-resolved measurements of velocity and turbulence intensity in a smooth nacelle. Post-test calculations have been performed for the conditions of the experiment and compared with experimental results obtained from the quarter-scale test fixture. In addition, several different simulations were performed to assess the sensitivity of the predictions to the grid size, to the turbulence models, and to the use of wall functions. In general, the velocity predictions show very good agreement with the data in the center of the channel but deviate near the walls. The turbulence intensity results tend to amplify the differences in velocity, although most of the trends are in agreement. In addition, there were some differences between WLCAN and CFD

  11. Numerical and Experimental Analysis of the Growth of Gravitational Interfacial Instability Generated by Two Viscous Fluids of Different Densities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Snehamoy Majumder


    Full Text Available In the geophysical context, there are a wide variety of mechanisms which may lead to the formation of unstable density stratification, leading in turn to the development of the Rayleigh-Taylor instability and, more generally, interfacial gravity-driven instabilities, which involves moving boundaries and interfaces. The purpose of this work is to study the level set method and to apply the process to study the Rayleigh-Taylor instability experimentally and numerically. With the help of a simple, inexpensive experimental arrangement, the R-T instability has been visualized with moderate accuracy for real fluids. The same physical phenomenon has been investigated numerically to track the interface of two fluids of different densities to observe the gravitational instability with the application of level set method coupled with volume of fraction replacing the Heaviside function. Good agreement between theory and experimental results was found and growth of instability for both of the methods has been plotted.

  12. Absolute experimental and numerical calibration of the 14 MeV neutron source at the Frascati neutron generator

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Angelone, M.; Pillon, M.; Batistoni, P.; Martini, M.; Martone, M.; Rado, V. [Associazione EURATOM-ENEA sulla Fusione, C.R. Frascati, C.P. 65---00044 Frascati, Rome (Italy)


    The absolute neutron yield of the 14 MeV Frascati neutron generator (FNG) is routinely measured by means of the associated alpha-particle method with a silicon surface barrier detector (SSD). This paper describes the work carried out to characterize the neutron source in terms of absolute intensity and angle-energy distribution of the emitted neutrons. The development of the measuring setup and the assessment of the measurement results are also reported. A complementary calibration procedure for validating the SSD results, based on the use of fission chambers and the activation technique, is also reported. An accurate analysis of the system has been performed via the Monte Carlo neutron and photon MCNP transport code. A detailed model of the neutron source that includes ion slowing down has been inserted into the MCNP code to permit a numerical calibration of the neutron source for comparison with the experimental results. The resulting agreement among the various methods is very good considering the uncertainties, and an accuracy of {plus_minus}2{percent} is achieved for the measurement of the 14 MeV neutron yield of the FNG. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}

  13. Absolute experimental and numerical calibration of the 14 MeV neutron source at the Frascati neutron generator (United States)

    Angelone, M.; Pillon, M.; Batistoni, P.; Martini, M.; Martone, M.; Rado, V.


    The absolute neutron yield of the 14 MeV Frascati neutron generator (FNG) is routinely measured by means of the associated alpha-particle method with a silicon surface barrier detector (SSD). This paper describes the work carried out to characterize the neutron source in terms of absolute intensity and angle-energy distribution of the emitted neutrons. The development of the measuring setup and the assessment of the measurement results are also reported. A complementary calibration procedure for validating the SSD results, based on the use of fission chambers and the activation technique, is also reported. An accurate analysis of the system has been performed via the Monte Carlo neutron and photon MCNP transport code. A detailed model of the neutron source that includes ion slowing down has been inserted into the MCNP code to permit a numerical calibration of the neutron source for comparison with the experimental results. The resulting agreement among the various methods is very good considering the uncertainties, and an accuracy of ±2% is achieved for the measurement of the 14 MeV neutron yield of the FNG.

  14. Bridges Dynamic Parameters Identification Based On Experimental and Numerical Method Comparison in Regard with Traffic Seismicity (United States)

    Krkošková, Katarína; Papán, Daniel; Papánová, Zuzana


    The technical seismicity negatively affects the environment, buildings and structures. Technical seismicity means seismic shakes caused by force impulse, random process and unnatural origin. The vibration influence on buildings is evaluated in the Eurocode 8 in Slovak Republic, however, the Slovak Technical Standard STN 73 0036 includes solution of the technical seismicity. This standard also classes bridges into the group of structures that are significant in light of the technical seismicity – the group “U”. Using the case studies analysis by FEM simulation and comparison is necessary because of brief norm evaluation of this issue. In this article, determinate dynamic parameters by experimental measuring and numerical method on two real bridges are compared. First bridge, (D201 – 00) is Scaffold Bridge on the road I/11 leading to the city of Čadca and is situated in the city of Žilina. It is eleven – span concrete road bridge. The railway is the obstacle, which this bridge spans. Second bridge (M5973 Brodno) is situated in the part of Žilina City on the road of I/11. It is concrete three – span road bridge built as box girder. The computing part includes 3D computational models of the bridges. First bridge (D201 – 00) was modelled in the software of IDA Nexis as the slab – wall model. The model outputs are natural frequencies and natural vibration modes. Second bridge (M5973 Brodno) was modelled in the software of VisualFEA. The technical seismicity corresponds with the force impulse, which was put into this model. The model outputs are vibration displacements, velocities and accelerations. The aim of the experiments was measuring of the vibration acceleration time record of bridges, and there was need to systematic placement of accelerometers. The vibration acceleration time record is important during the under – bridge train crossing, about the first bridge (D201 – 00) and the vibration acceleration time domain is important during

  15. Study of the occlusion effect induced by an earplug: Numerical modelling and experimental validation (United States)

    Brummund, Martin

    (IRSST) and the Ecole de technologie superieure (ETS) has been launched. The present study represents a part of this collaboration and aims at studying the occlusion effect of the system earplug - ear canal through the development of novel numerical models and experimental methods. (Abstract shortened by UMI.).

  16. Experimental and Numerical Characterization of a Pulsed Supersonic Uniform Flow for Kinetics and Spectroscopy (United States)

    Suas-David, Nicolas; Thawoos, Shameemah; Broderick, Bernadette M.; Suits, Arthur


    The current CPUF (Chirped Pulse Uniform Flow) and the new UF-CRDS (Uniform Flow Cavity Ring-Down Spectroscopy) setups relie mostly on the production of a good quality supersonic uniform flow. A supersonic uniform flow is produced by expanding a gas through a Laval nozzle - similar to the nozzles used in aeronautics - linked to a vacuum chamber. The expansion is characterized by an isentropic core where constant very low kinetic temperature (down to 20K) and constant density are observed. The relatively large diameter of the isentropic core associated with homogeneous thermodynamic conditions makes it a relevant tool for low temperature spectroscopy. On the other hand, the length along the axis of the flow of this core (could be longer than 50cm) allows kinetic studies which is one of the main interest of this setup (CRESU technique. The formation of a uniform flow requires an extreme accuracy in the design of the shape of the nozzle for a set of defined temperature/density. The design is based on a Matlab program which retrieves the shape of the isentropic core according to the method of characteristics prior to calculate the thickness of the boundary layer. Two different approaches are used to test the viability of a new nozzle derived from the program. First, a computational fluid dynamic software (OpenFOAM) models the distribution of the thermodynamic properties of the expansion. Then, fabricated nozzles using 3-D printing are tested based on Pitot measurements and spectroscopic analyses. I will present comparisons of simulation and measured performance for a range of nozzles. We will see how the high level of accuracy of numerical simulations provides a deeper knowledge of the experimental conditions. J. M. Oldham, C. Abeysekera, J. Joalland, L. N. Zack, K. Prozument, I. R. Sims, G. Barrat Park, R. W. Filed and A. G. Suits, J. Chem. Phys. 141, 154202, (2014). I. Sims, J. L. Queffelec, A. Defrance, C. Rebrion-Rowe, D. Travers, P. Bocherel, B. Rowe, I. W. Smith

  17. Experimental and numerical studies on laser-based powder deposition of slurry erosion resistant materials (United States)

    Balu, Prabu

    cracking issue, and 3) the effect of composition and composition gradient of Ni and WC on the slurry erosion resistance over a wide range of erosion conditions. This thesis presents a set of numerical and experimental methods in order to address the challenges mentioned above. A three-dimensional (3-D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) based powder flow model and three vision based techniques were developed in order to visualize the process of feeding the Ni-WC powder in the LBPD process. The results provide the guidelines for efficiently feeding the Ni-WC composite powder into the laser-formed molten pool. The finite element (FE) based experimentally verified 3-D thermal and thermo-mechanical models are developed in order to understand the thermal and stress evolutions in Ni-WC composite material during the LBPD process. The models address the effect of the process variables, preheating temperature, and different mass fractions of WC in Ni on thermal cycles and stress distributions within the deposited material. The slurry erosion behavior of the single and multilayered deposits of Ni-WC composite material produced by the LBPD process is investigated using an accelerated slurry erosion testing machine and a 3-D FE dynamic model. The verified model is used to identify the appropriate composition and composition gradient of Ni-WC composite material required to achieve erosion resistance over a wide range of erosion conditions.

  18. Numerical and Experimental Study of Mixing Processes Associated with Hydrogen and High Hydrogen Content Fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonell, Vincent; Hill, Scott; Akbari, Amin; McDonell, Vincent


    As simulation capability improves exponentially with increasingly more cost effective CPUs and hardware, it can be used ?routinely? for engineering applications. Many commercial products are available and they are marketed as increasingly powerful and easy to use. The question remains as to the overall accuracy of results obtained. To support the validation of the CFD, a hierarchical experiment was established in which the type of fuel injection (radial, axial) as well as level of swirl (non-swirling, swirling) could be systematically varied. The effort was limited to time efficient approaches (i.e., generally RANS approaches) although limited assessment of time resolved methods (i.e., unsteady RANS and LES) were considered. Careful measurements of the flowfield velocity and fuel concentration were made using both intrusive and non-intrusive methods. This database was then used as the basis for the assessment of the CFD approach. The numerical studies were carried out with a statistically based matrix. As a result, the effect of turbulence model, fuel type, axial plane, turbulent Schmidt number, and injection type could be studied using analysis of variance. The results for the non-swirling cases could be analyzed as planned, and demonstrate that turbulence model selection, turbulence Schmidt number, and the type of injection will strongly influence the agreement with measured values. Interestingly, the type of fuel used (either hydrogen or methane) has no influence on the accuracy of the simulations. For axial injection, the selection of proper turbulence Schmidt number is important, whereas for radial injection, the results are relatively insensitive to this parameter. In general, it was found that the nature of the flowfield influences the performance of the predictions. This result implies that it is difficult to establish a priori the ?best? simulation approach to use. However, the insights from the relative orientation of the jet and flow do offer some

  19. Experimental and numerical investigation of the flow field in the gradual transition of rectangular to trapezoidal open channels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adel Asnaashari


    Full Text Available Transitions are structures that can change geometry and flow velocity through varying the cross-sections of their channels. Under subcritical flow and steady flow conditions, it is necessary to reduce the flow velocity gradually due to increasing water pressure and adverse pressure gradients. Due to the separation of flow and subsequent eddy formation, a significant energy loss is incurred along the transition. This study presents the results of experimental investigations of the subcritical flow along the expansive transition of rectangular to trapezoidal channels. A numerical simulation was developed using a finite volume of fluid (VOF method with a Reynolds stress turbulence model. Water surface profiles and velocity distributions of flow through the transition were measured experimentally and compared with the numerical results. A good agreement between the experimental and numerical model results showed that the Reynolds model and VOF method are capable of simulating the hydraulic flow in open channel transitions. Also, the efficiency of the transition and coefficient of energy head loss were calculated. The results show that with an increasing upstream Froude number, the efficiency of the transition and coefficient of energy head loss decrease and increase, respectively. The results also show the ability of numerical simulation to simulate the flow separation zones and secondary current along the transition for different inlet discharges.

  20. Experimental and numerical investigation of an air pocket immersed and immobilized in a horizontal water duct flow

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vassilev, Assen [Laboratoire de Mecanique des Fluides et d' Acoustique, UMR CNRS 5509, ECL/UCBL/INSA-Lyon (France) and INSA-Lyon, LMFA, Bat. J. Jacquard, 20 av. A. EINSTEIN, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)]. E-mail:; Ben Hadid, Hamda [Laboratoire de Mecanique des Fluides et d' Acoustique, UMR CNRS 5509, ECL/UCBL/INSA-Lyon (France); INSA-Lyon, LMFA, Bat. J. Jacquard, 20 av. A. EINSTEIN, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); El Hajem, Mahmoud [Laboratoire de Mecanique des Fluides et d' Acoustique, UMR CNRS 5509, ECL/UCBL/INSA-Lyon (France); INSA-Lyon, LMFA, Bat. J. Jacquard, 20 av. A. EINSTEIN, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Botton, Valery [Laboratoire de Mecanique des Fluides et d' Acoustique, UMR CNRS 5509, ECL/UCBL/INSA-Lyon (France); INSA-Lyon, LMFA, Bat. J. Jacquard, 20 av. A. EINSTEIN, 69621 Villeurbanne Cedex (France)


    In this work, we carry out an experimental and numerical study of a horizontal elongated air bubble (air pocket) immersed in a liquid flow. For this purpose, an air pocket of large aspect ratio is immobilized in a main liquid duct flow. This particular geometry differs from that of previous works since the air pocket is not influenced by the presence of other bubbles (slug/plug flow). The characteristic zones of the air-water interface are identified experimentally and discussed as a function of the Reynolds number up to 26,000. Two-dimensional and unsteady numerical calculations without mass transfer across the air-water interface are carried out in order to study the behaviour of the air pocket under the same conditions as in the experiment. The features of the results are that the shape of the air pocket and its front are quite well reconstructed by the numerical calculations. However, the comparison of the air pocket length evolution with the experimental data shows a slightly different behaviour attributed to the mass transfer across the air-water interface. The numerical study provides a further insight into the wavy behaviour of the interface that is responsible for the vortices in the air pocket.