WorldWideScience

Sample records for experimental ascaris suum

  1. Experimental Ascaris suum infection in Yankasa lambs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The effects of experimental Ascaris suum infection in Yankasa lambs were investigated. Twenty four (24) Yankasa lambs aged 6-8 months were purchased and randomly divided into two groups (1 and 2). The lambs in group 1, consisting of 16 animals, were orally infected with 1500 infective A. suum eggs daily for seven ...

  2. Experimental Ascaris suum infection in Yankasa lambs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aliyu.jibril

    2017-04-11

    Apr 11, 2017 ... Experimental Ascaris suum infection in Yankasa lambs: Parasitological and pathological observations. I Isah. 1. *, JO Ajanusi. 1. , NP Chiezey. 2. , LB Tekdek. 3. & B Mohammed. 4. 1. Department of Veterinary Parasitology and Entomology, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine,. Ahmadu Bello University, Zaria, ...

  3. Experimental Ascaris suum infection in Yankasa lambs ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    aliyu.jibril

    2017-04-11

    Apr 11, 2017 ... The large round worm of pigs, Ascaris suum, is reported to migrate in the .... from the stem of the funnel into centrifuge tubes and spun at 36 rcf xg for 5 ... areas of mononuclear cellular infiltration were observed in the liver ...

  4. Direct experimental manipulation of intestinal cells in Ascaris suum, with minor influences on the global transcriptome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Bruce A; McNulty, Samantha N; Mitreva, Makedonka; Jasmer, Douglas P

    2017-04-01

    Ascaris suum provides a powerful model for studying parasitic nematodes, including individual tissues such as the intestine, an established target for anthelmintic treatments. Here, we add a valuable experimental component to our existing functional, proteomic, transcriptomic and phylogenomic studies of the Ascaris suum intestine, by developing a method to manipulate intestinal cell functions via direct delivery of experimental treatments (in this case, double-stranded (ds)RNA) to the apical intestinal membrane. We developed an intestinal perfusion method for direct, controlled delivery of dsRNA/heterogeneous small interfering (hsi) RNA into the intestinal lumen for experimentation. RNA-Seq (22 samples) was used to assess influences of the method on global intestinal gene expression. Successful mRNA-specific knockdown in intestinal cells of adult A. suum was accomplished with this new experimental method. Global transcriptional profiling confirmed that targeted transcripts were knocked down more significantly than any others, with only 12 (0.07% of all genes) or 238 (1.3%) off-target gene transcripts consistently differentially regulated by dsRNA treatment or the perfusion experimental design, respectively (after 24h). The system supports controlled, effective delivery of treatments (dsRNA/hsiRNA) to the apical intestinal membrane with relatively minor off-target effects, and builds on our experimental model to dissect A. suum intestinal cell functions with broad relevance to parasitic nematodes. Copyright © 2017 Australian Society for Parasitology. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Ascaris suum draft genome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jex, Aaron R; Liu, Shiping; Li, Bo; Young, Neil D; Hall, Ross S; Li, Yingrui; Yang, Linfeng; Zeng, Na; Xu, Xun; Xiong, Zijun; Chen, Fangyuan; Wu, Xuan; Zhang, Guojie; Fang, Xiaodong; Kang, Yi; Anderson, Garry A; Harris, Todd W; Campbell, Bronwyn E; Vlaminck, Johnny; Wang, Tao; Cantacessi, Cinzia; Schwarz, Erich M; Ranganathan, Shoba; Geldhof, Peter; Nejsum, Peter; Sternberg, Paul W; Yang, Huanming; Wang, Jun; Wang, Jian; Gasser, Robin B

    2011-10-26

    Parasitic diseases have a devastating, long-term impact on human health, welfare and food production worldwide. More than two billion people are infected with geohelminths, including the roundworms Ascaris (common roundworm), Necator and Ancylostoma (hookworms), and Trichuris (whipworm), mainly in developing or impoverished nations of Asia, Africa and Latin America. In humans, the diseases caused by these parasites result in about 135,000 deaths annually, with a global burden comparable with that of malaria or tuberculosis in disability-adjusted life years. Ascaris alone infects around 1.2 billion people and, in children, causes nutritional deficiency, impaired physical and cognitive development and, in severe cases, death. Ascaris also causes major production losses in pigs owing to reduced growth, failure to thrive and mortality. The Ascaris-swine model makes it possible to study the parasite, its relationship with the host, and ascariasis at the molecular level. To enable such molecular studies, we report the 273 megabase draft genome of Ascaris suum and compare it with other nematode genomes. This genome has low repeat content (4.4%) and encodes about 18,500 protein-coding genes. Notably, the A. suum secretome (about 750 molecules) is rich in peptidases linked to the penetration and degradation of host tissues, and an assemblage of molecules likely to modulate or evade host immune responses. This genome provides a comprehensive resource to the scientific community and underpins the development of new and urgently needed interventions (drugs, vaccines and diagnostic tests) against ascariasis and other nematodiases. ©2011 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved

  6. Are Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum a single species?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leles, Daniela; Gardner, Scott L; Reinhard, Karl; Iñiguez, Alena; Araujo, Adauto

    2012-02-20

    Since the original description and naming of Ascaris lumbricoides from humans by Linnaeus in 1758 and later of Ascaris suum from pigs by Goeze 1782, these species have been considered to be valid. Four hypotheses relative to the conspecificity or lack thereof (and thus origin of these species) are possible: 1) Ascaris lumbricoides (usually infecting humans) and Ascaris suum (recorded mostly from pigs) are both valid species, with the two species originating via a speciation event from a common ancestor sometime before the domestication of pigs by humans, or 2) Ascaris lumbricoides in humans is derived directly from the species A. suum found in pigs with A. suum then existing as a persistent ancestor after formation of A. lumbricoides, or 3) Ascaris suum is derived directly from A. lumbricoides with the persistent ancestor being A. lumbricoides and A. suum being the newly derived species, and finally, 4) Ascaris lumbricoides and A. suum are the same species, this hypothesis being supported by studies showing both low morphological and low genetic divergence at several genes. We present and discuss paleoparasitological and genetic evidence that complement new data to evaluate the origin and evolution of Ascaris spp. in humans and pigs, and the uniqueness of the species in both hosts. Finally, we conclude that Ascaris lumbricoides and A. suum are a single species and that the name A. lumbricoides Linnaeus 1758 has taxonomic priority; therefore A. suum Goeze 1782 should be considered a synonym of A. lumbricoides.

  7. Are Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum a single species?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leles Daniela

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Since the original description and naming of Ascaris lumbricoides from humans by Linnaeus in 1758 and later of Ascaris suum from pigs by Goeze 1782, these species have been considered to be valid. Four hypotheses relative to the conspecificity or lack thereof (and thus origin of these species are possible: 1 Ascaris lumbricoides (usually infecting humans and Ascaris suum (recorded mostly from pigs are both valid species, with the two species originating via a speciation event from a common ancestor sometime before the domestication of pigs by humans, or 2 Ascaris lumbricoides in humans is derived directly from the species A. suum found in pigs with A. suum then existing as a persistent ancestor after formation of A. lumbricoides, or 3 Ascaris suum is derived directly from A. lumbricoides with the persistent ancestor being A. lumbricoides and A. suum being the newly derived species, and finally, 4 Ascaris lumbricoides and A. suum are the same species, this hypothesis being supported by studies showing both low morphological and low genetic divergence at several genes. We present and discuss paleoparasitological and genetic evidence that complement new data to evaluate the origin and evolution of Ascaris spp. in humans and pigs, and the uniqueness of the species in both hosts. Finally, we conclude that Ascaris lumbricoides and A. suum are a single species and that the name A. lumbricoides Linnaeus 1758 has taxonomic priority; therefore A. suum Goeze 1782 should be considered a synonym of A. lumbricoides.

  8. Immunization of pigs against experimental Ascaris suum infection by feeding ultraviolet-attenuated eggs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tromba, F.G.

    1978-08-01

    Pigs fed Ascaris suum eggs attenuated by short-wave ultraviolet radiation developed a resistance to challenge infections that varied according to the protocols used. An analysis of the lengths of worms recovered showed that in controls fed varying doses of eggs, worm sizes were inversely related to the number of eggs in the challenge dose. A ratio of 18 female to 5 male worms indicated that males are more susceptible to ultraviolet radiation than females.

  9. Superoxide dismutase from Ascaris suum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanchez-Moreno, M; Monteoliva, M; Fatou, A; García-Ruiz, M A

    1988-10-01

    Three superoxide dismutases (SOD) (EC 1.15.1.1) were detected in homogenates of Ascaris suum. Each of the three forms of SOD was purified by a sequence of multiple differential centrifugations, ammonium sulphate precipitation, ion-exchange chromatography and G-75 Sephadex column chromatography. The three forms of SOD were present in different cellular locations; one in the cytoplasmic fraction, sensitive to cyanide and hydrogen peroxide, and two in the mitochondrial fraction, one of which was cyanide sensitive. The SOD forms presented clear differences in their electrophoretic patterns. The sexual organs of females showed the highest SOD activities of all the tissues examined. The finding of such high levels of superoxide dismutase in A. suum reflects the importance of this enzyme in the metabolism of this helminth parasite.

  10. Effects of atmospheric ammonia on young pigs experimentally infected with Ascaris suum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Drummond, J.G.; Curtis, S.E.; Simon, J.; Norton, H.W.

    1981-06-01

    Effects of atmospheric ammonia at 69.4 mg/m3 (100 ppm) on productive performance and respiratory tract health of young pigs (starting body weight averaged 7.5 kg) experimentally infected with Ascaris suum (50,000 embryonated ova administered by gavage when pigs were 5 weeks of age) were studied in 5 trials of 4 weeks each (when pigs were 5 to 9 weeks of age). Effects of atmospheric-ammonia exposure and ascarid infection on growth were additive. Compared with controls, percentage reductions in average daily gain were 32%, 28%, and 61% for ammonia-exposed, ascarid-infected, and combined ammonia plus ascarid groups, respectively. Ammonia exposure or ascarid infection alone depressed feed disappearance by 18%. Effects of the 2 factors were additive, resulting in a 35% reduction in feed disappearance. Pigs exposed to the combined factors had an average gain/feed ratio of 0.518, which was less than that of control pigs (0.546), but was greater than that of pigs exposed to atmospheric ammonia (0.489) or pigs infected with ascarids (0.501) alone. Liver scarring, due to larval migration, was not affected by ammonia exposure. Larval migration through the respiratory tract was not confirmed histopathologically in pigs killed 4 weeks after inoculation. A supplementary experiment was conducted which demonstrated that residual evidence of previous pulmonary larval migration was present 2 weeks after inoculation.

  11. A comparison of the efficacy of two ivermectin formulations against larval and adult Ascaris suum and Oesophagostomum dendatum in experimentally infected piggs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Gaasenbeek, C.P.H.; Nicoll, S.; Donanque, R.J.; Abbott, E.M.

    2007-01-01

    study was conducted to evaluate and compare the efficacy of two injectable formulations of ivermectin (IVM-1 and IVM-2) at a dose rate of 0.3 mg/kg bodyweight versus placebo in the treatment and control of larval and adult stages of Ascaris suum and Oesophagostomum spp. in experimentally infected

  12. Immunomodulation of liver injury by Ascaris suum extract in an experimental model of autoimmune hepatitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Wheverton C; Silva, Roeckson P; Fernandes, Erica S; Silva, Maria C; Holanda, Gabriela C; Santos, Patrícia A; Albuquerque, Mônica P; Costa, Vlaudia A; Pontes-Filho, Nicodemos T; Souza, Valdênia O

    2014-09-01

    Adult worm extract from Ascaris suum (Asc) has immunosuppressive activity and elicits Th2/IL-4/IL-10 response. This study evaluated the prophylactic and therapeutic effect of Asc in a murine model of concanavalin A (ConA)-induced autoimmune hepatitis (AIH). BALB/c mice received ConA, iv, (20 mg/kg), and three groups of animals were formed: (1) AIH, received only ConA; (2) AIH + Asc prophylactic, treated with Asc (1 mg/ml), ip, 30 min before of the AIH; and (3) AIH + Asc therapeutic, treated with Asc 2 h after the AIH. Plasma transaminase and immunoglobulins (measured at 8 and 24 h and 7 days after treatment) and cytokine production (IL-4, IL-10, IL-13, and IFN-γ) by splenocytes upon ConA and Asc stimulus were compared. The livers were weighed and examined histologically. In the AIH group, there was an increase in liver weight, transaminase levels, and total immunoglobulins. These parameters were reduced by 8-24 h and 7 days in the prophylactic group, but in the therapeutic group, only on day 7. The survival rate of mice in the AIH group was 38.5%, compared to 67% in the therapeutic Asc group. The survival rate of the animals with AIH that were prophylactically treated with Asc was 100%. A decrease of cellular infiltration and high levels of IL-4, IL-10, and IL-13 were induced by Asc. An increase of liver fibrosis was also observed, but with less intensity with prophylactic treatment. Thus, the Ascaris components have an inhibitory effect on AIH, with an intense Th2 immune response.

  13. Experimental Ascaris suum infection in the pig: worm population kinetics following single inoculations with three doses of infective eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roepstorff, A; Eriksen, L; Slotved, H C; Nansen, P

    1997-10-01

    To study population kinetics during primary Ascaris suum infections, 3 groups of 52 pigs each were inoculated with 100, 1000, or 10,000 infective eggs. In all groups, the majority of larvae was found in the liver on day 3 post inoculation (p.i.) and in the lungs on day 7 p.i. Liver white spots, caused by migrating larvae, were most numerous at day 7 p.i., whereafter they gradually healed, and only low numbers of granulation-tissue type white spots and lymphonodular white spots persisted at days 21-56 p.i. Independent of dose level, 47-58% of the inoculated eggs were recovered as larvae in the small intestine on day 10 p.i., but most larvae were eliminated at days 17-21 p.i. This elimination started earlier and removed a higher percentage of the worms with increasing inoculation dose, resulting in small strongly aggregated worm populations by day 28 p.i. (k of the negative binomial distribution was low: 0.2-0.4) without significant differences between groups. Thus, overdispersion, which is a characteristic of both porcine and human ascarosis, is found here under experimental conditions where aggregation factors like host behaviour, transmission rate, host status etc have been partly or totally controlled.

  14. NADH→NAD+ Transhydrogenation in Adult Ascaris suum Mitochondria

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Andrew Holowiecki; Carmen F. Fioravanti

    2015-01-01

    Although lacking an NADPH→NAD+ transhydrogenase system, the essentially energetically anaerobic mitochondria of the adult intestinal nematode Ascaris suum display an inner membrane-associated NADH→NAD...

  15. Immunological studies on Ascaris suum infections in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Phan van Than*; Knapen; F.van

    1986-01-01

    Het betreft een rapportage van onderzoek dat werd verricht door Dr.Phan van Than, Instituut voor Parasitologie, Medische Faculteit Hanoi, Vietnam. Dr.Than heeft zich in het bijzonder bezig gehouden met het toetsen van verschillende antigenen afkomstig van Ascaris suum en Ascaris lumbricoides

  16. Biological interactions between soil saprotrophic fungi and Ascaris suum eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaszkowska, Joanna; Wojcik, Anna; Kurnatowski, Piotr; Szwabe, Katarzyna

    2013-09-23

    The in vitro effect of saprotrophic soil fungi on the embryonic development of Ascaris suum was evaluated. The fungi tested were Aspergillus fumigatus, Aspergillus terreus, Penicillium citrinum, Penicillium expansum, Fusarium oxysporum and Trichothecium roseum, isolated from children's recreation areas in the city of Lodz (Poland). Each species was co-cultured with A. suum egg suspension (6 × 10(3)eggs/ml) at 25 ± 2°C for 60 days. Each day, 100 eggs were randomly collected and their developmental stage was classified macroscopically. Additionally, at days 4, 7, 14, 28, 42 and 60 of incubation, the viability and the percentage of eggs with morphological altered embryo/larva were determined in each sample. Microscopic examination revealed that exposure of eggs to the mycelium of examined fungi inhibited embryogenesis of A. suum. All control culture eggs reached L2 larval stage after 26 days of incubation, while the experimental cultures did so after 32-51 days, depending on the fungal species. Three species were found to exhibit very high inhibitory activity on A. suum egg development: A. terreus, P. expansum and F. oxysporum. Embryopathies and non-viable embryos/larvae were observed significantly more frequently in the eggs co-cultured with fungal species than in control cultures. The fungus-exposed eggs revealed morphological alternations in the early zygotic cleavage, blastula, gastrula and larval stages. After 60 days of incubation with mycelia of P. expansum, A. terreus and F. oxysporum, the mortality of the larvae reached 55.3-60.3%. P. expansum and F. oxysporum showed hyphal penetration and internal egg colonization of A. suum eggs. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Ascaris suum infections in pigs born and raised on contaminated paddocks

    OpenAIRE

    Mejer, Helena; Roepstorff, Allan

    2006-01-01

    The transmission of Ascaris suum was studied in outdoor reared pigs. From May to June, 2001 6 farrowing paddocks were naturally contaminated with A. suum using experimentally infected seeder pigs. Early July, 1 sow farrowed on each paddock. One piglet per litter was slaughtered every second week starting week 3 post partum (p.p.) for registration of liver white spots and recovery of A. suum from the lungs and the small intestine. The last pigs were slaughtered week 19 p.p. Faeces was examined...

  18. Inactivation of Ascaris suum by short-chain fatty acids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascaris suum eggs were inactivated in distilled water and digested sludge by butanoic, pentanoic and hexanoic acids. The fatty acids (FA) were only effective when protonated and at sufficient concentration. The conjugate bases were not effective at the concentrations evaluated. Predictions from an ...

  19. Impact of Ascaris suum in livestock

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Nejsum, Peter; Mejer, Helena

    2013-01-01

    The roundworm Ascaris suum is a highly prevalent intestinal parasite of pigs worldwide, and the infection may have low to moderate pathogenic effects on health and productivity. Besides these direct effects, there may be indirect effects on enhanced susceptibility or pathogenicity to bacterial or...

  20. Bacillus thuringiensis-derived Cry5B has potent anthelmintic activity against Ascaris suum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascaris suum and Ascaris lumbricoides are two closely related geo-helminth parasites that ubiquitously infect pigs and humans, respectively. Ascaris suum infection in pigs is considered a good model for A. lumbricoides infection in humans because of a similar biology and tissue migration to the inte...

  1. Ascaris suum enolase is a potential vaccine candidate against ascariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ning; Yuan, Zi-Guo; Xu, Min-Jun; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Zhang, Xiu-Xiang; Zhang, Yan-Zhong; Wang, Xiao-Wei; Yan, Chao; Lin, Rui-Qing; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2012-05-14

    Ascariasis caused by Ascaris is the most common parasite problem in humans and pigs worldwide. No vaccines are available for the prevention of Ascaris infections. In the present study, the gene encoding Ascaris suum enolase (As-enol-1) was amplified, cloned and sequenced. Amino acid sequence alignment indicated that As-enol-1 was highly conserved between different nematodes and shared the highest identity (87%) with enolase from Anisakis simplex s.l. The recombinant pVAX-Enol was successfully expressed in Marc-145 cells. The ability of the pVAX-Enol for inducing immune protective responses against challenge infection with A. suum L3 was evaluated in Kunming mice. The immune response was evaluated by lymphoproliferative assay, cytokine and antibody measurements, and the reduction rate of recovery larvae. The results showed that the mice immunized with pVAX-Enol developed a high level of specific antibody responses against A. suum, a strong lymphoproliferative response, and significant levels of IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-4 and IL-10 production, compared with the other groups immunized with empty plasmid or blank controls, respectively. There was a 61.13% reduction (Psuum enolase is a potential vaccine candidate against A. suum infection. Crown Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. Ascaris suum infections in pigs born and raised on contaminated paddocks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mejer, Helena; Roepstorff, Allan Knud

    2006-01-01

    The transmission of Ascaris suum was studied in outdoor reared pigs. From May to June 2001, 6 farrowing paddocks were naturally contaminated with A. suum using experimentally infected seeder pigs. Early July, 1 sow farrowed on each paddock. One piglet per litter was slaughtered every second week...... starting week 3 post partum (p.p.) for registration of liver white spots and recovery of A. suum from the lungs and the small intestine. The last pigs were slaughtered week 19 p.p. Faeces was examined for parasite eggs and blood was analysed for A. suum specific antibodies. Weaning took place week 7 p...... of adult worms remained in the pigs throughout the study, and it may primarily have been eggs ingested in the early infection phase that gave rise to the patent infections. It is suggested that neonatal exposure may result in increased persistence and size of adult worm burden and that the higher ‘life...

  3. Effects of Disinfectants on Larval Development of Ascaris suum Eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Ki-Seok; Kim, Geon-Tae; Ahn, Kyu-Sung; Shin, Sung-Shik

    2016-02-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of several different commercial disinfectants on the embryogenic development of Ascaris suum eggs. A 1-ml aliquot of each disinfectant was mixed with approximately 40,000 decorticated or intact A. suum eggs in sterile tubes. After each treatment time (at 0.5, 1, 5, 10, 30, and 60 min), disinfectants were washed away, and egg suspensions were incubated at 25˚C in distilled water for development of larvae inside. At 3 weeks of incubation after exposure, ethanol, methanol, and chlorohexidin treatments did not affect the larval development of A. suum eggs, regardless of their concentration and treatment time. Among disinfectants tested in this study, 3% cresol, 0.2% sodium hypochlorite and 0.02% sodium hypochlorite delayed but not inactivated the embryonation of decorticated eggs at 3 weeks of incubation, because at 6 weeks of incubation, undeveloped eggs completed embryonation regardless of exposure time, except for 10% povidone iodine. When the albumin layer of A. suum eggs remained intact, however, even the 10% povidone iodine solution took at least 5 min to reasonably inactivate most eggs, but never completely kill them with even 60 min of exposure. This study demonstrated that the treatment of A. suum eggs with many commercially available disinfectants does not affect the embryonation. Although some disinfectants may delay or stop the embryonation of A. suum eggs, they can hardly kill them completely.

  4. Experimental Ascaris suum infection in the pig: protective memory response after three immunizations and effect of intestinal adult worm population

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersen, Gregers; Eriksen, Lis; Roepstorff, Allan

    1999-01-01

    by blood eosinophilia and specific immune responses measured by peripheral blood enzyme-linked immunospot and immunosorbent assays using larval excretory-secretory products and adult body fluid as well as Western blotting with a panel of stage-specific A. suum antigens. Immune detection of a previously...

  5. Assessing the zoonotic potential of Ascaris suum and Trichuris suis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nejsum, Peter; Betson, M.; Bendall, R. P.

    2012-01-01

    The two geohelminths, Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura, infect more than a billion people worldwide but are only reported sporadically in the developed part of the world. In contrast, the closely related species A. suum and T. suis in pigs have a truly global distribution, with infected...... pigs found in most production systems. In areas where pigs and humans live in close proximity or where pig manure is used as fertilizer on vegetables for human consumption, there is a potential risk of cross-infections. We therefore review this relationship between Ascaris and Trichuris in the human...

  6. Efficacy of Ivermectin against Ascaris suum in Swine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.B. Chavhan

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available In present study ivermectin was tried in 20 pigs of Yorkshire breed infected with Ascaris Suum from organized farms of Pig Prawns N Pet Agro Pvt. Ltd., Tumsar dist- Bhandara. These pigs were treated with injectable solutions containing 300 ug of ivermectin /kg b.w.(s.c. .The improvement was observed within 7 days of treatment and complete recovery was noticed after three consecutive treatments. [Vet World 2009; 2(6.000: 228-228

  7. Comparative analysis of microRNA profiles between adult Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, Chang-Chun; Xu, Min-Jun; Alasaad, Samer; Song, Hui-Qun; Peng, Lifei; Tao, Jian-Ping; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2014-04-27

    The parasitic nematodes Ascaris lumbricoides and A. suum are of great public health and economic significance, and the two taxa were proposed to represent a single species. miRNAs are known with functions of gene regulations at post-transcriptional level. We herein compared the miRNA profiles of A. lumbricoides and A. suum female adults by Solexa deep sequencing combined with bioinformatics analysis and stem-loop real-time PCR. Using the A. suum genome as the reference genome, we obtained 171 and 494 miRNA candidates from A. lumbricoides and A. suum, respectively. Among which, 74 miRNAs were shared between the two taxa, 97 and 420 miRNAs were A. lumbricoides and A. suum specific. Target and function prediction revealed a significant set of targets which are related to ovarian message protein, vitellogenin and chondroitin proteoglycan of the two nematodes. Enrichment analysis revealed that the percentages of most predicted functions of the miRNA targets were similar, with some taxon specific or taxon enhanced functions, such as different target numbers, specific functions (NADH dehydrogenase and electron carrier functions), etc. This study characterized comparatively the miRNAs of adult A. lumbricoides and A. suum, and the findings provide additional evidence that A. lumbricoides and A. suum represent a single species. Due to the fast evolution nature of miRNAs and the different parasitic living conditions of humans and pigs, the phenomenon above might indicate a fast evolution of miRNAs of Ascaris in humans and pigs.

  8. Evaluation of serology to measure exposure of piglets to Ascaris suum during the nursery phase.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandekerckhove, Elise; Vlaminck, Johnny; Geldhof, Peter

    2017-11-15

    The aim of this study was to evaluate whether serology can be used to measure exposure of piglets to Ascaris suum during the nursery phase. Experimental infection studies were performed in which 7 groups of 10 piglets of 4 weeks of age were orally infected with either 10, 20, 40, 60, 80, 100 and 500 A. suum eggs/day during 7 consecutive weeks, mimicking a nursery phase in an A. suum contaminated environment. Serum was collected on a weekly basis to monitor seroconversion on 2 ELISA tests based on the antibody recognition of either a haemoglobin protein purified from the pseudocoelomic fluid of adult A. suum or a water-soluble complete homogenate of the 3rd stage larvae isolated from the lungs (L3-lung). A dose-dependent seroconversion was measurable with the L3-lung ELISA starting from 4 weeks post-infection onwards, whereas this was not measurable with the haemoglobin-based test. After 7 weeks, equivalent to the end of the nursery phase, the L3-lung ELISA showed a 99% specificity and a 90% sensitivity to detect exposure of piglets to A. suum, with a minimum infection level of 20 A. suum eggs per day. To further evaluate the test under field conditions, a seroprevalence study was performed by sampling 10 piglets on 68 different nursery farms in Belgium. The results showed that for 38% of the farms analysed all piglets tested seronegative, whereas for the remaining 62% of the farms the percentage seropositive piglets ranged from 10 to 100%. This indicates contamination of the nursery facilities with A. suum eggs. In conclusion, the outcome of this study shows that serology can be used to measure exposure of nursery piglets to A. suum, thereby providing an additional tool in the control of this widespread parasite. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. NADH→NAD⁺ Transhydrogenation in Adult Ascaris suum Mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holowiecki, Andrew; Fioravanti, Carmen F

    2015-06-01

    Although lacking an NADPH→NAD(+) transhydrogenase system, the essentially energetically anaerobic mitochondria of the adult intestinal nematode Ascaris suum display an inner membrane-associated NADH→NAD(+) transhydrogenation reaction. This reaction is considered to be reflective of a mechanism(s) that acts in catalyzing a transmembrane translocation of reducing equivalents from NADH in the intermembrane space to matrix NAD(+), thereby forming matrix NADH that would serve in electron transport. Ascarid mitochondrial lipoamide dehydrogenase rather than an NADH→NAD(+) transhydrogenase system has been viewed as the predominant source of inner membrane-associated NADH→NAD(+) transhydrogenation activity. However, the present study made apparent yet another source of mitochondrial, inner membrane-associated NADH→NAD(+) activity in A. suum , viz., NADH dehydrogenase. This was made evident via comparisons of the A. suum mitochondrial NADH→NAD(+) transhydrogenation, NADH dehydrogenase, and lipoamide dehydrogenase activities in terms of pH effects, thermal labilities, the involvement of NADH dehydrogenase in the activities of mitochondrial, membrane-associated rotenone-insensitive and rotenone-sensitive NADH-dependent cytochrome c reductases, and mitochondrial membrane versus mitochondrial soluble localizations. Studies of the responses of the NADH→NAD(+) transhydrogenation, rotenone-insensitive and rotenone-sensitive cytochrome c reductases, and lipoamide dehydrogenase activities to inhibition by copper and cadmium lent additional support to the catalysis of an NADH→NAD(+) transhydrogenation activity by NADH dehydrogenase. Collectively, the data presented are consistent with an additional physiological catalysis of an NADH→NAD(+) transhydrogenation in A. suum mitochondria by an inner membrane NADH dehydrogenase component of the rotenone-sensitive cytochrome c reductase system, i.e., the NADH dehydrogenase component of the electron transport system

  10. L3L4ES antigen and secretagogues induce histamine release from porcine peripheral blood basophils after Ascaris suum infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    The aim of this paper was to investigate the role of porcine basophils in protective immunity. Experimental pigs were infected with 1,000 Ascaris suum eggs daily for 21 days. Control pigs were maintained helminth-free. Circulating porcine basophils were isolated from the anti-coagulated whole blood ...

  11. Effects of some pesticides on development of Ascaris suum eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yong-Man; Kim, Jin-Won; Na, Won-Seok; Youn, Young-Nam; Choi, In-Wook; Lee, Young-Ha

    2014-02-01

    To evaluate the effects of pesticides to parasite eggs, Ascaris suum eggs were incubated with 5 different pesticides (1:1,500-1:2,000 dilutions of 2% emamectin benzoate, 5% spinetoram, 5% indoxacarb, 1% deltamethrin, and 5% flufenoxuron; all v/v) at 20℃ for 6 weeks, and microscopically evaluated the egg survival and development on a weekly basis. The survival rate of A. suum eggs incubated in normal saline (control eggs) was 90±3% at 6 weeks. However, the survival rates of eggs treated with pesticides were 75-85% at this time, thus significantly lower than the control value. Larval development in control eggs commenced at 3 weeks, and 73±3% of eggs had internal larvae at 6 weeks. Larvae were evident in pesticide-treated eggs at 3-4 weeks, and the proportions of eggs carrying larvae at 6 weeks (36±3%-54±3%) were significantly lower than that of the control group. Thus, pesticides tested at levels similar to those used in agricultural practices exhibited low-level ovicidal activity and delayed embryogenesis of A. suum eggs, although some differences were evident among the tested pesticides.

  12. Effect of Ascaris suum infection on performance of fattening pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boes, J; Kanora, A; Havn, K T; Christiansen, S; Vestergaard-Nielsen, K; Jacobs, Jos; Alban, L

    2010-09-20

    Scientific investigations of production losses in pigs due to roundworms are rarely conducted in commercial farms, despite the fact that this information is needed to decide whether anthelmintic treatment is cost-effective or not. Therefore, the aim of our study was to compare performance in fattening pigs treated or not treated for Ascaris suum infections. Two Danish pig farms producing fatteners and showing A. suum-induced liver white spot prevalences of 10-33% were selected for the study. In each farm, pens with fattening pigs were randomly assigned to either treatment with an anthelmintic (Flubenol, Janssen Animal Health), or a placebo. Pigs were treated by administering anthelmintic or placebo mixed in the feed for five consecutive days (5mg/kg body weight) on day 2-6 and day 36-40 after introduction to the finishing unit. Fecal egg excretion before first shipment, liver lesion scores (white spots), lean meat percentage at slaughter, average daily gain, and feed conversion were recorded weekly per pen and evaluated for the entire fattening period (30-100kg). A. suum egg excretion was detected in none of the 57 pens where pigs were treated with anthelmintic compared to 18.2% of 57 pens in the placebo group. Pen floor fecal sampling underestimated the prevalence of A. suum in the fattening units compared to individual rectal sampling; only 22% of pens where A. suum was present were diagnosed correctly by both sampling methods. The prevalence of white spots did not differ significantly between pigs treated with anthelmintic (26.7%) and pigs treated with placebo (23.7%), but considerable variation between batches and over time was observed. Liver lesion scores (none, few, moderate, many) were not significantly influenced by de-worming twice during the fattening period. There were no significant differences in average daily gain, feed conversion and lean meat percentage between pigs treated with anthelmintic or placebo. This lack of effect may be explained in part

  13. Anthelmintic effects of phytogenic feed additives in Ascaris suum inoculated pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krimpen, van M.M.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Gaasenbeek, C.P.H.

    2010-01-01

    Two experiments were performed to determine the anthelmintic effect of some phytogenic feed additives on a mild infection of Ascaris suum in growing and finishing pigs. Usually, an infection of A. suum is controlled by using conventional synthetic drugs. Organic farmers, however, prefer a

  14. Phosphorylation of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex isolated from Ascaris suum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thissen, J.; Komuniecki, R.

    1987-05-01

    The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) from body wall muscle of the porcine nematode, Ascaris suum, plays a pivotal role in anaerobic mitochondrial metabolism. As in mammalian mitochondria, PDC activity is inhibited by the phosphorylation of the ..cap alpha..PDH subunit, catalyzed by an associated PDH/sub a/ kinase. However, in contrast to PDC's isolated from all other eukaryotic sources, phosphorylation decreases the mobility of the ..cap alpha..PDH subunit on SDS-PAGE and permits the separation of the phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated ..cap alpha..PDH's. Phosphorylation and the inactivation of the Ascaris PDC correspond directly, and the additional phosphorylation that occurs after complete inactivation in mammalian PDC's is not observed. The purified ascarid PDC incorporates 10 nmoles /sup 32/P/mg P. Autoradiography of the radiolabeled PDC separated by SDS-PAGE yields a band which corresponds to the phosphorylated ..cap alpha..PDH and a second, faint band which is present only during the first three minutes of PDC inactivation, intermediate between the phosphorylated and nonphosphorylated ..cap alpha..PDH subunit. Tryptic digests of the /sup 32/P-PDC yields one major phosphopeptide, when separated by HPLC, and its amino acid sequence currently is being determined.

  15. A novel technique for identification of Ascaris suum cohorts in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nejsum, Peter; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Jørgensen, Claus Bøttcher

    2008-01-01

    The objective of the present study was to develop a fast, cheap and reliable technique for identifying different cohorts of the swine parasite, Ascaris suum. A polymerase chain reaction linked restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) technique on mt-DNA was used to identify unique...... haplotypes of four gravid A. suum females on agarose gels after eggs were recovered from each of the worms. Each of four pigs was inoculated with 2000 embryonated eggs originating from one of the four identified Ascaris haplotypes, respectively. Ascaris larvae were isolated from the small intestine at day 14...

  16. Survival of salmonella and Ascaris suum eggs in a thermophilic biogas plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plym-Forshell, L. [Swedish Univ. of Agricultural Sciences, Dept. of Animal Hygiene, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Skara (Denmark)

    1995-11-01

    In a continuous biogas plant, receiving manure from 200 dairy cows and 400 calves and young stock, survival of salmonella and Ascaris suum eggs was studied. The bacteria and parasite eggs were kept in filter sacs in the manure that ha a temperature of 55 deg. C. No viable salmonella or Ascaris suum eggs could be found after 24 h in the digester. Survival of salmonella and Ascaris suum eggs was also studied in the manure pit where the manure was stored after digestion. The temperature in the manure pit varied between 22-27 deg. C. Salmonella survived 35 but not 42 days. On day 56, when the experiments had to be stooped, 60% of the Ascaris eggs were viable. (au) 30 refs.

  17. Immunizing pigs with Ascaris suum hemoglobin increases the inflammatory response in the liver but fails to induce a protective immunity

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine whether purified Ascaris suum hemoglobin (AsHb) is a suitable vaccine candidate for the control of Ascaris infections, pigs were 30 vaccinated with AsHb in combination with QuilA adjuvant and challenged with A. suum eggs. The number of liver lesions and worms in the intestine was assess...

  18. Evaluation of a serodiagnostic test using Ascaris suum haemoglobin for the detection of roundworm infections in pig populations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlaminck, Johnny; Nejsum, Peter; Vangroenweghe, Frédéric; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Vercruysse, Jozef; Geldhof, Peter

    2012-10-26

    The significant economical consequences of infections with Ascaris suum in pigs are already well documented. However, due to the subclinical nature of the disease and the lack of practical diagnostic means, ascariasis often remains undiagnosed. Here we describe the development and evaluation of a novel indirect ELISA using the purified A. suum haemoglobin (AsHb) molecule as an antigen. Initial validation using sera from 190 pigs experimentally infected twice a week with A. suum and Trichuris suis (25 and 5 eggs kg(-1)day(-1) respectively) demonstrated that the AsHb ELISA is able to detect long-term exposure to A. suum with a high sensitivity and specificity (99.5% and 100.0% respectively). Furthermore, this serological technique proved to be more sensitive than faecal examination on week 7 and 14 of the experiment (99.5% and 100% compared to 59.5% and 68.4% respectively). Cross-reactivity caused by T. suis infection was shown to be limited after analysing sera from pigs with an experimental T. suis mono-infection. Seroconversion was shown to occur from week 6 onwards in pigs receiving 100 A. suum eggs 5 times a week. Preliminary testing of the ELISA on six randomly selected farms confirmed the results obtained in the artificial infection trials, showing a higher sensitivity of the serologic method compared to faecal examination. Finally, the ELISA was used to investigate Ascaris infection rates on 101 conventional Flemish pig farms. The results showed that on 38.6% of the farms less than 20% of the tested samples were seropositive, while in 19.8% of the farms 80-100% of all pigs were seropositive. The results of this study suggest that the AsHb ELISA could provide pig farmers and veterinarians with an easier and more sensitive way to estimate the overall prevalence of A. suum on their farm. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Immunoblot for the detection of Ascaris suum-specific antibodies in patients with visceral larva migrans (VLM) syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Renate; Obwaller, Andreas; Auer, Herbert

    2015-01-01

    Visceral larva migrans (VLM) syndrome caused by Toxocara canis larvae was first described in the 1950s. The role of other nematode larvae, i.e. the pig roundworm Ascaris suum as a causative agent of visceral larva migrans-associated symptoms like general malaise, cough, liver dysfunction, hypereosinophilia with hepatomegaly and/or pneumonia, was discussed controversially during the last decades. Recent serological screening studies for specific A. suum antibodies carried out in the Netherlands and Sweden yielded remarkable high seroprevalences, while a number of case reports from Japan report pulmonal, hepatic and cerebral symptoms caused by A. suum larvae after ingestion of infected raw meat (liver) or contaminated vegetables. We present here a sensitive and specific larval excretory-secretory (E/S) antigen-based immunoblot (As-IB) for the serodiagnosis of A. suum-infected patients suffering from symptoms associated to the VLM syndrome. In total, 34 sera from patients with hypereosinophilia and other clinical symptoms associated to the VLM syndrome tested negative for Toxocara sp. antibodies but positive in our newly established As-IB, 30 sera from healthy volunteers, 53 sera from patients with clinically and serologically confirmed toxocarosis and other helminthoses as well as 3 sera from patients with intestinal ascariosis due to Ascaris lumbricoides were included in the study. When evaluated with 30 sera from healthy volunteers and 53 sera from patients suffering from different helminthoses, the calculated specificity of our new As-IB is 95%. Problems hampering the establishment of simple serological screening tests for specific A. suum antibodies, like extensive antigenic similarities between the nematodes Ascaris and Toxocara or the absence of suitable experimental animals, are discussed. We assume that specific serological testing for antibodies of A. suum is very important for the treatment of individual patients on one hand and seroepidemiological

  20. Bacillus thuringiensis-derived Cry5B has potent anthelmintic activity against Ascaris suum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, Joseph F; Hu, Yan; Miller, Melanie M; Scheib, Ulrike; Yiu, Ying Y; Aroian, Raffi V

    2013-01-01

    Ascaris suum and Ascaris lumbricoides are two closely related geo-helminth parasites that ubiquitously infect pigs and humans, respectively. Ascaris suum infection in pigs is considered a good model for A. lumbricoides infection in humans because of a similar biology and tissue migration to the intestines. Ascaris lumbricoides infections in children are associated with malnutrition, growth and cognitive stunting, immune defects, and, in extreme cases, life-threatening blockage of the digestive tract and aberrant migration into the bile duct and peritoneum. Similar effects can be seen with A. suum infections in pigs related to poor feed efficiency and performance. New strategies to control Ascaris infections are needed largely due to reduced treatment efficacies of current anthelmintics in the field, the threat of resistance development, and the general lack of new drug development for intestinal soil-transmitted helminths for humans and animals. Here we demonstrate for the first time that A. suum expresses the receptors for Bacillus thuringiensis crystal protein and novel anthelmintic Cry5B, which has been previously shown to intoxicate hookworms and which belongs to a class of proteins considered non-toxic to vertebrates. Cry5B is able to intoxicate A. suum larvae and adults and triggers the activation of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway similar to that observed with other nematodes. Most importantly, two moderate doses of 20 mg/kg body weight (143 nM/kg) of Cry5B resulted in a near complete cure of intestinal A. suum infections in pigs. Taken together, these results demonstrate the excellent potential of Cry5B to treat Ascaris infections in pigs and in humans and for Cry5B to work effectively in the human gastrointestinal tract.

  1. Bacillus thuringiensis-derived Cry5B has potent anthelmintic activity against Ascaris suum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph F Urban

    Full Text Available Ascaris suum and Ascaris lumbricoides are two closely related geo-helminth parasites that ubiquitously infect pigs and humans, respectively. Ascaris suum infection in pigs is considered a good model for A. lumbricoides infection in humans because of a similar biology and tissue migration to the intestines. Ascaris lumbricoides infections in children are associated with malnutrition, growth and cognitive stunting, immune defects, and, in extreme cases, life-threatening blockage of the digestive tract and aberrant migration into the bile duct and peritoneum. Similar effects can be seen with A. suum infections in pigs related to poor feed efficiency and performance. New strategies to control Ascaris infections are needed largely due to reduced treatment efficacies of current anthelmintics in the field, the threat of resistance development, and the general lack of new drug development for intestinal soil-transmitted helminths for humans and animals. Here we demonstrate for the first time that A. suum expresses the receptors for Bacillus thuringiensis crystal protein and novel anthelmintic Cry5B, which has been previously shown to intoxicate hookworms and which belongs to a class of proteins considered non-toxic to vertebrates. Cry5B is able to intoxicate A. suum larvae and adults and triggers the activation of the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase pathway similar to that observed with other nematodes. Most importantly, two moderate doses of 20 mg/kg body weight (143 nM/kg of Cry5B resulted in a near complete cure of intestinal A. suum infections in pigs. Taken together, these results demonstrate the excellent potential of Cry5B to treat Ascaris infections in pigs and in humans and for Cry5B to work effectively in the human gastrointestinal tract.

  2. Interactions between the nematode parasite of pigs, Ascaris suum, and the earthworm Aporrectodea longa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraglund, H O; Grønvold, J; Roepstorff, A; Rawat, H

    1998-01-01

    Pig faeces in which Ascaris suum eggs had been embryonating for 57 days were placed in buckets of soil containing either 30 or no earth-worms (Aporrectodea longa). When present, earthworms consumed the faeces and transported the eggs down into the soil, without inflicting any visible damage on the eggs. In later experiments 10 earthworms from the above experiment were fed to each of ten pigs, and another 40 earthworms were dissected. None of the 10 pigs became infected with A. suum through consumption of earthworms, and none of the dissected earthworms were found to contain A. suum larvae. This experiment indicates that A. longa did not act as a paratenic host for A. suum but shows that earthworms are very efficient in transporting A. suum eggs from faeces deposited on the soil surface into the soil.

  3. Potensi Serbuk Daun Kelor (Moringa oleifera Sebagai Anthelmintik Terhadap Infeksi Ascaris suum dan Feed Supplement pada Babi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Ulqiya Syukron

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pig ascariasis is an intestinal parasitic disease caused by Ascaris suum. The economic losses in pig ascariasis are caused by a bad feed conversion ratio (FCR and rejection of some organs after animal slaughtering. An anthelmintic utilization and farm management improvement are the common prevention action, however, recently the utilization of herbs as an athelmintic has been developed, one of them is Moringa oleifera leaves. Moringa oleifera leaves are also a potential for a sources of animal food because of their high nutrients. This intervention research aimed to examine the anthelmintic effect of Moringa oleifera leaves and its potency as feed supplement. Experimental design used was ccompletely randomized design split time (CRD Split Time with six treatments namely Moringa oleifera 5% and an infection of infective larvae of A. suum (1, Moringa oleifera 5% (2, positive control (3, Moringa oleifera 10% (4, Moringa oleifera 10% and infection of infective larvae of A. suum (5, and no treatment as negative control (6. Each treatment was imposed on four female landrace piglets aged 8 weeks and weighed around 11 kg. The results showed that Moringa oleifera 5% and 10% of the feed could inhibit the egg production of A.suum and had a significant effect (P<0.05 on weight gain of piglets. It can be concluded that Moringa oleifera leave have an anthelmintic effect to prevent the infection of A. suum and a potential for a feed supplement on pigs.

  4. Comparative analyses of the complete mitochondrial genomes of Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum from humans and pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Guo-Hua; Wu, Chang-Yi; Song, Hui-Qun; Wei, Shu-Jun; Xu, Min-Jun; Lin, Rui-Qing; Zhao, Guang-Hui; Huang, Si-Yang; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2012-01-15

    Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum are parasitic nematodes living in the small intestine of humans and pigs, and can cause the disease ascariasis. For long, there has been controversy as to whether the two ascaridoid taxa represent the same species due to their significant resemblances in morphology. However, the complete mitochondrial (mt) genome data have been lacking for A. lumbricoides in spite of human and animal health significance and socio-economic impact globally of these parasites. In the present study, we sequenced the complete mt genomes of A. lumbricoides and A. suum (China isolate), which was 14,303 bp and 14,311 bp in size, respectively. The identity of the mt genomes was 98.1% between A. lumbricoides and A. suum (China isolate), and 98.5% between A. suum (China isolate) and A. suum (USA isolate). Both genomes are circular, and consist of 36 genes, including 12 genes for proteins, 2 genes for rRNA and 22 genes for tRNA, which are consistent with that of all other species of ascaridoid studied to date. All genes are transcribed in the same direction and have a nucleotide composition high in A and T (71.7% for A. lumbricoides and 71.8% for A. suum). The AT bias had a significant effect on both the codon usage pattern and amino acid composition of proteins. Phylogenetic analyses of A. lumbricoides and A. suum using concatenated amino acid sequences of 12 protein-coding genes, with three different computational algorithms (Bayesian analysis, maximum likelihood and maximum parsimony) all clustered in a clade with high statistical support, indicating that A. lumbricoides and A. suum was very closely related. These mt genome data and the results provide some additional genetic evidence that A. lumbricoides and A. suum may represent the same species. The mt genome data presented in this study are also useful novel markers for studying the molecular epidemiology and population genetics of Ascaris. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Analysis of the internal transcribed spacer region of Ascaris suum and Ascaris lumbricoides derived from free range Tibetan pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Kun; Luo, Houqiang; Zhang, Hui; Mehmood, Khalid; Shahzad, Muhammad; Zhang, Lihong; Li, Jiakui

    2017-05-21

    Ascaris suum (A. suum) is the most commonly occurring worldwide internal parasite of pigs; however, little is known about this organism in Tibetan pigs in China. A study was carried to isolate and identify the characteristics of internal transcribed spacer region (ITS) gene of A. suum derived from Tibetan pigs. Adult nematodes were collected from Tibetan pigs in 2015-2016. Total genomic DNA of the extracted parasites was performed and a fragment of the ITS of mitochondrial (mt) gene was amplified. The amplicons were cloned into PGEM®-T Easy Vector (Promega, WI) and the positive clones were sequenced by ABI 3730 × 1 sequencer. The sequence and phylogenetic analysis were performed by ClustalWVer. 1.4 and MEGA 6.0 software, respectively. Results indicated that the identity of A. suum isolates was 98.4%-99.9% with previously reported pig isolates, and 99.4%-99.7% with A. lumbricoides isolates. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report describing the characteristics of ITS gene of A. suum derived from the Tibetan pigs from high and remote areas depicting high identity with the isolates of both A. suum and A. lumbricoides.

  6. Optimal ELISA antigen for the diagnosis of Ascaris suum infection in humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Ayako; Kikuchi, Taisei; Nakagaki, Shiori; Maruyama, Haruhiko

    2016-12-01

    Ascarid nematodes, Ascaris suum, Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati, are the most important causative species of larva migrans syndrome (LMS) in humans. Although the diagnosis of ascarid LMS is generally based on serological tests, specific serological tests for A. suum infection have not been fully developed. In the present study, the sensitivity and specificity of three A. suum antigen preparations, i.e., the somatic adult worm antigen (As-SWAP), larval excretory-secretory (ES) antigens derived from infective L3 (AsiL3-ES) and larval ES from tissue migratory L3 (AsmL3-ES), were evaluated for the serodiagnosis of A. suum infection in enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). We found that all A. suum antigen preparations showed positive reaction to all sera from A. suum-infected mice, while only AsmL3-ES obtained 100 % detection of anti-A. suum antibodies in human visceral ascarosis patients. Comparing the reactivity of each A. suum antigen, sera from both A. suum-infected mice and human patients bound to AsiL3-ES significantly weaker than As-SWAP and AsmL3-ES. Moreover, the OD450 values of ELISA with the A. suum antigen preparations and T. canis larval ES antigen (TciL3-ES) were compared in order to discriminate between ascarosis and toxocarosis. Linear discriminant analysis showed that diagnosis based on TciL3-ES and AsmL3-ES ELISA gave the most reliable result for the discrimination of infecting species. In conclusion, the application of AsmL3-ES antigen in ELISA can be recommended for the serodiagnosis of A. suum infection in humans.

  7. Detection of a quantitative trait locus associated with resistance to Ascaris suum infection in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skallerup, Per; Nejsum, Peter; Jørgensen, Claus B; Göring, Harald H H; Karlskov-Mortensen, Peter; Archibald, Alan L; Fredholm, Merete; Thamsborg, Stig M

    2012-04-01

    Helminths almost invariably have an over-dispersed distribution in the host population. Human and animal studies have provided evidence suggesting that a large part of this variation is due to host genetic factors. Recently, the heritability for roundworm (Ascaris suum) infection levels in pigs was estimated to be 0.45. We used single nucleotide polymorphism markers to perform a whole-genome scan on 195 pigs experimentally infected with A. suum. A putative quantitative trait locus for worm burden on chromosome 4 covering 2.5 Mbp was identified by measured genotype analysis, although none of the SNPs reached genome-wide significance. To validate the putative quantitative trait locus, we genotyped two of the SNPs within the region in unrelated, informative animals exposed to experimental or natural infections and from which we had worm counts and/or faecal egg counts; the validation studies showed that one of the SNPs (TXNIP) was associated with total worm burden (P < 0.001) and adult worm burden(P < 0.0001), whereas the other SNP (ARNT) was associated with adult worm burden (P < 0.025) in these populations. We were thus able to confirm the existence of the quantitative trait locus on chromosome 4.This is to our knowledge the first report of a quantitative trait locus associated with helminth burden in pigs.

  8. Functional study of a genetic marker allele associated with resistance to Ascaris suum in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skallerup, Per; Thamsborg, Stig M.; Jørgensen, Claus B.

    2014-01-01

    Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP TXNIP and SNP ARNT), both on chromosome 4, have been reported to be associated with roundworm (Ascaris suum) burden in pigs. In the present study, we selected pigs with two SNP TXNIP genotypes (AA; n=24 and AB; n=24) which, from eight weeks of age were...

  9. Effect of some herbs as alternative for conventional treatment of Ascaris suum in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krimpen, van M.M.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Gaasenbeek, C.P.H.

    2008-01-01

    The current study describes the effects of three individual herbs for the prevention and control of a mild infection of Ascaris suum in growing and finishing pigs. In our study, feed (a commercial organic starter diet) was supplemented with 1% of one of the three herbs (Papaya, Boldo leaf and

  10. Development of patent Ascaris suum infections in pigs following intravenous administration of larvae hatched in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersen, Gregers; Fagerholm, H.P.; Nansen, P.

    1999-01-01

    The normal tissue migration of Ascaris suum in the pig host involves larval development in the liver accompanied by considerable pathological changes. The vast majority of larvae that reach the small intestine are later expelled by unknown mechanisms. We show that when migration through the liver...

  11. In vivo testing of alternatives for conventional treatment of Ascaris suum in pigs

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krimpen, van M.M.; Binnendijk, G.P.; Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Gaasenbeek, C.P.H.

    2007-01-01

    Er is een experiment uitgevoerd om het preventieve effect te testen van een aantal kruiden (Thymus vulgaris, Melissa officinalis, Echinacea purpurea and/or Camellia sinensis) op een milde besmetting van Ascaris suum bij vleesvarkens. Resultaten worden in dit rapport besproken

  12. Studies on the survival of Ascaris suum eggs under laboratory and simulated field conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaasenbeek, C.P.H.; Borgsteede, F.H.M.

    1998-01-01

    A series of four experiments was carried out to study the survival of Ascaris suum eggs: in a pig slurry unit on a farm, in the laboratory under anaerobic conditions and different relative humidities (rH), and under simulated field conditions. Survival of eggs in the pig slurry unit was 20% after

  13. Molecular and catalytic properties of an arginine kinase from the nematode Ascaris suum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagataki, M; Uda, K; Jarilla, B R; Tokuhiro, S; Wickramasinghe, S; Suzuki, T; Blair, D; Agatsuma, T

    2012-09-01

    We amplified the cDNA coding for arginine kinase (AK) from the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum, cloned it in pMAL plasmid and expressed the enzyme as a fusion protein with the maltose-binding protein. The whole cDNA was 1260 bp, encoding 400 amino acids, and the recombinant protein had a molecular mass of 45,341 Da. Ascaris suum recombinant AK showed significant activity and strong affinity ( K(m)(Arg) = 0.126 mM) for the substrate L-arginine. It also exhibited high catalytic efficiency ( k(ca)/K(m)(Arg) = 352) comparable with AKs from other organisms. Sequence analysis revealed high amino acid sequence identity between A. suum AK and other nematode AKs, all of which cluster in a phylogenetic tree. However, comparison of gene structures showed that A. suum AK gene intron/exon organization is quite distinct from that of other nematode AKs. Phosphagen kinases (PKs) from certain parasites have been shown to be potential novel drug targets or tools for detection of infection. The characterization of A. suum AK will be useful in the development of strategies for control not only of A. suum but also of related species infecting humans.

  14. Ascaris suum infection modulates inflammation: Implication of CD4(+) CD25(high) Foxp3(+) T cells and IL-10.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titz, T de O; de Araújo, C A A; Enobe, C S; Rigato, P O; Oshiro, T M; de Macedo-Soares, M F

    2017-09-01

    Helminth infections have the ability to modulate host's immune response through mechanisms that allow the chronic persistence of the worms in the host. Here, we investigated the mechanisms involved on the suppressive effect of Ascaris suum infection using a murine experimental model of LPS-induced inflammation. We found that infection with A. suum markedly inhibited leucocyte influx induced by LPS into air pouches, suppressed secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6) and induced high levels of IL-10 and TGF-β. Augmented frequency of CD4(+) CD25(high) Foxp3(+) T cells was observed in the mesenteric lymph nodes of infected mice. Adoptive transfer of purified CD4(+) CD25(+) T cells to recipient uninfected mice demonstrated that these cells were able to induce a suppressive effect in the LPS-induced inflammation in air pouch model. In addition, adoptive transfer of CD4(+) CD25(+) T cells derived from IL-10 knockout mice suggests that this suppressive effect of A. suum infection involves IL-10 cytokine. In conclusion, our results demonstrated that A. suum experimental infection was capable of suppressing LPS-induced inflammation by mechanisms, which seem to be dependent on responses of CD4(+) CD25(+) T cells and secretion of IL-10 cytokine. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Ascaris suum infection down-regulates inflammatory pathways in the pig intestine in vivo and in human dendritic cells in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Midttun, Helene L E; Acevedo, Nathalie; Skallerup, Per

    2018-01-01

    Ascaris suum is a helminth parasite of pigs closely related to its human counterpart, A. lumbricoides, which infects almost one billion people. Ascaris spp. is thought to modulate host immune and inflammatory responses, which may drive immune hyporesponsiveness during chronic infections. Using...... provide an insight into mucosal immune-modulation during Ascaris infection, and show that A. suum profoundly suppresses immune and inflammatory pathways....

  16. A role for eosinophils in the intestinal immunity against infective Ascaris suum larvae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dries Masure

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to explore the mechanisms of resistance against invading Ascaris suum larvae in pigs. Pigs received a low dose of 100 A. suum eggs daily for 14 weeks. This resulted in a >99% reduction in the number of larvae that could migrate through the host after a challenge infection of 5000 A. suum eggs, compared to naïve pigs. Histological analysis at the site of parasite entry, i.e. the caecum, identified eosinophilia, mastocytosis and goblet cell hyperplasia. Increased local transcription levels of genes for IL5, IL13, eosinophil peroxidase and eotaxin further supported the observed eosinophil influx. Further analysis showed that eosinophils degranulated in vitro in response to contact with infective Ascaris larvae in the presence of serum from both immune and naïve animals. This effect was diminished with heat-inactivated serum, indicating a complement dependent mechanism. Furthermore, eosinophils were efficient in killing the larvae in vitro when incubated together with serum from immune animals, suggesting that A. suum specific antibodies are required for efficient elimination of the larvae. Together, these results indicate an important role for eosinophils in the intestinal defense against invading A. suum larvae.

  17. A role for eosinophils in the intestinal immunity against infective Ascaris suum larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masure, Dries; Vlaminck, Johnny; Wang, Tao; Chiers, Koen; Van den Broeck, Wim; Vercruysse, Jozef; Geldhof, Peter

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the mechanisms of resistance against invading Ascaris suum larvae in pigs. Pigs received a low dose of 100 A. suum eggs daily for 14 weeks. This resulted in a >99% reduction in the number of larvae that could migrate through the host after a challenge infection of 5000 A. suum eggs, compared to naïve pigs. Histological analysis at the site of parasite entry, i.e. the caecum, identified eosinophilia, mastocytosis and goblet cell hyperplasia. Increased local transcription levels of genes for IL5, IL13, eosinophil peroxidase and eotaxin further supported the observed eosinophil influx. Further analysis showed that eosinophils degranulated in vitro in response to contact with infective Ascaris larvae in the presence of serum from both immune and naïve animals. This effect was diminished with heat-inactivated serum, indicating a complement dependent mechanism. Furthermore, eosinophils were efficient in killing the larvae in vitro when incubated together with serum from immune animals, suggesting that A. suum specific antibodies are required for efficient elimination of the larvae. Together, these results indicate an important role for eosinophils in the intestinal defense against invading A. suum larvae.

  18. Proanthocyanidins inhibit Ascaris suum glutathione-S-transferase activity and increase susceptibility of larvae to levamisole in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Tina Vicky Alstrup; Fryganas, Christos; Acevedo, Nathalie

    2016-01-01

    the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum. As GSTs are involved in detoxifying xenobiotic substances within the parasite, we hypothesised that this inhibition may render parasites hyper-susceptible to anthelmintic drugs. Migration inhibition assays with A. suum larvae demonstrated that the potency of levamisole (LEV...

  19. Transcriptional immune response in mesenteric lymph nodes in pigs with different levels of resistance to Ascaris suum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skallerup, Per; Nejsum, Peter; Cirera, Susanna

    2017-01-01

    A single nucleotide polymorphism on chromosome 4 (SNP TXNIP) has been reported to be associated with roundworm (Ascaris suum) burden in pigs. The objective of the present study was to analyse the immune response to A. suum mounted by pigs with genotype AA (n = 24) and AB (n = 23) at the TXNIP locus...

  20. RNAi-mediated silencing of a novel Ascaris suum gene expression in infective larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, M J; Chen, N; Song, H Q; Lin, R Q; Huang, C Q; Yuan, Z G; Zhu, X Q

    2010-11-01

    In the present study, the potential of RNA interference (RNAi) as a gene silencing tool and the resultant effects on Ascaris suum larval development was examined by targeting a gene (represented by the EST 06G09) specifically expressed in the infective larvae of A. suum. BALB/c mice were infected with RNAi-treated larvae. The results showed that the target gene was silenced after soaking for 72 h, and the survival rate of the RNAi-treated larvae was reduced by 17.25% (Psuum larvae.

  1. Ascaris suum: partial fractionation of metabolic antigens from "in vitro" cultured larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Guerrero

    1973-10-01

    Full Text Available Ascaris suum metabolic antigens were obtained frorn second and early third stage larvae cultured in vitro in supplemented Eagle's minimum essential medium. Metabolic antigens harvested after 12 and 16 days from in vitro cultures were eluted through Bio-Gel Al.5. Three main elution peaks were identified, dialysed, lyophilized and injected into mice with 4% sodium alginate. Peak 11 from elution of two preparations of metabolic antigens protected mice against a chállenge infection of 10,000 A. suum embryonated eggs.

  2. Environmental contamination and transmission of Ascaris suum in Danish organic pig farms

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katakam, Kiran K.; Thamsborg, Stig M.; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2016-01-01

    , finisher pigs, dry and lactating sows. The uppermost bedding material was sampled from three pen areas (resting, intermediate and latrine) of shallow and deep litter pens. Results: Ascaris suum was found on all farms. Averaged across farm and season, the prevalence of A. suum was 48, 64, 28 and 15......, 445 and 1331 eggs/g dry straw in the resting, intermediate and latrine areas, respectively. However, more eggs were undergoing development in resting areas (44 %) compared to intermediate (33 %) and latrine areas (13 %). Irrespective of area, more eggs were undergoing development in the autumn...

  3. Development and survival of Ascaris suum eggs in deep litter of pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katakam, Kiran Kumar; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Kyvsgaard, Niels Christian

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Indoor transmission of Ascaris suum partly depends on the physico-chemical conditions in bedding material. Temperature, pH, aqueous ammonia, moisture, occurrence and development of A. suum eggs were therefore compared in different areas (resting, intermediate and latrine) of two deep litter......-1 DM), but overall viability was very low (5%) and few eggs were larvated (0·004%) or even infective (0·002%). Latrines typically had high moisture (79%) and moderate temperature (30 °C) levels. The concentration of eggs was very high (1444 egg g-1 DM) and though 32% were viable, none had developed...

  4. Anthelmintic effects of phytogenic feed additives in Ascaris suum inoculated pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Krimpen, M M; Binnendijk, G P; Borgsteede, F H M; Gaasenbeek, C P H

    2010-03-25

    Two experiments were performed to determine the anthelmintic effect of some phytogenic feed additives on a mild infection of Ascaris suum in growing and finishing pigs. Usually, an infection of A. suum is controlled by using conventional synthetic drugs. Organic farmers, however, prefer a non-pharmaceutical approach to worm control. Therefore, phytotherapy could be an appropriate alternative. In the first experiment, a commercial available organic starter diet was supplemented with 3% of a herb mixture, adding 1% Thymus vulgaris, 1% Melissa officinalis and 1% Echinacea purpurea to the diet, or with 4% of a herb mixture, thereby adding the mentioned herbs plus 1% Camellia sinensis (black tea). A negative control group (no treatment) and a positive control group (treatment with conventional synthetic drug flubendazole) were included. In the second experiment, the anthelmintic properties against A. suum of three individual herbs, Carica papaya, Peumus boldus and Artemisia vulgaris, each in a dose of 1%, were tested. Pigs were infected with 1000 infective worm eggs each. Each experiment was performed with 32 individually housed growing pigs (8 replicates/treatment), which were monitored for 67 days. It was hypothesized that the herbs would block the cycles of the larvae, thereby preventing the development of adult worms. Therefore, phytogenic feed additives were not supplied during the whole experimental period, but only from the start until D39. Pigs were inoculated with infective worm eggs during five consecutive days (D17-D21). At D67 all pigs were dissected, whereafter livers were checked for the presence of white spots. Also numbers of worms in the small intestine were counted. In experiment 1, the numbers of worm-infected pigs were similar for both the herb supplemented (groups 3 and 4) and the unsupplemented (group 1) treatments (5-6 pigs of 8), while the treatment with flubendazole (group 2) resulted in 0 infected pigs. In experiment 2, herb addition (groups 2

  5. Phylogeography of Ascaris lumbricoides and A. suum from China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Chunhua; Li, Min; Yuan, Keng; Hu, Ningyan; Peng, Weidong

    2011-08-01

    In order to obtain further understanding of genetic structure and evolutionary relationship of Ascaris from humans and pigs, phylogeography study on 12 populations from six endemic regions in China was conducted using mitochondrial DNA markers (cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (COX1) and NAD1) and the software programs of DnaSP 5.0, Arlequin 3.0, MEGA 4.0, and NETWORK 4.5.1.6. Results showed that (a) genetic diversity of Ascaris varied with hosts and locations, but no distinct geographical distribution pattern was found, (b) a higher level of genetic diversity and differentiation was found in pig-derived populations in contrast to human-derived ones, and in populations of human-derived Ascaris from the southern regions in comparison to that from the middle and northern locations, but similar geographical difference was not observed within pig-derived populations, (c) historical population expanding was detected from a large part of human-derived Ascaris populations but not in pig-derived Ascaris, (d) a high level of gene flow was detected between human- and pig-derived Ascaris and also among human-derived populations, and (e) network analysis from haplotype of COX1 indicated an ancestral haplotype from human-derived Ascaris. In conclusion, the present study revealed new information on Ascaris on the aspects of genetic diversity, population differentiation and historical demographic patterns, gene flow, phylogenesis reconstruction, and haplotype network, discussed the results with historical demographic migration of humans and domestication of wild boar in China, and raised a different assumption about the evolutionary relationship of the two roundworms. This study should have certain enlightenment for the epidemiology and the evolutionary and taxonomy relationship of Ascaris from humans and pigs.

  6. Discovery of neuropeptides in the nematode Ascaris suum by database mining and tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarecki, Jessica L; Frey, Brian L; Smith, Lloyd M; Stretton, Antony O

    2011-07-01

    Liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) was used to discover peptides in extracts of the large parasitic nematode Ascaris suum. This required the assembly of a new database of known and predicted peptides. In addition to those already sequenced, peptides were either previously predicted to be processed from precursor proteins identified in an A. suum library of expressed sequence tags (ESTs) or newly predicted from a library of A. suum genome survey sequences (GSSs). The predicted MS/MS fragmentation patterns of this collection of real and putative peptides were compared with the actual fragmentation patterns found in the MS/MS spectra of peptides fractionated by MS; this enabled individual peptides to be sequenced. Many previously identified peptides were found, and 21 novel peptides were discovered. Thus, this approach is very useful, despite the fact that the available GSS database is still preliminary, having only 1× coverage.

  7. Possible regulatory role of galectin-9 on Ascaris suum-induced eosinophilic lung inflammation in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katoh, Shigeki; Oomizu, Souichi; Niki, Toshiro; Shimizu, Hiroki; Obase, Yasushi; Korenaga, Masataka; Oka, Mikio; Hirashima, Mistuomi

    2012-01-01

    Galectin-9 (Gal-9) is a member of the galectin family of lectins that exhibit binding affinity for β-galactosides. We found a T cell line-derived Gal-9 with novel eosinophil chemoattractant activity, but its role in eosinophilic inflammation of the lung is unknown. We evaluated the role of Gal-9 in Ascaris suum-induced eosinophilic lung inflammation in mice. To evaluate the role of Gal-9 in Ascaris suum-induced eosinophilic lung inflammation, we developed a mouse model of eosinophilic pneumonia induced by the Ascaris suum antigen, and analyzed eosinophilic inflammation in Gal-9-deficient mice. The therapeutic effects of recombinant Gal-9 on lung inflammation were also examined in this mouse model. To evaluate lung inflammation, numbers of inflammatory cells and cytokine levels in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) were estimated by flow cytometry and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. The BALF of this mouse model of eosinophilic pneumonia induced by the Ascaris suum antigen contained increased numbers of inflammatory cells and elevated Gal-9 levels. Compared with wild-type mice, the BALF of Gal-9-deficient mice contained higher numbers of both eosinophils and T helper type 2 (Th2) cells. Th2 cytokines and eotaxin levels were also higher, and levels of CD4+CD25+Foxp3+ regulatory T cells were lower in Gal-9-deficient mice than in wild-type mice. Intranasal administration of recombinant Gal-9 prevented eosinophilic inflammation of the lung and upregulated the release of endogenous Gal-9. Our findings suggest that Gal-9 negatively regulates Th2-mediated eosinophilic inflammation of the lung and that Foxp3+ regulatory T cells might be involved in suppressing allergic inflammation. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  8. Ascaris suum: partial fractionation of metabolic antigens from "in vitro" cultured larvae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Guerrero

    1973-10-01

    Full Text Available Ascaris suum metabolic antigens were obtained frorn second and early third stage larvae cultured in vitro in supplemented Eagle's minimum essential medium. Metabolic antigens harvested after 12 and 16 days from in vitro cultures were eluted through Bio-Gel Al.5. Three main elution peaks were identified, dialysed, lyophilized and injected into mice with 4% sodium alginate. Peak 11 from elution of two preparations of metabolic antigens protected mice against a chállenge infection of 10,000 A. suum embryonated eggs.Os antígenos metabólicos de Ascaris suum foram obtidos de larvas de segundo e de terceiro estágio (precoce cultivadas in vitro em meio mínimo essencial de Eeagle com suplemento proteico. Os antígenos metabólicos coletados depois de 12 a 16 dias das culturas in vitro foram eluidos em Bio-Gel Al 5. Três picos de eluição foram identificados, dializados, liofilizados e injetados em camundongos, com alginato de sódio a 4%. O pico II da eluição de duas preparações dos antígenos metabólicos protegeram os camundongos da infecção com 10.000 ovos infectivos de A. suum

  9. Immunoproteomic approach for identification of Ascaris suum proteins recognized by pigs with porcine ascariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Miguel, Javier; Morchón, Rodrigo; Gussoni, Stefania; Bossetti, Erika; Hormaeche, Marta; Kramer, Laura Helen; Simón, Fernando

    2014-07-14

    Ascaris suum, the causative agent of porcine ascariasis, is responsible for marked economic losses in pig farms worldwide. Despite recent advances in research, including the characterization of the genome of A. suum, knowledge about the parasite/host relationship in porcine ascariasis at the molecular level is scarce and chemotherapy is the only effective option for parasite control. The aim of this study was to identify immunogenic proteins of A. suum somatic antigens associated with the pathogenicity/survival mechanisms of the parasite, by using two-dimensional (2-D) electrophoresis, 2-D Western blot and mass spectrometry (MS). A total of 24 parasite proteins recognized by serum samples from pigs naturally infected with A. suum were identified. Most of them (23/24) were identified as being involved in parasite survival mechanisms, including functions related to energy generation (12 proteins) and redox processes (5 proteins). These results may aid the search for effective chemo-therapeutic targets in porcine ascariasis. Further studies are needed, however, to illustrate the effect of the host immune response on the survival mechanisms of A. suum. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Effect of temperature on embryonation of Ascaris suum eggs in an environmental chamber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Min-Ki; Pyo, Kyoung-Ho; Hwang, Young-Sang; Park, Ki Hwan; Hwang, In Gyun; Chai, Jong-Yil; Shin, Eun-Hee

    2012-09-01

    The influence of temperature on the development and embryonation of Ascaris suum eggs was studied using coarse sand medium in an environmental chamber with 50% humidity. The time required for development and embryonation of eggs was examined under 3 different temperature conditions, 5°C, 25°C, and 35°C. A. suum eggs did not develop over 1 month at the temperature of 5°C. However, other temperature conditions, 25°C and 35°C, induced egg development to the 8-cell-stage at days 5-6 after incubation. All eggs examined developed to the 8-cell stage at day 6 after incubation in the sand medium at 25°C. The higher temperature, 35°C, slightly accelerated the A. suum egg development compared to 25°C, and the development to the 8-cell stage occurred within day 5 after incubation. The formation of larvae in A. suum eggs at temperatures of 35° and 25°C appeared at days 17 and 19 after incubation, respectively. These findings show that 35° condition shortens the time for the development of A. suum eggs to the 8-cell-stage in comparison to 25°C, and suggest the possibility of accelerated transmission of this parasite, resulting from global warming and ecosystem changes.

  11. Production and characterization of a monoclonal antibody against an Ascaris suum allergenic component

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R.R. Pires

    2001-08-01

    Full Text Available Ascaris suum allergenic components (PIII separated by gel filtration chromatography of an adult worm extract were used to immunize BALB/c mice. Popliteal lymph node cells taken from the immunized animals were fused with SP2/O myeloma cells using polyethylene glycol (MW 1450 as fusogen. The hybridomas were cultured in HAT-containing medium and cloned at limiting dilutions. Supernatants from the growing hybrids were screened by ELISA using plates coated with PIII or the A. suum crude extract. The monoclonal antibody obtained, named MAC-3 (mouse anti-A. suum allergenic component, is an IgG1 kappa mouse immunoglobulin that specifically recognizes a 29,000 molecular weight protein (called allergenic protein with an affinity constant of 1.7 x 10(9 M-1. The A. suum components recognized by MAC-3 induce specific IgE antibody production in immunized BALB/c mice. Ascitic fluid induced in Swiss mice by injecting ip the hybridoma cells and incomplete Freund's adjuvant was purified by affinity chromatography using a protein A-Sepharose column. The purified monoclonal antibody was then coupled to activated Sepharose beads in order to isolate the A. suum allergenic component from the whole extract by affinity chromatography.

  12. Serological examination of fattening pigs reveals associations between Ascaris suum, lung pathogens and technical performance parameters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlaminck, Johnny; Düsseldorf, Simon; Heres, Lourens; Geldhof, Peter

    2015-06-15

    Diagnosing the presence of the highly prevalent and economically important pig parasite Ascaris suum on fattening farms has so far been challenging. Currently, only the number of livers affected at slaughter is routinely used to measure parasite exposure. However, recently, a new serological test was developed based on the detection of antibodies to the A. suum haemoglobin molecule. The test showed to be highly sensitive for the detection of exposure to A. suum in fattening pigs. In this study we first compared the performance of A. suum serology versus the percentage of affected livers at slaughter, subsequently we investigated potential associations between A. suum infection levels and exposure to important lung pathogens and finally we identified correlations between serological data and technical performance parameters (TPIs) from 20 Belgian and 20 German pig fattening farms. In both Belgian and German farms, a significant relationship was detected between elevated average Ascaris serology and percentages of affected livers (ρ=0.63 and ρ=0.75, respectively). On the Belgian farms, both Ascaris serology and the percentage of affected livers were negatively correlated with average daily gain (ADG) (ρ=-0.69 and ρ=-0.56, respectively). Using the German dataset, only a borderline negative association was detected between the percentage of affected livers and the ADG (ρ=-0.44, P=0.053). In contrast, only in the German farms, correlations between the percentage of affected lungs at slaughter and elevated presence of A. suum and several other airway pathogens were detected. To conclude, this study indicates that serological screening for A. suum on fattening farms is an attractive new diagnostic tool that can be used to indicate the presence of roundworm infection by measuring infection intensity. Furthermore the results of this study also add weight to the evidence that both roundworm infections as well as herd exposure to airway pathogens have a significant

  13. In vitro synthesis of the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex components of Ascaris suum mitochondria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Desai, S.; Ruff, V.; DuBrul, E.F.; Komuniecki, R.W.

    1987-05-01

    The pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC) plays a pivotal role in the anaerobic metabolism of Ascaris suum mitochondria. They have initiated a series of studies on the in vitro synthesis and mitochondrial import of PDC. PDC has been purified from adult Ascaris body wall muscle, fully phosphorylated in vitro, and separated into its component subunits on SDS/PAGE. The individual components were electroeluted from the gels and used to immunize rabbits. IgG's to the individual subunits were prepared from antisera and their specificities were verified by immuno-blotting. Each IgG identified a single specific band at the appropriate location in extracts of adult Ascaris body wall muscle mitochondria. Poly A/sup +/-RNA was prepared from body wall muscle and translated in a reticylocyte lysate system using /sup 35/S-methionine. Translation products were immunoprecipitated with specific IgG's, electrophoresed, and fluorographed. Each immunoprecipitation gave rise to a single radioactive polypeptide that was slightly larger than the specific PDC subunit isolated from the adult mitochondria. This system has demonstrated its feasibility for the study of mitochondrial import of a multienzyme complex that is critical for the anaerobic mitochondrial metabolism of Ascaris suum.

  14. Comparative transcriptome sequencing of germline and somatic tissues of the Ascaris suum gonad.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Xuan; Zhu, Yingjie; Li, Chunfang; Shang, Yunlong; Meng, Fanjing; Chen, Shilin; Miao, Long

    2011-10-01

    Ascaris suum (large roundworm of pigs) is a parasitic nematode that causes substantial losses to the meat industry. This nematode is suitable for biochemical studies because, unlike C. elegans, homogeneous tissue samples can be obtained by dissection. It has large sperm, produced in great numbers that permit biochemical studies of sperm motility. Widespread study of A. suum would be facilitated by more comprehensive genome resources and, to this end, we have produced a gonad transcriptome of A. suum. Two 454 pyrosequencing runs generated 572,982 and 588,651 reads for germline (TES) and somatic (VAS) tissues of the A. suum gonad, respectively. 86% of the high-quality (HQ) reads were assembled into 9,955 contigs and 69,791 HQ reads remained as singletons. 2.4 million bp of unique sequences were obtained with a coverage that reached 16.1-fold. 4,877 contigs and 14,339 singletons were annotated according to the C. elegans protein and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) protein databases. Comparison of TES and VAS transcriptomes demonstrated that genes participating in DNA replication, RNA transcription and ubiquitin-proteasome pathways are expressed at significantly higher levels in TES tissues than in VAS tissues. Comparison of the A. suum TES transcriptome with the C. elegans microarray dataset identified 165 A. suum germline-enriched genes (83% are spermatogenesis-enriched). Many of these genes encode serine/threonine kinases and phosphatases (KPs) as well as tyrosine KPs. Immunoblot analysis further suggested a critical role of phosphorylation in both testis development and spermatogenesis. A total of 2,681 A. suum genes were identified to have associated RNAi phenotypes in C. elegans, the majority of which display embryonic lethality, slow growth, larval arrest or sterility. Using deep sequencing technology, this study has produced a gonad transcriptome of A. suum. By comparison with C. elegans datasets, we identified sets of genes associated with

  15. Comparative transcriptome sequencing of germline and somatic tissues of the Ascaris suum gonad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Shilin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ascaris suum (large roundworm of pigs is a parasitic nematode that causes substantial losses to the meat industry. This nematode is suitable for biochemical studies because, unlike C. elegans, homogeneous tissue samples can be obtained by dissection. It has large sperm, produced in great numbers that permit biochemical studies of sperm motility. Widespread study of A. suum would be facilitated by more comprehensive genome resources and, to this end, we have produced a gonad transcriptome of A. suum. Results Two 454 pyrosequencing runs generated 572,982 and 588,651 reads for germline (TES and somatic (VAS tissues of the A. suum gonad, respectively. 86% of the high-quality (HQ reads were assembled into 9,955 contigs and 69,791 HQ reads remained as singletons. 2.4 million bp of unique sequences were obtained with a coverage that reached 16.1-fold. 4,877 contigs and 14,339 singletons were annotated according to the C. elegans protein and the Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG protein databases. Comparison of TES and VAS transcriptomes demonstrated that genes participating in DNA replication, RNA transcription and ubiquitin-proteasome pathways are expressed at significantly higher levels in TES tissues than in VAS tissues. Comparison of the A. suum TES transcriptome with the C. elegans microarray dataset identified 165 A. suum germline-enriched genes (83% are spermatogenesis-enriched. Many of these genes encode serine/threonine kinases and phosphatases (KPs as well as tyrosine KPs. Immunoblot analysis further suggested a critical role of phosphorylation in both testis development and spermatogenesis. A total of 2,681 A. suum genes were identified to have associated RNAi phenotypes in C. elegans, the majority of which display embryonic lethality, slow growth, larval arrest or sterility. Conclusions Using deep sequencing technology, this study has produced a gonad transcriptome of A. suum. By comparison with C. elegans

  16. Direct anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins from diverse plant sources against Ascaris suum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew R Williams

    Full Text Available Ascaris suum is one of the most prevalent nematode parasites in pigs and causes significant economic losses, and also serves as a good model for A. lumbricoides, the large roundworm of humans that is ubiquitous in developing countries and causes malnutrition, stunted growth and compromises immunity to other pathogens. New treatment options for Ascaris infections are urgently needed, to reduce reliance on the limited number of synthetic anthelmintic drugs. In areas where Ascaris infections are common, ethno-pharmacological practices such as treatment with natural plant extracts are still widely employed. However, scientific validation of these practices and identification of the active compounds are lacking, although observed effects are often ascribed to plant secondary metabolites such as tannins. Here, we extracted, purified and characterised a wide range of condensed tannins from diverse plant sources and investigated anthelmintic effects against A. suum in vitro. We show that condensed tannins can have potent, direct anthelmintic effects against A. suum, as evidenced by reduced migratory ability of newly hatched third-stage larvae and reduced motility and survival of fourth-stage larvae recovered from pigs. Transmission electron microscopy showed that CT caused significant damage to the cuticle and digestive tissues of the larvae. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the strength of the anthelmintic effect is related to the polymer size of the tannin molecule. Moreover, the identity of the monomeric structural units of tannin polymers may also have an influence as gallocatechin and epigallocatechin monomers exerted significant anthelmintic activity whereas catechin and epicatechin monomers did not. Therefore, our results clearly document direct anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins against Ascaris and encourage further in vivo investigation to determine optimal strategies for the use of these plant compounds for the prevention and

  17. Direct anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins from diverse plant sources against Ascaris suum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Andrew R; Fryganas, Christos; Ramsay, Aina; Mueller-Harvey, Irene; Thamsborg, Stig M

    2014-01-01

    Ascaris suum is one of the most prevalent nematode parasites in pigs and causes significant economic losses, and also serves as a good model for A. lumbricoides, the large roundworm of humans that is ubiquitous in developing countries and causes malnutrition, stunted growth and compromises immunity to other pathogens. New treatment options for Ascaris infections are urgently needed, to reduce reliance on the limited number of synthetic anthelmintic drugs. In areas where Ascaris infections are common, ethno-pharmacological practices such as treatment with natural plant extracts are still widely employed. However, scientific validation of these practices and identification of the active compounds are lacking, although observed effects are often ascribed to plant secondary metabolites such as tannins. Here, we extracted, purified and characterised a wide range of condensed tannins from diverse plant sources and investigated anthelmintic effects against A. suum in vitro. We show that condensed tannins can have potent, direct anthelmintic effects against A. suum, as evidenced by reduced migratory ability of newly hatched third-stage larvae and reduced motility and survival of fourth-stage larvae recovered from pigs. Transmission electron microscopy showed that CT caused significant damage to the cuticle and digestive tissues of the larvae. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the strength of the anthelmintic effect is related to the polymer size of the tannin molecule. Moreover, the identity of the monomeric structural units of tannin polymers may also have an influence as gallocatechin and epigallocatechin monomers exerted significant anthelmintic activity whereas catechin and epicatechin monomers did not. Therefore, our results clearly document direct anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins against Ascaris and encourage further in vivo investigation to determine optimal strategies for the use of these plant compounds for the prevention and/or treatment of

  18. Comparative profiling of microRNAs in male and female adults of Ascaris suum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Min-Jun; Fu, Jing-Hua; Nisbet, Alasdair J; Huang, Si-Yang; Zhou, Dong-Hui; Lin, Rui-Qing; Song, Hui-Qun; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2013-03-01

    Ascaris nematodes, which cause ascariasis in humans and pigs, are among the most important nematodes from both health and economic perspectives. microRNA (miRNA) is now recognized as key regulator of gene expression at posttranscription level. The public availability of the genome and transcripts of Ascaris suum provides powerful resources for the research of miRNA profiles of the parasite. Therefore, we investigated and compared the miRNA profiles of male and female adult A. suum using Solexa deep sequencing combined with bioinformatic analysis and stem-loop reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. Deep sequencing of small RNAs yielded 11.71 and 11.72 million raw reads from male and female adults of A. suum, respectively. Analysis showed that the noncoding RNA of the two genders, including tRNA, rRNA, snRNA, and snoRNA, were similar. By mapping to the A. suum genome, we obtained 494 and 505 miRNA candidates from the female and male parasite, respectively, and 87 and 82 of miRNA candidates were consistent with A. suum miRNAs deposited in the miRBase database. Among the miRNA candidates, 154 were shared by the two genders, and 340 and 351 were female and male specific with their target numbers ranged from one to thousands, respectively. Functional prediction revealed a set of elongation factors, heat shock proteins, and growth factors from the targets of gender-specific miRNAs, which were essential for the development of the parasite. Moreover, major sperm protein and nematode sperm cell motility protein were found in targets of the male-specific miRNAs. Ovarian message protein was found in targets of the female-specific miRNAs. Enrichment analysis revealed significant differences among Gene Ontology terms of miRNA targets of the two genders, such as electron carrier and biological adhesion process. The regulating functions of gender-specific miRNAs was therefore not only related to the fundamental functions of cells but also were essential to the germ

  19. Ascaris suum: RNAi mediated silencing of enolase gene expression in infective larvae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Ning; Xu, Min-Jun; Nisbet, Alasdair J; Huang, Cui-Qin; Lin, Rui-Qing; Yuan, Zi-Guo; Song, Hui-Qun; Zhu, Xing-Quan

    2011-01-01

    Ascaris suum is an important parasite of pigs that causes tremendous economic losses globally to agriculture and animal husbandry annually. RNA interference (RNAi) technology has been described as a successful and useful approach for the elucidation of gene function in parasitic nematodes. In the present study, RNAi was used to silence the expression of a gene encoding enolase in A. suum by soaking infective larvae in double-stranded RNA derived from an EST (representing As-enol-1) selected from an A. suum infective larvae-specific cDNA library. The mRNA levels of RNAi-treated larvae were examined by Reverse-Transcription PCR (RT-PCR) analysis. The survival of RNAi-treated larvae was compared with larvae treated with dsRNA-free culture medium. The effect of enolase depletion on the development of A. suum larvae was assessed by infecting BALB/c mice with RNAi-treated larvae. The results showed that enolase gene expression was silenced completely and the survival rate of the RNAi-treated nematodes was reduced by 20.11% (Psuum enolase mRNA led to significant shorter larvae, indicating that loss of enolase expression may cause delays in larval development. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  20. Functional study of a genetic marker allele associated with resistance to Ascaris suum in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skallerup, Per; Thamsborg, Stig M; Jørgensen, Claus B; Enemark, Heidi L; Yoshida, Ayako; Göring, Harald H H; Fredholm, Merete; Nejsum, Peter

    2014-05-01

    Two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP TXNIP and SNP ARNT), both on chromosome 4, have been reported to be associated with roundworm (Ascaris suum) burden in pigs. In the present study, we selected pigs with two SNP TXNIP genotypes (AA; n = 24 and AB; n = 24), trickle-infected them with A. suum from 8 weeks of age until necropsy 8 weeks later, and tested the hypothesis that pigs with the AA genotype would have higher levels of resistance than pigs of AB genotype. We used different indicators of resistance (worm burden, fecal egg counts (FEC), number of liver white spots and A. suum-specific serum IgG antibody levels). Pigs of the AA genotype had lower mean macroscopic worm burden (2.4 vs 19.3; P = 0.06), lower mean total worm burden (26.5 vs 70.1; P = 0.09) and excreted fewer A. suum eggs at week 8 PI (mean number of eggs/g feces: 238 vs 1259; P = 0.14) than pigs of the AB genotype, as expected based on prior associations. The pigs were also genotyped at another locus (SNP ARNT) which showed a similar trend. This study provides suggestive evidence that resistant pigs may be selected using a genetic marker, TXNIP, and provides further support to the quantitative trait locus on chromosome 4.

  1. Comparação antigênica entre extratos de Toxocara canis e Ascaris suum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Felix R. Zyngier

    1974-06-01

    Full Text Available O autor apresenta a comparação de dois extratos de Toxocara canis e um de Ascaris suum do ponto de vista antigênico. O método usado foi a imunodifusão em gel segundo Ouchtehlöny. O extrato de T. canis obtido pela técnica de Jeska mostrou 7 faixas de precipitação contra o anti-soro homólogo. O extrato de A. suum obtido pela mesma técnica apenas revelou 3 faixas, uma das quais com identidade parcial com o antígeno anterior. O extrato de T. canis segundo Woodruff e Thacker revelou 3 faixas de precipitação contra o anti-soro homólogo, todas elas com identidade total com o outro extrato do mesmo parasita.

  2. Effect of fenbendazole in water on pigs infected with Ascaris suum in finishing pigs under field conditions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lassen, Brian; Oliviero, Claudio; Orro, Toomas

    2017-01-01

    The husbandry of pigs for meat production is a constantly developing industry. Most studies on the effects of Ascaris suum infection in pigs and its prevention with anthelmintics are over a decade old. We examined the effect of 2.5 mg fenbendazole per kg bodyweight administered in drinking water...... post-mortem. The proportion of Ascaris seropositive pigs changed from 8.6% to 22.2% and 20.3% to 16.3% in the placebo and treatment group respectively. Fenbendazole reduced the presence of A. suum eggs in faeces the percentage of liver rejections by 69.8%. The treatment did not affect daily weight gain...

  3. Uji Daya Antelmetika Ekstrak n-Heksan Rimpang Bangle (Zingiber cassumunar pada Cacing Ascaris suum secara In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maratu Soleha

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to investigate the anthelmentics activities of Zingiber cassumunar rhizome n-hexane extract against Ascaris suum in-vitro. The experiments were carried out by using immersion method. The worm were soaked in extract of Zingiber cassumunar rhizome . One hundred and forty four ascaris worms were divided into 8 groups; each Petri contain 6 wors of Ascaris suum the dosage in every Petridish was 1 x LD50 (15,78 mg/100 ml, 2 x LD50 (31,56 mg/100 ml, 4 x LD50 (63,12 mg/100 ml, 8 x LD50 (126,24 mg/100 ml and 12 x LD50 (189,36 mg/100 ml. The positive control used was pirantel pamoat 250 mg/100 ml and as negative controls were solutions like intestine and carboxy methyl cellulose 0,94% suspension. Experiment result shows that dosage 5 (189,36 mg/100 ml was the most optimum dosage for anthelmentics treatment in that dosage 27,8% Ascaris suum were dead. Anthelmentics investigation was done by counting the deaths of Ascaris suum which were emmersed for 24 hours. The infusion of zingiber cassumunar has strongest activity as anthelmentics rather than in alcohol and n-hexane extract forms.

  4. Environmental contamination and transmission of Ascaris suum in Danish organic pig farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katakam, Kiran K; Thamsborg, Stig M; Dalsgaard, Anders; Kyvsgaard, Niels C; Mejer, Helena

    2016-02-09

    Although Ascaris suum is the most common pig nematode, the on-farm transmission dynamics are not well described. We performed a 1-year field study on five organic pig farms, mapping egg contamination levels in pens and pasture soil as well as faecal egg counts in starter pigs, finisher pigs, dry and lactating sows. The uppermost bedding material was sampled from three pen areas (resting, intermediate and latrine) of shallow and deep litter pens. Ascaris suum was found on all farms. Averaged across farm and season, the prevalence of A. suum was 48, 64, 28 and 15% in starters, finishers, dry and lactating sows, respectively. For starters and finishers, the prevalence varied with season increasing towards the end of the year when 83-96% of finishing pigs from each farm had fresh liver white spots. Farrowing pastures were contaminated with a mean of 78-171 larvated eggs/kg dry soil depending on farm, while pastures for starter pigs contained 290-5397 larvated eggs/kg dry soil. The concentration of eggs in soil was highest in the autumn. Indoors, all pen areas were contaminated with A. suum eggs at comparable levels for shallow and deep litter. Overall there were 106, 445 and 1331 eggs/g dry straw in the resting, intermediate and latrine areas, respectively. However, more eggs were undergoing development in resting areas (44%) compared to intermediate (33%) and latrine areas (13%). Irrespective of area, more eggs were undergoing development in the autumn, but overall there were very few fully developed (i.e., infective) eggs in the bedding material. Laboratory embryonation of eggs from the bedding material nevertheless revealed that an overall mean of 79% of the eggs were viable. The organic pigs of all ages were continuously exposed to A. suum, but mainly younger animals were infected. Deep litter appeared to be a less important source of A. suum eggs than previously believed compared to shallow litter. Long-term pasture rotation to eliminate pasture contamination was

  5. Gene expression analysis distinguishes tissue specific and gender related functions among adult Ascaris suum tissues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhengyuan; Gao, Xin; Martin, John; Yin, Yong; Abubucker, Sahar; Rash, Amy C.; Li, Ben-Wen; Nash, Bill; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kym; Jasmer, Douglas P.; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2013-01-01

    Over a billion people are infected by Ascaris spp. intestinal parasites. To clarify functional differences among tissues of adult A. suum, we compared gene expression by various tissues of these worms by expression microarray methods.. The A. suum genome was sequenced and assembled to allow generation of microarray elements. Expression of over 40,000 60-mer elements was investigated in a variety of tissues from both male and female adult worms. Nearly 50 percent of the elements for which signal was detected exhibited differential expression among different tissues. The unique profile of transcripts identified for each tissue clarified functional distinctions among tissues, such as chitin binding in the ovary and peptidase activity in the intestines. Interestingly, hundreds of gender-specific elements were characterized in multiple non-reproductive tissues of female or male worms, with most prominence of gender differences in intestinal tissue. A. suum genes from the same family were frequently expressed differently among tissues. Transcript abundance for genes specific to A. suum, by comparison to Caenorhabditis elegans, varied to a greater extent among tissues than for genes conserved between A. suum and C. elegans. Analysis using C. elegans protein interaction data identified functional modules conserved between these two nematodes, resulting in identification of functional predictions of essential subnetworks of protein interactions and how these networks may vary among nematode tissues. A notable finding was very high module similarity between adult reproductive tissues and intestine. Our results provide the most comprehensive assessment of gene expression among tissues of a parasitic nematode to date. PMID:23572074

  6. Comparison of the effect of the chosen species of saprotrophic fungi on the development of Toxocara canis and Ascaris suum eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazurkiewicz-Zapałowicz, Kinga; Jaborowska-Jarmoluk, Magdalena; Kołodziejczyk, Lidia; Kuźna-Grygiel, Wanda

    2014-01-01

    The study aim was to compare the antagonistic interaction between saprotrophic soil fungi and embryonic development of geohelminths Toxocara canis and Ascaris suum. The experimental cultures were fertilized eggs of T.canis and A. suum incubated together with mycelium of strains: Fusarium culmorum, Metarhizium anisopliae,Paecilomyces fumosoroseus, Trichoderma viride and Trichothecium roseum. In the control cultures the eggs of both nematode species were incubated without fungi. The experiment was conducted at temp. 26°C for 60 days. Compared with the control, all of the tested species of fungi significantly extended the embryonic development of both T. canis and A. suum. Most inhibitory effect on the rate of embryonic development of T. canis and A. suum had three fungal species: P. fumosoreus, M. anisopliae and T. viride. Compared with the control, on the 60th day of incubation in the presence of each of the tested fungal species, a larger percentage (psuum (15.1–67.7%). Among the examined fungal species, only incubation with P. fumosoroseus resulted in significantly greater (psuum. Also the percentage of dead larvae of T. canis in the control and in cultures with fungi (12% and 100%, respectively) was significantly higher in comparison with A. suum (0.5% and 10.3–36%, respectively). The highest percentage of non-viable larvae of A. suum was found in the presence of P.fumosoroseus, and the lowest in the presence of M. anisopliae. Findings may indicate that T. canis eggs are more sensitive to antagonistic interaction of the examined fungal strains than A. suum eggs.

  7. Incidence of Ascaris suum-specific antibodies in Austrian patients with suspected larva migrans visceralis (VLM) syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Renate; Auer, Herbert

    2016-03-01

    The pig roundworm, Ascaris suum, is commonly found in domestic pigs all over the world. The transmission to humans takes place by ingestion of infective A. suum eggs present in soil because pig manure is widely used as fertilizer. The possible role of A. suum in the human visceral larva migrans (VLM) syndrome has been discussed controversially during past decades, even though various case reports, particularly from Japan document pulmonal, hepatic and even cerebral symptoms caused by migrating A. suum larvae after ingestion of infected row meat (liver) or contaminated vegetables. We examined 4481 sera by A. suum immunoblot (As-IB) and 5301 sera by Toxocara-ELISA from patients with symptoms associated with the VLM syndrome during three consecutive years (2012-2014). The incidence of A. suum-specific antibodies was 13.2 %, the incidence of T. canis specific antibodies 12.9 % and from a part of the As-IB positive sera (n = 417) additional Toxocara serology was performed to demonstrate the specificity of our tests. Only 56 out of the 417 (13.4 %) sera showed antibodies to both helminth species demonstrating that double infections exist. Interestingly the age distribution of the patients showed that 2.8 % of the Ascaris-positive patients were younger than 21 years, while in the Toxocara-positive group 13.4 % were suum worms causing intestinal ascariosis is extremely rare in Central European countries, the zoonotic potential of A. suum is considerably underestimated. We suggest that the performance of reliable immunoserological tests, in all industrialized countries where pigs are raised and their manure is used as fertilizer, could help to assess the actual potential of A. suum as causative agent of the VLM syndrome in humans.

  8. Cytosolic Ca(2+) as a multifunctional modulator is required for spermiogenesis in Ascaris suum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Yunlong; Chen, Lianwan; Liu, Zhiyu; Wang, Xia; Ma, Xuan; Miao, Long

    2013-06-01

    The dynamic polar polymers actin filaments and microtubules are usually employed to provide the structural basis for establishing cell polarity in most eukaryotic cells. Radially round and immotile spermatids from nematodes contain almost no actin or tubulin, but still have the ability to break symmetry to extend a pseudopod and initiate the acquisition of motility powered by the dynamics of cytoskeleton composed of major sperm protein (MSP) during spermiogenesis (sperm activation). However, the signal transduction mechanism of nematode sperm activation and motility acquisition remains poorly understood. Here we show that Ca(2+) oscillations induced by the Ca(2+) release from intracellular Ca(2+) store through inositol (1,4,5)-trisphosphate receptor are required for Ascaris suum sperm activation. The chelation of cytosolic Ca(2+) suppresses the generation of a functional pseudopod, and this suppression can be relieved by introducing exogenous Ca(2+) into sperm cells. Ca(2+) promotes MSP-based sperm motility by increasing mitochondrial membrane potential and thus the energy supply required for MSP cytoskeleton assembly. On the other hand, Ca(2+) promotes MSP disassembly by activating Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent serine/threonine protein phosphatase calcineurin. In addition, Ca(2+)/camodulin activity is required for the fusion of sperm-specifi c membranous organelle with the plasma membrane, a regulated exocytosis required for sperm motility. Thus, Ca(2+) plays multifunctional roles during sperm activation in Ascaris suum.

  9. Assessing the fate of Ascaris suum ova during mesophilic anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manser, Nathan D; Wald, Ileana; Ergas, Sarina J; Izurieta, Ricardo; Mihelcic, James R

    2015-03-03

    There is limited knowledge about the survival of geohelminths, which are soil-transmitted human pathogens, in mesophilic anaerobic digestion processes. This study examined the fate of embryonated and unembryonated Ascaris suum ova in six laboratory-scale mesophilic (35 °C) anaerobic digesters processing swine manure to identify their survival strategies and investigate potential mechanisms to enhance their destruction. There was no significant difference in inactivation of Ascaris suum ova in digesters operated at different solids residence times (SRT) or feeding frequencies. Ova exposed to an anaerobic environment became dormant, or remained unembryonated throughout their residence in the reactors. Approximately 65% of ova were able to retain their viability for up to 16 days, after which the rate of inactivation increased until nearly all ova were nonviable by day 24. In contrast, ova exposed to aerobic conditions did not become dormant and progressed through several developmental stages until day 16, after which nearly all ova were observed to be nonviable. In addition, only 35% of fully developed ova exposed to the anaerobic environment retained their viability by day 16 compared to 65% for dormant ova. Results suggest that some ova are physically destroyed during digestion and ova can be inactivated faster if their development cycle is aerobically triggered before entering the anaerobic digestion process. Results also suggest that transfer of resource recovery technologies such as mesophilic anaerobic digestion to developing world settings must account for local climatic and health conditions so mutually beneficial outcomes can be attained.

  10. Comparative analysis of codon usage pattern and its influencing factors in Schistosoma japonicum and Ascaris suum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mazumder, Gulshana A; Uddin, Arif; Chakraborty, Supriyo

    2017-12-20

    Schistosoma japonicum and Ascaris suum are considered as the major parasites of human which cause various life threatening diseases such as schistomiasis and ascariasis. The codon usage bias (CUB) is known as the phenomenon of more usage of a specific codon than the other synonymous codons for an amino acid. The factors that influence the codon usage bias are mutation pressure, natural selection, gene expression, gene length, GC content, RNA stability, recombination rates, codon position etc. Here we had used various bioinformatic tools and statistical analyses to understand the compositional features, expression level and codon usage bias in the genes of these two species.After estimating the effective number of codon (ENC) in both the species, codon usage bias was found to be low and gene expression was high. The nucleobase A and T were used most often than C and G. From neutrality plot and correspondence analysis it was found that both natural selection and mutation pressure played an important role in shaping the codon usage pattern of both species. Moreover, natural selection played a major role while mutation pressure played a minor role in shaping the codon usage bias in S. japonicum and A.suum. This is the first report on the codon usage biology in S. japonicum and A.suum, and the factors influencing their codon usage bias. These results are expected to be useful for genetic engineering and evolutionary studies.

  11. Vermisidal dan Ovisidal Ekstrak Daun Pepaya Terhadap Cacing Ascaris suum Secara In Vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agung Mourizd Adventus Bili Bora

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Tujuan penelitian ini untuk mengetahui vermisidal dan ovisidal dari ekstrak daun pepaya terhadap cacing Ascaris suum. Menggunakan  Rancangan  Acak  Lengkap (RAL, dengan perlakuan beberapa konsentrasi ekstrak daun pepaya 1,5%, 3%, 4,5% dan 6%; kontrol negatif menggunakan NaCl fisiologis dan kontrol positif menggunakan Albendazole 0,12%. Dilakukan uji vermisidal dan uji  ovisidal, uji ovisidal dibagi  menjadi  dua  uji,  yaitu kontak langsung dan kontak tidak  langsung. Untuk uji vermisidal data dianalisis dengan Analisis Probit untuk mengetahui LC100 (Lethal concentration dan LT100 (Lethal  time, sedangkan  untuk  uji  ovisidal  data dianalisis dengan Sidik Ragam dan  jika terdapat perbedaan, dilanjutkan dengan uji jarak berganda Duncan. Hasil  penelitian  vermisidal  didapatkan  LC100 ekstrak  daun  pepaya adalah  3,362%  dan  LT100 39,822  jam.  Untuk  uji  ovisidal  kontak  langsung  dan kontak tidak langsung didapatkan ekstrak daun pepaya berpengaruh sangat nyata (P<0,01 terhadap daya berembrio telur A. suum. Dari hasil penelitian ini disimpulkan bahwa ekstrak daun pepaya efektif sebagai vermisidal dan ovisidal terhadap cacing A. suum secara in-vitro.

  12. Adapted Bailenger method improves the rate of Ascaris suum eggs recovery from liquid pig manure compost

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariangela Facco de Sá

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: Liquid pig manure (LPM is widely used as a compost fertilizer for vegetable crops destined for human consumption. However, these wastes may contain parasites eggs, such as the nematode Ascaris suum, that pose serious health risks to humans. We attempted to determine the most appropriate technique for recovering A. suum eggs from LPM compost. Samples were collected from two waste sources during composting, including 23 samples containing LPM, sawdust, and wood shavings, and 14 samples of LPM alone-both in triplicate. Samples were analyzed using several different recovery methods. Recovery of eggs by the modified Bailenger method with adaptations was significantly more effective and recovered 57% more eggs than by the modified Bailenger method alone. Willis-Mollay method, modified Faust method, and the simple sedimentation technique only recovered 4.4%, 13.9%, and 26% of eggs, respectively, compared with the modified Bailenger method with adaptations, indicating that the adjustments made to the Bailenger method were key to improving the recovery of A. suum eggs from compost and LPM.

  13. Ascaris suum NADH-methemo(myo)globin reductase systems recovering differential functions of hemoglobin and myoglobin, adapting to environmental hypoxia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamiya, Shinzaburo; Hashimoto, Muneaki; Kazuno, Saiko; Kikkawa, Mika; Yamakura, Fumiyuki

    2009-09-01

    We reported previously that Ascaris suum cytochrome b5, specifically expressed in this nematode at the adult stage and dually localized in extracellular perienteric fluid and hypodermis, is involved in both perienteric NADH-methemoglobin and cytosolic NADH-metmyoglobin reduction, where cytochrome b5 functions as an electron carrier between NADH-mediated cytochrome b5 reductase and substrates, methemo(myo)globins to reduce the nonfunctional globins back to functional ferrous hemo(myo)globins. To further characterize NADH-methemo(myo)globin reductase systems, the midpoint potentials of A. suum perienteric hemoglobin and body wall myoglobin, as well as the affinities of Ascaris methemoglobin and metmyoglobin toward cytochrome b5, were evaluated using potentiometric titration and surface plasmon resonance techniques, respectively. Midpoint potentials of +7.2 mV and +19.5 mV were obtained for Ascaris perienteric hemoglobin and body wall myoglobin, respectively. The affinities of Ascaris perienteric methemoglobin and body wall metmyoglobin toward the nematode cytochrome b5 were comparable to that for mammalian hemoglobin and cytochrome b5; association constants were 0.585 x 10(3) M(-1) and 2.32 x 10(3) M(-1), respectively, with rapid equilibration kinetics. These observations highlight the physiological importance of A. suum perienteric NADH-methemoglobin and cytosolic metmyoglobin reductase systems. Differential roles of A. suum perienteric hemoglobin and body wall myoglobin are also discussed from the viewpoint of oxygen homeostasis under hypoxic conditions.

  14. Ascaris suum infection negatively affects the response to a Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccination and subsequent challenge infection in pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    It is vital to understand the possible mechanisms that may impair optimal vaccine efficacy. The hypothesis posed in this study was that a concurrent Ascaris suum infection of pigs vaccinated with a Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mh) vaccine would modulate the protective immune response to a subsequent ch...

  15. Peptidases compartmentalized to the Ascaris suum intestinal lumen and apical intestinal membrane.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jasmer, Douglas P; Rosa, Bruce A; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2015-01-01

    The nematode intestine is a tissue of interest for developing new methods of therapy and control of parasitic nematodes. However, biological details of intestinal cell functions remain obscure, as do the proteins and molecular functions located on the apical intestinal membrane (AIM), and within the intestinal lumen (IL) of nematodes. Accordingly, methods were developed to gain a comprehensive identification of peptidases that function in the intestinal tract of adult female Ascaris suum. Peptidase activity was detected in multiple fractions of the A. suum intestine under pH conditions ranging from 5.0 to 8.0. Peptidase class inhibitors were used to characterize these activities. The fractions included whole lysates, membrane enriched fractions, and physiological- and 4 molar urea-perfusates of the intestinal lumen. Concanavalin A (ConA) was confirmed to bind to the AIM, and intestinal proteins affinity isolated on ConA-beads were compared to proteins from membrane and perfusate fractions by mass spectrometry. Twenty-nine predicted peptidases were identified including aspartic, cysteine, and serine peptidases, and an unexpectedly high number (16) of metallopeptidases. Many of these proteins co-localized to multiple fractions, providing independent support for localization to specific intestinal compartments, including the IL and AIM. This unique perfusion model produced the most comprehensive view of likely digestive peptidases that function in these intestinal compartments of A. suum, or any nematode. This model offers a means to directly determine functions of these proteins in the A. suum intestine and, more generally, deduce the wide array functions that exist in these cellular compartments of the nematode intestine.

  16. Peptidases compartmentalized to the Ascaris suum intestinal lumen and apical intestinal membrane.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Douglas P Jasmer

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The nematode intestine is a tissue of interest for developing new methods of therapy and control of parasitic nematodes. However, biological details of intestinal cell functions remain obscure, as do the proteins and molecular functions located on the apical intestinal membrane (AIM, and within the intestinal lumen (IL of nematodes. Accordingly, methods were developed to gain a comprehensive identification of peptidases that function in the intestinal tract of adult female Ascaris suum. Peptidase activity was detected in multiple fractions of the A. suum intestine under pH conditions ranging from 5.0 to 8.0. Peptidase class inhibitors were used to characterize these activities. The fractions included whole lysates, membrane enriched fractions, and physiological- and 4 molar urea-perfusates of the intestinal lumen. Concanavalin A (ConA was confirmed to bind to the AIM, and intestinal proteins affinity isolated on ConA-beads were compared to proteins from membrane and perfusate fractions by mass spectrometry. Twenty-nine predicted peptidases were identified including aspartic, cysteine, and serine peptidases, and an unexpectedly high number (16 of metallopeptidases. Many of these proteins co-localized to multiple fractions, providing independent support for localization to specific intestinal compartments, including the IL and AIM. This unique perfusion model produced the most comprehensive view of likely digestive peptidases that function in these intestinal compartments of A. suum, or any nematode. This model offers a means to directly determine functions of these proteins in the A. suum intestine and, more generally, deduce the wide array functions that exist in these cellular compartments of the nematode intestine.

  17. Effects of kimchi extract and temperature on embryostasis of Ascaris suum eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Sung; Oh, Dae-Sung; Ahn, Kyu-Sung; Shin, Sung-Shik

    2012-03-01

    To determine the effects of kimchi extracts at different temperatures on larval development, Ascaris suum eggs were mixed with soluble part of 7 different brands of commercially available kimchi and preserved at either 5℃ or 25℃ for up to 60 days. A. suum eggs incubated at 25℃ showed marked differences in larval development between kimchi extract and control group. While all eggs in the control group completed embryonation by day 21, only 30% of the eggs in the kimchi extract group became embryonated by day 36 and about 25% never became larvated even at day 60. At 5℃, however, none of the eggs showed larval development regardless of the incubation period or type of mixture group. To determine the survival rate of A. suum eggs that showed no embryonation after being preserved at 5℃, eggs preserved in kimchi extracts for 14, 28, and 60 at 5℃ were re-incubated at 25℃ for 3 weeks in distilled water. While all eggs in the control group became larvated, eggs in the kimchi extract group showed differences in their embryonation rates by the incubation period; 87.4 % and 41.7% of the eggs became embryonated after being refrigerated for 14 days and 28 days, respectively. When refrigerated for 60 days, however, no eggs mixed in kimchi extract showed larval development. Our results indicate that embryogenesis of A. suum eggs in kimchi extract was affected by duration of refrigeration, and that all eggs stopped larval development completely in kimchi kept at 5℃ for up to 60 days.

  18. Comparison of different monoclonal antibodies against immunosuppressive proteins of Ascaris suum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.M. Oshiro

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available The extract of Ascaris suum suppresses the humoral and cellular immune responses to unrelated antigens in the mouse. In order to further characterize the suppressive components of A. suum, we produced specific monoclonal antibodies which can provide an important tool for the identification of these proteins. The A. suum immunosuppressive fractions isolated by gel filtration from an extract of adult worms were used to immunize BALB/c mice. Popliteal lymph node cells taken from the immunized animals were fused with SP2/O myeloma cells and the cloned hybrid cells obtained were screened to determine the specificity of secreted antibodies. Three monoclonal antibodies named MAIP-1, MAIP-2 and MAIP-3 were selected and were shown to react with different epitopes of high molecular weight proteins from the A. suum extract. All antibody molecules have kappa-type light chains but differ in heavy chain isotype. MAIP-1 is a mouse IgM, MAIP-2 is an IgA immunoglobulin and MAIP-3 is an IgG1 immunoglobulin and they recognize the antigen with affinity constants of 1.3 x 10(10 M-1, 7.1 x 10(9 M-1 and 3.8 x 10(7 M-1, respectively. The proteins recognized by these monoclonal antibodies (PAS-1, PAS-2 and PAS-3 were purified from the crude extract by affinity chromatography and injected with ovalbumin in BALB/c mice in order to determine their suppressive activity on heterologous antibody production. It was demonstrated that these three proteins are able to significantly suppress anti-ovalbumin antibody secretion, with PAS-1 being more efficient than the others.

  19. Inactivation of single-celled Ascaris suum eggs by low-pressure UV radiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brownell, Sarah A; Nelson, Kara L

    2006-03-01

    Intact and decorticated single-celled Ascaris suum eggs were exposed to UV radiation from low-pressure, germicidal lamps at fluences (doses) ranging from 0 to 8,000 J/m2 for intact eggs and from 0 to 500 J/m2 for decorticated eggs. With a UV fluence of 500 J/m2, 0.44-+/-0.20-log inactivation (mean+/-95% confidence interval) (63.7%) of intact eggs was observed, while a fluence of 4,000 J/m2 resulted in 2.23-+/-0.49-log inactivation (99.4%). (The maximum quantifiable inactivation was 2.5 log units.) Thus, according to the methods used here, Ascaris eggs are the most UV-resistant water-related pathogen identified to date. For the range of fluences recommended for disinfecting drinking water and wastewater (200 to 2,000 J/m2), from 0- to 1.5-log inactivation can be expected, although at typical fluences (less than 1,000 J/m2), the inactivation may be less than 1 log. When the eggs were decorticated (the outer egg shell layers were removed with sodium hypochlorite, leaving only the lipoprotein ascaroside layer) before exposure to UV, 1.80-+/-0.32-log reduction (98.4%) was achieved with a fluence of 500 J/m2, suggesting that the outer eggshell layers protected A. suum eggs from inactivation by UV radiation. This protection may have been due to UV absorption by proteins in the outer layers of the 3- to 4-microm-thick eggshell. Stirring alone (without UV exposure) also inactivated some of the Ascaris eggs (approximately 20% after 75 min), which complicated determination of the inactivation caused by UV radiation alone.

  20. On the mode of action of emodepside: slow effects on membrane potential and voltage-activated currents in Ascaris suum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxton, SK; Neveu, C; Charvet, CL; Robertson, AP; Martin, RJ

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Anthelmintics are required for treatment and prophylaxis of nematode parasites of humans and domestic animals. Emodepside, a cyclooctadepsipeptide, is a modern anthelmintic that has a novel mode of action involving a Ca-activated K channel (SLO-1) in Caenorhabditis elegans, sometimes mediated by a latrophilin (LAT) receptor. We examined mechanisms of action of emodepside in a parasitic nematode, Ascaris suum. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH RT-PCR was used to investigate expression of slo-1 and lat-1 in A. suum muscle flaps, and two-micropipette current-clamp and voltage-clamp techniques were used to record electrophysiological effects of emodepside. KEY RESULTS Expression of slo-1 and lat-1 were detected. Emodepside produced a slow time-dependent (20 min), 4-aminopyridine sensitive, concentration-dependent hyperpolarization and increase in voltage-activated K currents. Sodium nitroprusside increased the hyperpolarizations and K currents. N-nitro-L-arginine inhibited the hyperpolarizations and K currents. Phorbol-12-myristate-13 acetate increased the K currents, while staurosporine inhibited the hyperpolarizations and K currents. Iberiotoxin reduced these emodepside K currents. The effect of emodepside was reduced in Ca-free solutions. Emodepside had no effect on voltage-activated Ca currents. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Asu-slo-1 and Asu-lat-1 are expressed in adult A. suum muscle flaps and emodepside produces slow activation of voltage-activated Ca-dependent SLO-1-like K channels. The effect of emodepside was enhanced by stimulation of protein kinase C and NO pathways. The data are consistent with a model in which NO, PKC and emodepside signalling pathways are separate and converge on the K channels, or in which emodepside activates NO and PKC signalling pathways to increase opening of the K channels. PMID:21486286

  1. Effect of some saprotrophic soil fungi on the embryonic development of Ascaris suum (Nematoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanda Kuźna-Grygiel

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Effect of Penicillium frequentans and Stachybotrys chartorum fungi on the embryonic development of Ascaris suum were studied in the present paper. In eggs that were incubated with fungi, significant delay of initiation of zygote division, as well as retardation of the development of individual stages of embryogenesis, was given a closer insight. Additionally, the following phenomena were observed: vacuolisation of zygote and disturbances in the distribution of yolk, non-synchronous and unequal divisions of blastomere, deformations of the blastula, gastrula, and larval stages. The above changes were more distinct in eggs that were incubated with P. frequentans. In the cultures with P. frequentans, a significantly lower number of larvac, as well as their earlier mortality were observed.

  2. Galloylated proanthocyanidins from shea (Vitellaria paradoxa) meal have potent anthelmintic activity against Ascaris suum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramsay, A; Williams, A R; Thamsborg, S M; Mueller-Harvey, I

    2016-02-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PA) from shea (Vitellaria paradoxa) meal were investigated by thiolytic degradation with benzyl mercaptan and the reaction products were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. These PA were galloylated (≈40%), contained only B-type linkages and had a high proportion of prodelphinidins (>70%). The mean degree of polymerisation was 8 (i.e. average molecular size was 2384Da) and epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg) was the major flavan-3-ol subunit in PA. Shea meal also proved to be a potentially valuable source for extracting free flavan-3-ol-O-gallates, especially EGCg (575mg/kg meal), which is known for its health and anti-parasitic benefits. Proanthocyanidins were isolated and tested for bioactivity against Ascaris suum, which is an important parasite of pigs. Migration and motility tests revealed that these PA have potent activity against this parasitic nematode. Crown Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Full scale validation of helminth ova (Ascaris suum) inactivation by different sludge treatment processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Paulsrud, B.; Gjerde, B.; Lundar, A.

    2003-07-01

    The Norwegian sewage sludge regulation requires disinfection (hygienisation) of all sludges for land application, and one of the criteria is that disinfected sludge should not contain viable helminth ova. All disinfection processes have to be designed and operated in order to comply with this criteria, and four processes employed in Norway (thermophilic aerobic pre-treatment, pre-pasteurisation, thermal vacuum drying in membrane filter presses and lime treatment) have been tested in full scale by inserting semipermeable bags of Ascaris suum eggs into the processes for certain limes. For lime treatment supplementary laboratory tests have been conducted. The paper presents the results of the experiments, and it could be concluded that all processes, except lime treatment, could be operated at less stringent time-temperature regimes than commonly experienced at Norwegian plants today. (author)

  4. Viability of Ascaris suum eggs in stored raw and separated liquid slurry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katakam, Kiran Kumar; Roepstorff, Allan; Popovic, Olga; Kyvsgaard, Niels C; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2013-03-01

    Separation of pig slurry into solid and liquid fractions is gaining importance as a way to manage increasing volumes of slurry. In contrast to solid manure and slurry, little is known about pathogen survival in separated liquid slurry. The viability of Ascaris suum eggs, a conservative indicator of fecal pollution, and its association with ammonia was investigated in separated liquid slurry in comparison with raw slurry. For this purpose nylon bags with 6000 eggs each were placed in 1 litre bottles containing one of the two fractions for 308 days at 5 °C or 25 °C. Initial analysis of helminth eggs in the separated liquid slurry revealed 47 Ascaris eggs per gramme. At 25 °C, egg viability declined to zero with a similar trend in both raw slurry and the separated liquid slurry by day 308, a time when at 5 °C 88% and 42% of the eggs were still viable in separated liquid slurry and raw slurry, respectively. The poorer survival at 25 °C was correlated with high ammonia contents in the range of 7.9-22.4 mM in raw slurry and 7.3-23.2 mM in liquid slurry compared to 3.2-9.5 mM in raw slurry and 2.6-9.5 mM in liquid slurry stored at 5 °C. The study demonstrates that at 5 °C, A. suum eggs have a higher viability in separated liquid slurry as compared to raw slurry. The hygiene aspect of this needs to be further investigated when separated liquid slurry is used to fertilize pastures or crops.

  5. Mitochondrial ultrastructural and atpase changes during the life cycle of Ascaris Suum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    G. E. Rodrick

    1982-06-01

    Full Text Available Ultrastructural morphology and ATPase specific activities of mitochondria isolated from 1-celled fertilized egg, 10-day embryo, 21-day infective larvae and adult body wall muscle of Ascaris suum and rat liver were determined and compared. Although cristae of both muscle and egg mitochondria contained numerous elementary particles with head pieces of conventional diameter (85 A, each muscle mitochondrion contained relatively few, short cristae with a diminished frequency of elementary particles and associated ATPase activity. These morphological relationships are related to the previous conclusion that the transition from an aerobic to an essentially anaerobic metabolism is intimately associated with the mitochondrion and is a normal and mandatory feature of development.Foram determinadas e comparadas a morfologia estrutural e as atividades específicas da ATPase de mitocôndrias do Ascaris suum (isoladas do ovo unicelular fertilizado, do embrião de 10 dias, da larva infectante de 21 dias e do músculo da parede do corpo do adulto e do fígado do rato. Embora as cristas das mitocôndrias do músculo e do ovo contivessem numerosas partículas elementares com cabeças de diâmetro convencional (85 A, cada mitocôndria do músculo continha cristas curtas e em número relativamente pequeno, com diminuição da frequência das partículas elementares e da respectiva atividade de ATPase. Estas relações morfol[ogicas são vinculadas à conclusão prévia de que a transição do metabolismo aeróbio para o metabolismo essencialmente anaeróbio está intimamente associada à mitocôndria e constitui um característico normal e obrigatório do desenvolvimento.

  6. Proteomic analysis of adult Ascaris suum fluid compartments and secretory products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chehayeb, James F; Robertson, Alan P; Martin, Richard J; Geary, Timothy G

    2014-06-01

    Strategies employed by parasites to establish infections are poorly understood. The host-parasite interface is maintained through a molecular dialog that, among other roles, protects parasites from host immune responses. Parasite excretory/secretory products (ESP) play major roles in this process. Understanding the biology of protein secretion by parasites and their associated functional processes will enhance our understanding of the roles of ESP in host-parasite interactions. ESP was collected after culturing 10 adult female Ascaris suum. Perienteric fluid (PE) and uterine fluid (UF) were collected directly from adult females by dissection. Using SDS-PAGE coupled with LC-MS/MS, we identified 175, 308 and 274 proteins in ESP, PE and UF, respectively. Although many proteins were shared among the samples, the protein composition of ESP was distinct from PE and UF, whereas PE and UF were highly similar. The distribution of gene ontology (GO) terms for proteins in ESP, PE and UF supports this claim. Comparison of ESP composition in A. suum, Brugia malayi and Heligmosoides polygyrus showed that proteins found in UF were also secreted by males and by larval stages of other species, suggesting that multiple routes of secretion may be used for homologous proteins. ESP composition of nematodes is both phylogeny- and niche-dependent. Analysis of the protein composition of A. suum ESP and UF leads to the conclusion that the excretory-secretory apparatus and uterus are separate routes for protein release. Proteins detected in ESP have distinct patterns of biological functions compared to those in UF. PE is likely to serve as the source of the majority of proteins in UF. This analysis expands our knowledge of the biology of protein secretion from nematodes and will inform new studies on the function of secreted proteins in the orchestration of host-parasite interactions.

  7. Viability assessment of Ascaris suum eggs stained with fluorescent dyes using digital colorimetric analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Włodarczyk, Magdalena; Zdybel, Jolanta; Próchniak, Marek; Osiński, Zbigniew; Karamon, Jacek; Kłapeć, Teresa; Cencek, Tomasz

    2017-07-01

    The aim of the study was to develop a method for the colorimetric evaluation of nematode eggs using appropriate instruments. The materials for the study were live and dead (inactivated) eggs of the Ascaris suum. Viability of the eggs was assessed using four different kits for fluorescent staining (for each technique, a series of photos were taken). Images of stained eggs were analysed using graphic software with RGB (red-green-blue) function. The viability of the eggs was assessed according to the relative positions of the distributions of colour intensities of live or dead eggs - distributions area's overlap index (DAOI), and distributions area's separation index (DASI) were calculated. Computer analysis of the intensity of green colour was not satisfactory. However, analysis of images in the spectrum of red colour proved useful for the effective differentiation between live or dead eggs. The best parameters were observed using the Annexin V FITC Apoptosis Detection Kit (DASI = 41 and 67). The investigation confirmed the usefulness of fluorescent dyes used in conjunction with digital analysis for the assessment of the viability of A. suum eggs. The use of computer software allowed a better objectivity of the assessment, especially in the case of doubtful staining. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Airway hypersensitivity induced by Ascaris suum extract in New Zealand Romney sheep.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, W; Pack, R J; Alley, M R; Carr, D H; Manktelow, B W

    1990-06-01

    Sheep from local farms with and without previous exposure to pigs were tested for their skin and airway responses to a commercial Ascaris suum antigen. There was an immediate reaction to intradermal injection of the antigen in 90% of 101 sheep. A bronchial provocation test by aerosol of the same antigen was undertaken on 43 of the sheep with a positive skin reaction. About 70% of sheep showed an immediate airway response to the antigen as an aerosol, reflected as a significant increase in airway resistance and/or decrease of dynamic lung compliance. The mean peak airway resistance and mean lowest dynamic lung compliance were 165% above and 61% below their baselines, respectively. No significant changes were recorded when the same animals were given an aerosol of phosphate buffered saline. Similarly, no correlation was found between the degree of skin reaction and the magnitude of bronchoconstriction (p>0.05). The sheep with previous exposure to pigs showed no significant differences in airway responses to antigen challenge, although they showed significantly greater skin reactions than those without exposure to pigs. These results indicate that the majority of Romney sheep in the Manawatu have a natural skin and airway sensitivity to A. suum antigen and may therefore be used as an animal model to study human airway hypersensitivity. The origin of this sensitivity has yet to be determined.

  9. Boosting the suppressive effects of Ascaris suum components in IFN-γ-deficient mice Potencialização do efeito supressor de componentes do Ascaris suum em camundongos deficientes em IFN-γ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valdênia Maria Oliveira Souza

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available High molecular weight components from Ascaris suum extract suppress ovalbumin-specific immunity in mice. In IFN-γ-deficient mice, ovalbumin-specific delayed-type hypersensitivity reactions are more strongly downregulated by these suppressive components. Here, the cellularity of the delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction in IFN-γ-deficient mice and the increased downregulation induced by Ascaris suum components were analyzed. IL-12p40-dependent neutrophilic influx was predominant. Suboptimal doses of the suppressive fraction from this nematode completely inhibited the hypersensitivity reaction, thus indicating intensification of the immunosuppression under conditions of intense recruitment of IFN-γ-independent neutrophils.Componentes de alto peso molecular do extrato de Ascaris suum suprimem a imunidade específica à ovalbumina em camundongos. Em camundongos geneticamente deficientes de IFN-γ a reação de hipersensibilidade tardia específica para ovalbumina foi mais fortemente prejudicada por estes componentes supressivos. Aqui, a celularidade da reação de hipersensibilidade tardia em camundongos deficientes de IFN-γ e o incremento na supressão induzida por componentes do Ascaris suum foram analisados. Influxo neutrofílico, dependente de IL-12p40, foi predominante. Dose sub-ótima da fração supressiva do nematódeo inibiu completamente a reação de hipersensibilidade, indicando uma intensificação da imunossupressão em condições de recrutamento intenso de neutrófilos independente de IFN-γ.

  10. Ascaris suum infection negatively affects the response to a Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae vaccination and subsequent challenge infection in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenhard, Nina R.; Jungersen, Gregers; Kokotovic, Branko

    2009-01-01

    Since their first introduction more than a century ago, vaccines have become one of the most cost-effective tools to prevent and manage infectious diseases in human and animal populations. It is vital to understand the possible mechanisms that may impair optimal vaccine efficacy. The hypothesis...... posed in this study was that a concurrent Ascaris suum infection of pigs vaccinated with a Mycoplasma hyopneumoniae (Mh)vaccine would modulate the protectiveimmuneresponse to a subsequent challenge infection. Four groups of pigs were either (1) untreated (group C), (2) vaccinated againstMh 3 weeks after...... the start of the study (group V), (3) given a trickle infection with A. suum throughout the study (group A), or (4) given a trickle infection with A. suum and vaccinated against Mh (group AV). All pigs were subsequently inoculated with live Mh bacteria 4 weeks after the Mh vaccination and necropsied after...

  11. Inactivation of Ascaris suum and poliovirus in biosolids under thermophilic anaerobic digestion conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitken, Michael D; Sobsey, Mark D; Blauth, Kimberly E; Shehee, Mina; Crunk, Phillip L; Walters, Glenn W

    2005-08-01

    There is considerable interest in the United States in production of Class A (low pathogen content) biosolids from the treatment of municipal wastewater sludge. Current requirements imposed by the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency make it difficult for thermophilic anaerobic digestion, in its simplest process configurations, to achieve Class A status. In particular, the time-temperature requirements necessitate long batch treatment times at temperatures associated with thermophilic anaerobic digestion. The time-temperature requirements are meant to ensure extensive inactivation of helminth eggs and enteric viruses, considered to be the most heat-resistant of the relevant pathogen classes. However, data on inactivation kinetics of these pathogens at precisely controlled and well-characterized temperatures are scarce. We measured inactivation of vaccine-strain poliovirus and eggs from the helminth Ascaris suum at temperatures from 49 to 55 degrees C in a lab-scale batch reactor containing biosolids from a continuous-flow thermophilic anaerobic digester. Both microbes were inactivated rapidly, with Ascaris more resistant to inactivation than poliovirus, and the relationships between inactivation rate and temperature were steep. The Arrhenius correlation between inactivation rate and temperature over the range 49-53 degrees C is consistent with protein denaturation as the inactivation mechanism for both microbes. The least stringent of the EPA time-temperature equations for thermal processes requires batch treatment times more than 2 orders of magnitude greater than would be required for three-log reduction of Ascaris at the rates we measured, suggesting an overly conservative regulatory approach. Such a grossly conservative approach can hinder full-scale implementation of thermophilic anaerobic digestion.

  12. Cross-Reactions between Toxocara canis and Ascaris suum in the diagnosis of visceral larva migrans by western blotting technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    NUNES Cáris Maroni

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Visceral larva migrans (VLM is a clinical syndrome caused by infection of man by Toxocara spp, the common roundworm of dogs and cats. Tissue migration of larval stages causes illness specially in children. Because larvae are difficult to detect in tissues, diagnosis is mostly based on serology. After the introduction of the enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA using the larval excretory-secretory antigen of T. canis (TES, the diagnosis specificity was greatly improved although cross-reactivity with other helminths are still being reported. In Brazil, diagnosis is routinely made after absorption of serum samples with Ascaris suum antigens, a nematode antigenicaly related with Ascaris lumbricoides which is a common intestinal nematode of children. In order to identify T. canis antigens that cross react to A. suum antigens we analyzed TES antigen by SDS-PAGE and Western blotting techniques. When we used serum samples from patients suspected of VLM and positive result by ELISA as well as a reference serum sample numerous bands were seen (molecular weight of 210-200 kDa, 116-97 kDa, 55-50 kDa and 35-29 kDa. Among these there is at least one band with molecular weight around 55-66 kDa that seem to be responsible for the cross-reactivity between T. canis e A. suum once it disappears when previous absorption of serum samples with A. suum antigens is performed

  13. Effect of volatile fatty acids in anaerobic conditions on viability of helminth ova (Ascaris suum) in sanitization of municipal sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Oropeza, Marcelo; Hernández-Uresti, Alejandro S; Ortega-Charleston, Luis S; Cabirol, Nathalie

    2017-09-01

    The present work aimed at evaluating the effect of four different mixtures of diverse volatile fatty acids (VFAs) on the viability of helminth ova (Ascaris suum), under mesophilic (35°C) anaerobic conditions and at different incubation times, in order to reproduce the process of two-phase anaerobic digestion. The mixtures of VFAs contained acetic, propionic, butyric, valeric, and isovaleric acids, used at concentrations normally found in acidogenic anaerobic digesters. The four treatments all showed a reduction in Ascaris suum ova viability, among which Treatment III (4.2 g-acetic acid L(-1) +  2.2 g-propionic acid L(-1) + 0.6 g-valeric acid L(-1) + 0.6 g-isovaleric acid L(-1)) resulted the most efficient. We found that the full effect of VFAs on the viability loss of Ascaris suum ova in mesophilic conditions requires a minimum incubation time of 3 days. The highest efficiency in the loss of viability was observed with Treatment III and 4-day incubation. Interestingly, the proportion of acetic acid was three times as much in this treatment than in the other ones and resulted in an effect in a minimum time of 3 days. The mesophilic condition, however, was not sufficient to induce a complete loss of viability.

  14. Determining geographical variations in Ascaris suum isolated from different regions in northwest China through sequences of three mitochondrial genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Yong; Wu, Fei; Guo, Ya-Xu; Wang, Hui-Bao; Fang, Yan-Qin; Kang, Ming; Lin, Qing

    2017-05-01

    The sequence diversities in three mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) regions, namely portions of NADH dehydrogenase subunit 1 (pnad1), cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 (pcox1), and NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 (pnad4), were investigated in all Ascaris suum samples isolated from four regions in northwestern China. Those genes were amplified by PCR method and the lengths of pnad1, pcox1, and pnad4 were 419 bp, 711 bp, and 723 bp, respectively. The intraspecific sequence variations within A. suum samples were 0-2.9% for pnad1, 0-2.1% for pcox1, and 0-3.1% for pnad4. Phylogenetic analysis combined with three sequences of mtDNA fragments showed that all A. suum samples were monophyletic groups, but samples from the same geographical origin did not always cluster together. The results suggested that the three mtDNA fragments could not be used as molecular markers to identify the A. suum isolates from four regions, and have important implications for studying molecular epidemiology and population genetics of A. suum.

  15. Gene expression analysis distinguishes tissue-specific and gender-related functions among adult Ascaris suum tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Zhengyuan; Gao, Xin; Martin, John; Yin, Yong; Abubucker, Sahar; Rash, Amy C; Li, Ben-Wen; Nash, Bill; Hallsworth-Pepin, Kym; Jasmer, Douglas P; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2013-06-01

    Over a billion people are infected by Ascaris spp. intestinal parasites. To clarify functional differences among tissues of adult A. suum, we compared gene expression by various tissues of these worms by expression microarray methods. The A. suum genome was sequenced and assembled to allow generation of microarray elements. Expression of over 40,000 60-mer elements was investigated in a variety of tissues from both male and female adult worms. Nearly 50 percent of the elements for which signal was detected exhibited differential expression among different tissues. The unique profile of transcripts identified for each tissue clarified functional distinctions among tissues, such as chitin binding in the ovary and peptidase activity in the intestines. Interestingly, hundreds of gender-specific elements were characterized in multiple non-reproductive tissues of female or male worms, with most prominence of gender differences in intestinal tissue. A. suum genes from the same family were frequently expressed differently among tissues. Transcript abundance for genes specific to A. suum, by comparison to Caenorhabditis elegans, varied to a greater extent among tissues than for genes conserved between A. suum and C. elegans. Analysis using C. elegans protein interaction data identified functional modules conserved between these two nematodes, resulting in identification of functional predictions of essential subnetworks of protein interactions and how these networks may vary among nematode tissues. A notable finding was very high module similarity between adult reproductive tissues and intestine. Our results provide the most comprehensive assessment of gene expression among tissues of a parasitic nematode to date.

  16. Pharmacological profile of Ascaris suum ACR-16, a new homomeric nicotinic acetylcholine receptor widely distributed in Ascaris tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abongwa, Melanie; Buxton, Samuel K; Courtot, Elise; Charvet, Claude L; Neveu, Cédric; McCoy, Ciaran J; Verma, Saurabh; Robertson, Alan P; Martin, Richard J

    2016-08-01

    Control of nematode parasite infections relies largely on anthelmintic drugs, several of which act on nicotinic ACh receptors (nAChRs), and there are concerns about the development of resistance. There is an urgent need for development of new compounds to overcome resistance and novel anthelmintic drug targets. We describe the functional expression and pharmacological characterization of a homomeric nAChR, ACR-16, from a nematode parasite. Using RT-PCR, molecular cloning and two-electrode voltage clamp electrophysiology, we localized acr-16 mRNA in Ascaris suum (Asu) and then cloned and expressed acr-16 cRNA in Xenopus oocytes. Sensitivity of these receptors to cholinergic anthelmintics and a range of nicotinic agonists was tested. Amino acid sequence comparison with vertebrate nAChR subunits revealed ACR-16 to be most closely related to α7 receptors, but with some striking distinctions. acr-16 mRNA was recovered from Asu somatic muscle, pharynx, ovijector, head and intestine. In electrophysiological experiments, the existing cholinergic anthelmintic agonists (morantel, levamisole, methyridine, thenium, bephenium, tribendimidine and pyrantel) did not activate Asu-ACR-16 (except for a small response to oxantel). Other nAChR agonists: nicotine, ACh, cytisine, 3-bromocytisine and epibatidine, produced robust current responses which desensitized at a rate varying with the agonists. Unlike α7, Asu-ACR-16 was insensitive to α-bungarotoxin and did not respond to genistein or other α7 positive allosteric modulators. Asu-ACR-16 had lower calcium permeability than α7 receptors. We suggest that ACR-16 has diverse tissue-dependent functions in nematode parasites and is a suitable drug target for development of novel anthelmintic compounds. © 2016 The Authors. British Journal of Pharmacology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of British Pharmacological Society.

  17. A Globin Domain in a Neuronal Transmembrane Receptor of Caenorhabditis elegans and Ascaris suum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilleman, Lesley; Germani, Francesca; De Henau, Sasha; Helbo, Signe; Desmet, Filip; Berghmans, Herald; Van Doorslaer, Sabine; Hoogewijs, David; Schoofs, Liliane; Braeckman, Bart P.; Moens, Luc; Fago, Angela; Dewilde, Sylvia

    2015-01-01

    We report the structural and biochemical characterization of GLB-33, a putative neuropeptide receptor that is exclusively expressed in the nervous system of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. This unique chimeric protein is composed of a 7-transmembrane domain (7TM), GLB-33 7TM, typical of a G-protein-coupled receptor, and of a globin domain (GD), GLB-33 GD. Comprehensive sequence similarity searches in the genome of the parasitic nematode, Ascaris suum, revealed a chimeric protein that is similar to a Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-amide neuropeptide receptor. The three-dimensional structures of the separate domains of both species and of the full-length proteins were modeled. The 7TM domains of both proteins appeared very similar, but the globin domain of the A. suum receptor surprisingly seemed to lack several helices, suggesting a novel truncated globin fold. The globin domain of C. elegans GLB-33, however, was very similar to a genuine myoglobin-type molecule. Spectroscopic analysis of the recombinant GLB-33 GD showed that the heme is pentacoordinate when ferrous and in the hydroxide-ligated form when ferric, even at neutral pH. Flash-photolysis experiments showed overall fast biphasic CO rebinding kinetics. In its ferrous deoxy form, GLB-33 GD is capable of reversibly binding O2 with a very high affinity and of reducing nitrite to nitric oxide faster than other globins. Collectively, these properties suggest that the globin domain of GLB-33 may serve as a highly sensitive oxygen sensor and/or as a nitrite reductase. Both properties are potentially able to modulate the neuropeptide sensitivity of the neuronal transmembrane receptor. PMID:25666609

  18. The development of a mouse model to explore resistance and susceptibility to early Ascaris suum infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, R; Behnke, J M; Stafford, P; Holland, C V

    2006-02-01

    Ascaris suum and Ascaris lumbricoides exhibit an over-dispersed frequency distribution in their host populations in both the adult and larval stages. The impact of host factors on this observed distribution is still poorly understood and difficult to investigate in the natural host populations. The use of a mouse model has been supported by the observations that the larval migratory pattern, in this host, mimics the pattern observed in the pig. We explored the extrinsic factors that might affect the quantitative recovery of larvae during this migration in order to standardize a model system facilitating accurate future assessment of host genetic variation on this phase of the infection. In Exp. 1 larvae accumulated in the livers of both C57BL/6j and BALB/c mice up to and including days 4-5 p.i. and then declined in both strains until day 9. Loss of larvae from the livers corresponded to arrival in the lungs and maximum accumulation on day 7 p.i. but recovery was considerably higher in C57BL/6j mice. It was concluded that day 7 recoveries gave the best indication of relative resistance/susceptibility to this parasite. In Exp. 2 A/J, BALB/c, CBA/Ca, C57BL/6j, C3H/HeN, DBA/2, NIH, SJL, and SWR mice were compared. C57BL/6j mice were identified as the most susceptible strain and CBA/Ca mice as having the most contrasting phenotype, but with a similar kinetic pattern of migration. Finally, in Exp. 3, a strong positive correlation between the size of the inoculum and the mean worm recovery from the lungs was found in CBA/Ca and C57BL/6j mice, but the difference between these strains was highly consistent, 66.6-80%, regardless of the initial dose. These results demonstrate that, using our protocols for infection and recovery, between-experiment variation in A. suum worm burdens is minimal, and that C57BL/6j mice are highly susceptible to infection compared to other strains. The mechanistic basis of this susceptibility in relation to the resistance of other strains is

  19. Effect of fenbendazole in water on pigs infected with Ascaris suum in finishing pigs under field conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lassen, Brian; Oliviero, Claudio; Orro, Toomas; Jukola, Elias; Laurila, Tapio; Haimi-Hakala, Minna; Heinonen, Mari

    2017-04-15

    The husbandry of pigs for meat production is a constantly developing industry. Most studies on the effects of Ascaris suum infection in pigs and its prevention with anthelmintics are over a decade old. We examined the effect of 2.5mg fenbendazole per kg bodyweight administered in drinking water for two consecutive days on A. suum infection 1 and 6 weeks after pigs arrived to fattening units. We hypothesised that the treatment would reduce the presence of A. suum-infections, improve the average daily weight gain of pigs, reduce the percentage of liver rejections in pens by 50% and increase the lean meat percentage at slaughter by 1%. The study included a placebo group (427 pigs) and a treatment group (420 pigs) spanning four different farms previously reporting ≥15% liver rejection. The treatment was given for 2 consecutive days 1 and 6 weeks after the pigs arrived to the fattening unit. Faecal samples were collected during weeks 1, 6 and 12 from all pigs and examined for A. suum eggs. Blood was collected during weeks 1 and 12 from a subgroup of the pigs and examined for anti-A. suum antibodies and clinical blood parameters. Data on liver rejection and lean meat percentage were collected post-mortem. The proportion of Ascaris seropositive pigs changed from 8.6% to 22.2% and 20.3% to 16.3% in the placebo and treatment group respectively. Fenbendazole reduced the presence of A. suum eggs in faeces the percentage of liver rejections by 69.8%. The treatment did not affect daily weight gain or lean meat percentage. Pigs with A. suum eggs in faeces at week 6 had a lower average daily weight gain of 61.8g/day compared with pigs without parasite eggs. Fenbendazole treatment may be a useful option for farms struggling with persistent A. suum problems and demonstrate a beneficial effect on the weight gain of the animals shedding eggs in faeces and result in fewer condemned livers at slaughter. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  20. Employment of anaerobic reactors in real scale and polishing ponds for removal of eggs Ascaris suum of swine effluent

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Cristina Araujo Pinto

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The swine confinement farms and the improper disposal of their wastes carry result in contamination of water and soil. On many farms is common slurry application to soil as a means of fertilization, but without any control over the quality of the effluent being released. What is a parasite Ascaris suum from pigs can infect humans, but is not given due importance to the presence of this contaminant as soil and water. In this work the effluent of a pig was treated in a system composed of anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR and a UASB followed by polishing ponds for removal of helminthes eggs. The experiment was conducted at the Hélio Barbosa Experimental Farm pig in the city of Igarapé / MG. Values found in the influent of helminthes eggs in the range from 2891 to 88,848 eggs L-1, while the effluent showed absence of eggs, showing the high efficiency of the treatment system. While the sludge ponds, it showed high concentration of viable eggs ranged from 10.1% to 59.8%, not being in conformity with the requirements for reuse in agriculture.

  1. Ascaris suum in pigs of the Zona da Mata, Minas Gerais State, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Costa Fausto

    Full Text Available Among the parasites that affect pigs, Ascaris suum stands out for causing the greatest losses to livestock production systems. This parasite can be monitored during the slaughter of animals through the identification of “milk spots” or white patches on the liver caused by its larval migration. However, infection in the herd is usually subclinical, which is why the presence of this parasite in industrial pig production has been overlooked. The aim of the study was therefore to evaluate the occurrence of milk spots on the liver of animals slaughtered in the micro-region of Ponte Nova in the Zona da Mata - Minas Gerais, Brazil, and to associate these lesions with the time of year, herd size and source of origin of the animals. An evaluation was made of 1,069 lots, totaling 108,073 animals, based on data extracted from the Federal Inspection Service. The animals were slaughtered during the period of January 2011 to June 2013. Out of the total number of slaughtered animals, 10,535 (9.75% tested positive for these lesions. Therefore, veterinarians and producers should be warned about the inefficiency of the deworming protocols that are used, and the need to develop and/or review control strategies for this parasite in production systems.

  2. Ascaris suum in pigs of the Zona da Mata, Minas Gerais State, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fausto, Mariana Costa; Oliveira, Isabela de Castro; Fausto, Guilherme Costa; Carvalho, Lorendane Millena de; Valente, Fabrício Luciani; Campos, Artur Kanadani; Araújo, Jackson Victor de

    2015-01-01

    Among the parasites that affect pigs, Ascaris suum stands out for causing the greatest losses to livestock production systems. This parasite can be monitored during the slaughter of animals through the identification of "milk spots" or white patches on the liver caused by its larval migration. However, infection in the herd is usually subclinical, which is why the presence of this parasite in industrial pig production has been overlooked. The aim of the study was therefore to evaluate the occurrence of milk spots on the liver of animals slaughtered in the micro-region of Ponte Nova in the Zona da Mata - Minas Gerais, Brazil, and to associate these lesions with the time of year, herd size and source of origin of the animals. An evaluation was made of 1,069 lots, totaling 108,073 animals, based on data extracted from the Federal Inspection Service. The animals were slaughtered during the period of January 2011 to June 2013. Out of the total number of slaughtered animals, 10,535 (9.75%) tested positive for these lesions. Therefore, veterinarians and producers should be warned about the inefficiency of the deworming protocols that are used, and the need to develop and/or review control strategies for this parasite in production systems.

  3. Viability of Ascaris suum eggs in stored raw and separated liquid slurry

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katakam, Kiran Kumar; Roepstorff, Allan Knud; Popovic, Olga

    2013-01-01

    indicator of fecal pollution, and its association with ammonia was investigated in separated liquid slurry in comparison with raw slurry. For this purpose nylon bags with 6000 eggs each were placed in 1 litre bottles containing one of the two fractions for 308 days at 5 °C or 25 °C. Initial analysis...... of helminth eggs in the separated liquid slurry revealed 47 Ascaris eggs per gramme. At 25 °C, egg viability declined to zero with a similar trend in both raw slurry and the separated liquid slurry by day 308, a time when at 5 °C 88% and 42% of the eggs were still viable in separated liquid slurry and raw...... slurry, respectively. The poorer survival at 25 °C was correlated with high ammonia contents in the range of 7·9-22·4 mm in raw slurry and 7·3-23·2 mm in liquid slurry compared to 3·2-9·5 mm in raw slurry and 2·6-9·5 mm in liquid slurry stored at 5 °C. The study demonstrates that at 5 °C, A. suum eggs...

  4. Succinate-dependent energy generation and pyruvate dehydrogenase complex activity in isolated Ascaris suum mitochondria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, T.A.

    1988-01-01

    Body wall muscle from the parasitic nematode, Ascaris suum, contain unique anaerobic mitochondria that preferentially utilize fumarate and branched-chain enoyl CoA's as terminal electron acceptors instead of oxygen. While electron transport in these organelles is well characterized, the role of oxygen in succinate-dependent phosphorylation is still not clearly defined. Therefore, the present study was designed to more fully characterize succinate metabolism in these organelles as well as the in vitro regulation of a key mitochondrial enzyme, the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex (PDC). In the absence of added adenine nucleotides, incubations in succinate resulted in substantial elevations in intramitochrondrial ATP levels, but ATP/ADP ratios were considerably higher in incubations with malate. The stimulation of phosphorylation in aerobic incubations with succinate was rotenone sensitive and appears to be Site I dependent. Increase substrate level phosphorylation, coupled to propionate formation, or additional sites of electron-transport associated ATP synthesis were not significant. Under aerobic conditions, {sup 14}CO{sub 2} evolution from 1,4-({sup 14}C)succinate was stimulated and NADH/NAD{sup +} ratios were elevated, but the formation of {sup 14}C propionate was unchanged.

  5. An in vitro larval migration assay for assessing anthelmintic activity of different drug classes against Ascaris suum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianguo; Williams, Andrew R; Hansen, Tina Vicky Alstrup; Thamsborg, Stig M; Cai, Jianping; Song, Shuaibao; Chen, Gang; Kang, Ming; Zhang, Zhuangzhi; Liu, Qun; Han, Qian

    2017-04-30

    In vitro methods have been developed for the detection of anthelmintic resistance in a range of nematode species. However, the life cycle of Ascaris suum renders the commonly used egg hatch assay and larval development assay unusable. In this study we developed a combined multi-well culture and agar gel larval migration assay to test the effect of benzimidazole and tetrahydropyrimidin/imidazothiazole anthelmintics against nine isolates of A. suum collected from locations in China and Denmark. Drugs tested were thiabendazole, fenbendazole, mebendazole, levamisole, and pyrantel. The percentages of larvae that migrated to the surface of each treated and control well were used to calculate the drug concentration which inhibits 50% of the larvae migration (EC50). The values of EC50 of thiabendazole, fenbendazole, mebendazole, levamisole, and pyrantel against A. suum isolates ranged 74-150, 4.9-13.9, 2.3-4.3, 358-1150 and 1100-4000nM, respectively. This combined multi-well culture and agar gel larval migration assay was a sensitive bioassay for anthelmintic activity and could serve as an in vitro method to detect for lowered drug efficacy against A. suum or possibly to screen for anthelmintic drug candidates. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Hybrid ascaris suum/lumbricoides (ascarididae) infestation in a pig farmer: a rare case of zoonotic ascariasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dutto, Moreno; Petrosillo, Nicola

    2013-12-01

    We present a case of the 42-year-old pig farmer from the province of Cuneo in Northwest Italy who was infected by the soil-transmitted nematode Ascaris sp. In November 2010 the patient found one worm in his stool, subsequently identified as female specimen of Ascaris sp. After a first anthelmintic treatment, another worm was found in his stool, that was later identified as male Ascaris sp. Blood tests prescribed by the patient's family physician, as suggested by a parasitologist, found nothing abnormal. A chest x-ray was negative for Loeffler's syndrome and an ultrasound of the abdomen was normal with no evidence of hepatic problems. The nematode collected from the patient was genetically characterized using the ribosomal nuclear marker ITS. The PCR-RFLP analysis showed a hybrid genotype, intermediate between A. suum/lumbricoides. It was subsequently ascertained that some pigs on the patient's farm had A. suum infection; no other family member was infected. A cross-infestation from the pigs as source was the likely way of transmission. This conclusion is further warranted by the fact, that the patient is a confirmed nail-biter, a habit which facilitates oral-fecal transmission of parasites and pathogens.

  7. A polyphenol-enriched diet and Ascaris suum infection modulate mucosal immune responses and gut microbiota composition in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Andrew R.; Krych, Lukasz; Ahmad, Hajar Fauzan

    2017-01-01

    . suum for 14 days to assess parasite establishment, acquisition of local and systemic immune responses and effects on the gut microbiome. Despite in vitro anthelmintic activity of GP-extracts, numbers of parasite larvae in the intestine were not altered by GP-supplementation. However, the bioactive diet......Polyphenols are a class of bioactive plant secondary metabolites that are thought to have beneficial effects on gut health, such as modulation of mucosal immune and inflammatory responses and regulation of parasite burdens. Here, we examined the interactions between a polyphenol-rich diet...... supplement and infection with the enteric nematode Ascaris suum in pigs. Pigs were fed either a basal diet or the same diet supplemented with grape pomace (GP), an industrial by-product rich in polyphenols such as oligomeric proanthocyanidins. Half of the animals in each group were then inoculated with A...

  8. Quantitative evaluation of viability- and apoptosis-related genes in Ascaris suum eggs under different culture-temperature conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Yong-Man; Cho, You-Hang; Youn, Young-Nam; Quan, Juan Hua; Choi, In-Wook; Lee, Young-Ha

    2012-09-01

    Ascaris suum eggs are inactivated by composting conditions; however, it is difficult to find functional changes in heat-treated A. suum eggs. Here, unembryonated A. suum eggs were incubated at 20°C, 50°C, and 70°C in vitro, and the gene expression levels related to viability, such as eukaryotic translation initiation factor 4E (IF4E), phosphofructokinase 1 (PFK1), and thioredoxin 1 (TRX1), and to apoptosis, such as apoptosis-inducing factor 1 (AIF1) and cell death protein 6 (CDP6), were evaluated by real-time quantitative RT-PCR. No prominent morphological alterations were noted in the eggs at 20°C until day 10. In contrast, the eggs developed rapidly, and embryonated eggs and hatched larvae began to die, starting on day 2 at 50°C and day 1 at 70°C. At 20°C, IF4E, PFK1, and TRX1 mRNA expression was significantly increased from days 2-4; however, AIF1 and CDP6 mRNA expression was not changed significantly. IF4E, PFK1, and TRX1 mRNA expression was markedly decreased from day 2 at 50° and 70°C, whereas AIF1 and CDP6 mRNA expression was significantly increased. The expressions of HSP70 and HSP90 were detected for 9-10 days at 20°C, for 3-5 days at 50°C, and for 2 days at 70°C. Taken together, incremental heat increases were associated with the rapid development of A. suum eggs, decreased expression of genes related to viability, and earlier expression of apoptosis-related genes, and finally these changes of viability- and apoptosis-related genes of A. suum eggs were associated with survival of the eggs under temperature stress.

  9. A polyphenol-enriched diet and Ascaris suum infection modulate mucosal immune responses and gut microbiota composition in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Andrew R; Krych, Lukasz; Fauzan Ahmad, Hajar; Nejsum, Peter; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Nielsen, Dennis S; Thamsborg, Stig M

    2017-01-01

    Polyphenols are a class of bioactive plant secondary metabolites that are thought to have beneficial effects on gut health, such as modulation of mucosal immune and inflammatory responses and regulation of parasite burdens. Here, we examined the interactions between a polyphenol-rich diet supplement and infection with the enteric nematode Ascaris suum in pigs. Pigs were fed either a basal diet or the same diet supplemented with grape pomace (GP), an industrial by-product rich in polyphenols such as oligomeric proanthocyanidins. Half of the animals in each group were then inoculated with A. suum for 14 days to assess parasite establishment, acquisition of local and systemic immune responses and effects on the gut microbiome. Despite in vitro anthelmintic activity of GP-extracts, numbers of parasite larvae in the intestine were not altered by GP-supplementation. However, the bioactive diet significantly increased numbers of eosinophils induced by A. suum infection in the duodenum, jejunum and ileum, and modulated gene expression in the jejunal mucosa of infected pigs. Both GP-supplementation and A. suum infection induced significant and apparently similar changes in the composition of the prokaryotic gut microbiota, and both also decreased concentrations of isobutyric and isovaleric acid (branched-chain short chain fatty acids) in the colon. Our results demonstrate that while a polyphenol-enriched diet in pigs may not directly influence A. suum establishment, it significantly modulates the subsequent host response to helminth infection. Our results suggest an influence of diet on immune function which may potentially be exploited to enhance immunity to helminths.

  10. TLR2- and 4-independent immunomodulatory effect of high molecular weight components from Ascaris suum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favoretto, Bruna C; Silva, Sandriana R; Jacysyn, Jacqueline F; Câmara, Niels O S; Faquim-Mauro, Eliana L

    2014-03-01

    Components of high molecular-weight (PI) obtained from Ascaris suum extract down-regulate the Th1/Th2-related immune responses induced by ovalbumin (OVA)-immunization in mice. Furthermore, the PI down-modulates the ability of dendritic cells (DCs) to activate T lymphocytes by an IL-10-mediated mechanism. Here, we evaluated the role of toll like receptors 2 and 4 (TLR2 and 4) in the modulatory effect of PI on OVA-specific immune response and the PI interference on DC full activation. An inhibition of OVA-specific cellular and humoral responses were observed in wild type (WT) or in deficient in TLR2 (TLR2(-/-)) or 4 (TLR4(-/-)) mice immunized with OVA plus PI when compared with OVA-immunized mice. Low expression of class II MHC, CD40, CD80 and CD86 molecules was observed in lymph node (LN) cells from WT, TLR2(-/-) or TLR4(-/-) mice immunized with OVA plus PI compared with OVA-primed cells. We also verified that PI was able to modulate the activation of DCs derived from bone marrow of WT, TLR2(-/-) or TLR4(-/-) mice induced in vitro by agonists of TLRs, as observed by a decreased expression of class II MHC and costimulatory molecules and by low secretion of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Its effect was accompanied by IL-10 synthesis. In this sense, the modulatory effect of PI on specific-immune response and DC activation is independent of TLR2 or TLR4. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Extracts of Ascaris suum egg and adult worm share similar immunosuppressive properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Souza V.M.O.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Adult Ascaris suum body extract (Asc prepared from male and female worms (with stored eggs down-regulates the specific immune response of DBA/2 mice to ovalbumin (OA and preferentially stimulates a Th2 response to its own components, which is responsible for the suppression of the OA-specific Th1 response. Here, we investigated the participation of soluble extracts prepared from male or female worms or from eggs (E-Asc in these immunological events. Extracts from either sex (1 mg/animal or E-Asc (0.35 or 1 mg protein/animal suppressed the delayed-type hypersensitivity (DTH reaction (60-85%, proliferative response (50-70%, IL-2 and IFN-gamma secretion (below detection threshold and IgG1 antibody production (70-90% of DBA/2 mice to OA. A dose of 0.1 mg E-Asc/animal did not change DTH or proliferation, but was as effective as 0.35 mg in suppressing IL-2 and IFN-gamma, and OA-specific IgG1 antibodies. Lymph node cells from DBA/2 mice injected with Asc (1 mg/animal or a high dose of E-Asc (1 mg protein/animal secreted IL-4 upon in vitro stimulation with concanavalin A. As previously demonstrated for Asc, the cytokine profile obtained with the E-Asc was dose dependent and changed towards Th1 when a low dose (0.1 mg protein/animal was used. Taken together, these results suggest that adult worms of either sex and eggs induce the same type of T cell response and share similar immunosuppressive properties.

  12. Levamisole and ryanodine receptors (I): A contraction study in Ascaris suum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Alan P.; Clark, Cheryl L.; Martin, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    Cholinergic anthelmintics (like levamisole) are important drugs but resistance with reduced responses by the parasite to these compounds is a concern. There is a need to study and understand mechanisms that affect the amplitude of the responses of parasites to these drugs. In this paper, we study interactions of levamisole and ryanodine receptors on contractions of Ascaris suum body muscle flaps. In our second paper, we extend these observations to examine electrophysiological interactions of levamisole, ryanodine receptors (RyRs) and AF2. We report that the maximum force of contraction, gmax, was dependent on the extracellular concentration of calcium but the levamisole EC50(0.8 μM) was not. The relationship between maximum force of contraction and extracellular calcium was described by the Michaelis-Menten equation with a Km of 1.8 mM. Ryanodine inhibited gmax without effect on EC50; ryanodine inhibited only 44% of the maximum contraction (Ki of 40 nM), revealing a ryanodine-insensitive component in the levamisole excitation-contraction pathway. Dantrolene had the same effect as ryanodine but was less potent. The neuropeptide AF2 (1 μM) decreased the levamisole EC50 to 0.2 μM without effect on gmax; 0.1 μM ryanodine and 100 μM dantrolene, inhibited the gmax of the AF2-potentiated levamisole response. High concentrations of caffeine, 30 mM, produced weak contraction of the body flap preparation. Caffeine behaved like ryanodine in that it inhibited the maximum force of contraction, gmax, without effects on the levamisole EC50. Thus, RyRs play a modulatory role in the levamisole-excitation contraction pathway by affecting the maximum force of contraction without an effect on levamisole EC50. The levamisole-excitation contraction coupling is graded and has at least two pathways: one sensitive to ryanodine and one not. PMID:20064566

  13. Levamisole and ryanodine receptors (II): An electrophysiological study in Ascaris suum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puttachary, Sreekanth; Robertson, Alan P.; Clark, Cheryl L.; Martin, Richard J.

    2010-01-01

    Resistance to antinematodal drugs like levamisole has increased and there is a need to understand what factors affect the responses to these anthelmintics. In our previous study, we examined the role of ryanodine receptors in muscle contraction pathways. Here we have examined interactions of levamisole receptors, ryanodine receptors (RyRs), the excitatory neuropeptide AF2, and coupling to electrophysiological responses. We examined the effects of a brief application of levamisole on Ascaris suum body muscle under current-clamp. The levamisole responses were characterized as an initial primary depolarization, followed by a slow secondary depolarizing response. We examined the effects of AF2 (KHEYLRFamide), 1 μM applied for 2 min. We found that AF2 potentiated the secondary response to levamisole and had no significant effect on the primary depolarization [1]. Further, the reversal potentials observed during the secondary response suggested that more than one ion was involved in producing this potential. AF2 potentiated the secondary response in the presence of 30 μM mecamylamine suggesting the effect was independent of levamisole sensitive acetylcholine receptors. The secondary response, potentiated by AF2, appeared to be dependent on cytoplasmic events triggered by the primary depolarization. Ion-substitution experiments showed that the AF2 potentiated secondary response was dependent on extracellular calcium and chloride suggesting a role for the calcium-activated anion channel. Caffeine mimicked the AF2 secondary response and 0.1 μM ryanodine inhibited it. 1.0 μM ryanodine increased spiking showing that it affected membrane excitability. A model is proposed showing ryanodine receptors mediating effects of AF2 on levamisole responses. PMID:20064567

  14. Anthelmintic properties of traditional African and Caribbean medicinal plants: identification of extracts with potent activity against Ascaris suum in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Williams Andrew R.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ascariasis affects more than 1 billion people worldwide, mainly in developing countries, causing substantial morbidity. Current treatments for Ascaris infection are based on mass drug administration (MDA with synthetic anthelmintic drugs such as albendazole, however continual re-infection and the threat of drug resistance mean that complementary treatment options would be highly valuable. Here, we screened ethanolic extracts from 29 medicinal plants used in Africa (Ghana and the Caribbean (US Virgin Islands for in vitro anthelmintic properties against Ascaris suum, a swine parasite that is very closely related to the human A. lumbricoides. A wide variety of activities were seen in the extracts, from negligible to potent. Extracts from Clausena anisata, Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides and Punica granatum were identified as the most potent with EC50 values of 74, 97 and 164 μg/mL, respectively. Our results encourage further investigation of their use as complementary treatment options for ascariasis, alongside MDA.

  15. Effect of Penicillium frequentans and Stachybotrys chartarum on respiratory metabolism of developing eggs of Ascaris suum (Nematoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lidia Kołodziejczyk

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Effect of saprotrophic soil fungi Penicillium frequentans and Stachybotrys chartarum on respiratory metabolism of Ascaris suum, during its embryogenesis was determined using histoenzymatic methods. Based on histochemical assessment of the enzyme actvity (glycolysis-lactate dehydrogenase-LDH; tricarboxylic acid cycle-succinate dehydrogenase-SDH changes in the energy metabolism of developing eggs of A. suvm were detected. Of the fungi species tested - P. frequentans caused the most extensive disorders in the processes of cellular oxidation, which were manifested in a decline of SDH activity during gastrulation. Incubation of eggs of Ascaris with mycelia of both fungi: S. chartarum and P. frequentans - in lesser extend affected respiratory metabolism in embryogenesis of this nematode.

  16. Diethylcarbamazine increases activation of voltage-activated potassium (SLO-1) currents in Ascaris suum and potentiates effects of emodepside.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buxton, Samuel K; Robertson, Alan P; Martin, Richard J

    2014-01-01

    Diethylcarbamazine is a drug that is used for the treatment of filariasis in humans and animals; it also has effects on intestinal nematodes, but its mechanism of action remains unclear. Emodepside is a resistance-busting anthelmintic approved for treating intestinal parasitic nematodes in animals. The novel mode of action and resistance-breaking properties of emodepside has led to its use against intestinal nematodes of animals, and as a candidate drug for treating filarial parasites. We have previously demonstrated effects of emodepside on SLO-1 K+-like currents in Ascaris suum. Here, we demonstrate that diethylcarbamazine, which has been proposed to work through host mediated effects, has direct effects on a nematode parasite, Ascaris suum. It increases activation of SLO-1 K+ currents and potentiates effects of emodepside. Our results suggest consideration of the combination of emodepside and diethylcarbamazine for therapy, which is predicted to be synergistic. The mode of action of diethylcarbamazine may involve effects on parasite signaling pathways (including nitric oxide) as well as effects mediated by host inflammatory mediators.

  17. [Effect of Hydrochloric acid on invasion of Ascaris suum; enzyme activity in the digestive system and serum of newborn piglets].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jabłonowski, Z; Romaniuk, K; Piechocki, D; Zółtowska, K; Lukaszewicz-Babecka, J; Dziekońska-Rynko, I J

    1995-01-01

    The studies were carried out on twenty newborn piglets. They were divided into four groups. The groups no 3 and no 4 were given intragastric 0.18% HCl from the 3th day of experiment. The groups no 2 and no 4 were infected on the 7th day with 10,000 invasive eggs of Ascaris suum. The presence of A. suum larvae in the lungs and liver was examined after one week lasting invasion by Baermann method. The total acidity in the gastric content was measured. The activity of alpha-amylase, lipase and proteases was determined in the extracts from pancreas and in the contents of stomach, duodenum and jejunum. The level of pepsinogens and alpha-amylase in the animals serum was studied. The intensity of Ascaris invasion was slightly higher in the group which was given HCl than in the infected group without HCl. The activity of digestive enzymes in the both groups was similar. Only in the stomach content from the 4th group the activity of pepsin was higher (p < 0.05), and alpha-amylase and lipase were lower (p < 0.01) than in the 2nd and in the 3th group. The level of pepsinogens was always lower and alpha-amylase higher in the serum of infected animals than in uninfected groups.

  18. A novel C-type lectin identified by EST analysis in tissue migratory larvae of Ascaris suum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshida, Ayako; Nagayasu, Eiji; Horii, Yoichiro; Maruyama, Haruhiko

    2012-04-01

    C-type lectins (CTLs) are a group of proteins which bind to carbohydrate epitopes in the presence of Ca(2+), which have been described in a wide range of species. In this study, a cDNA sequence coding a putative CTL has been identified from the cDNA library constructed from the pig round worm Ascaris suum lung L3 (LL3) larvae, which was designated as A. suum C-type lectin-1 (As-CTL-1). The 510 nucleotide open reading frame of As-CTL-1 cDNA encoded the predicted 169 amino acid protein including a putative signal peptide of 23 residues and C-type lectin/C-type lectin-like domain (CLECT) at residue 26 to 167. As-CTL-1 was most similar to Toxocara canis C-type lectin-1 and 4 (Tc-CTL-1 and 4), and highly homologous to namatode CTLs and mammalian CTLs as well, such as human C-type lectin domain family 4 member G (CLECG4). In addition, As-CTL-1 was strongly expressed in tissue migrating LL3 and the L4 larvae, which were developmental larvae stages within the mammalian host. These results suggest that A. suum larvae might utilize As-CTL-1 to avoid pathogen recognition mechanisms in mammalian hosts due to it is similarity to host immune cell receptors.

  19. Transcriptional immune response in mesenteric lymph nodes in pigs with different levels of resistance to Ascaris suum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skallerup, Per; Nejsum, Peter; Cirera, Susanna; Skovgaard, Kerstin; Pipper, Christian B; Fredholm, Merete; Jørgensen, Claus B; Thamsborg, Stig M

    2017-03-01

    A single nucleotide polymorphism on chromosome 4 (SNP TXNIP) has been reported to be associated with roundworm (Ascaris suum) burden in pigs. The objective of the present study was to analyse the immune response to A. suum mounted by pigs with genotype AA (n = 24) and AB (n = 23) at the TXNIP locus. The pigs were repeatedly infected with A. suum from eight weeks of age until necropsy eight weeks later. An uninfected control group (AA; n = 5 and AB; n = 5) was also included. At post mortem, we collected mesenteric lymph nodes and measured the expression of 28 selected immune-related genes. Recordings of worm burdens confirmed our previous results that pigs of the AA genotype were more resistant to infection than AB pigs. We estimated the genotype difference in relative expression levels in infected and uninfected animals. No significant change in expression levels between the two genotypes due to infection was observed for any of the genes, although IL-13 approached significance (P = 0.08; Punadjusted = 0.003). Furthermore, statistical analysis testing for the effect of infection separately in each genotype showed significant up-regulation of IL-13 (Psuum infection in the 'resistant' AA genotype and not in the 'susceptible' AB genotype. Pigs of genotype AB had higher expression of the high-affinity IgG receptor (FCGR1A) than AA pigs in both infected and non-infected animals (P = 1.85*10-11).

  20. Optimization of the agar-gel method for isolation of migrating Ascaris suum larvae from the liver and lungs of pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saeed, I.; Roepstorff, A.; Rasmussen, T.

    2001-01-01

    Experiments on use of an agar-gel method for recovery of migrating Ascaris suum larvae from the liver and lungs of pigs were conducted to obtain fast standardized methods. Subsamples of blended tissues of pig liver and lungs were mixed with agar to a final concentration of 1% agar and the larvae ...

  1. A genetic marker allele conferring resistance to Ascaris suum in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skallerup, Per; Thamsborg, Stig M.; Jørgensen, Claus B.

    2013-01-01

    a similar trend. The data presented here provide suggestive evidence that resistant pigs can be selected using a genetic marker, TXNIP, and that it is the B allele which is conferring susceptibility to A. suum infection. Our work confirmed that SNP ARNT is another diagnostic marker candidate for A. suum...

  2. Changes in cyclic nucleotides, locomotory behavior, and body length produced by novel endogenous neuropeptides in the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reinitz, Catharine A; Pleva, Anthony E; Stretton, Antony O W

    2011-11-01

    Recent technical advances have rapidly advanced the discovery of novel peptides, as well as the transcripts that encode them, in the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum. Here we report that many of these novel peptides produce profound and varied effects on locomotory behavior and levels of cyclic nucleotides in A. suum. We investigated the effects of 31 endogenous neuropeptides encoded by transcripts afp-1, afp-2, afp-4, afp-6, afp-7, and afp-9-14 (afp: Ascaris FMRFamide-like Precursor protein) on cyclic nucleotide levels, body length and locomotory behavior. Worms were induced to generate anteriorly propagating waveforms, peptides were injected into the pseudocoelomic cavity, and changes in the specific activity (nmol/mg protein) of second messengers cAMP (3'5' cyclic adenosine monophosphate) and cGMP (3'5' cyclic guanosine monophosphate) were determined. Many of these neuropeptides changed the levels of cAMP (both increases and decreases were found), whereas few neuropeptides changed the level of cGMP. A subset of the peptides that lowered cAMP was investigated for effects on the locomotory waveform and on body length. Injection of AF19, or AF34 (afp-13), AF9 (afp-14), AF26 or AF41 (afp-11) caused immediate paralysis and cessation of propagating body waveforms. These neuropeptides also significantly increased body length. In contrast, injection of AF15 (afp-9) reduced the body length, and decreased the amplitude of waves in the body waveform. AF30 (afp-10) produced worms with tight ventral coils. Although injection of neuropeptides encoded by afp-1 (AF3, AF4, AF10 or AF13) produced an increased number of exaggerated body waves, there were no effects on either cAMP or cGMP. By injecting peptides into behaving A. suum, we have provided an initial screen of the effects of novel peptides on several behavioral and biochemical parameters. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Bioinformatic identification of cytochrome b5 homologues from the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum and the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans highlights the crucial role of A. suum adult-specific secretory cytochrome b₅ in parasitic adaptation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takamiya, Shinzaburo; Hashimoto, Muneaki; Mita, Toshihiro; Yokota, Takehiro; Nakajima, Yoshitaka; Yamakura, Fumiyuki; Sugio, Shigetoshi; Fujimura, Tsutomu; Ueno, Takashi; Yamasaki, Hiroshi

    2016-04-01

    We previously reported that adult Ascaris suum possesses NADH-metmyoglobin and NADH-methaemoglobin reductase systems that are located in the cells of the body wall and in the extracellular perienteric fluid, respectively, which helps them adapt to environmental hypoxia by recovering the differential functions of myoglobin and haemoglobin. A. suum cytochrome b5, an adult-specific secretory protein and an essential component of the NADH-metmyo (haemo) globin reductase system, has been extensively studied, and its unique nature has been determined. However, the relationship between A. suum cytochrome b5 and the canonical cytochrome b5 proteins, from the free-living nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is unclear. Here, we have characterised four cytochrome b5-like proteins from C. elegans (accession numbers: CAB01732, CCD68984, CAJ58492, and CAA98498) and three from A. suum (accession numbers: ADY48796, ADY46277, and ADY48338) and compared them with A. suum cytochrome b5 in silico. Bioinformatic and molecular analyses showed that CAA98498 from C. elegans is equivalent of A. suum cytochrome b5, which was not expressed as a mature mRNA. Further, the CAA98498 possessed no secretory signal peptide, which occurs in A. suum cytochrome b5 precursor. These results suggest that this free-living nematode does not need a haemoprotein such as the A. suum cytochrome b5 and highlight the crucial function of this A. suum adult-specific secretory cytochrome b5 in parasitic adaptation. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Genomic-bioinformatic analysis of transcripts enriched in the third-stage larva of the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cui-Qin Huang

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Differential transcription in Ascaris suum was investigated using a genomic-bioinformatic approach. A cDNA archive enriched for molecules in the infective third-stage larva (L3 of A. suum was constructed by suppressive-subtractive hybridization (SSH, and a subset of cDNAs from 3075 clones subjected to microarray analysis using cDNA probes derived from RNA from different developmental stages of A. suum. The cDNAs (n = 498 shown by microarray analysis to be enriched in the L3 were sequenced and subjected to bioinformatic analyses using a semi-automated pipeline (ESTExplorer. Using gene ontology (GO, 235 of these molecules were assigned to 'biological process' (n = 68, 'cellular component' (n = 50, or 'molecular function' (n = 117. Of the 91 clusters assembled, 56 molecules (61.5% had homologues/orthologues in the free-living nematodes Caenorhabditis elegans and C. briggsae and/or other organisms, whereas 35 (38.5% had no significant similarity to any sequences available in current gene databases. Transcripts encoding protein kinases, protein phosphatases (and their precursors, and enolases were abundantly represented in the L3 of A. suum, as were molecules involved in cellular processes, such as ubiquitination and proteasome function, gene transcription, protein-protein interactions, and function. In silico analyses inferred the C. elegans orthologues/homologues (n = 50 to be involved in apoptosis and insulin signaling (2%, ATP synthesis (2%, carbon metabolism (6%, fatty acid biosynthesis (2%, gap junction (2%, glucose metabolism (6%, or porphyrin metabolism (2%, although 34 (68% of them could not be mapped to a specific metabolic pathway. Small numbers of these 50 molecules were predicted to be secreted (10%, anchored (2%, and/or transmembrane (12% proteins. Functionally, 17 (34% of them were predicted to be associated with (non-wild-type RNAi phenotypes in C. elegans, the majority being embryonic lethality (Emb (13 types; 58.8%, larval arrest

  5. Regional immune responses with stage-specific antigen recognition profiles develop in lymph nodes of pigs following Ascaris suum larval migration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersen, Gregers; Eriksen, Lizzie; Nansen, P.

    2001-01-01

    The early life-cycle of the pig round worm, Ascaris suum, involves well-defined larval development in the liver; lungs and finally the small intestine. Distinct regional immune responses to larval antigens of A. suum were observed in the draining lymph nodes of immunized and challenged pigs during...... specifically by ASC-probes of the liver lymph nodes at 7 but nor 14 days postchallenge (pc) which was not detected in other lymph nodes, serum or bile of the same pig. Similarly, a late larval antigen of 34 kDa was uniquely detected by lung and jejunal ASC-probes at 14 days pc. These observations demonstrate...

  6. Different neuropeptides are expressed in different functional subsets of cholinergic excitatory motorneurons in the nematode Ascaris suum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konop, Christopher J; Knickelbine, Jennifer J; Sygulla, Molly S; Vestling, Martha M; Stretton, Antony O W

    2015-06-17

    Neuropeptides are known to have dramatic effects on neurons and synapses; however, despite extensive studies of the motorneurons in the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum, their peptide content had not yet been described. We determined the peptide content of single excitatory motorneurons by mass spectrometry and tandem mass spectrometry. There are two subsets of ventral cord excitatory motorneurons, each with neuromuscular output either anterior or posterior to their cell body, mediating forward or backward locomotion, respectively. Strikingly, the two sets of neurons contain different neuropeptides, with AF9 and six novel peptides (As-NLP-21.1-6) in anterior projectors, and the six afp-1 peptides in addition to AF2 in posterior projectors. In situ hybridization confirmed the expression of these peptides, validating the integrity of the dissection technique. This work identifies new components of the functional behavioral circuit, as well as potential targets for antiparasitic drug development.

  7. The localization and some properties of the acetylsalicylic acid O-deacetylases of Ascaris lumbricoides var suum and Moniezia expansa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Douch, P G

    1978-03-01

    1. Enzymes hydrolysing acetylsalicylic acid were found in the cytosol of the cestode, Moniezia expansa, and in the cytosol of the intestinal epithelial cells and cytosol of the reproductive tract of the nematode, Ascaris lumbricoides var suum. 2. Enzymes hydrolysing 2-naphthyl acetate and 4-methylumbelliferyl acetate were found throughout the proglottid of the cestode and in the reproductive tract, intestine, mesenchyme fluid and cuticle of the nematode. These enzymes had mol. wt. of 30 000-300 000 whereas those hydrolysing acetylsalicylic acid in both species had mol. wt. of about 87 000. 3. The acetylsalicylic acid hydrolases from both helminths showed pH optima of about 7.0, and activity was enhanced by Ca2+ and low-mol. wt. thiols. Cu2+, Cd2+, Hg2+, Zn2+, La3+, F- and EDTA at 1 mM inhibited activity. N-Ethylmaleimide, p-chloromercuribenzoate, haloxon and paraoxon also inhibited hydrolase activity.

  8. Expression of Ascaris suum malic enzyme in a mutant Escherichia coli allows production of succinic acid from glucose

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stols, L.; Donnelly, M.I. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Kulkarni, G.; Harris, B.G. [Univ. of North Texas, Fort Worth, TX (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The malic enzyme gene of Ascaris suum was cloned into the vector pTRC99a in two forms encoding alternative amino-termini. The resulting plasmids, pMEA1 and pMEA2, were introduced into Escherichia coli NZN111, a strain that is unable to grow fermentatively because of inactivation of the genes encoding pyruvate dissimilation. Induction of pMEA1, which encodes the native animoterminus, gave better overexpression of malic enzyme, approx 12-fold compared to uninduced cells. Under the appropriate culture conditions, expression of malic enzyme allowed the fermentative dissimilation of glucose by NZN111. The major fermentation product formed in induced cultures was succinic acid.

  9. Direct anthelmintic effects of condensed tannins from diverse plant sources against Ascaris suum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Andrew Richard; Fryganas, Christos; Ramsay, Aina

    2014-01-01

    Ascaris suum is one of the most prevalent nematode parasites in pigs and causes significant economic losses, and also serves as a good model for A. lumbricoides, the large roundworm of humans that is ubiquitous in developing countries and causes malnutrition, stunted growth and compromises immunity...... employed. However, scientific validation of these practices and identification of the active compounds are lacking, although observed effects are often ascribed to plant secondary metabolites such as tannins. Here, we extracted, purified and characterised a wide range of condensed tannins from diverse......-stage larvae recovered from pigs. Transmission electron microscopy showed that CT caused significant damage to the cuticle and digestive tissues of the larvae. Furthermore, we provide evidence that the strength of the anthelmintic effect is related to the polymer size of the tannin molecule. Moreover...

  10. Evaluation of a serodiagnostic test using Ascaris suum haemoglobin for the detection of roundworm infections in pig populations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlaminck, Johnny; Nejsum, Peter; Vangroenweghe, Frédéric

    2012-01-01

    . suis infection was shown to be limited after analysing sera from pigs with an experimental T. suis mono-infection. Seroconversion was shown to occur from week 6 onwards in pigs receiving 100 A. suum eggs 5 times a week. Preliminary testing of the ELISA on six randomly selected farms confirmed......% of the tested samples were seropositive, while in 19.8% of the farms 80-100% of all pigs were seropositive. The results of this study suggest that the AsHb ELISA could provide pig farmers and veterinarians with an easier and more sensitive way to estimate the overall prevalence of A. suum on their farm....... of a novel indirect ELISA using the purified A. suum haemoglobin (AsHb) molecule as an antigen. Initial validation using sera from 190 pigs experimentally infected twice a week with A. suum and Trichuris suis (25 and 5 eggs kg(-1)day(-1) respectively) demonstrated that the AsHb ELISA is able to detect long...

  11. Proteomic analysis of the excretory-secretory products from larval stages of Ascaris suum reveals high abundance of glycosyl hydrolases.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum are socioeconomically important and widespread parasites of humans and pigs, respectively. The excretory-secretory (ES molecules produced and presented at the parasite-host interface during the different phases of tissue invasion and migration are likely to play critical roles in the induction and development of protective immune and other host responses. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The aim of this study was to identify the ES proteins of the different larval stages (L3-egg, L3-lung and L4 by LC-MS/MS. In total, 106 different proteins were identified, 20 in L3-egg, 45 in L3-lung stage and 58 in L4. Although most of the proteins identified were stage-specific, 15 were identified in the ES products of at least two stages. Two proteins, i.e. a 14-3-3-like protein and a serpin-like protein, were present in the ES products from the three different larval stages investigated. Interestingly, a comparison of ES products from L4 with those of L3-egg and L3-lung showed an abundance of metabolic enzymes, particularly glycosyl hydrolases. Further study indicated that most of these glycolytic enzymes were transcriptionally upregulated from L4 onwards, with a peak in the adult stage, particularly in intestinal tissue. This was also confirmed by enzymatic assays, showing the highest glycosidase activity in protein extracts from adult worms gut. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: The present proteomic analysis provides important information on the host-parasite interaction and the biology of the migratory stages of A. suum. In particular, the high transcriptional upregulation of glycosyl hydrolases from the L4 stage onwards reveals that the degradation of complex carbohydrates forms an essential part of the energy metabolism of this parasite once it establishes in the small intestine.

  12. Proteomic analysis of the excretory-secretory products from larval stages of Ascaris suum reveals high abundance of glycosyl hydrolases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Tao; Van Steendam, Katleen; Dhaenens, Maarten; Vlaminck, Johnny; Deforce, Dieter; Jex, Aaron R; Gasser, Robin B; Geldhof, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides and Ascaris suum are socioeconomically important and widespread parasites of humans and pigs, respectively. The excretory-secretory (ES) molecules produced and presented at the parasite-host interface during the different phases of tissue invasion and migration are likely to play critical roles in the induction and development of protective immune and other host responses. The aim of this study was to identify the ES proteins of the different larval stages (L3-egg, L3-lung and L4) by LC-MS/MS. In total, 106 different proteins were identified, 20 in L3-egg, 45 in L3-lung stage and 58 in L4. Although most of the proteins identified were stage-specific, 15 were identified in the ES products of at least two stages. Two proteins, i.e. a 14-3-3-like protein and a serpin-like protein, were present in the ES products from the three different larval stages investigated. Interestingly, a comparison of ES products from L4 with those of L3-egg and L3-lung showed an abundance of metabolic enzymes, particularly glycosyl hydrolases. Further study indicated that most of these glycolytic enzymes were transcriptionally upregulated from L4 onwards, with a peak in the adult stage, particularly in intestinal tissue. This was also confirmed by enzymatic assays, showing the highest glycosidase activity in protein extracts from adult worms gut. The present proteomic analysis provides important information on the host-parasite interaction and the biology of the migratory stages of A. suum. In particular, the high transcriptional upregulation of glycosyl hydrolases from the L4 stage onwards reveals that the degradation of complex carbohydrates forms an essential part of the energy metabolism of this parasite once it establishes in the small intestine.

  13. Survival of Ascaris suum and Ascaridia galli eggs in liquid manure at different ammonia concentrations and temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katakam, Kiran Kumar; Mejer, Helena; Dalsgaard, Anders; Kyvsgaard, Niels Christian; Thamsborg, Stig Milan

    2014-08-29

    Eggs of Ascaris suum from pigs are highly resistant and commonly used as a conservative indicator of pathogen inactivation during slurry storage. Eggs of Ascaridia galli, the poultry ascarid, are also known to be highly resistant but the suitability as an indicator of pathogen inactivation has never been tested. Pig slurry has to be stored for several months to inactivate pathogens but chemical treatment of slurry may reduce this time. The suitability of A. galli as an indicator of slurry sanitation was tested by comparing the survival of eggs of A. suum and A. galli in pig slurry. In addition, the effect of urea treatment on inactivation of ascarid eggs in relation to storage time was also tested. Nylon bags with 10,000 eggs of either species were placed in 200 ml plastic bottles containing either urea-treated (2%) or untreated pig slurry for up to 120 days at 20°C, 6 days at 30°C, 36h at 40°C or 2h at 50°C. At all the temperatures in both slurry types, A. galli eggs were inactivated at a significantly faster rate (Psuum eggs. For each 10°C raise in temperature from 20°C, T50 (time needed to inactivate 50% of eggs) for both types of eggs was reduced markedly. At all temperatures, viability of eggs of both species was significantly higher (Psuum eggs. The use of A. galli eggs as hygiene indicator may thus be suitable to assess inactivation of pathogens that are more sensitive than A. galli eggs. Addition of urea may markedly reduce the storage time of slurry needed to inactivate A. suum and A. galli eggs. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Presynaptic and postsynaptic regulation of muscle contractions in the ascarid nematode Ascaris suum: a target for drug action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trailović, S M; Zurovac, Z; Gruborović, S; Marjanović, D S; Nedeljković-Trailović, J

    2016-11-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the role in contractions of postsynaptic nicotinic acetylcholine (nACh) and γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA) receptors, in the bag region of Ascaris suum muscle cells, as well as the role of synaptic receptors between interneurons and motor neurons in the dorsal and ventral nerve cord. We have measured the isometric contractions of isolated segments of A. suum, with or without the nerve cord (dorsal or ventral). Contractions were caused by increasing concentrations of ACh or by electrical field stimulation (EFS). Based on our results, the presence of the nerve cord is essential for the contractile effects of ACh. The EC50 value of ACh for innervated muscle strips was 10.88 μm. Unlike intact (innervated) preparations, there was no contraction of the muscle flaps when the nerve cord was mechanically removed. Furthermore, continuous EFS produced stable contractions of innervated muscle strips, but they are not sensitive to mecamylamine (100 μm). However, GABA (30 μm) significantly inhibited the EFS-induced contractions. EFS with the same characteristics did not cause muscle contractions of denervated muscle strips, but EFS with a wider pulse induced the increasing of tone and irregular contractions. These contractions were completely insensitive to the effect of GABA. The EC50 for ACh did not differ between the dorsal and ventral segments (9.83 μm and 9.45 μm), while GABA exhibited features of competitive and non-competitive antagonists, regardless of whether it acted on the dorsal or ventral segments of A. suum. It is obvious that drugs will be more effective if they act on both the synaptic and extrasynaptic nACh and GABA receptors.

  15. Effect of post-treatment conditions on the inactivation of helminth eggs (Ascaris suum) after the composting process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Darimani, Hamidatu S; Ito, Ryusei; Maiga, Ynoussa; Sou, Mariam; Funamizu, Naoyuki; Maiga, Amadou H

    2016-01-01

    Safe and appropriate disposal of human waste is a basic requirement for sanitation and protection of public health. For proper sanitation and nutrient recovery, it is necessary to ensure effective treatment methods to complete pathogen destruction in excreta prior to reuse. Composting toilets convert faeces to a reusable resource such as fertilizer or humus for organic agriculture. A composting toilet for rural Burkina Faso was created by modifying a commercial model available in Japan to improve hygiene and increase food production. The toilet has shown to result in a degraded final product, but its effectiveness for pathogen destruction was unclear due to low temperatures generated from the toilet. This study aimed to sanitize compost withdrawn from the composting toilet for food production by setting post-treatment conditions. The inactivation kinetics of Ascaris suum eggs, selected as an indicator for helminth eggs, was determined during post-treatment at different temperatures (30°C, 40°C, 50°C and 60°C) with varying moisture contents (MC) (50%, 60% and 70%). The treatment of compost in a possible additional post-treatment after the composting process was tried in the laboratory test. Inactivation of A. suum eggs was fast with greater than two log reductions achieved within 2 h for temperature 50°C and 50% MC and greater than three log reductions for temperature 60°C and 50% MC within 3 h. Statistical analysis showed the significant impact of temperature and moisture on the inactivation rates of A. suum eggs. The post-treatment can efficiently increase helminth eggs destruction prior to reuse.

  16. N-glycans of the porcine nematode parasite Ascaris suum are modified with phosphorylcholine and core fucose residues

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pöltl, Gerald; Kerner, Denise; Paschinger, Katharina; Wilson, Iain B. H.

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, the glycoconjugates of many parasitic nematodes have attracted interest due to their immunogenic and immunomodulatory nature. Previous studies with the porcine roundworm parasite Ascaris suum have focussed on its glycosphingolipids which were found, in part, to be modified by phosphorylcholine. Using mass spectrometry and Western blotting, we have now analysed the PNGase A-released N-glycans of adults of this species. The presence of hybrid, bi- and triantennary N-glycans, some modified by core α1,6-fucose and peripheral phosphorylcholine, was demonstrated by LC/ESI-Q-TOF-MS/MS, as was the presence of paucimannosidic N-glycans, some of which carry core α1,3-fucose, and oligomannosidic oligosaccharides. Western blotting verified the presence of protein-bound phosphorylcholine and core α1,3-fucose, whereas glycosyltransferase assays showed the presence of core α1,6-fucosyltransferase and Lewis-type α1,3-fucosyltransferase activities. Although, the unusual tri- and tetrafucosylated glycans found in the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans were not found, the vast majority of the N-glycans found in A. suum represent a subset of those found in C. elegans; thus, our data demonstrate that the latter is an interesting glycobiological model for parasitic nematodes. PMID:17181538

  17. Proanthocyanidins inhibit Ascaris suum glutathione-S-transferase activity and increase susceptibility of larvae to levamisole in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hansen, Tina V A; Fryganas, Christos; Acevedo, Nathalie; Caraballo, Luis; Thamsborg, Stig M; Mueller-Harvey, Irene; Williams, Andrew R

    2016-08-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PAC) are a class of plant secondary metabolites commonly found in the diet that have shown potential to control gastrointestinal nematode infections. The anti-parasitic mechanism(s) of PAC remain obscure, however the protein-binding properties of PAC suggest that disturbance of key enzyme functions may be a potential mode of action. Glutathione-S-transferases (GSTs) are essential for parasite detoxification and have been investigated as drug and vaccine targets. Here, we show that purified PAC strongly inhibit the activity of both recombinant and native GSTs from the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum. As GSTs are involved in detoxifying xenobiotic substances within the parasite, we hypothesised that this inhibition may render parasites hyper-susceptible to anthelmintic drugs. Migration inhibition assays with A. suum larvae demonstrated that the potency of levamisole (LEV) and ivermectin (IVM) were significantly increased in the presence of PAC purified from pine bark (4.6-fold and 3.2-fold reduction in IC50 value for LEV and IVM, respectively). Synergy analysis revealed that the relationship between PAC and LEV appeared to be synergistic in nature, suggesting a specific enhancement of LEV activity, whilst the relationship between PAC and IVM was additive rather than synergistic, suggesting independent actions. Our results demonstrate that these common dietary compounds may increase the efficacy of synthetic anthelmintic drugs in vitro, and also suggest one possible mechanism for their well-known anti-parasitic activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Flavanol-Rich Cocoa Powder Interacts with Lactobacillus rhamnossus LGG to Alter the Antibody Response to Infection with the Parasitic Nematode Ascaris suum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jang, Saebyeol; Lakshman, Sukla; Beshah, Ethiopia; Xie, Yue; Molokin, Aleksey; Vinyard, Bryan T; Urban, Joseph F; Davis, Cindy D; Solano-Aguilar, Gloria I

    2017-10-12

    Consumption of the probiotic bacteria LactobacillusrhamnosusLGG and flavanol-rich cocoa have purported immune modulating effects. This study compared the host response to infection with Ascaris suum in three-month-old pigs fed a standard growth diet supplemented with a vehicle control: LGG, cocoa powder (CP) or LGG + CP. Pigs were inoculated with infective A. suum eggs during Week 5 of dietary treatment and euthanized 17 days later. Lactobacillus abundance was increased in pigs fed LGG or LGG + CP. Specific anti-A. suum IgG2 antibodies were decreased (p < 0.05) in LGG + CP-fed pigs compared to pigs fed CP alone. Pigs fed LGG had significantly reduced expression (p < 0.05) of Eosinophil peroxidase (EPX), Interleukin 13 (IL-13), Eotaxin 3 (CCL26), Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2), TLR4, and TLR9 and Interleukin-1Beta (IL1B) in the tracheal-bronchial lymph node (TBLN) independent of CP treatment. These results suggested that feeding LGG significantly reduced the localized prototypical Th2-related markers of infection with A. suum in the TBLN. Although feeding CP does not appear to affect the A. suum-induced Th2-associated cytokine response, feeding LGG + CP reduced anti-A. suum antibodies and delayed intestinal expulsion of parasitic larvae from the intestine.

  19. Flavanol-Rich Cocoa Powder Interacts with Lactobacillus rhamnossus LGG to Alter the Antibody Response to Infection with the Parasitic Nematode Ascaris suum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saebyeol Jang

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available Consumption of the probiotic bacteria Lactobacillus rhamnosus LGG and flavanol-rich cocoa have purported immune modulating effects. This study compared the host response to infection with Ascaris suum in three-month-old pigs fed a standard growth diet supplemented with a vehicle control: LGG, cocoa powder (CP or LGG + CP. Pigs were inoculated with infective A. suum eggs during Week 5 of dietary treatment and euthanized 17 days later. Lactobacillus abundance was increased in pigs fed LGG or LGG + CP. Specific anti-A. suum IgG2 antibodies were decreased (p < 0.05 in LGG + CP-fed pigs compared to pigs fed CP alone. Pigs fed LGG had significantly reduced expression (p < 0.05 of Eosinophil peroxidase (EPX, Interleukin 13 (IL-13, Eotaxin 3 (CCL26, Toll-like receptor 2 (TLR2, TLR4, and TLR9 and Interleukin-1Beta (IL1B in the tracheal-bronchial lymph node (TBLN independent of CP treatment. These results suggested that feeding LGG significantly reduced the localized prototypical Th2-related markers of infection with A. suum in the TBLN. Although feeding CP does not appear to affect the A. suum-induced Th2-associated cytokine response, feeding LGG + CP reduced anti-A. suum antibodies and delayed intestinal expulsion of parasitic larvae from the intestine.

  20. Antiparasitic efficacy of a novel plant-based functional food using an Ascaris suum model in pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaplan, R M; Storey, B E; Vidyashankar, A N; Bissinger, B W; Mitchell, S M; Howell, S B; Mason, M E; Lee, M D; Pedroso, A A; Akashe, A; Skrypec, D J

    2014-11-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides is the most prevalent soil-transmitted helminth (STH) infection of human beings worldwide. Chemotherapy with synthetic anthelmintics such as albendazole, mebendazole, and pyrantel pamoate is the current method of treatment; however, the emergence of anthelmintic resistance could substantially decrease the efficacy of such treatments and the sustainability of STH control programs. Additionally, benzimidazoles are not recommended for pregnant women or children under age one. A blinded, controlled study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of two microencapsulated, plant-based essential oil blends, TTN1013 (α-pinene, linalyl acetate, p-cymene, and thymol octanoate) and TTN1014 (α-pinene, linalyl acetate, p-cymene, and thymol acetate) as functional foods against Ascaris suum infection in pigs, an important pathogen that closely resembles human infections with A. lumbricoides. Four groups of 16 female, 21-24 day old, Yorkshire-cross pigs were treated daily with 0.5 or 1.0mg/kg TTN1013, 1.0mg/kg TTN1014, or 1.0mg/kg equivalent of empty capsules, delivered inside a cream-filled sandwich cookie for 14 weeks. Three days after the initiation of daily treatments, pigs were inoculated daily with A. suum eggs for four weeks. Pigs were weighed weekly and fecal egg counts (FEC) were conducted weekly starting five weeks after initial inoculation with A. suum eggs. Fourteen weeks after first infection with eggs, pigs were necropsied and worms were recovered, counted and separated according to sex. TTN1013 administered daily at a dose of 1.0mg/kg yielded a statistically significant reduction in total worm counts (76.8%), female worm counts (75.5%), FEC (68.6%), and worm volume (62.9%) when compared to control group. Reduction of total and female worm numbers and FEC were not significant for TTN1014 or at the 0.5mg/kg dose of TTN1013. All treatments were well-tolerated by all pigs and did not cause any adverse reactions. All pigs remained clinically normal

  1. Anthelmintic properties of traditional African and Caribbean medicinal plants: identification of extracts with potent activity against Ascaris suum in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Andrew R; Soelberg, Jens; Jäger, Anna K

    2016-01-01

    Ascariasis affects more than 1 billion people worldwide, mainly in developing countries, causing substantial morbidity. Current treatments for Ascaris infection are based on mass drug administration (MDA) with synthetic anthelmintic drugs such as albendazole, however continual re-infection and the threat of drug resistance mean that complementary treatment options would be highly valuable. Here, we screened ethanolic extracts from 29 medicinal plants used in Africa (Ghana) and the Caribbean (US Virgin Islands) for in vitro anthelmintic properties against Ascaris suum, a swine parasite that is very closely related to the human A. lumbricoides. A wide variety of activities were seen in the extracts, from negligible to potent. Extracts from Clausena anisata, Zanthoxylum zanthoxyloides and Punica granatum were identified as the most potent with EC50 values of 74, 97 and 164 μg/mL, respectively. Our results encourage further investigation of their use as complementary treatment options for ascariasis, alongside MDA. © A.R. Williams et al., published by EDP Sciences, 2016.

  2. Interaction of carvacrol with the Ascaris suum nicotinic acetylcholine receptors and gamma-aminobutyric acid receptors, potential mechanism of antinematodal action.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trailović, Saša M; Marjanović, Djordje S; Nedeljković Trailović, Jelena; Robertson, Alan P; Martin, Richard J

    2015-08-01

    Essential plant oils (or their active principles) are safe to use and a potentially attractive alternative to current antiparasitic drugs. In the present study, we tested the effects of carvacrol on the isolated tissues of Ascaris suum and investigated potential interactions with other antiparasitic drugs. We used somatic muscle flaps for contraction assays, as well as for electrophysiological investigations. Carvacrol 300 μM highly significantly inhibited contractions caused by 1, 3, 10, 30, and 100 μM of ACh (p = 0.0023, p = 0.0002, p = 0.0002, p suum muscle cell. While, 300 μM of carvacrol showed a significant inhibitory effect on ACh-induced depolarization response. The mean control depolarization was 13.58 ± 0.66 mV and decreased in presence of carvacrol to 4.50 ± 1.02 mV (p suum.

  3. Identification and Characterization of a Differentially Expressed Gene (07E12) in the Infective Larvae of the Parasitic Nematode Ascaris suum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Cuiqin; You, Jingzhou; Nai, Fangfang

    2014-01-01

    Parasitic nematodes cause animal and human diseases of major socio-economic importance worldwide. The suppression of parasite development at particular developmental stages could provide an alternative approach for nematode control. In this study, Ascaris suum was used as a model system in the study of the differentially expressed genes in the infective L3 stage. The gene (07E12) was screened and identified from the subtractive cDNA library for the infective larvae of Ascaris suum using real-time quantitative PCR. Then, the full-length cDNA of 07E12 was characterized by 3' and 5' rapid amplification of cDNA ends (RACE). The characteristics of the gene were further analyzed using bioinformatic analyses. The results showed that the gene 07E12 was differentially expressed in the third-stage larvae of A. suum and its expression level in the infective larvae was much higher than in other stages. It was shown that the gene 07E12 had 99% identity with the corresponding sequences of the A. suum whole genome shotgun sequence containing the homologous sequences with conserved sequences of Neuropeptide-Like Protein family member. Likewise, by performing BLASTN and BLASTP searches in the GenBank™, it was shown that this gene had 99 % identity with A. suum cre-nlp-2 protein. This gene 07E12 which is differentially expressed in the third-stage larvae of A. suum may encode a neuropeptide-like protein family member, a very important molecule in the process of infecting a host.

  4. Effects of In Vivo and In Vitro Treatment of Ascaris suum Eggs with Anthelmintic Agents on Embryonation and Infectivity for Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Jianguo; Han, Qian; Liao, Chenghong; Wang, Jinhua; Wu, Lili; Liu, Qun; Lindsay, David S

    2017-10-01

    Ascaris suum is an important intestinal nematode causing economic losses in swine. Anthelminthic treatment is used to control A. suum infections and is part of normal production practices. Treatment with anthelminthic agents results in expulsion of adult worms from the intestinal tract and ends further contamination of the environment with eggs. The present study was conducted to determine the effects of drug treatment on the embryonation of A. suum eggs collected from worms obtained from pigs treated with 4 different commercially available anthelmintics. The effects of treatment with abamectin, doramectin, ivermectin, flubendazole, or no treatment on embryonation of A. suum eggs collected from female A. suum expelled in the feces was determined. The embryonation of eggs obtained from pigs treated with abamectin, doramectin, and ivermectin was not significantly (P > 0.05) different from eggs from non-treated control pigs. In contrast, the embryonation of A. suum eggs collected from worms from pigs treated with flubendazole demonstrated inhibited development, and most eggs remained in the 1-cell stage (85.5%) and only 6.3% of eggs developed larvae. In another experiment, we examined the direct effects of doramectin and flubendazole added to solutions of A. suum eggs collected from non-treated control pigs. Egg cultures were exposed to direct in vitro treatment with 0.04-parts per million (ppm) doramectin or 1.0-ppm flubendazole for 24 hr (highest concentrations [Cmax] of drugs in serum) and then embryonation and infectivity for mice was determined. Treatment of eggs in vitro did not significantly effect (P > 0.05) larval development or oral infectivity for mice. Our study demonstrates that flubendazole fed to pigs results in inhibited embryonation of A. suum eggs. However, direct treatment of A. suum eggs in culture for 24 hr with flubendazole did not inhibit embryonation or oral infectivity of in vitro treated eggs. Anthelmintic treatment of pigs in vivo with

  5. A globin domain in a neuronal transmembrane receptor of Caenorhabditis elegans and Ascaris suum: molecular modeling and functional properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tilleman, Lesley; Germani, Francesca; De Henau, Sasha; Helbo, Signe; Desmet, Filip; Berghmans, Herald; Van Doorslaer, Sabine; Hoogewijs, David; Schoofs, Liliane; Braeckman, Bart P; Moens, Luc; Fago, Angela; Dewilde, Sylvia

    2015-04-17

    We report the structural and biochemical characterization of GLB-33, a putative neuropeptide receptor that is exclusively expressed in the nervous system of the nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. This unique chimeric protein is composed of a 7-transmembrane domain (7TM), GLB-33 7TM, typical of a G-protein-coupled receptor, and of a globin domain (GD), GLB-33 GD. Comprehensive sequence similarity searches in the genome of the parasitic nematode, Ascaris suum, revealed a chimeric protein that is similar to a Phe-Met-Arg-Phe-amide neuropeptide receptor. The three-dimensional structures of the separate domains of both species and of the full-length proteins were modeled. The 7TM domains of both proteins appeared very similar, but the globin domain of the A. suum receptor surprisingly seemed to lack several helices, suggesting a novel truncated globin fold. The globin domain of C. elegans GLB-33, however, was very similar to a genuine myoglobin-type molecule. Spectroscopic analysis of the recombinant GLB-33 GD showed that the heme is pentacoordinate when ferrous and in the hydroxide-ligated form when ferric, even at neutral pH. Flash-photolysis experiments showed overall fast biphasic CO rebinding kinetics. In its ferrous deoxy form, GLB-33 GD is capable of reversibly binding O2 with a very high affinity and of reducing nitrite to nitric oxide faster than other globins. Collectively, these properties suggest that the globin domain of GLB-33 may serve as a highly sensitive oxygen sensor and/or as a nitrite reductase. Both properties are potentially able to modulate the neuropeptide sensitivity of the neuronal transmembrane receptor. © 2015 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Inc.

  6. Intestinal transcriptomes of nematodes: comparison of the parasites Ascaris suum and Haemonchus contortus with the free-living Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong Yin

    2008-08-01

    Full Text Available The nematode intestine is a major organ responsible for nutrient digestion and absorption; it is also involved in many other processes, such as reproduction, innate immunity, stress responses, and aging. The importance of the intestine as a target for the control of parasitic nematodes has been demonstrated. However, the lack of detailed knowledge on the molecular and cellular functions of the intestine and the level of its conservation across nematodes has impeded breakthroughs in this application.As part of an extensive effort to investigate various transcribed genomes from Ascaris suum and Haemonchus contortus, we generated a large collection of intestinal sequences from parasitic nematodes by identifying 3,121 A. suum and 1,755 H. contortus genes expressed in the adult intestine through the generation of expressed sequence tags. Cross-species comparisons to the intestine of the free-living C. elegans revealed substantial diversification in the adult intestinal transcriptomes among these species, suggesting lineage- or species-specific adaptations during nematode evolution. In contrast, significant conservation of the intestinal gene repertories was also evident, despite the evolutionary distance of approximately 350 million years separating them. A group of 241 intestinal protein families (IntFam-241, each containing members from all three species, was identified based on sequence similarities. These conserved proteins accounted for approximately 20% of the sampled intestinal transcriptomes from the three nematodes and are proposed to represent conserved core functions in the nematode intestine. Functional characterizations of the IntFam-241 suggested important roles in molecular functions such as protein kinases and proteases, and biological pathways of carbohydrate metabolism, energy metabolism, and translation. Conservation in the core protein families was further explored by extrapolating observable RNA interference phenotypes in C

  7. Intestinal transcriptomes of nematodes: comparison of the parasites Ascaris suum and Haemonchus contortus with the free-living Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yin, Yong; Martin, John; Abubucker, Sahar; Scott, Alan L; McCarter, James P; Wilson, Richard K; Jasmer, Douglas P; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2008-08-06

    The nematode intestine is a major organ responsible for nutrient digestion and absorption; it is also involved in many other processes, such as reproduction, innate immunity, stress responses, and aging. The importance of the intestine as a target for the control of parasitic nematodes has been demonstrated. However, the lack of detailed knowledge on the molecular and cellular functions of the intestine and the level of its conservation across nematodes has impeded breakthroughs in this application. As part of an extensive effort to investigate various transcribed genomes from Ascaris suum and Haemonchus contortus, we generated a large collection of intestinal sequences from parasitic nematodes by identifying 3,121 A. suum and 1,755 H. contortus genes expressed in the adult intestine through the generation of expressed sequence tags. Cross-species comparisons to the intestine of the free-living C. elegans revealed substantial diversification in the adult intestinal transcriptomes among these species, suggesting lineage- or species-specific adaptations during nematode evolution. In contrast, significant conservation of the intestinal gene repertories was also evident, despite the evolutionary distance of approximately 350 million years separating them. A group of 241 intestinal protein families (IntFam-241), each containing members from all three species, was identified based on sequence similarities. These conserved proteins accounted for approximately 20% of the sampled intestinal transcriptomes from the three nematodes and are proposed to represent conserved core functions in the nematode intestine. Functional characterizations of the IntFam-241 suggested important roles in molecular functions such as protein kinases and proteases, and biological pathways of carbohydrate metabolism, energy metabolism, and translation. Conservation in the core protein families was further explored by extrapolating observable RNA interference phenotypes in C. elegans to their

  8. Microfluidic platform for electrophysiological recordings from host-stage hookworm and Ascaris suum larvae: A new tool for anthelmintic research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weeks, Janis C; Roberts, William M; Robinson, Kristin J; Keaney, Melissa; Vermeire, Jon J; Urban, Joseph F; Lockery, Shawn R; Hawdon, John M

    2016-12-01

    The screening of candidate compounds and natural products for anthelmintic activity is important for discovering new drugs against human and animal parasites. We previously validated in Caenorhabditis elegans a microfluidic device ('chip') that records non-invasively the tiny electrophysiological signals generated by rhythmic contraction (pumping) of the worm's pharynx. These electropharyngeograms (EPGs) are recorded simultaneously from multiple worms per chip, providing a medium-throughput readout of muscular and neural activity that is especially useful for compounds targeting neurotransmitter receptors and ion channels. Microfluidic technologies have transformed C. elegans research and the goal of the current study was to validate hookworm and Ascaris suum host-stage larvae in the microfluidic EPG platform. Ancylostoma ceylanicum and A. caninum infective L3s (iL3s) that had been activated in vitro generally produced erratic EPG activity under the conditions tested. In contrast, A. ceylanicum L4s recovered from hamsters exhibited robust, sustained EPG activity, consisting of three waveforms: (1) conventional pumps as seen in other nematodes; (2) rapid voltage deflections, associated with irregular contractions of the esophagus and openings of the esophogeal-intestinal valve (termed a 'flutter'); and (3) hybrid waveforms, which we classified as pumps. For data analysis, pumps and flutters were combined and termed EPG 'events.' EPG waveform identification and analysis were performed semi-automatically using custom-designed software. The neuromodulator serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5HT) increased EPG event frequency in A. ceylanicum L4s at an optimal concentration of 0.5 mM. The anthelmintic drug ivermectin (IVM) inhibited EPG activity in a concentration-dependent manner. EPGs from A. suum L3s recovered from pig lungs exhibited robust pharyngeal pumping in 1 mM 5HT, which was inhibited by IVM. These experiments validate the use of A. ceylanicum L4s and A. suum

  9. Microfluidic platform for electrophysiological recordings from host-stage hookworm and Ascaris suum larvae: A new tool for anthelmintic research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janis C. Weeks

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available The screening of candidate compounds and natural products for anthelmintic activity is important for discovering new drugs against human and animal parasites. We previously validated in Caenorhabditis elegans a microfluidic device (‘chip’ that records non-invasively the tiny electrophysiological signals generated by rhythmic contraction (pumping of the worm's pharynx. These electropharyngeograms (EPGs are recorded simultaneously from multiple worms per chip, providing a medium-throughput readout of muscular and neural activity that is especially useful for compounds targeting neurotransmitter receptors and ion channels. Microfluidic technologies have transformed C. elegans research and the goal of the current study was to validate hookworm and Ascaris suum host-stage larvae in the microfluidic EPG platform. Ancylostoma ceylanicum and A. caninum infective L3s (iL3s that had been activated in vitro generally produced erratic EPG activity under the conditions tested. In contrast, A. ceylanicum L4s recovered from hamsters exhibited robust, sustained EPG activity, consisting of three waveforms: (1 conventional pumps as seen in other nematodes; (2 rapid voltage deflections, associated with irregular contractions of the esophagus and openings of the esophogeal-intestinal valve (termed a ‘flutter’; and (3 hybrid waveforms, which we classified as pumps. For data analysis, pumps and flutters were combined and termed EPG ‘events.’ EPG waveform identification and analysis were performed semi-automatically using custom-designed software. The neuromodulator serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5HT increased EPG event frequency in A. ceylanicum L4s at an optimal concentration of 0.5 mM. The anthelmintic drug ivermectin (IVM inhibited EPG activity in a concentration-dependent manner. EPGs from A. suum L3s recovered from pig lungs exhibited robust pharyngeal pumping in 1 mM 5HT, which was inhibited by IVM. These experiments validate the use of A

  10. Decoding the Ascaris suum genome using massively parallel sequencing and advanced bioinformatic methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jex, Aaron R.; Liu, Shiping; Li, Bo

    2013-01-01

    Parasitic nematodes cause substantial morbidity and mortality in animals and people globally and major losses to food production annually. Ascaris is among the commonest geohelminths of swine and people worldwide, and causes major disease and socioeconomic losses, particularly in developing count...

  11. Pemakaian Herbal Serbuk Biji Pepaya Matang dalam Pengendalian Infeksi Ascaris suum pada Babi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ida Bagus Komang Ardana

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A study on vermisidal effect of ripe papaya seed powder against egg and worm of A.suum in landracepig was done. Twenty four pigs age 8-12 weeks were used in this study using pre-test and post-test groupexperimental design. The pigs were randomly divided into four groups : a group of pigs with no treatmentas a control (P0 and other three groups were given 1 g/kg body weigh (P1, 3 g/kg bw (P2 during threeconsecutive days and treated with 12.5% zodalben oral 0.5 mg of albendazole (P3. The number of A.suumand its eggs per gram (EPG were identified by using international harmonization and anthelminticefficacy guideline. Then follow by observation and calculation of EPG, fecal egg count reduction (FECR,and the efficacy of the powder for seven days. The result showed there was a significant lower number ofA.suum infestation in the treated group of pigs compared to the control group as it was shown by theincrease of the efficacy against worms and the FECR value. However, there were different effects on theefficacy and FECR between the group that treated with 1 g/kg bw of the ripe papaya seed powder (efficacy75% and FECR 92.4% compared to the groups that treated with 3 g/kg bw of the seed powder, and treatedwith zodalben 12.5% (both efficacy and FECR were 100%. It can be concluded that herbal powder of ripepapaya seed has a potential effect to be vermisidal, especially for A.suum.

  12. Possible mode of action of toltrazuril: studies on two Eimeria species and mammalian and Ascaris suum enzymes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, A; Haberkorn, A

    1989-01-01

    The anticoccidial properties of toltrazuril in Eimeria falciformis-infected mice were potentiated by the simultaneous application of pyrimethamine, trimethoprim, or sulfadimidine. The same drugs potentiate the effect of toltrazuril by killing E. tenella schizonts in chicken kidney-cell cultures. Activities of some enzymes of the respiratory chain, such as succinate-cytochrome C reductase and NADH oxidase and succinate oxidase from mouse liver, were reduced in the presence of toltrazuril. The same effects could be observed when the activities of NADH oxidase and fumarate reductase from the nematode Ascaris suum were determined in the presence of the drug. Vertebrate enzymes involved in pyrimidine synthesis, e.g., dihydrofolate reductase from chicken liver, were also affected by toltrazuril; however, this effect was 500 times weaker than that shown by pyrimethamine. Toltrazuril also showed an inhibitory effect on the dihydroorotate-cytochrome C reductase from mouse liver. Our results suggest that toltrazuril primarily affects the respiratory chain and secondarily, two enzymes involved in pyrimidine synthesis.

  13. Modification of the ATP inhibitory site of the Ascaris suum phosphofructokinase results in the stabilization of an inactive T state

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rao, G.S.J.; Cook, P.F.; Harris, B.G. (Univ. of North Texas, Fort Worth (United States))

    1991-10-15

    Treatment of the Ascaris suum phosphofructokinase (PFK) with 2{prime},3{prime}-dialdehyde ATP (oATP) results in an enzyme form that is inactive. The conformational integrity of the active site, however, is preserved, suggesting that oATP modification locks the PFK into an inactive T state that cannot be activated. A rapid, irreversible first-order inactivation of the PFK is observed in the presence of oATP. The rate of inactivation is saturable and gives a K{sub oATP} of 1.07 {plus minus} 0.27 mM. Complete protection against inactivation is afforded by high concentrations of ATP. This desensitized enzyme incorporates only 0.2-0.3 mol of ({sup 3}H)oATP/subunit, suggesting that in te native enzyme inactivation perhaps results from the modification of the ATP inhibitory site rather than the catalytic site. Modification of an active-site thiol by 4,4{prime}-dithiodipyridine is prevented yb ATP before and after oATP treatment. Finally, gel filtration HPLC studies show that the oATP-modified enzyme retains its tetrameric state and neither the tryptophan fluorescence nor the circular dichroic spectra of the modified enzyme are affected by fructose 2,6-bisphosphate, suggesting that the enzyme is locked into a tetrameric inactive T state.

  14. Yeast-expressed recombinant As16 protects mice against Ascaris suum infection through induction of a Th2-skewed immune response.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wei, Junfei; Versteeg, Leroy; Liu, Zhuyun; Keegan, Brian; Gazzinelli-Guimarães, Ana Clara; Fujiwara, Ricardo T; Briggs, Neima; Jones, Kathryn M; Strych, Ulrich; Beaumier, Coreen M; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Hotez, Peter J; Zhan, Bin

    2017-07-01

    Ascariasis remains the most common helminth infection in humans. As an alternative or complementary approach to global deworming, a pan-anthelminthic vaccine is under development targeting Ascaris, hookworm, and Trichuris infections. As16 and As14 have previously been described as two genetically related proteins from Ascaris suum that induced protective immunity in mice when formulated with cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) as an adjuvant, but the exact protective mechanism was not well understood. As16 and As14 were highly expressed as soluble recombinant proteins (rAs16 and rAs14) in Pichia pastoris. The yeast-expressed rAs16 was highly recognized by immune sera from mice infected with A. suum eggs and elicited 99.6% protection against A. suum re-infection. Mice immunized with rAs16 formulated with ISA720 displayed significant larva reduction (36.7%) and stunted larval development against A. suum eggs challenge. The protective immunity was associated with a predominant Th2-type response characterized by high titers of serological IgG1 (IgG1/IgG2a > 2000) and high levels of IL-4 and IL-5 produced by restimulated splenocytes. A similar level of protection was observed in mice immunized with rAs16 formulated with alum (Alhydrogel), known to induce mainly a Th2-type immune response, whereas mice immunized with rAs16 formulated with MPLA or AddaVax, both known to induce a Th1-type biased response, were not significantly protected against A. suum infection. The rAs14 protein was not recognized by A. suum infected mouse sera and mice immunized with rAs14 formulated with ISA720 did not show significant protection against challenge infection, possibly due to the protein's inaccessibility to the host immune system or a Th1-type response was induced which would counter a protective Th2-type response. Yeast-expressed rAs16 formulated with ISA720 or alum induced significant protection in mice against A. suum egg challenge that associates with a Th2-skewed immune response

  15. Yeast-expressed recombinant As16 protects mice against Ascaris suum infection through induction of a Th2-skewed immune response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Zhuyun; Keegan, Brian; Gazzinelli-Guimarães, Ana Clara; Fujiwara, Ricardo T.; Briggs, Neima; Jones, Kathryn M.; Strych, Ulrich; Beaumier, Coreen M.; Bottazzi, Maria Elena; Zhan, Bin

    2017-01-01

    Background Ascariasis remains the most common helminth infection in humans. As an alternative or complementary approach to global deworming, a pan-anthelminthic vaccine is under development targeting Ascaris, hookworm, and Trichuris infections. As16 and As14 have previously been described as two genetically related proteins from Ascaris suum that induced protective immunity in mice when formulated with cholera toxin B subunit (CTB) as an adjuvant, but the exact protective mechanism was not well understood. Methodology/Principal findings As16 and As14 were highly expressed as soluble recombinant proteins (rAs16 and rAs14) in Pichia pastoris. The yeast-expressed rAs16 was highly recognized by immune sera from mice infected with A. suum eggs and elicited 99.6% protection against A. suum re-infection. Mice immunized with rAs16 formulated with ISA720 displayed significant larva reduction (36.7%) and stunted larval development against A. suum eggs challenge. The protective immunity was associated with a predominant Th2-type response characterized by high titers of serological IgG1 (IgG1/IgG2a > 2000) and high levels of IL-4 and IL-5 produced by restimulated splenocytes. A similar level of protection was observed in mice immunized with rAs16 formulated with alum (Alhydrogel), known to induce mainly a Th2-type immune response, whereas mice immunized with rAs16 formulated with MPLA or AddaVax, both known to induce a Th1-type biased response, were not significantly protected against A. suum infection. The rAs14 protein was not recognized by A. suum infected mouse sera and mice immunized with rAs14 formulated with ISA720 did not show significant protection against challenge infection, possibly due to the protein’s inaccessibility to the host immune system or a Th1-type response was induced which would counter a protective Th2-type response. Conclusions/Significance Yeast-expressed rAs16 formulated with ISA720 or alum induced significant protection in mice against A. suum

  16. Yeast-expressed recombinant As16 protects mice against Ascaris suum infection through induction of a Th2-skewed immune response.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junfei Wei

    2017-07-01

    Full Text Available Ascariasis remains the most common helminth infection in humans. As an alternative or complementary approach to global deworming, a pan-anthelminthic vaccine is under development targeting Ascaris, hookworm, and Trichuris infections. As16 and As14 have previously been described as two genetically related proteins from Ascaris suum that induced protective immunity in mice when formulated with cholera toxin B subunit (CTB as an adjuvant, but the exact protective mechanism was not well understood.As16 and As14 were highly expressed as soluble recombinant proteins (rAs16 and rAs14 in Pichia pastoris. The yeast-expressed rAs16 was highly recognized by immune sera from mice infected with A. suum eggs and elicited 99.6% protection against A. suum re-infection. Mice immunized with rAs16 formulated with ISA720 displayed significant larva reduction (36.7% and stunted larval development against A. suum eggs challenge. The protective immunity was associated with a predominant Th2-type response characterized by high titers of serological IgG1 (IgG1/IgG2a > 2000 and high levels of IL-4 and IL-5 produced by restimulated splenocytes. A similar level of protection was observed in mice immunized with rAs16 formulated with alum (Alhydrogel, known to induce mainly a Th2-type immune response, whereas mice immunized with rAs16 formulated with MPLA or AddaVax, both known to induce a Th1-type biased response, were not significantly protected against A. suum infection. The rAs14 protein was not recognized by A. suum infected mouse sera and mice immunized with rAs14 formulated with ISA720 did not show significant protection against challenge infection, possibly due to the protein's inaccessibility to the host immune system or a Th1-type response was induced which would counter a protective Th2-type response.Yeast-expressed rAs16 formulated with ISA720 or alum induced significant protection in mice against A. suum egg challenge that associates with a Th2-skewed immune

  17. Immunosuppressive PAS-1 is an excretory/secretory protein released by larval and adult worms of the ascarid nematode Ascaris suum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Antunes, M F P; Titz, T O; Batista, I F C; Marques-Porto, R; Oliveira, C F; Alves de Araujo, C A; Macedo-Soares, M F

    2015-05-01

    Helminths use several strategies to evade and/or modify the host immune response, including suppression or inactivation of the host antigen-specific response. Several helminth immunomodulatory molecules have been identified. Our studies have focused on immunosuppression induced by the roundworm Ascaris suum and an A. suum-derived protein named protein 1 from A. suum (PAS-1). Here we assessed whether PAS-1 is an excretory/secretory (E/S) protein and whether it can suppress lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation. Larvae from infective eggs were cultured in unsupplemented Dulbecco's modified Eagle medium (DMEM) for 2 weeks. PAS-1 was then measured in the culture supernatants and in adult A. suum body fluid at different time points by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) with the monoclonal antibody MAIP-1. Secreted PAS-1 was detected in both larval culture supernatant and adult body fluid. It suppressed lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced leucocyte migration and pro-inflammatory cytokine production, and stimulated interleukin (IL)-10 secretion, indicating that larval and adult secreted PAS-1 suppresses inflammation in this model. Moreover, the anti-inflammatory activity of PAS-1 was abolished by treatment with MAIP-1, a PAS-1-specific monoclonal antibody, confirming the crucial role of PAS-1 in suppressing LPS-induced inflammation. These findings demonstrate that PAS-1 is an E/S protein with anti-inflammatory properties likely to be attributable to IL-10 production.

  18. Changes in the viability of the eggs of Ascaris suum under the influence of flavourings and source materials approved for use in and on foods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Boyko

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available One of the most common parasitic diseases of pigs globally is ascariasis. It is caused by the nematode Ascaris suum Goeze, 1782 (Nematoda, Ascaridata, which parasitises the small intestine of pigs in its mature form and the respiratory system at the larval stage. This helminthiasis causes immense damage to swine-rearing. Control of the ascariasis pathogen in the host’s organism and in the environment is essential for the health of the animals and successful swine-rearing. The results of studying the effect of flavourings and source materials approved for use in and on foods – cinnamaldehyde (0656 Codex Alimentarius, benzoic acid (Е210 Codex Alimentarius and methylparaben (Е218 Codex Alimentarius , on the viability of invasive eggs of A. suum are useful for determining the minimum concentration of solution of these substances for use against eggs of A. suum (10 g/l. The lowest efficiency against invasive eggs of A. suum was obtained for methylparaben (LD50 = 3850 ± 2130 mg/l, the highest was obtained with cinnamaldehyde (LD50 = 2437 ± 864 mg/l, and benzoic acid (LD50 = 1240 ± 680 mg/l.

  19. Molecular evidence for sustained transmission of zoonotic Ascaris suum among zoo chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nejsum, Peter; Bertelsen, Mads Frost; Betson, Martha

    Chimpanzees in the Copenhagen Zoo frequently excrete ascarid worms onto the cage floor inspite of a regular anthelmintic treatment program. Previously it had been shown that the source of the infections was of pig origin. However, it was unknown whether the recurrence of the infection was due to ...... analysis of the cox1 gene (‘barcoding') on expelled worms followed by cluster analysis revealed that the chimpanzees are infected with pig A. suum which now, in spite of control efforts, has stabilized into a permanent transmission cycle in the Zoo's chimpanzee troop...... to reintroduction of eggs from an external source or to a sustained transmission cycle within the Zoo. We found that isolated eggs were able to embryonate into the infective stage and PCR-RFLP analysis on the ITS region amplified from single embryonated eggs suggest these to be Ascaris suum. In addition, sequence...

  20. In Situ Hybridization of Neuropeptide-Encoding Transcripts afp-1, afp-3, and afp-4 in Neurons of the Nematode Ascaris suum

    OpenAIRE

    Nanda, Jennifer Cho; Stretton, Antony O. W.

    2010-01-01

    The gene transcripts encoding both the AF8 and AF2 neuropeptides of the nematode Ascaris suum have been identified, cloned, and sequenced. The AF8 transcript (afp-3) encodes five identical copies of AF8; each peptide-encoding region is flanked by the appropriate dibasic or monobasic cleavage processing sites. The AF2 transcript (afp-4) encodes three identical copies of AF2 along with the appropriate cleavage sites. In contrast, the afp-1 transcript (Edison et al. [1997] Peptides 18:929 –935) ...

  1. A specific antibody to neuropeptide AF1 (KNEFIRFamide) recognizes a small subset of neurons in Ascaris suum: differences from Caenorhabditis elegans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sithigorngul, Paisarn; Jarecki, Jessica L; Stretton, Antony O W

    2011-06-01

    A monoclonal antibody, AF1-003, highly specific to the Ascaris suum neuropeptide AF1 (KNEFIRFamide), was generated. This antibody binds strongly to AF1 and extremely weakly to other peptides with C-terminal FIRFamide: AF5 (SGKPTFIRFamide), AF6 (FIRFamide), and AF7 (AGPRFIRFamide). It does not recognize 35 other AF (A. suum FMRFamide-like) peptides at the highest concentration tested, nor does it recognize FMRFamide. When crude peptide extracts of A. suum are fractionated by two-step HPLC, the only fractions recognized by AF1-003 are those comigrating with synthetic AF1. By immunocytochemistry, antibody AF1-003 recognizes a small subset of the 298 neurons of A. suum: these include the paired URX and RIP neurons, two pairs of lateral ganglion neurons in the head, and the unpaired PQR and PDA or -B tail neurons that send processes to the head along the dorsal and ventral nerve cords, respectively. AF1 immunoreactivity is also seen in three pairs of pharyngeal neurons. Mass spectroscopy (MS) shows the presence of AF1 in the head, pharynx, and dorsal and ventral nerve cords. In A. suum, the neurons that contain AF1 show little overlap with neurons that express green fluorescent protein constructs targeting the flp-8 gene, which encodes AF1 in Caenorhabditis elegans (Kim and Li [2004] J. Comp. Neurol. 475:540-550); the URX neurons express AF1 in both species, but, in C. elegans, flp-8 expression was not detected in RIP, PQR, and PDA or -B or in the pharynx. Other, less specific monoclonal antibodies recognize AF1, as well as other peptides to differing degrees; these antibodies are useful reagents for determination of neuronal morphology. Copyright © 2010 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  2. The Ascaris suum nicotinic receptor, ACR-16, as a drug target: Four novel negative allosteric modulators from virtual screening.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Fudan; Robertson, Alan P; Abongwa, Melanie; Yu, Edward W; Martin, Richard J

    2016-04-01

    Soil-transmitted helminth infections in humans and livestock cause significant debility, reduced productivity and economic losses globally. There are a limited number of effective anthelmintic drugs available for treating helminths infections, and their frequent use has led to the development of resistance in many parasite species. There is an urgent need for novel therapeutic drugs for treating these parasites. We have chosen the ACR-16 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor of Ascaris suum (Asu-ACR-16), as a drug target and have developed three-dimensional models of this transmembrane protein receptor to facilitate the search for new bioactive compounds. Using the human α7 nAChR chimeras and Torpedo marmorata nAChR for homology modeling, we defined orthosteric and allosteric binding sites on the Asu-ACR-16 receptor for virtual screening. We identified four ligands that bind to sites on Asu-ACR-16 and tested their activity using electrophysiological recording from Asu-ACR-16 receptors expressed in Xenopus oocytes. The four ligands were acetylcholine inhibitors (SB-277011-A, IC50, 3.12 ± 1.29 μM; (+)-butaclamol Cl, IC50, 9.85 ± 2.37 μM; fmoc-1, IC50, 10.00 ± 1.38 μM; fmoc-2, IC50, 16.67 ± 1.95 μM) that behaved like negative allosteric modulators. Our work illustrates a structure-based in silico screening method for seeking anthelmintic hits, which can then be tested electrophysiologically for further characterization.

  3. Kinetic and isotope partitioning studies on the NAD/sup +/-malic enzyme from Ascaris suum. [/sup 14/C tracer techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Landsperger, W.J.; Fodge, D.W.; Harris, B.G.

    1978-03-25

    Initial velocity studies in both the direction of malate decarboxylation and pyruvate carboxylation indicate that the NAD/sup +/-malic enzyme from Ascaris suum possesses a sequential kinetic mechanism. The V/sub f//V/sub r/ was 30. The K/sub m/ values for malate and NAD/sup +/, substrates of the forward reaction, were 1.9 +- 0.3 mM and 55 +- 7 ..mu..m, respectively. The K/sub m/ values for the substrates in the reverse reaction varied because of the inability to saturate the pyruvate or CO/sub 2/ binding sites. In general, the K/sub m/ for NADH was essentially the same as for NAD/sup +/, but the values for pyruvate and CO/sub 2/ ranged from 5 to 10 mM and 30 to 60 mM, respectively. All product inhibition studies resulted in linear noncompetitive patterns except for the nucleotides, which were competitive. Tartronate, oxalacetate, and other inhibitors competitive with respect to malate were used as dead-end inhibitors versus NAD/sup +/ and were noncompetitive. These results differed markedly from studies on other malic enzymes and suggested that the ascarid malic enzyme did not have an ordered mechanism, but exhibited some randomness in binding of malate and NAD/sup +/. Confirmation of random substrate binding was obtained by the method of isotope partitioning. Kinetically viable binary complexes were found to occur with both (/sup 14/C)malate and (/sup 14/C)NAD/sup +/ and the metal enzyme complex. NAD/sup +/ and malate dissociate from this complex 2.3 to 2.6 and 4.6 to 11.5 times faster, respectively, than the V/(E/sub t/).

  4. Cloning and characterization of hypoxia-inducible factor-1 subunits from Ascaris suum - a parasitic nematode highly adapted to changes of oxygen conditions during its life cycle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goto, Miho; Amino, Hisako; Nakajima, Mikage; Tsuji, Naotoshi; Sakamoto, Kimitoshi; Kita, Kiyoshi

    2013-03-01

    The parasitic nematode Ascaris suum successfully adapts to a significant decrease in oxygen availability during its life cycle by altering its metabolic system dramatically. However, little is known about the regulatory mechanisms of adaptation to hypoxic environments in A. suum. In multicellular organisms, hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), a heterodimeric transcription factor composed of HIF-1α and HIF-1β subunits, is a master regulator of genes involved in adaptation to hypoxia. In the present study, cDNAs encoding HIF-1α and HIF-1β were cloned from A. suum and characterized. The full-length A. suum hif-1α and hif-1β cDNAs contain open reading frames encoding proteins with 832 and 436 amino acids, respectively. In the deduced amino acid sequences of A. suum HIF-1α and HIF-1β, functional domains essential for DNA-binding, dimerization, and oxygen-dependent prolyl hydroxylation were conserved. The interaction between A. suum HIF-1α and HIF-1β was confirmed by the yeast two-hybrid assay. Both A. suum hif-1α and hif-1β mRNAs were expressed at all stages examined (fertilized eggs, third-stage larvae, lung-stage larvae, young adult worms, and adult muscle tissue), and most abundantly in the aerobic free-living third-stage larvae, followed by a gradual decrease after infection of the host. hif-1 mRNA transcription was not sensitive to the oxygen environment in either third-stage larvae or adult worms (muscle tissue), and was regulated in a stage-specific manner. High expression of hif-1 mRNAs in third-stage larvae suggests its contribution to pre-adaptation to a hypoxic environment after infection of their host. Sequence analysis of 5'-upstream regions of mitochondrial complex II (succinate-ubiquinone reductase/quinol-fumarate reductase) genes, which show stage-specific expression and play an important role in oxygen adaptation during the life cycle, revealed that all subunits except for the adult-type flavoprotein subunit (Fp) possess putative hypoxia

  5. Multiple Exposures to Ascaris suum Induce Tissue Injury and Mixed Th2/Th17 Immune Response in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Denise Silva; Gazzinelli-Guimarães, Pedro Henrique; Barbosa, Fernando Sérgio; Resende, Nathália Maria; Silva, Caroline Cavalcanti; de Oliveira, Luciana Maria; Amorim, Chiara Cássia Oliveira; Oliveira, Fabrício Marcus Silva; Mattos, Matheus Silvério; Kraemer, Lucas Rocha; Caliari, Marcelo Vidigal; Gaze, Soraya; Bueno, Lilian Lacerda; Russo, Remo Castro; Fujiwara, Ricardo Toshio

    2016-01-01

    Ascaris spp. infection affects 800 million people worldwide, and half of the world population is currently at risk of infection. Recurrent reinfection in humans is mostly due to the simplicity of the parasite life cycle, but the impact of multiple exposures to the biology of the infection and the consequences to the host's homeostasis are poorly understood. In this context, single and multiple exposures in mice were performed in order to characterize the parasitological, histopathological, tissue functional and immunological aspects of experimental larval ascariasis. The most important findings revealed that reinfected mice presented a significant reduction of parasite burden in the lung and an increase in the cellularity in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) associated with a robust granulocytic pulmonary inflammation, leading to a severe impairment of respiratory function. Moreover, the multiple exposures to Ascaris elicited an increased number of circulating inflammatory cells as well as production of higher levels of systemic cytokines, mainly IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A and TNF-α when compared to single-infected animals. Taken together, our results suggest the intense pulmonary inflammation associated with a polarized systemic Th2/Th17 immune response are crucial to control larval migration after multiple exposures to Ascaris.

  6. Multiple Exposures to Ascaris suum Induce Tissue Injury and Mixed Th2/Th17 Immune Response in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Denise Silva Nogueira

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ascaris spp. infection affects 800 million people worldwide, and half of the world population is currently at risk of infection. Recurrent reinfection in humans is mostly due to the simplicity of the parasite life cycle, but the impact of multiple exposures to the biology of the infection and the consequences to the host's homeostasis are poorly understood. In this context, single and multiple exposures in mice were performed in order to characterize the parasitological, histopathological, tissue functional and immunological aspects of experimental larval ascariasis. The most important findings revealed that reinfected mice presented a significant reduction of parasite burden in the lung and an increase in the cellularity in the bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL associated with a robust granulocytic pulmonary inflammation, leading to a severe impairment of respiratory function. Moreover, the multiple exposures to Ascaris elicited an increased number of circulating inflammatory cells as well as production of higher levels of systemic cytokines, mainly IL-4, IL-5, IL-6, IL-10, IL-17A and TNF-α when compared to single-infected animals. Taken together, our results suggest the intense pulmonary inflammation associated with a polarized systemic Th2/Th17 immune response are crucial to control larval migration after multiple exposures to Ascaris.

  7. the intestinal expulsion of the roundworm Ascaris suum is associated with eosinophils, intra-epithelial T cells and decreased intestinal transit time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masure, Dries; Wang, Tao; Vlaminck, Johnny; Claerhoudt, Sarah; Chiers, Koen; Van den Broeck, Wim; Saunders, Jimmy; Vercruysse, Jozef; Geldhof, Peter

    2013-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides remains the most common endoparasite in humans, yet there is still very little information available about the immunological principles of protection, especially those directed against larval stages. Due to the natural host-parasite relationship, pigs infected with A. suum make an excellent model to study the mechanisms of protection against this nematode. In pigs, a self-cure reaction eliminates most larvae from the small intestine between 14 and 21 days post infection. In this study, we investigated the mucosal immune response leading to the expulsion of A. suum and the contribution of the hepato-tracheal migration. Self-cure was independent of previous passage through the liver or lungs, as infection with lung stage larvae did not impair self-cure. When animals were infected with 14-day-old intestinal larvae, the larvae were being driven distally in the small intestine around 7 days post infection but by 18 days post infection they re-inhabited the proximal part of the small intestine, indicating that more developed larvae can counter the expulsion mechanism. Self-cure was consistently associated with eosinophilia and intra-epithelial T cells in the jejunum. Furthermore, we identified increased gut movement as a possible mechanism of self-cure as the small intestinal transit time was markedly decreased at the time of expulsion of the worms. Taken together, these results shed new light on the mechanisms of self-cure that occur during A. suum infections.

  8. the intestinal expulsion of the roundworm Ascaris suum is associated with eosinophils, intra-epithelial T cells and decreased intestinal transit time.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dries Masure

    Full Text Available Ascaris lumbricoides remains the most common endoparasite in humans, yet there is still very little information available about the immunological principles of protection, especially those directed against larval stages. Due to the natural host-parasite relationship, pigs infected with A. suum make an excellent model to study the mechanisms of protection against this nematode. In pigs, a self-cure reaction eliminates most larvae from the small intestine between 14 and 21 days post infection. In this study, we investigated the mucosal immune response leading to the expulsion of A. suum and the contribution of the hepato-tracheal migration. Self-cure was independent of previous passage through the liver or lungs, as infection with lung stage larvae did not impair self-cure. When animals were infected with 14-day-old intestinal larvae, the larvae were being driven distally in the small intestine around 7 days post infection but by 18 days post infection they re-inhabited the proximal part of the small intestine, indicating that more developed larvae can counter the expulsion mechanism. Self-cure was consistently associated with eosinophilia and intra-epithelial T cells in the jejunum. Furthermore, we identified increased gut movement as a possible mechanism of self-cure as the small intestinal transit time was markedly decreased at the time of expulsion of the worms. Taken together, these results shed new light on the mechanisms of self-cure that occur during A. suum infections.

  9. High pressure processing treatment prevents embryonation of eggs of Trichuris vulpis and Ascaris suum and induces delay in development of eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosypal, Alexa C; Zajac, Anne M; Flick, George J; Bowman, Dwight D; Lindsay, David S

    2011-09-27

    High hydrostatic pressure processing (HPP) is an effective non-thermal treatment used to inactivate pathogens from a variety of food and food products. It has been extensively examined using prokaryotic organisms and protozoan's but has had limited study on metazoans. Treatment using HPP has been shown to be effective in inactivating nematode larvae in food and preventing embryonation of Ascaris suum eggs. We conducted experiments using eggs of the canine whipworm Trichuris vulpis collected from naturally infected dogs and A. suum eggs from naturally infected pigs. We observed a delay in development of eggs of T. vulpis in a preliminary experiment and conducted 2 experiments to test the hypothesis that appropriate HPP levels can induce a delay in embryonation of nematode eggs. In experiment 1, nonembryonated T. vulpis eggs in tap water were packaged in sealable bags and exposed to 138-600 megapascals (MPa; 1 MPa=10 atm=147 psi) for 60s in a commercial HPP unit. In a second experiment, nonembryonated eggs of A. suum were exposed to 138-600 MPa and treated for 60s in the same commercial HPP unit. Embyronation of T. vulpis eggs was delayed by 4 and 5 days for eggs treated with 207 and 241 MPa but eventually eggs developed and the numbers of embryonated eggs was similar to controls on day 55. Embryonation of T. vulpis eggs treated with 345 or 350 MPa was delayed by 9 days and never reached more than 5% of eggs embryonated. On day 55 post treatment, 95% of control nontreated T. vulpis eggs were embryonated, 100-65% of eggs treated with 138-276 MPa were embryonated, a maximum of 5% of eggs treated with 345-350 MPa were embryonated, and 0% of eggs treated with ≥ 400 MPa were embryonated. T. vulpis eggs treated with ≥ 400 MPa did not undergo cell division. Embryrnation of A. suum eggs was delayed by 4, 10, and 16 days for eggs treated with 207, 241, and 250MPa, respectively, compared to nontreated control eggs. A. suum eggs treated with 207 MPa eventually embryonated

  10. Fate of the pathogen indicators phage ΦX174 and Ascaris suum eggs during the production of struvite fertilizer from source-separated urine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decrey, Loïc; Udert, Kai M; Tilley, Elizabeth; Pecson, Brian M; Kohn, Tamar

    2011-10-15

    Human urine has the potential to be a sustainable, locally and continuously available source of nutrients for agriculture. Phosphate can be efficiently recovered from human urine in the form of the mineral struvite (MgNH4PO4·6H2O). However, struvite formation may be coupled with the precipitation of other constituents present in urine including pathogens, pharmaceuticals, and heavy metals. To determine if struvite fertilizer presents a microbiological health risk to producers and end users, we characterized the fate of a human virus surrogate (phage ΦX174) and the eggs of the helminth Ascaris suum during a low-cost struvite recovery process. While the concentration of phages was similar in both the struvite and the urine, Ascaris eggs accumulated within the solid during the precipitation and filtration process. Subsequent air-drying of the struvite filter cake partially inactivated both microorganisms; however, viable Ascaris eggs and infective phages were still detected after several days of drying. The infectivity of both viruses and eggs was affected by the specific struvite drying conditions: higher inactivation generally occurred with increased air temperature and decreased relative humidity. On a log-log scale, phage inactivation increased linearly with decreasing moisture content of the struvite, while Ascaris inactivation occurred only after achieving a minimum moisture threshold. Sunlight exposure did not directly affect the infectivity of phages or Ascaris eggs in struvite cakes, though the resultant rise in temperature accelerated the drying of the struvite cake, which contributed to inactivation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. The nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum: formation of two distinct drug targets by varying the relative expression levels of two subunits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, Sally M; Robertson, Alan P; Brown, Laurence; Williams, Tracey; Woods, Debra J; Martin, Richard J; Sattelle, David B; Wolstenholme, Adrian J

    2009-07-01

    Parasitic nematodes are of medical and veterinary importance, adversely affecting human health and animal welfare. Ascaris suum is a gastrointestinal parasite of pigs; in addition to its veterinary significance it is a good model of the human parasite Ascaris lumbricoides, estimated to infect approximately 1.4 billion people globally. Anthelmintic drugs are essential to control nematode parasites, and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) on nerve and muscle are the targets of cholinergic anthelmintics such as levamisole and pyrantel. Previous genetic analyses of nematode nAChRs have been confined to Caenorhabditis elegans, which is phylogenetically distinct from Ascaris spp. and many other important parasites. Here we report the cloning and expression of two nAChR subunit cDNAs from A. suum. The subunits are very similar in sequence to C. elegans UNC-29 and UNC-38, are expressed on muscle cells and can be expressed robustly in Xenopus oocytes to form acetylcholine-, nicotine-, levamisole- and pyrantel-sensitive channels. We also demonstrate that changing the stoichiometry of the receptor by injecting different ratios of the subunit cRNAs can reproduce two of the three pharmacological subtypes of nAChR present in A. suum muscle cells. When the ratio was 5:1 (Asu-unc-38ratioAsu-unc-29), nicotine was a full agonist and levamisole was a partial agonist, and oocytes responded to oxantel, but not pyrantel. At the reverse ratio (1:5 Asu-unc-38ratioAsu-unc-29), levamisole was a full agonist and nicotine was a partial agonist, and the oocytes responded to pyrantel, but not oxantel. These results represent the first in vitro expression of any parasitic nicotinic receptor and show that their properties are substantially different from those of C. elegans. The results also show that changing the expression level of a single receptor subunit dramatically altered the efficacy of some anthelmintic drugs. In vitro expression of these subunits may permit the development of

  12. The nicotinic acetylcholine receptors of the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum: formation of two distinct drug targets by varying the relative expression levels of two subunits.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sally M Williamson

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Parasitic nematodes are of medical and veterinary importance, adversely affecting human health and animal welfare. Ascaris suum is a gastrointestinal parasite of pigs; in addition to its veterinary significance it is a good model of the human parasite Ascaris lumbricoides, estimated to infect approximately 1.4 billion people globally. Anthelmintic drugs are essential to control nematode parasites, and nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs on nerve and muscle are the targets of cholinergic anthelmintics such as levamisole and pyrantel. Previous genetic analyses of nematode nAChRs have been confined to Caenorhabditis elegans, which is phylogenetically distinct from Ascaris spp. and many other important parasites. Here we report the cloning and expression of two nAChR subunit cDNAs from A. suum. The subunits are very similar in sequence to C. elegans UNC-29 and UNC-38, are expressed on muscle cells and can be expressed robustly in Xenopus oocytes to form acetylcholine-, nicotine-, levamisole- and pyrantel-sensitive channels. We also demonstrate that changing the stoichiometry of the receptor by injecting different ratios of the subunit cRNAs can reproduce two of the three pharmacological subtypes of nAChR present in A. suum muscle cells. When the ratio was 5:1 (Asu-unc-38ratioAsu-unc-29, nicotine was a full agonist and levamisole was a partial agonist, and oocytes responded to oxantel, but not pyrantel. At the reverse ratio (1:5 Asu-unc-38ratioAsu-unc-29, levamisole was a full agonist and nicotine was a partial agonist, and the oocytes responded to pyrantel, but not oxantel. These results represent the first in vitro expression of any parasitic nicotinic receptor and show that their properties are substantially different from those of C. elegans. The results also show that changing the expression level of a single receptor subunit dramatically altered the efficacy of some anthelmintic drugs. In vitro expression of these subunits may permit the

  13. RNA interference in adult Ascaris suum – an opportunity for the development of a functional genomics platform that supports organism-, tissue- and cell-based biology in a nematode parasite

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Ciaran J.; Warnock, Neil D.; Atkinson, Louise E.; Atcheson, Erwan; Martin, Richard J.; Robertson, Alan P.; Maule, Aaron G.; Marks, Nikki J.; Mousley, Angela

    2015-01-01

    The sustainable control of animal parasitic nematodes requires the development of efficient functional genomics platforms to facilitate target validation and enhance anthelmintic discovery. Unfortunately, the utility of RNA interference (RNAi) for the validation of novel drug targets in nematode parasites remains problematic. Ascaris suum is an important veterinary parasite and a zoonotic pathogen. Here we show that adult A. suum is RNAi competent, and highlight the induction, spread and consistency of RNAi across multiple tissue types. This platform provides a new opportunity to undertake whole organism-, tissue- and cell-level gene function studies to enhance target validation processes for nematode parasites of veterinary/medical significance. PMID:26149642

  14. Genome-wide tissue-specific gene expression, co-expression and regulation of co-expressed genes in adult nematode Ascaris suum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosa, Bruce A; Jasmer, Douglas P; Mitreva, Makedonka

    2014-02-01

    Caenorhabditis elegans has traditionally been used as a model for studying nematode biology, but its small size limits the ability for researchers to perform some experiments such as high-throughput tissue-specific gene expression studies. However, the dissection of individual tissues is possible in the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum due to its relatively large size. Here, we take advantage of the recent genome sequencing of Ascaris suum and the ability to physically dissect its separate tissues to produce a wide-scale tissue-specific nematode RNA-seq datasets, including data on three non-reproductive tissues (head, pharynx, and intestine) in both male and female worms, as well as four reproductive tissues (testis, seminal vesicle, ovary, and uterus). We obtained fundamental information about the biology of diverse cell types and potential interactions among tissues within this multicellular organism. Overexpression and functional enrichment analyses identified many putative biological functions enriched in each tissue studied, including functions which have not been previously studied in detail in nematodes. Putative tissue-specific transcriptional factors and corresponding binding motifs that regulate expression in each tissue were identified, including the intestine-enriched ELT-2 motif/transcription factor previously described in nematode intestines. Constitutively expressed and novel genes were also characterized, with the largest number of novel genes found to be overexpressed in the testis. Finally, a putative acetylcholine-mediated transcriptional network connecting biological activity in the head to the male reproductive system is described using co-expression networks, along with a similar ecdysone-mediated system in the female. The expression profiles, co-expression networks and co-expression regulation of the 10 tissues studied and the tissue-specific analysis presented here are a valuable resource for studying tissue-specific biological functions in

  15. Genome-wide tissue-specific gene expression, co-expression and regulation of co-expressed genes in adult nematode Ascaris suum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruce A Rosa

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Caenorhabditis elegans has traditionally been used as a model for studying nematode biology, but its small size limits the ability for researchers to perform some experiments such as high-throughput tissue-specific gene expression studies. However, the dissection of individual tissues is possible in the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum due to its relatively large size. Here, we take advantage of the recent genome sequencing of Ascaris suum and the ability to physically dissect its separate tissues to produce a wide-scale tissue-specific nematode RNA-seq datasets, including data on three non-reproductive tissues (head, pharynx, and intestine in both male and female worms, as well as four reproductive tissues (testis, seminal vesicle, ovary, and uterus. We obtained fundamental information about the biology of diverse cell types and potential interactions among tissues within this multicellular organism.Overexpression and functional enrichment analyses identified many putative biological functions enriched in each tissue studied, including functions which have not been previously studied in detail in nematodes. Putative tissue-specific transcriptional factors and corresponding binding motifs that regulate expression in each tissue were identified, including the intestine-enriched ELT-2 motif/transcription factor previously described in nematode intestines. Constitutively expressed and novel genes were also characterized, with the largest number of novel genes found to be overexpressed in the testis. Finally, a putative acetylcholine-mediated transcriptional network connecting biological activity in the head to the male reproductive system is described using co-expression networks, along with a similar ecdysone-mediated system in the female.The expression profiles, co-expression networks and co-expression regulation of the 10 tissues studied and the tissue-specific analysis presented here are a valuable resource for studying tissue

  16. In vitro evaluation of the ovistatic and ovicidal effect of the cosmopolitan filamentous fungi isolated from soil on Ascaris suum eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blaszkowska, Joanna; Kurnatowski, Piotr; Wojcik, Anna; Goralska, Katarzyna; Szwabe, Katarzyna

    2014-01-31

    The ovicidal activity of seven fungal strains: Acremonium alabamense, Alternaria chlamydospora, Cladosporium herbarum, Fusarium solani, Paecilomyces variotii, Paecilomyces viridis and Penicillium verruculosum isolated from urban soil samples from Poland was determined in vitro. The fungal mycelium was co-cultured with Ascaris suum eggs on plates with 2% water-agar for 28 days. Eggs exposed and unexposed (control) to fungal mycelium were observed weekly by light microscopy and the percentage of malformed eggs were determined. The eggs were classified according to following parameters: type 1 - biochemical and physiological effect without morphological damage to the eggshell; type 2 - lytic effect with morphological alteration of the eggshell and embryo; type 3 - lytic effect with morphological alteration of eggshell and embryo with hyphal penetration and internal egg colonization. All examined species of fungi extended embryogenesis, but the retardation of embryonic development was varied and depended on the species. A. alabamense, A. chlamydospora and P. verruculosum exhibited very high inhibitory activity on A. suum egg development. The fungus-exposed eggs revealed morphological alternations in all stages of embryogenesis. Isolates of F. solani, P. variotii and P. viridis showed hyphal penetration and internal colonization of A. suum eggs (type 3 effect). No appressoria were produced and simple hyphal penetrations were most commonly observed. A. alabamense and P. verruculosum demonstrated morphological destruction, with eggshell destruction. The remaining fungi showed type 1 effect. The results demonstrated that examined strains of F. solani, P. variotii and P. viridis may be considered to be potential limiting factors of parasitic geohelminth populations. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. PAS-1, a protein affinity purified from Ascaris suum worms, maintains the ability to modulate the immune response to a bystander antigen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oshiro, Telma M; Enobe, Cristina S; Araújo, Cláudia A; Macedo, Mahasti S; Macedo-Soares, Maria Fernanda

    2006-04-01

    Helminth infections and parasite components have potent immunomodulatory effects on a host's immune system. In the present study, we investigated the effect of PAS-1, a protein component of Ascaris suum adult worms recognized by a monoclonal antibody (MAIP-1), on humoral and cell-mediated responses to a bystander antigen (ovalbumin [OVA]). MAIP-1 recognized only one of the three polypeptide chains of PAS-1, but neutralized the suppressive effect of the whole worm extract on OVA-specific antibody production. PAS-1 inhibited antibody production against a T-cell-dependent, but not a T-cell-independent, antigen in a dose-dependent way. IgM, IgG1, IgG2b, and also IgE and anaphylactic IgG1 levels were downregulated. In addition, PAS-1 inhibited OVA-specific delayed type hypersensitivity reactions in the footpad of mice, showing a potent immunosuppressive activity on both Th1 and Th2 responses that seems to be mediated by the induction of large amounts of IL-10 and IL-4. Indeed, PAS-1-specific spleen cells secreted sevenfold more IL-10 and threefold more IL-4 than OVA-specific cells in response to in vitro restimulation with the respective antigens. In conclusion, we showed that PAS-1, a single protein component from A. suum, maintains all its immunosuppressive properties.

  18. The PCome of Ascaris suum as a model system for intestinal nematodes: identification of phosphorylcholine-substituted proteins and first characterization of the PC-epitope structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timm, Thomas; Grabitzki, Julia; Severcan, Cinar; Muratoglu, Suzan; Ewald, Lisa; Yilmaz, Yavuz; Lochnit, Guenter

    2016-03-01

    In multicellular parasites (e.g., nematodes and protozoa), proteins and glycolipids have been found to be decorated with phosphorylcholine (PC). PC can provoke various effects on immune cells leading to an immunomodulation of the host's immune system. This immunomodulation allows long-term persistence but also prevents severe pathology due to downregulation of cellular immune responses. PC-containing antigens have been found to interfere with key proliferative signaling pathways in B and T cells, development of dendritic cells and macrophages, and mast cell degranulation. These effects contribute to the observed modulated cytokine levels and impairment of lymphocyte proliferation. In contrast to glycosphingolipids, little is known about the PC-epitopes of proteins. So far, only a limited number of PC-modified proteins from nematodes have been identified. In this project, PC-substituted proteins and glycolipids in Ascaris suum have been localized by immunohistochemistry in specific tissues of the body wall, intestine, and reproductive tract. Subsequently, we investigated the PCome of A. suum by 2D gel-based proteomics and detection by Western blotting using the PC-specific antibody TEPC-15. By peptide-mass-fingerprint matrix-assisted laser-desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS), we could identify 59 PC-substituted proteins, which are in involved multiple cellular processes. In addition to membrane proteins like vitellogenin-6, we found proteins with structural (e.g., tubulins) and metabolic (e.g., pyruvate dehydrogenase) functions or which can act in the defense against the host's immune response (e.g., serpins). Initial characterization of the PC-epitopes revealed a predominant linkage of PC to the proteins via N-glycans. Our data form the basis for more detailed investigations of the PC-epitope structures as a prerequisite for comprehensive understanding of the molecular mechanisms of immunomodulation.

  19. Actividad in vitro de los venenos de Lachesis muta y Bothrops atrox sobre la viabilidad y desarrollo embrionario de los huevos de Ascaris suum

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Claudia Paredes

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Los venenos de serpientes son concentrados polienzimáticos cuya actividad biológica sobre algunas bacterias y protozoos ha sido comprobada. El objetivo principal del presente trabajo fue estudiar la actividad in vitro de los venenos totales de las serpientes Lachesis muta y Bothrops atrox sobre la viabilidad y el desarrollo embrionario de los huevos de Ascaris suum. Se emplearon los venenos totales en concentraciones de 2, 4, 8 y 16 mg/mL sobre huevos no embrionados y larvados in vitro. Se comparó la actividad de los venenos con la de otras sustancias como el hipoclorito de sodio al 5,25%, Albendazol (solución comercial y solución salina. Ambos venenos, en concentraciones de 4, 8 y 16 mg/mL, inhibieron la blastulación de estos huevos; hasta el sexto día de incubación; en cambio en concentración de 2 mg/mL la inhibición se dio hasta el cuarto día. Posteriormente iniciaron un proceso de embrionación aparentemente normal hasta la formación del estadio infectante. El veneno de B. atrox fue el que presentó el mayor efecto inhibitorio en concentración de 16 mg/mL. El hipoclorito de sodio destruyó el 100% de los huevos, mientras el albendazol ocasionó que los huevos iniciaran un proceso de segmentación anormal que originó su degeneración. Se concluye que los venenos de L. muta y B. atrox muestran actividad inhibitoria al inicio de la blastulación de los huevos de A. suum y no ejercen ningún efecto en los huevos larvados.

  20. Mass Spectrometry of Single GABAergic Somatic Motorneurons Identifies a Novel Inhibitory Peptide, As-NLP-22, in the Nematode Ascaris suum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konop, Christopher J.; Knickelbine, Jennifer J.; Sygulla, Molly S.; Wruck, Colin D.; Vestling, Martha M.; Stretton, Antony O. W.

    2015-12-01

    Neuromodulators have become an increasingly important component of functional circuits, dramatically changing the properties of both neurons and synapses to affect behavior. To explore the role of neuropeptides in Ascaris suum behavior, we devised an improved method for cleanly dissecting single motorneuronal cell bodies from the many other cell processes and hypodermal tissue in the ventral nerve cord. We determined their peptide content using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS). The reduced complexity of the peptide mixture greatly aided the detection of peptides; peptide levels were sufficient to permit sequencing by tandem MS from single cells. Inhibitory motorneurons, known to be GABAergic, contain a novel neuropeptide, As-NLP-22 (SLASGRWGLRPamide). From this sequence and information from the A. suum expressed sequence tag (EST) database, we cloned the transcript ( As-nlp-22) and synthesized a riboprobe for in situ hybridization, which labeled the inhibitory motorneurons; this validates the integrity of the dissection method, showing that the peptides detected originate from the cells themselves and not from adhering processes from other cells (e.g., synaptic terminals). Synthetic As-NLP-22 has potent inhibitory activity on acetylcholine-induced muscle contraction as well as on basal muscle tone. Both of these effects are dose-dependent: the inhibitory effect on ACh contraction has an IC50 of 8.3 × 10-9 M. When injected into whole worms, As-NLP-22 produces a dose-dependent inhibition of locomotory movements and, at higher levels, complete paralysis. These experiments demonstrate the utility of MALDI TOF/TOF MS in identifying novel neuromodulators at the single-cell level.

  1. Parasite-specific IL-4 responses in Ascaris suum and Trichuris suis-infected pigs evaluated by ELISPOT

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Steenhard, N. R.; Kringel, H.; Roepstorff, A.

    2007-01-01

    over time at post-mRNA level; in particular, specific measurement of IL-4 is important for studies on nematodes due to the key function of IL-4 in driving the Th2 response. Two separate experiments were carried out, one with A. suum and other with T. suis infection in which we were able to measure...... statistically significant increases in specific IL-4 production in peripheral blood mononuclear cells over time in parallel to an increase in blood eosinophils. Furthermore, IL-4 was measured in the colon lymph node of T. suis-infected pigs. Egg excretion and worm burdens at necropsy were measured. The ELISPOT...

  2. Optimization of the Agar-gel Method for Isolation of Migrating Ascaris suum Larvae From the Liver and Lungs of Pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Høg M

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available Experiments on use of an agar-gel method for recovery of migrating Ascaris suum larvae from the liver and lungs of pigs were conducted to obtain fast standardized methods. Subsamples of blended tissues of pig liver and lungs were mixed with agar to a final concentration of 1% agar and the larvae allowed to migrate out of the agar-gel into 0.9% NaCl at 38°C. The results showed that within 3 h more than 88% of the recoverable larvae migrated out of the liver agar-gel and more than 83% of the obtained larvae migrated out of the lung agar-gel. The larvae were subsequently available in a very clean suspension which reduced the sample counting time. Blending the liver for 60 sec in a commercial blender showed significantly higher larvae recovery than blending for 30 sec. Addition of gentamycin to reduce bacterial growth during incubation, glucose to increase larval motility during migration or ice to increase sedimentation of migrated larvae did not influence larvae recovery significantly.

  3. Resonance assignment of As-p18, a fatty acid binding protein secreted by developing larvae of the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibáñez-Shimabukuro, Marina; Rey-Burusco, M Florencia; Cooper, Alan; Kennedy, Malcolm W; Córsico, Betina; Smith, Brian O

    2014-04-01

    As-p18 is produced and secreted by larvae of the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum as they develop within their eggs. The protein is a member of the fatty acid binding protein (FABP) family found in a wide range of eukaryotes, but is distinctive in that it is secreted from the synthesizing cell and has predicted additional structural features not previously seen in other FABPs. As-p18 and similar proteins found only in nematodes have therefore been designated 'nemFABPs'. Sequence-specific (1)H, (13)C and (15)N resonance assignments were established for the 155 amino acid recombinant protein (18.3 kDa) in complex with oleic acid, using a series of three-dimensional triple-resonance heteronuclear NMR experiments. The secondary structure of As-p18 is predicted to be very similar to other FABPs, but the protein has extended loops that have not been observed in other FABPs whose structures have so far been solved.

  4. High molecular weight components containing N-linked oligosaccharides of Ascaris suum extract inhibit the dendritic cells activation through DC-SIGN and MR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Favoretto, Bruna C; Casabuono, Adriana A C; Portes-Junior, José A; Jacysyn, Jacqueline F; Couto, Alicia S; Faquim-Mauro, Eliana L

    2017-07-01

    Helminths, as well as their secretory/excretory products, induce a tolerogenic immune microenvironment. High molecular weight components (PI) from Ascaris suum extract down-modulate the immune response against ovalbumin (OVA). The PI exerts direct effect on dendritic cells (DCs) independent of TLR 2, 4 and MyD88 molecule and, thus, decreases the T lymphocytes response. Here, we studied the glycoconjugates in PI and the role of C-type lectin receptors (CLRs), DC-SIGN and MR, in the modulation of DCs activity. Our data showed the presence of glycoconjugates with high mannose- and complex-type N-linked oligosaccharide chains and phosphorylcholine residues on PI. In addition, these N-linked glycoconjugates inhibited the DCs maturation induced by LPS. The binding and internalization of PI-Alexa were decreased on DCs previously incubated with mannan, anti-DC-SIGN and/or anti-MR antibodies. In agreement with this, the incubation of DCs with mannan, anti-DC-SIGN and/or anti-MR antibodies abolished the down-modulatory effect of PI on these cells. It was also observed that the blockage of CLRs, DC-SIGN and MR on DCs reverted the inhibitory effect of PI in in vitro T cells proliferation. Therefore, our data show the involvement of DC-SIGN and MR in the recognition and consequent modulatory effect of N-glycosylated components of PI on DCs. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Localization of serotoni (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT) with partial purification and characterization of a serotonin binding protein in the intestinal tissue of the nematode Ascaris suum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, R.E.

    1989-01-01

    An intracellular 5-HT binding protein (SBP) from intestinal tissue was partially purified and characterized. Binding of ({sup 3}H) 5-HT to the protein appeared to be Fe{sup +2}-sensitive and maximal (20.8pmol/mg protein) at 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}4}M Fe{sup +2} and 10{sup {minus}7}M ({sup 3}H) 5-HT. There were two 5-HT binding sites present at optimum Fe{sup +2} concentrations. The Bmax values of these sites were more sensitive to Fe{sup +2} than Kd values. Sulfhydryl reducing agents, cation chelators, Fe{sup +3}, Ca{sup +2} and antagonists of 5-HT uptake and storage inhibited binding of 5-HT to SBP. Gel exclusion chromatography indicated the presence of a 45Kda SBP that in 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}5}M Fe{sup +2} may form aggregates ranging in size from approximately 80 to >1000Kda. The data indicate these in vitro aggregates may correspond to the electron-opaque patches observed in situ. Ascaris suum may provide a model system to further elucidate the physiological role of analogous serotonin binding proteins that have been identified in mammalian systems.

  6. The role of Intelectin-2 in resistance to Ascaris suum lung larval burdens in susceptible and resistant mouse strains.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dold, Christina; Pemberton, Alan D; Stafford, Peter; Holland, Celia V; Behnke, Jerzy M

    2011-04-01

    The underlying mechanism of predisposition to Ascaris infection is not yet understood but host genetics are thought to play a fundamental role. We investigated the association between the Intelectin-2 gene and resistance in F2 mice derived from mouse strains known to be susceptible and resistant to infection. Ascaris larvae were isolated from murine lungs and the number of copies of the Intelectin-2 gene was determined in F2 mice. Intelectin-2 gene copy number was not significantly linked to larval burden. In a pilot experiment, the response to infection in parental mice of both sexes was observed in order to address the suitability of female F2 mice. No overall significant sex effect was detected. However, a divergence in resistance/susceptibility status was observed between male and, female hybrid offspring. The responsiveness to Ascaris in mice is likely to be controlled by multiple genes and, despite a unique absence from the susceptible C57BL/6j strain, the Intelectin-2 gene does not play a significant role in resistance. The observed intra-strain variation in larval burden requires further investigation but we hypothesize that it stems from social/dominance hierarchies created by the presence of female mice and possibly subsequent hormonal perturbations that modify the intensity of the immune response.

  7. A polyphenol-enriched diet and Ascaris suum infection modulate mucosal immune responses and gut microbiota composition in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Andrew R.; Krych, Lukasz; Ahmad, Hajar Fauzan

    2017-01-01

    . suum for 14 days to assess parasite establishment, acquisition of local and systemic immune responses and effects on the gut microbiome. Despite in vitro anthelmintic activity of GP-extracts, numbers of parasite larvae in the intestine were not altered by GP-supplementation. However, the bioactive diet......Polyphenols are a class of bioactive plant secondary metabolites that are thought to have beneficial effects on gut health, such as modulation of mucosal immune and inflammatory responses and regulation of parasite burdens. Here, we examined the interactions between a polyphenol-rich diet...... the subsequent host response to helminth infection. Our results suggest an influence of diet on immune function which may potentially be exploited to enhance immunity to helminths....

  8. RNA interference in adult Ascaris suum--an opportunity for the development of a functional genomics platform that supports organism-, tissue- and cell-based biology in a nematode parasite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCoy, Ciaran J; Warnock, Neil D; Atkinson, Louise E; Atcheson, Erwan; Martin, Richard J; Robertson, Alan P; Maule, Aaron G; Marks, Nikki J; Mousley, Angela

    2015-09-01

    The sustainable control of animal parasitic nematodes requires the development of efficient functional genomics platforms to facilitate target validation and enhance anthelmintic discovery. Unfortunately, the utility of RNA interference (RNAi) for the validation of novel drug targets in nematode parasites remains problematic. Ascaris suum is an important veterinary parasite and a zoonotic pathogen. Here we show that adult A. suum is RNAi competent, and highlight the induction, spread and consistency of RNAi across multiple tissue types. This platform provides a new opportunity to undertake whole organism-, tissue- and cell-level gene function studies to enhance target validation processes for nematode parasites of veterinary/medical significance. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  9. Protonation mechanism and location of rate-determining steps for the Ascaris suum nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-malic enzyme reaction from isotope effects and pH studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kiick, D.M.; Harris, B.G.; Cook, P.F.

    1986-01-14

    The pH dependence of the kinetic parameters and the primary deuterium isotope effects with nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD) and also thionicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (thio-NAD) as the nucleotide substrates were determined in order to obtain information about the chemical mechanism and location of rate-determining steps for the Ascaris suum NAD-malic enzyme reaction. The maximum velocity with thio-NAD as the nucleotide is pH-independent from pH 4.2 to 9.6, while with NAD, V decreases below a pK of 4.8. V/K for both nucleotides decreases below a pK of 5.6 and above a pK of 8.9. Both the tartronate pKi and V/Kmalate decrease below a pK of 4.8 and above a pK of 8.9. Oxalate is competitive vs. malate above pH 7 and noncompetitive below pH 7 with NAD as the nucleotide. The oxalate Kis increases from a constant value above a pK of 4.9 to another constant value above a pK of 6.7. The oxalate Kii also increases above a pK of 4.9, and this inhibition is enhanced by NADH. In the presence of thio-NAD the inhibition by oxalate is competitive vs. malate below pH 7. For thio-NAD, both DV and D(V/K) are pH-independent and equal to 1.7. With NAD as the nucleotide, DV decreases to 1.0 below a pK of 4.9, while D(V/KNAD) and D(V/Kmalate) are pH-independent. Above pH 7 the isotope effects on V and the V/K values for NAD and malate are equal to 1.45, the pH-independent value of DV above pH 7. Results indicate that substrates bind to only the correctly protonated form of the enzyme. Two enzyme groups are necessary for binding of substrates and catalysis. Both NAD and malate are released from the Michaelis complex at equal rates which are equal to the rate of NADH release from E-NADH above pH 7. Below pH 7 NADH release becomes more rate-determining as the pH decreases until at pH 4.0 it completely limits the overall rate of the reaction.

  10. Three independent techniques localize expression of transcript afp-11 and its bioactive peptide products to the paired AVK neurons in Ascaris suum: in situ hybridization, immunocytochemistry, and single cell mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarecki, Jessica L; Viola, India R; Andersen, Kari M; Miller, Andrew H; Ramaker, Megan A; Vestling, Martha M; Stretton, Antony O

    2013-03-20

    We utilized three independent techniques, immunocytochemistry (ICC), single cell mass spectrometry (MS), and in situ hybridization (ISH), to localize neuropeptides and their transcripts in the nervous system of the nematode Ascaris suum . AF11 (SDIGISEPNFLRFa) is an endogenous peptide with potent paralytic effects on A. suum locomotory behavior. A highly specific antibody to AF11 showed robust immunostaining for AF11 in the paired AVK neurons in the ventral ganglion. We traced the processes from the AVK neurons into the ventral nerve cord and identified them as ventral cord interneurons. MS and MS/MS of single dissected AVKs detected AF11, two previously characterized peptides (AF25 and AF26), seven novel sequence-related peptides, including several sharing a PNFLRFamide C-terminus, and peptide NY, a peptide with an unrelated sequence. Also present in a subset of AVKs was AF2, a peptide encoded by the afp-4 transcript. By sequencing the afp-11 transcript, we discovered that it encodes AF11, all the AF11-related peptides detected by MS in AVK, and peptide NY. ISH detected the afp-11 transcript in AVK neurons, consistent with other techniques. ISH did not detect afp-11 in the ALA neuron, although both ICC and MS found AF11 in ca. 30% of ALAs. All 10 AF11-related peptides reduced acetylcholine-induced muscle contraction, but they differed in their rate of reversal of inhibition after removal of the peptide.

  11. Effect of the injection of an extract of Ascaris suum on macrophage activation during the early phase of Mycobacterium bovis BCG infection in C57Bl/6 mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ferreira A.P.

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Injection of an Ascaris suum extract (Asc affects both the humoral and cellular immune responses to unrelated antigens when it is co-administered with these antigens. In the present study we evaluated the effect of Asc on macrophage activation in the early phase of Mycobacterium bovis BCG (Pasteur strain TMCC 1173 infection in C57Bl/6 mice. C57Bl/6 mice were injected intraperitoneally (ip with 0.1 mg BCG (BCG group or BCG plus 1 mg Asc (BCG + Asc group. The peritoneal exudates were obtained at 2, 7 and 14 days after infection. The numbers of IFN-g-secreting cells were assessed by the ELISPOT assay. Nitric oxide (NO production was measured by the Griess method and by the evaluation of NADPH diaphorase activity in the peritoneal exudates. The administration of Asc extract increased NADPH diaphorase activity (2 days: control = 0, BCG = 7%, BCG + Asc = 13%, and Asc = 4%; 7 days: control = 4, BCG = 13%, BCG + Asc = 21%, and Asc = 4.5% and TNF-a levels (mean ± SD; 2 days: control = 0, BCG = 169 ± 13, BCG + Asc = 202 ± 37, and Asc = 0; 7 days: control = 0, BCG = 545 ± 15.5, BCG + Asc = 2206 ± 160.6, and Asc = 126 ± 26; 14 days: control = 10 ± 1.45, BCG = 9 ± 1.15, BCG + Asc = 126 ± 18, and Asc = 880 ± 47.67 pg/ml in the early phase of BCG infection. Low levels of NO production were detected at 2 and 7 days after BCG infection, increasing at 14 days (mean ± SD; 2 days: control = 0, BCG = 3.7 ± 1.59, BCG + Asc = 0.82 ± 0.005, Asc = 0.48 ± 0.33; 7 days: control = 0, BCG = 2.78 ± 1.54, BCG + Asc = 3.07 ± 1.05, Asc = 0; 14 days: control = 0, BCG = 9.05 ± 0.53, BCG + Asc = 9.61 ± 0.81, Asc = 10.5 ± 0.2 (2 x 106 cells/ml. Furthermore, we also observed that Asc co-injection induced a decrease of BCG-colony-forming units (CFU in the spleens of BCG-infected mice during the first week of infection (mean ± SD; 2 days: BCG = 1.13 ± 0.07 and BCG + Asc = 0.798 ± 0.305; 7 days: BCG = 1.375 ± 0.194 and BCG + Asc = 0.548 ± 0.0226; 14 days: BCG

  12. Serum antibody responses in pigs trickle-infected with Ascaris and Trichuris

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kringel, Helene; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Petersen, Heidi Huus

    2015-01-01

    A humoral immune response following helminth infection in pigs is well documented. However, it has been difficult to confirm the existence of antibody mediated resistance against the large roundworm, Ascaris suum, and whipworm, Trichuris suis, in experimental settings by correlating worm burdens...

  13. An in vitro larval migration assay for assessing anthelmintic activity of different drug classes against Ascaris suum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhao, Jianguo; Williams, Andrew R; Hansen, Tina Vicky Alstrup

    2017-01-01

    and agar gel larval migration assay to test the effect of benzimidazole and tetrahydropyrimidin/imidazothiazole anthelmintics against nine isolates of A. suum collected from locations in China and Denmark. Drugs tested were thiabendazole, fenbendazole, mebendazole, levamisole, and pyrantel. The percentages...... of larvae that migrated to the surface of each treated and control well were used to calculate the drug concentration which inhibits 50% of the larvae migration (EC50). The values of EC50 of thiabendazole, fenbendazole, mebendazole, levamisole, and pyrantel against A. suum isolates ranged 74-150, 4...

  14. The in vitro effect of ivermectin on the activity of trehalose synthesis pathway enzymes and their mRNA expression in the muscle of adult female Ascaris suum (Nematoda).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dmitryjuk, Małgorzata; Łopieńska-Biernat, Elżbieta; Zaobidna, Ewa Anna

    2014-01-01

    The in vitro effect of ivermectin lethal dose on the activity of trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS) and phosphatase (TPP) and the expression of their mRNA (tps1, tps2, and tpp genes) in the muscle of adult female Ascaris suum was investigated. The presence of ivermectin in the medium caused a decrease in TPS and TPP activities during the experiment compared with the start and control groups. The exception was the group of worms grown for 8 hours in a IVM solution, in which there was a little higher TPS activity than in the control. Real-time qPCR analysis showed reduced expression of tps1 and tps2, and unchanged tpp expression after 20 hours of incubation relative to the expression at time zero. Relative to the appropriate control groups, the expression of tps2 gene was slight increased but the other two genes were reduced after 8-hours of IVM-treatment. Then the expression of all three genes was lower at the end of cultivation. The level of gene expression was positively correlated with the activity of specific enzymes. In the case of tpp gene there was only a weak correlation. Prolonged exposure to ivermectin was effective in lowering TPS and TPP activity and their mRNA expression. However, the drug did not block the pathway.

  15. The In Vitro Effect of Ivermectin on the Activity of Trehalose Synthesis Pathway Enzymes and Their mRNA Expression in the Muscle of Adult Female Ascaris suum (Nematoda

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Dmitryjuk

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The in vitro effect of ivermectin lethal dose on the activity of trehalose-6-phosphate synthase (TPS and phosphatase (TPP and the expression of their mRNA (tps1, tps2, and tpp genes in the muscle of adult female Ascaris suum was investigated. The presence of ivermectin in the medium caused a decrease in TPS and TPP activities during the experiment compared with the start and control groups. The exception was the group of worms grown for 8 hours in a IVM solution, in which there was a little higher TPS activity than in the control. Real-time qPCR analysis showed reduced expression of tps1 and tps2, and unchanged tpp expression after 20 hours of incubation relative to the expression at time zero. Relative to the appropriate control groups, the expression of tps2 gene was slight increased but the other two genes were reduced after 8-hours of IVM-treatment. Then the expression of all three genes was lower at the end of cultivation. The level of gene expression was positively correlated with the activity of specific enzymes. In the case of tpp gene there was only a weak correlation. Prolonged exposure to ivermectin was effective in lowering TPS and TPP activity and their mRNA expression. However, the drug did not block the pathway.

  16. Genomes of parasitic nematodes (Meloidogyne hapla, Meloidogyne incognita, Ascaris suum and Brugia malayi) have a reduced complement of small RNA interference pathway genes: knockdown can reduce host infectivity of M. incognita.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iqbal, Sadia; Fosu-Nyarko, John; Jones, Michael G K

    2016-07-01

    The discovery of RNA interference (RNAi) as an endogenous mechanism of gene regulation in a range of eukaryotes has resulted in its extensive use as a tool for functional genomic studies. It is important to study the mechanisms which underlie this phenomenon in different organisms, and in particular to understand details of the effectors that modulate its effectiveness. The aim of this study was to identify and compare genomic sequences encoding genes involved in the RNAi pathway of four parasitic nematodes: the plant parasites Meloidogyne hapla and Meloidogyne incognita and the animal parasites Ascaris suum and Brugia malayi because full genomic sequences were available-in relation to those of the model nematode Caenorhabditis elegans. The data generated was then used to identify some potential targets for control of the root knot nematode, M. incognita. Of the 84 RNAi pathway genes of C. elegans used as model in this study, there was a 42-53 % reduction in the number of effectors in the parasitic nematodes indicating substantial differences in the pathway between species. A gene each from six functional groups of the RNAi pathway of M. incognita was downregulated using in vitro RNAi, and depending on the gene (drh-3, tsn-1, rrf-1, xrn-2, mut-2 and alg-1), subsequent plant infection was reduced by up to 44 % and knockdown of some genes (i.e. drh-3, mut-2) also resulted in abnormal nematode development. The information generated here will contribute to defining targets for more robust nematode control using the RNAi technology.

  17. Modification of a thiol at the active site of the Ascaris suum NAD-malic enzyme results in changes in the rate-determining steps for oxidative decarboxylation of L-malate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gavva, S.R.; Harris, B.G.; Cook, P.F. (Texas Coll. of Osteopathic Medicine, Fort Worth (United States)); Weiss, P.M. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison (United States))

    1991-06-11

    A thiol group at the malate-binding site of the NAD-malic enzyme from Ascaris suum has been modified to thiocyanate. The modified enzyme generally exhibits slight increases in K{sub NAD} and K{sub i metal} and decreases in V{sub max} as the metal size increases from Mg{sup 2+} to Mn{sup 2+} to Cd{sup 2+}, indicative of crowding in the site. The K{sub malate} value increases 10- to 30-fold, suggesting that malate does not bind optimally to the modified enzyme. Deuterium isotope effects on V and V/K{sub malate} increase with all three metal ions compared to the native enzyme concomitant with a decrease in the {sup 13}C isotope effect, suggesting a switch in the rate limitation of the hydride transfer and decarboxylation steps with hydride transfer becoming more rate limiting. The {sup 13}C effect decreases only slightly when obtained with deuterated malate, suggestive of the presence of a secondary {sup 13}C effect in the hydride transfer step, similar to data obtained with non-nicotinamide-containing dinucleotide substrates for the native enzyme (see the preceding paper in this issue). The native enzyme is inactivated in a time-dependent manner by Cd{sup 2+}. This inactivation occurs whether the enzyme alone is present or whether the enzyme is turning over with Cd{sup 2+} as the divalent metal activator. Upon inactivation, only Cd{sup 2+} ions are bound at high stoichiometry to the enzyme, which eventually becomes denatured. Conversion of the active-site thiol to thiocyanate makes it more difficult to inactivate the enzyme by treatment with Cd{sup 2+}.

  18. Ascaris phylogeny based on multiple whole mtDNA genomes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nejsum, Peter; Hawash, Mohamed B. F.; Betson, Martha

    2017-01-01

    Ascaris lumbricoides and A. suum are two parasitic nematodes infecting humans and pigs, respectively. There has been considerable debate as to whether Ascaris in the two hosts should be considered a single or two separate species. Previous studies identified at least three major clusters (A, B...... and C) of human and pig Ascaris based on partial cox1 sequences. In the present study, we selected major haplotypes from these different clusters to characterize their whole mitochondrial genomes for phylogenetic analysis. We also undertook coalescent simulations to investigate the evolutionary history...... of the different Ascaris haplotypes. The topology of the phylogenetic tree based on complete mitochondrial genomic sequences was found to be similar to partial cox1 sequencing, but the support at internal nodes was higher in the former. Coalescent simulations suggested the presence of at least two divergence...

  19. Reduction of Ascaris transmission to pigs by cleaning the dunging area

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vermeer, H.M.; Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Gaasenbeek, C.P.H.; Blanken, K.

    2008-01-01

    Ascaris suum is the most prevalent helminth on organic pig farms (Carstensen et al., 2002) and is transmitted mainly via the faeces. The use of anthelmintics does not fit in the organic principles and preventive measures are promoted. This project focused on assessing the efficacy of a cleaning

  20. Seroepidemiology of human Toxocara and Ascaris infections in the Netherlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mughini-Gras, Lapo; Harms, Margriet; van Pelt, Wilfrid; Pinelli, Elena; Kortbeek, Titia

    2016-10-01

    Toxocara canis, Toxocara cati and Ascaris suum are worldwide-distributed zoonotic roundworms of dogs, cats and pigs, respectively. The epidemiology of these parasites in developed countries is largely unclear. Two countrywide cross-sectional serosurveys were therefore conducted in the Netherlands in 1995/1996 and 2006/2007 to investigate the prevalence, trends and risk factors for human Toxocara and Ascaris infections in the general population. The Netherlands is characterized by high pig production, freedom from stray dogs and virtual absence of autochthonous infections with the human-adapted roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides. Over the 10 years between the two serosurveys, Toxocara seroprevalence decreased significantly from 10.7 % (n = 1159) to 8.0 % (n = 3683), whereas Ascaris seroprevalence increased significantly from 30.4 % (n = 1159) to 41.6 % (n = 3675), possibly reflecting concomitant improvements in pet hygiene management and increased exposure to pig manure-contaminated soil. Increased anti-Toxocara IgGs were associated with increasing age, male gender, contact with soil, ownership of cats, cattle or pigs, hay fever, low education, high income and non-Western ethnic origin. Increased anti-Ascaris IgGs were associated with increasing age, owning pigs, low education, childhood geophagia and non-Dutch ethnic origin. Besides identifying specific groups at highest risk of Toxocara and Ascaris infections, our results suggest that these infections mainly occur through environmental, rather than foodborne, routes, with direct contact with soil or cat and pig ownership being potentially modifiable exposures.

  1. A Phosphorylcholine-Containing Glycolipid-like Antigen Present on the Surface of Infective Stage Larvae of Ascaris spp. Is a Major Antibody Target in Infected Pigs and Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    Masure, Dries; Wang, Tao; Nejsum, Peter; Hokke, Cornelis H.; Geldhof, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Background The pig parasite Ascaris suum plays and important role in veterinary medicine and represents a suitable model for A. lumbricoides, which infects over 800 million people. In pigs, continued exposure to Ascaris induces immunity at the level of the gut, protecting the host against migrating larvae. The objective of this study was to identify and characterize parasite antigens targeted by this local immune response that may be crucial for parasite invasion and establishment and to evaluate their protective and diagnostic potential. Methodology/Principal Findings Pigs were immunized by trickle infection for 30 weeks, challenged with 2,000 eggs at week 32 and euthanized two weeks after challenge. At necropsy, there was a 100% reduction in worms recovered from the intestine and a 97.2% reduction in liver white spots in comparison with challenged non-immune control animals. Antibodies purified from the intestinal mucus or from the supernatant of cultured antibody secreting cells from mesenteric lymph nodes of immune pigs were used to probe L3 extracts to identify antibody targets. This resulted in the recognition of a 12kDa antigen (As12) that is actively shed from infective Ascaris L3. As12 was characterized as a phosphorylcholine-containing glycolipid-like antigen that is highly resistant to different enzymatic and chemical treatments. Vaccinating pigs with an As12 fraction did not induce protective immunity to challenge infection. However, serological analysis using sera or plasma from experimentally infected pigs or naturally infected humans demonstrated that the As12 ELISA was able to detect long-term exposure to Ascaris with a high diagnostic sensitivity (98.4% and 92%, respectively) and specificity (95.5% and 90.0%) in pigs and humans, respectively. Conclusions/Significance These findings show the presence of a highly stage specific, glycolipid-like component (As12) that is actively secreted by infectious Ascaris larvae and which acts as a major antibody

  2. Phylogeographical studies of Ascaris spp. based on ribosomal and mitochondrial DNA sequences.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Serena Cavallero

    Full Text Available The taxonomic distinctiveness of Ascaris lumbricoides and A. suum, two of the world's most significant nematodes, still represents a much-debated scientific issue. Previous studies have described two different scenarios in transmission patterns, explained by two hypotheses: (1 separated host-specific transmission cycles in highly endemic regions, (2 a single pool of infection shared by humans and pigs in non-endemic regions. Recently, A. suum has been suggested as an important cause of human ascariasis in endemic areas such as China, where cross-infections and hybridization have also been reported. The main aims of the present study were to investigate the molecular epidemiology of human and pig Ascaris from non-endemic regions and, with reference to existing data, to infer the phylogenetic and phylogeographic relationships among the samples.151 Ascaris worms from pigs and humans were characterized using PCR-RFLP on nuclear ITS rDNA. Representative geographical sub-samples were also analysed by sequencing a portion of the mitochondrial cox1 gene, to infer the extent of variability at population level. Sequence data were compared to GenBank sequences from endemic and non-endemic regions.No fixed differences between human and pig Ascaris were evident, with the exception of the Slovak population, which displays significant genetic differentiation. The RFLP analysis confirmed pig as a source of human infection in non-endemic regions and as a corridor for the promulgation of hybrid genotypes. Epidemiology and host-affiliation seem not to be relevant in shaping molecular variance. Phylogenetic and phylogeographical analyses described a complex scenario, involving multiple hosts, sporadic contact between forms and an ancestral taxon referable to A. suum.These results suggest the existence of homogenizing gene flow between the two taxa, which appear to be variants of a single polytypic species. This conclusion has implications on the systematics

  3. Phylogeographical Studies of Ascaris spp. Based on Ribosomal and Mitochondrial DNA Sequences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cavallero, Serena; Snabel, Viliam; Pacella, Francesca; Perrone, Vitantonio; D'Amelio, Stefano

    2013-01-01

    Background The taxonomic distinctiveness of Ascaris lumbricoides and A. suum, two of the world's most significant nematodes, still represents a much-debated scientific issue. Previous studies have described two different scenarios in transmission patterns, explained by two hypotheses: (1) separated host-specific transmission cycles in highly endemic regions, (2) a single pool of infection shared by humans and pigs in non-endemic regions. Recently, A. suum has been suggested as an important cause of human ascariasis in endemic areas such as China, where cross-infections and hybridization have also been reported. The main aims of the present study were to investigate the molecular epidemiology of human and pig Ascaris from non-endemic regions and, with reference to existing data, to infer the phylogenetic and phylogeographic relationships among the samples. Methodology 151 Ascaris worms from pigs and humans were characterized using PCR-RFLP on nuclear ITS rDNA. Representative geographical sub-samples were also analysed by sequencing a portion of the mitochondrial cox1 gene, to infer the extent of variability at population level. Sequence data were compared to GenBank sequences from endemic and non-endemic regions. Principal Findings No fixed differences between human and pig Ascaris were evident, with the exception of the Slovak population, which displays significant genetic differentiation. The RFLP analysis confirmed pig as a source of human infection in non-endemic regions and as a corridor for the promulgation of hybrid genotypes. Epidemiology and host-affiliation seem not to be relevant in shaping molecular variance. Phylogenetic and phylogeographical analyses described a complex scenario, involving multiple hosts, sporadic contact between forms and an ancestral taxon referable to A. suum. Conclusions/Significance These results suggest the existence of homogenizing gene flow between the two taxa, which appear to be variants of a single polytypic species. This

  4. Molecular Epidemiology of Ascariasis: A Global Perspective on the Transmission Dynamics of Ascaris in People and Pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betson, Martha; Nejsum, Peter; Bendall, Richard P.; Deb, Rinki M.; Stothard, J. Russell

    2014-01-01

    Background. The roundworm Ascaris lumbricoides infects 0.8 billion people worldwide, and Ascaris suum infects innumerable pigs across the globe. The extent of natural cross-transmission of Ascaris between pig and human hosts in different geographical settings is unknown, warranting investigation. Methods. Adult Ascaris organisms were obtained from humans and pigs in Europe, Africa, Asia, and Latin America. Barcodes were assigned to 536 parasites on the basis of sequence analysis of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I gene. Genotyping of 410 worms was also conducted using a panel of microsatellite markers. Phylogenetic, population genetic, and Bayesian assignment methods were used for analysis. Results. There was marked genetic segregation between worms originating from human hosts and those originating from pig hosts. However, human Ascaris infections in Europe were of pig origin, and there was evidence of cross-transmission between humans and pigs in Africa. Significant genetic differentiation exists between parasite populations from different countries, villages, and hosts. Conclusions. In conducting an analysis of variation within Ascaris populations from pig and human hosts across the globe, we demonstrate that cross-transmission takes place in developing and developed countries, contingent upon epidemiological potential and local phylogeography. Our results provide novel insights into the transmission dynamics and speciation of Ascaris worms from humans and pigs that are of importance for control programs. PMID:24688073

  5. Deep small RNA sequencing from the nematode Ascaris reveals conservation, functional diversification, and novel developmental profiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jianbin; Czech, Benjamin; Crunk, Amanda; Wallace, Adam; Mitreva, Makedonka; Hannon, Gregory J.; Davis, Richard E.

    2011-01-01

    Eukaryotic cells express several classes of small RNAs that regulate gene expression and ensure genome maintenance. Endogenous siRNAs (endo-siRNAs) and Piwi-interacting RNAs (piRNAs) mainly control gene and transposon expression in the germline, while microRNAs (miRNAs) generally function in post-transcriptional gene silencing in both somatic and germline cells. To provide an evolutionary and developmental perspective on small RNA pathways in nematodes, we identified and characterized known and novel small RNA classes through gametogenesis and embryo development in the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum and compared them with known small RNAs of Caenorhabditis elegans. piRNAs, Piwi-clade Argonautes, and other proteins associated with the piRNA pathway have been lost in Ascaris. miRNAs are synthesized immediately after fertilization in utero, before pronuclear fusion, and before the first cleavage of the zygote. This is the earliest expression of small RNAs ever described at a developmental stage long thought to be transcriptionally quiescent. A comparison of the two classes of Ascaris endo-siRNAs, 22G-RNAs and 26G-RNAs, to those in C. elegans, suggests great diversification and plasticity in the use of small RNA pathways during spermatogenesis in different nematodes. Our data reveal conserved characteristics of nematode small RNAs as well as features unique to Ascaris that illustrate significant flexibility in the use of small RNAs pathways, some of which are likely an adaptation to Ascaris' life cycle and parasitism. PMID:21685128

  6. Marginal vitamin A deficiency in pigs experimentally infected with Trichuris suis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, S; Saeed, I; Jensen, S K

    2001-01-01

    The development of an experimental model for marginal vitamin A deficiency in humans is of major interest, enabling the elucidation of possible interactions with helminth infections. We established a useful experimental model for human vitamin A deficiency in young pigs; deficiency was induced...... through a depletion method encompassing both sow and offspring. We report on a 2 x 2 study in which 18-week-old vitamin A deficient pigs and vitamin A sufficient littermates were infected with both of the intestinal nematodes Trichuris suis and Ascaris suum and followed for 14 weeks through 32 weeks...... of age. Forty-nine pigs were followed with respect to bodyweight, liver biopsies and blood samples for retinol concentration and faecal samples for parasite eggs and worms. Liver and serum concentrations of vitamin A were significantly diminished in the vitamin A deficient (VAD) group as compared...

  7. Cytogenetic study of Ascaris trypsin inhibitor in cultured human ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    2009-04-01

    Apr 1, 2009 ... helminth (Souza et al. 2002; Oshiro et al. 2004). Previ- ously we reported the results on chromosome aberrations and sister chromatid changes in human lymphocytes exposed to. Ascaris trypsin inhibitor in the absence of metabolic S9 acti- vation (Blaszkowska et al. 2004). In these experimental con- ditions ...

  8. The dynamics of genetically marked Ascaris suum infections in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nejsum, Peter; Roepstorff, Allan Knud; Anderson, T.J.C.

    2009-01-01

    The genotypes of both host and parasite may influence the outcome of parasitic infections, but few attempts have been made to quantify the effect of parasite genotype on macroparasite infections of socio-economic importance. We examined variation in particular traits during the infection in pigs ...

  9. Interaction between Ascaris suum and Pasteurella multocida in the lungs of mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tjørnehøj, Kirsten; Eriksen, Lizzie; Aalbaek, B

    1992-01-01

    developed more severe pneumonia and septicaemia than did parasite-free mice. The parasite-induced effect on bacterial pathogenicity was more marked for a non-toxin-producing P. multocida as compared with a toxin-producing strain of P. multocida, possibly due to the higher spontaneous pathogenicity...

  10. Survival of Ascaris eggs and hygienic quality of human excreta in Vietnamese composting latrines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Peter K. M.; Phuc, Pham D.; Konradsen, Flemming

    2009-01-01

    Background: For centuries farmers in Vietnam have fertilized their fields with human excreta collected directly from their household latrines. Contrary to the official guideline of six-month storage, the households usually only store human excreta for three to four months before use, since...... this is the length of time that farmers have available to produce fertilizer between two cropping seasons. This study aimed to investigate whether hygienically safe fertilizer could be produced in the latrines within this period of time. Methods: By inoculating eggs of the helminth parasite indicator Ascaris suum...... into heaps of human excreta, a die-off experiment was conducted under conditions similar to those commonly used in Vietnamese latrines. Half a ton of human excreta was divided into five heaps containing increasing concentrations of lime from 0% to 11%. Results: Regardless of the starting pH, which varied...

  11. Experimental destruction of Ascarid ova in sewage sludge by accelerated electron irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Horak, Petr (Charles Univ., Prague (Czech Republic). Dept. of Parasitology)

    1994-04-01

    Aerobically-treated sewage sludge containing eggs of the nematode Ascaris suum was processed using accelerated electrons. After 8 weeks of incubation the morphological and developmental status of eggs was determined. Inhibition of development and the destruction of nematode embryos within eggs were observed at doses over 1.1 kGy. (author).

  12. A Phosphorylcholine-Containing Glycolipid-like Antigen Present on the Surface of Infective Stage Larvae of Ascaris spp. Is a Major Antibody Target in Infected Pigs and Humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vlaminck, Johnny; Masure, Dries; Wang, Tao

    2016-01-01

    purified from the intestinal mucus or from the supernatant of cultured antibody secreting cells from mesenteric lymph nodes of immune pigs were used to probe L3 extracts to identify antibody targets. This resulted in the recognition of a 12kDa antigen (As12) that is actively shed from infective Ascaris L3......Background The pig parasite Ascaris suum plays and important role in veterinary medicine and represents a suitable model for A. lumbricoides, which infects over 800 million people. In pigs, continued exposure to Ascaris induces immunity at the level of the gut, protecting the host against migrating...... larvae. The objective of this study was to identify and characterize parasite antigens targeted by this local immune response that may be crucial for parasite invasion and establishment and to evaluate their protective and diagnostic potential. Methodology/Principal Findings Pigs were immunized...

  13. Complete mitochondrial genomes of chimpanzee- and gibbon-derived Ascaris isolated from a zoological garden in southwest China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yue Xie

    Full Text Available Roundworms (Ascaridida: Nematoda, one of the most common soil-transmitted helminths (STHs, can cause ascariasis in various hosts worldwide, ranging from wild to domestic animals and humans. Despite the veterinary and health importance of the Ascaridida species, little or no attention has been paid to roundworms infecting wild animals including non-human primates due to the current taxon sampling and survey bias in this order. Importantly, there has been considerable controversy over the years as to whether Ascaris species infecting non-human primates are the same as or distinct from Ascaris lumbricoides infecting humans. Herein, we first characterized the complete mitochondrial genomes of two representative Ascaris isolates derived from two non-human primates, namely, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes and gibbons (Hylobates hoolock, in a zoological garden of southwest China and compared them with those of A. lumbricoides and the congeneric Ascaris suum as well as other related species in the same order, and then used comparative mitogenomics, genome-wide nucleotide sequence identity analysis, and phylogeny to determine whether the parasites from chimpanzees and gibbons represent a single species and share genetic similarity with A. lumbricoides. Taken together, our results yielded strong statistical support for the hypothesis that the chimpanzee- and gibbon-derived Ascaris represent a single species that is genetically similar to A. lumbricoides, consistent with the results of previous morphological and molecular studies. Our finding should enhance public alertness to roundworms originating from chimpanzees and gibbons and the mtDNA data presented here also serves to enrich the resource of markers that can be used in molecular diagnostic, systematic, population genetic, and evolutionary biological studies of parasitic nematodes from either wild or domestic hosts.

  14. Complete Mitochondrial Genomes of Chimpanzee- and Gibbon-Derived Ascaris Isolated from a Zoological Garden in Southwest China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Yue; Niu, Lili; Zhao, Bo; Wang, Qiang; Nong, Xiang; Chen, Lin; Zhou, Xuan; Gu, Xiaobin; Wang, Shuxian; Peng, Xuerong; Yang, Guangyou

    2013-01-01

    Roundworms (Ascaridida: Nematoda), one of the most common soil-transmitted helminths (STHs), can cause ascariasis in various hosts worldwide, ranging from wild to domestic animals and humans. Despite the veterinary and health importance of the Ascaridida species, little or no attention has been paid to roundworms infecting wild animals including non-human primates due to the current taxon sampling and survey bias in this order. Importantly, there has been considerable controversy over the years as to whether Ascaris species infecting non-human primates are the same as or distinct from Ascaris lumbricoides infecting humans. Herein, we first characterized the complete mitochondrial genomes of two representative Ascaris isolates derived from two non-human primates, namely, chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and gibbons (Hylobates hoolock), in a zoological garden of southwest China and compared them with those of A. lumbricoides and the congeneric Ascaris suum as well as other related species in the same order, and then used comparative mitogenomics, genome-wide nucleotide sequence identity analysis, and phylogeny to determine whether the parasites from chimpanzees and gibbons represent a single species and share genetic similarity with A. lumbricoides. Taken together, our results yielded strong statistical support for the hypothesis that the chimpanzee- and gibbon-derived Ascaris represent a single species that is genetically similar to A. lumbricoides, consistent with the results of previous morphological and molecular studies. Our finding should enhance public alertness to roundworms originating from chimpanzees and gibbons and the mtDNA data presented here also serves to enrich the resource of markers that can be used in molecular diagnostic, systematic, population genetic, and evolutionary biological studies of parasitic nematodes from either wild or domestic hosts. PMID:24358225

  15. Characterization of ascaris from ecuador and zanzibar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sparks, A M; Betson, M; Oviedo, G; Sandoval, C; Cooper, P J; Stothard, J R

    2015-07-01

    To shed light on the epidemiology of ascariasis in Ecuador and Zanzibar, 177 adult worms retrieved by chemo-expulsion from either people or pigs were collected, measured and subjected to polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) analysis of the ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region. Upon double digestion with RsaI and HaeIII, PCR-RFLP analysis revealed the presence of A. lumbricoides in people and A. suum in pigs in Ecuador. In contrast, while there are no pigs on Zanzibar, of the 56 worms obtained from people, one was genotyped as A. suum. No additional genetic variation was detected upon further PCR-RFLP analysis with several other restriction enzymes. Upon measurement, worm mass and length differed by location and by species, A. suum being lighter and longer. While there is no evidence to suggest zoonotic transmission in Ecuador, an enduring historical signature of previous zoonotic transmission remains on Zanzibar.

  16. Community Rates of IgG4 Antibodies to Ascaris Haemoglobin Reflect Changes in Community Egg Loads Following Mass Drug Administration.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johnny Vlaminck

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Conventional diagnostic methods for human ascariasis are based on the detection of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs in stool samples. However, studies of ascariasis in pigs have shown that the prevalence and the number of eggs detected in the stool do not correlate well with exposure of the herd to the parasite. On the other hand, an ELISA test measuring antibodies to Ascaris suum haemoglobin (AsHb has been shown to be useful for estimating transmission intensity on pig farms. In this study, we further characterized the AsHb antigen and screened samples from a population-based study conducted in an area that is endemic for Ascaris lumbricoides in Indonesia to assess changes in AsHb antibody rates and levels in humans following mass drug administration (MDA.We developed and evaluated an ELISA to detect human IgG4 antibodies to AsHb. We tested 1066 plasma samples collected at different times from 599 subjects who lived in a village in rural Indonesia that was highly endemic for ascariasis. The community received 6 rounds of MDA for lymphatic filariasis with albendazole plus diethylcarbamazine between 2002 and 2007. While the AsHb antibody assay was not sensitive for detecting all individuals with Ascaris eggs in their stools, the percentage of seropositive individuals decreased rapidly following MDA. Reductions in antibody rates reflected decreased mean egg output per person both at the community level and in different age groups. Two years after the last round of MDA the community egg output and antibody prevalence rate were reduced by 81.6% and 78.9% respectively compared to baseline levels.IgG4 antibody levels to AsHb appear to reflect recent exposure to Ascaris. The antibody prevalence rate may be a useful indicator for Ascaris transmission intensity in communities that can be used to assess the impact of control measures on the force of transmission.

  17. Survival of Ascaris eggs and hygienic quality of human excreta in Vietnamese composting latrines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Peter K M; Phuc, Pham D; Konradsen, Flemming; Klank, Lise T; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2009-12-16

    For centuries farmers in Vietnam have fertilized their fields with human excreta collected directly from their household latrines. Contrary to the official guideline of six-month storage, the households usually only store human excreta for three to four months before use, since this is the length of time that farmers have available to produce fertilizer between two cropping seasons. This study aimed to investigate whether hygienically safe fertilizer could be produced in the latrines within this period of time. By inoculating eggs of the helminth parasite indicator Ascaris suum into heaps of human excreta, a die-off experiment was conducted under conditions similar to those commonly used in Vietnamese latrines. Half a ton of human excreta was divided into five heaps containing increasing concentrations of lime from 0% to 11%. Regardless of the starting pH, which varied from 9.4 to 11.6, a >99% die-off of eggs was obtained after 105 to 117 days of storage for all lime concentrations and 97% of eggs were non-viable after 88 days of storage. The most critical parameter found to determine the die-off process was the amount of ammonia (urine) in the excreta which indicates that longer storage periods are needed for parasite egg die-off if urine is separated from the excreta. By inactivating >99% of all A. suum eggs in human excreta during a storage period of only three months the commonly used Double Vault Composting (DVC) latrine, in which urine is not separated, could therefore potentially provide a hygienic acceptable fertilizer.

  18. Survival of Ascaris eggs and hygienic quality of human excreta in Vietnamese composting latrines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dalsgaard Anders

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background For centuries farmers in Vietnam have fertilized their fields with human excreta collected directly from their household latrines. Contrary to the official guideline of six-month storage, the households usually only store human excreta for three to four months before use, since this is the length of time that farmers have available to produce fertilizer between two cropping seasons. This study aimed to investigate whether hygienically safe fertilizer could be produced in the latrines within this period of time. Methods By inoculating eggs of the helminth parasite indicator Ascaris suum into heaps of human excreta, a die-off experiment was conducted under conditions similar to those commonly used in Vietnamese latrines. Half a ton of human excreta was divided into five heaps containing increasing concentrations of lime from 0% to 11%. Results Regardless of the starting pH, which varied from 9.4 to 11.6, a >99% die-off of eggs was obtained after 105 to 117 days of storage for all lime concentrations and 97% of eggs were non-viable after 88 days of storage. The most critical parameter found to determine the die-off process was the amount of ammonia (urine in the excreta which indicates that longer storage periods are needed for parasite egg die-off if urine is separated from the excreta. Conclusion By inactivating >99% of all A. suum eggs in human excreta during a storage period of only three months the commonly used Double Vault Composting (DVC latrine, in which urine is not separated, could therefore potentially provide a hygienic acceptable fertilizer.

  19. Tribendimidine: Mode of Action and nAChR Subtype Selectivity in Ascaris and Oesophagostomum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robertson, Alan P.; Puttachary, Sreekanth; Buxton, Samuel K.; Martin, Richard J.

    2015-01-01

    The cholinergic class of anthelmintic drugs is used for the control of parasitic nematodes. One of this class of drugs, tribendimidine (a symmetrical diamidine derivative, of amidantel), was developed in China for use in humans in the mid-1980s. It has a broader-spectrum anthelmintic action against soil-transmitted helminthiasis than other cholinergic anthelmintics, and is effective against hookworm, pinworms, roundworms, and Strongyloides and flatworm of humans. Although molecular studies on C. elegans suggest that tribendimidine is a cholinergic agonist that is selective for the same nematode muscle nAChR as levamisole, no direct electrophysiological observations in nematode parasites have been made to test this hypothesis. Also the hypothesis that levamisole and tribendimine act on the same receptor, does not explain why tribendimidine is effective against some nematode parasites when levamisole is not. Here we examine the effects of tribendimidine on the electrophysiology and contraction of Ascaris suum body muscle and show that tribendimidine produces depolarization antagonized by the nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine, and that tribendimidine is an agonist of muscle nAChRs of parasitic nematodes. Further pharmacological characterization of the nAChRs activated by tribendimidine in our Ascaris muscle contraction assay shows that tribendimidine is not selective for the same receptor subtypes as levamisole, and that tribendimidine is more selective for the B-subtype than the L-subtype of nAChR. In addition, larval migration inhibition assays with levamisole-resistant Oesophagostomum dentatum isolates show that tribendimidine is as active on a levamisole-resistant isolate as on a levamisole-sensitive isolate, suggesting that the selectivity for levamisole and tribendimidine is not the same. It is concluded that tribendimidine can activate a different population of nematode parasite nAChRs than levamisole, and is more like bephenium. The different nAChR subtype

  20. Tribendimidine: mode of action and nAChR subtype selectivity in Ascaris and Oesophagostomum.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan P Robertson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The cholinergic class of anthelmintic drugs is used for the control of parasitic nematodes. One of this class of drugs, tribendimidine (a symmetrical diamidine derivative, of amidantel, was developed in China for use in humans in the mid-1980s. It has a broader-spectrum anthelmintic action against soil-transmitted helminthiasis than other cholinergic anthelmintics, and is effective against hookworm, pinworms, roundworms, and Strongyloides and flatworm of humans. Although molecular studies on C. elegans suggest that tribendimidine is a cholinergic agonist that is selective for the same nematode muscle nAChR as levamisole, no direct electrophysiological observations in nematode parasites have been made to test this hypothesis. Also the hypothesis that levamisole and tribendimine act on the same receptor, does not explain why tribendimidine is effective against some nematode parasites when levamisole is not. Here we examine the effects of tribendimidine on the electrophysiology and contraction of Ascaris suum body muscle and show that tribendimidine produces depolarization antagonized by the nicotinic antagonist mecamylamine, and that tribendimidine is an agonist of muscle nAChRs of parasitic nematodes. Further pharmacological characterization of the nAChRs activated by tribendimidine in our Ascaris muscle contraction assay shows that tribendimidine is not selective for the same receptor subtypes as levamisole, and that tribendimidine is more selective for the B-subtype than the L-subtype of nAChR. In addition, larval migration inhibition assays with levamisole-resistant Oesophagostomum dentatum isolates show that tribendimidine is as active on a levamisole-resistant isolate as on a levamisole-sensitive isolate, suggesting that the selectivity for levamisole and tribendimidine is not the same. It is concluded that tribendimidine can activate a different population of nematode parasite nAChRs than levamisole, and is more like bephenium. The

  1. Distribution of 3H-GABA uptake sites in the nematode Ascaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guastella, J.; Stretton, A.O. (University of Wisconsin, Madison (USA))

    1991-05-22

    The distribution of uptake sites for the inhibitory neurotransmitter gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the nematode Ascaris suum was examined by autoradiography of 3H-GABA uptake. Single neural processes in both the ventral and dorsal nerve cords were labeled with 3H-GABA. Serial section analysis identified the cells of origin of these processes as the RMEV-like and RMED-like neurons. These cells belong to a set of four neurons in the nerve ring, all of which are labeled by 3H-GABA. 3H-GABA labeling of at least two other sets of cephalic neurons was seen. One of these pairs consists of medium-sized lateral ganglia neurons, located at the level of the amphid commissure bundle. A second pair is located in the lateral ganglia at the level of the deirid commissure bundle. The position and size of these lateral ganglia cells suggest that they are the GABA-immunoreactive lateral ganglia cells frequently seen in whole-mount immunocytochemical preparations. Four neuronal cell bodies located in the retrovesicular ganglion were also labeled with 3H-GABA. These cells, which are probably cholinergic excitatory motor neurons, do not contain detectable GABA-like immunoreactivity. Heavy labeling of muscle cells was also observed. The ventral and dorsal nerve cord inhibitory motor neurons, which are known to contain GABA-like immunoreactivity, were not labeled above background with 3H-GABA. Together with the experiments reported previously, these results define three classes of GABA-associated neurons in Ascaris: (1) neurons that contain endogenous GABA and possess a GABA uptake system; (2) neurons that contain endogenous GABA, but that either lack a GABA uptake system or possess a GABA uptake system of low activity; (3) neurons that possess a GABA uptake system, but that lack endogenous GABA.

  2. Genetic diversity of Ascaris in southwestern Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Betson, Martha; Nejsum, Peter; Llewellyn-Hughes, Julia

    2012-01-01

    Despite the common occurrence of ascariasis in southwestern Uganda, helminth control in the region has been limited. To gain further insights into the genetic diversity of Ascaris in this area, a parasitological survey in mothers (n=41) and children (n=74) living in two villages, Habutobere...

  3. Relative prevalences of Ascaris lumbricoides and Entamoeba ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A study was conducted among school children in Yauri Emirate of Nigeria to determine the relative prevalences of Ascaris lumbricoides and Entamoeba histolytica infections. Between May and September 2005 a total of 327 faecal samples from children were collected and examined using formal-ether concentration ...

  4. Microfluidic platform for electrophysiological recordings from host-stage hookworm Ascaris suum larvae: a new tool for anthelmenthic research

    Science.gov (United States)

    The screening of candidate compounds and natural products for anthelmintic activity is a key component of discovering new drugs against human and animal parasites. We previously validated in Caenorhabditis elegans a microfluidic device (‘chip’) that records non-invasively the tiny electrophysiologic...

  5. Size of Ascaris suum larvae is affected by parental genotype and location in the intestine in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nejsum, Peter; Thamsborg, Stig Milan; Jørgensen, Claus Bøttcher

    in the pig compare to the majority of parasites that are expelled has not been explored in a systematic manner. In order to investigate the effect of parasite genetics on establishment, pigs were infected with eggs of known genotypes and then killed at different time points: before, under and after expulsion...... at day 14 (before expulsion), 17 (during expulsion) and 28 pi. (after expulsion), respectively. At slaughter the small intestine was divided into 8 sections of similar length. Larvae from each section were isolated using an agar method. At day 17 pi. larvae were also isolated from 10% of the colon...

  6. Isotope partitioning for NAD-malic enzyme from Ascaris suum confirms a steady-state random kinetic mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C.Y.; Harris, B.G.; Cook, P.F.

    1988-01-12

    Isotope partitioning studies beginning with E-(/sup 14/C)NAD, E-(/sup 14/C) malate, E-(/sup 14/C) NAD-Mg/sup 2 +/, and E-Mg-(/sup 14/C)malate suggest a steady-state random mechanism for the NAD-malic enzyme. Isotope trapping beginning with E-(/sup 14/C)NAD and with varying concentrations of Mg/sup 2 +/ and malate in the chase solution indicates that Mg/sup 2 +/ is added in rapid equilibrium and must be added prior to malate for productive ternary complex formation. Equal percentage trapping from E-(/sup 14/C)NAD-Mg and E-Mg-(/sup 14/C) malate indicates the mechanism is steady-state random with equal off-rates for NAD and malate from E-NAD-Mg-malate. The off-rates for both do not change significantly in the ternary E-Mg-malate and E-NAD-Mg complexes, nor does the off-rate change for NAD from E-NAD. No trapping of malate was obtained from E-(/sup 14/C) malate, suggesting that this complex is nonproductive. A quantitative analysis of the data allows an estimation of values for a number of the rate constants along the reaction pathway.

  7. [Studies on the intradermal reactions with the fractions of Ascaris lumbricoides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chan Wook

    1967-06-01

    polysaccharide antigen. The wheal and erythema revealed correlationship each other. Both of them showed 65.5% positive boundary in the case of crude antigen. Generally, the crude antigen resulted the highest and strongest reaction than the other fractions; the mixed, protein and polysaccharide in decreasing order. In adult age group, who showed egg negative at the time of injection, 81.5% were positive in skin reaction with the crude antigen, and 88.6% in the group who complained doubtful symptom but egg negative. In the group who had past history of ascaris infection showed 66.6% positive and the egg negative infant group with the same crude antigen. The sheal size was not always paralleled with the worm burden. The cross reaction with the antigen from Ascaris lumbricoides and Toxocara canis was examined by the intradermal test. There was no cross reaction between the two antigen. The infected dog with Toxocara canis showed positive reaction by the crude antigen of same species, but mot by the human species. Experimentally, the positive skin reaction was appeared only by the crude antigen at four weeks after the infection of Toxocara canis. CONCLUSION: The intradermal studies with the fraction of Ascaris lumbricoides and Toxocara canis were performed to human and dog, and the following results were observed. 1) Wheal and erythema were appeared in the cases of ascaris infection or who had past history, but not in the ascaris free before. 2) The size of wheal reached to peak 30 minutes after the injection. 3) The crude antigen had specificity and showed no cross reaction. 4) The crude antigen cause the strongest and largest reaction than the other substances; protein, polysaccharide and the mixed antigen. No cutaneous reaction was observed with the fraction of polysaccharides. 5) The size of wheal did not parallel with the worm burden. 6) The skin reaction was appeared four weeks after the infection.

  8. The Prevalence of Ascaris And Hookworm Infections Among School ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In the study of the prevalence of Ascaris and hookworm infections among school children in Obehie, Ukwa-West L.G.A of Abia State, a total of 200 samples were examined using saline and iodine wet mount and Brine floatation method. Among the 200 people examined, 41(20.5%) samples were positive for Ascaris and ...

  9. Inactivation of Ascaris eggs in source-separated urine and feces by ammonia at ambient temperatures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordin, Annika; Nyberg, Karin; Vinnerås, Björn

    2009-02-01

    Sustainable management of toilet waste must prevent disease transmission but allow reuse of plant nutrients. Inactivation of uterus-derived Ascaris suum eggs was studied in relation to ammonia in source-separated urine without additives and in human feces to which urea had been added, in order to evaluate ammonia-based sanitation for production of safe fertilizers from human excreta. Urine was used concentrated or diluted 1:1 and 1:3 with tap water at 4, 14, 24, and 34 degrees C. Fecal material, with and without ash, was treated with 1% or 2% (wt/wt) urea at 24 and 34 degrees C. At 34 degrees C eggs were inactivated in less than 10 days in urine and in amended feces. At 24 degrees C only feces with 2% (wt/wt) urea or 1% (wt/wt) urea at high pH (10) inactivated all eggs within 1 month, and no inactivation was observed after 75 days in urine diluted 1:3 (18 +/- 11 mM NH(3)). At temperatures of > or =24 degrees C, NH(3) proved to be an efficient sanitizing agent in urine and feces at concentrations of > or =60 mM. Treating fecal material at 34 degrees C can give a 6-log(10) egg inactivation within 1 month, whereas at 24 degrees C 6 months of treatment is necessary for the same level of egg inactivation. At temperatures of 14 degrees C and below, inactivation rates were low, with viable eggs after 6 months even in concentrated urine.

  10. Wandering Ascaris Coming Out Through the Abdominal Wall

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Mohd L; Rather, Ajaz A.; Parray, Fazl Q.; Ahangar, Abdul G.; Bijli, Akram H.; Irshad, Ifat; Nayeem-Ul-Hassan; Khan, Tahir S.

    2013-01-01

    A rare case of ascaris coming out through the anterior abdominal wall is reported here. A 40-year-old female had undergone dilatation and curettage by a quack. On the second day she presented with presented with features of peritonitis. She was explored. Resection anastomosis of the ileum was done for multiple perforations of the ileum. Patient developed a fistula in the anterior abdominal wall which was draining bile-colored fluid. On the 12th postoperative day a 10-cm-long worm was seen coming out through the fistulous tract which was found to be Ascaris lumbricoids. Ascaris lumbricoids can lead to many complications ranging from worm colic to intestinal obstruction, volvulus, peritonitis, pancreatitis, cholangiohepatitis, liver abscess and many more. Worm has been reported to come out through mouth, nostrils, abdominal drains, T-tubes etc. But ascaris coming out through the anterior abdominal wall is very rare hence reported here. PMID:23930192

  11. Wandering ascaris coming out through the abdominal wall

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohd L Wani

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available A rare case of ascaris coming out through the anterior abdominal wall is reported here. A 40-year-old female had undergone dilatation and curettage by a quack. On the second day she presented with presented with features of peritonitis. She was explored. Resection anastomosis of the ileum was done for multiple perforations of the ileum. Patient developed a fistula in the anterior abdominal wall which was draining bile-colored fluid. On the 12 th postoperative day a 10-cm-long worm was seen coming out through the fistulous tract which was found to be Ascaris lumbricoids. Ascaris lumbricoids can lead to many complications ranging from worm colic to intestinal obstruction, volvulus, peritonitis, pancreatitis, cholangiohepatitis, liver abscess and many more. Worm has been reported to come out through mouth, nostrils, abdominal drains, T-tubes etc. But ascaris coming out through the anterior abdominal wall is very rare hence reported here.

  12. Liver abscess caused by Ascaris lumbricoides: case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PINILLA Análida Elizabeth

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A case is reported of a woman who lived in a rural area with a chronic illness that consisted of weight loss and abdominal pain in the epigastrium and upper right quadrant. The initial diagnosis was a mass in the liver, which was later, demonstrated, both by direct and histological examination, to be an abscess caused by Ascaris lumbricoides. Eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides and abundant Charcot-Leyden Crystals were found.

  13. GABA localization in the nematode Ascaris

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guastella, J.

    1988-01-01

    A histochemical approach was used to examine the distribution of GABA-associated neurons in the nematode Ascaris, an organism whose small number of morphologically simple neurons make it an excellent preparation for analyzing neuronal phenotypes. Two GABAergic markers were examined: GABA-like immunoreactivity (GLIR), a marker for endogenous stores of GABA; and ({sup 3}H)-GABA uptake, a marker for GABA uptake sites. Strong GLIR was present in the cell bodies, neurites and commissures of dorsal and ventral inhibitory motorneurons present in this region. Strong GLIR was also present in the cell bodies and processes of the four RME neurons in the nerve ring and in several other ganglionic neurons. Staining was absent in excitatory motorneurons, in ventral cord interneurons and in muscle cells and hypodermis. GABA uptake sites were found in single neural processes in both the ventral and dorsal nerve cords. ({sup 3}H)-GABA labeling was also observed in the other two RME cells and several other cephalic neurons. Four putative cholinergic excitatory motorneurons in the retrovesicular ganglion (RVG) were heavily labeled. Ventral and dorsal nerve cord inhibitory motorneurons did not take up ({sup 3}H)-GABA. Labeling of the ventral cord excitatory motorneuron somata and cell bodies was at or slightly above background. Heavy labeling of muscle cells was also observed.

  14. Paleoparasitological report on Ascaris aDNA from an ancient East Asian sample

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chang Seok Oh

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Ascaris DNA was extracted and sequenced from a medieval archaeological sample in Korea. While Ascaris eggs were confirmed to be of human origin by archaeological evidence, it was not possible to pinpoint the exact species due to close genetic relationships among them. Despite this shortcoming, this is the first Ascaris ancient DNA (aDNA report from a medieval Asian country and thus will expand the scope of Ascaris aDNA research.

  15. Sanitary survey of residential areas using Ascaris lumbricoides ova ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    high in temperate and tropical environments. Objective: To assess the sanitary conditions of soil using the presence of Ascaris lumbricoides ova as an indicator. ... an environmental health indicator could contribute to the development of surveillance tools and health protection measures in this area. A large scale study on ...

  16. Prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides among food vendors on a ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study revealed significant burden (p<0.05) of gastrointestinal parasitic infections among the food vendors in the study area with seventeen different intestinal parasites, namely: Ascaris lumbricoides (37.1%), Hookworm (17.9%), Entamoeba coli (12.1%), Taenia sp. (11.4%), Fasciola hepatica (11.4%), Giardia duodenalis ...

  17. Ascaris Lumbricoides (Round Worm) in the Upper Airway of an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Serious airway obstruction occurs when the adult worm obstructs the bronchi or the vocal cords with attending sequaele. We hereby present a case of a 67 year old man with cerebrovascular accident (stroke) admitted and mechanically ventilated in the Intensive Care Unit. However, four days later, a 15cm long adult ascaris ...

  18. Prevalence and risk factors for Ascaris and Cryptosporidium ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Diseases in particular parasitic infestation is among the drawbacks to profitable pig production since parasites compromise the production and reproduction performance of infested pigs. The objective of this study was to estimate the prevalence and associated risk factors for Ascaris and Cryptosporidium infestations in pigs ...

  19. Bolus obstruction by Ascaris lumbricoides | Wynne | South African ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Seventy-three cases of obstruction due to a bolus of Ascaris worms are reviewed, The diagnosis was made on the basis either of a characteristic palpable mass or a characteristic radiographic appearance. In 67 cases conservative treatment was successful. Six patients came to surgery, 5 because of deterioration, There ...

  20. Intestinal obstruction in a child with an exceptional ascaris burden ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Intestinal obstruction in a child with an exceptional ascaris burden - a case report. E A Agbakwuru, O Akinola, O Adejuyigbe, E O Komolafe. Abstract. No Abstract. NQJHM Vol. 8 (4) 1998: pp. 270-271. Full Text: EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT.

  1. Galloylated proanthocyanidins from shea (Vitellaria paradoxa) meal have potent anthelmintic activity against Ascaris suum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramsay, A; Williams, A R; Thamsborg, S M

    2016-01-01

    Proanthocyanidins (PA) from shea (Vitellaria paradoxa) meal were investigated by thiolytic degradation with benzyl mercaptan and the reaction products were analysed by high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. These PA were galloylated (≈40%), contained only B-type linkages and ha...

  2. Survival of Ascaris suum and Ascaridia galli eggs in liquid manure at different ammonia concentrations and temperatures

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Katakam, Kiran Kumar; Mejer, Helena; Dalsgaard, Anders

    2014-01-01

    . In addition, the effect of urea treatment on inactivation of ascarid eggs in relation to storage time was also tested. Nylon bags with 10,000 eggs of either species were placed in 200ml plastic bottles containing either urea-treated (2%) or untreated pig slurry for up to 120 days at 20°C, 6 days at 30°C, 36h...

  3. Prevalence of antibodies against Ascaris suum and its association with allergic manifestations in 4-year-old children in The Netherlands: the PIAMA birth cohort study.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinelli, E.; Willers, S.M.; Hoek, D.; Smit, H.A.; Kortbeek, L.M.; Hoekstra, M.O.; de Jongste, J.C.; van Knapen, F.; Postma, D.; Kerkhof, M.; Aalberse, R.C.; van der Giessen, J.; Brunekreef, B.

    2009-01-01

    The association between helminth infections and childhood atopic diseases remains controversial. The majority of studies have been carried out in tropical areas, whereas less information is available from western countries with low intensity of helminth infections. In the Netherlands, the infection

  4. Prevalence of antibodies against Ascaris suum and its association with allergic manifestations in 4-year-old children in the Netherlands : the PIAMA birth cohort study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pinelli, E.; Willers, S. M.; Hoek, D.; Smit, H. A.; Kortbeek, L. M.; Hoekstra, M.; de Jongste, J.; van Knapen, F.; Postma, D.; Kerkhof, M.; Aalberse, R.; van der Giessen, J. W. B.; Brunekreef, B.

    2009-01-01

    The association between helminth infections and childhood atopic diseases remains controversial. The majority of studies have been carried out in tropical areas, whereas less information is available from western countries with low intensity of helminth infections. In the Netherlands, the infection

  5. Incidence of Ascaris infection among primary school children in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Of the 1,519 pupils, 30% (225/759) male and 28% (210/760) female pupils were infected with Ascaris lumbricoides but it was not sex-specific (p>0.05). Male pupils voided higher number of worms (1,090, X = 2.2) than female pupils (879, X = 1.7). Intensity of infection rates was inversely related to body weight of pupils.

  6. Ultrasonographic findings of ascaris in the small bowel: A case report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Hyun Cheol; Shin, Hyeong Cheol; Kim, Hyung Hwan; Bae, Won Kyung; Kim, Il Young [Cheonan Hospital, Soonchunhyang University college of Medicine, Cheonan (Korea, Republic of); Park, Seong Jin [Bucheon Hospital, Soonchunhyang University college of Medicine, Bucheon (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Jin Soo [Keimyung University college of Medicine, Taegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2003-12-15

    Ascariasis is one of the most common helminthic disease worldwide and evoked variable clinical manifestations by the migration of worm in the alimentary and biliary tract. The ultrasonographic detection of ascaris in the small bowel is relatively difficult, and no report on the ultrasonographic findings have been published in Korea. On abdominal ultrasonography, ascaris is seen as an intraluminal tubular structure with 4 linear echogenic stripes and movement. We report a case of ascaris in the small bowel detected by abdominal ultrasonography.

  7. Dicty_cDB: VHA418 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 5 |ED419185.1 AUAC-aab08f12.g1 Ascaris suum whole genome shotgun library (PMAJ_4 GSS) Ascaris suum genomic, ...genomic survey sequence. 46 2.6 1 ED361276 |ED361276.1 AUAC-aal14e01.b1 Ascaris suum whole genome shotgun library (PMAJ_4 GSS) Ascari...66 |ED337566.1 AUAC-aao38c10.g1 Ascaris suum whole genome shotgun library (PMAJ_4 GSS) Ascaris suum genomic,

  8. Developing a method for quantification of Ascaris eggs on hands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeandron, Aurelie; Ensink, Jeroen J. H.; Thamsborg, Stig Milan

    was to develop a method to assess the number of Ascaris eggs on hands and determine the egg recovery rate of the method. Under laboratory conditions, hands were contaminated with app. 1000 Ascaris eggs, air dried and washed in a plastic bag retaining the washing water, in order to determine recovery rates...

  9. Pseudoobstrucción intestinal por Ascaris lumbricoides

    OpenAIRE

    Alessio Garro Donini

    2015-01-01

    La ascariosis es una geohelmintosis, ya que el agente causal requiere de la tierra para que se forme la fase infectiva para el hombre, que en este caso la fase es el huevo larvado conteniendo la larva de segundo estadio. Es una infección producida por el nematodo Ascaris lumbricoides, uno de los parásitos descritos desde la antigüedad (Becerril, 2008). Esta parasitosis tiene gran importancia epidemiológica, pues las zonas donde se presenta con mayor frecuencia son las de gran pobreza; aquella...

  10. Accelerated larvae development of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs with ultraviolet radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Aladawi, M.A. [Syrian Atomic Energy Commission, Radiation Technology Department, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)]. E-mail: Scientific@aec.org.sy; Albarodi, H. [Syrian Atomic Energy Commission, Radiation Technology Department, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Hammoudeh, A. [Syrian Atomic Energy Commission, Radiation Technology Department, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Shamma, M. [Syrian Atomic Energy Commission, Radiation Technology Department, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic); Sharabi, N. [Syrian Atomic Energy Commission, Radiation Technology Department, P.O. Box 6091, Damascus (Syrian Arab Republic)

    2006-01-15

    In order to investigate the effect of UV radiation on the development of Ascaris lumbricoides larvae, eggs were exposed to increasing UV doses. Filtered wastewater from the secondary effluent taken from the Damascus wastewater treatment plant (DWTP) was used as irradiation and incubation medium. The progressive and accelerated embryonation stages were microscopically observed and the percentages of completely developed larvae were determined weekly. Results indicated that the UV radiation accelerated the development of larvae with increasing UV dose. Preliminary information about the relationship between the UV radiation dose and rate of embryonation is also presented.

  11. Production system dynamism and parasitic interaction of swine in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The findings were Ascaris suum (13.9%), Eimeria species (5.6%), Oesophagostomum species (6.7%) and Sarcoptes scabiei (16.2%). Mixed infection was observed on 13 swine, among them 2% were positive for Ascaris suum and Eimeria species, where as 1.14% were positive for Ascaris suum and Oesophagostomum ...

  12. Solution structure of a repeated unit of the ABA-1 nematode polyprotein allergen of Ascaris reveals a novel fold and two discrete lipid-binding sites.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nicola A G Meenan

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Nematode polyprotein allergens (NPAs are an unusual class of lipid-binding proteins found only in nematodes. They are synthesized as large, tandemly repetitive polyproteins that are post-translationally cleaved into multiple copies of small lipid binding proteins with virtually identical fatty acid and retinol (Vitamin A-binding characteristics. They are probably central to transport and distribution of small hydrophobic compounds between the tissues of nematodes, and may play key roles in nutrient scavenging, immunomodulation, and IgE antibody-based responses in infection. In some species the repeating units are diverse in amino acid sequence, but, in ascarid and filarial nematodes, many of the units are identical or near-identical. ABA-1A is the most common repeating unit of the NPA of Ascaris suum, and is closely similar to that of Ascaris lumbricoides, the large intestinal roundworm of humans. Immune responses to NPAs have been associated with naturally-acquired resistance to infection in humans, and the immune repertoire to them is under strict genetic control.The solution structure of ABA-1A was determined by protein nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. The protein adopts a novel seven-helical fold comprising a long central helix that participates in two hollow four-helical bundles on either side. Discrete hydrophobic ligand-binding pockets are found in the N-terminal and C-terminal bundles, and the amino acid sidechains affected by ligand (fatty acid binding were identified. Recombinant ABA-1A contains tightly-bound ligand(s of bacterial culture origin in one of its binding sites.This is the first mature, post-translationally processed, unit of a naturally-occurring tandemly-repetitive polyprotein to be structurally characterized from any source, and it belongs to a new structural class. NPAs have no counterparts in vertebrates, so represent potential targets for drug or immunological intervention. The nature of the (as yet

  13. The prevalence of Trichuris, Ascaris and hookworm infection in Orang Asli children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norhayati, M; Zainudin, B; Mohammod, C G; Oothuman, P; Azizi, O; Fatmah, M S

    1997-03-01

    A community study on the age and sex related prevalence, intensity infection and frequency distribution of Ascaris, Trichuris and hookworm was carried out in 205 Orang Asli (Aborigines) children (95 boys, 110 girls) aged 1-13 years. The overall prevalence of Ascaris, Trichuris and hookworm was 62.9%, 91.7% and 28.8%, respectively. Almost two-thirds of the children were infected with moderate and severe intensity infection of Trichuris, 46.3% had moderate to severe intensity infection of Ascaris. However only 1.5% had moderate intensity of hookworm infection. The prevalence and mean intensity infection (measured by eggs per g) of Ascaris was age-dependent; lower in age group 1-4 years reached peak and stable at age group 5 years and above. The prevalence of Trichuris was high in all age groups and it fluctuated with age; the mean intensity of infection of Trichuris (measured by eggs per g) was age-dependent. Hookworm infection also rose with age and reached peak at 5-6 years, following that the prevalence declined. The frequency distributions of Ascaris, and hookworm were overdispersed. A strong positive correlation (p < 0.001) were observed between Ascaris and Trichuris and between hookworm and Trichuris. A positive correlation (p < 0.01) were also observed between Ascaris and hookworm.

  14. Dicty_cDB: VHC675 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ED460729.1 AUAC-aao05g05.g1 Ascaris suum whole genome shotgun library (PMAJ_4 GSS) Ascaris suum genomic, gen...omic survey sequence. 50 0.11 1 ED450392 |ED450392.1 AUAC-aan56c12.g1 Ascaris suum whole genome shotgun library (PMAJ_4 GSS) Ascaris...2 |ED393242.1 AUAC-aai25f10.g1 Ascaris suum whole genome shotgun library (PMAJ_4 GSS) Ascaris suum genomic, ...genomic survey sequence. 50 0.11 1 ED186094 |ED186094.1 AUAC-aah66a04.g1 Ascaris suum whole genome shotgun library (PMAJ_4 GSS) Ascar...is suum genomic, genomic survey sequence. 50 0.11 1 DV44

  15. Cólico renoureteral producido por gusano redondo (Ascaris lumbricoides Renoureteral colic produced by round worm (Ascaris lumbricoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emilio Simón Barroso de la Cruz

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presentó un caso de un paciente del sexo masculino de 57 años de edad que acudió al cuerpo de guardia de nuestro centro por presentar dolor intenso en región lumbar derecha con irradiación a flanco y genitales externos, acompañado de náuseas, vómitos y escalofríos, por lo que necesitó analgésico. Se estudió y se le orientó tratamiento médico. En su evolución a los 4 días expulsó parásito por uretra que fue llevado al laboratorio de parasitología. Se diagnostica Ascaris lumbricoides, y se le orienta tratamiento médico específico y estudios de laboratorio. Se hizo interconsulta con servicio de gastroenterología y el paciente ha evolucionado satisfactoriamente.The case of a male patient aged 57 that received attention at the emergency department of our center for presenting acute pain on the right lumbar region that went to the flank and genitalia, accompanied with nausea, vomits and shills, that made necessary the administration of analgesics, was presented. The patient was studied and medical treatment was applied. At the four days of evolution the patient expelled a parasite through the urethra that was taken to the parasitology laboratory. Ascaris lumbricoides was diagnosed and specific medical treatment and lab studies were indicated. Interconsultation with the gastroenterology service was made and the patient has evolved satisfactorily.

  16. KETAHANAN HIDUP (VIABILITY TELUR ASCARIS LUMBRICOIDES DALAM CAIRAN OLAHAN TINJA TANGKI PENCERNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pinardi Hadidjaja

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available An introduction of integrated management system for human excreta was carried out in the village of Cirimekar, Cibinong subdistrict, West Java The purpose of this study is to gain the readiness and motivation of the population in that village to participate and benefit the product of this system for fish farming and the growth of water hyacinth (Eichornia crassipes. The study was performed integratedly between several aspects namely the socio-economica, tech­nical, medical, biologicatas well as environmental, and this involved the establishment of the profile of the community, stool, sludge, effluent and fish examinations In this paper only the Viability of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs is discussed. The digestion tank seemed to work as expected, resulted in the de­generation of 423%. A lumbricoides eggs found in the tank as well as in the experimental ponds It was most probable that the death of the A. lumbricoides eggs was due to aerobic decomposition which took place in the tank giving rise to an increase of temperature which would enhance the death of the eggs

  17. Gamma radiation effects in Ascaris sp. eggs in the treated and untreated sewage; Efeitos da irradiacao gama em ovos de Ascaris sp. presentes em esgoto bruto e tratado

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bastos, Gloria S.M.; Chernicharo, Carlos A.L.; Zerbini, Adriana M. [Minas Gerais Univ., Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Sanitaria e Ambiental]. E-mail: gsuzanbio@yahoo.com.br; Grossi, Pablo A.; Corres, Ricardo F. [Centro de Desenvolvimento de Tecnologia Nuclear (CDTN), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    This work evaluated the efficiency of domestic sewage disinfection. The sewage was treated in UASB reactor (upflow anaerobic sludge blanket), and the influent and affluent disinfection was promoted by gamma irradiation. To test the efficiency of disinfection, Ascaris eggs viability was analyzed undo microscopic observation in samples before and after the irradiation. The Ascaris sp. eggs were recovered from human's faeces and inoculated into sewage samples. The viability of Ascaris sp. eggs was analyzed after exposure to 0.5 KGy, 1.0 KGy, 2.5 KGy, 5.0 KGy e 10 KGy. In addition, suspended solids were analyzed in order to verify the effect of solids content to the irradiation efficiency. Preliminary results indicated that for doses lower than 1.5 KGy, the efficiency of inactivation in the affluent was higher than the influent. It was also observed that doses above of 2.5 KGy had inactivated practically 100% of eggs of Ascaris sp. in the treated and untreated sewage samples. These results suggest that gamma irradiation can be used as an efficient technique to disinfect domestic sewage. (author)

  18. Dicty_cDB: CHK263 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available DNA sequence. 50 0.039 1 BF050079 |BF050079.1 As_tgz_22C04_SKPL Ascaris suum adu...lt male testis germinal zone from Alan Scott Ascaris suum cDNA clone As_tgz_22C04 5', mRNA sequence. 50 0.03...9 1 BM278751 |BM278751.1 As_tgz_66H01_SKPL Ascaris suum adult male testis germinal zone from Alan Scott Ascaris

  19. Dicty_cDB: CFH413 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ome. 46 1.2 1 CA305082 |CA305082.1 As_adfo_27F02_T3 Ascaris suum adult female ovary Ascaris suum cDNA clone ...As_adfo_27F02 5', mRNA sequence. 46 1.2 1 CA304740 |CA304740.1 As_adfo_21G05_T3 Ascaris suum adult female ovary Ascaris

  20. Sensitization to Ascaris lumbricoides and severity of childhood asthma in Costa Rica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunninghake, Gary M; Soto-Quiros, Manuel E; Avila, Lydiana; Ly, Ngoc P; Liang, Catherine; Sylvia, Jody S; Klanderman, Barbara J; Silverman, Edwin K; Celedón, Juan C

    2007-03-01

    Little is known about sensitization (defined as a positive IgE) to helminths and disease severity in patients with asthma. To examine the relationship between sensitization (defined as a positive IgE) to Ascaris lumbricoides and measures of asthma morbidity and severity in a Costa Rican population with low prevalence of parasitic infection but high prevalence of parasitic exposure. Cross-sectional study of 439 children (ages 6 to 14 years) with asthma. Linear regression and logistic regression were used for the multivariate statistical analysis. After adjustment for parental education and other covariates, sensitization to Ascaris lumbricoides was associated with having at least 1 positive skin test to allergens (odds ratio, 5.15; 95% CI, 2.36-11.21; P < .001), increased total serum IgE and eosinophils in peripheral blood, reductions in FEV(1) and FEV(1)/forced vital capacity, increased airway responsiveness and bronchodilator responsiveness, and hospitalizations for asthma in the previous year (odds ratio, 3.08; 95% CI, 1.23-7.68; P = .02). Sensitization to Ascaris lumbricoides is associated with increased severity and morbidity of asthma among children in Costa Rica. This association is likely mediated by an increased degree of atopy among children with asthma who are sensitized to Ascaris. In areas with a low prevalence of helminthiasis such as Costa Rica, Ascaris sensitization may be an important marker of severe atopy and disease morbidity in children with asthma.

  1. Ascaris exit through the feeding jejunostomy tract: a rare case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wani, Mohd Lateef; Rather, Ajaz Ahmad; Irshad, Ifat; Hakeem, Zubair Ashraf; Bijli, Akram Hussain; Khan, Tahir Saleem; Lone, Reyaz Ahmad

    2011-01-01

    A 65-year-old male was operated for esophageal carcinoma. Transhiatal esophagogastrectomy with jejunostomy feeding tube was done. Orals were started on the 12th postoperative day. The jejunostomy feeding tube was removed on the 20th postoperative day. Immediately after removal of the feeding tube, a 10-12 cm ascaris was seen emerging through the jejunostomy tract. Ascaris lumbricoides can cause a variety of complications like intestinal obstruction, perforation, biliary obstruction, pancreatitis, liver abscess, cholangiohepatitis, volvulus, and gangrene, etc. Although the above-mentioned complications have been frequently reported, ascaris exit through the feeding jejunostomy tract is very rare. This case is reported here to emphasize the importance of this complication of wandering ascariasis.

  2. A quantitative assessment method for Ascaris eggs on hands

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jeandron, Aurelie; Ensink, Jeroen H. J.; Thamsborg, Stig Milan

    2014-01-01

    to assess the number of Ascaris eggs on hands and determine the egg recovery rate of the method. Under laboratory conditions, hands were seeded with a known number of Ascaris eggs, air dried and washed in a plastic bag retaining the washing water, in order to determine recovery rates of eggs for four...... and FLOTAC). A modified concentration McMaster technique showed the highest egg recovery rate from bags. Two of the four diluted detergents (benzethonium chloride 0.1% and 7X 1%) also showed a higher egg recovery rate and were then compared with de-ionized water for recovery of helminth eggs from hands...

  3. SjAPI, the first functionally characterized Ascaris-type protease inhibitor from animal venoms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zongyun Chen

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Serine protease inhibitors act as modulators of serine proteases, playing important roles in protecting animal toxin peptides from degradation. However, all known serine protease inhibitors discovered thus far from animal venom belong to the Kunitz-type subfamily, and whether there are other novel types of protease inhibitors in animal venom remains unclear. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, by screening scorpion venom gland cDNA libraries, we identified the first Ascaris-type animal toxin family, which contains four members: Scorpiops jendeki Ascaris-type protease inhibitor (SjAPI, Scorpiops jendeki Ascaris-type protease inhibitor 2 (SjAPI-2, Chaerilus tricostatus Ascaris-type protease inhibitor (CtAPI, and Buthus martensii Ascaris-type protease inhibitor (BmAPI. The detailed characterization of Ascaris-type peptide SjAPI from the venom gland of scorpion Scorpiops jendeki was carried out. The mature peptide of SjAPI contains 64 residues and possesses a classical Ascaris-type cysteine framework reticulated by five disulfide bridges, different from all known protease inhibitors from venomous animals. Enzyme and inhibitor reaction kinetics experiments showed that recombinant SjAPI was a dual function peptide with α-chymotrypsin- and elastase-inhibiting properties. Recombinant SjAPI inhibited α-chymotrypsin with a Ki of 97.1 nM and elastase with a Ki of 3.7 μM, respectively. Bioinformatics analyses and chimera experiments indicated that SjAPI contained the unique short side chain functional residues "AAV" and might be a useful template to produce new serine protease inhibitors. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: To our knowledge, SjAPI is the first functionally characterized animal toxin peptide with an Ascaris-type fold. The structural and functional diversity of animal toxins with protease-inhibiting properties suggested that bioactive peptides from animal venom glands might be a new source of protease inhibitors, which will accelerate the

  4. Modelagem geoestatística da infecção por Ascaris lumbricoides Geostatistical modeling of Ascaris lumbricoides infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bruno de Paula Menezes Drumond Fortes

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available O estudo tem por objetivo modelar a distribuição espacial da ocorrência de ascaríase, utilizando mapas de risco mediante técnicas de geoprocessamento e análise geoestatística. Com base no banco de dados do PAISQUA, foram selecionados 19 setores censitários do Rio de Janeiro. Foram amostradas e georreferenciadas, no centróide de seu respectivo domicílio, 1.550 crianças com idade de 1 a 9 anos. Mapas de risco de Ascaris lumbricoides foram gerados usando krigagem indicadora. Com base na validação cruzada, os valores estimados foram comparados aos observados por intermédio da curva ROC. Um modelo de semivariograma isotrópico esférico com alcance de 30m e efeito pepita de 50% foi empregado na krigagem ordinária indicadora para a construção de um mapa de probabilidade de infecção por A. lumbricoides. A acurácia global, mensurada por meio da área sob a curva ROC, mostrou-se significativa. O uso da krigagem ordinária indicadora permitiu a modelagem de mapas de risco valendo-se da amostra de uma variável indicadora. O emprego das técnicas de análise estatística espacial mostrou-se adequado na predição da ocorrência do fenômeno, não ficando restrita a delimitações político-administrativas da região.The following study intends to model the spatial distribution of ascariasis, through the use of geoprocessing and geostatistic analysis. The database used in the study was taken from the PAISQUA project, including a coproparasitologic and domiciliary survey, conducted in 19 selected census tracts of Rio de Janeiro State, Brazil, randomly selecting a group of 1,550 children aged 1 to 9 years old plotting them in their respective domicile's centroids. Risk maps of Ascaris lumbricoides were generated by indicator kriging. The estimated and observed values from the cross-validation were compared using a ROC curve. An isotropic spherical semivariogram model with a range of 30m and nugget effect of 50% was employed in ordinary

  5. Dicty_cDB: VHA441 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available a genomic, DNA sequence. 50 0.16 1 ED460729 |ED460729.1 AUAC-aao05g05.g1 Ascaris suum whole genome shotgun library (PMAJ_4 GSS) Ascar...is suum genomic, genomic survey sequence. 50 0.16 1 ED450392 |ED450392.1 AUAC-aan56c12.g1 Ascaris... suum whole genome shotgun library (PMAJ_4 GSS) Ascaris suum genomi...c, genomic survey sequence. 50 0.16 1 ED393242 |ED393242.1 AUAC-aai25f10.g1 Ascaris suum whole genome shotgu...n library (PMAJ_4 GSS) Ascaris suum genomic, genomic survey sequence. 50 0.16 1 ED186094 |ED186094.1 AUAC-aah66a04.g1 Ascaris

  6. Dicty_cDB: VHB245 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D460729 |ED460729.1 AUAC-aao05g05.g1 Ascaris suum whole genome shotgun library (PMAJ_4 GSS) Ascaris suum gen...omic, genomic survey sequence. 50 0.11 1 ED450392 |ED450392.1 AUAC-aan56c12.g1 Ascaris... suum whole genome shotgun library (PMAJ_4 GSS) Ascaris suum genomic, genomic survey sequence. 50 0.11 ...1 ED393242 |ED393242.1 AUAC-aai25f10.g1 Ascaris suum whole genome shotgun library (PMAJ_4 GSS) Ascaris suum ...genomic, genomic survey sequence. 50 0.11 1 ED186094 |ED186094.1 AUAC-aah66a04.g1 Ascaris

  7. Development of a Loop Mediated Isothermal Amplification for Diagnosis of Ascaris lumbricoides in Fecal Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Esther A. Shiraho

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Ascaris lumbricoides is a nematode parasite that causes the common tropical infection ascariasis in humans. It is also considered among the neglected tropical diseases. Diagnosis relies mainly on microscopy-based methods which are laborious, are limited by low sensitivity, and require high expertise. We have developed a loop mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP for diagnosis of ascariasis in fecal samples, based on the first internal transcribed (ITS-1 spacer region of the ribosomal DNA. We used Primer Explorer V4 software to design primers. Ascaris adult and ova were obtained from naturally infected school children, whose parents/guardians gave consent for their participation in the study. Genomic DNA was extracted using alkaline lysis method and amplified by LAMP at 63°C for 45 minutes. LAMP products were visualized by naked eyes after adding SYBR Green dye and also on agarose gel. LAMP successfully and reliably detected Ascaris DNA from a single egg and in fecal samples. The assay specifically detected Ascaris DNA without amplifying DNA from ova of other parasites which commonly coexist with A. lumbricoides in feces. The developed LAMP assay has great potential for use in ascariasis diagnosis at the point of care and in low infection intensity situation that characterize control and elimination campaigns.

  8. A Community Based Survey of the Burden of Ascaris lumbricoides in ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The prevalence of Ascaris lumbricoides was determined using the kato-katz method. Data was obtained using questionnaires which were administered by the researchers to mothers and extended family members living in the same household. Results: Out of the 361 single stool samples collected, from the subjects (made ...

  9. Some risk factors of Ascaris and Trichuris infection in Malaysian aborigine (Orang Asli) children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norhayati, M; Oothuman, P; Fatmah, M S

    1998-12-01

    A study on risk factors of soil-transmitted helminths was conducted in a highly endemic area. In all 205 children (95 boys and 110 girls) participated in this study. The overall prevalences of Ascaris, Trichuris and hookworm infection were 62.5%, 91.7% and 28.8% respectively. Only 22.4% of the children had a single infection either by Ascaris or Trichuris; 69.3% had mixed infection and the most prevalent of mixed infection was a combination of Ascaris and Trichuris. Logistic regression analysis confirmed that low level mother's education was a risk factor for moderate and severe infection of Ascaris and age < or = 6-year-old was a protective factor. In Trichuris infection logistic regression analysis confirmed that usage of well-water and age < or = 6-year-old were the risk factors. Logistic regression analysis on worm scores confirmed that usage of well-water and non-usage of toilets were the risk factors from getting severe worm scores and age < or = 6-year-old was a protective factor. Our finding suggest that socio-behavioural (related to mother's education), demographic (children age) and environmental-factors (usage of well-water and non-usage of toilets) are the elements to be considered in the design of long term soil-transmitted helminths (STH) control in an endemic areas.

  10. Laparotomy due to Ascaris lumbricoides at A.I.C Litein Mission ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Background: Ascariasis is known to be a cause of intestinal obstruction particularly in children. This study was aimed at determining the burden of Ascaris lumbricoides (round worms) in as a cause of mechanical intestinal obstruction requiring laparotomy for treatment in a rural setting. Methods: The study was a 5-Year ...

  11. [Monitoring and SWOT analysis of Ascaris eggs pollution in soil of rural China].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hui-hui; Zhou, Chang-hai; Zang, Wei; Zhang, Xue-qiang; Chen, Ying-dan

    2014-06-01

    To understand the status of Ascaris eggs pollution in soil at national monitoring spots of soil-transmitted nematodiasis, so as to provide the evidence for making countermeasures and evaluating the control effect. Ten households were selected from each of the 22 national monitoring spots annually according to the National Surveillance Program of Soil-Transmitted Nematodiasis (Trial), and the soil samples from vegetable gardens, toilet periphery, courtyards and kitchens were collected and examined by using the modified floatation test with saturated sodium nitrate. Fertilized or unfertilized eggs as well as live or dead fertilized eggs were discriminated and identified. In addition, a SWOT analysis of monitoring of Ascaris eggs pollution in the soil of rural China was carried out. A total of 1 090 households were monitored in 22 monitoring spots from 2006 to 2010. The total detection rate of Ascaris eggs in the soil was 30.73%, and the detection rates of fertilized, unfertilized and live fertilized eggs were 13.21%, 26.42% and 20.28%, respectively. The total detection rates of Ascaris eggs in the vegetable garden, toilet periphery, courtyard and kitchen were 16.51%, 13.49%, 14.22% and 10.73% respectively. The SWOT analysis demonstrated that the monitoring work had both advantages and disadvantages, and was faced with opportunities as well as threats. The pollution status of Ascaris eggs in the soil is still quite severe at some national monitoring spots, and the counter-measures such as implementing hazard-free treatment of stool, improving water supply and sanitation and reforming environment should be taken to protect people from being infected.

  12. Perbandingan Kadar IL-5 dan Jumlah Eosinofil Antara Anak dan Orang Dewasa yang Terinfeksi Ascaris Lumbricoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Darmadi ,

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstrak Ascaris lumbricoides pada umumnya menginfeksi anak, tetapi juga dapat terjadi pada orang dewasa. Respon imun hospes terhadap infeksi cacing dimulai dengan teraktifasinya Th2 dengan peningkatan yang signifikan dari IL-4, IL-5, IL-9, IL-10 dan IL-13. IL-5 yang terbentuk merangsang perkembangan dan aktivasi eosinofil. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah mengetahui perbandingan kadar IL-5 dan jumlah eosinofil antara anak dan orang dewasa yang terinfeksi oleh Ascaris lumbricoides. Telah dilakukan penelitian secara cross sectional terhadap 16 orang anak dan 16 orang dewasa yang terinfeksi Ascaris lumbricoides. Spesimen darah dan serum anak dan orang dewasa diperiksa IL-5 metode ELISA dan jumlah eosinofil metode mikroskopis. Data dianalisis dengan uji t independent dengan hasil statistik bermakna bila p<0,05. Didapatkan rerata kadar IL-5 anak 5,90±3,61 pg/ml dan 4,10±1,98 pg/ml rerata kadar IL-5 pada orang dewasa dengan nilai p=0,092 (p>0,05, sedangkan rerata jumlah eosinofil anak 14,56±7,77% dan 8,81±4,65% rerata jumlah eosinofil orang dewasa dengan nilai p=0,018 (p<0,05. Kadar IL-5 tidak berbeda signifikan antara anak dan orang dewasa, sebaliknya jumlah eosinofil terdapat perbedaan yang signifikan antara anak dan orang dewasa. Kesimpulan hasil penelitian ini ialah jumlah eosinofil anak lebih tinggi dari pada jumlah eosinofil orang dewasa yang terinfeksi Ascaris lumbricoides. Kata kunci: IL-5, jumlah eosinofil, anak, orang dewasa, infeksi Ascaris lumbricoides Abstract The infection of Ascaris lumbricides common infect children, but it also can be occurred to adult. The immune’s host respond to the worm infection begin from the activation of Th2 by the significant increasing from IL-4, IL-5, IL-9 and IL-13. IL-5 which formed stimulate the development and eosinofil’s activation. The objective of this study was to know the comparison IL-5 degree with the total of eosinofil between the child and adult who is infected by Ascaris lumbricides. The

  13. Dicty_cDB: SFK861 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ohalensis cDNA clone 106102... 28 0.089 3 ( ED390154 ) AUAC-aai46g07.b1 Ascaris s...uum whole genome shotgu... 50 0.12 1 ( ED307254 ) AUAC-aac13g12.g1 Ascaris suum whole genome shotgu... 50 0....12 1 ( CB014072 ) As_tgz_73H08_SKPL Ascaris suum adult male testis ... 50 0.12 1 dna update 2009. 1.19 Homol

  14. Determination the lethal dose of ascaris lumbricoides ova by gamma irradiation

    CERN Document Server

    Shamma, M A; Sharabi, N

    2002-01-01

    The lethal gamma irradiation dose of ascaris lumbricoides which collected from Damascus Sewage water Plant was determined. Ascaris lumbricoides ova were treated with several gamma irradiation doses with (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4,...and 1.5 KGy). No morphological changes were observed on the eggs when directly examined microscopically after irradiation. However after two weeks of incubation at 37 degree centigrade the cell contents of the eggs which irradiated with 0.5 KGy and beyond were fragmented and scattered in the whole eggs and no larvae were observed after eight weeks of incubation. It is concluded that the dose 0.5 my be considered as the dose of choice if sewage water is to be treated by gamma rays.

  15. Ascaris lumbricoids Infection as a Risk Factor for Asthma and Atopy in Rural Bangladeshi Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawlader, Mohammad D H; Ma, Enbo; Noguchi, Emiko; Itoh, Makoto; Arifeen, Shams E; Persson, Lars Å; Moore, Sophie E; Raqib, Rubhana; Wagatsuma, Yukiko

    2014-06-01

    Controversy persists as to whether helminth infections cause or protect against asthma and atopy. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of helminth infection on asthma and atopy among Bangladeshi children. A total of 912 children aged 4.5 years (mean = 54.4, range = 53.5-60.8 months) participated in a cross-sectional study nested into a randomized controlled trial in Bangladesh. Ever-asthma, ever-wheezing and current wheezing were identified using the International Study of Asthma and Allergies in Childhood questionnaire. Current helminth infection was defined by the presence of helminth eggs in stools, measured by routine microscopic examination. Repeated Ascaris infection was defined by the presence of anti-Ascaris IgE ≥ 0.70 UA/ml in serum measured by the CAP-FEIA method. Atopy was defined by specific IgE to house dust mite (anti-DP IgE) ≥ 0.70 UA/ml measured by the CAP-FEIA method and/or positive skin prick test (≥ 5 mm). Anti-Ascaris IgE was significantly associated with ever asthma (odds ratio (OR) = 1.86, 95% CI: 1.14-3.04, highest vs. lowest quartile; P for trend 0.016). Anti-Ascaris IgE was also significantly associated with positive anti-DP IgE (OR = 9.89, 95% CI: 6.52-15.00, highest vs. lowest; P for trend asthma and atopy in rural Bangladeshi children. Further analysis is required to examine the mechanism of developing asthma and atopy in relation to helminth infection.

  16. Modeling the inactivation of ascaris eggs as a function of ammonia concentration and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fidjeland, J; Nordin, A; Pecson, B M; Nelson, K L; Vinnerås, B

    2015-10-15

    Ammonia sanitization is a promising technology for sanitizing human excreta intended for use as a fertilizer in agriculture. Ascaris eggs are the most persistent pathogens regarding ammonia inactivation and are commonly present in fecal sludge in low- and middle-income countries. In this study, a model for predicting ammonia inactivation of ascaris eggs was developed. Data from four previous studies were compiled and analyzed statistically, and a mathematical model for the treatment time required for inactivation was created. The inactivation rate increased with NH3 activity to the power of 0.7. The required treatment time was found to decrease 10-fold for each 16 °C temperature increase. Dry matter (DM) content and pH had no direct effect on inactivation, but had an indirect effect due to their impact on NH3 activity, which was estimated using the Pitzer approach. An additional model giving an approximation of Pitzer NH3 activity but based on the Emerson approach, DM content and total ammonia (NHTot) was also developed. The treatment time required for different log10 reductions of ascaris egg viability can thus easily be estimated by the model as a function of NH3 activity and temperature. The impact on treatment time by different treatment options can then be theoretically evaluated, promoting improvements of the treatment e.g. by adding urea or alkaline agents, or increasing the temperature by solar heating. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Dicty_cDB: CFI752 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e 2 strain Mara4 polyprotein gene, complete cds. 46 1.2 1 CA305082 |CA305082.1 As_adfo_27F02_T3 Ascaris suum adult female ovary Ascar...is suum cDNA clone As_adfo_27F02 5', mRNA sequence. 46 1.2 1 CA304740 |CA304740.1 As_adfo_21G05_T3 Ascaris... suum adult female ovary Ascaris suum cDNA clone As_adfo_21G05 5', mRNA sequence. 46

  18. Dicty_cDB: VHD447 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available sh DNA sequence *** SEQUENCING IN PROGRESS *** from clone CH211-209H21. 40 0.38 5 ED103971 |ED103971.1 AUAC-aaj47e06.b1 Ascaris... suum whole genome shotgun library (PMAJ_4 GSS) Ascaris suum g...enomic, genomic survey sequence. 36 0.59 2 ED197004 |ED197004.1 AUAC-aav64c10.b1 Ascaris suum whole genome s...hotgun library (PMAJ_4 GSS) Ascaris suum genomic, genomic survey sequence. 36 0.64 2 BX679670 |BX679670.2 Ze

  19. Granulomatous peritonitis due to Ascaris lumbricoides. Case report Granulomatosis peritoneal por Ascaris lumbricoides.Presentación de un caso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Aguirre Muñoz

    2008-06-01

    the underdeveloped countries. It is related to conditions of poverty, malnutrition and poor hygiene. According to the complex life cycle of the parasite, several and different intestinal and extraintestinal complications can arise, including peritonitis. Appropriate treatment and preventive measures are very important factors to avoid deaths caused by this disease.

    We report the case of a 3 year-old girl, coming from a rural area of Colombia, who presented peritonitis by Ascaris lumbricoides, preceded by persistent diarrhea, pain and abdominal mass. She was incidentally diagnosed by means of laparotomy and peritoneal biopsy, because an intestinal lymphoma was suspected.

  1. Sacrum suum verbum – aspekte van Calvyn se Skrifbeskouing in sy Kategismus van 1545

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.E. d’Assonville

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Sacrum suum verbum – aspects of Calvin’s view of Scripture in his 1545 Catechism The succession of spiritual streams that followed in the wake of the Reformation gave rise to seismic shifts in the way Scripture was viewed, the consequences of which still have decisive significance in theology today – most inevitably for preaching and catechism. Semler’s book “Abhandlung von freier Unter-suchung des Canon” (1771-1775, with its insistance on a separation between Scripture and Word, played a far-reaching role in this regard. Against this backdrop, and with the doctrine of Scripture in Calvin’s Catechism (1545 yet to be examined (in contrast with his “Institutes”, for example, this article focuses on the issue of authority in catechesis. Given the central place that catechism occupied in Calvin’s ministry and in his em-phasis on Word ministry, this issue lies at the heart of the subject of “Calvin as catechist”. The investigation has delivered exceptional results. Calvin’s handling of Scripture is quite dynamic. In a discussion on authority, he uses the concept of “Word” to refer implicitly to Scripture, while simultaneously binding it directly to the reve-lation in Christ. By referring to that which “is established from the Word”, he indicates the primacy of Scripture in the issue of authority. Scripture in its entirety is revered to as the Word of God, and is valid as such for the (whole church. It is therefore not possibe to detach “sola Scriptura” from either “tota Scrip-tura” or “una Scriptura”. According to Calvin in his Catechism, Scripture is valid as the sufficient authoritative foundation for theological and confes-sional pronouncements. In this regard, it is especially the con-nection between Word and Spirit that is of fundamental signi-ficance. The effect of this is that the doctrine of Scripture is not only of bibliological importance, but it also has other theological implications – most

  2. Integrating Suum-ngi Theology of Peace in Gindiri Theological Seminary Curriculum in Nigeria. An African Theological Perspective

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pokol, Benjamin J

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available This article argues that Gindiri theological seminary in Nigeria has done little or nothing to include issues of peace in theological education for the pastors in Church of Christ in Nations (COCIN of Nigeria. Consequently the Church of Christ in Nations seems to have failed to engage adequately in promoting peace among their members in the national search for peace and religious tolerance in Nigeria. The article further argues that the theological seminary which produces pastors and lay church leaders for pastoral ministry has a responsibility to equip pastors with necessary tools for responding to peace challenges facing the country. Therefore, the article advocates for the mainstreaming of Suum-ngi theology of peace in the curriculum of Gindiri Theological Seminary.

  3. Joint manifestations in children infected with Ascaris lumbricoides and Toxocara canis – single centre experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Janicka-Szczepaniak

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Joint disorders in children are a frequent cause of parents’ concern and a reason of visiting family doctors and rheumatologists. In search for the correct diagnosis, a wide differential diagnosis should be conducted, including bacterial, parasitic, but also rheumatoid or proliferative process. However, the majority of complaints reported by children are reactive in nature. Diagnosis is based on the clinical symptoms and serology tests results. Ascaris lumbricoides or Toxocara canis infection may manifest itself not only with gastrointestinal, but also musculoskeletal symptoms, depending on the period of the disease. The aim of the paper was to assess the frequency of complaints associated with the locomotor system in children with the presence of serum antibodies against Ascaris lumbricoides and/or Toxocara canis and to analyse their relationship with selected laboratory tests (eosinophilia and the final diagnosis. Material and methods: Medical records of 86 children hospitalised in 2013–2015 at the Department of Paediatric Cardiology and Rheumatology, Medical University of Łódź, were analysed. Children with musculoskeletal symptoms and positive serum antibody titres against Ascaris lumbricoides and/or Toxocara canis were included in the study. Results: Among the infected patients, the most frequently reported complaint from the locomotor system was knee (51% and wrist (19% pain. Ascaris lumbricoides infection was the dominant human parasitosis (66%, while in 15 patients (17% Toxocara canis co-infestation was detected. Rheumatoid process was the most common suspicion (36%, but the final diagnosis of juvenile idiopathic arthritis was determined in only 12 patients (14%. Conclusions: Parasitic infections often coexist with articular symptoms reported by children and should always be excluded in the differential diagnosis. In some cases, a parasitic infection may be one of the factors that initiate the rheumatoid

  4. The morphological changes of Ascaris lumbricoides ova in sewage sludge water treated by gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shamma, M. E-mail: atom@sy.net; Al-Adawi, M.A

    2002-10-01

    Untreated wastewater sampled from Damascus sewage water treatment plant containing nematode Ascaris lumbricoides ova were treated using gamma irradiation (doses between 1.5 and 8 kGy), immediately after irradiation the morphological and developmental status of eggs was examined microscopically. Major morphological changes of the contents of the eggs were detected. These eggs were incubated for 8 weeks, after this period no larvae 'inside the eggs' were observed. Thus the morphological changes can be used as a viable parameter.

  5. Enumeration of viable and non-viable larvated Ascaris eggs with quantitative PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynal, Maria; Villegas, Eric N; Nelson, Kara L

    2012-12-01

    The goal of this study was to further develop an incubation-quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) method for quantifying viable Ascaris eggs by characterizing the detection limit and number of template copies per egg, determining the specificity of the method, and testing the method with viable and inactivated larvated eggs. The number of template copies per cell was determined by amplifying DNA from known numbers of eggs at different development stages; the value was estimated to be 32 copies. The specificity of the method was tested against a panel of bacteria, fungi, protozoa and helminths, and no amplification was found with non-target DNA. Finally, fully larvated eggs were inactivated by four different treatments: 254 nm ultraviolet light, 2,000 ppm NH(3)-N at pH 9, moderate heat (48 °C) and high heat (70 °C). Concentrations of treated eggs were measured by direct microscopy and incubation-qPCR. The qPCR signal decreased following all four treatments, and was in general agreement with the decrease in viable eggs determined by microscopy. The incubation-qPCR method for enumerating viable Ascaris eggs is a promising approach that can produce results faster than direct microscopy, and may have benefits for applications such as assessing biosolids.

  6. [Use of visiting jejunostomy loop for extracting Ascaris lumbricoides in the common bile ducts in patients with Caroli diseases].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valentim, Leonardo Fernandes; de Souza, Ary Pires; Vidal, Edison Iglesias; Menezes, José Geraldo; Valentim, Patrícia Gomes Bittencourt

    2009-10-01

    Grumbach-Auvert disease represents a type of Obstructive Disease of the Intrahepatic Biliary Tree. We presents a case report of a patient with hepatic abscess caused by Ascaris which ascended into hepatic parenquima through hepaticojejunostomy, resolved by endoscopic extraction of it after the jejunostomy of permanent access was opened.

  7. Comparison and validation of two mathematical models for the impact of mass drug administration on Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworm infection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    L.E. Coffeng (Luc); J. Truscott (James); S.H. Farrell (Sam H.); H.C. Turner (Hugo C.); R. Sarkar (Rajiv); G. Kang (Gagandeep); S.J. de Vlas (Sake); R.M. Anderson (Roy M.)

    2017-01-01

    textabstractThe predictions of two mathematical models of the transmission dynamics of Ascaris lumbricoides and hookworm infection and the impact of mass drug administration (MDA) are compared, using data from India. One model has an age structured partial differential equation (PDE) deterministic

  8. Potential Biological Weapons Threats

    Science.gov (United States)

    1999-08-01

    cause disease or disability, such as Ascaris suum , to some of the familiar agents deemed most deadly, such as JB. anthracis, ricin, plague, and...Botulinumb Ricinb Staphylococcal enterotoxin B Rice blast Rye stem rust Wheat stem rust Agents associated with biocrimes and bioterrorism Ascaris suum

  9. Dicty_cDB: VHD303 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available (abcG5) gene, complete cds. 98 2e-19 2 ED269978 |ED269978.1 AUAC-aaz70g11.b1 Ascaris suum whole genome shot...gun library (PMAJ_4 GSS) Ascaris suum genomic, genomic survey sequence. 54 0.001

  10. Dicty_cDB: VHC790 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available e GM_WBb0088C10 5', genomic survey sequence. 44 0.89 1 ED478939 |ED478939.1 AUAC-aav30g12.b1 Ascaris suum wh...ole genome shotgun library (PMAJ_4 GSS) Ascaris suum genomic, genomic survey sequ

  11. Dicty_cDB: VHE539 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ENCE, 12 unordered pieces. 40 0.14 4 ED075230 |ED075230.1 AUAC-aat92d06.b1 Ascaris... suum whole genome shotgun library (PMAJ_4 GSS) Ascaris suum genomic, genomic survey sequence. 48 0.33 1 AC

  12. Dicty_cDB: CHE539 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available te surface protein 2 (MSP2) gene, partial cds. 34 2e-07 4 BI783235 |BI783235.1 kh48g09.y1 Ascaris suum male ...gut pAMP1 v2 Chiapelli McCarter Ascaris suum cDNA 5' similar to contains element MSR1 repetitive element ;,

  13. Dicty_cDB: VSA677 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available genomic clone UUGC1M0179J20 R, DNA sequence. 44 1.3 1 CA304055 |CA304055.1 As_adfo_10H09_T3 Ascaris... suum adult female ovary Ascaris suum cDNA clone As_adfo_10H09 5', mRNA sequence. 44 1.3 1

  14. Dicty_cDB: AFJ864 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 4030.1 Danio rerio EST sequence, clone 134-B07-2. 70 4e-08 1 BM280519 |BM280519.1 ki01h03.y1 Ascaris... suum L4 pSPORT1 Zarlenga v1 Ascaris suum cDNA 5' similar to SW:ERP5_CAEEL Q11067 PROBABL

  15. The Prevalence of Ecto and Endoparasites in Pigs in Urban and Peri ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    nematodes (11.7%) Entomoeba ssp (27.2%), Ascaris suum (1.8%) Balntidium coli (3.8%) and Coccidia spp (3.3%) and the only ectoparasites found was sarcoptic mange (1.4%). In the peri -urban area the endoparasites found were Entomoeba spp (51.6%), Strongylid nematodes (9.7%), Coccidia spp (5.8%). Ascaris suum ...

  16. Helmint eggs elimination performance during lammelar settling and sand filters in Beniel WWTP (Murcia, Spain); Rendimiento en la eliminacion de huevos de helminto en la decantacion lamelar y filtracion por arena en la EDAR de Beniel (Murcia)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simon Andreu, P. J.; Cardin Mifsut, C.; Pacheco Ballarin, S.; Martinez Muro, M. A.; Vicente Gonzalez, J. A.; Llosar Llacer, C.

    2010-07-01

    With this study, it was observed Ascaris suum eggs elimination yield of tertiary treatment in Beniel wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) in Murcia Region (Spain). It was inoculated a sample of Ascaris suum eggs in the treatment in maximum flow conditions and it was calculated the retention yield of the lamellar settling and sand filters. (Author) 3 refs.

  17. Dicty_cDB: SFJ120 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available is suum adult female ovary Ascaris suum cDNA clone As_adfo_21G05 5', mRNA sequence.... 46 1.1 1 CA305082 |CA305082.1 As_adfo_27F02_T3 Ascaris suum adult female ovary Ascaris suum cDNA clone As_a...iens BAC clone RP11-374N13 from 2, complete sequence. 36 1.1 8 CA304740 |CA304740.1 As_adfo_21G05_T3 Ascar

  18. Proteomic and immunochemical characterization of glutathione transferase as a new allergen of the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Acevedo

    Full Text Available Helminth infections and allergy have evolutionary and clinical links. Infection with the nematode Ascaris lumbricoides induces IgE against several molecules including invertebrate pan-allergens. These antibodies influence the pathogenesis and diagnosis of allergy; therefore, studying parasitic and non-parasitic allergens is essential to understand both helminth immunity and allergy. Glutathione transferases (GSTs from cockroach and house dust mites are clinically relevant allergens and comparative studies between them and the GST from A. lumbricoides (GSTA are necessary to evaluate their allergenicity. We sought to analyze the allergenic potential of GSTA in connection with the IgE response to non-parasitic GSTs. IgE to purified GSTs from Ascaris (nGSTA and rGSTA, house dust mites (rDer p 8, nBlo t 8 and rBlo t 8, and cockroach (rBla g 5 was measured by ELISA in subjects from Cartagena, Colombia. Also, multidimensional proteomic approaches were used to study the extract of A. lumbricoides and investigate the existence of GST isoforms. We found that among asthmatics, the strength of IgE levels to GSTA was significantly higher than to mite and cockroach GSTs, and there was a strong positive correlation between IgE levels to these molecules. Specific IgE to GSTA was found in 13.2% of controls and 19.5% of asthmatics. In addition nGSTA induced wheal and flare in skin of sensitized asthmatics indicating that it might be of clinical relevance for some patients. Frequency and IgE levels to GSTA were higher in childhood and declined with age. At least six GST isoforms in A. lumbricoides bind human IgE. Four isoforms were the most abundant and several amino acid substitutions were found, mainly on the N-terminal domain. In conclusion, a new allergenic component of Ascaris has been discovered; it could have clinical impact in allergic patients and influence the diagnosis of mite and cockroach allergy in tropical environments.

  19. Sludge hygienization: Helminth eggs destruction by lime treatment Ascaris eggs as model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Banas, S.; Schwartzbrod, J. [Lab. de Chimie Physique et Microbiologie de l' Environnement, Nancy (France); Remy, M. [Lhoist, on behalf of the European Lime Assoication (EuLA), Bruessel (Germany); Boehm, R. [Univ. Hohenheim, Stuttgart (Germany); Verfuerden, M. [Fels-Werke GmbH, im Namen des Bundesverbandes der Deutschen Kalkindustrie (BVK), Koeln (Germany)

    2003-07-01

    Most pathogens in the raw sewage are concentrated into the sewage sludge. They can be separated into four categories: viruses, bacteria, protozoa and larger parasites such as human roundworms, tapeworms and liver flukes. Such micro-organisms can cause disease in humans, the transmission occurring in several ways e.g. by inhaling sludge aerosols or dust, by eating vegetables or fruits contaminated by sludge, drinking water contaminated by run-off or by eating meat from livestock infected by grazing pastures fertilised with sludge. The presence of helminth eggs in urban sludge may constitute a sanitary risk when used as agricultural fertiliser. To avoid any contamination, the efficiency of a certain number of sludge hygienization processes must be tested. One of these involves decontamination with quicklime. The Ascaris egg inactivation by liming with lime milk, slaked lime and quicklime is studied in a series of sludges coming from slaughterhouses. (orig.)

  20. Ascaris spp. and Capillaria caudinflata infections in captive-bred crested ibis (Nipponia nippon) in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xu; Qiao, Ji Ying; Wu, Xiao Min; Ma, Qing Yi; Hu, Han; Wang, Jing; Che, Li Feng

    2015-01-01

    Crested ibis (Nipponia nippon), an endan gered native bird, was called the "precious stone" of oriental birds. N. nippon was considered a critically endangered species in the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species and a first-class national protected animal in China. The Chinese government had exerted considerable effort to protect the N. nippon population. An effective approach to increase the number of these birds was captive breeding. However, several pathogens, including parasites, could jeopardize the health of this species. The present study used the fecal flotation method to determine prevalence of intestinal parasites in fresh stool samples by wet mount smearing and iodine staining. Samples were obtained from 63 randomly selected crested ibis bred in Shaanxi Rare Wildlife Rescuing and Breeding Research Center in Zhouzhi County, Xi'an City, Shaanxi Province, China. In the 63 captive individuals, 38 were found positive for intestinal parasites (60.3%, 38/63). Of positive birds, high prevalence of Ascaris spp. (84.2%, 32/38) and Capillaria caudinflata (50.0%, 19/38) were detected. Coccidea (7.8%, 3/38), Fasciolidae (23.7%, 9/38), Blastocystis spp. (15.8%, 6/38), and Entamoeba histolytica (7.8%, 3/38) showed relatively low prevalence rates. This study focuses on the morphological identification of Ascaris spp. and C. caudinflata and their transmission in the N. nippon population. We introduce strategies to improve the breeding management of the birds, enhance their health, and stimulate population productivity. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. [Intestinal obstruction caused by ascaris in pregnancy. Report of a case].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Méndez Román, A; Coronel-Brizio, P; Orellan Huerta, J

    1999-02-01

    A pregnant woman may be infected up to a 90% by intestine parasites, and it all depends on the geographical area associated to the environmental factors allowing this to be spread. The abdominal obstruction related to the pregnancy is rare due to the fact that it only happens in one out of 2,500-6,000 pregnancies. This occlusion, when given by Ascaris lumbricoides, is even more complicated due to the lack of medical literature reference, and thus being unable to make any comparisons. A 45-year old pregnant woman, with several births and multi-pregnancies presenting an acute abdomen by intestinal obstruction through out this helmint. She was pacticed an exploratory laparotomy with the evacuation of several ascaris throughout and enterostomy, and then during the 37th week, she gave birth by means of an eutocic labor work to a healthy female product weighting 2.825 kgs. The anatomopathology study of the placenta shows no alterations. The nosology of the intestinal obstruction by ascariasis during the pregnancy, and out of it, are very similar and could only be affected by late diagnosis of the pregnant woman due to anatomical and physiological changes, increasing the mother's and the fetus morbi-mortality. In Mexico, there are endemic areas where it would be convenient to identify the characteristical eggs in the mother's stool due to the fact that if an advanced pathology is not put in place, it does produce states of maternal malnutrition, anaemia, abdominal pain and low weigh product at the moments of its birth.

  2. The efficacy of simulated solar disinfection (SODIS) against Ascaris, Giardia, Acanthamoeba, Naegleria, Entamoeba and Cryptosporidium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heaselgrave, Wayne; Kilvington, Simon

    2011-08-01

    The antimicrobial activity of simulated solar disinfection (SODIS) in the presence and absence of riboflavin against various protozoa and helminth organisms was investigated in this study. Assays were conducted in transparent 12 well microtitre plates containing a suspension of test organisms in the presence or absence of 250 μM riboflavin. Plates were exposed to simulated sunlight at an optical irradiance of 550 Wm(-2) (watts per square metre) delivered from a SUNTEST™ CPS+ solar simulator. Aliquots of the test suspensions were taken at set time points and the viability of the test organisms was determined by either culture, microscopy or flow cytometry where applicable. With Acanthamoeba, Naegleria, Entamoeba and Giardia exposure to SODIS at an optical irradiance of 550 Wm(-2) for up to 6h resulted in significant inactivation of these organisms. The addition of riboflavin to this system significantly increased the level of inactivation observed with cysts of A. castellanii. With Cryptosporidium oocysts and Ascaris ova exposure to SODIS in the presence and absence of riboflavin for 6-8h resulted in a negligible reduction in viability of both organisms. In this present study we have been able to show that SODIS is effective against a variety of previously untested waterborne organisms and with A. castellanii cysts the addition of micro-molar concentrations of riboflavin can enhance cyst inactivation. However, care must be taken as Ascaris larvae continue to develop inside the ova after exposure to SODIS and Cryptosporidium remain impermeable to propidium iodide staining indicating they may still be infectious. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U13718-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 756 ) AUAC-aae49f11.g1 Ascaris suum whole genome shotgu... 46 0.29 1 ( ED347166 ) AUAC-aaz13a08.g1 Ascaris... suum whole genome shotgu... 46 0.29 1 ( ED196256 ) AUAC-aax84c05.b1 Ascaris suum w...hole genome shotgu... 46 0.29 1 ( ED044132 ) AUAC-aac11h11.g1 Ascaris suum whole genome shotgu... 46 0.29 1 .... 42 4.6 1 ( ED565950 ) AUAC-aag81e03.b1 Ascaris suum whole genome shotgu... 42 4... tabacum ge... 46 0.29 1 ( FH047852 ) CHO_OF3305xo04f1.ab1 CHO_OF3 Nicotiana tabacum ge... 46 0.29 1 ( ED402

  4. Dicty_cDB: SLE674 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ris suum whole genome shotgu... 44 3.0 1 ( ED398333 ) AUAC-aar90f12.b1 Ascaris suum... whole genome shotgu... 44 3.0 1 ( ED308567 ) AUAC-aag28g02.b1 Ascaris suum whole genome shotgu... 44 3.0 1 ...s... 46 0.76 1 ( AX926716 ) Sequence 6 from Patent WO03084989. 44 3.0 1 ( ED566877 ) AUAC-aag36b01.g1 Asca

  5. Massive infestation by Ascaris lumbricoides of the biliary tract: report of a successfully treated case Infestação maciça por Ascaris lumbricoides nas vias biliares: relato de um caso tratado com sucesso

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahir Ramos de Andrade Júnior

    1992-02-01

    Full Text Available This is a report of a 25 years old black woman from the city of São Paulo, Brazil, who developed acute obstructive cholangitis of Ascaris lumbricoides with septicemia and multiple hepatic abscesses. The patient had sickle cell trait and normal delivery 3 months ago. Massive infestation of the biliary tract by Ascaris lumbricoides was diagnosed by abdominal ultrasonography and endoscopic retrograde cholangiography. Sixty worms were removed from the common bile duct and hepatic abscesses were drained by surgery. The infectious process was polymicrobial. The patient's recovery was complete after a long evolution with a wide spectrum antibiotic therapy. New surgeries were needed to remove residual worms in the biliary tract. The diagnostic methods, clinical-biochemical features and also the clinical and surgical management are presented. The biliary ascariasis pathophysiology is commented.Descrito caso de mulher de 25 anos, negra, procedente da cidade de São Paulo - Brasil, que desenvolveu quadro agudo de colangite obstrutiva por Ascaris lumbricoides, com septicemia e múltiplos abscessos hepáticos. Era portadora de traço falciforme e tinha tido um parto normal há 3 meses. Foi estabelecido o diagnóstico de infestação maciça por Ascaris lumbricoides em vias biliares com ultrasonografia abdominal e colangiografia retrógrada endoscópica. Sessenta vermes foram retirados do colédoco e drenados os abscessos hepáticos por cirurgia. O quadro infeccioso era polimicrobiano. Houve recuperação total da paciente após longa evolução, com antibioticoterapia de amplo espectro e novas cirurgias com extração de vermes residuais. Os autores apresentam os métodos diagnósticos empregados, o quadro clínico-bioquímico e a abordagem terapêutica. A fisiopatologia da ascaridíase biliar é discutida.

  6. AcEST: BP915049 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available : Swiss-Prot sp_hit_id P24876 Definition sp|P24876|ATP6_ASCSU ATP synthase subunit a OS=Ascaris...cant alignments: (bits) Value sp|P24876|ATP6_ASCSU ATP synthase subunit a OS=Ascaris... suum GN=A... 30 6.0 >sp|P24876|ATP6_ASCSU ATP synthase subunit a OS=Ascaris suum GN=ATP6 PE=3 SV=2 Lengt

  7. Density-dependent effects on the weight of female Ascaris lumbricoides infections of humans and its impact on patterns of egg production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Basáñez María-Gloria

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Ascaris lumbricoides exhibits density-dependent egg production, a process which has a marked impact on both the transmission dynamics and the stability of the parasite population. Evidence suggests that the egg production of female Ascaris is also associated with the size of the worm. If worm size is mediated by density-dependent processes then the size of female worms may have a causal impact upon patterns of Ascaris egg production. Results We analyse data collected from a cohort of human hosts, and demonstrate that the per host mean weight (a proxy for size of female Ascaris is dependent on the number of infecting females (worm burden following a pattern of initial facilitation followed by limitation. Applying a negative binomial (NB generalized linear model (GLM and a zero-inflated negative binomial (ZINB model we confirm that the per host female mean weight is significantly associated with per host egg production. Despite these associations, the mean weight of female Ascaris has little causal impact on patterns of density-dependent egg output. The ZINB model is able to account for the disproportionately large number of zero egg counts within the data and is shown to be a consistently better fit than the NB model. The probability of observing a zero egg count is demonstrated as being negatively associated with both female worm burden and female mean weight. Conclusion The mean weight of female Ascaris is statistically significantly associated with egg output, and follows a consistent pattern of facilitation preceding limitation with increasing female worm burden. Despite these relationships, incorporation of female Ascaris mean weight into models of egg output has little effect on patterns of density dependence. The ZINB model is a superior fit to the data than the NB model and provides additional information regarding the mechanisms that result in a zero egg count. The ZINB model is shown to be a useful tool for the

  8. Viability of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs eliminated after anti-helminthic therapy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Lara Massara

    1991-06-01

    Full Text Available The viability of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs passed in the feces was evaluated after treatment of patients with one of the anti-helminthic drugs (thiabendazole, levamisole, cambendazole, pyrantel pamoate, mebendazole or praziquantel. For each drug, a group of 5 children was selected and their feces collected 24 h before treatment and 24, 48 and 72 h after drug administration, except for mebendazole, with the feces being collected throughout the period of treatment. After sedimentation, the total amount of eggs from each collection was transferred to tissue culture flasks containing 10 ml H2So4 O, 1N, with the addtion of 3 drops of a miconazol solution, and incubated at 28 graus centígrados, individually, for 80 days. The flasks wee maintained open and the culture were oxigenated daily by manual agitation. On the 80th day of culture, 20-days-old albino mice were inoculated with 3,200 embryonated eggs, per os. Larvae were recovered from their lungs and hearts, on the 8th day after infection, according to Baerman's method (Morais, 1948. Thiabendazole showed 100.0% ovicidal capacity as early as 48 after treatment. Inhibition of embrionary development was observed when thiabendazole was used. This drug also had an effect on the eggs infectivity when inoculated into normal mice. No significant effect on embrionary development was observed for the other drugs tested.

  9. A recombinant cystatin from Ascaris lumbricoides attenuates inflammation of DSS-induced colitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coronado, S; Barrios, L; Zakzuk, J; Regino, R; Ahumada, V; Franco, L; Ocampo, Y; Caraballo, L

    2017-04-01

    Helminthiasis may ameliorate inflammatory diseases, such as inflammatory bowel disease and asthma. Information about immunomodulators from Ascaris lumbricoides is scarce, but could be important considering the co-evolutionary relationships between helminths and humans. We evaluated the immunomodulatory effects of a recombinant cystatin from A. lumbricoides on an acute model of dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. From an A. lumbricoides cDNA library, we obtained a recombinant cystatin (rAl-CPI). Protease activity inhibition was demonstrated on cathepsin B and papain. Immunomodulatory effects were evaluated at two intraperitoneal doses (0.5 and 0.25 μg/G) on mice with DSS-induced colitis. Body weight, colon length, Disease Activity Index (DAI), histological inflammation score, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, gene expression of cytokines and cytokines levels in colon tissue were analysed. Treatment with rAl-CPI significantly reduced DAI, MPO activity and inflammation score without toxic effects. Also, IL-10 and TGF-B gene overexpression was observed in rAl-CPI-treated group compared to DSS-exposed control and healthy mice. Furthermore, a reduction in IL-6 and TNF-A expression was found, and this was confirmed by the levels of these cytokines in colonic tissue. In conclusion, rAl-CPI reduces inflammation in a mouse model of DSS-induced colitis, probably by increasing the expression of anti-inflammatory cytokines and reducing pro-inflammatory ones. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. [Comparison of fecal examinations and worm collection results in an investigation of Ascaris lumbricoides infection].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Wei-Sheng; Zeng, Xiao-Jun; Li, Hua-Zhong; Chen, Ying-Dan; Hong, Xian-Lin; Hu, Sheng-Zhu; Lan, Wei-Min; Chen, Yi-Yang

    2012-10-01

    To explore the relationship between fecal examinations and worm collection results in a community investigation of Ascaris lumbricoides infection. A total of 1 019 residents in Zhangxi Village, Nanchang County, Jiangxi Province were investigated with the Kato-Katz technique and worm collection after deworming. Among 1 019 residents investigated, the actual prevalence of A. lumbricoides was 30.23%, and the egg and worm positive rates were 20.41% and 23.75%, respectively. The average burden was 2.64 worms per person, and the heavier worm burden accounted for less proportion. The heavier the worm burden, the higher the probability to got egg in the feces. If one person had 7 worms or more, the probability to got eggs in his feces was 100%. Among people of false negative fecal examination, 61.00% of them were infected with male worms only, whereas 7.00% were infected with immature female worms with or without male worms, and 32.00% were infected with mature female worms with or without male worms. Totally 32.47% of infected people were missed by fecal examination, including 22.08% without egg excreted, and 10.39% missed because of the method itself. The egg positive rate is obviously lower than the actual infection rate, and the egg detection rate is correlated with the worm burden.

  11. Quantitative PCR and Digital PCR for Detection of Ascaris lumbricoides Eggs in Reclaimed Water

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucrecia Acosta Soto

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The reuse of reclaimed water from wastewater depuration is a widespread and necessary practice in many areas around the world and must be accompanied by adequate and continuous quality control. Ascaris lumbricoides is one of the soil-transmitted helminths (STH with risk for humans due to its high infectivity and an important determinant of transmission is the inadequacy of water supplies and sanitation. The World Health Organization (WHO recommends a limit equal to or lower than one parasitic helminth egg per liter, to reuse reclaimed water for unrestricted irrigation. We present two new protocols of DNA extraction from large volumes of reclaimed water. Quantitative PCR (qPCR and digital PCR (dPCR were able to detect low amounts of A. lumbricoides eggs. By using the first extraction protocol, which processes 500 mL of reclaimed water, qPCR can detect DNA concentrations as low as one A. lumbricoides egg equivalent, while dPCR can detect DNA concentrations as low as five A. lumbricoides egg equivalents. By using the second protocol, which processes 10 L of reclaimed water, qPCR was able to detect DNA concentrations equivalent to 20 A. lumbricoides eggs. This fact indicated the importance of developing new methodologies to detect helminth eggs with higher sensitivity and precision avoiding possible human infection risks.

  12. Prevalence and intensity of Ascaris lumbricoides infections in relation to undernutrition among children in a tea plantation community, Sri Lanka: a cross-sectional study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galgamuwa, Lahiru Sandaruwan; Iddawela, Devika; Dharmaratne, Samath D

    2018-01-25

    Ascaris lumbricoides infections are one of the commonnest intestinal nematode infections in the world, with a profound negative effect on nutritional status among underprivileged populations. In Sri Lanka, Ascaris infections and low nutritional status still persist in the plantation sector. However, research regarding the association between Ascaris infections and nutritional status is scarce. The main purpose of this study was to determine the association between Ascaris infections and physical growth among children in a plantation sector in Sri Lanka. A cross sectional study was conducted among 489 children aged between 1 and 12 years ina plantation sector, Sri Lanka, from January to April 2013. Anthropometric measurements were collected to assess height-for-age (HAZ), weight-for-age (WAZ) and weight-for-height (WHZ) to determine stunting, underweight and wasting respectively. Data on socio-demographic and antihelminthic treatment were ascertained using an interviewer administrated structured questionnaire. Stool samples were subjected to wet mount preparation followed byformaldehyde-ether sedimentation technique to diagnose Ascaris infection and a Kato Katz technique was performed to determine the eggs intensity. AnthroPlus, EpiInfo and SPSS software was used to analyze data. Of the study sample, 38.4% showed Ascaris lumbricoides infections. Light intensity infections (51%) were common in the infected children, followed by moderate (30%) and heavy (19%) infections. Prevalence of Ascaris infections was significantly associated with de-worming more than six months prior to the study. Prevalence of undernutrition among children was 61.7%. Forty-five per cent were underweight, while 24.1% and 21.5% of children were stunted and wasted respectively. However, no significant association was found between Ascaris infections status and undernutrition. Meanwhile, heavy intensity infections were associated with decreased values of WHZ (p = 0.020). Ascaris infections

  13. SjAPI-2 is the first member of a new neurotoxin family with Ascaris-type fold and KCNQ1 inhibitory activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jing; Zhang, Chuangeng; Yang, Weishan; Cao, Zhijian; Li, Wenxin; Chen, Zongyun; Wu, Yingliang

    2015-08-01

    Peptides with Ascaris-type fold are a new kind of toxins founded from venomous animals recently. Functionally, these unique toxin peptides had been identified as potent protease inhibitors, which was similar to other known Ascaris-type peptides from non-venomous animals. Whether Ascaris-type peptides from venom animals have neurotoxin activities remains unclear. Here, a scorpion toxin SjAPI-2 with Ascaris-type fold was characterized to have a neurotoxin activity, which can selectively inhibit KCNQ1 potassium channel. SjAPI-2 had 62 amino acid residues, including 10 cysteine residues. Charged residue analyses showed that two acidic residues of SjAPI-2 were regionally distributed, and 10 basic residues were distributed widely throughout the whole peptide, which was similar to classical potassium channel toxins. Pharmacological studies confirmed that SjAPI-2 was a selective KCNQ1 potassium channel inhibitor with weak effects on other potassium channels, such as Kv1.1, Kv1.2, Kv1.3, SKCa2, SKCa3, and IKCa channels. Concentration-dependent studies showed that SjAPI-2 inhibited the KCNQ1 potassium channel with an IC50 of 771.5±169.9 nM. To the best of our knowledge, SjAPI-2 is the first neurotoxin with a unique Ascaris-type fold, providing novel insights into the divergent evolution of neurotoxins from venomous animals. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Modelagem geoestatística da infecção por Ascaris lumbricoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fortes Bruno de Paula Menezes Drumond

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available O estudo tem por objetivo modelar a distribuição espacial da ocorrência de ascaríase, utilizando mapas de risco mediante técnicas de geoprocessamento e análise geoestatística. Com base no banco de dados do PAISQUA, foram selecionados 19 setores censitários do Rio de Janeiro. Foram amostradas e georreferenciadas, no centróide de seu respectivo domicílio, 1.550 crianças com idade de 1 a 9 anos. Mapas de risco de Ascaris lumbricoides foram gerados usando krigagem indicadora. Com base na validação cruzada, os valores estimados foram comparados aos observados por intermédio da curva ROC. Um modelo de semivariograma isotrópico esférico com alcance de 30m e efeito pepita de 50% foi empregado na krigagem ordinária indicadora para a construção de um mapa de probabilidade de infecção por A. lumbricoides. A acurácia global, mensurada por meio da área sob a curva ROC, mostrou-se significativa. O uso da krigagem ordinária indicadora permitiu a modelagem de mapas de risco valendo-se da amostra de uma variável indicadora. O emprego das técnicas de análise estatística espacial mostrou-se adequado na predição da ocorrência do fenômeno, não ficando restrita a delimitações político-administrativas da região.

  15. The ’IRIS Diaphragm’ - Principle of Centriole and Basal Body Formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    1990-01-01

    flagellates. J. Biophys. Biochem. Cytol. 7:697-715 Goldstein, P. (1977). Spermatogenesis and spermiogenesis; in Ascaris luinbricoides var. suum . J. Morph... Ascaris sperm appears in cross section identical to Fig. 4a (Goldstein 1977). Therefore, from the point of view of this model, the Ascaris sperm appears

  16. The effects of temperature, pH, and ammonia concentration on the inactivation of Ascaris eggs in sewage sludge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pecson, Brian M; Barrios, José Antonio; Jiménez, Blanca Elena; Nelson, Kara L

    2007-07-01

    The reported inactivation of Ascaris eggs during alkaline sludge stabilization is highly variable. The objective of our research was to better understand the sources of this variability by quantifying the effects of temperature, pH, and ammonia concentration on the inactivation of indigenous Ascaris eggs in wastewater sludge. Primary sludge was supplemented with ammonia (0, 1000, and 5000 mg/l NH(3)-N) and Ca(OH)(2) and incubated in sealed bottles across the range of temperatures (20, 30, 40, and 50 degrees C) and pH (7 and 12) that may be encountered during treatment. Changes in egg viability over time were fit to a two-parameter kinetic model (shoulder and first-order region); to compare treatment conditions, the time for 99% inactivation (t(99)) was also calculated. Each 10 degrees C increase in temperature caused a significant decrease in t(99) at every pH and ammonia concentration tested. At 50 degrees C, the effect of temperature was dominant, such that no effect of pH or ammonia was observed. At 30 and 40 degrees C, raising the pH from 7 to 12 decreased t(99), but at 20 degrees C no pH effect was seen over 80 d (very little inactivation occurred). At 20, 30, and 40 degrees C, the addition of ammonia dramatically decreased t(99). The effect of pH could not be completely separated from that of ammonia, as the unamended sludge samples contained 100-200mg/l indigenous ammonia. Because temperature, pH, and ammonia all contributed to Ascaris egg inactivation, it is essential that these parameters are measured and accounted for when assessing the effectiveness of alkaline stabilization. Furthermore, inactivation by ammonia could be exploited to improve the effectiveness of alkaline sludge stabilization.

  17. Estrategia de Ascaris lumbricoides y Trichuris trichiura para la contaminación del medio ambiente, en una zona endemica Strategy of Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura for the environment contamination in an endemic area

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gustavo Morales

    1988-06-01

    Full Text Available La distribución de frecuencias del número de huevos por gramo de heces tanto de Ascaris lumbricoides como de Trichuris trichiura en humanos infestados en una zona endémica se corresponde con una ley binomial negativa y la disposición espacial de dichos huevos en la materia fecal, resultó ser en agregados, independientemente de que los hospedadores sean mayores o menores de 15 años. Estos resultados nos indican que solamente unos pocos hospedadores son los responsables de la mayor contaminación del medio ambiente y que esos individuos no pertenecen a ningún grupo etario en particular.The distribution of frequences of the number per grame of Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura in the faeces of naturally infected human in endemic areas, were found following a negative binomial distribution and an overdispersal pattern, independently of the ages of hosts. These results show, that only few hosts, independently of their ages, are involved in the higher environment contamination.

  18. Ascaris and hookworm transmission in preschool children from rural Panama: role of yard environment, soil eggs/larvae and hygiene and play behaviours.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, Rachel J; Koski, Kristine G; Pons, Emérita; Sandoval, Nidia; Sinisterra, Odalis; Scott, Marilyn E

    2015-10-01

    This study explored whether the yard environment and child hygiene and play behaviours were associated with presence and intensity of Ascaris and hookworm in preschool children and with eggs and larvae in soil. Data were collected using questionnaires, a visual survey of the yard, soil samples and fecal samples collected at baseline and following re-infection. The presence of eggs/larvae in soil was associated negatively with water storage (eggs) but positively with dogs (eggs) and distance from home to latrine (larvae). Baseline and re-infection prevalences were: hookworm (28.0%, 3.4%); Ascaris (16.9%, 9.5%); Trichuris (0.9%, 0.7%). Zero-inflated negative binomial regression models revealed a higher baseline hookworm infection if yards had eggs or larvae, more vegetation or garbage, and if the child played with soil. Baseline Ascaris was associated with dirt floor, dogs, exposed soil in yard, open defecation and with less time playing outdoors, whereas Ascaris re-infection was associated with water storage, vegetation cover and garbage near the home and not playing with animals. Our results show complex interactions between infection, the yard environment and child behaviours, and indicate that transmission would be reduced if latrines were closer to the home, and if open defecation and water spillage were reduced.

  19. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-TNIG-10-0000 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-TNIG-10-0000 ref|NP_006945.1|ND2_10020 NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2 [Ascaris s...uum] sp|P24877|NU2M_ASCSU NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 2 (NADH dehydrogenase subunit 2) emb|CAA38167.1| ND2 protein [Ascaris suum] NP_006945.1 0.004 25% ...

  20. Dicty_cDB: SSL883 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available ns cDNA clone IMAGE:4177976 5', mRNA sequence. 46 0.30 1 BI781896 |BI781896.1 kh02g03.y1 Ascaris suum female... head pAMP1 v2 Chiapelli McCarter Ascaris suum cDNA 5' similar to SW:NU2M_ASCSU P24877 NADH-UBIQUINONE OXIDO

  1. Dicty_cDB: SSJ213 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 9292.1 As_L3_32G02_SKPL Ascaris suum (parasitic nematode) L3 stage Ascaris suum cDNA clone As_L3_32G02 5' si...AC145413.2 Sus scrofa clone RP44-386P23, WORKING DRAFT SEQUENCE, 4 ordered pieces. 34 0.039 6 CB039292 |CB03

  2. Dicty_cDB: AFB749 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available r to TR:O17908 O17908 H06O01.1 PROTEIN. [1] ;, mRNA sequence. 70 3e-08 1 BM280519 |BM280519.1 ki01h03.y1 Ascaris... suum L4 pSPORT1 Zarlenga v1 Ascaris suum cDNA 5' similar to SW:ERP5_CAEEL Q11067 PROBABLE PROTEIN DISUL

  3. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CBRI-08-0176 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CBRI-08-0176 ref|NP_006952.1|ND5_10020 NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 [Ascaris s...uum] sp|P24884|NU5M_ASCSU NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 5 (NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5) emb|CAA38174.1| ND5 protein [Ascaris suum] NP_006952.1 1e-119 70% ...

  4. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-CPOR-01-0486 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-CPOR-01-0486 ref|NP_006952.1|ND5_10020 NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 [Ascaris s...uum] sp|P24884|NU5M_ASCSU NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 5 (NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5) emb|CAA38174.1| ND5 protein [Ascaris suum] NP_006952.1 0.17 21% ...

  5. NCBI nr-aa BLAST: CBRC-BTAU-01-0778 [SEVENS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available CBRC-BTAU-01-0778 ref|NP_006948.1|ND4_10020 NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4 [Ascaris s...uum] sp|P24880|NU4M_ASCSU NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase chain 4 (NADH dehydrogenase subunit 4) emb|CAA38170.1| ND4 protein [Ascaris suum] NP_006948.1 0.003 27% ...

  6. The effect of a diet with fructan-rich chicory roots on intestinal helminths and microbiota with special focus on Bifidobacteria and Campylobacter in piglets around weaning

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Annette Nygaard; Mejer, Helene; Mølbak, Lars

    2011-01-01

    . Approximately half of 67 piglets from nine litters were experimentally infected with Ascaris suum and Trichuris suis in the suckling period (1 to 7 weeks of age) and 58 of the piglets were challenged daily with Eschericia coli O138:F8 for 9 days after weaning to induce weaning diarrhoea. The litters were fed...... either chicory (30% dry matter) or a control diet. The effect of chicory on intestinal helminths, intestinal microbiota, especially Bifidobacteria and Campylobacter spp. and E. coli post-weaning diarrhoea was assessed. The weight gain of the piglets was not impaired significantly by chicory....... The intestinal A. suum worm burden was reduced by 64% (P = 0.034) in the chicory-fed piglets, whereas these same piglets had 63% more T. suis worms (P = 0.016). Feeding with chicory elicited no changes among the main bacterial groups in ileum according to terminal restriction fragment length polymorphism...

  7. Atividade de detergentes e desinfetantes sobre a evolução dos ovos de Ascaris lumbricoides Effects of detergents and disinfectants on the development of Ascaris lumbricoides eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Lara Massara

    2003-02-01

    Full Text Available A infecção por Ascaris lumbricoides decorre da ingestão de ovos embrionados deste parasita, o que justifica a pesquisa de substâncias que tenham efeito deletério sobre estes ovos. Nosso objetivo foi estudar a ação de 16 produtos detergentes e desinfetantes, de uso doméstico e laboratorial, sobre a embriogênese deste helminto. Crianças portadoras desta infecção foram tratadas com levamisol e os vermes fêmeas expelidos foram recolhidos e dissecados, para obtenção dos ovos intra-uterinos. Os ovos foram postos em contato com os produtos em diversas diluições e tempos, lavados e incubados a 28ºC, por 20 dias, para teste da viabilidade e determinação da porcentagem de embrionamento. Apenas um produto inibiu completamente o embrionamento dos ovos, em todos os tempos e diluições testados. Cinco produtos inibiram o embrionamento dos ovos em mais de 50%, seis inibiram o embrionamento em menos de 50% e três não tiveram efeito sobre o embrionamento dos ovos. Por outro lado, com um produto observou-se aumento da porcentagem de embrionamento dos ovos em relação aos controles.Ascaris lumbricoides infection is acquired via ingestion of embryonated eggs of the parasite, thus justifying the search for ovicidal compounds. We studied the effect of 16 household and laboratory detergents and disinfectants on the embryogenesis of this helminth. Children carrying this infection were treated with levamisole. Eliminated female worms were collected and dissected to obtain eggs from the uteri. The eggs were placed in contact with various products at different dilutions and for various periods of time. After washing, eggs were incubated at 28ºC for 20 days, for viability tests and to determine the embryonation rate. Only one product completely inhibited the embryonation of eggs at every dilution and for every time period tested. Five products inhibited more than 50% of embryonation, while six inhibited less than 50%. Three products showed no

  8. Ascaridíase das vias urinárias: um caso de penetração de Ascaris lumbricoides através do rim

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Caymmi Gomes

    1977-10-01

    Full Text Available Uma criança de 2 anos com desnutrição grave e infestação intestinal maciça por Ascaris lumbricoides, apresentou como complicação, documentada em necrópsia, a migração de vermes adultos para a cavidade peritonial e penetração aberrante de dois parasitos através do rim esquerdo. Os Ascaris ficaram alojados no sistema pielo-ureteral, determinando grave infecção purulenta e obstrução ureteral. Esta complicação demonstra a capacidade agressiva de vermes erráticos na cavidade peritonial, com possibilidade de perfurar mesmo uma víscera sólida. São comentados os fatores que facilitaram a migração dos vermes por aqueles órgãos.The author reports an autopsy case of a two year old child with massive intestinal ascariasis and malnutrition, presenting the migration of two adult Ascaris lumbricoides through the left kidney into the pyelo-ureteral system. As a result she developed acute pyelonephritis and ureteral obstruction. Previously the worms left the intestine into the peritoneal cavity (lesser sac through a duodenal cleft. Factors contributing to the migration of the roundworms by those pathways are discussed.

  9. MONRATE: A descriptive tool for calculation and prediction of re-infection of Ascaris lumbricoides (Ascaridida: Ascarididae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.O Sam-Wobo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available The study presents an interactive descriptive tool (MONRATE for calculating and predicting reinfection rates and time of Ascaris lumbricoides following mass chemotherapy. The implementation was based on the theoretical equation published by Hayashi in 1977, for time-prevalence: Y=G [1-(1-XN-R] as modified by Jong-Yil in 1983. Using the Psuedo-Code of the MONRATE tool, the calculated monthly reinfection rates (X for the LGAs are (names are locations in Nigeria in a region predominately populated by the Yoruba speaking tribes of Nigeria whose traditional occupations are agriculture and commerce: Ewekoro (1.6 %, Odeda (2.3 %, Ado-odo/Otta (2.3 %, Ogun Waterside (3.8 % and Obafemi/Owode (4.2 %. The mathematical mean of ‘X’ values in the study areas for Ogun State was 2.84. The calculated reinfection time (N months for the LGAs are varied such as Ado-odo/Otta (12.7, Ogun Waterside (21.8, Obafemi/Owode (22.92, Odeda (25.45, and Ewekoro (25.9. The mean value for N in Ogun State was 21.75. The results obtained from MONRATE were compared with those obtained using the mathematical equation and found to be the same. Rev. Biol. Trop. 55 (3-4: 755-760. Epub 2007 December, 28.

  10. Atividade de detergentes e desinfetantes sobre a evolução dos ovos de Ascaris lumbricoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Massara Cristiano Lara

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available A infecção por Ascaris lumbricoides decorre da ingestão de ovos embrionados deste parasita, o que justifica a pesquisa de substâncias que tenham efeito deletério sobre estes ovos. Nosso objetivo foi estudar a ação de 16 produtos detergentes e desinfetantes, de uso doméstico e laboratorial, sobre a embriogênese deste helminto. Crianças portadoras desta infecção foram tratadas com levamisol e os vermes fêmeas expelidos foram recolhidos e dissecados, para obtenção dos ovos intra-uterinos. Os ovos foram postos em contato com os produtos em diversas diluições e tempos, lavados e incubados a 28masculineC, por 20 dias, para teste da viabilidade e determinação da porcentagem de embrionamento. Apenas um produto inibiu completamente o embrionamento dos ovos, em todos os tempos e diluições testados. Cinco produtos inibiram o embrionamento dos ovos em mais de 50%, seis inibiram o embrionamento em menos de 50% e três não tiveram efeito sobre o embrionamento dos ovos. Por outro lado, com um produto observou-se aumento da porcentagem de embrionamento dos ovos em relação aos controles.

  11. Atividade de detergentes e desinfetantes sobre a evolução dos ovos de Ascaris lumbricoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Lara Massara

    Full Text Available A infecção por Ascaris lumbricoides decorre da ingestão de ovos embrionados deste parasita, o que justifica a pesquisa de substâncias que tenham efeito deletério sobre estes ovos. Nosso objetivo foi estudar a ação de 16 produtos detergentes e desinfetantes, de uso doméstico e laboratorial, sobre a embriogênese deste helminto. Crianças portadoras desta infecção foram tratadas com levamisol e os vermes fêmeas expelidos foram recolhidos e dissecados, para obtenção dos ovos intra-uterinos. Os ovos foram postos em contato com os produtos em diversas diluições e tempos, lavados e incubados a 28ºC, por 20 dias, para teste da viabilidade e determinação da porcentagem de embrionamento. Apenas um produto inibiu completamente o embrionamento dos ovos, em todos os tempos e diluições testados. Cinco produtos inibiram o embrionamento dos ovos em mais de 50%, seis inibiram o embrionamento em menos de 50% e três não tiveram efeito sobre o embrionamento dos ovos. Por outro lado, com um produto observou-se aumento da porcentagem de embrionamento dos ovos em relação aos controles.

  12. Association between total immunoglobulin E and antibody responses to naturally acquired Ascaris lumbricoides infection and polymorphisms of immune system-related LIG4, TNFSF13B and IRS2 genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, N; Mercado, D; Vergara, C; Sánchez, J; Kennedy, M W; Jiménez, S; Fernández, A M; Gutiérrez, M; Puerta, L; Caraballo, L

    2009-08-01

    The 13q33-34 region harbours a susceptibility locus to Ascaris lumbricoides, although the underlying genes are unknown. Immunoglobulin (Ig)E and IgG confer protective immunity and here we sought to investigate in an endemic population whether LIG4, TNFSF13B and IRS2 genes influence IgE and IgG levels against Ascaris and the ABA-1 allergen as a putative resistance marker. Mite-allergic asthmatic patients were analysed for potential relationships between Ascaris predisposition and allergy. One thousand and sixty-four subjects from Cartagena, Colombia, were included. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were genotyped using TaqMan assays. Antibody levels were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Linear and logistic regressions were used to model effects of genotypes on antibody levels. The GG genotype of LIG4 (rs1805388) was associated with higher IgE levels to Ascaris compared with other genotypes. TNFSF13B (rs10508198) was associated positively with IgG levels against Ascaris extract and IgE levels against ABA-1. In asthmatics, IRS2 (rs2289046) was associated with high total IgE levels. Associations held up after correction by population stratification using a set of 52 ancestry markers, age, sex and disease status. There was no association with asthma or mite sensitization. In a tropical population, LIG4 and TNFSF13B polymorphisms are associated with specific IgE and IgG to Ascaris, supporting previous linkage studies implicating the 13q33 region. Our results suggest that genes protecting against parasite infections can be different to those predisposing to asthma and atopy.

  13. An environmental assessment and risk map of Ascaris lumbricoides and Necator americanus distributions in Manufahi District, Timor-Leste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wardell, Rebecca; Clements, Archie C A; Lal, Aparna; Summers, David; Llewellyn, Stacey; Campbell, Suzy J; McCarthy, James; Gray, Darren J; V Nery, Susana

    2017-05-01

    In Timor-Leste there have been intermittent and ineffective soil-transmitted helminth (STH) deworming programs since 2004. In a resource-constrained setting, having information on the geographic distribution of STH can aid in prioritising high risk communities for intervention. This study aimed to quantify the environmental risk factors for STH infection and to produce a risk map of STH in Manufahi district, Timor-Leste. Georeferenced cross-sectional data and stool samples were obtained from 2,194 participants in 606 households in 24 villages in the Manufahi District as part of cross sectional surveys done in the context of the "WASH for Worms" randomised controlled trial. Infection status was determined for Ascaris lumbricoides and Necator americanus using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Baseline infection data were linked to environmental data obtained for each household. Univariable and multivariable multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression analysis with random effects at the village and household level were conducted, with all models adjusted for age and sex. For A. lumbricoides, being a school-aged child increased the odds of infection, whilst higher temperatures in the coolest quarter of the year, alkaline soils, clay loam/loam soils and woody savannas around households were associated with decreased infection odds. For N. americanus, greater precipitation in the driest month, higher average enhanced vegetation index, age and sandy loam soils increased infection odds, whereas being female and living at higher elevations decreased the odds of infection. Predictive risk maps generated for Manufahi based upon these final models highlight the high predicted risk of N. americanus infection across the district and the more focal nature of A. lumbricoides infection. The predicted risk of any STH infection is high across the entire district. The widespread predicted risk of any STH infection in 6 to 18 year olds provides strong evidence to

  14. An environmental assessment and risk map of Ascaris lumbricoides and Necator americanus distributions in Manufahi District, Timor-Leste.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rebecca Wardell

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available In Timor-Leste there have been intermittent and ineffective soil-transmitted helminth (STH deworming programs since 2004. In a resource-constrained setting, having information on the geographic distribution of STH can aid in prioritising high risk communities for intervention. This study aimed to quantify the environmental risk factors for STH infection and to produce a risk map of STH in Manufahi district, Timor-Leste.Georeferenced cross-sectional data and stool samples were obtained from 2,194 participants in 606 households in 24 villages in the Manufahi District as part of cross sectional surveys done in the context of the "WASH for Worms" randomised controlled trial. Infection status was determined for Ascaris lumbricoides and Necator americanus using real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Baseline infection data were linked to environmental data obtained for each household. Univariable and multivariable multilevel mixed-effects logistic regression analysis with random effects at the village and household level were conducted, with all models adjusted for age and sex. For A. lumbricoides, being a school-aged child increased the odds of infection, whilst higher temperatures in the coolest quarter of the year, alkaline soils, clay loam/loam soils and woody savannas around households were associated with decreased infection odds. For N. americanus, greater precipitation in the driest month, higher average enhanced vegetation index, age and sandy loam soils increased infection odds, whereas being female and living at higher elevations decreased the odds of infection. Predictive risk maps generated for Manufahi based upon these final models highlight the high predicted risk of N. americanus infection across the district and the more focal nature of A. lumbricoides infection. The predicted risk of any STH infection is high across the entire district.The widespread predicted risk of any STH infection in 6 to 18 year olds provides strong

  15. Utilização da jejunostomia para extração endoscópica de Ascaris lumbricoides da via biliar principal em paciente com doença de Caroli

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leonardo Fernandes Valentim

    Full Text Available Grumbach-Auvert disease represents a type of Obstructive Disease of the Intrahepatic Biliary Tree. We presents a case report of a patient with hepatic abscess caused by Ascaris which ascended into hepatic parenquima through hepaticojejunostomy, resolved by endoscopic extraction of it after the jejunostomy of permanent access was opened.

  16. Avaliação da contaminação experimental de areias de praias por enteroparasitas: pesquisa de ovos de Helmintos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joaquim Pereira da Silva

    1991-03-01

    Full Text Available Procurou-se avaliar métodos e soluções tradicionalmente utilizados na evidenciação de ovos de helmintos parásitos, de fezes ou do solo, em amostras de areia de praia experimentalmente contaminadas com ovos de Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Toxocara canis e Ancylostoma sp. Das soluções classicamente utilizadas, a de Dicromato de Sódio (d= 1,350 foi a que apresentou melhores resultados (índice de recuperação = 50% para ovos de Ascaris, em 24 horas de observação. As duas soluções propostas: Carbonato de Sódio (d= 1,040 e Detergente aniônico sintético - Sulfonato de Sódio (d= 1,040, apresentaram índices de recuperação surpreendentes, superiores a 80% para os ovos de Ascaris, em 24 horas de observação. Conclui-se que o detergente de uso doméstico, pelo seu baixo custo e facilidade de aquisição, pode ser usado na avaliação de rotina da contaminação de areias de praias pelos ovos de enteroparasitos, importantes indicadores de contaminação fecal, necessários a um adequado monitoramento sanitário do meio.An attempt was made to assess methods and solutions traditionally used for evidencing the presence of helminth's eggs in faeces or soil from beach sand samples experimentally infected with eggs of Ascaris lumbricoides, Trichuris trichiura, Toxocara canis and Ancylostomidae. Among classically used solutions. Sodium Dicromate (d= 1.350 was the one with better results (recovery rate =50% for Ascaris eggs in a 24 hours observation. The two suggested solutions - Sodium Carbonate (d= 1.040 and synthetic anionic detergent - Sodium Sulphonate (d- 1.040 - showed surprising recovery rates, higher than 80% for Ascaris eggs in a 24 hours observation. We concluded that, because of their low cost and great availability, domestic detergents can be used for the routine evaluations of beachs contamination with enteroparasites eggs, which are important indicators of faecal contamination and necessary for an adequate sanitary

  17. Prevalence and intensity of infections of Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura and associated socio-demographic variables in four rural Honduran communities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Smith HM

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Between January and March 1998, a cross-sectional survey was carried out in four rural communities in Honduras, Central America. We examined the prevalence and intensity of Ascaris lumbricoides and Trichuris trichiura infections among 240 fecal specimens, and the association between selected socio-demographic variables and infection for 62 households. The overall prevalence of A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura was 45% (95% CI 39.0-51.9 and 38% (95% CI 31.8-44.4 respectively. The most intense infections for Ascaris and Trichuris were found in children aged 2-12 years old. By univariate analysis variables associated with infections of A. lumbricoides were: number of children 2-5 years old (p=0.001, level of formal education of respondents (p=0.01, reported site of defecation of children in households (p=0.02, households with children who had a recent history of diarrhea (p=0.002, and the location of households (p=0.03. Variables associated with both A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura infection included: number of children 6-14 years old (p=0.01, p=0.04, respectively, ownership of a latrine (p=0.04, p=0.03, respectively and coinfection with either helminth (p=0.001, p=0.001, respectively. By multivariate analysis the number of children 2-5 years living in the household, (p=0.01, odds ratio (OR=22.2, children with a recent history of diarrhea (p=0.0, OR=39.8, and infection of household members with T. trichiura (p=0.02, OR=16.0 were associated with A. lumbricoides infection. The number of children 6-14 years old in the household was associated with both A. lumbricoides and T. trichiura infection (p=0.04, p=0.01, OR=19.2, OR=5.2, respectively.

  18. Genetic variants in CHIA and CHI3L1 are associated with the IgE response to the Ascaris resistance marker ABA-1 and the birch pollen allergen Bet v 1

    OpenAIRE

    Acevedo, Nathalie; Bornacelly, Adriana; Mercado, Dilia; Unneberg, Per; Mittermann, Irene; Valenta, Rudolf; Kennedy, Malcolm; Scheynius, Annika; Caraballo, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Helminth infections and allergic diseases are associated with IgE hyperresponsiveness but the genetics of this phenotype remain to be defined. Susceptibility to Ascaris lumbricoides infection and antibody levels to this helminth are associated with polymorphisms in locus 13q33-34. We aimed to explore this and other genomic regions to identify genetic variants associated with the IgE responsiveness in humans. Forty-eight subjects from Cartagena, Colombia, with extreme values of specific IgE to...

  19. Dicty_cDB: SLA221 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 16428 propionyl-CoA carboxylase (EC 6.4.1.3) beta chain F52E4.1, mRNA sequence. 64 2e-06 1 BM284982 |BM284982.1 kh93d01.y1 Ascaris... suum L4 pSPORT1 Zarlenga v1 Ascaris suum cDNA 5' similar to TR:Q20676 Q20676 CODED FO...R BY C. ELEGANS CDNA YK74F9.5. [1] ;, mRNA sequence. 64 2e-06 1 BM280672 |BM280672.1 ki03f06.y1 Ascaris... suum L4 pSPORT1 Zarlenga v1 Ascaris suum cDNA 5' similar to TR:Q20676 Q20676 CODED FO...R BY C. ELEGANS CDNA YK74F9.5. [1] ;, mRNA sequence. 64 2e-06 1 CA304894 |CA304894.1 As_adfo_23G10_T3 Ascaris

  20. Parasitismo por Ascaris lumbricoides em crianças menores de dois anos: estudo populacional em comunidade do Estado do Rio de Janeiro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Costa-Macedo Lêda Maria da

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available A prevalência e a intensidade da infecção por Ascaris lumbricoides foram analisadas mediante um estudo transversal em crianças residentes no Município de Duque de Caxias, no Estado do Rio de Janeiro, entre julho e dezembro de 1997. A população do estudo foi constituída por crianças com menos de dois anos de idade e as mães das crianças menores de um ano. As amostras fecais foram recolhidas nos domicílios em frascos contendo solução conservadora de MIF e processadas por meio das técnicas de MIFC e Kato-Katz. As prevalências de infecção por A. lumbricoides observadas foram 3,3% (I.C. 95% 1,0 - 7,8 para os menores de um ano, 30,7% (I.C. 95% 25,4 - 36,4 para as crianças com um ano de idade e 42,3% (I.C. 95% 33,0 - 51,9 para as mães. Infecção com carga parasitária moderada/pesada foi observada em cerca de 38% das crianças com um ano de idade e 36,0% das mães. Estes resultados demonstram a importância da ascariose já no primeiro ano de vida e indicam a necessidade de aprofundamento na investigação desta parasitose na população materno-infantil.

  1. Impact of single annual treatment and four-monthly treatment for hookworm and Ascaris lumbricoides, and factors associated with residual infection among Kenyan school children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kepha, Stella; Mwandawiro, Charles S; Anderson, Roy M; Pullan, Rachel L; Nuwaha, Fred; Cano, Jorge; Njenga, Sammy M; Odiere, Maurice R; Allen, Elizabeth; Brooker, Simon J; Nikolay, Birgit

    2017-02-09

    School-based deworming is widely implemented in various countries to reduce the burden of soil-transmitted helminths (STHs), however, the frequency of drug administration varies in different settings. In this study, we compared the impact of a single annual treatment and 4-monthly treatment over a follow-up among Kenyan school children, and investigated the factors associated with residual infection. We performed a secondary analysis of data from a randomized trial investigating whether deworming for STHs alters risk of acquiring malaria. Children received either a single treatment or 4-monthly albendazole treatments were followed longitudinally from February 2014 to October 2014. The relative impact of treatment and factors associated with residual infections were investigated using mixed-effects regression models. Predisposition to infection was assessed based on Spearman's rank and Kendall's Tau correlation coefficients. In the 4-monthly treatment group, the proportion of children infected with hookworm decreased from 59.9 to 5.7%, while Ascaris lumbricoides infections dropped from 55.7 to 6.2%. In the single treatment group, hookworm infections decreased over the same time period from 58.7 to 18.3% (12.6% absolute difference in reduction, 95% CI: 8.9-16.3%), and A. lumbricoides from 56.7 to 23.3% (17.1% absolute difference in reduction, 95% CI: 13.1-21.1%). There was strong evidence for predisposition to both STH types. Residual hookworm infection among children on 4-monthly treatment were associated with male sex and baseline nutritional status, whereas A. lumbricoides infection was associated with individual and school-level infection at baseline, latrine cleanliness at schools. This study found that 4-monthly treatment w more effective than single annual treatment. Repeated treatments led to dramatic reductions in the intensities of STHs, but did not completely clear infections among school children in Kenya, a presumed reflection of reinfection in a setting

  2. Genetic Variants in CHIA and CHI3L1 Are Associated with the IgE Response to the Ascaris Resistance Marker ABA-1 and the Birch Pollen Allergen Bet v 1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acevedo, Nathalie; Bornacelly, Adriana; Mercado, Dilia; Unneberg, Per; Mittermann, Irene; Valenta, Rudolf; Kennedy, Malcolm; Scheynius, Annika; Caraballo, Luis

    2016-01-01

    Helminth infections and allergic diseases are associated with IgE hyperresponsiveness but the genetics of this phenotype remain to be defined. Susceptibility to Ascaris lumbricoides infection and antibody levels to this helminth are associated with polymorphisms in locus 13q33-34. We aimed to explore this and other genomic regions to identify genetic variants associated with the IgE responsiveness in humans. Forty-eight subjects from Cartagena, Colombia, with extreme values of specific IgE to Ascaris and ABA-1, a resistance marker of this nematode, were selected for targeted resequencing. Burden analyses were done comparing extreme groups for IgE values. One-hundred one SNPs were genotyped in 1258 individuals of two well-characterized populations from Colombia and Sweden. Two low-frequency coding variants in the gene encoding the Acidic Mammalian Chitinase (CHIA rs79500525, rs139812869, tagged by rs10494133) were found enriched in high IgE responders to ABA-1 and confirmed by genetic association analyses. The SNP rs4950928 in the Chitinase 3 Like 1 gene (CHI3L1) was associated with high IgE to ABA-1 in Colombians and with high IgE to Bet v 1 in the Swedish population. CHIA rs10494133 and ABDH13 rs3783118 were associated with IgE responses to Ascaris. SNPs in the Tumor Necrosis Factor Superfamily Member 13b gene (TNFSF13B) encoding the cytokine B cell activating Factor were associated with high levels of total IgE in both populations. This is the first report on the association between low-frequency and common variants in the chitinases-related genes CHIA and CHI3L1 with the intensity of specific IgE to ABA-1 in a population naturally exposed to Ascaris and with Bet v 1 in a Swedish population. Our results add new information about the genetic influences of human IgE responsiveness; since the genes encode for enzymes involved in the immune response to parasitic infections, they could be helpful for understanding helminth immunity and allergic responses. We also

  3. Genetic Variants in CHIA and CHI3L1 Are Associated with the IgE Response to the Ascaris Resistance Marker ABA-1 and the Birch Pollen Allergen Bet v 1.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathalie Acevedo

    Full Text Available Helminth infections and allergic diseases are associated with IgE hyperresponsiveness but the genetics of this phenotype remain to be defined. Susceptibility to Ascaris lumbricoides infection and antibody levels to this helminth are associated with polymorphisms in locus 13q33-34. We aimed to explore this and other genomic regions to identify genetic variants associated with the IgE responsiveness in humans. Forty-eight subjects from Cartagena, Colombia, with extreme values of specific IgE to Ascaris and ABA-1, a resistance marker of this nematode, were selected for targeted resequencing. Burden analyses were done comparing extreme groups for IgE values. One-hundred one SNPs were genotyped in 1258 individuals of two well-characterized populations from Colombia and Sweden. Two low-frequency coding variants in the gene encoding the Acidic Mammalian Chitinase (CHIA rs79500525, rs139812869, tagged by rs10494133 were found enriched in high IgE responders to ABA-1 and confirmed by genetic association analyses. The SNP rs4950928 in the Chitinase 3 Like 1 gene (CHI3L1 was associated with high IgE to ABA-1 in Colombians and with high IgE to Bet v 1 in the Swedish population. CHIA rs10494133 and ABDH13 rs3783118 were associated with IgE responses to Ascaris. SNPs in the Tumor Necrosis Factor Superfamily Member 13b gene (TNFSF13B encoding the cytokine B cell activating Factor were associated with high levels of total IgE in both populations. This is the first report on the association between low-frequency and common variants in the chitinases-related genes CHIA and CHI3L1 with the intensity of specific IgE to ABA-1 in a population naturally exposed to Ascaris and with Bet v 1 in a Swedish population. Our results add new information about the genetic influences of human IgE responsiveness; since the genes encode for enzymes involved in the immune response to parasitic infections, they could be helpful for understanding helminth immunity and allergic

  4. Operation, Maintenance and Performance Evaluation of the Potomac Estuary Experimental Water Treatment Plant. Main Volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    olfactory bulbs when swimming or playing in water Helminths Ascaris Host: Man. Habitat: Soil Fever, allergic reactions, lumbricoides and contaminated...Naegleria gruberi cysts, Ascaris eggs, Hookworm eggs and Trichuris trichiura eggs. The presense of unidentified larval worms was also recorded. Salmonella A... Ascaris , Hookworm and Trichuris trichiura. The results of the blended influent sample analyses are presented in Table 8.2-11. All results for the finished

  5. MSP dynamics and retraction in nematode sperm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolgemuth, Charles; Miao, Long; Vanderlinde, Orion; Roberts, Tom; Oster, George

    2005-03-01

    Most eukaryotic cells can crawl over surfaces. In general, this motility requires three distinct actions: polymerization at the leading edge, adhesion to the substrate, and retraction at the rear. Recent in vitro experiments with extracts from spermatozoa from the nematode Ascaris suum suggest that retraction forces are generated by depolymerization of the Major Sperm Protein (MSP) cytoskeleton. Combining polymer entropy with a simple kinetic model for disassembly I propose a model for disassembly-induced retraction that fit the in vitro experimental data. This model explains the mechanism by which deconstruction of the cytoskeleton produces the force necessary to pull the cell body forward and suggest further experiments that can test the validity of the model.

  6. Ascaris lumbricoides infection and its relation to environmental factors in the Mbeya region of Tanzania, a cross-sectional, population-based study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Andreas Schüle

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: With one quarter of the world population infected, the intestinal nematode Ascaris lumbricoides is one of the most common infectious agents, especially in the tropics and sub-tropics. Infection is caused by oral intake of eggs and can cause respiratory and gastrointestinal problems. To identify high risk areas for intervention, it is necessary to understand the effects of climatic, environmental and socio-demographic conditions on A. lumbricoides infection. METHODOLOGY: Cross-sectional survey data of 6,366 study participants in the Mbeya region of South-Western Tanzania were used to analyze associations between remotely sensed environmental data and A. lumbricoides infection. Non-linear associations were accounted for by using fractional polynomial regression, and socio-demographic and sanitary data were included as potential confounders. PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: The overall prevalence of A. lumbricoides infection was 6.8%. Our final multivariable model revealed a significant non-linear association between rainfall and A. lumbricoides infection with peak prevalences at 1740 mm of mean annual rainfall. Mean annual land surface temperature during the day was linearly modeled and negatively associated with A. lumbricoides infection (odds ratio (OR = 0.87, 95% confidence interval (CI = 0.78-0.97. Furthermore, age, which also showed a significant non-linear association (infection maximum at 7.7 years, socio-economic status (OR = 0.82, CI = 0.68-0.97, and latrine coverage around the house (OR = 0.80, CI = 0.67-0.96 remained in the final model. CONCLUSIONS: A. lumbricoides infection was associated with environmental, socio-demographic and sanitary factors both in uni- and multivariable analysis. Non-linear analysis with fractional polynomials can improve model fit, resulting in a better understanding of the relationship between environmental conditions and helminth infection, and more precise predictions of high

  7. Verder onderzoek naar natuurlijke middelen tegen worminfectie nodig

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Krimpen, van M.M.

    2008-01-01

    De kruiden papaja, boldoblad en bijvoet werken niet preventief tegen een milde besmetting van spoelwormen (Ascaris suum) bij biologische vleesvarkens. Dit blijkt uit onderzoek van Wageningen UR. Om worminfecties te voorkomen is een combinatie van grondig reinigen van de stal en varkens regelmatig

  8. Met uitloop meer kans op parasitaire infecties

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijck, I.A.J.M.

    2003-01-01

    Parasitaire infecties vormen een belangrijk probleem in de biologische- en scharrelhouderij. In een veldinventarisatie van het Praktijkonderzoek van ASG werden meer Ascaris suum (spoelwormen), coccidiën en Toxoplasma gondii gevonden op bedrijven met uitloop dan op bedrijven zonder uitloop. Nader

  9. Taxonomic status of several sibling species – parasites in man and in other vertebrates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    František Tenora

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The taxonomic status of several related species pairs of sibling species character is discussed. They are the following pairs: 1 Ascaris lumbricoides L., 1758; A. suum Goeze, 1782; 2 Rodentolepis nana (Siebold, 1852; R. fraterna (Stiles, 1906; 3 Hymenolepis flavopunctata (Weinland, 1858; H. diminuta (Rudolphi, 1819.

  10. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U06891-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available 515 ) AUAC-aaj05e04.b1 Ascaris suum whole genome shotgu... 42 1.4 2 ( DQ074362 ) Messor chamberlini isolate ...... 40 5.5 2 ( DQ353349 ) Messor julianus voucher RA0348 cytochrome oxidase... 42 5.7 2 ( EJ604208 ) 1092961

  11. Gastrointestinal Parasites of Pigs in a Commercial Farm in Isiala ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The helminth parasite groups encountered were nematodes 64 (64.0%) and trematodes 15 (15.0%). The parasites identified were Gastrodiscus aegyptiacus, Oesophagostomum dentatum, Trichuris suis, Stephanurus dentatus, Metastronggylus salmi, and Ascaris suum. Stephanuru dentatus had the highest prevalence rate ...

  12. 21 CFR 520.1242d - Levamisole resinate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Levamisole resinate. 520.1242d Section 520.1242d Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... (Ascaris suum), nodular worms (Oesophagostomum spp.), lungworms (Metastrongylus spp.), intestinal...

  13. Author Details

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Olubiyi, OO. Vol 11, No 2 (2014) - Articles Determination of binding affinities of some approved drugs to Ascaris suum mitochondrial rhodoquinol-fumarate reductase by in silico molecular docking. Abstract. ISSN: 1596-8499. AJOL African Journals Online. HOW TO USE AJOL... for Researchers · for Librarians · for Authors ...

  14. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Allied Sciences - Vol 11, No 2 (2014)

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Determination of binding affinities of some approved drugs to Ascaris suum mitochondrial rhodoquinol-fumarate reductase by in silico molecular docking · EMAIL FULL TEXT EMAIL FULL TEXT · DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT DOWNLOAD FULL TEXT. IC Uzochukwu, OO Olubiyi, CO Akpojotor, 2114-2124 ...

  15. Beloftevolle kruiden tegen wormen slaan in vervolgproef niet aan

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaag, van der M.; Eijck, I.A.J.M.; Schuurman, T.; Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Gaasenbeek, C.P.H.

    2005-01-01

    In 2003 in een proef op praktijkcentrum Raalte bleek een kruidenmengsel van tijm, citroenmelisse en zonnehoed effectief bij een besmetting van vleesvarkens met de spoelworm Ascaris suum. In 2004 vond vervolgonderzoek plaats bij biologische varkens. Nu werd er geen gunstig effect van kruiden

  16. Kruiden effectief bij bestrijding wormen

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gaag, van der M.A.; Eijck, I.A.J.M.; Schuurman, T.; Borgsteede, F.H.M.; Gaasenbeek, C.P.H.

    2004-01-01

    Op het Praktijkcentrum Raalte is de werking van een kruidenmengsel getest bij vleesvarkens die kunstmatig besmet waren met infectieuze eieren van de varkens-spoelworm, Ascaris suum. Een deel van de varkens kreeg 1 % of 5 % kruiden in het voer. Het bleek dat de varkens die 5 % kruiden kregen na

  17. Helminth Egg Removal Capacity of UASB Reactors under Subtropical Conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yaya Beas, R.E.; Ayala-Limaylla, C.; Kujawa-Roeleveld, K.; Lier, van J.B.; Zeeman, G.

    2015-01-01

    This research was conducted to study the anaerobic sludge filtration capacity regarding helminth egg removal in upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactors. Two 25 L lab-scale UASB reactors were operated at an ambient temperature which varied between 17.1 and 28.6 °C. Ascaris suum egg was

  18. Bolus obstruction by Ascaris lumbricoides

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    returning to normal after treatment.4 The complication rate is 2 per 1000 infested children per year, I being maximal when the worm burden exceeds 100,2 Obstruction of the intestine by a bolus of worms, biliary ascariasis,3.6 pancreatitis and acute appendicitis are the commonest complications necessitating sur-.

  19. Bolus obstruction by Ascaris lumbricoides

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    I in 4 of the world's population is infested,2 Two hundred thousand eggs are laid daily by each adult female worm,2 The eggs resist freezing or drying and survive ... trate the intestinal wall and enter the portal circulation, passing through the liver into the lungs, where large-scale infestation may cause pneumonitis. They then ...

  20. Experimental philosophy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knobe, Joshua; Buckwalter, Wesley; Nichols, Shaun; Robbins, Philip; Sarkissian, Hagop; Sommers, Tamler

    2012-01-01

    Experimental philosophy is a new interdisciplinary field that uses methods normally associated with psychology to investigate questions normally associated with philosophy. The present review focuses on research in experimental philosophy on four central questions. First, why is it that people's moral judgments appear to influence their intuitions about seemingly nonmoral questions? Second, do people think that moral questions have objective answers, or do they see morality as fundamentally relative? Third, do people believe in free will, and do they see free will as compatible with determinism? Fourth, how do people determine whether an entity is conscious?

  1. Structural Insights into the Molecular Design of Flutolanil Derivatives Targeted for Fumarate Respiration of Parasite Mitochondria

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaoka, Daniel Ken; Shiba, Tomoo; Sato, Dan; Balogun, Emmanuel Oluwadare; Sasaki, Tsuyoshi; Nagahama, Madoka; Oda, Masatsugu; Matsuoka, Shigeru; Ohmori, Junko; Honma, Teruki; Inoue, Masayuki; Kita, Kiyoshi; Harada, Shigeharu

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies on the respiratory chain of Ascaris suum showed that the mitochondrial NADH-fumarate reductase system composed of complex I, rhodoquinone and complex II plays an important role in the anaerobic energy metabolism of adult A. suum. The system is the major pathway of energy metabolism for adaptation to a hypoxic environment not only in parasitic organisms, but also in some types of human cancer cells. Thus, enzymes of the pathway are potential targets for chemotherapy. We found that flutolanil is an excellent inhibitor for A. suum complex II (IC50 = 0.058 μM) but less effectively inhibits homologous porcine complex II (IC50 = 45.9 μM). In order to account for the specificity of flutolanil to A. suum complex II from the standpoint of structural biology, we determined the crystal structures of A. suum and porcine complex IIs binding flutolanil and its derivative compounds. The structures clearly demonstrated key interactions responsible for its high specificity to A. suum complex II and enabled us to find analogue compounds, which surpass flutolanil in both potency and specificity to A. suum complex II. Structures of complex IIs binding these compounds will be helpful to accelerate structure-based drug design targeted for complex IIs. PMID:26198225

  2. Structural Insights into the Molecular Design of Flutolanil Derivatives Targeted for Fumarate Respiration of Parasite Mitochondria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Ken Inaoka

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies on the respiratory chain of Ascaris suum showed that the mitochondrial NADH-fumarate reductase system composed of complex I, rhodoquinone and complex II plays an important role in the anaerobic energy metabolism of adult A. suum. The system is the major pathway of energy metabolism for adaptation to a hypoxic environment not only in parasitic organisms, but also in some types of human cancer cells. Thus, enzymes of the pathway are potential targets for chemotherapy. We found that flutolanil is an excellent inhibitor for A. suum complex II (IC50 = 0.058 μM but less effectively inhibits homologous porcine complex II (IC50 = 45.9 μM. In order to account for the specificity of flutolanil to A. suum complex II from the standpoint of structural biology, we determined the crystal structures of A. suum and porcine complex IIs binding flutolanil and its derivative compounds. The structures clearly demonstrated key interactions responsible for its high specificity to A. suum complex II and enabled us to find analogue compounds, which surpass flutolanil in both potency and specificity to A. suum complex II. Structures of complex IIs binding these compounds will be helpful to accelerate structure-based drug design targeted for complex IIs.

  3. Structural Insights into the Molecular Design of Flutolanil Derivatives Targeted for Fumarate Respiration of Parasite Mitochondria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaoka, Daniel Ken; Shiba, Tomoo; Sato, Dan; Balogun, Emmanuel Oluwadare; Sasaki, Tsuyoshi; Nagahama, Madoka; Oda, Masatsugu; Matsuoka, Shigeru; Ohmori, Junko; Honma, Teruki; Inoue, Masayuki; Kita, Kiyoshi; Harada, Shigeharu

    2015-07-07

    Recent studies on the respiratory chain of Ascaris suum showed that the mitochondrial NADH-fumarate reductase system composed of complex I, rhodoquinone and complex II plays an important role in the anaerobic energy metabolism of adult A. suum. The system is the major pathway of energy metabolism for adaptation to a hypoxic environment not only in parasitic organisms, but also in some types of human cancer cells. Thus, enzymes of the pathway are potential targets for chemotherapy. We found that flutolanil is an excellent inhibitor for A. suum complex II (IC50 = 0.058 μM) but less effectively inhibits homologous porcine complex II (IC50 = 45.9 μM). In order to account for the specificity of flutolanil to A. suum complex II from the standpoint of structural biology, we determined the crystal structures of A. suum and porcine complex IIs binding flutolanil and its derivative compounds. The structures clearly demonstrated key interactions responsible for its high specificity to A. suum complex II and enabled us to find analogue compounds, which surpass flutolanil in both potency and specificity to A. suum complex II. Structures of complex IIs binding these compounds will be helpful to accelerate structure-based drug design targeted for complex IIs.

  4. Animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolar, Roman

    2006-01-01

    Millions of animals are used every year in often times extremely painful and distressing scientific procedures. Legislation of animal experimentation in modern societies is based on the supposition that this is ethically acceptable when certain more or less defined formal (e.g. logistical, technical) demands and ethical principles are met. The main parameters in this context correspond to the "3Rs" concept as defined by Russel and Burch in 1959, i.e. that all efforts to replace, reduce and refine experiments must be undertaken. The licensing of animal experiments normally requires an ethical evaluation process, often times undertaken by ethics committees. The serious problems in putting this idea into practice include inter alia unclear conditions and standards for ethical decisions, insufficient management of experiments undertaken for specific (e.g. regulatory) purposes, and conflicts of interest of ethics committees' members. There is an ongoing societal debate about ethical issues of animal use in science. Existing EU legislation on animal experimentation for cosmetics testing is an example of both the public will for setting clear limits to animal experiments and the need to further critically examine other fields and aspects of animal experimentation.

  5. Experimental macroevolution†

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Graham

    2016-01-01

    The convergence of several disparate research programmes raises the possibility that the long-term evolutionary processes of innovation and radiation may become amenable to laboratory experimentation. Ancestors might be resurrected directly from naturally stored propagules or tissues, or indirectly from the expression of ancestral genes in contemporary genomes. New kinds of organisms might be evolved through artificial selection of major developmental genes. Adaptive radiation can be studied by mimicking major ecological transitions in the laboratory. All of these possibilities are subject to severe quantitative and qualitative limitations. In some cases, however, laboratory experiments may be capable of illuminating the processes responsible for the evolution of new kinds of organisms. PMID:26763705

  6. Experimental macroevolution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Graham

    2016-01-13

    The convergence of several disparate research programmes raises the possibility that the long-term evolutionary processes of innovation and radiation may become amenable to laboratory experimentation. Ancestors might be resurrected directly from naturally stored propagules or tissues, or indirectly from the expression of ancestral genes in contemporary genomes. New kinds of organisms might be evolved through artificial selection of major developmental genes. Adaptive radiation can be studied by mimicking major ecological transitions in the laboratory. All of these possibilities are subject to severe quantitative and qualitative limitations. In some cases, however, laboratory experiments may be capable of illuminating the processes responsible for the evolution of new kinds of organisms. © 2016 The Author(s).

  7. Experimental music for experimental physics

    CERN Multimedia

    Rosaria Marraffino

    2014-01-01

    Using the sonification technique, physicist and composer Domenico Vicinanza paid homage to CERN at its 60th anniversary ceremony. After months of hard work, he turned the CERN Convention and LHC data into music.   Click here to download the full score of the "LHChamber music". Every birthday deserves gifts and CERN’s 60th anniversary was no exception. Two gifts were very special, thanks to the hard work of Domenico Vicinanza, a physicist and composer. He created two experimental pieces by applying the sonification technique to the CERN Convention and to data recorded by the four LHC detectors during Run 1. “This technique allows us to ‘hear’ data using an algorithm that translates numbers or letters into notes. It keeps the same information enclosed in a graph or a document, but has a more aesthetic exposition,” explains Domenico Vicinanza. “The result is meant to be a metaphor for scientific cooperation, in which d...

  8. Possible presence of common tyvelose-containing glycans in Trichinella L1 larvae and embryonated eggs of several nematodes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dea-Ayuela M.A.

    2001-06-01

    Full Text Available A monoclonal antibody (mAb US4 recognising an epitope containing tyvelose within the T. spiralis L-1 muscle larvae (TSL-1 antigens was tested in western-blot against various antigenic preparations from different stages of the following nematodes: T. spiralis (L1,adult, T. muris (egg, L1, L3, adult, Ascaris suum (egg, adult, Toxocara canis (egg, adult, Anisakis simplex (L3 and Haemochus contortus (egg. Positive reaction was present in antigen preparations from L1 larvae of T. spiralis and T. muris and from embryonated eggs of T. muris, A. suum, T. canis and H. conlortus.

  9. Anthelmintic activity of chicory (Cichorium intybus): in vitro effects on swine nematodes and relationship to sesquiterpene lactone composition

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Andrew; Pena-Espinoza, Miguel Angel; Boas, Ulrik

    2016-01-01

    Chicory is a perennial crop that has been investigated as a forage source for outdoor-reared ruminants and pigs, and has been reported to have anthelmintic properties. Here, we investigated in vitro anthelmintic effects of forage chicory-extracts against the highly prevalent swine parasites Ascaris...... suum and Oesophagostomum dentatum. Methanol extracts were prepared and purified from two different cultivars of chicory (Spadona and Puna II). Marked differences were observed between the anthelmintic activity of extracts from the two cultivars. Spadona extracts had potent activity against A. suum...... activity of forage chicory towards swine nematodes. Our results indicate a significant anthelmintic effect, which may possibly be related to SL composition....

  10. Operation, Maintenance and Performance Evaluation of the Potomac Estuary Experimental Water Treatment Plant. Executive Summary.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1983-09-01

    parasites were monitored regularly in the parasite group includingGiardia cysts, Entamoeba histolytica, Acanthamoeba Naegleria Gruberi cysts, Ascaris...fecal coli - forms, manganese, other trace metals, total organic carbon (TOC), total organic halide (TOX), trihalomethanes and other primary or

  11. Detection of intestinal parasites on field-grown strawberries in the Federal District of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sandra Regina Morais da Silva

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction This study evaluated the presence of pathogenic human parasites on field-grown strawberries in the Federal District of Brazil. Methods A total of 48 samples of strawberries and 48 soil samples from 16 properties were analyzed. Results Contaminated strawberries were detected in 56% of the properties. Schistosoma mansoni, Ascaris lumbricoides or Ascaris suum, Balantidium coli, Endolimax nana, and Entamoeba spp. were detected. Soil was contaminated with Entamoeba spp., Entamoeba coli, Strongyloides spp., Ancylostomatidae, and Hymenolepis nana. Conclusions Producers should be instructed on the safe handling of strawberries in order to reduce the incidence of strawberries that are contaminated with enteroparasites.

  12. Dietary cinnamaldehyde enhances acquisition of specific antibodies following helminth infection in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Williams, Andrew R.; Hansen, Tina V. A.; Krych, Lukasz

    2017-01-01

    Dietary phytonutrients such as cinnamaldehyde (CA) may contribute to immune function during pathogen infections, and CA has been reported to have positive effects on gut health when used as feed additive for livestock. Here, we investigated whether CA could enhance antibody production and specific...... immune responses during infection with an enteric pathogen. We examined the effect of dietary CA on plasma antibody levels in parasite-naïve pigs, and subsequently acquisition of humoral immune responses during infection with the parasitic nematode Ascaris suum. Parasite-naïve pigs fed diets supplemented......) and glucose transporter 2 (SLC2A2) in the jejunal mucosa of A.suum-infected pigs. Dietary CA induced only limited changes in the composition of the prokaryotic gut microbiota of A. suum-infected pigs, and in vitro experiments showed that CA did not directly induce proliferation or increase secretion of Ig...

  13. IgG Antibody responses in mice coinfected with Toxocara canis and other helminths or protozoan parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana A. Zevallos Lescano

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The immune response expressed by IgG antibodies in BALB/c mice experimentally infected with Toxocara canis, was studied with the aim of verifying the possible in vivo cross-reactivity between antigens of T. canis and other parasites (Ascaris suum, Taenia crassiceps, Schistosoma mansoni, Strongyloides venezuelensis and Toxoplasma gondii. Experiments included three groups of mice: one infected only by T. canis, another with one of the other species of parasites and a third concomitantly infected with T. canis and the other species in question. Animals were bled by orbital plexus at 23, 38 and 70 days post infection (p.i.. Sera were analyzed for anti-Toxocara antibodies by ELISA and Immunoblotting, using excretion-secretion antigens (ES, obtained from culture of third-stage larvae of T. canis. For all experiments a control group comprised by ten non-infected mice was used. Only in the case of A. suum infection, in these experimental conditions, the occurrence of cross-reactivity with T. canis was observed. However, in the case of co-infection of T. canis - S. mansoni, T. canis - S. venezuelensis and T. canis - T. crassiceps the production of anti-Toxocara antibodies was found at levels significantly lower than those found in mice infected with T. canis only. Co-infection with S. mansoni or S. venezuelensis showed lower mortality rates compared to what occurred in the animals with single infections. Results obtained in mice infected with T. canis and T. gondii showed significant differences between the mean levels of the optical densities of animals infected with T. canis and concomitantly infected with the protozoan only in the 23rd day p.i.

  14. Eelworms in wild hoofed mammals of Ukraine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Dovgyi

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Strongylata, Rhabditata and Ascaridata eelworms were found in wild hoofs (roe deers and wild boars in Ukraine. Strongylata are presented by Globocephalus sp., Dictyocaulus viviparous (Bloch, D. еckerti Skrjabin, Muellerius sp., Cystocaulus sp., Protostrongylus sp., Haemonchus contortus Rundolphi, Marshallagia marshalli (Ransom, Nematodirus oiratianus Rajevskaja, Trichostrongylus axei (Cobbold, Bunostomum phlebotomum (Railliet, Oesophagostomum venulosus (Rudolphi, O. dentatm (Rudolphi and Chabertia ovina (Raill.. The helmints Strongyloides papillosus Wedl, S. ransomi Scwartz et Al. and Ascaris suum (Goeze were identified for Rhabditata and Ascaridata.

  15. Inhibitory effect of topical Adelmidrol on antigen-induced skin wheal and mast cell behavior in a canine model of allergic dermatitis

    OpenAIRE

    Cerrato Santiago; Brazis Pilar; della Valle Maria Federica; Miolo Alda; Puigdemont Anna

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Adelmidrol is a semisynthetic derivative of azelaic acid and analogue of the anti-inflammatory compound palmitoylethanolamide (PEA). Based upon its physicochemical properties, adelmidrol is suitable for topical application. The main objective of the present study was to evaluate the efficacy of a topical adelmidrol emulsion on early and late inflammatory responses in hypersensitive dogs. Repeated intradermal injections of Ascaris suum extract were performed in both lateral...

  16. Glucogeno sintasa en helmintos parasitos: inhibicion por benzimidazoles

    OpenAIRE

    H. Gomez-Banqueri; Garcia Ruiz, M. A.; Monteoliva,M.; Sanchez-Moreno, M

    1987-01-01

    Se ha determinado el effecto inhibidor sobre la actividad Glucogeno sintetasa (E.C.2.41.11) por parte de cuatro antihelminticos: Albendazol, Mebendazol, Parbendazol y Tiabendazol. Observandose que en todos los casos, es el Parbendazol quien ha demostrado un mayor poder inhibidor sobre la glucógeno sintetasa de Ascaris suum, Fasciola hepatica y Moniezia expansa. El Tiabendazol es el anti-helmintico que menor efecto inhibidor ha presentado sobre la enzima en los tres parasitos objeto de nuestro...

  17. Experimental Engineering: Articulating and Valuing Design Experimentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vallgårda, Anna; Grönvall, Erik; Fritsch, Jonas

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we propose Experimental Engineering as a way to articulate open- ended technological experiments as a legitimate design research practice. Experimental Engineering introduces a move away from an outcome or result driven design process towards an interest in existing technologies...

  18. Ozonation by-products issued from the destruction of microorganisms present in wastewaters treated for reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rojas-Valencia, M N; Orta-de-Velásquez, M T; Vaca-Mier, M; Franco, V

    2004-01-01

    This work demonstrates the reaction of ozone on the amino acids comprising the covering layer of resistant micro-organisms. A secondary aim was to check the byproducts generated when ozone was applied to synthetic samples (such as Vibrio cholerae NO 01 WFCC-449, Salmonella typhi ATTC-6539, faecal coliforms and Ascaris suum). The ozone was applied at a concentration of 18.4 mgO3/min at pH 3, for different lengths of time. In the case of bacteria, results showed that, at 8 minutes, the number was reduced to the level of the Official Mexican Standards set for treated water destined for irrigation purposes (1,000 MPN/100 mL). Excellent correlation coefficients (0.95 to 0.99) were obtained for microbial concentrations versus ozone contact time. Destruction times required for 100% removal of the initial bacteria population varied between 2 and 14 minutes, while Ascaris suum required 1 hour. When Gram-negative bacteria die due to the effects of ozone, cellular lysis and the liberation of endotoxins (biodegradable) were observed. The ozonation of amino acids in the shell of Ascaris suum eggs, leads to the formation of aldehydes, such as formaldehyde and acetaldehyde, in low concentrations (0.0003 and 0.0005 microg/mL respectively). These levels are not hazardous to human health.

  19. HIRENASD Experimental Data

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Experimental Data for HIRENASD configuration Zip files below contain the experimental data for the pressure coefficients, both the static and the forced oscillation...

  20. Ethics in Animal Experimentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Ergun

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Experimental animals are frequently used to obtain information for primarily scientific reasons. In the present review, ethics in animal experimentation is examined. At first, the history of animal experimentation and animal rights is outlined. Thereafter, the terms in relation with the topic are defined. Finally, prominent aspects of 3Rs constituting scientific and ethical basis in animal experimentation are underlined. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2010; 19(4.000: 220-235

  1. Ethics in Animal Experimentation

    OpenAIRE

    Yusuf Ergun

    2010-01-01

    Experimental animals are frequently used to obtain information for primarily scientific reasons. In the present review, ethics in animal experimentation is examined. At first, the history of animal experimentation and animal rights is outlined. Thereafter, the terms in relation with the topic are defined. Finally, prominent aspects of 3Rs constituting scientific and ethical basis in animal experimentation are underlined. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2010; 19(4.000): 220-235

  2. Microexperiencia Educativa (Microeducational Experimentation).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burton Meis, Roberto

    1970-01-01

    Experimentation for educational reform in Argentina is limited to specifically designated schools which are to be in a permanent state of experimentation. This article presents the official statements designating the experimental schools and includes remarks covering administration, evaluation, and supervision. (VM)

  3. Fundamentals of Experimental Pharmacology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Bhatt, J

    2012-01-01

    ... or in human volunteers. Thus, an experimental pharmacology using animal models continues to be the starting point for a new drug research. The book Fundamentals of Experimental Pharmacology by Dr. M. N. Ghosh has really been a cornerstone for postgraduate students and researchers engaged in animal experimentation. It has always been useful for pos...

  4. ABO System: molecular mimicry of Ascaris lumbricoides

    OpenAIRE

    Ponce de León, Patricia; Valverde, Juana

    2003-01-01

    A. lumbricoides has been associated to the ABO System by various authors. The objective was to detect ABO System epitopes in A. lumbricoides of groups O, A, B and AB patients. 28 adult parasites were obtained from children to be used as assay material. The patients ABO blood groups were determined. Extracts of A. lumbricoides [AE] were prepared by surgical remotion of the cuticle and refrigerated mechanical rupture. Agglutination Inhibition (AI) and Hemoagglutination Kinetics (HK) tests were ...

  5. Appearances of Ascaris lumbricoides, Colon taeniasis , Cysticercus

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    STORAGESEVER

    2008-12-29

    Dec 29, 2008 ... ultrasound in the assessment of appearances and immunopathological reactions that are caused by parasitic infestations. ... Ultrasonography plays an important role in establishing the diagnoses of S. haematobium, A. lumbricoides, C. taeniasis and ..... The source of this parasite is dog faeces and its entry ...

  6. Is animal experimentation fundamental?

    Science.gov (United States)

    d'Acampora, Armando José; Rossi, Lucas Félix; Ely, Jorge Bins; de Vasconcellos, Zulmar Acciolli

    2009-01-01

    The understanding about the utilization of experimental animals in scientific research and in teaching is many times a complex issue. Special attention needs to be paid to attain the understanding by the general public of the importance of animal experimentation in experimental research and in undergraduate medical teaching. Experimental teaching and research based on the availability of animals for experimentation is important and necessary for the personal and scientific development of the physician-to-be. The technological arsenal which intends to mimic experimentation animals and thus fully replace their use many times does not prove to be compatible with the reality of the living animal. The purpose of this paper is to discuss aspects concerning this topic, bringing up an issue which is complex and likely to arouse in-depth reflections.

  7. Epidemiology and chemotherapy of parasitic infections in wild omnivores in the Mahendra Choudhury Zoological Park, Chhat Bir, Punjab

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Singh

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present investigation deals with the occurrence and intensity of gastrointestinal helminthic infections along with chemotherapeutic response in 13 different omnivore species belonging to Primate, Ursidae, Suidae and Viverridae at M.C Zoological Park, Chhatbir in Punjab, India. The overall occurrence of gastrointestinal parasites based on copro-parasitoscopic analysis (CPS of 317 samples for helmithic eggs was found to be 29.02 per cent. The various parasitic eggs detected were Trichuris spp, Hymenolepis diminuta, Strongyloides spp, Ascaris suum and Ascaris spp. The most common parasitic infection found in omnivores specially the primates was of Trichuris spp. (86.96%. Mixed infection of Trichuris spp. and H. diminuta was recorded in assamese monkeys with highest intensity of Trichuris spp. The EPG for Trichuris spp varied from 1800-7500. The EPG ranging from 100-750 was recorded for H. diminuta and Strongyloides spp which was followed by that of Trichuris spp. in rhesus monkeys, Ascaris suum in wild boar, Trichuris spp in capped langur, Trichuris spp in common langur, and Ascaris spp. in sloth bear. In assamese monkeys the infection was concurrent to tuberculosis. Treatment of animals with appropriate drug based on the species of parasites present was found to be 100 per cent effective as indicated by faecal egg count reduction test which reached zero level 5-30 days post treatment. There was no re-occurrence of parasitic infection till day 55 post treatment.

  8. Transonic Experimental Research Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The Transonic Experimental Research Facility evaluates aerodynamics and fluid dynamics of projectiles, smart munitions systems, and sub-munitions dispensing systems;...

  9. Fundamentals of Experimental Pharmacology

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Ghosh, M

    2007-01-01

    ... to its unique approach in comparison to other books available on Experimental pharmacology. The main purpose of this book was to give a theoretical background followed by the appropriate experimental techniques. The late Prof. H. O. Schild, then Professor of Pharmacology, University College London in his brief introduction to the first editi...

  10. Theory-laden experimentation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schindler, Samuel

    2013-01-01

    The thesis of theory-ladenness of observations, in its various guises, is widely considered as either ill-conceived or harmless to the rationality of science. The latter view rests partly on the work of the proponents of New Experimentalism who have argued, among other things, that experimental p...

  11. Introduction: Experimental Green Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Peters, Terri

    2011-01-01

    Defining new ways in which archietcts are responding to the challenge of creating sustainable architecture , Experimental Green Strategies present a state of the art in applied ecological architectural research.......Defining new ways in which archietcts are responding to the challenge of creating sustainable architecture , Experimental Green Strategies present a state of the art in applied ecological architectural research....

  12. Strength of Experimental Grouts

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, Eigil V.

     The present report describes tests carried out on 5 experimental grouts developed by BASF Construction Materials and designed for use in grouted connections of offshore windmill foundations....... The present report describes tests carried out on 5 experimental grouts developed by BASF Construction Materials and designed for use in grouted connections of offshore windmill foundations....

  13. Survival of weed seeds and animal parasites as affected by anaerobic digestion at meso- and thermophilic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johansen, Anders; Nielsen, Henrik B; Hansen, Christian M; Andreasen, Christian; Carlsgart, Josefine; Hauggard-Nielsen, Henrik; Roepstorff, Allan

    2013-04-01

    Anaerobic digestion of residual materials from animals and crops offers an opportunity to simultaneously produce bioenergy and plant fertilizers at single farms and in farm communities where input substrate materials and resulting digested residues are shared among member farms. A surplus benefit from this practice may be the suppressing of propagules from harmful biological pests like weeds and animal pathogens (e.g. parasites). In the present work, batch experiments were performed, where survival of seeds of seven species of weeds and non-embryonated eggs of the large roundworm of pigs, Ascaris suum, was assessed under conditions similar to biogas plants managed at meso- (37°C) and thermophilic (55°C) conditions. Cattle manure was used as digestion substrate and experimental units were sampled destructively over time. Regarding weed seeds, the effect of thermophilic conditions (55°C) was very clear as complete mortality, irrespective of weed species, was reached after less than 2 days. At mesophilic conditions, seeds of Avena fatua, Sinapsis arvensis, Solidago canadensis had completely lost germination ability, while Brassica napus, Fallopia convolvulus and Amzinckia micrantha still maintained low levels (~1%) of germination ability after 1 week. Chenopodium album was the only weed species which survived 1 week at substantial levels (7%) although after 11 d germination ability was totally lost. Similarly, at 55°C, no Ascaris eggs survived more than 3h of incubation. Incubation at 37°C did not affect egg survival during the first 48 h and it took up to 10 days before total elimination was reached. In general, anaerobic digestion in biogas plants seems an efficient way (thermophilic more efficient than mesophilic) to treat organic farm wastes in a way that suppresses animal parasites and weeds so that the digestates can be applied without risking spread of these pests. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Experimental approaches and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Crasemann, Bernd

    1975-01-01

    Atomic Inner-Shell Processes, Volume II: Experimental Approaches and Applications focuses on the physics of atomic inner shells, with emphasis on experimental aspects including the use of radioactive atoms for studies of atomic transition probabilities. Surveys of modern techniques of electron and photon spectrometry are also presented, and selected practical applications of inner-shell processes are outlined. Comprised of six chapters, this volume begins with an overview of the general principles underlying the experimental techniques that make use of radioactive isotopes for inner-sh

  15. Experimental semiotics: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galantucci, Bruno; Garrod, Simon

    2011-01-01

    In the last few years a new line of research has appeared in the literature. This line of research, which may be referred to as experimental semiotics (ES; Galantucci, 2009; Galantucci and Garrod, 2010), focuses on the experimental investigation of novel forms of human communication. In this review we will (a) situate ES in its conceptual context, (b) illustrate the main varieties of studies thus far conducted by experimental semioticians, (c) illustrate three main themes of investigation which have emerged within this line of research, and (d) consider implications of this work for cognitive neuroscience.

  16. Experimental economics in antitrust

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Normann, H.T.; Müller, W.; Blair, R.D.; Sokol, D.D.

    2015-01-01

    This chapter assesses the scope and the specific contribution of laboratory experiments for antitrust. It reviews experiments that have addressed specific antitrust issues, problems, and institutions. The chapter mainly covers experimental studies on collusion (tacit and explicit, conscious

  17. Nuclear test experimental science

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Struble, G.L.; Middleton, C.; Bucciarelli, G.; Carter, J.; Cherniak, J.; Donohue, M.L.; Kirvel, R.D.; MacGregor, P.; Reid, S. (eds.)

    1989-01-01

    This report discusses research being conducted at Lawrence Livermore Laboratory under the following topics: prompt diagnostics; experimental modeling, design, and analysis; detector development; streak-camera data systems; weapons supporting research.

  18. The Experimental Art School

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørum, Tania

    2014-01-01

    The article describes the Experimental Art School from its early beginnings, its development from formal experiments to political action, the question of gender and politics, and the power of the self-organised......The article describes the Experimental Art School from its early beginnings, its development from formal experiments to political action, the question of gender and politics, and the power of the self-organised...

  19. Frozen waves: experimental generation

    OpenAIRE

    Vieira, TA; Gesualdi, MRR; Zamboni-Rached, M

    2012-01-01

    Frozen waves (FWs) are very interesting particular cases of nondiffracting beams whose envelopes are static and whose longitudinal intensity patterns can be chosen a priori. We present here for the first time (that we know of) the experimental generation of FWs. The experimental realization of these FWs was obtained using a holographic setup for the optical reconstruction of computer generated holograms (CGH), based on a 4-f Fourier filtering system and a nematic liquid crystal spatial light ...

  20. Experimental Research in Marketing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jose Mauro Hernandez

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Considering the growing number of scientific studies published in the marketing field and the development of unique theories of the area (Hunt, 2010, using experimental designs seems increasingly appropriate to investigate marketing phenomena. This article aims to discuss the main elements in conducting experimental studies and also to stimulate researchers to adopt this research method. Several international journals (e.g., JCR, JCP, JMR, JR, JBR have been publishing articles based on experiments that not only demonstrate a relationship between two events, but also elucidate how they occur by means of mediation and moderation analyses. This article intents to be a roadmap for novice researchers on how to conduct experiments and to offer new perspectives in experimental research for experienced researchers.  

  1. Self-experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, John K

    2003-01-01

    Except in certain cases of unusual risk, self-experimentation should not be encouraged. It is usually scientifically inadequate for lack of proper controls and sufficient subjects to generate meaningful results. It is also inadequate as an ethical test because even if lay persons are also enrolled, self-experimentation is neither necessary nor sufficient to establish that they may participate. It is not necessary to establish that lay persons may participate because institutional ethics review and informed consent are better ways to determine this. It is not sufficient because the investigator may be more risk accepting or not medically typical. Moreover, because scientific research is now done in teams, self-experimentation may involve undue influence when junior investigators participate as research subjects.

  2. Knockout reactions: experimental aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cortina Gil, D. [Santiago de Compostela Univ. (Spain)

    2007-07-01

    The availability of radioactive beams has given rise to intense activity in the field of direct reactions. The removal of one(two)-nucleon (referred to as nucleon knockout in this text) from a fast exotic projectile has been extensively investigated. This lecture provides a general overview of the experimental results achieved using this technique. The sensitivity of the method to different experimental aspects is illustrated with a few examples. Special attention is given to the application of nucleon-knockout reactions as a general purpose spectroscopic tool. (author)

  3. Experimental headache in humans

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iversen, Helle Klingenberg

    1995-01-01

    The need for valid human experimental models of headache is obvious. Several compounds have been proposed as headache-inducing agents, but only the nitroglycerin (NTG) model has been validated. In healthy subjects, intravenous infusions of the nitric oxide (NO) donor NTG induce a dose-dependent h......The need for valid human experimental models of headache is obvious. Several compounds have been proposed as headache-inducing agents, but only the nitroglycerin (NTG) model has been validated. In healthy subjects, intravenous infusions of the nitric oxide (NO) donor NTG induce a dose...

  4. Investigation of intestinal parasites in pig feces that are also human pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Uysal, Hayriye Kirkoyun; Boral, Ozden; Metiner, Kemal; Ilgaz, Atilla

    2009-01-01

    A total of 238 pig fecal specimens were collected from pig farms in Corlu (Tekirdağ), Ayazma, and Arnavutköy (Istanbul) during the summer. Out of the 238 pig specimens, 105 were from pigs younger than 6 months and 133 from pigs older than 6 months. These were investigated for intestine parasites in particular the ones that are human pathogens. Cryptosporidium spp. was detected In 21 fecal specimens (8.8%), Giardia spp. in 9 (3.7%), Balantidium coli cysts in 4 (1.6%) and Ascaris suum eggs in 9 (4.1%). Giardia lamblia were found in 8 (7.6%) of 105 pigs younger than 6 months, Cryptosporidium spp. in 12 (11.4%), Balantidium coli cysts in 2 (1.5%). In the pigs older than 6 months Giardia lamblia were found in 1 (0.7%), Cryptosporidium spp. in 9 (6.7%), Balantidium coli cysts in 2 (1.5%). and Ascaris suum eggs in 9 (6.7%). The difference in the rate of G. lamblia (p=0.01) in pigs less than 6 months and of A. suum in those over 6 months was found to be statistically significant (p=0.005). Our results revealed that pigs are important sources of these parasites.

  5. Administrative Aspects of Human Experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Irvine, George W.

    1992-01-01

    The following administrative aspects of scientific experimentation with human subjects are discussed: the definition of human experimentation; the distinction between experimentation and treatment; investigator responsibility; documentation; the elements and principles of informed consent; and the administrator's role in establishing and…

  6. Outsourcing of experimental work

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    With the development of new technologies for simultaneous analysis of many genes, transcripts, or proteins (the "omics" revolution), it has become common to outsource parts of the experimental work. In order to maintain the integrity of the research projects, it is important that the interphase...

  7. Aspects of Experimental Hepatocarcinogenesis

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    1974-04-06

    Apr 6, 1974 ... The remaining articles in this series are: Part Il-Hyperplastic nodules; Part Ill-Iron overload and hepatocarcinogenesis; Part IV-Changes in the liver fol- lowing cessation of carcinogen administration; Part V-. The ultrastructural morphology of early hepatocellular carcinomas. EXPERIMENTAL METHOD.

  8. Experimental high energy physics

    CERN Document Server

    De Paula, L

    2004-01-01

    A summary of the contributions on experimental high energy physics to the XXIV Brazilian National Meeting on Particle and Fields is presented. There were 5 invited talks and 32 submitted contributions. The active Brazilian groups are involved in several interesting projects but suffer from the lack of funding and interaction with Brazilian theorists.

  9. Experimental status of physics

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    In a short period of time, we will have a large amount of results from -factories including ones on CP violation. In this talk, we briefly review the current experimental status of -physics. After a quick description of -facilities, we divide this vast field into two categories: (1) weak interaction and QCD, (2) unitarity triangle and ...

  10. Experimental Search for Pentaquarks

    CERN Document Server

    Hicks, K

    2005-01-01

    The experimental evidence for pentaquarks, both old an new, is discussed. Constraints due to $K^+N$ scattering data from previous decades is first reviewed, followed by experiments with positive evidence and those with null results. Finally, the problem of the narrow width of the Theta+ pentaquark is discussed, along with theoretical implications.

  11. Dr Ahmed Experimental

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Dr. Ahmed

    possible to directly determine the infection rates from the flies caught off the experimental animals. This was estimated through the dissection of 180 flies trapped from several sites within the. LGA using Nitse trap (Omoogun 1994) and Biconical trap. (Challier & Larvessiere 1973). The trypanosoma species were identified by ...

  12. Trends in animal experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Rosangela; Brandau, Ricardo; Gomes, Walter J; Braile, Domingo M

    2009-01-01

    The search of the understanding of etiological factors, mechanisms and treatment of the diseases has been taking to the development of several animal models in the last decades. To discuss aspects related to animal models of experimentation, animal choice and current trends in this field in our country. In addition, this study evaluated the frequency of experimental articles in medical journals. Five Brazilian journals indexed by LILACS, SciELO, MEDLINE, and recently incorporate for Institute for Scientific Information Journal of Citation Reports were analyzed. All the papers published in those journals, between 2007 and 2008, that used animal models, were selected based on the abstracts. Of the total of 832 articles published in the period, 92 (11.1%) experimentation papers were selected. The number of experimental articles ranged from 5.2% to 17.9% of the global content of the journal. In the instructions to the authors, four (80%) journals presented explicit reference to the ethical principles in the conduction of studies with animals. The induced animal models represented 100% of the articles analyzed in this study. The rat was the most employed animal in the analyzed articles (78.3%). The present study can contribute, supplying subsidies for adoption of future editorials policies regarding the publication of animal research papers in Brazilian Journal of Cardiovascular Surgery.

  13. Network Science Experimentation Vision

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-09-01

    capabilities and performance of a heterogeneous collection of interdependent networks . This report outlines and discusses an experimentation vision that...has been shown to depend upon the capabilities and performance of a heterogeneous collection of interdependent networks . Such a collection of networks ...well as tactical military networks . In particular, wireless tactical networks can be simulated with high fidelity, using off the shelf simulation

  14. Semiconductor Research Experimental Techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Balkan, Naci

    2012-01-01

    The book describes the fundamentals, latest developments and use of key experimental techniques for semiconductor research. It explains the application potential of various analytical methods and discusses the opportunities to apply particular analytical techniques to study novel semiconductor compounds, such as dilute nitride alloys. The emphasis is on the technique rather than on the particular system studied.

  15. Experimental modal analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ibsen, Lars Bo; Liingaard, Morten

    This technical report concerns the basic theory and principles for experimental modal analysis. The sections within the report are: Output-only modal analysis software (section 1.1), general digital analysis (section 1.2), basics of structural dynamics and modal analysis (section 1.3) and system...

  16. Strategic Experimentation : A Revision

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bolton, P.; Harris, C.

    1996-01-01

    This paper extends the classic two-armed bandit problem to a many-agent setting in which I players each face the same experi- mentation problem.The main change from the single-agent prob- lem is that an agent can now learn from the current experimentation of other agents.Information is therefore a

  17. TOP2017 Experimental summary

    CERN Document Server

    Giammanco, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Thanks to the unprecedentedly fast accumulation of high-energy data at the LHC during the ongoing Run~2, most of the traditional top-quark analyses are experiencing the luxury of having to worry about how to punch through the ``Systematics Wall'', and think about new ways to maximize the utility of their data. New processes involving top quarks are being studied for the first time, and the good old pair-production processes are being explored in unusual settings, such as collisions involving heavy ions, or ``reference data'' collected by the LHC at relatively low centre-of-mass energy. The TOP2017 conference featured 37 talks delivered by experimental physicists, including seven in the ``Young Scientists Forum'' where young colleagues were given the opportunity to elaborate more deeply than usual on their own work. As it is impossible to do justice to all the experimental resu...

  18. Experimental Design Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    This book presents a new, multidisciplinary perspective on and paradigm for integrative experimental design research. It addresses various perspectives on methods, analysis and overall research approach, and how they can be synthesized to advance understanding of design. It explores the foundations...... of experimental approaches and their utility in this domain, and brings together analytical approaches to promote an integrated understanding. The book also investigates where these approaches lead to and how they link design research more fully with other disciplines (e.g. psychology, cognition, sociology......, computer science, management). Above all, the book emphasizes the integrative nature of design research in terms of the methods, theories, and units of study—from the individual to the organizational level. Although this approach offers many advantages, it has inherently led to a situation in current...

  19. Experimental Animal Welfare

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yusuf Ergun

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available It is an obvious obligation for investigators to consume millions of experimental animals every year to obtain scientific data. Because most of these experiments involve painful and distressing procedures, to obey the so-called 3Rs, reduction, refinement and replacement, is a prerequisite for those who would apply to ethics committees for a given research proposal. Of the 3Rs, refinement could be defined as “decrease in the incidence of severity of inhumane procedures applied to those animals, which have to be used”. In this context, animal welfare and well-being have been referred to the concept of refinement. In the present review, general principles relating to experimental animal welfare will be discussed. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2011; 20(1.000: -

  20. The CMS experimental cavern

    CERN Multimedia

    Maximilien Brice

    2005-01-01

    These images taken in early September 2005 show the cathedral-like cavern into which the CMS experiment will be installed. The 26X26X60 cubic metre hall is the largest underground cavern at CERN, located under the town of Cessy in France. Weighing 12 500 tonnes, the huge CMS detector will be assembled in a specially constructed hall above ground before being lowered into the experimental hall ready for the LHC start-up in 2008.

  1. The Massabesic Experimental Forest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas W. McConkey; Wendell E. Smith

    1958-01-01

    White pine and fire! These two - the tree and its destroyer, fire - are keys to the history and present make-up of the research program on the Massabesic Experimental Forest at Alfred, Maine. The Forest was established in the late 1930's to study the management of eastern white pine. During World War II, it was shut down, and reopened again in 1946. Then, in 1947...

  2. Ingratiation: Experimental Evidence

    OpenAIRE

    Robin, Stéphane; Rusinowska, Agnieszka; Villeval, Marie Claire

    2014-01-01

    We investigate experimentally ingratiatory behavior expressed by opinion conformity. Both individuals' performance at a task and their opinions on various topics can be observed before unequal payoffs are assigned by a second mover. In some treatments, first movers can change their opinion after learning that held by the second mover. We find evidence of high ingratiation indices, as opinion conformity is rewarded. However, second movers reward conformity less when it is common knowledge that...

  3. Methods of experimental physics

    CERN Document Server

    Williams, Dudley

    1962-01-01

    Methods of Experimental Physics, Volume 3: Molecular Physics focuses on molecular theory, spectroscopy, resonance, molecular beams, and electric and thermodynamic properties. The manuscript first considers the origins of molecular theory, molecular physics, and molecular spectroscopy, as well as microwave spectroscopy, electronic spectra, and Raman effect. The text then ponders on diffraction methods of molecular structure determination and resonance studies. Topics include techniques of electron, neutron, and x-ray diffraction and nuclear magnetic, nuclear quadropole, and electron spin reson

  4. Evolution of ascariasis in humans and pigs: a multi-disciplinary approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Odile Loreille

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The nematode parasite Ascaris lumbricoides infects the digestive tracts of over 1.4 billion people worldwide, and its sister species, Ascaris suum, has infected a countless number of domesticated and feral pigs. It is generally thought that the putative ancestor to these worms infected either humans or pigs, but with the advent of domestication, they had ample opportunity to jump to a new host and subsequently specialize and evolve into a new species. While nuclear DNA markers decisively separate the two populations, mitochondrial sequences reveal that three major haplotypes are found in A. suum and in A. lumbricoides, indicating either occasional hybridization, causing introgression of gene trees, or retention of polymorphism dating back to the original ancestral species. This article provides an illustration of the combined contribution of parasitology, archaeoparasitology, genetics and paleogenetics to the history of ascariasis. We specifically investigate the molecular history of ascariasis in humans by sequencing DNA from the eggs of Ascaris found among ancient archeological remains. The findings of this paleogenetic survey will explain whether the three mitochondrial haplotypes result from recent hybridization and introgression, due to intensive human-pig interaction, or whether their co-occurrence predates pig husbandry, perhaps dating back to the common ancestor. We hope to show how human-pig interaction has shaped the recent evolutionary history of this disease, perhaps revealing the identity of the ancestral host.

  5. Paleoparasitological remains revealed by seven historic contexts from "Place d'Armes", Namur, Belgium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gino Chaves da Rocha

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Human occupation for several centuries was recorded in the archaeological layers of "Place d'Armes", Namur, Belgium. Preventive archaeological excavations were carried out between 1996/1997 and seven historical strata were observed, from Gallo-Roman period up to Modern Times. Soil samples from cesspools, latrines, and structures-like were studied and revealed intestinal parasite eggs in the different archaeological contexts. Ascaris lumbricoides, A. suum, Trichuris trichiura, T. suis. Taenia sp., Fasciola hepatica, Diphyllobothrium sp., Capillaria sp. and Oxyuris equi eggs were found. Paleoparasitology confirmed the use of structures as latrines or cesspit as firstly supposed by the archaeologists. Medieval latrines were not only used for rejection of human excrements. The finding of Ascaris sp. and Trichuris sp. eggs may point to human's or wild swine's feces. Gallo-Roman people used to eat wild boar. Therefore, both A. suum and T. suis, or A. lumbricoides and T. trichuris, may be present, considering a swine carcass recovered into a cesspit. Careful sediment analysis may reveal its origin, although parasites of domestic animals can be found together with those of human's. Taenia sp. eggs identified in latrine samples indicate ingestion of uncooked beef with cysticercoid larvae. F. hepatica eggs suggest the ingestion of raw contaminated vegetables and Diphyllobothrium sp. eggs indicate contaminated fresh-water fish consumption. Ascaris sp. and Trichuris sp. eggs indicate fecal-oral infection by human and/or animal excrements.

  6. Models of experimental epilepsy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fatih Ekici

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Epilepsy is the most common serious neurological conditionin the world, with an estimated prevalence of 1% ofthe population. A large number of experimental modelsof seizure and epilepsy have been developed. These experimentalmodels are elicited by chemical convulsants,electrical stimulation, genetic models, structural lesions,physical stimuli (cold, pressure, hyperthermia, electricalin animals. Well-characterized animal models may allowthe understanding of the basic mechanisms underlyingepileptogenesis (it refers to the alteration of a normalneuronal network into a hyperexcitable network in whichrecurrent, spontaneous seizures occur. Moreover, thesemodels might also prove useful in identifying novel therapeuticapproaches to treatment of epilepsy. J Clin ExpInvest 2011; 2(1: 118-123

  7. Experimental Axion Review

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2016-01-01

    Axions are a natural consequence of the Peccei-Quinn mechanism, the most compelling solution to the strong-CP problem. Similar axion-like particles (ALPs) also appear in a number of possible extensions of the Standard Model, notably in string theories. Both axions and ALPs are very well motivated candidates for the Dark Matter, and in addition would be copiously produced at the stellar cores. Some anomalous astrophysical observations could be hinting the existence of these particles. They are object of increasing interest by experimentalists. I will briefly review the motivation to search for axions and ALPs, as well as the current status and future prospects of the experimental landscape.

  8. Outsourcing of experimental work.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nielsen, Henrik

    2011-01-01

    With the development of new technologies for simultaneous analysis of many genes, transcripts, or proteins (the "omics" revolution), it has become common to outsource parts of the experimental work. In order to maintain the integrity of the research projects, it is important that the interphase between the researcher and the service is further developed. This involves robust protocols for sample preparation, an informed choice of analytical tool, development of standards for individual technologies, and transparent data analysis. This chapter introduces some of the problems related to analysis of RNA samples in the "omics" context and gives a few hints and key references related to sample preparation for the non-specialist.

  9. Experimental Blade Research

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eder, Martin Alexander; Branner, Kim; Berring, Peter

    This report is a summary of the results obtained in the project: Experimental Blade Research – phase 2 (EBR2). The project was supported by the Danish Energy Authority through the 2010 Energy Technology Development and Demonstration Program (EUDP 2010-II) and has journal no. 64011-0006. The project...... has been running from spring 2011 to the end of 2014. Being a summary report, this report only contains a collection of the research topics and the major results. For more details, see the publications listed at the end of this report....

  10. Embryo manipulation and experimentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warren, M A

    1991-09-01

    I have argued that early human embryos are not human beings, and do not have normal rights. Like human sperm and ova, they are both alive and biologically human. However, they lack the physiological development necessary to sustain a capacity for sentience. If Ford is right, then they are not yet individual human organisms. But the more important point is that their lack of a capacity for sentience makes them inappropriate candidates for the ascription of moral rights. Thus, research on human embryos produced in vitro is not a wrong against them--at least so long as experimentally manipulated embryos are not returned to the womb, or artificially gestated to a stage at which they might become sentient. Some of the more difficult issues about embryo experimentation involve the rights of women as experimental subject and donors. The consent of both male and female gamete donors should normally be required for the production or experimental use of IVF embryos. (Possible exceptions might include cases in which one or both progenitors have died, and the survivor or other responsible family member wished to donate the (frozen) IVF embryos for research or other uses.) However, it is women's rights that are most apt to be endangered, for example, if the large scale therapeutic or commercial use of human embryos leads to a demand for large numbers of ova. Thus, it is vital that researchers and policy-makers heed feminist concerns about embryo research and the new biomedical technologies it may yield. Given adequate information and appropriate procedural protections, women are capable of making autonomous decisions about donating ova or embryos for biomedical research. But regulatory safeguards are needed to ensure against their being coerced, deceived, or manipulated into becoming ovum or embryo donors. As Daniel Callahan has detailed, biomedical technology has reached the point where we can no longer afford to provide everyone with all of the innovative therapies that might

  11. [Animal experimentation in Israel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Yoram; Leshem, Micah

    2002-04-01

    In 1994 the Israeli parliament (Knesset) amended the Cruelty to Animals Act to regulate the use of experimental animals. Accordingly, animal experiments can only be carried out for the purposes of promoting health and medical science, reducing suffering, advancing scientific research, testing or production of materials and products (excluding cosmetics and cleaning products) and education. Animal experiments are only permitted if alternative methods are not possible. The National Board for Animal Experimentation was established to implement the law. Its members are drawn from government ministries, representatives of doctors, veterinarians, and industry organizations, animal rights groups, and academia. In order to carry out an animal experiment, the institution, researchers involved, and the specific experiment, all require approval by the Board. To date the Board has approved some 35 institutions, about half are public institutions (universities, hospitals and colleges) and the rest industrial firms in biotechnology and pharmaceutics. In 2000, 250,000 animals were used in research, 85% were rodents, 11% fowls, 1,000 other farm animals, 350 dogs and cats, and 39 monkeys. Academic institutions used 74% of the animals and industry the remainder. We also present summarized data on the use of animals in research in other countries.

  12. Whither Experimental Semantics?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael Devitt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The main goal of the paper is to propose a methodology for the theory of reference in which experiments feature prominently. These experiments should primarily test linguistic usage rather than the folk’s referential intuitions. The proposed methodology urges the use of: (A philosophers’ referential intuitions, both informally and, occasionally, scientifically gathered; (B the corpus, both informally and scientifically gathered; (C elicited production; and, occasionally, (D folk’s referential intuitions. The most novel part of this is (C and that is where most of the experimental work should be. The secondary goal of the paper is to defend my earlier paper “Experimental Semantics” from the criticisms of Machery, Mallon, Nichols, and Stich in “If Folk Intuitions Vary, Then What?” They charge that I have seriously misunderstood their goal in “Semantics, Cross-Cultural Style” and that many of my arguments are “largely irrelevant”. I argue that these charges are baseless.

  13. Haemoglobin, a new major allergen of Anisakis simplex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    González-Fernández, Juan; Daschner, Alvaro; Nieuwenhuizen, Natalie E; Lopata, Andreas L; Frutos, Consolación De; Valls, Ana; Cuéllar, Carmen

    2015-05-01

    Gastro-allergic anisakiasis and Anisakis sensitisation associated chronic urticaria are diseases which differ in their IgE and IgG4 responses against both crude extract and specific allergens. Anisakis and Ascaris are closely related nematodes that usually cause problems with specificity in immunodiagnostics. In this study we measured IgE and IgG4 antibodies against Anisakis simplex sensu lato (s. l.) and Ascaris suum haemoglobins in sera of 21 gastro-allergic anisakiasis and 23 chronic urticaria patients. We used a capture ELISA with the anti-Anisakis haemoglobin monoclonal antibody 4E8g, which also recognises Ascaris haemoglobin. In addition, we determined specific IgE and IgG4 to both nematodes by indirect ELISA and immunoblotting. Anti-A. simplex s. l. haemoglobin IgE and IgG4 levels were higher in gastro-allergic anisakiasis than in chronic urticaria patients (P=0.002 and 0.026, respectively). Surprisingly, no patient had detectable IgE levels against A. suum haemoglobin. Finally, we carried out an in silico study of the B-cell epitopes of both haemoglobin molecules. Five epitopes were predicted in Anisakis pegreffii and four in A. suum haemoglobin. The epitope propensity values of Anisakis haemoglobin in the equivalent IgE binding region of the allergenic haemoglobin Chi t 1 from Chironomus thummi, were higher those of the Ascaris haemoglobin. In conclusion, we describe A. simplex haemoglobin as a new major allergen (Ani s 13), being recognised by a large number (64.3%) of sensitised patients and up to 80.9% in patients with gastro-allergic anisakiasis. The presence of a specific epitope and the different values of epitope propensity between Anisakis and Ascaris haemoglobin could explain the lack of cross-reactivity between the two molecules. The absence of IgE reactivity to Ascaris haemoglobin in Anisakis patients makes Anisakis haemoglobin (Ani s 13) a potential candidate for developing more specific diagnosis tools. Copyright © 2015 Australian Society for

  14. Experimental techniques; Techniques experimentales

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Roussel-Chomaz, P. [GANIL CNRS/IN2P3, CEA/DSM, 14 - Caen (France)

    2007-07-01

    This lecture presents the experimental techniques, developed in the last 10 or 15 years, in order to perform a new class of experiments with exotic nuclei, where the reactions induced by these nuclei allow to get information on their structure. A brief review of the secondary beams production methods will be given, with some examples of facilities in operation or under project. The important developments performed recently on cryogenic targets will be presented. The different detection systems will be reviewed, both the beam detectors before the targets, and the many kind of detectors necessary to detect all outgoing particles after the reaction: magnetic spectrometer for the heavy fragment, detection systems for the target recoil nucleus, {gamma} detectors. Finally, several typical examples of experiments will be detailed, in order to illustrate the use of each detector either alone, or in coincidence with others. (author)

  15. Experimental Multiport Bicone Antenna

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eskelinen, Pekka; Ylinen, Juhana

    2013-01-01

    A practical, easily manufactured multiport bicone antenna suitable for many receiving tasks such as direction finding systems can be made by using sharp-edged metal fins on the feeding coax center conductor to provide a tapered transition and connection path to coaxial probes. This construction resembles an arrow's tail. Already four mutually orthogonal fins can give full 360 degree azimuth coverage with suitable -3 dB port pattern overlap. Five experimental constructions working at Ku and Ka bands, each with fractional bandwidths of 23 to 31 per cent, are shown with full dimensional details. Suitable fin tapering is close to the full air gap in the coax and fin thickness should be less than 1/16th of the outer conductor diameter.

  16. Management an experimental approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reed, J C; Aspy, V H

    1978-06-01

    An experimental teaching procedure was devised and tested for integrating the nursing process, nursing care plans, the research process and management principals. The integration defined as the problem oriented process (POP) was tested with 16 students over two semesters. The results indicated that the POP was a successful integration that aided the student in "getting it all together." As one of the students put it: This experience will give future students, as it did me, a better understanding of how research is best utilized. The students can use almost all their past learning experiences, bringing it all together in one situation. He (the student) can use his communication skills to detect a problem, his research skills to design planned intervention and evaluation and his interpersonal skills to measure his effectiveness as a change agent. Finally, he can use his nursing skills and knowledge of pathophysiology in a setting most like what he will find upon graduation.

  17. Experimental Particle Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenfeld, Carl [Univ of South Carolina; Mishra, Sanjib R. [Univ of South Carolina; Petti, Roberto [Univ of South Carolina; Purohit, Milind V. [Univ of South Carolina

    2014-08-31

    The high energy physics group at the University of South Carolina, under the leadership of Profs. S.R. Mishra, R. Petti, M.V. Purohit, J.R. Wilson (co-PI's), and C. Rosenfeld (PI), engaged in studies in "Experimental Particle Physics." The group collaborated with similar groups at other universities and at national laboratories to conduct experimental studies of elementary particle properties. We utilized the particle accelerators at the Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory (Fermilab) in Illinois, the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) in California, and the European Center for Nuclear Research (CERN) in Switzerland. Mishra, Rosenfeld, and Petti worked predominantly on neutrino experiments. Experiments conducted in the last fifteen years that used cosmic rays and the core of the sun as a source of neutrinos showed conclusively that, contrary to the former conventional wisdom, the "flavor" of a neutrino is not immutable. A neutrino of flavor "e," "mu," or "tau," as determined from its provenance, may swap its identity with one of the other flavors -- in our jargon, they "oscillate." The oscillation phenomenon is extraordinarily difficult to study because neutrino interactions with our instruments are exceedingly rare -- they travel through the earth mostly unimpeded -- and because they must travel great distances before a substantial proportion have made the identity swap. Three of the experiments that we worked on, MINOS, NOvA, and LBNE utilize a beam of neutrinos from an accelerator at Fermilab to determine the parameters governing the oscillation. Two other experiments that we worked on, NOMAD and MIPP, provide measurements supportive of the oscillation experiments. Good measurements of the neutrino oscillation parameters may constitute a "low energy window" on related phenomena that are otherwise unobservable because they would occur only at energies way above the reach of conceivable accelerators. Purohit and Wilson participated in the Ba

  18. Experimental Neutrino Physics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkes, Richard Jeffrey [Univ. of Washington, Seattle, WA (United States)

    2017-11-15

    The University of Washington (UW) HEP neutrino group performed experimental research on the physics of neutrinos, using the capabilities offered by the T2K Experiment and the Super-Kamiokande Neutrino Observatory. The UW group included senior investigator R. J. Wilkes, two PhD students, four MS degree students, and a research engineer, all of whom are members of the international scientific collaborations for T2K and Super-Kamiokande. During the period of support, within T2K we pursued new precision studies sensitive to new physics, going beyond the limits of current measurements of the fundamental neutrino oscillation parameters (mass differences and mixing angles). We began efforts to measure (or significantly determine the absence of) 1 the CP-violating phase parameter δCP and determine the neutrino mass hierarchy. Using the Super-Kamiokande (SK) detector we pursued newly increased precision in measurement of neutrino oscillation parameters with atmospheric neutrinos, and extended the current reach in searches for proton decay, in addition to running the most sensitive supernova watch instrument [Scholberg 2012], performing other astrophysical neutrino studies, and analyzing beam-induced events from T2K. Overall, the research addressed central questions in the field of particle physics. It included the training of graduate students (both PhD and professional MS degree students), and postdoctoral researchers. Undergraduate students also participated as laboratory assistants.

  19. Experimental microdosimetry; Experimentele microdosimetrie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farahmand, M.; Bos, A.J.J.; Zoetelief, J.; Van Eijk, C.W.E. [Afdeling Stralingstechnologie, Interfacultair Reactor Instituut IRI, Technische Universiteit Delft, Delft (Netherlands)

    2001-12-01

    In the exchange between ionizing radiation and matter radiation energy is emitted in discrete portions. The discipline that studies the statistical distribution of energy deposition on a microscopic level is microdosimetry. The aim of microdosimetry is to find the correlation between the distribution of energy depositions (microdosimetry spectra) and the biological damage caused by radiation. In experimental microdosimetry use is made of a Tissue-Equivalent Proportional Counter (TEPC), the subject of this article. [Dutch] Bij wisselwerking van ioniserende straling met materie wordt de stralingsenergie afgegeven in discrete porties. Het vakgebied dat de statistische distributie van die energiedeposities op microscopisch niveau onderzoekt wordt aangeduid met microdosimetrie. Het uiteindelijke doel daarbij is om een samenhang te vinden tussen de distributie van energiedeposities (de microdosimetrische spectra) en de schade die optreedt als biologisch materiaal wordt blootgesteld aan straling. In de experimentele microdosimetrie wordt meestal gebruik gemaakt van een Tissue-Equivalent Proportional Counter (TEPC). Van microdosimetrische spectra gemeten met een TEPC blijkt dat deze gerelateerd zijn aan het effect van straling in biologisch materiaal. Ze kunnen daarom worden gebruikt voor het experimenteel bepalen van de kwaliteitsfactor van de straling.

  20. Experimental quantum data locking

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yang; Cao, Zhu; Wu, Cheng; Fukuda, Daiji; You, Lixing; Zhong, Jiaqiang; Numata, Takayuki; Chen, Sijing; Zhang, Weijun; Shi, Sheng-Cai; Lu, Chao-Yang; Wang, Zhen; Ma, Xiongfeng; Fan, Jingyun; Zhang, Qiang; Pan, Jian-Wei

    2016-08-01

    Classical correlation can be locked via quantum means: quantum data locking. With a short secret key, one can lock an exponentially large amount of information in order to make it inaccessible to unauthorized users without the key. Quantum data locking presents a resource-efficient alternative to one-time pad encryption which requires a key no shorter than the message. We report experimental demonstrations of a quantum data locking scheme originally proposed by D. P. DiVincenzo et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 92, 067902 (2004), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.92.067902] and a loss-tolerant scheme developed by O. Fawzi et al. [J. ACM 60, 44 (2013), 10.1145/2518131]. We observe that the unlocked amount of information is larger than the key size in both experiments, exhibiting strong violation of the incremental proportionality property of classical information theory. As an application example, we show the successful transmission of a photo over a lossy channel with quantum data (un)locking and error correction.

  1. Experimental thermodynamics experimental thermodynamics of non-reacting fluids

    CERN Document Server

    Neindre, B Le

    2013-01-01

    Experimental Thermodynamics, Volume II: Experimental Thermodynamics of Non-reacting Fluids focuses on experimental methods and procedures in the study of thermophysical properties of fluids. The selection first offers information on methods used in measuring thermodynamic properties and tests, including physical quantities and symbols for physical quantities, thermodynamic definitions, and definition of activities and related quantities. The text also describes reference materials for thermometric fixed points, temperature measurement under pressures, and pressure measurements. The publicatio

  2. Acupuncture on experimental epilepsies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, R C; Huang, Y H

    1984-01-01

    The therapeutic effect of acupuncture on epilepsies was evaluated in 4 experimental models. 24 acupuncture points were tried. In electroconvulsive threshold model, square wave electrical stimulus of 0.2 msec and 6 Hz was applied through a pair of cotton electrodes at the cornea of mice for 3 sec. The stimulus intensity to induce stun reaction of the mouse was compared. In 86 control animals, the stimulus threshold was 0.70 +/- 0.22 mA. In the acupuncture treated group (N = 80), the threshold was 0.75 +/- 0.14 mA. In maximal electroshock model, the stimulus parameters were 60 Hz, 0.4 sec and 75 mA. The tonic extensor response of the hindlimbs of the mice was observed. 75.7% of the 115 control mice and 77.5% of the 80 acupuncture treated mice were observed to have tonic extensor response. In the focal cortical penicillin model, penicillin was applied at the subpial space over the exposed cortex of 24 cats. After the appearance of repeated spikes in ECoG, acupuncture was performed. In 175 trials the interictal spikes were decreased in 16 times, increased in 82 times. In 99 trials during seizures, the ictal activity was decreased in 4 times, increased in 79 times. In the intravenous penicillin model, high dose penicillin (1,000,000-1,500,000 U/kg) was given to 20 cats. It induced repetitive spikes and frequently even seizure discharges in EEG. Acupuncture was then tried. In 192 instances, acupuncture reduced the spikes in 13, increased the spikes in 103 times. In 74 trials during seizures, the ictal activity was suppressed in 4 times and aggravated in 66 times.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  3. Infeksi Cacing Nematoda Pada Usus Halus Babi di Lembah Baliem dan Pegunungan Arfak Papua

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I Nyoman Wijaya Guna

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to identify the nematode of the small intestine of pigs in Arfak Mountains and Baliem Valley in Papua, and determine the prevalence of the nematode infection. Small intestine content of 20 pigs originated from Arfak Mountains and 10 pigs from Baliem Valley were examined to identify the nematode species. Four species of nematodes were found in small intestine of pigs namely, Strongyloides ransomi, Ascaris suum, Macracanthorhyncus hirudinaceus, and Globocephalus urosubulatus. The result of the study showed that the prevalence of nematode infections in small intestine  were highly, in which the Baliem Valley had the prevalence of 90%, and 40% in Arfak Mountains.

  4. Worm peptidomics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steven J. Husson

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Bioactive peptides are present in all metazoan species where they orchestrate diverse functions. In the last decade, high-throughput approaches based on mass spectrometry helped the identification of endogenously occurring peptides in different species. We here review biochemical strategies to obtain sequence information of natural (non-tryptic peptides in Caenorhabditis elegans and in the related nematodes Caenorhabditis briggsae and Ascaris suum with particular attention for sample preparation and methodology. In addition, we describe seven new C. elegans neuropeptides that we recently discovered by sequencing additional peptides. Finally, we explain how differential peptidomics approaches were used to characterize key neuropeptide processing enzymes.

  5. Experimental Object-Oriented Modelling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Klaus Marius

    and discuss techniques for handling and representing uncertainty when modelling in experimental system development. These techniques are centred on patterns and styles for handling uncertainty in object-oriented software architectures. Tools We present the Knight tool designed for collaborative modelling......This thesis examines object-oriented modelling in experimental system development. Object-oriented modelling aims at representing concepts and phenomena of a problem domain in terms of classes and objects. Experimental system development seeks active experimentation in a system development project...... through, e.g., technical prototyping and active user involvement. We introduce and examine “experimental object-oriented modelling” as the intersection of these practices. The contributions of this thesis are expected to be within three perspectives on models and modelling in experimental system...

  6. Experimental Design and Some Threats to Experimental Validity: A Primer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skidmore, Susan

    2008-01-01

    Experimental designs are distinguished as the best method to respond to questions involving causality. The purpose of the present paper is to explicate the logic of experimental design and why it is so vital to questions that demand causal conclusions. In addition, types of internal and external validity threats are discussed. To emphasize the…

  7. Open source in Experimental Psychology

    OpenAIRE

    Dalmaijer, Edwin

    2015-01-01

    Talk on using open-source software in experimental psychology. Presented on 3 March 2015, at the Attention, Brain and Cognitive Development group (http://www.psy.ox.ac.uk/research/attention-brain-and-cognitive-development-group) at the University of Oxford's Department of Experimental Psychology.

  8. Experimental Mathematics and Computational Statistics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bailey, David H.; Borwein, Jonathan M.

    2009-04-30

    The field of statistics has long been noted for techniques to detect patterns and regularities in numerical data. In this article we explore connections between statistics and the emerging field of 'experimental mathematics'. These includes both applications of experimental mathematics in statistics, as well as statistical methods applied to computational mathematics.

  9. Cameroon Journal of Experimental Biology

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The Cameroon Journal of Experimental Biology is the official journal of the Cameroon Forum for Biological Sciences (CAFOBIOS). It is an interdisciplinary journal for the publication of original research papers, short communications and review articles in all fields of experimental biology including biochemistry, physiology, ...

  10. A standard experimental 'chemical burn'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, J; Weibel, T J; Carter, E J; Calobrace, M B; Foldi, J F; Zawacki, B E

    1994-06-01

    To establish a standard method for producing experimental cutaneous injuries caused by contact with corrosive liquids, we modified an apparatus and method recommended by Walker and Mason in 1967 to produce experimental thermal burns. The resulting procedure proved to be safe, reproducible, humane and efficient and can be used with a wide variety of corrosive liquids.

  11. Aterosclerose experimental em coelhos Experimental atherosclerosis in rabbits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waleska C. Dornas

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available Numerosas pesquisas têm sido realizadas utilizando modelos experimentais para estudar o desenvolvimento da aterosclerose com dieta induzindo hiperlipidemia. Devido ao fato de que coelhos são muito sensíveis a dietas ricas em colesterol e acumulam grandes quantidades no plasma, a utilização destes animais como modelo experimental para avaliar o desenvolvimento de aterosclerose é de grande relevância, trazendo informação sobre fatores que contribuem para progressão e regressão aplicadas a situações humanas. Sendo assim, nessa revisão a função aterogênica do colesterol é mostrada em trabalhos que incluem o coelho como modelo experimental, uma vez que este animal tornou-se o mais popular modelo experimental de aterosclerose.Many researches have been conducted in experimental models in order to study the development of atherosclerosis from hyperlipidemia-inducing diets. Since rabbits are very sensitive to cholesterol-rich diets and accumulate large amounts of cholesterol in their plasma, their use as experimental models to evaluate the development of atherosclerosis is highly relevant and brings information on factors that contribute to the progression and regression of this condition that can be applied to humans. As such, this review includes studies on the atherogenic function of cholesterol based on rabbits as the experimental model, since they have become the most largely used experimental model of atherosclerosis.

  12. Experimental Evolution with Caenorhabditis Nematodes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Teotónio, Henrique; Estes, Suzanne; Phillips, Patrick C.; Baer, Charles F.

    2017-01-01

    The hermaphroditic nematode Caenorhabditis elegans has been one of the primary model systems in biology since the 1970s, but only within the last two decades has this nematode also become a useful model for experimental evolution. Here, we outline the goals and major foci of experimental evolution with C. elegans and related species, such as C. briggsae and C. remanei, by discussing the principles of experimental design, and highlighting the strengths and limitations of Caenorhabditis as model systems. We then review three exemplars of Caenorhabditis experimental evolution studies, underlining representative evolution experiments that have addressed the: (1) maintenance of genetic variation; (2) role of natural selection during transitions from outcrossing to selfing, as well as the maintenance of mixed breeding modes during evolution; and (3) evolution of phenotypic plasticity and its role in adaptation to variable environments, including host–pathogen coevolution. We conclude by suggesting some future directions for which experimental evolution with Caenorhabditis would be particularly informative. PMID:28592504

  13. Preclinical electrogastrography in experimental pigs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Květina, Jaroslav; Varayil, Jithinraj Edakkanambeth; Ali, Shahzad Marghoob; Kuneš, Martin; Bureš, Jan; Tachecí, Ilja; Rejchrt, Stanislav; Kopáčová, Marcela

    2010-01-01

    Surface electrogastrography (EGG) is a non-invasive means of recording gastric myoelectric activity or slow waves from cutaneous leads placed over the stomach. This paper provides a comprehensive review of preclinical EGG. Our group recently set up and worked out the methods for EGG in experimental pigs. We gained our initial experience in the use of EGG in assessment of porcine gastric myoelectric activity after volume challenge and after intragastric administration of itopride and erythromycin. The mean dominant frequency in pigs is comparable with that found in humans. EGG in experimental pigs is feasible. Experimental EGG is an important basis for further preclinical projects in pharmacology and toxicology. PMID:21217873

  14. Experimentation on humans and nonhumans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pluhar, Evelyn B

    2006-01-01

    In this article, I argue that it is wrong to conduct any experiment on a nonhuman which we would regard as immoral were it to be conducted on a human, because such experimentation violates the basic moral rights of sentient beings. After distinguishing the rights approach from the utilitarian approach, I delineate basic concepts. I then raise the classic "argument from marginal cases" against those who support experimentation on nonhumans but not on humans. After next replying to six important objections against that argument, I contend that moral agents are logically required to accord basic moral rights to every sentient being. I conclude by providing criteria for distinguishing ethical from unethical experimentation.

  15. Experimental design a chemometric approach

    CERN Document Server

    Deming, SN

    1987-01-01

    Now available in a paperback edition is a book which has been described as ``...an exceptionally lucid, easy-to-read presentation... would be an excellent addition to the collection of every analytical chemist. I recommend it with great enthusiasm.'' (Analytical Chemistry). Unlike most current textbooks, it approaches experimental design from the point of view of the experimenter, rather than that of the statistician. As the reviewer in `Analytical Chemistry' went on to say: ``Deming and Morgan should be given high praise for bringing the principles of experimental design to the level of the p

  16. Multi-Directional Experimental Facility

    Data.gov (United States)

    Federal Laboratory Consortium — The ATLSS Multi-directional Experimental Laboratory was constructed in 1987 under funding from the National Science Foundation to be a major facility for large-scale...

  17. HIRENASD Experimental Data - matlab format

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This resource contains the experimental data that was included in tecplot input files but in matlab files. dba1_cp has all the results is dimensioned (7,2) first...

  18. Strongly correlated systems experimental techniques

    CERN Document Server

    Mancini, Ferdinando

    2015-01-01

    The continuous evolution and development of experimental techniques is at the basis of any fundamental achievement in modern physics. Strongly correlated systems (SCS), more than any other, need to be investigated through the greatest variety of experimental techniques in order to unveil and crosscheck the numerous and puzzling anomalous behaviors characterizing them. The study of SCS fostered the improvement of many old experimental techniques, but also the advent of many new ones just invented in order to analyze the complex behaviors of these systems. Many novel materials, with functional properties emerging from macroscopic quantum behaviors at the frontier of modern research in physics, chemistry and materials science, belong to this class of systems. The volume presents a representative collection of the modern experimental techniques specifically tailored for the analysis of strongly correlated systems. Any technique is presented in great detail by its own inventor or by one of the world-wide recognize...

  19. Animal Experimentation in High Schools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ansevin, Kystyna D.

    1970-01-01

    Recommends that teacher and student be provided with the broadest possible spectrum of meaningful and feasible experiments in which the comfort of the experimental animal is protected by the design of the experiment. (BR)

  20. An Experimental Text-Commentary

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Joan

    1976-01-01

    An experimental text-commentary of selected passages from Sophocles'"Antigone" is described. The commentary is intended for students seeking more than a conventional translation who do not know enough Greek to use a standard commentary. (RM)

  1. Persuasion in experimental ultimatum games

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersson, Ola; Galizzi, Matteo M.; Hoppe, Tim

    2010-01-01

    We study persuasion effects in experimental ultimatum games and find that Proposers' payoffs significantly increase if, along with offers, they can send messages which Responders read before deciding. Higher payoffs are driven by both lower offers and higher acceptance rates.......We study persuasion effects in experimental ultimatum games and find that Proposers' payoffs significantly increase if, along with offers, they can send messages which Responders read before deciding. Higher payoffs are driven by both lower offers and higher acceptance rates....

  2. General footage ISOLDE experimental hall

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    Overview of the ISOLDE experimental hall. Equipment and experiments. Taken from the WITCH / EBIS platform: ISOLDE hall infrastructure, GHM line, LA1, LA2, LA0, central beamline, COLLAPS experiment, CRIS experiment, ISOLTRAP experiment, laser guidance from building 508 into the hall for laser spectroscopy COLLAPS and CRIS. Taken from the HIE ISOLDE shielding tunnel roof: ISOLDE hall infrastructure, WITCH experiment, VITO line, TAS experiment. General footage: High Tension room entrance and EBIS platform, staircases and passages in the experimental hall.

  3. [The ethics of animal experimentation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goffi, Jean-Yves

    2013-01-01

    The paper starts with a short definition of animal experimentation, then three main approaches to the practice are considered: unconditional approval (as advocated by Claude Bernard), conditional and restricted approval (as advocated by Peter Singer) and strict prohibition (as advocated by Tom Regan and Gary Francione). It is argued that what is actually approved or condemned in animal experimentation is the value of the scientific enterprise.

  4. Experimental aspects of colour reconnection

    CERN Document Server

    Watson, M F

    1997-01-01

    This report summarises experimental aspects of the phenomena of colour reconnection in W+W- production, concentrating on charged multiplicity and event shapes, which were carried out as part of the Phenomenology Workshop on LEP2 Physics, Oxford, Physics Department and Keble College, 14-18 April, 1997. The work includes new estimates of the systematic uncertainty which may be attributed to colour reconnection effects in experimental measurements of Mw.

  5. EXPERIMENTAL

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    denise

    CHEMICAL AND ANTICONVULSANT SCREENING OF CRINUM JAGUS. M.O. Edema* and F.E. Okieimen. Chemistry Department, University of Benin, Benin City, Nigeria. E-mail: marydema@uniben.edu. ABSTRACT. INTRODUCTION ... pharmacological evaluation of some plant material that are frequently used locally as.

  6. Experimental search for quantum gravity

    CERN Document Server

    2018-01-01

    This book summarizes recent developments in the research area of quantum gravity phenomenology. A series of short and nontechnical essays lays out the prospects of various experimental possibilities and their current status. Finding observational evidence for the quantization of space-time was long thought impossible. In the last decade however, new experimental design and technological advances have changed the research landscape and opened new perspectives on quantum gravity. Formerly dominated by purely theoretical constructions, quantum gravity now has a lively phenomenology to offer. From high precision measurements using macroscopic quantum oscillators to new analysis methods of the cosmic microwave background, no stone is being left unturned in the experimental search for quantum gravity. This book sheds new light on the connection of astroparticle physics with the quantum gravity problem. Gravitational waves and their detection are covered. It illustrates findings from the interconnection between gene...

  7. Design approaches to experimental mediation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pirlott, Angela G; MacKinnon, David P

    2016-09-01

    Identifying causal mechanisms has become a cornerstone of experimental social psychology, and editors in top social psychology journals champion the use of mediation methods, particularly innovative ones when possible (e.g. Halberstadt, 2010, Smith, 2012). Commonly, studies in experimental social psychology randomly assign participants to levels of the independent variable and measure the mediating and dependent variables, and the mediator is assumed to causally affect the dependent variable. However, participants are not randomly assigned to levels of the mediating variable(s), i.e., the relationship between the mediating and dependent variables is correlational. Although researchers likely know that correlational studies pose a risk of confounding, this problem seems forgotten when thinking about experimental designs randomly assigning participants to levels of the independent variable and measuring the mediator (i.e., "measurement-of-mediation" designs). Experimentally manipulating the mediator provides an approach to solving these problems, yet these methods contain their own set of challenges (e.g., Bullock, Green, & Ha, 2010). We describe types of experimental manipulations targeting the mediator (manipulations demonstrating a causal effect of the mediator on the dependent variable and manipulations targeting the strength of the causal effect of the mediator) and types of experimental designs (double randomization, concurrent double randomization, and parallel), provide published examples of the designs, and discuss the strengths and challenges of each design. Therefore, the goals of this paper include providing a practical guide to manipulation-of-mediator designs in light of their challenges and encouraging researchers to use more rigorous approaches to mediation because manipulation-of-mediator designs strengthen the ability to infer causality of the mediating variable on the dependent variable.

  8. Experimental application of QCD antennas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bobrovskyi, Sergei

    2010-02-15

    A serious problem in searches for new physics at the LHC is the rejection of QCD induced multijet events. In this thesis the formalism of QCD antenna variables based on the SPHEL approximation of QCD matrix elements is applied for the rst time on experimentally reconstructed jets in order to discriminate QCD from supersymmetric processes. The new observables provide additional information with respect to traditional event shape variables. Albeit correlated with experimentally measured missing transverse energy, the variables can be used to improve the signal to background ratio. (orig.)

  9. Experimentation and Bricolage on Institutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cartel, Melodie; Boxenbaum, Eva; Aggeri, Franck

    This paper examines how innovative institutional arrangements are generated during processes of institutional bricolage. The aim of the paper is to highlight how an arrangement is selected among the others when many alternatives exist or are imaginable. To address this question, we present...... a qualitative study of institutional bricolage in the context of the making of the European carbon market. We suggest that, during episodes of experimental bricolage, alternative arrangements may be tested and evaluated inside experimental spaces named platforms. We identify three selection mechanisms...

  10. Qualitative tools and experimental philosophy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andow, James

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Experimental philosophy brings empirical methods to philosophy. These methods are used to probe how people think about philosophically interesting things such as knowledge, morality, and freedom. This paper explores the contribution that qualitative methods have to make in this enterprise. I argue that qualitative methods have the potential to make a much greater contribution than they have so far. Along the way, I acknowledge a few types of resistance that proponents of qualitative methods in experimental philosophy might encounter, and provide reasons to think they are ill-founded. PMID:28392629

  11. Potential Pitfalls of Experimental Design

    OpenAIRE

    Phillip Watkins

    2017-01-01

    Good experimental design begins with the end in mind. An early conversation with a statistician will both increase the chances of an experimental study contributing to the literature and minimize the risks to participating human subjects.  Sir R.A. Fisher felt that “to consult the statistician after an experiment is finished is often merely to ask him to conduct a post mortem examination: he can perhaps say what the experiment died of.” To this end, some questions from a statistician are pres...

  12. EXPERIMENTAL LIPOSOMAL VIRAL VACCINE SAFETY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Romanova OA

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. With the transport links development there is rather important issue respiratory viral infections spread, especially influenza. The only method controlling influenza is vaccination. Search and development effective and safe vaccines is important. Material and methods. In base SO "Mechnikov Institute Microbiology and Immunology National Ukrainian Academy Medical Sciences" in the scientific theme "Developing new approaches to creating viral vaccines and study specific activity depending of type and degree component`s modification" was created several experimental influenza vaccine with subsequent component`s modification for selecting the most optimal pattern of safety and immunogenicity. In assessing the influenza vaccine safety is using a few criteria, including, reactivity, as measured by the frequency of local and systemic adverse (negative effects, which due to its introduction, and for lipid content drugs, ability to influence oxidation processes. At present study phase was determined: a systemic reaction and local reaction of delayed-type hypersensitivity (foot pad swelling assay;b lipids and proteins peroxidation processes after administration officinal and experimental vaccines (content protein’s carbonyl groups, lipid’s hydroperoxides, activity of glutathione-peroxidase.Study objects were trivalent seasonal influenza vaccine, "Vaxigrip" (Sanofi Pasteur, S.A., France, "Inflexal V" (Biotech Ltd. Berne, Switzerland and experimental vaccine samples. Highest immunogenicity vaccines had undergone improvements and modifications using adjuvant systems and acylation influenza proteins. Liposomes 2 – the experimental influenza vaccine with a liposome negative charge and antigenic composition like split vaccines "Vaksihryp". Liposomes 2.1 - the adjuvantexperimental influenza vaccine with modifications liposomal components (etoniy and chlorophyllipt molecules embedded in liposomal membrane. Liposomes 2.2 - the adjuvant

  13. Studies of enzyme mechanism using isotopic probes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen, C.

    1987-01-01

    The isotope partitioning studies of the Ascaris suum NAD-malic enzyme reaction were examined with five transitory complexes including E:NAD, E:NAD:Mg, E:malate, E:Mg:malate, and E:NAD:malate. Three productive complexes, E:NAD, E:NAD:Mg, and E:Mg:malate, were obtained, suggesting a steady-state random mechanism. Data for trapping with E:/sup 14/C-NAD indicate a rapid equilibrium addition of Mg/sup 2 +/ prior to the addition of malate. Trapping with /sup 14/C-malate could only be obtained from the E:Mg/sup 2 +/:/sup 14/C-malate complex, while no trapping from E:/sup 14/C-malate was obtained under feasible experimental conditions. The equations for the isotope partitioning studies varying two substrates in the chase solution in an ordered terreactant reaction were derived, allowing a determination of the relative rates of substrate dissociation to the catalytic reaction for each of the productive transitory complexes. NAD and malate are released from the central complex at an identical rate, equal to the catalytic rate. The release of NAD from E:NAD and E:NAD:Mg complexes is 2- to 4-fold and 5- to 9-fold V/sub max//E/sub t/, respectively. The release of malate from the E:Mg:malate complex is 0.1- to 0.3-fold of V/sub max//E/sub t/. The individual rate constants for association and dissociation of the substrates, NAD and malate have been estimated.

  14. Synthesis of a radiolabeled cyclodepsipeptide [{sup 3}H-methyl]PF1022A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pleiss, U. [Bayer AG, Wuppertal (Germany). Metabolism and Isotope Chemistry; Harder, A.; Turberg, A.; Londershausen, M.; Mencke, N.; Jeschke, P.; Bonse, G. [Bayer AG, Monheim (Germany). Agricultural Centre; Iinuma, K. [Meiji Seika Kaisha Ltd., Kanagawa (Japan)

    1996-01-01

    For receptor binding studies and the elucidation of the mode of action of the potent anthelmintic compound PF1022A a tritium labeled compound with very high specific activity was necessary. Tritium was introduced into the compound by methylation of the [bis-N-demethyl]precursor of PF1022A (PF1022-219). The identity of [bis-N-methyl-{sup 3}H]PF1022A was determined by LC/MS. After synthesis and purification, 88.9 {mu}g [bis-N-methyl-{sup 3}H]PF1022A were available showing a specific activity of 162 Ci/mmol (5,99 TBq/mmol) determined by mass spectrometry. The total activity was 15 mCi (555 MBq). Radiolabeled PF1022A showed an efficient and specific binding to a membrane fraction from Ascaris suum. Displacement by unlabeled PF1022A was half-maximal at about 40 nM. At 100-fold higher concentrations the biologically much less effective optical antipodean (PF1022-001) competed for maximal 40% of the [{sup 3}H]PF1022A-binding in the Ascaris suum membrane preparation. In-vitro comparison of PF1022A with its optical antipdean revealed a more than 100-fold higher anthelmintic activity of PF1022A against Heterakis spumosa, Nippostrongylus brasiliensis and Trichinella spiralis. (author).

  15. Anthelmintic activity of trans-cinnamaldehyde and A- and B-type proanthocyanidins derived from cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Andrew R; Ramsay, Aina; Hansen, Tina V A; Ropiak, Honorata M; Mejer, Helena; Nejsum, Peter; Mueller-Harvey, Irene; Thamsborg, Stig M

    2015-09-30

    Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties, but effects on parasitic worms of the intestine have not been investigated. Here, extracts of cinnamon bark were shown to have potent in vitro anthelmintic properties against the swine nematode Ascaris suum. Analysis of the extract revealed high concentrations of proanthocyanidins (PAC) and trans-cinnamaldehyde (CA). The PAC were subjected to thiolysis and HPLC-MS analysis which demonstrated that they were exclusively procyanidins, had a mean degree of polymerization of 5.2 and 21% of their inter-flavan-3-ol links were A-type linkages. Purification of the PAC revealed that whilst they had activity against A. suum, most of the potency of the extract derived from CA. Trichuris suis and Oesophagostomum dentatum larvae were similarly susceptible to CA. To test whether CA could reduce A. suum infection in pigs in vivo, CA was administered daily in the diet or as a targeted, encapsulated dose. However, infection was not significantly reduced. It is proposed that the rapid absorption or metabolism of CA in vivo may prevent it from being present in sufficient concentrations in situ to exert efficacy. Therefore, further work should focus on whether formulation of CA can enhance its activity against internal parasites.

  16. Anthelmintic activity of trans-cinnamaldehyde and A- and B-type proanthocyanidins derived from cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, Andrew R.; Ramsay, Aina; Hansen, Tina V. A.; Ropiak, Honorata M.; Mejer, Helena; Nejsum, Peter; Mueller-Harvey, Irene; Thamsborg, Stig M.

    2015-01-01

    Cinnamon (Cinnamomum verum) has been shown to have anti-inflammatory and antimicrobial properties, but effects on parasitic worms of the intestine have not been investigated. Here, extracts of cinnamon bark were shown to have potent in vitro anthelmintic properties against the swine nematode Ascaris suum. Analysis of the extract revealed high concentrations of proanthocyanidins (PAC) and trans-cinnamaldehyde (CA). The PAC were subjected to thiolysis and HPLC-MS analysis which demonstrated that they were exclusively procyanidins, had a mean degree of polymerization of 5.2 and 21% of their inter-flavan-3-ol links were A-type linkages. Purification of the PAC revealed that whilst they had activity against A. suum, most of the potency of the extract derived from CA. Trichuris suis and Oesophagostomum dentatum larvae were similarly susceptible to CA. To test whether CA could reduce A. suum infection in pigs in vivo, CA was administered daily in the diet or as a targeted, encapsulated dose. However, infection was not significantly reduced. It is proposed that the rapid absorption or metabolism of CA in vivo may prevent it from being present in sufficient concentrations in situ to exert efficacy. Therefore, further work should focus on whether formulation of CA can enhance its activity against internal parasites. PMID:26420588

  17. Prevalence and intensity of Ascaris infection and heavy metal ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The absence of Pb in infected fishes and its presence in some parasites implies that there is need to further investigate the mechanism of accumulation of this metal so as to provide possible explanation which may be of public health importance. Keywords: helminth parasite, pollution, fish consumption, bioaccumulation.

  18. Relative contribution of hookworm and Ascaris lumbricoides to iron ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Stool and blood specimens of 418 school pupils were examined for intestinal parasites and iron deficiency anemia respectively, using rapid field epidemiological techniques. 156 (37.3%) of the pupils were infected with different species of intestinal parasites. More than forty-six percent (46.8%) of the infected individuals ...

  19. P System antigenic determiners expression in Ascaris lumbricoides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ponce De León Patricia

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available The P System antigens have been detected in numerous parasites, bacterias and viruses, nevertheless the clinical significance is still unknown. The aim was to study the presence of P1 antigenic determiners in A. lumbricoides extracts by means of the use of 6 different monoclonal antibodies of well-known concentrations and Ig class. We worked with 14 A. lumbricoides extracts. Inhibition Agglutination Test was made in a bromelin enzymatic medium and 4 masculineC temperature. Titre, Score and Sensitivity Parameter were determined for each monoclonal antibody against red cells suspension used as revealing system. Ten extracts inhibited the agglutination of all anti P1 monoclonal antibodies. The 4 remaining extracts only inhibited the agglutination of some of them. It is demonstrated that the extracts have P1 activity. This activity is independent of titre, Score, Sensitivity Parameter, concentration and Ig class and it depends on the epitope at which the monoclonal antibody is directed.

  20. Fecal indicator and Ascaris removal from double pit latrine content.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dey, Digbijoy; Ridwanul Haque, A T M; Kabir, Babar; Ubaid, Sharmin Farhat

    2016-12-01

    Since May 2006, the BRAC Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (WASH) Programme in Bangladesh has enabled more than 30 million people to achieve hygienic sanitation, contributing to an increase in sanitation coverage from 33 to 83% in programme areas and rapid progress towards universal access. In rural areas, most families have single pit latrines that need to be emptied when full. Since 2007, BRAC has promoted the use of hygienic double-pit latrines. Use of double-pit latrines, where appropriate, is also recommended in the Bangladeshi Draft National Water Supply and Sanitation Strategy. More than 800,000 double-pit latrines are in use in BRAC WASH areas, delaying the need for emptying and allowing time for the fecal matter to decompose while the resting pit is sealed. This paper focuses on a study undertaken by BRAC WASH to treat and safely use fecal material from double pit latrines as an organic fertilizer for rice and other crops. The study investigated the removal of pathogens from pit waste through simple solar drying and conducted analysis on nutrient properties of fecal sludge. The study showed a significant positive impact on developing organic fertilizer from fecal sludge.