WorldWideScience

Sample records for experiment nstx center

  1. National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) Center Stack Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumeyer, C.; Avasarala, S.; Chrzanowski, J.; Dudek, L.; Fan, H.; Hatcher, H.; Heitzenroeder, P.; Menard, J.; Ono, M.; Ramakrishnan, S.; Titus, P.; Woolley, R.; Zhan, H.

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the NSTX Center Stack Upgrade project is to expand the NSTX operational space and thereby the physics basis for next-step ST facilities. The plasma aspect ratio (ratio of plasma major to minor radius) of the upgrade is increased to 1.5 from the original value of 1.26, which increases the cross sectional area of the center stack by a factor of ∼ 3 and makes possible higher levels of performance and pulse duration.

  2. National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Masayuki Ono

    2000-01-01

    The main aim of National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is to establish the fusion physics principles of the innovative spherical torus (ST) concept. Physics outcome of the NSTX research program is relevant to near-term applications such as the Volume Neutron Source (VNS) and burning plasmas, and future applications such as the pilot and power plants. The NSTX device began plasma operations in February 1999 and the plasma current was successfully ramped up to the design value of 1 million amperes (MA) on December 14, 1999. The CHI (Coaxial Helicity Injection) and HHFW (High Harmonic Fast Wave) experiments have also started. Stable CHI discharges of up to 133 kA and 130-msec duration have been produced using 20 kA of injected current. Using eight antennas connected to two transmitters, up to 2 MW of HHFW power was successfully coupled to the plasma. The Neutral-beam Injection (NBI) heating system and associated NBI-based diagnostics such as the Charge-exchange Recombination Spectrometer (CHERS) will be operational in October 2000

  3. Status of National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX)*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, Masayuki

    2001-10-01

    The main aim of National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is to establish the fusion physics principles of the innovative spherical torus (ST) concept. The NSTX experimental facility has been operating reliably and its capabilities steadily improving. Due to relatively efficient ohmic current drive and benign halo current behavior, the plasma current was increased to 1.4 MA, which is well above the design value of 1 MA. The plasmas at 1 MA are now routinely heated by NBI to the average toroidal beta value of 20 percent range at 3 kG with electrons and ions in the 1-2 keV range. Even with the “L-mode” edge, the energy confinement time can well exceed the so-called L-mode (and even H-mode) scaling values. As a part of ST tool development, High Harmonic Fast Wave (HHFW) heating has demonstrated efficient electron heating with the central electron temperatures reaching 3.7 keV. HHFW induced H-modes have been also observed. For CHI (Coaxial Helicity Injection) non-inductive start-up, CHI discharges of up to 300 kA of toroidal current and 300 msec duration have been produced from zero current using = 25 kA of injected current. The poster presentation will also include the near term NSTX facility upgrade plan.

  4. Diagnostic Development for ST Plasmas on NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, D.

    2003-01-01

    Spherical tokamaks (STs) have much lower aspect ratio (a/R) and lower toroidal magnetic field, relative to tokamaks and stellarators. This paper will highlight some of the challenges and opportunities these features pose in the diagnosis of ST plasmas on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX), and discuss some of the corresponding diagnostic development that is underway. The low aspect ratio necessitates a small center stack, with tight space constraints and large thermal excursions, complicating the design of magnetic sensors in this region. The toroidal magnetic field on NSTX is less than or equal to 0.6 T, making it impossible to use ECE as a good monitor of electron temperature. A promising new development for diagnosing electron temperature is electron Bernstein wave (EBW) radiometry, which is currently being pursued on NSTX. A new high-resolution charge exchange recombination spectroscopy system is being installed. Since non-inductive current initiation and sustainment ar e top-level NSTX research goals, measurements of the current profile J(R) are essential to many planned experiments. On NSTX several modifications are planned to adapt the MSE technique to lower field, and two novel MSE systems are being prototyped. Several high speed 2-D imaging techniques are being developed, for viewing both visible and x-ray emission. The toroidal field is comparable to the poloidal field at the outside plasma edge, producing a large field pitch (>50 o ) at the outer mid-plane. The large shear in pitch angle makes some fluctuation diagnostics like beam emission spectroscopy very difficult, while providing a means of achieving spatial localization for microwave scattering investigations of high-k turbulence, which are predicted to be virulent for NSTX plasmas. A brief description of several of these techniques will be given in the context of the current NSTX diagnostic set

  5. Initial Results from Coaxial Helicity Injection Experiments in NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raman, R.; Jarboe, T.R.; Mueller, D.; Schaffer, M.J.; Maqueda, R.; Nelson, B.A.; Sabbagh, S.; Bell, M.; Ewig, R.; Fredrickson, E.; Gates, D.; Hosea, J.; Ji, H.; Kaita, R.; Kaye, S.M.; Kugel, H.; Maingi, R.; Menard, J.; Ono, M.; Orvis, D.; Paolette, F.; Paul, S.; Peng, M.; Skinner, C.H.; Wilgen, W.; Zweben, S.

    2001-01-01

    Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI) has been investigated on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). Initial experiments produced 130 kA of toroidal current without the use of the central solenoid. The corresponding injector current was 20 kA. Discharges with pulse lengths up to 130 ms have been produced

  6. The NSTX Trouble Reporting System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sengupta, S.; Oliaro, G.

    2002-01-01

    An online Trouble Reporting System (TRS) has been introduced at the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). The TRS is used by NSTX operators to report problems that affect NSTX operations. The purpose of the TRS is to enhance NSTX reliability and maintainability by identifying components, occurrences, and trends that contribute to machine downtime. All NSTX personnel have access to the TRS. The user interface is via a web browser, such as Netscape or Internet Explorer. This web-based feature permits any X-terminal, PC, or MAC access to the TRS. The TRS is based upon a trouble reporting system developed at the DIII-D Tokamak, at General Atomics Technologies. This paper will provide a detailed description of the TRS software architecture, user interface, MS SQL server interface and operational experiences. In addition, sample data from the TRS database will be summarized and presented

  7. Snowflake divertor configuration studies for NSTX-Upgrade

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soukhanovskii, V.A.

    2011-01-01

    Snowflake divertor experiments in NSTX provide basis for PMI development toward NSTX-Upgrade. Snowflake configuration formation was followed by radiative detachment. Significant reduction of steady-state divertor heat flux observed in snowflake divertor. Impulsive heat loads due to Type I ELMs are partially mitigated in snowflake divertor. Magnetic control of snowflake divertor configuration is being developed. Plasma material interface development is critical for NSTX-U success. Four divertor coils should enable flexibility in boundary shaping and control in NSTX-U. Snowflake divertor experiments in NSTX provide good basis for PMI development in NSTX-Upgrade. FY 2009-2010 snowflake divertor experiments in NSTX: (1) Helped understand control of magnetic properties; (2) Core H-mode confinement unchanged; (3) Core and edge carbon concentration reduced; and (4) Divertor heat flux significantly reduced - (a) Steady-state reduction due to geometry and radiative detachment, (b) Encouraging results for transient heat flux handling, (c) Combined with impurity-seeded radiative divertor. Outlook for snowflake divertor in NSTX-Upgrade: (1) 2D fluid modeling of snowflake divertor properties scaling - (a) Edge and divertor transport, radiation, detachment threshold, (b) Compatibility with cryo-pump and lithium conditioning; (2) Magnetic control development; and (3) PFC development - PFC alignment and PFC material choice.

  8. The NSTX Trouble Reporting System; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S. Sengupta; G. Oliaro

    2002-01-01

    An online Trouble Reporting System (TRS) has been introduced at the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). The TRS is used by NSTX operators to report problems that affect NSTX operations. The purpose of the TRS is to enhance NSTX reliability and maintainability by identifying components, occurrences, and trends that contribute to machine downtime. All NSTX personnel have access to the TRS. The user interface is via a web browser, such as Netscape or Internet Explorer. This web-based feature permits any X-terminal, PC, or MAC access to the TRS. The TRS is based upon a trouble reporting system developed at the DIII-D Tokamak, at General Atomics Technologies. This paper will provide a detailed description of the TRS software architecture, user interface, MS SQL server interface and operational experiences. In addition, sample data from the TRS database will be summarized and presented

  9. High Harmonic Fast Wave Heating Experiments on NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, J.R.; Bell, R.; Bitter, M.; Bonoli, P.

    2000-01-01

    A radio frequency (rf) system has been installed on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) with the aim of heating the plasma and driving plasma current. The system consists of six rf transmitters, a twelve element antenna and associated transmission line components to distribute and couple the power from the transmitters to the antenna elements in a fashion to allow control of the antenna toroidal wavenumber spectrum. To date, power levels up to 3.85 MW have been applied to the NSTX plasmas. The frequency and spectrum of the rf waves has been selected to heat electrons via Landau damping and transit time magnetic pumping. The electron temperature has been observed to increase from 400 to 900 eV with little change in plasma density resulting in a plasma stored energy of 59 kJ and a toroidal beta, bT , =10% and bn = 2.7

  10. High harmonic fast wave heating experiments on NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, J.R.; Bell, R.; Bitter, M.

    2001-01-01

    A radio frequency (rf) system has been installed on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) with the aim of heating the plasma and driving plasma current. The system consists of six rf transmitters, a twelve element antenna and associated transmission line components to distribute and couple the power from the transmitters to the antenna elements in a fashion to allow control of the antenna toroidal wavenumber spectrum. To date, power levels up to 3.85 MW have been applied to the NSTX plasmas. The frequency and spectrum of the rf waves has been selected to heat electrons via Landau damping and transit time magnetic pumping. The electron temperature has been observed to increase from 400 to 900 eV with little change in plasma density resulting in a plasma stored energy of 59 kJ , a toroidal beta, β T =10% and a normalized beta, β n =2.7. (author)

  11. ECH on NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigelow, T.S.; Batchelor, D.B.; Carter, M.D.; Peng, M.; Wilson, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    Electron Cyclotron Heating has been proposed for plasma initiation, startup assistance and non-inductive startup on NSTX. One physics goal of NSTX will be to establish entirely non-inductive plasma operation by utilizing ECH to provide a sufficient start-up plasma to support further current drive from other heating systems. Scaling of previous ECH-only startup experiments on CDX-U and DIII-D indicate that 400 kW of ECH should be capable of driving 42 kA of pressure driven current on NSTX and possibly higher levels after optimizing the process. Due to the low NSTX magnetic field, over-dense plasmas exist during most of the discharge so conventional ECH operation is limited to the low density startup phase. To extend the useful operating range for ECH, a scheme involving mode conversion to the electron Bernstein Wave (EBW) from either O r X mode launch is being investigated for bulk heating and current drive applications at higher density. Microwave equipment, including 18 GHz klystrons and 28 GHz gyrotrons are available at ORNL and appear ideal for use on NSTX. Preliminary pre-ionization and start-up system configurations are presented here along with discussions on various operation modes

  12. Tokamak Simulation Code modeling of NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jardin, S.C.; Kaye, S.; Menard, J.; Kessel, C.; Glasser, A.H.

    2000-01-01

    The Tokamak Simulation Code [TSC] is widely used for the design of new axisymmetric toroidal experiments. In particular, TSC was used extensively in the design of the National Spherical Torus eXperiment [NSTX]. The authors have now benchmarked TSC with initial NSTX results and find excellent agreement for plasma and vessel currents and magnetic flux loops when the experimental coil currents are used in the simulations. TSC has also been coupled with a ballooning stability code and with DCON to provide stability predictions for NSTX operation. TSC has also been used to model initial CHI experiments where a large poloidal voltage is applied to the NSTX vacuum vessel, causing a force-free current to appear in the plasma. This is a phenomenon that is similar to the plasma halo current that sometimes develops during a plasma disruption

  13. Rogowski Loop design for NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormack, B.; Kaita, R.; Kugel, H.; Hatcher, R.

    2000-01-01

    The Rogowski Loop is one of the most basic diagnostics for tokamak operations. On the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX), the plasma current Rogowski Loop had the constraints of the very limited space available on the center stack, 5,000 volt isolation, flexibility requirements as it remained a part of the Center Stack assembly after the first phase of operation, and a +120 C temperature requirement. For the second phase of operation, four Halo Current Rogowski Loops under the Center Stack tiles will be installed having +600 C and limited space requirements. Also as part of the second operational phase, up to ten Rogowski Loops will installed to measure eddy currents in the Passive Plate support structures with +350 C, restricted space, and flexibility requirements. This presentation will provide the details of the material selection, fabrication techniques, testing, and installation results of the Rogowski Loops that were fabricated for the high temperature operational and bakeout requirements, high voltage isolation requirements, and the space and flexibility requirements imposed upon the Rogowski Loops. In the future operational phases of NSTX, additional Rogowski Loops could be anticipated that will measure toroidal plasma currents in the vacuum vessel and in the Passive Plate assemblies

  14. ECH on NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bigelow, T.S.; Batchelor, D.B.; Carter, M.D.; Peng, M.; Wilson, J.R.

    1997-01-01

    Electron Cyclotron Heating has been proposed for plasma initiation, startup assistance and non-inductive startup on NSTX. One physics goal of NSTX will be to establish entirely non-inductive plasma operation by utilizing ECH to provide a sufficient start-up plasma to support further current drive from other heating systems. Scaling of previous ECH-only startup experiments on CDX-U and DIII-D indicate that 400 kW of ECH should be capable of driving 42 kA of pressure driven current on NSTX and possibly higher levels after optimizing the process. Due to the low NSTX magnetic field, over-dense plasmas exist during most of the discharge so conventional ECH operation is limited to the low density startup phase. To extend the useful operating range for ECH, a scheme involving mode conversion to the electron Bernstein Wave (EBW) from either O or X mode launch is being investigated for bulk heating and current drive applications at higher density. Microwave equipment, including 18 GHz klystrons and 28 GHz gyrotrons are available at ORNL and appear ideal for use on NSTX. Preliminary pre-ionization and start-up system configurations are presented here along with discussions on various operation modes. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  15. Making of the NSTX Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumeyer, C.; Ono, M.; Kaye, S.M.; Peng, Y.-K.M.

    1999-01-01

    The NSTX (National Spherical Torus Experiment) facility located at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory is the newest national fusion science experimental facility for the restructured US Fusion Energy Science Program. The NSTX project was approved in FY 97 as the first proof-of-principle national fusion facility dedicated to the spherical torus research. On Feb. 15, 1999, the first plasma was achieved 10 weeks ahead of schedule. The project was completed on budget and with an outstanding safety record. This paper gives an overview of the NSTX facility construction and the initial plasma operations

  16. Analysis of vertical stability limits and vertical displacement event behavior on NSTX-U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, Mark; Battaglia, Devon; Gerhardt, Stefan; Menard, Jonathan; Mueller, Dennis; Myers, Clayton; Sabbagh, Steven; Smith, David

    2017-10-01

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade (NSTX-U) completed its first run campaign in 2016, including commissioning a larger center-stack and three new tangentially aimed neutral beam sources. NSTX-U operates at increased aspect ratio due to the larger center-stack, making vertical stabilization more challenging. Since ST performance is improved at high elongation, improvements to the vertical control system were made, including use of multiple up-down-symmetric flux loop pairs for real-time estimation, and filtering to remove noise. Similar operating limits to those on NSTX (in terms of elongation and internal inductance) were achieved, now at higher aspect ratio. To better understand the observed limits and project to future operating points, a database of vertical displacement events and vertical oscillations observed during the plasma current ramp-up on NSTX/NSTX-U has been generated. Shots were clustered based on the characteristics of the VDEs/oscillations, and the plasma parameter regimes associated with the classes of behavior were studied. Results provide guidance for scenario development during ramp-up to avoid large oscillations at the time of diverting, and provide the means to assess stability of target scenarios for the next campaign. Results will also guide plans for improvements to the vertical control system. Work supported by U.S. D.O.E. Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  17. NSTX Electrical Power Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A. Ilic; E. Baker; R. Hatcher; S. Ramakrishnan; et al

    1999-01-01

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) has been designed and installed in the existing facilities at Princeton Plasma Physic Laboratory (PPPL). Most of the hardware, plant facilities, auxiliary sub-systems, and power systems originally used for the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) have been used with suitable modifications to reflect NSTX needs. The design of the NSTX electrical power system was tailored to suit the available infrastructure and electrical equipment on site. Components were analyzed to verify their suitability for use in NSTX. The total number of circuits and the location of the NSTX device drove the major changes in the Power system hardware. The NSTX has eleven (11) circuits to be fed as compared to the basic three power loops for TFTR. This required changes in cabling to insure that each cable tray system has the positive and negative leg of cables in the same tray. Also additional power cabling had to be installed to the new location. The hardware had to b e modified to address the need for eleven power loops. Power converters had to be reconnected and controlled in anti-parallel mode for the Ohmic heating and two of the Poloidal Field circuits. The circuit for the Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI) System had to be carefully developed to meet this special application. Additional Protection devices were designed and installed for the magnet coils and the CHI. The thrust was to making the changes in the most cost-effective manner without compromising technical requirements. This paper describes the changes and addition to the Electrical Power System components for the NSTX magnet systems

  18. Overview of Results from the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gates, D.A.; Ahn, J.; Allain, R.; Andre, R.; Bastasz, R.; Bell, M.; Bell, R.; Belova, E.; Berkery, J.; Betti, R.

    2009-01-01

    The mission of NSTX is the demonstration of the physics basis required to extrapolate to the next steps for the spherical torus (ST), such as a plasma facing component test facility (NHTX) or an ST based component test facility (ST-CTF), and to support ITER. Key issues for the ST are transport, and steady state high β operation. To better understand electron transport, a new high-k scattering diagnostic was used extensively to investigate electron gyro-scale fluctuations with varying electron temperature gradient scale-length. Results from n = 3 braking studies are consistent with the flow shear dependence of ion transport. New results from electron Bernstein wave emission measurements from plasmas with lithium wall coating applied indicate transmission efficiencies near 70% in H-mode as a result of reduced collisionality. Improved coupling of High Harmonic Fast-Waves has been achieved by reducing the edge density relative to the critical density for surface wave coupling. In order to achieve high bootstrap current fraction, future ST designs envision running at very high elongation. Plasmas have been maintained on NSTX at very low internal inductance l i ∼ 0.4 with strong shaping (κ ∼ 2.7, (delta) ∼ 0.8) with β N approaching the with-wall beta limit for several energy confinement times. By operating at lower collisionality in this regime, NSTX has achieved record non-inductive current drive fraction f NI ∼ 71%. Instabilities driven by super-Alfvenic ions will be an important issue for all burning plasmas, including ITER. Fast ions from NBI on NSTX are super-Alfvenic. Linear TAE thresholds and appreciable fast-ion loss during multi-mode bursts are measured and these results are compared to theory. The impact of n > 1 error fields on stability is a important result for ITER. RWM/RFA feedback combined with n=3 error field control was used on NSTX to maintain plasma rotation with β above the no-wall limit. Other highlights are: results of lithium coating

  19. Diagnostics for the Biased Electrode Experiment on NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roquemore, A.L.; Zweben, S.J.; Bush, C.E.; Kaita, R.; Marsalsa, R.J.; Maqueda, R.J.

    2009-01-01

    A linear array of four small biased electrodes was installed in NSTX in an attempt to control the width of the scrape-off layer (SOL) by creating a strong local poloidal electric field. The set of electrodes were separated poloidally by a 1 cm gap between electrodes and were located slightly below the midplane of NSTX, 1 cm behind the RF antenna and oriented so that each electrode is facing approximately normal to the magnetic field. Each electrode can be independently biased to ± 100 volts. Present power supplies limit the current on two electrodes to 30 amps the other two to 10 amps each. The effect of local biasing was measured with a set of Langmuir probes placed between the electrodes and another set extending radially outward from the electrodes, and also by the gas puff imaging diagnostic (GPI) located 1 m away along the magnetic field lines intersecting the electrodes. Two fast cameras were also aimed directly at the electrode array. The hardware and controls of the biasing experiment will be presented and the initial effects on local plasma parameters will be discussed

  20. Kinetic Profiles in NSTX Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bell, R.E.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Bourdelle, C.; Ernst, D.R.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Gates, D.A.; Hosea, J.C.; Johnson, D.W.; Kaye, S.M.; Maingi, R.; Medley, S.; Menard, J.E.; Mueller, D.; Ono, M.; Paoletti, F.; Peng, M.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Stutman, D.; Swain, D.W.; Synakowski, E.J.; Wilson, J.R.

    2001-01-01

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is a low aspect ratio (R/a approximately 1.3) device with auxiliary heating from neutral-beam injection (NBI) and high-harmonic fast-wave heating (HHFW). Typical NSTX parameters are R(subscript ''0'') = 85 cm, a = 67 cm, I(subscript ''p'') = 0.7-1.4 MA, B(subscript ''phi'') = 0.25-0.45 T. Three co-directed deuterium neutral-beam sources have injected P(subscript ''NB'') less than or equal to 4.7 MW. HHFW plasmas typically have delivered P(subscript ''RF'') less than or equal to 3 MW. Important to the understanding of NSTX confinement are the new kinetic profile diagnostics: a multi-pulse Thomson scattering system (MPTS) and a charge-exchange recombination spectroscopy (CHERS) system. The MPTS diagnostic currently measures electron density and temperature profiles at 30 Hz at ten spatial locations. The CHERS system has recently become available to measure carbon ion temperature and toroidal flow at 17 radial positions spanning the outer half of the minor radius with 20 msec time resolution during NBI. Experiments conducted during the last year have produced a wide range of kinetic profiles in NSTX. Some interesting examples are presented below

  1. Divertor scenario development for NSTX Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukhanovskii, V. A.; McLean, A. G.; Meier, E. T.; Rognlien, T. D.; Ryutov, D. D.; Bell, R. E.; Diallo, A.; Gerhardt, S. P.; Kaita, R.; Kolemen, E.; Leblanc, B. P.; Menard, J. E.; Podesta, M.; Scotti, F.

    2012-10-01

    In the NSTX-U tokamak, initial plans for divertor plasma-facing components (PFCs) include lithium and boron coated graphite, with a staged transition to molybdenum. Steady-state peak divertor heat fluxes are projected to reach 20-30 MW/m^2 in 2 MA, 12 MW NBI-heated discharges of up to 5 s duration, thus challenging PFC thermal limits. Based on the recent NSTX divertor experiments and modeling with edge transport code UEDGE, a favorable basis for divertor power handling in NSTX-U is developed. The snowflake divertor geometry and feedback-controlled divertor impurity seeding applied to the lower and upper divertors are presently envisioned. In the NSTX snowflake experiments with lithium-coated graphite PFCs, the peak divertor heat fluxes from Type I ELMs and between ELMs were significantly reduced due to geometry effects, increased volumetric losses and null-point convective redistribution between strike points. H-mode core confinement was maintained at H98(y,2)<=1 albeit the radiative detachment. Additional CD4 seeding demonstrated potential for a further increase of divertor radiation.

  2. Using LGI experiments to achieve better understanding of pedestal-edge coupling in NSTX-U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, Zhehui [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-02-23

    PowerPoint presentation. Latest advances in granule or dust injection technologies, fast and high-resolution imaging, together with micro-/nano-structured material fabrication, provide new opportunities to examine plasma-material interaction (PMI) in magnetic fusion environment. Some of our previous work in these areas is summarized. The upcoming LGI experiments in NSTX-U will shed new light on granular matter transport in the pedestal-edge region. In addition to particle control, these results can also be used for code validation and achieving better understanding of pedestal-edge coupling in fusion plasmas in both NSTX-U and others.

  3. ECRH/EBWH system for NSTX-U

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosea J.C.

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade (NSTX-U will operate at an axial toroidal field of up to 1 T, about twice the field available on NSTX. A 28 GHz electron cylotron resonance heating (ECRH system is currently being planned for NSTX-U. A 1 MW 28 GHz gyrotron will be employed. Intially the system will use short, 10-50 ms, 1 MW pulses for ECRH-assisted discharge start-up. Later the pulse length will be extended to 1-5 s to study electron Bernstein wave heating (EBWH during the plasma current flat top. A mirror launcher will be used to couple microwave power to the plasma via O-mode to the slow X-mode to EBW (O-X-B double mode conversion. This paper presents a pre-conceptual design for the ECRH/EBWH system proposed for NSTX-U and includes ray tracing and Fokker-Planck modeling results for 28 GHz ECRH during plasma start-up and EBW heating and current drive during the plasma current flattop of a NSTX-U advanced H-mode plasma scenario.

  4. Lithium Surface Coatings for Improved Plasma Performance in NSTX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kugel, H W; Ahn, J -W; Allain, J P; Bell, R; Boedo, J; Bush, C; Gates, D; Gray, T; Kaye, S; Kaita, R; LeBlanc, B; Maingi, R; Majeski, R; Mansfield, D; Menard, J; Mueller, D; Ono, M; Paul, S; Raman, R; Roquemore, A L; Ross, P W; Sabbagh, S; Schneider, H; Skinner, C H; Soukhanovskii, V; Stevenson, T; Timberlake, J; Wampler, W R

    2008-02-19

    NSTX high-power divertor plasma experiments have shown, for the first time, significant and frequent benefits from lithium coatings applied to plasma facing components. Lithium pellet injection on NSTX introduced lithium pellets with masses 1 to 5 mg via He discharges. Lithium coatings have also been applied with an oven that directed a collimated stream of lithium vapor toward the graphite tiles of the lower center stack and divertor. Lithium depositions from a few mg to 1 g have been applied between discharges. Benefits from the lithium coating were sometimes, but not always seen. These improvements sometimes included decreases plasma density, inductive flux consumption, and ELM frequency, and increases in electron temperature, ion temperature, energy confinement and periods of MHD quiescence. In addition, reductions in lower divertor D, C, and O luminosity were measured.

  5. NSTX Overview

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    M. Ono; M. Bell; R.E. Bell; M. Bitter; C. Bourdelle; D. Darrow; D. Gates; J. Hosea; S.M. Kaye; R. Kaita; H. Kugel; D. Johnson; B. LeBlanc; S. Medley

    2001-01-01

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) has had a very productive period of plasma operations since the last ST Workshop in Seattle, WA, in November 1999. A number of new research tools have become available and the plasma parameters have improved significantly. These advances are describe in this paper

  6. Spherical Torus Center Stack Design

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    C. Neumeyer; P. Heitzenroeder; C. Kessel; M. Ono; M. Peng; J. Schmidt; R. Woolley; I. Zatz

    2002-01-01

    The low aspect ratio spherical torus (ST) configuration requires that the center stack design be optimized within a limited available space, using materials within their established allowables. This paper presents center stack design methods developed by the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) Project Team during the initial design of NSTX, and more recently for studies of a possible next-step ST (NSST) device

  7. Recent Progress on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gates, D.A.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.E.; Bialek, J.; Bigelow, T.; Bitter, M.; Bonoli, P.; Darrow, D.; Efthimion, P.

    2002-01-01

    Recent upgrades to the NSTX facility have led to improved plasma performance. Using 5MW of neutral beam injection, plasmas with toroidal β T (= 2(micro) 0 /B T 2 where B T is the vacuum toroidal field at the plasma geometric center) > 30% have been achieved with normalized β N (= β T aB I /I p ) ∼ 6% · m · T/MA.. The highest β discharge exceeded the calculated no-wall β limit for several wall times. The stored energy has reached 390kJ at higher toroidal field (0.55T) corresponding to β T ∼ 20% and β N = 5.4. Long pulse (∼1s) high β p (∼1.5) discharges have also been obtained at higher β φ (0.5T) with up to 6MW NBI power. The highest energy confinement times, up to 120ms, were observed during H-mode operation which is now routine. Confinement times of ∼1.5 times ITER98pby2 for several τ E are observed during both H-Mode and non-H-Mode discharges. Calculations indicate that many NSTX discharges have very good ion confinement, approaching neoclassical levels. High Harmonic Fast Wave current drive has been demonstrated by comparing discharges with waves launched parallel and anti-parallel to the plasma current

  8. NSTX-U Digital Coil Protection System Software Detailed Design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2014-06-01

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) currently uses a collection of analog signal processing solutions for coil protection. Part of the NSTX Upgrade (NSTX-U) entails replacing these analog systems with a software solution running on a conventional computing platform. The new Digital Coil Protection System (DCPS) will replace the old systems entirely, while also providing an extensible framework that allows adding new functionality as desired.

  9. Overview of the NSTX Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sichta, P.; Dong, J.; Oliaro, G.; Roney, P.

    2001-01-01

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is an innovative magnetic fusion device that was constructed by the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) in collaboration with the Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Columbia University, and the University of Washington at Seattle. Since achieving first plasma in 1999, the device has been used for fusion research through an international collaboration of more than twenty institutions. The NSTX is operated through a collection of control systems that encompass a wide range of technology, from hardwired relay controls to real-time control systems with giga-FLOPS of capability. This paper presents a broad introduction to the control systems used on NSTX, with an emphasis on the computing controls, data acquisition, and synchronization systems

  10. National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) Torus Design, Fabrication and Assembly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumeyer, C.; Barnes, G.; Chrzanowski, J.H.; Heitzenroeder, P.

    1999-01-01

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is a low aspect ratio spherical torus (ST) located at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). Fabrication, assembly, and initial power tests were completed in February of 1999. The majority of the design and construction efforts were constructed on the Torus system components. The Torus system includes the centerstack assembly, external Poloidal and Toroidal coil systems, vacuum vessel, torus support structure and plasma facing components (PFC's). NSTX's low aspect ratio required that the centerstack be made with the smallest radius possible. This, and the need to bake NSTXs carbon-carbon composite plasma facing components at 350 degrees C, was major drivers in the design of NSTX. The Centerstack Assembly consists of the inner legs of the Toroidal Field (TF) windings, the Ohmic Heating (OH) solenoid and its associated tension cylinder, three inner Poloidal Field (PF) coils, thermal insulation, diagnostics and an Inconel casing which forms the inner wall of the vacuum vessel boundary. It took approximately nine months to complete the assembly of the Centerstack. The tight radial clearances and the extreme length of the major components added complexity to the assembly of the Centerstack components. The vacuum vessel was constructed of 304-stainless steel and required approximately seven months to complete and deliver to the Test Cell. Several of the issues associated with the construction of the vacuum vessel were control of dimensional stability following welding and controlling the permeability of the welds. A great deal of time and effort was devoted to defining the correct weld process and material selection to meet our design requirements. The PFCs will be baked out at 350 degrees C while the vessel is maintained at 150 degrees C. This required care in designing the supports so they can accommodate the high electromagnetic loads resulting from plasma disruptions and the resulting relative thermal expansions

  11. EBW simulation for MAST and NSTX experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preinhaelter, J.; Urban, J.; Pavlo, P.; Taylor, G.; Shevchenko, V.; Valovic, M.; Vahala, L.; Vahala, G.

    2005-01-01

    The interpretation of EBW emission from spherical tokamaks is nontrivial. We report on a 3D simulation model of this process that incorporates Gaussian beams for the antenna, a full wave solution of EBW-X and EBW-X-O conversions using adaptive finite elements, and EBW ray tracing to determine the radiative temperature. This model is then used to interpret the experimental results from MAST and NSTX. EBW for ELM free H-modes in MAST suggests that the magnetic equilibrium determined by the EFIT code does not adequately represent the B-field within the transport barrier. Using the EBW signal for the reconstruction of the radial profile of the magnetic field, we determine a new equilibrium and see that the EBW simulation now yields better agreement with experimental results. EBW simulations yield excellent results for the time development of the plasma temperature as measured by the EBW radiometer on NSTX

  12. Chosen Solutions to the Engineering Challenges of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) Magnets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumeyer, C.; Fan, H.M.; Chrzanowski, J.; Heitzenroeder, P.

    1999-01-01

    NSTX is one of the largest of a new class of magnetic plasma research devices known as spherical toroids (STs). The plasma in a ST is characterized by its almost spherical shape with a slender cylindrical region through its vertical axis. The so-called 'center stack' is located in this region. It contains magnetic windings for confining the plasma, induce the plasma current, and shape the plasma. This paper will describe the engineering challenges of designing the center stack magnets to meet their operational requirements within this constrained space

  13. Control System for the NSTX Lithium Pellet Injector

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sichta, P.; Dong, J.; Gernhardt, R.; Gettelfinger, G.; Kugel, H.

    2003-01-01

    The Lithium Pellet Injector (LPI) is being developed for the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). The LPI will inject ''pellets'' of various composition into the plasma in order to study wall conditioning, edge impurity transport, liquid limiter simulations, and other areas of research. The control system for the NSTX LPI has incorporated widely used advanced technologies, such as LabVIEW and PCI bus I/O boards, to create a low-cost control system which is fully integrated into the NSTX computing environment. This paper will present the hardware and software design of the computer control system for the LPI

  14. The Use of MDSplus on NSTX at PPPL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, W.; Roney, P.; Carroll, T.; Gibney, T.; Mastrovito, D.

    2002-01-01

    The MDSplus data acquisition system has been used successfully since the 1999 startup of NSTX [National Spherical Torus Experiment] for control, data acquisition, and analysis for diagnostic subsystems. For each plasma ''shot'' on NSTX about 75 MBs of data is acquired and loaded into MDSplus hierarchical data structures in 2-3 minutes. Physicists adapted to the MDSplus software tools with no real difficulty. Some locally developed tools are described. The support from the developers at MIT [Massachusetts Institute of Technology] was timely and insightful. The use of MDSplus has resulted in a significant cost savings for NSTX

  15. A Neutral Beam Injector Upgrade for NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stevenson, T.; McCormack, B.; Loesser, G.D.; Kalish, M.; Ramakrishnan, S.; Grisham, L.; Edwards, J.; Cropper, M.; Rossi, G.; Halle, A. von; Williams, M.

    2002-01-01

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) capability with a Neutral Beam Injector (NBI) capable of 80 kiloelectronvolt (keV), 5 Megawatt (MW), 5 second operation. This 5.95 million dollar upgrade reused a previous generation injector and equipment for technical, cost, and schedule reasons to obtain these specifications while retaining a legacy capability of 120 keV neutral particle beam delivery for shorter pulse lengths for possible future NSTX experiments. Concerns with NBI injection included power deposition in the plasma, aiming angles from the fixed NBI fan array, density profiles and beam shine through, orbit losses of beam particles, and protection of the vacuum vessel wall against beam impingement. The upgrade made use of the beamline and cryo panels from the Neutral Beam Test Stand facility, existing power supplies and controls, beamline components and equipment not contaminated by tritium during DT [deuterium-tritium] experiments, and a liquid Helium refrigerator plant to power and cryogenically pump a beamline and three ion sources. All of the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) ion sources had been contaminated with tritium, so a refurbishment effort was undertaken on selected TFTR sources to rid the three sources destined for the NSTX NBI of as much tritium as possible. An interconnecting duct was fabricated using some spare and some new components to attach the beamline to the NSTX vacuum vessel. Internal vacuum vessel armor using carbon tiles was added to protect the stainless steel vacuum vessel from beam impingement in the absence of plasma and interlock failure. To date, the NBI has operated to 80 keV and 5 MW and has injected requested power levels into NSTX plasmas with good initial results, including high beta and strong heating characteristics at full rated plasma current

  16. Startup of the experimental physics industrial control system at NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sichta, P.; Dong, J.

    1999-01-01

    The Experimental Physics Industrial Control System (EPICS) is a set of software which is being used as the basis of the National Spherical Torus Experiment's (NSTX) Process Control System, a major element of the NSTX's Central Instrumentation and Control System. EPICS is a result of a co-development effort started by several US Department of Energy National Laboratories. EPICS is actively supported through an international collaboration made up of government and industrial users. EPICS' good points include portability, scalability, and extensibility. A drawback for small experiments is that a wide range of software skills are necessary to get the software tools running for the process engineers. The authors' experience in designing, developing, operating, and maintaining NSTX's EPICS (system) will be reviewed

  17. Conceptual design for the NSTX Central Instrumentation and Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bashore, D.; Oliaro, G.; Roney, P.; Sichta, P.; Tindall, K.

    1997-01-01

    The design and construction phase for the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is under way at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). Operation is scheduled to begin on April 30, 1999. This paper describes the conceptual design for the NSTX Central Instrumentation and Control (I and C) System. Major elements of the Central I and C System include the Process Control System, Plasma Control System, Network System, Data Acquisition System, and Synchronization System to support the NSTX experimental device

  18. Electron Bernstein Wave Research on NSTX and CDX-U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G.; Efthimion, P.C.; Jones, B.; Bell, G.L.; Bers, A.; Bigelow, T.S.; Carter, M.D.; Harvey, R.W.; Ram, A.K.; Rasmussen, D.A.; Smirnov, A.P.; Wilgen, J.B.; Wilson, J.R.

    2003-01-01

    Studies of thermally emitted electron Bernstein waves (EBWs) on CDX-U and NSTX, via mode conversion (MC) to electromagnetic radiation, support the use of EBWs to measure the Te profile and provide local electron heating and current drive (CD) in overdense spherical torus plasmas. An X-mode antenna with radially adjustable limiters successfully controlled EBW MC on CDX-U and enhanced MC efficiency to ∼ 100%. So far the X-mode MC efficiency on NSTX has been increased by a similar technique to 40-50% and future experiments are focused on achieving * 80% MC. MC efficiencies on both machines agree well with theoretical predictions. Ray tracing and Fokker-Planck modeling for NSTX equilibria are being conducted to support the design of a 3 MW, 15 GHz EBW heating and CD system for NSTX to assist non-inductive plasma startup, current ramp up, and to provide local electron heating and CD in high beta NSTX plasmas

  19. Overview of impurity control and wall conditioning in NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugel, H.W.; Maingi, R.; Wampler, W.; Barry, R.E.; Bell, M.; Blanchard, W.; Gates, D.; Johnson, D.; Kaita, R.; Kaye, S.; Maqueda, R.; Menard, J.; Menon, M.M.; Mueller, D.; Ono, M.; Paul, S.; Peng, Y-K.M.; Raman, R.; Roquemore, A.; Skinner, C. H.; Sabbagh, S.; Stratton, B.; Stutman, D.; Wilson, J. R.; Zweben, S.

    2000-01-01

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) started plasma operations i n February 1999. In the first extended period of experiments, NSTX achieved high current, inner wall limited, double null, and single null plasma discharges, initial Coaxial Helicity Injection, and High Harmonic Fast Wave results. As expected, discharge reproducibility and performance were strongly affected by wall conditions. In this paper, the authors describe the internal geometry, and initial plasma discharge, impurity control, wall conditioning, erosion, and deposition results

  20. The Use of MDSplus on NSTX at PPPL; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    W. Davis; P. Roney; T. Carroll; T. Gibney; D. Mastrovito

    2002-01-01

    The MDSplus data acquisition system has been used successfully since the 1999 startup of NSTX[National Spherical Torus Experiment] for control, data acquisition, and analysis for diagnostic subsystems. For each plasma ''shot'' on NSTX about 75 MBs of data is acquired and loaded into MDSplus hierarchical data structures in 2-3 minutes. Physicists adapted to the MDSplus software tools with no real difficulty. Some locally developed tools are described. The support from the developers at MIT[Massachusetts Institute of Technology] was timely and insightful. The use of MDSplus has resulted in a significant cost savings for NSTX

  1. Plasma boundary shape control and real-time equilibrium reconstruction on NSTX-U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, M. D.; Battaglia, D. J.; Mueller, D.; Eidietis, N.; Erickson, K.; Ferron, J.; Gates, D. A.; Gerhardt, S.; Johnson, R.; Kolemen, E.; Menard, J.; Myers, C. E.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Scotti, F.; Vail, P.

    2018-03-01

    The upgrade to the National Spherical Torus eXperiment (NSTX-U) included two main improvements: a larger center-stack, enabling higher toroidal field and longer pulse duration, and the addition of three new tangentially aimed neutral beam sources, which increase available heating and current drive, and allow for flexibility in shaping power, torque, current, and particle deposition profiles. To best use these new capabilities and meet the high-performance operational goals of NSTX-U, major upgrades to the NSTX-U control system (NCS) hardware and software have been made. Several control algorithms, including those used for real-time equilibrium reconstruction and shape control, have been upgraded to improve and extend plasma control capabilities. As part of the commissioning phase of first plasma operations, the shape control system was tuned to control the boundary in both inner-wall limited and diverted discharges. It has been used to accurately track the requested evolution of the boundary (including the size of the inner gap between the plasma and central solenoid, which is a challenge for the ST configuration), X-point locations, and strike point locations, enabling repeatable discharge evolutions for scenario development and diagnostic commissioning.

  2. Vessel Eddy Current Measurement for the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gates, D.A.; Menard, J.; Marsala, R.

    2004-01-01

    A simple analog circuit that measures the NSTX axisymmetric eddy current distribution has been designed and constructed. It is based on simple circuit model of the NSTX vacuum vessel that was calibrated using a special axisymmetric eddy current code which was written so that accuracy was maintained in the vicinity of the current filaments. The measurement and the model have been benchmarked against data from numerous vacuum shots and they are in excellent agreement. This is an important measurement that helps give more accurate equilibrium reconstructions

  3. Edge Recycling and Heat Fluxes in L- and H-mode NSTX Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soukhanovskii, V.A.; Maingi, R.; Raman, R.; Kugel, H.; LeBlanc, B.; Roquemore, A.L.; Lasnier, C.J.

    2003-01-01

    Introduction Edge characterization experiments have been conducted in NSTX to provide an initial survey of the edge particle and heat fluxes and their scaling with input power and electron density. The experiments also provided a database of conditions for the analyses of the NSTX global particle sources, core fueling, and divertor operating regimes

  4. NSTX-U Control System Upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, K.G.; Gates, D.A.; Gerhardt, S.P.; Lawson, J.E.; Mozulay, R.; Sichta, P.; Tchilinguirian, G.J.

    2014-01-01

    The National Spherical Tokamak Experiment (NSTX) is undergoing a wealth of upgrades (NSTX-U). These upgrades, especially including an elongated pulse length, require broad changes to the control system that has served NSTX well. A new fiber serial Front Panel Data Port input and output (I/O) stream will supersede the aging copper parallel version. Driver support for the new I/O and cyber security concerns require updating the operating system from Redhat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) v4 to RedHawk (based on RHEL) v6. While the basic control system continues to use the General Atomics Plasma Control System (GA PCS), the effort to forward port the entire software package to run under 64-bit Linux instead of 32-bit Linux included PCS modifications subsequently shared with GA and other PCS users. Software updates focused on three key areas: (1) code modernization through coding standards (C99/C11), (2) code portability and maintainability through use of the GA PCS code generator, and (3) support of 64-bit platforms. Central to the control system upgrade is the use of a complete real time (RT) Linux platform provided by Concurrent Computer Corporation, consisting of a computer (iHawk), an operating system and drivers (RedHawk), and RT tools (NightStar). Strong vendor support coupled with an extensive RT toolset influenced this decision. The new real-time Linux platform, I/O, and software engineering will foster enhanced capability and performance for NSTX-U plasma control

  5. NSTX-U Control System Upgrades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erickson, K.G., E-mail: kerickso@pppl.gov; Gates, D.A.; Gerhardt, S.P.; Lawson, J.E.; Mozulay, R.; Sichta, P.; Tchilinguirian, G.J.

    2014-06-15

    The National Spherical Tokamak Experiment (NSTX) is undergoing a wealth of upgrades (NSTX-U). These upgrades, especially including an elongated pulse length, require broad changes to the control system that has served NSTX well. A new fiber serial Front Panel Data Port input and output (I/O) stream will supersede the aging copper parallel version. Driver support for the new I/O and cyber security concerns require updating the operating system from Redhat Enterprise Linux (RHEL) v4 to RedHawk (based on RHEL) v6. While the basic control system continues to use the General Atomics Plasma Control System (GA PCS), the effort to forward port the entire software package to run under 64-bit Linux instead of 32-bit Linux included PCS modifications subsequently shared with GA and other PCS users. Software updates focused on three key areas: (1) code modernization through coding standards (C99/C11), (2) code portability and maintainability through use of the GA PCS code generator, and (3) support of 64-bit platforms. Central to the control system upgrade is the use of a complete real time (RT) Linux platform provided by Concurrent Computer Corporation, consisting of a computer (iHawk), an operating system and drivers (RedHawk), and RT tools (NightStar). Strong vendor support coupled with an extensive RT toolset influenced this decision. The new real-time Linux platform, I/O, and software engineering will foster enhanced capability and performance for NSTX-U plasma control.

  6. The impact of lithium wall coatings on NSTX discharges and the engineering of the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment (LTX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Majeski, R.; Kugel, H.; Kaita, R.; Avasarala, S.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.E.; Berzak, L.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Gerhardt, S.P.; Gransted, E.; Gray, T.; Jacobson, C.; Kallman, J.; Kaye, S.; Kozub, T.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Lepson, J.; Lundberg, D.P.; Maingi, R.; Mansfield, D.; Paul, S.F.; Pereverzev, G.V.; Schneider, H.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Strickler, T.; Stotler, D.; Timberlake, J.; Zakharov, L.E.

    2010-01-01

    Recent experiments on the National Spherical Torus eXperiment (NSTX) have shown the benefits of solid lithium coatings on carbon PFC's to diverted plasma performance, in both L- and H-mode confinement regimes. Better particle control, with decreased inductive flux consumption, and increased electron temperature, ion temperature, energy confinement time, and DD neutron rate were observed. Successive increases in lithium coverage resulted in the complete suppression of ELM activity in H-mode discharges. A liquid lithium divertor (LLD), which will employ the porous molybdenum surface developed for the LTX shell, is being installed on NSTX for the 2010 run period, and will provide comparisons between liquid walls in the Lithium Tokamak eXperiment (LTX) and liquid divertor targets in NSTX. LTX, which recently began operations at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, is the world's first confinement experiment with full liquid metal plasma-facing components (PFCs). All materials and construction techniques in LTX are compatible with liquid lithium. LTX employs an inner, heated, stainless steel-faced liner or shell, which will be lithium-coated. In order to ensure that lithium adheres to the shell, it is designed to operate at up to 500-600 degrees C to promote wetting of the stainless by the lithium, providing the first hot wall in a tokamak to Operate at reactor-relevant temperatures. The engineering of LTX will be discussed.

  7. The H-mode Pedestal and Edge Localized Modes in NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maingi, R.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Menard, J.E.; Nishino, N.; Roquemore, A.L.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Tritz, K.

    2004-01-01

    The research program of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) routinely utilizes the H-mode confinement regime to test and extend beta and pulse length limits. As in conventional aspect ratio tokamaks, NSTX observes a variety of edge localized modes (ELMs) in H-mode. Hence a significant part of the research program is dedicated to ELMs studies

  8. Exploration of spherical torus physics in the NSTX device

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, M.; Kaye, S. M.; Peng, Y.-K. M.; Barnes, G.; Blanchard, W.; Carter, M. D.; Chrzanowski, J.; Dudek, L.; Ewig, R.; Gates, D.; Hatcher, R. E.; Jarboe, T.; Jardin, S. C.; Johnson, D.; Kaita, R.; Kalish, M.; Kessel, C. E.; Kugel, H. W.; Maingi, R.; Majeski, R.; Manickam, J.; McCormack, B.; Menard, J.; Mueller, D.; Nelson, B. A.; Nelson, B. E.; Neumeyer, C.; Oliaro, G.; Paoletti, F.; Parsells, R.; Perry, E.; Pomphrey, N.; Ramakrishnan, S.; Raman, R.; Rewoldt, G.; Robinson, J.; Roquemore, A. L.; Ryan, P.; Sabbagh, S.; Swain, D.; Synakowski, E. J.; Viola, M.; Williams, M.; Wilson, J. R.; NSTX Team

    2000-03-01

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is being built at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory to test the fusion physics principles for the spherical torus concept at the MA level. The NSTX nominal plasma parameters are R0 = 85 cm, a = 67 cm, R/a >= 1.26, Bt = 3 kG, Ip = 1 MA, q95 = 14, elongation κ The plasma heating/current drive tools are high harmonic fast wave (6 MW, 5 s), neutral beam injection (5 MW, 80 keV, 5 s) and coaxial helicity injection. Theoretical calculations predict that NSTX should provide exciting possibilities for exploring a number of important new physics regimes, including very high plasma β, naturally high plasma elongation, high bootstrap current fraction, absolute magnetic well and high pressure driven sheared flow. In addition, the NSTX programme plans to explore fully non-inductive plasma startup as well as a dispersive scrape-off layer for heat and particle flux handling.

  9. Development of a Universal Networked Timer at NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sichta, P.; Dong, J.; Lawson, J.E.; Oliaro, G.; Wertenbaker, J.

    2005-01-01

    A new Timing and Synchronization System component, the Universal Networked Timer (UNT), is under development at the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). The UNT is a second-generation multifunction timing device that emulates the timing functionality and electrical interfaces originally provided by various CAMAC modules. Using Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) technology, each of the UNT's eight channels can be dynamically programmed to emulate a specific CAMAC module type. The timer is compatible with the existing NSTX timing and synchronization system and will also support a (future) clock system with extended performance. To assist system designers and collaborators, software will be written to integrate the UNT with EPICS, MDSplus, and LabVIEW. This paper will describe the timing capabilities, hardware design, programming/software support, and the current status of the Universal Networked Timer at NSTX

  10. Boronization on NSTX using Deuterated Trimethylboron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Blanchard, W.R.; Gernhardt, R.C.; Kugel, H.W.; LaMarche, P.H.

    2002-01-01

    Boronization on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) has proved to be quite beneficial with increases in confinement and density, and decreases in impurities observed in the plasma. The boron has been applied to the interior surfaces of NSTX, about every 2 to 3 weeks of plasma operation, by producing a glow discharge in the vacuum vessel using deuterated trimethylboron (TMB) in a 10% mixture with helium. Special NSTX requirements restricted the selection of the candidate boronization method to the use of deuterated boron compounds. Deuterated TMB met these requirements, but is a hazardous gas and special care in the execution of the boronization process is required. This paper describes the existing GDC, Gas Injection, and Torus Vacuum Pumping System hardware used for this process, the glow discharge process, and the automated control system that allows for remote operation to maximize both the safety and efficacy of applying the boron coating. The administrative requirements and the detailed procedure for the setup, operation and shutdown of the process are also described

  11. Infrared Camera Diagnostic for Heat Flux Measurements on NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D. Mastrovito; R. Maingi; H.W. Kugel; A.L. Roquemore

    2003-01-01

    An infrared imaging system has been installed on NSTX (National Spherical Torus Experiment) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory to measure the surface temperatures on the lower divertor and center stack. The imaging system is based on an Indigo Alpha 160 x 128 microbolometer camera with 12 bits/pixel operating in the 7-13 (micro)m range with a 30 Hz frame rate and a dynamic temperature range of 0-700 degrees C. From these data and knowledge of graphite thermal properties, the heat flux is derived with a classic one-dimensional conduction model. Preliminary results of heat flux scaling are reported

  12. Impact of the Wall Conditioning Program on Plasma Performance in NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    H.W. Kuge; V. Soukhanovskii; M. Bell; , W. Blanchard; D. Gates; B. LeBlanc; R. Maingi; D. Mueller; H.K. Na; S. Paul; C.H. Skinner; D. Stutman; and W.R. Wampler

    2002-01-01

    High performance operating regimes have been achieved on NSTX (National Spherical Torus Experiment) through impurity control and wall-conditioning techniques. These techniques include HeGDC-aided boronization using deuterated trimethylboron, inter-discharge HeGDC, 350 C PFC bake-out followed by D2 and HeGDC, and experiments to test fueling discharges with either a He-trimethylboron mixture or pure trimethylboron. The impact of this impurity and density control program on recent advances in NSTX plasma performance is discussed

  13. Dependence of recycling and edge profiles on lithium evaporation in high triangularity, high performance NSTX H-mode discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maingi, R., E-mail: rmaingi@pppl.gov [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Receiving 3, Route 1 North, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Osborne, T.H. [General Atomics, 3550 General Atomics Ct., San Diego, CA 92121 (United States); Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.E.; Boyle, D.P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Receiving 3, Route 1 North, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Canik, J.M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Diallo, A.; Kaita, R.; Kaye, S.M.; Kugel, H.W.; LeBlanc, B.P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Receiving 3, Route 1 North, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Sabbagh, S.A. [Applied Physics and Applied Math Dept., Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Skinner, C.H. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Receiving 3, Route 1 North, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Soukhanovskii, V.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, 7000 East Ave, PO Box 808, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    In this paper, the effects of a pre-discharge lithium evaporation variation on highly shaped discharges in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) are documented. Lithium wall conditioning (‘dose’) was routinely applied onto graphite plasma facing components between discharges in NSTX, partly to reduce recycling. Reduced D{sub α} emission from the lower and upper divertor and center stack was observed, as well as reduced midplane neutral pressure; the magnitude of reduction increased with the pre-discharge lithium dose. Improved energy confinement, both raw τ{sub E} and H-factor normalized to scalings, with increasing lithium dose was also observed. At the highest doses, we also observed elimination of edge-localized modes. The midplane edge plasma profiles were dramatically altered, comparable to lithium dose scans at lower shaping, where the strike point was farther from the lithium deposition centroid. This indicates that the benefits of lithium conditioning should apply to the highly shaped plasmas planned in NSTX-U.

  14. An overview of recent physics results from NSTX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaye, S. M.; Abrams, T.; Ahn, J.-W.; Allain, J. P.; Andre, R.; Andruczyk, D.; Barchfeld, R.; Battaglia, D.; Bhattacharjee, A.; Bedoya, F.; Bell, R. E.; Belova, E.; Berkery, J.; Berry, L.; Bertelli, N.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Bialek, J.; Bilato, R.; Boedo, J.; Bonoli, P.; Boozer, A.; Bortolon, A.; Boyer, M. D.; Boyle, D.; Brennan, D.; Breslau, J.; Brooks, J.; Buttery, R.; Capece, A.; Canik, J.; Chang, C. S.; Crocker, N.; Darrow, D.; Davis, W.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Diallo, A.; D'Ippolito, D.; Domier, C.; Ebrahimi, F.; Ethier, S.; Evans, T.; Ferraro, N.; Ferron, J.; Finkenthal, M.; Fonck, R.; Fredrickson, E.; Fu, G. Y.; Gates, D.; Gerhardt, S.; Glasser, A.; Gorelenkov, N.; Gorelenkova, M.; Goumiri, I.; Gray, T.; Green, D.; Guttenfelder, W.; Harvey, R.; Hassanein, A.; Heidbrink, W.; Hirooka, Y.; Hooper, E. B.; Hosea, J.; Humphreys, D.; Jaeger, E. F.; Jarboe, T.; Jardin, S.; Jaworski, M. A.; Kaita, R.; Kessel, C.; Kim, K.; Koel, B.; Kolemen, E.; Kramer, G.; Ku, S.; Kubota, S.; LaHaye, R. J.; Lao, L.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Levinton, F.; Liu, D.; Lore, J.; Lucia, M.; Luhmann, N., Jr.; Maingi, R.; Majeski, R.; Mansfield, D.; Maqueda, R.; McKee, G.; Medley, S.; Meier, E.; Menard, J.; Mueller, D.; Munsat, T.; Muscatello, C.; Myra, J.; Nelson, B.; Nichols, J.; Ono, M.; Osborne, T.; Park, J.-K.; Peebles, W.; Perkins, R.; Phillips, C.; Podesta, M.; Poli, F.; Raman, R.; Ren, Y.; Roszell, J.; Rowley, C.; Russell, D.; Ruzic, D.; Ryan, P.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Schuster, E.; Scotti, F.; Sechrest, Y.; Shaing, K.; Sizyuk, T.; Sizyuk, V.; Skinner, C.; Smith, D.; Snyder, P.; Solomon, W.; Sovenic, C.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Startsev, E.; Stotler, D.; Stratton, B.; Stutman, D.; Taylor, C.; Taylor, G.; Tritz, K.; Walker, M.; Wang, W.; Wang, Z.; White, R.; Wilson, J. R.; Wirth, B.; Wright, J.; Yuan, X.; Yuh, H.; Zakharov, L.; Zweben, S. J.

    2015-10-01

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is currently being upgraded to operate at twice the toroidal field and plasma current (up to 1 T and 2 MA), with a second, more tangentially aimed neutral beam (NB) for current and rotation control, allowing for pulse lengths up to 5 s. Recent NSTX physics analyses have addressed topics that will allow NSTX-Upgrade to achieve the research goals critical to a Fusion Nuclear Science Facility. These include producing stable, 100% non-inductive operation in high-performance plasmas, assessing plasma-material interface (PMI) solutions to handle the high heat loads expected in the next-step devices and exploring the unique spherical torus (ST) parameter regimes to advance predictive capability. Non-inductive operation and current profile control in NSTX-U will be facilitated by co-axial helicity injection (CHI) as well as radio frequency (RF) and NB heating. CHI studies using NIMROD indicate that the reconnection process is consistent with the 2D Sweet-Parker theory. Full-wave AORSA simulations show that RF power losses in the scrape-off layer (SOL) increase significantly for both NSTX and NSTX-U when the launched waves propagate in the SOL. Toroidal Alfvén eigenmode avalanches and higher frequency Alfvén eigenmodes can affect NB-driven current through energy loss and redistribution of fast ions. The inclusion of rotation and kinetic resonances, which depend on collisionality, is necessary for predicting experimental stability thresholds of fast growing ideal wall and resistive wall modes. Neutral beams and neoclassical toroidal viscosity generated from applied 3D fields can be used as actuators to produce rotation profiles optimized for global stability. DEGAS-2 has been used to study the dependence of gas penetration on SOL temperatures and densities for the MGI system being implemented on the Upgrade for disruption mitigation. PMI studies have focused on the effect of ELMs and 3D fields on plasma detachment and heat

  15. National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) Engineering Overview and Research Results 1999 - 2000

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumeyer, C.

    2000-01-01

    The NSTX is a new US facility for the study of plasma confinement, heating, and current drive in a low aspect ratio, spherical torus (ST) configuration. The ST configuration is an alternate magnetic confinement concept which is characterized by high beta (ratio plasma pressure to magnetic field pressure) and low toroidal field compared to conventional tokamaks, and could provide a pathway to the realization of a practical fusion power source. NSTX achieved first plasma in February 1999, and since that time has completed and commissioned all components and systems within the machine proper. Routine operation with inductively driven plasma current less than or equal to 1MA and flat top less than or equal to 0.3 seconds has been established, and the ohmic characterization phase of the research program is underway. Radio Frequency (RF) and Neutral Beam Injection (NBI) systems have been installed and are presently being commissioned. This paper describes the NSTX mission, gives an overview of the engineering design, and summarizes the research results obtained thus far

  16. Implications of NSTX lithium results for magnetic fusion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, M., E-mail: mono@pppl.gov [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.E.; Kaita, R.; Kugel, H.W.; LeBlanc, B.P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Canik, J.M.; Diem, S. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Gerhardt, S.P.; Hosea, J.; Kaye, S.; Mansfield, D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Maingi, R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Menard, J.; Paul, S.F. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Raman, R. [University of Washington at Seattle, Seattle, WA (United States); Sabbagh, S.A. [Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Skinner, C.H. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Soukhanovskii, V. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Taylor, G. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    Lithium wall coating techniques have been experimentally explored on National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) for the last five years. The lithium experimentation on NSTX started with a few milligrams of lithium injected into the plasma as pellets and it has evolved to a lithium evaporation system which can evaporate up to {approx}100 g of lithium onto the lower divertor plates between lithium re-loadings. The unique feature of the lithium research program on NSTX is that it can investigate the effects of lithium in H-mode divertor plasmas. This lithium evaporation system thus far has produced many intriguing and potentially important results; the latest of these are summarized in a companion paper by H. Kugel. In this paper, we suggest possible implications and applications of the NSTX lithium results on the magnetic fusion research which include electron and global energy confinement improvements, MHD stability enhancement at high beta, edge localized mode (ELM) control, H-mode power threshold reduction, improvements in radio frequency heating and non-inductive plasma start-up performance, innovative divertor solutions and improved operational efficiency.

  17. Implications of NSTX lithium results for magnetic fusion research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, M.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.E.; Kaita, R.; Kugel, H.W.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Canik, J.M.; Diem, S.; Gerhardt, S.P.; Hosea, J.; Kaye, S.; Mansfield, D.; Maingi, R.; Menard, J.; Paul, S.F.; Raman, R.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Skinner, C.H.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Taylor, G.

    2010-01-01

    Lithium wall coating techniques have been experimentally explored on National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) for the last five years. The lithium experimentation on NSTX started with a few milligrams of lithium injected into the plasma as pellets and it has evolved to a lithium evaporation system which can evaporate up to ∼100 g of lithium onto the lower divertor plates between lithium re-loadings. The unique feature of the lithium research program on NSTX is that it can investigate the effects of lithium in H-mode divertor plasmas. This lithium evaporation system thus far has produced many intriguing and potentially important results; the latest of these are summarized in a companion paper by H. Kugel. In this paper, we suggest possible implications and applications of the NSTX lithium results on the magnetic fusion research which include electron and global energy confinement improvements, MHD stability enhancement at high beta, edge localized mode (ELM) control, H-mode power threshold reduction, improvements in radio frequency heating and non-inductive plasma start-up performance, innovative divertor solutions and improved operational efficiency.

  18. Internal kink mode dynamics in high-β NSTX plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menard, J.E.; Bell, R.E.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Gates, D.A.; Kaye, S.M.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Medley, S.S.; Park, W.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Sontag, A.; Zhu, W.; Stutman, D.; Tritz, K.

    2005-01-01

    Saturated internal kink modes have been observed in many of the highest toroidal beta discharges of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). These modes often cause rotation flattening in the plasma core, can degrade energy confinement, and in some cases contribute to the complete loss of plasma angular momentum and stored energy. Characteristics of the modes are measured using soft X-ray, kinetic profile, and magnetic diagnostics. Toroidal flows approaching Alfvenic speeds, island pressure peaking, and enhanced viscous and diamagnetic effects associated with high-beta may contribute to mode non-linear stabilization. These saturation mechanisms are investigated for NSTX parameters and compared to experiment. (author)

  19. Analysis of NSTX TF Joint Voltage Measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Woolley R

    2005-01-01

    This report presents findings of analyses of recorded current and voltage data associated with 72 electrical joints operating at high current and high mechanical stress. The analysis goal was to characterize the mechanical behavior of each joint and thus evaluate its mechanical supports. The joints are part of the toroidal field (TF) magnet system of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) pulsed plasma device operating at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). Since there is not sufficient space near the joints for much traditional mechanical instrumentation, small voltage probes were installed on each joint and their voltage monitoring waveforms have been recorded on sampling digitizers during each NSTX ''shot''

  20. Development of NSTX Particle Control Techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugel, H.W.; Maingi, R.; Bell, M.; Gates, D.; Hill, K.; LeBlanc, B.; Mueller, D.; Kaita, R.; Paul, S.; Sabbagh, S.; Skinner, C.H.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Stratton, B.; Raman, R.

    2004-01-01

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) High Harmonic Fast Wave (HHFW) current-drive discharges will require density control for acceptable efficiency. In NSTX, this involves primarily controlling impurity influxes and recycling. We have compared boronization on hot and cold surfaces, varying helium glow discharge conditioning (HeGDC) durations, helium discharge cleaning, brief daily boronization, and between discharge boronization to reduce and control spontaneous density rises. Access to Ohmic H-modes was enabled by boronization on hot surfaces, however, the duration of the effectiveness of hot and cold boronization was comparable. A 15 minute HeGDC between discharges was needed for reproducible L-H transitions. Helium discharge conditioning yielded slower density rises than 15 minutes of HeGDC. Brief daily boronization followed by a comparable duration of applied HeGDC restored and enhanced good conditions. Additional brief boronizations between discharges did not improve plasma performance (reduced recycling, reduced impurity luminosities, earlier L-H transitions, longer plasma current flattops, higher stored energies) if conditions were already good. Between discharge boronization required increases in the NSTX duty cycle due to the need for additional HeGDC to remove codeposited D

  1. Effect of Gas Fueling Location on H-mode Access in NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maingi, R.; Bell, M.; Bell, R.; Biewer, T.; Bush, C.; Chang, C.S.; Gates, D.; Kaye, S.; Kugel, H.; LeBlanc, B.; Maqueda, R.; Menard, J.; Mueller, D.; Raman, R.; Sabbagh, S.; Soukhanovskii, V.

    2003-01-01

    The dependence of H-mode access on the poloidal location of the gas injection source has been investigated in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). We find that gas fueling from the center stack midplane area produces the most reproducible H-mode access with generally the lowest L-H threshold power in lower single-null configuration. The edge toroidal rotation velocity is largest (in direction of the plasma current) just before the L-H transition with center stack midplane fueling, and then reverses direction after the L-H transition. Simulation of these results with a 2-D guiding-center Monte Carlo neoclassical transport code is qualitatively consistent with the trends in the measured velocities. Double-null discharges exhibit H-mode access with gas fueling from either the center stack midplane or center stack top locations, indicating a reduced sensitivity of H-mode access on fueling location in that shape

  2. Status of the Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System at NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sichta, P.; Dong, J.

    2002-01-01

    The NSTX achieved first plasma in 1999. The Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) is used to provide data-integration services for monitoring and control of all NSTX engineering subsystems. EPICS is a set of software initially developed at U.S. DOE laboratories. It is currently used and maintained through a global collaboration of hundreds of scientists and engineers. This paper will relate some of our experiences using and supporting the EPICS software. Topics include reliability and maintainability, lessons learned, recently added engineering subsystems, new EPICS software tools, and a review of our first EPICS software upgrade. Steps to modernize the technical infrastructure of EPICS to ensure effective support for NSTX will also be described

  3. Flux consumption optimization and the achievement of 1 MA discharges on NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menard, J.; LeBlanc, B.; Sabbagh, S.A.

    2001-01-01

    The spherical tokamak (ST), because of its slender central column, has very limited volt-second capability relative to a standard aspect ratio tokamak of similar plasma cross-section. Recent experiments on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) have begun to quantify and optimize the ohmic current drive efficiency in a MA-class ST device. Sustainable ramp-rates in excess of 5MA/sec during the current rise phase have been achieved on NSTX, while faster ramps generate significant MHD activity. Discharges with I P exceeding 1MA have been achieved in NSTX with nominal parameters: aspect ratio A=1.3-1.4, elongation κ=2-2.2, triangularity δ=0.4, internal inductance l i =0.6, and Ejima coefficient C E =0.35. Flux consumption efficiency results, performance improvements associated with first boronization, and comparisons to neoclassical resistivity are described. (author)

  4. Progress toward commissioning and plasma operation in NSTX-U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ono, M.; Chrzanowski, J.; Dudek, L.; Gerhardt, S.; Heitzenroeder, P.; Kaita, R.; Menard, J. E.; Perry, E.; Stevenson, T.; Strykowsky, R.; Titus, P.; von Halle, A.; Williams, M.; Atnafu, N. D.; Blanchard, W.; Cropper, M.; Diallo, A.; Gates, D. A.; Ellis, R.; Erickson, K.; Hosea, J.; Hatcher, R.; Jurczynski, S. Z.; Kaye, S.; Labik, G.; Lawson, J.; LeBlanc, B.; Maingi, R.; Neumeyer, C.; Raman, R.; Raftopoulos, S.; Ramakrishnan, R.; Roquemore, A. L.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Sichta, P.; Schneider, H.; Smith, M.; Stratton, B.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Taylor, G.; Tresemer, K.; Zolfaghari, A.; The NSTX-U Team

    2015-07-01

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment-Upgrade (NSTX-U) is the most powerful spherical torus facility at PPPL, Princeton USA. The major mission of NSTX-U is to develop the physics basis for an ST-based Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF). The ST-based FNSF has the promise of achieving the high neutron fluence needed for reactor component testing with relatively modest tritium consumption. At the same time, the unique operating regimes of NSTX-U can contribute to several important issues in the physics of burning plasmas to optimize the performance of ITER. NSTX-U further aims to determine the attractiveness of the compact ST for addressing key research needs on the path toward a fusion demonstration power plant (DEMO). The upgrade will nearly double the toroidal magnetic field BT to 1 T at a major radius of R0 = 0.93 m, plasma current Ip to 2 MA and neutral beam injection (NBI) heating power to 14 MW. The anticipated plasma performance enhancement is a quadrupling of the plasma stored energy and near doubling of the plasma confinement time, which would result in a 5-10 fold increase in the fusion performance parameter nτ T. A much more tangential 2nd NBI system, with 2-3 times higher current drive efficiency compared to the 1st NBI system, is installed to attain the 100% non-inductive operation needed for a compact FNSF design. With higher fields and heating powers, the NSTX-U plasma collisionality will be reduced by a factor of 3-6 to help explore the favourable trend in transport towards the low collisionality FNSF regime. The NSTX-U first plasma is planned for the Summer of 2015, at which time the transition to plasma operations will occur.

  5. Real-time Equilibrium Reconstruction and Isoflux Control of Plasma Shape and Position in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, D.; Gates, D.A.; Menard, J.E.; Ferron, J.R.; Sabbagh, S.A.

    2004-01-01

    The implementation of the rtEFIT-isoflux algorithm in the digital control system for NSTX has led to improved ability to control the plasma shape. In particular, it has been essential for good gap control for radio-frequency experiments, for control of drsep in H-mode studies, and for X-point height control and κ control in a variety of experiments

  6. Electron Bernstein Wave Research on NSTX and PEGASUS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diem, S. J.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Taylor, G.; Caughman, J. B.; Bigelow, T.; Wilgen, J. B.; Garstka, G. D.; Harvey, R. W.; Preinhaelter, J.; Urban, J.; Sabbagh, S. A.

    2007-01-01

    Spherical tokamaks (STs) routinely operate in the overdense regime (ω pe >>ω ce ), prohibiting the use of standard ECCD and ECRH. However, the electrostatic electron Bernstein wave (EBW) can propagate in the overdense regime and is strongly absorbed and emitted at the electron cyclotron resonances. As such, EBWs offer the potential for local electron temperature measurements and local electron heating and current drive. A critical challenge for these applications is to establish efficient coupling between the EBWs and electromagnetic waves outside the cutoff layer. Two STs in the U.S., the National Spherical Tokamak Experiment (NSTX, at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory) and PEGASUS Toroidal Experiment (University of Wisconsin-Madison) are focused on studying EBWs for heating and current drive. On NSTX, two remotely steered, quad-ridged antennas have been installed to measure 8-40 GHz (fundamental, second and third harmonics) thermal EBW emission (EBE) via the oblique B-X-O mode conversion process. This diagnostic has been successfully used to map the EBW mode conversion efficiency as a function of poloidal and toroidal angles on NSTX. Experimentally measured mode conversion efficiencies of 70±20% have been measured for 15.5 GHz (fundamental) emission in L-mode discharges, in agreement with a numerical EBE simulation. However, much lower mode conversion efficiencies of 25±10% have been measured for 25 GHz (second harmonic) emission in L-mode plasmas. Numerical modeling of EBW propagation and damping on the very-low aspect ratio PEGASUS Toroidal Experiment has been performed using the GENRAY ray-tracing code and CQL3D Fokker-Planck code in support of planned EBW heating and current drive (EBWCD) experiments. Calculations were performed for 2.45 GHz waves launched with a 10 cm poloidal extent for a variety of plasma equilibrium configurations. Poloidal launch scans show that driven current is maximum when the poloidal launch angle is between 10 and 25 degrees

  7. NSTX Diagnostics for Fusion Plasma Science Studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaita, R.; Johnson, D.; Roquemore, L.; Bitter, M.; Levinton, F.; Paoletti, F.; Stutman, D.

    2001-01-01

    This paper will discuss how plasma science issues are addressed by the diagnostics for the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX), the newest large-scale machine in the magnetic confinement fusion (MCF) program. The development of new schemes for plasma confinement involves the interplay of experimental results and theoretical interpretations. A fundamental requirement, for example, is a determination of the equilibria for these configurations. For MCF, this is well established in the solutions of the Grad-Shafranov equation. While it is simple to state its basis in the balance between the kinetic and magnetic pressures, what they are as functions of space and time are often not easy to obtain. Quantities like the plasma pressure and current density are not directly measurable. They are derived from data that are themselves complex products of more basic parameters. The same difficulties apply to the understanding of plasma instabilities. Not only are the needs for spatial and temporal resolution more stringent, but the wave parameters which characterize the instabilities are difficult to resolve. We will show how solutions to the problems of diagnostic design on NSTX, and the physics insight the data analysis provides, benefits both NSTX and the broader scientific community

  8. Impact of the wall conditioning program on plasma performance in NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugel, H.W.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Bell, M.; Blanchard, W.; Gates, D.; LeBlanc, B.; Maingi, R.; Mueller, D.; Na, H.K.; Paul, S.; Skinner, C.H.; Stutman, D.; Wampler, W.R.

    2003-01-01

    High performance operating regimes have been achieved on NSTX through impurity control and wall conditioning techniques. These techniques include HeGDC-aided boronization using deuterated trimethylboron, inter-discharge HeGDC, 350 deg. C PFC bake-out followed by D 2 and HeGDC, and experiments to test fueling discharges with either a He-trimethylboron mixture or pure trimethylboron. The impact of this impurity and density control program on recent advances in NSTX plasma performance is discussed

  9. Solenoid-free plasma startup in NSTX using transient CHI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raman, R.; Jarboe, T.R.; Nelson, B.A.; Mueller, D.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.; Gates, D.; Gerhardt, S.; Hosea, J.; Kaita, R.; Kugel, H.; LeBlanc, B.; Menard, J.; Ono, M.; Paul, S.; Roquemore, L.; Maingi, R.; Maqueda, R.; Nagata, M.; Sabbagh, S.

    2009-01-01

    Experiments in NSTX have now demonstrated the coupling of toroidal plasmas produced by the technique of coaxial helicity injection (CHI) to inductive sustainment and ramp-up of the toroidal plasma current. In these discharges, the central Ohmic transformer was used to apply an inductive loop voltage to discharges with a toroidal current of about 100 kA created by CHI. The coupled discharges have ramped up to >700 kA and transitioned into an H-mode demonstrating compatibility of this startup method with conventional operation. The electron temperature in the coupled discharges reached over 800 eV and the resulting plasma had low inductance, which is preferred for long-pulse high-performance discharges. These results from NSTX in combination with the previously obtained record 160 kA non-inductively generated startup currents in an ST or tokamak in NSTX demonstrate that CHI is a viable solenoid-free plasma startup method for future STs and tokamaks.

  10. Precision metrology of NSTX surfaces using coherent laser radar ranging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugel, H.W.; Loesser, D.; Roquemore, A. L.; Menon, M. M.; Barry, R. E.

    2000-01-01

    A frequency modulated Coherent Laser Radar ranging diagnostic is being used on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) for precision metrology. The distance (range) between the 1.5 microm laser source and the target is measured by the shift in frequency of the linearly modulated beam reflected off the target. The range can be measured to a precision of < 100microm at distances of up to 22 meters. A description is given of the geometry and procedure for measuring NSTX interior and exterior surfaces during open vessel conditions, and the results of measurements are elaborated

  11. Progress towards Steady State on NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gates, D.A.; Kessel, C.; Menard, J.; Taylor, G.; Wilson, J.R.

    2005-01-01

    In order to reduce recirculating power fraction to acceptable levels, the spherical torus concept relies on the simultaneous achievement of high toroidal β and high bootstrap fraction in steady state. In the last year, as a result of plasma control system improvements, the achievable plasma elongation on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) has been raised from κ ∼ 2.1 to κ ∼ 2.6--approximately a 25% increase. This increase in elongation has lead to a doubling increase in the toroidal β for long-pulse discharges. The increase in β is associated with an increase in plasma current at nearly fixed poloidal β, which enables higher β t with nearly constant bootstrap fraction. As a result, for the first time in a spherical torus, a discharge with a plasma current of 1 MA has been sustained for 1 second. Data is presented from NSTX correlating the increase in performance with increased plasma shaping capability. In addition to improved shaping, H-modes induced during the current ramp phase of the plasma discharge have been used to reduce flux consumption during and to delay the onset of MHD instabilities. A modeled integrated scenario, which has 100% non-inductive current drive with very high toroidal β, will also be presented. The NSTX poloidal field coils are currently being modified to produce the plasma shape which is required for this scenario, which requires high triangularity ((delta) ∼ 0.8) at elevated elongation (κ ∼ 2.5). The other main requirement for steady state on NSTX is the ability to drive a fraction of the total plasma current with radio-frequency waves. The results of High Harmonic Fast Wave heating and current drive studies as well as electron Bernstein Wave emission studies will be presented

  12. Operation of the ultrasoft x-ray system on NSTX (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stutman, D.; Iovea, M.; Finkenthal, M.; Kaita, R.; Johnson, D.; Roquemore, L.; Roney, P.

    2001-01-01

    The ultrasoft x-ray imaging system on National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) became operational and provided the first data in the filtered diode slow bow tie configuration. Using different band pass filters on each of three arrays allows an approximate spectroscopic estimate of the plasma impurity content, as well as of the electron temperature. Magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) activity from different plasma regions is also observed. The soft x-ray emission profiles are well behaved until an Internal Reconnection Event occurs. Examples of NSTX MHD phenomena seen in the ultrasoft x-ray emission under different operational regimes will be presented. From a technical point of view, we point out that the industrial PC based data acquisition system was not adversely affected by stray magnetic fields due to its close proximity to the NSTX device. Also, the surface barrier diodes withstood baking to 100 o C relatively well

  13. Internal Kink Mode Dynamics in High-β NSTX Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menard, J.E.; Bell, R.E.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Gates, D.A.; Kaye, S.M.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Medley, S.S.; Park, W.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Sontag, A.; Stutman, D.; Tritz, K.; Zhu, W.

    2004-01-01

    Saturated internal kink modes have been observed in many of the highest toroidal beta discharges of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). These modes often cause rotation flattening in the plasma core, can degrade energy confinement, and in some cases contribute to the complete loss of plasma angular momentum and stored energy. Characteristics of the modes are measured using soft X-ray, kinetic profile, and magnetic diagnostics. Toroidal flows approaching Alfvenic speeds, island pressure peaking, and enhanced viscous and diamagnetic effects associated with high-beta may contribute to mode nonlinear stabilization. These saturation mechanisms are investigated for NSTX parameters and compared to experimental data

  14. Predictions and observations of global beta-induced Alfven-acoustic modes in JET and NSTX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gorelenkov, N N [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Berk, H L [Institute for Fusion Studies, University of Texas, Austin, TX 78712 (United States); Crocker, N A [Institute of Plasma and Fusion Research, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1354 (United States); Fredrickson, E D [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Kaye, S [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Kubota, S [Institute of Plasma and Fusion Research, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1354 (United States); Park, H [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Peebles, W [Institute of Plasma and Fusion Research, University of California, Los Angeles, CA 90095-1354 (United States); Sabbagh, S A [Department of Applied Physics, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027-6902 (United States); Sharapov, S E [Euroatom/UKAEA Fusion Association, Culham Science Centre, Abingdon, Oxfordshire OX14 3DB (United Kingdom); Stutmat, D [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Tritz, K [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Levinton, F M [Nova Photonics, One Oak Place, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Yuh, H [Nova Photonics, One Oak Place, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2007-12-15

    In this paper we report on observations and interpretations of a new class of global MHD eigenmode solutions arising in gaps in the low frequency Alfven-acoustic continuum below the geodesic acoustic mode frequency. These modes have been just reported (Gorelenkov et al 2007 Phys. Lett. 370 70-7) where preliminary comparisons indicate qualitative agreement between theory and experiment. Here we show a more quantitative comparison emphasizing recent NSTX experiments on the observations of the global eigenmodes, referred to as beta-induced Alfven-acoustic eigenmodes (BAAEs), which exist near the extrema of the Alfven-acoustic continuum. In accordance to the linear dispersion relations, the frequency of these modes may shift as the safety factor, q, profile relaxes. We show that BAAEs can be responsible for observations in JET plasmas at relatively low beta <2% as well as in NSTX plasmas at relatively high beta >20%. In NSTX plasma observed magnetic activity has the same properties as predicted by theory for the mode structure and the frequency. Found numerically in NOVA simulations BAAEs are used to explain the observed properties of relatively low frequency experimental signals seen in NSTX and JET tokamaks.

  15. Ramp-up of CHI Initiated Plasmas on NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, D.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.E.; LeBlanc, B.; Roquemore, A.L.; Raman, R.; Jarboe, T.R.; Nelson, B.A.; Soukhanovskii, V.

    2009-01-01

    Experiments on the National Spherical Torus (NSTX) have now demonstrated flux savings using transient coaxial helicity injection (CHI). In these discharges, the discharges initiated by CHI are ramped up with an inductive transformer and exhibit higher plasma current than discharges without the benefit of CHI initiation.

  16. NSTX High Temperature Sensor Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McCormack, B.; Kugel, H.W.; Goranson, P.; Kaita, R.

    1999-01-01

    The design of the more than 300 in-vessel sensor systems for the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) has encountered several challenging fusion reactor diagnostic issues involving high temperatures and space constraints. This has resulted in unique miniature, high temperature in-vessel sensor systems mounted in small spaces behind plasma facing armor tiles, and they are prototypical of possible high power reactor first-wall applications. In the Center Stack, Divertor, Passive Plate, and vessel wall regions, the small magnetic sensors, large magnetic sensors, flux loops, Rogowski Coils, thermocouples, and Langmuir Probes are qualified for 600 degrees C operation. This rating will accommodate both peak rear-face graphite tile temperatures during operations and the 350 degrees C bake-out conditions. Similar sensor systems including flux loops, on other vacuum vessel regions are qualified for 350 degrees C operation. Cabling from the sensors embedded in the graphite tiles follows narrow routes to exit the vessel. The detailed sensor design and installation methods of these diagnostic systems developed for high-powered ST operation are discussed

  17. Modeling detachment physics in the NSTX snowflake divertor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Meier, E.T., E-mail: emeier@wm.edu [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Soukhanovskii, V.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Bell, R.E.; Diallo, A.; Kaita, R.; LeBlanc, B.P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); McLean, A.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Podestà, M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States); Rognlien, T.D.; Scotti, F. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    The snowflake divertor is a proposed technique for coping with the tokamak power exhaust problem in next-step experiments and eventually reactors, where extreme power fluxes to material surfaces represent a leading technological and physics challenge. In lithium-conditioned National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) discharges, application of the snowflake divertor typically induced partial outer divertor detachment and severalfold heat flux reduction. UEDGE is used to analyze and compare conventional and snowflake divertor configurations in NSTX. Matching experimental upstream profiles and divertor measurements in the snowflake requires target recycling of 0.97 vs. 0.91 in the conventional case, implying partial saturation of the lithium-based pumping mechanism. Density scans are performed to analyze the mechanisms that facilitate detachment in the snowflake, revealing that increased divertor volume provides most of the parallel heat flux reduction. Also, neutral gas power loss is magnified by the increased wetted area in the snowflake, and plays a key role in generating volumetric recombination.

  18. Advances in boronization on NSTX-Upgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. H Skinner

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Boronization has been effective in reducing plasma impurities and enabling access to higher density, higher confinement plasmas in many magnetic fusion devices. The National Spherical Torus eXperiment, NSTX, has recently undergone a major upgrade to NSTX-U in order to develop the physics basis for a ST-based Fusion Nuclear Science Facility (FNSF with capability for double the toroidal field, plasma current, and NBI heating power and increased pulse duration from 1–1.5s to 5–8s. A new deuterated tri-methyl boron conditioning system was implemented together with a novel surface analysis diagnostic. We report on the spatial distribution of the boron deposition versus discharge pressure, gas injection and electrode location. The oxygen concentration of the plasma facing surface was measured by in-vacuo XPS and increased both with plasma exposure and with exposure to trace residual gases. This increase correlated with the rise of oxygen emission from the plasma.

  19. Overview of impurity control and wall conditioning in NSTX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KUGEL,H.W.; MAINGI,R.; BELL,M.; BLANCHARD,W.; GATES,D.; JOHNSON,D.; KAITA,R.; KAYE,S.; MARQUEDA,R.; MENARD,J.; MUELLER,D.; ONO,M.; PENG,Y-K.M.; RAMAN,R.; RAMSEY,A.; ROQUEMORE,A.; SKINNER,C.; SABBAGH,S.; STUTMAN,D.; WAMPLER,WILLIAM R.; WILSON,J.R.; ZWEBEN,S.

    2000-05-25

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) started plasma operations in February 1999, and promptly achieved high current, inner wall limited, double null, and single null plasma discharges, initial Coaxial Helicity Injection, and High Harmonic Fast Wave results. NSTX is designed to study the physics of Spherical Tori (ST) in a device that can produce non-inductively sustained high-{beta} discharges in the 1 MA regime and to explore approaches toward a small, economical high power density ST reactor core. As expected, discharge reproducibility and performance were strongly affected by wall conditions. In this paper, the authors describe the internal geometry, and initial plasma discharge, impurity control, wall conditioning, erosion, and deposition results.

  20. Gyrokinetic Calculations of Microturbulence and Transport for NSTX and Alcator-CMOD H-modes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redi, M.H.; Dorland, W.; Bell, R.; Bonoli, P.; Bourdelle, C.; Candy, J.; Ernst, D.; Fiore, C.; Gates, D.; Hammett, G.; Hill, K.; Kaye, S.; LeBlanc, B.; Menard, J.; Mikkelsen, D.; Rewoldt, G.; Rice, J.; Waltz, R.; Wukitch, S.

    2003-01-01

    Recent H-mode experiments on NSTX [National Spherical Torus Experiment] and experiments on Alcator-CMOD, which also exhibit internal transport barriers (ITB), have been examined with gyrokinetic simulations with the GS2 and GYRO codes to identify the underlying key plasma parameters for control of plasma performance and, ultimately, the successful operation of future reactors such as ITER [International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor]. On NSTX the H-mode is characterized by remarkably good ion confinement and electron temperature profiles highly resilient in time. On CMOD, an ITB with a very steep electron density profile develops following off-axis radio-frequency heating and establishment of H-mode. Both experiments exhibit ion thermal confinement at the neoclassical level. Electron confinement is also good in the CMOD core

  1. Images of Edge Turbulence in NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zweben, S.J.; Bush, C.E.; Maqueda, R.; Munsat, T.; Stotler, D.; Lowrance, J.; Mastracola, V.; Renda, G.

    2004-01-01

    The 2-D structure of edge plasma turbulence has been measured in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) by viewing the emission of the Da spectral line of deuterium. Images have been made at framing rates of up to 250,000 frames/sec using an ultra-high speed CCD camera developed by Princeton Scientific Instruments. A sequence of images showing the transition between L-mode and H-mode states is shown

  2. Fast Neutral Pressure Measurements in NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R. Raman; H.W. Kugel; T. Provost; R. Gernhardt; T.R. Jarboe; M.G. Bell

    2002-01-01

    Several fast neutral pressure gauges have been installed on NSTX [National Spherical Torus Experiment] to measure the vessel and divertor pressure during inductive and coaxial helicity injected (CHI) plasma operations. Modified, PDX [Poloidal Divertor Experiment]-type Penning gauges have been installed on the upper and lower divertors. Neutral pressure measurements during plasma operations from these and from two shielded fast Micro ion gauges at different toroidal locations on the vessel mid-plane are described. A new unshielded ion gauge, referred to as the In-vessel Neutral Pressure (INP) gauge is under development

  3. Electron Bernstein wave simulations and comparison to preliminary NSTX emission data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preinhaelter, Josef; Urban, Jakub; Pavlo, Pavol; Taylor, Gary; Diem, Steffi; Vahala, Linda; Vahala, George

    2006-01-01

    Simulations indicate that during flattop current discharges the optimal angles for the aiming of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) antennae are quite rugged and basically independent of time. The time development of electron Bernstein wave emission (EBWE) at particular frequencies as well as the frequency spectrum of EBWE as would be seen by the recently installed NSTX antennae are computed. The simulation of EBWE at low frequencies (e.g., 16 GHz) agrees well with the recent preliminary EBWE measurements on NSTX. At high frequencies, the sensitivity of EBWE to magnetic field variations is understood by considering the Doppler broadened electron cyclotron harmonics and the cutoffs and resonances in the plasma. Significant EBWE variations are seen if the magnetic field is increased by as little as 2% at the plasma edge. The simulations for the low frequency antenna are compared to preliminary experimental data published separately by Diem et al. [Rev. Sci. Instrum.77 (2006)

  4. Momentum Transport Studies in High E x B Shear Plasmas in NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Solomon, W.M.; Kaye, S.M.; Bell, S.M.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Menard, B.P.; Rewoldt, B.P.; Wang, W.; Levinton, F.M.; Yuh, H.; Sabbagh, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    Experiments have been conducted on NSTX to study both steady state and perturbative momentum transport. These studies are unique in their parameter space under investigation, where the low aspect ratio of NSTX results in rapid plasma rotation with E x B shearing rates high enough to suppress low-k turbulence. In some cases, the ratio of momentum to energy confinement time is found to exceed five. Momentum pinch velocities of order 10-40 m/s are inferred from the measured angular momentum flux evolution after non-resonant magnetic perturbations are applied to brake the plasma

  5. Recent progress of NSTX lithium program and opportunities for magnetic fusion research

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, M., E-mail: mono@pppl.gov [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Bell, M.G.; Kaita, R.; Kugel, H.W. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Ahn, J.-W. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Allain, J.P.; Battaglia, D. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Bell, R.E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Canik, J.M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Ding, S. [Academy of Science Institute of Plasma Physics, Hefei (China); Gerhardt, S. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Gray, T.K. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Guttenfelder, W.; Hosea, J.; Jaworski, M.A.; Kallman, J.; Kaye, S.; LeBlanc, B.P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Maingi, R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Mansfield, D.K. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); and others

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer In this paper, we review the recent progress on the NSTX lithium research. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We summarize positive features of lithium effects on plasma. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We also point out unresolved issues and unanswered questions on the lithium research. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We describe a possible closed liquid lithium divertor tray concept. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We note opportunities and challenges of lithium applications for magnetic fusion. - Abstract: Lithium wall coating techniques have been experimentally explored on National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) for the last six years. The lithium experimentation on NSTX started with a few milligrams of lithium injected into the plasma as pellets and it has evolved to a dual lithium evaporation system which can evaporate up to {approx}160 g of lithium onto the lower divertor plates between re-loadings. The unique feature of the NSTX lithium research program is that it can investigate the effects of lithium coated plasma-facing components in H-mode divertor plasmas. This lithium evaporation system has produced many intriguing and potentially important results. In 2010, the NSTX lithium program has focused on the effects of liquid lithium divertor (LLD) surfaces including the divertor heat load, deuterium pumping, impurity control, electron thermal confinement, H-mode pedestal physics, and enhanced plasma performance. To fill the LLD with lithium, 1300 g of lithium was evaporated into the NSTX vacuum vessel during the 2010 operations. The routine use of lithium in 2010 has significantly improved the plasma shot availability resulting in a record number of plasma shots in any given year. In this paper, as a follow-on paper from the 1st lithium symposium [1], we review the recent progress toward developing fundamental understanding of the NSTX lithium experimental observations as well as the opportunities and associated R and D required

  6. Analysis Efforts Supporting NSTX Upgrades

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, H.; Titus, P.; Rogoff, P.; Zolfaghari, A.; Mangra, D.; Smith, M.

    2010-01-01

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is a low aspect ratio, spherical torus (ST) configuration device which is located at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) This device is presently being updated to enhance its physics by doubling the TF field to 1 Tesla and increasing the plasma current to 2 Mega-amperes. The upgrades include a replacement of the centerstack and addition of a second neutral beam. The upgrade analyses have two missions. The first is to support design of new components, principally the centerstack, the second is to qualify existing NSTX components for higher loads, which will increase by a factor of four. Cost efficiency was a design goal for new equipment qualification, and reanalysis of the existing components. Showing that older components can sustain the increased loads has been a challenging effort in which designs had to be developed that would limit loading on weaker components, and would minimize the extent of modifications needed. Two areas representing this effort have been chosen to describe in more details: analysis of the current distribution in the new TF inner legs, and, second, analysis of the out-of-plane support of the existing TF outer legs.

  7. Lithium Pellet Injector Development for NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gettelfinger, G.; Dong, J.; Gernhardt, R.; Kugel, H.; Sichta, P.; Timberlake, J.

    2003-01-01

    A pellet injector suitable for the injection of lithium and other low-Z pellets of varying mass into plasmas at precise velocities from 5 to 500 m/s is being developed for use on NSTX (National Spherical Torus Experiment). The ability to inject low-Z impurities will significantly expand NSTX experimental capability for a broad range of diagnostic and operational applications. The architecture employs a pellet-carrying cartridge propelled through a guide tube by deuterium gas. Abrupt deceleration of the cartridge at the end of the guide tube results in the pellet continuing along its intended path, thereby giving controlled reproducible velocities for a variety of pellets materials and a reduced gas load to the torus. The planned injector assembly has four hundred guide tubes contained in a rotating magazine with eight tubes provided for injection into plasmas. A PC-based control system is being developed as well and will be described elsewhere in these Proceedings. The development path and mechanical performance of the injector will be described

  8. The use of MDSplus on NSTX at PPPL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, W.; Roney, P.; Carroll, T.; Gibney, T.; Mastrovito, D.

    2002-01-01

    The MDSplus data acquisition system has been used successfully since the 1999 startup of NSTX for control, data acquisition and analysis for diagnostic subsystems. For each plasma 'shot' on NSTX about 75 MBs of data is acquired and loaded into MDSplus hierarchical data structures in 2-3 min. Physicists adapted to the MDSplus software tools with no real difficulty. Some locally developed tools are described. The support from the developers at MIT was timely and insightful. The use of MDSplus has resulted in significant cost savings for NSTX

  9. Fast Neutral Pressure Gauges in NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raman, R.; Kugel, H.W.; Gernhardt, R.; Provost, T.; Jarboe, T.R.; Soukhanovskii, V.

    2004-01-01

    Successful operation in NSTX of two prototype fast-response micro ionization gauges during plasma operations has motivated us to install five gauges at different toroidal and poloidal locations to measure the edge neutral pressure and its dependence on the type of discharge (L-mode, H-mode, CHI) and the fueling method and location. The edge neutral pressure is also used as an input to the transport analysis codes TRANSP and DEGAS-2. The modified PDX-type Penning gauges are well suited for pressure measurements in the NSTX divertor where the toroidal field is relatively high. Behind the NSTX outer divertor plates where the field is lower, an unshielded fast ion gauge of a new design has been installed. This gauge was developed after laboratory testing of several different designs in a vacuum chamber with applied magnetic fields

  10. Neutral Particle Analyzer Diagnostic on NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medley, S.S.; Roquemore, A.L.

    2004-01-01

    The Neutral Particle Analyzer (NPA) diagnostic on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) utilizes a PPPL-designed E||B spectrometer that measures the energy spectra of minority hydrogen and bulk deuterium species simultaneously with 39 energy channels per mass specie and a time resolution of 1 ms. The calibrated energy range is E = 0.5-150 keV and the energy resolution varies from AE/E = 3-7% over the surface of the microchannel plate detector

  11. Neutral Particle Analyzer Diagnostic on NSTX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.S. Medley; A.L. Roquemore

    2004-03-16

    The Neutral Particle Analyzer (NPA) diagnostic on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) utilizes a PPPL-designed E||B spectrometer that measures the energy spectra of minority hydrogen and bulk deuterium species simultaneously with 39 energy channels per mass specie and a time resolution of 1 ms. The calibrated energy range is E = 0.5-150 keV and the energy resolution varies from AE/E = 3-7% over the surface of the microchannel plate detector.

  12. Te(R,t) Measurements using Electron Bernstein Wave Thermal Emission on NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diem, S.J.; Taylor, G.; Efthimion, P.C.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Carter, M.; Caughman, J.; Wilgen, J.B.; Harvey, R.W.; Preinhaelter, J.; Urban, J.

    2006-01-01

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) routinely studies overdense plasmas with n e of (1-5) x 10 19 m -3 and total magnetic field of e measurement. A significant upgrade to the previous NSTX EBW emission diagnostic to measure thermal EBW emission via the oblique B-X-O mode conversion process has been completed. The new EBW diagnostic consists of two remotely steerable, quad-ridged horn antennas, each of which is coupled to a dual channel radiometer. Fundamental (8-18 GHz) and second and third harmonic (18-40 GHz) thermal EBW emission and polarization measurements can be obtained simultaneously.

  13. Solid State Neutral Particle Analyzer Array on NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Shinohara, K.; Darrow, D.S.; Roquemore, A.L.; Medley, S.S.; Cecil, F.E.

    2004-01-01

    A Solid State Neutral Particle Analyzer (SSNPA) array has been installed on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). The array consists of four chords viewing through a common vacuum flange. The tangency radii of the viewing chords are 60, 90, 100, and 120 cm. They view across the three co-injection neutral beam lines (deuterium, 80 keV (typ.) with tangency radii 48.7, 59.2, and 69.4 cm) on NSTX and detect co-going energetic ions. A silicon photodiode used was calibrated by using a mono-energetic deuteron beam source. Deuterons with energy above 40 keV can be detected with the present setup. The degradation of the performance was also investigated. Lead shots and epoxy are used for neutron shielding to reduce handling any hazardous heavy metal. This method also enables us to make an arbitrary shape to be fit into the complex flight tube

  14. Confinement and Local Transport in the National Spherical Torus Experiment NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaye, S.M.; Levinton, F.M.; Stutman, D.; Tritz, K.; Yuh, H.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.E.; Domier, C.W.; Gates, D.; Horton, W.; Kim, J.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Luhmann, N.C. Jr.; Maingi, T.; Mazzucato, E.; Menard, J.E.; Mikkelsen, D.; Mueller, D; Park, H.; Rewoldt, G.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Smith, D.R.; Wang, W.

    2007-01-01

    NSTX operates at low aspect ratio (R/a∼1.3) and high beta (up to 40%), allowing tests of global confinement and local transport properties that have been established from higher aspect ratio devices. NSTX plasmas are heated by up to 7 MW of deuterium neutral beams with preferential electron heating as expected for ITER. Confinement scaling studies indicate a strong B T dependence, with a current dependence that is weaker than that observed at higher aspect ratio. Dimensionless scaling experiments indicate a strong increase of confinement with decreasing collisionality and a weak degradation with beta. The increase of confinement with B T is due to reduced transport in the electron channel, while the improvement with plasma current is due to reduced transport in the ion channel related to the decrease in the neoclassical transport level. Improved electron confinement has been observed in plasmas with strong reversed magnetic shear, showing the existence of an electron internal transport barrier (eITB). The development of the eITB may be associated with a reduction in the growth of microtearing modes in the plasma core. Perturbative studies show that while L-mode plasmas with reversed magnetic shear and an eITB exhibit slow changes of L Te across the profile after the pellet injection, H-mode plasmas with a monotonic q-profile and no eITB show no change in this parameter after pellet injection, indicating the existence of a critical gradient that may be related to the q-profile. Both linear and non-linear simulations indicate the potential importance of ETG modes at the lowest B T . Localized measurements of high-k fluctuations exhibit a sharp decrease in signal amplitude levels across the L-H transition, associated with a decrease in both ion and electron transport, and a decrease in calculated linear microinstability growth rates across a wide k-range, from the ITG/TEM regime up to the ETG regime

  15. Predications and Observations of Global Beta-induced Alfven-acoustic Modes in JET and NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorelenkov, N.N.

    2008-01-01

    In this paper we report on observations and interpretations of a new class of global MHD eigenmode solutions arising in gaps in the low frequency Alfven-acoustic continuum below the geodesic acoustic mode frequency. These modes have been just reported (Gorelenkov et al 2007 Phys. Lett. 370 70-7) where preliminary comparisons indicate qualitative agreement between theory and experiment. Here we show a more quantitative comparison emphasizing recent NSTX experiments on the observations of the global eigenmodes, referred to as beta-induced Alfven-acoustic eigenmodes (BAAEs), which exist near the extrema of the Alfven-acoustic continuum. In accordance to the linear dispersion relations, the frequency of these modes may shift as the safety factor, q, profile relaxes. We show that BAAEs can be responsible for observations in JET plasmas at relatively low beta 20%. In NSTX plasma observed magnetic activity has the same properties as predicted by theory for the mode structure and the frequency. Found numerically in NOVA simulations BAAEs are used to explain the observed properties of relatively low frequency experimental signals seen in NSTX and JET tokamaks

  16. Overview of results from the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX)

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Gates, D.A.; Ahn, J.; Allain, J.; Andre, R.; Bastasz, R.; Bell, M.; Bell, R.; Belova, E.; Berkery, J.; Betti, R.; Bialek, J.; Biewer, T.; Bigelow, T.; Bitter, M.; Boedo, J.; Bonoli, P.; Boozer, A.; Brennan, D.; Breslau, J.; Brower, D.; Bush, C.; Canik, J.; Caravelli, G.; Carter, M.; Caughman, J.; Chang, C.; Crocker, N.; Darrow, D.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Diem, S.; D’Ippolito, D.; Domier, C.; Dorland, W.; Efthimion, P.; Ejiri, A.; Ershov, N.; Evans, T.; Feibush, E.; Fenstermacher, M.; Ferron, J.; Finkenthal, M.; Foley, J.; Frazin, R.; Fredrickson, E.; Fu, G.; Funaba, H.; Gerhardt, S.; Glasser, A.; Gorelenkov, N.; Grisham, L.; Hahm, T.; Harvey, R.; Hassanein, A.; Heidbrink, W.; Hill, K.; Hillesheim, J.; Hillis, D.; Hirooka, Y.; Hosea, J.; Hu, B.; Humphreys, D.; Idehara, T.; Indireshkumar, K.; Ishida, A.; Jaeger, F.; Jarboe, T.; Jardin, S.; Jaworski, M.; Ji, H.; Kaita, R.; Kallman, J.; Katsuro-Hopkins, O.; Kawahata, K.; Kawamori, E.; Kaye, S.; Kessel, C.; Kimura, H.; Kolemen, E.; Krasheninnikov, H.; Krstic, P.; Ku, S.; Kubota, S.; Kugel, H.; La Haye, R.; Lao, L.; LeBlanc, B.; Lee, K.; Leuer, J.; Levinton, F.; Liang, Y.; Liu, D.; Luhmann Jr, N.; Maingi, R.; Majeski, R.; Manickam, J.; Mansfield, D.; Maqueda, R.; Mazzucato, E.; McCune, D.; McGeehan, B.; McKee, G.; Medley, S.; Menard, J.; Menon, M.; Meyer, H.; Mikkelsen, D.; Miloshevsky, G.; Mitarai, O.; Mueller, D.; Mueller, S.; Munsat, T.; Myra, J.; Nagayama, Y.; Nelson, B.; Nguyen, X.; Nishino, N.; Nishiura, M.; Nygren, R.; Ono, M.; Osborne, T.; Pacella, D.; Park, J.; Paul, S.; Peebles, W.; Penaflor, B.; Peng, M.; Phillips, C.; Pigarov, A.; Podesta, M.; Preinhaelter, Josef; Ram, A.; Raman, R.; Rasmussen, D.; Redd, A.; Reimerdes, H.; Rewoldt, G.; Ross, P.; Rowley, C.; Ruskov, E.; Russell, D.; Ruzic, D.; Ryan, P.; Sabbagh, S.; Schaffer, M.; Schuster, E.; Scott, S.; Shaing, K.; Sharpe, P.; Shevchenko, V.; Shinohara, K.; Sizyuk, V.; Skinner, C.; Smirnov, A.; Smith, D.; Snyder, P.; Solomon, W.; Sontag, A.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Stoltzfus-Dueck, T.; Stotler, D.; Strait, T.; Stratton, B.; Stutman, D.; Takahashi, R.; Takase, Y.; Tamura, N.; Tang, X.; Taylor, G.; Taylor, C.; Ticos, C.; Tritz, K.; Tsarouhas, D.; Turrnbull, A.; Tynan, G.; Ulrickson, M.; Umansky, M.; Urban, Jakub; Utergberg, E.; Walker, M.; Wampler, M.; Wang, J.; Wang, W.; Welander, A.; Whaley, J.; White, R.; Wilgen, J.; Wilson, R.; Wong, K.; Wright, J.; Xia, Z.; Xu, X.; Youchison, D.; Yu, G.; Yuh, H.; Zakharov, L.; Zemlyanov, D.; Zweben, S.; Choe, W.; Jung, H.; Kim, J.; Lee, W.; Park, H.

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 49, č. 10 (2009), s. 104016-104016 ISSN 0029-5515. [IAEA Fusion Energy Conference/22nd./. Geneva, 13.10.2008-18.10.2008] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/08/0419 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : NSTX * Spherical tokamaks * Overdense plasma * Conversion * Emission * Tokamaks * Elektron Bernstein waves Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 4.270, year: 2009 http://www.iop.org/EJ/article/0029-5515/49/10/104016/nf9_10_104016

  17. H-Mode Turbulence, Power Threshold, ELM, and Pedestal Studies in NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maingi, R.; Bush, C.E.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Gates, D.A.; Kaye, S.M.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Menard, J.E.; Meyer, H.; Mueller, D.; Nishino, N.; Roquemore, A.L.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Tritz, K.; Zweben, S.J.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.E.; Biewer, T.; Boedo, J.A.; Johnson, D.W.; Kaita, R.; Kugel, H.W.; Maqueda, R.J.; Munsat, T.; Raman, R.; Soukhanovskii, V.A.; Stevenson, T.; Stutman, D.

    2004-01-01

    High-confinement mode (H-mode) operation plays a crucial role in NSTX [National Spherical Torus Experiment] research, allowing higher beta limits due to reduced plasma pressure peaking, and long-pulse operation due to high bootstrap current fraction. Here, new results are presented in the areas of edge localized modes (ELMs), H-mode pedestal physics, L-H turbulence, and power threshold studies. ELMs of several other types (as observed in conventional aspect ratio tokamaks) are often observed: (1) large, Type I ELMs, (2) ''medium'' Type II/III ELMs, and (3) giant ELMs which can reduce stored energy by up to 30% in certain conditions. In addition, many high-performance discharges in NSTX have tiny ELMs (newly termed Type V), which have some differences as compared with ELM types in the published literature. The H-mode pedestal typically contains between 25-33% of the total stored energy, and the NSTX pedestal energy agrees reasonably well with a recent international multi-machine scaling. We find that the L-H transition occurs on a ∼100 (micro)sec timescale as viewed by a gas puff imaging diagnostic, and that intermittent quiescent periods precede the final transition. A power threshold identity experiment between NSTX and MAST shows comparable loss power at the L-H transition in balanced double-null discharges. Both machines require more power for the L-H transition as the balance is shifted toward lower single null. High field side gas fueling enables more reliable H-mode access, but does not always lead to a lower power threshold e.g., with a reduction of the duration of early heating. Finally the edge plasma parameters just before the L-H transition were compared with theories of the transition. It was found that while some theories can separate well-developed L- and H-mode data, they have little predictive value

  18. The NSTX Central Instrumentation and Control System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    G. Oliaro; J. Dong; K. Tindall; P. Sichta

    1999-01-01

    Earlier this year the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory achieved ''first plasma''. The Central Instrumentation and Control System was used to support plasma operations. Major elements of the system include the Process Control System, Plasma Control System, Network System, Data Acquisition System, and Synchronization System. This paper will focus on the Process Control System. Topics include the architecture, hardware interface, operator interface, data management, and system performance

  19. Transport in Auxiliary Heated NSTX Discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeBlanc, B.P.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.E.; Bitte, M.L.; Bourdelle, C.; Gates, D.A.; Kaye, S.M.; Maingi, R.; Menard, J.E.; Mueller, D.; Ono, M.; Paul, S.F.; Redi, M.H.; Roquemore, A.L.; Rosenberg, A.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Stutman, D.; Synakowski, E.J.; Soukhanovskii, V.A.; Wilson, J.R.

    2003-01-01

    The NSTX spherical torus (ST) provides a unique platform to investigate magnetic confinement in auxiliary-heated plasmas at low aspect ratio. Auxiliary power is routinely coupled to ohmically heated plasmas by deuterium neutral-beam injection (NBI) and by high-harmonic fast waves (HHFW) launch. While theory predicts both techniques to preferentially heat electrons, experiment reveals the electron temperature is greater than the ion temperature during HHFW, but the electron temperature is less than the ion temperature during NBI. In the following we present the experimental data and the results of transport analyses

  20. Overview of the initial NSTX experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, M.; Bell, M.; Bell, R.

    2001-01-01

    The main aim of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is to establish the fusion physics principles of the spherical torus (ST) concept. The NSTX device began plasma operations in February 1999 and the plasma current I p was successfully brought up to the design value of 1 million amperes on December 14, 1999. The planned plasma shaping parameters, κ=1.6-2.2 and δ=0.2-0.4, were achieved in inner limited, single null and double null configurations. The CHI (Coaxial Helicity Injection) and HHFW (High Harmonic Fast Wave) experiments were also initiated. A CHI injected current of 27 kA produced up to 260 kA of toroidal current without using an ohmic solenoid. With an injection of 2.3 MW of HHFW power, using twelve antennas connected to six transmitters, electrons were heated from a central temperature of 400 eV to 900 eV at a central density of 3.5x10 13 cm -3 increasing the plasma energy to 59 kJ and the toroidal beta, β T to 10 %. Finally, the NBI system commenced operation in Sept. 2000. The initial results with two ion sources (P NBI =2.8MW) shows good heating, producing a total plasma stored energy of 90 kJ corresponding to β T ∼18% at a plasma current of 1.1 MA. (author)

  1. Overview of the initial NSTX experimental results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, M.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.E.

    2001-01-01

    The main aim of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is to establish the fusion physics principles of the spherical torus (ST) concept. The NSTX device began plasma operations in February 1999 and the plasma current I p was successfully brought up to the design value of 1 MA on 14 December 1999. The planned plasma shaping parameters, elongation κ=1:6-2.2 and triangularity δ=0:2-0.4, were achieved in inner wall limited, and single null and double null diverted configurations. The coaxial helicity injection (CHI) and high harmonic fast wave (HHFW) experiments were also initiated. CHI current of 27 kA produced up to 260 kA toroidal current without using an ohmic solenoid. With the injection of 2.3 MW of HHFW power, using 12 antennas connected to six transmitters, electrons were heated from a central temperature of 400 eV to 900 eV at a central density of 3.5x10 13 cm 3 , increasing the plasma energy to 59 kJ and the toroidal β, β T , to 10%. The NBI system commenced operation in September 2000. The initial results with two ion sources (P NBI =2:8 MW) show good heating, producing a total plasma stored energy of 90 kJ corresponding to β T ∼18% at a plasma current of 1.1 MA. (author)

  2. Overview of the Initial NSTX Experimental Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, M.; Bell, M.; Bell, R. E.; Bigelow, T.; Bitter, M.

    2000-01-01

    The main aim of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is to establish the fusion physics principles of the spherical torus (ST) concept. The NSTX device began plasma operations in February 1999 and the plasma current Ip was successfully brought up to the design value of 1 million amperes on December 14, 1999. The planned plasma shaping parameters, k = 1.6 ± 2.2 and d = 0.2 ± 0.4, were achieved in inner limited, single null and double null configurations. The CHI (Coaxial Helicity Injection) and HHFW (High Harmonic Fast Wave) experiments were also initiated. A CHI injected current of 27 kA produced up to 260 kA of toroidal current without using an ohmic solenoid. With an injection of 2.3 MW of HHFW power, using twelve antennas connected to six transmitters, electrons were heated from a central temperature of 400 eV to 900 eV at a central density of 3.5 x 1013 cm-3 increasing the plasma energy to 59 kJ and the toroidal beta, bT to 10 %. Finally, the NBI system commenced operation in Sept. 2000. The initial results with two ion sources (PNBI = 2.8 MW) shows good heating, producing a total plasma stored energy of 90 kJ corresponding to bT = 18 % at a plasma current of 1.1 MA

  3. NSTX Tangential Divertor Camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roquemore, A.L.; Ted Biewer; Johnson, D.; Zweben, S.J.; Nobuhiro Nishino; Soukhanovskii, V.A.

    2004-01-01

    Strong magnetic field shear around the divertor x-point is numerically predicted to lead to strong spatial asymmetries in turbulence driven particle fluxes. To visualize the turbulence and associated impurity line emission near the lower x-point region, a new tangential observation port has been recently installed on NSTX. A reentrant sapphire window with a moveable in-vessel mirror images the divertor region from the center stack out to R 80 cm and views the x-point for most plasma configurations. A coherent fiber optic bundle transmits the image through a remotely selected filter to a fast camera, for example a 40500 frames/sec Photron CCD camera. A gas puffer located in the lower inboard divertor will localize the turbulence in the region near the x-point. Edge fluid and turbulent codes UEDGE and BOUT will be used to interpret impurity and deuterium emission fluctuation measurements in the divertor

  4. Solenoid-free Plasma Startup in NSTX using Coaxial Helicity Injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Roger Raman; Jarboe, Thomas R.; Bell, Michael G.; Dennis Mueller; Nelson, Brian A.; Benoit LeBlanc; Charles Bush; Masayoshi Nagata; Ted Biewer

    2005-01-01

    The favorable properties of the Spherical Torus (ST) arise from its very small aspect ratio. However, small aspect ratio devices have very restricted space for a substantial central solenoid. Thus methods for initiating the plasma current without relying on induction from a central solenoid are essential for the viability of the ST concept. Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI) is a promising candidate for solenoid-free plasma startup in a ST. Recent experiments on the HIT-II ST at the University of Washington, have demonstrated the capability of a new method, referred to as transient CHI, to produce a high quality, closed-flux equilibrium that has then been coupled to induction, with a reduced requirement for transformer flux [R. Raman, T.R. Jarboe, B.A. Nelson, et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 90 (February 2003) 075005-1]. An initial test of this method on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) has produced about 140 kA of toroidal current. Modifications are now underway to improve capability for transient CHI in NSTX

  5. Visible imaging of edge turbulence in NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zweben, S.; Maqueda, R.; Hill, K.; Johnson, D.

    2000-01-01

    Edge plasma turbulence in tokamaks and stellarators is believed to cause the radical heat and particle flux across the separatrix and into the scrape-off-layers of these devices. This paper describes initial measurements of 2-D space-time structure of the edge density turbulence made using a visible imaging diagnostic in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). The structure of the edge turbulence is most clearly visible using a method of gas puff imaging to locally illuminate the edge density turbulence

  6. Visible imaging of edge turbulence in NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S. Zweben; R. Maqueda; K. Hill; D. Johnson; S. Kaye; H. Kugel; F. Levinton; R. Maingi; L. Roquemore; S. Sabbagh; G. Wurden

    2000-01-01

    Edge plasma turbulence in tokamaks and stellarators is believed to cause the radial heat and particle flux across the separatrix and into the scrape-off-layers of these devices. This paper describes initial measurements of 2-D space-time structure of the edge density turbulence made using a visible imaging diagnostic in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). The structure of the edge turbulence is most clearly visible using a method of ''gas puff imaging'' to locally illuminate the edge density turbulence

  7. Progress towards Steady State at Low Aspect Ratio on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gates, D.A.; Menard, J.; Maingi, R.; Kaye, S.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Diem, S.; Wilson, J.R.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.E.; Ferron, J.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Kessel, C.E.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Levinton, F.; Manickam, J.; Mueller, D.; Raman, R.; Stevenson, T.; Stutman, D.; Taylor, G.; Tritz, K.; Yu, H.

    2007-01-01

    Modifications to the plasma control capabilities and poloidal field coils of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) have enabled a significant enhancement in shaping capability which has led to the transient achievement of a record shape factor (S (triple b ond) q 95 (I p /aB t )) of ∼ 41 (MA m -1 T -1 ) simultaneous with a record plasma elongation of κ (triple b ond) b/a ∼ 3. This result was obtained using isoflux control and real-time equilibrium reconstruction. Achieving high shape factor together with tolerable divertor loading is an important result for future ST burning plasma experiments as exemplified by studies for future ST reactor concepts, as well as neutron producing devices, which rely on achieving high shape factors in order to achieve steady state operation while maintaining MHD stability. Statistical evidence is presented which demonstrates the expected correlation between increased shaping and improved plasma performance.

  8. Deposition Measurements in NSTX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skinner, C. H.; Kugel, H. W.; Hogan, J. T.; Wampler, W. R.

    2004-11-01

    Two quartz microbalances have been used to record deposition on the National Spherical Torus Experiment. The experimental configuration mimics a typical diagnostic window or mirror. An RS232 link was used to acquire the quartz crystal frequency and the deposited thickness was recorded continuously with 0.01 nm resolution. Nuclear Reaction Analysis of the deposit was consistent with the measurement of the total deposited mass from the change in crystal frequency. We will present measurements of the variation of deposition with plasma conditions. The transport of carbon impurities in NSTX has been modelled with the BBQ code. Preliminary calculations indicated a negligible fraction of carbon generated at the divertor plates in quiescent discharges directly reaches the outer wall, and that transient events are responsible for the deposition.

  9. Lithium Wall Conditioning And Surface Dust Detection On NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, C.H.; Allain, J.P.; Bell, M.G.; Friesen, F.Q.L.; Heim, B.; Jaworski, M.A.; Kugel, H.; Maingi, R.; Rais, B.; Taylor, C.N.

    2011-01-01

    Lithium evaporation onto NSTX plasma facing components (PFC) has resulted in improved energy confinement, and reductions in the number and amplitude of edge-localized modes (ELMs) up to the point of complete ELM suppression. The associated PFC surface chemistry has been investigated with a novel plasma material interface probe connected to an in-vacuo surface analysis station. Analysis has demonstrated that binding of D atoms to the polycrystalline graphite material of the PFCs is fundamentally changed by lithium - in particular deuterium atoms become weakly bonded near lithium atoms themselves bound to either oxygen or the carbon from the underlying material. Surface dust inside NSTX has been detected in real-time using a highly sensitive electrostatic dust detector. In a separate experiment, electrostatic removal of dust via three concentric spiral-shaped electrodes covered by a dielectric and driven by a high voltage 3-phase waveform was evaluated for potential application to fusion reactors

  10. Diagnostics of ST Plasmas in NSTX: Challenges and Opportunities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Johnson, D.; Efthimion, P.; Foley, J.; Jones, B.; Mazzucato, E.; Park, H.; Taylor, G.; Levinton, F.; Luhmann, N.

    2001-01-01

    This paper will highlight some of the challenges and opportunities present in the diagnosis of spherical torus (ST) plasmas on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) and discuss the corresponding diagnostic development that is presently underway. After a brief description of diagnostic systems currently installed, examples of ST-specific diagnostic challenges will be highlighted, as will another case, where the ST configuration offers opportunities for new measurements

  11. Electron Bernstein Wave Research on CDX-U and NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G.; Efthimion, P.C.; Jones, B.; Hosea, J.C.; Kaita, R.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Majeski, R.; Munsat, T.; Phillips, C.K.; Spaleta, J.; Wilson, J.R.; Rasmussen, D.; Bell, G.; Bigelow, T.S.; Carter, M.D.; Swain, D.W.; Wilgen, J.B.; Ram, A.K.; Bers, A.; Harvey, R.W.; Forest, C.B.

    2001-01-01

    Mode-converted electron Bernstein waves (EBWs) potentially allow the measurement of local electron temperature (Te) and the implementation of local heating and current drive in spherical torus (ST) devices, which are not directly accessible to low harmonic electron cyclotron waves. This paper reports on the measurement of X-mode radiation mode-converted from EBWs observed normal to the magnetic field on the midplane of the Current Drive Experiment-Upgrade (CDX-U) and the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) spherical torus plasmas. The radiation temperature of the EBW emission was compared to Te measured by Thomson scattering and Langmuir probes. EBW mode-conversion efficiencies of over 20% were measured on both CDX-U and NSTX. Sudden increases of mode-conversion efficiency, of over a factor of three, were observed at high-confinement-mode transitions on NSTX, when the measured edge density profile steepened. The EBW mode-conversion efficiency was found to depend on the density gradient at the mode-conversion layer in the plasma scrape-off, consistent with theoretical predictions. The EBW emission source was determined by a perturbation technique to be localized at the electron cyclotron resonance layer and was successfully used for radial transport studies. Recently, a new in-vessel antenna and Langmuir probe array were installed on CDX-U to better characterize and enhance the EBW mode-conversion process. The probe incorporates a local adjustable limiter to control and maximize the mode-conversion efficiency in front of the antenna by modifying the density profile in the plasma scrape-off where fundamental EBW mode conversion occurs. Initial results show that the mode-conversion efficiency can be increased to ∼100% when the local limiter is inserted near the mode-conversion layer. Plans for future EBW research, including EBW heating and current-drive studies, are discussed

  12. MHD-induced Energetic Ion Loss during H-mode Discharges in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medley, S.S.; Gorelenkov, N.N.; Andre, R.; Bell, R.E.; Darrow, D.S.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Kaye, S.M.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Roquemore, A.L.

    2004-01-01

    MHD-induced energetic ion loss in neutral-beam-heated H-mode [high-confinement mode] discharges in NSTX [National Spherical Torus Experiment] is discussed. A rich variety of energetic ion behavior resulting from magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) activity is observed in the NSTX using a horizontally scanning Neutral Particle Analyzer (NPA) whose sightline views across the three co-injected neutral beams. For example, onset of an n = 2 mode leads to relatively slow decay of the energetic ion population (E ∼ 10-100 keV) and consequently the neutron yield. The effect of reconnection events, sawteeth, and bounce fishbones differs from that observed for low-n, low-frequency, tearing-type MHD modes. In this case, prompt loss of the energetic ion population occurs on a time scale of less than or equal to 1 ms and a precipitous drop in the neutron yield occurs. This paper focuses on MHD-induced ion loss during H-mode operation in NSTX. After H-mode onset, the NPA charge-exchange spectrum usually exhibits a significant loss of energetic ions only for E > E(sub)b/2 where E(sub)b is the beam injection energy. The magnitude of the energetic ion loss was observed to decrease with increasing tangency radius, R(sub)tan, of the NPA sightline, increasing toroidal field, B(sub)T, and increasing neutral-beam injection energy, E(sub)b. TRANSP modeling suggests that MHD-induced ion loss is enhanced during H-mode operation due to an evolution of the q and beam deposition profiles that feeds both passing and trapped ions into the region of low-n MHD activity. ORBIT code analysis of particle interaction with a model magnetic perturbation supported the energy selectivity of the MHD-induced loss observed in the NPA measurements. Transport analysis with the TRANSP code using a fast-ion diffusion tool to emulate the observed MHD-induced energetic ion loss showed significant modifications of the neutral- beam heating as well as the power balance, thermal diffusivities, energy confinement times, and

  13. MHD-induced Energetic Ion Loss during H-mode Discharges in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.S. Medley; N.N. Gorelenkov; R. Andre; R.E. Bell; D.S. Darrow; E.D. Fredrickson; S.M. Kaye; B.P. LeBlanc; A.L. Roquemore; and the NSTX Team

    2004-03-15

    MHD-induced energetic ion loss in neutral-beam-heated H-mode [high-confinement mode] discharges in NSTX [National Spherical Torus Experiment] is discussed. A rich variety of energetic ion behavior resulting from magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) activity is observed in the NSTX using a horizontally scanning Neutral Particle Analyzer (NPA) whose sightline views across the three co-injected neutral beams. For example, onset of an n = 2 mode leads to relatively slow decay of the energetic ion population (E {approx} 10-100 keV) and consequently the neutron yield. The effect of reconnection events, sawteeth, and bounce fishbones differs from that observed for low-n, low-frequency, tearing-type MHD modes. In this case, prompt loss of the energetic ion population occurs on a time scale of less than or equal to 1 ms and a precipitous drop in the neutron yield occurs. This paper focuses on MHD-induced ion loss during H-mode operation in NSTX. After H-mode onset, the NPA charge-exchange spectrum usually exhibits a significant loss of energetic ions only for E > E(sub)b/2 where E(sub)b is the beam injection energy. The magnitude of the energetic ion loss was observed to decrease with increasing tangency radius, R(sub)tan, of the NPA sightline, increasing toroidal field, B(sub)T, and increasing neutral-beam injection energy, E(sub)b. TRANSP modeling suggests that MHD-induced ion loss is enhanced during H-mode operation due to an evolution of the q and beam deposition profiles that feeds both passing and trapped ions into the region of low-n MHD activity. ORBIT code analysis of particle interaction with a model magnetic perturbation supported the energy selectivity of the MHD-induced loss observed in the NPA measurements. Transport analysis with the TRANSP code using a fast-ion diffusion tool to emulate the observed MHD-induced energetic ion loss showed significant modifications of the neutral- beam heating as well as the power balance, thermal diffusivities, energy confinement times

  14. Implications of NSTX Lithium Results for Magnetic Fusion Research

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, M.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.E.; Kaita, R.; Kugel, H.W.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Canik, J.M.; Diem, S.; Gerhardt, S.P.; Hosea, J.; Kaye, S.; Mansfield, D.; Maingi, R.; Menard, J.; Paul, S.F.; Raman, R.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Skinner, C.H.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Taylor, G.

    2010-01-01

    Lithium wall coating techniques have been experimentally explored on NSTX for the last five years. The lithium experimentation on NSTX started with a few milligrams of lithium injected into the plasma as pellets and it has evolved to a lithium evaporation system which can evaporate up to ∼ 100 g of lithium onto the lower divertor plates between lithium reloadings. The unique feature of the lithium research program on NSTX is that it can investigate the effects of lithium in H-mode divertor plasmas. This lithium evaporation system thus far has produced many intriguing and potentially important results; the latest of these are summarized in a companion paper by H. Kugel. In this paper, we suggest possible implications and applications of the NSTX lithium results on the magnetic fusion research which include electron and global energy confinement improvements, MHD stability enhancement at high beta, ELM control, H-mode power threshold reduction, improvements in radio frequency heating and non-inductive plasma start-up performance, innovative divertor solutions and improved operational efficiency.

  15. Synthetic Aperture Microwave Imaging (SAMI) of the plasma edge on NSTX-U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vann, Roddy; Taylor, Gary; Brunner, Jakob; Ellis, Bob; Thomas, David

    2016-10-01

    The Synthetic Aperture Microwave Imaging (SAMI) system is a unique phased-array microwave camera with a +/-40° field of view in both directions. It can image cut-off surfaces corresponding to frequencies in the range 10-34.5GHz; these surfaces are typically in the plasma edge. SAMI operates in two modes: either imaging thermal emission from the plasma (often modified by its interaction with the plasma edge e.g. via BXO mode conversion) or ``active probing'' i.e. injecting a broad beam at the plasma surface and imaging the reflected/back-scattered signal. SAMI was successfully pioneered on the Mega-Amp Spherical Tokamak (MAST) at Culham Centre for Fusion Energy. SAMI has now been installed and commissioned on the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade (NSTX-U) at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The firmware has been upgraded to include real-time digital filtering, which enables continuous acquisition of the Doppler back-scattered active probing data. In this poster we shall present SAMI's analysis of the plasma edge on NSTX-U including measurements of the edge pitch angle on NSTX-U using SAMI's unique 2-D Doppler-backscattering capability.

  16. Heating and current drive on NSTX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilson, J. R.; Batchelor, D.; Carter, M.; Hosea, J.; Ignat, D.; LeBlanc, B.; Majeski, R.; Ono, M.; Phillips, C. K.; Rogers, J. H.; Schilling, G.

    1997-04-01

    Low aspect ratio tokamaks pose interesting new challenges for heating and current drive. The NSTX (National Spherical Tokamak Experiment) device to be built at Princeton is a low aspect ratio toroidal device that has the achievement of high toroidal beta (˜45%) and non-inductive operation as two of its main research goals. To achieve these goals significant auxiliary heating and current drive systems are required. Present plans include ECH (Electron cyclotron heating) for pre-ionization and start-up assist, HHFW (high harmonic fast wave) for heating and current drive and eventually NBI (neutral beam injection) for heating, current drive and plasma rotation.

  17. CHI Research on NSTX-U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lay, W.-S.; Raman, R.; Jarboe, T. R.; Nelson, B. A.; Mueller, D.; Ebrahimi, F.; Ono, M.; Jardin, S. C.; Taylor, G.

    2017-10-01

    At present about 20% of the total plasma current required for sustained operation has been generated by transient CHI. The present understanding suggests that it may be possible to generate all of the needed current in a ST / tokamak using transient CHI. In such a scenario, one could transition directly from a CHI produced plasma to a non-inductively sustained plasma, without the difficult intermediate step that involves non-inductive current ramp-up. STs based on this new configuration would take advantage of evolving developments in high-temperature superconductor technology to develop a simpler design ST that relies primarily on CHI for plasma current generation. Motivated by the very good results from NSTX and HIT-II, we are examining the potential application of transient CHI for reactor configurations through these studies. (1) Study of the maximum levels of start-up currents that could be generated on NSTX-U, (2) application of a single biased electrode configuration on QUEST to protect the insulator from neutron damage in a CHI reactor installation, and (3) QUEST-like, but a double biased electrode configuration for PEGASUS and NSTX-U. Results from these on-going studies will be described. This work is supported by U.S. DOE Contracts: DE-AC02-09CH11466, DE-FG02-99ER54519 AM08, and DE-SC0006757.

  18. Conceptual design of a divertor Thomson scattering diagnostic for NSTX-U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLean, A. G., E-mail: mclean@fusion.gat.com; Soukhanovskii, V. A.; Allen, S. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, P.O. Box 808, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Carlstrom, T. N. [General Atomics, P.O. Box 85608, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); LeBlanc, B. P.; Ono, M.; Stratton, B. C. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    A conceptual design for a divertor Thomson scattering (DTS) diagnostic has been developed for the NSTX-U device to operate in parallel with the existing multipoint Thomson scattering system. Higher projected peak heat flux in NSTX-U will necessitate application of advanced magnetics geometries and divertor detachment. Interpretation and modeling of these divertor scenarios will depend heavily on local measurement of electron temperature, T{sub e}, and density, n{sub e}, which DTS provides in a passive manner. The DTS design for NSTX-U adopts major elements from the successful DIII-D DTS system including 7-channel polychromators measuring T{sub e} to 0.5 eV. If implemented on NSTX-U, the divertor TS system would provide an invaluable diagnostic for the boundary program to characterize the edge plasma.

  19. Testing Gyrokinetics on C-Mod and NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redi, M.H.; Dorland, W.; Fiore, C.L.; Stutman, D.; Baumgaertel, J.A.; Davis, B.; Kaye, S.M.; McCune, D.C.; Menard, J.; Rewoldt, G.

    2005-01-01

    Quantitative benchmarks of computational physics codes against experiment are essential for the credible application of such codes. Fluctuation measurements can provide necessary critical tests of nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations, but such require extraordinary computational resources. Linear micro-stability calculations with the GS2 [1] gyrokinetic code have been carried out for tokamak and ST experiments which exhibit internal transport barriers (ITB) and good plasma confinement. Qualitative correlation is found for improved confinement before and during ITB plasmas on Alcator C-Mod [2] and NSTX [3], with weaker long wavelength micro-instabilities in the plasma core regions. Mixing length transport models are discussed. The NSTX L-mode is found to be near marginal stability for kinetic ballooning modes. Fully electromagnetic, linear, gyrokinetic calculations of the Alcator C-Mod ITB during off-axis rf heating, following four plasma species and including the complete electron response show ITG/TEM microturbulence is suppressed in the plasma core and in the barrier region before barrier formation, without recourse to the usual requirements of velocity shear or reversed magnetic shear [4-5]. No strongly growing long or short wavelength drift modes are found in the plasma core but strong ITG/TEM and ETG drift wave turbulence is found outside the barrier region. Linear microstability analysis is qualitatively consistent with the experimental transport analysis, showing low transport inside and high transport outside the ITB region before barrier formation, without consideration of ExB shear stabilization

  20. Initial operation of NSTX with plasma control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gates, D.; Bell, M.; Ferron, J.; Kaye, S.; Menard, J.; Mueller, D.; Neumeyer, C.; Sabbagh, S.

    2000-01-01

    First plasma, with a maximum current of 300kA, was achieved on NSTX in February 1999. These results were obtained using preprogrammed coil currents. The first controlled plasmas on NSTX were made starting in August 1999 with the full 1MA plasma current achieved in December 1999. The controlled quantities were plasma position (R, Z) and current (Ip). Variations in the plasma shape are achieved by adding preprogrammed currents to those determined by the control parameters. The control system is fully digital, with plasma position and current control, data acquisition, and power supply control all occurring in the same four-processor real time computer. The system uses the PCS (Plasma Control Software) system designed at General Atomics. Modular control algorithms, specific to NSTX, were written and incorporated into the PCS. The application algorithms do the actual control calculations, with the PCS handling data passing. The control system, including planned upgrades, will be described, along with results of the initial controlled plasma operations. Analysis of the performance of the control system will also be presented

  1. Snowflake Divertor Configuration in NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soukhanovskii, V.A.; Ahn, Joonwook; Bell, R.E.; Gates, D.A.; Gerhardt, S.; Kaita, R.; Kolemen, E.; Kugel, H.W.; LeBlanc, B.; Maingi, Rajesh; Maqueda, R.J.; McLean, Adam G.; Menard, J.E.; Mueller, D.; Paul, S.F.; Raman, R.; Roquemore, L.; Ryutov, D.D.; Scott, H.A.

    2011-01-01

    Steady-state handling of divertor heat flux is a critical issue for present and future conventional and spherical tokamaks with compact high power density divertors. A novel 'snowflake' divertor (SFD) configuration that takes advantage of magnetic properties of a second-order poloidal null has been predicted to have a larger plasma-wetted area and a larger divertor volume, in comparison with a standard first-order poloidal X-point divertor configuration. The SFD was obtained in 0.8 MA, 4-6 MW NBI-heated H-mode discharges in NSTX using two divertor magnetic coils. The SFD led to a partial detachment of the outer strike point even in low-collisionality scrape-off layer plasma obtained with lithium coatings in NSTX. Significant divertor peak heat flux reduction and impurity screening have been achieved simultaneously with good core confinement and MHD properties.

  2. 'Snowflake' divertor configuration in NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soukhanovskii, V.A.; Ahn, J.-W.; Bell, R.E.; Gates, D.A.; Gerhardt, S.; Kaita, R.; Kolemen, E.; Kugel, H.W.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Maingi, R.; Maqueda, R.; McLean, A.; Menard, J.E.; Mueller, D.M.; Paul, S.F.; Raman, R.; Roquemore, A.L.; Ryutov, D.D.; Scott, H.A.

    2011-01-01

    Steady-state handling of divertor heat flux is a critical issue for present and future conventional and spherical tokamaks with compact high power density divertors. A novel 'snowflake' divertor (SFD) configuration that takes advantage of magnetic properties of a second-order poloidal null has been predicted to have a larger plasma-wetted area and a larger divertor volume, in comparison with a standard first-order poloidal X-point divertor configuration. The SFD was obtained in 0.8 MA, 4-6 MW NBI-heated H-mode discharges in NSTX using two divertor magnetic coils. The SFD led to a partial detachment of the outer strike point even in low-collisionality scrape-off layer plasma obtained with lithium coatings in NSTX. Significant divertor peak heat flux reduction and impurity screening have been achieved simultaneously with good core confinement and MHD properties.

  3. "Snowflake" divertor configuration in NSTX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soukhanovskii, V. A.; Ahn, J.-W.; Bell, R. E.; Gates, D. A.; Gerhardt, S.; Kaita, R.; Kolemen, E.; Kugel, H. W.; Leblanc, B. P.; Maingi, R.; Maqueda, R.; McLean, A.; Menard, J. E.; Mueller, D. M.; Paul, S. F.; Raman, R.; Roquemore, A. L.; Ryutov, D. D.; Scott, H. A.

    2011-08-01

    Steady-state handling of divertor heat flux is a critical issue for present and future conventional and spherical tokamaks with compact high power density divertors. A novel "snowflake" divertor (SFD) configuration that takes advantage of magnetic properties of a second-order poloidal null has been predicted to have a larger plasma-wetted area and a larger divertor volume, in comparison with a standard first-order poloidal X-point divertor configuration. The SFD was obtained in 0.8 MA, 4-6 MW NBI-heated H-mode discharges in NSTX using two divertor magnetic coils. The SFD led to a partial detachment of the outer strike point even in low-collisionality scrape-off layer plasma obtained with lithium coatings in NSTX. Significant divertor peak heat flux reduction and impurity screening have been achieved simultaneously with good core confinement and MHD properties.

  4. Heating and current drive on NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, J.R.; Batchelor, D.; Carter, M.; Hosea, J.; Ignat, D.; LeBlanc, B.; Majeski, R.; Ono, M.; Phillips, C.K.; Rogers, J.H.; Schilling, G.

    1997-01-01

    Low aspect ratio tokamaks pose interesting new challenges for heating and current drive. The NSTX (National Spherical Tokamak Experiment) device to be built at Princeton is a low aspect ratio toroidal device that has the achievement of high toroidal beta (∼45%) and non-inductive operation as two of its main research goals. To achieve these goals significant auxiliary heating and current drive systems are required. Present plans include ECH (Electron cyclotron heating) for pre-ionization and start-up assist, HHFW (high harmonic fast wave) for heating and current drive and eventually NBI (neutral beam injection) for heating, current drive and plasma rotation. copyright 1997 American Institute of Physics

  5. Two-dimensional AXUV-based radiated power density diagnostics on NSTX-U.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, I; Delgado-Aparicio, L; Bell, R E; Tritz, K; Diallo, A; Gerhardt, S P; LeBlanc, B; Kozub, T A; Parker, R R; Stratton, B C

    2014-11-01

    A new set of radiated-power-density diagnostics for the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade (NSTX-U) tokamak have been designed to measure the two-dimensional poloidal structure of the total photon emissivity profile in order to perform power balance, impurity transport, and magnetohydrodynamic studies. Multiple AXUV-diode based pinhole cameras will be installed in the same toroidal angle at various poloidal locations. The local emissivity will be obtained from several types of tomographic reconstructions. The layout and response expected for the new radially viewing poloidal arrays will be shown for different impurity concentrations to characterize the diagnostic sensitivity. The radiated power profile inverted from the array data will also be used for estimates of power losses during transitions from various divertor configurations in NSTX-U. The effect of in-out and top/bottom asymmetries in the core radiation from high-Z impurities will be addressed.

  6. Two-dimensional AXUV-based radiated power density diagnostics on NSTX-Ua)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faust, I.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Bell, R. E.; Tritz, K.; Diallo, A.; Gerhardt, S. P.; LeBlanc, B.; Kozub, T. A.; Parker, R. R.; Stratton, B. C.

    2014-11-01

    A new set of radiated-power-density diagnostics for the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade (NSTX-U) tokamak have been designed to measure the two-dimensional poloidal structure of the total photon emissivity profile in order to perform power balance, impurity transport, and magnetohydrodynamic studies. Multiple AXUV-diode based pinhole cameras will be installed in the same toroidal angle at various poloidal locations. The local emissivity will be obtained from several types of tomographic reconstructions. The layout and response expected for the new radially viewing poloidal arrays will be shown for different impurity concentrations to characterize the diagnostic sensitivity. The radiated power profile inverted from the array data will also be used for estimates of power losses during transitions from various divertor configurations in NSTX-U. The effect of in-out and top/bottom asymmetries in the core radiation from high-Z impurities will be addressed.

  7. Two-dimensional AXUV-based radiated power density diagnostics on NSTX-U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faust, I.; Parker, R. R. [MIT - Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Bell, R. E.; Diallo, A.; Gerhardt, S. P.; LeBlanc, B.; Kozub, T. A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States); Tritz, K. [The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21209 (United States); Stratton, B. C. [MIT - Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)

    2014-11-15

    A new set of radiated-power-density diagnostics for the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade (NSTX-U) tokamak have been designed to measure the two-dimensional poloidal structure of the total photon emissivity profile in order to perform power balance, impurity transport, and magnetohydrodynamic studies. Multiple AXUV-diode based pinhole cameras will be installed in the same toroidal angle at various poloidal locations. The local emissivity will be obtained from several types of tomographic reconstructions. The layout and response expected for the new radially viewing poloidal arrays will be shown for different impurity concentrations to characterize the diagnostic sensitivity. The radiated power profile inverted from the array data will also be used for estimates of power losses during transitions from various divertor configurations in NSTX-U. The effect of in-out and top/bottom asymmetries in the core radiation from high-Z impurities will be addressed.

  8. Two-dimensional AXUV-based radiated power density diagnostics on NSTX-U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Faust, I.; Parker, R. R.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Bell, R. E.; Diallo, A.; Gerhardt, S. P.; LeBlanc, B.; Kozub, T. A.; Tritz, K.; Stratton, B. C.

    2014-01-01

    A new set of radiated-power-density diagnostics for the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade (NSTX-U) tokamak have been designed to measure the two-dimensional poloidal structure of the total photon emissivity profile in order to perform power balance, impurity transport, and magnetohydrodynamic studies. Multiple AXUV-diode based pinhole cameras will be installed in the same toroidal angle at various poloidal locations. The local emissivity will be obtained from several types of tomographic reconstructions. The layout and response expected for the new radially viewing poloidal arrays will be shown for different impurity concentrations to characterize the diagnostic sensitivity. The radiated power profile inverted from the array data will also be used for estimates of power losses during transitions from various divertor configurations in NSTX-U. The effect of in-out and top/bottom asymmetries in the core radiation from high-Z impurities will be addressed

  9. Simulation of Diffusive Lithium Evaporation Onto the NSTX Vessel Walls

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stotler, D.P.; Skinner, C.H.; Blanchard, W.R.; Krstic, P.S.; Kugel, H.W.; Schneider, H.; Zakharov, L.E.

    2010-01-01

    A model for simulating the diffusive evaporation of lithium into a helium filled NSTX vacuum vessel is described and validated against an initial set of deposition experiments. The DEGAS 2 based model consists of a three-dimensional representation of the vacuum vessel, the elastic scattering process, and a kinetic description of the evaporated atoms. Additional assumptions are required to account for deuterium out-gassing during the validation experiments. The model agrees with the data over a range of pressures to within the estimated uncertainties. Suggestions are made for more discriminating experiments that will lead to an improved model.

  10. Parametric Decay during HHFW on NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, J.R.; Bernabei, S.; Biewer, T.; Diem, S.; Hosea, J.; LeBlanc, B.; Phillips, C.K.; Ryan, P.; Swain, D.W.

    2005-01-01

    High Harmonic Fast Wave (HHFW) heating experiments on NSTX have been observed to be accompanied by significant edge ion heating (T i >> T e ). This heating is found to be anisotropic with T perp > T par . Simultaneously, coherent oscillations have been detected with an edge Langmuir probe. The oscillations are consistent with parametric decay of the incident fast wave (ω > 13ω ci ) into ion Bernstein waves and an unobserved ion-cyclotron quasi-mode. The observation of anisotropic heating is consistent with Bernstein wave damping, and the Bernstein waves should completely damp in the plasma periphery as they propagate toward a cyclotron harmonic resonance. The number of daughter waves is found to increase with rf power, and to increase as the incident wave's toroidal wavelength increases. The frequencies of the daughter wave are separated by the edge ion cyclotron frequency. Theoretical calculations of the threshold for this decay in uniform plasma indicate an extremely small value of incident power should be required to drive the instability. While such decays are commonly observed at lower harmonics in conventional ICRF heating scenarios, they usually do not involve the loss of significant wave power from the pump wave. On NSTX an estimate of the power loss can be found by calculating the minimum power required to support the edge ion heating (presumed to come from the decay Bernstein wave). This calculation indicates at least 20-30% of the incident rf power ends up as decay waves

  11. Far-infrared tangential interferometer/polarimeter design and installation for NSTX-U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott, E. R., E-mail: evrscott@ucdavis.edu [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Barchfeld, R. [Department of Applied Science, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Riemenschneider, P.; Domier, C. W.; Sohrabi, M.; Luhmann, N. C. [Department of Electrical and Computer Engineering, University of California, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Muscatello, C. M. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92121 (United States); Kaita, R.; Ren, Y. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    The Far-infrared Tangential Interferometer/Polarimeter (FIReTIP) system has been refurbished and is being reinstalled on the National Spherical Torus Experiment—Upgrade (NSTX-U) to supply real-time line-integrated core electron density measurements for use in the NSTX-U plasma control system (PCS) to facilitate real-time density feedback control of the NSTX-U plasma. Inclusion of a visible light heterodyne interferometer in the FIReTIP system allows for real-time vibration compensation due to movement of an internally mounted retroreflector and the FIReTIP front-end optics. Real-time signal correction is achieved through use of a National Instruments CompactRIO field-programmable gate array.

  12. Be Foil ''Filter Knee Imaging'' NSTX Plasma with Fast Soft X-ray Camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    B.C. Stratton; S. von Goeler; D. Stutman; K. Tritz; L.E. Zakharov

    2005-01-01

    A fast soft x-ray (SXR) pinhole camera has been implemented on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). This paper presents observations and describes the Be foil Filter Knee Imaging (FKI) technique for reconstructions of a m/n=1/1 mode on NSTX. The SXR camera has a wide-angle (28 o ) field of view of the plasma. The camera images nearly the entire diameter of the plasma and a comparable region in the vertical direction. SXR photons pass through a beryllium foil and are imaged by a pinhole onto a P47 scintillator deposited on a fiber optic faceplate. An electrostatic image intensifier demagnifies the visible image by 6:1 to match it to the size of the charge-coupled device (CCD) chip. A pair of lenses couples the image to the CCD chip

  13. Soft x-ray measurements of resistive wall mode behavior in NSTX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado-Aparicio, L; Bell, R E; Gerhardt, S P; LeBlanc, B; Menard, J; Paul, S; Roquemore, L [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Stutman, D; Tritz, K; Finkenthal, M [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Sabbagh, S A; Berkery, J W; Levesque, J P [Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Lee, K C, E-mail: ldelgado@pppl.gov [University of California at Davis, Davis, CA 95616 (United States)

    2011-03-15

    A multi-energy soft x-ray (ME-SXR) array is used for the characterization of resistive wall modes (RWMs) in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). Modulations in the time history of the ME-SXR emissivity profiles indicate the existence of edge density and core temperature fluctuations in good agreement with the slow evolution of the n = 1 magnetic perturbation measured by the poloidal and radial RWM coils. The characteristic 20-25 Hz frequency in the SXR diagnostics is approximately that of the n = 1 stable RWM, which is also near the measured peak of the resonant field amplification (RFA) and inversely proportional to the wall time. Together with the magnetics, the ME-SXR measurements suggest that in NSTX the RWM is not restricted exclusively to the reactor wall and edge, and that acting with the stabilizing coils on its global structure may result in density and temperature fluctuations that can be taken into account when designing the feedback process.

  14. Modeling of Low Frequency MHD Induced Beam Ion Transport In NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gorelenkov, N.N.; Medley, S.S.

    2004-01-01

    Beam ion transport in the presence of low frequency MHD activity in National Spherical Tokamak Experiment (NSTX) plasma is modeled numerically and analyzed theoretically in order to understand basic underlying physical mechanisms responsible for the observed fast ion redistribution and losses. Numerical modeling of the beam ions flux into the NPA in NSTX shows that after the onset of low frequency MHD activity high energy part of beam ion distribution, E b > 40keV, is redistributed radially due to stochastic diffusion. Such diffusion is caused by high order harmonics of the transit frequency resonance overlap in the phase space. Large drift orbit radial width induces such high order resonances. Characteristic confinement time is deduced from the measured NPA energy spectrum and is typically ∼ 4msec. Considered MHD activity may induce losses on the order of 10% at the internal magnetic field perturbation (delta)B/B = Ο (10 -3 ), which is comparable to the prompt orbit losses

  15. Large Area Divertor Temperature Measurements Using A High-speed Camera With Near-infrared FiIters in NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lyons, B.C.; Scotti, F.; Zweben, S.J.; Gray, T.K.; Hosea, J.; Kaita, R.; Kugel, H.W.; Maqueda, R.J.; McLean, A.G.; Roquemore, A.L.; Soukhanovskii, V.A.; Taylor, G.

    2011-01-01

    Fast cameras already installed on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) have be equipped with near-infrared (NIR) filters in order to measure the surface temperature in the lower divertor region. Such a system provides a unique combination of high speed (> 50 kHz) and wide fi eld-of-view (> 50% of the divertor). Benchtop calibrations demonstrated the system's ability to measure thermal emission down to 330 oC. There is also, however, signi cant plasma light background in NSTX. Without improvements in background reduction, the current system is incapable of measuring signals below the background equivalent temperature (600 - 700 oC). Thermal signatures have been detected in cases of extreme divertor heating. It is observed that the divertor can reach temperatures around 800 oC when high harmonic fast wave (HHFW) heating is used. These temperature profiles were fi t using a simple heat diffusion code, providing a measurement of the heat flux to the divertor. Comparisons to other infrared thermography systems on NSTX are made.

  16. Impurity analysis of NSTX using a transmission grating-based imaging spectrometer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kumar, Deepak; Finkenthal, Michael; Stutman, Dan; Clayton, Daniel J; Tritz, Kevin; Bell, Ronald E; Diallo, Ahmed; LeBlanc, Ben P; Podesta, Mario

    2012-01-01

    A transmission grating-based imaging spectrometer has recently been installed and operated on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) at PPPL. This paper describes the spectral and spatial characteristics of impurity emission under different operating conditions of the experiment—neutral beam heated, ohmic heated and RF heated plasma. A typical spectrum from each scenario is analyzed to provide quantitative estimates of impurity fractions in the plasma. (paper)

  17. Diagnostic Development on NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A.L. Roquemore; D. Johnson; R. Kaita; et al

    1999-01-01

    Diagnostics are described which are currently installed or under active development for the newly commissioned NSTX device. The low aspect ratio (R/a less than or equal to 1.3) and low toroidal field (0.1-0.3T) used in this device dictate adaptations in many standard diagnostic techniques. Technical summaries of each diagnostic are given, and adaptations, where significant, are highlighted

  18. Simulation Of Microtearing Turbulence In NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Guttenfelder, W.; Candy, J.; Kaye, S.M.; Nevins, W.M.; Wanag, E.; Zhang, J.; Bell, R.E.; Crocker, N.A.; Hammett, G.W.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Mikkelsen, D.R.; Ren, Y.; Yuh, H.

    2012-01-01

    Thermal energy confinement times in NSTX dimensionless parameter scans increase with decreasing collisionality. While ion thermal transport is neoclassical, the source of anomalous electron thermal transport in these discharges remains unclear, leading to considerable uncertainty when extrapolating to future ST devices at much lower collisionality. Linear gyrokinetic simulations find microtearing modes to be unstable in high collisionality discharges. First non-linear gyrokinetic simulations of microtearing turbulence in NSTX show they can yield experimental levels of transport. Magnetic flutter is responsible for almost all the transport (∼98%), perturbed field line trajectories are globally stochastic, and a test particle stochastic transport model agrees to within 25% of the simulated transport. Most significantly, microtearing transport is predicted to increase with electron collisionality, consistent with the observed NSTX confinement scaling. While this suggests microtearing modes may be the source of electron thermal transport, the predictions are also very sensitive to electron temperature gradient, indicating the scaling of the instability threshold is important. In addition, microtearing turbulence is susceptible to suppression via sheared E-B flows as experimental values of E-B shear (comparable to the linear growth rates) dramatically reduce the transport below experimental values. Refinements in numerical resolution and physics model assumptions are expected to minimize the apparent discrepancy. In cases where the predicted transport is strong, calculations suggest that a proposed polarimetry diagnostic may be sensitive to the magnetic perturbations associated with the unique structure of microtearing turbulence.

  19. Surface chemistry analysis of lithium conditioned NSTX graphite tiles correlated to plasma performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, C.N., E-mail: chase.taylor@inl.gov [Purdue University, School of Nuclear Engineering, West Lafayette, IN 47906 (United States); Birck Nanotechnology Center, Discovery Park, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Luitjohan, K.E. [Purdue University, School of Nuclear Engineering, West Lafayette, IN 47906 (United States); Heim, B. [Purdue University, School of Nuclear Engineering, West Lafayette, IN 47906 (United States); Birck Nanotechnology Center, Discovery Park, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Kollar, L. [Purdue University, School of Nuclear Engineering, West Lafayette, IN 47906 (United States); Allain, J.P. [Purdue University, School of Nuclear Engineering, West Lafayette, IN 47906 (United States); Birck Nanotechnology Center, Discovery Park, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Skinner, C.H.; Kugel, H.W.; Kaita, R.; Roquemore, A.L. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Maingi, R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2013-12-15

    Lithium wall conditioning in NSTX has resulted in reduced divertor recycling, improved energy confinement, and reduced frequency of edge-localized modes (ELMs), up to the point of complete ELM suppression. NSTX tiles were removed from the vessel following the 2008 campaign and subsequently analyzed using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy as well as nuclear reaction ion beam analysis. In this paper we relate surface chemistry to deuterium retention/recycling, develop methods for cleaning of passivated NSTX tiles, and explore a method to effectively extract bound deuterium from lithiated graphite. Li–O–D and Li–C–D complexes characteristic of deuterium retention that form during NSTX operations are revealed by sputter cleaning and heating. Heating to ∼850 °C desorbed all deuterium complexes observed in the O 1s and C 1s photoelectron energy ranges. Tile locations within approximately ±2.5 cm of the lower vertical/horizontal divertor corner appear to have unused Li-O bonds that are not saturated with deuterium, whereas locations immediately outboard of this region indicate high deuterium recycling. X-ray photo electron spectra of a specific NSTX tile with wide ranging lithium coverage indicate that a minimum lithium dose, 100–500 nm equivalent thickness, is required for effective deuterium retention. This threshold is suspected to be highly sensitive to surface morphology. The present analysis may explain why plasma discharges in NSTX continue to benefit from lithium coating thickness beyond the divertor deuterium ion implantation depth, which is nominally <10 nm.

  20. Noninductive Current Generation in NSTX using Coaxial Helicity Injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raman, R.; Jarboe, T.R.; Mueller, D.; Schaffer, M.J.; Maqueda, R.; Nelson, B.A.; Sabbagh, S.; Bell, M.; Ewig, R.; Fredrickson, E.; Gates, D.; Hosea, J.; Jardin, S.; Ji, H.; Kaita, R.; Kaye, S.M.; Kugel, H.; Lao, L.; Maingi, R.; Menard, J.; Ono, M.; Orvis, D.; Paul, S.; Peng, M.; Skinner, C.H.; Wilgen, J.B.; Zweben, S.

    2001-01-01

    Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI) on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) has produced 240 kA of toroidal current without the use of the central solenoid. Values of the current multiplication ratio (CHI produced toroidal current/injector current) up to 10 were obtained, in agreement with predictions. The discharges which lasted for up to 200 ms, limited only by the programmed waveform, are more than an order of magnitude longer in duration that any CHI discharges previously produced in a Spheromak or a Spherical Torus (ST)

  1. Solenoid-free Plasma Start-up in NSTX using Transient CHI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R. Raman, B.A. Nelson, D. Mueller, T.R. Jarboe, M.G. Bell, B. LeBlanc, R. Maqueda, J. Menard, M. Ono, M. Nagata, L. Roquemore, and V. Soukhanovskii

    2008-01-01

    Experiments in NSTX have now unambiguously demonstrated the coupling of toroidal plasmas produced by the technique of CHI to inductive sustainment and ramp-up of the toroidal plasma current. This is an important step because an alternate method for plasma startup is essential for developing a fusion reactor based on the spherical torus concept. Elimination of the central solenoid would also allow greater flexibility in the choice of the aspect ratio in tokamak designs now being considered. The transient CHI method for spherical torus startup was originally developed on the HIT-II experiment at the University of Washington

  2. RF Rectification on LAPD and NSTX: the relationship between rectified currents and potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, R. J.; Carter, T.; Caughman, J. B.; van Compernolle, B.; Gekelman, W.; Hosea, J. C.; Jaworski, M. A.; Kramer, G. J.; Lau, C.; Martin, E. H.; Pribyl, P.; Tripathi, S. K. P.; Vincena, S.

    2017-10-01

    RF rectification is a sheath phenomenon important in the fusion community for impurity injection, hot spot formation on plasma-facing components, modifications of the scrape-off layer, and as a far-field sink of wave power. The latter is of particular concern for the National Spherical Torus eXperiment (NSTX), where a substantial fraction of the fast-wave power is lost to the divertor along scrape-off layer field lines. To assess the relationship between rectified currents and rectified voltages, detailed experiments have been performed on the Large Plasma Device (LAPD). An electron current is measured flowing out of the antenna and into the limiters, consistent with RF rectification with a higher RF potential at the antenna. The scaling of this current with RF power will be presented. The limiters are also floated to inhibit this DC current; the impact of this change on plasma-potential and wave-field measurements will be shown. Comparison to data from divertor probes in NSTX will be made. These experiments on a flexible mid-sized experiment will provide insight and guidance into the effects of ICRF on the edge plasma in larger fusion experiments. Funded by the DOE OFES (DE-FC02-07ER54918 and DE-AC02-09CH11466), NSF (NSF- PHY 1036140), and the Univ. of California (12-LR- 237124).

  3. Fast ion loss diagnostic plans for NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darrow, D. S.; Bell, R.; Johnson, R.; Kugel, H.; Wilson, J. R.; Cecil, F. E.; Maingi, R.; Krasilnikov, A.; Alekseyev, A.

    2000-01-01

    The prompt loss of neutral beam ions from the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is expected to be between 12% and 42% of the total 5 MW of beam power. There may, in addition, be losses of fast ions arising from high harmonic fast wave (HHFW) heating. Most of the lost ions will strike the HHFW antenna or the neutral beam dump. To measure these losses in the 2000 experimental campaign, thermocouples in the antenna, several infrared camera views, and a Faraday cup lost ion probe will be employed. The probe will measure loss of fast ions with E > 1 keV at three radial locations, giving the scrape-off length of the fast ions

  4. Plasma control system upgrade and increased plasma stability in NSTX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mastrovito, D., E-mail: dmastrovito@pppl.go [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451 Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Gates, D.; Gerhard, S.; Lawson, J.; Ludescher-Furth, C.; Marsala, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451 Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States)

    2010-07-15

    Plasma control on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) was previously accomplished using eight 333 MHz G4 processors built by Sky computers. Several planned improvements and additional control algorithms required significant upgrades to our real-time control computers and real-time data acquisition infrastructure. Several in-house modules have been designed and implemented including: the digital time stamp module (DITS) and for digital/analog front panel data port (FPDP) output, the FPDP output module digital/analog (FOMD/A). Standard Linux based Intel computers perform the real-time control tasks and InfiniBand as been employed for communication between a user-accessible 'host' server and the real-time computer. In addition to several independent real-time processes the General Atomics developed PCS (Bell (2006) ) system infrastructure continues to be used on NSTX. While maintaining previous functionality, improvements in the control system software include: an RWM feedback algorithm, beta feedback NBI control, more comprehensive error logging and trapping, more user-friendly interface, more complete archiving and restoring functionality, and better status reporting and diagnostic tools. Once completed, we succeeded in increasing overall plasma stability and decreasing control system latency by several times.

  5. Three new extreme ultraviolet spectrometers on NSTX-U for impurity monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weller, M. E., E-mail: weller4@llnl.gov; Beiersdorfer, P.; Soukhanovskii, V. A.; Magee, E. W.; Scotti, F. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Three extreme ultraviolet (EUV) spectrometers have been mounted on the National Spherical Torus Experiment–Upgrade (NSTX-U). All three are flat-field grazing-incidence spectrometers and are dubbed X-ray and Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer (XEUS, 8–70 Å), Long-Wavelength Extreme Ultraviolet Spectrometer (LoWEUS, 190–440 Å), and Metal Monitor and Lithium Spectrometer Assembly (MonaLisa, 50–220 Å). XEUS and LoWEUS were previously implemented on NSTX to monitor impurities from low- to high-Z sources and to study impurity transport while MonaLisa is new and provides the system increased spectral coverage. The spectrometers will also be a critical diagnostic on the planned laser blow-off system for NSTX-U, which will be used for impurity edge and core ion transport studies, edge-transport code development, and benchmarking atomic physics codes.

  6. NSTX Protection And Interlock Systems For Coil And Powers Supply Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhao, X.; Ramakrishnan, S.; Lawson, J.; Neumeyer, C.; Marsala, R.; Schneider, H.

    2009-01-01

    NSTX at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) requires sophisticated plasma positioning control system for stable plasma operation. TF magnetic coils and PF magnetic coils provide electromagnetic fields to position and shape the plasma vertically and horizontally respectively. NSTX utilizes twenty six coil power supplies to establish and initiate electromagnetic fields through the coil system for plasma control. A power protection and interlock system is utilized to detect power system faults and protect the TF coils and PF coils against excessive electromechanical forces, overheating, and over current. Upon detecting any fault condition the power system is restricted, and it is either prevented from initializing or suppressed to de-energize coil power during pulsing. Power fault status is immediately reported to the computer system. This paper describes the design and operation of NSTX's protection and interlocking system and possible future expansion.

  7. An Edge Rotation and Temperature Diagnostic on NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biewer, T.M.; Bell, R.E.; Feder, R.; Johnson, D.W.; Palladino, R.W.

    2003-01-01

    A new diagnostic for the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is described whose function is to measure ion rotation and temperature at the plasma edge. The diagnostic is sensitive to C III, C IV, and He II intrinsic emission, covering a radial region of 15 cm at the extreme edge of the outboard midplane. Thirteen chords are distributed between toroidal and poloidal views, allowing the toroidal and poloidal rotation and temperature of the plasma edge to be simultaneously measured with 10 ms resolution. Combined with the local pressure gradient and the EFIT code reconstructed magnetic field profile, the edge flow gives a measure of the local radial electric field

  8. Profile Modifications Resulting from Early High-harmonic Fast Wave heating in NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mendard, J.E.; LeBlanc, Wilson J.R.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Stutman, D.; Swain, D.W.

    2001-01-01

    Experiments have been performed in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) to inject high harmonic fast wave (HHFW) power early during the plasma current ramp-up in an attempt to reduce the current penetration rate to raise the central safety factor during the flattop phase of the discharge. To date, up to 2 MW of HHFW power has been coupled to deuterium plasmas as early as t = 50 ms using the slowest interstrap phasing of k|| approximately equals 14 m(superscript)-1 (nf = 24). Antenna-plasma gap scans have been performed and find that for small gaps (5-8 cm), electron heating is observed with relatively small density rises and modest reductions in current penetration rate. For somewhat larger gaps (10-12 cm), weak electron heating is observed but with a spontaneous density rise at the plasma edge similar to that observed in NSTX H-modes. In the larger gap configuration, EFIT code reconstructions (without MSE [motional Stark effect]) find that resistive flux consumption is reduced as much as 30%, the internal inductance is maintained below 0.6 at 1 MA into the flattop, q(0) is increased significantly, and the MHD stability character of the discharges is strongly modified

  9. Characteristics of the First H-mode Discharges in NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maingi, R.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.E.; Bush, C.E.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Gates, D.A.; Kaye, S.M.; Kugel, H.W.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Menard, J.E.; Mueller, D.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Stutman, D.; Taylor, G.; Johnson, D.W.; Kaita, R.; Maqueda, R.J.; Ono, M.; Paoletti, F.; Peng, Y-K.M.; Roquemore, A.L.; Skinner, C.H.; Soukhanovskii, V.A.; Synakowski, E.J.

    2001-01-01

    We report observations of the first low-to-high (L-H) confinement mode transitions in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). The H-mode energy confinement time increased over reference L-mode discharges transiently by 100-300%, as high as ∼150 ms. This confinement time is ∼1.8-2.3 times higher than predicted by a multi-machine ELM-free H-mode scaling. This achievement extends the H-mode window of fusion devices down to a record low aspect ratio (R/a) ∼ 1.3, challenging both confinement and L-H power thresholds scalings based on conventional aspect ratio tokamaks

  10. Numerical Study of Instabilities Driven by Energetic Neutral Beam Ions in NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Belova, E.V.; Gorelenkov, N.N.; Cheng, C.Z.; Fredrickson, E.D.

    2003-01-01

    Recent experimental observations from NSTX [National Spherical Torus Experiment] suggest that many modes in a subcyclotron frequency range are excited during neutral-beam injection (NBI). These modes have been identified as Compressional Alfven Eigenmodes (CAEs) and Global Alfven Eigenmodes (GAEs), which are driven unstable through the Doppler-shifted cyclotron resonance with the beam ions. The injection velocities of the NBI ions in NSTX are large compared to Alfven velocity, V(sub)0 > 3V(sub)A, and a strong anisotropy in the fast-ion pitch-angle distribution provides the energy source for the instabilities. Recent interest in the excitation of Alfven Eigenmodes in the frequency range omega less than or approximately equal to omega(sub)ci, where omega(sub)ci is the ion cyclotron frequency, is related to the possibility that these modes can provide a mechanism for direct energy transfer from super-Alfvenic beam ions to thermal ions. Numerical simulations are required in order to find a self-consistent mode structure, and to include the effects of finite-Larmor radius (FLR), the nonlinear effects, and the thermal plasma kinetic effects

  11. Effect of progressively increasing lithium conditioning on edge transport and stability in high triangularity NSTX H-modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maingi, R., E-mail: rmaingi@pppl.gov [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, 100 Stellarator Road, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Canik, J.M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bell, R.E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, 100 Stellarator Road, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Boyle, D.P. [Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Diallo, A.; Kaita, R.; Kaye, S.M.; LeBlanc, B.P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, 100 Stellarator Road, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Sabbagh, S.A. [Columbia University, New York, NY (United States); Scotti, F.; Soukhanovskii, V.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-04-15

    A sequence of H-mode discharges with increasing levels of pre-discharge lithium evaporation (‘dose’) was conducted in high triangularity and elongation boundary shape in NSTX. Energy confinement increased, and recycling decreased with increasing lithium dose, similar to a previous lithium dose scan in medium triangularity and elongation plasmas. Data-constrained SOLPS interpretive modeling quantified the edge transport change: the electron particle diffusivity decreased by 10–30x. The electron thermal diffusivity decreased by 4x just inside the top of the pedestal, but increased by up to 5x very near the separatrix. These results provide a baseline expectation for lithium benefits in NSTX-U, which is optimized for a boundary shape similar to the one in this experiment.

  12. Impact of ELM filaments on divertor heat flux dynamics in NSTX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahn, J.-W., E-mail: jahn@pppl.gov [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge (United States); Maingi, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton (United States); Canik, J.M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge (United States); Gan, K.F. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Science, Hefei (China); Gray, T.K. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge (United States); McLean, A.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore (United States)

    2015-08-15

    The ELM induced change in wetted area (A{sub wet}) and peak heat flux (q{sub peak}) of divertor heat flux is investigated as a function of the number of striations, which represent ELM filaments, observed in the heat flux profile in NSTX. More striations are found to lead to larger A{sub wet} and lower q{sub peak}. The typical number of striations observed in NSTX is 0–9, while 10–15 striations are normally observed in other machines such as JET, and the ELM contracts heat flux profile when the number of striations is less than 3–4 but broadens it with more of them. The smaller number of striations in NSTX is attributed to the fact that NSTX ELMs are against kink/peeling boundary with lower toroidal mode number (n = 1–5), while typical peeling–ballooning ELMs have higher mode number of n = 10–20. For ELMs with smaller number of striations, relative A{sub wet} change is rather constant and q{sub peak} change rapidly increases with increasing ELM size, while A{sub wet} change slightly increases leading to a weaker increase of q{sub peak} change for ELMs with larger number of striations, both of which are unfavourable trend for the material integrity of divertor tiles.

  13. Stabilizing effect of resistivity towards ELM-free H-mode discharge in lithium-conditioned NSTX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banerjee, Debabrata; Zhu, Ping; Maingi, Rajesh

    2017-07-01

    Linear stability analysis of the national spherical torus experiment (NSTX) Li-conditioned ELM-free H-mode equilibria is carried out in the context of the extended magneto-hydrodynamic (MHD) model in NIMROD. The purpose is to investigate the physical cause behind edge localized mode (ELM) suppression in experiment after the Li-coating of the divertor and the first wall of the NSTX tokamak. Besides ideal MHD modeling, including finite-Larmor radius effect and two-fluid Hall and electron diamagnetic drift contributions, a non-ideal resistivity model is employed, taking into account the increase of Z eff after Li-conditioning in ELM-free H-mode. Unlike an earlier conclusion from an eigenvalue code analysis of these equilibria, NIMROD results find that after reduced recycling from divertor plates, profile modification is necessary but insufficient to explain the mechanism behind complete ELMs suppression in ideal two-fluid MHD. After considering the higher plasma resistivity due to higher Z eff, the complete stabilization could be explained. A thorough analysis of both pre-lithium ELMy and with-lithium ELM-free cases using ideal and non-ideal MHD models is presented, after accurately including a vacuum-like cold halo region in NIMROD to investigate ELMs.

  14. Effect of Boronization on Ohmic Plasmas in NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, C.H.; Kugel, H.; Maingi, R.; Wampler, W.R.; Blanchard, W.; Bell, M.; Bell, R.; LeBlanc, B.; Gates, D.; Kaye, S.; LaMarche, P.; Menard, J.; Mueller, D.; Na, H.K.; Nishino, N.; Paul, S.; Sabbagh, S.; Soukhanovskii, V.

    2001-01-01

    Boronization of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) has enabled access to higher density, higher confinement plasmas. A glow discharge with 4 mTorr helium and 10% deuterated trimethyl boron deposited 1.7 g of boron on the plasma facing surfaces. Ion beam analysis of witness coupons showed a B+C areal density of 10 to the 18 (B+C) cm to the -2 corresponding to a film thickness of 100 nm. Subsequent ohmic discharges showed oxygen emission lines reduced by x15, carbon emission reduced by two and copper reduced to undetectable levels. After boronization, the plasma current flattop time increased by 70% enabling access to higher density, higher confinement plasmas

  15. Operational Characteristics of Liquid Lithium Divertor in NSTX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaita, R.; Kugel, H.; Abrams, T.; Bell, M. G.; Bell, R. E.; Gerhardt, S.; Jaworski, M. A.; Kallman, J.; Leblanc, B.; Mansfield, D.; Mueller, D.; Paul, S.; Roquemore, A. L.; Scotti, F.; Skinner, C. H.; Timberlake, J.; Zakharov, L.; Maingi, R.; Nygren, R.; Raman, R.; Sabbagh, S.; Soukhanovskii, V.

    2010-11-01

    Lithium coatings on plasma-facing components (PFC's) have resulted in improved plasma performance on NSTX in deuterium H-mode plasmas with neutral beam heating.^ Salient results included improved electron confinement and ELM suppression. In CDX-U, the use of lithium-coated PFC's and a large-area liquid lithium limiter resulted in a six-fold increase in global energy confinement time. A Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD) has been installed in NSTX for the 2010 run campaign. The LLD PFC consists of a thin film of lithium on a temperature-controlled substrate to keep the lithium liquefied between shots, and handle heat loads during plasmas. This capability was demonstrated when the LLD withstood a strike point on its surface during discharges with up to 4 MW of neutral beam heating.

  16. Recent Physics Results from NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menard, J E; Bell, M G; Bell, R E; Bialek, J M; Boedo, J A; Bush, C E; Crocker, N A; Diem, S; Ferron, J R; Fredrickson, E D; Gates, D A; Hill, K W; Hosea, J C; Kaye, S M; Kessel, C E; Kubota, S; Kugel, H W; LeBlanc, B P; Lee, K C; Levinton, F M; Maingi, R; Mansfield, D K; Majeski, R P; Maqueda, R J; Mazzucato, E; Medley, S S; Mueller, D; Park, H K; Paul, S F; Peebles, W A; Raman, R; Sabbagh, S A; Skinner, C H; Smith, D R; Sontag, A C; Soukhanovskii, V A; Stratton, B C; Stutman, D; Taylor, G; Tritz, K; Wilson, J R; Yuh, H; Zhu, W; Zweben, S J

    2006-01-01

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) has made considerable progress in advancing the scientific understanding of high performance long-pulse plasmas needed for ITER and future low-aspect-ratio Spherical Torus (ST) devices. Plasma durations up to 1.6s (5 current redistribution times) have been achieved at plasma currents of 0.7 MA with non-inductive current fractions above 65% while achieving β T and β N values of 16% and 5.7 (%mT/MA), respectively. Newly available Motional Stark Effect data has allowed systematic study and validation of current drive sources and improved the understanding of ''hybrid''-like scenarios. In MHD research, six mid-plane ex-vessel radial field coils have been utilized to infer and correct intrinsic error fields, provide rotation control, and actively stabilize the n=1 resistive wall mode at ITER-relevant low plasma rotation values. In transport and turbulence, the low aspect ratio and wide range of achievable β in NSTX provide unique data for confinement scaling studies. A new high-k scattering diagnostic is investigating turbulent density fluctuations with wavenumbers extending from ion to electron gyro-scales. In the area of energetic particle research, cyclic neutron rate drops have been associated with the destabilization of multiple large Toroidal Alfven Eigenmodes (TAEs) similar to the ''sea-of-TAE'' modes predicted for ITER. Three wave coupling processes between energetic particle modes and TAEs have also been observed for the first time. In boundary physics, advanced shape control has been utilized to study the role of magnetic balance in H-mode access and ELM stability. Peak divertor heat flux has been reduced by a factor of 5 using an H-mode compatible radiative divertor, and Lithium conditioning has demonstrated particle pumping and improved thermal confinement. Finally, non-solenoidal plasma start-up research is particularly important for the ST, and Coaxial Helicity Injection has now produced 160kA plasma

  17. Mechanical Design of the NSTX High-k Scattering Diagnostic

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Feder, R.; Mazzucato, E.; Munsat, T.; Park, H.; Smith, D.R.; Ellis, R.; Labik, G.; Priniski, C.

    2005-01-01

    The NSTX High-k Scattering Diagnostic measures small-scale density fluctuations by the heterodyne detection of waves scattered from a millimeter wave probe beam at 280 GHz and λ = 1.07 mm. To enable this measurement, major alterations were made to the NSTX vacuum vessel and Neutral Beam armor. Close collaboration between the PPPL physics and engineering staff resulted in a flexible system with steerable launch and detection optics that can position the scattering volume either near the magnetic axis (ρ ∼ .1) or near the edge (ρ ∼ .8). 150 feet of carefully aligned corrugated waveguide was installed for injection of the probe beam and collection of the scattered signal in to the detection electronics

  18. Mechanical Design of the NSTX High-k Scattering Diagnostic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feder, R.; Mazzucato, E.; Munsat, T.; Park, H,; Smith, D. R.; Ellis, R.; Labik, G.; Priniski, C.

    2005-09-26

    The NSTX High-k Scattering Diagnostic measures small-scale density fluctuations by the heterodyne detection of waves scattered from a millimeter wave probe beam at 280 GHz and {lambda}=1.07 mm. To enable this measurement, major alterations were made to the NSTX vacuum vessel and Neutral Beam armor. Close collaboration between the PPPL physics and engineering staff resulted in a flexible system with steerable launch and detection optics that can position the scattering volume either near the magnetic axis ({rho} {approx} .1) or near the edge ({rho} {approx} .8). 150 feet of carefully aligned corrugated waveguide was installed for injection of the probe beam and collection of the scattered signal in to the detection electronics.

  19. Upgrades toward high-heat flux, liquid lithium plasma-facing components in the NSTX-U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaworski, M.A., E-mail: mjaworsk@pppl.gov [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Brooks, A.; Kaita, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Lopes-Cardozo, N. [TU/Eindhoven, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Menard, J.; Ono, M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Rindt, P. [TU/Eindhoven, Eindhoven (Netherlands); Tresemer, K. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • An upgrade path for the NSTX-U tokamak is proposed that maintains scientific productivity while enabling exploration of novel, liquid metal PFC. • Pre-filled liquid metal divertor targets are proposed as an intermediate step that mitigates technical and scientific risks associated with liquid metal PFC. • Analysis of leading edge features show a strong link between engineering design considerations and expected performance as a PFC. • A method for optimizing porous liquid metal targets restrained by capillary forces is provided indicating pore-sizes well within current technical capabilities. - Abstract: Liquid metal plasma-facing components (PFCs) provide numerous potential advantages over solid-material components. One critique of the approach is the relatively less developed technologies associated with deploying these components in a fusion plasma-experiment. Exploration of the temperature limits of liquid lithium PFCs in a tokamak divertor and the corresponding consequences on core operation are a high priority informing the possibilities for future liquid lithium PFCs. An all-metal NSTX-U is envisioned to make direct comparison between all high-Z wall operation and liquid lithium PFCs in a single device. By executing the all-metal upgrades incrementally, scientific productivity will be maintained while enabling physics and engineering-science studies to further develop the solid- and liquid-metal components. Six major elements of a flowing liquid-metal divertor system are described and a three-step program for implementing this system is laid out. The upgrade steps involve the first high-Z divertor target upgrade in NSTX-U, pre-filled liquid metal targets and finally, an integrated, flowing liquid metal divertor target. Two example issues are described where the engineering and physics experiments are shown to be closely related in examining the prospects for future liquid metal PFCs.

  20. EBW-Bootstrap Current Synergy in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, R.W.; Taylor, G.

    2005-01-01

    Current driven by electron Bernstein waves (EBW) and by the electron bootstrap effect are calculated separately and concurrently with a kinetic code, to determine the degree of synergy between them. A target β = 40% NSTX plasma is examined. A simple bootstrap model in the CQL3D Fokker-Planck code is used in these studies: the transiting electron distributions are connected in velocity-space at the trapped-passing boundary to trapped-electron distributions which are displaced radially by a half-banana width outwards/inwards for the co-/counter-passing regions. This model agrees well with standard bootstrap current calculations, over the outer 60% of the plasma radius. Relatively small synergy net bootstrap current is obtained for EBW power up to 4 MW. Locally, bootstrap current density increases in proportion to increased plasma pressure, and this effect can significantly affect the radial profile of driven current

  1. High spatial sampling global mode structure measurements via multichannel reflectometry in NSTX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crocker, N A; Peebles, W A; Kubota, S; Zhang, J [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California-Los Angeles, Los Angeles, CA 90095-7099 (United States); Bell, R E; Fredrickson, E D; Gorelenkov, N N; LeBlanc, B P; Menard, J E; Podesta, M [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543-0451 (United States); Sabbagh, S A [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Tritz, K [Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD 21218 (United States); Yuh, H [Nova Photonics, Princeton, NJ 08540 (United States)

    2011-10-15

    Global modes-including kinks and tearing modes (f <{approx} 50 kHz), toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes (TAE; f {approx} 50-250 kHz) and global and compressional Alfven eigenmodes (GAE and CAE; f >{approx} 400 kHz)-play critical roles in many aspects of plasma performance. Their investigation on NSTX is aided by an array of fixed-frequency quadrature reflectometers used to determine their radial density perturbation structure. The array has been recently upgraded to 16 channels spanning 30-75 GHz (n{sub cutoff} = (1.1-6.9) x 10{sup 19} m{sup -3} in O-mode), improving spatial sampling and access to the core of H-mode plasmas. The upgrade has yielded significant new results that advance the understanding of global modes in NSTX. The GAE and CAE structures have been measured for the first time in the core of an NSTX high-power (6 MW) beam-heated H-mode plasma. The CAE structure is strongly core-localized, which has important implications for electron thermal transport. The TAE structure has been measured with greatly improved spatial sampling, and measurements of the TAE phase, the first in NSTX, show strong radial variation near the midplane, indicating radial propagation caused by non-ideal MHD effects. Finally, the tearing mode structure measurements provide unambiguous evidence of coupling to an external kink.

  2. Recent EBW Emission Results on NSTX

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Diem, S.J.; Taylor, G.; Efthimion, P.C.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Caughman, J.B.; Bigelow, T.S.; Wilgen, J.B.; Harvey, R.W.; Preinhaelter, Josef; Urban, Jakub; Sabbagh, S.A.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 16 (2007), s. 63-63 ISSN 0003-0503. [Annual Meeting of the Division of Plasma Physics/49th./. Orlando , Florida, 12.11.2007-16.11.2007] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Conversion * Emission * Tokamaks * Electron Bernstein waves * Simulation * NSTX Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics http://meetings.aps.org/Meeting/DPP07/Content/901

  3. ELMs and the H-mode pedestal in NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maingi, R.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Bush, C.E.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Menard, J.E.; Stutman, D.; Tritz, K.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.E.; Boedo, J.A.; Gates, D.A.; Johnson, D.W.; Kaita, R.; Kaye, S.M.; Kugel, H.W.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Mueller, D.; Raman, R.; Roquemore, A.L.; Soukhanovskii, V.A.; Stevenson, T.

    2005-01-01

    We report on the behavior of ELMs in NBI-heated H-mode plasmas in NSTX. It is observed that the size of Type I ELMs, characterized by the change in plasma energy, decreases with increasing line-average density, as observed at conventional aspect ratio. It is also observed that the Type I ELM size decreases as the plasma equilibrium is shifted from a symmetric double-null toward a lower single-null configuration. Type II/III ELMs have also been observed in NSTX, as well as a high-performance regime with small ELMs which we designate Type V. The Type V ELMs are characterized by an intermittent n 1 magnetic pre-cursor oscillation rotating counter to the plasma current; the mode vanishes between Type V ELMs crashes. Without active pumping, the density rises continuously through the Type V phase, albeit at a slower rate than ELM-free discharges

  4. Improvement in Plasma Performance with Lithium Coatings in NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaita, R.

    2009-01-01

    Lithium as a plasma-facing material has attractive features, including a reduction in the recycling of hydrogenic species and the potential for withstanding high heat and neutron fluxes in fusion reactors. Dramatic effects on plasma performance with lithium-coated plasma-facing components (PFC's) have been demonstrated on many fusion devices, including TFTR, T-11M, and FT-U. Using a liquid-lithium-filled tray as a limiter, the CDX-U device achieved very significant enhancement in the confinement time of ohmically heated plasmas. The recent NSTX experiments reported here have demonstrated, for the first time, significant and recurring benefits of lithium PFC coatings on divertor plasma performance in both L- and H- mode regimes heated by neutral beams.

  5. Advanced ST Plasma Scenario Simulations for NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessel, C.E.; Synakowski, E.J.; Gates, D.A.; Harvey, R.W.; Kaye, S.M.; Mau, T.K.; Menard, J.; Phillips, C.K.; Taylor, G.; Wilson, R.

    2004-01-01

    Integrated scenario simulations are done for NSTX [National Spherical Torus Experiment] that address four primary milestones for developing advanced ST configurations: high β and high β N inductive discharges to study all aspects of ST physics in the high-beta regime; non-inductively sustained discharges for flattop times greater than the skin time to study the various current-drive techniques; non-inductively sustained discharges at high β for flattop times much greater than a skin time which provides the integrated advanced ST target for NSTX; and non-solenoidal start-up and plasma current ramp-up. The simulations done here use the Tokamak Simulation Code (TSC) and are based on a discharge 109070. TRANSP analysis of the discharge provided the thermal diffusivities for electrons and ions, the neutral-beam (NB) deposition profile, and other characteristics. CURRAY is used to calculate the High Harmonic Fast Wave (HHFW) heating depositions and current drive. GENRAY/CQL3D is used to establish the heating and CD [current drive] deposition profiles for electron Bernstein waves (EBW). Analysis of the ideal-MHD stability is done with JSOLVER, BALMSC, and PEST2. The simulations indicate that the integrated advanced ST plasma is reachable, obtaining stable plasmas with β ∼ 40% at β N 's of 7.7-9, I P = 1.0 MA, and B T = 0.35 T. The plasma is 100% non-inductive and has a flattop of 4 skin times. The resulting global energy confinement corresponds to a multiplier of H 98(y,2) 1.5. The simulations have demonstrated the importance of HHFW heating and CD, EBW off-axis CD, strong plasma shaping, density control, and early heating/H-mode transition for producing and optimizing these plasma configurations

  6. Status and Plans for NSTX-U Recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hawryluk, R. J.; Gerhardt, S.; Menard, J.; Neumeyer, C.

    2017-10-01

    The NSTX-U device experienced a series of technical problems; the most recent of which was the failure of one of the poloidal magnetic field coils, which has rendered the device inoperable and in need of significant repair. As a result of these incidents, the Laboratory performed a very comprehensive analysis of all of the systems on NSTX-U. Through an integrated system's analysis approach, this process identified which actions need to be taken to form a corrective action plan to ensure reliable and predictable operation. The actions required to address the deficiencies were reviewed by external experts who made recommendations on four high-level programmatic decisions regarding the inner poloidal field coils, limitations to the required bakeout temperature needed for conditioning of the vacuum vessel, divertor and wall protection tiles and coaxial helicity injection. The plans for addressing the recommendations from the external review panels will be presented. This research was sponsored by the U.S. Dept. of Energy under contract DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  7. Edge Ion Heating by Launched High Harmonic Fast Waves in NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biewer, T.M.; Bell, R.E.; Diem, S.J.; Phillips, C.K.; Wilson, J.R.; Ryan, P.M.

    2004-01-01

    A new spectroscopic diagnostic on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) measures the velocity distribution of ions in the plasma edge simultaneously along both poloidal and toroidal views. An anisotropic ion temperature is measured during high-power high harmonic fast wave (HHFW) radio-frequency (rf) heating in helium plasmas, with the poloidal ion temperature roughly twice the toroidal ion temperature. Moreover, the measured spectral distribution suggests that two populations of ions are present and have temperatures of typically 500 eV and 50 eV with rotation velocities of -50 km/s and -10 km/s, respectively (predominantly perpendicular to the local magnetic field). This bi-modal distribution is observed in both the toroidal and poloidal views (for both He + and C 2+ ions), and is well correlated with the period of rf power application to the plasma. The temperature of the hot component is observed to increase with the applied rf power, which was scanned between 0 and 4.3 MW . The 30 MHz HHFW launched by the NSTX antenna is expected and observed to heat core electrons, but plasma ions do not resonate with the launched wave, which is typically at >10th harmonic of the ion cyclotron frequency in the region of observation. A likely ion heating mechanism is parametric decay of the launched HHFW into an Ion Bernstein Wave (IBW). The presence of the IBW in NSTX plasmas during HHFW application has been directly confirmed with probe measurements. IBW heating occurs in the perpendicular ion distribution, consistent with the toroidal and poloidal observations. Calculations of IBW propagation indicate that multiple waves could be created in the parametric decay process, and that most of the IBW power would be absorbed in the outer 10 to 20 cm of the plasma, predominantly on fully stripped ions. These predictions are in qualitative agreement with the observations, and must be accounted for when calculating the energy budget of the plasma

  8. Effect of lithium PFC coatings on NSTX density control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugel, H.W.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.; Bush, C.; Gates, D.; Gray, T.; Kaita, R.; Leblanc, B.; Maingi, R.; Majeski, R.; Mansfield, D.; Mueller, D.; Paul, S.; Raman, R.; Roquemore, A.L.; Sabbagh, S.; Skinner, C.H.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Stevenson, T.; Zakharov, L.

    2007-01-01

    Lithium coatings on the graphite plasma facing components (PFCs) in NSTX are being investigated as a tool for density profile control and reducing the recycling of hydrogen isotopes. Repeated lithium pellet injection into Center Stack Limited and Lower Single Null ohmic helium discharges were used to coat graphite surfaces that had been pre-conditioned with ohmic helium discharges of the same shape to reduce their contribution to hydrogen isotope recycling. The following deuterium NBI reference discharges exhibited a reduction in density by a factor of about 3 for limited and 2 for diverted plasmas, respectively, and peaked density profiles. Recently, a lithium evaporator has been used to apply thin coatings on conditioned and unconditioned PFCs. Effects on the plasma density and the impurities were obtained by pre-conditioning the PFCs with ohmic helium discharges, and performing the first deuterium NBI discharge as soon as possible after applying the lithium coating

  9. Temperature gradient driven electron transport in NSTX and Tore Supra

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Horton, W.; Wong, H.V.; Morrison, P.J.; Wurm, A.; Kim, J.H.; Perez, J.C.; Pratt, J.; Hoang, G.T.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Ball, R.

    2005-01-01

    Electron thermal fluxes are derived from the power balance for Tore Supra (TS) and NSTX discharges with centrally deposited fast wave electron heating. Measurements of the electron temperature and density profiles, combined with ray tracing computations of the power absorption profiles, allow detailed interpretation of the thermal flux versus temperature gradient. Evidence supporting the occurrence of electron temperature gradient turbulent transport in the two confinement devices is found. With control of the magnetic rotational transform profile and the heating power, internal transport barriers are created in TS and NSTX discharges. These partial transport barriers are argued to be a universal feature of transport equations in the presence of invariant tori that are intrinsic to non-monotonic rotational transforms in dynamical systems

  10. Plasma Start-up in HIT-II and NSTX using Transient Coaxial Helicity Injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raman, R.; Jarboe, T.R.; Nelson, B.A.; Mueller, D.; Bell, M.G.; Ono, M.

    2008-01-01

    The method of transient coaxial helicity injection (CHI) has previously been used in the HITII experiment at the University of Washington to produce 100 kA of closed flux current. The generation of the plasma current by CHI involves the process of magnetic reconnection, which has been experimentally controlled in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory to allow this potentially unstable phenomenon to reorganize the magnetic field lines to form closed, nested magnetic surfaces carrying a plasma current up to 160 kA. This is a world record for non-inductive closed-flux current generation, and demonstrates the high current capability of this method

  11. NSTX plasma operation with a Liquid Lithium Divertor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kugel, H.W., E-mail: hkugel@pppl.gov [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Allain, J.P. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.E.; Diallo, A.; Ellis, R.; Gerhardt, S.P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Heim, B. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Jaworski, M.A.; Kaita, R.; Kallman, J.; Kaye, S.; LeBlanc, B.P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Maingi, R.; McLean, A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Menard, J.; Mueller, D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Nygren, R. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Ono, M.; Paul, S.F. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); and others

    2012-10-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer NSTX 2010 experiments tested the effectiveness of maintaining the deuterium retention properties of a static liquid lithium molybdenum divertor surface when refreshed by lithium evaporation as an approximation to a flowing liquid lithium surface. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Noteworthy improvements in plasma performance with the plasma strike point on the liquid lithium molybdenum divertor were obtained similar to those obtained previously with lithiated graphite. The role of lithium impurities in this result is discussed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Inspection of the liquid lithium molybdenum divertor after the Campaign indicated mechanical damage to supports, and other hardware resulting from forces following plasma current disruptions. - Abstract: NSTX 2010 experiments were conducted using a molybdenum Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD) surface installed on the outer part of the lower divertor. This tested the effectiveness of maintaining the deuterium retention properties of a static liquid lithium surface when refreshed by lithium evaporation as an approximation to a flowing liquid lithium surface. The LLD molybdenum front face has a 45% porosity to provide sufficient wetting to spread 37 g of lithium, and to retain it in the presence of magnetic forces. Lithium Evaporators were used to deposit lithium on the LLD surface. At the beginning of discharges, the LLD lithium surface ranged from solid to liquefied depending on the amount of applied and plasma heating. Noteworthy improvements in plasma performance were obtained similar to those obtained previously with lithiated graphite, e.g., ELM-free, quiescent edge, H-modes. During these experiments with the plasma outer strike point on the LLD, the rate of deuterium retention in the LLD, as indicated by the fueling needed to achieve and maintain stable plasma conditions, was the about the same as that for solid lithium coatings on the graphite prior to the installation of the

  12. Overview of innovative PMI research on NSTX-U and associated PMI facilities at PPPL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, M.; Jaworski, M.; Kaita, R.; Skinner, C. N.; Allain, J. P.; Maingi, R.; Scotti, F.; Soukhanovskii, V. A.

    2013-01-01

    Developing a reactor compatible divertor and managing the associated plasma material interaction (PMI) has been identified as a high priority research area for magnetic confinement fusion. Accordingly on NSTX-U, the PMI research has received a strong emphasis. Moreover, with ∼15 MW of auxiliary heating power, NSTX-U will be able to test the PMI physics with the peak divertor plasma facing component (PFC) heat loads of up to 40-60 MW/m 2

  13. Mode-converted electron Bernstein wave emission research on CDX-U and NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G.; Efthimion, P.C; Jones, B.; Munsat, T.; Hosea, J.C; Kaita, R.; Majeski, R.; Spaleta, J.; Wilson, J.R.; Wilgen, J.B.; Bell, G.L.; Rasmussen, D.A.; Ram, A.K.; Bers, A.; Harvey, R.W.; Smirnov, A.P.

    2003-01-01

    Electron Bernstein waves (EBWs) may enable electron temperature profile measurements and local electron heating and current drive in high β overdense (ω pe /ω ce >>1) plasmas. Significant results are presented from the measurement of X-mode radiation, converted from EBWs observed normal to the magnetic field on the mid-plane of overdense plasmas in CDX-U and NSTX. A radially scannable, in-vessel, quad-ridged antenna and Langmuir probe array on CDX-U studied EBW to X-mode conversion. A local limiter optimized the conversion efficiency by modifying the density scale length at the mode conversion layer. The fundamental EBW conversion efficiency increased, by an order of magnitude, to ∼100% when the local limiter and antenna were inserted near the conversion layer. This technique can be extended to large, high temperature devices. Another significant observation was that the EBW emission source was localized near the electron cyclotron resonance. As a result, mode-converted EBW radiometry has measured radial transport in CDX-U. In addition, a threefold increase in conversion efficiency was observed at the L to H transition in NSTX. Measured conversion efficiency agreed well with theoretical predictions. EBW ray tracing and bounce-averaged Fokker-Planck codes are being used to model EBW heating and current drive scenarios for NSTX equilibria with β up to 40%. So far, results show that it is possible to drive localized currents on the high field side of the magnetic axis in NSTX at β ∼ 12% with current drive efficiency which compares favorably with ECCD. (authors)

  14. Final Scientific/Technical Report, USDOE Award DE-FG-02ER54684, Recipient: CompX, Project Title: Fokker-Planck/Ray Tracing for Electron Bernstein and Fast Wave Modeling in Support of NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Harvey, R.W.

    2009-01-01

    This DOE grant supported fusion energy research, a potential long-term solution to the world's energy needs. Magnetic fusion, exemplified by confinement of very hot ionized gases, i.e., plasmas, in donut-shaped tokamak vessels is a leading approach for this energy source. Thus far, a mixture of hydrogen isotopes has produced 10's of megawatts of fusion power for seconds in a tokamak reactor at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory in New Jersey. The research grant under consideration, ER54684, uses computer models to aid in understanding and projecting efficacy of heating and current drive sources in the National Spherical Torus Experiment, a tokamak variant, at PPPL. The NSTX experiment explores the physics of very tight aspect ratio, almost spherical tokamaks, aiming at producing steady-state fusion plasmas. The current drive is an integral part of the steady-state concept, maintaining the magnetic geometry in the steady-state tokamak. CompX further developed and applied models for radiofrequency (rf) heating and current drive for applications to NSTX. These models build on a 30 year development of rf ray tracing (the all-frequencies GENRAY code) and higher dimensional Fokker-Planck rf-collisional modeling (the 3D collisional-quasilinear CQL3D code) at CompX. Two mainline current-drive rf modes are proposed for injection into NSTX: (1) electron Bernstein wave (EBW), and (2) high harmonic fast wave (HHFW) modes. Both these current drive systems provide a means for the rf to access the especially high density plasma--termed high beta plasma--compared to the strength of the required magnetic fields. The CompX studies entailed detailed modeling of the EBW to calculate the efficiency of the current drive system, and to determine its range of flexibility for driving current at spatial locations in the plasma cross-section. The ray tracing showed penetration into NSTX bulk plasma, relatively efficient current drive, but a limited ability to produce current over the whole

  15. NSTX-U Advances in Real-Time C++11 on Linux

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erickson, Keith G.

    2015-08-01

    Programming languages like C and Ada combined with proprietary embedded operating systems have dominated the real-time application space for decades. The new C++11 standard includes native, language-level support for concurrency, a required feature for any nontrivial event-oriented real-time software. Threads, Locks, and Atomics now exist to provide the necessary tools to build the structures that make up the foundation of a complex real-time system. The National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade (NSTX-U) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) is breaking new ground with the language as applied to the needs of fusion devices. A new Digital Coil Protection System (DCPS) will serve as the main protection mechanism for the magnetic coils, and it is written entirely in C++11 running on Concurrent Computer Corporation's real-time operating system, RedHawk Linux. It runs over 600 algorithms in a 5 kHz control loop that determine whether or not to shut down operations before physical damage occurs. To accomplish this, NSTX-U engineers developed software tools that do not currently exist elsewhere, including real-time atomic synchronization, real-time containers, and a real-time logging framework. Together with a recent (and carefully configured) version of the GCC compiler, these tools enable data acquisition, processing, and output using a conventional operating system to meet a hard real-time deadline (that is, missing one periodic is a failure) of 200 microseconds.

  16. NSTX-U Advances in Real-Time C++11 on Linux

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Erickson, Keith G.

    2015-01-01

    Programming languages like C and Ada combined with proprietary embedded operating systems have dominated the real-time application space for decades. The new C++11standard includes native, language-level support for concurrency, a required feature for any nontrivial event-oriented real-time software. Threads, Locks, and Atomics now exist to provide the necessary tools to build the structures that make up the foundation of a complex real-time system. The National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade (NSTX-U) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL) is breaking new ground with the language as applied to the needs of fusion devices. A new Digital Coil Protection System (DCPS) will serve as the main protection mechanism for the magnetic coils, and it is written entirely in C++11 running on Concurrent Computer Corporation's real-time operating system, RedHawk Linux. It runs over 600 algorithms in a 5 kHz control loop that determine whether or not to shut down operations before physical damage occurs. To accomplish this, NSTX-U engineers developed software tools that do not currently exist elsewhere, including real-time atomic synchronization, real-time containers, and a real-time logging framework. Together with a recent (and carefully configured) version of the GCC compiler, these tools enable data acquisition, processing, and output using a conventional operating system to meet a hard real-time deadline (that is, missing one periodic is a failure) of 200 microseconds

  17. Initial Studies of Core and Edge Transport of NSTX Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Synakowski, E.J.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.E.; Bush, C.E.; Bourdelle, C.; Darrow, D.; Dorland, W.; Ejiri, A.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Gates, D.A.; Kaye, S.M.; Kubota, S.; Kugel, H.W.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Maingi, R.; Maqueda, R.J.; Menard, J.E.; Mueller, D.; Rosenberg, A.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Stutman, D.; Taylor, G.; Johnson, D.W.; Kaita, R.; Ono, M.; Paoletti, F.; Peebles, W.; Peng, Y-K.M.; Roquemore, A.L.; Skinner, C.H.; Soukhanovskii, V.A.

    2001-01-01

    Rapidly developing diagnostic, operational, and analysis capability is enabling the first detailed local physics studies to begin in high-beta plasmas of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). These studies are motivated in part by energy confinement times in neutral-beam-heated discharges that are favorable with respect to predictions from the ITER-89P scaling expression. Analysis of heat fluxes based on profile measurements with neutral-beam injection (NBI) suggest that the ion thermal transport may be exceptionally low, and that electron thermal transport is the dominant loss channel. This analysis motivates studies of possible sources of ion heating not presently accounted for by classical collisional processes. Gyrokinetic microstability studies indicate that long wavelength turbulence with k(subscript ''theta'') rho(subscript ''i'') ∼ 0.1-1 may be suppressed in these plasmas, while modes with k(subscript ''theta'') rho(subscript ''i'') ∼ 50 may be robust. High-harmonic fast-wave (HHFW) heating efficiently heats electrons on NSTX, and studies have begun using it to assess transport in the electron channel. Regarding edge transport, H-mode [high-confinement mode] transitions occur with either NBI or HHFW heating. The power required for low-confinement mode (L-mode) to H-mode transitions far exceeds that expected from empirical edge-localized-mode-free H-mode scaling laws derived from moderate aspect ratio devices. Finally, initial fluctuation measurements made with two techniques are permitting the first characterizations of edge turbulence

  18. Model-based Optimization and Feedback Control of the Current Density Profile Evolution in NSTX-U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilhan, Zeki Okan

    Nuclear fusion research is a highly challenging, multidisciplinary field seeking contributions from both plasma physics and multiple engineering areas. As an application of plasma control engineering, this dissertation mainly explores methods to control the current density profile evolution within the National Spherical Torus eXperiment-Upgrade (NSTX-U), which is a substantial upgrade based on the NSTX device, which is located in Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL), Princeton, NJ. Active control of the toroidal current density profile is among those plasma control milestones that the NSTX-U program must achieve to realize its next-step operational goals, which are characterized by high-performance, long-pulse, MHD-stable plasma operation with neutral beam heating. Therefore, the aim of this work is to develop model-based, feedforward and feedback controllers that can enable time regulation of the current density profile in NSTX-U by actuating the total plasma current, electron density, and the powers of the individual neutral beam injectors. Motivated by the coupled, nonlinear, multivariable, distributed-parameter plasma dynamics, the first step towards control design is the development of a physics-based, control-oriented model for the current profile evolution in NSTX-U in response to non-inductive current drives and heating systems. Numerical simulations of the proposed control-oriented model show qualitative agreement with the high-fidelity physics code TRANSP. The next step is to utilize the proposed control-oriented model to design an open-loop actuator trajectory optimizer. Given a desired operating state, the optimizer produces the actuator trajectories that can steer the plasma to such state. The objective of the feedforward control design is to provide a more systematic approach to advanced scenario planning in NSTX-U since the development of such scenarios is conventionally carried out experimentally by modifying the tokamak's actuator

  19. Investigation of EBW Thermal Emission and Mode Conversion Physics in H-Mode Plasmas on NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diem, S.J.; Taylor, G.; Efthimion, P.C.; Kugel, H.W.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Phillips, C.K.; Caughman, J.B.; Wilgen, J.B.; Harvey, R.W.; Preinhaelter, J.; Urban, J.; Sabbagh, S.A.

    2008-01-01

    High β plasmas in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) operate in the overdense regime, allowing the electron Bernstein wave (EBW) to propagate and be strongly absorbed/emitted at the electron cyclotron resonances. As such, EBWs may provide local electron heating and current drive. For these applications, efficient coupling between the EBWs and electromagnetic waves outside the plasma is needed. Thermal EBW emission (EBE) measurements, via oblique B-X-O double mode conversion, have been used to determine the EBW transmission efficiency for a wide range of plasma conditions on NSTX. Initial EBE measurements in H-mode plasmas exhibited strong emission before the L-H transition, but the emission rapidly decayed after the transition. EBE simulations show that collisional damping of the EBW prior to the mode conversion (MC) layer can significantly reduce the measured EBE for T e < 20 eV, explaining the observations. Lithium evaporation was used to reduce EBE collisional damping near the MC layer. As a result, the measured B-X-O transmission efficiency increased from < 10% (no Li) to 60% (with Li), consistent with EBE simulations.

  20. Status of Far Infrared Tangential Interferometry/Polarimetry (FIReTIP) on NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, H.K.; Edwards, S.; Guttadora, L.; Deng, B.; Domier, C.W.; Lee, K.C.; Johnson, M.; Luhmann, N.C. Jr.

    2000-01-01

    The Influence of paramagnetism and diamagnetism will significantly alter the vacuum toroidal magnetic field in the spherical torus. Therefore, plasma parameters dependent upon BT such as the q-profile and the local b value need an independent measurement of BT(r,t). The multi-chord Tangential Far Infrared Interferometer/Polarimeter (FIReTIP) system [1] currently under development for the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) will provide temporally and radially resolved toroidal field profile [BT(r,t)] and 2-D electron density profile [ne(r,t)] data. A two-channel interferometer will be operational this year and the full system will be ready by 2002

  1. Power exhaust scenarios and control for projected high-power NSTX-U operation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Menard, Jonathan; Gerhardt, S. P.; Myers, C. E.; Reinke, M. L.; Brooks, A.; Mardenfeld, M.; NSTX Upgrade Team

    2017-10-01

    An important goal of the NSTX Upgrade (NSTX-U) research program is to characterize energy confinement in the low-aspect-ratio spherical tokamak configuration over a significantly expanded range of plasma current, toroidal field, and heating power, while increasing flattop durations up to 5 seconds. However, the narrowing of the scrape-off layer at higher current combined with an improved understanding of expected halo-current loads has motivated a significant re-design of NSTX-U plasma facing components in the high-heat-flux regions of the divertor. In order to reduce the expected divertor heat flux to acceptable levels, a combination of mitigation techniques will be used: increased divertor poloidal flux expansion, increased divertor radiation, and controlled strike-point sweeping. The machine requirements for these various mitigation techniques are studied here using a newly implemented reduced heat-flux model. Systematic equilibrium scans are used to quantify the required divertor coil currents and to verify vertical stability for a range of plasma shapes. Free-boundary control schemes to constrain the strike-point location and field-line angle-of-incidence will also be discussed. Work supported by DOE contract DE-AC02- 09CH11466.

  2. NSTX Plasma Response to Lithium Coated Divertor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H.W. Kugel, M.G. Bell, J.P. Allain, R.E. Bell, S. Ding, S.P. Gerhardt, M.A. Jaworski, R. Kaita, J. Kallman, S.M. Kaye, B.P. LeBlanc, R. Maingi, R. Majeski, R. Maqueda, D.K. Mansfield, D. Mueller, R. Nygren, S.F. Paul, R. Raman, A.L. Roquemore, S.A. Sabbagh, H. Schneider, C.H. Skinner, V.A. Soukhanovskii, C.N. Taylor, J.R. Timberlak, W.R. Wampler, L.E. Zakharov, S.J. Zweben, and the NSTX Research Team

    2011-01-21

    NSTX experiments have explored lithium evaporated on a graphite divertor and other plasma facing components in both L- and H- mode confinement regimes heated by high-power neutral beams. Improvements in plasma performance have followed these lithium depositions, including a reduction and eventual elimination of the HeGDC time between discharges, reduced edge neutral density, reduced plasma density, particularly in the edge and the SOL, increased pedestal electron and ion temperature, improved energy confinement and the suppression of ELMs in the H-mode. However, with improvements in confinement and suppression of ELMs, there was a significant secular increase in the effective ion charge Zeff and the radiated power in H-mode plasmas as a result of increases in the carbon and medium-Z metallic impurities. Lithium itself remained at a very low level in the plasma core, <0.1%. Initial results are reported from operation with a Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD) recently installed.

  3. NSTX plasma response to lithium coated divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugel, H.W.; Bell, M.G.; Allain, J.P.; Bell, R.E.; Ding, S.; Gerhardt, S.P.; Jaworski, M.A.; Kaita, R.; Kallman, J.; Kaye, S.M.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Maingi, Rajesh; Majeski, R.; Maqueda, R.J.; Mansfield, D.K.; Mueller, D.; Nygren, R.E.; Paul, S.F.; Raman, R.; Roquemore, A.L.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Schneider, H.; Skinner, C.H.; Soukhanovskii, V.A.; Taylor, C.N.; Timberlake, J.; Wampler, W.R.; Zakharov, L.E.; Zweben, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    NSTX experiments have explored lithium evaporated on a graphite divertor and other plasma-facing components in both L- and H- mode confinement regimes heated by high-power neutral beams. Improvements in plasma performance have followed these lithium depositions, including a reduction and eventual elimination of the HeGDC time between discharges, reduced edge neutral density, reduced plasma density, particularly in the edge and the SOL, increased pedestal electron and ion temperature, improved energy confinement and the suppression of ELMs in the H-mode. However, with improvements in confinement and suppression of ELMs, there was a significant secular increase in the effective ion charge Z(eff) and the radiated power in H-mode plasmas as a result of increases in the carbon and medium-Z metallic impurities. Lithium itself remained at a very low level in the plasma core, < 0.1%. Initial results are reported from operation with a Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD) recently installed.

  4. Easy web interfaces to IDL code for NSTX Data Analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Davis, W.M.

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► Web interfaces to IDL code can be developed quickly. ► Dozens of Web Tools are used effectively on NSTX for Data Analysis. ► Web interfaces are easier to use than X-window applications. - Abstract: Reusing code is a well-known Software Engineering practice to substantially increase the efficiency of code production, as well as to reduce errors and debugging time. A variety of “Web Tools” for the analysis and display of raw and analyzed physics data are in use on NSTX [1], and new ones can be produced quickly from existing IDL [2] code. A Web Tool with only a few inputs, and which calls an IDL routine written in the proper style, can be created in less than an hour; more typical Web Tools with dozens of inputs, and the need for some adaptation of existing IDL code, can be working in a day or so. Efficiency is also increased for users of Web Tools because of the familiar interface of the web browser, and not needing X-windows, or accounts and passwords, when used within our firewall. Web Tools were adapted for use by PPPL physicists accessing EAST data stored in MDSplus with only a few man-weeks of effort; adapting to additional sites should now be even easier. An overview of Web Tools in use on NSTX, and a list of the most useful features, is also presented.

  5. Power and Particle Balance Calculations with Impurities in NSTX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holland, C. G.; Maingi, R.; Owen, L. W.; Kaye, S. M.

    1998-11-01

    We reported the development C. Holland, et. al., Bull. Am. Phys. Soc. 42 (1997) 1927. and application R. Maingi et al., Proc. 3rd International Workshop on Spherical Tori, Sept. 3-5, 1997, St. Petersburg, Russia. of a Graphical User Interface to assess the important terms for edge and divertor plasma calculations for NSTX with the b2.5 edge plasma transport code B. Braams, Contrib. Plasma Phys. 36 (1996) 276.. The goals of those calculations were to estimate the worst case peak heat flux for plasma-facing component design, and the radiation requirements to reduce the peak heat flux. In this study we present the first simulations with intrinsic carbon impurity radiation. We find in general that the intrinsic carbon radiation should be sufficient to provide a wide operation window for the NSTX device. Details of the relative importance of heat flux transport mechanisms as determined with the GUI will be presented.

  6. Physics of integrated high-performance NSTX plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menard, J. E.; Bell, M. G.; Bell, R. E.; Fredrickson, E. D.; Gates, D. A.; Heidbrink, W.; Kaita, R.; Kaye, S. M.; Kessel, C. E.; Kugel, H.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Lee, K. C.; Levinton, F. M.; Maingi, R.; Medley, S. S.; Mikkelsen, D. R.; Mueller, D.; Nishino, N.; Ono, M.; Park, H.; Park, W.; Paul, S. F.; Peebles, T.; Peng, M.; Raman, R.; Redi, M.; Roquemore, L.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Skiner, C. H.; Sontag, A.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Stratton, B.; Stutman, D.; Synakowski, E.; Takase, Y.; Taylor, G.; Tritz, K.; Wade, M.; Wilson, J. R.; Zhu, W.

    2005-01-01

    An overarching goal of magnetic fusion research is the integration of steady state operation with high fusion power density, high plasma β, good thermal and fast particle confinement, and manageable heat and particle fluxes to reactor internal components. NSTX has made significant progress in integrating and understanding the interplay between these competing elements. Sustained high elongation up to 2.5 and H-mode transitions during the I p ramp-up have increased β p and reduced l i at high current resulting in I p flat-top durations exceeding 0.8s for I p >0.8MA. These shape and profile changes delay the onset of deleterious global MHD activity yielding β N values >4.5 and β T ∼20% maintained for several current diffusion times. Higher ∫ N discharges operating above the non-wall limit are sustained via rotational stabilization of the RWM. H-mode confinement scaling factors relative to H98(y,2) span the range 1±0.4 for B T >4kG and show a stron (Nearly linear) residual scaling with B T . Power balance analysis indicates the electron thermal transport dominates the loss power in beam-heated H m ode discharges, but the core χ e can be significantly reduced through current profile modification consistent with reversed magnetic shear. Small ELM regimes have been obtained in high performance plasmas on NSTX, but the ELM type and associated pedestal energy loss are found to depend sensitively on the boundary elongation, magnetic balance, and edge collisionality. NPA data and TRANSP analysis suggest resonant interactions with mid-radius tearing modes may lead to large fast-ion transport. The associated fast-ion diffusion and/or loss likely impact(s) both the driven current and power deposition profiles from NBI heating. Results from experiments to initiate the plasma without the ohmic solenoid and integrated scenario with the TSC code will also be described. (Author)

  7. High beta, Long Pulse, Bootstrap Sustained Scenarios on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gates, D.A.

    2003-01-01

    Long-pulse, high-beta scenarios have been established on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). Beta(sub)t(always equal to 2μ(sub)0· /B 2 (sub)t0) ∼ 35% has been achieved during transient discharges. The machine improvements that lead to these results, including error field reduction and high-temperature bakeout of plasma-facing components are described. The highest Beta(sub)t plasmas have high triangularity (delta = 0.8) and elongation (k = 2.0) at low-aspect ratio A always equal to R/a = 1.4. The strong shaping permits large values of normalized current, I(sub)N(always equal to I(sub)p /(aB(sub)t0)) approximately equal to 6 while maintaining moderate values of q(sub)95 = 4. Long-pulse discharges up to 1 sec in duration have been achieved with substantial bootstrap current. The total noninductive current drive can be as high as 60%, comprised of 50% bootstrap current and ∼10% neutral-beam current drive. The confinement enhancement factor H89P is in excess of 2.7. Beta(sub)N * H(sub)89P approximately or greater than 15 has been maintained for 8 * tau(sub)E ∼ 1.6 * tau(sub)CR, where tau(sub)CR is the relaxation time of the first radial moment of the toroidal current density. The ion temperature for these plasmas is significantly higher than that predicted by neoclassical theory

  8. Design and Construction of the NSTX Bakeout, Cooling and Vacuum Systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dudek, L.E.; Kalish, M.; Gernhardt, R.; Parsells, R.F.; Blanchard, W.

    1999-01-01

    This paper will describe the design, construction and initial operation of the NSTX bakeout, water cooling and vacuum systems. The bakeout system is designed for two modes of operation. The first mode allows heating of the first wall components to 350 degrees C while the external vessel is cooled to 150 degrees C. The second mode cools the first wall to 150 degrees C and the external vessel to 50 degrees C. The system uses a low viscosity heat transfer oil which is capable of high temperature low pressure operation. The NSTX Torus Vacuum Pumping System (TVPS) is designed to achieve a base pressure of approximately 1x10 (superscript -8) Torr and to evacuate the plasma fuel gas loads in less than 5 minutes between discharges. The vacuum pumping system is capable of a pumping speed of approximately 3400 l/s for deuterium. The hardware consists of two turbo molecular pumps (TMPs) and a mechanical pump set consisting of a mechanical and a Roots blower pump. A PLC is used as the control system to provide remote monitoring, control and software interlock capability. The NSTX cooling water provides chilled, de ionized water for heat removal in the TF, OH and PF, power supplies, bus bar systems, and various diagnostics. The system provides flow monitoring via a PLC to prevent damage due to loss of flow

  9. Overview of physics results from NSTX

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Raman, R.; Ahn, J-W.; Allain, J.P.; Andre, R.; Bastasz, R.; Battaglia, D.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Bell, M.; Bell, R.; Belova, E.; Berkery, J.; Betti, R.; Bialek, J.; Bigelow, T.; Bitter, M.; Boedo, J.; Bonoli, P.; Boozer, A.; Bortolon, A.; Brennan, D.; Breslau, J.; Buttery, R.; Canik, J.; Caravelli, G.; Chang, C.; Crocker, N.A.; Darrow, D.; Davis, W.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Diallo, A.; Ding, S.; D’Ippolito, D.; Domier, C.; Dorland, W.; Ethier, S.; Evans, T.; Ferron, J.; Finkenthal, M.; Foley, J.; Fonck, R.; Frazin, R.; Fredrickson, E.; Fu, G.; Gates, D.; Gerhardt, S.; Glasser, A.; Gorelenkov, N.; Gray, T.; Guo, Y.; Guttenfelder, W.; Hahm, T.; Harvey, R.; Hassanein, A.; Heidbrink, W.; Hill, K.; Hirooka, Y.; Hooper, E.B.; Hosea, J.; Hu, B.; Humphreys, D.; Indireshkumar, K.; Jaeger, F.; Jarboe, T.; Jardin, S.; Jaworski, M.; Kaita, R.; Kallman, J.; Katsuro-Hopkins, O.; Kaye, S.; Kessel, C.; Kim, J.; Kolemen, E.; Krasheninnikov, S.; Kubota, S.; Kugel, H.; La Haye, R.; Lao, L.; LeBlanc, B.; Lee, W.; Lee, K.; Leuer, J.; Levinton, F.; Liang, Y.; Liu, D.; Luhmann Jr, N.; Maingi, R.; Majeski, R.; Manickam, J.; Mansfield, D.; Maqueda, R.; Mazzucato, E.; McLean, A.; McCune, D.; McGeehan, B.; McKee, G.; Medley, S.; Menard, J.; Menon, M.; Meyer, H.; Mikkelsen, D.; Miloshevsky, G.; Mueller, D.; Munsat, T.; Myra, J.; Nelson, B.; Nishino, N.; Nygren, R.; Ono, M.; Osborne, T.; Park, H.; Park, J.; Paul, S.; Peebles, W.; Penaflor, B.; Phillips, C.; Pigarov, A.; Podesta, M.; Preinhaelter, Josef; Ren, Y.; Reimerdes, H.; Ross, P.; Rowley, C.; Ruskov, E.; Russell, D.; Ruzic, D.; Ryan, P.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Schaffer, M.; Schuster, E.; Scotti, F.; Shaing, K.; Shevchenko, V.; Shinohara, K.; Sizyuk, V.; Skinner, C.H.; Smirnov, A.; Smith, D.; Snyder, P.; Solomon, W.; Sontag, A.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Stoltzfus-Dueck, T.; Stotler, D.; Stratton, B.; Stutman, D.; Takahashi, H.; Takase, Y.; Tamura, N.; Tang, X.; Taylor, C.N.; Taylor, G.; Taylor, C.; Tritz, K.; Tsarouhas, D.; Umansky, M.; Urban, Jakub; Walker, M.; Wampler, W.; Wang, W.; Whaley, J.; White, R.; Wilgen, J.; Wilson, R.; Wong, K.L.; Wright, J.; Xia, Z.; Youchison, D.; Yu, H.; Yuh, H.; Zakharov, L.; Zemlyanov, D.; Zimmer, G.; Zweben, S.J.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 9 (2011), 094011-094011 ISSN 0029-5515. [Fusion Energy Conference (FEC 2010)/23rd./. Daejon, 11.10.2010-16.10.2010] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA202/08/0419; GA MŠk 7G09042 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : NSTX * Spherical tokamaks * Overdense plasma * Conversion * Emission * Tokamaks * Elektron Bernstein waves Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 4.090, year: 2011 http://iopscience.iop.org/0029-5515/51/9/094011/pdf/0029-5515_51_9_094011.pdf

  10. Control and data acquisition upgrades for NSTX-U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, W.M., E-mail: bdavis@pppl.gov; Tchilinguirian, G.J., E-mail: gtchilin@pppl.gov; Carroll, T., E-mail: tcarroll@pppl.gov; Erickson, K.G., E-mail: kerickson@pppl.gov; Gerhardt, S.P., E-mail: sgerhardt@pppl.gov; Henderson, P., E-mail: phenderson@pppl.gov; Kampel, S.H., E-mail: skampel@pppl.gov; Sichta, P., E-mail: psichta@pppl.gov; Zimmer, G.N., E-mail: gzimmer@pppl.gov

    2016-11-15

    Highlights: • The NSTX-U upgrade is nearing completion, and various control and data acquisition upgrades are needed. • The Digital Coil Protection System is a major addition which provides hardware and software to protect the magnetic coils from the complex, increased, stresses added from the upgrade. • The increased computational requirements for the upgrade have largely followed Moore’s Law, and enhancements to the infrastructure and computer hardware should maintain or exceed the previous functionality. • Data requirements for Fast 2-D cameras have exceeded those of “conventional” time-varying signals. There has been a particular emphasis and increase in data from IR cameras. - Abstract: The extensive NSTX Upgrade (NSTX-U) Project includes major components which allow a doubling of the toroidal field strength to 1 T, of the Neutral Beam heating power to 12 MW, and the plasma current to 2 MA, and substantial structural enhancements to withstand the increased electromagnetic loads. The maximum pulse length will go from 1.5 to 5 s. The larger and more complex forces on the coils will be protected by a Digital Coil Protection System, which requires demanding real-time data input rates, calculations and responses. The amount of conventional digitized data for a given pulse is expected to increase from 2.5 to 5 GB per second of pulse. 2-D Fast Camera data is expected to go from 2.5 GB/pulse to 10, and another 2 GB/pulse is expected from new IR cameras. Our network capacity will be increased by a factor of 10, with 10 Gb/s fibers used for the major trunks. 32-core Linux systems will be used for several functions, including between-shot data processing, MDSplus data serving, between-shot EFIT analysis, real-time processing, and for a new capability, between-shot TRANSP. Improvements to the MDSplus events subsystem will be made through the use of both UDP and TCP/IP based methods and the addition of a dedicated “event server”.

  11. An In-situ materials analysis particle probe (MAPP) diagnostic to study particle density control and hydrogenic fuel retention in NSTX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Allain, Jean-Paul [Purdue Univ., West Lafayette, IN (United States)

    2014-09-05

    A new materials analysis particle probe (MAPP) was designed, constructed and tested to develop understanding of particle control and hydrogenic fuel retention in lithium-based plasma-facing surfaces in NSTX. The novel feature of MAPP is an in-situ tool to probe the divertor NSTX floor during LLD and lithium-coating shots with subsequent transport to a post-exposure in-vacuo surface analysis chamber to measure D retention. In addition, the implications of a lithiated graphite-dominated plasma-surface environment in NSTX on LLD performance, operation and ultimately hydrogenic pumping and particle control capability are investigated in this proposal. MAPP will be an invaluable tool for erosion/redeposition simulation code validation.

  12. Comparison of neutral density profiles measured using Dα and C5+ in NSTX-U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, R. E.; Scotti, F.; Diallo, A.; Leblanc, B. P.; Podesta, M.; Sabbagh, S. A.

    2017-10-01

    Edge neutral density profiles determined from two different measurements are compared on NSTX-U plasmas. Neutral density measurements were not typical on NSTX plasmas. An array of fibers dedicated to the measurement of passive emission of C5+, used to subtract background emission for charge exchange recombination spectroscopy (CHERS), can be used to infer deuterium neutral density near the plasma edge. The line emission from C5+ is dominated by charge exchange with neutral deuterium near the plasma edge. An edge neutral density diagnostic consisting of a camera with a Dα filter was installed on NSTX-U. The line-integrated measurements from both diagnostics are inverted to obtain local emissivity profiles. Neutral density is then inferred using atomics rates from ADAS and profile measurements from Thomson scattering and CHERS. Comparing neutral density profiles from the two diagnostic measurements helps determine the utility of using the more routinely available C5+ measurements for neutral density profiles. Initial comparisons show good agreement between the two measurements inside the separatrix. Supported by US DoE Contracts DE-AC02-09CH11466 and DE-AC52-07NA27344.

  13. Lithium coatings on NSTX plasma facing components and its effects on boundary control, core plasma performance, and operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kugel, H.W., E-mail: hkugel@pppl.gov [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Bell, M.G.; Schneider, H. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Allain, J.P. [Purdue University, School of Nuclear Engineering, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Bell, R.E.; Kaita, R.; Kallman, J.; Kaye, S.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Mansfield, D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Nygren, R.E. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Maingi, R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Menard, J.; Mueller, D.; Ono, M.; Paul, S.; Gerhardt, S. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Raman, R. [University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98195 (United States); Sabbagh, S. [Columbia University, New York, NY 10027 (United States); Skinner, C.H. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States)

    2010-11-15

    NSTX high power divertor plasma experiments have used in succession lithium pellet injection (LPI), evaporated lithium, and injected lithium powder to apply lithium coatings to graphite plasma facing components. In 2005, following the wall conditioning and LPI, discharges exhibited edge density reduction and performance improvements. Since 2006, first one, and now two lithium evaporators have been used routinely to evaporate lithium onto the lower divertor region at total rates of 10-70 mg/min for periods 5-10 min between discharges. Prior to each discharge, the evaporators are withdrawn behind shutters. Significant improvements in the performance of NBI heated divertor discharges resulting from these lithium depositions were observed. These evaporators are now used for more than 80% of NSTX discharges. Initial work with injecting fine lithium powder into the edge of NBI heated deuterium discharges yielded comparable changes in performance. Several operational issues encountered with lithium wall conditions, and the special procedures needed for vessel entry are discussed. The next step in this work is installation of a liquid lithium divertor surface on the outer part of the lower divertor.

  14. Lithium Coatings on NSTX Plasma Facing Components and Its Effects On Boundary Control, Core Plasma Performance, and Operation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    H.W.Kugel, M.G.Bell, H.Schneider, J.P.Allain, R.E.Bell, R Kaita, J.Kallman, S. Kaye, B.P. LeBlanc, D. Mansfield, R.E. Nygen, R. Maingi, J. Menard, D. Mueller, M. Ono, S. Paul, S.Gerhardt, R.Raman, S.Sabbagh, C.H.Skinner, V.Soukhanovskii, J.Timberlake, L.E.Zakharov, and the NSTX Research Team

    2010-01-25

    NSTX high-power divertor plasma experiments have used in succession lithium pellet injection (LPI), evaporated lithium, and injected lithium powder to apply lithium coatings to graphite plasma facing components. In 2005, following wall conditioning and LPI, discharges exhibited edge density reduction and performance improvements. Since 2006, first one, and now two lithium evaporators have been used routinely to evaporate lithium onto the lower divertor region at total rates of 10-70 mg/min for periods 5-10 min between discharges. Prior to each discharge, the evaporators are withdrawn behind shutters. Significant improvements in the performance of NBI heated divertor discharges resulting from these lithium depositions were observed. These evaporators are now used for more than 80% of NSTX discharges. Initial work with injecting fine lithium powder into the edge of NBI heated deuterium discharges yielded comparable changes in performance. Several operational issues encountered with lithium wall conditions, and the special procedures needed for vessel entry are discussed. The next step in this work is installation of a Liquid Lithium Divertor surface on the outer part of the lower divertor.

  15. Lithium Coatings on NSTX Plasma Facing Components and Its Effects On Boundary Control, Core Plasma Performance, and Operation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugel, H.W.; Bell, M.G.; Schneider, H.; Allain, J.P.; Bell, R.E.; Kaita, R.; Kallman, J.; Kaye, S.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Mansfield, D.; Nygen, R.E.; Maingi, R.; Menard, J.; Mueller, D.; Ono, M.; Paul, S.; Gerhardt, S.; Raman, R.; Sabbagh, S.; Skinner, C.H.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Timberlake, J.; Zakharov, L.E.; NSTX Research Team

    2010-01-01

    NSTX high-power divertor plasma experiments have used in succession lithium pellet injection (LPI), evaporated lithium, and injected lithium powder to apply lithium coatings to graphite plasma facing components. In 2005, following wall conditioning and LPI, discharges exhibited edge density reduction and performance improvements. Since 2006, first one, and now two lithium evaporators have been used routinely to evaporate lithium onto the lower divertor region at total rates of 10-70 mg/min for periods 5-10 min between discharges. Prior to each discharge, the evaporators are withdrawn behind shutters. Significant improvements in the performance of NBI heated divertor discharges resulting from these lithium depositions were observed. These evaporators are now used for more than 80% of NSTX discharges. Initial work with injecting fine lithium powder into the edge of NBI heated deuterium discharges yielded comparable changes in performance. Several operational issues encountered with lithium wall conditions, and the special procedures needed for vessel entry are discussed. The next step in this work is installation of a Liquid Lithium Divertor surface on the outer part of the lower divertor.

  16. Raman Spectroscopy of Carbon Dust Samples from NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raitses, Y.; Skinner, C.H.; Jiang, F.; Duffy, T.S.

    2008-01-01

    The Raman spectrum of dust particles exposed to the NSTX plasma is different from the spectrum of unexposed particles scraped from an unused graphite tile. For the unexposed particles, the high energy G-mode peak (Raman shift ∼1580 cm -1 ) is much stronger than the defect-induced D-mode peak (Raman shift ∼1350 cm -1 ), a pattern that is consistent with Raman spectrum for commercial graphite materials. For dust particles exposed to the plasma, the ratio of G-mode to D-mode peaks is lower and becomes even less than 1. The Raman measurements indicate that the production of carbon dust particles in NSTX involves modifications of the physical and chemical structure of the original graphite material. These modifications are shown to be similar to those measured for carbon deposits from atmospheric pressure helium arc discharge with an ablating anode electrode made from a graphite tile material. We also demonstrate experimentally that heating to 2000-2700 K alone can not explain the observed structural modifications indicating that they must be due to higher temperatures needed for graphite vaporization, which is followed either by condensation or some plasma-induced processes leading to the formation of more disordered forms of carbon material than the original graphite.

  17. Characterization of fueling NSTX H-mode plasmas diverted to a liquid lithium divertor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaita, R., E-mail: kaita@pppl.gov [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Kugel, H.W.; Abrams, T. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Allain, J.P. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.E.; Diallo, A.; Gerhardt, S.P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Heim, B. [Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 (United States); Jaworski, M.A., E-mail: mjaworsk@pppl.gov [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Kallman, J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Kaye, S.; LeBlanc, B.P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Maingi, R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Mansfield, D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); McLean, A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Menard, J.; Mueller, D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Nygren, R. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Ono, M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); and others

    2013-07-15

    Deuterium fueling experiments were conducted with the NSTX Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD). Lithium evaporation recoated the LLD surface to approximate flowing liquid Li to sustain D retention. In the first experiment with the diverted outer strike point on the LLD, the difference between the applied D gas input and the plasma D content reached very high values without disrupting the plasma, as would normally occur in the absence of Li pumping, and there was also little change in plasma D content. In the second experiment, constant fueling was applied, as the LLD temperature was varied to change the surface from solid to liquid. The D retention was relatively constant, and about the same as that for solid Li coatings on graphite, or twice that achieved without Li PFC coatings. Contamination of the LLD surface was also possible due to compound formation and erosion and redeposition from carbon PFCs.

  18. Edge Plasma Simulations in NSTX and CTF: Synergy of Lithium Coating, Non-Diffusive Anomalous Transport and Drifts. Final Technical Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pigarov, Alexander

    2012-01-01

    This is the final report for the Research Grant DE-FG02-08ER54989 'Edge Plasma Simulations in NSTX and CTF: Synergy of Lithium Coating, Non-Diffusive Anomalous Transport and Drifts'. The UCSD group including: A.Yu. Pigarov (PI), S.I. Krasheninnikov and R.D. Smirnov, was working on modeling of the impact of lithium coatings on edge plasma parameters in NSTX with the multi-species multi-fluid code UEDGE. The work was conducted in the following main areas: (i) improvements of UEDGE model for plasma-lithium interactions, (ii) understanding the physics of low-recycling divertor regime in NSTX caused by lithium pumping, (iii) study of synergistic effects with lithium coatings and non-diffusive ballooning-like cross-field transport, (iv) simulation of experimental multi-diagnostic data on edge plasma with lithium pumping in NSTX via self-consistent modeling of D-Li-C plasma with UEDGE, and (v) working-gas balance analysis. The accomplishments in these areas are given in the corresponding subsections in Section 2. Publications and presentations made under the Grant are listed in Section 3.

  19. Electron Bernstein Wave Coupling and Emission Measurements on NSTX

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Taylor, G.; Diem, S.J.; Caughman, J.; Efthimion, P.; Harvey, R.W.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Philips, C.K.; Preinhaelter, Josef; Urban, Jakub

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 7 (2006), s. 177 ISSN 0003-0503. [Annual Meeting of the Division of Plasma Physics/48th./. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania , 30.10.2006-3.11.2006] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Conversion * Emission * Tokamaks * Electron Bernstein waves * Simulation * MAST * NSTX Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics http://www.aps.org/meet/DPP06/baps/all_DPP06.pdf

  20. Effect of Various EFIT NSTX Equilibria on EBW Simulations

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Urban, Jakub; Preinhaelter, Josef; Sabbagh, S.; Pavlo, Pavol; Vahala, L.; Vahala, G.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 7 (2006), QPI.00027 ISSN 0003-0503. [Annual Meeting of the Division of Plasma Physics/48th./. Philadelphia, Pennsylvania , 30.10.2006-3.11.2006] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Conversion * Emission * Tokamaks * Electron Bernstein waves * Simulation * MAST * NSTX Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics http://www.aps.org/meet/DPP06/baps/all_DPP06.pdf

  1. Biasing, acquisition, and interpretation of a dense Langmuir probe array in NSTX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaworski, M. A.; Kallman, J.; Kaita, R.; Kugel, H.; LeBlanc, B.; Marsala, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Ruzic, D. N. [Department of Nuclear, Plasma, and Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, Illinois 60181 (United States)

    2010-10-15

    A dense array of 99 Langmuir probes has been installed in the lower divertor region of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). This array is instrumented with a system of electronics that allows flexibility in the choice of probes to bias as well as the type of measurement (including standard swept, single probe, triple probe, and operation as passive floating potential and scrape-off-layer SOL current monitors). The use of flush-mounted probes requires careful interpretation. The time dependent nature of the SOL makes swept-probe traces difficult to interpret. To overcome these challenges, the single- and triple-Langmuir probe signals are used in complementary fashion to determine the temperature and density at the probe location. A comparison to midplane measurements is made.

  2. NSTX Disruption Simulations of Detailed Divertor and Passive Plate Models by Vector Potential Transfer from OPERA Global Analysis Results

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Titus, P.H.; Avasaralla, S.; Brooks, A.; Hatcher, R.

    2010-01-01

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) project is planning upgrades to the toroidal field, plasma current and pulse length. This involves the replacement of the center-stack, including the inner legs of the TF, OH, and inner PF coils. A second neutral beam will also be added. The increased performance of the upgrade requires qualification of the remaining components including the vessel, passive plates, and divertor for higher disruption loads. The hardware needing qualification is more complex than is typically accessible by large scale electromagnetic (EM) simulations of the plasma disruptions. The usual method is to include simplified representations of components in the large EM models and attempt to extract forces to apply to more detailed models. This paper describes a more efficient approach of combining comprehensive modeling of the plasma and tokamak conducting structures, using the 2D OPERA code, with much more detailed treatment of individual components using ANSYS electromagnetic (EM) and mechanical analysis. This capture local eddy currents and resulting loads in complex details, and allows efficient non-linear, and dynamic structural analyses.

  3. NSTX Disruption Simulations of Detailed Divertor and Passive Plate Models by Vector Potential Transfer from OPERA Global Analysis Results

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    P. H. Titus, S. Avasaralla, A.Brooks, R. Hatcher

    2010-09-22

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) project is planning upgrades to the toroidal field, plasma current and pulse length. This involves the replacement of the center-stack, including the inner legs of the TF, OH, and inner PF coils. A second neutral beam will also be added. The increased performance of the upgrade requires qualification of the remaining components including the vessel, passive plates, and divertor for higher disruption loads. The hardware needing qualification is more complex than is typically accessible by large scale electromagnetic (EM) simulations of the plasma disruptions. The usual method is to include simplified representations of components in the large EM models and attempt to extract forces to apply to more detailed models. This paper describes a more efficient approach of combining comprehensive modeling of the plasma and tokamak conducting structures, using the 2D OPERA code, with much more detailed treatment of individual components using ANSYS electromagnetic (EM) and mechanical analysis. This capture local eddy currents and resulting loads in complex details, and allows efficient non-linear, and dynamic structural analyses.

  4. On the conditions for the onset of nonlinear chirping structures in NSTX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duarte, Vinicius; Podesta, Mario; Berk, Herbert; Gorelenkov, Nikolai

    2015-11-01

    The nonlinear dynamics of phase space structures is a topic of interest in tokamak physics in connection with fast ion loss mechanisms. The onset of phase-space holes and clumps has been theoretically shown to be associated with an explosive solution of an integro-differential, nonlocal cubic equation that governs the early mode amplitude evolution in the weakly nonlinear regime. The existence and stability of the solutions of the cubic equation have been theoretically studied as a function of Fokker-Planck coefficients for the idealized case of a single resonant point of a localized mode. From realistic computations of NSTX mode structures and resonant surfaces, we calculate effective pitch angle scattering and slowing-down (drag) collisional coefficients and analyze NSTX discharges for different cases with respect to chirping experimental observation. Those results are confronted to the theory that predicts the parameters region that allow for chirping to take place.

  5. Calculations of Neutral Beam Ion Confinement for the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Redi, M.H.; Darrow, D.S.; Egedal, J.; Kaye, S.M.; White, R.B.

    2002-01-01

    The spherical torus (ST) concept underlies several contemporary plasma physics experiments, in which relatively low magnetic fields, high plasma edge q, and low aspect ratio combine for potentially compact, high beta and high performance fusion reactors. An important issue for the ST is the calculation of energetic ion confinement, as large Larmor radius makes conventional guiding center codes of limited usefulness and efficient plasma heating by RF and neutral beam ion technology requires minimal fast ion losses. The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is a medium-sized, low aspect ratio ST, with R=0.85 m, a=0.67 m, R/a=1.26, Ip*1.4 MA, Bt*0.6 T, 5 MW of neutral beam heating and 6 MW of RF heating. 80 keV neutral beam ions at tangency radii of 0.5, 0.6 and 0.7 m are routinely used to achieve plasma betas above 30%. Transport analyses for experiments on NSTX often exhibit a puzzling ion power balance. It will be necessary to have reliable beam ion calculations to distinguish among the source and loss channels, and to explore the possibilities for new physics phenomena, such as the recently proposed compressional Alfven eigenmode ion heating

  6. Operation of the NSTX Thomson Scattering System

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeBlanc, B.P.; Bell, R.E.; Johnson, D.W.; Hoffman, D.E.; Long, D.C.; Palladino, R.W.

    2002-01-01

    The NSTX multi-point Thomson scattering system has been in operation for nearly two years and provides routine Te(R,t) and ne(R,t) measurements. The laser beams from two 30-Hz Nd:YAG lasers are imaged by a spherical mirror onto 36 fiber-optics bundles. In the present configuration, the output ends of 20 of these bundles are instrumented with filter polychromators and avalanche photodiode detectors. In this paper, we discuss the laser implementation and the installed collection optics. We follow with examples of raw and analyzed data. We close with some comments about calibration

  7. Reversed magnetic shear suppression of electron-scale turbulence on NSTX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuh, Howard Y.; Levinton, F. M.; Bell, R. E.; Hosea, J. C.; Kaye, S. M.; Leblanc, B. P.; Mazzucato, E.; Smith, D. R.; Domier, C. W.; Luhmann, N. C.; Park, H. K.

    2009-11-01

    Electron thermal internal transport barriers (e-ITBs) are observed in reversed (negative) magnetic shear NSTX discharges^1. These e-ITBs can be created with either neutral beam heating or High Harmonic Fast Wave (HHFW) RF heating. The e-ITB location occurs at the location of minimum magnetic shear determined by Motional Stark Effect (MSE) constrained equilibria. Statistical studies show a threshold condition in magnetic shear for e-ITB formation. High-k fluctuation measurements at electron turbulence wavenumbers^3 have been made under several different transport regimes, including a bursty regime that limits temperature gradients at intermediate magnetic shear. The growth rate of fluctuations has been calculated immediately following a change in the local magnetic shear, resulting in electron temperature gradient relaxation. Linear gyrokinetic simulation results for NSTX show that while measured electron temperature gradients exceed critical linear thresholds for ETG instability, growth rates can remain low under reversed shear conditions up to high electron temperatures gradients. ^1H. Yuh, et. al., PoP 16, 056120 ^2D.R. Smith, E. Mazzucato et al., RSI 75, 3840 ^3E. Mazzucato, D.R. Smith et al., PRL 101, 075001

  8. The study of non-axisymmetric control coil applications in NSTX-U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, J.-K.; Menard, J. E.; Kim, K.; Gerhardt, S. P.; Maingi, R.; Bialek, J. M.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Berkery, J. W.; Boozer, A. H.; Canik, J. M.; Evans, T. E.

    2013-10-01

    As expanded 3D field capability is essential to meet NSTX-U programmatic goals and support ITER, non-axisymmetric control coil (NCC) configurations have been proposed and studied to assess potential physics applications. IPEC-NTV, POCA, and TRIP-3D code analysis show that NCC can provide a range of non-resonant error field control while minimizing resonant error field, and enhance NTV variability to better control rotation and shear, and also largely vary stochastic layers in the edge while maintaining similar plasma response characteristics. VALEN-3D analysis shows that RWM control performance increases with NCC and indicates even the possibility of operation near the ideal-wall limit. In addition, 3D analysis using stellarator codes such as COBRA indicates that NCC can directly broaden ballooning unstable region across radius and thus can be used to improve ELM pacing in NSTX-U. Relevant figures-of-merit are defined and used to quantify these NCC physics capabilities, as will be presented with future analysis plans. This work was supported by DOE Contract DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  9. Biasing, Acquisition and Interpretation of a Dense Langmuir Probe Array in NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jaworski, M.A.; Kallman, J.; Kaita, R.; Kugel, H.; LeBlanc, B.; Marsala, R.; Ruzic, D.

    2010-01-01

    A dense array of 99 Langmuir probes has been installed in the lower divertor region of the National Spherical Torus Experiments (NSTX). This array is instrumented with a system of elec- tronics that allows flexibility in the choice of probes to bias as well as the type of measurement (including standard swept, single probe, triple probe and operation as passive floating potential and scrape-off-layer (SOL) current monitors). The use of flush-mounted probes requires careful inter- pretation. The time dependent nature of the SOL makes swept-probe traces difficult to interpret. To overcome these challenges, the single- and triple-Langmuir probe signals are used in comple- mentary fashion to determine the temperature and density at the probe location. A comparison to mid-plane measurements is made.

  10. Three-dimensional Reconstruction of Dust Particle Trajectories in the NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Boeglin, W.U.; Roquemore, A.L.; Maqueda, R.

    2009-01-01

    Highly mobile incandescent dust particles are routinely observed on NSTX using two fast cameras operating in the visible region. An analysis method to reconstruct dust particle trajectories in space using two fast cameras is presented in this paper. Position accuracies of a few millimeters depending on the particle's location have been achieved and particle velocities between 10 and 200 m/s have been observed

  11. Liquid lithium applications for solving challenging fusion reactor issues and NSTX-U contributions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ono, M., E-mail: mono@pppl.gov [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Jaworski, M.A.; Kaita, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, PO Box 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Hirooka, Y. [National Institute for Fusion Science, 322-6 Oroshi, Toki, Gifu 509-5292 (Japan); Gray, T.K. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, PO Box 2008, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States)

    2017-04-15

    Steady-state fusion reactor operation presents major divertor technology challenges, including high divertor heat flux both steady-state and transients. In addition, there are unresolved issues of long term dust accumulation and associated tritium inventory and safety concerns (Federici et al., 2001) . It has been suggested that radiative liquid lithium divertor concepts with a modest lithium-loop could provide a possible solution for these outstanding fusion reactor technology issues, while potentially improving reactor plasma performance (Ono et al., 2013, 2014) . The application of lithium (Li) in NSTX resulted in improved H-mode confinement, H-mode power threshold reduction, and reduction in the divertor peak heat flux while maintaining essentially Li-free core plasma operation even during H-modes. These promising results in NSTX and related modeling calculations motivated the radiative liquid lithium (LL) divertor (RLLD) concept (Ono et al., 2013) and its variant, the active liquid lithium divertor concept (ARLLD) (Ono et al., 2014) , taking advantage of the enhanced non-coronal Li radiation in relatively poorly confined divertor plasmas. It was estimated that only a few moles/s of lithium injection would be needed to significantly reduce the divertor heat flux in a tokamak fusion power plant. By operating at lower temperatures ≤450 °C than the first wall ∼600–700 °C, the LL-covered divertor chamber wall surfaces can serve as an effective particle pump, as impurities generally migrate toward lower temperature LL divertor surfaces. To maintain the LL purity, a closed LL loop system with a modest circulating capacity of ∼1 l/s (l/s) is envisioned to sustain the steady-state operation of a 1 GW-electric class fusion power plant. By running the Li loop continuously, it can carry the dust particles and impurities generated in the vacuum vessel to outside where the dust/impurities are removed by relatively simple filter and cold/hot trap systems. Using a

  12. Non-inductive Solenoid-less Plasma Current Start-up in NSTX Using Transient CHI

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Raman, R.; Mueller, D.; Jarboe, T.R.; Nelson, B.A.; Bell, M.G.; Ono, M.; Bigelow, T.; Kaita, R.; LeBlanc, B.; Lee, K.C.; Maqueda, R.; Menard, J.; Paul, S.; Roquemore, L.

    2007-01-01

    Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI) has been successfully used in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) for a demonstration of closed flux current generation without the use of the central solenoid. The favorable properties of the Spherical Torus (ST) arise from its very small aspect ratio. However, small aspect ratio devices have very restricted space for a substantial central solenoid. Thus methods for initiating the plasma current without relying on induction from a central solenoid are essential for the viability of the ST concept. CHI is a promising candidate for solenoid-free plasma startup in a ST. The method has now produced closed flux current up to 160 kA verifying the high current capability of this method in a large ST built with conventional tokamak components.

  13. Fast Soft X-ray Images of MHD Phenomena in NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bush, C.E.; Stratton, B.C.; Robinson, J.; Zakharov, L.E.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Stutman, D.; Tritz, K.

    2008-01-01

    A variety of magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) phenomena have been observed on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). Many of these affect fast particle losses, which are of major concern for future burning plasma experiments. Usual diagnostics for studying these phenomena are arrays of Mirnov coils for magnetic oscillations and PIN diode arrays for soft x-ray emission from the plasma core. Data reported here are from an unique fast soft x-ray imaging camera (FSXIC) with a wide-angle (pinhole) tangential view of the entire plasma minor cross section. The camera provides a 64x64 pixel image, on a CCD chip, of light resulting from conversion of soft x-rays incident on a phosphor to the visible. We have acquired plasma images at frame rates of 1-500 kHz (300 frames/shot), and have observed a variety of MHD phenomena: disruptions, sawteeth, fishbones, tearing modes, and ELMs. New data including modes with frequency > 90 kHz are also presented. Data analysis and modeling techniques used to interpret the FSXIC data are described and compared, and FSXIC results are compared to Mirnov and PIN diode array results.

  14. Electron Bernstein Wave Research on the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G.; Bers, A.; Bigelow, T.S.; Carter, M.D.; Caughman, J.B.; Decker, J.; Diem, S.; Efthimion, P.C.; Ershov, N.M.; Fredd, E.; Harvey, R.W.; Hosea, J.; Jaeger, F.; Preinhaelter, J.; Ram, A.K.; Rasmussen, D.A.; Smirnov, A.P.; Wilgen, J.B.; Wilson, J.R.

    2005-01-01

    Off-axis electron Bernstein wave current drive (EBWCD) may be critical for sustaining noninductive high-beta National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) plasmas. Numerical modeling results predict that the ∼100 kA of off-axis current needed to stabilize a solenoid-free high-beta NSTX plasma could be generated via Ohkawa current drive with 3 MW of 28 GHz EBW power. In addition, synergy between EBWCD and bootstrap current may result in a 10% enhancement in current-drive efficiency with 4 MW of EBW power. Recent dual-polarization EBW radiometry measurements on NSTX confirm that efficient coupling to EBWs can be readily accomplished by launching elliptically polarized electromagnetic waves oblique to the confining magnetic field, in agreement with numerical modeling. Plans are being developed for implementing a 1 MW, 28 GHz proof-of-principle EBWCD system on NSTX to test the EBW coupling, heating and current-drive physics at high radio-frequency power densities

  15. Advanced ST plasma scenario simulations for NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kessel, C.E.; Synakowski, E.J.; Gates, D.A.; Kaye, S.M.; Menard, J.; Phillips, C.K.; Taylor, G.; Wilson, R.; Harvey, R.W.; Mau, T.K.

    2005-01-01

    Integrated scenario simulations are done for NSTX that address four primary milestones for developing advanced ST configurations: high β and high β N inductive discharges to study all aspects of ST physics in the high beta regime; non-inductively sustained discharges for flattop times greater than the skin time to study the various current drive techniques; non-inductively sustained discharges at high βfor flattop times much greater than a skin time which provides the integrated advanced ST target for NSTX; and non-solenoidal startup and plasma current rampup. The simulations done here use the Tokamak Simulation Code (TSC) and are based on a discharge 109070. TRANSP analysis of the discharge provided the thermal diffusivities for electrons and ions, the neutral beam (NB) deposition profile and other characteristics. CURRAY is used to calculate the High Harmonic Fast Wave (HHFW) heating depositions and current drive. GENRAY/CQL3D is used to establish the heating and CD deposition profiles for electron Bernstein waves (EBW). Analysis of the ideal MHD stability is done with JSOLVER, BALMSC, and PEST2. The simulations indicate that the integrated advanced ST plasma is reachable, obtaining stable plasmas with β ∼ 40% at β N 's of 7.7-9, I P = 1.0 MA and B T = 0.35 T. The plasma is 100% non-inductive and has a flattop of 4 skin times. The resulting global energy confinement corresponds to a multiplier of H 98(y,2 ) = 1.5. The simulations have demonstrated the importance of HHFW heating and CD, EBW off-axis CD, strong plasma shaping, density control, and early heating/H-mode transition for producing and optimizing these plasma configurations (author)

  16. Elimination of inter-discharge helium glow discharge cleaning with lithium evaporation in NSTX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Maingi

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Operation in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX typically used either periodic boronization and inter-shot helium glow discharge cleaning (HeGDC, or inter-shot lithium evaporation without boronization, and initially with inter-shot HeGDC. To assess the viability of operation without HeGDC, dedicated experiments were conducted in which Li evaporation was used while systematically shrinking the HeGDC between shots from the standard 10min to zero (10→6.5→4→0. Good shot reproducibility without HeGDC was achieved with lithium evaporations of 100mg or higher; evaporations of 200–300mg typically resulted in very low ELM frequency or ELM-free operation, reduced wall fueling, and improved energy confinement. The use of HeGDC before lithium evaporation modestly reduced Dα in the outer scrape-off layer, but not at the strike point. Pedestal electron and ion temperature also improved modestly, suggesting that HeGDC prior to lithium evaporation is a useful tool for experiments that seek to maximize plasma performance.

  17. Effect of ion cyclotron acceleration on frequency chirping beam-driven instabilities in NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruskov, E.; Heidbrink, W.W.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Darrow, D.; Medley, S.; Gorelenkov, N.

    2006-01-01

    The fast-ion distribution function in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is modified from shot to shot while keeping the total injected power at ∼2 MW. Deuterium beams of different energy and tangency radius are injected into helium L-mode plasmas, producing a rich set of instabilities, including TAE modes, 50-100∼kHz instabilities with rapid frequency sweeps or chirps, and strong, low frequency (10-20 kHz) fishbones. The experiment was motivated by a theory that attributes frequency chirping to the formation of holes and clumps in phase space. In the theory, increasing the effective collision frequency of the fast ions that drive the instability can suppress frequency chirping. In the experiment, high-power (∼3 MW) harmonic fast wave (HHFW) heating accelerates the fast ions in an attempt to alter the effective collision frequency. Steady-frequency TAE modes excited early in the discharge are affected by the HHFW heating but there is no evidence that the chirping of 20-100 kHz modes is suppressed. (author)

  18. Effect of Ion Cyclotron Acceleration on Frequency Chirping Beam-Driven Instabilities in NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ruskov, E.; Heidbrink, W.W.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Darrow, D.; Medley, S.; Gorelenkov, N.

    2006-01-01

    The fast-ion distribution function in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is modified from shot to shot while keeping the total injected power at ∼2 MW. Deuterium beams of different energy and tangency radius are injected into helium L-mode plasmas, producing a rich set of instabilities, including TAE modes, 50-100∼kHz instabilities with rapid frequency sweeps or chirps, and strong, low frequency (10-20 kHz) fishbones. The experiment was motivated by a theory that attributes frequency chirping to the formation of holes and clumps in phase space. In the theory, increasing the effective collision frequency of the fast ions that drive the instability can suppress frequency chirping. In the experiment, high-power (∼3 MW) harmonic fast wave (HHFW) heating accelerates the fast ions in an attempt to alter the effective collision frequency. Steady-frequency TAE modes excited early in the discharge are affected by the HHFW heating but there is no evidence that the chirping of 20-100 kHz modes is suppressed. (author)

  19. Beta-limiting MHD instabilities in improved performance NSTX spherical torus plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menard, J.E.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.E.

    2003-01-01

    Global magnetohydrodynamic stability limits in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) have increased significantly recently due to a combination of device and operational improvements. First, more routine H-mode operation with broadened pressure profiles allows access to higher normalized beta and lower internal inductance. Second, the correction of a poloidal field coil induced error-field has largely eliminated locked tearing modes during nor- mal operation and increased the maximum achievable beta. As a result of these improvements, peak beta values have reached (not simultaneously) β t = 35%, β N 6.5, N > = 4.5, β / l i =10, and β= 1.4. High β P operation with reduced tearing activity has allowed a doubling of discharge pulse-length to just over 1 second with sustained periods of β N ∼ 6. Details of the β limit scalings and β-limiting instabilities in various operating regimes are described. (author)

  20. Continuum Gyrokinetic Simulations of Turbulence in a Helical Model SOL with NSTX-type parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammett, G. W.; Shi, E. L.; Hakim, A.; Stoltzfus-Dueck, T.

    2017-10-01

    We have developed the Gkeyll code to carry out 3D2V full- F gyrokinetic simulations of electrostatic plasma turbulence in open-field-line geometries, using special versions of discontinuous-Galerkin algorithms to help with the computational challenges of the edge region. (Higher-order algorithms can also be helpful for exascale computing as they reduce the ratio of communications to computations.) Our first simulations with straight field lines were done for LAPD-type cases. Here we extend this to a helical model of an SOL plasma and show results for NSTX-type parameters. These simulations include the basic elements of a scrape-off layer: bad-curvature/interchange drive of instabilities, narrow sources to model plasma leaking from the core, and parallel losses with model sheath boundary conditions (our model allows currents to flow in and out of the walls). The formation of blobs is observed. By reducing the strength of the poloidal magnetic field, the heat flux at the divertor plate is observed to broaden. Supported by the Max-Planck/Princeton Center for Plasma Physics, the SciDAC Center for the Study of Plasma Microturbulence, and DOE Contract DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  1. Soft X-ray Tangential Imaging of the NSTX Core Plasma by Means of a MPGD Pin-hole Camera

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pacella, D.; Leigheb, M.; Bellazzini, R.; Brez, A.; Finkenthal, M.; Stutman, D.; Kaita, R.; Sabbagh, S.A.

    2003-01-01

    A fast X-ray system based on a Micro Pattern Gas Detector has been used, for the first time, to investigate emission from the plasma core of the National Spherical Tokamak eXperiment (NSTX) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory. The results presented in this work demonstrate the capability of such a device to measure with a time resolution of the order of 1 ms the curvature and the elongation of the X-ray iso-emissivity contours, under various plasma conditions. Also, comparisons with the magnetic surface structure calculated by the EFIT code show good agreement between reconstructed flux surface and the soft X-ray emissions (SXR) for poloidal beta values up to 0.6. For greater values of beta, X-ray iso-emissivity contours become circular, while magnetic flux surface reconstructions yield elongation 1.5 < k < 2.2. The X-ray images have been acquired with a (statistical) signal to noise ratio (SNR) per pixel of about 30. Thanks to the direct and efficient X-ray conversion and its operation in a photon counting mode, this new diagnostic tool allows the routine investigation of the plasma core with a sampling rate of 1 kHz and extremely high SNR under all experimental conditions in NSTX

  2. Simulation of the time development of EBW emission from NSTX

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Preinhaelter, Josef; Urban, Jakub; Taylor, G.; Diem, S.; Vahala, L.; Vahala, G.

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 4 (2006), K1.00024 ISSN 0003-0503. [International Sherwood Fusion Theory Conference/2006./. Dallas, Texas , 22.4.2006-25.4.2006] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Conversion * Emission * Tokamaks * Electron Bernstein waves * Simulation * MAST * NSTX Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics http://www.aps.org/meet/APR06/baps/all_APR06.pdf http://meetings.aps.org/Meeting/APR06/Event/47670

  3. Quiet Periods in Edge Turbulence Preceding the L-H Transition in NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zweben, S.; Maqueda, R.J.; Hager, R.; Hallatschek, K.; Kaye, S.M.; Munsat, T.; Poli, F.M.; Roquemore, A.L.; Sechrest, Y.; Stotler, D.P.

    2010-01-01

    This paper describes the first observations in NSTX of 'quiet periods' in the edge turbulence preceding the L-H transition, as diagnosed by the GPI diagnostic near the outer midplane separatrix. During these quiet periods the GPI D light emission pattern was transiently similar to that seen during Hmode, i.e. with a relatively small fraction of the GPI light emission located outside the separatrix. These quiet periods had a frequency of ∼3 kHz for at least 30 msec before the L-H transition, and were correlated with changes in the direction of the local poloidal velocity. The GPI turbulence images were also analyzed to obtain an estimate for the dimensionless poloidal shearing S =(dVp/dr)(Lr/Lp). The values of S were strongly modulated by the quiet periods, but not otherwise varying for at least 30 msec preceding the L-H transition. Since neither the quiet periods nor the shear flow increased significantly immediately preceding the L-H transition, neither of these appears to be the trigger for this transition, at least for these cases in NSTX.

  4. Suppression of Alfven Modes on the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade with Outboard Beam Injection [Suppression of Alfven Modes on the NSTX-U with Outboard Beam Injection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredrickson, E. D.; Belova, E. V.; Battaglia, D. J.

    2017-01-01

    In this paper we present data from experiments on the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade, where it is shown for the first time that small amounts of high pitch-angle beam ions can strongly suppress the counterpropagating global Alfven eigenmodes (GAE). GAE have been implicated in the redistribution of fast ions and modification of the electron power balance in previous experiments on NSTX. The ability to predict the stability of Alfven modes, and developing methods to control them, is important for fusion reactors like the International Tokamak Experimental Reactor, which are heated by a large population of nonthermal, super-Alfvenic ions consisting of fusion generated alpha's and beam ions injected for current profile control. We present a qualitative interpretation of these observations using an analytic model of the Doppler-shifted ion-cyclotron resonance drive responsible for GAE instability which has an important dependence on k(perpendicular to rho L). A quantitative analysis of this data with the HYM stability code predicts both the frequencies and instability of the GAE prior to, and suppression of the GAE after the injection of high pitch-angle beam ions.

  5. Beta-limiting MHD Instabilities in Improved-performance NSTX Spherical Torus Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    J.E. Menard; M.G. Bell; R.E. Bell; E.D. Fredrickson D.A. Gates: S.M. Kaye; B.P. LeBlanc; R. Maingi; D. Mueller; S.A. Sabbagh; D. Stutman; C.E. Bush; D.W. Johnson; R. Kaita; H.W. Kugel; R.J. Maqueda; F. Paoletti; S.F Paul; M. Ono; Y.-K.M. Peng; C.H. Skinner; E.J. Synakowski; the NSTX Research Team

    2003-01-01

    Global magnetohydrodynamic stability limits in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) have increased significantly recently due to a combination of device and operational improvements. First, more routine H-mode operation with broadened pressure profiles allows access to higher normalized beta and lower internal inductance. Second, the correction of a poloidal field coil induced error-field has largely eliminated locked tearing modes during normal operation and increased the maximum achievable beta. As a result of these improvements, peak beta values have reached (not simultaneously) β t = 35%, β N = 6.4, N > = 4.5, β N /l i = 10, and β P = 1.4. High β P operation with reduced tearing activity has allowed a doubling of discharge pulse-length to just over 1 second with sustained periods of β N ∼ 6 above the ideal no-wall limit and near the with-wall limit. Details of the β limit scalings and β-limiting instabilities in various operating regimes are described

  6. Design and characterization of a prototype divertor viewing infrared video bolometer for NSTX-U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eden, G. G. van; Morgan, T. W. [Dutch Institute for Fundamental Energy Research, 5612 AJ Eindhoven (Netherlands); Reinke, M. L.; Gray, T. K.; Lore, J. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Peterson, B. J.; Mukai, K. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Delgado-Aparicio, L. F.; Jaworski, M. A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, P.O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Sano, R. [National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology, Naka 311-0193 (Japan); Pandya, S. N. [Institute for Plasma Research, Bhat Village, Gandhinagar, 382428 Gujarat (India)

    2016-11-15

    The InfraRed Video Bolometer (IRVB) is a powerful tool to measure radiated power in magnetically confined plasmas due to its ability to obtain 2D images of plasma emission using a technique that is compatible with the fusion nuclear environment. A prototype IRVB has been developed and installed on NSTX-U to view the lower divertor. The IRVB is a pinhole camera which images radiation from the plasma onto a 2.5 μm thick, 9 × 7 cm{sup 2} Pt foil and monitors the resulting spatio-temporal temperature evolution using an IR camera. The power flux incident on the foil is calculated by solving the 2D+time heat diffusion equation, using the foil’s calibrated thermal properties. An optimized, high frame rate IRVB, is quantitatively compared to results from a resistive bolometer on the bench using a modulated 405 nm laser beam with variable power density and square wave modulation from 0.2 Hz to 250 Hz. The design of the NSTX-U system and benchtop characterization are presented where signal-to-noise ratios are assessed using three different IR cameras: FLIR A655sc, FLIR A6751sc, and SBF-161. The sensitivity of the IRVB equipped with the SBF-161 camera is found to be high enough to measure radiation features in the NSTX-U lower divertor as estimated using SOLPS modeling. The optimized IRVB has a frame rate up to 50 Hz, high enough to distinguish radiation during edge-localized-modes (ELMs) from that between ELMs.

  7. Physics results from the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kaye, S.; Bell, M.

    2000-01-01

    The mission of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is to extend the understanding of toroidal physics to low aspect ratio (R/a ∼ 1.25) in low collisionality regimes. NSTX is designed to operate with up to 6 MW of High Harmonic Fast Wave (HHFW) heating and current drive, 5 MW of Neutral Beam Injection (NBI), and Co-Axial Helicity Injection (CHI) for non-inductive startup. Initial experiments focused on establishing conditions that will allow NSTX to achieve its aims of simultaneous high-β t and high-bootstrap current fraction, and to develop methods for non-inductive operation, which will be necessary for Spherical Torus power plants. Ohmic discharges with plasma currents up to 1 MA, stored energies up to 55 kJ, β t ∼ 10%, and a range of shapes and configurations were produced. Density limits in deuterium and helium reached 80% and 120% of the Greenwald limit respectively. Significant electron heating was observed with up to 2.3 MW of HHFW. Up to 270 kA of toroidal current for up to 200 msec was produced noninductively using CHI. Initial NBI experiments were carried out with up to two beam sources (3.2 MW). Plasmas with stored energies of up to 140 kJ and β t =21% were produced

  8. Modeling and control of plasma rotation for NSTX using neoclassical toroidal viscosity and neutral beam injection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goumiri, I. R. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Mechanical and Aerospace Dept.; Rowley, C. W. [Princeton Univ., NJ (United States). Mechanical and Aerospace Dept.; Sabbagh, S. A. [Columbia Univ., New York, NY (United States). Dept. of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics; Gates, D. A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Gerhardt, S. P. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Boyer, M. D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Andre, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Kolemen, E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Taira, K. [Florida State Univ, Dept Mech Engn, Tallahassee, FL USA.

    2016-02-19

    A model-based feedback system is presented to control plasma rotation in a magnetically confined toroidal fusion device, to maintain plasma stability for long-pulse operation. This research uses experimental measurements from the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) and is aimed at controlling plasma rotation using two different types of actuation: momentum from injected neutral beams and neoclassical toroidal viscosity generated by three-dimensional applied magnetic fields. Based on the data-driven model obtained, a feedback controller is designed, and predictive simulations using the TRANSP plasma transport code show that the controller is able to attain desired plasma rotation profiles given practical constraints on the actuators and the available measurements of rotation.

  9. Suppressing Electron Turbulence and Triggering Internal Transport Barriers with Reversed Magnetic Shear in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peterson, Jayson Luc

    2011-10-01

    Observations in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) have found electron temperature gradients that greatly exceed the linear threshold for the onset for electron temperature gradient-driven (ETG) turbulence. These discharges, deemed electron internal transport barriers (e-ITBs), coincide with a reversal in the shear of the magnetic field and with a reduction in electron-scale density fluctuations, qualitatively consistent with earlier gyrokinetic predictions. To investigate this phenomenon further, we numerically model electron turbulence in NSTX reversed-shear plasmas using the gyrokinetic turbulence code GYRO. These first-of-a-kind nonlinear gyrokinetic simulations of NSTX e-ITBs confirm that reversing the magnetic shear can allow the plasma to reach electron temperature gradients well beyond the critical gradient for the linear onset of instability. This effect is very strong, with the nonlinear threshold for significant transport approaching three times the linear critical gradient in some cases, in contrast with moderate shear cases, which can drive significant ETG turbulence at much lower gradients. In addition to the experimental implications of this upshifted nonlinear critical gradient, we explore the behavior of ETG turbulence during reversed shear discharges. This work is supported by the SciDAC Center for the Study of Plasma Microturbulence, DOE Contract DE-AC02-09CH11466, and used the resources of NCCS at ORNL and NERSC at LBNL. M. Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 (2000).

  10. Plasma Shape Control on the National Spherical Torus Experiment using Real-time Equilibrium Reconstruction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gates, D.A.; Ferron, J.R.; Bell, M.; Gibney, T.; Johnson, R.; Marsala, R.J.; Mastrovito, D.; Menard, J.E.; Mueller, D.; Penaflor, B.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Stevenson, T.

    2005-01-01

    Plasma shape control using real-time equilibrium reconstruction has been implemented on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). The rtEFIT code originally developed for use on DIII-D was adapted for use on NSTX. The real-time equilibria provide calculations of the flux at points on the plasma boundary, which is used as input to a shape control algorithm known as isoflux control. The flux at the desired boundary location is compared to a reference flux value, and this flux error is used as the basic feedback quantity for the poloidal-field coils on NSTX. The hardware that comprises the control system is described, as well as the software infrastructure. Examples of precise boundary control are also presented

  11. Concept of a charged fusion product diagnostic for NSTX.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boeglin, W U; Valenzuela Perez, R; Darrow, D S

    2010-10-01

    The concept of a new diagnostic for NSTX to determine the time dependent charged fusion product emission profile using an array of semiconductor detectors is presented. The expected time resolution of 1-2 ms should make it possible to study the effect of magnetohydrodynamics and other plasma activities (toroidal Alfvén eigenmodes (TAE), neoclassical tearing modes (NTM), edge localized modes (ELM), etc.) on the radial transport of neutral beam ions. First simulation results of deuterium-deuterium (DD) fusion proton yields for different detector arrangements and methods for inverting the simulated data to obtain the emission profile are discussed.

  12. Edge Turbulence Imaging on NSTX and Alcator C-Mod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    S.J. Zweben; R.A. Maqueda; J.L. Terry; B. Bai; C.J. Boswell; C.E. Bush; D. D'Ippolito; E.D. Fredrickson; M. Greenwald; K. Hallatschek; S. Kaye; B. LaBombard; R. Maingi; J. Myra; W.M. Nevins; B.N. Rogers; D.P. Stotler; J. Wilgen; and X.Q. Xu

    2002-01-01

    Edge turbulence images have been made using an ultra-high speed CCD camera on both NSTX and Alcator C-Mod. In both cases, the D-alpha or HeI (587.6 nm) line emission from localized deuterium or helium gas puffs was viewed along a local magnetic field line near the outer midplane. Fluctuations in this line emission reflect fluctuations in electron density and/or electron temperature through the atomic excitation rates, which can be modeled using the DEGAS-2 code. The 2-D structure of the measured turbulence can be compared with theoretical simulations based on 3-D fluid models

  13. High Speed Images of Edge Plasmas in NSTX and Alcator C-Mod

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maqueda, R.J.; Grulke, O.; Terry, J.L.; Zweben, S.J.

    2007-01-01

    This talk will describe the high speed imaging diagnostics on NSTX and Alcator C-Mod and show movies of various edge phenomena, including turbulence during L-modes and H modes, L-H and H-L transitions, effects of MHD activity and ELMs of various types, and wide angle views of the toroidal vs. poloidal structure of these edge '' filaments ''. Issues concerning the interpretation of these images will be discussed. (author)

  14. Modification Of The Electron Energy Distribution Function During Lithium Experiments On The National Spherical Torus Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jaworski, M A; Gray, T K; Kaita, R; Kallman, J; Kugel, H; LeBlanc, B; McLean, A; Sabbagh, S A; Soukanovskii, V; Stotler, D P

    2011-06-03

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) has recently studied the use of a liquid lithium divertor (LLD). Divertor Langmuir probes have also been installed for making measurements of the local plasma conditions. A non-local probe interpretation method is used to supplement the classical probe interpretation and obtain measurements of the electron energy distribution function (EEDF) which show the occurrence of a hot-electron component. Analysis is made of two discharges within a sequence that exhibited changes in plasma fueling efficiency. It is found that the local electron temperature increases and that this increase is most strongly correlated with the energy contained within the hot-electron population. Preliminary interpretative modeling indicates that kinetic effects are likely in the NSTX.

  15. Mass changes in NSTX Surface Layers with Li Conditioning as Measured by Quartz Microbalances

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, C.H.; Kugel, H.W.; Roquemore, A.L.; Krstic, P.S.; Beste, A.

    2008-01-01

    Dynamic retention, lithium deposition, and the stability of thick deposited layers were measured by three quartz crystal microbalances (QMB) deployed in plasma shadowed areas at the upper and lower divertor and outboard midplane in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). Deposition of 185 (micro)/g/cm 2 over 3 months in 2007 was measured by a QMB at the lower divertor while a QMB on the upper divertor, that was shadowed from the evaporator, received an order of magnitude less deposition. During helium glow discharge conditioning both neutral gas collisions and the ionization and subsequent drift of Li + interrupted the lithium deposition on the lower divertor. We present calculations of the relevant mean free paths. Occasionally strong variations in the QMB frequency were observed of thick lithium films suggesting relaxation of mechanical stress and/or flaking or peeling of the deposited layers.

  16. Investigation of Ion Absorption of the High Harmonic Fast Wave in NSTX using HPRT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rosenberg, A.; Menard, J.E.; LeBlanc, B.P.

    2001-01-01

    Understanding high harmonic fast wave (HHFW) power absorption by ions in a spherical torus (ST) is of critical importance to assessing the wave's viability as a means of heating and especially driving current. In this work, the HPRT code is used to calculate absorption for helium and deuterium, with and without minority hydrogen in National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) plasmas using experimental EFIT code equilibria and kinetic profiles. HPRT is a two-dimensional ray-tracing code which uses the full hot plasma dielectric to compute the perpendicular wave number along the hot electron and cold ion plasma ray path. Ion and electron absorption dependence on antenna phasing, ion temperature, beta (subscript t), and minority temperature and concentration is analyzed. These results form the basis for comparisons with other codes, such as CURRAY, METS, TORIC, and AORSA

  17. Recent Fast Wave Coupling and Heating Studies on NSTX, with Possible Implications for ITER

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hosea, J.C.; Bell, R.E.; Feibush, E.; Harvey, R.W.; Jaeger, E.F.; LeBlanc, B.P; Maingi, R.; Phillips, C.K.; Roquemore, L.; Ryan, P.M.; Taylor, G.; Tritz, K.; Valeo, E.J.; Wilgen, J.; Wilson, J.R.

    2009-01-01

    The goal of the high harmonic fast wave (HHFW) research on NSTX is to maximize the coupling of RF power to the core of the plasma by minimizing the coupling of RF power to edge loss processes. HHFW core plasma heating efficiency in helium and deuterium L-mode discharges is found to improve markedly on NSTX when the density 2 cm in front of the antenna is reduced below that for the onset of perpendicular wave propagation (n onset ∝ B*k # parallel# 2 /ω). In NSTX, the observed RF power losses in the plasma edge are driven in the vicinity of the antenna as opposed to resulting from multi-pass edge damping. PDI surface losses through ion-electron collisions are estimated to be significant. Recent spectroscopic measurements suggest that additional PDI losses could be caused by the loss of energetic edge ions on direct loss orbits and perhaps result in the observed clamping of the edge rotation. Initial deuterium H-mode heating studies reveal that core heating is degraded at lower k φ (- 8 m -1 relative to 13 m -1 ) as for the Lmode case at elevated edge density. Fast visible camera images clearly indicate that a major edge loss process is occurring from the plasma scrape off layer (SOL) in the vicinity of the antenna and along the magnetic field lines to the lower outer divertor plate. Large type I ELMs, which are observed at both k φ values, appear after antenna arcs caused by precursor blobs, low level ELMs, or dust. For large ELMs without arcs, the source reflection coefficients rise on a 0.1 ms time scale, which indicates that the time derivative of the reflection coefficient can be used to discriminate between arcs and ELMs.

  18. Progress on advanced tokamak and steady-state scenario development on DIII-D and NSTX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doyle, E J [Department of Electrical Engineering and PSTI, University of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Garofalo, A M [Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Greenfield, C M [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Kaye, S M [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States); Menard, J E [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States); Murakami, M [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Sabbagh, S A [Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Austin, M E [University of Texas-Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States); Bell, R E [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States); Burrell, K H [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Ferron, J R [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Gates, D A [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab., Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States); Groebner, R J; Hyatt, A W; Luce, T C; Petty, C C; Wade, M R; Waltz, R E [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Jayakumar, R J [Lawrence Livermore National Lab., Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Kinsey, J E [Lehigh Univ., Bethlehem, Pennsylvania 18015 (United States); LeBlanc, B P [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab., Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States); McKee, G R [Univ. of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Okabayashi, M [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab., Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States); Peng, Y-K M [Oak Ridge National Lab., Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Politzer, P A [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186-5608 (United States); Rhodes, T L [Dept. of Electrical Engineering and PSTI, Univ. of California, Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States)

    2006-12-15

    Advanced tokamak (AT) research seeks to develop steady-state operating scenarios for ITER and other future devices from a demonstrated scientific basis. Normalized target parameters for steady-state operation on ITER are 100% non-inductive current operation with a bootstrap current fraction f{sub BS} {>=} 60%, q{sub 95} {approx} 4-5 and G {identical_to}{beta}{sub N}H{sub scaling}/q{sub 95}{sup 2} {>=}0.3. Progress in realizing such plasmas is considered in terms of the development of plasma control capabilities and scientific understanding, leading to improved AT performance. NSTX has demonstrated active resistive wall mode stabilization with low, ITER-relevant, rotation rates below the critical value required for passive stabilization. On DIII-D, experimental observations and GYRO simulations indicate that ion internal transport barrier (ITB) formation at rational-q surfaces is due to equilibrium zonal flows generating high local E ? B shear levels. In addition, stability modelling for DIII-D indicates a path to operation at {beta}{sub N} {>=} 4 with q{sub min} {>=} 2, using broad, hollow current profiles to increase the ideal wall stability limit. Both NSTX and DIII-D have optimized plasma performance and expanded AT operational limits. NSTX now has long-pulse, high performance discharges meeting the normalized targets for an spherical torus-based component test facility. DIII-D has developed sustained discharges combining high beta and ITBs, with performance approaching levels required for AT reactor concepts, e.g. {beta}{sub N} = 4, H{sub 89} = 2.5, with f{sub BS} > 60%. Most importantly, DIII-D has developed ITER steady-state demonstration discharges, simultaneously meeting the targets for steady-state Q {>=} 5 operation on ITER set out above, substantially increasing confidence in ITER meeting its steady-state performance objective.

  19. MHD Calculation of halo currents and vessel forces in NSTX VDEs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breslau, J. A.; Strauss, H. R.; Paccagnella, R.

    2012-10-01

    Research tokamaks such as ITER must be designed to tolerate a limited number of disruptions without sustaining significant damage. It is therefore vital to have numerical tools that can accurately predict the effects of these events. The 3D nonlinear extended MHD code M3D [1] can be used to simulate disruptions and calculate the associated wall currents and forces. It has now been validated against halo current data from NSTX experiments in which vertical displacement events (VDEs) were deliberately induced by turning off vertical feedback control. The results of high-resolution numerical simulations at realistic Lundquist numbers show reasonable agreement with the data, supporting a model in which the most dangerously asymmetric currents and heat loads, and the largest horizontal forces, arise in situations where a fast-growing ideal 2,1 external kink mode is destabilized by the scraping-off of flux surfaces with safety factor q>2 during the course of the VDE. [4pt] [1] W. Park, et al., Phys. Plasmas 6 (1999) 1796.

  20. High-resolution Tangential AXUV Arrays for Radiated Power Density Measurements on NSTX-U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delgado-Aparicio, L [PPPL; Bell, R E [PPPL; Faust, I [MIT; Tritz, K [The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, 21209, USA; Diallo, A [PPPL; Gerhardt, S P [PPPL; Kozub, T A [PPPL; LeBlanc, B P [PPPL; Stratton, B C [PPPL

    2014-07-01

    Precise measurements of the local radiated power density and total radiated power are a matter of the uttermost importance for understanding the onset of impurity-induced instabilities and the study of particle and heat transport. Accounting of power balance is also needed for the understanding the physics of various divertor con gurations for present and future high-power fusion devices. Poloidal asymmetries in the impurity density can result from high Mach numbers and can impact the assessment of their flux-surface-average and hence vary the estimates of P[sub]rad (r, t) and (Z[sub]eff); the latter is used in the calculation of the neoclassical conductivity and the interpretation of non-inductive and inductive current fractions. To this end, the bolometric diagnostic in NSTX-U will be upgraded, enhancing the midplane coverage and radial resolution with two tangential views, and adding a new set of poloidally-viewing arrays to measure the 2D radiation distribution. These systems are designed to contribute to the near- and long-term highest priority research goals for NSTX-U which will integrate non-inductive operation at reduced collisionality, with high-pressure, long energy-confinement-times and a divertor solution with metal walls.

  1. Characteristics of Energy Transport of Li-conditioned and non-Li-conditioned Plasmas in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ding, S.; Kaye, S.M.; Bell, R.E.; Kaita, R.; Kugel, H.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Paul, S.; Wan, B.

    2009-01-01

    The transport properties of NSTX plasmas obtained during the 2008 experimental campaign have been studied and are reported here. Transport trends and dependences have been isolated, and it is found that both electron and ion energy transport coefficients have strong dependences on local values of n(del)T, which in turn is strongly dependent on local current density profile. Without identifying this dependence, it is difficult to identify others, such as the dependence of transport coefficients on B p (or q), I p and P heat . In addition, a comparison between discharges with and without Lithium wall conditioning has been made. While the trends in the two sets of data are similar, the thermal transport loss, especially in the electron channel, is found to strongly depend on the amount of Lithium deposited, decreasing by up to 50% of its no-Lithium value.

  2. Evaporated Lithium Surface Coatings in NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugel, H.W.; Mansfield, D.; Maingi, R.; Bel, M.G.; Bell, R.E.; Allain, J.P.; Gates, D.; Gerhardt, S.; Kaita, R.; Kallman, J.; Kaye, S.; LeBlanc, B.; Majeski, R.; Menard, J.; Mueller, D.; Ono, M.

    2009-01-01

    Two lithium evaporators were used to evaporate more than 100 g of lithium on to the NSTX lower divertor region. Prior to each discharge, the evaporators were withdrawn behind shutters, where they also remained during the subsequent HeGDC applied for periods up to 9.5 min. After the HeGDC, the shutters were opened and the LITERs were reinserted to deposit lithium on the lower divertor target for 10 min, at rates of 10-70 mg/min, prior to the next discharge. The major improvements in plasma performance from these lithium depositions include: (1) plasma density reduction as a result of lithium deposition; (2) suppression of ELMs; (3) improvement of energy confinement in a low-triangularity shape; (4) improvement in plasma performance for standard, high-triangularity discharges; (5) reduction of the required HeGDC time between discharges; (6) increased pedestal electron and ion temperature; (7) reduced SOL plasma density; and (8) reduced edge neutral density

  3. Evaporated Lithium Surface Coatings in NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugel, H.W.; Mansfield, D.; Maingi, Rajesh; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.E.; Allain, J.P.; Gates, D.; Gerhardt, S.P.; Kaita, R.; Kallman, J.; Kaye, S.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Majeski, R.; Menard, J.; Mueller, D.; Ono, M.; Paul, S.; Raman, R.; Roquemore, A.L.; Ross, P.W.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Schneider, H.; Skinner, C.H.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Stevenson, T.; Timberlake, J.; Wampler, W.R.; Wilgen, John B.; Zakharov, L.E.

    2009-01-01

    Two lithium evaporators were used to evaporate more than 100 g of lithium on to the NSTX lower divertor region. Prior to each discharge, the evaporators were withdrawn behind shutters, where they also remained during the subsequent HeGDC applied for periods up to 9.5 min. After the HeGDC, the shutters were opened and the LITERs were reinserted to deposit lithium on the lower divertor target for 10 min, at rates of 10-70 mg/min, prior to the next discharge. The major improvements in plasma performance from these lithium depositions include: (1) plasma density reduction as a result of lithium deposition; (2) suppression of ELMs; (3) improvement of energy confinement in a low-triangularity shape; (4) improvement in plasma performance for standard, high-triangularity discharges: (5) reduction of the required HeGDC time between discharges; (6) increased pedestal electron and ion temperature; (7) reduced SOL plasma density; and (8) reduced edge neutral density.

  4. Investigation of collisional EBW damping and its importance to EBW emission from NSTX

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Urban, Jakub; Preinhaelter, Josef; Diem, S.J.; Taylor, G.; Vahala, L.; Vahala, G.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 16 (2007), s. 304-304 ISSN 0003-0503. [Annual Meeting of the Division of Plasma Physics/49th./. Orlando , Florida, 12.11.2007-16.11.2007] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Conversion * Emission * Tokamaks * Electron Bernstein waves * Simulation * NSTX Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics http://meetings.aps.org/Meeting/DPP07/Content/901

  5. A megawatt-level 28 GHz heating system for the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taylor G.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade (NSTX-U will operate at axial toroidal fields of ≤ 1 T and plasma currents, Ip ≤ 2 MA. The development of non-inductive (NI plasmas is a major long-term research goal for NSTX-U. Time dependent numerical simulations of 28 GHz electron cyclotron (EC heating of low density NI start-up plasmas generated by Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI in NSTX-U predict a significant and rapid increase of the central electron temperature (Te(0 before the plasma becomes overdense. The increased Te(0 will significantly reduce the Ip decay rate of CHI plasmas, allowing the coupling of fast wave heating and neutral beam injection. A megawatt-level, 28 GHz electron heating system is planned for heating NI start-up plasmas in NSTX-U. In addition to EC heating of CHI start-up discharges, this system will be used for electron Bernstein wave (EBW plasma start-up, and eventually for EBW heating and current drive during the Ip flattop.

  6. Measurement and modeling of surface temperature dynamics of the NSTX liquid lithium divertor

    Science.gov (United States)

    McLean, A. G.; Gan, K. F.; Ahn, J.-W.; Gray, T. K.; Maingi, R.; Abrams, T.; Jaworski, M. A.; Kaita, R.; Kugel, H. W.; Nygren, R. E.; Skinner, C. H.; Soukhanovskii, V. A.

    2013-07-01

    Dual-band infrared (IR) measurements of the National Spherical Torus eXperiment (NSTX) Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD) are reported that demonstrate liquid Li is more effective at removing plasma heat flux than Li-conditioned graphite. Extended dwell of the outer strike point (OSP) on the LLD caused an incrementally larger area to be heated above the Li melting point through the discharge leading to enhanced D retention and plasma confinement. Measurement of Tsurface near the OSP demonstrates a significant reduction of the LLD surface temperature compared to that of Li-coated graphite at the same major radius. Modeling of these data with a 2-D simulation of the LLD structure in the DFLUX code suggests that the structure of the LLD was successful at handling up to q⊥,peak = 5 MW/m2 inter-ELM and up to 10 MW/m2 during ELMs from its plasma-facing surface as intended, and provide an innovative method for inferring the Li layer thickness.

  7. Energy Exchange Dynamics across L-H transitions in NSTX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diallo, Ahmed

    2017-10-01

    H-mode is planned for future devices such as ITER, and is preceded by a low (L) to high (H) transition. A key question remains. What is the mechanism behind the L-H transition? Most theoretical descriptions of the L-H transition are based on the shear of the radial electric field and coincident ExB poloidal flow shear, which is thought to be responsible for the onset of the anomalous transport suppression that leads to the L-H transition. This talk will focus on the analysis of the flow dynamics across the L-H transition in NSTX. We analyze the L-H transition dynamics using the velocimetry of 2D edge turbulence data from gas-puff imaging (GPI). We determine the velocity components at the edge across the L-H transition for 17 discharges with three types of heating power (NBI, ohmic, and RF). Using a reduced model equation of edge flows and turbulence, the energy transfer dynamics is compared with the turbulence depletion hypothesis of the predator-prey model. In order for Reynolds work to suppress the turbulence, it must deplete the total turbulent free energy, including the thermal free-energy term. For this to occur, the increase in kinetic energy in the mean flow over the L-H transition must be comparable to the pre-transition thermal free energy. However, this ratio was found to be of order 10-2. Although there are significant simplifications in the theoretical model, they are unlikely to cause inaccuracy by two orders of magnitude, suggesting that direct turbulence depletion by the Reynolds work may not be large enough to explain the L-H transition on NSTX, contrary to the predator-prey model. This work is supported by the US DOE Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  8. Energy exchange dynamics across L-H transitions in NSTX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Diallo, A.; Banerjee, S.; Zweben, S. J.; Stoltzfus-Dueck, T.

    2017-06-01

    We studied the energy exchange dynamics across the low-to-high-confinement (L-H) transition in NSTX discharges using the gas-puff imaging (GPI) diagnostic. The investigation focused on the energy exchange between flows and turbulence to help clarify the mechanism of the L-H transition. We applied this study to three types of heating schemes, including a total of 17 shots from the NSTX 2010 campaign run. Results show that the edge fluctuation characteristics (fluctuation levels, radial and poloidal correlation lengths) measured using GPI do not vary just prior to the H-mode transition, but change after the transition. Using a velocimetry approach (orthogonal-dynamics programming), velocity fields of a 24× 30 cm GPI view during the L-H transition were obtained with good spatial (˜1 cm) and temporal (˜2.5 μs) resolutions. Analysis using these velocity fields shows that the production term is systematically negative just prior to the L-H transition, indicating a transfer from mean flows to turbulence, which is inconsistent with the predator-prey paradigm. Moreover, the inferred absolute value of the production term is two orders of magnitude too small to explain the observed rapid L-H transition. These discrepancies are further reinforced by consideration of the ratio between the kinetic energy in the mean flow to the thermal free energy, which is estimated to be much less than 1, suggesting again that the turbulence depletion mechanism may not play an important role in the transition to the H-mode. Although the Reynolds work therefore appears to be too small to directly deplete the turbulent free energy reservoir, order-of-magnitude analysis shows that the Reynolds stress may still make a non-negligible contribution to the observed poloidal flows.

  9. Measurements of Prompt and MHD-Induced Fast Ion Loss from National Spherical Torus Experiment Plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.S. Darrow; S.S. Medley; A.L. Roquemore; W.W. Heidbrink; A. Alekseyev; F.E. Cecil; J. Egedal; V.Ya. Goloborod' ko; N.N. Gorelenkov; M. Isobe; S. Kaye; M. Miah; F. Paoletti; M.H. Redi; S.N. Reznik; A. Rosenberg; R. White; D. Wyatt; V.A. Yavorskij

    2002-10-15

    A range of effects may make fast ion confinement in spherical tokamaks worse than in conventional aspect ratio tokamaks. Data from neutron detectors, a neutral particle analyzer, and a fast ion loss diagnostic on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) indicate that neutral beam ion confinement is consistent with classical expectations in quiescent plasmas, within the {approx}25% errors of measurement. However, fast ion confinement in NSTX is frequently affected by magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) activity, and the effect of MHD can be quite strong.

  10. Towards identifying the mechanisms underlying field-aligned edge-loss of HHFW power on NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, R. J.; Bell, R. E.; Bertelli, N.; Diallo, A.; Gerhardt, S.; Hosea, J. C.; Jaworski, M. A.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Kramer, G. J.; Maingi, R.; Phillips, C. K.; Podestà, M.; Roquemore, L.; Scotti, F.; Taylor, G.; Wilson, J. R.; Ahn, J-W.; Gray, T. K.; Green, D. L.; McLean, A.

    2014-01-01

    Fast-wave heating will be a major heating scheme on ITER, as it can heat ions directly and is relatively unaffected by the large machine size unlike neutral beams. However, fast-wave interactions with the plasma edge can lead to deleterious effects such as, in the case of the high-harmonic fast-wave (HHFW) system on NSTX, large losses of fast-wave power in the scrape off layer (SOL) under certain conditions. In such scenarios, a large fraction of the lost HHFW power is deposited on the upper and lower divertors in bright spiral shapes. The responsible mechanism(s) has not yet been identified but may include fast-wave propagation in the scrape off layer, parametric decay instability, and RF currents driven by the antenna reactive fields. Understanding and mitigating these losses is important not only for improving the heating and current-drive on NSTX-Upgrade but also for understanding fast-wave propagation across the SOL in any fast-wave system. This talk summarizes experimental results demonstrating that the flow of lost HHFW power to the divertor regions largely follows the open SOL magnetic field lines. This lost power flux is relatively large close to both the antenna and the last closed flux surface with a reduced level in between, so the loss mechanism cannot be localized to the antenna. At the same time, significant losses also occur along field lines connected to the inboard edge of the bottom antenna plate. The power lost within the spirals is roughly estimated, showing that these field-aligned losses to the divertor are significant but may not account for the total HHFW loss. To elucidate the role of the onset layer for perpendicular fast-wave propagation with regards to fast-wave propagation in the SOL, a cylindrical cold-plasma model is being developed. This model, in addition to advanced RF codes such as TORIC and AORSA, is aimed at identifying the underlying mechanism(s) behind these SOL losses, to minimize their effects in NSTX-U, and to predict

  11. Towards identifying the mechanisms underlying field-aligned edge-loss of HHFW power on NSTX

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, R. J.; Bell, R. E.; Bertelli, N.; Diallo, A.; Gerhardt, S.; Hosea, J. C.; Jaworski, M. A.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Kramer, G. J.; Maingi, R.; Phillips, C. K.; Podestà, M.; Roquemore, L.; Scotti, F.; Taylor, G.; Wilson, J. R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ (United States); Ahn, J-W.; Gray, T. K.; Green, D. L.; McLean, A. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN (United States); and others

    2014-02-12

    Fast-wave heating will be a major heating scheme on ITER, as it can heat ions directly and is relatively unaffected by the large machine size unlike neutral beams. However, fast-wave interactions with the plasma edge can lead to deleterious effects such as, in the case of the high-harmonic fast-wave (HHFW) system on NSTX, large losses of fast-wave power in the scrape off layer (SOL) under certain conditions. In such scenarios, a large fraction of the lost HHFW power is deposited on the upper and lower divertors in bright spiral shapes. The responsible mechanism(s) has not yet been identified but may include fast-wave propagation in the scrape off layer, parametric decay instability, and RF currents driven by the antenna reactive fields. Understanding and mitigating these losses is important not only for improving the heating and current-drive on NSTX-Upgrade but also for understanding fast-wave propagation across the SOL in any fast-wave system. This talk summarizes experimental results demonstrating that the flow of lost HHFW power to the divertor regions largely follows the open SOL magnetic field lines. This lost power flux is relatively large close to both the antenna and the last closed flux surface with a reduced level in between, so the loss mechanism cannot be localized to the antenna. At the same time, significant losses also occur along field lines connected to the inboard edge of the bottom antenna plate. The power lost within the spirals is roughly estimated, showing that these field-aligned losses to the divertor are significant but may not account for the total HHFW loss. To elucidate the role of the onset layer for perpendicular fast-wave propagation with regards to fast-wave propagation in the SOL, a cylindrical cold-plasma model is being developed. This model, in addition to advanced RF codes such as TORIC and AORSA, is aimed at identifying the underlying mechanism(s) behind these SOL losses, to minimize their effects in NSTX-U, and to predict

  12. Time Resolved Deposition Measurements in NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Skinner, C.H.; Kugel, H.; Roquemore, A.L.; Hogan, J.; Wampler, W.R.

    2004-01-01

    Time-resolved measurements of deposition in current tokamaks are crucial to gain a predictive understanding of deposition with a view to mitigating tritium retention and deposition on diagnostic mirrors expected in next-step devices. Two quartz crystal microbalances have been installed on NSTX at a location 0.77m outside the last closed flux surface. This configuration mimics a typical diagnostic window or mirror. The deposits were analyzed ex-situ and found to be dominantly carbon, oxygen, and deuterium. A rear facing quartz crystal recorded deposition of lower sticking probability molecules at 10% of the rate of the front facing one. Time resolved measurements over a 4-week period with 497 discharges, recorded 29.2 (micro)g/cm 2 of deposition, however surprisingly, 15.9 (micro)g/cm 2 of material loss occurred at 7 discharges. The net deposited mass of 13.3 (micro)g/cm 2 matched the mass of 13.5 (micro)g/cm 2 measured independently by ion beam analysis. Monte Carlo modeling suggests that transient processes are likely to dominate the deposition

  13. Accounting of the Power Balance for Neutral-beam heated H-Mode Plasmas in NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Paul, S.F.; Maingi, R.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Kaye, S.M.; Kugel, H.

    2004-01-01

    A survey of the dependence of power balance on input power, shape, and plasma current was conducted for neutral-beam-heated plasmas in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). Measurements of heat to the divertor strike plates and divertor and core radiation were taken over a wide range of plasma conditions. The different conditions were obtained by inducing a L-mode to H-mode transition, changing the divertor configuration [lower single null (LSN) vs. double-null (DND)] and conducting a NBI power scan in H-mode. 60-70% of the net input power is accounted for in the LSN discharges with 20% of power lost as fast ions, 30-45% incident on the divertor plates, up to 10% radiated in the core, and about 12% radiated in the divertor. In contrast, the power accountability in DND is 85-90%. A comparison of DND and LSN data show that the remaining power in the LSN is likely to be directed to the upper divertor

  14. Plasma Science and Innovation Center at Washington, Wisconsin, and Utah State: Final Scientific Report for the University of Wisconsin-Madison

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sovinec, Carl R. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States)

    2016-11-28

    The University of Wisconsin-Madison component of the Plasma Science and Innovation Center (PSI Center) contributed to modeling capabilities and algorithmic efficiency of the Non-Ideal Magnetohydrodynamics with Rotation (NIMROD) Code, which is widely used to model macroscopic dynamics of magnetically confined plasma. It also contributed to the understanding of direct-current (DC) injection of electrical current for initiating and sustaining plasma in three spherical torus experiments: the Helicity Injected Torus-II (HIT-II), the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment, and the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). The effort was funded through the PSI Center's cooperative agreement with the University of Washington and Utah State University over the period of March 1, 2005 - August 31, 2016. In addition to the computational and physics accomplishments, the Wisconsin effort contributed to the professional education of four graduate students and two postdoctoral research associates. The modeling for HIT-II and Pegasus was directly supported by the cooperative agreement, and contributions to the NSTX modeling were in support of work by Dr. Bickford Hooper, who was funded through a separate grant. Our primary contribution to model development is the implementation of detailed closure relations for collisional plasma. Postdoctoral associate Adam Bayliss implemented the temperature-dependent effects of Braginskii's parallel collisional ion viscosity. As a graduate student, John O'Bryan added runtime options for Braginskii's models and Ji's K2 models of thermal conduction with magnetization effects and thermal equilibration. As a postdoctoral associate, O'Bryan added the magnetization effects for ion viscosity. Another area of model development completed through the PSI-Center is the implementation of Chodura's phenomenological resistivity model. Finally, we investigated and tested linear electron parallel viscosity, leveraged by support from

  15. Fusion Concept Exploration Experiments at PPPL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stewart Zweben; Samuel Cohen; Hantao Ji; Robert Kaita; Richard Majeski; Masaaki Yamada

    1999-01-01

    Small ''concept exploration'' experiments have for many years been an important part of the fusion research program at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). this paper describes some of the present and planned fusion concept exploration experiments at PPPL. These experiments are a University-scale research level, in contrast with the larger fusion devices at PPPL such as the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) and the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR), which are at ''proof-of-principle'' and ''proof-of-performance'' levels, respectively

  16. SOLPS simulations of X-divertor in NSTX-U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhongping; Kotschenreuther, Mike; Mahajan, Swadesh

    2017-10-01

    The X-divertor (XD) geometry in NSTX-U has demonstrated, in SOLPS simulations, a better performance than the standard divertor (SD) regarding detachment: achieving detachment with a lower upstream density and stabilizing the detachment front near the target. The benefits of such a localized front is that the power exhaust requirement can be satisfied without the radiation front encroaching on the core plasma. It is also found by our simulations that at similar states of detachment the XD outperforms the SD by reducing the heat fluxes to the target and maintaining higher upstream temperatures. These advantages are attributed to the unique geometric characteristics of XD - poloidal flaring near the target. The detailed physical mechanisms behind the better XD performance that is found in the simulations will be examined. Work supported by US DOE under DE-FG02-04ER54742 and SC 0012956.

  17. Measurement and modeling of surface temperature dynamics of the NSTX liquid lithium divertor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McLean, A.G., E-mail: mclean@fusion.gat.com [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States); Gan, K.F. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei (China); Ahn, J.-W.; Gray, T.K.; Maingi, R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Abrams, T.; Jaworski, M.A.; Kaita, R.; Kugel, H.W. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Nygren, R.E. [Sandia National Laboratories, Albuquerque, NM 87185 (United States); Skinner, C.H. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Soukhanovskii, V.A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94551 (United States)

    2013-07-15

    Dual-band infrared (IR) measurements of the National Spherical Torus eXperiment (NSTX) Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD) are reported that demonstrate liquid Li is more effective at removing plasma heat flux than Li-conditioned graphite. Extended dwell of the outer strike point (OSP) on the LLD caused an incrementally larger area to be heated above the Li melting point through the discharge leading to enhanced D retention and plasma confinement. Measurement of T{sub surface} near the OSP demonstrates a significant reduction of the LLD surface temperature compared to that of Li-coated graphite at the same major radius. Modeling of these data with a 2-D simulation of the LLD structure in the DFLUX code suggests that the structure of the LLD was successful at handling up to q{sub ⊥,peak} = 5 MW/m{sup 2} inter-ELM and up to 10 MW/m{sup 2} during ELMs from its plasma-facing surface as intended, and provide an innovative method for inferring the Li layer thickness.

  18. The National Spherical Tokamak Experiment at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    1995-12-01

    The Department of Energy (DOE) has prepared an Environmental Assessment (EA), DOE/EA-1108, evaluating the environmental effects of the proposed construction and operation of the National Spherical Tokamak Experiment (NSTX) within the existing C-Stellarator (CS) Building at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey. The purpose of the NSTX is to investigate the physics of spherically shaped plasmas as an alternative path to conventional tokamaks for development of fusion energy. Fusion energy has the potential to help compensate for dwindling supplies of fossil fuels and the eventual depletion of fissionable uranium used in present-day nuclear reactors. Construction of the NSTX in the CS Building would require the dismantling and removal of the existing unused Princeton Large Torus (PLT) device, part of which would be reused to construct the NSTX. Based on the analyses in the EA, the DOE has determined that the proposed action does not constitute a major federal action significantly affecting the quality of the human environment within the meaning of the National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) of 1969, 42 U.S.C. 4,321 et seq. The preparation of an Environmental Impact Statement is not required. Thus, the DOE is issuing a FONSI pursuant to the Council on Environmental Quality regulations implementing NEPA (40 CFR Parts 1500--1508) and the DOE NEPA implementing regulations (10 CFR Part 1021)

  19. Beta-Suppression of Alfven Cascade Modes in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredrickson, E.D.; N.A. Crocker; N.N. Gorelenkov; W.W. Heidbrink; S. Kubota; F.M. Levinton; H. Yuh; J.E. Menard; Bell, R.E.

    2007-01-01

    The coupling of Alfven Cascade (AC) modes or reversed-shear Alfven eigenmodes (rsAE) to Geodesic Acoustic Modes (GAM) implies that the range of the AC frequency sweep is reduced as the electron β is increased. This model provides an explanation for the otherwise surprising absence of AC modes in reverse shear NSTX plasmas, given the rich spectrum of beam-driven instabilities typically seen in NSTX. In experiments done at very low β to investigate this prediction, AC modes were seen, and as the β e was increased from shot to shot, the range of the AC frequency sweep was reduced, in agreement with this theoretical prediction.

  20. Exploration of high harmonic fast wave heating on the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, J.R.; Bell, R.E.; Bernabei, S.; Bitter, M.; Gates, D.; Hosea, J.; Le Blanc, B.; Medley, S.; Menard, J.; Mueller, D.; Ono, M.; Phillips, C.K.; Rosenberg, A.; Bonoli, P.; Mau, T.K.; Pinsker, R.I.; Raman, R.; Ryan, P.; Swain, D.; Wilgen, J.

    2003-01-01

    High harmonic fast wave (HHFW) heating has been proposed as a particularly attractive means for plasma heating and current drive in the high beta plasmas that are achievable in spherical torus (ST) devices. The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) [M. Ono, S. M. Kaye, S. Neumeyer et al., in Proceedings of the 18th IEEE/NPSS Symposium on Fusion Engineering, Albuquerque, 1999 (IEEE, Piscataway, NJ, 1999), p. 53] is such a device. An rf heating system has been installed on the NSTX to explore the physics of HHFW heating, current drive via rf waves and for use as a tool to demonstrate the attractiveness of the ST concept as a fusion device. To date, experiments have demonstrated many of the theoretical predictions for HHFW. In particular, strong wave absorption on electrons over a wide range of plasma parameters and wave parallel phase velocities, wave acceleration of energetic ions, and indications of current drive for directed wave spectra have been observed. In addition HHFW heating has been used to explore the energy transport properties of NSTX plasmas, to create H-mode discharges with a large fraction of bootstrap current and to control the plasma current profile during the early stages of the discharge

  1. Exploration of High Harmonic Fast Wave Heating on the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wilson, J.R.; Bell, R.E.; Bernabei, S.; Bitter, M.; Bonoli, P.; Gates, D.; Hosea, J.; LeBlanc, B.; Mau, T.K.; Medley, S.; Menard, J.; Mueller, D.; Ono, M.; Phillips, C.K.; Pinsker, R.I.; Raman, R.; Rosenberg, A.; Ryan, P.; Sabbagh, S.; Stutman, D.; Swain, D.; Takase, Y.; Wilgen, J.

    2003-01-01

    High Harmonic Fast Wave (HHFW) heating has been proposed as a particularly attractive means for plasma heating and current drive in the high-beta plasmas that are achievable in spherical torus (ST) devices. The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) [Ono, M., Kaye, S.M., Neumeyer, S., et al., Proceedings, 18th IEEE/NPSS Symposium on Fusion Engineering, Albuquerque, 1999, (IEEE, Piscataway, NJ (1999), p. 53.)] is such a device. An radio-frequency (rf) heating system has been installed on NSTX to explore the physics of HHFW heating, current drive via rf waves and for use as a tool to demonstrate the attractiveness of the ST concept as a fusion device. To date, experiments have demonstrated many of the theoretical predictions for HHFW. In particular, strong wave absorption on electrons over a wide range of plasma parameters and wave parallel phase velocities, wave acceleration of energetic ions, and indications of current drive for directed wave spectra have been observed. In addition HHFW heating has been used to explore the energy transport properties of NSTX plasmas, to create H-mode (high-confinement mode) discharges with a large fraction of bootstrap current and to control the plasma current profile during the early stages of the discharge

  2. Hydrogen retention in lithium on metallic walls from “in vacuo” analysis in LTX and implications for high-Z plasma-facing components in NSTX-U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaita, R., E-mail: kaita@pppl.gov [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Lucia, M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Allain, J.P.; Bedoya, F. [Department of Nuclear, Plasma, & Radiological Engineering, University of Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, Urbana, IL (United States); Bell, R.; Boyle, D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Capece, A. [Department of Physics, The College of New Jersey, Ewing, NJ (United States); Jaworski, M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Koel, B.E. [Department of Chemical & Biological Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Majeski, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Roszell, J. [Department of Chemical & Biological Engineering, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Schmitt, J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Scotti, F. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States); Skinner, C.H. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ (United States); Soukhanovskii, V. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-04-15

    The application of lithium to plasma-facing components (PFCs) has long been used as a technique for wall conditioning in magnetic confinement devices to improve plasma performance. Determining the characteristics of PFCs at the time of exposure to the plasma, however, is difficult because they can only be analyzed after venting the vacuum vessel and removing them at the end of an operational period. The Materials Analysis and Particle Probe (MAPP) addresses this problem by enabling PFC samples to be exposed to plasmas, and then withdrawn into an analysis chamber without breaking vacuum. The MAPP system was used to introduce samples that matched the metallic PFCs of the Lithium Tokamak Experiment (LTX). Lithium that was subsequently evaporated onto the walls also covered the MAPP samples, which were then subject to LTX discharges. In vacuo extraction and analysis of the samples indicated that lithium oxide formed on the PFCs, but improved plasma performance persisted in LTX. The reduced recycling this suggests is consistent with separate surface science experiments that demonstrated deuterium retention in the presence of lithium oxide films. Since oxygen decreases the thermal stability of the deuterium in the film, the release of deuterium was observed below the lithium deuteride dissociation temperature. This may explain what occurred when lithium was applied to the surface of the NSTX Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD). The LLD had segments with individual heaters, and the deuterium-alpha emission was clearly lower in the cooler regions. The plan for NSTX-U is to replace the graphite tiles with high-Z PFCs, and apply lithium to their surfaces with lithium evaporation. Experiments with lithium coatings on such PFCs suggest that deuterium could still be retained if lithium compounds form, but limiting their surface temperatures may be necessary.

  3. Alignment of the Thomson scattering diagnostic on NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeBlanc, B P; Diallo, A

    2013-01-01

    The Thomson scattering diagnostic can provide profile measurement of the electron temperature, T e , and density, n e , in plasmas. Proper laser beam path and optics arrangement permits profiles T e (R) and n e (R) measurement along the major radius R. Keeping proper alignment between the laser beam path and the collection optics is necessary for an accurate determination of the electron density. As time progresses the relative position of the collection optics field of view with respect to the laser beam path will invariably shift. This can be kept to a minimum by proper attention to the physical arrangement of the collection and laser-beam delivery optics. A system has been in place to monitor the relative position between laser beam and collection optics. Variation of the alignment can be detected before it begins to affect the quality of the profile data. This paper discusses details of the instrumentation and techniques used to maintain alignment during NSTX multi-month experimental campaigns

  4. Operational Regimes of the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mueller, D.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.E.; Bitter, M.; Bigelow, T.; Bonoli, P.; Carter, M.; Ferron, J.; Fredrickson, E.; Gates, D.; Grisham, L.; Hosea, J.C.; Johnson, D.; Kaita, R.; Kaye, S.M.; Kugel, H.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Maingi, R.; Majeski, R.; Maqueda, R.; Menard, J.; Ono, M.; Paoletti, F.; Paul, S.; Phillips, C.K.; Pinsker, R.; Raman, R.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Skinner, C.H.; Soukhanovskii, V.A; Stutman, D.; Swain, D.; Takase, Y.; Wilgen, J.; Wilson, J.R.; Wurden, G.A.; Zweben, S.

    2002-01-01

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is a proof-of-principle experiment designed to study the physics of Spherical Tori (ST), i.e., low-aspect-ratio toroidal plasmas. Important issues for ST research are whether the high-eta stability and reduced transport theoretically predicted for this configuration can be realized experimentally. In NSTX, the commissioning of a digital real-time plasma control system, the provision of flexible heating systems, and the application of wall conditioning techniques were instrumental in achieving routine operation with good confinement. NSTX has produced plasmas with R/a ∼ 0.85 m/0.68 m, A ∼ 1.25, Ip * 1.1 MA, BT = 0.3-0.45 T, k * 2.2, d * 0.5, with auxiliary heating by up to 4 MW of High Harmonic Fast Waves, and 5 MW of 80 keV D0 Neutral Beam Injection (NBI). The energy confinement time in plasmas heated by NBI has exceeded 100 ms and a toroidal beta (bT = 2m0 /BT02, where BT0 is the central vacuum toroidal magnetic field) up to 22% has be en achieved. HHFW power of 2.3 MW has increased the electron temperature from an initial 0.4 keV to 0.9 keV both with and without producing a significant density rise in the plasma. The early application of both NBI and HHFW heating has slowed the penetration of the inductively produced plasma current, modifying the current profile and, thereby, the observed MHD stability

  5. National Spherical Torus Experiment Real Time Plasma Control Data Acquisition Hardware

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.J. Marsala; J. Schneider

    2002-01-01

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is currently providing researchers data on low aspect-ratio toroidal plasmas. NSTX's Plasma Control System adjusts the firing angles of thyristor rectifier power supplies, in real time, to control plasma position, shape and density. A Data Acquisition system comprised of off-the-shelf and custom hardware provides the magnetic diagnostics data required in calculating firing angles. This VERSAmodule Eurocard (VME) bus-based system utilizes Front Panel Data Port (FPDP) for high-speed data transfer. Data coming from physically different locations is referenced to several different ground potentials necessitating the need for a custom FPDP multiplexer. This paper discusses the data acquisition system configuration, the in-house designed 4-to-1 FPDP Input Multiplexing Module (FIMM), and future expansion plans

  6. Nonlocal neoclassical transport in tokamak and spherical torus experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Wang, W. X.; Rewoldt, G.; Tang, W. M.; Hinton, F. L.; Manickam, J.; Zakharov, L. E.; White, R. B.; Kaye, S.

    2006-01-01

    Large ion orbits can produce nonlocal neoclassical effects on ion heat transport, the ambipolar radial electric field, and the bootstrap current in realistic toroidal plasmas. Using a global δf particle simulation, it is found that the conventional local, linear gradient-flux relation is broken for the ion thermal transport near the magnetic axis. With regard to the transport level, it is found that details of the ion temperature profile determine whether the transport is higher or lower when compared with the predictions of standard neoclassical theory. Particularly, this nonlocal feature is suggested to exist in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) [M. Ono, S. M. Kaye, Y.-K. M. Peng et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 (2000)], being consistent with NSTX experimental evidence. It is also shown that a large ion temperature gradient can increase the bootstrap current. When the plasma rotation is taken into account, the toroidal rotation gradient can drive an additional parallel flow for the ions and then additional bootstrap current, either positive or negative, depending on the gradient direction. Compared with the carbon radial force balance estimate for the neoclassical poloidal flow, our nonlocal simulation predicts a significantly deeper radial electric field well at the location of an internal transport barrier of an NSTX discharge

  7. Operational Regimes of the National Spherical Torus Experiment; TOPICAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D. Mueller; M.G. Bell; R.E. Bell; M. Bitter; T. Bigelow; P. Bonoli; M. Carter; J. Ferron; E. Fredrickson; D. Gates; L. Grisham; J.C. Hosea; D. Johnson; R. Kaita; S.M. Kaye; H. Kugel; B.P. LeBlanc; R. Maingi; R. Majeski; R. Maqueda; J. Menard; M. Ono; F. Paoletti; S. Paul; C.K. Phillips; R. Pinsker; R. Raman; S.A. Sabbagh; C.H. Skinner; V.A. Soukhanovskii; D. Stutman; D. Swain; Y. Takase; J. Wilgen; J.R. Wilson; G.A. Wurden; S. Zweben

    2002-01-01

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is a proof-of-principle experiment designed to study the physics of Spherical Tori (ST), i.e., low-aspect-ratio toroidal plasmas. Important issues for ST research are whether the high-eta stability and reduced transport theoretically predicted for this configuration can be realized experimentally. In NSTX, the commissioning of a digital real-time plasma control system, the provision of flexible heating systems, and the application of wall conditioning techniques were instrumental in achieving routine operation with good confinement. NSTX has produced plasmas with R/a(approx) 0.85 m/0.68 m, A(approx) 1.25, Ip* 1.1 MA, BT= 0.3-0.45 T, k* 2.2, d* 0.5, with auxiliary heating by up to 4 MW of High Harmonic Fast Waves, and 5 MW of 80 keV D0 Neutral Beam Injection (NBI). The energy confinement time in plasmas heated by NBI has exceeded 100 ms and a toroidal beta (bT= 2m0 and lt;p and gt;/BT02, where BT0 is the central vacuum toroidal magnetic field) up to 22% has be en achieved. HHFW power of 2.3 MW has increased the electron temperature from an initial 0.4 keV to 0.9 keV both with and without producing a significant density rise in the plasma. The early application of both NBI and HHFW heating has slowed the penetration of the inductively produced plasma current, modifying the current profile and, thereby, the observed MHD stability

  8. Toroidal asymmetries in divertor impurity influxes in NSTX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Scotti

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Toroidal asymmetries in divertor carbon and lithium influxes were observed in NSTX, due to toroidal differences in surface composition, tile leading edges, externally-applied three-dimensional (3D fields and toroidally-localized edge plasma modifications due to radio frequency heating. Understanding toroidal asymmetries in impurity influxes is critical for the evaluation of total impurity sources, often inferred from measurements with a limited toroidal coverage. The toroidally-asymmetric lithium deposition induced asymmetries in divertor lithium influxes. Enhanced impurity influxes at the leading edge of divertor tiles were the main cause of carbon toroidal asymmetries and were enhanced during edge localized modes. Externally-applied 3D fields led to strike point splitting and helical lobes observed in divertor impurity emission, but marginal changes to the toroidally-averaged impurity influxes. Power coupled to the scrape-off layer SOL plasma during radio frequency (RF heating of H-mode discharges enhanced impurity influxes along the non-axisymmetric divertor footprint of flux tubes connecting to plasma in front of the RF antenna.

  9. Diagnostics for Evaluating Performance of NSTX Liquid Lihium Divertor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaita, R.; Kugel, H.; Kallman, J.; Leblanc, B.; Paul, S.; Roquemore, A. L.; Skinner, C.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Maingi, R.; Ahn, J.-W.; Wilgen, J.; Allain, J.-P.; Taylor, C.

    2009-11-01

    A Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD) is being installed on NSTX to investigate particle control and power handling with liquid lithium as plasma-facing component (PFC). The LLD is expected to provide a low-recycling plasma-facing component (PFC). To study the effects of such a PFC on plasma performance, a variety of edge measurements are required. Since its surface is highly reflective at visible wavelengths, a Lyman-alpha detector array will be used to monitor the recycling. To understand changes in edge transport, electron temperature and density measurements will be made with Langmuir probes mounted in PFC's near the LLD, and the edge sightlines of a multipoint Thomson scattering system. A frequency-scanning reflectometer will also provide scrapeoff layer electron density profiles. The LLD response to heat loads will be examined with infrared cameras and thermocouples. Diagnostics are also needed to measure the erosion and codeposition of lithium. They include quartz deposition monitors and a retractable probe for exposing samples to the plasma.

  10. Initial results from the NSTX Real-Time Velocity diagnostic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Podesta, M.; Bell, R. E.

    2011-10-01

    A new diagnostic for fast measurements of plasma rotation through active charge-exchange recombination spectroscopy (CHERS) was installed on NSTX. The diagnostic infers toroidal rotation from carbon ions undergoing charge-exchange with neutrals from a heating Neutral Beam (NB). Each of the 4 channels, distributed along the outer major radius, includes active views intercepting the NB and background views missing the beam. Estimated uncertainties in the measured velocity are system. Signals are acquired on 2 CCD detectors, each controlled by a dedicated PC. Spectra are fitted in real-time through a C++ processing code and velocities are made available to the Plasma Control System for future implementation of feedback on velocity. Results from the initial operation during the 2011 run are discussed, emphasizing the fast dynamics of toroidal rotation, e . g . during L-H mode transition and breaking caused by instabilities and by externally-imposed magnetic perturbations. Work supported by USDOE Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  11. Scenario development during commissioning operations on the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, D. J.; Boyer, M. D.; Gerhardt, S.; Mueller, D.; Myers, C. E.; Guttenfelder, W.; Menard, J. E.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Scotti, F.; Bedoya, F.; Bell, R. E.; Berkery, J. W.; Diallo, A.; Ferraro, N.; Kaye, S. M.; Jaworski, M. A.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Ono, M.; Park, J.-K.; Podesta, M.; Raman, R.; Soukhanovskii, V.; NSTX-U Research, the; Operations; Engineering Team

    2018-04-01

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade (NSTX-U) will advance the physics basis required for achieving steady-state, high-beta, and high-confinement conditions in a tokamak by accessing high toroidal fields (1 T) and plasma currents (1.0-2.0 MA) in a low aspect ratio geometry (A  =  1.6-1.8) with flexible auxiliary heating systems (12 MW NBI, 6 MW HHFW). This paper describes the progress in the development of L- and H-mode discharge scenarios and the commissioning of operational tools in the first ten weeks of operation that enable the scientific mission of NSTX-U. Vacuum field calculations completed prior to operations supported the rapid development and optimization of inductive breakdown at different values of ohmic solenoid current. The toroidal magnetic field (B T0  =  0.65 T) exceeded the maximum values achieved on NSTX and novel long-pulse L-mode discharges with regular sawtooth activity exceeded the longest pulses produced on NSTX (t pulse  >  1.8 s). The increased flux of the central solenoid facilitated the development of stationary L-mode discharges over a range of density and plasma current (I p). H-mode discharges achieved similar levels of stored energy, confinement (H98y,2  >  1) and stability (β N/β N-nowall  >  1) compared to NSTX discharges for I p  ⩽  1 MA. High-performance H-mode scenarios require an L-H transition early in the I p ramp-up phase in order to obtain low internal inductance (l i) throughout the discharge, which is conducive to maintaining vertical stability at high elongation (κ  >  2.2) and achieving long periods of MHD quiescent operations. The rapid progress in developing L- and H-mode scenarios in support of the scientific program was enabled by advances in real-time plasma control, efficient error field identification and correction, effective conditioning of the graphite wall and excellent diagnostic availability.

  12. A study of X-divertor in NSTX-U with SOLPS simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Zhong-Ping; Kotschenreuther, Mike; Mahajan, Swadesh; Gerhardt, Stefan

    2018-03-01

    The X-divertor (XD) geometry in NSTX-U is demonstrated, via SOLPS simulations, to perform better than the standard divertor (SD); in particular, it allows detachment at a lower upstream density and stabilizes the detachment front near the target, away from the main X-point. Consequently a stable detached operation becomes possible—the localization near the plate allows a vast reduction of heat fluxes without degrading the core plasma. Indeed, it is confirmed by our simulation that at similar states of detachment the XD outperforms the SD by reducing the heat fluxes to the target and maintaining higher upstream temperatures, resulting in scrape-off layers that are more favorable for advanced tokamak operation. These advantages are attributed to the unique geometric characteristics of XD—poloidal flaring near the target.

  13. Interactions of Deuterium Plasma with Lithiated and Boronized Surfaces in NSTX-U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krstic, Predrag

    2015-09-01

    The main research goal of the presented research has been to understand the changes in surface composition and chemistry at the nanoscopic temporal and spatial scales for long pulse Plasma Facing Components (PFCs) and link these to the overall machine performance of the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade (NSTX-U). A study is presented of the lithium surface science, with atomic spatial and temporal resolutions. The dynamic surface responds and evolves in a mixed material environments (D, Li, C, B, O, Mo, W) with impingement of plasma particles in the energy range below 100 eV. The results, obtained by quantum-classical molecular dynamics, include microstructure changes, erosion, surface chemistry, deuterium implantation and permeation. Main objectives of the research are i) a comparison of Li and B deposition on carbon, ii) the role of oxygen and other impurities e.g. boron, carbon in the lithium performance, and iii) how this performance will change when lithium is applied to a high-Z refractory metal substrate (Mo, W). In addition to predicting and understanding the phenomenology of the processes, we will show plasma induced erosion of PFCs, including chemical and physical sputtering yields at various temperatures (300-700 K) as well as deuterium uptake/recycling. This work is supported by the U.S. Department of Energy Office of Science, Office of Fusion Energy Science, Award Number DE-SC0013752.

  14. Transition to ELM-free Improved H-mode by Lithium Deposition on NSTX Graphite Divertor Surfaces

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mansfield, D.K.; Kugel, H.W.; Maingi, R.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.; Kaita, R.; Kallman, J.; Kaye, S.; LeBlanc, B.; Mueller, D.; Paul, S.; Raman, R.; Roquemore, L.; Sabbagh, S.; Schneider, H.; Skinner, C.H.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Timberlake, J.; Wilgen, J.; Zakharov, L.

    2009-01-01

    Lithium evaporated onto plasma facing components in the NSTX lower divertor has made dramatic improvements in discharge performance. As lithium accumulated, plasmas previously exhibiting robust Type 1 ELMs gradually transformed into discharges with intermittent ELMs and finally into continuously evolving ELM-free discharges. During this sequence, other discharge parameters changed in a complicated manner. As the ELMs disappeared, energy confinement improved and remarkable changes in edge and scrape-off layer plasma properties were observed. These results demonstrate that active modification of plasma surface interactions can preempt large ELMs.

  15. Snowflake divertor configuration studies in National Spherical Torus Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soukhanovskii, V. A.; McLean, A. G.; Rognlien, T. D.; Ryutov, D. D.; Umansky, M. V. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States); Bell, R. E.; Diallo, A.; Gerhardt, S.; Kaye, S.; Kolemen, E.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Menard, J. E.; Paul, S. F.; Podesta, M.; Roquemore, A. L.; Scotti, F.; Battaglia, D.; Bell, M. G.; Gates, D. A.; Kaita, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); and others

    2012-08-15

    Experimental results from NSTX indicate that the snowflake divertor (D. Ryutov, Phys. Plasmas 14, 064502 (2007)) may be a viable solution for outstanding tokamak plasma-material interface issues. Steady-state handling of divertor heat flux and divertor plate erosion remains to be critical issues for ITER and future concept devices based on conventional and spherical tokamak geometry with high power density divertors. Experiments conducted in 4-6 MW NBI-heated H-mode plasmas in NSTX demonstrated that the snowflake divertor is compatible with high-confinement core plasma operation, while being very effective in steady-state divertor heat flux mitigation and impurity reduction. A steady-state snowflake divertor was obtained in recent NSTX experiments for up to 600 ms using three divertor magnetic coils. The high magnetic flux expansion region of the scrape-off layer (SOL) spanning up to 50% of the SOL width {lambda}{sub q} was partially detached in the snowflake divertor. In the detached zone, the heat flux profile flattened and decreased to 0.5-1 MW/m{sup 2} (from 4-7 MW/m{sup 2} in the standard divertor) indicative of radiative heating. An up to 50% increase in divertor, P{sub rad} in the snowflake divertor was accompanied by broadening of the intrinsic C III and C IV radiation zones, and a nearly order of magnitude increase in divertor high-n Balmer line emission indicative of volumetric recombination onset. Magnetic reconstructions showed that the x-point connection length, divertor plasma-wetted area and divertor volume, all critical parameters for geometric reduction of deposited heat flux, and increased volumetric divertor losses were significantly increased in the snowflake divertor, as expected from theory.

  16. Prompt Loss of Energetic Ions during Early Neutral Beam Injection in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medley, S.S.; Darrow, D.S.; Liu, D.; Roquemore, A.L.

    2005-01-01

    Early neutral-beam injection is used in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) to heat the electrons and slow current penetration which keeps q(0) elevated to avoid deleterious MHD activity and at the same time reduces Ohmic flux consumption, all of which aids long-pulse operation. However, the low plasma current (I p ∼ 0.5 MA) and electron density (n e ∼ 1 x 10 13 cm -3 ) attending early injection lead to elevated orbit and shine through losses. The inherent orbit losses are aggravated by large excursions in the outer gap width during current ramp-up. An investigation of this behavior using various energetic particle diagnostics on NSTX and TRANSP code analysis is presented

  17. Recent EBW Emission Results and Plans for a 350 kW 28 GHz EC/EBW Heating System on NSTX

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Taylor, G.; Diem, S.J.; Ellis, R.A.; Fredd, E.; Greenough, N.I.; Hosea, J.C.; Bigelow, T.S.; Caughman, J.B.; Rasmussen, D.A.; Ryan, P.; Wilgen, J.B.; Harvey, R.W.; Smirnov, A.P.; Ershov, N.M.; Preinhaelter, Josef; Urban, Jakub; Ram, A.K.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 52, č. 16 (2007), s. 304-304 ISSN 0003-0503. [Annual Meeting of the Division of Plasma Physics/49th./. Orlando, Florida, 12.11.2007-16.11.2007] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : Conversion * Emission * Tokamaks * Electron Bernstein waves * Simulation * NSTX Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics http://meetings.aps.org/Meeting/DPP07/Content/901

  18. Experimental demonstration of tokamak inductive flux saving by transient coaxial helicity injection on national spherical torus experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raman, R.; Jarboe, T. R.; Nelson, B. A. [University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Mueller, D.; Bell, M. G.; Gerhardt, S.; LeBlanc, B.; Menard, J.; Ono, M.; Roquemore, L. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Soukhanovskii, V. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

    2011-09-15

    Discharges initiated by transient coaxial helicity injection in National Spherical Torus Experiment have attained peak toroidal plasma currents up to 300 kA. When induction from the central solenoid is then applied, these discharges develop up to 300 kA additional current compared to discharges initiated by induction only. CHI initiated discharges in NSTX have achieved 1 MA of plasma current using only 258 mWb of solenoid flux whereas standard induction-only discharges require about 50% more solenoid flux to reach 1 MA. In addition, the CHI-initiated discharge has lower plasma density and a low normalized internal plasma inductance of 0.35, as needed for achieving advanced scenarios in NSTX.

  19. Response of NSTX liquid lithium divertor to high heat loads

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abrams, T., E-mail: tabrams@pppl.gov [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Jaworski, M.A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Kallman, J. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Kaita, R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Foley, E.L. [Nova Photonics, Inc., Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Gray, T.K. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831 (United States); Kugel, H. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Levinton, F. [Nova Photonics, Inc., Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); McLean, A.G. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, CA 94550 (United States); Skinner, C.H. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States)

    2013-07-15

    Samples of the NSTX Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD) with and without an evaporative Li coating were directly exposed to a neutral beam ex-situ at a power of ∼1.5 MW/m{sup 2} for 1–3 s. Measurements of front face and bulk sample temperature were obtained. Predictions of temperature evolution were derived from a 1D heat flux model. No macroscopic damage occurred when the “bare” sample was exposed to the beam but microscopic changes to the surface were observed. The Li-coated sample developed a lithium hydroxide (LiOH) coating, which did not change even when the front face temperature exceeded the pure Li melting point. These results are consistent with the lack of damage to the LLD surface and imply that heating alone may not expose pure liquid Li if the melting point of surface impurities is not exceeded. This suggests that flow and heat are needed for future PFCs requiring a liquid Li surface.

  20. Scintillator Based Energetic Ion Loss Diagnostic for the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darrow, D.S.

    2007-01-01

    A scintillator based energetic ion loss detector has been built and installed on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) to measure the loss of neutral beam ions. The detector is able to resolve the pitch angle and gyroradius of the lost energetic ions. It has a wide acceptance range in pitch angle and energy, and is able to resolve the full, one-half, and one-third energy components of the 80 keV D neutral beams up to the maximum toroidal magnetic field of NSTX. Multiple Faraday cups have been embedded behind the scintillator to allow easy absolute calibration of the diagnostic and to measure the energetic ion loss to several ranges of pitch angle with good time resolution. Several small, vacuum compatible lamps allow simple calibration of the scintillator position within the field of view of the diagnostic's video camera

  1. Scintillator Based Energetic Ion Loss Diagnostic for the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D.S. Darrow

    2007-07-02

    A scintillator based energetic ion loss detector has been built and installed on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) to measure the loss of neutral beam ions. The detector is able to resolve the pitch angle and gyroradius of the lost energetic ions. It has a wide acceptance range in pitch angle and energy, and is able to resolve the full, one-half, and one-third energy components of the 80 keV D neutral beams up to the maximum toroidal magnetic field of NSTX. Multiple Faraday cups have been embedded behind the scintillator to allow easy absolute calibration of the diagnostic and to measure the energetic ion loss to several ranges of pitch angle with good time resolution. Several small, vacuum compatible lamps allow simple calibration of the scintillator position within the field of view of the diagnostic's video camera.

  2. Physics design of a 28 GHz electron heating system for the National Spherical Torus experiment upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor, G.; Bertelli, N.; Ellis, R. A.; Gerhardt, S. P.; Hosea, J. C.; Poli, F. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Harvey, R. W. [CompX, Del Mar, California 92014 (United States); Raman, R. [University of Washington, Seattle, Washington 98195 (United States); Smirnov, A. P. [M.V. Lomonosov Moscow State University, Moscow (Russian Federation)

    2014-02-12

    A megawatt-level, 28 GHz electron heating system is being designed to support non-inductive (NI) plasma current (I{sub p}) start-up and local heating and current drive (CD) in H-mode discharges in the National Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade (NSTX-U). The development of fully NI I{sub p} start-up and ramp-up is an important goal of the NSTXU research program. 28 GHz electron cyclotron (EC) heating is predicted to rapidly increase the central electron temperature (T{sub e}(0)) of low density NI plasmas generated by Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI). The increased T{sub e}(0) will significantly reduce the I{sub p} decay rate of CHI plasmas, allowing the coupling of fast wave heating and neutral beam injection. Also 28 GHz electron Bernstein wave (EBW) heating and CD can be used during the I{sub p} flat top in NSTX-U discharges when the plasma is overdense. Ray tracing and Fokker-Planck numerical simulation codes have been used to model EC and EBW heating and CD in NSTX-U. This paper presents a pre-conceptual design for the 28 GHz heating system and some of the results from the numerical simulations.

  3. Ecology-centered experiences among children and adolescents: A qualitative and quantitative analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, Judy

    The present research involved two studies that considered ecology-centered experiences (i.e., experiences with living things) as a factor in children's environmental attitudes and behaviors and adolescents' ecological understanding. The first study (Study 1) examined how a community garden provides children in an urban setting the opportunity to learn about ecology through ecology-centered experiences. To do this, I carried out a yearlong ethnographic study at an urban community garden located in a large city in the Southeastern United States. Through participant observations and informal interviews of community garden staff and participants, I found children had opportunities to learn about ecology through ecology-centered experiences (e.g., interaction with animals) along with other experiences (e.g., playing games, reading books). In light of previous research that shows urban children have diminished ecological thought---a pattern of thought that privileges the relationship between living things---because of their lack of ecology-centered experiences (Coley, 2012), the present study may have implications for urban children to learn about ecology. As an extension of Study 1, I carried out a second study (Study 2) to investigate how ecology-centered experiences contribute to adolescents' environmental attitudes and behaviors in light of other contextual factors, namely environmental responsibility support, ecological thought, age and gender. Study 2 addressed three research questions. First, does ecological thought---a pattern of thought that privileges the relationship between living things---predict environmental attitudes and behaviors (EAB)? Results showed ecological thought did not predict EAB, an important finding considering the latent assumptions of previous research about the relationship between these two factors (e.g., Brugger, Kaiser, & Roczen, 2011). Second, do two types of contextual support, ecology-centered experiences (i.e., experiences with

  4. Microwave Scattering System Design for ρe-Scale Turbulence Measurements on NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Smith, D.R.; Mazzucato, E.; Munsat, T.; Park, H.; Johnson, D.; Lin, L.; Domier, C.W.; Johnson, M.; Luhmann, N.C. Jr.

    2004-01-01

    Despite suppression of ρ i -scale turbulent fluctuations, electron thermal transport remains anomalous in NSTX. For this reason, a microwave scattering system will be deployed to directly observe the w and k spectra of ρ e -scale turbulent fluctuations and characterize the effect on electron thermal transport. The scattering system will employ a Gaussian probe beam produced by a high power 280 GHz microwave source. A five-channel heterodyne detection system will measure radial turbulent spectra in the range |k r | = 0-20 cm -1 . Inboard and outboard launch configurations cover most of the normalized minor radius. Improved spatial localization of measurements is achieved with low aspect ratio and high magnetic shear configurations. This paper will address the global design of the scattering system, such as choice of frequency, size, launching system, and detection system

  5. Simulation of microtearing turbulence in national spherical torus experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guttenfelder, W.; Kaye, S. M.; Bell, R. E.; Hammett, G. W.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Mikkelsen, D. R.; Ren, Y. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton New Jersey 08543 (United States); Candy, J. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186 (United States); Nevins, W. M.; Wang, E. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 04551 (United States); Zhang, J.; Crocker, N. A. [University of California Los Angeles, California 90095 (United States); Yuh, H. [Nova Photonics Inc., Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)

    2012-05-15

    Thermal energy confinement times in National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) dimensionless parameter scans increase with decreasing collisionality. While ion thermal transport is neoclassical, the source of anomalous electron thermal transport in these discharges remains unclear, leading to considerable uncertainty when extrapolating to future spherical tokamak (ST) devices at much lower collisionality. Linear gyrokinetic simulations find microtearing modes to be unstable in high collisionality discharges. First non-linear gyrokinetic simulations of microtearing turbulence in NSTX show they can yield experimental levels of transport. Magnetic flutter is responsible for almost all the transport ({approx}98%), perturbed field line trajectories are globally stochastic, and a test particle stochastic transport model agrees to within 25% of the simulated transport. Most significantly, microtearing transport is predicted to increase with electron collisionality, consistent with the observed NSTX confinement scaling. While this suggests microtearing modes may be the source of electron thermal transport, the predictions are also very sensitive to electron temperature gradient, indicating the scaling of the instability threshold is important. In addition, microtearing turbulence is susceptible to suppression via sheared E Multiplication-Sign B flows as experimental values of E Multiplication-Sign B shear (comparable to the linear growth rates) dramatically reduce the transport below experimental values. Refinements in numerical resolution and physics model assumptions are expected to minimize the apparent discrepancy. In cases where the predicted transport is strong, calculations suggest that a proposed polarimetry diagnostic may be sensitive to the magnetic perturbations associated with the unique structure of microtearing turbulence.

  6. CUBED: South Dakota 2010 Research Center For Dusel Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Keller, Christina; Alton, Drew; Bai Xinhau; Durben, Dan; Heise, Jaret; Hong Haiping; Howard, Stan; Jiang Chaoyang; Keeter, Kara; McTaggart, Robert; Medlin, Dana; Mei Dongming; Petukhov, Andre; Rauber, Joel; Roggenthen, Bill; Spaans, Jason; Sun Yongchen; Szczerbinska, Barbara; Thomas, Keenan; Zehfus, Michael

    2010-01-01

    With the selection of the Homestake Mine in western South Dakota by the National Science Foundation (NSF) as the site for a national Deep Underground Science and Engineering Laboratory (DUSEL), the state of South Dakota has sought ways to engage its faculty and students in activities planned for DUSEL. One such effort is the creation of a 2010 Research Center focused on ultra-low background experiments or a Center for Ultra-low Background Experiments at DUSEL (CUBED). The goals of this center include to 1) bring together the current South Dakota faculty so that one may begin to develop a critical mass of expertise necessary for South Dakota's full participation in large-scale collaborations planned for DUSEL; 2) to increase the number of research faculty and other research personnel in South Dakota to complement and supplement existing expertise in nuclear physics and materials sciences; 3) to be competitive in pursuit of external funding through the creation of a center which focuses on areas of interest to experiments planned for DUSEL such as an underground crystal growth lab, a low background counting facility, a purification/depletion facility for noble liquids, and an electroforming copper facility underground; and 4) to train and educate graduate and undergraduate students as a way to develop the scientific workforce of the state. We will provide an update on the activities of the center and describe in more detail the scientific foci of the center.

  7. Electron Bernstein Wave Emission Based Diagnostic on National Spherical Torus Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diem, S.; Taylor, G.; Caughman, John B.; Efthimion, P.C.; Kugel, H.; LeBlanc, B.; Preinhaelter, J.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Urban, J.; Wilgen, John B.

    2008-01-01

    National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is a spherical tokamak (ST) that operates with n(e) up to 10(20) m(-3) and B(T) less than 0.6 T, cutting off low harmonic electron cyclotron (EC) emission widely used for T(e) measurements on conventional aspect ratio tokamaks. The electron Bernstein wave (EBW) can propagate in ST plasmas and is emitted at EC harmonics. These properties suggest thermal EBW emission (EBE) may be used for local T(e) measurements in the ST. Practically, a robust T(e)(R,t) EBE diagnostic requires EBW transmission efficiencies of >90% for a wide range of plasma conditions. EBW emission and coupling physics were studied on NSTX with an obliquely viewing EBW to O-mode (B-X-O) diagnostic with two remotely steered antennas, coupled to absolutely calibrated radiometers. While T(e)(R,t) measurements with EBW emission on NSTX were possible, they were challenged by several issues. Rapid fluctuations in edge n(e) scale length resulted in >20% changes in the low harmonic B-X-O transmission efficiency. Also, B-X-O transmission efficiency during H modes was observed to decay by a factor of 5-10 to less than a few percent. The B-X-O transmission behavior during H modes was reproduced by EBE simulations that predict that EBW collisional damping can significantly reduce emission when T(e)< 30 eV inside the B-X-O mode conversion (MC) layer. Initial edge lithium conditioning experiments during H modes have shown that evaporated lithium can increase T(e) inside the B-X-O MC layer, significantly increasing B-X-O transmission.

  8. Experimental/theoretical comparisons of the turbulence in the scrape-off-layers of Alcator C-Mod, DIII-D, and NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Terry, J.L. . E-mail : terry@psfc.mit.edu; Zweben, S.J.; Rudakov, D.L.

    2003-01-01

    The intermittent turbulent transport in the scrape-off-layers of Alcator C-Mod, DIII-D, and NSTX is studied experimentally. On DIII-D the fluctuations of both density and temperature have strongly non-Gaussian statistics, and events with amplitudes above 10 times the mean level are responsible for large fractions of the net particle and heat transport, indicating the importance of turbulence on the transport. In C-Mod and NSTX the turbulence is imaged with a very high density of spatial measurements. The 2-D structure and dynamics of emission from a localized gas puff are observed, and intermittent features (also sometimes called 'blobs') are typically seen. On DIII-D the turbulence is imaged using BES and similar intermittent features are seen. The dynamics of these intermittent features are discussed. The experimental observations are compared with numerical simulations of edge turbulence. The electromagnetic turbulence in a 3-D geometry is computed using non-linear plasma fluid equations. The wavenumber spectra in the poloidal dimension of the simulations are in reasonable agreement with those of the C-Mod experimental images once the response of the optical system is accounted for. The resistive ballooning mode is the dominant linear instability in the simulations. (author)

  9. Center for Momentum Transport and Flow Organization (CMTFO). Final technical report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tynan, George R.; Diamond, P. H.; Ji, H.; Forest, C. B.; Terry, P. W.; Munsat, T.; Brummell, N.

    2013-01-01

    The Center for Momentum Transport and Flow Organization (CMTFO) is a DOE Plasma Science Center formed in late 2009 to focus on the general principles underlying momentum transport in magnetic fusion and astrophysical systems. It is composed of funded researchers from UCSD, UW Madison, U. Colorado, PPPL. As of 2011, UCSD supported postdocs are collaborating at MIT/Columbia and UC Santa Cruz and beginning in 2012, will also be based at PPPL. In the initial startup period, the Center supported the construction of two basic experiments at PPPL and UW Madison to focus on accretion disk hydrodynamic instabilities and solar physics issues. We now have computational efforts underway focused on understanding recent experimental tests of dynamos, solar tachocline physics, intrinsic rotation in tokamak plasmas and L-H transition physics in tokamak devices. In addition, we have the basic experiments discussed above complemented by work on a basic linear plasma device at UCSD and a collaboration at the LAPD located at UCLA. We are also performing experiments on intrinsic rotation and L-H transition physics in the DIII-D, NSTX, C-Mod, HBT EP, HL-2A, and EAST tokamaks in the US and China, and expect to begin collaborations on K-STAR in the coming year. Center funds provide support to over 10 postdocs and graduate students each year, who work with 8 senior faculty and researchers at their respective institutions. The Center has sponsored a mini-conference at the APS DPP 2010 meeting, and co-sponsored the recent Festival de Theorie (2011) with the CEA in Cadarache, and will co-sponsor a Winter School in January 2012 in collaboration with the CMSO-UW Madison. Center researchers have published over 50 papers in the peer reviewed literature, and given over 10 talks at major international meetings. In addition, the Center co-PI, Professor Patrick Diamond, shared the 2011 Alfven Prize at the EPS meeting. Key scientific results from this startup period include initial simulations of the

  10. Center for Momentum Transport and Flow Organization (CMTFO). Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tynan, George R. [University of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Diamond, P. H. [University of California, San Diego, CA (United States); Ji, H. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab., NJ (United States); Forest, C. B. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Terry, P. W. [Univ. of Wisconsin, Madison, WI (United States); Munsat, T. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Brummell, N. [Univ. of California, Santa Cruz (United States)

    2013-07-29

    The Center for Momentum Transport and Flow Organization (CMTFO) is a DOE Plasma Science Center formed in late 2009 to focus on the general principles underlying momentum transport in magnetic fusion and astrophysical systems. It is composed of funded researchers from UCSD, UW Madison, U. Colorado, PPPL. As of 2011, UCSD supported postdocs are collaborating at MIT/Columbia and UC Santa Cruz and beginning in 2012, will also be based at PPPL. In the initial startup period, the Center supported the construction of two basic experiments at PPPL and UW Madison to focus on accretion disk hydrodynamic instabilities and solar physics issues. We now have computational efforts underway focused on understanding recent experimental tests of dynamos, solar tachocline physics, intrinsic rotation in tokamak plasmas and L-H transition physics in tokamak devices. In addition, we have the basic experiments discussed above complemented by work on a basic linear plasma device at UCSD and a collaboration at the LAPD located at UCLA. We are also performing experiments on intrinsic rotation and L-H transition physics in the DIII-D, NSTX, C-Mod, HBT EP, HL-2A, and EAST tokamaks in the US and China, and expect to begin collaborations on K-STAR in the coming year. Center funds provide support to over 10 postdocs and graduate students each year, who work with 8 senior faculty and researchers at their respective institutions. The Center has sponsored a mini-conference at the APS DPP 2010 meeting, and co-sponsored the recent Festival de Theorie (2011) with the CEA in Cadarache, and will co-sponsor a Winter School in January 2012 in collaboration with the CMSO-UW Madison. Center researchers have published over 50 papers in the peer reviewed literature, and given over 10 talks at major international meetings. In addition, the Center co-PI, Professor Patrick Diamond, shared the 2011 Alfven Prize at the EPS meeting. Key scientific results from this startup period include initial simulations of the

  11. Preliminary design of a tangentially viewing imaging bolometer for NSTX-U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, B. J., E-mail: peterson@LHD.nifs.ac.jp; Mukai, K. [National Institute for Fusion Science, Toki 509-5292 (Japan); SOKENDAI (The Graduate University for Advance Studies), Toki 509-5292 (Japan); Sano, R. [National Institutes for Quantum and Radiological Science and Technology, Naka, Ibaraki 311-0193 (Japan); Reinke, M. L.; Canik, J. M.; Lore, J. D.; Gray, T. K. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); Delgado-Aparicio, L. F.; Jaworski, M. A. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Eden, G. G. van [FOM Institute DIFFER, 5612 AJ Eindhoven (Netherlands)

    2016-11-15

    The infrared imaging video bolometer (IRVB) measures plasma radiated power images using a thin metal foil. Two different designs with a tangential view of NSTX-U are made assuming a 640 × 480 (1280 × 1024) pixel, 30 (105) fps, 50 (20) mK, IR camera imaging the 9 cm × 9 cm × 2 μm Pt foil. The foil is divided into 40 × 40 (64 × 64) IRVB channels. This gives a spatial resolution of 3.4 (2.2) cm on the machine mid-plane. The noise equivalent power density of the IRVB is given as 113 (46) μW/cm{sup 2} for a time resolution of 33 (20) ms. Synthetic images derived from Scrape Off Layer Plasma Simulation data using the IRVB geometry show peak signal levels ranging from ∼0.8 to ∼80 (∼0.36 to ∼26) mW/cm{sup 2}.

  12. Measurements with magnetic field in the National Spherical Torus Experiment using the motional Stark effect with laser induced fluorescence diagnostic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, E. L.; Levinton, F. M. [Nova Photonics, Inc., Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)

    2013-04-15

    The motional Stark effect with laser-induced fluorescence diagnostic (MSE-LIF) has been installed and tested on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. The MSE-LIF diagnostic will be capable of measuring radially resolved profiles of magnetic field magnitude or pitch angle in NSTX plasmas. The system includes a diagnostic neutral hydrogen beam and a laser which excites the n = 2 to n = 3 transition. A viewing system has been implemented which will support up to 38 channels from the plasma edge to past the magnetic axis. First measurements of MSE-LIF signals in the presence of small applied magnetic fields in neutral gas are reported.

  13. Measurements with magnetic field in the National Spherical Torus Experiment using the motional Stark effect with laser induced fluorescence diagnostic

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foley, E. L.; Levinton, F. M.

    2013-04-01

    The motional Stark effect with laser-induced fluorescence diagnostic (MSE-LIF) has been installed and tested on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) at the Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. The MSE-LIF diagnostic will be capable of measuring radially resolved profiles of magnetic field magnitude or pitch angle in NSTX plasmas. The system includes a diagnostic neutral hydrogen beam and a laser which excites the n = 2 to n = 3 transition. A viewing system has been implemented which will support up to 38 channels from the plasma edge to past the magnetic axis. First measurements of MSE-LIF signals in the presence of small applied magnetic fields in neutral gas are reported.

  14. Mechanical Design of the NSTX Liquid Lithium Divertor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    R. Ellis, R. Kaita, H. Kugel, G. Paluzzi, M. Viola and R. Nygren

    2009-02-19

    The Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD) on NSTX will be the first test of a fully-toroidal liquid lithium divertor in a high-power magnetic confinement device. It will replace part of the lower outboard divertor between a specified inside and outside radius, and ultimately provide a lithium surface exposed to the plasma with enough depth to absorb a significant particle flux. There are numerous technical challenges involved in the design. The lithium layer must be as thin as possible, and maintained at a temperature between 200 and 400 degrees Celsius to minimize lithium evaporation. This requirement leads to the use of a thick copper substrate, with a thin stainless steel layer bonded to the plasma-facing surface. A porous molybdenum layer is then plasma-sprayed onto the stainless steel, to provide a coating that facilitates full wetting of the surface by the liquid lithium. Other challenges include the design of a robust, vacuumcompatible heating and cooling system for the LLD. Replacement graphite tiles that provided the proper interface between the existing outer divertor and the LLD also had to be designed, as well as accommodation for special LLD diagnostics. This paper describes the mechanical design of the LLD, and presents analyses showing the performance limits of the LLD.

  15. Mechanical Design of the NSTX Liquid Lithium Divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ellis, R.; Kaita, R.; Kugel, H.; Paluzzi, G.; Viola, M.; Nygren, R.

    2009-01-01

    The Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD) on NSTX will be the first test of a fully-toroidal liquid lithium divertor in a high-power magnetic confinement device. It will replace part of the lower outboard divertor between a specified inside and outside radius, and ultimately provide a lithium surface exposed to the plasma with enough depth to absorb a significant particle flux. There are numerous technical challenges involved in the design. The lithium layer must be as thin as possible, and maintained at a temperature between 200 and 400 degrees Celsius to minimize lithium evaporation. This requirement leads to the use of a thick copper substrate, with a thin stainless steel layer bonded to the plasma-facing surface. A porous molybdenum layer is then plasma-sprayed onto the stainless steel, to provide a coating that facilitates full wetting of the surface by the liquid lithium. Other challenges include the design of a robust, vacuum compatible heating and cooling system for the LLD. Replacement graphite tiles that provided the proper interface between the existing outer divertor and the LLD also had to be designed, as well as accommodation for special LLD diagnostics. This paper describes the mechanical design of the LLD, and presents analyses showing the performance limits of the LLD.

  16. Electron Bernstein wave emission based diagnostic on National Spherical Torus Experiment (invited)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diem, S.; Taylor, G.; Caughman, John B.; Efthimion, P.C.; Kugel, H.; LeBlanc, B.; Preinhaelter, J.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Urban, J.

    2008-01-01

    National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is a spherical tokamak (ST) that operates with n(e) up to 10(20) m(-3) and B-T less than 0.6 T, cutting off low harmonic electron cyclotron (EC) emission widely used for T-e measurements on conventional aspect ratio tokamaks. The electron Bernstein wave (EBW) can propagate in ST plasmas and is emitted at EC harmonics. These properties suggest thermal EBW emission (EBE) may be used for local T-e measurements in the ST. Practically, a robust T-e(R,t) EBE diagnostic requires EBW transmission efficiencies of >90% for a wide range of plasma conditions. EBW emission and coupling physics were studied on NSTX with an obliquely viewing EBW to O-mode (B-X-O) diagnostic with two remotely steered antennas, coupled to absolutely calibrated radiometers. While T-e(R,t) measurements with EBW emission on NSTX were possible, they were challenged by several issues. Rapid fluctuations in edge n(e) scale length resulted in >20% changes in the low harmonic B-X-O transmission efficiency. Also, B-X-O transmission efficiency during H modes was observed to decay by a factor of 5-10 to less than a few percent. The B-X-O transmission behavior during H modes was reproduced by EBE simulations that predict that EBW collisional damping can significantly reduce emission when T-e < 30 eV inside the B-X-O mode conversion (MC) layer. Initial edge lithium conditioning experiments during H modes have shown that evaporated lithium can increase T-e inside the B-X-O MC layer, significantly increasing B-X-O transmission.

  17. Control System Development Plan for the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Neumeyer, C.; Mueller, D.; Gates, D.A.; Ferron, J.R.

    1999-01-01

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) has as one of its primary goals the demonstration of the attractiveness of the spherical torus concept as a fusion power plant. Central to this goal is the achievement of high plasma β ( = 2 micro 0 /B 2 a measure of the efficiency of a magnetic plasma confinement system). It has been demonstrated both theoretically and experimentally that the maximum achievable β is a strong function of both local and global plasma parameters. It is therefore important to optimize control of the plasma. To this end a phased development plan for digital plasma control on NSTX is presented. The relative level of sophistication of the control system software and hardware will be increased according to the demands of the experimental program in a three phase plan. During Day 0 (first plasma), a simple coil current control algorithm will initiate plasma operations. During the second phase (Day 1) of plasma operations the control system will continue to use the preprogrammed algorithm to initiate plasma breakdown but will then change over to a rudimentary plasma control scheme based on linear combinations of measured plasma fields and fluxes. The third phase of NSTX plasma control system development will utilize the rtEFIT code, first used on DIII-D, to determine, in real-time, the full plasma equilibrium by inverting the Grad-Shafranov equation. The details of the development plan, including a description of the proposed hardware will be presented

  18. OEDGE modeling of outer wall erosion in NSTX and the effect of changes in neutral pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nichols, J.H., E-mail: jnichols@pppl.gov; Jaworski, M.A.; Kaita, R.; Abrams, T.; Skinner, C.H.; Stotler, D.P.

    2015-08-15

    Gross erosion from the outer wall is expected to be a major source of impurities for high power fusion devices due to the low redeposition fraction. Scaling studies of sputtering from the all-carbon outer wall of NSTX are reported. It is found that wall erosion decreases with divertor plasma pressure in low/mid temperature regimes, due to increasing divertor neutral opacity. Wall erosion is found to consistently decrease with reduced recycling coefficient, with outer target recycling providing the largest contribution. Upper and lower bounds are calculated for the increase in wall erosion due to a low-field-side gas puff.

  19. Experiments and numerical modeling of fast flowing liquid metal thin films under spatially varying magnetic field conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Narula, Manmeet Singh

    Innovative concepts using fast flowing thin films of liquid metals (like lithium) have been proposed for the protection of the divertor surface in magnetic fusion devices. However, concerns exist about the possibility of establishing the required flow of liquid metal thin films because of the presence of strong magnetic fields which can cause flow disrupting MHD effects. A plan is underway to design liquid lithium based divertor protection concepts for NSTX, a small spherical torus experiment at Princeton. Of these, a promising concept is the use of modularized fast flowing liquid lithium film zones, as the divertor (called the NSTX liquid surface module concept or NSTX LSM). The dynamic response of the liquid metal film flow in a spatially varying magnetic field configuration is still unknown and it is suspected that some unpredicted effects might be lurking. The primary goal of the research work being reported in this dissertation is to provide qualitative and quantitative information on the liquid metal film flow dynamics under spatially varying magnetic field conditions, typical of the divertor region of a magnetic fusion device. The liquid metal film flow dynamics have been studied through a synergic experimental and numerical modeling effort. The Magneto Thermofluid Omnibus Research (MTOR) facility at UCLA has been used to design several experiments to study the MHD interaction of liquid gallium films under a scaled NSTX outboard divertor magnetic field environment. A 3D multi-material, free surface MHD modeling capability is under development in collaboration with HyPerComp Inc., an SBIR vendor. This numerical code called HIMAG provides a unique capability to model the equations of incompressible MHD with a free surface. Some parts of this modeling capability have been developed in this research work, in the form of subroutines for HIMAG. Extensive code debugging and benchmarking exercise has also been carried out. Finally, HIMAG has been used to study the

  20. Electrical testing of the full-scale model of the NSTX HHFW antenna array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, P. M.; Swain, D. W.; Wilgen, J. B.; Fadnek, A.; Sparks, D. O.

    1999-01-01

    The 30 MHz high harmonic fast wave (HHFW) antenna array for NSTX consists of 12 current straps, evenly spaced in the toroidal direction. Each pair of straps is connected as a half-wave resonant loop and will be driven by one transmitter, allowing rapid phase shift between transmitters. A decoupling network using shunt stub tuners has been designed to compensate for the mutual inductive coupling between adjacent current straps, effectively isolating the six transmitters from one another. One half of the array, consisting of six full-scale current strap modules, three shunt stub decouplers, and powered by three phase-adjustable rf amplifiers had been built for electrical testing at ORNL. Low power testing includes electrical characterization of the straps, operation and performance of the decoupler system, and mapping of the rf fields in three dimensions

  1. Final Technical Report for the Center for Momentum Transport and Flow Organization (CMTFO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forest, Cary B. [University of Wisconsin-Madison; Tynan, George R. [University of California San Diego

    2013-07-29

    The Center for Momentum Transport and Flow Organization (CMTFO) is a DOE Plasma Science Center formed in late 2009 to focus on the general principles underlying momentum transport in magnetic fusion and astrophysical systems. It is composed of funded researchers from UCSD, UW Madison, U. Colorado, PPPL. As of 2011, UCSD supported postdocs are collaborating at MIT/Columbia and UC Santa Cruz and beginning in 2012, will also be based at PPPL. In the initial startup period, the Center supported the construction of two basic experiments at PPPL and UW Madison to focus on accretion disk hydrodynamic instabilities and solar physics issues. We now have computational efforts underway focused on understanding recent experimental tests of dynamos, solar tacholine physics, intrinsic rotation in tokamak plasmas and L-H transition physics in tokamak devices. In addition, we have the basic experiments discussed above complemented by work on a basic linear plasma device at UCSD and a collaboration at the LAPD located at UCLA. We are also performing experiments on intrinsic rotation and L-H transition physics in the DIII-D, NSTX, C-Mod, HBT EP, HL-2A, and EAST tokamaks in the US and China, and expect to begin collaborations on K-STAR in the coming year. Center funds provide support to over 10 postdocs and graduate students each year, who work with 8 senior faculty and researchers at their respective institutions. The Center has sponsored a mini-conference at the APS DPP 2010 meeting, and co-sponsored the recent Festival de Theorie (2011) with the CEA in Cadarache, and will co-sponsor a Winter School in January 2012 in collaboration with the CMSO-UW Madison. Center researchers have published over 50 papers in the peer reviewed literature, and given over 10 talks at major international meetings. In addition, the Center co-PI, Professor Patrick Diamond, shared the 2011 Alfven Prize at the EPS meeting. Key scientific results from this startup period include initial simulations of the

  2. Neutral Particle Analyzer Vertically Scanning Measurements of MHD-induced Energetic Ion Redistribution or Loss in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Medley, S.S.; Andre, R.; Bell, R.E.; Darrow, D.S.; Domier, C.W.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Gorelenkov, N.N.; Kaye, S.M.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Lee, K.C.; Levinton, F.M.; Liu, D.; Luhmann, N.C. Jr.; Menard, J.E.; Park, H.; Stutman, D.; Roquemore, A.L.; Tritz, K.; Yuh, H

    2007-01-01

    Observations of magneto-hydro-dynamic (MHD) induced redistribution or loss of energetic ions measured using the vertically scanning capability of the Neutral Particle Analyzer diagnostic on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) are presented along with TRANSP and ORBIT code analysis of the results. Although redistribution or loss of energetic ions due to bursting fishbone-like and low-frequency (f ∼ 10 kHz) kinktype MHD activity has been reported previously, the primary goal of this work is to study redistribution or loss due to continuous Alfvenic (f ∼ 20-150 kHz) modes, a topic that heretofore has not been investigated in detail for NSTX plasmas. Initial indications are that the former drive energetic ion loss whereas the continuous Alfvenic modes only cause redistribution and the energetic ions remain confined.

  3. Neutral Particle Analyzer Vertically Scanning Measurements of MHD-induced Energetic Ion Redistribution or Loss in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    S.S. Medley, R. Andre, R.E. Bell, D.S. Darrow, C.W. Domier, E.D. Fredrickson, N.N. Gorelenkov, S.M. Kaye, B.P. LeBlanc, K.C. Lee, F.M. Levinton, D. Liu, N.C. Luhmann, Jr., J.E. Menard, H. Park, D. Stutman, A.L. Roquemore, K. Tritz, H. Yuh and the NSTX Team

    2007-11-15

    Observations of magneto-hydro-dynamic (MHD) induced redistribution or loss of energetic ions measured using the vertically scanning capability of the Neutral Particle Analyzer diagnostic on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) are presented along with TRANSP and ORBIT code analysis of the results. Although redistribution or loss of energetic ions due to bursting fishbone-like and low-frequency (f ~ 10 kHz) kinktype MHD activity has been reported previously, the primary goal of this work is to study redistribution or loss due to continuous Alfvénic (f ~ 20 – 150 kHz) modes, a topic that heretofore has not been investigated in detail for NSTX plasmas. Initial indications are that the former drive energetic ion loss whereas the continuous Alfvénic modes only cause redistribution and the energetic ions remain confined.

  4. Development of slow and fast wave coupling and heating from the C-Stellarator to NSTX

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hosea Joel

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available A historical perspective on key discoveries which contributed to understanding the properties of coupling both slow and fast waves and the effects on plasma heating and current drive will be presented. Important steps made include the demonstration that the Alfven resonance was in fact a mode conversion on the C-stellarator, that toroidal m = -1 eigenmodes were excited in toroidal geometry and impurity influx caused the Z mode on the ST tokamak, that the H minority regime provided strong heating and that 3He minority could be used as well on PLT, that the 2nd harmonic majority tritium regime was viable on TFTR, and that high harmonic fast wave heating was efficient when the SOL losses were avoided on NSTX.

  5. Confinement of Neutral Beam Ions in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Darrow, D.S.; Medley, S.S.; Roquemore, A.L.; Rosenberg, A.

    2001-01-01

    The loss of neutral-beam ions to the wall has been measured in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) by means of thermocouples, an infrared (IR) camera, and a Faraday cup probe. The losses tend to exhibit the expected dependences on plasma current, tangency radius of the injector, and plasma outer gap. However, the thermocouples and the Faraday cups indicate substantially different levels of loss and this difference has yet to be understood

  6. NASA Glenn Research Center Experience with "LENR Phenomenon"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrbanek, Susan Y.; Fralick, Gustave C.; Wrbanek, John D.; Niedra, Janis M.

    2012-01-01

    Since 1989 NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has performed some small-scale limited experiments that show evidence of effects claimed by some to be evidence of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR). The research at GRC has involved observations and work on measurement techniques for observing the temperature effects in reactions of isotopes of hydrogen with palladium hydrides. The various experiments performed involved loading Pd with gaseous H2 and D2, and exposing Pd thin films to multi-bubble sonoluminescence in regular and deuterated water. An overview of these experiments and their results will be presented.

  7. NASA Glenn Research Center Experience with LENR Phenomenon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wrbanek, Susan Y.; Fralick, Gustave C.; Wrbanek, John D.; Niedra, Janis M.

    2012-01-01

    Since 1989 NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has performed some small-scale limited experiments that show evidence of effects claimed by some to be evidence of Low Energy Nuclear Reactions (LENR). The research at GRC has involved observations and work on measurement techniques for observing the temperature effects in reactions of isotopes of hydrogen with palladium hydrides. The various experiments performed involved loading Pd with gaseous H2 and D2, and exposing Pd thin films to multi-bubble sonoluminescence in regular and deuterated water. An overview of these experiments and their results will be presented.

  8. USXR Based MHD, Transport, Equilibria and Current Profile Diagnostics for NSTX. Final Report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Finkenthal, Michael

    2009-01-01

    The present report resumes the research activities of the Plasma Spectroscopy/Diagnostics Group at Johns Hopkins University performed on the NSTX tokamak at PPPL during the period 1999-2009. During this period we have designed and implemented XUV based diagnostics for a large number of tasks: study of impurity content and particle transport, MHD activity, time-resolved electron temperature measeurements, ELM research, etc. Both line emission and continuum were used in the XUV range. New technics and novel methods have been devised within the framework of the present research. Graduate and post-graduate students have been involved at all times in addition to the senior research personnel. Several tens of papers have been published and lectures have been given based on the obtained results at conferences and various research institutions (lists of these activities were attached both in each proposal and in the annual reports submitted to our supervisors at OFES)

  9. Bifurcation to Enhanced Performance H-mode on NSTX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battaglia, D. J.; Chang, C. S.; Gerhardt, S. P.; Kaye, S. M.; Maingi, R.; Smith, D. R.

    2015-11-01

    The bifurcation from H-mode (H98 Performance (EP)H-mode (H98 = 1.2 - 2.0) on NSTX is found to occur when the ion thermal (χi) and momentum transport become decoupled from particle transport, such that the ion temperature (Ti) and rotation pedestals increase independent of the density pedestal. The onset of the EPH-mode transition is found to correlate with decreased pedestal collisionality (ν*ped) and an increased broadening of the density fluctuation (dn/n) spectrum in the pedestal as measured with beam emission spectroscopy. The spectrum broadening at decreased ν*ped is consistent with GEM simulations that indicate the toroidal mode number of the most unstable instability increases as ν*ped decreases. The lowest ν*ped, and thus largest spectrum broadening, is achieved with low pedestal density via lithium wall conditioning and when Zeff in the pedestal is significantly reduced via large edge rotation shear from external 3D fields or a large ELM. Kinetic neoclassical transport calculations (XGC0) confirm that Zeff is reduced when edge rotation braking leads to a more negative Er that shifts the impurity density profiles inward relative to the main ion density. These calculations also describe the role kinetic neoclassical and anomalous transport effects play in the decoupling of energy, momentum and particle transport at the bifurcation to EPH-mode. This work was sponsored by the U.S. Department of Energy.

  10. International Experience of the Establishing Technology Transfer Centers at the Universities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lysenko, V.S.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The analysis of the experience of creation and operation of technology transfer centers on the basis of US universities with the aim of using positive methods for the creation of such centers in Ukraine is presented.

  11. An Exploration of Hispanic Mothers' Culturally Sustaining Experiences at an Informal Science Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiland, Ingrid

    2015-01-01

    Science education reform focuses on learner-centered instruction within contexts that support learners' sociocultural experiences. The purpose of this study was to explore Hispanic mothers' experiences as accompanying adults at an informal science center within the context of culturally sustaining experiences, which include the fluidity…

  12. Recent Developments in High-Harmonic Fast Wave Physics in NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LeBlanc, B.P.; Bell, R.E.; Bonoli, P.; Harvey, R.; Heidbrink, W.W.; Hosea, J.C.; Kaye, S.M.; Liu, D.; Maingi, R.; Medley, S.S.; Ono, M.; Podesta, M.; Phillips, C.K.; Ryan, P.M.; Roquemore, A.L.; Taylor, G.; Wilson, J.R.

    2010-01-01

    Understanding the interaction between ion cyclotron range of frequency (ICRF) fast waves and the fast-ions created by neutral beam injection (NBI) is critical for future devices such as ITER, which rely on a combination ICRF and NBI. Experiments in NSTX which use 30 MHz High-Harmonic Fast-Wave (HHFW) ICRF and NBI heating show a competition between electron heating via Landau damping and transit-time magnetic pumping, and radio-frequency wave acceleration of NBI generated fast ions. Understanding and mitigating some of the power loss mechanisms outside the last closed flux surface (LCFS) has resulted in improved HHFW heating inside the LCFS. Nevertheless a significant fraction of the HHFW power is diverted away from the enclosed plasma. Part of this power is observed locally on the divertor. Experimental observations point toward the radio-frequency (RF) excitation of surface waves, which disperse wave power outside the LCFS, as a leading loss mechanism. Lithium coatings lower the density at the antenna, thereby moving the critical density for perpendicular fast-wave propagation away from the antenna and surrounding material surfaces. Visible and infrared imaging reveal flows of RF power along open field lines into the divertor region. In L-mode -- low average NBI power -- conditions, the fast-ion D-alpha (FIDA) diagnostic measures a near doubling and broadening of the density profile of the upper energetic level of the fast ions concurrent with the presence of HHFW power launched with k// = -8m-1. We are able to heat NBI-induced H-mode plasmas with HHFW. The captured power is expected to be split between absorption by the electrons and absorption by the fast ions, based on TORIC calculation. In the case discussed here the Te increases over the whole profile when ∼2MW of HHFW power with antenna k// = 13m-1 is applied after the H-mode transition. But somewhat unexpectedly fast-ion diagnostics do not observe a change between the HHFW heated NBI discharge and the

  13. Fueling Requirements for Steady State high butane current fraction discharges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    R.Raman

    2003-01-01

    The CT injector originally used for injecting CTs into 1T toroidal field discharges in the TdeV tokamak was shipped PPPL from the Affiliated Customs Brokers storage facility in Montreal during November 2002. All components were transported safely, without damage, and are currently in storage at PPPL, waiting for further funding in order to begin advanced fueling experiments on NSTX. The components are currently insured through the University of Washington. Several technical presentations were made to investigate the feasibility of the CT injector installation on NSTX. These technical presentations, attached to this document, were: (1) Motivation for Compact Toroida Injection in NSTX; (2) Assessment of the Engineering Feasibility of Installing CTF-II on NSTX; (3) Assessment of the Cost for CT Installation on NSTX--A Peer Review; and (4) CT Fueling for NSTX FY 04-08 steady-state operation needs

  14. Gyrokinetic Stability Studies of the Microtearing Mode in the National Spherical Torus Experiment H-mode

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Baumgaertel J.A., Redi M.H., Budny R.V., Rewoldt G., Dorland W.

    2005-01-01

    Insight into plasma microturbulence and transport is being sought using linear simulations of drift waves on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX), following a study of drift wave modes on the Alcator C-Mod Tokamak. Microturbulence is likely generated by instabilities of drift waves, which cause transport of heat and particles. Understanding this transport is important because the containment of heat and particles is required for the achievement of practical nuclear fusion. Microtearing modes may cause high heat transport through high electron thermal conductivity. It is hoped that microtearing will be stable along with good electron transport in the proposed low collisionality International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor (ITER). Stability of the microtearing mode is investigated for conditions at mid-radius in a high density NSTX high performance (H-mode) plasma, which is compared to the proposed ITER plasmas. The microtearing mode is driven by the electron temperature gradient, and believed to be mediated by ion collisions and magnetic shear. Calculations are based on input files produced by TRXPL following TRANSP (a time-dependent transport analysis code) analysis. The variability of unstable mode growth rates is examined as a function of ion and electron collisionalities using the parallel gyrokinetic computational code GS2. Results show the microtearing mode stability dependence for a range of plasma collisionalities. Computation verifies analytic predictions that higher collisionalities than in the NSTX experiment increase microtearing instability growth rates, but that the modes are stabilized at the highest values. There is a transition of the dominant mode in the collisionality scan to ion temperature gradient character at both high and low collisionalities. The calculations suggest that plasma electron thermal confinement may be greatly improved in the low-collisionality ITER

  15. High-k Scattering Receiver Mixer Performance for NSTX-U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barchfeld, Robert; Riemenschneider, Paul; Domier, Calvin; Luhmann, Neville; Ren, Yang; Kaita, Robert

    2016-10-01

    The High-k Scattering system detects primarily electron-scale turbulence k θ spectra for studying electron thermal transport in NSTX-U. A 100 mW, 693 GHz probe beam passes through plasma, and scattered power is detected by a 4-pixel quasi optical, mixer array. Remotely controlled receiving optics allows the scattering volume to be located from core to edge with a k θ span of 7 to 40 cm-1. The receiver array features 4 RF diagonal input horns, where the electric field polarization is aligned along the diagonal of a square cross section horn, at 30 mm channel spacing. The local oscillator is provided by a 14.4 GHz source followed by a x48 multiplier chain, giving an intermediate frequency of 1 GHz. The receiver optics receive 4 discreet scattering angles simultaneously, and then focus the signals as 4 parallel signals to their respective horns. A combination of a steerable probe beam, and translating receiver, allows for upward or downward scattering which together can provide information about 2D turbulence wavenumber spectrum. IF signals are digitized and stored for later computer analysis. The performance of the receiver mixers is discussed, along with optical design features to enhance the tuning and performance of the mixers. Work supported in part by U.S. DOE Grant DE-FG02-99ER54518 and DE-AC02-09CH1146.

  16. Laparoscopic isthmocele treatment - single center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ciebiera, Michał; Ciebiera, Magdalena; Czekańska-Rawska, Magdalena; Jakiel, Grzegorz

    2017-01-01

    A cesarean section is the most frequently performed surgery in modern obstetrics. In case of an incorrect wound healing process there is a risk of a persistent uterine wall defect. Nowadays, due to the high frequency of cesarean sections, obstetricians have to deal with the threat of uterine rupture due to pathological wound healing. It has been proven that isthmocele can cause abnormal uterine bleeding (AUB), pelvic pain (PP), and secondary infertility (SI), and can be a place of improper pregnancy placement. This article presents our experience with isthmocele treatment. We describe our diagnostic process scheme, method of corrective surgery and main therapeutic outcomes. In this manuscript we present a single center's experience in isthmocele therapy. We have operated on 16 patients who suffered from abnormal uterine bleeding, pain disorders or secondary infertility possibly due to a cesarean scar defect. The results obtained in our center are promising. In 9 of 11 (81.8%) women with abnormal bleeding we obtained complete resolution of symptoms. We had slightly worse results in the case of pelvic pain. In 4 (66.6%) of 6 patients the pain resolved completely. We have obtained 7 pregnancies in 11 (63.6%) patients operated on due to secondary infertility. In our opinion, laparoscopic treatment seems to be currently one of the most effective methods in isthmocele therapy. Further investigation is necessary to determine the indications for surgery, suitable treatment strategies and appropriate care.

  17. Spectroscopic diagnostics for liquid lithium divertor studies on National Spherical Torus Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Soukhanovskii, V. A.; Roquemore, A. L.; Bell, R. E.; Kaita, R.; Kugel, H. W.

    2010-01-01

    The use of lithium-coated plasma facing components for plasma density control is studied in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). A recently installed liquid lithium divertor (LLD) module has a porous molybdenum surface, separated by a stainless steel liner from a heated copper substrate. Lithium is deposited on the LLD from two evaporators. Two new spectroscopic diagnostics are installed to study the plasma surface interactions on the LLD: (1) A 20-element absolute extreme ultraviolet (AXUV) diode array with a 6 nm bandpass filter centered at 121.6 nm (the Lyman-α transition) for spatially resolved divertor recycling rate measurements in the highly reflective LLD environment, and (2) an ultraviolet-visible-near infrared R=0.67 m imaging Czerny-Turner spectrometer for spatially resolved divertor D I, Li I-II, C I-IV, Mo I, D 2 , LiD, CD emission and ion temperature on and around the LLD module. The use of photometrically calibrated measurements together with atomic physics factors enables studies of recycling and impurity particle fluxes as functions of LLD temperature, ion flux, and divertor geometry.

  18. Suppressing electron turbulence and triggering internal transport barriers with reversed magnetic shear in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Peterson, J. L. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Bell, R.; Guttenfelder, W.; Hammett, G. W.; Kaye, S. M.; LeBlanc, B.; Mikkelsen, D. R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Candy, J. [General Atomics, San Diego, California 92186 (United States); Smith, D. R. [Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Yuh, H. Y. [Nova Photonics Inc., Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)

    2012-05-15

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) [M. Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 (2000)] can achieve high electron plasma confinement regimes that are super-critically unstable to the electron temperature gradient driven (ETG) instability. These plasmas, dubbed electron internal transport barriers (e-ITBs), occur when the magnetic shear becomes strongly negative. Using the gyrokinetic code GYRO [J. Candy and R. E. Waltz, J. Comput. Phys. 186, 545 (2003)], the first nonlinear ETG simulations of NSTX e-ITB plasmas reinforce this observation. Local simulations identify a strongly upshifted nonlinear critical gradient for thermal transport that depends on magnetic shear. Global simulations show e-ITB formation can occur when the magnetic shear becomes strongly negative. While the ETG-driven thermal flux at the outer edge of the barrier is large enough to be experimentally relevant, the turbulence cannot propagate past the barrier into the plasma interior.

  19. Measured improvement of global magnetohydrodynamic mode stability at high-beta, and in reduced collisionality spherical torus plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berkery, J. W.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Balbaky, A. [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States); Bell, R. E.; Diallo, A.; Gerhardt, S. P.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Manickam, J.; Menard, J. E.; Podestà, M. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Betti, R. [Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester, Rochester, New York 14623 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Global mode stability is studied in high-β National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) plasmas to avoid disruptions. Dedicated experiments in NSTX using low frequency active magnetohydrodynamic spectroscopy of applied rotating n = 1 magnetic fields revealed key dependencies of stability on plasma parameters. Observations from previous NSTX resistive wall mode (RWM) active control experiments and the wider NSTX disruption database indicated that the highest β{sub N} plasmas were not the least stable. Significantly, here, stability was measured to increase at β{sub N}∕l{sub i} higher than the point where disruptions were found. This favorable behavior is shown to correlate with kinetic stability rotational resonances, and an experimentally determined range of measured E × B frequency with improved stability is identified. Stable plasmas appear to benefit further from reduced collisionality, in agreement with expectation from kinetic RWM stabilization theory, but low collisionality plasmas are also susceptible to sudden instability when kinetic profiles change.

  20. Fast-wave power flow along SOL field lines in NSTX and the associated power deposition profile across the SOL in front of the antenna

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Perkins, R.J.; Bell, R.E.; Diallo, A.; Gerhardt, S.; Hosea, J.C.; Jaworski, M.A.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Kramer, G.J.; Maingi, R.; Phillips, C.K.; Podestà, M.; Roquemore, L.; Scotti, F.; Ahn, J.-W.; Gray, T.K.; Green, D.L.; McLean, A.; Ryan, P.M.; Jaeger, E.F.; Sabbagh, S.

    2013-01-01

    Fast-wave heating and current drive efficiencies can be reduced by a number of processes in the vicinity of the antenna and in the scrape-off layer (SOL). On NSTX from around 25% to more than 60% of the high-harmonic fast-wave power can be lost to the SOL regions, and a large part of this lost power flows along SOL magnetic field lines and is deposited in bright spirals on the divertor floor and ceiling. We show that field-line mapping matches the location of heat deposition on the lower divertor, albeit with a portion of the heat outside of the predictions. The field-line mapping can then be used to partially reconstruct the profile of lost fast-wave power at the midplane in front of the antenna, and the losses peak close to the last closed flux surface as well as the antenna. This profile suggests a radial standing-wave pattern formed by fast-wave propagation in the SOL, and this hypothesis will be tested on NSTX-U. RF codes must reproduce these results so that such codes can be used to understand this edge loss and to minimize RF heat deposition and erosion in the divertor region on ITER. (paper)

  1. An Alfven eigenmode similarity experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heidbrink, W W; Fredrickson, E; Gorelenkov, N N; Hyatt, A W; Kramer, G; Luo, Y

    2003-01-01

    The major radius dependence of Alfven mode stability is studied by creating plasmas with similar minor radius, shape, magnetic field (0.5 T), density (n e ≅3x10 19 m -3 ), electron temperature (1.0 keV) and beam ion population (near-tangential 80 keV deuterium injection) on both NSTX and DIII-D. The major radius of NSTX is half the major radius of DIII-D. The super-Alfvenic beam ions that drive the modes have overlapping values of v f /v A in the two devices. Observed beam-driven instabilities include toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes (TAE). The stability threshold for the TAE is similar in the two devices. As expected theoretically, the most unstable toroidal mode number n is larger in DIII-D

  2. Fast wave power flow along SOL field lines in NSTX

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkins, R. J.; Bell, R. E.; Diallo, A.; Gerhardt, S.; Hosea, J. C.; Jaworski, M. A.; Leblanc, B. P.; Kramer, G. J.; Phillips, C. K.; Roquemore, L.; Taylor, G.; Wilson, J. R.; Ahn, J.-W.; Gray, T. K.; Green, D. L.; McLean, A.; Maingi, R.; Ryan, P. M.; Jaeger, E. F.; Sabbagh, S.

    2012-10-01

    On NSTX, a major loss of high-harmonic fast wave (HHFW) power can occur along open field lines passing in front of the antenna over the width of the scrape-off layer (SOL). Up to 60% of the RF power can be lost and at least partially deposited in bright spirals on the divertor floor and ceiling [1,2]. The flow of HHFW power from the antenna region to the divertor is mostly aligned along the SOL magnetic field [3], which explains the pattern of heat deposition as measured with infrared (IR) cameras. By tracing field lines from the divertor back to the midplane, the IR data can be used to estimate the profile of HHFW power coupled to SOL field lines. We hypothesize that surface waves are being excited in the SOL, and these results should benchmark advanced simulations of the RF power deposition in the SOL (e.g., [4]). Minimizing this loss is critical optimal high-power long-pulse ICRF heating on ITER while guarding against excessive divertor erosion.[4pt] [1] J.C. Hosea et al., AIP Conf Proceedings 1187 (2009) 105. [0pt] [2] G. Taylor et al., Phys. Plasmas 17 (2010) 056114. [0pt] [3] R.J. Perkins et al., to appear in Phys. Rev. Lett. [0pt] [4] D.L. Green et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 107 (2011) 145001.

  3. DOE FES FY2017 Joint Research Target Fourth Quarter Milestone Report for theNational Spherical Torus Experiment Upgrade.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soukhanovskii, V. A. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2017-09-13

    A successful high-performance plasma operation with a radiative divertor has been demonstrated on many tokamak devices, however, significant uncertainty remains in accurately modeling detachment thresholds, and in how detachment depends on divertor geometry. Whereas it was originally planned to perform dedicated divertor experiments on the National Spherical Tokamak Upgrade to address critical detachment and divertor geometry questions for this milestone, the experiments were deferred due to technical difficulties. Instead, existing NSTX divertor data was summarized and re-analyzed where applicable, and additional simulations were performed.

  4. Central safety factor and β N control on NSTX-U via beam power and plasma boundary shape modification, using TRANSP for closed loop simulations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boyer, M. D.; Andre, R.; Gates, D. A.; Gerhardt, S.; Goumiri, I. R.; Menard, J.

    2015-04-24

    The high-performance operational goals of NSTX-U will require development of advanced feedback control algorithms, including control of ßN and the safety factor profile. In this work, a novel approach to simultaneously controlling ßN and the value of the safety factor on the magnetic axis, q0, through manipulation of the plasma boundary shape and total beam power, is proposed. Simulations of the proposed scheme show promising results and motivate future experimental implementation and eventual integration into a more complex current profile control scheme planned to include actuation of individual beam powers, density, and loop voltage. As part of this work, a flexible framework for closed loop simulations within the high-fidelity code TRANSP was developed. The framework, used here to identify control-design-oriented models and to tune and test the proposed controller, exploits many of the predictive capabilities of TRANSP and provides a means for performing control calculations based on user-supplied data (controller matrices, target waveforms, etc.). The flexible framework should enable high-fidelity testing of a variety of control algorithms, thereby reducing the amount of expensive experimental time needed to implement new control algorithms on NSTX-U and other devices.

  5. Application of Townsend avalanche theory to tokamak startup by coaxial helicity injection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, K. C.; Raman, R.; Volpe, F. A.

    2018-01-01

    The Townsend avalanche theory is employed to model and interpret plasma initiation in NSTX by Ohmic heating and coaxial helicity injection (CHI). The model is informed by spatially resolved vacuum calculations of electric field and magnetic field line connection length in the poloidal cross-section. The model is shown to explain observations of Ohmic startup including the duration and location of breakdown. Adapting the model to discharges initiated by CHI offers insight into the causes of upper divertor (absorber) arcs in cases where the discharge fails to start in the lower divertor gap. Finally, upper and lower limits are established for vessel gas fill based on requirements for breakdown and radiation. It is predicted that CHI experiments on NSTX-U should be able to use as much as four times the amount of prefill gas employed in CHI experiments in NSTX. This should provide greater flexibility for plasma start-up, as the injector flux is projected to be increased in NSTX-U.

  6. Experience based reliability centered maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Haenninen, S.; Laakso, K.

    1993-03-01

    The systematic analysis and documentation of operating experiences should be included in a living NPP life management program. Failure mode and effects and maintenance effects analyses are suitable methods for analysis of the failure and corrective maintenance experiences of equipment. Combined use of the information on occurred functional failures and the decision tree logic of the reliability centered maintenance identifies applicable and effective preventive maintenance tasks of equipment in an old plant. In this study the electrical motor drives of closing and isolation valves (MOV) of TVO and Loviisa nuclear power plants were selected to serve as pilot study objects. The study was limited to valve drives having actuators manufactured by AUMA in Germany. The fault and maintenance history of MOVs from 1981 up to and including October 1991 in different safety and process systems at TVO 1 and 2 nuclear power units was at first analyzed in a systematic way. The scope of the components studied was 81 MOVs in safety-related systems and 127 other MOVs per each TVO unit. In the case of the Loviisa plant, the observation period was limited to three years, i.e. from February 1989 up to February 1992. The scope of the Loviisa 1 and 2 components studied was 44 respectively 95 MOVs. (25 refs., 22 figs., 8 tabs.)

  7. Evolution of the Turbulence Radial Wavenumber Spectrum near the L-H Transition in NSTX Ohmic Discharges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubota, S.; Peebles, W.A., E-mail: skubota@ucla.edu [UCLA, Los Angeles (United States); Bush, C. E.; Maingi, R. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge (United States); Zweben, S. J.; Bell, R.; Crocker, N.; Diallo, A.; Kaye, S.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Park, J. K.; Ren, Y. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, Princeton (United States); Maqueda, R. J. [Nova Photonics, Princeton (United States); Raman, R. [University of Washington, Seattle (United States)

    2012-09-15

    Full text: The measurement of radially extended meso-scale structures such as zonal flows and streamers, as well as the underlying microinstabilities driving them, is critical for understanding turbulence-driven transport in plasma devices. In particular, the shape and evolution of the radial wavenumber spectrum indicate details of the nonlinear spectral energy transfer, the spreading of turbulence, as well as the formation of transport barriers. In the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX), the FMCW backscattering diagnostic is used to probe the turbulence radial wavenumber spectrum (k{sub r} = 0 - 22 cm-1 ) across the outboard minor radius near the L- to H-mode transition in Ohmic discharges. During the L-mode phase, a broad spectral component (k{sub r} {approx} 2 - 10 cm{sup -1} ) extends over a significant portion of the edge-core from R = 120 to 155 cm ({rho} = 0.4 - 0.95). At the L-H transition, turbulence is quenched across the measurable k{sub r} range at the ETB location, where the radial correlation length drops from {approx} 1.5 - 0.5 cm. The k{sub r} spectrum away from the ETB location is modified on a time scale of tens of microseconds, indicating that nonlocal turbulence dynamics are playing a strong role. Close to the L-H transition, oscillations in the density gradient and edge turbulence quenching become highly correlated. These oscillations are also present in Ohmic discharges without an L-H transition, but are far less frequent. Similar behavior is also seen near the L-H transition in NB-heated discharges. (author)

  8. Ecology-Centered Experiences among Children and Adolescents: A Qualitative and Quantitative Analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orton, Judy

    2013-01-01

    The present research involved two studies that considered "ecology-centered experiences" (i.e., experiences with living things) as a factor in children's environmental attitudes and behaviors and adolescents' ecological understanding. The first study (Study 1) examined how a community garden provides children in an urban setting the…

  9. Development of Laser Based Plasma Diagnostics for Fusion Research on NSTX-U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barchfeld, Robert Adam

    plasma diagnostics. Plasma diagnostics collect data from fusion reactors in a number of different ways. Among these are far infrared (FIR) laser based systems. By probing a fusion plasma with FIR lasers, many properties can be measured, such as density and density fluctuations. This dissertation discusses the theory and design of two laser based diagnostic instruments: 1) the Far Infrared Tangential Interferometer and Polarimeter (FIReTIP) systems, and 2) the High-ktheta Scattering System. Both of these systems have been designed and fabricated at UC Davis for use on the National Spherical Torus Experiment - Upgrade (NSTX-U), located at Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL). These systems will aid PPPL scientists in fusion research. The FIReTIP system uses 119 ?m methanol lasers to pass through the plasma core to measure a chord averaged plasma density through interferometry. It can also measure the toroidal magnetic field strength by the way of polarimetery. The High-ktheta Scattering System uses a 693 GHz formic acid laser to measure electron scale turbulence. Through collective Thomson scattering, as the probe beam passes through the plasma, collective electron motion will scatter power to a receiver with the angle determined by the turbulence wavenumber. This diagnostic will measure ktheta from 7 to 40 cm-1 with a 4-channel receiver array. The High-ktheta Scattering system was designed to facilitate research on electron temperature gradient (ETG) modes, which are believed to be a major contributor to anomalous transport on NSTX-U. The design and testing of these plasma diagnostics are described in detail. There are a broad range of components detailed including: optically pumped gas FIR lasers, overmoded low loss waveguide, launching and receiving optical designs, quasi-optical mixers, electronics, and monitoring and control systems. Additionally, details are provided for laser maintenance, alignment techniques, and the fundamentals of nano-CNC-machining.

  10. Calculation of the non-inductive current profile in high-performance NSTX plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gerhardt, S. P.; Fredrickson, E.; Gates, D.; Kaye, S.; Menard, J.; Bell, M. G.; Bell, R. E.; Le Blanc, B. P.; Kugel, H.; Sabbagh, S. A.; Yuh, H.

    2011-03-01

    The constituents of the current profile have been computed for a wide range of high-performance plasmas in NSTX (Ono et al 2000 Nucl. Fusion 40 557); these include cases designed to maximize the non-inductive fraction, pulse length, toroidal-β or stored energy. In the absence of low-frequency MHD activity, good agreement is found between the reconstructed current profile and that predicted by summing the independently calculated inductive, pressure-driven and neutral beam currents, without the need to invoke any anomalous beam ion diffusion. Exceptions occur, for instance, when there are toroidal Alfvén eigenmode avalanches or coupled m/n = 1/1 + 2/1 kink-tearing modes. In these cases, the addition of a spatially and temporally dependent fast-ion diffusivity can reduce the core beam current drive, restoring agreement between the reconstructed profile and the summed constituents, as well as bringing better agreement between the simulated and measured neutron emission rate. An upper bound on the fast-ion diffusivity of ~0.5-1 m2 s-1 is found in 'MHD-free' discharges, based on the neutron emission, the time rate of change in the neutron signal when a neutral beam is stepped and reconstructed on-axis current density.

  11. Calculation of the Non-Inductive Current Profile in High-Performance NSTX Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gerhardt, S.P.; Fredrickson, E.; Gates, D.; Kaye, S.; Menard, J.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.E.; Le Blanc, B.P.; Kugel, H.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Yuh, H.

    2011-01-01

    The constituents of the current profile have been computed for a wide range of high-performance plasmas in NSTX [M. Ono, et al., Nuclear Fusion 40, 557 (2000)]; these include cases designed to maximize the non-inductive fraction, pulse length, toroidal-β, or stored energy. In the absence of low-frequency MHD activity, good agreement is found between the reconstructed current profile and that predicted by summing the independently calculated inductive, pressure-driven, and neutral beam currents, without the need to invoke any anomalous beam ion diffusion. Exceptions occur, for instance, when there are toroidal Alfven eigenmode avalanches or coupled m/n=1/1+2/1 kink-tearing modes. In these cases, the addition of a spatially and temporally dependent fast ion diffusivity can reduce the core beam current drive, restoring agreement between the reconstructed profile and the summed constituents, as well as bringing better agreement between the simulated and measured neutron emission rate. An upper bound on the fast ion diffusivity of ∼0.5-1 m 2 /sec is found in 'MHD-free' discharges, based on the neutron emission, time rate of change of the neutron signal when a neutral beam is stepped, and reconstructed on-axis current density.

  12. RF heating and current drive on NSTX with high harmonic fast waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, P.M.

    2002-01-01

    NSTX is a small aspect ratio tokamak with a large dielectric constant (50-100); under these conditions high harmonic fast waves (HHFW) will readily damp on electrons via Landau damping and TTMP. The HHFW system is a 30 MHz, 12-element array capable of launching both symmetric and directional wave spectra for plasma heating and non-inductive current drive. It has delivered up to 6 MW for short pulses and has routinely operated at ∼3-4 MW for 100-200 ms pulses. Results include strong, centrally-peaked electron heating in both D and He plasmas, for both high and low phase velocity spectra. H-modes were obtained with application of HHFW power alone, with stored energy doubling after the L-H transition. Beta poloidal as large as unity has been obtained with large fractions (0.4) of bootstrap current. A fast ion tail with energies extending up to 140 keV has been observed when HHFW interacts with 80 keV neutral beams; neutron rate and lost ion measurements, as well as modeling, indicate significant power absorption by the fast ions. Radial power deposition profiles are being calculated with ray tracing and kinetic full-wave codes and benchmarked against measurements. (author)

  13. Suppression of turbulent transport in NSTX internal transport barriers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuh, Howard

    2008-11-01

    Electron transport will be important for ITER where fusion alphas and high-energy beam ions will primarily heat electrons. In the NSTX, internal transport barriers (ITBs) are observed in reversed (negative) shear discharges where diffusivities for electron and ion thermal channels and momentum are reduced. While neutral beam heating can produce ITBs in both electron and ion channels, High Harmonic Fast Wave (HHFW) heating can produce electron thermal ITBs under reversed magnetic shear conditions without momentum input. Interestingly, the location of the electron ITB does not necessarily match that of the ion ITB: the electron ITB correlates well with the minimum in the magnetic shear determined by Motional Stark Effect (MSE) [1] constrained equilibria, whereas the ion ITB better correlates with the maximum ExB shearing rate. Measured electron temperature gradients can exceed critical linear thresholds for ETG instability calculated by linear gyrokinetic codes in the ITB confinement region. The high-k microwave scattering diagnostic [2] shows reduced local density fluctuations at wavenumbers characteristic of electron turbulence for discharges with strongly negative magnetic shear versus weakly negative or positive magnetic shear. Fluctuation reductions are found to be spatially and temporally correlated with the local magnetic shear. These results are consistent with non-linear gyrokinetic simulations predictions showing the reduction of electron transport in negative magnetic shear conditions despite being linearly unstable [3]. Electron transport improvement via negative magnetic shear rather than ExB shear highlights the importance of current profile control in ITER and future devices. [1] F.M. Levinton, H. Yuh et al., PoP 14, 056119 [2] D.R. Smith, E. Mazzucato et al., RSI 75, 3840 [3] Jenko, F. and Dorland, W., PRL 89 225001

  14. Time-dependent analysis of visible helium line-ratios for electron temperature and density diagnostic using synthetic simulations on NSTX-U

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Muñoz Burgos, J. M., E-mail: jmunozbu@pppl.gov; Stutman, D.; Tritz, K. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland 21218 (United States); Barbui, T.; Schmitz, O. [Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States)

    2016-11-15

    Helium line-ratios for electron temperature (T{sub e}) and density (n{sub e}) plasma diagnostic in the Scrape-Off-Layer (SOL) and edge regions of tokamaks are widely used. Due to their intensities and proximity of wavelengths, the singlet, 667.8 and 728.1 nm, and triplet, 706.5 nm, visible lines have been typically preferred. Time-dependency of the triplet line (706.5 nm) has been previously analyzed in detail by including transient effects on line-ratios during gas-puff diagnostic applications. In this work, several line-ratio combinations within each of the two spin systems are analyzed with the purpose of eliminating transient effects to extend the application of this powerful diagnostic to high temporal resolution characterization of plasmas. The analysis is done using synthetic emission modeling and diagnostic for low electron density NSTX SOL plasma conditions by several visible lines. Quasi-static equilibrium and time-dependent models are employed to evaluate transient effects of the atomic population levels that may affect the derived electron temperatures and densities as the helium gas-puff penetrates the plasma. The analysis of a wider range of spectral lines will help to extend this powerful diagnostic to experiments where the wavelength range of the measured spectra may be constrained either by limitations of the spectrometer or by other conflicting lines from different ions.

  15. The CMS experiment workflows on StoRM based storage at Tier-1 and Tier-2 centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bonacorsi, D; Bartolome, I Cabrillo; Matorras, F; Gonzalez Caballero, I; Sartirana, A

    2010-01-01

    Approaching LHC data taking, the CMS experiment is deploying, commissioning and operating the building tools of its grid-based computing infrastructure. The commissioning program includes testing, deployment and operation of various storage solutions to support the computing workflows of the experiment. Recently, some of the Tier-1 and Tier-2 centers supporting the collaboration have started to deploy StoRM based storage systems. These are POSIX-based disk storage systems on top of which StoRM implements the Storage Resource Manager (SRM) version 2 interface allowing for a standard-based access from the Grid. In this notes we briefly describe the experience so far achieved at the CNAF Tier-1 center and at the IFCA Tier-2 center.

  16. Progress with helicity injection current drive

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jarboe, T.R.; Raman, R.; Nelson, B.A.

    2003-01-01

    Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI) experiments in the NSTX and HIT-II devices are reported. NSTX has produced toroidal currents of 0.4 MA and pulse lengths of up to 0.33 s. These discharges nearly fill the NSTX main chamber, and show the n=1 rotating distortion characteristic of high-performance CHI plasmas. CHI has been used in HIT-II to provide a closed flux startup plasma for inductive drive. The CHI startup method saves transformer volt-seconds and greatly improves reproducibility and reliability of inductively driven discharges, even in the presence of diminishing wall conditions. (author)

  17. Three-Dimensional Neutral Transport Simulations of Gas Puff Imaging Experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Stotler, D.P.; DIppolito, D.A.; LeBlanc, B.; Maqueda, R.J.; Myra, J.R.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Zweben, S.J.

    2003-01-01

    Gas Puff Imaging (GPI) experiments are designed to isolate the structure of plasma turbulence in the plane perpendicular to the magnetic field. Three-dimensional aspects of this diagnostic technique as used on the National Spherical Torus eXperiment (NSTX) are examined via Monte Carlo neutral transport simulations. The radial width of the simulated GPI images are in rough agreement with observations. However, the simulated emission clouds are angled approximately 15 degrees with respect to the experimental images. The simulations indicate that the finite extent of the gas puff along the viewing direction does not significantly degrade the radial resolution of the diagnostic. These simulations also yield effective neutral density data that can be used in an approximate attempt to infer two-dimensional electron density and temperature profiles from the experimental images

  18. Results of using the NSTX-U Plasma Control System for scenario development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyer, M. D.; Battaglia, D. J.; Gates, D. A.; Gerhardt, S.; Menard, J.; Mueller, D.; Myers, C. E.; Ferron, J.; Sabbagh, S.; NSTX-U Team

    2016-10-01

    To best use the new capabilities of NSTX-U (e.g., higher toroidal field and additional, more distributed heating and current drive sources) and to achieve the operational goals of the program, major upgrades to the Plasma Control System have been made. These include improvements to vertical control, real-time equilibrium reconstruction, and plasma boundary shape control and the addition of flexible algorithms for beam modulation and gas injection to control the upgraded actuators in real-time, enabling their use in algorithms for stored energy and profile control. Control system commissioning activities have so far focused on vertical position and shape control. The upgraded controllers have been used to explore the vertical stability limits in inner wall limited and diverted discharges, and control of X-point and strike point locations has been demonstrated and is routinely used. A method for controlling the mid-plane inner gap, a challenge for STs, has also been added to improve reproducible control of diverted discharges. A supervisory shutdown handling algorithm has also been commissioned to ramp the plasma down and safely turn off actuators after an event such as loss of vertical control. Use of the upgrades has contributed to achieving 1MA, 0.65T scenarios with greater than 1s pulse length. Work supported by U.S. D.O.E. Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  19. RF heating and current drive on NSTX with high harmonic fast waves

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ryan, P.M.; Swain, D.W.; Rosenberg, A.L.

    2003-01-01

    NSTX is a small aspect ratio tokamak (R = 0.85 m, a = 0.65 m). The High Harmonic Fast Wave (HHFW) system is a 30 MHz, 12-element array capable of launching both symmetric and directional wave spectra for plasma heating and non-inductive current drive. It has delivered up to 6 MW for short pulses and has routinely operated at ∼3 MW for 100-400 ms pulses. Results include strong, centrally-peaked electron heating in both D and He plasmas for both high and low phase velocity spectra. H-modes were obtained with application of HHFW power alone, with stored energy doubling after the L-H transition. Beta poloidal as large as unity has been obtained with significant fractions (0.4) of bootstrap current. Differences in the loop voltage are observed depending on whether the array is phased to drive current in the co- or counter-current directions. A fast ion tail with energies extending up to 140 keV has been observed when HHFW interacts with 80 keV neutral beams; neutron rate and lost ion measurements, as well as modeling, indicate significant power absorption by the fast ions. Radial rf power deposition and driven current profiles have been calculated with ray tracing and kinetic full-wave codes and compared with measurements. (author)

  20. Status and Plans for the National Spherical Torus Experimental Research Facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, M.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.E.; Bialek, J.M.; Bigelow, T.; Bitter, M.

    2005-01-01

    An overview of the research capabilities and the future plans on the MA-class National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) at Princeton is presented. NSTX research is exploring the scientific benefits of modifying the field line structure from that in more conventional aspect ratio devices, such as the tokamak. The relevant scientific issues pursued on NSTX include energy confinement, MHD stability at high beta, non-inductive sustainment, solenoid-free start-up, and power and particle handling. In support of the NSTX research goal, research tools are being developed by the NSTX team. In the context of the fusion energy development path being formulated in the US, an ST-based Component Test Facility (CTF) and, ultimately a high beta Demo device based on the ST, are being considered. For these, it is essential to develop high performance (high beta and high confinement), steady-state (non-inductively driven) ST operational scenarios and an efficient solenoid-free start-up concept. We will also briefly describe the Next-Step-ST (NSST) device being designed to address these issues in fusion-relevant plasma conditions

  1. Status and plans for the national spherical torus experimental research facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, Masayuki; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.E.

    2005-01-01

    An overview of the research capabilities and the future plans on the MA-class National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) at Princeton is presented. NSTX research is exploring the scientific benefits of modifying the field line structure from that in more conventional aspect ratio devices, such as the tokamak. The relevant scientific issues pursued on NSTX include energy confinement, MHD stability at high β, non-inductive sustainment, solenoid-free start-up, and power and particle handling. In support of the NSTX research goal, research tools are being developed by the NSTX team. In the context of the fusion energy development path being formulated in the US, an ST-based Component Test Facility (CTF) and, ultimately a high β Demo device based on the ST, are being considered. For these, it is essential to develop high performance (high β and high confinement), steady-state (non-inductively driven) ST operational scenarios and an efficient solenoid-free start-up concept. We will also briefly describe the Next-Step-ST (NSST) device being designed to address these issues in fusion-relevant plasma conditions. (author)

  2. SINGLE-CENTER EXPERIENCE OF ABO-INCOMPATIBLE LIVER TRANSPLANTATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. V. Gautier

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Since 2008 up to 2010 eight ABO-incompatible liver transplantations have been performed in our center: one of them was urgent liver transplantation to adult patient from deceased donor, other seven were transplantations of left lateral segment to children from living relative donors. Own experience, as well as world one, proves, that barrier of ABO-incompatibility can be overcome more successfully in liver transplantation, particularly in pediatric population, that in other solid organs transplantation. Good results can be achieved even with less ag- gressive immunosuppressive therapy. Recipient conditioning before operation can significantly improve results of ABO-incompatible liver transplantation, but as own experience has shown, often there’s no need to hold some special preparation of children, because their anti-ABO antibodies are very low or absent before transplantation and do not increase after it. Thereby ABO-incompatible liver transplantation is reasonable in urgent cases and in pediatric population because of the limited pull of living relative donors for children. 

  3. NASA Glenn Research Center Solar Cell Experiment Onboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Matthew G.; Wolford, David S.; Prokop, Norman F.; Krasowski, Michael J.; Parker, David S.; Cassidy, Justin C.; Davies , William E.; Vorreiter, Janelle O.; Piszczor, Michael F.; Mcnatt, Jeremiah S.; hide

    2016-01-01

    Accurate air mass zero (AM0) measurement is essential for the evaluation of new photovoltaic (PV) technology for space solar cells. The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has flown an experiment designed to measure the electrical performance of several solar cells onboard NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Robotic Refueling Missions (RRM) Task Board 4 (TB4) on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS). Four industry and government partners provided advanced PV devices for measurement and orbital environment testing. The experiment was positioned on the exterior of the station for approximately eight months, and was completely self-contained, providing its own power and internal data storage. Several new cell technologies including four-junction (4J) Inverted Metamorphic Multi-junction (IMM) cells were evaluated and the results will be compared to ground-based measurement methods.

  4. Airline experience with reliability-centered maintenance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matteson, T.D.

    1985-01-01

    Reliability-Centered Maintenance is a process for developing preventive maintenance programs. Its concepts evolved from the post WWII experience of the airline community. Its genesis was in a paper by F. Stanley Nowlan and Thomas D. Matteson of United Airlines for the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics in 1967. Its first application was to the Boeing 747. It has subsequently been adopted by the FAA and the Department of Defense and applied to many new transport and military aircraft. Its objective is applicable and effective preventive maintenance and it has proven to be a highly effective replacement for the prior intuitive processes for selective preventive maintenance tasks. It focuses on system functions, functional failures, then dominant failure modes and effects. It then uses a decision tree to classify failure criticality and identify applicable and effective tasks. The result is a program focused on maintaining inherent safety and reliability at minimum cost. (orig.)

  5. Airline experience with reliability-centered maintenance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matteson, T.D.

    1985-11-01

    Reliability-Centered Maintenance is a process for developing preventive maintenance programs. Its concepts evolved from the post WWII experience of the airline community. Its genesis was in a paper by F. Stanley Nowlan and Thomas D. Matteson of United Airlines for the American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics in 1967. Its first application was to the Boeing 747. It has subsequently been adopted by the FAA and the Department of Defense and applied to many new transport and military aircraft. Its objective is applicable and effective preventive maintenance and it has proven to be a highly effective replacement for the prior intuitive processes for selective preventive maintenance tasks. It focuses on system functions, functional failures, then dominant failure modes and effects. It then uses a decision tree to classify failure criticality and identify applicable and effective tasks. The result is a program focused on maintaining inherent safety and reliability at minimum cost. (orig.).

  6. Assessment of the Patient-Centered and Family-Centered Care Experience of Total Joint Replacement Patients Using a Shadowing Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marcus-Aiyeku, Ulanda; DeBari, Margaret; Salmond, Susan

    2015-01-01

    In 2030, when baby boomers reach 65 years of age and represent 18% of the population, it is anticipated that 67 million adults will have a diagnosis of arthritis increasing the demand for total hip and knee arthroplasty. With the growing emphasis on patient- and family-centered care, the aim of this project was to assess the patient experience of patients and families throughout the entire spectrum of the total joint replacement service line care at a university regional trauma hospital. A shadowing methodology as defined by the Institute for Health Improvement was utilized. Eight patient/family groups undergoing total joint replacements were shadowed. The mapped care experience included time, caregiver, activity, shadower observations, and impressions. Findings revealed inconsistencies in the delivery of patient- and family-centered care. Communication and interactions were predominantly provider-centric, with a focus on care routines versus the patient and family, and anticipation that care would be medically directed.

  7. New Capabilities and Results for the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    M.G. Bell, R.E. Bell, D.A. Gates, S.M. Kaye, H. Kugel, B.P. LeBlanc, F.M. Levinton, R. Maingi, J.E. Menard, R. Raman, S.A. Sabbagh, D. Stutman and the NSTX Research Team

    2008-02-29

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) produces plasmas with toroidal aspect ratio as low as 1.25, which can be heated by up to 6 MW High-Harmonic Fast Waves and up to 7 MW of deuterium Neutral Beam Injection. Using new poloidal fields coils, plasmas with cross-section elongation up to 2.7, triangularity 0.8, plasma currents Ip up to 1.5 MA and normalized currents Ip/a·BT up to 7.5 MA/m·T have been achieved. A significant extension of the plasma pulse length, to 1.5 s at a plasma current of 0.7 MA, has been achieved by exploiting the bootstrap and NBI-driven currents to reduce the dissipation of poloidal flux. Inductive plasma startup has been supplemented by Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI) and the production of persistent current on closed flux surfaces by CHI has now been demonstrated in NSTX. The plasma response to magnetic field perturbations with toroidal mode numbers n = 1 or 3 and the effects on the plasma rotation have been investigated using three pairs of coils outside the vacuum vessel. Recent studies of both MHD stability and of transport benefitted from improved diagnostics, including measurements of the internal poloidal field using the motional Stark effect (MSE). In plasmas with a region of reversed magnetic shear in the core, now confirmed by the MSE data, improved electron confinement has been observed.

  8. Recent results from the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maingi, R; Bell, M G; Bell, R E; Bialek, J; Bourdelle, C; Bush, C E; Darrow, D S; Fredrickson, E D; Gates, D A; Gilmore, M; Gray, T; Jarboe, T R; Johnson, D W; Kaita, R; Kaye, S M; Kubota, S; Kugel, H W; LeBlanc, B P; Maqueda, R J; Mastrovito, D; Medley, S S; Menard, J E; Mueller, D; Nelson, B A; Ono, M; Paoletti, F; Park, H K; Paul, S F; Peebles, T; Peng, Y-K M; Phillips, C K; Raman, R; Rosenberg, A L; Roquemore, A L; Ryan, P M; Sabbagh, S A; Skinner, C H; Soukhanovskii, V A; Stutman, D; Swain, D W; Synakowski, E J; Taylor, G; Wilgen, J; Wilson, J R; Wurden, G A; Zweben, S J

    2003-01-01

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) is a low aspect-ratio fusion research facility whose research goal is to make a determination of the attractiveness of the spherical torus concept in the areas of high-β stability, confinement, current drive, and divertor physics. Remarkable progress was made in extending the operational regime of the device in FY 2002. In brief, β t of 34% and β N of 6.5 were achieved. H-mode became the main operational regime, and energy confinement exceeded conventional aspect-ratio tokamak scalings. Heating was demonstrated with the radiofrequency antenna, and signatures of current drive were observed. Current initiation with coaxial helicity injection produced discharges of 400 kA, and first measurements of divertor heat flux profiles in H-mode were made

  9. Properties of Alfvén eigenmodes in the Toroidal Alfvén Eigenmode range on the National Spherical Torus Experiment-Upgrade

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podestà, M.; Gorelenkov, N. N.; White, R. B.; Fredrickson, E. D.; Gerhardt, S. P.; Kramer, G. J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States)

    2013-08-15

    A second Neutral Beam (NB) injection line is being installed on the NSTX Upgrade device, resulting in six NB sources with different tangency radii that will be available for heating and current drive. This work explores the properties of instabilities in the frequency range of the Toroidal Alfvén Eigenmode (TAE) for NSTX-U scenarios with various NB injection geometries, from more perpendicular to more tangential, and with increased toroidal magnetic field with respect to previous NSTX scenarios. Predictions are based on analysis through the ideal MHD code NOVA-K. For the scenarios considered in this work, modifications of the Alfvén continuum result in a frequency up-shift and a broadening of the radial mode structure. The latter effect may have consequences for fast ion transport and loss. Preliminary stability considerations indicate that TAEs are potentially unstable with ion Landau damping representing the dominant damping mechanism.

  10. Experience with Server Self Service Center (S3C)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sucik, Juraj; Bukowiec, Sebastian

    2010-01-01

    CERN has a successful experience with running Server Self Service Center (S3C) for virtual server provisioning which is based on Microsoft (registered) Virtual Server 2005. With the introduction of Windows Server 2008 and its built-in hypervisor based virtualization (Hyper-V) there are new possibilities for the expansion of the current service. This paper describes the architecture of the redesigned virtual Server Self Service based on Hyper-V which provides dynamically scalable virtualized resources on demand as needed and outlines the possible implications on the future use of virtual machines at CERN.

  11. Experience with Server Self Service Center (S3C)

    CERN Multimedia

    Sucik, J

    2009-01-01

    CERN has a successful experience with running Server Self Service Center (S3C) for virtual server provisioning which is based on Microsoft® Virtual Server 2005. With the introduction of Windows Server 2008 and its built-in hypervisor based virtualization (Hyper-V) there are new possibilities for the expansion of the current service. This paper describes the architecture of the redesigned virtual Server Self Service based on Hyper-V which provides dynamically scalable virtualized resources on demand as needed and outlines the possible implications on the future use of virtual machines at CERN.

  12. Progress Towards High Performance, Steady-state Spherical Torus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ono, M.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.E.; Bigelow, T.; Bitter, M.; Blanchard, W.; Boedo, J.; Bourdelle, C.; Bush, C.; Choe, W.; Chrzanowski, J.; Darrow, D.S.; Diem, S.J.; Doerner, R.; Efthimion, P.C.; Ferron, J.R.; Fonck, R.J.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Garstka, G.D.; Gates, D.A.; Gray, T.; Grisham, L.R.; Heidbrink, W.; Hill, K.W.; Hoffman, D.; Jarboe, T.R.; Johnson, D.W.; Kaita, R.; Kaye, S.M.; Kessel, C.; Kim, J.H.; Kissick, M.W.; Kubota, S.; Kugel, H.W.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Lee, K.; Lee, S.G.; Lewicki, B.T.; Luckhardt, S.; Maingi, R.; Majeski, R.; Manickam, J.; Maqueda, R.; Mau, T.K.; Mazzucato, E.; Medley, S.S.; Menard, J.; Mueller, D.; Nelson, B.A.; Neumeyer, C.; Nishino, N.; Ostrander, C.N.; Pacella, D.; Paoletti, F.; Park, H.K.; Park, W.; Paul, S.F.; Peng, Y.-K. M.; Phillips, C.K.; Pinsker, R.; Probert, P.H.; Ramakrishnan, S.; Raman, R.; Redi, M.; Roquemore, A.L.; Rosenberg, A.; Ryan, P.M.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Schaffer, M.; Schooff, R.J.; Seraydarian, R.; Skinner, C.H.; Sontag, A.C.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Spaleta, J.; Stevenson, T.; Stutman, D.; Swain, D.W.; Synakowski, E.; Takase, Y.; Tang, X.; Taylor, G.; Timberlake, J.; Tritz, K.L.; Unterberg, E.A.; Von Halle, A.; Wilgen, J.; Williams, M.; Wilson, J.R.; Xu, X.; Zweben, S.J.; Akers, R.; Barry, R.E.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Bialek, J.M.; Blagojevic, B.; Bonoli, P.T.; Carter, M.D.; Davis, W.; Deng, B.; Dudek, L.; Egedal, J.; Ellis, R.; Finkenthal, M.; Foley, J.; Fredd, E.; Glasser, A.; Gibney, T.; Gilmore, M.; Goldston, R.J.; Hatcher, R.E.; Hawryluk, R.J.; Houlberg, W.; Harvey, R.; Jardin, S.C.; Hosea, J.C.; Ji, H.; Kalish, M.; Lowrance, J.; Lao, L.L.; Levinton, F.M.; Luhmann, N.C.; Marsala, R.; Mastravito, D.; Menon, M.M.; Mitarai, O.; Nagata, M.; Oliaro, G.; Parsells, R.; Peebles, T.; Peneflor, B.; Piglowski, D.; Porter, G.D.; Ram, A.K.; Rensink, M.; Rewoldt, G.; Roney, P.; Shaing, K.; Shiraiwa, S.; Sichta, P.; Stotler, D.; Stratton, B.C.; Vero, R.; Wampler, W.R.; Wurden, G.A.

    2003-01-01

    Research on the Spherical Torus (or Spherical Tokamak) is being pursued to explore the scientific benefits of modifying the field line structure from that in more moderate aspect-ratio devices, such as the conventional tokamak. The Spherical Tours (ST) experiments are being conducted in various U.S. research facilities including the MA-class National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) at Princeton, and three medium-size ST research facilities: Pegasus at University of Wisconsin, HIT-II at University of Washington, and CDX-U at Princeton. In the context of the fusion energy development path being formulated in the U.S., an ST-based Component Test Facility (CTF) and, ultimately a Demo device, are being discussed. For these, it is essential to develop high-performance, steady-state operational scenarios. The relevant scientific issues are energy confinement, MHD stability at high beta (B), noninductive sustainment, ohmic-solenoid-free start-up, and power and particle handling. In the confinement area, the NSTX experiments have shown that the confinement can be up to 50% better than the ITER-98-pby2 H-mode scaling, consistent with the requirements for an ST-based CTF and Demo. In NSTX, CTF-relevant average toroidal beta values bT of up to 35% with the near unity central betaT have been obtained. NSTX will be exploring advanced regimes where bT up to 40% can be sustained through active stabilization of resistive wall modes. To date, the most successful technique for noninductive sustainment in NSTX is the high beta-poloidal regime, where discharges with a high noninductive fraction (∼60% bootstrap current + neutral-beam-injected current drive) were sustained over the resistive skin time. Research on radio-frequency-based heating and current drive utilizing HHFW (High Harmonic Fast Wave) and EBW (Electron Bernstein Wave) is also pursued on NSTX, Pegasus, and CDX-U. For noninductive start-up, the Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI), developed in HIT/HIT-II, has been adopted

  13. Hybrid simulation of toroidal Alfvén eigenmode on the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, D., E-mail: deyongl@uci.edu [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, California 92697 (United States); Fu, G. Y.; Podestà, M.; Breslau, J. A.; Fredrickson, E. D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Crocker, N. A.; Kubota, S. [Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Los Angles, California 90095 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    Energetic particle modes and Alfvén eigenmodes driven by super-Alfvénic fast ions are routinely observed in neutral beam heated plasmas on the National Spherical Torus eXperiment (NSTX). These modes can significantly impact fast ion transport and thus cause fast ion redistribution or loss. Self-consistent linear simulations of Toroidal Alfvén Eigenmodes (TAEs) in NSTX plasmas have been carried out with the kinetic/magnetohydrodynamic hybrid code M3D-K using experimental plasma parameters and profiles including plasma toroidal rotation. The simulations show that unstable TAEs with n=3,4, or 5 can be excited by the fast ions from neutral beam injection. The simulated mode frequency, mode radial structure, and phase shift are consistent with measurements from a multi-channel microwave reflectometer diagnostic. A sensitivity study on plasma toroidal rotation, safety factor q profile, and initial fast ion distribution is performed. The simulations show that rotation can have a significant destabilizing effect when the rotation is comparable or larger than the experimental level. The mode growth rate is sensitive to q profile and fast ion distribution. Although mode structure and peak position depend somewhat on q profile and plasma rotation, the variation of synthetic reflectometer response is within experimental uncertainty and it is not sensitive enough to see the difference clearly.

  14. Patient-centered medical home transformation with payment reform: patient experience outcomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heyworth, Leonie; Bitton, Asaf; Lipsitz, Stuart R; Schilling, Thad; Schiff, Gordon D; Bates, David W; Simon, Steven R

    2014-01-01

    To examine changes in patient experience across key domains of the patient-centered medical home (PCMH) following practice transformation with Lean quality improvement methodology inclusive of payment reform. Pre-intervention/post-intervention analysis of intervention with a comparison group, a quasi-experimental design. We surveyed patients following office visits at the intervention (n = 2502) and control (n = 1622) practices during the 15-month period before and 14-month period after PCMH Lean transformation (April-October 2009). We measured and compared pre-intervention and post-intervention levels of patient satisfaction and other indicators of patient-centered care. Propensity weights adjusted for potential case-mix differences in intervention and control groups; propensity-adjusted proportions accounted for physician-level clustering. More intervention patients were very satisfied with their care after the PCMH Lean intervention (68%) compared with pre-intervention (62%). Among control patients, there was no corresponding increase in satisfaction (63% very satisfied pre-intervention vs 64% very satisfied post-intervention). This comparison resulted in a statistical trend (P = .10) toward greater overall satisfaction attributable to the intervention. Post-intervention, patients in the intervention practice consistently rated indicators of patient-centered care higher than patients in the control practice, particularly in the personal physician and communication domain. In this domain, intervention patients reported superior provider explanations, time spent, provider concern, and follow-up instructions compared with control participants, whereas control group ratings fell in the post-intervention period (P for difference Lean enhancement with payment reform, patient experience was sustained or improved across key PCMH domains.

  15. Experiments with Analytic Centers: A confluence of data, tools and help in using them.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Little, M. M.; Crichton, D. J.; Hines, K.; Cole, M.; Quam, B. M.

    2017-12-01

    Traditional repositories have been primarily focused on data stewardship. Over the past two decades, data scientists have attempted to overlay a superstructure to make these repositories more amenable to analysis tasks, with limited success. This poster will summarize lessons learned and some realizations regarding what it takes to create an analytic center. As the volume of Earth Science data grows and the sophistication of analytic tools improves, a pattern has emerged that indicates different science communities uniquely apply a selection of tools to the data to produce scientific results. Infrequently do the experiences of one group help steer other groups. How can the information technology community seed these domains with tools that conform to the thought processes and experiences of that particular science group? What types of succcessful technology infusions have occured and how does technology get adopted. AIST has been experimenting with the management of this analytic center process; this paper will summarize the results and indicate a direction for future infusion attempts.

  16. Profiles of fast ions that are accelerated by high harmonic fast waves in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Liu, D; Heidbrink, W W; Podesta, M; Ruskov, E; Bell, R E; Fredrickson, E D; Medley, S S; Harvey, R W

    2010-01-01

    Combined neutral beam injection and high-harmonic fast-wave (HHFW) heating accelerate deuterium fast ions in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). With 1.1 MW of HHFW power, the neutron emission rate is about three times larger than in the comparison discharge without HHFW heating. Acceleration of fast ions above the beam injection energy is evident on an E||B type neutral particle analyzer (NPA), a 4-chord solid state neutral particle analyzer (SSNPA) array and a 16-channel fast-ion D-alpha (FIDA) diagnostic. The accelerated fast ions observed by the NPA and SSNPA diagnostics mainly come from passive charge exchange reactions at the edge due to the NPA/SSNPA localization in phase space. The spatial profile of accelerated fast ions that is measured by the FIDA diagnostic is much broader than in conventional tokamaks because of the multiple resonance layers and large orbits in NSTX. The fast-ion distribution function calculated by the CQL3D Fokker-Planck code differs from the measured spatial profile, presumably because the current version of CQL3D uses a zero-banana-width model. In addition, compressional Alfven eigenmode activity is stronger during the HHFW heating and it may affect the fast-ion spatial profile.

  17. Intermittent Divertor Filaments in the National Spherical Torus Experiment and Their Relation to Midplane Blobs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maqueda, R.J.; Stotler, D.P.

    2010-01-01

    While intermittent filamentary structures, also known as blobs, are routinely seen in the low-field-side scrape-off layer of the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) (Ono et al 2000 Nucl. Fusion 40 557), fine structured filaments are also seen on the lower divertor target plates of NSTX. These filaments, not associated with edge localized modes, correspond to the interaction of the turbulent blobs seen near the midplane with the divertor plasma facing components. The fluctuation level of the neutral lithium light observed at the divertor, and the skewness and kurtosis of its probability distribution function, is similar to that of midplane blobs seen in D α ; e.g. increasing with increasing radii outside the outer strike point (OSP) (separatrix). In addition, their toroidal and radial movement agrees with the typical movement of midplane blobs. Furthermore, with the appropriate magnetic topology, i.e. mapping between the portion of the target plates being observed into the field of view of the midplane gas puff imaging diagnostic, very good correlation is observed between the blobs and the divertor filaments. The correlation between divertor plate filaments and midplane blobs is lost close to the OSP. This latter observation is consistent with the existence of 'magnetic shear disconnection' due to the lower X-point, as proposed by Cohen and Ryutov (1997 Nucl. Fusion 37 621).

  18. Are drowned donors marginal donors? A single pediatric center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumm, Kayla R; Galván, N Thao N; Koohmaraie, Sarah; Rana, Abbas; Kueht, Michael; Baugh, Katherine; Hao, Liu; Yoeli, Dor; Cotton, Ronald; O'Mahony, Christine A; Goss, John A

    2017-09-01

    Drowning, a common cause of death in the pediatric population, is a potentially large donor pool for OLT. Anecdotally, transplant centers have deemed these organs high risk over concerns for infection and graft dysfunction. We theorized drowned donor liver allografts do not portend worse outcomes and therefore should not be excluded from the donation pool. We reviewed our single-center experience of pediatric OLTs between 1988 and 2015 and identified 33 drowned donor recipients. These OLTs were matched 1:2 to head trauma donor OLTs from our center. A chart review assessed postoperative peak AST and ALT, incidence of HAT, graft and recipient survival. Recipient survival at one year between patients with drowned donor vs head trauma donor allografts was not statistically significant (94% vs 97%, P=.63). HAT incidence was 6.1% in the drowned donor group vs 7.6% in the control group (P=.78). Mean postoperative peak AST and ALT was 683 U/L and 450 U/L for drowned donors vs 1119 U/L and 828 U/L in the matched cohort. These results suggest drowned donor liver allografts do not portend worse outcomes in comparison with those procured from head trauma donors. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  19. Cyberattack analysis through Malaysian Nuclear Agency experience as nuclear research center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mohd Dzul Aiman Aslan; Mohd Fauzi Haris; Saaidi Ismail; Nurbahyah Hamdan

    2011-01-01

    As a nuclear research center, Nuclear Malaysia is one of the Critical National Information Infrastructure (CNII) in the country. One of the easiest way to launch a malicious attack is through the online system, whether main web site or online services. Recently, we also under port scanning and hack attempts from various sources. This paper will discuss on analysis based on Nuclear Malaysia experience regarding these attempts which keep arising nowadays. (author)

  20. Effects of Patient-centered Medical Home Transformation on Child Patient Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harder, Valerie S; Krulewitz, Julianne; Jones, Craig; Wasserman, Richard C; Shaw, Judith S

    2016-01-01

    Patient experience, 1 of 3 aims for improving health care, is rarely included in studies of patient-centered medical home (PCMH) transformation. This study examines the association between patient experience and National Committee on Quality Assurance (NCQA) PCMH transformation. This was a cross-sectional study of parent-reported child patient experience from PCMH and non-PCMH practices. It used randomly sampled experience surveys completed by 2599 patients at 29 pediatric and family medicine PCMH (n = 21) and non-PCMH (n = 8) practices in Vermont from 2011 to 2013. Patient experiences related to child development and prevention were assessed using the Consumer Assessment of Health care Providers and Systems (CAHPS). A 10-point increase in NCQA score at PCMH practices is associated with a 3.1% higher CAHPS child prevention score (P = .004). Among pediatric practices, PCMH recognition is associated with 7.7% (P child development and prevention composite scores, respectively. Among family medicine practices, PCMH recognition is associated with 7.4% (P = .001) and 11.0% (P child development and prevention composite scores, respectively. Our results suggest that PCMH recognition may improve child patient experience at pediatric practices and worsen experience at family medicine practices. These findings warrant further investigation into the differential influence of NCQA PCMH transformation on family medicine and pediatric practices. © Copyright 2016 by the American Board of Family Medicine.

  1. Organizational Processes and Patient Experiences in the Patient-centered Medical Home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aysola, Jaya; Schapira, Marilyn M; Huo, Hairong; Werner, Rachel M

    2018-06-01

    There is increasing emphasis on the use of patient-reported experience data to assess practice performance, particularly in the setting of patient-centered medical homes. Yet we lack understanding of what organizational processes relate to patient experiences. Examine associations between organizational processes practices adopt to become PCMH and patient experiences with care. We analyzed visit data from patients (n=8356) at adult primary care practices (n=22) in a large health system. We evaluated the associations between practice organizational processes and patient experience using generalized estimating equations (GEE) with an exchangeable correlation structure to account for patient clustering by practice in multivariate models, adjusting for several practice-level and patient-level characteristics. We evaluated if these associations varied by race/ethnicity, insurance type, and the degree of patient comorbidity MEASURES:: Predictors include overall PCMH adoption and adoption of six organizational processes: access and communications, patient tracking and registry, care management, test referral tracking, quality improvement and external coordination. Primary outcome was overall patient experience. In our full sample, overall PCMH adoption score was not significantly associated with patient experience outcomes. However, among subpopulations with higher comorbidities, the overall PCMH adoption score was positively associated with overall patient experience measures [0.2 (0.06, 0.4); P=0.006]. Differences by race/ethnicity and insurance type in associations between specific organizational processes and patient experience were noted. Although some organizational processes relate to patients' experiences with care irrespective of the background of the patient, further efforts are needed to align practice efforts with patient experience.

  2. Effect of the scrape-off layer in AORSA full wave simulations of fast wave minority, mid/high harmonic, and helicon heating regimes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bertelli, N., E-mail: nbertell@pppl.gov; Gerhardt, S.; Hosea, J. C.; LeBlanc, B.; Perkins, R. J.; Phillips, C. K.; Taylor, G.; Valeo, E. J.; Wilson, J. R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Jaeger, E. F. [XCEL Engineering Inc., Oak Ridge, TN 37830 (United States); Lau, C.; Blazevski, D.; Green, D. L.; Berry, L.; Ryan, P. M. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, TN 37831-6169 (United States); Bonoli, P. T.; Wright, J. C. [MIT Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Cambridge, MA 02139 (United States); Pinsker, R. I.; Prater, R. [General Atomics, PO Box 85608, San Diego, CA 92186-5608 (United States); Qin, C. M. [Institute of Plasma Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Hefei 230031 (China); and others

    2015-12-10

    Several experiments on different machines and in different fast wave (FW) heating regimes, such as hydrogen minority heating and high harmonic fast waves, have found strong interactions between radio-frequency (RF) waves and the scrape-off layer (SOL) region. This paper examines the propagation and the power loss in the SOL by using the full wave code AORSA, in which the edge plasma beyond the last closed flux surface (LCFS) is included in the solution domain and a collisional damping parameter is used as a proxy to represent the real, and most likely nonlinear, damping processes. 3D AORSA results for the National Spherical Torus eXperiment (NSTX), where a full antenna spectrum is reconstructed, are shown, confirming the same behavior found for a single toroidal mode results in Bertelli et al, Nucl. Fusion, 54 083004, 2014, namely, a strong transition to higher SOL power losses (driven by the RF field) when the FW cut-off is moved away from in front of the antenna by increasing the edge density. Additionally, full wave simulations have been extended to “conventional” tokamaks with higher aspect ratios, such as the DIII-D, Alcator C-Mod, and EAST devices. DIII-D results show similar behavior found in NSTX and NSTX-U, consistent with previous DIII-D experimental observations. In contrast, a different behavior has been found for Alcator C-Mod and EAST, which operate in the minority heating regime unlike NSTX/NSTX-U and DIII-D, which operate in the mid/high harmonic regime. A substantial discussion of some of the main aspects, such as (i) the pitch angle of the magnetic field; (ii) minority heating vs. mid/high harmonic regimes is presented showing the different behavior of the RF field in the SOL region for NSTX-U scenarios with different plasma current. Finally, the preliminary results of the impact of the SOL region on the evaluation of the helicon current drive efficiency in DIII-D is presented for the first time and briefly compared with the different regimes

  3. Design and Calibration of a Dispersive Imaging Spectrometer Adaptor for a Fast IR Camera on NSTX-U

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reksoatmodjo, Richard; Gray, Travis; Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Team

    2017-10-01

    A dispersive spectrometer adaptor was designed, constructed and calibrated for use on a fast infrared camera employed to measure temperatures on the lower divertor tiles of the NSTX-U tokamak. This adaptor efficiently and evenly filters and distributes long-wavelength infrared photons between 8.0 and 12.0 microns across the 128x128 pixel detector of the fast IR camera. By determining the width of these separated wavelength bands across the camera detector, and then determining the corresponding average photon count for each photon wavelength, a very accurate measurement of the temperature, and thus heat flux, of the divertor tiles can be calculated using Plank's law. This approach of designing an exterior dispersive adaptor for the fast IR camera allows accurate temperature measurements to be made of materials with unknown emissivity. Further, the relative simplicity and affordability of this adaptor design provides an attractive option over more expensive, slower, dispersive IR camera systems. This work was made possible by funding from the Department of Energy for the Summer Undergraduate Laboratory Internship (SULI) program. This work is supported by the US DOE Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466.

  4. Advanced Life Support Project: Crop Experiments at Kennedy Space Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sager, John C.; Stutte, Gary W.; Wheeler, Raymond M.; Yorio, Neil

    2004-01-01

    Crop production systems provide bioregenerative technologies to complement human crew life support requirements on long duration space missions. Kennedy Space Center has lead NASA's research on crop production systems that produce high value fresh foods, provide atmospheric regeneration, and perform water processing. As the emphasis on early missions to Mars has developed, our research focused on modular, scalable systems for transit missions, which can be developed into larger autonomous, bioregenerative systems for subsequent surface missions. Components of these scalable systems will include development of efficient light generating or collecting technologies, low mass plant growth chambers, and capability to operate in the high energy background radiation and reduced atmospheric pressures of space. These systems will be integrated with air, water, and thermal subsystems in an operational system. Extensive crop testing has been done for both staple and salad crops, but limited data is available on specific cultivar selection and breadboard testing to meet nominal Mars mission profiles of a 500-600 day surface mission. The recent research emphasis at Kennedy Space Center has shifted from staple crops, such as wheat, soybean and rice, toward short cycle salad crops such as lettuce, onion, radish, tomato, pepper, and strawberry. This paper will review the results of crop experiments to support the Exploration Initiative and the ongoing development of supporting technologies, and give an overview of capabilities of the newly opened Space Life Science (SLS) Lab at Kennedy Space Center. The 9662 square m (104,000 square ft) SLS Lab was built by the State of Florida and supports all NASA research that had been performed in Hanger-L. In addition to NASA research, the SLS Lab houses the Florida Space Research Institute (FSRI), responsible for co-managing the facility, and the University of Florida (UF) has established the Space Agriculture and Biotechnology Research and

  5. Leaders' Experiences with High School-College Writing Center Collaborations: A Qualitative Multiple-Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Story, Julie A.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative multiple-case study was to explore academic leaders' experiences with the organizational elements of their own high school-college writing center collaborations. Conjoining theories framed this study: collaborative leadership theory, Kenneth Bruffee's notion of social constructionism and collaborative learning…

  6. Health professionals’ experiences of person-centered collaboration in mental health care

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rita Sommerseth

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Rita Sommerseth, Elin DysvikUniversity of Stavanger, Faculty of Social Sciences, Department of Health Studies, Stavanger, NorwayObjective: The basic aim in this paper is to discuss health care professionals’ experiences of person-centered collaboration and involvement in mental health rehabilitation and suggest ways of improving this perspective. Furthermore, the paper explains the supportive systems that are at work throughout the process of rehabilitation.Method: The study design is a qualitative approach using three focus group interviews with a total of 17 informants with different professional backgrounds such as nurses, social workers, and social pedagogies. In addition, one nurse and one social worker participated in a semistructured in-depth interview to judge validity.Results: Our results may demonstrate deficits concerning mental health care on several levels. This understanding suggests firstly, that a person-centered perspective and involvement still are uncommon. Secondly, multidisciplinary work seems uncommon and only sporadically follows recommendations. Thirdly, family support is seldom involved. Lastly, firm leadership and knowledge about laws and regulations seems not to be systematically integrated in daily care.Conclusion: Taking these matters together, the improvement of a person-centered perspective implies cooperation between different services and levels in mental health care. In order to bring about improvement the health care workers must critically consider their own culture, coordination of competence must be increased, and leadership at an institutional and organizational level must be improved so that scarce rehabilitation resources are used to the optimal benefit of people with a mental illness.Keywords: multidisciplinary teams, person-centered collaboration, supportive systems, rehabilitation

  7. Adrenal trauma: Elvis Presley Memorial Trauma Center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrazin, Reza; Derweesh, Ithaar H; Kincade, Matthew C; Thomas, Adam C; Gold, Robert; Wake, Robert W

    2007-11-01

    Adrenal gland injury is a potentially devastating event if unrecognized in the treatment course of a trauma patient. We reviewed our single-center experience and outcomes in patients with adrenal gland trauma. We performed a retrospective review of all patients presenting with trauma to the Regional Medical Center at Memphis who had adrenal gland injuries from January 1991 through March 2006. Each chart was reviewed with attention to the demographics, associated injuries, complications, and outcomes. Patients were stratified into two subgroups according to age (35 years or younger and older than 35 years) to allow for an age-based comparison between the two groups. Of 58,000 patients presenting with trauma, 130 (0.22%) were identified with adrenal injuries, of which 8 (6.2%) were isolated and 122 (93.8%) were not. Of these 130 patients, 125 (96.2%) had their injury diagnosed by computed tomography and 5 (3.8%) had their injury diagnosed during exploratory laparotomy. Right-sided injuries predominated (78.5%), with six (4.6%) bilateral. Four patients (3.1%) underwent adrenalectomy. Seven patients (5.4%) with adrenal injuries died. One patient (0.77%) required chronic steroid therapy. Patients older than 35 years were more likely to have complications such as deep venous thrombosis, pneumonia, and urinary tract infections. Patient age of 35 years or younger was associated with a significantly increased incidence of liver lacerations. Adrenal gland injury is uncommon, although mostly associated with greater injury severity. Although adding to morbidity, most are self-limited and do not require intervention.

  8. Contemporary Parenteral Antiplatelet Bridging Strategies: A Single-Center Real-World Experience at a Tertiary Care Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stern, Gretchen; Rimsans, Jessica; Qamar, Arman; Vaduganathan, Muthiah; Bhatt, Deepak L

    2018-03-13

    Oral antiplatelet therapy may require interruption soon after percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) or acute coronary syndrome. The optimal parenteral antiplatelet bridge strategy with glycoprotein IIb/IIIa inhibitors or cangrelor, a P2Y12 inhibitor, is unclear. We explore real-world use of cangrelor or eptifibatide for antiplatelet bridging at a large tertiary-care center. Thirty-one patients (9 eptifibatide, 20 cangrelor, and 2 both) received bridge therapy from October 2015 to June 2017. Primary bridge therapy indications included surgery (68%), limited enteral access/absorption (16%), and high-perceived bleed risk (16%). Median duration of bridge therapy was 61 (20-100) hours for cangrelor and 83 (19-98) hours for eptifibatide. Severe/life-threatening bleeding or stent thrombosis was not observed. GUSTO-defined bleeding occurred in 30% (cangrelor) and 27% (eptifibatide). Initial dosing errors occurred in 23% of patients. Death during hospitalization occurred in 16% of patients. Parenteral antiplatelet bridging was used for ~3 days in this single-center, tertiary care experience, commonly for unplanned surgery following PCI. Despite high-risk presentations with >15% in-hospital mortality, efficacy profiles were reassuring with no identified stent thrombosis, but bleeding and dosing errors were common. Antiplatelet bridging should only be used in well-selected patients at the appropriate dose for the minimal necessary duration.

  9. Effects of Toroidal Rotation Sshear on Toroidicity-induced Alfven Eigenmodes in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podesta, M; Fredrickson, E D; Gorelenkov, N N; LeBlanc, B P; Heidbrink, W W; Crocker, N A; Kubota, S

    2010-08-19

    The effects of a sheared toroidal rotation on the dynamics of bursting Toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes are investigated in neutral beam heated plasmas on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) [M. Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40 557 (2000)]. The modes have a global character, extending over most of the minor radius. A toroidal rotation shear layer is measured at the location of maximum drive for the modes. Contrary to results from other devices, no clear evidence of increased damping is found. Instead, experiments with simultaneous neutral beam and radio-frequency auxiliary heating show a strong correlation between the dynamics of the modes and the instability drive. It is argued that kinetic effects involving changes in the mode drive and damping mechanisms other than rotation shear, such as continuum damping, are mostly responsible for the bursting dynamics of the modes.

  10. Effects of Toroidal Rotation Shear on Toroidicity-induced Alfven Eigenmodes in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podesta, M.; Bell, R.E.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Gorelenkov, N.N.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Heidbrink, W.W.; Crocker, N.A.; Kubota, S.; Yuh, H.

    2010-01-01

    The effects of a sheared toroidal rotation on the dynamics of bursting Toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes are investigated in neutral beam heated plasmas on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) (M. Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40 557 (2000)). The modes have a global character, extending over most of the minor radius. A toroidal rotation shear layer is measured at the location of maximum drive for the modes. Contrary to results from other devices, no clear evidence of increased damping is found. Instead, experiments with simultaneous neutral beam and radio-frequency auxiliary heating show a strong correlation between the dynamics of the modes and the instability drive. It is argued that kinetic effects involving changes in the mode drive and damping mechanisms other than rotation shear, such as continuum damping, are mostly responsible for the bursting dynamics of the modes.

  11. A Qualitative Study of Information Technology Managers' Experiences and Perceptions Regarding Outsourced Data Centers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Eric Justin

    2015-01-01

    This qualitative study explored the perceptions and experiences of IT Managers in publicly traded companies within the San Antonio, Texas area about outsourced data centers. Narrative data was collected using open-ended questions and face-to-face interviews within semi-structured environments. The research questions guided the study: (1)…

  12. Stabilization of electron-scale turbulence by electron density gradient in national spherical torus experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ruiz Ruiz, J.; White, A. E. [MIT-Plasma Science and Fusion Center, Cambridge, Massachusetts 02139 (United States); Ren, Y.; Guttenfelder, W.; Kaye, S. M.; Leblanc, B. P.; Mazzucato, E. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Lee, K. C. [National Fusion Research Institute, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of); Domier, C. W. [University of California at Davis, Davis, California 95616 (United States); Smith, D. R. [University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Yuh, H. [Nova Photonics, Inc., Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)

    2015-12-15

    Theory and experiments have shown that electron temperature gradient (ETG) turbulence on the electron gyro-scale, k{sub ⊥}ρ{sub e} ≲ 1, can be responsible for anomalous electron thermal transport in NSTX. Electron scale (high-k) turbulence is diagnosed in NSTX with a high-k microwave scattering system [D. R. Smith et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 79, 123501 (2008)]. Here we report on stabilization effects of the electron density gradient on electron-scale density fluctuations in a set of neutral beam injection heated H-mode plasmas. We found that the absence of high-k density fluctuations from measurements is correlated with large equilibrium density gradient, which is shown to be consistent with linear stabilization of ETG modes due to the density gradient using the analytical ETG linear threshold in F. Jenko et al. [Phys. Plasmas 8, 4096 (2001)] and linear gyrokinetic simulations with GS2 [M. Kotschenreuther et al., Comput. Phys. Commun. 88, 128 (1995)]. We also found that the observed power of electron-scale turbulence (when it exists) is anti-correlated with the equilibrium density gradient, suggesting density gradient as a nonlinear stabilizing mechanism. Higher density gradients give rise to lower values of the plasma frame frequency, calculated based on the Doppler shift of the measured density fluctuations. Linear gyrokinetic simulations show that higher values of the electron density gradient reduce the value of the real frequency, in agreement with experimental observation. Nonlinear electron-scale gyrokinetic simulations show that high electron density gradient reduces electron heat flux and stiffness, and increases the ETG nonlinear threshold, consistent with experimental observations.

  13. Comparison of beam emission spectroscopy and gas puff imaging edge fluctuation measurements in National Spherical Torus Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sechrest, Y.; Munsat, T. [Department of Physics, University of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado 80309 (United States); Smith, D. [Department of Engineering Physics, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706 (United States); Stotler, D. P.; Zweben, S. J. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08540 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    In this study, the close physical proximity of the Gas Puff Imaging (GPI) and Beam Emission Spectroscopy (BES) diagnostics on the National Spherical torus Experiment (NSTX) is leveraged to directly compare fluctuation measurements, and to study the local effects of the GPI neutral deuterium puff during H-mode plasmas without large Edge Localized Modes. The GPI and BES views on NSTX provide partially overlapping coverage of the edge and scrape-off layer (SOL) regions above the outboard midplane. The separation in the toroidal direction is 16°, and field lines passing through diagnostic views are separated by ∼20 cm in the direction perpendicular to the magnetic field. Strong cross-correlation is observed, and strong cross-coherence is seen for frequencies between 5 and 15 kHz. Also, probability distribution functions of fluctuations measured ∼3 cm inside the separatrix exhibit only minor deviations from a normal distribution for both diagnostics, and good agreement between correlation length estimates, decorrelation times, and structure velocities is found at the ±40% level. While the two instruments agree closely in many respects, some discrepancies are observed. Most notably, GPI normalized fluctuation levels exceed BES fluctuations by a factor of ∼9. BES mean intensity is found to be sensitive to the GPI neutral gas puff, and BES normalized fluctuation levels for frequencies between 1 and 10 kHz are observed to increase during the GPI puff.

  14. Comparison of beam emission spectroscopy and gas puff imaging edge fluctuation measurements in National Spherical Torus Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sechrest, Y.; Munsat, T.; Smith, D.; Stotler, D. P.; Zweben, S. J.

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the close physical proximity of the Gas Puff Imaging (GPI) and Beam Emission Spectroscopy (BES) diagnostics on the National Spherical torus Experiment (NSTX) is leveraged to directly compare fluctuation measurements, and to study the local effects of the GPI neutral deuterium puff during H-mode plasmas without large Edge Localized Modes. The GPI and BES views on NSTX provide partially overlapping coverage of the edge and scrape-off layer (SOL) regions above the outboard midplane. The separation in the toroidal direction is 16°, and field lines passing through diagnostic views are separated by ∼20 cm in the direction perpendicular to the magnetic field. Strong cross-correlation is observed, and strong cross-coherence is seen for frequencies between 5 and 15 kHz. Also, probability distribution functions of fluctuations measured ∼3 cm inside the separatrix exhibit only minor deviations from a normal distribution for both diagnostics, and good agreement between correlation length estimates, decorrelation times, and structure velocities is found at the ±40% level. While the two instruments agree closely in many respects, some discrepancies are observed. Most notably, GPI normalized fluctuation levels exceed BES fluctuations by a factor of ∼9. BES mean intensity is found to be sensitive to the GPI neutral gas puff, and BES normalized fluctuation levels for frequencies between 1 and 10 kHz are observed to increase during the GPI puff

  15. Modelling of NSTX hot vertical displacement events using M 3 D -C 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferlé, D.; Ferraro, N.; Jardin, S. C.; Krebs, I.; Bhattacharjee, A.

    2018-05-01

    The main results of an intense vertical displacement event (VDE) modelling activity using the implicit 3D extended MHD code M3D-C1 are presented. A pair of nonlinear 3D simulations are performed using realistic transport coefficients based on the reconstruction of a so-called NSTX frozen VDE where the feedback control was purposely switched off to trigger a vertical instability. The vertical drift phase is solved assuming axisymmetry until the plasma contacts the first wall, at which point the intricate evolution of the plasma, decaying to large extent in force-balance with induced halo/wall currents, is carefully resolved via 3D nonlinear simulations. The faster 2D nonlinear runs allow to assess the sensitivity of the simulations to parameter changes. In the limit of perfectly conducting wall, the expected linear relation between vertical growth rate and wall resistivity is recovered. For intermediate wall resistivities, the halo region contributes to slowing the plasma down, and the characteristic VDE time depends on the choice of halo temperature. The evolution of the current quench and the onset of 3D halo/eddy currents are diagnosed in detail. The 3D simulations highlight a rich structure of toroidal modes, penetrating inwards from edge to core and cascading from high-n to low-n mode numbers. The break-up of flux-surfaces results in a progressive stochastisation of field-lines precipitating the thermalisation of the plasma with the wall. The plasma current then decays rapidly, inducing large currents in the halo region and the wall. Analysis of normal currents flowing in and out of the divertor plate reveals rich time-varying patterns.

  16. Single-center experience in double kidney transplantation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fontana, I; Magoni Rossi, A; Gasloli, G; Santori, G; Giannone, A; Bertocchi, M; Piaggio, F; Bocci, E; Valente, Umberto

    2010-05-01

    Use of organs from marginal donors for transplantation is a current strategy to expand the organ donor pool. Its efficacy is universally accepted among data from multicenter studies. Herein, we have reviewed outcomes of double kidney transplantation (DKT) over an 9-year experience in our center. The aim of this study was to evaluate possible important differences between a monocenter versus multicenter studies. Between 1999 and 2008, we performed 59 DKT. Recipient mean age was 63 +/- 5 years. Mean HLA-A, -B, and -DR mismatches were 3.69 +/- 0.922. Donor mean age was 69 +/- 7 years and mean creatinine clearance was 69.8 +/- 30.8 mL/min. Proteinuria was detected in three donors (5%). Mean cold ischemia and warm ischemia times were 1130 +/- 216 and 48 +/- 11 minutes, respectively. The right and left kidney scores were 4.18 +/- 2 and 4.21 +/- 2, respectively. Thirty patients (51%) displayed good postoperative renal function; 22 (37%), acute tubular necrosis with postoperative dialysis; 3 (5%), acute rejection episodes; 4 (7%), single-graft transplantectomy due to vascular thrombosis; 1 (2%), a retransplantation; 5 (8%), a lymphocele; 3 (5%) vescicoureteral reflux or stenosis requiring surgical correction. Cytomegalovirus infection was detected in five patients (8%). In three patients (5%) displayed de novo neoplasia. Three patients showed chronic rejection (5%), whereas we observed a cyclosporine-related toxicity in 7 (12%). Nine patients (15%) developed iatrogenic diabetes. Patient and graft survivals after 3 years from DKT were 93% and 86.3%, respectively. In this study, we applied successfully a widespread score to allocate organs to single kidney transplantation or DKT. In our experience, the score is suitable for the organ allocation but it may be overprotective, excluding potentially suitable organs for a single transplantation. Copyright (c) 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Collisional Damping of Electron Bernstein Waves and its Mitigation by Evaporated Lithium Conditioning in Spherical-Tokamak Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Diem, S. J.; Caughman, J. B.; Taylor, G.; Efthimion, P. C.; Kugel, H.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Phillips, C. K.; Preinhaelter, J.; Urban, J.; Sabbagh, S. A.

    2009-01-01

    The first experimental verification of electron Bernstein wave (EBW) collisional damping, and its mitigation by evaporated Li conditioning, in an overdense spherical-tokamak plasma has been observed in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). Initial measurements of EBW emission, coupled from NSTX plasmas via double-mode conversion to O-mode waves, exhibited <10% transmission efficiencies. Simulations show 80% of the EBW energy is dissipated by collisions in the edge plasma. Li conditioning reduced the edge collision frequency by a factor of 3 and increased the fundamental EBW transmission to 60%.

  18. Compressional Alfven Eigenmode Similarity Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidbrink, W. W.; Fredrickson, E. D.; Gorelenkov, N. N.; Rhodes, T. L.

    2004-11-01

    NSTX and DIII-D are nearly ideal for Alfven eigenmode (AE) similarity experiments, having similar neutral beams, fast-ion to Alfven speed v_f/v_A, fast-ion pressure, and shape of the plasma, but with a factor of 2 difference in the major radius. Toroidicity-induced AE with ˜100 kHz frequencies were compared in an earlier study [1]; this paper focuses on higher frequency AE with f ˜ 1 MHz. Compressional AE (CAE) on NSTX have a polarization, dependence on the fast-ion distribution function, frequency scaling, and low-frequency limit that are qualitatively consistent with CAE theory [2]. Global AE (GAE) are also observed. On DIII-D, coherent modes in this frequency range are observed during low-field (0.6 T) similarity experiments. Experiments will compare the CAE stability limits on DIII-D with the NSTX stability limits, with the aim of determining if CAE will be excited by alphas in a reactor. Predicted differences in the frequency splitting Δ f between excited modes will also be used. \\vspace0.25em [1] W.W. Heidbrink, et al., Plasmas Phys. Control. Fusion 45, 983 (2003). [2] E.D. Fredrickson, et al., Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory Report PPPL-3955 (2004).

  19. Implementation of laparoscopic approach in colorectal surgery - a single center's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwiatkowski, Andrzej P; Stępińska, Gabriela; Stanowski, Edward; Paśnik, Krzysztof

    2018-03-01

    Implementation of the laparoscopic approach in colorectal surgery has not happened as rapidly as in cholecystectomy, because of concerns about oncological safety. The results of controlled trials in multiple centers showed the method to be safe. Consequently, surgeons decided to try the approach with colorectal surgery. This process, in our clinic, began in earnest about four years ago. To analyze and present the clinical outcomes of applying the laparoscopic approach to colorectal surgery in a single center. We retrospectively identified patients from a hospital database who underwent colorectal surgery - laparoscopic and open - between 2013 and 2016. Our focus was on laparoscopic cases. Study points included operative time, duration of the hospital stay, postoperative mortality and rates of complications, conversion, reoperation and readmission. Of 534 cases considered, the results showed that the relation between open and laparoscopic procedures had reversed, in favor of the latter method (2013: open: 82% vs. laparoscopic: 18%; 2016: open: 22.4% vs. laparoscopic: 77.6%). The most commonly performed procedure was right hemicolectomy. The total complication rate was 22%. The total rate of conversion to open surgery was 9.3%. The postoperative mortality rate was 3%. Use of the laparoscopic approach in colorectal surgery has increased in recent years world-wide - including in Poland - but the technique is still underused. Rapid implementation of the miniinvasive method in colorectal surgery, in centers with previous laparoscopic experience, is not only safe and feasible, but also highly recommended.

  20. Response to “Comment on ‘Magnetic geometry and physics of advanced divertors: The X-divertor and the snowflake’ ” [Phys. Plasmas 21, 054701 (2014)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kotschenreuther, Mike; Valanju, Prashant; Covele, Brent; Mahajan, Swadesh

    2014-01-01

    Relying on coil positions relative to the plasma, the “Comment on ‘Magnetic geometry and physics of advanced divertors: The X-divertor and the snowflake’ ” [Phys. Plasmas 21, 054701 (2014)], emphasizes a criterion for divertor characterization that was critiqued to be ill posed [M. Kotschenreuther et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 102507 (2013)]. We find that no substantive physical differences flow from this criteria. However, using these criteria, the successful NSTX experiment by Ryutov et al. [Phys. Plasmas 21, 054701 (2014)] has the coil configuration of an X-divertor (XD), rather than a snowflake (SF). On completing the divertor index (DI) versus distance graph for this NSTX shot (which had an inexplicably missing region), we find that the DI is like an XD for most of the outboard wetted divertor plate. Further, the “proximity condition,” used to define an SF [M. Kotschenreuther et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 102507 (2013)], does not have a substantive physics basis to override metrics based on flux expansion and line length. Finally, if the criteria of the comment are important, then the results of NSTX-like experiments could have questionable applicability to reactors

  1. Response to “Comment on ‘Magnetic geometry and physics of advanced divertors: The X-divertor and the snowflake’ ” [Phys. Plasmas 21, 054701 (2014)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kotschenreuther, Mike; Valanju, Prashant; Covele, Brent; Mahajan, Swadesh [Institute for Fusion Studies, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, Texas 78712 (United States)

    2014-05-15

    Relying on coil positions relative to the plasma, the “Comment on ‘Magnetic geometry and physics of advanced divertors: The X-divertor and the snowflake’ ” [Phys. Plasmas 21, 054701 (2014)], emphasizes a criterion for divertor characterization that was critiqued to be ill posed [M. Kotschenreuther et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 102507 (2013)]. We find that no substantive physical differences flow from this criteria. However, using these criteria, the successful NSTX experiment by Ryutov et al. [Phys. Plasmas 21, 054701 (2014)] has the coil configuration of an X-divertor (XD), rather than a snowflake (SF). On completing the divertor index (DI) versus distance graph for this NSTX shot (which had an inexplicably missing region), we find that the DI is like an XD for most of the outboard wetted divertor plate. Further, the “proximity condition,” used to define an SF [M. Kotschenreuther et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 102507 (2013)], does not have a substantive physics basis to override metrics based on flux expansion and line length. Finally, if the criteria of the comment are important, then the results of NSTX-like experiments could have questionable applicability to reactors.

  2. [Management of Grave's disease in the tropics (experience at Bouffard Army Hospital Center in Djibouti].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coulet, O; Kraemer, P; Leyral, G; Cloatre, G

    2004-01-01

    Based on their experience in managing Grave's disease at the Bouffard Army Hospital Center within the local health care context in Djibouti, the authors advocate surgery as the first line treatment. Medical and economical factors supporting this preference are discussed so that readers can adapt them to his own local context.

  3. [Merkel cell carcinoma experience in a reference medical center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roesch-Dietlen, Federico; Devezé-Bocardi, Raúl; Ruiz-Juárez, Isabel; Grube-Pagola, Peter; Romero-Sierra, Graciela; Remes-Troche, José María; Silva-Cañetas, Carmen Sofía; Lozoya-López Escalera, Hilda

    2013-01-01

    Background: Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare tumor that occurs on areas exposed to ultraviolet light. It is usually asymptomatic and it is diagnosed late often. The treatment is surgical, associated with adjuvant radiotherapy. The objective was to present the experience in the management of Merkel cell carcinoma in a reference medical center. Methods: all patients with Merkel cell carcinoma treated at the Instituto de Investigaciones Médico-Biológicas of the Universidad Veracruzana during the period 2008 to 2011 were studied. Sex, age, evolution time, tumor localization, size, metastases and treatment were analyzed. Results: of 3217 patients treated, three cases were Merkel cell carcinoma (0.09 %), their age was 52.1 ± 14.17, male predominance of 66.67 %; the evolution time was of 29.66 ± 35.36 months; the tumour localization was on inguinal region, anterior chest and left arm; the noodle size was of 6.0 ± 5.19 cm; two patients had lymph node metastases. In two cases, resection and lymphadenectomy were performed. They all received radiation therapy and chemotherapy in one case. Histologically the medium variant predominated; immunohistochemistry was positive in the three cases. One patient died ten months after the study was done. Conclusions: our experience is similar with others authors, Merkel cell carcinoma is a rare tumor, usually diagnosed late, and it has poor survival.

  4. Some Aspects of Crystal Centering During X-ray High-throughput Protein Crystallography Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaponov, Yu. A.; Matsugaki, N.; Sasajima, K.; Igarashi, N.; Wakatsuki, S.

    A set of algorithms and procedures of a crystal loop centering during X-ray high-throughput protein crystallography experiment has been designed and developed. A simple algorithm of the crystal loop detection and preliminary recognition has been designed and developed. The crystal loop detection algorithm is based on finding out the crystal loop ending point (opposite to the crystal loop pin) using image cross section (digital image column) profile analysis. The crystal loop preliminary recognition procedure is based on finding out the crystal loop sizes and position using image cross section profile analysis. The crystal loop fine recognition procedure based on Hooke-Jeeves pattern search method with an ellipse as a fitting pattern has been designed and developed. The procedure of restoring missing coordinate of the crystal loop is described. Based on developed algorithms and procedures the optimal auto-centering procedure has been designed and developed. A procedure of optimal manual crystal centering (Two Clicks Procedure) has been designed and developed. Developed procedures have been integrated into control software system PCCS installed at crystallography beamlines Photon Factory BL5A and PF-AR NW12, KEK.

  5. Kinetic Modifications to MHD Phenomena in Toroidal Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cheng, C.Z.; Gorelenkov, N.N.; Kramer, G.J.; Fredrickson, E.

    2004-01-01

    Particle kinetic effects involving small spatial and fast temporal scales can strongly affect MHD phenomena and the long time behavior of plasmas. In particular, kinetic effects such as finite ion gyroradii, trapped particle dynamics, and wave-particle resonances have been shown to greatly modify the stability of MHD modes. Here, the kinetic effects of trapped electron dynamics and finite ion gyroradii are shown to have a large stabilizing effect on kinetic ballooning modes in low aspect ratio toroidal plasmas such as NSTX [National Spherical Torus Experiment]. We also present the analysis of Toroidicity-induced Alfven Eigenmodes (TAEs) destabilized by fast neutral-beam injected ions in NSTX experiments and TAE stability in ITER due to alpha-particles and MeV negatively charged neutral beam injected ions

  6. WORRIES OF THE CANCER PATIENTS: THE EXPERIENCE OF THE EDUCATION CENTER OF THE INSTITUTO NACIONAL DE CANCEROLOGIA

    OpenAIRE

    Contreras-Cruz Ana Cecilia; Castro-Camargo Gladys Juliette; Puerto-Jiménez Devi Nereira

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: to know the characteristics and worries of the cancer patients allows imparting an adequate attention to their needs in order to answer the experience of living with cancer. Objective: to identify the main worries of the cancer patients expressed to contact the center. Methods: selection for one year of cancer patients who attended to the education center for the patients and their families of the Instituto Nacional de Cancerología (INC). Field diaries were ...

  7. Structure and motion of edge turbulence in the National Spherical Torus Experiment and Alcator C-Moda)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zweben, S. J.; Maqueda, R. J.; Terry, J. L.; Munsat, T.; Myra, J. R.; D'Ippolito, D.; Russell, D. A.; Krommes, J. A.; LeBlanc, B.; Stoltzfus-Dueck, T.; Stotler, D. P.; Williams, K. M.; Bush, C. E.; Maingi, R.; Grulke, O.; Sabbagh, S. A.; White, A. E.

    2006-05-01

    In this paper we compare the structure and motion of edge turbulence observed in L-mode vs. H-mode plasmas in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) [M. Ono, M. G. Bell, R. E. Bell et al., Plasma Phys. Controlled Fusion 45, A335 (2003)]. The radial and poloidal correlation lengths are not significantly different between the L-mode and the H-mode in the cases examined. The poloidal velocity fluctuations are lower and the radial profiles of the poloidal turbulence velocity are somewhat flatter in the H-mode compared with the L-mode plasmas. These results are compared with similar measurements Alcator C-Mod [E. Marmar, B. Bai, R. L. Boivin et al., Nucl. Fusion 43, 1610 (2003)], and with theoretical models.

  8. CCSDS telemetry systems experience at the Goddard Space Flight Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carper, Richard D.; Stallings, William H., III

    1990-01-01

    NASA Goddard Space Flight Center (GSFC) designs, builds, manages, and operates science and applications spacecraft in near-earth orbit, and provides data capture, data processing, and flight control services for these spacecraft. In addition, GSFC has the responsibility of providing space-ground and ground-ground communications for near-earth orbiting spacecraft, including those of the manned spaceflight programs. The goal of reducing both the developmental and operating costs of the end-to-end information system has led the GSFC to support and participate in the standardization activities of the Consultative Committee for Space Data Systems (CCSDS), including those for packet telemetry. The environment in which such systems function is described, and the GSFC experience with CCSDS packet telemetry in the context of the Gamma-Ray Observatory project is discussed.

  9. High School Students' Experiences of Bullying and Victimization and the Association with School Health Center Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Catherine; Deardorff, Julianna; Lahiff, Maureen; Soleimanpour, Samira; Sakashita, Kimi; Brindis, Claire D.

    2015-01-01

    Background: Bullying and victimization are ongoing concerns in schools. School health centers (SHCs) are well situated to support affected students because they provide crisis intervention, mental health care, and broader interventions to improve school climate. This study examined the association between urban adolescents' experiences of…

  10. Status of National Spherical Torus Experiment Liquid Lithium Divertor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kugel, H. W.; Viola, M.; Ellis, R.; Bell, M.; Gerhardt, S.; Kaita, R.; Kallman, J.; Majeski, R.; Mansfield, D.; Roquemore, A. L.; Schneider, H.; Timberlake, J.; Zakharov, L.; Nygren, R. E.; Allain, J. P.; Maingi, R.; Soukhanovskii, V.

    2009-11-01

    Recent NSTX high power divertor experiments have shown significant and recurring benefits of solid lithium coatings on plasma facing components to the performance of divertor plasmas in both L- and H- mode confinement regimes heated by high-power neutral beams. The next step in this work is the 2009 installation of a Liquid Lithium Divertor (LLD). The 20 cm wide LLD located on the lower outer divertor, consists of four, 80 degree sections; each section is separated by a row of graphite diagnostic tiles. The temperature controlled LLD structure consists of a 0.01cm layer of vacuum flame-sprayed, 50 percent porous molybdenum, on top of 0.02 cm, 316-SS brazed to a 1.9 cm Cu base. The physics design of the LLD encompasses the desired plasma requirements, the experimental capabilities and conditions, power handling, radial location, pumping capability, operating temperature, lithium filling, MHD forces, and diagnostics for control and characterization.

  11. 2016 Annual Site Environmental Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Finley, Virginia [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States)

    2017-09-26

    This report provides the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) and the public with information on the level of radioactive and non-radioactive pollutants (if any) that are added to the environment as a result of Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory’s (PPPL) operations. The results of the 2016 environmental surveillance and monitoring program for PPPL’s are presented and discussed. The report also summarizes environmental initiatives, assessments, and community involvement programs that were undertaken in 2016. PPPL has engaged in fusion energy research since 1951. The vision of the Laboratory is to create innovations to make fusion power a practical reality – a clean, alternative energy source. 2016 marked the eighteenth year of National Spherical Torus Experiment and the first year of NSTX-U (Upgrade) operations. The NSTX-U Project is a collaboration among national laboratories, universities, and national and international research institutions and is a major element in the US Fusion Energy Sciences Program. Its design tests the physics principles of spherical torus (ST) plasmas, playing an important role in the development of smaller, more economical fusion reactors. NSTX-U began operations after its first upgrade that installed the new center stack magnets and second neutral beam, which would allow for hotter plasmas and greater field strength to maintain the fusion reaction longer. Due to operational issues with a poloidal coil, NSTX-U operated briefly in 2016. In 2016, PPPL’s radiological environmental monitoring program measured tritium in the air at the NSTX-U Stack and at on -site sampling stations. Using highly sensitive monitors, PPPL is capable of detecting small changes in the ambient levels of tritium. The operation of an in- stack monitor located on D-site is used to demonstrate compliance with the National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAPs) regulations. Also included in PPPL’s radiological environmental monitoring program

  12. Active feedback control of kink modes in tokamaks: 3D VALEN modeling and HBT-EP experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurer, D.A.

    2002-01-01

    Significant progress in the development of active feedback control as a robust technique for the suppression of the wall stabilized external kink or resistive wall mode (RWM) in tokamaks has been achieved through a combination of modeling and experiments. Results from the 3D feedback modeling code VALEN, which serves as the primary analysis and feedback control design tool for RWM studies on the HBT-EP and DIII-D experiments, are in good agreement with observations. VALEN modeling of proposed advanced control system designs on HBT-EP, DIII-D, NSTX, and FIRE are predicted to approach the ideal wall beta limit in agreement with design principles based on simple single mode analytic theory of RWM feedback control. Benchmark experiments on HBT-EP have shown suppression of plasma disruption at rational edge q values using active feedback control in agreement with model predictions. In addition, the observation in HBT-EP of the plasma amplification of static resonant magnetic fields in plasmas marginally stable to the RWM is in agreement with theory. (author)

  13. The contribution of radio-frequency rectification to field-aligned losses of high-harmonic fast wave power to the divertor in the National Spherical Torus eXperiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Perkins, R. J., E-mail: rperkins@pppl.gov; Hosea, J. C.; Jaworski, M. A.; Diallo, A.; Bell, R. E.; Bertelli, N.; Gerhardt, S.; Kramer, G. J.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Phillips, C. K.; Podestà, M.; Roquemore, L.; Taylor, G.; Wilson, J. R. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton, New Jersey 08543 (United States); Ahn, J.-W.; Gray, T. K. [Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831 (United States); McLean, A. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550 (United States); Sabbagh, S. [Department of Applied Physics and Applied Mathematics, Columbia University, New York, New York 10027 (United States)

    2015-04-15

    The National Spherical Torus eXperiment (NSTX) can exhibit a major loss of high-harmonic fast wave (HHFW) power along scrape-off layer (SOL) field lines passing in front of the antenna, resulting in bright and hot spirals on both the upper and lower divertor regions. One possible mechanism for this loss is RF sheaths forming at the divertors. Here, we demonstrate that swept-voltage Langmuir probe characteristics for probes under the spiral are shifted relative to those not under the spiral in a manner consistent with RF rectification. We estimate both the magnitude of the RF voltage across the sheath and the sheath heat flux transmission coefficient in the presence of the RF field. Although precise comparison between the computed heat flux and infrared (IR) thermography cannot yet be made, the computed heat deposition compares favorably with the projections from IR camera measurements. The RF sheath losses are significant and contribute substantially to the total SOL losses of HHFW power to the divertor for the cases studied. This work will guide future experimentation on NSTX-U, where a wide-angle IR camera and a dedicated set of coaxial Langmuir probes for measuring the RF sheath voltage directly will quantify the contribution of RF sheath rectification to the heat deposition from the SOL to the divertor.

  14. The Renewal Center: Time, Experience, Memory

    OpenAIRE

    Tennant, Mark

    2005-01-01

    Time, Experience, Memory Through experience we are conscious of time. Through time, our experiences become memories, influencing both conscious and unconscious thought. It is through our five senses; touch, sight, hearing, smell and taste, that these experiences are gathered. Humans are also born with inherent knowledge that our species has collected from generation to generation. This inherent knowledge, also called the collective unconscious, has a direct effect on the way we perce...

  15. Preclinical students’ experiences in early clerkships after skills training partly offered in primary health care centers: a qualitative study from Indonesia

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    Background Students may encounter difficulties when they have to apply clinical skills trained in their pre-clinical studies in clerkships. Early clinical exposure in the pre-clinical phase has been recommended to reduce these transition problems. The aim of this study is to explore differences in students' experiences during the first clerkships between students exclusively trained in a skills laboratory and peers for whom part of their skills training was substituted by early clinical experiences (ECE). Methods Thirty pre-clinical students trained clinical skills exclusively in a skills laboratory; 30 peers received part of their skills training in PHC centers. Within half a year after commencing their clerkships all 60 students shared their experiences in focus group discussions (FGDs). Verbatim transcripts of FGDs were analyzed using Atlas-Ti software. Results Clerkship students who had participated in ECE in PHC centers felt better prepared to perform their clinical skills during the first clerkships than peers who had only practiced in a skills laboratory. ECE in PHC centers impacted positively in particular on students’ confidence, clinical reasoning, and interpersonal communication. Conclusion In the Indonesian setting ECE in PHC centers reduce difficulties commonly encountered by medical students in the first clerkships. PMID:22640419

  16. Nuclear medicine: the Philippine Heart Center experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cancino, E.L.

    1994-01-01

    The following is a report of a three (3) months on-the-job training in Nuclear Medicine at the Nuclear Medicine Department of the Philippine Heart Center. The hospital has current generation nuclear medicine instruments with data processor and is capable of a full range of in vivo and in vitro procedures. Gamma camera is the principal instrument for imaging in nuclear medicine used in the Philippine Heart Center. Thyroid scanning procedure is being performed with these instruments. Also the cardiovascular procedures, the pulmonary, skeletal, renal and hepatobiliary procedures were being performed with the use of gamma camera. Special emphasis is on nuclear cardiology since the PHC attends primarily to cardiovascular patients. (auth.)

  17. Plasma facing surface composition during NSTX Li experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skinner, C.H., E-mail: cskinner@pppl.gov [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, POB 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States); Sullenberger, R. [Department of Mechanical and Aerospace Engineering, Princeton University, NJ 08540 (United States); Koel, B.E. [Department of Chemical and Biological Engineering, Princeton University, NJ 08540 (United States); Jaworski, M.A.; Kugel, H.W. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, POB 451, Princeton, NJ 08543 (United States)

    2013-07-15

    Lithium conditioned plasma facing surfaces have lowered recycling and enhanced plasma performance on many fusion devices. However, the nature of the plasma–lithium surface interaction has been obscured by the difficulty of in-tokamak surface analysis. We report laboratory studies of the chemical composition of lithium surfaces exposed to typical residual gases found in tokamaks. Solid lithium and a molybdenum alloy (TZM) coated with lithium have been examined using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, temperature programmed desorption, and Auger electron spectroscopy both in ultrahigh vacuum conditions and after exposure to trace gases. Lithium surfaces near room temperature were oxidized after exposure to 1–2 Langmuirs of oxygen or water vapor. The oxidation rate by carbon monoxide was four times less. Lithiated PFC surfaces in tokamaks will be oxidized in about 100 s depending on the tokamak vacuum conditions.

  18. U.S. Experience and practices associated with the use of centralized rad waste processing centers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gibson, James D.

    1994-01-01

    This paper presents the experience and current practices employed within the United States (US) associated with the use of Centralized Rad waste Processing Centers for the processing of Low Level Radioactive Wastes (LLRW). Information is provided on the methods, technologies, and practices employed by Scientific Ecology Group, Inc. (SEG), which is the worlds largest processor of LLRW. SEG processes over 80,000 cubic meters of waste annually and achieves an overall volume reduction of 12 : 1. LLRW processing in the United States is currently performed primarily at Centralized Rad waste Processing Centers, such as SEG's Central Volume Reduction Facility (CVRF) in Oak Ridge, Tennessee. This is primarily due to the superior economical application of advanced waste processing technologies, equipment, and personnel maintained at these centers. Information is provided on how SEG uses supercompaction, incineration, metals recycling, vitrification, and various other waste processing techniques to process both dry and wet wastes from over 90 commercial nuclear power plants, government operated facilities, hospitals, universities, and various small generators of radioactive waste

  19. Exploratory studies of flowing liquid metal divertor options for fusion-relevant magnetic fields in the MTOR facility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ying, A.Y.; Abdou, M.A.; Morley, N.; Sketchley, T.; Woolley, R.; Burris, J.; Kaita, R.; Fogarty, P.; Huang, H.; Lao, X.; Narula, M.; Smolentsev, S.; Ulrickson, M.

    2004-01-01

    This paper reports on experimental findings on liquid metal (LM) free surface flows crossing complex magnetic fields. The experiments involve jet and film flows using GaInSn and are conducted at the UCLA MTOR facility. The goal of this study is to understand the magnetohydrodynamics (MHD) features associated with such a free surface flow in a fusion-relevant magnetic field environment, and determine what LM free surface flow option is most suitable for lithium divertor particle pumping and surface heat removal applications in a near-term experimental plasma device, such as NSTX. Experimental findings indicate that a steady transverse magnetic field, even with gradients typical of NSTX outer divertor conditions, stabilizes a LM jet flow--reducing turbulent disturbances and delaying jet breakup. Important insights into the MHD behavior of liquid metal films under NSTX-like environments are also presented. It is possible to establish an uphill liquid metal film flow on a conducting substrate, although the MHD drag experienced by the flow could be strong and cause the flow to pile-up under simulated NSTX magnetic field conditions. The magnetic field changes the turbulent film flow so that wave structures range from 2D column-type surface disturbances at regions of high magnetic field, to ordinary hydrodynamic turbulence wave structures at regions of low field strength at the outboard. Plans for future work are also presented

  20. Patient experience in a coordinated care model featuring diabetes self-management education integrated into the patient-centered medical home.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janiszewski, Debra; O'Brian, Catherine A; Lipman, Ruth D

    2015-08-01

    The purpose of this study is to gain insight about patient experience of diabetes self-management education in a patient-centered medical home. Six focus groups consisting of 37 people with diabetes, diverse in race and ethnicity, were conducted at 3 sites. Participants described their experience in the program and their challenges in diabetes self-management; they also suggested services to meet their diabetes care needs. The most common theme was ongoing concerns about care and support. There was much discussion about the value of the support provided by health navigators integrated in the diabetes health care team. Frequent concerns expressed by participants centered on personal challenges in engaging in healthy lifestyle behaviors. Ongoing programmatic support of self-management goals was widely valued. Individuals who received health care in a patient-centered medical home and could participate in diabetes self-management education with integrated support valued both activities. The qualitative results from this study suggest need for more formalized exploration of effective means to meet the ongoing support needs of people with diabetes. © 2015 The Author(s).

  1. Non-Solenoidal Startup Research Directions on the Pegasus Toroidal Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fonck, R. J.; Bongard, M. W.; Lewicki, B. T.; Reusch, J. A.; Winz, G. R.

    2017-10-01

    The Pegasus research program has been focused on developing a physical understanding and predictive models for non-solenoidal tokamak plasma startup using Local Helicity Injection (LHI). LHI employs strong localized electron currents injected along magnetic field lines in the plasma edge that relax through magnetic turbulence to form a tokamak-like plasma. Pending approval, the Pegasus program will address a broader, more comprehensive examination of non-solenoidal tokamak startup techniques. New capabilities may include: increasing the toroidal field to 0.6 T to support critical scaling tests to near-NSTX-U field levels; deploying internal plasma diagnostics; installing a coaxial helicity injection (CHI) capability in the upper divertor region; and deploying a modest (200-400 kW) electron cyclotron RF capability. These efforts will address scaling of relevant physics to higher BT, separate and comparative studies of helicity injection techniques, efficiency of handoff to consequent current sustainment techniques, and the use of ECH to synergistically improve the target plasma for consequent bootstrap and neutral beam current drive sustainment. This has an ultimate goal of validating techniques to produce a 1 MA target plasma in NSTX-U and beyond. Work supported by US DOE Grant DE-FG02-96ER54375.

  2. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Centers Regional Benefits Offices Regional Loan Centers Cemetery Locations Get help from Veterans Crisis Line Search Enter ... Experience (TEE) Tournament Wheelchair Games Winter Sports Clinic Locations Hospitals & Clinics Vet Centers Regional Benefits Offices Regional ...

  3. [Auto-dialysis: an 11-year experience of a hemodialysis center in France].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montagnac, R; Schillinger, F

    1996-03-30

    Report 11 years of experience with self-managed hemodialysis in patients medically apt for extra-hospital dialysis and living close enough to small outpatient hemodialysis units to become totally self-sufficient. Among the 276 patients with chronic renal failure managed at the hemodialysis center at the Troyes hospital during the 11-year study period from 1984 through 1994, self-managed hemodialysis at small outpatient units was initiated in 127 (46%). None of these 127 patients required medical assistance or specific care during dialysis sessions. At initial hospital admission, only 60/127 (47%) were totally self-sufficient: 52 (41%) were later graft recipients; and 21 (16.5%) had to return to the hospital for a medical or surgical condition incompatible with extra-hospital care but all of these 21 patients remained self-sufficient. Extra-hospital hemodialysis in units close to the patients residence offers patients a better quality of life, even when medical assistance is required. All patients who require hemodialysis can thus be treated at lower cost without compromising quality of treatment. Perfect self-sufficiency may not be a goal in itself, but self-managed hemodialysis can be a very useful technique for patients without major medical problems. Continuing contact with the organizing hemodialysis center guarantees the safety of the system.

  4. Physics design requirements for the National Spherical Torus Experiment liquid lithium divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugel, H.; Bell, M.; Berzak, L.; Brooks, A.; Ellis, R.; Gerhardt, S.P.; Kaita, R.; Kallman, J.; Majeski, R.; Mansfield, D.K.; Menard, J.; Stotler, D.; Zakharov, L.E.; Maingi, Rajesh; Nygren, R.E.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Wakeland, P.

    2009-01-01

    Recent National Spherical Tokamak Experiment (NSTX) high-power divertor experiments have shown significant and recurring benefits of solid lithium coatings on plasma facing components (PFCs) to the performance of divertor plasmas in both L- and H-mode confinement regimes heated by high-power neutral beams. The next step in this work is installation of a liquid lithium divertor (LLD) to achieve density control for inductionless current drive capability (e.g., about a 15 25% ne decrease from present highest non-inductionless fraction discharges which often evolve toward the density limit, ne/nGW 1), to enable ne scan capability (2) in the H-mode, to test the ability to operate at significantly lower density (e.g., ne/nGW = 0.25), for future reactor designs based on the Spherical Tokamak, and eventually to investigate high heat-flux power handling (10 MW/m2) with long pulse discharges (>1.5 s). The first step (LLD-1) physics design encompasses the desired plasma requirements, the experimental capabilities and conditions, power handling, radial location, pumping capability, operating temperature, lithium filling, MHD forces, and diagnostics for control and characterization.

  5. Bituminization of radioactive wastes at the Nuclear Research Center Karlsruhe. Experience from plant operation and development work

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hild, W; Kluger, W; Krause, H

    1976-05-01

    A summary is given of the main operational experience gained at the Nuclear Research Center Karlsruhe in 4 years operation of the bituminization plant for evaporator concentrates from low- and medium level wastes. At the same time some of the essential results are compiled that have been obtained in the R + D activities on bituminization.

  6. Moving from reclusion to partial freedom: the experience of family caregivers for disabled elderly persons assisted in a day care center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bocchi, Silvia Cristina Mangini; Cano, Karen Cristina Urtado; Baltieri, Lilian; Godoy, Daniele Cristina; Spiri, Wilza Carla; Juliani, Carmen Maria Casquel Monti

    2010-09-01

    This study aimed at understanding the interactional experience between family caregivers and disabled elderly persons supported in a Day Care Center according to the caregiver's perspective. It also aimed at developing a representative theoretical model for the events experienced by such caregiver. The Grounded Theory was used as methodological framework whereas Interactional Symbolism served as the theoretical framework. Observation and interviews were used for data collection. The following phenomenon arose from the results: feeling of support by the Day Care Center, by the strength of the bond with the elderly and by spirituality in order to continue playing the challenging role of a family caregiver for a disabled elderly person. The study made possible to understand that, among these three supporting cornerstones for coping with the burden generated by the family caregiver role, the care model promoted by the Day Care Center was the intervenient variable in the process of improving the quality of life of the family caregiver-disabled elderly person binomial. This allowed the identification of the main category--moving from reclusion to partial freedom: the experience of family caregivers for disabled elderly persons assisted in a Day Care Center.

  7. Further Analyses of the NASA Glenn Research Center Solar Cell and Photovoltaic Materials Experiment Onboard the International Space Station

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Matthew G.; Prokop, Norman F.; Krasowski, Michael J.; Piszczor, Michael F.; McNatt, Jeremiah S.

    2016-01-01

    Accurate air mass zero (AM0) measurement is essential for the evaluation of new photovoltaic (PV) technology for space solar cells. The NASA Glenn Research Center (GRC) has flown an experiment designed to measure the electrical performance of several solar cells onboard NASA Goddard Space Flight Center's (GSFC) Robotic Refueling Mission's (RRM) Task Board 4 (TB4) on the exterior of the International Space Station (ISS). Four industry and government partners provided advanced PV devices for measurement and orbital environment testing. The experiment was positioned on the exterior of the station for approximately eight months, and was completely self-contained, providing its own power and internal data storage. Several new cell technologies including four-junction (4J) Inverted Metamorphic Multi-Junction (IMM) cells were evaluated and the results will be compared to ground-based measurement methods.

  8. The International Experience of the State Support for Creating the Transport and Logistics Centers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zharska Iryna O.

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available The article is aimed at analysis and synthesis of the international experience as to the State support for creating the transport and logistics centers (TLCs. The causes for emergence of the first TLCs in Europe (60-80-ies of XX century were considered. Values of the LPI index for the countries occupying the first 40 positions of the ranking as of 2014 and of 2016 have been provided, and the major changes during this time have been analyzed. The ranking position of Ukraine is displayed separately. Features of the logistics infrastructure of nine countries with a high value of the LPI index have been considered, degree of the State involvement in the formation of the TLC network has been analyzed. It has been substantiated that creation of the transport and logistics centers allows to reduce the logistics costs of individual producers and contributes to enhancing the efficiency of operation of the national economy in general by attracting investments in the infrastructure development, increasing the number of jobs and tax revenues. The basic motifs that determine the interest of the State authorities in providing support for creating the transportation and logistics centers have been defined. Prospect for further research in this direction will be determining the efficiency of using the different models of the State support for creation and development of TLCs

  9. Increasing Counseling Center Utilization: Yeshiva University's Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwartz, Victor; Nissel, Chaim; Eisenberg, Daniel; Kay, Jerald; Brown, Joshua T.

    2012-01-01

    Yeshiva University established a counseling center during the 2004-2005 academic year. As a religiously based institution, the administration recognized that there would likely be significant impediments to utilization of on-campus mental health services as a result of negative attitudes about mental illness and its treatment--stigma. To combat…

  10. Mycophenolate mofetil in pediatric renal transplantation: A single center experience.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Raheem, Omer A

    2011-05-01

    Raheem OA, Kamel MH, Daly PJ, Mohan P, Little DM, Awan A, Hickey DP. Mycophenolate mofetil in pediatric renal transplantation: A single center experience. Pediatr Transplantation 2011: 15:240-244. © 2009 John Wiley & Sons A\\/S. Abstract:  We assessed our long-term experience with regards to the safety and efficacy of MMF in our pediatric renal transplant population and compared it retrospectively to our previous non-MMF immunosuppressive regimen. Forty-seven pediatric renal transplants received MMF as part of their immunosuppressive protocol in the period from January 1997 till October 2006 (MMF group). A previously reported non-MMF group of 59 pediatric renal transplants was included for comparative analysis (non-MMF group). The MMF group comprised 29 boys and 18 girls, whereas the non-MMF group comprised 34 boys and 25 girls. Mean age was 11.7 and 12 yr in the MMF and non-MMF groups, respectively. The incidence of acute rejection episodes was 11 (23.4%) and 14 (24%) in the MMF and non-MMF group, respectively. Two (3.3%) grafts were lost in the non-MMF group compared with one (2.1%) in the MMF group. Twenty-one (44.68%) patients in the MMF group developed post-transplant infections compared with 12 (20.33%) in the non-MMF group (p < 0.0001). In conclusion, the use of MMF in pediatric renal transplantation was not associated with a lower rejection rate or immunological graft loss. It did, however, result in a significantly higher rate of viral infections.

  11. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Sports Clinic Training - Exposure - Experience (TEE) Tournament Wheelchair Games Winter Sports Clinic Locations Hospitals & Clinics Vet Centers Regional Benefits Offices Regional Loan Centers Cemetery Locations Contact Us ...

  12. Health Status and Health Care Experiences among Homeless Patients in Federally Supported Health Centers: Findings from the 2009 Patient Survey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lebrun-Harris, Lydie A; Baggett, Travis P; Jenkins, Darlene M; Sripipatana, Alek; Sharma, Ravi; Hayashi, A Seiji; Daly, Charles A; Ngo-Metzger, Quyen

    2013-01-01

    Objective To examine health status and health care experiences of homeless patients in health centers and to compare them with their nonhomeless counterparts. Data Sources/Study Setting Nationally representative data from the 2009 Health Center Patient Survey. Study Design Cross-sectional analyses were limited to adults (n = 2,683). We compared sociodemographic characteristics, health conditions, access to health care, and utilization of services among homeless and nonhomeless patients. We also examined the independent effect of homelessness on health care access and utilization, as well as factors that influenced homeless patients' health care experiences. Data Collection Computer-assisted personal interviews were conducted with health center patients. Principal Findings Homeless patients had worse health status—lifetime burden of chronic conditions, mental health problems, and substance use problems—compared with housed respondents. In adjusted analyses, homeless patients had twice the odds as housed patients of having unmet medical care needs in the past year (OR = 1.98, 95 percent CI: 1.24–3.16) and twice the odds of having an ED visit in the past year (OR = 2.00, 95 percent CI: 1.37–2.92). Conclusions There is an ongoing need to focus on the health issues that disproportionately affect homeless populations. Among health center patients, homelessness is an independent risk factor for unmet medical needs and ED use. PMID:23134588

  13. Measuring the three process segments of a customer's service experience for an out-patient surgery center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wicks, Angela M; Chin, Wynne W

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to develop an alternative method of measuring out-patient satisfaction where satisfaction is the central construct. The Gap Model operationalized by SERVQUAL is widely used to measure service quality. However, the SERVQUAL instrument only measures expectations (resulting from the pre-process segment of the service experience) and perceptions (resulting from the post-process segment). All three segments should be measured. The lack of proper segmentation and methodological criticisms in the literature motivated this study. A partial least squares (PLS) approach, a form of structural equation modeling, is used to develop a framework to evaluate patient satisfaction in three service process segments: pre-process, process, and post-process service experiences. Results indicate that each process stage mediates subsequent stages, that the process segment is the most important to the patient and that the antecedents have differing impacts on patient satisfaction depending where in the process the antecedent is evaluated. Only one out-patient surgery center was evaluated. Patient satisfaction criteria specific to hospital selection are not included in this study. Results indicate what is important to patients in each service process segment that focus where ambulatory surgery centers should allocate resources. This study is the first to evaluate patient satisfaction with all three process segments.

  14. Group Violence and Migration Experience among Latin American Youths in Justice Enforcement Centers (Madrid, Spain).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez García, José Manuel; Martín López, María Jesús

    2015-10-30

    Group violence among Latin American immigrant youth has led to ongoing debates in political, legal, and media circles, yet none of those many perspectives has arrived at a solid, empirically supported definition for the phenomenon. This study aims to explore the relationship between the immigrant experience and violent group behavior in youths from Latin America serving prison sentences in Justice Enforcement Centers in the Community of Madrid. Semi-structured interviews were conducted with 19 juveniles, and content analysis was applied to the resulting transcripts, employing Grounded Theory to create an axial codification of intra- and inter-categorical contents, and Delphi panels for quality control. The research team delved into 62 topics, addressing participants' perceptions of the immigrant experience and its effects on five socialization settings (neighborhood, school, family, peer group, and significant other), and each one's relationship to violent behavior. The results led us to believe the young people's immigration experiences had been systematically examined. Their personal and social development was influenced by negative socioeconomic conditions, ineffective parental supervision, maladjustment and conflict at school, and experiences of marginalization and xenophobia. All those conditions favored affiliation with violent groups that provided them instrumental (economic and material), expressive, or affective support.

  15. Integration of the clinical engineering specialist at a high complexity children's hospital. Our professional experience at a surgical center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vargas Enriquez, M J; Chazarreta, B; Emilio, D G; Fernandez Sarda, E

    2007-01-01

    This document aims to find relating points between the current and future Clinical Engineer professional in order to discuss about the hospital environment, its characteristics and its realities which lead to our professional development. The main aim is to depict our experience through a retrospective analysis based on the underwriting experience and consequently to arrive at conclusions that will support the inclusion and active interaction of the Clinic Engineer Specialist as part of a Hospital's Surgical Center

  16. Development of PET in Latin America. Experience of the first PET-Cyclotron Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tutor, C.A.; Frias, L.

    2002-01-01

    Aim: Describe the experience of the first PET-Cyclotron Center in Latin America. Demonstrate the viability of running a PET Center in Argentina despite the economic crisis. Materials and Methods: For this study, we used a UGM/GE Quest 250 PET scan, a RDS 112 cyclotron and a Radiosynthesis Laboratory installed at the (FUESMEN) Nuclear Medicine School Foundation, located in Mendoza City, in the middle-west of Argentina. From January 1999 to March 2002, 741 studies were obtained, 731 were 18 FluorDeoxyGlucose-PET studies and 10 phantoms for calibration purposes. We used acquisition and imaging processing standard protocols, as well as research protocols designed according to the pathology under investigation. To better correlate anatomical and functional images, we used fusion techniques with (CT) Computed Tomography in some (WB) whole-body PET scans. Results: A total of 731 patients were retrospectively analyzed and classified according to statistics variables such as: 1-sex: 317 women and 414 men, 2-type of scan: 439 WB cases, 267 brain studies and 25 cardiac. From this data we divided them as PET indications and resulted in 17 cases as healthy volunteers, 422 oncological cases, 267 neurological studies and 25 cardiac for myocardial viability. According to the origin they were classified as patients coming from Mendoza 544, Buenos Aires 112, other argentine provinces 60 and foreign (Chile, Brazil and Uruguay) 15 cases. In terms of billing, 181 studies were done free of charge, 95 under research protocols were also done free of charge and 451 were charged. Conclusion: Not only the economical and political factors play an important role limiting the advances of PET Imaging in Latin America, but also the lack of a neighboring cyclotron that circumscribe many hospitals to have access to the radiopharmaceutical agent. FUESMEN was established in 1991 by three governmental entities: the (CONEA) National Commission of Atomic Energy, the (UNC) National University of Cuyo and

  17. Training for life science experiments in space at the NASA Ames Research Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodrigues, Annette T.; Maese, A. Christopher

    1993-01-01

    As this country prepares for exploration to other planets, the need to understand the affects of long duration exposure to microgravity is evident. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Ames Research Center's Space Life Sciences Payloads Office is responsible for a number of non-human life sciences payloads on NASA's Space Shuttle's Spacelab. Included in this responsibility is the training of those individuals who will be conducting the experiments during flight, the astronauts. Preparing a crew to conduct such experiments requires training protocols that build on simple tasks. Once a defined degree of performance proficiency is met for each task, these tasks are combined to increase the complexity of the activities. As tasks are combined into in-flight operations, they are subjected to time constraints and the crew enhances their skills through repetition. The science objectives must be completely understood by the crew and are critical to the overall training program. Completion of the in-flight activities is proof of success. Because the crew is exposed to the background of early research and plans for post-flight analyses, they have a vested interest in the flight activities. The salient features of this training approach is that it allows for flexibility in implementation, consideration of individual differences, and a greater ability to retain experiment information. This training approach offers another effective alternative training tool to existing methodologies.

  18. Computed tomography-guided core-needle biopsy of lung lesions: an oncology center experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guimaraes, Marcos Duarte; Fonte, Alexandre Calabria da; Chojniak, Rubens, E-mail: marcosduarte@yahoo.com.b [Hospital A.C. Camargo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. of Radiology and Imaging Diagnosis; Andrade, Marcony Queiroz de [Hospital Alianca, Salvador, BA (Brazil); Gross, Jefferson Luiz [Hospital A.C. Camargo, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Dept. of Chest Surgery

    2011-03-15

    Objective: The present study is aimed at describing the experience of an oncology center with computed tomography guided core-needle biopsy of pulmonary lesions. Materials and Methods: Retrospective analysis of 97 computed tomography-guided core-needle biopsy of pulmonary lesions performed in the period between 1996 and 2004 in a Brazilian reference oncology center (Hospital do Cancer - A.C. Camargo). Information regarding material appropriateness and the specific diagnoses were collected and analyzed. Results: Among 97 lung biopsies, 94 (96.9%) supplied appropriate specimens for histological analyses, with 71 (73.2%) cases being diagnosed as malignant lesions and 23 (23.7%) diagnosed as benign lesions. Specimens were inappropriate for analysis in three cases. The frequency of specific diagnosis was 83 (85.6%) cases, with high rates for both malignant lesions with 63 (88.7%) cases and benign lesions with 20 (86.7%). As regards complications, a total of 12 cases were observed as follows: 7 (7.2%) cases of hematoma, 3 (3.1%) cases of pneumothorax and 2 (2.1%) cases of hemoptysis. Conclusion: Computed tomography-guided core needle biopsy of lung lesions demonstrated high rates of material appropriateness and diagnostic specificity, and low rates of complications in the present study. (author)

  19. Activities and experience of the Federal Resource Center for Organizing Comprehensive Support for Children with ASD

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khaustov A.V.

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available This article presents basic activities and experience of the Federal Resource Center for Organizing Comprehensive Sup¬port for Children with ASD of Moscow state university of psychology & education, amassed during 22 years of practice. Some statistic data on the center’s activity are displayed. Emphasis is done on multidirectional work and developing ways of interdepartmental and networking interaction for the sake of founding a system of complex support for autistic children in Russian Federation.

  20. The International Heat Pipe Experiment. [international cooperation zero g experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mcintosh, R.; Ollendorf, S.; Harwell, W.

    1976-01-01

    The aims of the experiment are outlined. Flight experiments included in this program were provided by NASA, Goddard Space Flight Center, ESA (European Space Agency), the German Ministry of Technology, Hughes Aircraft Company and NASA, Ames Research Center.

  1. Forging successful academic-community partnerships with community health centers: the California statewide Area Health Education Center (AHEC) experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fowkes, Virginia; Blossom, H John; Mitchell, Brenda; Herrera-Mata, Lydia

    2014-01-01

    Increased access to insurance under the Affordable Care Act will increase demands for clinical services in community health centers (CHCs). CHCs also have an increasingly important educational role to train clinicians who will remain to practice in community clinics. CHCs and Area Health Education Centers (AHECs) are logical partners to prepare the health workforce for the future. Both are sponsored by the Health Resources and Services Administration, and they share a mission to improve quality of care in medically underserved communities. AHECs emphasize the educational side of the mission, and CHCs the service side. Building stronger partnerships between them can facilitate a balance between education and service needs.From 2004 to 2011, the California Statewide AHEC program and its 12 community AHECs (centers) reorganized to align training with CHC workforce priorities. Eight centers merged into CHC consortia; others established close partnerships with CHCs in their respective regions. The authors discuss issues considered and approaches taken to make these changes. Collaborative innovative processes with program leadership, staff, and center directors revised the program mission, developed common training objectives with an evaluation plan, and defined organizational, functional, and impact characteristics for successful AHECs in California. During this planning, centers gained confidence as educational arms for the safety net and began collaborations with statewide programs as well as among themselves. The AHEC reorganization and the processes used to develop, strengthen, and identify standards for centers forged the development of new partnerships and established academic-community trust in planning and implementing programs with CHCs.

  2. GLOBE Observer and the Association of Science & Technology Centers: Leveraging Citizen Science and Partnerships for an International Science Experiment to Build Climate Literacy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riebeek Kohl, H.; Chambers, L. H.; Murphy, T.

    2016-12-01

    For more that 20 years, the Global Learning and Observations to Benefit the Environment (GLOBE) Program has sought to increase environment literacy in students by involving them in the process of data collection and scientific research. In 2016, the program expanded to accept observations from citizen scientists of all ages through a relatively simple app. Called GLOBE Observer, the new program aims to help participants feel connected to a global community focused on advancing the scientific understanding of Earth system science while building climate literacy among participants and increasing valuable environmental data points to expand both student and scientific research. In October 2016, GLOBE Observer partnered with the Association of Science & Technology Centers (ASTC) in an international science experiment in which museums and patrons around the world collected cloud observations through GLOBE Observer to create a global cloud map in support of NASA satellite science. The experiment was an element of the International Science Center and Science Museum Day, an event planned in partnership with UNESCO and ASTC. Museums and science centers provided the climate context for the observations, while GLOBE Observer offered a uniform experience and a digital platform to build a connected global community. This talk will introduce GLOBE Observer and will present the results of the experiment, including evaluation feedback on gains in climate literacy through the event.

  3. Aspect Ratio Scaling of Ideal No-wall Stability Limits in High Bootstrap Fraction Tokamak Plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menard, J.E.; Bell, M.G.; Bell, R.E.; Gates, D.A.; Kaye, S.M.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Maingi, R.; Sabbagh, S.A.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Stutman, D.

    2003-01-01

    Recent experiments in the low aspect ratio National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) [M. Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40 (2000) 557] have achieved normalized beta values twice the conventional tokamak limit at low internal inductance and with significant bootstrap current. These experimental results have motivated a computational re-examination of the plasma aspect ratio dependence of ideal no-wall magnetohydrodynamic stability limits. These calculations find that the profile-optimized no-wall stability limit in high bootstrap fraction regimes is well described by a nearly aspect ratio invariant normalized beta parameter utilizing the total magnetic field energy density inside the plasma. However, the scaling of normalized beta with internal inductance is found to be strongly aspect ratio dependent at sufficiently low aspect ratio. These calculations and detailed stability analyses of experimental equilibria indicate that the nonrotating plasma no-wall stability limit has been exceeded by as much as 30% in NSTX in a high bootstrap fraction regime

  4. The Fernald Preserve Visitors Center The Fernald Experience-Revealing, Engaging, and Preserving

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Powell, J.; Griffiths, G.; Walpole, S.; Lutz, M.

    2009-01-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Legacy Management's public involvement activities at the Fernald, Ohio, site include continued communication about groundwater remediation, the management of legacy waste, and the future of the Fernald site. The completion of the Fernald Preserve Visitors Center, in August 2008, ensures that information continues to be readily available and effectively communicated to the public. A primary goal of the Visitors Center is to function as an informational and educational center within the surrounding community, with the information available at the Visitors Center serving as an institutional control. By offering information on a variety of topics, from the site's history to its current condition, the Visitors Center increases public awareness and helps prevent unsafe disturbances to and uses of the site. The Office of Legacy Management maintains and operates the Visitors Center, continues to solicit stakeholder opinion, and will periodically reevaluate the use of the Visitors Center and its programming. (authors)

  5. Experimental studies of lithium-based surface chemistry for fusion plasma-facing materials applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Allain, J.P.; Rokusek, D.L.; Harilal, S.S.; Nieto-Perez, M.; Skinner, C.H.; Kugel, H.W.; Heim, B.; Kaita, R.; Majeski, R.

    2009-01-01

    Lithium has enhanced the operational performance of fusion devices such as: TFTR, CDX-U, FTU, T-11 M, and NSTX. Lithium in the solid and liquid state has been studied extensively in laboratory experiments including its erosion and hydrogen-retaining properties. Reductions in physical sputtering up to 40-60% have been measured for deuterated solid and liquid lithium surfaces. Computational modeling indicates that up to a 1:1 deuterium volumetric retention in lithium is possible. This paper presents the results of systematic in situ laboratory experimental studies on the surface chemistry evolution of ATJ graphite under lithium deposition. Results are compared to post-mortem analysis of similar lithium surface coatings on graphite exposed to deuterium discharge plasmas in NSTX. Lithium coatings on plasma-facing components in NSTX have shown substantial reduction of hydrogenic recycling. Questions remain on the role lithium surface chemistry on a graphite substrate has on particle sputtering (physical and chemical) as well as hydrogen isotope recycling. This is particularly due to the lack of in situ measurements of plasma-surface interactions in tokamaks such as NSTX. Results suggest that the lithium bonding state on ATJ graphite is lithium peroxide and with sufficient exposure to ambient air conditions, lithium carbonate is generated. Correlation between both results is used to assess the role of lithium chemistry on the state of lithium bonding and implications on hydrogen pumping and lithium sputtering. In addition, reduction of factors between 10 and 30 reduction in physical sputtering from lithiated graphite compared to pure lithium or carbon is also measured.

  6. Sports hernias: experience in a sports medicine center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santilli, O L; Nardelli, N; Santilli, H A; Tripoloni, D E

    2016-02-01

    Chronic pain of the inguino-crural region or "pubalgia" explains the 0.5-6.2% of the consultations by athletes. Recently, areas of weakness in the posterior wall called "sports hernias," have been identified in some of these patients, capable of producing long-standing pain. Several authors use different image methods (CT, MRI, ultrasound) to identify the lesion and various techniques of repair, by open or laparoscopic approaches, have been proposed but there is no evidence about the superiority of one over others due to the difficulty for randomizing these patients. In our experience, diagnosis was based on clinical and ultrasound findings followed by laparoscopic exploration to confirm and repair the injury. The present study aims to assess the performance of our diagnostic and therapeutic management in a series of athletes affected by "pubalgia". 1450 athletes coming from the orthopedic office of a sport medicine center were evaluated. In 590 of them (414 amateur and 176 professionals) sports hernias were diagnosed through physical examination and ultrasound. We performed laparoscopic "TAPP" repair and, thirty days after, an assessment was performed to determine the evolution of pain and the degree of physical activity as a sign of the functional outcome. We used the U Mann-Whitney test for continuous scale variables and the chi-square test for dichotomous variables with p pubalgia". "Sports hernias" are often associated with adductor muscle strains and other injuries of the groin allowing speculate that these respond to a common mechanism of production. We believe that, considering the difficulty to design randomized trials, only a high coincidence among the diagnostic and therapeutic instances can ensure a rational health care.

  7. Midplane neutral density profiles in the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stotler, D. P., E-mail: dstotler@pppl.gov; Bell, R. E.; Diallo, A.; LeBlanc, B. P.; Podestà, M.; Roquemore, A. L.; Ross, P. W. [Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory, Princeton University, P. O. Box 451, Princeton, New Jersey 08543-0451 (United States); Scotti, F. [Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551 (United States)

    2015-08-15

    Atomic and molecular density data in the outer midplane of NSTX [Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 (2000)] are inferred from tangential camera data via a forward modeling procedure using the DEGAS 2 Monte Carlo neutral transport code. The observed Balmer-β light emission data from 17 shots during the 2010 NSTX campaign display no obvious trends with discharge parameters such as the divertor Balmer-α emission level or edge deuterium ion density. Simulations of 12 time slices in 7 of these discharges produce molecular densities near the vacuum vessel wall of 2–8 × 10{sup 17 }m{sup −3} and atomic densities ranging from 1 to 7 × 10{sup 16 }m{sup −3}; neither has a clear correlation with other parameters. Validation of the technique, begun in an earlier publication, is continued with an assessment of the sensitivity of the simulated camera image and neutral densities to uncertainties in the data input to the model. The simulated camera image is sensitive to the plasma profiles and virtually nothing else. The neutral densities at the vessel wall depend most strongly on the spatial distribution of the source; simulations with a localized neutral source yield densities within a factor of two of the baseline, uniform source, case. The uncertainties in the neutral densities associated with other model inputs and assumptions are ≤50%.

  8. Physics Design Requirements for the National Spherical Torus Experiment Liquid Lithium Divertor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kugel, W.; Bell, M.; Berzak,L.; Brooks, A.; Ellis, R.; Gerhardt, S.; Harjes, H.; Kaita, R.; Kallman, J.; Maingi, R.; Majeski, R.; Mansfield, D.; Menard, J.; Nygren,R. E.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Stotler, D.; Wakeland, P.; Zakharov L. E.

    2008-09-26

    Recent NSTX high power divertor experiments have shown significant and recurring benefits of solid lithium coatings on PFC's to the performance of divertor plasmas in both L- and H- mode confinement regimes heated by high-power neutral beams. The next step in this work is installation of a liquid lithium divertor (LLD) to achieve density control for inductionless current drive capability (e.g., about a 15-25% ne decrease from present highest non-inductionless fraction discharges which often evolve toward the density limit, ne/nGW~1), to enable ne scan capability (x2) in the H-mode, to test the ability to operate at significantly lower density for future ST-CTF reactor designs (e.g., ne/nGW = 0.25), and eventually to investigate high heat-flux power handling (10 MW/m2) with longpulse discharges (>1.5s). The first step (LLD-1) physics design encompasses the desired plasma requirements, the experimental capabilities and conditions, power handling, radial location, pumping capability, operating temperature, lithium filling, MHD forces, and diagnostics for control and characterization.

  9. Physics Design Requirements for the National Spherical Torus Experiment Liquid Lithium Divertor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kugel, W.; Bell, M.; Berzak, L.; Brooks, A.; Ellis, R.; Gerhardt, S.; Harjes, H.; Kaita, R.; Kallman, J.; Maingi, R.; Majeski, R.; Mansfield, D.; Menard, J.; Nygren, R. E.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Stotler, D.; Wakeland, P.; Zakharov, L. E.

    2008-01-01

    Recent NSTX high power divertor experiments have shown significant and recurring benefits of solid lithium coatings on PFC's to the performance of divertor plasmas in both L- and H- mode confinement regimes heated by high-power neutral beams. The next step in this work is installation of a liquid lithium divertor (LLD) to achieve density control for inductionless current drive capability (e.g., about a 15-25% ne decrease from present highest non-inductionless fraction discharges which often evolve toward the density limit, ne/nGW∼1), to enable ne scan capability (x2) in the H-mode, to test the ability to operate at significantly lower density for future ST-CTF reactor designs (e.g., ne/nGW = 0.25), and eventually to investigate high heat-flux power handling (10 MW/m2) with long pulse discharges (>1.5s). The first step (LLD-1) physics design encompasses the desired plasma requirements, the experimental capabilities and conditions, power handling, radial location, pumping capability, operating temperature, lithium filling, MHD forces, and diagnostics for control and characterization

  10. Enhancement of mode-converted electron Bernstein wave emission during National Spherical Torus Experiment H-mode plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Taylor, G.; Efthimion, P.C.; Jones, B.; Le Blanc, B.P.; Maingi, R.

    2002-01-01

    A sudden, threefold increase in emission from fundamental electrostatic electron Bernstein waves (EBW) which mode convert and tunnel to the electromagnetic X-mode has been observed during high energy and particle confinement (H-mode) transitions in the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) plasma [M. Ono, S. Kaye, M. Peng et al., in Proceedings of the 17th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference (IAEA, Vienna, Austria, 1999), Vol. 3, p. 1135]. The mode-converted EBW emission viewed normal to the magnetic field on the plasma midplane increases when the density profile steepens in the vicinity of the mode conversion layer, which is located in the plasma scrape off. The measured conversion efficiency during the H-mode is consistent with the calculated EBW to X-mode conversion efficiency derived using edge density data. Calculations indicate that there may also be a small residual contribution to the measured X-mode electromagnetic radiation from polarization-scrambled, O-mode emission, converted from EBWs

  11. Investigations of Low and Moderate Harmonic Fast Wave Physics on CDX-U

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spaleta, J.; Majeski, R.; Phillips, C.K.; Dumont, R.J.; Kaita, R.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Zakharov, L.

    2003-01-01

    Third harmonic hydrogen cyclotron fast wave heating studies are planned in the near term on CDX-U to investigate the potential for bulk ion heating. In preparation for these studies, the available radio-frequency power in CDX-U has been increased to 0.5 MW. The operating frequency of the CDX-U radio-frequency transmitter was lowered to operate in the range of 8-10 MHz, providing access to the ion harmonic range 2* ∼ 4* in hydrogen. A similar regime is accessible for the 30 MHz radio-frequency system on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX), at 0.6 Tesla in hydrogen. Preliminary computational studies over the plasma regimes of interest for NSTX and CDX-U indicate the possibility of strong localized absorption on bulk ion species

  12. The patient experience of patient-centered communication with nurses in the hospital setting: a qualitative systematic review protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newell, Stephanie; Jordan, Zoe

    2015-01-01

    The objective of this systematic review is to synthesize the eligible evidence of patients' experience of engaging and interacting with nurses, in the medical-surgical ward setting.This review will consider the following questions: Communication is a way in which humans make sense of the world around them. Communication takes place as an interactive two-way process or interaction, involving two or more people and can occur by nonverbal, verbal, face-to-face or non-face-to-face methods. Effective communication is described to occur when the sender of a message sends their message in a way that conveys the intent of their message and then is understood by the receiver of the message. As a result of the communication from both the sender and the receiver of the message a shared meaning is created between both parties.Communication can therefore be viewed as a reciprocal process. In the health care literature the terms communication and interaction are used interchangeably.Communication failures between clinicians are the most common primary cause of errors and adverse events in health care. Communication is a significant factor in patient satisfaction and complaints about care. Communication plays an integral role in service quality in all service professions including health care professions.Within healthcare, quality care has been defined by the Institute of Medicine as 'care that is safe, effective, timely, efficient, equitable and patient-centred'. Patient-centered care is defined as 'care that is respectful of and responsive to individual patient preferences, needs and values, and ensuring that patient's values guide all clinical decisions. Patient centered-care encompasses the 'individual experiences of a patient, the clinical service, the organizational and the regulatory levels of health care'. At the individual patient level, patient-centered care is care that is 'provided in a respectful manner, assures open and ongoing sharing of useful information in an

  13. Integration of the clinical engineering specialist at a high complexity children's hospital. Our professional experience at a surgical center

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vargas Enriquez, M J; Chazarreta, B; Emilio, D G; Fernandez Sarda, E [Surgical Center-Neurophysiology Division of Medical Tecnology Department, Garrahan Children' s Hospital, Combate de los Pozos 1881, Buenos Aires (Argentina)

    2007-11-15

    This document aims to find relating points between the current and future Clinical Engineer professional in order to discuss about the hospital environment, its characteristics and its realities which lead to our professional development. The main aim is to depict our experience through a retrospective analysis based on the underwriting experience and consequently to arrive at conclusions that will support the inclusion and active interaction of the Clinic Engineer Specialist as part of a Hospital's Surgical Center.

  14. Gunshot wounds to the face: level I urban trauma center: a 10-year level I urban trauma center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Clifford; Boyd, J Brian; Dickenson, Brian; Putnam, Brant

    2012-04-01

    Gunshot wounds (GSWs) to the face are an infrequent occurrence outside of a war zone. However, when they occur, they constitute a significant reconstructive challenge. We present our 10-year experience at an urban level I trauma center to define the patterns of injury, assess the morbidity and mortality, and estimate the cost to the health care system. A retrospective review was performed on all patients admitted to Harbor-UCLA Medical Center with GSWs to the head and neck region between January 1997 and January 2007. Those who had sustained GSWs to the face requiring operative intervention were closely reviewed. Between 1997 and 2007, a total of 702 patients were admitted to the Harbor UCLA Emergency Department having sustained GSWs to the head and neck region, of which 501 patients survived. Of the survivors, 28 patients (26 male, 2 female) sustained GSWs to their face requiring operative intervention. The mean age of these patients was 28 (±8.3) years. They generally presented within a few hours of the injury, but 1 individual arrived over 24 hours later. Low-velocity single gunshots (from handguns) were predominantly involved, with facial fractures occurring in all cases. Fractures were of a localized shattering type without the major displacement of bony complexes seen in motor vehicle accidents. Most required wound debridement and fracture fixation. A few patients (14.2%) underwent free tissue transfer for reconstruction (3 fibular flaps, 1 TRAM). Tracheostomy was performed in 35.7% of patients. Mean length of hospital stay was 8.3 (±7.1) days, with 50% of cases requiring admission to the intensive care unit. Mean length of intensive care unit stay was 5.2 (±5.7) days. The average cost per patient exceeded $100,000.

  15. Interaction between Faraday rotation and Cotton-Mouton effects in polarimetry modeling for NSTX

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhang, J.; Crocker, N. A.; Carter, T. A.; Kubota, S.; Peebles, W. A.

    2010-01-01

    The evolution of electromagnetic wave polarization is modeled for propagation in the major radial direction in the National Spherical Torus Experiment with retroreflection from the center stack of the vacuum vessel. This modeling illustrates that the Cotton-Mouton effect-elliptization due to the magnetic field perpendicular to the propagation direction-is shown to be strongly weighted to the high-field region of the plasma. An interaction between the Faraday rotation and Cotton-Mouton effects is also clearly identified. Elliptization occurs when the wave polarization direction is neither parallel nor perpendicular to the local transverse magnetic field. Since Faraday rotation modifies the polarization direction during propagation, it must also affect the resultant elliptization. The Cotton-Mouton effect also intrinsically results in rotation of the polarization direction, but this effect is less significant in the plasma conditions modeled. The interaction increases at longer wavelength and complicates interpretation of polarimetry measurements.

  16. Minimally invasive esophagectomy for cancer: Single center experience after 44 consecutive cases

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bjelović Miloš

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. At the Department of Minimally Invasive Upper Digestive Surgery of the Hospital for Digestive Surgery in Belgrade, hybrid minimally invasive esophagectomy (hMIE has been a standard of care for patients with resectable esophageal cancer since 2009. As a next and final step in the change management, from January 2015 we utilized total minimally invasive esophagectomy (tMIE as a standard of care. Objective. The aim of the study was to report initial experiences in hMIE (laparoscopic approach for cancer and analyze surgical technique, major morbidity and 30-day mortality. Methods. A retrospective cohort study included 44 patients who underwent elective hMIE for esophageal cancer at the Department for Minimally Invasive Upper Digestive Surgery, Hospital for Digestive Surgery, Clinical Center of Serbia in Belgrade from April 2009 to December 2014. Results. There were 16 (36% middle thoracic esophagus tumors and 28 (64% tumors of distal thoracic esophagus. Mean duration of the operation was 319 minutes (approximately five hours and 20 minutes. The average blood loss was 173.6 ml. A total of 12 (27% of patients had postoperative complications and mean intensive care unit stay was 2.8 days. Mean hospital stay after surgery was 16 days. The average number of harvested lymph nodes during surgery was 31.9. The overall 30-day mortality rate within 30 days after surgery was 2%. Conclusion. As long as MIE is an oncological equivalent to open esophagectomy (OE, better relation between cost savings and potentially increased effectiveness will make MIE the preferred approach in high-volume esophageal centers that are experienced in minimally invasive procedures.

  17. Lower Savannah aging, disability & transportation resource center : regional travel management and coordination center (TMCC) model and demonstration project.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-10-01

    This report details the deployed technology and implementation experiences of the Lower Savannah Aging, Disability & Transportation : Resource Center in Aiken, South Carolina, which served as the regional Travel Management and Coordination Center (TM...

  18. Strengthening the role of universities in addressing sustainability challenges: the Mitchell Center for Sustainability Solutions as an institutional experiment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David D. Hart

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available As the magnitude, complexity, and urgency of many sustainability problems increase, there is a growing need for universities to contribute more effectively to problem solving. Drawing upon prior research on social-ecological systems, knowledge-action connections, and organizational innovation, we developed an integrated conceptual framework for strengthening the capacity of universities to help society understand and respond to a wide range of sustainability challenges. Based on experiences gained in creating the Senator George J. Mitchell Center for Sustainability Solutions (Mitchell Center, we tested this framework by evaluating the experiences of interdisciplinary research teams involved in place-based, solutions-oriented research projects at the scale of a single region (i.e., the state of Maine, USA. We employed a multiple-case-study approach examining the experiences of three interdisciplinary research teams working on tidal energy development, adaptation to climate change, and forest vulnerability to an invasive insect. Drawing upon documents, observations, interviews, and other data sources, three common patterns emerged across these cases that were associated with more effective problem-solving strategies. First, an emphasis on local places and short-term dynamics in social-ecological systems research provides more frequent opportunities for learning while doing. Second, iterative stakeholder engagement and inclusive forms of knowledge co-production can generate substantial returns on investment, especially when researchers are dedicated to a shared process of problem identification and they avoid framing solutions too narrowly. Although these practices are time consuming, they can be accelerated by leveraging existing stakeholder relationships. Third, efforts to mobilize interdisciplinary expertise and link knowledge with action are facilitated by an organizational culture that emphasizes mutual respect, adaptability, and solutions

  19. Implementation of a 3D halo neutral model in the TRANSP code and application to projected NSTX-U plasmas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medley, S. S.; Liu, D.; Gorelenkova, M. V.; Heidbrink, W. W.; Stagner, L.

    2016-02-01

    A 3D halo neutral code developed at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory and implemented for analysis using the TRANSP code is applied to projected National Spherical Torus eXperiment-Upgrade (NSTX-U plasmas). The legacy TRANSP code did not handle halo neutrals properly since they were distributed over the plasma volume rather than remaining in the vicinity of the neutral beam footprint as is actually the case. The 3D halo neutral code uses a ‘beam-in-a-box’ model that encompasses both injected beam neutrals and resulting halo neutrals. Upon deposition by charge exchange, a subset of the full, one-half and one-third beam energy components produce first generation halo neutrals that are tracked through successive generations until an ionization event occurs or the descendant halos exit the box. The 3D halo neutral model and neutral particle analyzer (NPA) simulator in the TRANSP code have been benchmarked with the Fast-Ion D-Alpha simulation (FIDAsim) code, which provides Monte Carlo simulations of beam neutral injection, attenuation, halo generation, halo spatial diffusion, and photoemission processes. When using the same atomic physics database, TRANSP and FIDAsim simulations achieve excellent agreement on the spatial profile and magnitude of beam and halo neutral densities and the NPA energy spectrum. The simulations show that the halo neutral density can be comparable to the beam neutral density. These halo neutrals can double the NPA flux, but they have minor effects on the NPA energy spectrum shape. The TRANSP and FIDAsim simulations also suggest that the magnitudes of beam and halo neutral densities are relatively sensitive to the choice of the atomic physics databases.

  20. Implementation of a 3D halo neutral model in the TRANSP code and application to projected NSTX-U plasmas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Medley, S. S. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Liu, D. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Gorelenkova, M. V. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Heidbrink, W. W. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy; Stagner, L. [Princeton Plasma Physics Lab. (PPPL), Princeton, NJ (United States); Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States). Dept. of Physics and Astronomy

    2016-01-12

    A 3D halo neutral code developed at the Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory and implemented for analysis using the TRANSP code is applied to projected National Spherical Torus eXperiment-Upgrade (NSTX-U plasmas). The legacy TRANSP code did not handle halo neutrals properly since they were distributed over the plasma volume rather than remaining in the vicinity of the neutral beam footprint as is actually the case. The 3D halo neutral code uses a 'beam-in-a-box' model that encompasses both injected beam neutrals and resulting halo neutrals. Upon deposition by charge exchange, a subset of the full, one-half and one-third beam energy components produce first generation halo neutrals that are tracked through successive generations until an ionization event occurs or the descendant halos exit the box. The 3D halo neutral model and neutral particle analyzer (NPA) simulator in the TRANSP code have been benchmarked with the Fast-Ion D-Alpha simulation (FIDAsim) code, which provides Monte Carlo simulations of beam neutral injection, attenuation, halo generation, halo spatial diffusion, and photoemission processes. When using the same atomic physics database, TRANSP and FIDAsim simulations achieve excellent agreement on the spatial profile and magnitude of beam and halo neutral densities and the NPA energy spectrum. The simulations show that the halo neutral density can be comparable to the beam neutral density. These halo neutrals can double the NPA flux, but they have minor effects on the NPA energy spectrum shape. The TRANSP and FIDAsim simulations also suggest that the magnitudes of beam and halo neutral densities are relatively sensitive to the choice of the atomic physics databases.

  1. Non-linear Dynamics Of Toroidicity-induced Alfven Eigenmodes On The National Spherical Torus Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podesta, M.; Bell, R.E.; Crocker, N.A.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Gorelenkov, N.N.; Heidbrink, W.W.; Kubota, S.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Yu, H.

    2011-01-01

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX, (M. Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 (2000))) routinely operates with neutral beam injection as the primary system for heating and current drive. The resulting fast ion population is super-Alfvenic, with velocities 1 fast /v Alfven < 5. This provides a strong drive for toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes (TAEs). As the discharge evolves, the fast ion population builds up and TAEs exhibit increasing bursts in amplitude and down-chirps in frequency, which eventually lead to a so-called TAE avalanche. Avalanches cause large (∼<30%) fast ion losses over ∼ 1 ms, as inferred from the neutron rate. The increased fast ion losses correlate with a stronger activity in the TAE band. In addition, it is shown that a n = 1 mode with frequency well below the TAE gap appears in the Fourier spectrum of magnetic fluctuations as a result of non-linear mode coupling between TAEs during avalanche events. The non-linear coupling between modes, which leads to enhanced fast ion transport during avalanches, is investigated.

  2. Non-linear Dynamics Of Toroidicity-induced Alfven Eigenmodes On The National Spherical Torus Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Podesta, M; Crocker, N A; Fredrickson, E D; Gorelenkov, N N; Heidbrink, W W; Kubota, S; LeBlanc, B P

    2011-04-26

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX, [M. Ono et al., Nucl. Fusion 40, 557 (2000)]) routinely operates with neutral beam injection as the primary system for heating and current drive. The resulting fast ion population is super-Alfv enic, with velocities 1 < vfast=vAlfven < 5. This provides a strong drive for toroidicity-induced Alfv en eigenmodes (TAEs). As the discharge evolves, the fast ion population builds up and TAEs exhibit increasing bursts in amplitude and down-chirps in frequency, which eventually lead to a so-called TAE avalanche. Avalanches cause large (≤ 30%) fast ion losses over ~ 1 ms, as inferred from the neutron rate. The increased fast ion losses correlate with a stronger activity in the TAE band. In addition, it is shown that a n = 1 mode with frequency well below the TAE gap appears in the Fourier spectrum of magnetic fluctuations as a result of non-linear mode coupling between TAEs during avalanche events. The non-linear coupling between modes, which leads to enhanced fast ion transport during avalanches, is investigated.

  3. Non-linear dynamics of toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes on the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Podesta, M.; Bell, R.E.; Fredrickson, E.D.; Gorelenkov, N.N.; LeBlanc, B.P.; Crocker, N.A.; Kubota, S.; Heidbrink, W.W.; Yuh, H.

    2011-01-01

    The National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX, (Ono et al 2000 Nucl. Fusion 40 557)) routinely operates with neutral beam injection as the primary system for heating and current drive. The resulting fast ion population is super-Alfvenic, with velocities 1 fast /v Alfven < 5. This provides a strong drive for toroidicity-induced Alfven eigenmodes (TAEs). As the discharge evolves, the fast ion population builds up and TAEs exhibit increasing bursts in amplitude and down-chirps in frequency, which eventually lead to a so-called TAE avalanche. Avalanches cause large (∼<30%) fast ion losses over ∼1 ms, as inferred from the neutron rate. The increased fast ion losses correlate with a stronger activity in the TAE band. In addition, it is shown that a n = 1 mode with frequency well below the TAE gap appears in the Fourier spectrum of magnetic fluctuations as a result of non-linear mode coupling between TAEs during avalanche events. The non-linear coupling between modes, which leads to enhanced fast ion transport during avalanches, is investigated.

  4. Uniportal video assisted thoracoscopic lobectomy: primary experience from an Eastern center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Mingxiang; Shen, Yaxing; Wang, Hao; Tan, Lijie; Mao, Xuping; Liu, Yi; Wang, Qun

    2014-12-01

    Uniportal video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) lobectomy is an emerging technique for the surgical resection of non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). Besides its wide debates on safety and efficacy throughout the world, there were few report on uniportal VATS from the Eastern countries. In this article, we summarized our primary experience on uniportal VATS lobectomy in an Eastern center. From October 2013 till February 2014, 54 consecutive uniportal VATS lobectomy were performed in the Department of Thoracic Surgery, Zhongshan Hospital of Fudan University. Patients' clinical features and operative details were recorded. Post-operatively, the morbidity and mortality were recorded to analyze the safety and efficacy of uniportal VATS lobectomy for NSCLCs. Among the 54 planned uniportal VATS lobectomy, there was one conversion to mini-thoracotomy due to lymph node sticking. Extra ports were required in two patients. The uniportal VATS lobectomy was achieved in 51 out of 54 patients (94.4%). The average operation duration was 122.2±37.5 min (90-160 min). The average volume of estimated blood loss during the operation was 88.8±47.1 mL (50-200 mL). The mean chest tube duration and hospital stay were 3.2±1.9 days and 4.6±2.0 days, respectively. There was no postoperative mortality in this study. Two patients suffered from prolonged air leakage (5 and 7 days), and one atrial fibrillation was observed in this cohort. Based on our primary experience, uniportal VATS lobectomy is a safe and effective procedure for the surgical resection of NSCLCs. The surgical refinements and instrumental improvements would facilitate the technique. Further studies based on larger population are required to determine its benefits towards patients with NSCLCs.

  5. Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis: experience of a tertiary referral center.

    LENUS (Irish Health Repository)

    Phelan, P J

    2010-05-01

    Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis (EPS) is arguably the most serious complication of chronic peritoneal dialysis (PD) therapy with extremely high mortality rates. We aimed to establish the rates of EPS and factors associated with its development in a single center.

  6. Long-term single-center experience of defibrillator therapy in children and adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frommeyer, Gerrit; Feder, Sebastian; Bettin, Markus; Debus, Volker; Köbe, Julia; Reinke, Florian; Uebing, Anselm; Eckardt, Lars; Kehl, Hans Gerd

    2018-06-01

    Implantable cardioverter-defibrillator (ICD) systems are established therapy for prevention of sudden cardiac death. Long-term data on ICD systems in children and adolescents is rare. The present study displays a long-term single-center follow-up of children and adolescents with ICD systems. The present study represents a single-center experience of patients younger than 18 years who received an ICD (n = 58). Follow-up data included in-house follow-up as well as examinations of collaborating specialists. Mean age at implantation was 14.0 ± 3.3 years and 33 patients (56.9%) were male. A transvenous ICD system was implanted in 54 patients (93.1%). In 33 patients (56.9%) electrical heart disease or idiopathic ventricular fibrillation represented the underlying condition of ICD implantation. Median follow-up duration was 70 months (45; 94). 3 patients (5.2%) died during the observation period. None of these deaths was associated with ICD failure. Appropriate shocks occurred in 32 patients (55.2%). Inappropriate shock delivery was recorded in 17 patients (29.3%). Supraventricular tachycardia represented the most frequent cause of inappropriate shock delivery (9 patients, 52.9%). T-wave oversensing led to inappropriate shock delivery in 3 patients (17.6%). In 5 patients (29.4%), lead failure caused inappropriate shock delivery. Of note, during follow-up lead failure was reported in 15 patients (25.9%) leading to surgical revision. ICD therapy in children and adolescents is effective for prevention of sudden cardiac death. The rate of appropriate shock deliveries was significantly higher as compared with large ICD trials. Inappropriate therapies occurred frequently. In particular supraventricular tachycardia, T-wave oversensing and lead failures were responsible for these episodes. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Bulgaria: INIS Center - 45 years experience

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Georgieva, Albena

    2015-01-01

    Bulgaria is one of 35 countries in the world operating nuclear power plants. Bulgaria's nuclear program was launched in 1956 with the construction of an IRT-2000 research reactor at the Institute for Nuclear Research and Nuclear Energy (INRNE), which was commissioned in 1961. The reactor is now under reconstruction. In 1960, construction of the first Bulgarian nuclear power plant started. At the moment, there are 6 power units at the Kozloduy NPP site; 4 of them (VVER-440/B-230) under decommissioning and 2 (VVER-1000/B-320) in operation. Several storage facilities for radioactive waste, mainly from the Kozloduy NPP and from various sources of ionizing radiation in medicine and industry are also in operation. The Kozloduy NPP, INRNE, Sofia University, the Technical University, and the State Enterprise Radioactive Waste are the main generators of nuclear information in Bulgaria and the main consumers of INIS products. The Bulgarian INIS Center, therefore, maintains continuous and effective cooperation with these Institutions

  8. Single center experience with percutaneous and laparoscopic cryoablation of small renal masses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malcolm, John B; Berry, Tristan T; Williams, Michael B; Logan, Joshua E; Given, Robert W; Lance, Raymond S; Barone, Bethany; Shaves, Sarah; Vingan, Harlan; Fabrizio, Michael D

    2009-06-01

    While partial nephrectomy remains the gold standard for the management of most small renal masses, increasing experience with renal cryoablation has suggested a viable alternative with a favorable morbidity profile and good efficacy. We report intermediate-term oncologic outcomes from a single-center experience with laparoscopic and percutaneous renal cryoablation. We performed a retrospective review of our laparoscopic renal cryoablation (LRC) and percutaneous renal cryoablation (PRC) experience between January 2003 and April 2007. Patients with at least 12 months of follow-up were included in the analysis. Follow-up consisted of imaging and laboratory studies at regular intervals. Persistent mass enhancement or interval tumor growth was considered a treatment failure. Sixty-six patients (44% women/56% men; 42% African-American/58% Caucasian/other; mean body mass index, 29.7) with 72 tumors underwent either LRC (n = 52) or PRC (n = 20) with a mean follow-up of 30 months (median 25.1 mos; range 13-63 mos). Average patient age was 66.5 years (range 34-82 yrs). Mean tumor size was 2.33 cm (range 1-4.6 cm). Comorbid conditions were prevalent: 76% hypertension, 36% hyperlipidemia, 24% chronic kidney disease, 29% diabetes mellitus, 36% tobacco use, and 32% heart disease. RESULTS of pretreatment biopsy were 62% renal-cell carcinoma and 38% benign or nondiagnostic. Overall cancer-specific and cancer-free survival were 100% and 97%, respectively. There were two treatment failures (3.8%) in the LRC group and five primary failures in the PRC group (25%) (P = 0.015), four of which were salvaged with repeated PRC with no evidence of recurrence at 6 to 36 months of follow-up. There has been no significant local or metastatic progression. LRC and PRC achieved good oncologic control with minimal morbidity at a mean follow-up of 30 months in a patient cohort characterized by numerous comorbid conditions. PRC had a significantly higher primary treatment failure rate than LRC, but

  9. Study of X-ray and gamma ray sources observed by the SIGNE (Prognoz 6 Satellite) experiment in the regions of the galactic center and anticenter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Violes, F.

    1981-12-01

    Characteristics of the SIGNE II MP 6 experiment are reported and procedures to obtain the fluxes detected from all the sources are described. We next present deconvolution method used to isolate the galactic center sources. In the last chapter we present and discuss the photon spectra of the sources observed by the SIGNE II MP 6 experiment [fr

  10. Preliminary analysis of the results and description of the meteorological experiments I and II performed at Aramar Experimental Center

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Molnary, L. de

    1992-01-01

    This paper describes the experimental program in Applied Meteorology that has been developed at Aramar Experimental Center (CEA) located in Ipero, S.P - Brazil. The program intends to study the meteorological systems and the regional circulation around Aramar to use the information in atmospheric transport and diffusion of radionuclides studies, as soon, analysis of impacts on the environment at Aramar site. The results collected during the first and second Meteorological Experiment are examined. (author)

  11. The Amistad Research Center: Documenting the African American Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chepesiuk, Ron

    1993-01-01

    Describes the Amistad Research Center housed at Tulane University which is a repository of primary documents on African-American history. Topics addressed include the development and growth of the collection; inclusion of the American Missionary Association archives; sources of support; civil rights; and collecting for the future. (LRW)

  12. Overview of physics results from the conclusive operation of the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sabbagh, S.A.; Ahn, J-W.; Allain, J.; Andre, R.; Balbaky, A.; Bastasz, R.; Battaglia, D.; Bell, M.; Bell, R.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Belova, E.; Berkery, J.; Betti, R.; Bialek, J.; Bigelow, T.; Bitter, M.; Boedo, J.; Bonoli, P.; Boozer, A.; Bortolon, A.; Boyle, D.; Brennan, D.; Breslau, J.; Buttery, R.; Canik, J.; Caravelli, G.; Chang, C.; Crocker, N.; Darrow, D.; Davis, B.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Diallo, A.; Ding, S.; D’Ippolito, D.; Domier, C.; Dorland, W.; Ethier, S.; Evans, T.; Ferron, J.; Finkenthal, M.; Foley, J.; Fonck, R.; Frazin, R.; Fredrickson, E.; Fu, G.; Gates, D.; Gerhardt, S.; Glasser, A.; Gorelenkov, N.; Gray, T.; Guo, Y.; Guttenfelder, W.; Hahm, T.; Harvey, R.; Hassanein, A.; Heidbrink, W.; Hill, K.; Hirooka, Y.; Hooper, E.B.; Hosea, J.; Jardin, S.; Jaworski, M.; Kaita, R.; Kallman, J.; Katsuro-Hopkins, O.; Kaye, S.; Kessel, C.; Kim, J.; Kolemen, E.; Kramer, G.; Krasheninnikov, S.; Kubota, S.; Kugel, H.; La Haye, R.J.; Lao, L.; LeBlanc, B.; Lee, W.; Lee, K.; Leuer, J.; Levinton, F.; Liang, Y.; Liu, D.; Lore, J.; Luhmann Jr, N.; Maingi, R.; Majeski, R.; Manickam, J.; Mansfield, D.; Maqueda, R.; McKee, G.; Medley, S.; Meier, E.; Menard, J.; Menon, M.; Meyer, H.; Mikkelsen, D.; Miloshevsky, G.; Mueller, D.; Munsat, T.; Myra, J.; Nelson, B.; Nishino, N.; Nygren, R.; Ono, M.; Osborne, T.; Park, J.; Park, Y.S.; Paul, S.; Peebles, W.; Penaflor, B.; Perkins, R.J.; Phillips, C.; Pigarov, A.; Podesta, M.; Preinhaelter, Josef; Raman, R.; Ren, Y.; Rewoldt, G.; Rognlien, T.; Ross, P.; Rowley, C.; Ruskov, E.; Russell, D.; Ruzic, D.; Ryan, P.; Schaffer, M.; Schuster, E.; Scotti, F.; Shaing, K.; Shevchenko, V.; Shinohara, K.; Sizyuk, V.; Skinner, C.H.; Smirnov, A.; Smith, A.; Snyder, P.; Solomon, W.; Sontag, A.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Stoltzfus-Dueck, T.; Stotler, D.; Stratton, B.; Stutman, D.; Takahashi, H.; Takase, Y.; Tamura, N.; Tang, X.; Taylor, G.; Taylor, C.; Tritz, K.; Tsarouhas, D.; Umansky, M.; Urban, Jakub; Untergberg, E.; Walker, M.; Wampler, W.; Wang, W.; Whaley, J.; White, R.; Wilgen, J.; Wilson, R.; Wong, K.L.; Wright, J.; Xia, Z.; Youchison, D.; Yu, G.; Yuh, H.; Zakharov, L.; Zemlyanov, D.; Zimmer, G.; Zweben, S.J.

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 53, č. 10 (2013), s. 104007-104007 ISSN 0029-5515. [IAEA Fusion Energy Conference/24./. San Diego, 08.10.2012-13.10.2012] R&D Projects: GA MŠk 7G09042 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20430508 Keywords : NSTX * Spherical tokamaks * Overdense plasma * Conversion * Emission * Tokamaks * Electron Bernstein waves Subject RIV: BL - Plasma and Gas Discharge Physics Impact factor: 3.243, year: 2013 http://iopscience.iop.org/0029-5515/53/10/104007/pdf/0029-5515_53_10_104007.pdf

  13. Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center (HIT): Initial clinical experience in the first 80 patients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Combs, Stephanie E. (Univ. Hospital of Heidelberg, Dept. of Radiation Oncology, Heidelberg (Germany)), E-mail: Stephanie.Combs@med.uni-heidelberg.de; Ellerbrock, Malte; Haberer, Thomas (Heidelberger Ionenstrahl Therapiezentrum (HIT), Im Neuenheimer Feld 450, 69120 Heidelberg (Germany)) (and others)

    2010-10-15

    The Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center (HIT) started clinical operation in November 2009. In this report we present the first 80 patients treated with proton and carbon ion radiotherapy and describe patient selection, treatment planning and daily treatment for different indications. Patients and methods. Between November 15, 2009 and April 15, 2010, 80 patients were treated at the Heidelberg Ion Therapy Center (HIT) with carbon ion and proton radiotherapy. Main treated indications consisted of skull base chordoma (n = 9) and chondrosarcoma (n = 18), malignant salivary gland tumors (n=29), chordomas of the sacrum (n = 5), low grade glioma (n=3), primary and recurrent malignant astrocytoma and glioblastoma (n=7) and well as osteosarcoma (n = 3). Of these patients, four pediatric patients aged under 18 years were treated. Results. All patients were treated using the intensity-modulated rasterscanning technique. Seventy-six patients were treated with carbon ions (95%), and four patients were treated with protons. In all patients x-ray imaging was performed prior to each fraction. Treatment concepts were based on the initial experiences with carbon ion therapy at the Gesellschaft fuer Schwerionenforschung (GSI) including carbon-only treatments and carbon-boost treatments with photon-IMRT. The average time per fraction in the treatment room per patient was 29 minutes; for irradiation only, the mean time including all patients was 16 minutes. Position verification was performed prior to every treatment fraction with orthogonal x-ray imaging. Conclusion. Particle therapy could be included successfully into the clinical routine at the Dept. of Radiation Oncology in Heidelberg. Numerous clinical trials will subsequently be initiated to precisely define the role of proton and carbon ion radiotherapy in radiation oncology.

  14. Social and Architectural Aspects of Revitalization of Historic Urban Centers: Foreign Experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indrė Gražulevičiutė-Vileniškė

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The structure and architecture of many European cities has started their development during the Middle Ages or even earlier. The historic cores gradually had become centers of contemporary cities and are constantly evolving. They are affected by the tendencies of destruction, initiatives and movements of preservation are also taking place there. The comprehensive works of rehabilitation of Lithuanian historic urban centers were carried out during the period of soviet occupation. The insularity of the Soviet empire, ideological reasons and the absence of the private property has determined certain architectural expressions and solutions for the social problems. After the restoration of the country‘s independence the problems and tendencies typical to Western city centers, such as commercialization and gentrification, started to appear in Lithuanian historic urban cores. This justifies the aim of the article which is to analyze the tendencies of revitalization of historic city centers in Western countries with the main attention to the social and architectural aspects.Article in Lithuanian

  15. Using a Discrete Choice Conjoint Experiment to Engage Stakeholders in the Design of an Outpatient Children's Health Center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunningham, Charles E; Niccols, Alison; Rimas, Heather; Robicheau, Randi; Anderson, Colleen; DeVries, Bart

    2017-10-01

    To engage users in the design of a regional child and youth health center. The perspective of users should be an integral component of a patient-centered, evidence-based approach to the design of health facilities. We conducted a discrete choice conjoint experiment (DCE), a method from marketing research and health economics, as a component of a strategy to engage users in the preconstruction planning process. A sample of 467 participants (290 staff and 177 clients or community stakeholders) completed the DCE. Latent class analysis identified three segments with different design preferences. A group we termed an enhanced design (57%) segment preferred a fully featured facility with personal contacts at the start of visits (in-person check-in, personal waiting room notification, volunteer-assisted wayfinding, and visible security), a family resource center with a health librarian, and an outdoor playground equipped with covered heated pathways. The self-guided design segment (11%), in contrast, preferred a design allowing a more independent use of the facility (e.g., self-check-in at computer kiosks, color-coded wayfinding, and a self-guided family resource center). Designs affording privacy and personal contact with staff were important to the private design segment (32%). The theme and decor of the building was less important than interactive features and personal contacts. A DCE allowed us to engage users in the planning process by estimating the value of individual design elements, identifying segments with differing views, informing decisions regarding design trade-offs, and simulating user response to design options.

  16. Ethics in psychosocial and biomedical research – A training experience at the Interdisciplinary Center for Bioethics (CIEB) of the University of Chile1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lolas, Fernando; Rodriguez, Eduardo

    2012-01-01

    This paper reviews the experience in training Latin American professionals and scientists in the ethics of biomedical and psychosocial research at the Interdisciplinary Center for Studies in Bioethics (CIEB) of the University of Chile, aided by a grant from Fogarty International Center (FIC) – National Institutes of Health from 2002 to 2011. In these 10 years of experience, 50 trainees have completed a 12-month training combining on-line and in-person teaching and learning activities, with further support for maintaining contact via webmail and personal meetings. The network formed by faculty and former trainees has published extensively on issues relevant in the continent and has been instrumental in promoting new master level courses at different universities, drafting regulations and norms, and promoting the use of bioethical discourse in health care and research. Evaluation meetings have shown that while most trainees did benefit from the experience and contributed highly to developments at their home institutions and countries, some degree of structuring of demand for qualified personnel is needed in order to better utilize the human resources created by the program. Publications and other deliverables of trainees and faculty are presented. PMID:22754084

  17. Comparative analysis of stakeholder experiences with an online approach to prioritizing patient-centered research topics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khodyakov, Dmitry; Grant, Sean; Meeker, Daniella; Booth, Marika; Pacheco-Santivanez, Nathaly; Kim, Katherine K

    2017-05-01

    Little evidence exists about effective and scalable methods for meaningful stakeholder engagement in research. We explored patient/caregiver experiences with a high-tech online engagement approach for patient-centered research prioritization, compared their experiences with those of professional stakeholders, and identified factors associated with favorable participant experiences. We conducted 8 online modified-Delphi (OMD) panels. Panelists participated in 2 rating rounds with a statistical feedback/online discussion round in between. Panels focused on weight management/obesity, heart failure, and Kawasaki disease. We recruited a convenience sample of adults with any of the 3 conditions (or parents/guardians of Kawasaki disease patients), clinicians, and researchers. Measures included self-reported willingness to use OMD again, the panelists' study participation and online discussion experiences, the system's perceived ease of use, and active engagement metrics. Out of 349 panelists, 292 (84%) completed the study. Of those, 46% were patients, 36% were clinicians, and 19% were researchers. In multivariate models, patients were not significantly more actively engaged (Odds ratio (OR) = 1.69, 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.94-3.05) but had more favorable study participation (β = 0.49; P  ≤ .05) and online discussion (β = 0.18; P  ≤ .05) experiences and were more willing to use OMD again (β = 0.36; P  ≤ .05), compared to professional stakeholders. Positive perceptions of the OMD system's ease of use (β = 0.16; P  ≤ .05) and favorable study participation (β = 0.26; P  ≤ .05) and online discussion (β = 0.57; P  ≤ .05) experiences were also associated with increased willingness to use OMD in the future. Active engagement was not associated with online experience indices or willingness to use OMD again. Online approaches to engaging large numbers of stakeholders are a promising and efficient adjunct

  18. The Soviet center of astronomical data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dluzhnevskaya, O.B.

    1982-01-01

    On the basis of the current French-Soviet cooperation in science and technology, the Astronomical Council of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences and the Strasbourg Center signed in 1977 an agreement on setting up the Soviet Center of Astronomical Data as its filial branch. The Soviet Center was created on the basis of a computation center at the Zvenigorod station of the Astronomical Council of the U.S.S.R. Academy of Sciences, which had already had considerable experience of working with stellar catalogues. In 1979 the Center was equipped with a EC-1033 computer. In 1978-1979 the Soviet Center of Astronomical Data (C.A.D.) received from Strasbourg 96 of the most important catalogues. By September 1981 the list of catalogues available at the Soviet Center has reached 140 catalogues some of which are described. (Auth.)

  19. The Comparison between Teacher Centered and Student Centered Educational Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Anvar

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available Background and Purpose: Various approaches to learning are suggested & practiced. The traditional medical education were more teacher centered oriented . In this method the students’ involvement in the process of learning is not remarkable, but the new approach to medical education supports the students involvement. This study evaluated the various method of lecturing considering students involvements.Methods: One hundred two first year medical and nursing students involved in this study and their opinion about these two methods of learning were obtained by filling of a questionnaire. The subject of the lectures was “general psychology” which was carried out 50% by the students and 50% by the teacher. The statistical analysis was carried out by SPSS program.Results: Considering students opinion in student-centered method the various aspect of learning such as mutual understanding, use of textbooks and references were significantly increased , whereasother aspects of learning such as self esteem, study time, innovation, and study attitude though were improved, but were not significant as compared with teacher centered method. In teacher-centeredmethod the understanding of the subjects was significantly increased .Other aspects of learning such as motivation and concentration were improved but not significantly as compared with studentcentered method.Conclusion: As the result showed student centered method was favored in several aspects of learning while in teacher centered method only understanding of the subject was better . Careful choice of teaching method to provide a comprehensive learning experience should take into account these differences.Key words: TEACHER CENTERED, STUDENT CENTERED, LEARNING

  20. Pretreatment drug use characteristics and experiences among patients in a voluntary substance abuse treatment center in Malaysia: A mixed-methods approach.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnan, Archana; Brown, Shan-Estelle; Ghani, Mansur A; Khan, Farrah; Kamarulzaman, Adeeba; Altice, Frederick L

    2016-01-01

    Drug use in Malaysia remains a significant public health and social problem despite implementation of harsh punitive drug policies such as forcibly placing suspected drug users into compulsory drug detention centers (CDDCs). Following criticism over human right violations in CDDCs, Malaysia has begun to transition towards voluntary drug treatment centers known as Cure & Care (C&C) centers. To best serve the needs of regional C&C centers, data on drug use are essential among patients accessing treatment. Using a mixed-methods approach, the authors examined pretreatment drug use characteristics and experiences with addiction treatment among C&C patients in Kelantan-a religiously conservative state in northeast Malaysia with high prevalence of drug use but where limited data are available on drug use patterns. A mixed-methods study utilizing surveys (n = 96) and semistructured interviews (n = 20) was conducted among a convenience sample of inpatients and outpatients at the Pengkalan Chepa C&C Center in Kelantan. Survey results showed that 89.6% of participants met screening criteria for moderate to severe addiction severity. Nearly 90% reported lifetime illicit amphetamine (syabu, meth, ice, and pil kuda) use, followed by alcohol (60.4%) and opioids (52.1%). Qualitative results pointed to the powerful influence of peer networks in drug initiation and relapse, and the positive effect of the C&C center on drug rehabilitation. The drug use profile of the Kelantan C&C center enrollees shows extensive pretreatment amphetamine use, polysubstance use, and injection drug use, including high-risk behaviors such as sharing needles, syringes, and containers. Evidence points to the need for integration of social support-oriented practices and behavioral interventions into the rehabilitation of drug users in this region.

  1. Tangential 2-D Edge Imaging for GPI and Edge/Impurity Modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maqueda, Ricardo; Levinton, Fred M.

    2011-01-01

    Nova Photonics, Inc. has a collaborative effort at the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). This collaboration, based on fast imaging of visible phenomena, has provided key insights on edge turbulence, intermittency, and edge phenomena such as edge localized modes (ELMs) and multi-faceted axisymmetric radiation from the edge (MARFE). Studies have been performed in all these areas. The edge turbulence/intermittency studies make use of the Gas Puff Imaging diagnostic developed by the Principal Investigator (Ricardo Maqueda) together with colleagues from PPPL. This effort is part of the International Tokamak Physics Activity (ITPA) edge, scrape-off layer and divertor group joint activity (DSOL-15: Inter-machine comparison of blob characteristics). The edge turbulence/blob study has been extended from the current location near the midplane of the device to the lower divertor region of NSTX. The goal of this effort was to study turbulence born blobs in the vicinity of the X-point region and their circuit closure on divertor sheaths or high density regions in the divertor. In the area of ELMs and MARFEs we have studied and characterized the mode structure and evolution of the ELM types observed in NSTX, as well as the study of the observed interaction between MARFEs and ELMs. This interaction could have substantial implications for future devices where radiative divertor regions are required to maintain detachment from the divertor plasma facing components.

  2. The Manuel Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center (LANSCE) experiment reports 1993 run cycle. Progress report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Farrer, R.; Longshore, A. [comps.

    1995-06-01

    This year the Manuel Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center (LANSCE) ran an informal user program because the US Department of Energy planned to close LANSCE in FY1994. As a result, an advisory committee recommended that LANSCE scientists and their collaborators complete work in progress. At LANSCE, neutrons are produced by spallation when a pulsed, 800-MeV proton beam impinges on a tungsten target. The proton pulses are provided by the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) accelerator and a associated Proton Storage Ring (PSR), which can Iter the intensity, time structure, and repetition rate of the pulses. The LAMPF protons of Line D are shared between the LANSCE target and the Weapons Neutron Research (WNR) facility, which results in LANSCE spectrometers being available to external users for unclassified research about 80% of each annual LAMPF run cycle. Measurements of interest to the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) may also be performed and may occupy up to an additional 20% of the available beam time. These experiments are reviewed by an internal program advisory committee. This year, a total of 127 proposals were submitted. The proposed experiments involved 229 scientists, 57 of whom visited LANSCE to participate in measurements. In addition, 3 (nuclear physics) participating research teams, comprising 44 scientists, carried out experiments at LANSCE. Instrument beam time was again oversubscribed, with 552 total days requested an 473 available for allocation.

  3. The Manuel Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center (LANSCE) experiment reports 1993 run cycle. Progress report

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Farrer, R.; Longshore, A.

    1995-06-01

    This year the Manuel Lujan Jr. Neutron Scattering Center (LANSCE) ran an informal user program because the US Department of Energy planned to close LANSCE in FY1994. As a result, an advisory committee recommended that LANSCE scientists and their collaborators complete work in progress. At LANSCE, neutrons are produced by spallation when a pulsed, 800-MeV proton beam impinges on a tungsten target. The proton pulses are provided by the Clinton P. Anderson Meson Physics Facility (LAMPF) accelerator and a associated Proton Storage Ring (PSR), which can Iter the intensity, time structure, and repetition rate of the pulses. The LAMPF protons of Line D are shared between the LANSCE target and the Weapons Neutron Research (WNR) facility, which results in LANSCE spectrometers being available to external users for unclassified research about 80% of each annual LAMPF run cycle. Measurements of interest to the Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) may also be performed and may occupy up to an additional 20% of the available beam time. These experiments are reviewed by an internal program advisory committee. This year, a total of 127 proposals were submitted. The proposed experiments involved 229 scientists, 57 of whom visited LANSCE to participate in measurements. In addition, 3 (nuclear physics) participating research teams, comprising 44 scientists, carried out experiments at LANSCE. Instrument beam time was again oversubscribed, with 552 total days requested an 473 available for allocation

  4. User-Centered Design in Practice: The Brown University Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bordac, Sarah; Rainwater, Jean

    2008-01-01

    This article presents a case study in user-centered design that explores the needs and preferences of undergraduate users. An analysis of LibQual+ and other user surveys, interviews with public service staff, and a formal American with Disabilities Act accessibility review served as the basis for planning a redesign of the Brown University…

  5. Evaluating trauma center structural performance: The experience of a Canadian provincial trauma system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lynne Moore

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Indicators of structure, process, and outcome are required to evaluate the performance of trauma centers to improve the quality and efficiency of care. While periodic external accreditation visits are part of most trauma systems, a quantitative indicator of structural performance has yet to be proposed. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a trauma center structural performance indicator using accreditation report data. Materials and Methods: Analyses were based on accreditation reports completed during on-site visits in the Quebec trauma system (1994-2005. Qualitative report data was retrospectively transposed onto an evaluation grid and the weighted average of grid items was used to quantify performance. The indicator of structural performance was evaluated in terms of test-retest reliability (kappa statistic, discrimination between centers (coefficient of variation, content validity (correlation with accreditation decision, designation level, and patient volume and forecasting (correlation between visits performed in 1994-1999 and 1998-2005. Results: Kappa statistics were >0.8 for 66 of the 73 (90% grid items. Mean structural performance score over 59 trauma centers was 47.4 (95% CI: 43.6-51.1. Two centers were flagged as outliers and the coefficient of variation was 31.2% (95% CI: 25.5% to 37.6%, showing good discrimination. Correlation coefficients of associations with accreditation decision, designation level, and volume were all statistically significant (r = 0.61, -0.40, and 0.24, respectively. No correlation was observed over time (r = 0.03. Conclusion: This study demonstrates the feasibility of quantifying trauma center structural performance using accreditation reports. The proposed performance indicator shows good test-retest reliability, between-center discrimination, and construct validity. The observed variability in structural performance across centers and over-time underlines the importance of

  6. A experiência social da psicose no contexto de um Centro de Atenção Psicossocial The social experience of psychosis in the context of a Psychosocial Care Center

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Kimati Dias

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo discute as relações existentes entre os aspectos institucionais de um Centro de Atenção Psicossocial (Caps e a experiência de pacientes psicóticos. Com o referencial da experiência social da psicose, mais ampla do que a descrição da vivência de sintomas, mas considerando aspectos culturais da experiência, foram realizados três estudos de caso em dois momentos diferentes. Todos os pacientes estudados foram entrevistados tanto em 1995 quanto em 2003. Além dos próprios sujeitos, foram realizadas entrevistas abertas com seus familiares e profissionais que os atendem, considerando assim as redes de rela��ão social dos pacientes. Enfatizaram-se três planos principais: (1 estudo da história do adoecimento; (2 estudo das representações da doença; e (3 descrição do cotidiano e das relações sociais dos pacientes. A partir de uma abordagem antropológica, foram realizadas considerações a respeito do tratamento de pacientes psicóticos inseridos nos Centros de Atenção Psicossocial.This study discusses the relations existing between the institutional aspects of a Psychosocial Care Center (Caps and the experience of psychotic patients. Using the referential base of the social experience of psychosis, which is broader in scope than a description of the experience of symptoms, while considering cultural aspects of the experience, three case studies were conducted at two different times. All of the patients studied were interviewed in 1995 and again in 2003. In addition to interviews with the subjects themselves, open interviews were conducted with their families and their professional carers, thereby taking the social relationship networks of the patients into consideration. Three central aspects were emphasized: (1 study of the history of the illness; (2 study of the representations of the disease; and (3 description of the everyday life and social relationships of the patients. Aspects with respect to the treatment

  7. Empowering patients of a mental rehabilitation center in a low-resource context: a Moroccan experience as a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khabbache, Hicham; Jebbar, Abdelhak; Rania, Nadia; Doucet, Marie-Chantal; Watfa, Ali Assad; Candau, Joël; Martini, Mariano; Siri, Anna; Brigo, Francesco; Bragazzi, Nicola Luigi

    2017-01-01

    Mental, neurological and substance use (MNS) disorders represent a major source of disability and premature mortality worldwide. However, in developing countries patients with MNS disorders are often poorly managed and treated, particularly in marginalized, impoverished areas where the mental health gap and the treatment gap can reach 90%. Efforts should be made in promoting help by making mental health care more accessible. In this article, we address the challenges that psychological and psychiatric services have to face in a low-resource context, taking our experience at a Moroccan rehabilitation center as a case study. A sample of 60 patients were interviewed using a semi-structured questionnaire during the period of 2014-2015. The questionnaire investigated the reactions and feelings of the patients to the rehabilitation program, and their perceived psychological status and mental improvement, if any. Interviews were then transcribed and processed using ATLAS.ti V.7.0 qualitative analysis software. Frequencies and co-occurrence analyses were carried out. Despite approximately 30 million inhabitants within the working age group, Morocco suffers from a shortage of specialized health workers. Our ethnographic observations show that psychiatric treatment can be ensured, notwithstanding these hurdles, if a public health perspective is assumed. In resource-limited settings, working in the field of mental health means putting oneself on the line, exposing oneself to new experiences, and reorganizing one's own skills and expertise. In the present article, we have used our clinical experience at a rehabilitation center in Fes as a case study and we have shown how to use peer therapy to overcome the drawbacks that we are encountered daily in a setting of limited resources.

  8. Management of complications arising from transvaginal mesh kit procedures: a tertiary referral center's experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurtado, Eric A; Appell, Rodney A

    2009-01-01

    This case series' purpose is to review a referral center's experience with complications from mesh kits. A chart review of 12 patients who presented with complications associated with transvaginal mesh kit procedures was performed. All patients underwent complete surgical removal of the mesh to treat mesh exposure, pain, or vaginal bleeding/discharge followed by an anterior or posterior repair. The mean follow-up time after surgery was 3.4 months. Eight of 12 patients had mesh that had formed a fibrotic band. Six of 12 patients had complete resolution of pain. Of the nine patients with mesh exposure, all required significant resection of the vaginal wall. No further mesh exposure occurred. The use of transvaginal mesh kits may cause previously undescribed complications such as pelvic/vaginal pain or large extrusions requiring complete removal. Removal of all mesh except the arms may cure or significantly improve these problems.

  9. Hydroxyapatite ceramic implants for cranioplasty in children: a single-center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaccaria, Laura; Tharakan, Sasha Job; Altermatt, Stefan

    2017-02-01

    The use of hydroxyapatite ceramic (HAC) implants for the treatment of skull defects in pediatric patients started 2010 at our institution. Ceramic implants facilitate osteoblast migration and therefore optimize osteointegration with the host bone. The purpose of this study is to report a single-center experience with this treatment modality. A retrospective review of all patients from July 2010 through June 2014 undergoing a cranioplasty using hydroxyapatite ceramic implant and managed at a single institution was performed. Indication for cranioplasty, the hospital course, and follow-up were reviewed. Bone density was measured in Hounsfield Units (HU) and osteointegration was calculated using Mimics Software® (Mimics Innovation Suite v17.0 Medical, Materialize, Leuven, Belgium). Over the 4-year period, six patients met criteria for the study. Five patients had an osteointegration of nearly 100%. One patient had an incomplete osteointegration with a total bone-implant contact area of 69%. The mean bone density was 2800 HU (2300-3000 HU). Bone density alone is estimated to have a Hounsfield value between 400 and 2000 HU depending on the body region and bone quality. There were no major complications, and the patients were highly satisfied with the esthetical result. Hydroxyapatite ceramic implants for cranioplasty in pediatric patients are a good choice for different indications. The implants show excellent osteointegration and esthetical results.

  10. Reliability Centered Maintenance - Methodologies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kammerer, Catherine C.

    2009-01-01

    Journal article about Reliability Centered Maintenance (RCM) methodologies used by United Space Alliance, LLC (USA) in support of the Space Shuttle Program at Kennedy Space Center. The USA Reliability Centered Maintenance program differs from traditional RCM programs because various methodologies are utilized to take advantage of their respective strengths for each application. Based on operational experience, USA has customized the traditional RCM methodology into a streamlined lean logic path and has implemented the use of statistical tools to drive the process. USA RCM has integrated many of the L6S tools into both RCM methodologies. The tools utilized in the Measure, Analyze, and Improve phases of a Lean Six Sigma project lend themselves to application in the RCM process. All USA RCM methodologies meet the requirements defined in SAE JA 1011, Evaluation Criteria for Reliability-Centered Maintenance (RCM) Processes. The proposed article explores these methodologies.

  11. RESOURCE TRAINING AND METHODOLOGICAL CENTER FOR THE TRAINING OF PEOPLE WITH DISABILITIES: EXPERIENCE AND DIRECTION OF DEVELOPMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. A. Fedorov

    2018-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: The presented article is devoted to the new and actual direction in the system of higher education - the development of inclusive education. The experience of creating a resource training and methodological center (RТMC of the University of Minin in 2017 is presented, the directions of its activity in 2017 and the results are described. The article outlines the role of RТMC in the development of inclusive culture.Materials and methods: The method of analyzing the literature of domestic and foreign authors was used as the basis for writing the article; the monitoring data of the state of inclusive higher education, which was implemented within the framework of the State Contract dated 07.06.2016 No. 05.020.11 007 on the project «Monitoring Information and Analytical Support of Activities regional resource centers for higher education for disabled people».Results: Analyzing the results of the RТMC activity, the authors update the problems that arose during the project implementation and suggest ways of their solution. The authors see the development of the RТMC activity through the development of forms and mechanisms of interdepartmental, interregional and inter-institutional cooperation in order to achieve coherence of actions and effectiveness of all participants in the support of inclusion in higher education, taking into account the educational needs of entrants and labor market needs throughout the fixed territory. As a special mission of the RТMC, the authors see the management of the development of inclusive culture in the university. The system of higher education is considered as an instrument of fulfilling the social order for the formation of a generation of people who tolerate and organically perceive the fact of inclusion in all spheres of life.Discussion and conclusion: The role of the resource training and methodological center in the development of inclusive higher education is determined by the identification

  12. PTSD: National Center for PTSD

    Medline Plus

    Full Text Available ... Adaptive Sports Program Creative Arts Festival Golden Age Games Summer Sports Clinic Training - Exposure - Experience (TEE) Tournament Wheelchair Games Winter Sports Clinic Locations Hospitals & Clinics Vet Centers ...

  13. Three Experiments Examining the Use of Electroencephalogram,Event-Related Potentials, and Heart-Rate Variability for Real-Time Human-Centered Adaptive Automation Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prinzel, Lawrence J., III; Parasuraman, Raja; Freeman, Frederick G.; Scerbo, Mark W.; Mikulka, Peter J.; Pope, Alan T.

    2003-01-01

    Adaptive automation represents an advanced form of human-centered automation design. The approach to automation provides for real-time and model-based assessments of human-automation interaction, determines whether the human has entered into a hazardous state of awareness and then modulates the task environment to keep the operator in-the-loop , while maintaining an optimal state of task engagement and mental alertness. Because adaptive automation has not matured, numerous challenges remain, including what the criteria are, for determining when adaptive aiding and adaptive function allocation should take place. Human factors experts in the area have suggested a number of measures including the use of psychophysiology. This NASA Technical Paper reports on three experiments that examined the psychophysiological measures of event-related potentials, electroencephalogram, and heart-rate variability for real-time adaptive automation. The results of the experiments confirm the efficacy of these measures for use in both a developmental and operational role for adaptive automation design. The implications of these results and future directions for psychophysiology and human-centered automation design are discussed.

  14. Short-term outcomes of transcatheter closure of secundum atrial septal defect in children and adolescents: An experience of two centers in Upper Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Safaa H. Ali

    2018-01-01

    Conclusions: Transcatheter closure of ASDs in children and adolescents was feasible and safe in the first 4 years experience in our centers, with good short-term outcome. Balloon sizing is not necessary for transcatheter closure of secundum ASD. Multiple defects can be safety closed by a single device.

  15. Importance of Plasma Response to Non-axisymmetric Perturbations in Tokamaks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Park, Jong-kyu; Boozer, Allen H.; Menard, Jonathan E.; Garofalo, Andrea M.; Schaffer, Michael J.; Hawryluk, Richard J.; Kaye, Stanley M.; Gerhardt, Stefan P.; Sabbagh, Steve A. and the NSTX Team

    2009-01-01

    Tokamaks are sensitive to deviations from axisymmetry as small as (delta)B/B 0 ∼ 10 -4 . These non-axisymmetric perturbations greatly modify plasma confinement and performance by either destroying magnetic surfaces with subsequent locking or deforming magnetic surfaces with associated non-ambipolar transport. The Ideal Perturbed Equilibrium Code (IPEC) calculates ideal perturbed equilibria and provides important basis for understanding the sensitivity of tokamak plasmas to perturbations. IPEC calculations indicate that the ideal plasma response, or equivalently the effect by ideally perturbed plasma currents, is essential to explain locking experiments on National Spherical Torus eXperiment (NSTX) and DIII-D. The ideal plasma response is also important for Neoclassical Toroidal Viscosity (NTV) in non-ambipolar transport. The consistency between NTV theory and magnetic braking experiments on NSTX and DIII-D can be improved when the variation in the field strength in IPEC is coupled with generalized NTV theory. These plasma response effects will be compared with the previous vacuum superpositions to illustrate the importance. However, plasma response based on ideal perturbed equilibria is still not sufficiently accurate to predict the details of NTV transport, and can be inconsistent when currents associated with a toroidal torque become comparable to ideal perturbed currents

  16. Role of surgical treatment in breast cancer liver metastases: a single center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bacalbasa, Nicolae; Dima, Simona Olimpia; Purtan-Purnichescu, Raluca; Herlea, Vlad; Popescu, Irinel

    2014-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to review a single hepatobiliary center experience, the benefit of hepatic metastasectomy in breast cancer liver metastases (BCLM) patients and to identify predictors of survival. Fifty-two female patients underwent surgery for BCLM between 2002 and 2013. Only patients with liver resections (n=43) were included in the analysis. The median survival of the 43 patients with liver resection was 32.2 months. The factors significantly associated with overall post-hepatectomy survival were estrogen/progesteron receptor (ER/PR) status (p=0.002), node involvement of the primary tumor (p=0.049), size (p=0.005) and number (p=0.006) of the metastatic lesions. The 1-, 3- and 5-year survival rates after curative liver resection were 93.02%, 74.42%, 58.14%, respectively. BCLM resection is a safe procedure and offers survival benefit, especially in patients with reduced liver metastatic burden (solitary metastases, diameter of the metastases <5 cm) and positive ER/PR status. Copyright© 2014 International Institute of Anticancer Research (Dr. John G. Delinassios), All rights reserved.

  17. Students' Ways of Experiencing Human-Centered Design

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zoltowski, Carla B.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the qualitatively different ways which students experienced human-centered design. The findings of this research are important in developing effective design learning experiences and have potential impact across design education. This study provides the basis for being able to assess learning of human-centered design which…

  18. Use of CAHPS® patient experience survey data as part of a patient-centered medical home quality improvement initiative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Quigley DD

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Denise D Quigley,1 Peter J Mendel,1 Zachary S Predmore,2 Alex Y Chen,3 Ron D Hays41RAND Corporation, Santa Monica, CA, 2RAND Corporation, Boston, MA, 3AltaMed Health Services Corporation, 4Division of General Internal Medicine and Health Services Research, UCLA, Los Angeles, CA, USAObjective: To describe how practice leaders used Consumer Assessment of Healthcare Providers and Systems (CAHPS® Clinician and Group (CG-CAHPS data in transitioning toward a patient-centered medical home (PCMH.Study design: Interviews conducted at 14 primary care practices within a large urban Federally Qualified Health Center in California.Participants: Thirty-eight interviews were conducted with lead physicians (n=13, site clinic administrators (n=13, nurse supervisors (n=10, and executive leadership (n=2.Results: Seven themes were identified on how practice leaders used CG-CAHPS data for PCMH transformation. CAHPS® was used: 1 for quality improvement (QI and focusing changes for PCMH transformation; 2 to maintain focus on patient experience; 3 alongside other data; 4 for monitoring site-level trends and changes; 5 to identify, analyze, and monitor areas for improvement; 6 for provider-level performance monitoring and individual coaching within a transparent environment of accountability; and 7 for PCMH transformation, but changes to instrument length, reading level, and the wording of specific items were suggested.Conclusion: Practice leaders used CG-CAHPS data to implement QI, develop a shared vision, and coach providers and staff on performance. They described how CAHPS® helped to improve the patient experience in the PCMH model, including access to routine and urgent care, wait times, provider spending enough time and listening carefully, and courteousness of staff. Regular reporting, reviewing, and discussing of patient-experience data alongside other clinical quality and productivity measures at multilevels of the organization was critical in maximizing the

  19. Early experiences with big data at an academic medical center.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halamka, John D

    2014-07-01

    Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center (BIDMC), an academic health care institution affiliated with Harvard University, has been an early adopter of electronic applications since the 1970s. Various departments of the medical center and the physician practice groups affiliated with it have implemented electronic health records, filmless imaging, and networked medical devices to such an extent that data storage at BIDMC now amounts to three petabytes and continues to grow at a rate of 25 percent a year. Initially, the greatest technical challenge was the cost and complexity of data storage. However, today the major focus is on transforming raw data into information, knowledge, and wisdom. This article discusses the data growth, increasing importance of analytics, and changing user requirements that have shaped the management of big data at BIDMC. Project HOPE—The People-to-People Health Foundation, Inc.

  20. Blunt hepatic and splenic trauma. A single Center experience using a multidisciplinary protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruscelli, Paolo; Buccoliero, Farncesco; Mazzocato, Susanna; Belfiori, Giulio; Rabuini, Claudio; Sperti, Pierluigi; Rimini, Massimiliano

    2017-01-01

    The aim of this retrospective study was to describe more than 10 years experience of a single Trauma Center about non operative management of abdominal organ injuries in hemodynamically stable patients MATERIAL OF STUDY: Between January 2001 and December 2014 ,732 consecutive patients were admitted with blunt abdominal trauma, involving liver and/or spleen and/or kidney, at the Bufalini Cesena Hospital .Management of patients included a specific institutional developed protocol :hemodynamic stability was evaluated in shock room according to the patients response to fluid challenge and the patients were classified into three categories A,B,and C. Form 732 Trauma, 356(48.6%) of patients were submitted to a surgical procedure, all the other patient 376(51.4%) underwent an non operative management .Overall mortality was 9.8% (72), mortality in the surgery group was 15.4% eheras in the non operative group was 4.5%; the relative risk of mortality, measured by the odds ratio waith a 95% confidence interval, was 3.417(2.023-5.772) for rhe surgery group; patient over 40 years old has a statistically significant higher mortality. In our series the overall mortality rate of non operative management group was 4.5%, instead in unstable patients, the surgery group, the mortality was 15.3%; the overall mortality mortality rate after the application of our protocol is 9.8%, Although surgery continues to be the standard for hemodically unstable patients with blunt hepatic and splenic trauma. In our experience AAST Organ Injury Scale was useless for the therapeutic decision making process after the CT scan if a source of bleeding was detected and immediate angiography was performed in order to control and solve it. In our experience the AAST Organ Injury Scale was useless for the therapeutic decision making process, The results suggest that the only criteria of choice for therapeutici strategy was the hemodynamic stability, Nonoperative managem,ent can be applied only following

  1. Case-mix adjustment and the comparison of community health center performance on patient experience measures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johnson, M Laura; Rodriguez, Hector P; Solorio, M Rosa

    2010-06-01

    To assess the effect of case-mix adjustment on community health center (CHC) performance on patient experience measures. A Medicaid-managed care plan in Washington State collected patient survey data from 33 CHCs over three fiscal quarters during 2007-2008. The survey included three composite patient experience measures (6-month reports) and two overall ratings of care. The analytic sample includes 2,247 adult patients and 2,859 adults reporting for child patients. We compared the relative importance of patient case-mix adjusters by calculating each adjuster's predictive power and variability across CHCs. We then evaluated the impact of case-mix adjustment on the relative ranking of CHCs. Important case-mix adjusters included adult self-reported health status or parent-reported child health status, adult age, and educational attainment. The effects of case-mix adjustment on patient reports and ratings were different in the adult and child samples. Adjusting for race/ethnicity and language had a greater impact on parent reports than adult reports, but it impacted ratings similarly across the samples. The impact of adjustment on composites and ratings was modest, but it affected the relative ranking of CHCs. To ensure equitable comparison of CHC performance on patient experience measures, reports and ratings should be adjusted for adult self-reported health status or parent-reported child health status, adult age, education, race/ethnicity, and survey language. Because of the differential impact of case-mix adjusters for child and adult surveys, initiatives should consider measuring and reporting adult and child scores separately.

  2. Local experience on radionuclide myocardial imaging in the Philippines at the Philippine Heart Center for Asia

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Villacorta, E.V.

    1977-01-01

    The Nuclear Medicine Department of the Philippine Heart Center has introduced the detection of coronary heart disease through myocardiac perfusion imaging. The cardiovascular procedures are availed of free-of-charge to registered PHCA patients excepting for the costly TI-201 imaging. In summary, coronary perfusion in imaging should be an integral part of coronary arteriography. Barring the expensive cost of TI-120, myocardial perfusion imaging is ideal for detection of coronary heart disease. Experience shows better sensitivity of TI-201 than exercise ECG for detection of ischemia. Another non-invasive procedure for the detection of acute infarction is the radionuclide imaging using a bone radiopharmaceutical Tc99m prophosphate. In conclusion, acute infarct imaging is a valuable adjunct to ECG and enzyme studies. (RTD)

  3. Planning for the Mercy Center for Breast Health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares, V Ed

    2002-01-01

    During the last months of 2000, administrators at the Mercy San Juan Medical Center in Carmichael, Calif., convened a steering committee to plan the Mercy Center for Breast Health. The Steering Committee was composed of the director of ancillary and support services, the oncology clinical nurse specialist, the RN manager of the oncology nursing unit, the RN surgery center manager, and me, the manager of imaging services. The committee was responsible for creating a new business with five specific objectives: to position the Center as a comprehensive diagnostic and resource center for women; to generate physician referrals to the Breast Center through various vehicles; to create awareness of the Breast Center's capabilities among area radiologists; to create awareness of the Breast Center among employees of six sister facilities; to create "brand awareness" for the Mercy Center for Breast Health among referring physicians and patients who could use competing centers in the area. The Steering Committee's charter was to design a center with a feminine touch and ambience and to provide a "one-stop shopping" experience for patients. A major component of the Breast Center is the Dianne Haselwood Resource Center, which provides patients with educational support and information. The Steering Committee brought its diverse experience and interests to bear on arranging for equipment acquisition, information and clerical systems, staffing, clinic office design, patient care and marketing. Planning the Mercy Center for Breast Health has been a positive challenge that brought together many elements of the organization and people from different departments and specialties to create a new business venture. Our charge now is to grow and to live up to our vision of offering complete breast diagnostic, education and support services in one location.

  4. Gregory Merkel Tours Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    1972-01-01

    Gregory A. Merkel (left), high school student from Springfield, Massachusetts, is pictured here with Harry Coons of the Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) during a visit to the center. Merkel was among 25 winners of a contest in which some 3,500 high school students proposed experiments for the following year's Skylab mission. The nationwide scientific competition was sponsored by the National Science Teachers Association and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA). The winning students, along with their parents and sponsor teachers, visited MSFC where they met with scientists and engineers, participated in design reviews for their experiments, and toured MSFC facilities. Of the 25 students, 6 did not see their experiments conducted on Skylab because the experiments were not compatible with Skylab hardware and timelines. Of the 19 remaining, 11 experiments required the manufacture of additional equipment.

  5. International Water Center

    Science.gov (United States)

    The urban district of Nancy and the Town of Nancy, France, have taken the initiative of creating an International Center of Water (Centre International de l'Eau à Nancy—NAN.C.I.E.) in association with two universities, six engineering colleges, the Research Centers of Nancy, the Rhine-Meuse Basin Agency, and the Chamber of Commerce and Industry. The aim of this center is to promote research and technology transfer in the areas of water and sanitation. In 1985 it will initiate a research program drawing on the experience of 350 researchers and engineers of various disciplines who have already been assigned to research in these fields. The research themes, the majority of which will be multidisciplinary, concern aspects of hygiene and health, the engineering of industrial processes, water resources, and the environment and agriculture. A specialist training program offering five types of training aimed at university graduates, graduates of engineering colleges, or experts, will start in October 1984.

  6. Clinical spectrum of hypopituitarism in India: A single center experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gundgurthi, Abhay; Garg, M. K.; Bhardwaj, Reena; Brar, Karninder S.; Kharb, Sandeep; Pandit, Aditi

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: There is paucity of information regarding clinical profile of hypopituitarism from India. We report the clinical profile of hypopituitarism from a tertiary center in North India. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in patients attending our endocrine center between January 2010 and December 2011. All new patients were studied prospectively and those registered before January 2010 retrospectively. Relevant clinical, hormonal, and imaging data were collected. Dynamic testing for pituitary functions was carried out as necessary. Hormonal deficiencies were defined as per prevailing recommendations. Results: This study included 113 subjects. The mean age was 38.6 ± 17.8 years (range, 4 – 76 years). There were 78 (69%) males and 35 females (31%). There were 22 subjects aged ≤18 years (childhood and adolescence) and 91 adults (>18 years). Visual disturbances were the most common presenting complaint (33%), though headache was the most common symptom (81%). Fifteen percent presented with pituitary apoplexy. Tumors comprised of 84% of cases. Hypogonadism (97%) was the most common abnormality seen followed by hypothyroidism (83.2%), hypoadrenalism (79.6%), growth hormone deficiency (88.1% of the 42 patients tested), and diabetes insipidus (13.3%). Panhypopituitarism was seen in 104 (92%) patients. There were no cases of hypopituitarism secondary to traumatic brain injury, subarachnoid hemorrhage, central nervous system infections, or cranial irradiation to extrasellar tumors. Conclusion: The most common cause of hypopituitarism at tertiary care center is pituitary tumors and the commonest presenting complaint is visual symptoms. Panhypopituitarism is present in 92% cases. PMID:23087868

  7. Clinical spectrum of hypopituitarism in India: A single center experience

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhay Gundgurthi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: There is paucity of information regarding clinical profile of hypopituitarism from India. We report the clinical profile of hypopituitarism from a tertiary center in North India. Materials and Methods: This study was carried out in patients attending our endocrine center between January 2010 and December 2011. All new patients were studied prospectively and those registered before January 2010 retrospectively. Relevant clinical, hormonal, and imaging data were collected. Dynamic testing for pituitary functions was carried out as necessary. Hormonal deficiencies were defined as per prevailing recommendations. Results: This study included 113 subjects. The mean age was 38.6 ± 17.8 years (range, 4 - 76 years. There were 78 (69% males and 35 females (31%. There were 22 subjects aged ≤18 years (childhood and adolescence and 91 adults (>18 years. Visual disturbances were the most common presenting complaint (33%, though headache was the most common symptom (81%. Fifteen percent presented with pituitary apoplexy. Tumors comprised of 84% of cases. Hypogonadism (97% was the most common abnormality seen followed by hypothyroidism (83.2%, hypoadrenalism (79.6%, growth hormone deficiency (88.1% of the 42 patients tested, and diabetes insipidus (13.3%. Panhypopituitarism was seen in 104 (92% patients. There were no cases of hypopituitarism secondary to traumatic brain injury, subarachnoid hemorrhage, central nervous system infections, or cranial irradiation to extrasellar tumors. Conclusion: The most common cause of hypopituitarism at tertiary care center is pituitary tumors and the commonest presenting complaint is visual symptoms. Panhypopituitarism is present in 92% cases.

  8. On the formation of the network community of supplementary education teachers (from the experience of Children's Creativity Center with the study of applied economics)

    OpenAIRE

    Galina Nekrasova; Elena Shigareva; Raisa Artemova; Irina Nelyubina

    2014-01-01

    The online communities of teachers for professional communication and development of information and educational environment of subject teaching is actual nowadays. The authors describe the experience of Children’s Creativity Center in creation the network community for teachers of technology and educational specialists of additional education.

  9. Overview of physics results from the conclusive operation of the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabbagh, S. A.; Ahn, J.-W.; Allain, J.; Andre, R.; Balbaky, A.; Bastasz, R.; Battaglia, D.; Bell, M.; Bell, R.; Beiersdorfer, P.; Belova, E.; Berkery, J.; Betti, R.; Bialek, J.; Bigelow, T.; Bitter, M.; Boedo, J.; Bonoli, P.; Boozer, A.; Bortolon, A.; Boyle, D.; Brennan, D.; Breslau, J.; Buttery, R.; Canik, J.; Caravelli, G.; Chang, C.; Crocker, N.; Darrow, D.; Davis, B.; Delgado-Aparicio, L.; Diallo, A.; Ding, S.; D'Ippolito, D.; Domier, C.; Dorland, W.; Ethier, S.; Evans, T.; Ferron, J.; Finkenthal, M.; Foley, J.; Fonck, R.; Frazin, R.; Fredrickson, E.; Fu, G.; Gates, D.; Gerhardt, S.; Glasser, A.; Gorelenkov, N.; Gray, T.; Guo, Y.; Guttenfelder, W.; Hahm, T.; Harvey, R.; Hassanein, A.; Heidbrink, W.; Hill, K.; Hirooka, Y.; Hooper, E. B.; Hosea, J.; Humphreys, D.; Indireshkumar, K.; Jaeger, F.; Jarboe, T.; Jardin, S.; Jaworski, M.; Kaita, R.; Kallman, J.; Katsuro-Hopkins, O.; Kaye, S.; Kessel, C.; Kim, J.; Kolemen, E.; Kramer, G.; Krasheninnikov, S.; Kubota, S.; Kugel, H.; La Haye, R. J.; Lao, L.; LeBlanc, B.; Lee, W.; Lee, K.; Leuer, J.; Levinton, F.; Liang, Y.; Liu, D.; Lore, J.; Luhmann, N., Jr.; Maingi, R.; Majeski, R.; Manickam, J.; Mansfield, D.; Maqueda, R.; Mazzucato, E.; McLean, A.; McCune, D.; McGeehan, B.; McKee, G.; Medley, S.; Meier, E.; Menard, J.; Menon, M.; Meyer, H.; Mikkelsen, D.; Miloshevsky, G.; Mueller, D.; Munsat, T.; Myra, J.; Nelson, B.; Nishino, N.; Nygren, R.; Ono, M.; Osborne, T.; Park, H.; Park, J.; Park, Y. S.; Paul, S.; Peebles, W.; Penaflor, B.; Perkins, R. J.; Phillips, C.; Pigarov, A.; Podesta, M.; Preinhaelter, J.; Raman, R.; Ren, Y.; Rewoldt, G.; Rognlien, T.; Ross, P.; Rowley, C.; Ruskov, E.; Russell, D.; Ruzic, D.; Ryan, P.; Schaffer, M.; Schuster, E.; Scotti, F.; Shaing, K.; Shevchenko, V.; Shinohara, K.; Sizyuk, V.; Skinner, C. H.; Smirnov, A.; Smith, D.; Snyder, P.; Solomon, W.; Sontag, A.; Soukhanovskii, V.; Stoltzfus-Dueck, T.; Stotler, D.; Stratton, B.; Stutman, D.; Takahashi, H.; Takase, Y.; Tamura, N.; Tang, X.; Taylor, G.; Taylor, C.; Tritz, K.; Tsarouhas, D.; Umansky, M.; Urban, J.; Untergberg, E.; Walker, M.; Wampler, W.; Wang, W.; Whaley, J.; White, R.; Wilgen, J.; Wilson, R.; Wong, K. L.; Wright, J.; Xia, Z.; Youchison, D.; Yu, G.; Yuh, H.; Zakharov, L.; Zemlyanov, D.; Zimmer, G.; Zweben, S. J.

    2013-10-01

    Research on the National Spherical Torus Experiment, NSTX, targets physics understanding needed for extrapolation to a steady-state ST Fusion Nuclear Science Facility, pilot plant, or DEMO. The unique ST operational space is leveraged to test physics theories for next-step tokamak operation, including ITER. Present research also examines implications for the coming device upgrade, NSTX-U. An energy confinement time, τE, scaling unified for varied wall conditions exhibits a strong improvement of BTτE with decreased electron collisionality, accentuated by lithium (Li) wall conditioning. This result is consistent with nonlinear microtearing simulations that match the experimental electron diffusivity quantitatively and predict reduced electron heat transport at lower collisionality. Beam-emission spectroscopy measurements in the steep gradient region of the pedestal indicate the poloidal correlation length of turbulence of about ten ion gyroradii increases at higher electron density gradient and lower Ti gradient, consistent with turbulence caused by trapped electron instabilities. Density fluctuations in the pedestal top region indicate ion-scale microturbulence compatible with ion temperature gradient and/or kinetic ballooning mode instabilities. Plasma characteristics change nearly continuously with increasing Li evaporation and edge localized modes (ELMs) stabilize due to edge density gradient alteration. Global mode stability studies show stabilizing resonant kinetic effects are enhanced at lower collisionality, but in stark contrast have almost no dependence on collisionality when the plasma is off-resonance. Combined resistive wall mode radial and poloidal field sensor feedback was used to control n = 1 perturbations and improve stability. The disruption probability due to unstable resistive wall modes (RWMs) was surprisingly reduced at very high βN/li > 10 consistent with low frequency magnetohydrodynamic spectroscopy measurements of mode stability. Greater

  10. Characteristics of medical teachers using student-centered teaching methods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kyong-Jee; Hwang, Jee-Young

    2017-09-01

    This study investigated characteristics of medical teachers who have adopted student-centered teaching methods into their teaching. A 24-item questionnaire consisted of respondent backgrounds, his or her use of student-centered teaching methods, and awareness of the school's educational objectives and curricular principles was administered of faculty members at a private medical school in Korea. Descriptive statistics and chi-square analysis were conducted to compare faculty use of student-centered approaches across different backgrounds and awareness of curricular principles. Overall response rate was 70% (N=140/200), approximately 25% (n=34) of whom were using student-centered teaching methods. Distributions in the faculty use of student-centered teaching methods were significantly higher among basic sciences faculty (versus clinical sciences faculty), with teaching experiences of over 10 years (versus less than 10 years), and who were aware of the school's educational objectives and curricular principles. Our study indicates differences in medical faculty's practice of student-centered teaching across disciplines, teaching experiences, and their understanding of the school's educational objectives curricular principles. These findings have implications for faculty development and institutional support to better promote faculty use of student-centered teaching approaches.

  11. Factor VII deficiency: a single-center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salcioglu, Zafer; Akcay, Arzu; Sen, Hulya Sayilan; Aydogan, Gonul; Akici, Ferhan; Tugcu, Deniz; Ayaz, Nuray Aktay; Baslar, Zafer

    2012-11-01

    Congenital factor VII deficiency is the most common form of rare coagulation factor deficiencies. This article presents a retrospective evaluation of 73 factor VII deficiency cases that had been followed at our center. The study consisted of 48 males and 25 females (2 months-19 years). Thirty-one (42.5%) of them were asymptomatic. Out of symptomatic patients, 17 had severe clinical symptoms, whereas 8 presented with moderate and 17 with mild symptoms. The symptoms listed in order of frequency were as follows: epistaxis, petechia or ecchymose, easy bruising, and oral cavity bleeding. The genotype was determined in 8 patients. Recombinant activated factor VII (rFVIIa) was used to treat 49 bleeding episodes in 8 patients after 2002. In 2 patients with repeated central nervous system bleeding prophylaxis with rFVIIa was administered. No allergic and thrombotic events were observed during both treatment and prophylaxis courses. Antibody occurrence was not detected in the patients during treatment.

  12. Observation of Beam Driven Modes during Neutral Beam Heating on the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fredrickson, E.D.; Gorelenkov, E.D.; Cheng, C.Z.; Bell, R.; Darrow, D.; Johnson, D.; Kaye, S.; LeBlanc, B.; Menard, J.; Kubota, S.; Peebles, W.

    2001-01-01

    With the first injection of neutral beams on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX), a broad and complicated spectrum of coherent modes was seen between approximately 0.4 MHz and 2.5 MHz [where f(subscript ''ci'')] for deuterium is approximately 2.2 MHz. The modes have been observed with high bandwidth magnetic pick-up coils and with a reflectometer. The parametric scaling of the mode frequency with density and magnetic field is consistent with Alfvenic modes (linear in B, inversely with the square root of density). These modes have been identified as magnetosonic waves or compressional Alfven eigenmodes (CAE) excited by a cyclotron resonance with the neutral-beam ions. Modes have also been observed in the frequency range 50-150 kHz with toroidal mode numbers n = 1-5. These lower frequency modes are thought to be related to the TAE [Toroidal Alfven Eigenmode] seen commonly in tokamaks and driven by energetic fast ion populations resulting from ICRF [ion cyclotron range of frequency] and NBI [neutral-beam injection] heating. There is no clear indication of enhanced fast ion losses associated with the modes

  13. Liquid-metal plasma-facing component research on the National Spherical Torus Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaworski, M. A.; Khodak, A.; Kaita, R.

    2013-12-01

    Liquid metal plasma-facing components (PFCs) have been proposed as a means of solving several problems facing the creation of economically viable fusion power reactors. Liquid metals face critical issues in three key areas: free-surface stability, material migration and demonstration of integrated scenarios. To date, few demonstrations exist of this approach in a diverted tokamak and we here provide an overview of such work on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX). The liquid lithium divertor (LLD) was installed and operated for the 2010 run campaign using evaporated coatings as the filling method. Despite a nominal liquid level exceeding the capillary structure and peak current densities into the PFCs exceeding 100 kA m-2, no macroscopic ejection events were observed. The stability can be understood from a Rayleigh-Taylor instability analysis. Capillary restraint and thermal-hydraulic considerations lead to a proposed liquid-metal PFCs scheme of actively-supplied, capillary-restrained systems. Even with state-of-the-art cooling techniques, design studies indicate that the surface temperature with divertor-relevant heat fluxes will still reach temperatures above 700 °C. At this point, one would expect significant vapor production from a liquid leading to a continuously vapor-shielded regime. Such high-temperature liquid lithium PFCs may be possible on the basis of momentum-balance arguments.

  14. Health care employee perceptions of patient-centered care.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balbale, Salva Najib; Turcios, Stephanie; LaVela, Sherri L

    2015-03-01

    Given the importance of health care employees in the delivery of patient-centered care, understanding their unique perspectives is essential for quality improvement. The purpose of this study was to use photovoice to evaluate perceptions and experiences around patient-centered care among U.S. Veterans Affairs (VA) health care employees. We asked participants to take photographs of salient features in their environment related to patient-centered care. We used the photographs to facilitate dialogue during follow-up interviews. Twelve VA health care employees across two VA sites participated in the project. Although most participants felt satisfied with their work environment and experiences at the VA, they identified several areas for improvement. These included a need for more employee health and wellness initiatives and a need for enhanced opportunities for training and professional growth. Application of photovoice enabled us to learn about employees' unique perspectives around patient-centered care while engaging them in an evaluation of care delivery. © The Author(s) 2014.

  15. Diversity leadership: the Rush University Medical Center experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clapp, J R

    2010-01-01

    Meeting the challenges of diversity is crucial, and within healthcare organizations a particularly strong case exists for a diversity strategy. Rush University Medical Center in 2006 was at an important juncture. Since its founding, the organization had made notable progress toward advancing diversity and inclusiveness. On the other hand, many diversity-related problems continued. Rush convened a committee to review the work of the institution in this area. The committee's report called for changes, and a Diversity Leadership Group (DLG) model was established. T