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Sample records for experiment mice study

  1. An Empirical Study of User Experience on Touch Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chou, Jyh Rong

    2016-01-01

    The touch mouse is a new type of computer mouse that provides users with a new way of touch-based environment to interact with computers. For more than a decade, user experience (UX) has grown into a core concept of human-computer interaction (HCI), describing a user's perceptions and responses that result from the use of a product in a particular…

  2. Role of PPAR-δ in the development of zymosan-induced multiple organ failure: an experiment mice study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapoor Amar

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR-beta/delta is a nuclear receptor transcription factor that regulates gene expression in many important biological processes. It is expressed ubiquitously, especially white adipose tissue, heart, muscle, intestine, placenta and macrophages but many of its functions are unknown. Saturated and polyunsaturated fatty acids activate PPAR-beta/delta, but physiological ligands have not yet been identified. In the present study, we investigated the anti-inflammatory effects of PPAR-beta/delta activation, through the use of GW0742 (0,3 mg/kg 10% Dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO i.p, a synthetic high affinity ligand, on the development of zymosan-induced multiple organ failure (MOF. Methods Multiple organ failure (MOF was induced in mice by administration of zymosan (given at 500 mg/kg, i.p. as a suspension in saline. The control groups were treated with vehicle (0.25 ml/mouse saline, while the pharmacological treatment was the administration of GW0742 (0,3 mg/kg 10% DMSO i.p. 1 h and 6 h after zymosan administration. MOF and systemic inflammation in mice was assessed 18 hours after administration of zymosan. Results Treatment with GW0742 caused a significant reduction of the peritoneal exudate formation and of the neutrophil infiltration caused by zymosan resulting in a reduction in myeloperoxidase activity. The PPAR-beta/delta agonist, GW0742, at the dose of 0,3 mg/kg in 10% DMSO, also attenuated the multiple organ dysfunction syndrome caused by zymosan. In pancreas, lung and gut, immunohistochemical analysis of some end points of the inflammatory response, such as inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS, nitrotyrosine, poly (ADP-ribose (PAR, TNF- and IL-1as well as FasL, Bax, Bcl-2 and apoptosis, revealed positive staining in sections of tissue obtained from zymosan-injected mice. On the contrary, these parameters were markedly reduced in samples obtained from mice treated with GW0742

  3. Sexual experience and successful mating in staggerer mutant mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guastavino, J M

    1982-06-01

    The behavioural study of the mutation staggerer has shown that under particular rearing conditions, the affected mice can live at least 19 months and can breed. Ten percent (10%) of males and more than 50% of females mated dmore than once. To intercross these it was necessary, most of the time, for them to have had previous sexual experience with a normal mouse. Copyright © 1982. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. Analysis of Different Approaches for the Selection of Reference Genes in RT-qPCR Experiments: A Case Study in Skeletal Muscle of Growing Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piazza, Verónica G; Bartke, Andrzej; Miquet, Johanna G; Sotelo, Ana I

    2017-05-16

    The reliability of reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR) results in gene expression studies depends on the approaches used to account for non-biological variations. In order to find a proper normalization strategy for the study of genes related to growth hormone signaling in skeletal muscle of growing mice, nine unrelated genes were evaluated as internal controls. According to the most used algorithms-geNorm, the Comparative ΔCq method, NormFinder and BestKeeper-GSK3B, YWHAZ, RPL13A and RN18S were found as the most stable. However, the relative expression levels of eight of the potential reference genes assessed decreased with age in cDNA samples obtained from the same amount of total RNA. In a different approach to analyze this apparent discrepancy, experiments were performed with cDNA obtained from equal amounts of purified mRNA. Since the decline was still observed, the hypothesis of an age-related change in mRNA to total RNA ratio that could account for the systematic decrease was rejected. Differences among experimental groups could be due to a substantial increase with age in highly expressed mRNAs, which would bias the quantitation of the remaining genes. Consequently, those reference genes reflecting this dilution effect, which would have been discarded considering their variable relative expression levels, arose as suitable internal controls.

  5. Persistent conditioned place preference to aggression experience in adult male sexually-experienced CD-1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golden, S A; Aleyasin, H; Heins, R; Flanigan, M; Heshmati, M; Takahashi, A; Russo, S J; Shaham, Y

    2017-01-01

    We recently developed a conditioned place preference (CPP) procedure, commonly used to study rewarding drug effects, to demonstrate that dominant sexually-experienced CD-1 male mice form CPP to contexts previously associated with defeating subordinate male C57BL/6J mice. Here we further characterized conditioned and unconditioned aggression behavior in CD-1 mice. In Exp. 1 we used CD-1 mice that displayed a variable spectrum of unconditioned aggressive behavior toward younger subordinate C57BL/6J intruder mice. We then trained the CD-1 mice in the CPP procedure where one context was intruder-paired, while a different context was not. We then tested for aggression CPP 1 day after training. In Exp. 2, we tested CD-1 mice for aggression CPP 1 day and 18 days after training. In Exp. 3-4, we trained the CD-1 mice to lever-press for palatable food and tested them for footshock punishment-induced suppression of food-reinforced responding. In Exp. 5, we characterized unconditioned aggression in hybrid CD-1 × C57BL/6J D1-Cre or D2-Cre F1 generation crosses. Persistent aggression CPP was observed in CD-1 mice that either immediately attacked C57BL/6J mice during all screening sessions or mice that gradually developed aggressive behavior during the screening phase. In contrast, CD-1 mice that did not attack the C57BL/6J mice during screening did not develop CPP to contexts previously paired with C57BL/6J mice. The aggressive phenotype did not predict resistance to punishment-induced suppression of food-reinforced responding. CD-1 × D1-Cre or D2-Cre F1 transgenic mice showed strong unconditioned aggression. Our study demonstrates that aggression experience causes persistent CPP and introduces transgenic mice for circuit studies of aggression. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  6. A Wedge Absorber Experiment at MICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neuffer, David [Fermilab; Mohayai, Tanaz [IIT, Chicago; Rogers, Chris [Rutherford; Snopok, Pavel [IIT, Chicago; Summers, Don [Mississippi U.

    2017-05-01

    Emittance exchange mediated by wedge absorbers is required for longitudinal ionization cooling and for final transverse emittance minimization for a muon collider. A wedge absorber within the MICE beam line could serve as a demonstration of the type of emittance exchange needed for 6-D cooling, including the configurations needed for muon colliders, as well as configurations for low-energy muon sources. Parameters for this test are explored in simulation and possible experimental configurations with simulated results are presented.

  7. The Mice Drawer System (MDS experiment and the space endurance record-breaking mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ranieri Cancedda

    Full Text Available The Italian Space Agency, in line with its scientific strategies and the National Utilization Plan for the International Space Station (ISS, contracted Thales Alenia Space Italia to design and build a spaceflight payload for rodent research on ISS: the Mice Drawer System (MDS. The payload, to be integrated inside the Space Shuttle middeck during transportation and inside the Express Rack in the ISS during experiment execution, was designed to function autonomously for more than 3 months and to involve crew only for maintenance activities. In its first mission, three wild type (Wt and three transgenic male mice over-expressing pleiotrophin under the control of a bone-specific promoter (PTN-Tg were housed in the MDS. At the time of launch, animals were 2-months old. MDS reached the ISS on board of Shuttle Discovery Flight 17A/STS-128 on August 28(th, 2009. MDS returned to Earth on November 27(th, 2009 with Shuttle Atlantis Flight ULF3/STS-129 after 91 days, performing the longest permanence of mice in space. Unfortunately, during the MDS mission, one PTN-Tg and two Wt mice died due to health status or payload-related reasons. The remaining mice showed a normal behavior throughout the experiment and appeared in excellent health conditions at landing. During the experiment, the mice health conditions and their water and food consumption were daily checked. Upon landing mice were sacrificed, blood parameters measured and tissues dissected for subsequent analysis. To obtain as much information as possible on microgravity-induced tissue modifications, we organized a Tissue Sharing Program: 20 research groups from 6 countries participated. In order to distinguish between possible effects of the MDS housing conditions and effects due to the near-zero gravity environment, a ground replica of the flight experiment was performed at the University of Genova. Control tissues were collected also from mice maintained on Earth in standard vivarium cages.

  8. The Mice Drawer System (MDS) Experiment and the Space Endurance Record-Breaking Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancedda, Ranieri; Liu, Yi; Ruggiu, Alessandra; Tavella, Sara; Biticchi, Roberta; Santucci, Daniela; Schwartz, Silvia; Ciparelli, Paolo; Falcetti, Giancarlo; Tenconi, Chiara; Cotronei, Vittorio; Pignataro, Salvatore

    2012-01-01

    The Italian Space Agency, in line with its scientific strategies and the National Utilization Plan for the International Space Station (ISS), contracted Thales Alenia Space Italia to design and build a spaceflight payload for rodent research on ISS: the Mice Drawer System (MDS). The payload, to be integrated inside the Space Shuttle middeck during transportation and inside the Express Rack in the ISS during experiment execution, was designed to function autonomously for more than 3 months and to involve crew only for maintenance activities. In its first mission, three wild type (Wt) and three transgenic male mice over-expressing pleiotrophin under the control of a bone-specific promoter (PTN-Tg) were housed in the MDS. At the time of launch, animals were 2-months old. MDS reached the ISS on board of Shuttle Discovery Flight 17A/STS-128 on August 28th, 2009. MDS returned to Earth on November 27th, 2009 with Shuttle Atlantis Flight ULF3/STS-129 after 91 days, performing the longest permanence of mice in space. Unfortunately, during the MDS mission, one PTN-Tg and two Wt mice died due to health status or payload-related reasons. The remaining mice showed a normal behavior throughout the experiment and appeared in excellent health conditions at landing. During the experiment, the mice health conditions and their water and food consumption were daily checked. Upon landing mice were sacrificed, blood parameters measured and tissues dissected for subsequent analysis. To obtain as much information as possible on microgravity-induced tissue modifications, we organized a Tissue Sharing Program: 20 research groups from 6 countries participated. In order to distinguish between possible effects of the MDS housing conditions and effects due to the near-zero gravity environment, a ground replica of the flight experiment was performed at the University of Genova. Control tissues were collected also from mice maintained on Earth in standard vivarium cages. PMID:22666312

  9. Firn Model Intercomparison Experiment (FirnMICE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lundin, Jessica M.D.; Stevens, C. Max; Arthern, Robert

    2017-01-01

    Evolution of cold dry snow and firn plays important roles in glaciology; however, the physical formulation of a densification law is still an active research topic. We forced eight firn-densification models and one seasonal-snow model in six different experiments by imposing step changes in tempe...

  10. Procedures for behavioral experiments in head-fixed mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zengcai V Guo

    Full Text Available The mouse is an increasingly prominent model for the analysis of mammalian neuronal circuits. Neural circuits ultimately have to be probed during behaviors that engage the circuits. Linking circuit dynamics to behavior requires precise control of sensory stimuli and measurement of body movements. Head-fixation has been used for behavioral research, particularly in non-human primates, to facilitate precise stimulus control, behavioral monitoring and neural recording. However, choice-based, perceptual decision tasks by head-fixed mice have only recently been introduced. Training mice relies on motivating mice using water restriction. Here we describe procedures for head-fixation, water restriction and behavioral training for head-fixed mice, with a focus on active, whisker-based tactile behaviors. In these experiments mice had restricted access to water (typically 1 ml/day. After ten days of water restriction, body weight stabilized at approximately 80% of initial weight. At that point mice were trained to discriminate sensory stimuli using operant conditioning. Head-fixed mice reported stimuli by licking in go/no-go tasks and also using a forced choice paradigm using a dual lickport. In some cases mice learned to discriminate sensory stimuli in a few trials within the first behavioral session. Delay epochs lasting a second or more were used to separate sensation (e.g. tactile exploration and action (i.e. licking. Mice performed a variety of perceptual decision tasks with high performance for hundreds of trials per behavioral session. Up to four months of continuous water restriction showed no adverse health effects. Behavioral performance correlated with the degree of water restriction, supporting the importance of controlling access to water. These behavioral paradigms can be combined with cellular resolution imaging, random access photostimulation, and whole cell recordings.

  11. P-glycoprotein interaction with risperidone and 9-OH-risperidone studied in vitro, in knock-out mice and in drug-drug interaction experiments

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ejsing, Thomas B.; Pedersen, Anne D.; Linnet, Kristian

    2005-01-01

    P-glycoprotein, risperidone, nortriptyline, cyclosporine A, drug-drug interaction, blood-brain barrier, knock-out mice......P-glycoprotein, risperidone, nortriptyline, cyclosporine A, drug-drug interaction, blood-brain barrier, knock-out mice...

  12. Comparative studies on the effects of the nootropic drugs adafenoxate, meclofenoxate and piracetam, and of citicholine on scopolamine-impaired memory, exploratory behavior and physical capabilities (experiments on rats and mice).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petkov, V D; Mosharrof, A H; Petkov, V V

    1988-01-01

    The effects of adafenoxate (Adf), meclofenoxate (Mf), piracetam (Pc), and citicholine (CCh) on scopolamine (Scop)--impaired memory and exploratory behavior (experiments on rats) and on physical capabilities (experiments on mice) were studied. In the experiments with scopolamine (2 mg/kg i.p.) we used the step-through passive avoidance method to determine the memory changes. In the case of single treatment with the drugs tested scopolamine was injected immediately after training and Adf, Mf, and CCh at doses of 20 and 100 mg/kg and Pc at a dose of 100 mg/kg were administered immediately after scopolamine. In the case of multiple administration the drugs were applied at the same doses for 7 days before training. Scopolamine was injected immediately after training. Retention tests were given 3 and 24 hours later. All the four drugs tested prevented to a large extent or completely the scopolamine-induced retrograde amnesia. However, significant quantitative differences in the antiamnestic effects of the drugs tested were observed. The effects of the four drugs on exploratory behavior were tested in the Opto Varimex apparatus. After 7-day treatment with the drugs at the doses utilized, the behavior of experimental animals was observed for 10 min, checking out the changes in the frequency of rearing, ambulation, and rotation. Only Adf at a dose of 50 mg/kg significantly decreased rearing and ambulation frequencies; this effect was considered to be an expression of accelerated habituation. The physical capabilities of mice were studied, using the method of treadmill (revolving drum activity cage) training. Before the experiment the mice received orally Adf, Mf, and Pc at a dose of 100 mg/kg or were injected intraperitoneally with CCh at doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg once daily for 7 days. The number of revolutions of the drum cages was counted for 4 hours. Only Pc significantly increased the physical capabilities of mice and much delayed the occurrence of fatigue.

  13. Project Management Web Tools at the MICE experiment

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    Project management tools like Trac are commonly used within the open-source community to coordinate projects. The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) uses the project management web application Redmine to host mice.rl.ac.uk. Many groups within the experiment have a Redmine project: analysis, computing and software (including offline, online, controls and monitoring, and database subgroups), executive board, and operations. All of these groups use the website to communicate, track effort, develop schedules, and maintain documentation. The issue tracker is a rich tool that is used to identify tasks and monitor progress within groups on timescales ranging from immediate and unexpected problems to milestones that cover the life of the experiment. It allows the prioritization of tasks according to time-sensitivity, while providing a searchable record of work that has been done. This record of work can be used to measure both individual and overall group activity, identify areas lacking sufficient personne...

  14. Oestrogen-independent, experience-induced maternal behaviour in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolzenberg, D S; Rissman, E F

    2011-04-01

    Nulliparous female mice that have not experienced mating, pregnancy or parturition show near immediate spontaneous maternal behaviour when presented with foster pups. The fact that virgin mice display spontaneous maternal behaviour indicates that the hormonal events of pregnancy and parturition are not necessary to produce a rapid onset of maternal behaviour in mice. However, it is not known how similar maternal behaviour is between virgin and lactating mice. In the present study, we show that naturally postpartum females are faster to retrieve pups and spend more time crouching over pups than spontaneously maternal virgin females, and that these differences diminish with increased maternal experience. Moreover, 4 days of experience with pups induced pup retrieval on a novel T-maze. Furthermore, the effects of experience on subsequent maternal responsiveness are not dependent on gonadal hormones because ovariectomised females with 4 days of pup experience show pup retrieval on a novel T-maze similar to that of postpartum mice. Four days of maternal experience also induced T-maze pup retrieval in ovariectomised aromatase knockout female mice that was not significantly different from the maternal responsiveness of ovariectomised wild-type littermates. These data suggest that maternal experience can induce maternal behaviour in females that have never been exposed to oestradiol at any time in development or adulthood. Finally, ovariectomised pup-experienced females continue to retrieve pups on a novel T-maze 1 month after the initial experience, suggesting that, even in the absence of oestradiol, maternal experience produces long-lasting modifications in maternal responsiveness. © 2011 The Authors. Journal of Neuroendocrinology © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  15. Early postnatal motor experience shapes the motor properties of C57BL/6J adult mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serradj, Nadjet; Picquet, Florence; Jamon, Marc

    2013-11-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the long-term consequences of early motor training on the muscle phenotype and motor output of middle-aged C57BL/6J mice. Neonatal mice were subjected to a variety of motor training procedures, for 3 weeks during the period of acquisition of locomotion. These procedures are widely used for motor training in adults; they include enriched environment, forced treadmill, chronic centrifugation, and hindlimb suspension. At 9 months, the mice reared in the enriched environment showed a slower type of fibre in slow muscles and a faster type in fast muscles, improved performance in motor tests, and a modified gait and body posture while walking. The proportion of fibres in the postural muscles of centrifuged mice did not change, but these mice showed improved resistance to fatigue. The suspended mice showed increased persistence of immature hybrid fibres in the tibialis, with a slower shift in the load-bearing soleus, without any behavioural changes. The forced treadmill was very stressful for the mice, but had limited effects on motor output, although a slower profile was observed in the tibialis. These results support the hypothesis that motor experience during a critical period of motor development shapes muscle phenotype and motor output. The different impacts of the various training procedures suggest that motor performance in adults can be optimized by appropriate training during a defined period of motor development. © 2013 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  16. Data management and database framework for the MICE experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martyniak, J.; Nebrensky, J. J.; Rajaram, D.; MICE Collaboration

    2017-10-01

    The international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) currently operating at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in the UK, is designed to demonstrate the principle of muon ionization cooling for application to a future Neutrino Factory or Muon Collider. We present the status of the framework for the movement and curation of both raw and reconstructed data. A raw data-mover has been designed to safely upload data files onto permanent tape storage as soon as they have been written out. The process has been automated, and checks have been built in to ensure the integrity of data at every stage of the transfer. The data processing framework has been recently redesigned in order to provide fast turnaround of reconstructed data for analysis. The automated reconstruction is performed on a dedicated machine in the MICE control room and any reprocessing is done at Tier-2 Grid sites. In conjunction with this redesign, a new reconstructed-data-mover has been designed and implemented. We also review the implementation of a robust database system that has been designed for MICE. The processing of data, whether raw or Monte Carlo, requires accurate knowledge of the experimental conditions. MICE has several complex elements ranging from beamline magnets to particle identification detectors to superconducting magnets. A Configuration Database, which contains information about the experimental conditions (magnet currents, absorber material, detector calibrations, etc.) at any given time has been developed to ensure accurate and reproducible simulation and reconstruction. A fully replicated, hot-standby database system has been implemented with a firewall-protected read-write master running in the control room, and a read-only slave running at a different location. The actual database is hidden from end users by a Web Service layer, which provides platform and programming language-independent access to the data.

  17. Reflex penile erection in anesthetized mice: an exploratory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, J; Edmunds, N J

    2008-07-31

    Ejaculatory-like rhythmic contractions of the bulbospongiosus (BS) muscle and penile erection can be elicited in the urethane-anesthetized rat, following spinal cord transection, upon electrical stimulation (ES) of the dorsal penile nerve (DPN). The aim of this work was to investigate this reflex in anesthetized mice. Adult C57BL6 mice were anesthetized with isoflurane. The BS muscle and corpus cavernosum were instrumented to allow quantification of the BS muscle electromyographic activity (BS EMG) and intracavernosal pressure respectively. The femoral artery and jugular vein were catheterized to allow measurement of blood pressure and compound administration. ES of the DPN, via bipolar silver electrodes, reliably evoked erectile responses in mice with intact spinal cords. The overall amplitude of the erectile response was frequency- and pulse duration-dependent. Erectile responses were abolished by bilateral cut of the sensory branch of the pudendal nerve. Transection of the spinal cord potentiated the erectile responses and increased the area under the curve of the BS EMG when compared with those animals with intact spinal cords. However, no coordinated rhythmic contractions of the BS muscle during or after the ES could be observed, with or without spinal transection. Melanotan-II failed to enhance the erectile response induced by ES of the DPN, in mice with intact spinal cords. ES of the DPN in isoflurane-anesthetized mice could be a useful model in which to study the interplay between brain and spinal cord in the control of reflex penile erection, and could take advantage of knockout mice models. However, the lack of efficacy of Melanotan-II suggests that further experiments are necessary to confirm the future utility of this model. In contrast to rats, the expulsion reflex could not be reliably elicited in mice with or without spinal transection. This latter finding suggests the existence of fundamental differences in the organization of the spinal network

  18. Study of interaction of tramadol with amlodipine in mice

    OpenAIRE

    Hiral Modi; Bipa Mazumdar; Jagatkumar Bhatt

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study a possible interaction between tramadol, an opioid analgesic and amlodipine, a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker with proposed antinociceptive property. Materials and Methods: Albino mice of Haffkine strain were used for the study. The experiment was carried out using tail-flick method. Different doses of tramadol (50 mg/kg, 22.8 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg) were administered intraperitoneally to select the nonanalgesic dose. The animals were treated with different doses o...

  19. A Sensitivity Study for a MICE Liquid Hydrogen Absorber

    OpenAIRE

    Errede, D.; Rakhno, I.

    2004-01-01

    The International Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) is devoted to a study of a muon cooling channel capable of giving the desired performance for a Neutrino Factory. One of the goals is achieving an absolute accuracy of measurements of emittance reduction as high as 0.1%. The paper describes results of a Monte Carlo study on allowed density variations of liquid hydrogen corresponding to the desired accuracy of the measurements.

  20. Radioprotectors and Tumors: Molecular Studies in Mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gayle Woloschak, David Grdina

    2010-03-10

    This proposal investigated effects of radiation using a set of archival tissues. Main interests of this proposal were to investigate effects of irradiation alone or in the presence or radioprotectors; to investigate these effects on different tissues; and to use/develop molecular biology techniques that would be suitable for work with archived tissues. This work resulted in several manuscripts published or in preparation. Approach for evaluation of gene copy numbers by quantitative real time PCR has been developed and we are striving to establish methods to utilize Q-RT-PCR data to evaluate genomic instability caused by irradiation(s) and accompanying treatments. References: 1. Paunesku D, Paunesku T, Wahl A, Kataoka Y, Murley J, Grdina DJ, Woloschak GE. Incidence of tissue toxicities in gamma ray and fission neutron-exposed mice treated with Amifostine. Int J Radiat Biol. 2008, 84(8):623-34. PMID: 18661379, http://informahealthcare.com/doi/full/10.1080/09553000802241762?cookieSet=1 2. Wang Q, Paunesku T and Woloschak GE. Tissue and data archives from irradiation experiments conducted at Argonne National Laboratory over a period of four decades, in press in Radiation and Environmental Biophysics. 3. Alcantara M, Paunesku D, Rademaker A, Paunesku T and Woloschak GE. A RETROSPECTIVE ANALYSIS OF TISSUE TOXICITIES IN B6CF1 MICE IRRADIATED WITH FISSION NEUTRONS OR COBALT 60 GAMMA RAYS: Gender modulates accumulation of tissue toxicities caused by low dose rate fractionated irradiation; in preparation; this document has been uploaded as STI product 4. Wang Q, Paunesku T Wanzer B and Woloschak GE. Mitochondrial gene copy number differences in different tissues of irradiated and control mice with lymphoid cancers; in preparation 5. Wang Q, Raha, S, Paunesku T and Woloschak GE. Evaluation of gene copy number differences in different tissues of irradiated and control mice; in preparation

  1. STUDIES ON TRANSMISSIBLE LYMPHOID LEUCEMIA OF MICE.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furth, J; Strumia, M

    1931-04-30

    Lymphoid leucemia of the mouse is readily transmitted by intravenous inoculations. The majority of the mice inoculated successfully develop leucemic, a smaller number of them, aleucemic lymphadenosis. The data presented favor the view that leucemic and aleucemic lymphadenosis are essentially the same condition. Leucemia produced by transmission is preceded by an aleucemic stage, in which the lymph nodes and the spleen are uniformly enlarged, and the white blood count and the percentage of lymphocytes are within the normal range but immature lymphocytes are numerous in the circulating blood. Young as well as old mice may develop leucemia if leucotic material enters their circulation. Studies of transmissible leucemia favor the view that leucemia of mammals is a neoplastic disease. The basic problem of leucemia would seem to be determination of the factors that bring about a malignant transformation of lymphoid cells.

  2. Association studies of lung function in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ganguly, K; Schulz, H

    2008-07-01

    Chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) is the fourth leading cause of death worldwide and an accelerating decline of lung function is the earliest and a major indicator of the onset of COPD. Therefore it has become necessary to understand the genetic basis of this complex physiological trait in order to determine the potential susceptibility factors of this disease. REINHARD et al (2005) performed the genome wide linkage analysis study with inbred mice having extremely divergent lung function (C3H/HeJ versus JF1/Msf) and identified multiple Quantitative Trait Loci (QTLs) on mouse chromosomes (mCh) 5, 15, 17, and 19 with Logarithm of odd (LOD) scores > or = 4. Significant linkages to total lung capacity (TLC) were detected on mCh 15 and 17, to dead space volume (VD) and lung compliance (C(L)) on mCh 5 and 15, to C(L) on mCh 19, and to diffusing capacity for CO (D(co)) on mCh 15 and 17. Several of the mouse chromosomal regions identified were syntenic to human chromosomal regions identified with linkage to FEV1 (forced expiratory volume-1 second), FVC (forced vital capacity), or FEV1/FVC in separate studies. Using a systematic approach of expression QTL (e-QTL) strategy and exon-wise sequencing of suggested candidate genes followed by predicted protein structure and property, GANGULY et al (2007) recently proposed four candidate genes for lung function in mice. They are superoxide dismutase 3, extracellular [SOD3; mCh 5: V(D)], trefoil factor 2 (TFF2; mCh 17: TLC and D(co)), ectonucleotide pyrophosphatase/phosphodiesterase 2 (ENPP2; mCh 15:TLC and C(L)), and relaxin 1 (RLN1; mCh 19; CL and CL/TLC). As a part of functional validation, gene-targeted Sod3-/- mice were detected with increased conducting airway volume (V(D)/TLC) compared with strain-matched control Sod3+/+ mice, consistent with the QTL on mCh 5. Findings with gene-targeted mice suggested that SOD3 is a contributing factor defining the complex trait of conducting airway volume. The human variation in

  3. Minimum Information about a Cardiac Electrophysiology Experiment (MICEE)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Quinn, T A; Granite, S; Allessie, M A

    2011-01-01

    (MICEE). The ultimate goal is to develop a useful tool for cardiac electrophysiologists which facilitates and improves dissemination of the minimum information necessary for reproduction of cardiac electrophysiology research, allowing for easier comparison and utilisation of findings by others...

  4. [Effect of mu- and kappa-opioid receptor antagonists on aggressiveness of male mice with repeated experience of aggression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bondar', N P

    2012-06-01

    Mu and kappa opioid receptors often show opposite actions in the regulation ofphysiological functions and behaviors including aggressive behavior. In the present study, effects ofmu antagonist CTAP (1 and 2 mg/kg, sc) and kappa antagonist nor-BNI (0.5 mg/kg, sc) on the manifestation of aggressive behavior of C57BL/6J male mice with a short (3 days) and a long (20 days) experience of victories in daily intermale confrontations were investigated. It was shown that the mice with a short experience of aggression are tolerant to blockade of both mu and kappa opioid receptors. In the mice with a long experience of aggression, CTAP increased latency of aggression in dose-dependent manner, but did not change the duration of attacks. Nor-BNI had no influence on the behavior of the male mice with a long experience of aggression in the intermale confrontation. The possible changes in opioid receptor sensitivity in C57BL/6J male mice under the influence ofa long experience of aggression are discussed.

  5. Oestrogen-independent, experience-induced maternal behaviour in female mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stolzenberg, Danielle S.; Rissman, Emilie F.

    2011-01-01

    Nulliparous female mice that have not experienced mating, pregnancy, or parturition show near immediate spontaneous maternal behaviour when presented with foster pups. The fact that virgin mice display spontaneous maternal behaviour indicates that the hormonal events of pregnancy and parturition are not necessary to produce a rapid onset of maternal behaviour in mice. However, it is not known how similar maternal behaviour is between virgin and lactating mice. Here we show that naturally postpartum females are faster to retrieve pups and spend more time crouching over pups than spontaneously maternal virgin females, but these differences diminish with increased maternal experience. Moreover, 4 days of experience with pups induced pup retrieval on a novel T-maze. Further, the effects of experience on subsequent maternal responsiveness are not dependent on gonadal hormones as ovariectomised females with 4 days of pup experience show similar pup retrieval on a novel T-maze as postpartum mice. Four days of maternal experience also induced T-maze pup retrieval in ovariectomised aromatase knockout female mice that was not significantly different from the maternal responsiveness of ovariectomised wildtype littermates. These data suggest that maternal experience can induce maternal behaviour in females that have never been exposed to oestradiol at any time in development or adulthood. Finally, ovariectomised pup-experienced females continue to retrieve pups on a novel T-maze one month after the initial experience, suggesting that, even in the absence of oestradiol, maternal experience produces long-lasting modifications in maternal responsiveness. PMID:21276101

  6. The MICE Muon Beam on ISIS and the beam-line instrumentation of the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bogomilov, M.; Karadzhov, Y.; Kolev, D.; Russinov, I.; Tsenov, R.; Vankova-Kirilova, G.; Wang, L.; Xu, F. Y.; Zheng, S. X.; Bertoni, R.; Bonesini, M.; Ferri, F.; Lucchini, G.; Mazza, R.; Paleari, F.; Strati, F.; Palladino, V.; Cecchet, G.; Bari, A. de; Capponi, M.; Cirillo, A.; Iaciofano, A.; Manfredini, A.; Parisi, M.; Orestano, D.; Pastore, F.; Tonazzo, A.; Tortora, L.; Mori, Y.; Kuno, Y.; Sakamoto, H.; Sato, A.; Yano, T.; Yoshida, M.; Ishimoto, S.; Suzuki, S.; Yoshimura, K.; Filthaut, F.; Garoby, R.; Gilardoni, S.; Gruber, P.; Hanke, K.; Haseroth, H.; Janot, P.; Lombardi, A.; Ramberger, S.; Vretenar, M.; Bene, P.; Blondel, A.; Cadoux, F.; Graulich, J. -S; Grichine, V.; Gschwendtner, E.; Masciocchi, F.; Sandstrom, R.; Verguilov, V.; Wisting, H.; Petitjean, C.; Seviour, R.; Alexander, J.; Charnley, G.; Collomb, N.; Griffiths, S.; Martlew, B.; Moss, A.; Mullacrane, I.; Oates, A.; Owens, P.; White, C.; York, S.; Adams, D.; Apsimon, R.; Barclay, P.; Baynham, D. E.; Bradshaw, T. W.; Courthold, M.; Drumm, P.; Edgecock, R.; Hayler, T.; Hills, M.; Ivaniouchenkov, Y.; Jones, A.; Lintern, A.; MacWaters, C.; Nelson, C.; Nichols, A.; Preece, R.; Ricciardi, S.; Rochford, J. H.; Rogers, C.; Spensley, W.; Tarrant, J.; Tilley, K.; Watson, S.; Wilson, A.; Forrest, D.; Soler, F. J. P.; Walaron, K.; Cooke, P.; Gamet, R.; Alekou, A.; Apollonio, M.; Barber, G.; Beuselinck, R.; Clark, D.; Clark, I.; Colling, D.; Dobbs, A.; Dornan, P.; Fayer, S.; Fish, A.; Hare, R.; Greenwood, S.; Jamdagni, A.; Kasey, V.; Khaleeq, M.; Leaver, J.; Long, K.; McKigney, E.; Matsushita, T.; Pasternak, J.; Sashalmi, T.; Savidge, T.; Takahashi, M.; Blackmore, V.; Carlisle, T.; Cobb, J. H.; Lau, W.; Rayner, M.; Tunnell, C. D.; Witte, H.; Yang, S.; Booth, C. N.; Hodgson, P.; Howlett, L.; Nicholson, R.; Overton, E.; Robinson, M.; Smith, P.; Adey, D.; Back, J.; Boyd, S.; Harrison, P.; Ellis, M.; Kyberd, P.; Littlefield, M.; Nebrensky, J. J.; Bross, A. D.; Geer, S.; Neuffer, D.; Moretti, A.; Popovic, M.; Cummings, M. A. C.; Roberts, T. J.; DeMello, A.; Green, M. A.; Li, D.; Virostek, S.; Zisman, M. S.; Freemire, B.; Hanlet, P.; Huang, D.; Kafka, G.; Kaplan, D. M.; Snopok, P.; Torun, Y.; Blot, S.; Kim, Y. K.; Bravar, U.; Onel, Y.; Cline, D.; Fukui, Y.; Lee, K.; Yang, X.; Rimmer, R. A.; Cremaldi, L. M.; Gregoire, G.; Hart, T. L.; Sanders, D. A.; Summers, D. J.; Coney, L.; Fletcher, R.; Hanson, G. G.; Heidt, C.; Gallardo, J.; Kahn, S.; Kirk, H.; Palmer, R. B.

    2012-05-01

    The international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE), which is under construction at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), will demonstrate the principle of ionization cooling as a technique for the reduction of the phase-space volume occupied by a muon beam. Ionization cooling channels are required for the Neutrino Factory and the Muon Collider. MICE will evaluate in detail the performance of a single lattice cell of the Feasibility Study 2 cooling channel. The MICE Muon Beam has been constructed at the ISIS synchrotron at RAL, and in MICE Step I, it has been characterized using the MICE beam-instrumentation system. In this paper, the MICE Muon Beam and beam-line instrumentation are described. The muon rate is presented as a function of the beam loss generated by the MICE target dipping into the ISIS proton beam. For a 1 V signal from the ISIS beam-loss monitors downstream of our target we obtain a 30 KHz instantaneous muon rate, with a neglible pion contamination in the beam.

  7. The MICE Muon Beam on ISIS and the beam-line instrumentation of the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Bogomilov, M.; Kolev, D.; Russinov, I.; Tsenov, R.; Vankova-Kirilova, G.; Wang, L.; Xu, F.Y.; Zheng, S.X.; Bertoni, R.; Bonesini, M.; Ferri, F.; Lucchini, G.; Mazza, R.; Paleari, F.; Strati, F.; Palladino, V.; Cecchet, G.; de Bari, A.; Capponi, M.; Cirillo, A.; Iaciofano, A.; Manfredini, A.; Parisi, M.; Orestano, D.; Pastore, F.; Tonazzo, A.; Tortora, L.; Mori, Y.; Kuno, Y.; Sakamoto, H.; Sato, A.; Yano, T.; Yoshida, M.; Ishimoto, S.; Suzuki, S.; Yoshimura, K.; Filthaut, F.; Garoby, R.; Gilardoni, S.; Gruber, P.; Hanke, K.; Haseroth, H.; Janot, P.; Lombardi, A.; Ramberger, S.; Vretenar, M.; Bene, P.; Blondel, A.; Cadoux, F.; Graulich, J.S.; Grichine, V.; Gschwendtner, E.; Masciocchi, F.; Sandstrom, R.; Verguilov, V.; Wisting, H.; Petitjean, C.; Seviour, R.; Alexander, J.; Charnley, G.; Collomb, N.; Griffiths, S.; Martlew, B.; Moss, A.; Mullacrane, I.; Oates, A.; Owens, P.; White, C.; York, S.; Adams, D.; Apsimon, R.; Barclay, P.; Baynham, D.E.; Bradshaw, T.W.; Courthold, M.; Drumm, P.; Edgecock, R.; Hayler, T.; Hills, M.; Ivaniouchenkov, Y.; Jones, A.; Lintern, A.; MacWaters, C.; Nelson, C.; Nichols, A.; Preece, R.; Ricciardi, S.; Rochford, J.H.; Rogers, C.; Spensley, W.; Tarrant, J.; Tilley, K.; Watson, S.; Wilson, A.; Forrest, D.; Soler, F.J.P.; Walaron, K.; Cooke, P.; Gamet, R.; Alekou, A.; Apollonio, M.; Barber, G.; Clark, D.; Clark, I.; Dobbs, A.; Dornan, P.; Fish, A.; Hare, R.; Greenwood, S.; Jamdagni, A.; Kasey, V.; Khaleeq, M.; Leaver, J.; Long, K.; McKigney, E.; Matsushita, T.; Pasternak, J.; Sashalmi, T.; Savidge, T.; Takahashi, M.; Blackmore, V.; Carlisle, T.; Cobb, J.H.; Lau, W.; Rayner, M.; Tunnell, C.D.; Witte, H.; Yang, S.; Booth, C.N.; Hodgson, P.; Howlett, L.; Nicholson, R.; Overton, E.; Robinson, M.; Smith, P.; Adey, D.; Back, J.; Boyd, S.; Harrison, P.; Ellis, M.; Kyberd, P.; Littlefield, M.; Nebrensky, J.J.; Bross, A.D.; Geer, S.; Neuffer, D.; Moretti, A.; Popovic, M.; Cummings, M.A.C.; Roberts, T.J.; DeMello, A.; Green, M.A.; Li, D.; Virostek, S.; Zisman, M.S.; Freemire, B.; Hanlet, P.; Huang, D.; Kafka, G.; Kaplan, D.M.; Snopok, P.; Torun, Y.; Blot, S.; Kim, Y.K.; Bravar, U.; Onel, Y.; Cline, D.; Fukui, Y.; Lee, K.; Yang, X.; Rimmer, R.A.; Cremaldi, L.M.; Gregoire, G.; Hart, T.L.; Sanders, D.A.; Summers, D.J.; Coney, L.; Fletcher, R.; Hanson, G.G.; Heidt, C.; Gallardo, J.; Kahn, S.; Kirk, H.; Palmer, R.B.

    2012-01-01

    The international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE), which is under construction at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL), will demonstrate the principle of ionization cooling as a technique for the reduction of the phase-space volume occupied by a muon beam. Ionization cooling channels are required for the Neutrino Factory and the Muon Collider. MICE will evaluate in detail the performance of a single lattice cell of the Feasibility Study 2 cooling channel. The MICE Muon Beam has been constructed at the ISIS synchrotron at RAL, and in MICE Step I, it has been characterized using the MICE beam-instrumentation system. In this paper, the MICE Muon Beam and beam-line instrumentation are described. The muon rate is presented as a function of the beam loss generated by the MICE target dipping into the ISIS proton beam. For a 1 V signal from the ISIS beam-loss monitors downstream of our target we obtain a 30 KHz muon rate, with a neglible pion contamination in the beam.

  8. Short-term toxicity studies of loline alkaloids in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finch, S C; Munday, J S; Munday, R; Kerby, J W F

    2016-08-01

    Epichloë endophytes have been used successfully in pastoral systems to reduce the impact of insect pests through the expression of secondary metabolites. The use of endophytes could be extended to other plant species, such as cereal crops, where the production of bioactive secondary metabolites would reduce the reliance on pesticides for insect control. The success of this approach is dependent on the selection of an appropriate secondary metabolite target which must not only be effective against insect pests but also be safe for grazing and monogastric animals. The loline alkaloids have been identified as possible target metabolites as they are associated with potent effects on insects and low toxicity to grazing animals. The purpose of the current study was to generate toxicological data on the loline alkaloids in a monogastric system using mice. Male and female mice were fed 415 mg/kg/day total lolines for a 3-week period. The loline treatment caused no statistically significant effect on gross pathology, histology, haematology, blood chemistry, heart rate, blood pressure or motor coordination. Reduced weight gain and food consumption were noted in the loline groups during the initial stages of the experiment. This experiment raises no food safety concerns for the loline alkaloids. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. A Murine Effort Model for Studying the Influence of Trichinella on Muscular Activity of Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionut MARIAN

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Trichinella are nematodes parasitic in the skeletal muscles of terrestrial vertebrates, generally transmitted via predatorism. It is expected that the infection would have certain influences on the muscular activity in infected animals. The aim of the study was to develop an experimental model for studying the muscular effort in laboratory mice prior to the experimental infection with Trichinella and to evaluate the method in trained (with free access to a voluntary activity wheel and untrained (without access to activity wheel animals. Ten laboratory mice (all adult males, equally divided in two groups were used: a control group (untrained mice and a second group (trained. The weight was evaluated individually. The muscular activity was evaluated using an effort-wheel. Values were expressed in instantaneous power (IP and data were recorded using a constant speed of 5 rpm for 5 and 20 minutes. The instantaneous power (IP developed by the effort wheel at 5 minutes was significantly lower in the control group than in trained mice. Similar results were obtained for the maximum power (MP. Interestingly, for the trained mice, there was no difference between the average IP at 5 and 20 minutes of activity. The results show the utility of trained mice, establish the necessary experiment time and validate the method for evaluating the influence of Trichinella spp. on the muscular activity of experimentally infected mice.

  10. Chronotolerance study of the antiepileptic drug valproic acid in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ben-Cherif Wafa

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Valproic acid (VPA is an antiepileptic drug widely used for the treatment of absence seizures and generalized tonic-clonic seizures. The present work aims to study whether VPA-induced toxicity varies according to the dosing-time in the 24 hour-scale. Methods The influence of dosing-time on tolerance to VPA was investigated in 120 male Swiss mice synchronized under a light-dark cycle (12:12. The mean VPA lethal dose was first determined to be 850 ± 0.2 mg/kg, i.p.. Such a dose was administered by i.p. route to a total of 90 mice divided in six circadian stages [1, 5, 9, 13, 17 and 21 Hours After Light Onset (HALO] (15 mice/circadian time; 30 mice were used as control (5 mice / circadian time. Results The surviving treated mice exhibited a significant circadian variation in rectal temperature and body weight loss (p 2 = 42.1, p  Conclusions With regards to these data the optimal tolerance to VPA occurred when the drug was administered in the second half of the light-rest span of mice which is physiologically analogous to the second half of the night for human patients.

  11. [Anxiogenic and anxiolytic effects of lithium chloride under preventive and therapeutic treatments of male mice with repeated experience of aggression].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smagin, D A; Kudryavtseva, N N

    2014-01-01

    Repeated experience of aggression in daily agonistic interactions is accompanied by development of changes in behaviors and psychoemotional states indicating the development of the psychopathology of aggressive behavior, which are difficult to correct by drugs used for decrease of aggression in the clinics. In this paper the influence of lithium chloride on the behavior of aggressive males in different tests assessing anxiety, communication and exploratory activity (elevated plus maze test, social interaction test, partition test), as well as aggressiveness (agonistic interaction test) were studied. Lithium chloride (Sigma-Aldrich Co, 100 mg/kg/day, i.p.) was administered preventively to male in ranging from the 7th day of agonistic interactions, as well as therapeutically to males with 21 days of aggression experience during the period without agonistic interactions. Also the effects of chronic lithium chloride treatment on behaviors of animals without agonistic interactions (intact mice) were studied. Period of drug and saline (as the controls) treatment--14 days. It has been shown that preventive lithium chloride treatment of male mice with repeated experience of aggression induced pronounced anxiogenic effect, under therapeutic treatment--nxiolytic effects. Anxiolytic effect was also observed in intact males. There is no effect of lithium chloride on aggression. Differences in the effects of lithium chloride under preveitive and therapeutic treatments, as well as the causes of individual sensitivity to the drug in male mice in one group were discussed.

  12. Study of interaction of tramadol with amlodipine in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modi, Hiral; Mazumdar, Bipa; Bhatt, Jagatkumar

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study a possible interaction between tramadol, an opioid analgesic and amlodipine, a dihydropyridine calcium channel blocker with proposed antinociceptive property. Materials and Methods: Albino mice of Haffkine strain were used for the study. The experiment was carried out using tail-flick method. Different doses of tramadol (50 mg/kg, 22.8 mg/kg and 10 mg/kg) were administered intraperitoneally to select the nonanalgesic dose. The animals were treated with different doses of amlodipine (2.5 mg/kg, 3.0 mg/kg, 3.5 mg/kg) to study its antinociceptive action. Combination of different doses of both the drugs were administered to study antinociceptive effect of the combination. Results: Tramadol, showed dose dependent antinociception which persisted for entire two hours of the study period. Antinociceptive action was seen with amlodipine at a dose of 3.5 mg/kg. Different doses of amlodipine (2.5 mg/kg, 3.0 mg/kg) in combination with the nonanalgesic dose of tramadol (10 mg/kg) produced a significant enhancement of antinociceptive effect of tramadol. Combination of 3.5 mg/kg dose of amlodipine with nonanalgesic dose of tramadol (10 mg/kg) further enhances antinociceptive activity. Conclusion: It is concluded that combination of amlodipine, a N - type calcium channel blocker, with tramadol produce significant enhancement of antinociceptive activity of tramadol. PMID:23543914

  13. Particle Rate and Host Accelerator Beam Loss on the MICE Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dobbs, Adam James [Imperial College, London (United Kingdom)

    2011-10-01

    A study is presented of particle rates in the MICE Muon Beamline and their relationship to beam loss produced in ISIS. A brief overview of neutrino physics is presented, together with a discussion on the Neutrino Factory as a motivation for MICE. An overview of MICE itself is then presented, highlighting the need for a systematic understanding of the relationship between the MICE target parameters, ISIS beam loss, and MICE particle rate. The variation of beam loss with target depth is examined and observed to be non-linear. The variation of beam loss with respect to the target dip time in the ISIS cycle is examined and observed to be approximately linear for dip times between 11.1 ms and 12.6 ms after ISIS injection, before tailing at earlier dip times. The variation of beam loss with particle rate is also observed to follow an approximately linear relationship from 0.05 V.ms to 4.7 V.ms beam loss, with a further strong indication that this continues up to 7.1 V.ms. Particle identification using time-of-flight data is used to give an insight into the relative abundances of each particle species present in the MICE beam. Estimates of muon rate are then produced as a function of beam loss. At a level of 2 V.ms beam loss ~10.9 muons per spill for a 3.2 ms spill with negative π → μ optics, and ~31.1 muons per 1 ms spill with positive π → μ optics are observed. Simulations using the ORBIT particle tracking code of the beam loss distributions around the ISIS ring, caused by the MICE target, are also presented and the implications for MICE running discussed.

  14. Study of antiseizure effects of Matricaria recutita extract in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heidari, M R; Dadollahi, Z; Mehrabani, M; Mehrabi, H; Pourzadeh-Hosseini, M; Behravan, E; Etemad, L

    2009-08-01

    Matricaria recutita L. is a well-known medicinal plant that is suggested as being carminative, analgesic, and anticonvulsant in traditional medicine. In the present investigation the effect of hydro-methanolic percolated extract of this plant on seizure induced by picrotoxin was studied in male mice. This study was performed on animals pretreated with doses of 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg of extract or 40 mg/kg phenobarbital as the reference drug via intraperitoneal injection. After 20 min each animal received 12 mg/kg picrotoxin for induction of seizure. Latency of onset time of seizure, duration of seizure, death latency, and death rate were determined in experimental and control groups. The results showed that latency of the beginning time of seizure was increased in groups that were pretreated with different doses of extract. The most effective dose was 200 mg/kg (P recutita possesses suitable effects on seizure induced by picrotoxin, and more experiments are needed in this field.

  15. A 24-Weeks Toxicity Study of Eryngium foetidum Linn. Leaves in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janwitthayanuchit, Kanittha; Kupradinun, Piengchai; Rungsipipat, Anudep; Kettawan, Aikkarach; Butryee, Chaniphun

    2016-07-01

    Eryngium foetidum Linn. leaves (EF) are widely used in Thailand and many countries throughout Asia as a culinary seasoning and a traditional medicine. However, adverse effect of high dose consumption in long duration has not been evaluated. The aim of this study was to investigate chronic toxicity of EF in mice. Thirty-two ICR male mice were divided into 4 groups of 8 mice each. The mice were fed AIN-76 rodent diet, or AIN-76 rodent diet supplemented with ground freeze-dried EF at 0.8%, 1.6% and 3.2% that is equivalent to approximately 35, 73 and 155 times that of human consumption, respectively, at 97.5 percentile for a period of 24 weeks. At the end of experiment, the mice were euthanized and blood samples were collected for hematological and biochemical evaluations. Necropsy was performed while visceral organs such as lung, liver, kidneys, spleen etc. were collected, weighed and histopathologically examined. Blood urea nitrogen (BUN) results of mice in 1.6% and 3.2% EF diet groups were significantly higher than the BUN of control group. No significant difference was noted in other biochemical and hematological properties between the treatment groups and control; all results were within normal range. Histopathology of almost all visceral organs showed no significant changes. However, tubulonephrosis and chronic interstitial nephritis were observed in the groups treated with 1.6% and 3.2% EF diet. Body weight was reduced significantly at week 12 to week 20 when compared to the control group while relative kidney weights were significantly increased. In conclusion, the consumption of EF in diet at high doses illustrated the adverse effect on some biochemical parameters and histopathology in mice. Our findings suggested that EF daily consumption for 24 weeks, at higher doses than the 0.8% EF diet (35 times of human consumption), might cause adverse effect on kidney function in mice.

  16. Study on Growth Inhibition of Implanted Tumor in Nude Mice by Antisense Oligodeoxynucleotide Targeting Telomerase RNA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongtao YU

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective Many studies have proven that telomerase plays an important role during the occurrence and development of lung cancer, which has been an important target in gene therapy. The aim of this study is to explore the inhibitory effect of antisense oligodeoxynucleotides (ASODN targeting human telomerase RNA on implanted tumor growth in nude mice. Mothods Implanted tumor models were Constructed in nude mice using human lung adenocarcinoma cell line A549. Eighteen Balb/C nude mice with implanted tumors were divided into three groups randomly: antisense oligodeoxynucleotide group (group ASODN, sense oligodeoxynucleotide group (group SODN, normal saline group (group NS, with 6 mice respectively. ASODs or SODNs mixed with Lipofectamine-2000 was injected into tumor directly every 24 h for fourteen days. Results The inhibitory rates of tumor volume in Group ASODN and Group SODN were 43.94% and 6.91%, respectively. There was significant difference between the two groups (t=6.17, P<0.001. All the animals tolerated the drugs well and there was no nausea, vomiting and subcutaneous hemorrhage to occur during the therapy. The weight of the animals increased slightly at the end of experiment. Conclusion The results of this study suggest that intratumoral injection of human telomerase ribonucleic acid (hTR ASOND could effectively inhibit the growth of implanted tumor in nude mice.

  17. [Comparison of different G-CSF treatment effectiveness in experiments on irradiated mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rozhdestvenskiĭ, L M; Shchegoleva, R A; Deshevoĭ, Iu B; Lisina, N I; Titov, B A

    2012-01-01

    In the experiments on F1 (CBA x C57BL) and BALB mice irradiated by 137Cs gamma-rays, preparations of unglycosilated G-SCF such as Neupogen and their domestic analogs Leucostim and Neupomax were investigated. The tests such as 9-day bone marrow cellularity (BMC) and endogenous CFUs, the neutrophile number restoration, the 30-day survival index have shown that all three preparations have an approximately equal effectiveness relating to acute radiation disease treatment and granulopoiesis stimulation after a 5-10 day consecutive administration following irradiation of mice at lethal and sublethal doses. We have come to the conclusion that Leucostim and Neupomax can be regarded as adequate substitutes for Neupogen.

  18. Behavioral studies of umami: tales told by mice and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Delay, Eugene R; Eddy, Meghan C; Eschle, Benjamin K

    2009-07-01

    Psychophysical research with rats and mice has been instrumental in understanding umami taste transduction and perception. Although early studies suggested that an NMDA-like receptor detected substances that elicit an umami taste, studies using behavioral methods with both rats and mice indicate that the picture is much more complex. When the G protein-coupled receptor T1R1+T1R3 was discovered, it was believed to be the umami receptor and a more broadly tuned L-amino acid receptor. However, since then a number of behavioral studies, like molecular and physiological studies, report evidence that other receptors may contribute to umami taste. For example, T1R3 knockout mice (KO) have only slightly elevated detection thresholds for monosodium glutamate (MSG) and L-alanine. In conditioned taste aversion studies, T1R3 KO mice show bidirectional generalization of the aversion between MSG and L-alanine, suggesting that these substances have similar tastes. However, these KO mice can discriminate between the tastes of the two substances, indicating other receptors also respond to these amino acids. (RS)-alpha-cycloprophy-4-phosphonophenylglycine (CPPG), a potent mGluR4 antagonist, decreases an aversion to MSG in rats while increasing the strength of generalization of the aversion to L-arginine or L-serine. These behavioral studies suggest that glutamate can activate several putative receptors, most notably T1R1+T1R3 and taste-mGluR4, and possibly NMDA-like receptors or taste-mGluR1. These receptors generate similar but not identical sensations which, when combined, form a complex perception identified as umami. Further, these studies suggest that afferent signaling from T1R1+T1R3 and taste-mGluR4 likely combine to generate the taste sensations associated with other L-amino acids.

  19. toxicity study in mice of resins of three commiphora species

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

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    ABSTRACT: Acute toxicity studies of crude extracts of resins of Commiphora myrrha, C. guidottii and. C. erlangeriana, and pure compounds isolated from C. erlangeriana were conducted on Swiss albino mice. The extract from C. erlangeriana had a mean LD50 of 410 mg/kg body weight. However the extracts from.

  20. Toxicity study in mice of resins of three Commiphora species ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute toxicity studies of crude extracts of resins of Commiphora myrrha, C. guidottii and C. erlangeriana, and pure compounds isolated from C. erlangeriana were conducted on Swiss albino mice. The extract from C. erlangeriana had a mean LD50 of 410 mg/kg body weight. However the extracts from C. myrrha and C.

  1. Acute toxicity studies of potassium permanganate in Swiss albino mice

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Acute toxicity study of potassium permanganate was carried out in Swiss albino mice. Potassium permanganate was administered at dose rate of 0.0, 500, 1000, 1500, 2000, 2500, 3000 and 3500mg/kg body weight to groups 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7 and 8, ten per group for LD50 determination. The dead animals were posted for ...

  2. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Gallium arsenide in mice and rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mast, T.J.; Greenspan, B.J.; Dill, J.A.; Stoney, K.H.; Evanoff, J.J.; Rommereim, R.L.

    1990-12-01

    Gallium arsenide is a crystalline compound used extensively in the semiconductor industry. Workers preparing solar cells and gallium arsenide ingots and wafers are potentially at risk from the inhalation of gallium arsenide dust. The potential for gallium arsenide to cause developmental toxicity was assessed in Sprague- Dawley rats and CD-1 (Swiss) mice exposed to 0, 10, 37, or 75 mg/m{sup 3} gallium arsenide, 6 h/day, 7 days/week. Each of the four treatment groups consisted of 10 virgin females (for comparison), and {approx}30 positively mated rats or {approx}24 positively mated mice. Mice were exposed on 4--17 days of gestation (dg), and rats on 4--19 dg. The day of plug or sperm detection was designated as 0 dg. Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice (rats, 20 dg; mice, 18 dg). Implants were enumerated and their status recorded. Live fetuses were sexed and examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. Gallium and arsenic concentrations were determined in the maternal blood and uterine contents of the rats (3/group) at 7, 14, and 20 dg. 37 refs., 11 figs., 30 tabs.

  3. ALTERED HIPPOCAMPAL NEUROGENESIS AND AMYGDALAR NEURONAL ACTIVITY IN ADULT MICE WITH REPEATED EXPERIENCE OF AGGRESSION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dmitriy eSmagin

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The repeated experience of winning in a social conflict setting elevates levels of aggression and may lead to violent behavioral patterns. Here we use a paradigm of repeated aggression and fighting deprivation to examine changes in behavior, neurogenesis, and neuronal activity in mice with positive fighting experience. We show that for males, repeated positive fighting experience induces persistent demonstration of aggression and stereotypic behaviors in daily agonistic interactions, enhances aggressive motivation, and elevates levels of anxiety. When winning males are deprived of opportunities to engage in further fights, they demonstrate increased levels of aggressiveness. Positive fighting experience results in increased levels of progenitor cell proliferation and production of young neurons in the hippocampus. This increase is not diminished after a fighting deprivation period. Furthermore, repeated winning experience decreases the number of activated (c-fos positive cells in the basolateral amygdala and increases the number of activated cells in the hippocampus; a subsequent no-fight period restores the number of c-fos-positive cells. Our results indicate that extended positive fighting experience in a social conflict heightens aggression, increases proliferation of neuronal progenitors and production of young neurons in the hippocampus, and decreases neuronal activity in the amygdala; these changes can be modified by depriving the winners of the opportunity for further fights.

  4. EFFECT OF APPLE CIDER VINEGAR ON PLASMA LIPIDS (MODEL EXPERIMENT IN MICE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Balázs Bender

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Normal 0 21 false false false HU X-NONE X-NONE Model experiment was carried out to investigate the effect of apple cider vinegar (ACV on the blood and liver cholesterol (Ch, triglycerides (TG and one of a marker of antioxidant status of blood (FRAP in laboratory mice. Animals consumed a basal mice diet (Control served as the control group. The same diet was supplemented either 1% cholesterol (Ch or 1% edible sunflower oil (SFO. All groups were duplicated and their animals were supplied drinking water containing ACV (50 mg l-1(groups: Control+ACV, Chol+ACV, SFO+ACV.The feeding and drinking was ad libitum for 21 days. At the end of experiment the animals were exterminated. Blood and liver samples were analyzed for total cholesterol (tCh, triglycerides (TG and ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP. The results show that the Ch supplemented group stored higher concentration of tCh in the liver (Pdoi:10.5219/156  

  5. Toxicity Studies of Ethyl Maltol and Iron Complexes in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhen Li

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Ethyl maltol and iron complexes are products of ethyl maltol and the iron found in the cooking pots used to prepare the Chinese dish, hot-pot. Because their safety is undocumented, the toxicity study of ethyl maltol and iron complexes was conducted in male and female Kunming (KM mice. The animal study was designed based on the preliminary study conducted to determine the median lethal dose (LD50. The doses used in the study were 0, 1/81, 1/27, 1/9, and 1/3 of the LD50 (mg kg body weight (BW−1 day−1 dissolved in the water. The oral LD50 of the ethyl maltol and iron complexes was determined to be 743.88 mg kg BW−1 in mice. The ethyl maltol and iron complexes targeted the endocrine organs including the liver and kidneys following the 90 D oral exposure. Based on the haematological data, the lowest-observed-adverse-effect level (LOAEL of the ethyl maltol and iron complexes was determined to be 1/81 LD50 (9.18 mg kg BW−1 day−1 in both male and female mice. Therefore, we suggest that alternative strategies for preparing the hot-pot, including the use of non-Fe-based cookware, need to be developed and encouraged to avoid the formation of the potentially toxic complexes.

  6. Viscosity Control Experiment Feasibility Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, Heidi E. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Bradley, Paul Andrew [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2018-01-31

    Turbulent mix has been invoked to explain many results in Inertial Confinement Fusion (ICF) and High Energy Density (HED) physics, such as reduced yield in capsule implosions. Many ICF capsule implosions exhibit interfacial instabilities seeded by the drive shock, but it is not clear that fully developed turbulence results from this. Many simulations use turbulent mix models to help match simulation results to data, but this is not appropriate if turbulence is not present. It would be useful to have an experiment where turbulent mixing could be turned on or off by design. The use of high-Z dopants to modify viscosity and the resulting influence on turbulence is considered here. A complicating factor is that the plasma in some implosions can become strongly coupled, which makes the Spitzer expression for viscosity invalid. We first consider equations that cover a broad parameter space in temperature and density to address regimes for various experimental applications. Next, a previous shock-tube and other ICF experiments that investigate viscosity or use doping to examine the effects on yield are reviewed. How viscosity and dopants play a role in capsule yield depends on the region and process under consideration. Experiments and simulations have been performed to study the effects of viscosity on both the hot spot and the fuel/ablator mix. Increases in yield have been seen for some designs, but not all. We then discuss the effect of adding krypton dopant to the gas region of a typical OMEGA and a 2-shock NIF implosion to determine approximately the effect of adding dopant on the computed Reynolds number. Recommendations for a path forward for possible experiments using high-Z dopants to affect viscosity and turbulence are made.

  7. Light evokes melanopsin-dependent vocalization and neural activation associated with aversive experience in neonatal mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anton Delwig

    Full Text Available Melanopsin-expressing intrinsically photosensitive retinal ganglion cells (ipRGCs are the only functional photoreceptive cells in the eye of newborn mice. Through postnatal day 9, in the absence of functional rods and cones, these ipRGCs mediate a robust avoidance behavior to a light source, termed negative phototaxis. To determine whether this behavior is associated with an aversive experience in neonatal mice, we characterized light-induced vocalizations and patterns of neuronal activation in regions of the brain involved in the processing of aversive and painful stimuli. Light evoked distinct melanopsin-dependent ultrasonic vocalizations identical to those emitted under stressful conditions, such as isolation from the litter. In contrast, light did not evoke the broad-spectrum calls elicited by acute mechanical pain. Using markers of neuronal activation, we found that light induced the immediate-early gene product Fos in the posterior thalamus, a brain region associated with the enhancement of responses to mechanical stimulation of the dura by light, and thought to be the basis for migrainous photophobia. Additionally, light induced the phosphorylation of extracellular-related kinase (pERK in neurons of the central amygdala, an intracellular signal associated with the processing of the aversive aspects of pain. However, light did not activate Fos expression in the spinal trigeminal nucleus caudalis, the primary receptive field for painful stimulation to the head. We conclude that these light-evoked vocalizations and the distinct pattern of brain activation in neonatal mice are consistent with a melanopsin-dependent neural pathway involved in processing light as an aversive but not acutely painful stimulus.

  8. A Murine Effort Model for Studying the Influence of Trichinella on Muscular Activity of Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ionut MARIAN

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Trichinella are nematodes parasitic in the skeletal muscles of terrestrial vertebrates, generally transmitted via predatorism. It is expected that the infection would have certain influences on the muscular activity in infected animals. The aim of the study was to develop an experimental model for studying the muscular effort in laboratory mice prior to the experimental infection with Trichinella and to evaluate the method in trained (with free access to a voluntary activity wheel and untrained (without access to activity wheel animals. Ten laboratory mice (all adult males, equally divided in two groups were used: a control group (untrained mice and a second group (trained. The weight was evaluated individually. The muscular activity was evaluated using an effort-wheel. Values were expressed in instantaneous power (IP and data were recorded using a constant speed of 5 rpm for 5 and 20 minutes. The instantaneous power (IP developed by the effort wheel at 5 minutes was significantly lower in the control group than in trained mice. Similar results were obtained for the maximum power (MP. Interestingly, for the trained mice, there was no difference between the average IP at 5 and 20 minutes of activity. The results show the utility of trained mice, establish the necessary experiment time and validate the method for evaluating the influence of Trichinella spp. on the muscular activity of experimentally infected mice.

  9. MICE: the Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment. Step I: First Measurement of Emittance with Particle Physics Detectors

    CERN Document Server

    Bravar, U; Karadzhov, Y; Kolev, D; Russinov, I; Tsenov, R; Wang, L; Xu, F Y; Zheng, S X; Bertoni, R; Bonesini, M; Mazza, R; Palladino, V; Cecchet, G; de Bari, A; Capponi, M; Iaciofano, A; Orestano, D; Pastore, F; Tortora, L; Ishimoto, S; Suzuki, S; Yoshimura, K; Mori, Y; Kuno, Y; Sakamoto, H; Sato, A; Yano, T; Yoshida, M; Filthaut, F; Vretenar, M; Ramberger, S; Blondel, A; Cadoux, F; Masciocchi, F; Graulich, J S; Verguilov, V; Wisting, H; Petitjean, C; Seviour, R; Ellis, M; Kyberd, P; Littlefield, M; Nebrensky, J J; Forrest, D; Soler, F J P; Walaron, K; Cooke, P; Gamet, R; Alecou, A; Apollonio, M; Barber, G; Dobbs, A; Dornan, P; Fish, A; Hare, R; Jamdagni, A; Kasey, V; Khaleeq, M; Long, K; Pasternak, J; Sakamoto, H; Sashalmi, T; Blackmore, V; Cobb, J; Lau, W; Rayner, M; Tunnell, C D; Witte, H; Yang, S; Alexander, J; Charnley, G; Griffiths, S; Martlew, B; Moss, A; Mullacrane, I; Oats, A; York, S; Apsimon, R; Alexander, R J; Barclay, P; Baynham, D E; Bradshaw, T W; Courthold, M; Hayler, R Edgecock T; Hills, M; Jones, T; McNubbin, N; Murray, W J; Nelson, C; Nicholls, A; Norton, P R; Prior, C; Rochford, J H; Rogers, C; Spensley, W; Tilley, K; Booth, C N; Hodgson, P; Nicholson, R; Overton, E; Robinson, M; Smith, P; Adey, D; Back, J; Boyd, S; Harrison, P; Norem, J; Bross, A D; Geer, S; Moretti, A; Neuffer, D; Popovic, M; Qian, Z; Raja, R; Stefanski, R; Cummings, M A C; Roberts, T J; DeMello, A; Green, M A; Li, D; Sessler, A M; Virostek, S; Zisman, M S; Freemire, B; Hanlet, P; Huang, D; Kafka, G; Kaplan, D M; Snopok, P; Torun, Y; Onel, Y; Cline, D; Lee, K; Fukui, Y; Yang, X; Rimmer, R A; Cremaldi, L M; Hart, T L; Summers, D J; Coney, L; Fletcher, R; Hanson, G G; Heidt, C; Gallardo, J; Kahn, S; Kirk, H; Palmer, R B; C11-08-09

    2011-01-01

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) is a strategic R&D project intended to demonstrate the only practical solution to providing high brilliance beams necessary for a neutrino factory or muon collider. MICE is under development at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory (RAL) in the United Kingdom. It comprises a dedicated beamline to generate a range of input muon emittances and momenta, with time-of-flight and Cherenkov detectors to ensure a pure muon beam. The emittance of the incoming beam will be measured in the upstream magnetic spectrometer with a scintillating fiber tracker. A cooling cell will then follow, alternating energy loss in Liquid Hydrogen (LH2) absorbers to RF cavity acceleration. A second spectrometer, identical to the first, and a second muon identification system will measure the outgoing emittance. In the 2010 run at RAL the muon beamline and most detectors were fully commissioned and a first measurement of the emittance of the muon beam with particle physics (time-of-flight) de...

  10. Effects of voluntary exercise on spontaneous physical activity and food consumption in mice: Results from an artificial selection experiment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copes, Lynn E; Schutz, Heidi; Dlugosz, Elizabeth M; Acosta, Wendy; Chappell, Mark A; Garland, Theodore

    2015-10-01

    We evaluated the effect of voluntary exercise on spontaneous physical activity (SPA) and food consumption in mice from 4 replicate lines bred for 57 generations for high voluntary wheel running (HR) and from 4 non-selected control (C) lines. Beginning at ~24 days of age, mice were housed in standard cages or in cages with attached wheels. Wheel activity and SPA were monitored in 1-min intervals. Data from the 8th week of the experiment were analyzed because mice were sexually mature and had plateaued in body mass, weekly wheel running distance, SPA, and food consumption. Body mass, length, and masses of the retroperitoneal fat pad, liver, and heart were recorded after the 13th week. SPA of both HR and C mice decreased with wheel access, due to reductions in both duration and average intensity of SPA. However, total activity duration (SPA+wheel running; min/day) was ~1/3 greater when mice were housed with wheels, and food consumption was significantly increased. Overall, food consumption in both HR and C mice was more strongly affected by wheel running than by SPA. Duration of wheel running had a stronger effect than average speed, but the opposite was true for SPA. With body mass as a covariate, chronic wheel access significantly reduced fat pad mass and increased heart mass in both HR and C mice. Given that both HR and C mice housed with wheels had increased food consumption, the energetic cost of wheel running was not fully compensated by concomitant reductions in SPA. The experiment demonstrates that both duration and intensity of both wheel running and SPA were significant predictors of food consumption. This sort of detailed analysis of the effects of different aspects of physical activity on food consumption has not previously been reported for a non-human animal, and it sets the stage for longitudinal examination of energy balance and its components in rodent models. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Change in Hemoglobin Levels due to Anesthesia in Mice: An Important Confounder in Studies on Hematopoietic Drugs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gothelf, Anita; Hojman, Pernille; Gehl, Julie

    2009-01-01

    Analgesic and anesthetic drugs may have an impact on the results achieved from animal experiments. In the study presented here, we try to enlighten whether anesthesia with fentanyl/fluniasone and midazolam (Hypnorm and Dormicum) has an influence on measurements of hemoglobin in mice. In a cross...

  12. Preliminary acute toxicity study on imidacloprid in Swiss albino mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Preeti Bagri

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Aim: To ascertain the maximum tolerated dose (MTD and to investigate the acute oral toxic effects of imidacloprid towards Swiss albino male mice.Materials and Methods: The MTD of imidacloprid was determined in pilot dose range finding study following the standard method. Animals were observed for toxic signs and symptoms after oral administration of MTD of imidacloprid in single dose. The body weights of animals were recorded on alternate day. Animals were sacrificed on 14th day and changes in hematological parameters (Hb, TEC, TLC and DLC and morphometric measurements (length, breadth, thickness and weight of various body organs (heart, liver, spleen, kidney, testis and epididymis were examined. The student's t-test was applied to statistically analyze the results.Results: The MTD of imidacloprid was determined to be 110 mg/kg body weight. The sign and symptoms of acute toxicity were ataxia, rigidity and fasciculation of muscles, protrusion of eye ball and tremors of head. Imidacloprid treatment resulted in decreased body weight gain as compared to the control group. The changes in hematological parameters were not significant between imidacloprid treated and control groups. Also the values of relative organ weights and morphometric measurements of various body organs did not differ significantly between the control and imidacloprid treated animals.Conclusions: MTD of imidacloprid in Swiss albino male mice through oral route was determined for the first time. Study revealed a non-toxic effect of imidacloprid on body weight, relative organs weight, hematological parameters and morphometric measurements of various body organs in mice.

  13. Study of Camelpox Virus Pathogenesis in Athymic Nude Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duraffour, Sophie; Matthys, Patrick; van den Oord, Joost J.; De Schutter, Tim; Mitera, Tania; Snoeck, Robert; Andrei, Graciela

    2011-01-01

    Camelpox virus (CMLV) is the closest known orthopoxvirus genetically related to variola virus. So far, CMLV was restricted to camelids but, recently, three human cases of camelpox have been described in India, highlighting the need to pursue research on its pathogenesis, which has been hampered by the lack of small animal models. Here, we confirm that NMRI immunocompetent mice are resistant to intranasal (i.n.) CMLV infection. However, we demonstrate that CMLV induced a severe disease following i.n. challenge of athymic nude mice, which was accompanied with a failure in gaining weight, leading to euthanasia of the animals. On the other hand, intracutaneous (i.c.) infection resulted in disease development without impacting the body weight evolution. CMLV replication in tissues and body fluids was confirmed in the two models. We further analyzed innate immune and B cell responses induced in the spleen and draining lymph nodes after exposure to CMLV. In both models, strong increases in CD11b+F4/80+ macrophages were seen in the spleen, while neutrophils, NK and B cell responses varied between the routes of infection. In the lymph nodes, the magnitude of CD11c+CD8α+ lymphoid and CD11c+CD11b+ myeloid dendritic cell responses increased in i.n. challenged animals. Analysis of cytokine profiles revealed significant increases of interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-18 in the sera of infected animals, while those of other cytokines were similar to uninfected controls. The efficacy of two antivirals (cidofovir or HPMPC, and its 2, 6-diaminopurine analog) was evaluated in both models. HPMPC was the most effective molecule affording 100% protection from morbidity. It appeared that both treatments did not affect immune cell responses or cytokine expression. In conclusion, we demonstrated that immunodeficient mice are permissive for CMLV propagation. These results provide a basis for studying the pathogenesis of CMLV, as well as for evaluating potential antiviral therapies in an

  14. Study of camelpox virus pathogenesis in athymic nude mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sophie Duraffour

    Full Text Available Camelpox virus (CMLV is the closest known orthopoxvirus genetically related to variola virus. So far, CMLV was restricted to camelids but, recently, three human cases of camelpox have been described in India, highlighting the need to pursue research on its pathogenesis, which has been hampered by the lack of small animal models. Here, we confirm that NMRI immunocompetent mice are resistant to intranasal (i.n. CMLV infection. However, we demonstrate that CMLV induced a severe disease following i.n. challenge of athymic nude mice, which was accompanied with a failure in gaining weight, leading to euthanasia of the animals. On the other hand, intracutaneous (i.c. infection resulted in disease development without impacting the body weight evolution. CMLV replication in tissues and body fluids was confirmed in the two models. We further analyzed innate immune and B cell responses induced in the spleen and draining lymph nodes after exposure to CMLV. In both models, strong increases in CD11b(+F4/80(+ macrophages were seen in the spleen, while neutrophils, NK and B cell responses varied between the routes of infection. In the lymph nodes, the magnitude of CD11c(+CD8α(+ lymphoid and CD11c(+CD11b(+ myeloid dendritic cell responses increased in i.n. challenged animals. Analysis of cytokine profiles revealed significant increases of interleukin (IL-6 and IL-18 in the sera of infected animals, while those of other cytokines were similar to uninfected controls. The efficacy of two antivirals (cidofovir or HPMPC, and its 2, 6-diaminopurine analog was evaluated in both models. HPMPC was the most effective molecule affording 100% protection from morbidity. It appeared that both treatments did not affect immune cell responses or cytokine expression. In conclusion, we demonstrated that immunodeficient mice are permissive for CMLV propagation. These results provide a basis for studying the pathogenesis of CMLV, as well as for evaluating potential antiviral

  15. Proteomic study on gender differences in aging kidney of mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristobal Susana

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study aims to analyze sex differences in mice aging kidney. We applied a proteomic technique based on subfractionation, and liquid chromatography coupled with 2-DE. Samples from male and female CD1-Swiss outbred mice from 28 weeks, 52 weeks, and 76 weeks were analysed by 2-DE, and selected proteins were identified by matrix assisted laser desorption ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS. Results This proteomic analysis detected age-related changes in protein expression in 55 protein-spots, corresponding to 22 spots in males and 33 spots in females. We found a protein expression signature (PES of aging composed by 8 spots, common for both genders. The identified proteins indicated increases in oxidative and proteolytic proteins and decreases in glycolytic proteins, and antioxidant enzymes. Conclusion Our results provide insights into the gender differences associated to the decline of kidney function in aging. Thus, we show that proteomics can provide valuable information on age-related changes in expression levels of proteins and related modifications. This pilot study is still far from providing candidates for aging-biomarkers. However, we suggest that the analysis of these proteins could suggest mechanisms of cellular aging in kidney, and improve the kidney selection for transplantation.

  16. In Vivo Toxicity Studies of Europium Hydroxide Nanorods in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patra, Chitta Ranjan; Abdel Moneim, Soha S.; Wang, Enfeng; Dutta, Shamit; Patra, Sujata; Eshed, Michal; Mukherjee, Priyabrata; Gedanken, Aharon; Shah, Vijay H; Mukhopadhyay, Debabrata

    2009-01-01

    Lanthanide nanoparticles and nanorods have been widely used for diagnostic and therapeutic applications in biomedical nanotechnology due to their fluorescence properties and pro-angiogenic to endothelial cells, respectively. Recently, we have demonstrated that europium (III) hydroxide [EuIII(OH)3] nanorods, synthesized by the microwave technique and characterized by several physico-chemical techniques, can be used as pro-angiogenic agents which introduce future therapeutic treatment strategies for severe ischemic heart/limb disease, and peripheral ischemic disease. The toxicity of these inorganic nanorods to endothelial cells was supported by several in vitro assays. To determine the in vivo toxicity, these nanorods were administered to mice through intraperitoneal injection (IP) everyday over a period of seven days in a dose dependent (1.25 to 125 mgKg−1day−1) and time dependent manner (8–60 days). Bio-distribution of europium elements in different organs was analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICPMS). Short-term (S-T) and long-term (L-T) toxicity studies (mice sacrificed on day 8 and 60 for S-T and L-T, respectively) show normal blood hematology and serum clinical chemistry with the exception of a slight elevation of liver enzymes. Histological examination of nanorod treated vital organs (liver, kidney, spleen and lungs) showed no or only mild histological changes that indicate mild toxicity at the higher dose of nanorods. PMID:19616569

  17. Studies about micronucleited eritrocites in mice treataded with anabolizantes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juida de Deus Palma Contar

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Drugs as cobamamid and ubidecarenone have been used by different sportsmen as a treatment to gain fast muscular mass. Literature shows modulation of haematopoietic toxicity associated with these drugs. An evaluation of the results obtained in an in vivo study to assess the effectiveness of cobamamid and ubidecarenone administered to normal mice is discussed in this paper. The sample was compared with controls that received distilled water or cyclophosphamide. The haematopoietic toxicity was evaluated by MN(micronucleus test in bone marrow cells. Statistical analysis with ANOVA and paired Student “t”and Tuckey “T” tests were used to determine the significance of MN polychromatic erythrocytis (PE and normochromatic erythrocytes (NE in different groups. Both isolated and associated drug administration revealed mutagenesis index effect as may be seen in the data table and those results require special caution for further studies.

  18. Laboratory Mice Are Frequently Colonized with Staphylococcus aureus and Mount a Systemic Immune Response—Note of Caution for In vivo Infection Experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silva Holtfreter

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Whether mice are an appropriate model for S. aureus infection and vaccination studies is a matter of debate, because they are not considered as natural hosts of S. aureus. We previously identified a mouse-adapted S. aureus strain, which caused infections in laboratory mice. This raised the question whether laboratory mice are commonly colonized with S. aureus and whether this might impact on infection experiments. Publicly available health reports from commercial vendors revealed that S. aureus colonization is rather frequent, with rates as high as 21% among specific-pathogen-free mice. In animal facilities, S. aureus was readily transmitted from parents to offspring, which became persistently colonized. Among 99 murine S. aureus isolates from Charles River Laboratories half belonged to the lineage CC88 (54.5%, followed by CC15, CC5, CC188, and CC8. A comparison of human and murine S. aureus isolates revealed features of host adaptation. In detail, murine strains lacked hlb-converting phages and superantigen-encoding mobile genetic elements, and were frequently ampicillin-sensitive. Moreover, murine CC88 isolates coagulated mouse plasma faster than human CC88 isolates. Importantly, S. aureus colonization clearly primed the murine immune system, inducing a systemic IgG response specific for numerous S. aureus proteins, including several vaccine candidates. Phospholipase C emerged as a promising test antigen for monitoring S. aureus colonization in laboratory mice. In conclusion, laboratory mice are natural hosts of S. aureus and therefore, could provide better infection models than previously assumed. Pre-exposure to the bacteria is a possible confounder in S. aureus infection and vaccination studies and should be monitored.

  19. Smad3 knock-out mice as a useful model to study intestinal fibrogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zanninelli, Giuliana; Vetuschi, Antonella; Sferra, Roberta; D'Angelo, Angela; Fratticci, Amato; Continenza, Maria Adelaide; Chiaramonte, Maria; Gaudio, Eugenio; Caprilli, Renzo; Latella, Giovanni

    2006-02-28

    To evaluate the possible differences in morphology and immunohistochemical expression of CD3, transforming growth factor beta1 (TGF-beta1), Smad7, alpha-smooth muscle actin (alpha-Sma), and collagen types I-VII of small and large intestine in Smad3 null and wild-type mice. Ten null and ten wild-type adult mice were sacrificed at 4 mo of age and the organs (esophagus, small and large bowel, ureters) were collected for histology (hematoxylin and eosin, Masson thrichrome, silver staining), morphometry and immunohistochemistry analysis. TGF-beta1 levels of intestinal tissue homogenates were assessed by ELISA. No macroscopic intestinal lesions were detected both in null and wild-type mice. Histological and morphometric evaluation revealed a significant reduction in muscle layer thickness of small and large intestine in null mice as compared to wild-type mice. Immunohistochemistry evaluation showed a significant increase of CD3+ T cell, TGF-beta1 and Smad7 staining in the small and large intestine mucosa of Smad3 null mice as compared to wild-type mice. Alpha-Sma and collagen I-VII staining of small and large intestine did not differ between the two groups of mice. TGF-beta1 levels of colonic tissue homogenates were significantly higher in null mice than in wild-type mice. In preliminary experiments a significant reduction of TNBS-induced intestinal fibrosis was observed in null mice as compared to wild-type mice. Smad3 null mice are a useful model to investigate the in vivo role of the TGF-beta/Smad signalling pathway in intestinal inflammation and fibrosis.

  20. Genotoxic evaluation of ornidazole and secnidazole in albino mice: an experimental study

    OpenAIRE

    Shreenivas P. Revankar; Vedavathi H.

    2014-01-01

    Background: The present study was planned to explore the genotoxic potential of some commonly used antimicrobials like ornidazole and secnidazole in swiss albino mice. Methods: Therapeutic equivalent doses of ornidazole and secnidazole were given by intra peritoneal route. Single dose in individual groups of mice (n=5 in each) was administered for acute study. Doses were repeated every 24 hrs for 7 times in additional groups of mice (n=5 in each) for sub-acute study. Cyclophosphamide serve...

  1. First experiences with in-vivo x-ray dark-field imaging of lung cancer in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gromann, Lukas B.; Scherer, Kai; Yaroshenko, Andre; Bölükbas, Deniz A.; Hellbach, Katharina; Meinel, Felix G.; Braunagel, Margarita; Eickelberg, Oliver; Reiser, Maximilian F.; Pfeiffer, Franz; Meiners, Silke; Herzen, Julia

    2017-03-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the present study was to evaluate if x-ray dark-field imaging can help to visualize lung cancer in mice. Materials and Methods: The experiments were performed using mutant mice with high-grade adenocarcinomas. Eight animals with pulmonary carcinoma and eight control animals were imaged in radiography mode using a prototype small-animal x-ray dark-field scanner and three of the cancerous ones additionally in CT mode. After imaging, the lungs were harvested for histological analysis. To determine their diagnostic value, x-ray dark-field and conventional attenuation images were analyzed by three experienced readers in a blind assessment. Results radiographic imaging: The lung nodules were much clearer visualized on the dark-field radiographs compared to conventional radiographs. The loss of air-tissue interfaces in the tumor leads to a significant loss of x-ray scattering, reflected in a strong dark-field signal change. The difference between tumor and healthy tissue in terms of x-ray attenuation is significantly less pronounced. Furthermore, the signal from the overlaying structures on conventional radiographs complicates the detection of pulmonary carcinoma. Results CT imaging: The very first in-vivo CT-imaging results are quite promising as smaller tumors are often better visible in the dark-field images. However the imaging quality is still quite low, especially in the attenuation images due to un-optimized scanning parameters. Conclusion: We found a superior diagnostic performance of dark-field imaging compared to conventional attenuation based imaging, especially when it comes to the detection of small lung nodules. These results support the motivation to further develop this technique and translate it towards a clinical environment.

  2. Experience with Sugar Modifies Behavioral but not Taste-Evoked Medullary Responses to Sweeteners in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Dietary exposure to sugars increases the preference for and intake of sugar solutions in mice. We used brief-access lick tests and multiunit electrophysiological recordings from the nucleus of the solitary tract (NST) to investigate the role of taste in diet-induced changes in sucrose responsiveness. We exposed C57BL/6J (B6) and 129X1/SvJ (129) mice to either a sucrose diet (chow, water, and a 500mM sucrose solution) or a control diet (chow and water) for 3 days. In B6 mice, exposure to the sucrose diet decreased the appetitive response (i.e., number of trials initiated) but had no effect on the consummatory response (i.e., rate of licking) to 500mM sucrose and 20mM saccharin. In 129 mice, exposure to the sucrose diet increased the appetitive response but had no effect on the consummatory response to the sweetener solutions. In the NST recordings, the B6 mice exhibited larger multiunit responses to sweeteners than 129 mice, but there was no effect of the sucrose diet in either strain. Our results indicate that sucrose exposure alters the appetitive response of B6 and 129 mice to sweeteners in diametrically opposed ways and that these changes are mediated by structures in the gustatory neuraxis above the NST (e.g., ventral forebrain). PMID:24084168

  3. Actinic keratosis modelling in mice: A translational study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arnaud Pillon

    Full Text Available Actinic keratoses (AK are pre-malignant cutaneous lesions caused by prolonged exposure to ultraviolet radiation. As AKs lesions are generally accepted to be the initial lesions in a disease continuum that progresses to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC, AK lesions have to be treated. They are also the second most common reason for visits to the dermatologist. Several treatments are available but their efficacy still needs to be improved. The UV-B-induced KA lesion mouse model is used in preclinical studies to assess the efficacy of novel molecules, even though it is often more representative of advanced AK or SCC.Here we report on a translational study, comparing the various stages of AK development in humans and in the UV-B irradiated mouse model, as well as the optimization of photograph acquisition of AK lesions on mouse skin.Human and mouse skin lesions were analysed by histology and immunohistochemistry. Mouse lesions were also assessed using a digital dermatoscope.An histological and phenotypic analysis, including p53, Ki67 and CD3 expression detection, performed on human and mouse AK lesions, shows that overall AK modelling in mice is relevant in the clinical situation. Some differences are observed, such as disorganization of keratinocytes of the basal layer and a number of atypical nuclei which are more numerous in human AK, whereas much more pronounced acanthosis is observed in skin lesion in mice. Thanks to this translational study, we are able to select appropriate experimental conditions for establishing either early or advanced stage AK or an SCC model. Furthermore, we optimized photograph acquisition of AK lesions on mouse skin by using a digital dermatoscope which is also used in clinics and allows reproducible photograph acquisition for further reliable assessment of mouse lesions. Use of this camera is illustrated through a pharmacological study assessing the activity of CARAC®.These data demonstrate that this mouse model of UV

  4. Actinic keratosis modelling in mice: A translational study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vandenberghe, Isabelle; Cartron, Valérie; Cèbe, Patrick; Blanchet, Jean-Christophe; Sibaud, Vincent; Guilbaud, Nicolas; Audoly, Laurent; Lamant, Laurence; Kruczynski, Anna

    2017-01-01

    Background Actinic keratoses (AK) are pre-malignant cutaneous lesions caused by prolonged exposure to ultraviolet radiation. As AKs lesions are generally accepted to be the initial lesions in a disease continuum that progresses to squamous cell carcinoma (SCC), AK lesions have to be treated. They are also the second most common reason for visits to the dermatologist. Several treatments are available but their efficacy still needs to be improved. The UV-B-induced KA lesion mouse model is used in preclinical studies to assess the efficacy of novel molecules, even though it is often more representative of advanced AK or SCC. Objectives Here we report on a translational study, comparing the various stages of AK development in humans and in the UV-B irradiated mouse model, as well as the optimization of photograph acquisition of AK lesions on mouse skin. Methods Human and mouse skin lesions were analysed by histology and immunohistochemistry. Mouse lesions were also assessed using a digital dermatoscope. Results An histological and phenotypic analysis, including p53, Ki67 and CD3 expression detection, performed on human and mouse AK lesions, shows that overall AK modelling in mice is relevant in the clinical situation. Some differences are observed, such as disorganization of keratinocytes of the basal layer and a number of atypical nuclei which are more numerous in human AK, whereas much more pronounced acanthosis is observed in skin lesion in mice. Thanks to this translational study, we are able to select appropriate experimental conditions for establishing either early or advanced stage AK or an SCC model. Furthermore, we optimized photograph acquisition of AK lesions on mouse skin by using a digital dermatoscope which is also used in clinics and allows reproducible photograph acquisition for further reliable assessment of mouse lesions. Use of this camera is illustrated through a pharmacological study assessing the activity of CARAC®. Conclusion These data

  5. Effects of sevoflurane general anesthesia: immunological studies in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Puig, N R; Ferrero, P; Bay, M L; Hidalgo, G; Valenti, J; Amerio, N; Elena, G

    2002-01-01

    Based on the immunomodulatory effects of anesthesia and surgery, a study was undertaken to assess the effect of sevoflurane anesthesia on the immune system in a murine model without surgery. Adult male mice were anesthetized with 3% sevoflurane (1.2 minimal alveolar concentration, MAC) in oxygen for 40 min, whereas nontreated animals served as controls. After sevoflurane anesthesia, peripheral blood leukocyte counts, the splenic composition and in vitro macrophage phagocytic activity and lymphoproliferative response were assessed. The in vivo specific immune response to sheep red blood cells (SRBC), a conventional T-dependent antigen was determined. In addition, liver, spleen, thymus and kidney histopathology and also hepatic and renal functions after anesthesia were studied. Sevoflurane diminished the number of peripheral blood lymphocytes and splenic B-cell counts, enhancing CD4+ lymphocytes in spleen. The in vitro functionality of macrophages and the mitogen-induced lymphoproliferative response were preserved, while the in vivo immune response to SRBC was enhanced in treated animals. Microscopic studies revealed conserved architecture of the spleen, thymus, lymph node, liver and kidney, and there were no differences in serum parameters of hepatic and renal functions between treated and control groups. Our results suggest that 3 days after the anesthetic exposure, animals treated with sevoflurane modulated their peripheral blood leukocyte counts, splenic lymphoid composition and the characteristics of the specific response to SRBC, while there was no evidence of hepatic or renal toxicity.

  6. Battery of behavioral tests in mice to study postoperative delirium

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Peng, Mian; Zhang, Ce; Dong, Yuanlin; Zhang, Yiying; Nakazawa, Harumasa; Kaneki, Masao; Zheng, Hui; Shen, Yuan; Marcantonio, Edward R; Xie, Zhongcong

    2016-01-01

    ...(s). We therefore set out to employ a battery of behavior tests, including natural and learned behavior, in mice to determine the effects of laparotomy under isoflurane anesthesia (Anesthesia/Surgery) on these behaviors...

  7. Sensory dynamics of intense microwave irradiation: A comparative study of aversive behaviors by mice and rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Justesen, D.R.

    1981-10-01

    The results of two experiments are reported, the first on 24 mice and 14 rats, all experimentally naive, that were observed for evidence of adventitious escape from faradic shock or from a potentially lethal, 2450-MHz microwave field in a multi-mode cavity. All of ten rats irradiated at a whole-body-averaged dose rate of 60 mW/g convulsed and expired, presumably from radiation-induced hyperpyrexia. Eight of ten mice irradiated at 60 mW/g survived the four sessions of irradiation, but reliable evidence of escape learning was not observed. The data of the second experiment, which was a pilot study of four rats with an extensive history of exposure to intense but intermittently applied microwave fields, revealed that the animals learned to thermoregulate behaviorally by locomoting in and out of the safe-area circle. A strong relation between dose rate (30, 60, and 120 mW/g) and proportion of time spent in the safe area was observed (r = .97). Post-exposure means of colonic temperature during three sets of sessions under the different rates of energy dosing were highly stable and averaged 39.6 deg C.

  8. Skylab experiment results: Hematology studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kimzey, S. L.; Ritzmann, S. E.; Mengel, C. E.; Fischer, C. L.

    1975-01-01

    Studies were conducted to evaluate specific aspects of man's immunologic and hematologic systems that might be altered by or respond to the space flight environment. Biochemical functions investigated included cytogenetic damage to blood cells, immune resistance to disease, regulation of plasma and red cell volumes, metabolic processes of the red blood cell, and physicochemical aspects of red blood cell function. Measurements of hematocrit value showed significant fluctuations postflight, reflecting observed changes in red cell mass and plasma volume. The capacity of lymphocytes to respond to an in vitro mitogenic challenge was repressed postflight, and appeared to be related to mission duration. Most other deviations from earth function in these systems were minor or transient.

  9. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Teratology study of tetrahydrofuran in mice and rats: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mast, T.J.; Evanoff, J.J.; Stoney, K.H.; Westerberg, R.B.; Rommereim, R.L.; Weigel, R.J.

    1988-08-01

    Tetrahydrofuran (THF), a four-carbon cyclic ether, is widely used as an industrial solvent. Although it has been used in large quantities for many years, few long-term toxicology studies, and no reproductive or developmental studies, have been conducted on THF. This study addresses the potential for THF to cause developmental toxicity in rodents by exposing Sprague-Dawley rats and Swiss (CD-1) mice to 0, 600, 1800, or 5000 ppm tetrahydrofuran (THF) vapors, 6 h/day, 7 dy/wk. Each treatment group consisted of 10 virgin females (for comparison), and approx.33 positively mated rats or mice. Positively mated mice were exposed on days 6--17 of gestation (dg), and rats on 6--19 dg. The day of plug or sperm detection was designated as O dg. Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice (rats, 20 dg; mice, 18 dg). Implants were enumerated and their status recorded and live fetuses were examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. 27 refs., 6 figs., 23 tabs.

  10. A Quantitative Golgi Study of Dendritic Morphology in the Mice Striatal Medium Spiny Neurons

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Hladnik

    2017-04-01

    Full Text Available In this study we have provided a detailed quantitative morphological analysis of medium spiny neurons (MSNs in the mice dorsal striatum and determined the consistency of values among three groups of animals obtained in different set of experiments. Dendritic trees of 162 Golgi Cox (FD Rapid GolgiStain Kit impregnated MSNs from 15 adult C57BL/6 mice were 3-dimensionally reconstructed using Neurolucida software, and parameters of dendritic morphology have been compared among experimental groups. The parameters of length and branching pattern did not show statistically significant difference and were highly consistent among groups. The average neuronal soma surface was between 160 μm2 and 180 μm2, and the cells had 5–6 primary dendrites with close to 40 segments per neuron. Sholl analysis confirmed regular pattern of dendritic branching. The total length of dendrites was around 2100 μm with the average length of individual branching (intermediate segment around 22 μm and for the terminal segment around 100 μm. Even though each experimental group underwent the same strictly defined protocol in tissue preparation and Golgi staining, we found inconsistency in dendritic volume and soma surface. These changes could be methodologically influenced during the Golgi procedure, although without affecting the dendritic length and tree complexity. Since the neuronal activity affects the dendritic thickness, it could not be excluded that observed volume inconsistency was related with functional states of neurons prior to animal sacrifice. Comprehensive analyses of tree complexity and dendritic length provided here could serve as an additional tool for understanding morphological variability in the most numerous neuronal population of the striatum. As reference values they could provide basic ground for comparisons with the results obtained in studies that use various models of genetically modified mice in explaining different pathological conditions that

  11. Photocarcinogenesis study of aloe vera [CAS NO. 481-72-1(Aloe-emodin)] in SKH-1 mice (simulated solar light and topical application study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-09-01

    significantly increased multiplicity of squamous cell neoplasms. In female mice that received the 6% decolorized whole leaf cream, there was a significant increase in the multiplicity of squamous cell neoplasms. As with the Aloe vera plant extracts, the application of aloe-emodin creams to mice had no measurable effect on body weights, survival, or the in-life observations of skin lesion onset, incidence, or multiplicity. The administration of aloe-emodin creams to male mice had no effect on the incidence or multiplicity of histopathology-determined nonneoplastic skin lesions or squamous cell neoplasms. Female mice treated with the 74.6 µg/g aloe-emodin cream had significantly decreased multiplicity of histopathology-determined squamous cell nonneoplastic skin lesions and significantly increased multiplicity of squamous cell neoplasms. these experiments investigated the potential of topical application of creams containing extracts of Aloe barbadensis Miller plant (aloe gel, whole leaf, or decolorized whole leaf) or aloe-emodin to alter the photocarcinogenic activity of filtered xenon arc simulated solar light (SSL) in male and female SKH-1 hairless mice. Data on skin lesions were collected both on digital images during the in-life phase and by histopathologic evaluation at necropsy. No effects of creams upon SSL-induced skin lesions were identified from data collected during the in-life phase. ALOE GEL OR ALOE-EMODIN: under the conditions of these studies, there was a weak enhancing effect of aloe gel or aloe-emodin on the photocarcinogenic activity of SSL in female but not in male SKH-1 mice based on an increase in the multiplicity of histopathologically-determined squamous cell neoplasms. under the conditions of these studies, there was a weak enhancing effect of aloe whole leaf or decolorized whole leaf on the photocarcinogenic activity of SSL in both male and female SKH-1 mice based on an increase in the multiplicity of histopathologically-determined squamous cell

  12. [CHARACTERISTICS OF THE REACTIONS OF THE SPLEEN LYMPHOID STRUCTURES IN MICE IN A TERRESTRIAL EXPERIMENT AND AFTER A PROLONGED SPACEFLIGHT].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grigorenko, D Ye; Sapin, M R; Yerofeyeva, L M

    2015-01-01

    Morphometric methods were used to examine the cell composition of the germinal centers of lymphoid nodules and periarteriolar lymphoid sheaths (PALS) in male C57/b16 mice aged 19-20 weeks after 30-day-long space flight, simulation of space flight factors in a terrestrial experiment and in vivarium control group. After a ground-based experiment, compared to vivarium control, the functional activity of morphological zone of T lymphocyte maturation was decreased in PALM. In the germinal centers of lymphoid nodules of mice subjected to a ground-based experiment, lymphocytopoiesis and cell blast transformation, that characterize the morpho-functional activity of this zone and humoral immunity, remained unchanged. After a spaceflight, as compared with ground-based experiment, the changes of cell composition were less expressed in PALS than in the in the germinal centers of lymphoid nodules. It is concluded that PALS are more stable morphological zones, while the germinal centers of lymphoid nodules in the spleen are specific "target zones", most sensitive to a variety of factors of a space flight.

  13. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Teratology study of acetone in mice and rats: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mast, T.J.; Evanoff, J.J.; Rommereim, R.L.; Stoney, K.H.; Weigel, R.J.; Westerberg, R.B.

    1988-11-01

    Acetone, an aliphatic ketone, is a ubiquitous industrial solvent and chemical intermediate; consequently, the opportunity for human exposure is high. The potential for acetone to cause developmental toxicity was assessed in Sprague-Dawley rats exposed to 0, 440, 2200, or 11000 ppm, and in Swiss (CD-1) mice exposed to 0, 440, 2200, and 6600 ppm acetone vapors, 6 h/day, 7 days/week. Each of the four treatment groups consisted of 10 virgin females (for comparison), and approx.32 positively mated rats or mice. Positively mated mice were exposed on days 6-17 of gestation (dg), and rats on 6-19 dg. The day of plug or sperm detection was designated as 0 dg. Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice (rats, 20 dg; mice, 18 dg). Implants were enumerated and their status recorded. Live fetuses were sexed and examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. 46 refs., 6 figs., 27 tabs.

  14. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Teratology study of isoprene in mice and rats: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mast, T.J.; Evanoff, J.J.; Stoney, K.H.; Westerberg, R.B.; Rommereim, R.L.; Weigel, R.J.

    1989-01-01

    Isoprene, a reactive, branched diene, is used in large quantities in the manufacture of polyisoprene and as a copolymer in the synthesis of butyl rubber. The potential for isoprene to cause developmental toxicity was assessed in rodents, by exposing four groups each of Sprague-Dawley rats and Swiss (CD-1) mice to 0, 280, 1400, or 7000 ppM isoprene vapors, 6 h/day, 7 day/wk. Each treatment group consisted of 10 virgin females (for comparison), and approx.30 positively mated rats or mice. Positively mated mice were exposed on days 6-17 of gestation (dg), and rats on 6-19 dg. The day of plug or sperm detection was designated as 0 dg. Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice (rats, 20 dg; mice, 18 dg). Implants were enumerated and their status recorded. Live fetuses were sexed and examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. 31 refs., 6 figs., 19 tabs.

  15. Sensitivity to cocaine in adult mice is due to interplay between genetic makeup, early environment and later experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Segni, Matteo; Andolina, Diego; Coassin, Alessandra; Accoto, Alessandra; Luchetti, Alessandra; Pascucci, Tiziana; Luzi, Carla; Lizzi, Anna Rita; D'Amato, Francesca R; Ventura, Rossella

    2017-10-01

    Although early aversive postnatal events are known to increase the risk to develop psychiatric disorders later in life, rarely they determine alone the nature and outcome of the psychopathology, indicating that interaction with genetic factors is crucial for expression of psychopathologies in adulthood. Moreover, it has been suggested that early life experiences could have negative consequences or confer adaptive value in different individuals. Here we suggest that resilience or vulnerability to adult cocaine sensitivity depends on a "triple interaction" between genetic makeup x early environment x later experience. We have recently showed that Repeated Cross Fostering (RCF; RCF pups were fostered by four adoptive mothers from postnatal day 1 to postnatal day 4. Pups were left with the last adoptive mother until weaning) experienced by pups affected the response to a negative experience in adulthood in opposite direction in two genotypes leading DBA2/J, but not C57BL/6J mice, toward an "anhedonia-like" phenotype. Here we investigate whether exposure to a rewarding stimulus, instead of a negative one, in adulthood induces an opposite behavioral outcome. To test this hypothesis, we investigated the long-lasting effects of RCF on cocaine sensitivity in C57 and DBA female mice by evaluating conditioned place preference induced by different cocaine doses and catecholamine prefrontal-accumbal response to cocaine using a "dual probe" in vivo microdialysis procedure. Moreover, cocaine-induced c-Fos activity was assessed in different brain regions involved in processing of rewarding stimuli. Finally, cocaine-induced spine changes were evaluated in the prefrontal-accumbal system. RCF experience strongly affected the behavioral, neurochemical and morphological responses to cocaine in adulthood in opposite direction in the two genotypes increasing and reducing, respectively, the sensitivity to cocaine in C57 and DBA mice. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Consumer Retail Experience: A Bibliometric Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Höpner

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The concern of retailers with the consumer experience in the store environment demonstrates the use of ever more advanced techniques, to create interesting experiences for consumers in the store environment. These efforts, however, can sometimes not be aligned with the demands of consumers, which reveal that their experiments to store a great extent, are influenced by traditional values. This study aims to analyze how the customer experience in retail has been discussed in publications in journals in the main area. The bibliometric analysis of scientific literature on customer experience and customer experience in retail was held. The choice of bibliometrics stems from the growing need to assess the progress and development of science and technology in the various fields of knowledge. There was significant concentration of publications in recent years, especially in 2013, which demonstrates the growing concern of marketing scholars with consumer behavior in the retail environment. The consumer experience as a research area is becoming more popular in journals and proving to be an important area of ​​study for the marketing of services, especially in retail. With the maturing of this field of study, there are new trends in research and expansion of consumer behavior analysis scope. Knowing the recent empirical findings brought by the studies is able to create new space for discussion, based on evidence, studied, analyzed and structured.

  17. Morphological study of tooth development in podoplanin-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takara, Kenyo; Maruo, Naoki; Oka, Kyoko; Kaji, Chiaki; Hatakeyama, Yuji; Sawa, Naruhiko; Kato, Yukinari; Yamashita, Junro; Kojima, Hiroshi; Sawa, Yoshihiko

    2017-01-01

    Podoplanin is a mucin-type highly O-glycosylated glycoprotein identified in several somatyic cells: podocytes, alveolar epithelial cells, lymphatic endothelial cells, lymph node stromal fibroblastic reticular cells, osteocytes, odontoblasts, mesothelial cells, glia cells, and others. It has been reported that podoplanin-RhoA interaction induces cytoskeleton relaxation and cell process stretching in fibroblastic cells and osteocytes, and that podoplanin plays a critical role in type I alveolar cell differentiation. It appears that podoplanin plays a number of different roles in contributing to cell functioning and growth by signaling. However, little is known about the functions of podoplanin in the somatic cells of the adult organism because an absence of podoplanin is lethal at birth by the respiratory failure. In this report, we investigated the tooth germ development in podoplanin-knockout mice, and the dentin formation in podoplanin-conditional knockout mice having neural crest-derived cells with deficiency in podoplanin by the Wnt1 promoter and enhancer-driven Cre recombinase: Wnt1-Cre;PdpnΔ/Δmice. In the Wnt1-Cre;PdpnΔ/Δmice, the tooth and alveolar bone showed no morphological abnormalities and grow normally, indicating that podoplanin is not critical in the development of the tooth and bone.

  18. Morphological study of tooth development in podoplanin-deficient mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kenyo Takara

    Full Text Available Podoplanin is a mucin-type highly O-glycosylated glycoprotein identified in several somatyic cells: podocytes, alveolar epithelial cells, lymphatic endothelial cells, lymph node stromal fibroblastic reticular cells, osteocytes, odontoblasts, mesothelial cells, glia cells, and others. It has been reported that podoplanin-RhoA interaction induces cytoskeleton relaxation and cell process stretching in fibroblastic cells and osteocytes, and that podoplanin plays a critical role in type I alveolar cell differentiation. It appears that podoplanin plays a number of different roles in contributing to cell functioning and growth by signaling. However, little is known about the functions of podoplanin in the somatic cells of the adult organism because an absence of podoplanin is lethal at birth by the respiratory failure. In this report, we investigated the tooth germ development in podoplanin-knockout mice, and the dentin formation in podoplanin-conditional knockout mice having neural crest-derived cells with deficiency in podoplanin by the Wnt1 promoter and enhancer-driven Cre recombinase: Wnt1-Cre;PdpnΔ/Δmice. In the Wnt1-Cre;PdpnΔ/Δmice, the tooth and alveolar bone showed no morphological abnormalities and grow normally, indicating that podoplanin is not critical in the development of the tooth and bone.

  19. Design and development of biomimetic quadruped robot for behavior studies of rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ishii, Hiroyuki; Masuda, Yuichi; Miyagishima, Syunsuke; Fumino, Shogo; Takanishi, Atsuo; Laschi, Cecilia; Mazzolai, Barbara; Mattoli, Virgilio; Dario, Paolo

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the design and development of a novel biomimetic quadruped robot for behavior studies of rats and mice. Many studies have been performed using these animals for the purpose of understanding human mind in psychology, pharmacology and brain science. In these fields, several experiments on social interactions have been performed using rats as basic studies of mental disorders or social learning. However, some researchers mention that the experiments on social interactions using animals are poorly-reproducible. Therefore, we consider that reproducibility of these experiments can be improved by using a robotic agent that interacts with an animal subject. Thus, we developed a small quadruped robot WR-2 (Waseda Rat No. 2) that behaves like a real rat. Proportion and DOF arrangement of WR-2 are designed based on those of a mature rat. This robot has four 3-DOF legs, a 2-DOF waist and a 1-DOF neck. A microcontroller and a wireless communication module are implemented on it. A battery is also implemented. Thus, it can walk, rear by limbs and groom its body.

  20. Study of the pathogenic potential of Dientamoeba fragilis in experimentally infected mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eman K. El-Gayar

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Dientamoebafragilis (D. fragilis is a protozoan parasite whose pathogenic potential is still disputable. The aim of this study was to illustrate the pathogenicity of D. fragilis infection and to determine the infective dose for experimental mice infection. Three groups of mice (8/each were orally inoculated with in vitro cultured D. fragilis. The infected groups (G1- G3 received 103, 105 and 4 × 106 D. fragilis/0.5 ml culture, respectively. A control group (G4 only received parasite-free culture. Two weeks post-inoculation all mice were euthanized for histopathological examination. All mice of G3 (100% and three mice of G2 (37.5% were infected, and the results were confirmed by PCR and different staining methods. On the other hand, all mice from group G1 showed a completely negative result. Histopathological examination of the colon and caecum of the highly infected group G3 showed active colitis, with infiltration of mixed inflammatory cells such as eosinophils, neutrophils and lymphocytes within the lamina propria of the intestinal wall. The parasite was not invading the colonic mucosa. This study revealed that infection with D. fragilis is dose-dependent. Moreover, a dose of 105 D. fragilis/mouse or higher is necessary to infect mice through the oral route. In addition, this route of infection, although non-invasive, can induce severe inflammatory changes to the colonic and caecal mucosa in experimentally infected mice.

  1. Planning a study abroad clinical experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wright, Dolores J

    2010-05-01

    Not only is globalization expanding areas of human activity, it is also influencing the variety of educational offerings in universities. Therefore, globalization must be considered by nurse educators as they reevaluate ways of preparing nursing students to meet the health care needs of populations they currently serve and will care for in the future. Study abroad programs have been encouraged to be part of the college experience in the United States for more than 30 years; however, these programs have been relatively lacking in nursing education. Most of the study abroad programs described in the nursing literature are research-based or first-person accounts of an experience and provide little information about planning a study abroad program. This article describes a study abroad learning experience for senior nursing students and discusses the issues such as student selection, student safety, and available clinical experiences that need to be considered before undertaking such an endeavor.

  2. Immunological studies in multiple low-dose streptozotocin-induced diabetes in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malik, A.I.

    1988-01-01

    Multiple low doses of streptozotocin (MSZ) treatment successfully induced diabetes in male TO, MF1 and HO lean mice. In contrast however, BALB/c mice failed to develop persistent hyperglycemia. Single streptozotocin (SSZ) treatment also produced diabetes in TO mice. SSZ treatment however, produced severe weight loss and atrophy of the lymphoid organs. MSZ treatment on the other hand, was not cytotoxic towards lymphoid organs and, while there was no loss of body weight, growth rates were reduced in MSZ treated mice. Following sheep red blood cell (SRBC) immunization of MSZ-treated mice, hemagglutination titers, and numbers of antigen reactive cells and plaque forming cells were all significantly lower than control values. In-vitro proliferation of spleen cells in response to phytohemagglutinin (PHA) andconcanavalin and concanavalin A (ConA) was found to be significantly depressed in MSZ treated mice. However, T-lymphocyte responses were intact when the mice were not overtly hyperglycemic. In contrast, however, T cell independent responses to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) were generally intact throughout the study period. Cell mediated immunity, as assessed by measurements of delayed (Type 4) hypersensitivity, was also depressed in MSZ treated mice. Both natural killer cell activity and antibody dependent cell mediated cytotoxicity were found to be significantly increased in MSZ treated mice. Histological examination of the pancreas showed the presence of insulitis, in MSZ treated mice, and cytotoxic effector cells against obese mice islet cells (as assessed by {sup 51}Cr release) and HIT-T15 cells (as assessed by insulin secretion) were found to be significantly increased. Furthermore, these effector cells were also found to show increased proliferation in the presence of homogenates prepared from HIT-T15 cells.

  3. Studying the Elusive Experience in Pervasive Games

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenros, Jaakko; Waern, Annika; Montola, Markus

    2012-01-01

    Studying pervasive games is inherently difficult and different from studying computer or board games. This article builds upon the experiences of staging and studying several playful pervasive technology prototypes. It discusses the challenges and pitfalls of evaluating pervasive game prototypes and charts methods that have proven useful in…

  4. Anatomopathological study in BALB/c mice brains experimentally infected with Toxoplasma gondii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Gontijo da Silva

    Full Text Available Toxoplasmosis is one of the most important diseases of the nervous central system, leading to severe symptoms and, many times, irreversible sequelae. This work demonstrated the main anatomopathological lesions caused by Toxoplasma gondii in brains from experimentally infected BALB/c mice. We analyzed 51 cases of mice that developed toxoplasmosis after experimental infection by intraperitoneal inoculation of blood, amniotic liquid and cerebrospinal fluid from fetuses, newly born children and pregnant women with clinical and laboratory signals of toxoplasmosis. In all experiments where we detected the parasite in mice we also detected pathological lesions in the animal brains with great polymorphism between experiments. Edema was the most found lesion in all cases. Besides, it was possible to demonstrate the inflammatory process in 82.4% of cases and necrosis in 64.7% of cases, in agreement with the literature that describes severe neurological damage in its hosts.

  5. Treadmill Exercise Attenuates Retinal Oxidative Stress in Naturally-Aged Mice: An Immunohistochemical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Chan-Sik; Park, Sok; Chun, Yoonseok; Song, Wook; Kim, Hee-Jae; Kim, Junghyun

    2015-09-02

    In the retina, a number of degenerative diseases, including glaucoma, diabetic retinopathy, and age-related macular degeneration, may occur as a result of aging. Oxidative damage is believed to contribute to the pathogenesis of aging as well as to age-related retinal disease. Although physiological exercise has been shown to reduce oxidative stress in rats and mice, it is not known whether it has a similar effect in retinal tissues. The aim of this study was to evaluate retinal oxidative stress in naturally-aged mice. In addition, we evaluated the effects of aerobic training on retinal oxidative stress by immunohistochemically evaluating oxidative stress markers. A group of twelve-week-old male mice were not exercised (young control). Two groups of twenty-two-month-old male mice were created: an old control group and a treadmill exercise group. The old control group mice were not exercised. The treadmill exercise group mice ran on a treadmill (5 to 12 m/min, 30 to 60 min/day, 3 days/week for 12 weeks). The retinal thickness and number of cells in the ganglion cell layer of the naturally-aged mice were reduced compared to those in the young control mice. However, treadmill exercise reversed these morphological changes in the retinas. We evaluated retinal expression of carboxymethyllysine (CML), 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) and nitrotyrosine. The retinas from the aged mice showed increased CML, 8-OHdG, and nitrotyrosine immunostaining intensities compared to young control mice. The exercise group exhibited significantly lower CML levels and nitro-oxidative stress than the old control group. These results suggest that regular exercise can reduce retinal oxidative stress and that physiological exercise may be distinctly advantageous in reducing retinal oxidative stress.

  6. Emotion and cognition in high and low stress sensitive mouse strains: a combined neuroendocrine and behavioral study in BALB/c and C57BL/6J mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Brinks

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Emotionally arousing experiences and stress influence cognitive processes and vice versa. Understanding the relations and interactions between these three systems forms the core of this study. We tested two inbred mouse strains (BALB/c, C57BL/6J; male; 3-month-old for glucocorticoid stress system markers (expression of MR and GR mRNA and protein in hippocampus, amygdala, and prefrontal cortex; blood plasma corticosterone, used behavioral tasks for emotions and cognitive performance (elevated plus maze, holeboard to assess the interdependence of these factors. We hypothesize that BALB/c mice have a stress-vulnerable neuroendocrine phenotype and that emotional expressions in BALB/c and C57BL/6J mice will differentially contribute to learning and memory. We applied factor analyses on emotional and cognitive parameters to determine the behavioral structure of BALB/c and C57BL/6J mice. Glucocorticoid stress system markers indeed show that BALB/c mice are more stress-vulnerable than C57BL/6J mice. Moreover, emotional and explorative factors differed between naïve BALB/c and C57BL/6J mice. BALB/c mice display high movement in anxiogenic zones and high risk assessment, while C57BL/6J mice show little movement in anxiogenic zones and display high vertical exploration. Furthermore, BALB/c mice are superior learners, showing learning related behavior which is highly structured and emotionally biased when exposed to a novel or changing situation. In contrast, C57BL/6J mice display a rather ‘‘chaotic’’ behavioral structure during learning in absence of an emotional factor. These results show that stress vulnerability coincides with more emotionality, which drives well orchestrated goal directed behavior to the benefit of cognition. Both phenotypes have their advantage depending on environmental demands.

  7. Expectations and experiences of temporarily studying abroad

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Per A. Nilsson

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This tentative study focuses on the experiences of outbound exchange students and underlines the international relations component among contemporary universities. The aim is to investigate to what extent the expectations of outbound exchange students are being met in a population of students who had temporarily studied abroad. In this study, Umeå University, Sweden, is used as a case. The study was inspired by Plog’s studies (1974, 2001 in the field of tourism and hospitality research. Exchange students show similarities with tourists when it comes to choosing study destinations. This study partially confirms Plog’s model. Students who are outgoing and self-confident seem to choose non-English speaking countries. In addition, this study highlights what incentives students have, to become exchange students and most importantly how they value this experience. The respondents had positive expectations before departing as exchange students and they returned with even more positive attitudes.

  8. Holistic Assessment and the Study Abroad Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doyle, Dennis

    2009-01-01

    While many educators who work closely with study abroad programs could conjure up a litany of testimonials about the dramatic impact of study abroad, it is often difficult to move beyond vaguely descriptive accounts to reliable data showing how this experience influenced a student's growth in intercultural sensitivity and awareness. King and…

  9. Effects of heavy ions on the visual functions and electrophysiology of rodents: the ALTEA-MICE study ALTEA-MICE TEAM 02064 Retrieving of surface parameters over the tibetan plateau with microwave remote sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Gao, F.; Li, X.

    ALTEA-MICE is a multidisciplinary international project sponsored by NASA and by the Italian Space Agency (ASI) and Institute of Nuclear Physics (INFN) to investigate the effects of heavy ions on the visual system of mice. Both normal and mutant mice with gene defects affecting photoreceptor or bipolar cell function will be studied, with the scientific focus spanning from in vitro models to in vivo approaches and from cell to system physiology. Experiments are being performed at the Brookhaven National Laboratories with application of standardized electrophysiological techniques. The retina and visual cortex of adult mice and in vitro (retinal or cortical) cell preparations are radiated with short (2-5 msec) bursts of heavy (e.g. Silicon) ions, delivered by a collimated 3 mm beam. Mice are anesthetized and implanted with chronic electrodes in the visual cortex during pulsed radiation. Preliminary experiments performed with the GSI accelerator (Darmstadt, FRG) allow to record transient electrophysiological responses of the mouse visual cortex to bursts of particles in an order of magnitude of ~2 GeV, comparable to an energy loss of a bragging Fe in the eye, with 100-350 ms latency from pulsed radiation. The study protocol, experimental set-up, and preliminary results will be presented. Results from the GSI and BNL study will be outlined. The ALTEA -MICE project is expected to provide the scientific background needed to supplement the ALTEA project on astronauts and to yield information about the (electrophysiological correlates) of the functional brain impairment eventually induced by heavy ions in specific instances (e.g. during long-term operations in microgravity).

  10. A study of the antidiarrheal properties of Loeselia mexicana on mice and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, G Salud; Pérez, G Cuauhtemoc; Zavala, M A

    2005-09-01

    Antidiarrheal properties of hexane, chloroform, methanol and aqueous extracts from Loeselia mexicana were studied using mice and rats as animal models. Flavones and sesquiterpenlactones were detected in the chemical screening of the aqueous extract. Diarrhea was induced by castor oil or MgSO4. The methanol extract diminished diarrhea in mice induced by MgSO4, while the aqueous extract showed an effect on castor-oil-induced. The aqueous extract also reduced castor-oil-enhanced intestinal transit and inhibited defecation of normal mice. The results obtained showed a symptomatic relief of diarrhea.

  11. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Teratology study of methyl ethyl ketone in mice: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mast, T.J.; Dill, J.A.; Evanoff, J.J.; Rommereim, R.L.; Weigel, R.J.; Westerberg, R.B.

    1989-02-01

    Methyl ethyl ketone (MEK) is a widely used industrial solvent which results in considerable human exposure. In order to assess the potential for MEK to cause developmental toxicity in rodents, four groups of Swiss (CD-1) mice were exposed to 0, 400, 1000 or 3000 ppM MEK vapors, 7 h/day, 7 dy/wk. Ten virgin females and approx.30 plug-positive females per group were exposed concurrently for 10 consecutive days (6--15 dg for mated mice). Body weights were obtained throughout the study period, and uterine and fetal body weights were obtained at sacrifice on 18 dg. Uterine implants were enumerated and their status recorded. Live fetuses were sexed and examined for gross, visceral, skeletal, and soft-tissue craniofacial defects. Exposure of pregnant mice to these concentrations of MEK did not result in apparent maternal toxicity, although there was a slight, treatment-correlated increase in liver to body weight ratios which was significant for the 3000-ppM group. Mild developmental toxicity was evident at 3000-ppM as a reduction in mean fetal body weight. This reduction was statistically significant for the males only, although the relative decrease in mean fetal body weight was the same for both sexes. 17 refs., 4 figs., 10 tabs.

  12. Genes and Alcohol Consumption: Studies with Mutant Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield, Jody; Arends, Michael A.; Harris, R. Adron; Blednov, Yuri A.

    2017-01-01

    In this chapter, we review the effects of global null mutant and overexpressing transgenic mouse lines on voluntary self-administration of alcohol. We examine approximately 200 publications pertaining to the effects of 155 mouse genes on alcohol consumption in different drinking models. The targeted genes vary in function and include neurotransmitter, ion channel, neuroimmune, and neuropeptide signaling systems. The alcohol self-administration models include operant conditioning, two- and four-bottle choice continuous and intermittent access, drinking in the dark limited access, chronic intermittent ethanol, and scheduled high alcohol consumption tests. Comparisons of different drinking models using the same mutant mice are potentially the most informative, and we will highlight those examples. More mutants have been tested for continuous two-bottle choice consumption than any other test; of the 137 mouse genes examined using this model, 97 (72%) altered drinking in at least one sex. Overall, the effects of genetic manipulations on alcohol drinking often depend on the sex of the mice, alcohol concentration and time of access, genetic background, as well as the drinking test. PMID:27055617

  13. Genes and Alcohol Consumption: Studies with Mutant Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayfield, J; Arends, M A; Harris, R A; Blednov, Y A

    2016-01-01

    In this chapter, we review the effects of global null mutant and overexpressing transgenic mouse lines on voluntary self-administration of alcohol. We examine approximately 200 publications pertaining to the effects of 155 mouse genes on alcohol consumption in different drinking models. The targeted genes vary in function and include neurotransmitter, ion channel, neuroimmune, and neuropeptide signaling systems. The alcohol self-administration models include operant conditioning, two- and four-bottle choice continuous and intermittent access, drinking in the dark limited access, chronic intermittent ethanol, and scheduled high alcohol consumption tests. Comparisons of different drinking models using the same mutant mice are potentially the most informative, and we will highlight those examples. More mutants have been tested for continuous two-bottle choice consumption than any other test; of the 137 mouse genes examined using this model, 97 (72%) altered drinking in at least one sex. Overall, the effects of genetic manipulations on alcohol drinking often depend on the sex of the mice, alcohol concentration and time of access, genetic background, as well as the drinking test. © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Standardized experiments in mutant mice reveal behavioural similarity on 129S5 and C57BL/6J backgrounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Lagemaat, L N; Stanford, L E; Pettit, C M; Strathdee, D J; Strathdee, K E; Elsegood, K A; Fricker, D G; Croning, M D R; Komiyama, N H; Grant, S G N

    2017-04-01

    Behavioural analysis of mice carrying engineered mutations is widely used to identify roles of specific genes in components of the mammalian behavioural repertoire. The reproducibility and robustness of phenotypic measures has become a concern that undermines the use of mouse genetic models for translational studies. Contributing factors include low individual study power, non-standardized behavioural testing, failure to address confounds and differences in genetic background of mutant mice. We have examined the importance of these factors using a statistically robust approach applied to behavioural data obtained from three mouse mutations on 129S5 and C57BL/6J backgrounds generated in a standardized battery of five behavioural assays. The largest confounding effect was sampling variation, which partially masked the genetic background effect. Our observations suggest that strong interaction of mutation with genetic background in mice in innate and learned behaviours is not necessarily to be expected. We found composite measures of innate and learned behaviour were similarly impacted by mutations across backgrounds. We determined that, for frequently used group sizes, a single retest of a significant result conforming to the commonly used P approaches for quantitative assessment of behavioural phenotypes and highlights approaches that may improve the translational value of mouse behavioural studies. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons Ltd and International Behavioural and Neural Genetics Society.

  15. EXPERIMENT AL AND THEORETICAL STUDY OF PRECAST ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    EXPERIMENT AL AND THEORETICAL STUDY OF PRECAST BEAM-SLAB. CONSTRUCTION. Girma Zerayohannes and Adil Zekaria. Department of Civil Engineering. Addis Ababa University. ABSTRACT. The use of partially precast beam elements ivith shear connectors in slab construction relieves the requirement of ...

  16. Online Learner's "Flow" Experience: An Empirical Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Namin

    2006-01-01

    This study is concerned with online learners' "low" experiences. On the basis of Csikszentmihalyi's theory of flow, flow was conceptualised as a complex, multimentional, reflective construct composing of "enjoyment", "telepresence", "focused attention", "engagement" and "time distortion" on the part of learners. A flow model was put forward with…

  17. Humanized Mice, a New Model To Study the Influence of Drug Treatment on Neonatal Sepsis

    OpenAIRE

    Ernst, Wolfgang; Zimara, Nicole; Hanses, Frank; Männel, Daniela N.; Seelbach-Göbel, Birgit; Anja K Wege

    2013-01-01

    Bacterial infection with group B Streptococcus (GBS) represents a prominent threat to neonates and fetuses in the Western world, causing severe organ damage and even death. To improve current therapeutic strategies and to investigate new approaches, an appropriate in vivo model to study the immune response of a human immune system is needed. Therefore, we introduced humanized mice as a new model for GBS-induced sepsis. Humanized mice feature deficiencies similar to those found in neonates, su...

  18. Twenty-eight week toxicity study of perlite powder in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakai, T; Nagao, S

    1985-05-01

    Groups of 21 male and 21 female mice were given diets containing 20%, 10%, 1% or 0% (control) perlite for 28 weeks. Appearance, behavior, mortality, and food consumption of mice of treated groups were not affected during the experimental period. Males of the 20% and 10% groups did experience slightly reduced growth rate. No significant drug-related changes were found in urinalysis, hematology, serum chemistry, and organ weight. No differences were found between control and treated groups in autopsy and histopathological findings. Therefore, the maximum no-effect level is considered to be 1% in the diet which developed no toxic changes in any items examined in mice treated orally with perlite for 28 weeks.

  19. Designing Mobile Service experiences, an exploratory study

    OpenAIRE

    Sarmento, Teresa; Patrício, Lia; Bártolo, José

    2009-01-01

    This paper presents the results of an exploratory study on the relevance of experiential factors when using services. The multidisciplinary approach is stressed seeing that is an important contribution in terms of service design interfaces. The project aimed at identifying elements for designing service experiences and for contributing to an improved service design and testing process. The paper presents a study carried out on a group of participants in a creative training cour...

  20. Studies of pericopulatory pregnancy blockage and the gestation period in deer mice (Peromyscus maniculatus).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewsbury, D A

    1985-06-01

    It has previously been shown that female deer mice in cycling estrus that copulate with or are exposed to more than one male at the time of mating have a lower probability of delivering a litter than when mating with and being exposed to just one male. In the present research the effect of post-mating exposure to the bedding of a strange versus a familiar male was studied in females in postpartum estrus. In four experiments females in postpartum estrus were protected from pericopulatory pregnancy blockage, presumably by suckling-induced elevated prolactin levels. Varying female experience, number of ejaculations, and the presence of suckling pups had no effect on this protection. Thus, both the pericopulatory block and the Bruce effect (a more delayed type of pregnancy blockage) occur in cycling, but not suckling, females. This suggests that the two may have a common mechanism and leads to a new perspective in the search for adaptive significance. In addition, the subsequent gestation periods were prolonged in females nursing young; the length was affected by the number of pups weaned from the previous litter and the number of pups being carried.

  1. Endogenous IL-1 in cognitive function and anxiety: a study in IL-1RI-/- mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carol L Murray

    Full Text Available Interleukin-1 (IL-1 is a key pro-inflammatory cytokine, produced predominantly by peripheral immune cells but also by glia and some neuronal populations within the brain. Its signalling is mediated via the binding of IL-1α or IL-1β to the interleukin-1 type one receptor (IL-1RI. IL-1 plays a key role in inflammation-induced sickness behaviour, resulting in depressed locomotor activity, decreased exploration, reduced food and water intake and acute cognitive deficits. Conversely, IL-1 has also been suggested to facilitate hippocampal-dependent learning and memory: IL-1RI(-/- mice have been reported to show deficits on tasks of visuospatial learning and memory. We sought to investigate whether there is a generalised hippocampal deficit in IL-1RI(-/- animals. Therefore, in the current study we compared wildtype (WT mice to IL-1RI(-/- mice using a variety of hippocampal-dependent learning and memory tasks, as well as tests of anxiety and locomotor activity. We found no difference in performance of the IL-1RI(-/- mice compared to WT mice in a T-maze working memory task. In addition, the IL-1RI(-/- mice showed normal learning in various spatial reference memory tasks including the Y-maze and Morris mater maze, although there was a subtle deficit in choice behaviour in a spatial discrimination, beacon watermaze task. IL-1RI(-/- mice also showed normal memory for visuospatial context in the contextual fear conditioning paradigm. In the open field, IL-1RI(-/- mice showed a significant increase in distance travelled and rearing behaviour compared to the WT mice and in the elevated plus-maze spent more time in the open arms than did the WT animals. The data suggest that, contrary to prior studies, IL-1RI(-/- mice are not robustly impaired on hippocampal-dependent memory and learning but do display open field hyperactivity and decreased anxiety compared to WT mice. The results argue for a careful evaluation of the roles of endogenous IL-1 in hippocampal

  2. Novel halogenated derivates of JWH-018: Behavioral and binding studies in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigolo, A; Ossato, A; Trapella, C; Vincenzi, F; Rimondo, C; Seri, C; Varani, K; Serpelloni, G; Marti, M

    2015-08-01

    JWH-018 is a synthetic CB1 and CB2 agonist illegally marketed as products named "Spice" or "herbal blend" for its psychoactive effects which are much higher than those produced by cannabis. In the last year, the European Monitoring Centre for Drugs and Drug Addiction reported to the Italian National Early Warning System the seizure of plant material containing new halogenated derivatives of JWH-018 (JWH-018 Cl and JWH-018 Br). The present study aimed to investigate the in vitro and in vivo activity of these two new synthetic cannabinoids in mice. In vitro competition binding experiments performed on mouse and human CB1 receptors revealed a high affinity and potency of the halogenated compounds. Synthetic cannabinoids (0.01-6 mg/kg i.p.) impaired motor activity and induced catalepsy in mice and their effects were more severe with respect to those evoked by Δ(9)-THC. Moreover, they increased the mechanical and thermal pain threshold and induced a marked hypothermia. It is interesting to note that whereas high doses of JWH-018 cause seizures, myoclonia and hyperreflexia, the halogenated compounds, in particular JWH-018Br, were less effective. Behavioral and neurological changes were prevented by the selective CB1 receptor antagonist AM 251. These data demonstrate for the first time that JWH-018 Cl and JWH-018 Br act similarly to JWH-018 while inducing less convulsive episodes and myoclonias. These data support the hypothesis that the halogenated compounds may have been introduced onto market to produce similar intoxicating effects as JWH-018 while causing less side effects. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Exploring the effects of the atherosclerosis progression and the choice of affected arteries in the design of experiments with Apolipoprotein E-deficient mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riera-Borrull, Marta; Sabench, Fàtima; del Castillo, Daniel; Camps, Jordi; Joven, Jorge

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study is to explore the longitudinal progression of atherosclerosis and the correlation between methods to measure the lesion in apolipoprotein E-deficient mice. Atherosclerosis progression was assessed by measurements of foam cell-rich depositions in their proximal aortas, and/or in surgically excised arteries, to assess the histological luminal narrowing. A longitudinal study was performed by comparing the values for carotid, aorta, and femoral and iliac arteries using common histological techniques. There were no significant differences in progression between different arteries, but correlation with the classical measurement of atherosclerosis in the aortic root was poor. Each laboratory requires specific standardization. Carotid arteries were sensitive to atherosclerosis in these mice, and progression was exponential. In conclusion, morphometric data show the importance of the choice of the duration of treatment, the appropriate controls, and the age at which to begin the experiments. Copyright © 2015 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  4. Ways of learning: Observational studies versus experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, T.L.; Johnson, D.H.

    2008-01-01

    Manipulative experimentation that features random assignment of treatments, replication, and controls is an effective way to determine causal relationships. Wildlife ecologists, however, often must take a more passive approach to investigating causality. Their observational studies lack one or more of the 3 cornerstones of experimentation: controls, randomization, and replication. Although an observational study can be analyzed similarly to an experiment, one is less certain that the presumed treatment actually caused the observed response. Because the investigator does not actively manipulate the system, the chance that something other than the treatment caused the observed results is increased. We reviewed observational studies and contrasted them with experiments and, to a lesser extent, sample surveys. We identified features that distinguish each method of learning and illustrate or discuss some complications that may arise when analyzing results of observational studies. Findings from observational studies are prone to bias. Investigators can reduce the chance of reaching erroneous conclusions by formulating a priori hypotheses that can be pursued multiple ways and by evaluating the sensitivity of study conclusions to biases of various magnitudes. In the end, however, professional judgment that considers all available evidence is necessary to render a decision regarding causality based on observational studies.

  5. Studies of the pharmacology of N-methylformamide in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brindley, C.; Gescher, A.; Harpur, E.S.; Ross, D.; Slack, J.A.; Threadgill, M.D.; Whitby, H.

    1982-11-01

    When 400 mg/kg of /sup 14/C-methyl-labeled N-methylformamide (NMF) was injected ip into mice, the curve for plasma concentration of radioactivity versus time was superimposable on the curve obtained by measuring unmetabolized NMF with gas-liquid chromatography during the first 24 hrs. Radioactivity in plasma was measurable for 8 days after NMF administration, but NMF was not measurable by gas chromatography beyond 24 hrs after administration. Radioactivity was eliminated from the plasma after 60 hrs, with an apparent half-life of 71.1 hrs. Of the radioactivity injected with NMF, 73.6% was recovered in the urine in 24 hrs; 26.4% of this was unchanged NMF. Three percent of the administered radioactivity was exhaled as /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ in 7 hrs at a constant rate of 0.007% per min. One urinary metablite was a stable precursor of formaldehyde, which decomposed to formaldehyde only after alkaline hydrolysis and may well be N-(hydroxymethyl)-formamide. The areas under the plasma concentration versus time curve were estimated after ip, iv, and oral administration of NMF. The bioavailability of NMF was 1.01 after oral administration and 1.10 after ip administration.

  6. Organotypic brain slice cultures of adult transgenic P301S mice--a model for tauopathy studies.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agneta Mewes

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Organotypic brain slice cultures represent an excellent compromise between single cell cultures and complete animal studies, in this way replacing and reducing the number of animal experiments. Organotypic brain slices are widely applied to model neuronal development and regeneration as well as neuronal pathology concerning stroke, epilepsy and Alzheimer's disease (AD. AD is characterized by two protein alterations, namely tau hyperphosphorylation and excessive amyloid β deposition, both causing microglia and astrocyte activation. Deposits of hyperphosphorylated tau, called neurofibrillary tangles (NFTs, surrounded by activated glia are modeled in transgenic mice, e.g. the tauopathy model P301S. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In this study we explore the benefits and limitations of organotypic brain slice cultures made of mature adult transgenic mice as a potential model system for the multifactorial phenotype of AD. First, neonatal (P1 and adult organotypic brain slice cultures from 7- to 10-month-old transgenic P301S mice have been compared with regard to vitality, which was monitored with the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH- and the MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide assays over 15 days. Neonatal slices displayed a constant high vitality level, while the vitality of adult slice cultures decreased significantly upon cultivation. Various preparation and cultivation conditions were tested to augment the vitality of adult slices and improvements were achieved with a reduced slice thickness, a mild hypothermic cultivation temperature and a cultivation CO(2 concentration of 5%. Furthermore, we present a substantial immunohistochemical characterization analyzing the morphology of neurons, astrocytes and microglia in comparison to neonatal tissue. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Until now only adolescent animals with a maximum age of two months have been used to prepare organotypic brain slices. The current study

  7. Lung emphysema induced by cigarette smoke: Studies in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eijl, Teunis Jan Ahasuerus van

    2006-01-01

    The experiments described in this thesis were designed to shed some more light on the mechanisms underlying cigarette smoke-induced lung emphysema. We used elastase instillation to induce lung emphysema, and subsequently perfused the lungs ex-vivo with buffer at a range of flows to measure changes

  8. What To Do When the Mice Die: Turning a Lab Wreck into a Productive Learning Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jensen, Murray S.; Smith, Mike U.

    1999-01-01

    Describes unexpected experiences with student laboratory activities. Makes recommendations for addressing two types of lab disasters: (1) when lab preparations fail prior to the beginning of lab; and (2) when students produce unexpected results with the proper use of materials. (Contains 11 references.) (WRM)

  9. A pilot study using laser-based technique for non-invasive diagnostics of hypertensive conditions in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Litvinova, Karina S.; Ahmad, Shakil; Wang, Keqing; Rafailov, Ilya E.; Sokolovski, Sergei G.; Zhang, Lin; Rafailov, Edik U.; Ahmed, Asif

    2016-02-01

    Endothelial dysfunction is directly linked to preeclampsia, a maternal hypertensive condition that is life threating for both the mother and the baby. Epidemiological studies show that women with a history of pre-eclampsia have an elevated risk for cardiovascular disease. Here we report a new non-invasive diagnostic test for preeclampsia in mice that allows us to non-invasively assess the condition of the animals during the experiment and treatment in established models of preeclampsia. A laser-based multifunctional diagnostics system (LAKK-M) was chosen to carry out non-invasive analysis of multiple parameters. The device was used to simultaneously record the microcirculatory blood flow and oxygen saturation, as well as fluorescence levels of endogenous fluorophores. Preliminary experiments were conducted on adenoviral (Ad-)- mediated overexpression of sFlt-1 (Ad-sFlt-1) to mimic preeclampsialike symptoms in mice. The recorded data displayed the ability of the LAKK-M diagnostics device to detect significant differences in perfusion measurements between the control and Ad-sFlt-1 treatment. Preliminary results provide a potential avenue to employ these diagnostics technology to monitor and aid in maintaining control of live animal conditions throughout the experiment and treatment.

  10. Experimental studies of ongoing conscious experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singer, J L

    1993-01-01

    A research programme designed to find ways of applying a variety of methods in psychological science to studying the seemingly ephemeral phenomena of the human stream of consciousness and its manifestations in daydreams, interior monologues, imagery and related private experiences is described. Approaches include psychometric studies to establish normative information on daydreaming and experimental studies using signal-detection paradigms to capture the ongoing stream of thought. Recent experiments involve thought-sampling methods for identifying the determinants of the content of the stream of thought in adolescents or the ways in which self-beliefs and emotions are manifested in a group of cocaine and heroin abusers. Children's pretend play is studied as a possible forerunner of adult consciousness. It is proposed that the human condition involves a continuing tension between processing information generated from the physical and social milieu and the continuous operation of centrally generated material from long-term memory in the form of reminiscences, wishes, current concerns, expectancies and fantasies. This concept has implications for personality variation, affective arousal and adaptive behaviour.

  11. Sodium sulfur battery flight experiment definition study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Rebecca R.; Minck, Robert

    1989-01-01

    Sodium-sulfur batteries were identified as the most likely successor to nickel-hydrogen batteries for space applications. One advantage of the Na/S battery system is that the usable specific energy is two to three times that of nickel-hydrogen batteries. This represents a significant launch cost savings or increased payload mass capabilities. Sodium-sulfur batteries support NASA OAST's proposed Civil Space Technology Initiative goal of a factor of two improvement in spacecraft power system performance, as well as the proposed Spacecraft 2000 initiative. The sodium-sulfur battery operates at between 300 and 400 C, using liquid sodium and sulfur/polysulfide electrodes and solid ceramic electrolyte. The transport of the electrode materials to the surface of the electrolyte is through wicking/capillary forces. These critical transport functions must be demonstrated under actual microgravity conditions before sodium-sulfur batteries can be confidently utilized in space. Ford Aerospace Corporation, under contract to NASA Lewis Research Center, is currently working on the sodium-sulfur battery space flight experiment definition study. The objective is to design the experiment that will demonstrate operation of the sodium-sulfur battery/cell in the space environment with particular emphasis on evaluation of microgravity effects. Experimental payload definitions were completed and preliminary designs of the experiment were defined.

  12. [Study the rudimentary immunoregulatory mechanisms of Ganoderma Spore oil on immunocompromized mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yi, Youjin; Hu, Shun; Xiong, Xingyao; Liu, Dongbo; Zhong, Yingli

    2012-09-01

    To study the rudimentary immunoregulatory mechanisms of Ganoderma spore oil on immunocompromized mice model. Thrity KM mice were randomly selected and assigned into three groups (ten animals per group): the model control group, Ganoderma Lucidum spores oil group and the normal control group. The model control group and Ganoderma Lucidum spores oil group were injected intraperitoneally with cyclophosphamide at 40 mg x kg(-1) d to generate a immunocompromized mice model. The normal control group were administered with 0.9% NaCl solution 0.1 ml/10 g BW as placebo. All agents were given orally once a day, given for consecutive 30 days, Ganoderma Lucidum spores oil group 150 mg/kg, the others given maize 0.1 ml/10 g BW. The serum TNF-alpha , IFN-gamma content of the mice through ELISA kit and the expression levels of IL-2, IL-10, IL-12, IL-4, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha mRNA in mouse spleen and thymus were examined by RT-PCR to rudimentary study its immunoregulatory mechanisms. Ganoderma spore oil can significantly increased the content of TNF-alpha and IFN-gamma in the serum and the expression levels of IL-2, IL-10, IL-12, IL-4, IFN-gamma, TNF-alpha mRNA in spleen and thymus, with obvious difference from the model control (P Ganoderma spore oil can be able to improve the above cytokine ion expression to immunoregulate the immunocompromized mice.

  13. Inhalation reproductive toxicology studies: Sperm morphology study of n-hexane in B6C3F1 mice: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mast, T.J.; Hackett, P.L.; Decker, J.R.; Westerberg, R.B.; Sasser, L.B.; McClanahan, B.J.; Rommereim, R.L.; Evanoff, J.J.

    1988-08-01

    The straight-chain hydrocarbon, n-hexane, is a volatile, ubiquitous solvent routinely used in industrial environments. Although myelinated nerve tissue is the primary target organ of hexane, the testes have also been identified as being sensitive to hexacarbon exposure. The objective of this study was to evaluate the epididymal sperm morphology of male B6D3F1 mice 5 weeks after exposure to 0, 200, 1000, or 5000 ppM n-hexane, 20 h/day for 5 consecutive days. Two concurrent positive control groups of animals were injected intraperitoneally with either 200 or 250 mg/kg ethyl methanesulfonate, a known mutagen, once each day for 5 consecutive days. The mice were weighed just prior to the first day of exposure and at weekly intervals until sacrifice. During the fifth post-exposure week the animals were killed and examined for gross lesions of the reproductive tract and suspensions of the epididymal sperm were prepared for morphological evaluations. The appearance and behavior of the mice were unremarkable throughout the experiment and there were no deaths. No evidence of lesions in any organ was noted at sacrifice. Mean body weights of male mice exposed to n-hexane were not significantly different from those for the 0-ppM animals at any time during the study. Analyses of the sperm morphology data obtained 5 weeks post-exposure (the only time point examined) indicated that exposure of male mice to relatively high concentrations of n-hexane vapor for 5 days produced no significant effects on the morphology of sperm relative to that of the 0-ppM control group. 24 refs., 2 figs., 7 tabs.

  14. Study of Sperm Parameters and Sperm Fertility in Mice were Exposed to Tamoxifen during Embryonic Development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J Soleimanirad

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Tamoxifen is steroidal drug, which mainly treats breast cancer and also used to stimulate ovulation. The purpose of the present study was the evaluation of sperm parameters and fertility of mice whose mothers had received tamoxifen during pregnancy. Methods: In this study, 30 female and 15 male mice of NMRI were selected for mating. After mating female mice were randomly divided into two groups, the first group (control and second group (experimental. All of which contained 15 mice. From the day 13th day of pregnancy, experimental group has received tamoxifen with the dosage of 5 mg/kg for 7 days. After childbirth of the mated mice, male infants were selected. After reaching the age of puberty (6-8Weeks, adult mice were sacrificed by the cervical dislocation. After take sperm, sperm parameters (count, normality and motility, and sperm fertility was performed. In this study SPSS software and statistical t-test was used (p <0.001. Results: Studies showed that sperm parameters and sperm fertilization were significantly different. The number of sperm in the control group was 83.50±28.20 million, and in the experimental group was 60±14.14 million. There was a decrease in average sperm count in the experimental group compared with the control group (p <0.001. Our findings from in vitro fertilization culture media showed that embryos formation and oocyte disruption between control and experimental groups significantly different (p <0.001. Conclusion: The results showed that tamoxifen exposure during development can cause histological changes in the seminiferous tubules, which can lead to infertility.

  15. Atherosclerotic plaque delamination: Experiments and 2D finite element model to simulate plaque peeling in two strains of transgenic mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Merei, Bilal; Badel, Pierre; Davis, Lindsey; Sutton, Michael A; Avril, Stéphane; Lessner, Susan M

    2017-03-01

    Finite element analyses using cohesive zone models (CZM) can be used to predict the fracture of atherosclerotic plaques but this requires setting appropriate values of the model parameters. In this study, material parameters of a CZM were identified for the first time on two groups of mice (ApoE(-/-) and ApoE(-/-) Col8(-/-)) using the measured force-displacement curves acquired during delamination tests. To this end, a 2D finite-element model of each plaque was solved using an explicit integration scheme. Each constituent of the plaque was modeled with a neo-Hookean strain energy density function and a CZM was used for the interface. The model parameters were calibrated by minimizing the quadratic deviation between the experimental force displacement curves and the model predictions. The elastic parameter of the plaque and the CZM interfacial parameter were successfully identified for a cohort of 11 mice. The results revealed that only the elastic parameter was significantly different between the two groups, ApoE(-/-) Col8(-/-) plaques being less stiff than ApoE(-/-) plaques. Finally, this study demonstrated that a simple 2D finite element model with cohesive elements can reproduce fairly well the plaque peeling global response. Future work will focus on understanding the main biological determinants of regional and inter-individual variations of the material parameters used in the model. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Improving the adverse childhood experiences study scale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelhor, David; Shattuck, Anne; Turner, Heather; Hamby, Sherry

    2013-01-01

    To test and improve upon the list of adverse childhood experiences from the Adverse Childhood Experiences (ACE) Study scale by examining the ability of a broader range to correlate with mental health symptoms. Nationally representative sample of children and adolescents. Telephone interviews with a nationally representative sample of 2030 youth aged 10 to 17 years who were asked about lifetime adversities and current distress symptoms. Lifetime adversities and current distress symptoms. The adversities from the original ACE scale items were associated with mental health symptoms among the participants, but the association was significantly improved (from R2 = 0.21 to R2 = 0.34) by removing some of the original ACE scale items and adding others in the domains of peer rejection, peer victimization, community violence exposure, school performance, and socioeconomic status. Our understanding of the most harmful childhood adversities is still incomplete because of complex interrelationships among them, but we know enough to proceed to interventional studies to determine whether prevention and remediation can improve long-term outcomes.

  17. Humanized mice, a new model to study the influence of drug treatment on neonatal sepsis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ernst, Wolfgang; Zimara, Nicole; Hanses, Frank; Männel, Daniela N; Seelbach-Göbel, Birgit; Wege, Anja K

    2013-05-01

    Bacterial infection with group B Streptococcus (GBS) represents a prominent threat to neonates and fetuses in the Western world, causing severe organ damage and even death. To improve current therapeutic strategies and to investigate new approaches, an appropriate in vivo model to study the immune response of a human immune system is needed. Therefore, we introduced humanized mice as a new model for GBS-induced sepsis. Humanized mice feature deficiencies similar to those found in neonates, such as lower immunoglobulin levels and myeloid cell dysfunction. Due to the husbandry in specific-pathogen-free (SPF) facilities, the human immune cells in these mice also exhibit a naive phenotype which mimics the conditions in fetuses/neonates. Following infection, cytokine release and leukocyte trafficking from the bone marrow to the lymphoid organ (spleen) and into the peritoneum (site of infection) as well as bacterial spreading and clearance were traceable in the humanized mice. Furthermore, we investigated the effects of betamethasone and indomethacin treatment using this novel sepsis model. Although both drugs are commonly used in perinatal care, little is known about their effects on the neonatal immune system. Treatment of infected humanized mice not only induced the reduction of human leukocytes in the spleen but also increased the bacterial load in all analyzed organs, including the brain, which did not show infiltration of live GBS in untreated controls. These studies demonstrate the utility of the humanized mice as a new model to study an immature human immune response during bacterial infection and allow the investigation of side effects induced by various treatments.

  18. The effect of early life experience, environment, and genetic factors on spontaneous home-cage aggression-related wounding in male C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaskill, Brianna N; Stottler, Aurora M; Garner, Joseph P; Winnicker, Christina W; Mulder, Guy B; Pritchett-Corning, Kathleen R

    2017-03-22

    Aggression is a major welfare issue in mice, particularly when mice unfamiliar to each other are first placed in cages, as happens on receipt from a vendor, and following cage cleaning. Injuries from aggression are the second leading cause of unplanned euthanasia in mice, following ulcerative dermatitis. Commonly employed strategies for reducing aggression-related injury are largely anecdotal, and may even be counterproductive. Here we report a series of experiments testing potential explanations and interventions for post-shipping aggression-related injuries in C57BL/6 mice. First, we examined the effects of weaning: testing whether manipulating weaning age reduced aggression-related injuries, and if repeated mixing of weaned mice before shipping increased these injuries. Contrary to our predictions, repeated mixing did not increase post-shipping injurious aggression, and early weaning reduced aggression-related injuries. Second, we examined potential post-shipping interventions: testing whether lavender essential oil applied to the cage reduced aggression-related injuries, and whether a variety of enrichments decreased injurious aggression. Again, contrary to predictions, lavender increased wounding, and none of the enrichments reduced it. However, consistent with the effects of weaning age in the first experiment, cages with higher mean body weight showed elevated levels of aggression-related wounding. Finally, we tested whether C57BL/6 substrains and identification methods affected levels of intra-cage wounding from aggression. We found no effect of strain, but cages where mice were ear-notched for identification showed higher levels of wounding than cages where mice were tail-tattooed. Overall, these results emphasize the multifactorial nature of home-cage injurious aggression, and the importance of testing received wisdom when it comes to managing complex behavioral and welfare problems. In terms of practical recommendations to reduce aggressive wounding in

  19. Toxicological evaluation of nano-sized colloidal silver in experiments on mice. behavioral reactions, morphology of internals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.V. Zaitseva

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The results of toxicity studies of nano-sized colloidal silver (NCC, the most widely used in medicine, food and life, are given. When evaluating safe doses of silver NP (using commercially available NCC solution stabilized with polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP, with the size of silver NP at the range of 5-80 nm when orally administered to male mice, BALB/c mice at doses of 0.1; 1.0 and 10 mg/kg of body weight per silver different effects from the motor and orienting-exploratory activity were revealed, for the part of them the dependence on the dose of the NCC was typical. The following peculiarities were found: reduction in motor activity to reduce the frequency of activities requiring physical effort, reduction of the execution time of these actions; increasing anxiety in terms of frequency and duration of attacks of orienting-investigative activity and animals washing. Morphological examination revealed a series of tissue changes of internal organs (especially liver and spleen, to a lesser extent – kidney, heart and colon with increase of the spectrum and severity of structural changes with increasing doses of the NCC. From the combination of the data the conclusion was made that maximal ineffective dose (NOAEL of this nanomaterial at subacute oral administration is no more than 0.1 mg/kg body weight.

  20. The NASA GPM Iowa Flood Studies Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, W. A.; Krajewski, W. F.; Peters-Lidard, C. D.; Rutledge, S. A.; Wolff, D. B.

    2013-12-01

    The overarching objective of NASA Global Precipitation Measurement Mission (GPM) integrated hydrologic ground validation (GV) is to provide a better understanding of the strengths and limitations of the satellite products, in the context of hydrologic applications. Accordingly, the NASA GPM GV program recently completed the first of several hydrology-oriented field efforts: the Iowa Flood Studies (IFloodS) experiment. IFloodS was conducted in central Iowa during the months of April-June, 2013. IFloodS science objectives focused on: a) The collection of reference multi-parameter radar, rain gauge, disdrometer, soil moisture, and hydrologic network measurements to quantify the physical character and space/time variability of rain (e.g., rates, drop size distributions, processes), land surface- state and hydrologic response; b) Application of the ground reference measurements to assessment of satellite-based rainfall estimation uncertainties; c) Propagation of both ground and satellite rainfall estimation uncertainties in coupled hydrologic prediction models to assess impacts on predictive skill; and d) Evaluation of rainfall properties such as rate and accumulation relative to basin hydrologic characteristics in modeled flood genesis. IFloodS observational objectives were achieved via deployments of the NASA NPOL S-band and D3R Ka/Ku-band dual-polarimetric radars (operating in coordinated scanning modes), four University of Iowa X-band dual-polarimetric radars, four Micro Rain Radars, a network of 25 paired rain gauge platforms with attendant soil moisture and temperature probes, a network of six 2D Video and 14 Parsivel disdrometers, and 15 USDA-ARS rain gauge and soil-moisture stations (collaboration with the USDA-ARS and NASA Soil Moisture Active-Passive mission). The aforementioned platforms complemented existing operational WSR-88D S-band polarimetric radar, USGS streamflow, and Iowa Flood Center-affiliated stream monitoring and rainfall measurements. Coincident

  1. Morphometric study of myocardial changes during doxorubicin-induced cardiomyopathy in mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Vijgh, Wim J.F.; van Velzen, Dick; van der Poort, Jos S.E.; Schlüper, Henny M.M.; Mross, Klaus; Feijen, Jan; Pinedo, Herbert M.

    1988-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) is one of the most effective anti-cancer drugs in oncology, but may cause a cumulative dose-dependent cardiomyopathy in a number of cancer patients. The effect of DOX on the heart was studied in mice treated with i.v. injections of 2 mg/kg by measuring morphometric parameters,

  2. Diffusion tensor magnetic resonance imaging of the brain in APP transgenic mice: a cohort study.

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    Hans-Peter Müller

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: Fast in-vivo high resolution diffusion tensor imaging (DTI of the mouse brain has recently been shown to enable cohort studies by the combination of appropriate pulse sequences and cryogenically cooled resonators (CCR. The objective of this study was to apply this DTI approach at the group level to β-amyloid precursor protein (APP transgenic mice. METHODS: Twelve mice (5 wild type, 7 APP transgenic tg2576 underwent DTI examination at 156(2 × 250 µm(3 spatial resolution with a CCR at ultrahigh field (11.7 T. Diffusion images were acquired along 30 gradient directions plus 5 references without diffusion encoding with a total acquisition time of 35 minutes. Fractional anisotropy (FA maps were statistically compared by whole brain-based spatial statistics (WBSS at the group level vs. wild type controls. RESULTS: FA-map comparison showed characteristic regional patterns of differences between the groups with localizations associated with Alzheimer's disease in humans, such as the hippocampus, the entorhinal cortex, and the caudoputamen. CONCLUSION: In this proof-of-principle study, regions associated with amyloid-β deposition could be identified by WBSS of FA maps in APP transgenic mice vs. wild type mice. Thus, DTI in the mouse brain acquired at 11.7 T by use of a CCR was demonstrated to be feasible for cohort studies.

  3. Chimeric mice with humanized liver: Application in drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics studies for drug discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naritomi, Yoichi; Sanoh, Seigo; Ohta, Shigeru

    2017-11-09

    Predicting human drug metabolism and pharmacokinetics (PK) is key to drug discovery. In particular, it is important to predict human PK, metabolite profiles and drug-drug interactions (DDIs). Various methods have been used for such predictions, including in vitro metabolic studies using human biological samples, such as hepatic microsomes and hepatocytes, and in vivo studies using experimental animals. However, prediction studies using these methods are often inconclusive due to discrepancies between in vitro and in vivo results, and interspecies differences in drug metabolism. Further, the prediction methods have changed from qualitative to quantitative to solve these issues. Chimeric mice with humanized liver have been developed, in which mouse liver cells are mostly replaced with human hepatocytes. Since human drug metabolizing enzymes are expressed in the liver of these mice, they are regarded as suitable models for mimicking the drug metabolism and PK observed in humans; therefore, these mice are useful for predicting human drug metabolism and PK. In this review, we discuss the current state, issues, and future directions of predicting human drug metabolism and PK using chimeric mice with humanized liver in drug discovery. Copyright © 2017 The Japanese Society for the Study of Xenobiotics. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury: Studies using transgenic and knockout mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jong, W. M. C.; ten Cate, H.; Reitsma, P. H.; de Winter, R. J.

    2005-01-01

    Transgenic and knockout mice are created and used for a large variety of research objectives. This overview describes the (genetically modified) mouse models that have been used to study the development of myocardial ischemia and reperfusion injury. The role of cytokines, chemokines, leukocytes,

  5. An interview study of phenotypic characterization of genetically-modified mice.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thon, R.; Vondeling, H.; Lassen, J.; Hansen, A.K.; Ritskes-Hoitinga, M.

    2009-01-01

    An interview study was carried out with the aim of clarifying the reasons for the limited use of phenotypic characterization of genetically-modified mice (GMM) and identifying issues hindering its implementation. A total of 15 users of GMM participated in semi-structured face-to-face interviews,

  6. An interview study of phenotypic characterization of genetically-modified mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thon, R.; Vondeling, Hindrik; Lassen, J.; Hansen, A.K.; Ritskes-Hoitinga, M.

    2009-01-01

    An interview study was carried out with the aim of clarifying the reasons for the limited use of phenotypic characterization of genetically-modified mice (GMM) and identifying issues hindering its implementation. A total of 15 users of GMM participated in semi-structured face-to-face interviews,

  7. Ontongeny of aggression : A neuroendocrinological study in aggresive and non-aggressive mice (Mus musculus domesticus)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Compaan, Johanna Cahtarina

    1993-01-01

    The studies described in the present thesis were performed to investigate the interaction between genetic and developmental neuroendocrine factors underlying the individual variation in adult aggressive behavior. In all experimentss election lines of wild house mice were used. These lines were

  8. Ultrasound Biomicroscopy for Longitudinal Studies of Carotid Plaque Development in Mice: Validation with Histological Endpoints

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Harmon, Erin Y.; Fronhofer, Van; Keller, Rebecca S.; Feustel, Paul J.; Brosnan, M. Julia; von der Thüsen, Jan H.; Loegering, Daniel J.; Lennartz, Michelle R.

    2012-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is responsible for the death of thousands of Americans each year. The carotid constriction model of plaque development has recently been presented as a model for unstable plaque formation in mice. In this study we 1) validate ultrasound biomicroscopy (UBM) for the determination of

  9. Lunar seismic profiling experiment natural activity study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duennebier, F. K.

    1976-01-01

    The Lunar Seismic Experiment Natural Activity Study has provided a unique opportunity to study the high frequency (4-20 Hz) portion to the seismic spectrum on the moon. The data obtained from the LSPE was studied to evaluate the origin and importance of the process that generates thermal moonquakes and the characteristics of the seismic scattering zone at the lunar surface. The detection of thermal moonquakes by the LSPE array made it possible to locate the sources of many events and determine that they are definitely not generated by astronaut activities but are the result of a natural process on the moon. The propagation of seismic waves in the near-surface layers was studied in a qualitative manner. In the absence of an adequate theoretical model for the propagation of seismic waves in the moon, it is not possible to assign a depth for the scattering layer. The LSPE data does define several parameters which must be satisfied by any model developed in the future.

  10. Fibrinogen and atherosclerosis: A study in transgenic mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, J.; Havekes, L.; Verheijen, J.; Gijbels, M.; Haverkate, F.

    1996-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a multifactorial disease that is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Recent epidemiological studies have shown that the combination of elevated VLDL/LDL concentrations and elevated fibrinogen levels results in a strong increase of the risk for cardiovascular

  11. Fibrinogen and atherosclerosis: A study in transgenic mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Koopman, J.; Maas, A.; Rezaee, F.; Havekes, L.; Verheijen, J.; Gijbels, M.; Haverkate, F.

    1997-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is a multifactorial disease that is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. Recent epidemiological studies have shown that the combination of elevated VLDL/LDL concentrations and elevated fibrinogen levels results in a strong increase of the risk for cardiovascular

  12. Immune characteristics study of AG490, a signal pathway inhibitor, in EAE model mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhihua Zhao

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Multiple sclerosis (MS is an autoimmune disease characterized by demyelination, axonal damage and progressive neurologic dysfunction in central nervous system (CNS. Many evidences show that B cells play an important role in the pathogenesis of MS. Follicular helper T cells (Tfh secrete IL-21 to prompt the proliferation and differentiation of B cells in germinal center (GC through clonal proliferation, somatic hypermutation, antibody class switching, antibody affinity maturation process. AG490 is a synthetic inhibitor to JAK-STAT signal pathway, which has been studied in inflammatory, tumor and autoimmune diseases. In the present study, the experimental mice were divided into 3 groups, vehicle group and AG490 group were given MOG35-55 to induce EAE model, from the third day after immunization, the mice were given vehicle or AG490 by intraperitoneal injection every other day. All mice were assessed clinical scores after immunization. On twentieth day, all mice were sacrificed, HE staining and solochrome cyanine staining were performed to evaluate inflammatory cells infiltration and demyelination, spleen sections were stained with PNA-FITC to analyze the difference in germinal center. Compared with vehicle group, the incidence of AG490 group was deceased, onset time was delayed, the severity was significantly reduced. The inflammatory cells and demyelination in AG490 group were lower than those in vehicle group. Immunofluorescence showed the fluorescence intensity of AG490 group was significantly lower than in the vehicle group, but higher than that of control group.

  13. Interferon α/β receptor knockout mice as a model to study bluetongue virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortego, Javier; de la Poza, Francisco; Marín-López, Alejandro

    2014-03-01

    Bluetongue is an arthropod-borne disease caused by a virus of the genus Orbivirus, the bluetongue virus (BTV), which affects ruminant livestock such as cattle, sheep, and goats and wild ruminants such as deer, and camelids. Recently, adult mice with gene knockouts of the interferon α/β receptor (IFNAR-/-) have been described as a model of lethal BTV infection. IFNAR(-/-) mice are highly susceptible to BTV-1, BTV-4 and BTV-8 infection when the virus is administered intravenously or subcutaneosuly. Disease progression and pathogenesis closely mimics signs of bluetongue disease in ruminants. In the present paper we review the studies where IFNAR(-/-) mice have been used as an animal model to study BTV transmission, pathogenesis, virulence, and protective efficacy of inactivated and new recombinant marker BTV vaccines. Furthermore, we report new data on protective efficacy of different strategies of BTV vaccination and also on induction of interferon α/β and proinflammatory immune responses in IFNAR(-/-) mice infected with BTV. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Aceclofenac: the experience of Russian studies

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    A. E. Karateev

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Aceclofenac is a popular nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug that has been used to control pain in rheumatic diseases for more than 25 years. The drug is used in 19 European countries and there are as many as its 298 generics. The good safety profile of aceclofenac makes it the drug of choice for treating osteoarthritis, the most common joint disease. Since 2005 in Russia, there have been 14 investigations of the efficacy and safety of aceclofenac (Airtal® in 4096 patients. These studies have confirmed the high efficacy of aceclofenac: its therapy reduces pain compared to the baseline level by 52.9±15.9%. The rate of adverse reactions (ARs averaged about 3%. Controlled studies showed ARs to aceclofenac in an average of 8.8% of cases and those to control drugs (diclofenac, nimesulide, meloxicam, and paracetamol in 20.2%. It is noted that the experience of the Russian clinical trials demonstrates the high efficacy and favorable safety profile of Airtal®. 

  15. Atherosclerotic Plaque Destabilization in Mice: A Comparative Study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helene Hartwig

    Full Text Available Atherosclerosis-associated diseases are the main cause of mortality and morbidity in western societies. The progression of atherosclerosis is a dynamic process evolving from early to advanced lesions that may become rupture-prone vulnerable plaques. Acute coronary syndromes are the clinical manifestation of life-threatening thrombotic events associated with high-risk vulnerable plaques. Hyperlipidemic mouse models have been extensively used in studying the mechanisms controlling initiation and progression of atherosclerosis. However, the understanding of mechanisms leading to atherosclerotic plaque destabilization has been hampered by the lack of proper animal models mimicking this process. Although various mouse models generate atherosclerotic plaques with histological features of human advanced lesions, a consensus model to study atherosclerotic plaque destabilization is still lacking. Hence, we studied the degree and features of plaque vulnerability in different mouse models of atherosclerotic plaque destabilization and find that the model based on the placement of a shear stress modifier in combination with hypercholesterolemia represent with high incidence the most human like lesions compared to the other models.

  16. Experiments Developed to Study Microgravity Smoldering Combustion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vergilii, Franklin

    2001-01-01

    The overall objective of the Microgravity Smoldering Combustion (MSC) research program is to understand and predict smoldering combustion under normal and microgravity (near-zero-gravity) conditions to help prevent and control smolder-originated fires, in both environments. Smoldering is defined as a nonflaming, self-sustaining, propagating, exothermic surface reaction. If a material is sufficiently permeable, smoldering is not confined to its outer surface, but can propagate as a reaction wave through the interior of the material. The MSC program will accomplish its goals by conducting smolder experiments on the ground and in a space-based laboratory, and developing theoretical models of the process. Space-based experiments are necessary because smoldering is a very slow process and, consequently, its study in a microgravity environment requires extended periods of time that can only be achieved in space. Smoldering can occur in a variety of processes ranging from the smolder of porous insulating materials to underground coal combustion. Many materials can sustain smoldering, including wood, cloth, foams, tobacco, other dry organic materials, and charcoal. The ignition, propagation, transition to flaming, and extinction of the smolder reaction are controlled by complex, thermochemical mechanisms that are not well understood. As with many forms of combustion, gravity affects the availability of the oxidizer and the transport of heat, and therefore, the rate of combustion. The smoldering combustion of porous materials has been studied both experimentally and theoretically, usually in the context of fire safety. Smoldering encompasses a number of fundamental processes, including heat and mass transfer in a porous media; endothermic pyrolysis of combustible material; ignition, propagation, and extinction of heterogeneous exothermic reactions at the solid-gas pore interface; and the onset of gas phase reactions (flaming) from existing surface reactions. Smoldering

  17. Mortality and translocation assay to study the protective capacity of Bifidobacterium lactis INL1 against Salmonella Typhimurium infection in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacarías, M F; Reinheimer, J; Forzani, L; Grangette, C; Vinderola, G

    2014-12-01

    The mouse has been largely used for the study of the protective capacity of probiotics against intestinal infections caused by Salmonella. In this work we aimed at comparing the mortality and translocation assay for the study of the protective capacity of the human breast milk-derived strain Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis INL1 on a model of gut infection by Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium. Different doses of S. Typhimurium FUNED and B. animalis subsp. lactis INL 1 were administered to Balb/c mice in a mortality or a translocation assay. The survival of the control group in the mortality assay resulted to be variable along experiments, and then we preferred to use a translocation assay where the preventive administration of 109 cfu of bifidobacteria/mouse for 10 consecutive days significantly reduced the number of infected animals and the levels of translocation to liver and spleen, with enhanced secretory immunoglobulin A and interleukin 10 production in the small and large intestine, respectively. Ten days of B. animalis subsp. lactis strain INL1 administration to mice significantly reduced both the incidence and the severity of Salmonella infection in a mouse model of translocation. This work provided the first evidence that a translocation assay, compared to a mortality assay, could be more useful to study the protective capacity of probiotics against Salmonella infection, as more information can be obtained from mice and less suffering is conferred to animals due to the fact that the mortality assay is shorter than the latter. These facts are in line with the guidelines of animal research recently established by the National Centre for the Replacement, Refinement & Reduction of Animals in Research.

  18. Bacterial cellulose/acrylamide pH-sensitive smart hydrogel: development, characterization, and toxicity studies in ICR mice model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Manisha; Mohamad, Najwa; Amin, Mohd Cairul Iqbal Mohd

    2014-10-06

    The objective of this study is to synthesize and evaluate acute toxicity of the bacterial cellulose (BC)/acrylamide (Am) hydrogels as noncytotoxic and biocompatible oral drug delivery vehicles. A novel series of solubilized BC/Am hydrogels were synthesized using a microwave irradiation method. The hydrogels were characterized by Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), swelling ratio, porosity, drug release, and in vitro and in vivo biocompatibility experiments. FTIR spectra revealed that the BC crystallinity and gel fraction decreased as the NaOH concentration increased from 2% to 10% w/v, whereas the optical transparency, pH sensitivity, and porosity were enhanced with increasing alkali concentration. Theophylline was used as a model drug for drug loading and release studies. The percentage of drug released was higher at pH 7.4 compared to pH 1.5. In vitro cytotoxicity and hemolytic tests indicated that the BC/Am hydrogel is noncytotoxic and hemocompatible. Results of acute oral toxicity tests on ICR mice suggested that the hydrogels are nontoxic up to 2000 mg/kg when administered orally, as no toxic response or histopathological changes were observed in comparison to control mice. The results of this study demonstrated that the pH-sensitive smart hydrogel makes it a possible safe carrier for oral drug delivery.

  19. Toxicological evaluation of the flavonoid-rich extract from Maydis stigma: Subchronic toxicity and genotoxicity studies in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ke-Zheng; Zhang, Song-Yan; Zhou, Hong-Li

    2016-11-04

    Maydis stigma (corn silk) has a long history of use as a traditional herbal medicine or functional food in China and many other countries and has been listed in the Chinese Pharmacopea. However, little data about its potential toxicity is available. In this study, we evaluated the subchronic toxicity and genotoxicity of the flavonoid-rich extract from Maydis stigma (FMS) in mice. In the subchronic toxicity study, the FMS was administered orally to mice at doses of 2.50, 5.00 and 10.00g/kg/day for 28 consecutive days. At the end of experiment, general clinical signs, mortality, haematological, biochemical and histopathological parameters were examined. The genotoxicity of FMS was also evaluated by the micronucleus assay and the sperm malformation assay. All animals survived until the scheduled necropsy, and no statistically significant or toxicologically relevant differences were observed in any of the FMS-treatment groups, compared with the control group. The no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) was determined as 10.00g/kg/day. Based on the results of the micronucleus assay and the sperm malformation assay, no evidence of genotoxicity was found either in somatic cells or germ cells even at an experimental upper limit dose (10.00g/kg/day). The results of the present studies might support the safe use of FMS as a functional food, food additive and natural remedy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. A 90-day subchronic toxicity study of neem oil, a Azadirachta indica oil, in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, C; Cao, M; Shi, D-X; Yin, Z-Q; Jia, R-Y; Wang, K-Y; Geng, Y; Wang, Y; Yao, X-P; Yang, Z-R; Zhao, J

    2013-09-01

    To determine the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of exposure and target organs of neem oil for establishing safety criteria for human exposure, the subchronic toxicity study with neem oil in mice was evaluated. The mice (10 per sex for each dose) was orally administered with neem oil with the doses of 0 (to serve as a control), 177, 533 and 1600 mg/kg/day for 90 days. After the treatment period, observation of reversibility or persistence of any toxic effects, mice were continuously fed without treatment for the following 30 days. During the two test periods, the serum biochemistry, organ weight and histopathology were examined. The results showed that the serum biochemistry and organ coefficient in experimental groups had no statistical difference compared with those of the control group. At the 90th day, the histopathological examinations showed that the 1600 mg/kg/day dose of neem oil had varying degrees of damage on each organ except heart, uterus and ovarian. After 30-day recovery, the degree of lesions to the tissues was lessened or even restored. The NOAEL of neem oil was 177 mg/kg/day for mice and the target organs of neem oil were determined to be testicle, liver and kidneys.

  1. Radiation protection by an isoflavone, genistein: A study on the survivability of mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bhatia Lal Arvind

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The radioprotective effects of an acute administration of the isoflavone genistein (4¢, 5, 7-trihydroxyflavone, have been investigated in the present study. Male mice were administered with different doses (100, 200, 300, and 400 mg/kg body weight of genistein 24 hours prior to 8 Gy gamma irradiation and the 200 mg/kg dose of genistein was determined to offer the maximum survivability and was used as an optimum dose for further experimentation. The 0.5 ml dose of genistein (200 mg/kg was administered intraperitoneally to 2 different groups of mice, 15 minutes and 24 hours prior to gamma irradiation. In the mice treated with genistein with the optimum dose 24 hours before irradiation, a significant increase in 30 day survival has been recorded in contrast to the mice treated with genistein 15 minutes before the irradiation. The longer survivability (i. e. 20% for a period of more than 30 days has been observed in the 24 hour group as compared to that of 15 minutes (i. e. 20% for 22 days. Although the radioprotective effect of genistein was evident in both groups, it was of greater magnitude in the group with a longer interval, indicating thereby an efficacy with longer retention with the possible minimum toxicity, unlike hitherto known other radioprotective agents.

  2. The Graduate Experience: Living and Studying Abroad (A Case Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosario Hernández Castañeda

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available This article is a qualitative case study describing the experience of Angélica an international graduate student from Latin America, who received her doctorate at the University of New Mexico in the United States. Her case demonstrated how administrators and faculty learn about the experience and struggles endured by international students, especially those who learned English a short time before admission to graduate studies. While a single case is understandably idiographic in nature and inevitably requires a larger sample, from the analysis of Angélica’s case and the analysis of the relevant literature common topics emerged persuading me to conclude that the issues that commonly impact the life of international students have to do with: 1 second language problems; 2 the quality of academic advisement received; 3 the availability of financial support; 4 the level of integration into their academic program; and 5 the level of cultural adjustment in their host country.

  3. The effects of lifetime feeding studies on patterns of senile lesions in mice and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salsburg

    1980-01-01

    Data from lifetime feeding studies in mice and rats comparing controls to three doses of Xylitol, to Sorbitol, and to sucrose are examined to illustrate the thesis that the occurrence of some tumors is often confounded with other lesions and even other tumors in lifetime feeding studies. It is suggested that it may be impossible to test whether a treatment is a "carcinogen" in the presence of such biological confounding.

  4. Ictal Ceretec studies - the Austin experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nerouppos, L.; Scott, A.M.; Parsons, K.; Mihalinac, D.S.; Munoz, P.; McKay, W.J. [Austin Hospital , Heidelberg, VIC (Australia). Departments of Nuclear Medicine and Neurology

    1998-06-01

    Full text: Ictal Ceretec studies play a major role in the patient work-up for surgery of focal epilepsy in the Comprehensive Epilepsy Program at the Austin Hospital. The validity of ictal Ceretec and the superior sensitivity of this technique for the detection of epileptic foci over post-ictal and inter-ictal studies are well documented. Over the past eight years our experience and close collaboration with the Comprehensive Epilepsy Program has led to the implementation of a streamlined program enabling ictal Ceretec to be performed on numerous patients. The patients on this program since October 1991 will be reviewed and quality assurance (QA) results will be addressed. Ceretec is stored in a special lead-lined container in the video monitoring rooms, together with a shielded syringe of freshly eluted pre-calibrated technetium. Once a seizure is detected, the medical staff prepare the Ceretec and inject the required volume, obtained from the pre-calibration sheet, through a previously inserted in-dwelling line. The ward staff record the time of injection, the estimated duration of the seizure, the clinical impression of the seizure and the suspected focus. The injection tray is brought to the department within thirty minutes, where the patient injected dose is determined and quality control is performed. The scan is performed on a triple-headed Trionix gamma camera and reported once EEG and video recordings obtained during the ictus confirm the nature of the seizure. The advantages of this program are numerous. Many modifications have been made to the program over the past three years, due to close inspection of the QA forms. Ward and nuclear medicine staff deal with problems promptly, ensuring an effective and efficient program

  5. Ex Vivo and In Vivo Mice Models to Study Blastocystis spp. Adhesion, Colonization and Pathology: Closer to Proving Koch's Postulates.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sitara S R Ajjampur

    Full Text Available Blastocystis spp. are widely prevalent extra cellular, non-motile anerobic protists that inhabit the gastrointestinal tract. Although Blastocystis spp. have been associated with gastrointestinal symptoms, irritable bowel syndrome and urticaria, their clinical significance has remained controversial. We established an ex vivo mouse explant model to characterize adhesion in the context of tissue architecture and presence of the mucin layer. Using confocal microscopy with tissue whole mounts and two axenic isolates of Blastocystis spp., subtype 7 with notable differences in adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells (IEC, isolate B (ST7-B and isolate H (more adhesive, ST7-H, we showed that adhesion is both isolate dependent and tissue trophic. The more adhesive isolate, ST7-H was found to bind preferentially to the colon tissue than caecum and terminal ileum. Both isolates were also found to have mucinolytic effects. We then adapted a DSS colitis mouse model as a susceptible model to study colonization and acute infection by intra-caecal inoculation of trophic Blastocystis spp.cells. We found that the more adhesive isolate ST7-H was also a better colonizer with more mice shedding parasites and for a longer duration than ST7-B. Adhesion and colonization was also associated with increased virulence as ST7-H infected mice showed greater tissue damage than ST7-B. Both the ex vivo and in vivo models used in this study showed that Blastocystis spp. remain luminal and predominantly associated with mucin. This was further confirmed using colonic loop experiments. We were also successfully able to re-infect a second batch of mice with ST7-H isolates obtained from fecal cultures and demonstrated similar histopathological findings and tissue damage thereby coming closer to proving Koch's postulates for this parasite.

  6. Ex Vivo and In Vivo Mice Models to Study Blastocystis spp. Adhesion, Colonization and Pathology: Closer to Proving Koch's Postulates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ajjampur, Sitara S R; Png, Chin Wen; Chia, Wan Ni; Zhang, Yongliang; Tan, Kevin S W

    2016-01-01

    Blastocystis spp. are widely prevalent extra cellular, non-motile anerobic protists that inhabit the gastrointestinal tract. Although Blastocystis spp. have been associated with gastrointestinal symptoms, irritable bowel syndrome and urticaria, their clinical significance has remained controversial. We established an ex vivo mouse explant model to characterize adhesion in the context of tissue architecture and presence of the mucin layer. Using confocal microscopy with tissue whole mounts and two axenic isolates of Blastocystis spp., subtype 7 with notable differences in adhesion to intestinal epithelial cells (IEC), isolate B (ST7-B) and isolate H (more adhesive, ST7-H), we showed that adhesion is both isolate dependent and tissue trophic. The more adhesive isolate, ST7-H was found to bind preferentially to the colon tissue than caecum and terminal ileum. Both isolates were also found to have mucinolytic effects. We then adapted a DSS colitis mouse model as a susceptible model to study colonization and acute infection by intra-caecal inoculation of trophic Blastocystis spp.cells. We found that the more adhesive isolate ST7-H was also a better colonizer with more mice shedding parasites and for a longer duration than ST7-B. Adhesion and colonization was also associated with increased virulence as ST7-H infected mice showed greater tissue damage than ST7-B. Both the ex vivo and in vivo models used in this study showed that Blastocystis spp. remain luminal and predominantly associated with mucin. This was further confirmed using colonic loop experiments. We were also successfully able to re-infect a second batch of mice with ST7-H isolates obtained from fecal cultures and demonstrated similar histopathological findings and tissue damage thereby coming closer to proving Koch's postulates for this parasite.

  7. Ontogenic and morphological study of gonadal formation in genetically-modified sex reversal XY(POS) mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umemura, Yuria; Miyamoto, Ryosuke; Hashimoto, Rie; Kinoshita, Kyoko; Omotehara, Takuya; Nagahara, Daichi; Hirano, Tetsushi; Kubota, Naoto; Minami, Kiichi; Yanai, Shogo; Masuda, Natsumi; Yuasa, Hideto; Mantani, Youhei; Matsuo, Eiko; Yokoyama, Toshifumi; Kitagawa, Hiroshi; Hoshi, Nobuhiko

    2016-01-01

    Mammalian sexual fate is determined by the presence or absence of sex determining region of the Y chromosome (Sry) in the "bipotential" gonads. Recent studies have demonstrated that both male and female sexual development are induced by distinct and active genetic pathways. Breeding the Y chromosome from Mus m. domesticus poschiavinus (POS) strains into C57BL/6J (B6J) mice (B6J-XY(POS)) has been shown to induce sex reversal (75%: bilateral ovary, 25%: true hermaphrodites). However, our B6N-XY(POS) mice, which were generated by backcrossing of B6J-XY(POS) on an inbred B6N-XX, develop as males (36%: bilateral testis with fertility as well as bilateral ovary (34%), and the remainder develop as true hermaphrodites. Here, we investigated in detail the expressions of essential sex-related genes and histological features in B6N-XY(POS) mice from the fetal period to adulthood. The onsets of both Sry and SRY-box 9 (Sox9) expressions as determined spatiotemporally by whole-mount immunohistochemistry in the B6N-XY(POS) gonads occurred 2-3 tail somites later than those in B6N-XY(B6) gonads, but earlier than those in B6J-XY(POS), respectively. It is possible that such a small difference in timing of the Sry expression underlies testicular development in our B6N-XY(POS). Our study is the first to histologically show the expression and ectopic localization of a female-related gene in the XY(POS) testes and a male-related gene in the XY(POS) ovaries. The results from these and previous experiments indicate that the interplay between genome variants, epigenetics and developmental gene regulation is crucial for testis development.

  8. Repeated dose toxicity study (28 days) in rats and mice with N-methylpyrrolidone (NMP).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, D E; Malley, L A; Slone, T W; Elliott, G S; Kennedy, G L; Mellert, W; Deckardt, K; Gembardt, C; Hildebrand, B; Murphy, S R; Bower, D B; Wright, G A

    1997-01-01

    Twenty-eight day feeding studies were conducted to evaluate the repeated dose toxicity of NMP, a widely used industrial solvent, in Crl:CD BR rats and B6C3F1 mice. Groups of 5 male and 5 female rats each were fed either 0, 2,000, 6,000, 18,000, or 30,000 ppm NMP; similar groups of mice were fed either 0, 500, 2,500, 7,500, or 10,000 ppm. In vivo parameters, hematology and clinical chemistry parameters, and complete pathology evaluations were conducted after approximately 28 days. Decrements in mean body weight gains, reflecting decreases in food consumption and efficiency, were seen in male rats fed 18,000 ppm and in both sexes fed 30,000 ppm. In rats, clinical chemical changes, indicating possible compound-related alterations in lipid, protein, and carbohydrate metabolism, occurred at 18,000 ppm in males and 30,000 ppm in both sexes. No histopathological changes in rats were judged to be directly related to NMP exposure. Hematological (mild to moderate leukopenia) and histopathological alterations (hypocellular bone marrow, testicular degeneration and atrophy, and thymic atrophy) were judged to be secondary to nutritional and body weight effects in male and/or female rats at 30,000 ppm. In mice, cloudy swelling of the epithelia of the distal parts of the renal tubuli was observed in 4 males and 3 females at 10,000 ppm and in 2 male mice at 7,500 ppm. For both rats and mice, abnormal urine coloration was observed (in mice at 2,500 ppm and above, and in rats at 18,000 ppm and above). The discoloration was interpreted as a sign of systemic availability of the test substance, but not as an adverse effect. The NOAEL was 6,000 ppm for male rats and 18,000 ppm for female rats. In mice, the NOAEL was 2,500 ppm based on the kidney histopathology.

  9. Embryo-Fetal Developmental Toxicity Studies with Pregabalin in Mice and Rabbits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morse, Dennis C

    2016-04-01

    Pregabalin was evaluated for potential developmental toxicity in mice and rabbits. Pregabalin was administered once daily by oral gavage to female albino mice (500, 1250, or 2500 mg/kg) and New Zealand White rabbits (250, 500, or 1250 mg/kg) during organogenesis (gestation day 6 through 15 [mice] or 6 through 20 [rabbits]). Fetuses were evaluated for viability, growth, and morphological development. Pregabalin administration to mice did not induce maternal or developmental toxicity at doses up to 2500 mg/kg, which was associated with a maternal plasma exposure (AUC0-24 ) of 3790 μg•hr/ml, ≥30 times the expected human exposure at the maximum recommended daily dose (MRD; 600 mg/day). In rabbits, treatment-related clinical signs occurred at all doses (AUC0-24 of 1397, 2023, and 4803 μg•hr/ml at 250, 500, and 1250 mg/kg, respectively). Maternal toxicity was evident at all doses and included ataxia, hypoactivity, and cool to touch. In addition, abortion and females euthanized moribund with total resorption occurred at 1250 mg/kg. There were no treatment-related malformations at any dose. At 1250 mg/kg, compared with study and historical controls, the percentage of fetuses with retarded ossification was significantly increased and the mean number of ossification sites was decreased, which correlated with decreased fetal and placental weights, consistent with in utero growth retardation. Therefore, the no-effect dose for developmental toxicity in rabbits was 500 mg/kg, which produced systemic exposure approximately 16-times human exposure at the MRD. These findings indicate that pregabalin, at the highest dose tested, was not teratogenic in mice or rabbits. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  10. Human urine and plasma concentrations of bisphenol A extrapolated from pharmacokinetics established in in vivo experiments with chimeric mice with humanized liver and semi-physiological pharmacokinetic modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miyaguchi, Takamori; Suemizu, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Makiko; Shida, Satomi; Nishiyama, Sayako; Takano, Ryohji; Murayama, Norie; Yamazaki, Hiroshi

    2015-06-01

    The aim of this study was to extrapolate to humans the pharmacokinetics of estrogen analog bisphenol A determined in chimeric mice transplanted with human hepatocytes. Higher plasma concentrations and urinary excretions of bisphenol A glucuronide (a primary metabolite of bisphenol A) were observed in chimeric mice than in control mice after oral administrations, presumably because of enterohepatic circulation of bisphenol A glucuronide in control mice. Bisphenol A glucuronidation was faster in mouse liver microsomes than in human liver microsomes. These findings suggest a predominantly urinary excretion route of bisphenol A glucuronide in chimeric mice with humanized liver. Reported human plasma and urine data for bisphenol A glucuronide after single oral administration of 0.1mg/kg bisphenol A were reasonably estimated using the current semi-physiological pharmacokinetic model extrapolated from humanized mice data using algometric scaling. The reported geometric mean urinary bisphenol A concentration in the U.S. population of 2.64μg/L underwent reverse dosimetry modeling with the current human semi-physiological pharmacokinetic model. This yielded an estimated exposure of 0.024μg/kg/day, which was less than the daily tolerable intake of bisphenol A (50μg/kg/day), implying little risk to humans. Semi-physiological pharmacokinetic modeling will likely prove useful for determining the species-dependent toxicological risk of bisphenol A. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Antihyperglycemic and subchronic toxicity study of Moringa stenopetala leaves in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tesemma Sileshi

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the antihyperglycemic activity and subchronic toxicity of an extract of Moringa stenopetala (M. stenopetala leaves in mice. Methods: Antihyperglycemic activities of various solvent subfractions and chromatographic fractions were investigated in alloxan induced diabetic mice. All fractions were administered intragastrically using oral gavage at a dose of 500 mg/kg. For the subchronic toxicity investigation of the 70% ethanol extract of M. stenopetala leaves, a daily dose of 300 or 600 mg/kg body weight was administered to mice over 96 d. Some hematological and plasma biochemical parameters were measured as indices of organ specific toxicity. Preliminary phytochemical screening and antioxidant activity investigation was done using thin layer chromatography method. Results: Among the solvent subfractions of the 70% ethanol extract tested only butanol subfraction exhibited significant reduction of blood glucose level (P<0.05 at 2 h (53.44% and 4.5 h (46.34% in diabetic mice and it was further fractionated chromatographically. This resulted in isolation of three chromatographic fractions (fraction 1, 2, and 3 which exhibited maximal blood glucose reduction (P<0.01 at 6 h (77.2%, at 4.5 h (69.1% and at 4.5 h (71.96% after administration. Furthermore, these fractions exhibited comparable antioxidant activity, and preliminary phytochemical screening indicated the presence of phenolic compounds which may be phenolic glycoside in all fractions. The subchronic toxicity study of the 70% ethanol extract of M. stenopetala leaves revealed that there were no significant differences in body weight, between controls and treated mice. Hematological analysis showed no differences in most parameters examined. Furthermore, it did not significantly affect plasma creatinine, urea, cholesterol, triglycerides and CA125 levels. It also did not significantly affect the plasma T3, T4 and THS level. It, however, caused a significant dose

  12. Crucial role of alkaline sphingomyelinase in sphingomyelin digestion: a study on enzyme knockout mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yao; Cheng, Yajun; Hansen, Gert H

    2011-01-01

    Alkaline sphingomyelinase (alk-SMase) hydrolyses sphingomyelin (SM) to ceramide in the gut. To evaluate the physiological importance of the enzyme, we generated alk-SMase knockout (KO) mice by the Cre-recombinase-Locus of X-over P1(Cre-LoxP) system and studied SM digestion. Both wild-type (WT...... for crucial roles of alk-SMase in SM digestion and points to possible roles in regulating mucosal growth and alkaline phosphatase function....

  13. Premature aging in behavior and immune functions in tyrosine hydroxylase haploinsufficient female mice. A longitudinal study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garrido, A; Cruces, J; Ceprián, N; Hernández-Sánchez, C; De la Fuente, M

    2018-01-16

    Aging is accompanied by impairment in the nervous, immune, and endocrine systems as well as in neuroimmunoendocrine communication. In this context, there is an age-related alteration of the physiological response to acute stress, which is modulated by catecholamine (CA), final products of the sympathetic-adreno-medullary axis. The involvement of CA in essential functions of the nervous system is consistent with the neuropsychological deficits found in mice with haploinsufficiency (hemizygous; HZ) of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) enzyme (TH-HZ). However, other possible alterations in regulatory systems have not been studied in these animals. The aim of the present work was to analyze whether adult TH-HZ female mice presented the impairment of behavioral traits and immunological responses that occurs with aging and whether they had affected their mean lifespan. ICR-CD1 female TH-HZ and wild type (WT) mice were used in a longitudinal study. Behavioral tests were performed on adult and old mice in order to evaluate their sensorimotor abilities and exploratory capacity, as well as anxiety-like behaviors. At the ages of 2 ± 1, 4 ± 1, 9 ± 1, 13 ± 1 and 20 ± 1 months, peritoneal leukocytes were extracted and several immune functions were assessed (phagocytic capacity, Natural Killer (NK) cytotoxicity, and lymphoproliferative response to lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and concanavalin A (ConA)). In addition, several oxidative stress parameters (catalase, glutathione reductase and glutathione peroxidase activities, and reduced glutathione (GSH) concentrations as antioxidant compounds as well as xanthine oxidase activity, oxidized glutathione (GSSG) concentrations, and GSSG/GSH ratio as oxidants) were analyzed. As inflammatory stress parameters TNF-alpha and IL-10 concentrations, and TNF-alpha/IL-10 ratios as inflammatory/anti-inflammatory markers, were measured. Animals were maintained in standard conditions until their natural death. The results indicate

  14. Inhalation reproductive toxicology studies: Male dominant lethal study of n-hexane in Swiss (CD-1) mice: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mast, T.J.; Rommereim, R.L.; Evanoff, J.J.; Sasser, L.B.; Decker, J.R.; Stoney, K.H.; Weigel, R.J.; Westerberg, R.B.

    1988-08-01

    The straight-chain hydrocarbon, n-hexane, is a volatile, ubiquitous solvent routinely used in industrial environments; consequently, the opportunity for industrial, environmental or accidental exposure to hexane vapors is significant. Although myelinated nerve tissue is the primary target organ of hexane, the testes have also been identified as being sensitive to hexacarbon exposure. The objective of this study was to evaluate male dominant lethal effects in Swiss (CD-1) mice after exposure to 0, 200, 1000, or 5000 ppM n-hexane, 20 h/day for 5 consecutive days. Each exposure concentration consisted of 30 randomly selected, proven male breeders; 4 groups. The mice were weighed just prior to the first day of exposure and at weekly intervals until sacrifice. Ten males in each dose group were sacrificed one day after the cessation of exposure, and their testes and epididymides were removed for evaluation of the germinal epithelium. The remaining male mice, 20 per group, were individually housed in hanging wire-mesh breeding cages where they were mated with unexposed, virgin females for eight weekly intervals; new females were provided each week. The mated females were sacrificed 12 days after the last day of cohabitation and their reproductive status and the number and viability of the implants were recorded. The appearance and behavior of the male mice were unremarkable throughout the study period and no evidence of n-hexane toxicity was observed. 18 refs., 3 figs., 11 tabs.

  15. Biodistribution study of the anesthetic sodium phenobarbital labelled with technetium-99 in swiss mice infected with Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, 1907

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simoes, Susana Balmant Emerique; Machado Silva, Jose Roberto [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Faculdade de Ciencias Medicas. Dept. de Patologia e Laboratorios; Gutfilen, Bianca; Oliveira, Marcia Betania; Bernardo Filho, Mario [Universidade do Estado, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. de Biologia. Dept. de Biofisica e Biometria; Presgrave, Otavio Augusto Franca [Fundacao Inst. Oswaldo Cruz (FIOCRUZ), Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil). Inst. Nacional de de Controle de Qaulidade em Saude. Dept. de Farmacologia e Toxicologia

    1997-09-01

    Technetium-99 m ({sup 99m} Tc) is a radionuclide that has negligible environmental impact, is easily available, inexpensive and can be used as a radioactive tracer in biological experiences. In order to know the mode of action of sodium phenobarbital in moving adult Schistosoma mansoni worms from mesenteric veins to the liver, we labelled sodium phenobarbital (PBBT) with {sup 99m} Tc and a biodistribution study in infected and non-infected Swiss mice was performed. The PBBT was incubated with stannous chloride used as reducing agent and with {sup 99m} Tc, as sodium pertechnetate. The radioactivity labelling(%) was determined by paper ascending chromatography performed with acetone (solvent). The{sup 99m} Tc-PBBT was administered by intraperitoneal route to Swiss mice infected eight weeks before. The animals were perfused after different periods of time (0,1,2,3,4 hr) when blood, spleen, liver, portal vein, mesenteric veins, stomach, kidneys and adult worms were isolated. The radioactivity present in these samples was counted in a well counter and the percentage was determined. THe radioactivity was mainly taken up by the blood, kidney, liver and spleen. No radioactivity was found on the adult worms. We concluded that the worm shift was due to an action on the host of the sodium phenobarbital. (author) 24 refs., 3 tabs.

  16. Experiences with Bilateral Art: A Retrospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    McNamee, Carole M.

    2006-01-01

    Recent advances in neuroscience describe the effect of experience on neural architecture. Paralleling these advances in neuroscience, recent explorations in the field of art therapy speculate on the relationship between specific therapeutic interventions and neuroplasticity, which underlies the changes in neural architecture. One such…

  17. Teratogenicity study of the dihydroorotate-dehydrogenase inhibitor and protein tyrosine kinase inhibitor Leflunomide in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fukushima, Ryou; Kanamori, Susumu; Hirashiba, Masahiro; Hishikawa, Atsuko; Muranaka, Ri-Ich; Kaneto, Masako; Nakamura, Kazuichi; Kato, Ikuo

    2007-01-01

    Leflunomide is an immunosuppressive agent that inhibits de novo synthesis of pyrimidine nucleotides and the activity of protein tyrosine kinase. This study examined the teratogenicity of Leflunomide in mice. Pregnant mice were treated orally with Leflunomide at a dose of 10, 30 or 70 mg/kg/day from day 6 to 15 of pregnancy. At 70 mg/kg, all embryos were resorbed and no live fetuses were detected. At 30 mg/kg, Leflunomide reduced fetal viability, and increased the incidence of multiple external, skeletal and visceral malformations. Characteristic external malformations were neural tube defects, cleft palate and tail deformities. Limb malformations were observed in a small number of fetuses. Skeletal examinations revealed malformations of cervical to sacral vertebrae, ribs and sternebrae. In the viscerae, the main anomalies were membranous ventricular septum defect and persistent truncus arteriosus. The results of this study indicate that Leflunomide administered at 30 mg/kg on days 6 to 15 of pregnancy can induce craniofacial malformations and deformities of the axial skeleton, heart and great vessels in mice.

  18. Behavioral and Immunohistochemical Study of the Effects of Subchronic and Chronic Exposure to Glyphosate in Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait Bali, Yassine; Ba-Mhamed, Saadia; Bennis, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Many epidemiological studies have described an adolescent-related psychiatric illness and sensorimotor deficits after Glyphosate based herbicide (GBH) exposure. GBH exposure in animal models of various ages suggests that it may be neurotoxic and could impact brain development and subsequently, behavior in adulthood. However, its neurotoxic effects on adolescent brain remain unclear and the results are limited. The present study was conducted to evaluate the neurobehavioral effects of GBH following acute, subchronic (6 weeks) and chronic (12 weeks) exposure (250 or 500 mg/kg/day) in mice treated from juvenile age until adulthood. Mice were subjected to behavioral testing with the open field (OF), the elevated plus maze, the tail suspension and Splash tests (STs). Their behaviors related to exploratory activity, anxiety and depression-like were recorded. After completion of the behavioral testing, adult mice were sacrificed and the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) and serotonin (5-HT) in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) was evaluated using immunohistochemical procedure. Our results indicate that unlike acute exposure, both subchronic and chronic exposure to GBH induced a decrease in body weight gain and locomotor activity, and an increase of anxiety and depression-like behavior levels. In addition, the immunohistochemical findings showed that only the chronic treatment induced a reduction of TH-immunoreactivity. However, both subchronic and chronic exposure produced a reduction of 5-HT-immunoreactivity in the DRN, BLA and ventral mPFC. Taken together, our data suggest that exposure to GBH from juvenile age through adulthood in mice leads to neurobehavioral changes that stem from the impairment of neuronal developmental processes.

  19. Behavioral and Immunohistochemical Study of the Effects of Subchronic and Chronic Exposure to Glyphosate in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yassine Ait Bali

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Many epidemiological studies have described an adolescent-related psychiatric illness and sensorimotor deficits after Glyphosate based herbicide (GBH exposure. GBH exposure in animal models of various ages suggests that it may be neurotoxic and could impact brain development and subsequently, behavior in adulthood. However, its neurotoxic effects on adolescent brain remain unclear and the results are limited. The present study was conducted to evaluate the neurobehavioral effects of GBH following acute, subchronic (6 weeks and chronic (12 weeks exposure (250 or 500 mg/kg/day in mice treated from juvenile age until adulthood. Mice were subjected to behavioral testing with the open field (OF, the elevated plus maze, the tail suspension and Splash tests (STs. Their behaviors related to exploratory activity, anxiety and depression-like were recorded. After completion of the behavioral testing, adult mice were sacrificed and the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc and serotonin (5-HT in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN, the basolateral amygdala (BLA and the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC was evaluated using immunohistochemical procedure. Our results indicate that unlike acute exposure, both subchronic and chronic exposure to GBH induced a decrease in body weight gain and locomotor activity, and an increase of anxiety and depression-like behavior levels. In addition, the immunohistochemical findings showed that only the chronic treatment induced a reduction of TH-immunoreactivity. However, both subchronic and chronic exposure produced a reduction of 5-HT-immunoreactivity in the DRN, BLA and ventral mPFC. Taken together, our data suggest that exposure to GBH from juvenile age through adulthood in mice leads to neurobehavioral changes that stem from the impairment of neuronal developmental processes.

  20. Behavioral and Immunohistochemical Study of the Effects of Subchronic and Chronic Exposure to Glyphosate in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ait Bali, Yassine; Ba-Mhamed, Saadia; Bennis, Mohamed

    2017-01-01

    Many epidemiological studies have described an adolescent-related psychiatric illness and sensorimotor deficits after Glyphosate based herbicide (GBH) exposure. GBH exposure in animal models of various ages suggests that it may be neurotoxic and could impact brain development and subsequently, behavior in adulthood. However, its neurotoxic effects on adolescent brain remain unclear and the results are limited. The present study was conducted to evaluate the neurobehavioral effects of GBH following acute, subchronic (6 weeks) and chronic (12 weeks) exposure (250 or 500 mg/kg/day) in mice treated from juvenile age until adulthood. Mice were subjected to behavioral testing with the open field (OF), the elevated plus maze, the tail suspension and Splash tests (STs). Their behaviors related to exploratory activity, anxiety and depression-like were recorded. After completion of the behavioral testing, adult mice were sacrificed and the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) and serotonin (5-HT) in the dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN), the basolateral amygdala (BLA) and the ventral medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) was evaluated using immunohistochemical procedure. Our results indicate that unlike acute exposure, both subchronic and chronic exposure to GBH induced a decrease in body weight gain and locomotor activity, and an increase of anxiety and depression-like behavior levels. In addition, the immunohistochemical findings showed that only the chronic treatment induced a reduction of TH-immunoreactivity. However, both subchronic and chronic exposure produced a reduction of 5-HT-immunoreactivity in the DRN, BLA and ventral mPFC. Taken together, our data suggest that exposure to GBH from juvenile age through adulthood in mice leads to neurobehavioral changes that stem from the impairment of neuronal developmental processes. PMID:28848410

  1. Women's experiences with violence: a national study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moracco, Kathryn E; Runyan, Carol W; Bowling, J Michael; Earp, Jo Anne L

    2007-01-01

    Violence against women (VAW) is widespread and linked to negative public health and social outcomes. Research on VAW, however, has largely been limited to convenience samples and on variable definitions of violence, hindering our ability to fully characterize this important problem nationally and among subgroups of women. Using a population-based national sample of noninstitutionalized women ages > or =18 (n = 1,800), we conducted a telephone survey on women's experiences with 6 types of violence, including being followed and repeatedly contacted, as well as physical and sexual assault by intimate partners and others. We calculated adult lifetime and prior year prevalence of violent experiences, examined bivariate differences in experiences among groups of women, and employed logistic regression to model the odds of adult lifetime and prior year victimization. Sixty percent of the respondents experienced at least 1 form of violence since age 18; 10% reported violence in the previous year. Adult lifetime and prior-year prevalence varied widely by types of violence, and by respondents' sociodemographic characteristics. Women under age 55, those receiving public assistance, and lesbian/bisexual women were at higher risk of experiencing violence in their adult lifetimes. Women age 18-24 had increased risks of victimization in the previous year. To accurately reflect the chronic nature of partner violence, point estimates should be supplemented with adult lifetime estimates of victimization, including stalking behaviors. Ensuring adequate numbers of women from diverse backgrounds and developing measures that more completely assess the patterns and consequences of women's experiences with violence are important next steps.

  2. Pion contamination in the MICE muon beam

    CERN Document Server

    Bogomilov, M.; Vankova-Kirilova, G.; Bertoni, R.; Bonesini, M.; Chignoli, F.; Mazza, R.; Palladino, V.; de Bari, A.; Cecchet, G.; Capponi, M.; Iaciofano, A.; Orestano, D.; Pastore, F.; Tortora, L.; Kuno, Y.; Sakamoto, H.; Ishimoto, S.; Japan, Ibaraki; Filthaut, F.; Hansen, O.M.; Ramberger, S.; Vretenar, M.; Asfandiyarov, R.; Blondel, A.; Drielsma, F.; Karadzhov, Y.; Charnley, G.; Collomb, N.; Gallagher, A.; Grant, A.; Griffiths, S.; Hartnett, T.; Martlew, B.; Moss, A.; Muir, A.; Mullacrane, I.; Oates, A.; Owens, P.; Stokes, G.; Warburton, P.; White, C.; Adams, D.; Barclay, P.; Bayliss, V.; Bradshaw, T.W.; Courthold, M.; Francis, V.; Fry, L.; Hayler, T.; Hills, M.; Lintern, A.; Macwaters, C.; Nichols, A.; Preece, R.; Ricciardi, S.; Rogers, C.; Stanley, T.; Tarrant, J.; Watson, S.; Wilson, A.; Bayes, R.; Nugent, J.C.; Soler, F.J.P.; Cooke, P.; Gamet, R.; Alekou, A.; Apollonio, M.; Barber, G.; Colling, D.; Dobbs, A.; Dornan, P.; Hunt, C.; Lagrange, J-B.; Long, K.; Martyniak, J.; Middleton, S.; Pasternak, J.; Santos, E.; Savidge, T.; Uchida, M.A.; Blackmore, V.J.; Carlisle, T.; Cobb, J.H.; Lau, W.; Rayner, M.A.; Tunnell, C.D.; Booth, C.N.; Hodgson, P.; Langlands, J.; Nicholson, R.; Overton, E.; Robinson, M.; Smith, P.J.; Dick, A.; Ronald, K.; Speirs, D.; Whyte, C.G.; Young, A.; Boyd, S.; Franchini, P.; Greis, J.R.; Pidcott, C.; Taylor, I.; Gardener, R.; Kyberd, P.; Littlefield, M.; Nebrensky, J.J.; Bross, A.D.; Fitzpatrick, T.; Leonova, M.; Moretti, A.; Neuffer, D.; Popovic, M.; Rubinov, P.; Rucinski, R.; Roberts, T.J.; Bowring, D.; DeMello, A.; Gourlay, S.; Li, D.; Prestemon, S.; Virostek, S.; Zisman, M.; Drews, M.; Hanlet, P.; Kafka, G.; Kaplan, D.M.; Rajaram, D.; Snopok, P.; Torun, Y.; Winter, M.; Blot, S.; Kim, Y.K.; Bravar, U.; Onel, Y.; Cremaldi, L.M.; Hart, T.L.; Luo, T.; Sanders, D.A.; Summers, D.J.; Cline, D.; Yang, X.; Coney, L.; Hanson, G.G.; Heidt, C.

    2016-01-01

    The international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will perform a systematic investigation of ionization cooling with muon beams of momentum between 140 and 240\\,MeV/c at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory ISIS facility. The measurement of ionization cooling in MICE relies on the selection of a pure sample of muons that traverse the experiment. To make this selection, the MICE Muon Beam is designed to deliver a beam of muons with less than $\\sim$1\\% contamination. To make the final muon selection, MICE employs a particle-identification (PID) system upstream and downstream of the cooling cell. The PID system includes time-of-flight hodoscopes, threshold-Cherenkov counters and calorimetry. The upper limit for the pion contamination measured in this paper is $f_\\pi < 1.4\\%$ at 90\\% C.L., including systematic uncertainties. Therefore, the MICE Muon Beam is able to meet the stringent pion-contamination requirements of the study of ionization cooling.

  3. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Teratology study of 1,3-butadiene in mice: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackett, P.L.; Sikov, M.R.; Mast, T.J.; Brown, M.G.; Buschbom, R.L.; Clark, M.L.; Decker, J.R.; Evanoff, J.J.; Rommereim, R.L.; Rowe, S.E.; Westerberg, R.B.

    1987-11-01

    Maternal toxicity, reproductive performance and developmental toxicology were evaluated in CD-1 mice following whole-body, inhalation exposures to 0, 40, 200 and 1000 ppM of 1,3-butadiene. The female mice, which had mated with unexposed males were exposed to the chemical for 6 hours/day on 6 through 15 dg and sacrificed on 18 dg. Maternal animals were weighed prior to mating and on 0, 6, 11 and 18 dg; the mice were observed for mortality, morbidity and signs of toxicity during exposure and examined for gross tissue abnormalities at necropsy. Live fetuses were weighed and subjected to external, visceral and skeletal examinations to detect growth retardation and morphologic anomalies. Significant concentration-related decreases were detected in a number of maternal body weight measures. There was a significant concentration-related depression of fetal body weights and placental weights. Body weights of male fetuses of all exposed groups were significantly lower than values for control fetuses; weights of female fetuses were significantly depressed in the mice exposed to 200 and 1000 ppM. In the 200- and 1000-ppM exposure groups, weights of placentas of male fetuses were significantly decreased, but placental weights of female fetuses were significantly affected only in litters exposed to the highest 1,3-butadiene concentration. This exposure regimen produced significant signs of maternal toxicity at concentrations of 200 and 1000 ppM 1,3-butadiene.

  4. Study of Silymarin and Vitamin E Protective Effects on Silver Nanoparticle Toxicity on Mice Liver Primary Cell Culture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Firouz Faedmaleki

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Nanotechnology is a most promising field for generating new applications in medicine, although, only few nano products are currently in use for medical purposes. A most prominent nanoproduct is nanosilver. Nano-silver has biological properties which are significant for consumer products, food technology, textiles, and medical applications (e.g. wound care products, implantable medical devices, in diagnosis, drug delivery, and imaging. For their antibacterial activity, silver nanoparticles (Ag NPs are largely used in various commercially available products. The use of nano-silver is becoming more and more widespread in medicine and related applications, and due to its increasing exposure, toxicological and environmental issues need to be raised. Cytotoxicity induced by silver nanoparticles (AgNPs and the role that oxidative stress plays in this process were demonstrated in human hepatoma cells AgNPs agglomerated in the cytoplasm and nuclei of treated cells, and they induced intracellular oxidative stress. AgNP reduced ATP content of the cell and caused damage to mitochondria and increased production of reactive oxygen species (ROS in a dose-dependent manner. Silymarin was known as a hepatoprotective agent that is used in the treatment of hepatic diseases including viral hepatitis, alcoholic liver diseases, Amanita mushroom poisoning, liver cirrhosis, toxic and drug-induced liver diseases. It promotes protein synthesis, helps in regenerating liver tissue, controls inflammation, enhances glucuronidation, and protects against glutathione depletion. Vitamin E is a well-known antioxidant and has hepatoprotective effect in liver diseases. In this study, we investigated the cytotoxic effects of Ag NPs on primary liver cells of mice. Cell viability (cytotoxicity was examined with MTT assay after primary liver cells of mice exposure to AgNPs at 1, 10, 50, 100, 150, 200, 400 ppm for 24h. AgNPs caused a concentration- dependent decrease of cell viability

  5. Effect of acute beer ingestion on the liver: studies in female mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kanuri, Giridhar; Wagnerberger, Sabine; Landmann, Marianne; Prigl, Eva; Hellerbrand, Claus; Bischoff, Stephan C; Bergheim, Ina

    2015-04-01

    The aim of the present study was to assess whether the effects of acute consumption of stout or pilsner beer on the liver differ from those of plain ethanol in a mouse model. Seven-week-old female C57BL/6J mice received either ethanol, stout or pilsner beer (ethanol content: 6 g/kg body weight) or isocaloric maltodextrin solution. Plasma alanine transaminase, markers of steatosis, lipogenesis, activation of the toll-like receptor-4 signaling cascade as well as lipid peroxidation and fibrogenesis in the liver were measured 12 h after acute ethanol or beer intake. Acute alcohol ingestion caused a marked ~11-fold increase in hepatic triglyceride accumulation in comparison to controls, whereas in mice exposed to stout and pilsner beer, hepatic triglyceride levels were increased only by ~6.5- and ~4-fold, respectively. mRNA expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c and fatty acid synthase in the liver did not differ between alcohol and beer groups. In contrast, expression of myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88, inducible nitric oxide synthases, but also the concentrations of 4-hydroxynonenal protein adducts, nuclear factor κB and plasminogen activator inhibitor-1 were induced in livers of ethanol treated mice but not in those exposed to the two beers. Taken together, our results suggest that acute ingestion of beer and herein especially of pilsner beer is less harmful to the liver than the ingestion of plain ethanol.

  6. Comparative studies on the anorectic activity of d-fenfluramine in mice, rats, and guinea pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mennini, T; Bizzi, A; Caccia, S; Codegoni, A; Fracasso, C; Frittoli, E; Guiso, G; Padura, I M; Taddei, C; Uslenghi, A

    1991-05-01

    The present study compares the anorectic activity of d-fenfluramine and its metabolite d-norfenfluramine in three animal species. d-Fenfluramine and d-norfenfluramine show anorectic activity at increasing doses (ED50) in rats, guinea pigs, and mice, d-norfenfluramine being more active than d-fenfluramine in all three species. Equiactive anorectic activities are reached with different brain levels of d-fenfluramine and d-norfenfluramine, guinea pigs being the most sensitive species, followed by rats then mice. The metabolite most probably plays a major role in the anorectic effect of d-fenfluramine in guinea pigs, contributes to the anorectic activity in rats, but adds little to the action of the parent drug in mice. The different sensitivity to d-fenfluramine and d-norfenfluramine in these three species does not appear to be explained by a number of biochemical parameters, including serotonin uptake or release, receptor subtypes, or 3H-d-fenfluramine binding and uptake.

  7. FMR1 Knockout mice: A model to study fragile X mental retardation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oostra, B.A.; Bakker, C.E.; Reyniers, E. [Erasmus Univ., Rotterdam (Netherlands)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    The fragile X syndrome is the most frequent form of inherited mental retardation in humans with an incidence of 1 in 1250 males and 1 in 2500 females. The clinical syndrome includes moderate to severe mental retardation, autistic behavior, macroorchidism, and facial features, such as long face with mandibular prognathism and large, everted ears. The molecular basis for this disease is a large expansion of a triplet repeat (CGG){sub n} in the 5{prime} untranslated region of the FMR1 gene. Due to this large expansion of the CGG repeat, the promoter region becomes methylated and the FMR1 gene is subsequently silenced. Hardly anything is known about the physiologic function of FMR1 and the pathologic mechanisms leading to these symptoms. Since the FMR1 gene is highly conserved in the mouse, we used the mouse to design a knockout model for the fragile X syndrome. These knockout mice lacking Fmrp have normal litter size suggesting that FMR1 is not essential in human gametogenesis and embryonic development. The knockout mice show the abnormalities also seen in the affected organs of human patients. Mutant mice show a gradual development through time of macroorchidism. In the knockout mice we observed cognitive defects in the form of deficits in learning (as shown by the hidden platform Morris water maze task) and behavioral abnormalities such as increased exploratory behavior and hyperactivity. Therefore this knockout mouse may serve as a valuable tool in studying the role of FMR1 in the fragile X syndrome and may serve as a model to elucidate the mechanisms involved in macroorchidism, abnormal behavior, and mental retardation.

  8. Ferritin accumulation and uroporphyrin crystal formation in hepatocytes of C57BL/10 mice: A time-course study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P.D. Siersema (Peter); M.I. Cleton-Soeteman (Maud); W.C. de Bruijn (Wim); F.J.W. ten Kate (Fiebo); H.G. van Eijk (Henk); J.H.P. Wilson (Paul)

    1993-01-01

    textabstractTo establish the time-sequence relationship between ferritin accumulation and uroporphyrin crystal formation in livers of C57BL/10 mice, a biochemical, morphological and morphometrical study was performed. Uroporphyria was induced by the intraperitoneal administration of

  9. Beam and experiments summary [neutrino studies

    CERN Document Server

    Blondel, A; Campanelli, M; Cervera-Villanueva, Anselmo; Cline, David B; Collot, J; De Jong, M; Donini, Andrea; Dydak, Friedrich; Edgecock, R; Gavela-Legazpi, Maria Belen; Gómez-Cadenas, J J; González-Garciá, M Concepción; Gruber, P; Harris, D A; Hernández, Pilar; Kuno, Y; Litchfield, P J; McFarland, K; Mena, O; Migliozzi, P; Palladino, Vittorio; Panman, J; Papadopoulos, I M; Para, A; Peña-Garay, C; Pérez, P; Rigolin, Stefano; Romanino, Andrea; Rubbia, André; Strolin, P; Wojcicki, S G

    2000-01-01

    The discovery of neutrino oscillations marks a major milestone in the history of neutrino physics, and opens a new window to the still mysterious origin of masses and flavour mixing. Many current and forthcoming experiments will. Answer open questions; however, a major step forward, up to and possibly including CP violation in the neutrino-mixing matrix, requires the neutrino beams from a neutrino factory. The neutrino factory is a new concept for producing neutrino beams of unprecedented quality in terms of intensity, flavour composition, and precision of the beam parameters. Most importantly, the neutrino factory is the only known way to generate a high- intensity beam of electron neutrinos of high energy. The neutrino beam from a neutrino factory, in particular the electron-neutrino beam, enables the exploration of otherwise inaccessible domains in neutrino oscillation physics by exploiting baselines of planetary dimensions. Suitable detectors pose formidable challenges but seem within reach with only mode...

  10. Environmental and mental conditions predicting the experience of involuntary musical imagery: An experience sampling method study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Floridou, Georgia A; Müllensiefen, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    An experience sampling method (ESM) study on 40 volunteers was conducted to explore the environmental factors and psychological conditions related to involuntary musical imagery (INMI) in everyday life. Participants reported 6 times per day for one week on their INMI experiences, relevant contextual information and associated environmental conditions. The resulting data was modeled with Bayesian networks and led to insights into the interplay of factors related to INMI experiences. The activity that a person is engaged was found to play an important role in the experience of mind wandering, which in turn enables the experience of INMI. INMI occurrence is independent of the time of the day while the INMI trigger affects the subjective evaluation of the INMI experience. The results are compared to findings from earlier studies based on retrospective surveys and questionnaires and highlight the advantage of ESM techniques in research on spontaneous experiences like INMI. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Alterations in bone and erythropoiesis in hemolytic anemia: comparative study in bled, phenylhydrazine-treated and Plasmodium-infected mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Moreau

    Full Text Available Sustained erythropoiesis and concurrent bone marrow hyperplasia are proposed to be responsible for low bone mass density (BMD in chronic hemolytic pathologies. As impaired erythropoiesis is also frequent in these conditions, we hypothesized that free heme may alter marrow and bone physiology in these disorders. Bone status and bone marrow erythropoiesis were studied in mice with hemolytic anemia (HA induced by phenylhydrazine (PHZ or Plasmodium infection and in bled mice. All treatments resulted in lower hemoglobin concentrations, enhanced erythropoiesis in the spleen and reticulocytosis. The anemia was severe in mice with acute hemolysis, which also had elevated levels of free heme and ROS. No major changes in cellularity and erythroid cell numbers occurred in the bone marrow of bled mice, which generated higher numbers of erythroid blast forming units (BFU-E in response to erythropoietin. In contrast, low numbers of bone marrow erythroid precursors and BFU-E and low concentrations of bone remodelling markers were measured in mice with HA, which also had blunted osteoclastogenesis, in opposition to its enhancement in bled mice. The alterations in bone metabolism were accompanied by reduced trabecular bone volume, enhanced trabecular spacing and lower trabecular numbers in mice with HA. Taken together our data suggests that hemolysis exerts distinct effects to bleeding in the marrow and bone and may contribute to osteoporosis through a mechanism independent of the erythropoietic stress.

  12. Determination of aluminium induced metabolic changes in mice liver: a Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, S; Sivasubramanian, J; Khatiwada, Chandra Prasad; Manivannan, J; Raja, B

    2013-06-01

    In this study, we made a new approach to evaluate aluminium induced metabolic changes in liver tissue of mice using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis taking one step further in correlation with strong biochemical evidence. This finding reveals the alterations on the major biochemical constituents, such as lipids, proteins, nucleic acids and glycogen of the liver tissues of mice. The peak area value of amide A significantly decrease from 288.278±3.121 to 189.872±2.012 between control and aluminium treated liver tissue respectively. Amide I and amide II peak area value also decrease from 40.749±2.052 to 21.170±1.311 and 13.167±1.441 to 8.953±0.548 in aluminium treated liver tissue respectively. This result suggests an alteration in the protein profile. The absence of olefinicCH stretching band and CO stretching of triglycerides in aluminium treated liver suggests an altered lipid levels due to aluminium exposure. Significant shift in the peak position of glycogen may be the interruption of aluminium in the calcium metabolism and the reduced level of calcium. The overall findings exhibit that the liver metabolic program is altered through increasing the structural modification in proteins, triglycerides and quantitative alteration in proteins, lipids, and glycogen. All the above mentioned modifications were protected in desferrioxamine treated mice. Histopathological results also revealed impairment of aluminium induced alterations in liver tissue. The results of the FTIR study were found to be in agreement with biochemical studies and which demonstrate FTIR can be used successfully to indicate the molecular level changes. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Determination of aluminium induced metabolic changes in mice liver: A Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, S.; Sivasubramanian, J.; Khatiwada, Chandra Prasad; Manivannan, J.; Raja, B.

    2013-06-01

    In this study, we made a new approach to evaluate aluminium induced metabolic changes in liver tissue of mice using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy analysis taking one step further in correlation with strong biochemical evidence. This finding reveals the alterations on the major biochemical constituents, such as lipids, proteins, nucleic acids and glycogen of the liver tissues of mice. The peak area value of amide A significantly decrease from 288.278 ± 3.121 to 189.872 ± 2.012 between control and aluminium treated liver tissue respectively. Amide I and amide II peak area value also decrease from 40.749 ± 2.052 to 21.170 ± 1.311 and 13.167 ± 1.441 to 8.953 ± 0.548 in aluminium treated liver tissue respectively. This result suggests an alteration in the protein profile. The absence of olefinicdbnd CH stretching band and Cdbnd O stretching of triglycerides in aluminium treated liver suggests an altered lipid levels due to aluminium exposure. Significant shift in the peak position of glycogen may be the interruption of aluminium in the calcium metabolism and the reduced level of calcium. The overall findings exhibit that the liver metabolic program is altered through increasing the structural modification in proteins, triglycerides and quantitative alteration in proteins, lipids, and glycogen. All the above mentioned modifications were protected in desferrioxamine treated mice. Histopathological results also revealed impairment of aluminium induced alterations in liver tissue. The results of the FTIR study were found to be in agreement with biochemical studies and which demonstrate FTIR can be used successfully to indicate the molecular level changes.

  14. Study on The Reproductive Organs and Fertility of The Male Mice following Administration of Metronidazole

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Poonam Singh

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Metronidazole (MTZ is commonly used as an antibacterial and antiprotozoaldrug. Various doses of MTZ have been reported to inhibit spermatogenic activityand sperm indices.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, dose-dependent effects of MTZ onthe structural and functional integrity of the testis and accessory reproductive organshave been investigated. Adult male mice of Swiss strain were administered orally withMTZ at the doses of 250 mg/kgBW/day and 500 mg/kgBW/day for 28 consecutive daysto study the changes in the testis, epididymis, seminal vesicle, sperm indices and fertility.Reversal effects of the drug were also studied on the same mice, 42 days after cessationof the treatment.Results: Therapeutic dose of MTZ (250 mg/kgBW/day neither altered the weights ofthe testis, epididymis and seminal vesicle nor their histoarchitecture and sperm indices.The drug at the high dose (500 mg/kg BW/day caused significant reductions in theweights of the testis and epididymis. Histoarchitecture of the testis and epididymis at thehigh dose revealed marked regressive changes while that of seminal vesicle remainedunaffected. Significant reductions were noticed in the motility, viability and count ofepididymal spermatozoa while the concentrations of epididymal sialic acid and seminalvesicular fructose remained unaltered after the treatment. No significant changes werenoticed in the mating ability as well as in the level of serum testosterone in the treatedmice. Fertility of the male mice treated with high dose of MTZ declined markedly leadingto an increase in pre- and postimplantation loss while a significant decrease wasnoticed in the number of live blastocysts in females impregnated with such males. MTZinducedchanges in the male reproductive organs and fertility were reinstated 42 daysafter cessation of the treatment.Conclusion: High dose of MTZ induced reversible deleterious effects on the male reproductionand fertility.

  15. Genome-Wide Association Study to Identify Genes Related to Renal Mercury Concentrations in Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Alkaissi, Hammoudi; Ekstrand, Jimmy; Jawad, Aksa

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Following human mercury (Hg) exposure, the metal accumulates with considerable concentrations in kidney, liver, and brain. Although the toxicokinetics of Hg has been studied extensively, factors responsible for inter-individual variation in humans are largely unknown. Differences...... enhanced by the Pprc1 (Nrf1 and Nrf2) were included for gene expression analysis. RESULTS: Renal Hg concentrations differed significantly between A.SW and B10.S mice and between males and females within each strain. QTL analysis showed a peak logarithm of odds ratio score 5.78 on chromosome 19 (p = 0...

  16. Effects of lung exposure to carbon nanotubes on female fertility and pregnancy. A study in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hougaard, Karin S.; Jackson, Petra; Kyjovska, Zdenka O.

    2013-01-01

    We studied the effects of preconceptional exposure to multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWCNTs): mature, female C57BL/6J mice were intratracheally instilled with 67μg NM-400 MWCNT, and the following day co-housed with mature males, in breeding pairs. Time to delivery of the first litter, litter...... parameters, maternal inflammation and histopathology of lung and liver were recorded. In male offspring, locomotor activity, startle response, and daily sperm production (DSP) were assessed. In the dams, lung and liver bore evidence of MWCNT exposure when assessed 6 weeks and 4 months after exposure. A short...

  17. Histomorphometric study on the effects of Artemisia sieberi extract in mice skin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaboutari Jahangir

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Skin as the biggest single body organ is always exposing to various injuries, therefore health and healing of its injuries is vital. Artemisia sieberi is a valuable medicinal plant with a long history of indication in folk and modern medicine. Due to different chemical components and antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial and cytoprotective properties of Artemisia, this study was conducted to study the histomorphometric effects of Artemisia sieberi (A. sieberi extract on mice skin. Methods: Ninety adult mice were randomly divided in 3 groups. In the treatment group A. sieberi extract dissolved in ethanol & distilled water, in the positive control ethanol & distilled water, and in negative control only distilled water were applied on the shaved dorsum twice daily for 21 days. Mean thickness of epidermis, hypodermis & dermis layers, percentage of collagen fibers and histological evaluation of skin layers were studied in 1, 3, 5, 14 and 21days post treatment. Data were presented as mean± SD and analyzed using one way ANOVA and LSD post hoc tests. The P<0.05 was considered as statistically significant. Results: A. sieberi extract significantly increased epidermis thickness in day 1, hypodermis, dermis and percentage of collagen fibers in day 3 in comparison to positive and negative control groups. Histology study revealed normal structure of skin and no abnormality was seen. Conclusion: A. sieberi extract can be effective for health and healing of skin injuries by increasing thickness of the skin layers and amount of collagen fibers.

  18. Study of Foeniculum vulgare Effect on Folliculogenesis in Female Mice Kermanshah, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Rasool Khazaei

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Foeniculum vulgare (FVE is used in traditional medicine for its antiseptic, palliativeand anti-inflammatory effects. Traditionally, FVE is utilized for treating female infertility. The presentstudy aims to investigate the effects of FVE extract on folliculogenesis in female albino mice.Materials and Methods: In this experimental study, a total of 20 female albino mice were divided into fourgroups. Groups 1 and 2 (experimental received FVE alcoholic extract at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg bodyweight (BW/day for five days. Group 3 (negative control received ethanol and group 4 (positive controlwas administered normal saline, in the same doses as the experimental groups. Animals in all groups weresacrificed on the sixth day of the study; their ovaries were dissected out and prepared for histologicalexaminations. Hematoxylin and eosin (H&E stained microscopic slides were evaluated and the numbersof ovarian follicles were compared between groups. Data were analyzed by one way ANOVA.Results: The total follicle numbers were 26.5 ± 5.24 for group 1 (100 mg/kg FVE, 27.2 ± 4.1for group 2 (200 mg/kg FVE, 10.1 ± 2.53 for group 3 (ethanol control and 17.2 ± 3.9 for thesaline control group (group 4. The numbers of graffian, antral and multilaminar follicles increasedsignificantly in both experimental groups when compared with the control groups (p<0.05,however there were no significant differences in follicle numbers among the experimental groups.The number of unilaminar primary follicles did not significantly change between all groups. GCMSanalysis of FVE extract identified the presence of diosgenin, an estrogenic compound.Conclusion: FVE induced folliculogenesis in female mice ovary and increased the number ofgrowing ovarian follicles. The estrogenic component of FVE, diosgenin, may exert this effect.

  19. A study of quantification of aortic compliance in mice using radial acquisition phase contrast MRI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Xuandong

    Spatiotemporal changes in blood flow velocity measured using Phase contrast Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) can be used to quantify Pulse Wave Velocity (PWV) and Wall Shear Stress (WSS), well known indices of vessel compliance. A study was conducted to measure the PWV in the aortic arch in young healthy children using conventional phase contrast MRI and a post processing algorithm that automatically track the peak velocity in phase contrast images. It is shown that the PWV calculated using peak velocity-time data has less variability compared to that using mean velocity and flow. Conventional MR data acquisition techniques lack both the spatial and temporal resolution needed to accurately calculate PWV and WSS in in vivo studies using transgenic animal models of arterial diseases. Radial k-space acquisition can improve both spatial and temporal resolution. A major part of this thesis was devoted to developing technology for Radial Phase Contrast Magnetic Resonance (RPCMR) cine imaging on a 7 Tesla Animal scanner. A pulse sequence with asymmetric radial k-space acquisition was designed and implemented. Software developed to reconstruct the RPCMR images include gridding, density compensation and centering of k-Space that corrects the image ghosting introduced by hardware response time. Image processing software was developed to automatically segment the vessel lumen and correct for phase offset due to eddy currents. Finally, in vivo and ex vivo aortic compliance measurements were conducted in a well-established mouse model for atherosclerosis: Apolipoprotein E-knockout (ApoE-KO). Using RPCMR technique, a significantly higher PWV value as well as a higher average WSS was detected among 9 months old ApoE-KO mice compare to in wild type mice. A follow up ex-vivo test of tissue elasticity confirmed the impaired distensibility of aortic arteries among ApoE-KO mice.

  20. Detector Alignment Studies for the CMS Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Lampén, Tapio

    2007-01-01

    This thesis presen ts studies related to trac k-based alignmen t for the future CMS exp erimen t at CERN. Excellen t geometric alignmen t is crucial to fully bene t from the outstanding resolution of individual sensors. The large num ber of sensors mak es it dicult in CMS to utilize computationally demanding alignmen t algorithms. A computationally ligh t alignmen t algorithm, called the Hits and Impact Points algorithm (HIP), is dev elop ed and studied. It is based on minimization of the hit residuals. It can be applied to individual sensors or to comp osite objects. All six alignmen t parameters (three translations and three rotations), or their subgroup can be considered. The algorithm is exp ected to be particularly suitable for the alignmen t of the innermost part of CMS, the pixel detector, during its early operation, but can be easily utilized to align other parts of CMS also. The HIP algorithm is applied to sim ulated CMS data and real data measured with a test-b eam setup. The sim ulation studies dem...

  1. Intravascular Ultrasound Catheter Evaluation of the Left Ventricle in Mice: A Feasibility Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardin, Julius M.; Siri, Francis; Kitsis, Richard N.; Leinwand, Leslie

    1996-11-01

    With the advent of transgenic technology, it has become increasingly important to find a method for evaluating left ventricular (LV) anatomy and function in intact wild type, intervened, and transgenic mice. Mice are 1/10th the size of rats, and have body masses of 10-60 g, LV masses of 40-150 mg, LV wall thicknesses of 0.5-2 mm, and LV internal dimensions of 1-3 mm. Although the murine LV has been imaged by transthoracic (TTE) two-dimensional directed M-mode echocardiography, we explored the use of intravascular ultrasound (IVUS) catheters, with imaging from various positions, to see if better two-dimensional images of the LV could be obtained by IVUS than TTE. Eight normal mice were anesthetized using pentobarbital or avertin. The mice were studied using a commercially available IVUS system (Endosonics, Inc.). Two IVUS catheters (3.5 and 5.0 Fr) with 20-MHz multielement array transducers were used. Each catheter had a 4.0-mm imaging depth of field in all directions (360 degrees ) from the mid-point of the catheter core. Multiple imaging approaches were attempted: transesophageal (TEE); transjugular (TJ); transperitoneal (TP); and open chest, from both epicardial surface (Ep) and via direct LV puncture. TEE and TJ approaches afforded insufficient depth of field to image the entire LV in cross section. TP and Ep approaches resulted in poor images, related both to inadequate depth of field and to relatively small sector angles subtended by imaging elements. LVP (intracavitary imaging) was capable of satisfactorily imaging the LV epicardium, but was unable to image the endocardium, probably because the latter was within the 1.9-mm "ringdown" catheter artifact. All IVUS approach studies lacked sufficient temporal resolution (10 frames/sec) to reliably display systolic and diastolic frames necessary for evaluation of LV function. In contrast, as previously reported, transthoracic two-dimensionally directed M-mode echocardiograms have sufficient temporal and spatial

  2. Use of a safe, reproducible, and rapid aerosol delivery method to study infection by Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eric R Lafontaine

    Full Text Available Burkholderia pseudomallei, the etiologic agent of melioidosis, is a saprophytic bacterium readily isolated from wet soils of countries bordering the equator. Burkholderia mallei is a host-adapted clone of B. pseudomallei that does not persist outside of its equine reservoir and causes the zoonosis glanders, which is endemic in Asia, Africa, the Middle East and South America. Infection by these organisms typically occurs via percutaneous inoculation or inhalation of aerosols, and the most common manifestation is severe pneumonia leading to fatal bacteremia. Glanders and melioidosis are difficult to diagnose and require prolonged antibiotic therapy with low success rates. There are no vaccines available to protect against either Burkholderia species, and there is concern regarding their use as biological warfare agents given that B. mallei has previously been utilized in this manner. Hence, experiments were performed to establish a mouse model of aerosol infection to study the organisms and develop countermeasures. Using a hand-held aerosolizer, BALB/c mice were inoculated intratracheally with strains B. pseudomallei 1026b and B. mallei ATCC23344 and growth of the agents in the lungs, as well as dissemination to the spleen, were examined. Mice infected with 10(2, 10(3 and 10(4 organisms were unable to control growth of B. mallei in the lungs and bacteria rapidly disseminated to the spleen. Though similar results were observed in mice inoculated with 10(3 and 10(4 B. pseudomallei cells, animals infected with 10(2 organisms controlled bacterial replication in the lungs, dissemination to the spleen, and the extent of bacteremia. Analysis of sera from mice surviving acute infection revealed that animals produced antibodies against antigens known to be targets of the immune response in humans. Taken together, these data show that small volume aerosol inoculation of mice results in acute disease, dose-dependent chronic infection, and immune responses

  3. Use of a safe, reproducible, and rapid aerosol delivery method to study infection by Burkholderia pseudomallei and Burkholderia mallei in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lafontaine, Eric R; Zimmerman, Shawn M; Shaffer, Teresa L; Michel, Frank; Gao, Xiudan; Hogan, Robert J

    2013-01-01

    Burkholderia pseudomallei, the etiologic agent of melioidosis, is a saprophytic bacterium readily isolated from wet soils of countries bordering the equator. Burkholderia mallei is a host-adapted clone of B. pseudomallei that does not persist outside of its equine reservoir and causes the zoonosis glanders, which is endemic in Asia, Africa, the Middle East and South America. Infection by these organisms typically occurs via percutaneous inoculation or inhalation of aerosols, and the most common manifestation is severe pneumonia leading to fatal bacteremia. Glanders and melioidosis are difficult to diagnose and require prolonged antibiotic therapy with low success rates. There are no vaccines available to protect against either Burkholderia species, and there is concern regarding their use as biological warfare agents given that B. mallei has previously been utilized in this manner. Hence, experiments were performed to establish a mouse model of aerosol infection to study the organisms and develop countermeasures. Using a hand-held aerosolizer, BALB/c mice were inoculated intratracheally with strains B. pseudomallei 1026b and B. mallei ATCC23344 and growth of the agents in the lungs, as well as dissemination to the spleen, were examined. Mice infected with 10(2), 10(3) and 10(4) organisms were unable to control growth of B. mallei in the lungs and bacteria rapidly disseminated to the spleen. Though similar results were observed in mice inoculated with 10(3) and 10(4) B. pseudomallei cells, animals infected with 10(2) organisms controlled bacterial replication in the lungs, dissemination to the spleen, and the extent of bacteremia. Analysis of sera from mice surviving acute infection revealed that animals produced antibodies against antigens known to be targets of the immune response in humans. Taken together, these data show that small volume aerosol inoculation of mice results in acute disease, dose-dependent chronic infection, and immune responses that correlate

  4. The effect of picosecond laser pulses on redox-dependent processes in mice red blood cells studied in vivo

    Science.gov (United States)

    Voronova, Olga; Gening, Tatyana; Abakumova, Tatyana; Sysolyatin, Aleksey; Zolotovskiy, Igor; Antoneeva, Inna; Ostatochnikov, Vladimir; Gening, Snezhanna

    2014-02-01

    The study highlights the effect of different modes of in vivo laser irradiation of mice using a PFL8LA laser with λ = 1560 nm, pulse duration of 1,4•10-12 s, peak power of 3,72•103 W and average output power of 20•10-3 W on the lipid peroxidation parameters: conjugated dienes, ketodienes and conjugated trienes, malondialdehyde, Schiff bases and the activity of antioxidant enzymes - catalase, glutathione -S-transferase and superoxide dismutase in erythrocytes and plasma of mice. Two groups of mice received a total dose of 3.8 J/cm2 per group, but the 1st group was irradiated only once, while the 2nd - four times. Significant differences in the parameters of the 1st and 2nd groups indicate different effects of the irradiation modes on redox-dependent processes in red blood cells of mice.

  5. A Qualitative Study of Health Care Experiences Among International Students.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Anna; Kitsos, Jewel; Miller, Andrea; Abraham, Sam

    The purpose of this qualitative study was to explore the health care experiences of international students at a college in Indiana. The study answered the following research question: What are the lived experiences of international students while seeking health care? This research question was identified after a literature review, which showed a lack of research regarding international students' health care experiences. The data in this study were collected through in-depth interviews with 5 participants who resided at the college. After the interviews, the identification of themes and the analysis of results revealed the international students' lived experiences and perceptions of health care in the United States.

  6. An ontogenic study of the behavioral effects of chronic intermittent exposure to ayahuasca in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.F. Correa-Netto

    Full Text Available Ayahuasca is a beverage obtained from decoctions of the Banisteriopsis caapi plus Psychotria viridis. In religious contexts, ayahuasca is used by different age groups. However, little is known of the effects of ayahuasca during ontogenic development, particularly with regard to the functional characteristics of the central nervous system. Animal models are useful for studying the ontogenic effects of ayahuasca because they allow exclusion of the behavioral influence associated with the ritualistic use. We investigated the effects of exposure to ayahuasca (1.5 mL/kg, orally, twice a week on memory and anxiety in C57BL/6 mice, with the post-natal day (PND being used as the ontogenic criterion for classification: childhood (PND21 to PND35, adolescence (PND35 to PND63, adulthood (PND90-PND118, childhood-adolescence (PND21 to PND63, childhood-adulthood (PND21 to PND118 and adolescence-adulthood (PND35 to PND118. One day after the last ayahuasca exposure, the mice were subjected to the Morris water maze (MWM, open field and elevated plus maze tasks (EPM. Ayahuasca did not affect locomotion in the open field or open arms exploration in the EPM, but increased the risk assessment behavior in the childhood group. Ayahuasca did not cause any change in acquisition of spatial reference memory in the MWM task, but decreased the time spent on the platform quadrant during the test session in the adolescence group. These results suggest that, in mice, exposure to ayahuasca in childhood and adolescence promoted anxiety and memory impairment, respectively. However, these behavioral changes were not long-lasting since they were not observed in the childhood-adulthood and adolescence-adulthood groups.

  7. An ontogenic study of the behavioral effects of chronic intermittent exposure to ayahuasca in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Correa-Netto, N F; Masukawa, M Y; Nishide, F; Galfano, G S; Tamura, F; Shimizo, M K; Marcato, M P; Santos, J G; Linardi, A

    2017-06-05

    Ayahuasca is a beverage obtained from decoctions of the Banisteriopsis caapi plus Psychotria viridis. In religious contexts, ayahuasca is used by different age groups. However, little is known of the effects of ayahuasca during ontogenic development, particularly with regard to the functional characteristics of the central nervous system. Animal models are useful for studying the ontogenic effects of ayahuasca because they allow exclusion of the behavioral influence associated with the ritualistic use. We investigated the effects of exposure to ayahuasca (1.5 mL/kg, orally, twice a week) on memory and anxiety in C57BL/6 mice, with the post-natal day (PND) being used as the ontogenic criterion for classification: childhood (PND21 to PND35), adolescence (PND35 to PND63), adulthood (PND90-PND118), childhood-adolescence (PND21 to PND63), childhood-adulthood (PND21 to PND118) and adolescence-adulthood (PND35 to PND118). One day after the last ayahuasca exposure, the mice were subjected to the Morris water maze (MWM), open field and elevated plus maze tasks (EPM). Ayahuasca did not affect locomotion in the open field or open arms exploration in the EPM, but increased the risk assessment behavior in the childhood group. Ayahuasca did not cause any change in acquisition of spatial reference memory in the MWM task, but decreased the time spent on the platform quadrant during the test session in the adolescence group. These results suggest that, in mice, exposure to ayahuasca in childhood and adolescence promoted anxiety and memory impairment, respectively. However, these behavioral changes were not long-lasting since they were not observed in the childhood-adulthood and adolescence-adulthood groups.

  8. Independent preclerkship study: a five year experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williams, T E; Meleca, C B; Merola, A J; Camiscioni, J S; Kilman, J W

    1977-06-01

    An independent study program (ISP) was instituted in 1970 for a group of 32 preclerkship medical students picked randomly from a group of 64 volunteers. The academic achievements of these classes, as measured by mean National Board scores, is compared with their classmates in the lecture discussion (LD) program where possible. The significant differences noted obtain even when the ISP students are compared only with LD students matched for premedical point-hour ratios and Medical College Admissions Test scores. These data attest to the overall success of the ISP program. The differences appear to us to be due mainly to factors related to motivation and maturity. The ease of preparations, convenience, and economy of the associated computer-assisted instruction make these methods attractive for use in residency training and continuing medical education where maturity and motivation may well be presumed.

  9. Inhalation developmental toxicology studies: Teratology study of n-hexane in mice: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mast, T.J.; Decker, J.R.; Stoney, K.H.; Westerberg, R.B.; Evanoff, J.J.; Rommereim, R.L.; Weigel, R.J.

    1988-05-01

    Gestational exposure to n-hexane resulted in an increase in the number of resorbed fetuses for exposure groups relative to the control group; however, the increases were not directly correlated to exposure concentration. The differences were statistically significant for the 200-ppM with respect to total intrauterine death (early plus late resorptions), and with respect to late resorptions for the 5000-ppM group. A small, but statistically significant, reduction in female (but not male) fetal body weight relative to the control group was observed at the 5000-ppM exposure level. There were no exposure-related increases in any individual fetal malformation or variation, nor was there any increase in the incidence of combined malformations or variations. Gestational exposure of CD-1 mice to n-hexane vapors appeared to cause a degree of concentration-related developmental toxicity in the absence of overt maternal toxicity, but the test material was not found to be teratogenic. This developmental toxicity was manifested as an increase in the number of resorptions per litter for all exposure levels, and as a decrease in the uterine: extra-gestational weight gain ratio at the 5000-ppM exposure level. Because of the significant increase in the number of resorptions at the 200-ppM exposure level, a no observable effect level (NOEL) for developmental toxicity was not established for exposure of mice to 200, 1000 or 5000-ppM n-hexane vapors. 21 refs., 3 figs., 9 tabs.

  10. Dose-response relationship study of selenium nanoparticles as an immunostimulatory agent in cancer-bearing mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faghfuri, Elnaz; Yazdi, Mohamad Hossein; Mahdavi, Mehdi; Sepehrizadeh, Zargham; Faramarzi, Mohammad Ali; Mavandadnejad, Faranak; Shahverdi, Ahmad Reza

    2015-01-01

    Oral administration of selenium nanoparticles has an immunomodulatory effect on individuals with cancer. In the present study we aimed to compare the cancer preventive effect via administration of different doses of selenium nanoparticles in mice with cancer. Forty 6- to 8-week-old inbred female BALB/c mice were used and divided into four test and control groups; each group contained ten mice. Group 1 (administered PBS) was used as the control and the test groups 2, 3, and 4 were daily administered 50, 100, and 200 μg of selenium nanoparticles, respectively, for 60 days. After 60 days, tumor induction was carried out and 10 days later serum samples were collected to measure the cytokines. Tumor growth and life span of the mice were also monitored during the study. The results showed a significant increase in serum IFN-γ and the ratio of IFN-γ/IL-4 in all administered doses compared to control. In addition, in mice that received higher doses of selenium nanoparticles (200 μg/day), lower tumor volume and extended life span were observed compared to control. Administration of selenium nanoparticles in normal mice without tumor challenge caused a nonsignificant increase in cytokine production, indicating that selenium supplementation has no effect on the immune response in the absence of tumor challenge. The 200-μg dose of selenium nanoparticles can induce more efficient responses against breast tumors. Copyright © 2015 IMSS. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Study on radioprotection effects of clinoptilolite on sub-acute radiation-injured mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Na LI

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Objective  To study the protection effect of clinoptilolite (Cp against radiation injury. Methods  Fortyeight male BALB/c mice were randomly divided into 6 groups, namely normal control group (distilled water + sham irradiation, radiation control group (distilled water + irradiation, 300mg/kg 523 group (200mg/kg nilestriol 24h before irradiation and 100mg/ kg nilestriol 4h after irradiation, 56mg/kg Cp group (56mg/kg Cp + irradiation, 167mg/kg Cp group (167mg/kg Cp + irradiation and 500mg/kg Cp group (500mg/kg Cp + irradiation. Seven days after the administration of the drug, all the mice but those from the normal control group were irradiated with γ-ray irradiation of 137Cs in the dose of 4.0Gy, at the rate of 0.75Gy/min. All the mice were given the drug for 14 days after irradiation. RBC, WBC and PLT counts in peripheral blood, superoxide dismutases (SOD activity, malondialdehyde (MDA level, glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px level in blood serum, the content of deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA and hematopoietic stem cells in bone marrow were determined. Results  Compared with radiation control group, on 10th day after irradiation, RBC counts in peripheral blood of 56mg/kg Cp group and 167mg/kg Cp group were significantly higher (P<0.05, P<0.01, and WBC counts in peripheral blood of 56mg/kg Cp group and 500mg/kg Cp group were significantly higher (P<0.01. On 14th day after irradiation, compared with radiation control group, the SOD activities in blood serum of three Cp groups were elevated (P<0.05, P<0.01, the GSH-Px levels were elevated in blood serum of 167mg/kg Cp group and 500mg/kg Cp group (P<0.01, the DNA contents were significantly higher in 56mg/kg Cp group and 500mg/kg Cp group (P<0.05, P<0.01, the hematopoietic stem cells were significantly increased in number in bone marrow of three Cp groups (P<0.01. Conclusion  The clinoptilolite possesses protective effect against injury induced by 137Cs γ-irradiation in mice. DOI: 10.11855/j

  12. Inherent and antigen-induced airway hyperreactivity in NC mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuto Kobayashi

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to clarify the airway physiology of NC mice, the following experiments were carried out. To investigate inherent airway reactivity, we compared tracheal reactivity to various chemical mediators in NC, BALB/c, C57BL/6 and A/J mice in vitro. NC mice showed significantly greater reactivity to acetylcholine than BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice and a reactivity comparable to that of A/J mice, which are known as high responders. Then, airway reactivity to acetylcholine was investigated in those strains in vivo. NC mice again showed comparable airway reactivity to that seen in A/J mice and a significantly greater reactivity than that seen in BALB/c and C57BL/6 mice. To investigate the effects of airway inflammation on airway reactivity to acetylcholine in vivo, NC and BALB/c mice were sensitized to and challenged with antigen. Sensitization to and challenge with antigen induced accumulation of inflammatory cells, especially eosinophils, in lung and increased airway reactivity in NC and BALB/c mice. These results indicate that NC mice exhibit inherent and antigen-induced airway hyperreactivity. Therefore, NC mice are a suitable strain to use in investigating the mechanisms underlying airway hyperreactivity and such studies will provide beneficial information for understanding the pathophysiology of asthma.

  13. Lessons with Living Harvest Mice: An empirical study of their effects on intrinsic motivation and knowledge acquisition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wilde, Matthias; Hußmann, Jona Samuel; Lorenzen, Simone; Meyer, Annika; Randler, Christoph

    2012-12-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of living animals on pupils' intrinsic motivation and knowledge. Various studies from the late 1970s and 1980s stress the high effectiveness of authentic learning experiences in pupils' knowledge acquisition. However, there are only few current empirical studies on this topic. The research question of our study is to assess whether the use of living animals in the biology classroom supports intrinsic motivation and knowledge acquisition. In a pre-/post-test design, 185 fifth graders received two different treatments: the experimental group (N = 74) was taught with living harvest mice (Micromys minutus) and the control group (N = 111) received lessons with the same content which was presented in short film clips on laptop computers. Knowledge acquisition was assessed with open-ended and closed questions, while intrinsic motivation was tested with an adapted version of the Intrinsic Motivation Inventory (IMI). There were no differences in knowledge acquisition between the treatments. However, the results of the IMI showed significant differences in favour of the experimental group in interest/enjoyment, perceived competence, and perceived autonomy. Thus, living animals exert a positive influence on motivation.

  14. Beer Is Less Harmful for the Liver than Plain Ethanol: Studies in Male Mice Using a Binge-Drinking Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landmann, Marianne; Wagnerberger, Sabine; Kanuri, Giridhar; Ziegenhardt, Doreen; Bergheim, Ina

    2015-09-01

    Mechanisms involved in the less damaging effects of beer in comparison to hard spirits have not yet been fully understood. The aim of the study was to determine if the effect of beer intake on the liver differs from that of plain ethanol and if so to determine mechanisms involved. Male C57BL/6J mice received either ethanol, beer (ethanol content: 6 g/kg body weight) or iso-caloric maltodextrin solution. Markers of steatosis, lipogenesis, activation of the toll-like receptor-4 signaling cascade and lipid export in liver and tight junction proteins in duodenum were measured 6 and 12 h after acute ethanol or beer intake. Alcohol ingestion resulted in a significant increase of hepatic triglyceride accumulation 6 and 12 h after ingestion, respectively, being markedly lower in mice fed beer. Expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein-1c mRNA was significantly lower 12 h after alcohol or beer exposure, while fatty acid synthase mRNA expression was induced in livers of ethanol-fed mice and to a lesser extent in mice fed beer 6 h after acute alcohol ingestion. Protein levels of tight junction proteins in the small intestine were similar between groups while expression of myeloid differentiation primary response gene 88 in livers was significantly induced in ethanol- but not in beer-fed mice. Concentrations of 4-hydroxynonenal protein adducts and inducible nitric oxide synthase protein were also only induced in livers of mice fed ethanol. Protein levels of apolipoprotein B were induced in livers of beer-fed mice only. Our data suggest that beer is less harmful on the development of acute alcohol-induced liver damage than plain ethanol in male mice. © The Author 2015. Medical Council on Alcohol and Oxford University Press. All rights reserved.

  15. Study of fluid dynamics reveals direct communications between lymphatic vessels and venous blood vessels at lymph nodes of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takeda, Kazu; Mori, Shiro; Kodama, Tetsuya

    2017-06-01

    Cancer cells metastasize to lymph nodes, with distant metastasis resulting in poor prognosis. The role of lymph node metastasis (LNM) in the spread of cancer to distant organs remain incompletely characterized. The visualization of flow dynamics in the lymphatic and blood vessels of MXH10/Mo-lpr/lpr mice, which develop systemic swelling of lymph nodes up to 10mm in diameter, has revealed that lymph nodes have the potential to be a direct source of systemic metastasis. However, it is not known whether these fluid dynamics characteristics are universal phenomena present in other strains of laboratory mice. Here we show that the fluid dynamics observed in MXH10/Mo-lpr/lpr mice are the same as those observed in C57BL/6J, BALB/cAJcl and NOD/ShiJic-scidJcl mice. Furthermore, when fluorescent solution was injected into a tumor-bearing lymph node, the flow dynamics observed in the efferent lymphatic vessels and thoracoepigastric vein depended on the type of tumor cell. Our results indicate that fluid dynamics in the lymphatic and blood vessels of MXH10/Mo-lpr/lpr mice are generalized phenomena seen in conventional laboratory mice. We anticipate our results can facilitate studies of the progression of lymphatic metastasis to hematogenous metastasis via lymph nodes and the early diagnosis and treatment of LNM. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. Tissue integration of collagen-based matrices: an experimental study in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thoma, Daniel S; Villar, Cristina C; Cochran, David L; Hämmerle, Christoph H F; Jung, Ronald E

    2012-12-01

    To test whether or not tissue integration, biodegradation, and new blood vessel formation in two collagen-based matrices depend on the level of chemical cross-linking. Two collagen matrices with high (CM1) and low (CM2) levels of chemical cross-linking were randomly implanted in two pouches in 14 athymic nude mice. Three and 6 weeks later, the animals were euthanized. Histologic and histomorphometric measurements were performed on paraffin-embedded sections. Both collagen matrices integrated well into the surrounding soft tissues. The level of cross-linking and duration of implantation had an effect on the formation of new blood vessels. More blood vessels (n = in absolute numbers) were found in outer compartments compared to the central compartments of the matrices, reaching 5.6 (CM2) vs. 4.3 (CM1) at 3 weeks, and 5.3 (CM2) vs. 7.3 (CM1) at 6 weeks. Similarly, connective tissue formation increased for both matrices between 3 and 6 weeks, whereas the amount of remaining collagen network gradually decreased over time being more pronounced for CM1 (-50%) compared to CM2 (-15%). The degree of cross-linking was negatively correlated for all outcome measures resulting in improved tissue integration, superior matrix stability and enhanced angiogenic patterns for the less cross-linked collagen matrix (CM2) in this experimental study in mice. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons A/S.

  17. Experimental study on the carcinogenic effect of tritiated water (HTO) in mice. An interim report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoro, Kenjiro; Yamamoto, Osamu; Kamiya, Kenji; Fujii, Yoshiaki; Numoto, Michitaka; Kinomura, Aiko

    1986-11-01

    A large-scale study of the long-term carcinogenic effect of tritiated water (HTO) has been performed in mice. This is the interime report on the results as of May 8, 1986. A total of 391 seven-week-old (C57BL/6N x C3H/He) Fl mice were intraperitoneally given 1.0 Ci/0.2 ml of HTO (3.75, 7.5, 15, or 20 mCi/mouse), in either single or fractionated manner. The incidence of leukemia was approximately five times higher in the group receiving a fractionated administration of 20 mCi than that receiving the same amount in a single manner, as was the latent period shorter. The incidence of solid tumors, unlike leukemia, was evidently higher in the group receiving a single administration of 15 mCi than that receiving 3.75 mCi four times. The latent period also tended to be short in the former group. The groups with higher amounts of HTO had slightly higher incidence of multiple primaries. The ovary was the most common site of tumor. Expression of an oncogene, N-ras, was frequently observed in the case of leukemia, fibrosarcoma, and tumors of the thyroid, ovary, and lung. (Namekawa, K.).

  18. Studies on Brahma rasayana in male swiss albino mice: Chromosomal aberrations and sperm abnormalities

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K P Guruprasad

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Ayurveda, the Indian holistic healthcare system encompasses traditional medicines with a principle of creating harmony and maintaining balance within the natural rhythms of the body. Rasayana is one of the branches of Ayurveda frequently used as rejuvenant therapy to overcome many discomforts and prevent diseases. It has been reported that rasayanas have immunomodulatory, antioxidant and antitumor functions. However, the genotoxic potential of many rasayanas remains to be evaluated. The present study was undertaken to assess the role of Brahma rasayana(BR on genotoxicity in vivo in a mouse test system. The older mice (9 months were orally fed with rasayana for 8 weeks. The treated groups showed no signs of dose-dependent toxicity at the dosage levels tested. The body weight loss/gain and feed consumption were unaffected at tested doses. Furthermore, sperm abnormalities and chromosomal aberrations were insignificant in the treatment group when compared to controls. However, there was a marginal increase in sperm count in the BR treated animals. These findings clearly indicate that there are no observed adverse genotoxic effects elicited by BR in experimental animals such as mice.

  19. Studies on Brahma rasayana in male swiss albino mice: Chromosomal aberrations and sperm abnormalities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guruprasad, K P; Mascarenhas, Roshan; Gopinath, P M; Satyamoorthy, K

    2010-01-01

    Ayurveda, the Indian holistic healthcare system encompasses traditional medicines with a principle of creating harmony and maintaining balance within the natural rhythms of the body. Rasayana is one of the branches of Ayurveda frequently used as rejuvenant therapy to overcome many discomforts and prevent diseases. It has been reported that rasayanas have immunomodulatory, antioxidant and antitumor functions. However, the genotoxic potential of many rasayanas remains to be evaluated. The present study was undertaken to assess the role of Brahma rasayana(BR) on genotoxicity in vivo in a mouse test system. The older mice (9 months) were orally fed with rasayana for 8 weeks. The treated groups showed no signs of dose-dependent toxicity at the dosage levels tested. The body weight loss/gain and feed consumption were unaffected at tested doses. Furthermore, sperm abnormalities and chromosomal aberrations were insignificant in the treatment group when compared to controls. However, there was a marginal increase in sperm count in the BR treated animals. These findings clearly indicate that there are no observed adverse genotoxic effects elicited by BR in experimental animals such as mice.

  20. Studies on induction of metabolism of ethyl carbamate (EC) in mice by ethanol

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kurata, N.; Hurst, H.E.; Kemper, R.A.; Waddell, W.J. (Univ. of Louisville, KY (United States))

    1990-02-26

    Acute administration of ethanol, acetaldehyde, DMSO and several other compounds has been reported previously by this laboratory to inhibit the metabolism of EC in mice. Since many enzyme systems which are inhibited acutely by a compound are induced when that chemical is given on a chronic schedule, the effect of chronic administration of ethanol on the metabolism of EC was studied in male, A/JAX mice. Ethanol was given in 3 pretreatment schedules: (1) 5% in drinking water for 7 days with a 24 hour washout before EC; (2) 10% in drinking water 48-12 hours before EC; (3) 5 g/kg orally as 10% in saline 48 and 24 hours before EC. EC (11.125 mg/kg) in saline was administered orally and blood samples taken at frequent intervals for analysis of EC by a GC/MS technique developed in this laboratory. Area under the curve (AUC) was calculated by trepezoidal estimation from concentration and time points. The clearances (dose/AUC; ml kg{sup {minus}1} h{sup {minus}1}) were: Control 751{+-}49.7; group 1, 803{+-}43.5; group 2, 1225{+-}24.6; group 3, 815{+-}75.4. Only group 2 was significantly different form control and other groups by Neuman-Keuls test. These results indicate that ethanol may be an inducer of EC metabolism only under certain conditions.

  1. Effects of tartrazine on exploratory behavior in a three-generation toxicity study in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Toyohito; Takahashi, Osamu; Oishi, Shinshi; Ogata, Akio

    2008-10-01

    Tartrazine was given to mice in the diet at levels of 0 (control), 0.05%, 0.15%, and 0.45% from 5 weeks of age of the F(0) generation to 9 weeks of age of the F(2) generation, and selected reproductive and neurobehavioral parameters were measured. In the F(1) generation, the development of swimming direction at postnatal day (PND) 7 was accelerated significantly in male offspring in a dose-related manner. Surface righting at PND 7 was affected significantly in female offspring in dose-related manner. Several variables in exploratory behavior showed significant tendencies to be affected in the treatment groups in male offspring at 3 weeks of age. In the F(2) generation, the development of swimming direction at PND 7 was accelerated significantly in the high-dosed group in male offspring. Time taken of olfactory orientation at PND 14 was accelerated significantly in male offspring in a dose-related manner. Several variables in exploratory behavior showed significant tendencies to be affected in the treatment groups in male offspring at 3 weeks of age, and in males at 8 weeks of age. The dose levels of tartrazine in the present study produced a few adverse effects on neurobehavioral parameters throughout generations in mice.

  2. Reproductive and neurobehavioural toxicity study of tartrazine administered to mice in the diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Toyohito

    2006-02-01

    Tartrazine was given in the diet to provide levels of 0% (control), 0.05%, 0.15%, and 0.45% (approximately 83, 259, 773 mg/kg/day, respectively) from five weeks of age of the F0 generation to nine weeks of age of the F1 generation in mice, and selected reproductive and neurobehavioural parameters were measured. In movement activity of exploratory behaviour in the F0 generation, number of vertical activity was significantly increased in the middle-dose group in males. There were no adverse effects of tartrazine on either litter size, litter weight and sex ratio at birth. The average body weight of male offspring was significantly increased in the high-dose group and that of female offspring was significantly increased in the middle-dose group at birth. In behavioural developmental parameters, surface righting at PND 4 was significantly accelerated in the high-dose group in male offspring, and those effects were significantly dose-related in a trend test (Ptartrazine in the present study produced a few adverse effects in neurobehavioural parameters during the lactation period in mice. Nevertheless, the high-dose level were in excess of the ADI of tartrazine (0-7.5 mg/kgbw), and the actual dietary intake of tartrazine is presumed to be much lower. It would therefore appear that the levels of actual dietary intake of tartrazine is unlikely to produce any adverse effects in humans.

  3. Enamel crystals of mice susceptible or resistant to dental fluorosis: an AFM study

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    Marília Afonso Rabelo BUZALAF

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: This study aimed to assess the overall apatite crystals profile in the enamel matrix of mice susceptible (A/J strain or resistant (129P3/J strain to dental fluorosis through analyses by atomic force microscopy (AFM. Material and Methods: Samples from the enamel matrix in the early stages of secretion and maturation were obtained from the incisors of mice from both strains. All detectable traces of matrix protein were removed from the samples by a sequential extraction procedure. The purified crystals (n=13 per strain were analyzed qualitatively in the AFM. Surface roughness profile (Ra was measured. Results: The mean (±SD Ra of the crystals of A/J strain (0.58±0.15 nm was lower than the one found for the 129P3/J strain (0.66±0.21 nm but the difference did not reach statistical significance (t=1.187, p=0.247. Crystals of the 129P3/J strain (70.42±6.79 nm were found to be significantly narrower (t=4.013, p=0.0013 than the same parameter measured for the A/J strain (90.42±15.86 nm. Conclusion: enamel crystals of the 129P3/J strain are narrower, which is indicative of slower crystal growth and could interfere in the occurrence of dental fluorosis.

  4. Empowering Students To Create The Study Abroad Experience

    OpenAIRE

    Bryan A. Booth; Stephen J. Holoviak

    2011-01-01

    The literature is filled with numerous findings demonstrating the benefits of a study abroad experience for a student. These benefits include the broad-based student growth that goes well beyond the topics studied abroad. There is also significant substantiation in the literature to suggest empowerment learning enriches and facilitates the total academic experience for students. This paper describes a class whereby preparing students for study abroad and marketing study abroad are integrated ...

  5. The Status of MICE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dobbs, A. J.; MICE Collaboration

    2017-09-01

    Muon beams of low emittance provide the basis for the intense, well characterised neutrino beams for a Neutrino Factory and for lepton-antilepton collisions at energies of up to several TeV at a Muon Collider. The international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) will demonstrate ionization cooling, the technique by which it is proposed to reduce the phase-space volume occupied by the muon beam. MICE is being constructed in a series of Steps. The configuration currently in operation at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory is optimised for the study of the properties of liquid hydrogen and lithium hydride that affect cooling. The plans for data taking in the present configuration will be described together with some preliminary results. A description of the next experimental configuration, used for the final cooling demonstration, is also presented.

  6. Estimation of Genetic Variance Components Including Mutation and Epistasis using Bayesian Approach in a Selection Experiment on Body Weight in Mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Widyas, Nuzul; Jensen, Just; Nielsen, Vivi Hunnicke

    Selection experiment was performed for weight gain in 13 generations of outbred mice. A total of 18 lines were included in the experiment. Nine lines were allotted to each of the two treatment diets (19.3 and 5.1 % protein). Within each diet three lines were selected upwards, three lines were...... selected downwards and three lines were kept as controls. Bayesian statistical methods are used to estimate the genetic variance components. Mixed model analysis is modified including mutation effect following the methods by Wray (1990). DIC was used to compare the model. Models including mutation effect...... have better fit compared to the model with only additive effect. Mutation as direct effect contributes 3.18% of the total phenotypic variance. While in the model with interactions between additive and mutation, it contributes 1.43% as direct effect and 1.36% as interaction effect of the total variance...

  7. Human Ig knockin mice to study the development and regulation of HIV-1 broadly neutralizing antibodies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verkoczy, Laurent; Alt, Frederick W; Tian, Ming

    2017-01-01

    A major challenge for HIV-1 vaccine research is developing a successful immunization approach for inducing broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs). A key shortcoming in meeting this challenge has been the lack of animal models capable of identifying impediments limiting bnAb induction and ranking vaccine strategies for their ability to promote bnAb development. Since 2010, immunoglobulin knockin (KI) technology, involving inserting functional rearranged human variable exons into the mouse IgH and IgL loci has been used to express bnAbs in mice. This approach has allowed immune tolerance mechanisms limiting bnAb production to be elucidated and strategies to overcome such limitations to be evaluated. From these studies, along with the wealth of knowledge afforded by analyses of recombinant Ig-based bnAb structures, it became apparent that key functional features of bnAbs often are problematic for their elicitation in mice by classic vaccine paradigms, necessitating more iterative testing of new vaccine concepts. In this regard, bnAb KI models expressing deduced precursor V(D)J rearrangements of mature bnAbs or unrearranged germline V, D, J segments (that can be assembled into variable region exons that encode bnAb precursors), have been engineered to evaluate novel immunogens/regimens for effectiveness in driving bnAb responses. One promising approach emerging from such studies is the ability of sequentially administered, modified immunogens (designed to bind progressively more mature bnAb precursors) to initiate affinity maturation. Here, we review insights gained from bnAb KI studies regarding the regulation and induction of bnAbs, and discuss new Ig KI methodologies to manipulate the production and/or expression of bnAbs in vivo, to further facilitate vaccine-guided bnAb induction studies. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Anticancer activity of cationic porphyrins in melanoma tumour-bearing mice and mechanistic in vitro studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Background Porphyrin TMPyP4 (P4) and its C14H28-alkyl derivative (C14) are G-quadruplex binders and singlet oxygen (1O2) generators. In contrast, TMPyP2 (P2) produces 1O2 but it is not a G-quadruplex binder. As their photosensitizing activity is currently undefined, we report in this study their efficacy against a melanoma skin tumour and describe an in vitro mechanistic study which gives insights into their anticancer activity. Methods Uptake and antiproliferative activity of photoactivated P2, P4 and C14 have been investigated in murine melanoma B78-H1 cells by FACS, clonogenic and migration assays. Apoptosis was investigated by PARP-1 cleavage and annexin-propidium iodide assays. Biodistribution and in vivo anticancer activity were tested in melanoma tumour-bearing mice. Porphyrin binding and photocleavage of G-rich mRNA regions were investigated by electrophoresis and RT-PCR. Porphyrin effect on ERK pathway was explored by Western blots. Results Thanks to its higher lipophylicity C14 was taken up by murine melanoma B78-H1 cells up to 30-fold more efficiently than P4. When photoactivated (7.2 J/cm2) in B78-H1 melanoma cells, P4 and C14, but not control P2, caused a strong inhibition of metabolic activity, clonogenic growth and cell migration. Biodistribution studies on melanoma tumour-bearing mice showed that P4 and C14 localize in the tumour. Upon irradiation (660 nm, 193 J/cm2), P4 and C14 retarded tumour growth and increased the median survival time of the treated mice by ~50% (P porphyrin P2 did not. The light-dependent mechanism mediated by P4 and C14 is likely due to the binding to and photocleavage of G-rich quadruplex-forming sequences within the 5′-untranslated regions of the mitogenic ras genes. This causes a decrease of RAS protein and inhibition of downstream ERK pathway, which stimulates proliferation. Annexin V/propidium iodide and PARP-1 cleavage assays showed that the porphyrins arrested tumour growth by apoptosis and necrosis. C14 also

  9. Studies on the therapeutic effect of propolis along with standard antibacterial drug in Salmonella enterica serovar Typhimurium infected BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kalia, Preeti; Kumar, Neelima R; Harjai, Kusum

    2016-11-25

    Antibiotic resistance is an emerging public health problem. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) has described antibiotic resistance as one of the world's most pressing health problems in 21st century. WHO rated antibiotic resistance as "one of the three greatest threats to human health". One important strategy employed to overcome this resistance is the use of combination of drugs. Many plants, natural extracts have been shown to exhibit synergistic response with standard drugs against microorganisms. The present study focused on the antibacterial potential of propolis in combination with the standard antibiotic Cefixime against the typhoid causing bacteria i.e. Salmonella. Ethanolic extract of propolis was taken for the present work. For the experiment BALB/c mice were taken as animal model and divided into ten groups. Along with normal and infected control groups, four different combinations of cefixime and propolis were used. Biochemical, hematological and histopathological indices were studied by following the standard protocols. In BALB/c mice, Salmonella causes severe biochemical, hematological and histopathological alterations by 5th day of infection. Ethanolic extract of propolis at a dose of 300 mg/kg body weight of mice when used alone to treat Salmonella infection in mice gave significant results by 30th day of treatment. Similarly, when cefixime (4 mg/kg body weight of mice) was used to treat infection in mice, significant results as compared to infected control were observed after 5th day. But when propolis and cefixime were used together in different concentrations in combination therapy, evident results were observed after 5 days of treatment. The levels of various liver and kidney function enzymes, blood indices and the histopathology of liver, spleen and kidney were restored to near normal after 5 days of treatment and at much lower doses as compared to the effective dose when used alone. The study confirmed that significant

  10. Upgrades to the Auburn linear experiment for instability studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eadon, A C; Tejero, E; DuBois, A; Thomas, E

    2011-06-01

    The Auburn linear experiment for instability studies (ALEXIS) is a laboratory plasma physics experiment that is designed to investigate the role of spatially non-uniform E × B drifts using a magnetized cylindrical plasma column. This paper discusses the recent upgrades to the ALEXIS device, including improvements to the plasma source, gas management systems, and diagnostic suite. © 2011 American Institute of Physics

  11. Accelerated Learning: A Study of Faculty and Student Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Nicolette; Horsfall, Briony

    2010-01-01

    In this study we explored faculty and student experiences of accelerated learning. We conducted interviews with faculty members who had delivered the same course in 12 and 6-week timeframes, and we analysed a student survey. Students reported overall positive experiences in the accelerated courses, particularly in the social aspects of learning,…

  12. Factor Analysis of the Mystical Experience Questionnaire: A Study of Experiences Occasioned by the Hallucinogen Psilocybin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maclean, Katherine A.; Leoutsakos, Jeannie-Marie S.; Johnson, Matthew W.; Griffiths, Roland R.

    2012-01-01

    A large body of historical evidence describes the use of hallucinogenic compounds, such as psilocybin mushrooms, for religious purposes. But few scientific studies have attempted to measure or characterize hallucinogen-occasioned spiritual experiences. The present study examined the factor structure of the Mystical Experience Questionnaire (MEQ), a self-report measure that has been used to assess the effects of hallucinogens in laboratory studies. Participants (N=1602) completed the 43-item MEQ in reference to a mystical or profound experience they had had after ingesting psilocybin. Exploratory factor analysis of the MEQ retained 30 items and revealed a 4-factor structure covering the dimensions of classic mystical experience: unity, noetic quality, sacredness (F1); positive mood (F2); transcendence of time/space (F3); and ineffability (F4). MEQ factor scores showed good internal reliability and correlated with the Hood Mysticism Scale, indicating convergent validity. Participants who endorsed having had a mystical experience on psilocybin, compared to those who did not, had significantly higher factor scores, indicating construct validity. The 4-factor structure was confirmed in a second sample (N=440) and demonstrated superior fit compared to alternative models. The results provide initial evidence of the validity, reliability, and factor structure of a 30-item scale for measuring single, hallucinogen-occasioned mystical experiences, which may be a useful tool in the scientific study of mysticism. PMID:23316089

  13. Partial Return Yoke for MICE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Witte H.; Plate, S

    2013-05-03

    The international Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) is a large scale experiment which is presently assembled at the Rutherford Appleton Laboratory in Didcot, UK. The purpose of MICE is to demonstrate the concept of ionization cooling experimentally. Ionization cooling is an important accelerator concept which will be essential for future HEP experiments such as a potential Muon Collider or a Neutrino Factory. The MICE experiment will house up to 18 superconducting solenoids, all of which produce a substantial amount of magnetic flux. Recently it was realized that this magnetic flux leads to a considerable stray magnetic field in the MICE hall. This is a concern as technical equipment in the MICE hall may may be compromised by this. In July 2012 a concept called partial return yoke was presented to the MICE community, which reduces the stray field in the MICE hall to a safe level. This report summarizes the general concept, engineering considerations and the expected shielding performance.

  14. Alterations in the rate of binge ethanol consumption: implications for preclinical studies in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linsenbardt, David N; Boehm, Stephen L

    2014-09-01

    The rate at which alcohol (ethanol) is consumed has direct impact on its behavioral and subjective effects. For this reason, alterations in the pattern of ethanol consumption as a function of drinking history might be critical to the development and maintenance of alcoholism. Furthermore, because pharmacological interventions aimed at disrupting the motivation to consume ethanol are dependent on the brain/plasma concentrations present when an individual is most likely to engage in consumption of this substance, characterizing temporal drinking patterns might be useful to determine the timing of such treatments. The primary goal of the present study was to evaluate alterations in the timecourse of daily binge (drinking-in-the-dark; DID) ethanol consumption. We gave 14 daily 2 hour DID ethanol or water access sessions to male C57BL/6J (B6) mice using a state of the art volumetric drinking monitoring device. We then, primarily as a proof-of-principle, used the GABAB allosteric modulator GS39783 (GS) to determine how this compound influenced the timecourse of binge-like ethanol intake. The rate of ethanol consumption increased dramatically over sessions with the majority occurring in the first few minutes of the final session. Additionally, ethanol consumption occurring immediately following access was almost completely abolished in mice pre-treated with GS; an effect which was ethanol-specific only at this early time interval. These data characterize progressive alterations in the rate of ethanol intake using the DID model and suggest that careful consideration of prior ethanol history and timing of drug administration are warranted when interpreting results of pre-clinical drug administration studies.

  15. A study of virulence parameters for Toxoplasma gondii infections in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, L.; Heegaard, Peter M. H.; Lind, Peter

    1998-01-01

    With the aim of establishing assessments of the virulence of Toxoplasma gondii isolates for mice, we investigated weight loss, serum levels of haptoglobin, and serum levels of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) as alternative parameters to mouse mortality. Groups of BALB/c mice were inoculated...

  16. Studies of methanolic extract of Amaranthus paniculatus L. on Mice Liver against

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, M.; Sisodia, R.; Bhatia, A. I.

    2004-07-01

    India has a rich heritage of medicinal plants, many of which have been explored for the various bioactivities since ages, but the radioprotective potential of the plants have been hardly explored. Since Amaranthus, a common weed and very often caten as vegetable by rural population, has been used as emollient, astringent, diuretic, blood purifier, hemorrhagic diathesis and biliousness from time immemorial. Hence the present study aims to judge whether Amaranthus paniculatus (Linn) has the antiradiation efficacy against radiation induced histopathological and biochemical alterations in mice liver. Amaranthus paniculatus (Linn) belongs to family Amaranthaceae and commonly called as Amaranth, has good natural sources of carotenoids (beta carotene-1490 {mu}g/100 gm of edible portion), vitamin C and high level of critical lysine and methionine, protein content (22 gm/100 gm of edible portion). Swiss albino mice of 6-8 weeks weighing 22 {+-} 3 gm were selected from an inbred colony and divided into four groups. One group served as normal and two groups were administered with alcoholic extract at a dose of 600 mg/Kg-body weight/day dissolved in distilled water for fifteen days. Fourth group was given distilled water, orally and ad libitum. Then two groups, one with drug treated and another with distilled water treated, were exposed to 5 Gy of gamma radiation at the dose rate of 1.07 Gy/min with a source to surface distance (SSD) of 77.5 cm. The animals were autopsied at 1, 3, 7, 15 and 30 days post exposure. the optimum dose was calculated to be 600mg/kg b.wt/day after treating mice with AE for fifteen consecutive days prior to irradiation (9 Gy) to get maximum protection against radiation injury. By the survival assay, DRF 1.43 was calculated with different doses of gammas radiation (6, 9, 12 Gy). The radiation induced augmentation in MDA, protein, glycogen, alkaline and acid phosphatase content of liver is significantly ameliorated by the drug. The radiation induced

  17. Applying Geocritical Theory to the Study Abroad Learning Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walonen, Michael K.

    2015-01-01

    Recent studies have shown that employers are coming to increasingly value study abroad experience among prospective employees, and that study abroad may foster broad cognitive gains among its participants. In their survey of employer attitudes regarding international study, Stevan Trooboff et al. find that senior management and human resources…

  18. Experiences of mothers of disabled children: a phenomenological study

    OpenAIRE

    Barbosa, Maria Angélica Marcheti; Chaud, Massae Noda; Gomes, Maria Magda Ferreira

    2008-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To unveil the experiences of mothers of disabled children, with a view to understand the meaning of that experience. METHODS: This is a qualitative study using phenomenological approach based on Heidegger. The study subjects were five mothers with a disabled child. The interviews were performed at the women's homes, guided by the question "To you, what does it mean to have a disabled child? RESULTS: Five categories came into focus: "meeting one's actual infant," "the impact of disa...

  19. In vivo imaging of transplanted hepatocytes with a 1.5-T clinical MRI system - initial experience in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luciani, Alain [CHU Henri Mondor, Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Paris, Radiology Department, Creteil (France); Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Paris, Laboratoire de Recherche en Imagerie, EA 4062, Universite Paris Descartes, Paris (France); Parouchev, Alexandre; Braga, Gustavo; Boudechiche, Lyes; L' Hermine-Coulomb, Aurore; Hadchouel, Michele; Weber, Anne [CHU Bicetre, INSERM EMI 00 20, and University Paris XI, Kremlin Bicetre (France); Smirnov, Pierre [Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Paris, Laboratoire de Recherche en Imagerie, EA 4062, Universite Paris Descartes, Paris (France); Universite Paris VII, CNRS UMR 7057, Matieres et systemes Complexes, Paris (France); Wilhelm, Claire; Gazeau, Florence [Universite Paris VII, CNRS UMR 7057, Matieres et systemes Complexes, Paris (France); Dagher, Ibrahim; Franco, Dominique [CHU Bicetre, INSERM EMI 00 20, and University Paris XI, Kremlin Bicetre (France); Chirurgie Viscerale, CHLI Antoine Beclers, Clamart (France); Rahmouni, Alain [CHU Henri Mondor, Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Paris, Radiology Department, Creteil (France); Clement, Olivier [Hopital Europeen Georges Pompidou, Assistance Publique Hopitaux de Paris, Laboratoire de Recherche en Imagerie, EA 4062, Universite Paris Descartes, Paris (France)

    2008-01-15

    The feasibility of in vitro mature mouse hepatocyte labeling with a novel iron oxide particle was assessed and the ability of 1.5-T magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to track labeled mouse hepatocytes in syngenic recipient livers following intraportal cell transplantation was tested. Mouse hepatocytes were incubated with anionic iron oxide nanoparticles at various iron concentrations. Cell viability was assessed and iron oxide particle uptake quantified. Labeled hepatocytes were intraportally injected into 20 mice, while unlabeled hepatocytes were injected into two mice. Liver T2 values, spleen-to-muscle relative signal intensity (RI{sub spleen/muscle}), and liver-to-muscle relative signal intensity (RI{sub liver/muscle}) on gradient-echo T2-weighted imaging after injection of either labeled or unlabeled hepatocytes were compared with an ANOVA test followed by Fisher's a posteriori PLSD test. Livers, spleens and lungs were collected for histological analysis. Iron oxide particle uptake was saturable with a maximum iron content of 20 pg per cell and without viability alteration after 3 days of culture. Following labeled-cell transplantation, recipient livers showed well-defined nodular foci of low signal intensity on MRI - consistent with clusters of labeled hepatocytes on pathological analysis - combined with a significant decrease in both liver T2 values and liver-to-muscle RI{sub liver/muscle} (P = 0.01) with minimal T2 values demonstrated 8 days after transplantation. Conventional MRI can demonstrate the presence of transplanted iron-labeled mature hepatocytes in mouse liver. (orig.)

  20. Photocarcinogenesis study of glycolic acid and salicylic acid (CAS Nos. 79-14-1 and 69-72-7) in SKH-1 mice (simulated solar light and topical application study).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    Acidic solutions have been used for decades to treat a variety of skin conditions. Many of these solutions consist of organic acids with a hydroxy group on a carbon adjacent to the carbonyl carbon and are referred to as alpha-hydroxy acids (AHA). Organic acids with hydroxy groups on the second carbon from the carbonyl carbon are referred to as beta-hydroxy acids (BHA). Both AHA and BHA are used to treat various skin conditions. One of the most widely used AHA is glycolic acid, while salicylic acid is a commonly used BHA. Chemical peels containing 20% to 70% glycolic acid have been used by dermatologists to treat ichthyosis, acne, xerosis, actinic keratosis, seborrheic keratoses, warts, and psoriasis. AHA have recently been used to treat photoaged skin and are now included in many commercially available cosmetic skin treatments. When used in a formulation for a chemical peel, topical treatment of skin with AHA and BHA can result in removal of the stratum corneum, alteration of the skin's histology, and increased cell proliferation in the basal layer of the epidermis. Since AHA and BHA are used to correct photoaged skin, and since exposure to sunlight of skin treated with AHA or BHA is likely, studies were designed to determine the effects of topical application of creams containing AHA (0%, 4%, or 10% glycolic acid, pH 3.5) or BHA (0%, 2%, or 4% salicylic acid, pH 4.0) on the photocarcinogenesis of simulated solar radiation using a filtered 6.5 kW xenon arc light source [simulated solar light (SSL)]. Male and female Crl:SKH-1 (hr-/hr-) hairless mice were exposed to glycolic acid or salicylic acid alone or in combination with SSL for 40 weeks, and the mice were followed for an additional 12 weeks. 1-YEAR STUDY IN MICE: Groups of 36 male and 36 female mice were exposed to 0.0, 0.3, 0.6, or 0.9 minimal erythema dose (MED) of SSL during the afternoon (1200 to 1600 hours) 5 days per week for 40 weeks. Groups of 18 male and 18 female mice were treated in the morning (0800

  1. Studies on the effects of aspartame on memory and oxidative stress in brain of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdel-Salam, O M E; Salem, N A; El-Shamarka, M E S; Hussein, J S; Ahmed, N A S; El-Nagar, M E S

    2012-12-01

    The dipeptide aspartame (N-L-alpha-aspartyl-Lphenylalanine, 1-methyl ester; alpha-APM) is one of the most widely used artificial sweeteners. The present study aimed to investigate the effect of repeated administration of aspartame in the working memory version of Morris water maze test, on oxidative stress and brain monoamines in brain of mice. Aspartame (0.625, 1.875 or 5.625 mg/kg) was administered once daily subcutaneously for 2 weeks and mice were examined four times a week for their ability to locate a submerged plate. Malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), nitric oxide levels (the concentrations of nitrite/nitrate) and glucose were determined in brain. Only at the highest dose of 5.625 mg/kg, did aspartame significantly impaired water maze performance. The mean time taken to find the escape platform (latency) over 2 weeks was significantly delayed by aspartame 5.625 mg/kg, compared with the saline-treated control group. Significant differences occurred only on the first trial to find the escape platform. Significant increase in brain MDA by 16.5% and nitric oxide by 16.2% and a decrease in GSH by 25.1% and glucose by 22.5% occurred after treatment with aspartame at 1.875 mg/kg. Aspartame administered at 5.625 mg/kg significantly increased brain MDA by 43.8%, nitric oxide by 18.6% and decreased GSH by 32.7% and glucose by 25.8%. Aspartame caused dose-dependent inhibition of brain serotonin, noradrenaline and dopamine. These findings suggest impaired memory performance and increased brain oxidative stress by repeated aspartame administration. The impaired memory performance is likely to involve increased oxidative stress as well as decreased brain glucose availability.

  2. Reproductive and neurobehavioural toxicity study of Ponceau 4R administered to mice in the diet.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tanaka, Toyohito

    2006-10-01

    Ponceau 4R was given to mice in the diet at levels of 0 (control), 0.12%, 0.24%, and 0.48% from 5 weeks of age of the F(0) generation to 9 weeks of age of the F(1) generation, and selected reproductive and neurobehavioural parameters were measured. There was no adverse effect of Ponceau 4R on litter size, litter weight or sex ratio at birth. The average body weight of male and female offspring was increased significantly in the high-dose group at postnatal days (PNDs) 0, 4 and 21. In behavioural developmental parameters, surface righting at PND 4 was affected significantly in the high-dose group in male offspring. Other variables measured showed no consistently significant adverse effect on either sex in the lactation period. In multiple water T-maze performance in the F(1) generation, the time taken was significantly longer than the control in the middle-dose and high-dose groups in males, and those effects were significantly dose-related (P4R in the present study produced no adverse effect on reproduction, and a few adverse effects on neurobehavioural parameters in mice. The non-observed adverse effect level (NOAEL) was presumed to be 0.12% in the diet (approximately 205mg/kg per day) for maze learning by males in the F(1) generation. Nevertheless, the middle-dose and high-dose levels were in excess of the acceptable daily intake (ADI) of Ponceau 4R (0-4.0mg/kg body weight), and the actual dietary intake of Ponceau 4R in humans is presumed to be much lower. It would appear, therefore, that the level of dietary intake of Ponceau 4R is unlikely to produce any adverse reproductive or neurobehavioural effect in humans.

  3. Study of Necrosis in the Liver of Formaldehyde and Benzo(αPyrene Exposured-Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Soni

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Formaldehyde and benzo(αpyrene are compounds that harmful for health. Misapplication of this compound has an impact in the form of organ damage in the body. This study aims to determine the impact of the treatment of the combined exposure of formaldehyde and benzo(αpyrene to cell necrosis in the liver of mice (Mus musculus. Treatment of formaldehyde dose of 25 mg/kg BW to mice was given orally every day for 60 days. Treatment of benzo(αpyrene via intraperitoneal injection at a dose of 250 mg/kg BW were given after 30 days of incubation with four times injection with one day interval. Liver organ histological preparations were made through the HE staining. Observations were made by using a microscope for liver organ preparations. The data obtained that is the percentage of cells necrosis and necrotic foci. This research used Completely Randomized Design (CRD with 95% confidence interval. Liver organ preparations observations indicate that the percentage of necrosis in the untreated control, benzo(αpyrene 250 mg/kg BW, formaldehyde 25 mg/kg BW, combination of formaldehyde 25 mg/kg BW with BaP in a row that is equal to 14.43% ± 0.91; 26.05% ± 3.75; 49.38% ± 2.66; 51.86 ± 1.73. The mean of necrotic foci in liver organ formed in the untreatment control, benzo(αpyrene 250 mg/kg BW, Formaldehyde 25 mg/kg BW, and the combination of formaldehyde 25 mg/kg BW with BaP in a row, equal to 1.3 ± 0,07; 1.63 ± 0.61; 2 ± 0.51, and 3.4 ± 0.76. This suggests that the combined treatment had the highest level of toxicity compared with other treatments.

  4. Effects of perinatal exposure to Zamzam water on the teratological studies of the mice offspring

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gasem Mohammad Abu-Taweel

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Zamzam water is well documented for plenty of medicinal value for curing illness. In the present study, the effects of perinatal consumption of Zamzam and normal drinking water by the pregnant mice on their offspring’s physical parameters, early sensory motor reflexes, locomotor activities, acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity in the homogenize brain tissue and blood parameters were compared. To achieve that; Zamzam water was given to female Swiss-Webster strain mice as the only source of drinking fluid and the control animals were administered plain tap water. Treatment started from the first day of pregnancy and continued until the postnatal day fifteen of delivery. All offspring were subjected to various tests. The rate of body weight gain remained relatively unaffected until the second week of weaning period, however; in the last week the offspring exposed to Zamzam water gained significant body weight as compared to their control offspring. Furthermore, the opening of eyes and appearance of body hairs in Zamzam exposed pups remained unaffected as compared to the controls. The sensory motor reflexes in Zamzam exposed pups after birth and during the first two weeks of weaning period were significantly increased. Locomotor Activity Test performed in the male and female offspring after weaning period showed a significant decrease in the male and increase in the female on most of the elements of this test due to Zamzam exposure. AChE activity in the homogenized brain tissue and blood parameters were unaffected as compared to the controls, the present Zamzam effects in the offspring are possibly via in utero action and/or via mother’s milk.

  5. Effects of perinatal exposure to Zamzam water on the teratological studies of the mice offspring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abu-Taweel, Gasem Mohammad

    2017-05-01

    Zamzam water is well documented for plenty of medicinal value for curing illness. In the present study, the effects of perinatal consumption of Zamzam and normal drinking water by the pregnant mice on their offspring's physical parameters, early sensory motor reflexes, locomotor activities, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity in the homogenize brain tissue and blood parameters were compared. To achieve that; Zamzam water was given to female Swiss-Webster strain mice as the only source of drinking fluid and the control animals were administered plain tap water. Treatment started from the first day of pregnancy and continued until the postnatal day fifteen of delivery. All offspring were subjected to various tests. The rate of body weight gain remained relatively unaffected until the second week of weaning period, however; in the last week the offspring exposed to Zamzam water gained significant body weight as compared to their control offspring. Furthermore, the opening of eyes and appearance of body hairs in Zamzam exposed pups remained unaffected as compared to the controls. The sensory motor reflexes in Zamzam exposed pups after birth and during the first two weeks of weaning period were significantly increased. Locomotor Activity Test performed in the male and female offspring after weaning period showed a significant decrease in the male and increase in the female on most of the elements of this test due to Zamzam exposure. AChE activity in the homogenized brain tissue and blood parameters were unaffected as compared to the controls, the present Zamzam effects in the offspring are possibly via in utero action and/or via mother's milk.

  6. Continuous corticosterone delivery via the drinking water or pellet implantation: A comparative study in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gasparini, Sylvia J; Weber, Marie-Christin; Henneicke, Holger; Kim, Sarah; Zhou, Hong; Seibel, Markus J

    2016-12-01

    In order to investigate the effects of glucocorticoid excess in rodent models, reliable methods of continuous glucocorticoid delivery are essential. The current study compares two methods of corticosterone (CS) delivery in regards to their ability to induce typical adverse outcomes such as fat accrual, insulin resistance, sarcopenia and bone loss. Eight-week-old mice received CS for 4weeks either via the drinking water (25-100μgCS/mL) or through weekly surgical implantation of slow release pellets containing 1.5mg CS. Both methods induced abnormal fat mass accrual, inhibited lean mass accretion and bone expansion, suppressed serum osteocalcin levels and induced severe insulin resistance. There was a clear dose dependant relationship between the CS concentrations in the drinking water and the severity of the phenotype, with a concentration of 50μg CS/mL drinking water most closely matching the metabolic changes induced by weekly pellet implantations. In contrast to pellets, however, delivery of CS via the drinking water resulted in a consistent diurnal exposure pattern, closely mimicking the kinetics of clinical glucocorticoid therapy. In addition, the method is safe, inexpensive, easily adjustable, non-invasive and avoids operative stress to the animals. Our data demonstrate that delivery of CS via the drinking water has advantages over weekly implantations of slow-release pellets. A dose of 50μg CS/mL drinking water is appropriate for the investigation of chronic glucocorticoid excess in mice. Crown Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Skeletal muscle alterations and exercise performance decrease in erythropoietin-deficient mice: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mille-Hamard Laurence

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Erythropoietin (EPO is known to improve exercise performance by increasing oxygen blood transport and thus inducing a higher maximum oxygen uptake (VO2max. Furthermore, treatment with (or overexpression of EPO induces protective effects in several tissues, including the myocardium. However, it is not known whether EPO exerts this protective effect when present at physiological levels. Given that EPO receptors have been identified in skeletal muscle, we hypothesized that EPO may have a direct, protective effect on this tissue. Thus, the objectives of the present study were to confirm a decrease in exercise performance and highlight muscle transcriptome alterations in a murine EPO functional knock-out model (the EPO-d mouse. Methods We determined VO2max peak velocity and critical speed in exhaustive runs in 17 mice (9 EPO-d animals and 8 inbred controls, using treadmill enclosed in a metabolic chamber. Mice were sacrificed 24h after a last exhaustive treadmill exercise at critical speed. The tibialis anterior and soleus muscles were removed and total RNA was extracted for microarray gene expression analysis. Results The EPO-d mice’s hematocrit was about 50% lower than that of controls (p  1.4 and 115 were strongly down-regulated (normalized ratio  Conclusions Our results showed that the lack of functional EPO induced a decrease in the aerobic exercise capacity. This decrease was correlated with the hematocrit and reflecting poor oxygen supply to the muscles. The observed alterations in the muscle transcriptome suggest that physiological concentrations of EPO exert both direct and indirect muscle-protecting effects during exercise. However, the signaling pathway involved in these protective effects remains to be described in detail.

  8. Sperm mitochondria diaphorase activity--a gene mapping study of recombinant inbred strains of mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golas, Aniela; Malek, Paulina; Piasecka, Malgorzata; Styrna, Jozefa

    2010-01-01

    In order to study the genetic control of semen quality parameters, we derived a set of recombinant inbred (RI) mice from crosses between two inbred strains, KE and CBA/Kw, which differ significantly in gamete quality and fertility parameters. In this work, we used male mice from the two parental strains and from ten RI strains to map genes controlling quantitative traits such as sperm mitochondrial diaphorase activity, and assessed the correlation between this trait, sperm motility and in vivo fertilization efficiency. We analyzed sperm mitochondrial dehydrogenase (diaphorase) activity (NADH-dependent NBT assay) cytochemically by means of computerized image densitometry and obtained values for four parameters: 1) integrated optical density (IOD) for all pixels of the midpiece, 2) mean optical density (MOD) for the midpiece pixels, 3) length of sperm midpiece and 4) area of sperm midpiece. Polymorphic microsatellite marker profiles were prepared for 20 mouse chromosomes in the ten RI strains. We used Map Manager QTX software to correlate the strain distribution patterns (SDPs) of the four measured parameters with the SDPs of the analyzed markers. Hypothetical genes modifying diaphorase activity were mapped to chromosomal region 19q43-19q47, containing, for example, Poll, Sfxn2, Cyp17a1 and Usmg5 genes. Chromosomal regions 18q44 and 18q49-18q80 also showed correlation with the SDPs of diaphorase activity. Katnal2, Me2 and StARD6 candidate genes were proposed from this region. Diaphorase activity in the mouse sperm midpiece did not correlate with in vivo fertilization efficiency, but was negatively correlated with the linearity and straightness of sperm movement.

  9. Transgenic reporter mice as tools for studies of transplantability and connectivity of dopamine neuron precursors in fetal tissue grafts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thompson, Lachlan H; Björklund, Anders

    2009-01-01

    Cell therapy for Parkinson's disease (PD) is based on the idea that new midbrain dopamine (mDA) neurons, implanted directly into the brain of the patient, can structurally and functionally replace those lost to the disease. Clinical trials have provided proof-of-principle that the grafted mDA neurons can survive and function after implantation in order to provide sustained improvement in motor function for some patients. Nonetheless, there are a number of issues limiting the application of this approach as mainstream therapy, including: the use of human fetal tissue as the only safe and reliable source of transplantable mDA neurons, and variability in the therapeutic outcome. Here we review recent progress in this area from investigations using rodent models of PD, paying particular attention to the use of transgenic reporter mice as tools for neural transplantation studies. Cell type-specific expression of reporter genes, such as green fluorescent protein, affords valuable technical advantages in transplantation experiments, such as the ability to selectively isolate specific cell fractions from mixed populations prior to grafting, and the unambiguous visualization of graft-derived dopamine neuron fiber patterns after transplantation. The results from these investigations have given new insights into the transplantability of mDA precursors as well as their connectivity after grafting and have interesting implications for the development of stem cell based approaches for the treatment of PD.

  10. Of mice and men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Troels Askhøj; Troelsen, Karin de Linde Lind; Larsen, Lars Allan

    2014-01-01

    CHD is part of the phenotype. Furthermore, mapping of genomic copy number variants and exome sequencing of CHD patients have led to the identification of a large number of candidate disease genes. Experiments in animal models, particularly in mice, have been used to verify human disease genes...... and to gain further insight into the molecular pathology behind CHD. The picture emerging from these studies suggest that genetic lesions associated with CHD affect a broad range of cellular signaling components, from ligands and receptors, across down-stream effector molecules to transcription factors and co...

  11. The MICE Online Systems

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN. Geneva

    2012-01-01

    The Muon Ionization Cooling Experiment (MICE) is designed to test transverse cooling of a muon beam, demonstrating an important step along the path toward creating future high intensity muon beam facilities. Protons in the ISIS synchrotron impact a titanium target, producing pions which decay into muons that propagate through the beam line to the MICE cooling channel. Along the beam line, particle identification (PID) detectors, scintillating fiber tracking detectors, and beam diagnostic tools identify and measure individual muons moving through the cooling channel. The MICE Online Systems encompass all tools; including hardware, software, and documentation, within the MLCR (MICE Local Control Room) that allow the experiment to efficiently record high quality data. Controls and Monitoring (C&M), Data Acquisition (DAQ), Online Monitoring and Reconstruction, Data Transfer, and Networking all fall under the Online Systems umbrella. C&M controls all MICE systems including the target, conventional an...

  12. Electron-ion hybrid instability experiment upgrades to the Auburn Linear Experiment for Instability Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    DuBois, A M; Arnold, I; Thomas, E; Tejero, E; Amatucci, W E

    2013-04-01

    The Auburn Linear EXperiment for Instability Studies (ALEXIS) is a laboratory plasma physics experiment used to study spatially inhomogeneous flows in a magnetized cylindrical plasma column that are driven by crossed electric (E) and magnetic (B) fields. ALEXIS was recently upgraded to include a small, secondary plasma source for a new dual source, interpenetrating plasma experiment. Using two plasma sources allows for highly localized electric fields to be made at the boundary of the two plasmas, inducing strong E × B velocity shear in the plasma, which can give rise to a regime of instabilities that have not previously been studied in ALEXIS. The dual plasma configuration makes it possible to have independent control over the velocity shear and the density gradient. This paper discusses the recent addition of the secondary plasma source to ALEXIS, as well as the plasma diagnostics used to measure electric fields and electron densities.

  13. Variability in microbiological degradation experiments, analysis and case study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sommer, Helle Mølgaard

    1997-01-01

    and describes analysis techniques for testing the reproducibility of a given experiment. The parameter estimation method employed for the experiments in this study is based on an iterative maximum likelihood method and the test statistic is an approximated likelihood ratio test. The estimations were carried out...... of the parameter estimates are depending of the choice of estimation method, this fact has not either received much attention, all though an unsuitable estimation method can lead to estimates which are quite different from the ``true'' values. The present thesis describes various nonlinear estimation techniques...... estimation method. The examination of reproducibility/variability were carried out for two kinds of experiments: A single substrate experiment with toluene and a dual substrate experiment with toluene and benzene. A pure culture, isolated from soil, grew with benzene and/or toluene as the only carbon...

  14. Blockade of the high-affinity noradrenaline transporter (NET) by the selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitor escitalopram: an in vivo microdialysis study in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Hai T; Guiard, Bruno P; Bacq, Alexandre; David, Denis J; David, Indira; Quesseveur, Gaël; Gautron, Sophie; Sanchez, Connie; Gardier, Alain M

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Escitalopram, the S(+)-enantiomer of citalopram is the most selective 5-HT reuptake inhibitor approved. Although all 5-HT selective reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) increase extracellular levels of 5-HT ([5-HT]ext). some also enhance, to a lesser extent, extracellular levels of noradrenaline ([NA]ext). However, the mechanisms by which SSRIs activate noradrenergic transmission in the brain remain to be determined. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH This study examined the effects of escitalopram, on both [5-HT]ext and [NA]ext in the frontal cortex (FCx) of freely moving wild-type (WT) and mutant mice lacking the 5-HT transporter (SERT−/−) by using intracerebral microdialysis. We explored the possibilities that escitalopram enhances [NA]ext, either by a direct mechanism involving the inhibition of the low- or high-affinity noradrenaline transporters, or by an indirect mechanism promoted by [5-HT]ext elevation. The forced swim test (FST) was used to investigate whether enhancing cortical [5-HT]ext and/or [NA]ext affected the antidepressant-like activity of escitalopram. KEY RESULTS In WT mice, a single systemic administration of escitalopram produced a significant increase in cortical [5-HT]ext and [NA]ext. As expected, escitalopram failed to increase cortical [5-HT]ext in SERT−/− mice, whereas its neurochemical effects on [NA]ext persisted in these mutants. In WT mice subjected to the FST, escitalopram increased swimming parameters without affecting climbing behaviour. Finally, escitalopram, at relevant concentrations, failed to inhibit cortical noradrenaline and 5-HT uptake mediated by low-affinity monoamine transporters. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS These experiments suggest that escitalopram enhances, although moderately, cortical [NA]extin vivo by a direct mechanism involving the inhibition of the high-affinity noradrenaline transporter (NET). PMID:22233336

  15. 1H NMR-based metabolomic study on resistance to diet-induced obesity in AHNAK knock-out mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Il Yong; Jung, Jeeyoun; Jang, Mi; Ahn, Yun Gyong; Shin, Jae Hoon; Choi, Ji Won; Sohn, Mi Ra; Shin, Sun Mee; Kang, Dae-Gil; Lee, Ho-Sub; Bae, Yun Soo; Ryu, Do Hyun; Seong, Je Kyung; Hwang, Geum-Sook

    2010-12-17

    AHNAK is a giant protein of approximately 700 kDa identified in human neuroblastomas and skin epithelial cells. Recently, we found that AHNAK knock-out (AHNAK(-/-)) mice have a strong resistance to high-fat diet-induced obesity. In this study, we applied (1)H NMR-based metabolomics with multivariate statistical analysis to compare the altered metabolic patterns detected in urine from high-fat diet (HFD) fed wild-type and AHNAK(-/-) mice and investigate the mechanisms underlying the resistance to high-fat diet-induced obesity in AHNAK(-/-) mice. In global profiling, principal components analysis showed a clear separation between the chow diet and HFD groups; wild-type and AHNAK(-/-) mice were more distinctly separated in the HFD group compared to the chow diet group. Based on target profiling, the urinary metabolites of HFD-fed AHNAK(-/-) mice gave higher levels of methionine, putrescine, tartrate, urocanate, sucrose, glucose, threonine, and 3-hydroxyisovalerate. Furthermore, two-way ANOVAs indicated that diet type, genetic type, and their interaction (gene × diet) affect the metabolite changes differently. Most metabolites were affected by diet type, and putrescine, threonine, urocanate, and tartrate were also affected by genetic type. In addition, cis-aconitate, succinate, glycine, histidine, methylamine (MA), phenylacetylglycine (PAG), methionine, putrescine, uroconate, and tartrate showed interaction effects. Through the pattern changes in urinary metabolites of HFD-fed AHNAK(-/-) mice, our data suggest that the strong resistance to HFD-induced obesity in AHNAK(-/-) mice comes from perturbations of amino acids, such as methionine, putrescine, threonine, and histidine, which are related to fat metabolism. The changes in metabolites affected by microflora such as PAG and MA were also observed. In addition, resistance to obesity in HFD-fed AHNAK(-/-) mice was not related to an activated tricarboxylic acid cycle. These findings demonstrate that (1)H NMR

  16. The victim's experience of hijacking: an exploratory study: research ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This paper summarises a phenomenological study that was designed to explore the victim's lived experience of undergoing a motor vehicle hijacking. The aim of the study was to add to the knowledge and understanding of this complex phenomenon. The design of the study was qualitative. Data was collected through ...

  17. [Study on the effects of two kinds of cactus polysaccharide on erythrocyte immune function of S180 mice].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ji, Yu-bin; Ji, Chen-feng; Zou, Xiang; Gao, Shi-yong

    2005-05-01

    To study the effects of two kinds of cactus polysaccharide on erythrocyte immune function in S180 mice. Classical pharmaceutical method and test kit. The cactus polysaccharide increased the content of RBC-CaR, RFER, decreased the content of RFIR, raised the content of sialic acid. And the effect of median dose group of medical cactus polysaccharide and high dose group of edible cactus polysaccharide is very remarkable (P cactus polysaccharide improved the erythrocyte function of tumor-mice, which may be one of anti-tumor mechanisms.

  18. ESRO study program for a space experiment on gravitation theories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Israel, G. M.

    1971-01-01

    ESRO is considering a space experiment which is the definition phase. A more complete utilization of space techniques, leading to highly accurate acceleration measurements in a heliocentric spacecraft, together with an improved laser signal propagation method (using a space-borne atomic clock), could substantially increase the validity of the gravitational time delay test during solar conjunction. Preliminary investigations of the primary required techniques were carried out. These studies included an orbit analysis, investigation of drag-free techniques, and studies of the time measuring instrument. These studies were used to define the framework of a space experiment on gravitation theories. A preliminary feasibility study of the mission is being undertaken.

  19. Sustaining and Improving Study Abroad Experiences Through Comparative Evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johanson, Linda S

    Researchers have related participation in study abroad experiences to many positive outcomes for nursing students; however, educators are faced with the task of not only developing meaningful study abroad opportunities but sustaining and improving them as well. Educators can evaluate repeat study abroad programs by comparing experiences, looking for trends, and conjecturing rationales. To illustrate this process, an example of a study abroad opportunity that has been repeated over 11 years is presented. The first six years have been compared to the most recent five years, revealing three categories of change for evaluation and the resulting course improvements.

  20. Abnormal Time Experiences in Major Depression: An Empirical Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stanghellini, Giovanni; Ballerini, Massimo; Presenza, Simona; Mancini, Milena; Northoff, Georg; Cutting, John

    2017-01-01

    Phenomenological psychopathology, through theoretical and idiographic studies, conceptualizes major depressive disorder (MDD) as a disorder of time experience. Investigations on abnormal time experience (ATE) in MDD adopting methodologies requested by the standards of empirical sciences are still lacking. Our study aimed to provide a qualitative analysis, on an empirical ground and on a large scale, of narratives of temporal experiences of persons affected by MDD. We interviewed 550 consecutive patients affected by affective and schizophrenic disorders. Clinical files were analysed by means of consensual qualitative research. Out of 100 MDD patients, 96 reported at least 1 ATE. The principal categories of ATE are vital retardation - the experience of a stagnation of endogenous vital processes (37 patients), the experience of present and future dominated by the past (29 patients), and the experience of the slackening of the flow oftime (25 patients). A comparison with ATE in schizophrenia patients showed that in MDD, unlike in schizophrenia, there is no disarticulation of time experience (disorder of temporal synthesis) but rather a disorder of conation or inhibition of becoming. The interview style was not meant to make a quantitative assessment ("false negatives" cannot be excluded). Our findings confirm the relevance of distinctive features of ATE in MDD, support the hypothesis of an intrinsic disordered temporal structure in depressive symptoms, and may have direct implications in clinical practice, especially in relation to differential diagnosis, setting the boundaries between "true" and milder forms of depression, and neurobiological research. © 2016 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Urban and regional studies in the experience economy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lorentzen, Anne; Jeannerat, Hugues

    2013-01-01

    is to deconstruct economic value and innovation in regional studies and elaborate on the role of consumers and stages of consumption. Another is the actor perspective and the question of how localized networks of innovative actors evolve and engage in experiential staging. Finally the experience economy is seen...... as an integrated approach in policy and strategic planning on as well as across different scales. Future research should not only trace the evolution of experience offerings, stages and destinations and its possible dependence on specific economic phases and contexts. It should also develop further the potentials...... of the experience economy approach as a new perspective on economic phenomena as well as on territorial development....

  2. Possession experiences in dissociative identity disorder: a preliminary study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross, Colin A

    2011-01-01

    Dissociative trance disorder, which includes possession experiences, was introduced as a provisional diagnosis requiring further study in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (4th ed.). Consideration is now being given to including possession experiences within dissociative identity disorder (DID) in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (5th ed.), which is due to be published in 2013. In order to provide empirical data relevant to the relationship between DID and possession states, I analyzed data on the prevalence of trance, possession states, sleepwalking, and paranormal experiences in 3 large samples: patients with DID from North America; psychiatric outpatients from Shanghai, China; and a general population sample from Winnipeg, Canada. Trance, sleepwalking, paranormal, and possession experiences were much more common in the DID patients than in the 2 comparison samples. The study is preliminary and exploratory in nature because the samples were not matched in any way.

  3. Students' Lived Experiences in Women's College Classrooms: A Phenomenological Study

    OpenAIRE

    Read, Katherine Cox

    2017-01-01

    Several positive student academic outcomes are associated with women's college attendance, yet little is known about how women's college students make meaning of classroom practices, experiences, and interactions. The purpose of this study, a qualitative research endeavor in the hermeneutic phenomenological tradition, was to achieve a better understanding of the nature of the lived classroom experience at a women's college and the meaning women's college students made from their everyday liv...

  4. Ferritin accumulation and uroporphyrin crystal formation in hepatocytes of C57BL/10 mice: a time-course study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Siersema, P. D.; Cleton-Soeteman, M. I.; de Bruijn, W. C.; ten Kate, F. J.; van Eijk, H. G.; Wilson, J. H.

    1993-01-01

    To establish the time-sequence relationship between ferritin accumulation and uroporphyrin crystal formation in livers of C57BL/10 mice, a biochemical, morphological and morphometrical study was performed. Uroporphyria was induced by the intraperitoneal administration of hexachlorobenzene plus iron

  5. Mice Drawer System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cancedda, Ranieri

    2008-01-01

    The Mice Drawer System (MDS) is an Italian Space Agency (ASI) facility which is able to support mice onboard the International Space Station during long-duration exploration missions (from 100 to 150-days) by living space, food, water, ventilation and lighting. Mice can be accommodated either individually (maximum 6) or in groups (4 pairs). MDS is integrated in the Space Shuttle middeck during transportation (uploading and downloading) to the ISS and in an EXPRESS Rack in Destiny, the US Laboratory during experiment execution. Osteoporosis is a debilitating disease that afflicts millions of people worldwide. One of the physiological changes experienced by astronauts during space flight is the accelerated loss of bone mass due to the lack of gravitational loading on the skeleton. This bone loss experienced by astronauts is similar to osteoporosis in the elderly population. MDS will help investigate the effects of unloading on transgenic (foreign gene that has been inserted into its genome to exhibit a particular trait) mice with the Osteoblast Stimulating Factor-1, OSF-1, a growth and differentiation factor, and to study the genetic mechanisms underlying the bone mass pathophysiology. MDS will test the hypothesis that mice with an increased bone density are likely to be more protected from osteoporosis, when the increased bone mass is a direct effect of a gene involved in skeletogenesis (skeleton formation). Osteoporosis is a debilitating disease that afflicts millions worldwide. One of the physiological changes experienced by astronauts during space flight is the accelerated loss of bone mass due to the lack of gravitational loading on the skeleton, a loss that is similar to osteoporosis in the elderly population on Earth. Osteoblast Stimulating Factor-1 (OSF-1), also known as pleiotrophin (PTN) or Heparin-Binding Growth- Associated Molecule (HB-GAM) belongs to a family of secreted heparin binding proteins..OSF-1 is an extracellular matrix-associated growth and

  6. Use of fenbendazole-containing therapeutic diets for mice in experimental cancer therapy studies

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Duan, Qiwen; Liu, Yanfeng; Booth, Carmen J; Rockwell, Sara

    2012-01-01

    Pinworm infection (oxyuriasis) is a common problem in rodent colonies. Facility-wide prophylactic treatment of all mice with a diet containing therapeutic levels of fenbendazole for several weeks is often used to control pinworm outbreaks...

  7. Sensory Irritation Study in Mice: JP-4, JP-8, JP-8+100

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Whitman, Frederick

    2001-01-01

    ... tract sensory irritation. These fuels were JP-4, JP-8 and JP-8 + 100. These fuels were administered for 30 minute periods by means of a head-only exposure system to groups of four male Swiss-Webster mice...

  8. Student experiences in an integrated science course: A phenomenological study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crapenhoft-Gatewood, Kelly Lynn

    The purpose of conducting this study was to describe the experiences of average to high-achieving, middle-income students in a newly implemented integrated science course at a Midwest inner-city high school. The focus of this study was to describe the meaning students ascribed to their experiences in this non-tracked, two-year science course, in which many of the suggestions made by science reform efforts were implemented. A phenomenological approach was used in order to develop a holistic picture of the student participants' experiences. Data collection was confined to interviewing, observing, and analyzing the journals of four middle-income, average to high-achieving students enrolled in the same class during the 1994-95 school year. The data were subjective perceptions of the students in their learning environment. A modified version of the Colaizzi method of analysis of phenomenological data was used. This design utilized the Epoche, Phenomenological Reduction, Imaginative Variation and Synthesis. Co-researchers' statements were clustered into horizons of meaning and organized into themes. The textural themes included curriculum, instruction, teachers, peers, and overall impressions. Relationships to time and interactions with peers and teachers were among the structural themes. From these themes, individual and composite textual descriptions were developed. With the addition of the structural components, an integrated composite textual-structural description of the students' experience in the integrated science course resulted. This final product captured the meanings and essences of their experience. This study adds to the scholarly literature and research as it relates to the implementation of progressive pedagogy and theory regarding student experiences in a science course. It will improve educational practice by helping educators make informed decisions regarding curriculum reform, instructional practices, and classroom environment. This study will also

  9. Muscle regeneration in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice studied by gene expression profiling

    OpenAIRE

    van Ommen G-JB; de Meijer EJ; Sterrenburg E; Turk R; den Dunnen JT; 't Hoen PAC

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene, is lethal. In contrast, dystrophin-deficient mdx mice recover due to effective regeneration of affected muscle tissue. To characterize the molecular processes associated with regeneration, we compared gene expression levels in hindlimb muscle tissue of mdx and control mice at 9 timepoints, ranging from 1–20 weeks of age. Results Out of 7776 genes, 1735 were differentially expressed between mdx a...

  10. A Student Experience of Peer Assisted Study Sessions in Physiotherapy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sole, Gisela; Rose, Andrew; Bennet, Tracey; Jaques, Katrina; Rippon, Zoe; van der Meer, Jacques

    2012-01-01

    Peer Assisted Study Sessions (PASS) were introduced as an optional learning experience in a Bachelor of Physiotherapy programme. The aim of this study was to evaluate the use of PASS from the student perspective. Eight third year physiotherapy students who had participated in PASS during their second year of training attended a focus group, at…

  11. Appearance Investment and Everyday Interpersonal Functioning: An Experience Sampling Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forand, Nicholas R.; Gunthert, Kathleen C.; German, Ramaris E.; Wenze, Susan J.

    2010-01-01

    Several studies have shown that body satisfaction affects interpersonal functioning. However, few have studied the specific interpersonal correlates of another important body image dimension, appearance investment--that is, the importance a woman places on appearance. We used an experience sampling design with PDA (personal digital assistant)…

  12. International Exchange as a Transformative Learning Experience: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, Sheena; Slaubaugh, Michael; Kim, Ae-Sook

    2012-01-01

    This study examines the role of international exchange programs on the transformative learning of English-speaking students. A student exchange program at a South Korean university is used for this case study. It explores how learning experiences are translated by participants onto their perceptions about the host country. An analysis of a pre-…

  13. African American Women's Sexual Objectification Experiences: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Laurel B.; Robinson, Dawn; Dispenza, Franco; Nazari, Negar

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of our study was to investigate African American women's experiences with sexual objectification. Utilizing grounded theory methodology as well as Black feminist thought and objectification theory as the research lenses, the results of this study uncovered how racist, sexist, and classist ideologies contributed to sexual…

  14. Experience above the Glass Ceiling: A Study Of Female Executives ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The study examined the experience of female executives who have risen above the glass ceiling in male dominated work environment. A total of 230 male and female executive participated in the study. They had spent a minimum of five years in their present position, which allowed information from a wide range of ...

  15. School Counselors' Experiences Working with Digital Natives: A Qualitative Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallo, Laura L.

    2017-01-01

    To better understand school counselors' experiences related to students' use of social media, the authors conducted a qualitative study, utilizing a phenomenological approach, with eight practicing high school counselors. Three major themes emerged from the study: "the digital cultural divide," "frustration and fear," and…

  16. Student Conceptions of International Experience in the Study Abroad Context

    Science.gov (United States)

    Streitwieser, Bernhard T.; Light, Gregory J.

    2018-01-01

    While much of recent study abroad research has focused on identifying and measuring different learning outcomes in terms of specific skills, competencies, perspectives and attributes acquired during study abroad opportunities, less research has considered how students' deeper conceptions and understandings of international experience may change…

  17. Experiences of Computer Science Curriculum Design: A Phenomenological Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sloan, Arthur; Bowe, Brian

    2015-01-01

    This paper presents a qualitative study of 12 computer science lecturers' experiences of curriculum design of several degree programmes during a time of transition from year-long to semesterised courses, due to institutional policy change. The background to the study is outlined, as are the reasons for choosing the research methodology. The main…

  18. Design of Laboratory Experiments to Study Photoionization Fronts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, William James; Davis, Josh; Drake, R. Paul

    2017-06-01

    Here we present the theoretical foundation for a laboratory experiment to study photoionization fronts. Photoionization fronts play important roles in the formation and evolution of structure in the Universe. A properly designed experiment will have to control the recombination rate, electron impact ionization rate, and the initial thermal spectrum. We show that such an experiment can be designed, but requires the use of the largest high-energy-density laser facilities, such as Omega, Z, and NIF. We also show that prior experiments do not actually generate photoionization fronts, rather a heat front is produced by heat conductions. We show some initial simulation results of the current experimental design and characterize the ionization front.

  19. Mind-life continuity: A qualitative study of conscious experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hipólito, Inês; Martins, Jorge

    2017-12-01

    There are two fundamental models to understanding the phenomenon of natural life. One is the computational model, which is based on the symbolic thinking paradigm. The other is the biological organism model. The common difficulty attributed to these paradigms is that their reductive tools allow the phenomenological aspects of experience to remain hidden behind yes/no responses (behavioral tests), or brain 'pictures' (neuroimaging). Hence, one of the problems regards how to overcome methodological difficulties towards a non-reductive investigation of conscious experience. It is our aim in this paper to show how cooperation between Eastern and Western traditions may shed light for a non-reductive study of mind and life. This study focuses on the first-person experience associated with cognitive and mental events. We studied phenomenal data as a crucial fact for the domain of living beings, which, we expect, can provide the ground for a subsequent third-person study. The intervention with Jhana meditation, and its qualitative assessment, provided us with experiential profiles based upon subjects' evaluations of their own conscious experiences. The overall results should move towards an integrated or global perspective on mind where neither experience nor external mechanisms have the final word. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Subjective experience of architectural objects: A cross-cultural study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marković Slobodan

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to compare Serbian and Japanese participants in their subjective experience of Serbian and Japanese architectural objects. Subjective experience was operationalized through the ratings on the bipolar scales (e.g. pleasant-unpleasant. In the Preliminary study 1, a set of twelve rating scales was generated. In the Preliminary study 2 twelve Serbian and twelve Japanese architectural objects were specified. In the main experiment two groups of participants, twenty-one Serbian and twenty Japanese, rated twelve Serbian and twelve Japanese objects. A factor analysis extracted three dimensions of subjective experience: Beauty, Firmness and Fullness. Analysis of variance have shown that both Serbian and Japanese participants agreed that Japanese architectural objects looked more beautiful and firmer than Serbian objects. These finding is generally in line with perceptualist hypothesis that stimulus constraints are more effective than culture. However, interactions revealed some cultural differences that are consistent with culturalist hypothesis: compared to Serbian participants, Japanese participants rated Japanese architectural objects as more beautiful, whereas, compared to Japanese, Serbian participants rated Serbian objects as less fragile and emptier than Japanese objects. Generaly, our study have shown that Serbian (Western and Japanese (Eastern participants show general similarity in their subjective experience of architectural objects. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 179033

  1. Effects of acute and chronic inhalation of paint thinner in mice: behavioral and immunohistochemical study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fifel, Karim; Bennis, Mohamed; Ba-M'hamed, Saâdia

    2014-06-01

    Abuse of volatile inhalants has become a worldwide issue mainly among adolescents of low income social class. Acute and chronic exposure to these substances results in serious neurological and behavioral impairments. Although real exposure consists largely of simultaneous inhalation of multiple solvents, the vast majority of basic research studies have evaluated the actions of a single volatile component leaving the behavioral and neuronal effects of chemical mixture not fully understood. In this study, we investigated the acute behavioral effects of 300, 450 and 600 ppm of paint thinner inhalation on anxiety, locomotor activity and spatial memory. Additionally, the cognitive impairments related to chronic exposure of the same concentrations of thinner for 45 days were assessed. To understand the neuronal correlates of acute exposure to thinner, we used c-Fos immunohistochemistry as an endogenous marker of neuronal activation following 600 ppm of thinner. The results reveal that (i) chronically thinner exposed mice showed cognitive deficits in Morris water maze and object recognition tasks; (ii) acute inhalation of thinner induces a wide range of behavioral changes. These changes include an anxiolytic effect toward the aversive environmental bright light and a dose dependent effect on explorative locomotion. The wide range of behavioral alterations induced by acute thinner inhalation is consistent with the widespread distribution of thinner-induced c-Fos expression in multiple brain structures.

  2. Cell bricks-enriched platelet-rich plasma gel for injectable cartilage engineering - an in vivo experiment in nude mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Jun; Cai, Bolei; Ma, Qin; Chen, Fulin; Wu, Wei

    2013-10-01

    Clinical application of platelet-rich plasma (PRP)-based injectable tissue engineering is limited by weak mechanical properties and a rapid fibrinolytic rate. We proposed a new strategy, a cell bricks-stabilized PRP injectable system, to engineer and regenerate cartilage with stable morphology and structure in vivo. Chondrocytes from the auricular cartilage of rabbits were isolated and cultured to form cell bricks (fragmented cell sheet) or cell expansions. Fifteen nude mice were divided evenly (n = 5) into cells-PRP (C-P), cell bricks-PRP (CB-P) and cell bricks-cells-PRP (CB-C-P) groups. Cells, cell bricks or a cell bricks/cells mixture were suspended in PRP and were injected subcutaneously in animals. After 8 weeks, all the constructs were replaced by white resilient tissue; however, specimens from the CB-P and CB-C-P groups were well maintained in shape, while the C-P group appeared distorted, with a compressed outline. Histologically, all groups presented lacuna-like structures, glycosaminoglycan-enriched matrices and positive immunostaining of collagen type II. Different from the uniform structure presented in CB-C-P samples, CB-P presented interrupted, island-like chondrogenesis and contracted structure; fibrous interruption was shown in the C-P group. The highest percentage of matrix was presented in CB-C-P samples. Collagen and sGAG quantification confirmed that the CB-C-P constructs had statistically higher amounts than the C-P and CB-P groups; statistical differences were also found among the groups in terms of biomechanical properties and gene expression. We concluded that cell bricks-enriched PRP gel sufficiently enhanced the morphological stability of the constructs, maintained chondrocyte phenotypes and favoured chondrogenesis in vivo, which suggests that such an injectable, completely biological system is a suitable cell carrier for cell-based cartilage repair. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Clinical trial participants' experiences of completing questionnaires: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmberg, Christine; Karner, Julia J; Rappenecker, Julia; Witt, Claudia M

    2014-03-24

    To improve clinical study developments for elderly populations, we aim to understand how they transfer their experiences into validated, standardised self-completed study measurement instruments. We analysed how women (mean 78±8 years of age) participating in a randomised controlled trial (RCT) cognised study instruments used to evaluate outcomes of the intervention. The interview study was nested in an RCT on chronic neck pain using common measurement instruments situated in an elderly community in Berlin, Germany, which comprised of units for independent and assisted-living options. The sample (n=20 women) was selected from the RCT sample (n=117, 95% women, mean age 76 (SD±8) years). Interview participants were selected using a purposive sampling list based on the RCT outcomes. We asked participants about their experiences completing the RCT questionnaires. Interviews were analysed thematically, then compared with the questionnaires. Interviewees had difficulties in translating complex experiences into a single value on a scale and understanding the relationship of the questionnaires to study aims. Interviewees considered important for the trial that their actual experiences were understood by trial organisers. This information was not transferrable by means of the questionnaires. To rectify these difficulties, interviewees used strategies such as adding notes, adding response categories or skipping an item. Elderly interview participants understood the importance of completing questionnaires for trial success. This led to strategies of completing the questionnaires that resulted in 'missing' or ambiguous data. To improve data collection in elderly populations, educational materials addressing the differential logics should be developed and tested. Pilot testing validated instruments using cognitive interviews may be particularly important in such populations. Finally, when the target of an intervention is a subjective experience, it seems important to create a

  4. Inhibition and stimulation of intestinal and hepatic CYP3A activity: studies in humanized CYP3A4 transgenic mice using triazolam.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Waterschoot, R.A. van; Rooswinkel, R.W.; Sparidans, R.W.; Herwaarden, A.E. van; Beijnen, J.H.; Schinkel, A.H.

    2009-01-01

    CYP3A4 is an important determinant of drug-drug interactions. In this study, we evaluated whether cytochrome P450 3A knockout mice [Cyp3a(-/-)] and CYP3A4 transgenic (CYP3A4-Tg) mice can be used to study drug-drug interactions in the liver and intestine. Triazolam was used as a probe drug because it

  5. Studies on the pathogenesis of a Chinese strain of bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 infection in Balb/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiu-Mei; Zhu, Yuan-Mao; Cai, Hong; Lv, Chuang; Gao, Yu-Ran; Yu, Zuo; Xue, Fei

    2012-07-06

    To date, three genotypes A, B, and C of bovine parainfluenza virus type 3 (BPIV3) have been isolated from cattle and only limited studies on the pathogenesis of the genotype A of BPIV3 infection in calves and laboratory animals have been conducted. The pathogenesis of the genotypes B and C of BPIV3 infection in calves and laboratory animals have not been reported. To alleviate the difficulties associated with sourcing suitable calves for infection studies, the establishment of BPIV3 infection model using laboratory model animals could aid in increasing the knowledge of the pathogenesis of this virus. Therefore thirty Balb/c mice were intranasally inoculated with a Chinese BPIV3 strain SD0835 which was classified as genotype C. Virus replications in mice were demonstrated by using virus isolation and titration, immunofluorescent staining, and immunohistochemistry and had occurred in the respiratory tissues as early as 24h after intranasal inoculation. The results of immunofluorescent staining and IHC implicated that the lungs and tracheas might be the major tissues in which the SD0835 infected and replicated. The histopathologic examinations revealed that alveoli septa thickening and focal cellulose pneumonia were seen in the lungs of experimentally infected mice. The aforementioned results indicated that the SD0835 of the genotype C was pathogenic to Balb/c mice and the mouse infection model could cast light on the genotype C of BPIV3 infection process and pathogenesis. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Acute lung inflammation in Klebsiella pneumoniae B5055-induced pneumonia and sepsis in BALB/c mice: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Vijay; Chhibber, Sanjay

    2011-10-01

    Lungs play an important role in the body's defense against a variety of pathogens, but this network of immune system-mediated defense can be deregulated during acute pulmonary infections. The present study compares acute lung inflammation occurring during Klebsiella pneumoniae B5055-induced pneumonia and sepsis in BALB/c mice. Pneumonia was induced by intranasal instillation of bacteria (10(4) cfu), while sepsis was developed by placing the fibrin-thrombin clot containing known amount of bacteria (10(2) cfu) into the peritoneal cavity of animals. Mice with sepsis showed 100% mortality within five post-infection days, whereas all the animals with pneumonia survived. In animals suffering from K. pneumoniae B5055-induced pneumonia, all the inflammatory parameters (TNF-α, IL-1α, MPO, MDA, and NO) were found to be maximum till third post-infection day, after that, a decline was observed, whereas in septic animals, all the above-mentioned markers of inflammation kept on increasing. Histopathological study showed presence of alternatively activated alveolar macrophages (or foam cells) in lungs of mice with pneumonia after third post-infection day, which might have contributed to the induction of resolution of inflammation, but no such observation was made in lungs of septic mice. Hence, during pneumonia, controlled activation of macrophages may lead to resolution of inflammation.

  7. Histopathological and expression profiling studies of early tumor responses to near-infrared PDT treatment in SCID mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Starkey, Jean R.; Rebane, Aleksander; Drobizhev, Mikhail A.; Meng, Fanqin; Gong, Aijun; Elliott, Aleisha; McInnerney, Kate; Pascucci, Elizabeth; Spangler, Charles W.

    2008-02-01

    A novel class of porphyrin-based near-infrared photodynamic therapy (PDT) sensitizers is studied. We achieve regressions of human small cell lung cancer (NCI-H69), non-small cell lung cancer (A 459) and breast cancer (MDAMB- 231) xenografts in SCID mice at significant tissue depth by irradiation with an amplified femtosecond pulsed laser at 800 nm wavelength. Significant tumor regressions were observed during the first 10-14 days post treatment. Tumor histopathology was consistent with known PDT effects, while no significant changes were noted in irradiated normal tissues. In vivo imaging studies using intravenous injections of fluorescent dextran demonstrated an early loss of tumor blood flow. RNA was isolated from NCI-H69 PDT treated SCID mouse xenografts and paired untreated xenografts at 4 hours post laser irradiation. Similarly RNA was isolated from PDT treated and untreated Lewis lung carcinomas growing in C57/Bl6 mice. Expression profiling was carried out using Affymetrix TM human and mouse GeneChips®. Cluster analysis of microarray expression profiling results demonstrated reproducible increases in transcripts associated with apoptosis, stress, oxygen transport and gene regulation in the PDT treated NCI-H69 samples. In addition, PDT treated Lewis lung carcinomas showed reproducible increases in transcripts associated with immune response and lipid biosynthesis. PDT treated C57/Bl6 mice developed cytotoxic T cell activity towards this tumor, while untreated tumor bearing mice failed to do so.

  8. Study management – process experiences form The Elderly Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bilberg, Randi Marie; Andersen, Kjeld; Bogenschutz, Michael P

    manuals and documentations, we store all documents on Microsoft Sharepoint. This way all documents are instantly accessible to all relevant parties and changing any documents is easy and ensures that only the newest version is used all the time. Data entry and database: Data is stored digitally in one...... coordinators discuss all problems and questions that may rise during the study at a Skype-meeting. A similar Skype-meeting is conducted among therapists and lead supervisor to discuss therapy issues. Discussion By implementing Internet facilities such as Skype-meetings, Sharepoint and REDCap, we have developed...

  9. Measuring Customer Experience in Bancassurance: An Empirical Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mousumi Choudhury

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Purpose – This study attempts to investigate customer experience with respect to the bancassurance channel. Design/Methodology/Approach – The study is based on primary data collected using a structured questionnaire from customers buying life insurance policies from SBI Life through different branches of State Bank of India in the city of Guwahati in the state of Assam, India. Cronbach’s alpha was used to test the reliability of the questionnaire. Statistical tools, such as mean, standard deviation, and factor analysis were used to attain the objective of the study. Findings and implications – The study found that customers have favorable experiences when buying life insurance through the bancassurance channel. There are seven core factors that affect customer experience in bancassurance: ease of buying, whether maturity benefit is received, reliability of the channel, responsiveness of the channel, after-sale services, stock market-related information, and accuracy of the channel. Banks should devise a strategy to sustain favorable experiences of their customers, as this enables banks to retain their existing customers while also attracting new ones. Limitation – The study is restricted to customers buying life insurance policy from various branches of State Bank of India in Guwahati, India. Therefore, longitudinal and cross-sectional research is needed to generalize the findings. Originality – The study is first of its kind and hence original in nature.

  10. Fate of thymic lymphocytes. [/sup 125/IudR and /sup 3/HTdR tracer studies in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laissue, J A; Chanana, A D; Cronkite, E P; Joel, D D

    1976-01-01

    Data are summarized from a number of studies on the fate of thymic lymphocytes. Results are reported from studies in mice in which /sup 125/IudR and /sup 3/HTdR were used as tracers to study the production, maturation, migration, and life span of thymic lymphocytes. It is pointed out that thymus-derived cells constitute the majority of recirculating lymphocytes and that peripheral, differentiated thymus-derived lymphocytes exhibit a number of immunological functions. 114 references.

  11. Experiences of abortion: A narrative review of qualitative studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    May Carl R

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Although abortion or termination of pregnancy (TOP has become an increasingly normalized component of women's health care over the past forty years, insufficient attention has been paid to women's experiences of surgical or medical methods of TOP. Objective To undertake a narrative review of qualitative studies of women's experiences of TOP and their perspectives on surgical or medical methods. Methods Keyword searches of Medline, CINAHL, ISI, and IBSS databases. Manual searches of other relevant journals and reference lists of primary articles. Results Qualitative studies (n = 18 on women's experiences of abortion were identified. Analysis of the results of studies reviewed revealed three main themes: experiential factors that promote or inhibit the choice to seek TOP; experiences of TOP; and experiential aspects of the environment in which TOP takes place. Conclusion Women's choices about TOP are mainly pragmatic ones that are related to negotiating finite personal and family and emotional resources. Women who are well informed and supported in their choices experience good psychosocial outcomes from TOP. Home TOP using mifepristone appears attractive to women who are concerned about professionals' negative attitudes and lack of privacy in formal healthcare settings but also leads to concerns about management and safety.

  12. Quantum dots in axillary lymph node mapping: Biodistribution study in healthy mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guillemin François

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Breast cancer is the first cause of cancer death among women and its incidence doubled in the last two decades. Several approaches for the treatment of these cancers have been developed. The axillary lymph node dissection (ALND leads to numerous morbidity complications and is now advantageously replaced by the dissection and the biopsy of the sentinel lymph node. Although this approach has strong advantages, it has its own limitations which are manipulation of radioactive products and possible anaphylactic reactions to the dye. As recently proposed, these limitations could in principle be by-passed if semiconductor nanoparticles (quantum dots or QDs were used as fluorescent contrast agents for the in vivo imaging of SLN. QDs are fluorescent nanoparticles with unique optical properties like strong resistance to photobleaching, size dependent emission wavelength, large molar extinction coefficient, and good quantum yield. Methods CdSe/ZnS core/shell QDs emitting around 655 nm were used in our studies. 20 μL of 1 μM (20 pmol QDs solution were injected subcutaneously in the anterior paw of healthy nude mice and the axillary lymph node (ALN was identified visually after injection of a blue dye. In vivo fluorescence spectroscopy was performed on ALN before the mice were sacrificed at 5, 15, 30, 60 min and 24 h after QDs injection. ALN and all other organs were removed, cryosectioned and observed in fluorescence microscopy. The organs were then chemically made soluble to extract QDs. Plasmatic, urinary and fecal fluorescence levels were measured. Results QDs were detected in ALN as soon as 5 min and up to 24 h after the injection. The maximum amount of QDs in the ALN was detected 60 min after the injection and corresponds to 2.42% of the injected dose. Most of the injected QDs remained at the injection site. No QDs were detected in other tissues, plasma, urine and feces. Conclusion Effective and rapid (few minutes detection of

  13. A Study of Experience Credit for Professional Engineering Licensure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martin, M.A.

    2003-08-11

    Oak Ridge National Laboratory performed a study of experience credit for professional engineering licensure for the Department of Energy's Industrial Assessment Center (IAC) Program. One of the study's goals was to determine how state licensure boards grant experience credit for engineering licensure, particularly in regards to IAC experience and experience prior to graduation. Another goal involved passing IAC information to state licensure boards to allow the boards to become familiar with the program and determine if they would grant credit to IAC graduates. The National Council of Examiners for Engineers and Surveyors (NCEES) has adopted a document, the ''Model Law''. This document empowers states to create state engineering boards and oversee engineering licensure. The board can also interpret and adopt rules and regulations. The Model Law also gives a general ''process'' for engineering licensure, the ''Model Law Engineer''. The Model Law Engineer requires that an applicant for professional licensure, or professional engineering (PE) licensure, obtain a combination of formal education and professional experience and successfully complete the fundamentals of engineering (FE) and PE exams. The Model Law states that a PE applicant must obtain four years of ''acceptable'' engineering experience after graduation to be allowed to sit for the PE exam. Although the Model Law defines ''acceptable experience,'' it is somewhat open to interpretation, and state boards decide whether applicants have accumulated the necessary amount of experience. The Model Law also allows applicants one year of credit for postgraduate degrees as well as experience credit for teaching courses in engineering. The Model Law grants states the power to adopt and amend the bylaws and rules of the Model Law licensure process. It allows state boards the freedom to modify the experience

  14. [Experimental study of immune reactivity in Swiss mice due to topical administration of three textile dyes].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavăt, C C; Lupuşoru, R V; Ghiciuc, Cristina Mihaela; Lupuşoru, Cătălina Elena

    2010-01-01

    Reactive Red 183, Reactive Red 2 and Reactive Blue 204 (red dye, green dye and blue dye) are three reactive dyes frequently used in textile industry. In some atmospheric conditions ( high temperature, perspiration, pH values, UV/IR radiations), some quantities of these hydrolyzed dyes, could pass from textile clothes directly into the human skin. There were used 4 groups of white Swiss mice (with similar weight and number of both sexes), control group and 3 groups, treated once daily with a retro-auricular application of different reactive dyes. After 14 days of treatment, blood samples were taken from retro-orbitary plexus to assess leukocyte count, phagocytic capacity of peripheral neutrophils, serum opsonic capacity, phagocyte capacity and bactericidal capacity of peritoneal macrophages, splenic T lymphocytes with rossetting capacity and spleen cells forming Jerne plaques. The retro-acuricular and latero-cervical nodes were weighted. Red dye did not influence the weight of the studied nodes, but determined statistically significant modifications on non-specific immune system parameters. Blue and grena dyes determined modifications of weight especially of retroauricular nodes. Grena dye determined important effects of non-specific immune system parameters (serum opsonic capacity, phagocyte capacity and bactericidal capacity of peritoneal macrophages). The blue dye did not determine a biological response. Red and green dye determined important effects on non-specific immune system parameters.

  15. Beyond mice: Emerging and transdisciplinary models for the study of early-onset myopathies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagla, Krzysztof; Kalman, Benoit; Boudou, Thomas; Hénon, Sylvie; Batonnet-Pichon, Sabrina

    2017-04-01

    The use of the adapted models to decipher patho-physiological mechanisms of human diseases is always a great challenge. This is of particular importance for early-onset myopathies, in which pathological mutations often impact not only on muscle structure and function but also on developmental processes. Mice are currently the main animal model used to study neuromuscular disorders including the early-onset myopathies. However strategies based on simple animal models and on transdisciplinary approaches exploring mechanical muscle cell properties emerge as attractive, non-exclusive alternatives. These new ways provide valuable opportunities to improve our knowledge on how mechanical, biochemical, and genetic/epigenetic cues modulate the formation, organization and function of muscle tissues. Here we provide an overview of how single cell and micro-tissue engineering in parallel to non-mammalian, Drosophila and zebrafish models could contribute to filling gaps in our understanding of pathogenic mechanisms underlying early-onset myopathies. We also discuss their potential impact on designing new diagnostic and therapeutic strategies. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Toxicological Studies of 212Pb Intravenously or Intraperitoneally Injected into Mice for a Phase 1 Trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diane E. Milenic

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Faced with the novelty of a 212Pb-labeled monoclonal antibody (mAb for clinical translation, concerns were expressed by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA regarding 212Pb prematurely released from the mAb-chelate conjugate. The objective of this study was to simulate the worst case scenario of such a failure. Groups of Balb/c mice (n = 9–20 were administered 212Pb by intraperitoneal (0.0925–1.85 MBq or intravenous (0.0925–1.11 MBq injection and then euthanized at 7 or 90 days to assess acute or chronic effects. Weights were recorded prior to injection of the 212Pb and at the end of the observation periods. Blood samples were collected for clinical chemistry and blood cell analysis. Thirty tissues were harvested and formalin fixed for histopathological examination. Treatment related effects of the 212Pb were observed in the bone marrow, spleen, kidneys and the liver. Histological alterations in these organs were considered mild to moderate, indicating low grade toxicity, and not considered severe enough to affect function. This data was presented to the FDA and determined to be acceptable. The clinical trial with 212Pb-TCMC-trastuzumab was approved in January 2011 and the trial opened at the University of Alabama at Birmingham (UAB in July.

  17. Studies on the therapeutic effect of propolis in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rifa'I, Muhaimin

    2017-05-01

    Propolis oral administration in diabetic mice can increase the expression of TLR-3 and ameliorate homeostatic imbalance. The TLR-3 expression increased in both B cells and T cells. In this study, we also found that propolis may improve insulin expression in pancreatic beta cells. Administering propolis at a dose of 100-200 mg/mL may significantly increase insulin synthesis. Propolis might protect healthy cells from apoptosis in cisplatin exposure. Cisplatin can induce spleen cells to remain in the G0/G1 phase or to reach the apoptosis stage in the absence of propolis. In contrast, cisplatin, when administered together with propolis to a culture of spleen cells, cannot force the cells to undergo apoptosis. In a culture of spleen cells in the presence of propolis, the cells did not show any responses. This suggests that propolis does not disrupt normal cell physiology and supports cell health when cells are exposed to cisplatin. Furthermore, propolis can suppress the production of the pro-inflammatory cytokine interferon-gamma (IFN-γ).

  18. Cosmic ray muon study with the NEVOD-DECOR experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saavedra San Martin, Oscar

    2017-06-01

    The experiment NEVOV-DECOR, which is desinged to study the cosmic muons at very inclined directions, is running under the collaboration of the Moscow Engineering Physics Institute, Moscow, Russia, and the Instituto Nazionale di Astrofisica and the Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Torino, Italy. The main purpose of this experiment is to study the characteristics of the high multiplicity muons in muon bundles and their angular distributions. The result has shown the observation of the second knee at 1017 eV in the primary cosmic ray spectrum. In addition, we found that the number of high energy muons in EAS is more than 30% of what is predicted by the Monte Carlo models. This effect was found also by other experiments like Auger, but at primary cosmic ray energies higher than 1018 eV. We will present and discuss the main results of these investigations.

  19. The unique experience of adults with multimorbidity: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia Duguay

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Background: Findings from several countries indicate that the prevalence of multimorbidity is very high among clients of primary healthcare. A deeper understanding of patients’ experiences from their own perspective can greatly enrich any intervention to help them live as well as possible with multimorbidity. Objective: To describe the fundamental structure of adults’ experience with multimorbidity. Design: A phenomenological study was undertaken to describe the experiences of 11 adults with multimorbidity. These adults participated in two semi-structured interviews, the content of which was rigorously analyzed. Results: At the core of the study participants’ multimorbidity experience are the impression of aging prematurely, difficulties with self-care management, and issues with access to the healthcare system, which contribute to the problem’s complexity. Despite these issues, participants with multimorbidity report attempting to take control of their situation and adjusting to daily living. Conclusions: The description of this experience, through the systemic vision of participants, provides a better understanding of the realities experienced by people with multimorbidity.

  20. Longitudinal study of experimental induction of AA amyloidosis in mice seeded with homologous and heterologous AA fibrils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhammad, Naeem; Murakami, Tomoaki; Inoshima, Yasuo; Ishiguro, Naotaka

    2016-09-01

    To investigate pathogenesis and kinetics of experimentally induced murine AA amyloidosis seeded with homologous (murine) and heterologous (bovine) AA fibrils. Experimental AA amyloidosis was induced by administration of inflammatory stimulus and preformed AA fibrils to a total of 111 female C57/Black mice. In this longitudinal study, heterologous (bovine) as well as homologous (murine) AA fibrils were injected intraperitoneally to mice in various combinations. Re-stimulation was done at 120 or 300 days post first inoculation. To analyze the intensity of amyloid depositions in mice organs, immunohistochemical techniques and image J software were used. Assessment of cytokines level in sera was done using a Mouse Th1/Th2/Th17 Cytokine CBA Kit. Incidence and severity of AA amyloidosis were quite low in mice inoculated with heterologous bovine AA fibrils than homologous murine one. Homologous AA fibrils administration at first and second inoculation caused maximum amount of amyloid depositions and severe systemic form of amyloidosis. Increase in the level of pro-inflammatory cytokine IL-6 was observed after first inoculation, while second inoculation caused a further increase in the level of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. AA amyloidosis can be induced by heterologous as well as homologous AA fibrils. Severity of AA amyloidosis induced with homologous AA fibrils is higher compared to heterologous AA fibrils.

  1. Effects of Pu-erh ripened tea on hyperuricemic mice studied by serum metabolomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Ran; Chen, Dong; Wu, Hualing

    2017-11-15

    To evaluate effects of Pu-erh ripened tea in hyperuricemic mice, a mouse hyperuricemia model was developed by oral administration of potassium oxonate for 7 d. Serum metabolomics, based on gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, was used to generate metabolic profiles from normal control, hyperuricemic and allopurinol-treated hyperuricemic mice, as well as hyperuricemic mice given Pu-erh ripened tea at three doses. Pu-erh ripened tea significantly lowered serum uric acid levels. Twelve potential biomarkers associated with hyperuricemia were identified. Pu-erh ripened tea and allopurinol differed in their metabolic effects in the hyperuricemic mice. Levels of glutamic acid, indolelactate, L-allothreonine, nicotinoylglycine, isoleucine, l-cysteine and glycocyamine, all involved in amino acid metabolism, were significantly changed in hyperuricemic mice treated Pu-erh ripened tea. Thus, modulating amino acid metabolism might be the primary mechanism of anti-hyperuricemia by Pu-erh ripened tea. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Two-year carcinogenicity study on three aromatic epoxy resins applied cutaneously to CF1 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peristianis, G C; Doak, S M; Cole, P N; Hend, R W

    1988-07-01

    The cutaneous and systemic carcinogenic potentials of pure and two technical diglycidyl ethers of bisphenol A, DGEBPA, EPON 828 and EPIKOTE 828, respectively, have been investigated in six groups each of 50 male and 50 female CF1 mice. Twice weekly over a period of 2 yr, 0.2 ml of a 1 or 10% (w/v) solution of one of the epoxy resins in acetone was applied to the dorsal skin. A group of 50 male and 50 female CF1 mice was similarly treated treated with 2% (w/v) beta-propiolactone in acetone (the positive control) while a group of 100 male and 100 female mice was treated with acetone alone (negative control). Survival of the CF1 mice to 2 yr was unaffected by cutaneous exposure to each epoxy resin. The compounds proved to be mildly irritant to murine skin, the response in males being greater than in females. There was a very low incidence of benign and malignant tumours of the skin and subcutis after exposure to any of these compounds. The number of systemic lymphoreticular/haematopoietic tumours was increased only in females treated with EPIKOTE 828 or DGEBPA. In male mice, treated with 10% EPON 828, there was a slight increase in the number of renal tumours. The incidence of other systemic tumours in either sex was not increased following cutaneous application of the purified or the two technical DGEBPA resins (1 to 10% in acetone). The significance of all these findings is fully discussed.

  3. The Journalism Studies Network (REJ experience: a French-language experiment in collaborative research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zélia Leal Adghirni

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available This article discusses the limitations and potentialities of journalism research utilizing the international networking model. It presents the experience of the Journalism Studies Network (REJ in the French/Portuguese acronym, a French-language research experiment, founded in 1999 and made up of 33 researchers linked to universities in Germany, Belgium, Brazil, Canada, France, Mexico and on Reunion Island. The report shows that despite the existing difficulties, the REJ takes the form of a place with relative autonomy in proposing objectives and methodologies for the study of journalism, which is reflected in the diversity of approaches and research interests developed within the Network. It also permits a more frank and level debate between researchers who occupy different positions in their careers. Coherence is also observed in the approaches adopted inside the REJ, which assures the continuity of the research programs developed.

  4. 3D visualization and quantification of bone and teeth mineralization for the study of osteo/dentinogenesis in mice models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marchadier, A.; Vidal, C.; Ordureau, S.; Lédée, R.; Léger, C.; Young, M.; Goldberg, M.

    2011-03-01

    Research on bone and teeth mineralization in animal models is critical for understanding human pathologies. Genetically modified mice represent highly valuable models for the study of osteo/dentinogenesis defects and osteoporosis. Current investigations on mice dental and skeletal phenotype use destructive and time consuming methods such as histology and scanning microscopy. Micro-CT imaging is quicker and provides high resolution qualitative phenotypic description. However reliable quantification of mineralization processes in mouse bone and teeth are still lacking. We have established novel CT imaging-based software for accurate qualitative and quantitative analysis of mouse mandibular bone and molars. Data were obtained from mandibles of mice lacking the Fibromodulin gene which is involved in mineralization processes. Mandibles were imaged with a micro-CT originally devoted to industrial applications (Viscom, X8060 NDT). 3D advanced visualization was performed using the VoxBox software (UsefulProgress) with ray casting algorithms. Comparison between control and defective mice mandibles was made by applying the same transfer function for each 3D data, thus allowing to detect shape, colour and density discrepencies. The 2D images of transverse slices of mandible and teeth were similar and even more accurate than those obtained with scanning electron microscopy. Image processing of the molars allowed the 3D reconstruction of the pulp chamber, providing a unique tool for the quantitative evaluation of dentinogenesis. This new method is highly powerful for the study of oro-facial mineralizations defects in mice models, complementary and even competitive to current histological and scanning microscopy appoaches.

  5. A phenomenological study into the experience of their sexuality by ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    On reviewing the literature on spinal cord injury (SCI) and sexuality in males, there was found to be a plethora of research in physical domains. Sadly, the psychological aspect of sexuality for men who experience SCI has been largely neglected. For this reason a phenomenological study was conducted to understand the ...

  6. A Simpl~ Laboratory Experiment for Studying the.. Relaxation ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Home; Journals; Resonance – Journal of Science Education; Volume 9; Issue 12. A Simple Laboratory Experiment for Studying the Relaxation Oscillations in a Diode Laser. Shalini Mishra Alika Khare. Classroom Volume 9 Issue 12 December 2004 pp 55-66 ...

  7. A Qualitative Study to Improve the Student Learning Experience

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jastania, Raid A.; Balata, Gehan F.; Abd El-Hady, Mohamed I. S.; Gouda, Ahmad; Abd El-Wahab, Mohamad; Mohamad, Abeer S.; Ibrahim, Nashwa M.; Beshr, Eman; Mahdi, Abeer Y.; Mousa, Rabab; Tag, Batool F.; Hisham, Hadeel; El-Sofiani, Ibtehal

    2017-01-01

    Purpose: For any educational institution, student satisfaction is an important goal. Thus, the purpose of the study is to use a structured improvement process, define--measure--analyse--improve--control (DMAIC) methodology, to improve students' satisfaction regarding their learning experience at the College of Pharmacy/Umm Al-Qura University.…

  8. Studying the User Experience of a Tablet Based Math Game

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kiili, Kristian; Ketamo, Harri; Koivisto, Antti; Finn, Enda

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the first findings from Math Elements user experience (UX) studies. Math Elements is a game that makes the whole Finnish maths K-2 curriculum (kindergarten and primary school grades 1 and 2) available for players all over the world. The game is based on teachable agent approach, which means that in the game players can teach…

  9. Improving Learning Experiences through Gamification: A Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geelan, Benjamin; de Salas, Kristy; Lewis, Ian; King, Carolyn; Edwards, Dale; O'Mara, Aidan

    2015-01-01

    Gamified learning systems are becoming increasingly common within educational institutions, however there is a lack of understanding on the elements of gamification that influence, either positively or negatively, the learning experiences of students using these systems. This study examines an existing gamified learning tool implemented within an…

  10. International Experiences of Turkish Student Teachers: A Multiple Case Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kizilaslan, Irem

    2010-01-01

    In recent years, countries around the world have promoted international experiences for student teachers' development of the knowledge and skills necessary in these interdependent and global times. Using a rigorous qualitative approach, this study explored 10 Turkish student teachers' international opportunities in several European countries…

  11. Research. Homework Experiments in Social Studies: Implications for Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Foyle, Harvey C.; Bailey, Gerald D.

    1988-01-01

    Reviews research to answer under what conditions, if any, does homework make a difference in student achievement. Provides a brief history of the homework debate. Reviews 84 homework experiments conduced between 1904 and 1984. Concludes that most studies found homework beneficial. (JDH)

  12. A Study of Values in a Training Experience.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clarey, Richard Joseph

    This study attempted to test, and in some instances develop, measures of values in a manpower training experience. An inquiry was made into the construct validity of measures of risk taking, time perspective, interpersonal trust, and fatalism. Factor analysis was used as a device for partly assessing the construct validity of a questionnaire by…

  13. A Pilot Study of Nurses' Experience of Giving Spiritual Care

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deal, Belinda

    2010-01-01

    Using spiritual and religious resources gives patients and families strength to cope during a crisis, but nurses often do not offer spiritual care (Kloosterhouse & Ames, 2002). The purpose of this phenomenological study was to explore nurses" lived experience of giving spiritual care. A descriptive phenomenological approach was used to…

  14. Emerging Leadership Experiences: A Study of Lived Leadership Origins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burgett, Michael J.

    2012-01-01

    This phenomenological study of the lived experience of leadership emergence was initiated to answer the question, "Where does leadership come from?" Leadership emergence was explored as the result of a nexus of contextual and structural influences. In response to these questions, a sample of leaders from a metropolitan area in a…

  15. Rewriting The Caribbean Experience In Homerian Style: A Study Of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    It is realised that the poem is a reenactment of the total Caribbean experience in all its totality. However, the study goes further to underscore the peculiar Homerian style of the poem. The style is discussed with regards to the extant epics of Homer and Dante and some of the stylistic indicators discovered include the use of ...

  16. Studying and parenting: Experiences of student mother in Ugandan ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Studying and parenting: Experiences of student mother in Ugandan universities. ... mature students include women who are parents as well. This trend ... own career building. The challenges faced were categorized as follows: domestic challenges; challenges with spouses, challenges at the university and at places of work.

  17. Contrast variation SANS experiments to the study of detergent ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Contrast variation SANS experiments to the study of detergent-induced micellization of block copolymers. V K ASWAL1 and J KOHLBRECHER2. 1Solid State Physics Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400 085, India. 2Spallation Neutron Source Division, Paul Scherrer Institute, CH-5232 PSI Villigen,.

  18. A qualitative study of health education experiences and self ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    A qualitative study of health education experiences and self-management practices among patients with type 2 diabetes at Malamulo Adventist Hospital in Thyolo District, Malawi. ... Participants expressed their ability to integrate diabetes education, such as exercise into their lifestyle. Due to financial constraints subjects ...

  19. Rewriting the Caribbean experience in Homerian style: a study of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This study investigates the themes that bother upon the Caribbean experience in Derek Walcott's Omeros. A brief introduction to the poetry of Derek Walcott is given before attempts are made at rendering some of the themes of the work such as identity, slavery/colonialism, rootlessness, reconciliation, and migration.

  20. Thinking about "Design Thinking": A Study of Teacher Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Retna, Kala S.

    2016-01-01

    Schools are continuously looking for new ways of enhancing student learning to equip students with skills that would enable them to cope with twenty-first century demands. One promising approach focuses on design thinking. This study examines teacher's perceptions, experiences and challenges faced in adopting design thinking. There is a lack of…

  1. A Study of Young Lesbian and Gay People's School Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robinson, Kathryn

    2010-01-01

    This retrospective study used Interpretative Phenomenological Analysis (IPA) to explore young lesbian and gay (LG) people's experiences of school in relation to their sexuality and their perceptions of how schools could be inclusive for young LG people. Participants were in the age range of 16 to 21 and provided insights into coping strategies,…

  2. Atp7b-/- mice as a model for studies of Wilson's disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutsenko, Svetlana

    2008-12-01

    Wilson's disease is a severe human disorder of copper homoeostasis. The disease is associated with various mutations in the ATP7B gene that encodes a copper-transporting ATPase, and a massive accumulation of copper in the liver and several other tissues. The most frequent disease manifestations include a wide spectrum of liver pathologies as well as neurological and psychiatric abnormalities. A combination of copper chelators and zinc therapy has been used to prevent disease progression; however, accurate and timely diagnosis of the disease remains challenging. Similarly, side effects of treatments are common. To understand better the biochemical and cellular basis of Wilson's disease, several animal models have been developed. This review focuses on genetically engineered Atp7b(-/-) mice and describes the properties of these knockout animals, insights into the disease progression generated using Atp7b(-/-) mice, as well as advantages and limitations of Atp7b(-/-) mice as an experimental model for Wilson's disease.

  3. Muscle regeneration in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice studied by gene expression profiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turk, R; Sterrenburg, E; de Meijer, E J; van Ommen, G-J B; den Dunnen, J T; 't Hoen, P A C

    2005-07-13

    Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD), caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene, is lethal. In contrast, dystrophin-deficient mdx mice recover due to effective regeneration of affected muscle tissue. To characterize the molecular processes associated with regeneration, we compared gene expression levels in hindlimb muscle tissue of mdx and control mice at 9 timepoints, ranging from 1-20 weeks of age. Out of 7776 genes, 1735 were differentially expressed between mdx and control muscle at at least one timepoint (p DMD patients, only few of the identified regeneration-associated genes were found activated, indicating less efficient regeneration processes in humans. Based on the observed expression profiles, we describe a model for muscle regeneration in mdx mice, which may provide new leads for development of DMD therapies based on the improvement of muscle regeneration efficacy.

  4. Scaling studies and conceptual experiment designs for NGNP CFD assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    D. M. McEligot; G. E. McCreery

    2004-11-01

    The objective of this report is to document scaling studies and conceptual designs for flow and heat transfer experiments intended to assess CFD codes and their turbulence models proposed for application to prismatic NGNP concepts. The general approach of the project is to develop new benchmark experiments for assessment in parallel with CFD and coupled CFD/systems code calculations for the same geometry. Two aspects of the complex flow in an NGNP are being addressed: (1) flow and thermal mixing in the lower plenum ("hot streaking" issue) and (2) turbulence and resulting temperature distributions in reactor cooling channels ("hot channel" issue). Current prismatic NGNP concepts are being examined to identify their proposed flow conditions and geometries over the range from normal operation to decay heat removal in a pressurized cooldown. Approximate analyses have been applied to determine key non-dimensional parameters and their magnitudes over this operating range. For normal operation, the flow in the coolant channels can be considered to be dominant turbulent forced convection with slight transverse property variation. In a pressurized cooldown (LOFA) simulation, the flow quickly becomes laminar with some possible buoyancy influences. The flow in the lower plenum can locally be considered to be a situation of multiple hot jets into a confined crossflow -- with obstructions. Flow is expected to be turbulent with momentumdominated turbulent jets entering; buoyancy influences are estimated to be negligible in normal full power operation. Experiments are needed for the combined features of the lower plenum flows. Missing from the typical jet experiments available are interactions with nearby circular posts and with vertical posts in the vicinity of vertical walls - with near stagnant surroundings at one extreme and significant crossflow at the other. Two types of heat transfer experiments are being considered. One addresses the "hot channel" problem, if necessary

  5. Carcinogenesis studies of trichloroethylene (without epichlorohydrin) (CAS No. 79-01-6) in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice (gavage studies). Technical report series (Final)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1990-05-01

    Carcinogenesis studies of epichlorohydrin-free trichloroethylene were conducted by administering the test chemical in corn oil by gavage to groups of 50 male and 50 female F344/N rats and 50 B6C3F1 mice of each sex for 103 weeks. Dose levels were 500 and 1,000 mg/kg for rats and 1,000 mg/kg for mice. Under the conditions of these studies, epichlorohydrin-free trichloroethylene caused renal tubular-cell neoplasms in male F344/N rats, produced toxic nephrosis in both sexes, and shortened the survival time of males. The experiment in male F344/N rats was considered to be inadequate to evaluate the presence or absence of a carcinogenic response to trichloroethylene. For female F344/N rats receiving trichloroethylene containing no epichlorohydrin, there was no evidence of carcinogenicity. Trichloroethylene (without epichlorohydrin) was carcinogenic for B6C3F1 mice, causing increased incidences of hepatocellular carcinomas in males and females and hepatocellular adenomas in females.

  6. Exploratory Study of Childbearing Experiences of Women With Asperger Syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardner, Marcia; Suplee, Patricia D; Bloch, Joan; Lecks, Karen

    2016-01-01

    Increasing numbers of girls have been diagnosed with Asperger syndrome and other autism spectrum disorders (ASDs) over the past two decades; therefore, more women with ASDs are entering the childbearing phase of their lives. Little is known about the childbearing experiences of women with ASDs. This qualitative study describes the childbearing experiences of eight women with Asperger syndrome. Four major themes emerged: Processing Sensations, Needing to Have Control, Walking in the Dark, and Motherhood on My Own Terms. Clinicians can provide sensitive, individualized care by asking women with Asperger syndrome about their specific sensory experiences, counseling them about coping strategies for sensory intrusions, providing targeted support, and modifying the clinical environment to decrease distressing stimuli. © 2016 AWHONN, the Association of Women’s Health, Obstetric and Neonatal Nurses.

  7. Gut commensal Bacteroides acidifaciens prevents obesity and improves insulin sensitivity in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, J-Y; Lee, Y-S; Kim, Y; Lee, S-H; Ryu, S; Fukuda, S; Hase, K; Yang, C-S; Lim, H S; Kim, M-S; Kim, H-M; Ahn, S-H; Kwon, B-E; Ko, H-J; Kweon, M-N

    2017-01-01

    In humans, the composition of gut commensal bacteria is closely correlated with obesity. The bacteria modulate metabolites and influence host immunity. In this study, we attempted to determine whether there is a direct correlation between specific commensal bacteria and host metabolism. As mice aged, we found significantly reduced body weight and fat mass in Atg7(ΔCD11c) mice when compared with Atg7(f/f) mice. When mice shared commensal bacteria by co-housing or feces transfer experiments, body weight and fat mass were similar in both mouse groups. By pyrosequencing analysis, Bacteroides acidifaciens (BA) was significantly increased in feces of Atg7(ΔCD11c) mice compared with those of control Atg7(f/f) mice. Wild-type C57BL/6 (B6) mice fed with BA were significantly more likely to gain less weight and fat mass than mice fed with PBS. Of note, the expression level of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPARα) was consistently increased in the adipose tissues of Atg7(ΔCD11c) mice, B6 mice transferred with fecal microbiota of Atg7(ΔCD11c) mice, and BA-fed B6 mice. Furthermore, B6 mice fed with BA showed elevated insulin levels in serum, accompanied by increased serum glucagon-like peptide-1 and decreased intestinal dipeptidyl peptidase-4. These finding suggest that BA may have potential for treatment of metabolic diseases such as diabetes and obesity.

  8. Young Dutch people's experiences of trading sex: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Walle, Robert; Picavet, Charles; van Berlo, Willy; Verhoeff, Arnoud

    2012-01-01

    In recent years, the subject of transactional sex among young Dutch people has generated a heated social debate in the Netherlands. However, accurate data on this phenomenon are scarce. This article describes the findings of a qualitative study on young Dutch people's experiences of having sex in return for money or a material reward. Thirty in-depth interviews were conducted with young Dutch men and women aged 14 to 24. Participants came from diverse backgrounds in terms of gender, ethnicity, sexual orientation, and socioeconomic status. Experiences of trading sex differed in terms of the motivation to trade sex, the presence or absence of coercion, and the availability of other options for earning money. Participants' feelings about their experiences varied. For most participants, the sex itself was unpleasant and required considerable emotion management. Still, some felt adequately compensated by the reward or felt trading sex was preferable to other jobs. Gender played an important role, with feelings of disgust or shame reported especially by female participants, whereas male participants reported more positive experiences. Interactions involving coercion or financial dependence on trading sex generally had a negative emotional impact. Participants stressed the differences between their own experiences and professional prostitution.

  9. Studies of Trypanosoma cruzi clones in inbred mice. I. A comparison of the course of infection of C3H/HEN- mice with two clones isolated from a common source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Postan, M; Dvorak, J A; McDaniel, J P

    1983-05-01

    Two single-cell-isolate cloned stocks of the Sylvio-X10 strain, recovered from an acute human Trypanosoma cruzi infection, were used to infect C3H/HEN mice. The Sylvio-X10/4 clone produced a chronic infection in mice; clone Sylvio-X10/7 produced an acute lethal infection under identical experimental conditions. The course of infection of mice with the Sylvio-X10/7 clone was characterized by higher peripheral blood parasitemia and greater tissue involvement, an earlier appearance of specific anti-T. cruzi plasma IgG and shorter survival times than in mice infected with the Sylvio-X10/4 clone. The course of infection in mice with the Sylvio-X10 strain was intermediate between that of the two clones. This is the first demonstration of the pluripotential pathogenetic nature of a T. cruzi strain due to genetic heterogeneity of the population of parasites that constitute the strain. This experimental system is highly stable and reproducible. Consequently, the use of inbred mice and T. cruzi clones appears to provide an excellent model to study factors which influence the course of Chagas' disease.

  10. Facial nerve axotomy in mice: a model to study motoneuron response to injury.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olmstead, Deborah N; Mesnard-Hoaglin, Nichole A; Batka, Richard J; Haulcomb, Melissa M; Miller, Whitney M; Jones, Kathryn J

    2015-02-23

    The goal of this surgical protocol is to expose the facial nerve, which innervates the facial musculature, at its exit from the stylomastoid foramen and either cut or crush it to induce peripheral nerve injury. Advantages of this surgery are its simplicity, high reproducibility, and the lack of effect on vital functions or mobility from the subsequent facial paralysis, thus resulting in a relatively mild surgical outcome compared to other nerve injury models. A major advantage of using a cranial nerve injury model is that the motoneurons reside in a relatively homogenous population in the facial motor nucleus in the pons, simplifying the study of the motoneuron cell bodies. Because of the symmetrical nature of facial nerve innervation and the lack of crosstalk between the facial motor nuclei, the operation can be performed unilaterally with the unaxotomized side serving as a paired internal control. A variety of analyses can be performed postoperatively to assess the physiologic response, details of which are beyond the scope of this article. For example, recovery of muscle function can serve as a behavioral marker for reinnervation, or the motoneurons can be quantified to measure cell survival. Additionally, the motoneurons can be accurately captured using laser microdissection for molecular analysis. Because the facial nerve axotomy is minimally invasive and well tolerated, it can be utilized on a wide variety of genetically modified mice. Also, this surgery model can be used to analyze the effectiveness of peripheral nerve injury treatments. Facial nerve injury provides a means for investigating not only motoneurons, but also the responses of the central and peripheral glial microenvironment, immune system, and target musculature. The facial nerve injury model is a widely accepted peripheral nerve injury model that serves as a powerful tool for studying nerve injury and regeneration.

  11. Pharmacokinetic Study in Mice of Galphimine-A, an Anxiolytic Compound from Galphimia glauca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodolfo Abarca Vargas

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to obtain pharmacokinetic data for the anxiolytic compound galphimine-A (G–A from Galphimia glauca. G–A is the most abundant anxiolytic compound in this plant, while Galphimine-E (G–E is the most abundant galphimine, but inactive. G–E was transformed chemically into G–A. The pharmacokinetic study was carried out in ICR mice, which were orally administered a single 200 mg/kg dose of G–A. Samples of blood and brain were taken at different times after administration of G–A. Previously, we established the validation of methods for determining the concentration of G–A. The G–A was detected in plasma 5 min after oral administration, and its concentration reached 2.47 μg/mL. Data from concentration-time curves allowed us to establish the main pharmacokinetic parameters in two models: one- and/or two-compartment. Cmax values were 3.33 and 3.42 μg/mL respectively, likewise AUC0→1440 min were 1,951.58 and 1,824.95 μg/mL·min. The G–A in brain tissue was noted to cross the blood-brain barrier, reaching Cmax 2.74 μg/mL, Tmax 81.6 min, and then drop gradually to 0.32 μg/mL detected at 24 h. The presence of G–A in brain tissue, confirmed that this anxiolytic compound can access the target organ and acts directly on the CNS.

  12. Social isolation stress-induced aggression in mice: a model to study the pharmacology of neurosteroidogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsumoto, Kinzo; Pinna, Graziano; Puia, Giuli; Guidotti, Alessandro; Costa, Erminio

    2005-06-01

    Long-term social isolation of laboratory animals is a model to study the behavioral and neurochemical consequences of the absence of social interaction in rodents. Many of the symptoms induced by isolation resemble depression and anxiety disorder symptomatology. Our studies have revealed that male mice socially isolated for more than 4 weeks, exhibit increased aggressiveness, a reduced responsiveness to GABA(A) receptor acting drugs, and a downregulation of brain levels of 3alpha,5alpha-tetrahydroprogesterone (allopregnanolone: 3alpha,5alpha-THP), a neurosteroid endowed with potent positive allosteric modulatory activity of the action of GABA at various GABA(A) receptor subtypes. This downregulation of 3alpha,5alpha-THP appeared to be associated with the reduction of brain type I 5alpha-reductase mRNA and protein expression. Systemic administration of the selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor fluoxetine and its metabolite norfluoxetine normalized brain 3alpha,5alpha-THP content and reduced responsiveness to GABA(A) mimetic drugs in a stereospecific manner. These drugs in nanomolar doses also reduced social isolation-induced aggressiveness with the same stereospecificity as detected in their action on 3alpha,5alpha-THP brain content, while their ex vivo inhibition of serotonin reuptake occurred at high micromolar doses and lacked stereospecificity. From these results we infer that the brain 3alpha,5alpha-THP content physiologically upregulates GABA(A) receptor responsiveness to GABA and that social isolation induces a reduction of brain 3alpha,5alpha-THP content that is probably causally related to the onset of aggression.

  13. Effect of human milk on blood and bone marrow cells in a malnourished mice model; comparative study with cow milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García, Isabel; Salva, Susana; Zelaya, Hortensia; Villena, Julio; Agüero, Graciela

    2013-11-01

    It has been demonstrated that the alterations caused by nutrient deficiency can be reverted by adequate nutritional repletion. To perform comparative studies between human and cow milks in order to evaluate the impact of both milks on the recovery of blood and bone marrow cells affected in malnourished mice. Weaned mice were malnourished after consuming a protein free diet for 21 days. Malnourished mice received cow or human milk (CM or HM) for 7 or 14 consecutive days. During the period of administration of milk, the mice consumed the protein free diet ad libitum. The malnourished control (MNC) group received only protein free diet whereas the wellnourished control (WNC) mice consumed the balanced conventional diet. Both milks normalized serum albumin levels and improved thymus weight. Human milk was less effective than cow milk to increase body weight and serum transferrin levels. In contrast, human milk was more effective than cow milk to increase the number of leukocytes (WNC: 6.90 ± 1.60a; MNC: 2.80 ± 0.90b; CM 7d: 3.74 ± 1.10b; HM 7d: 7.16 ± 1.90a; CM 14d: 4.35 ± 1.20b; HM 14d: 6.75 ± 1.20a (109/L); p milks induced an increment in mitotic pool cells in bone marrow and α-naphthyl butyrate esterase positive cells in peripheral blood. They also normalized phagocytic function in blood neutrophils and oxidative burst in peritoneal cells. Both milks were equally effective to exert favorable effects on the number of the bone marrow cells and the functions of the blood and peritoneal cells involved in immune response. However, only human milk normalized the number of leukocytes and increased the number of neutrophils in peripheral blood. Copyright AULA MEDICA EDICIONES 2013. Published by AULA MEDICA. All rights reserved.

  14. Ameliorative effect of vitamin C against 5-fuorouracil-induced hepatotoxicity in mice: A light and electron microscope study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nadia R.A. Abou-Zeid

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available 5-Fluorouracil is one of the most widely used chemotherapeutic agents in case of hepatic neoplasms. The object of this study was to determine the effectiveness of vitamin C in alleviating 5-fluorouracil-induced hepatotoxicity in male mice. Thirty male albino mice were divided equally into 3 groups, each of 10 animals; group 1, mice received normal saline solution (control group; group 2, mice received 5-fluorouracil 80 mg/kg b.wt./day intraperitoneally for 4 weeks (5-fluorouracil group; group 3, mice received 5-fluorouracil 80 mg/kg b.wt./day for 4 weeks with daily injection of vitamin C (12 mg/kg b.wt./day for 4 weeks. Animals of all groups were sacrificed and tissue samples from the liver were taken and processed for both light and electron microscopical examination. Light microscopic observations revealed that administration of 5-fluorouracil causes variable signs of hepatotoxicity which are represented by focal areas of liver cell necrosis with distortion of normal hepatic architecture; the hepatocytes showed vacuolated cytoplasm and pyknotic nuclei together with inflammatory cell infiltration. Dilated, congested hepatic sinusoids with active kupffer cells were also seen. Ultrastructure examination confirmed the light microscopic findings and demonstrated vacuolated hepatocytes cytoplasm, dilated endoplasmic reticulum, increased lysosomes, electron-dense mitochondria and pyknotic nuclei. Treatment with vitamin C with 5-fluorouracil attenuated 5-fluorouracil-induced hepatotoxicity and reverted the abnormal structural changes to near normal. In conclusion, these results suggest that vitamin C has a protective potential in ameliorating 5-fluorouracil-induced hepatotoxicity.

  15. Borrelia persica Infection in Immunocompetent Mice--A New Tool to Study the Infection Kinetics In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schwarzer, Sandra; Overzier, Evelyn; Hermanns, Walter; Baneth, Gad; Straubinger, Reinhard K

    2016-02-01

    Borrelia persica, a bacterium transmitted by the soft tick Ornithodoros tholozani, causes tick-borne relapsing fever in humans in the Middle East, Central Asia and the Indian peninsula. Immunocompetent C3H/HeOuJ mice were infected intradermally with B. persica at varying doses: 1 x 10(6), 1 x 10(4), 1 x 10(2) and 4 x 10(0) spirochetes/mouse. Subsequently, blood samples were collected and screened for the presence of B. persica DNA. Spirochetes were detected in all mice infected with 1 x 10(6), 1 x 10(4) and 1 x 10(2) borrelia by real-time PCR targeting the flaB gene of the bacterium. Spirochetemia developed with a one- to two-day delay when 1 x 10(4) and 1 x 10(2) borrelia were inoculated. Mice injected with only four organisms were negative in all tests. No clinical signs were observed when infected mice were compared to negative control animals. Organs (heart, spleen, urinary bladder, tarsal joint, skin and brain) were tested for B. persica-specific DNA and cultured for the detection of viable spirochetes. Compiled data show that the target organs of B. persica infections are the brain and the skin. A newly developed serological two-tiered test system (ELISA and western blot) for the detection of murine IgM, IgG and IgA antibody titers against B. persica showed a vigorous antibody response of the mice during infection. In conclusion, the infection model described here for B. persica is a platform for in vivo studies to decipher the so far unexplored survival strategies of this Borrelia species.

  16. [Study on effect of coptidis rhizoma on red blood cells of normal mice and its antioxidant property].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Ying; Liu, Chun-Fang; Yang, Bin; Wang, Yan-Wei; Qiao, Li; Lin, N

    2012-11-01

    To observe the effect of Coptidis Rhizoma (CR) on hemolysis and antioxidant system of normal mice and its impact on the functions, while evaluating the oxidation reduction property of CR and berberine. In the whole animal experiment, normal mice were orally administered with CR at the dose of 1.2 g x kg(-1) for three days. Their blood were collected to detect the hemoglobin in plasma, the content of serum bilirubin, the number of peripheral blood reticulocytes, the T-AOC in whole blood, measure the contents of glucose-6-phosphate-dehydrogenase (G6PD), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) of RBC membrane, determine the activity of Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase, Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-ATPase, fluidity, and observe its impact on the liquidity and deformability of RBCs. According to the electrical and biochemical experiment, the voltammetric behaviors of CR and berberine on glassy carbon electrode were evaluated using cyclic voltammetry. In the RBC in vitro experiment, the impact of Coptidis Rhizoma on autoxidation hemolysis rate of RBCs of normal mice was observed. There was no significant effect on hemoglobin, serum bilirubin, and reticulocyte count in normal mice administrated with CR at the dose of 1.2 g x kg(-1), and so is on RBC membrane SOD, G6PD, MDA, GSH and whole blood T-AOC activity. In addition, CR had also no significant effect on Na(+)-K(+)-ATPase, Ca(2+)-Mg(2+)-ATPase activity, and no notable impact on the fluidity and deformability of RBCs. There were two oxidation peaks at -0.27 V and 0.60 V induced by CR and one oxidation peak induced by berberine at 0.56 V, with no reduction peak at fly-back. CR could significantly inhibit oxidative hemolysis in RBCs at the dose of 0.125-2 g x L(-1) in vitro. The normal dose of Coptidis Rhizoma can not cause hemolysis of RBC, and also can not change antioxidant system and functions of RBC, CR and berberine show antioxidant (reducing) properties.

  17. Exploring Australian Aboriginal women's experiences of menopause: a descriptive study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jurgenson, Janelle R; Jones, Emma K; Haynes, Emma; Green, Charmaine; Thompson, Sandra C

    2014-03-20

    Despite extensive literature demonstrating differing experiences in menopause around the world, documentation of the experience of menopause in Australian Aboriginal women is scarce, and thus their menopausal experience is relatively unknown. This study aimed to understand Australian Aboriginal women's understanding and experience of menopause and its impact on their lives. The study was an exploratory qualitative study. Twenty-five Aboriginal women were recruited from a regional centre in the Mid-West region of Western Australia using opportunistic and snowballing sampling. Interviews and focus group discussions were undertaken from February 2011 to February 2012 using open-ended questioning with a yarning technique. Thematic analysis was undertaken of the transcribed interviews. A number of themes were revealed. These related to the language used, meanings and attitudes to menopause, symptoms experienced, the role of men, a lack of understanding, coping mechanisms and the attribution of menopausal changes to something else. The term "change of life" was more widely recognised and signified the process of ageing, and an associated gain of respect in the local community. A fear of menopausal symptoms or uncertainty about their origin was also common. Overall, many women reported insufficient understanding and a lack of available information to assist them and their family to understand the transition. There are similarities between Aboriginal and non-Aboriginal experiences of menopause, including similar symptom profiles. The current language used within mainstream health settings may not be appropriate to this population if it fails to recognise the importance of language and reflect the attributed meaning of menopause. The fear of symptoms and uncertainty of their relationship to menopause demonstrated a need for more information which has not adequately been supplied to Australian Aboriginal women through current services. While this study is with a select

  18. Review study and evaluation of possible flight experiments relating to cloud physics experiments in space

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, R. J.; Wu, S. T.

    1976-01-01

    The general objectives of the Zero-Gravity Atmospheric Cloud Physics Laboratory Program are to improve the level of knowledge in atmospheric cloud research by placing at the disposal of the terrestrial-bound atmospheric cloud physicist a laboratory that can be operated in the environment of zero-gravity or near zero-gravity. This laboratory will allow studies to be performed without mechanical, aerodynamic, electrical, or other techniques to support the object under study. The inhouse analysis of the Skylab 3 and 4 experiments in dynamics of oscillations, rotations, collisions and coalescence of water droplets under low gravity-environment is presented.

  19. High-power laser experiments to study collisionless shock generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sakawa Y.

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available A collisionless Weibel-instability mediated shock in a self-generated magnetic field is studied using two-dimensional particle-in-cell simulation [Kato and Takabe, Astophys. J. Lett. 681, L93 (2008]. It is predicted that the generation of the Weibel shock requires to use NIF-class high-power laser system. Collisionless electrostatic shocks are produced in counter-streaming plasmas using Gekko XII laser system [Kuramitsu et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 106, 175002 (2011]. A NIF facility time proposal is approved to study the formation of the collisionless Weibel shock. OMEGA and OMEGA EP experiments have been started to study the plasma conditions of counter-streaming plasmas required for the NIF experiment using Thomson scattering and to develop proton radiography diagnostics.

  20. A Power Experience: A Phenomenological Study of Interprofessional Education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engel, Joyce; Prentice, Dawn; Taplay, Karyn

    The purpose of this supplementary analysis of a hermeneutic phenomenological study of the experience of interprofessional collaboration for nursing and medical students was to explore the experience of power that was threaded throughout the original study. Seventeen students participated in guided, face-to-face conversations in the original study (Prentice, Engel, Taplay, & Stobbe, 2014). Through the processes of deductive analysis and inductive reasoning, 2 themes of power emerged from these research conversations: (a) complicated knowledge is power and (b) the power and silence of intimidation. These themes suggest that power and power differentials are significant factors in student interactions in interprofessional learning and have the potential to adversely affect these interactions. Students' perceptions of power need to be taken into account and addressed when planning and implementing interprofessional education events. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. [A study on the experiences of nurse coroners].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Han, Jin Sook; Park, In Sook

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to describe the essential structure of the postmortem- examination experiences of nurse career coroners (forensic investigators), to have a profound understanding of their experiences, and ultimately to lay the foundation for nurses' entry into the field of forensic nursing. The subjects in this study were six coroners. After an in-depth interview from January to June 2007, the collected data were analyzed by Colaizzi as qualitative research. Four categories emerged from seven theme clusters. The four categories were: attracted by being dubbed a stabilized public official, a sense of achievement due to having clarified false death, self-confidence after distinguishing the victim and the wrongdoer, eternal developmental potential is seen. It is expected that this study will provide useful information for nurses who are interested in becoming coroners. It will be helpful for career nurses to extend their nursing science into emerging fields like coroners and select a follow-up career.

  2. Chronic psychosocial stressors in adulthood: Studies in mice, rats and tree shrews

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christopher R. Pryce

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Human psychological stress is the major environmental risk factor for major depression and certain of the anxiety disorders. Psychological stressors often occur in the context of the adult social environment, and they or the memory formed of them impact on the individual across an extended period, thereby constituting chronic psychosocial stress (CPS. Psychosocial stressors often involve loss to the individual, such as the ending of a social relationship or the onset of interpersonal conflict leading to loss of social control and predictability. Given the difficulty in studying the etio-pathophysiological processes mediating between CPS and brain and behavior pathologies in human, considerable effort has been undertaken to study manipulations of the social environment that constitute adulthood chronic psychosocial stressors in other mammals. The majority of such research has been conducted in rodents; the focus for a considerable time period was on rats and more recently both rats and mice have been investigated, the latter species in particular providing the opportunity for essential gene x chronic psychosocial stressor interaction studies. Key studies in the tree shrew demonstrate that this approach should not be limited to rodents, however. The animal adult CPS paradigms are based on resident-intruder confrontations. These are typified by the intruder-subject's brief proximate interactions with and attacks by, and otherwise continuous distal exposure to, the resident stressor. In contrast to humans where cognitive capacities are such that the stressor pertains in its physical absence, the periods of continuous distal exposure are apparently essential in these species. Whilst the focus of this review is on the stressor rather than the stress response, we also describe some of the depression- and anxiety disorder-relevant effects on behavior, physiology and brain structure-function of chronic psychosocial stressors, as well as evidence for the

  3. Safety and bioactivity studies of Jasad Bhasma and its in-process intermediate in Swiss mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chavare, Aparna; Chowdari, Praneeth; Ghosh, Sandipto; Pawar, Priyanka; Patkar, Meena; Dakave, Suresh; Gota, Vikram; Chaudhari, Pradip; Chiplunkar, S V; Kane, Shantaram; Suresh, A K; Bellare, Jayesh

    2017-02-02

    Bhasma, Ayurvedic medicinal preparations, are prepared using herbs and minerals on following long iterative procedures. However, industrially mercury and sulphur are more commonly used to prepare bhasma from its raw material. The end point of this iterative procedure is mainly judged by the traditional tests specifying physical appearance of the powders. They fail to give better idea about chemical nature of the material. Moreover, the differences in biological activity of final product verses intermediate are not addressed. To compare the physicochemical as well as biological properties of the Jasad bhasma and its in-process intermediate using modern science methods. The Jasad bhasma and its in-process intermediate are characterized for their physicochemical properties using electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction and CHNS(O) analysis. The biological effects of both the preparations are then studied. The bioaccumulation of zinc, effect on liver antioxidant status, liver and kidney function (by conventional tests as well as SPECT: Single Photon Emission Computed Tomography), effect on blood cells and effect on immune system are studied in mice model, Swiss albino. Since bhasma is given with an accompaniment (anupan), all the bioactivity studies were carried out by administering the preparation with and without Amala powder (Phyllanthus emblica L., fruit, dry powder) as anupan. The XRD results accompanied with Rietveld analysis indicate that the final bhasma is mainly oxide of zinc, whereas the intermediate is mainly sulphide of zinc. The animal studies show that the bhasma as well as its intermediate do not lead to any bioaccumulation of zinc in major organs, when administered with and without anupan. Both, bhasma and intermediate do not cause any deleterious effects on kidney and liver as indicated by blood biochemistry and SPECT studies. However, the intermediate perturbs antioxidant status more and affects the platelet turnover, in comparison with bhasma. On 28

  4. Neurobehavioral studies, in transgenic F3/CONTACTIN (C57BL/6J × CBA) mice, on cognitive and anxiety aspects during late-adolescential period.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flace, P; Laiso, G; Vermesan, D; Benagiano, V; Ambrosi, G; Abbinante, A; Tatullo, M; Bizzoca, A; Gennarini, G; Tattoli, M; Caprio, M; De Pergola, G; Sabatini, R; Gagliardi, A; Tarullo, A; Mioc, M L; Cagiano, R; Patrascu, J M

    2014-06-01

    Besides than in the control of developmental events, axonal adhesive glycoproteins may be also involved in functions requiring fine organization and connectivity of the nervous tissue. We previously demonstrated morphological alterations and functional cerebellar deficits in transgenic mice (TAG/F3 mice) ectopically expressing the F3/Contactin axonal glycoprotein under the control of a selected regulatory region from the Transient Axonal Glycoprotein (TAG-1) gene. In the present study, the hippocampal function was explored by evaluating the ability of TAG/F3 mice to encode spatial and non-spatial relationships between discrete stimuli and to analyze an anxiety-related behavior. To the first end, mice were placed in an "open-Field" containing five objects and, after three sessions of habituation (S2-S4), their reactivity to objects displacement (S5-S4) and object substitution (S7-S6) was examined.To the second end, mice were placed in the "elevated zero maze", a standard test to explore the anxiety-related behavior, in order to study, in transgenic mice, the effects of F3 misexpression on emotional reactivity by measuring the avoidance of the unsheltered open sectors. Statistical evaluations of reactivity to object novelty, TAG-F3 mice showed a lower DO exploration with respect to wild-type mice and, regarding DOs, TAG/F3 mice interacted less than wild-type mice, showing an impaired spatial change response. Furthermore, the number of HDIPS in transgenic TAG/F3 mice resulted significantly lower with respect to the controls (wild type). These results indicate that the coordinated expression of axonal adhesive glycoproteins may be relevant for the functional maturation of the hippocampus.

  5. A qualitative study of nursing student experiences of clinical practice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharif, Farkhondeh; Masoumi, Sara

    2005-01-01

    Background Nursing student's experiences of their clinical practice provide greater insight to develop an effective clinical teaching strategy in nursing education. The main objective of this study was to investigate student nurses' experience about their clinical practice. Methods Focus groups were used to obtain students' opinion and experiences about their clinical practice. 90 baccalaureate nursing students at Shiraz University of Medical Sciences (Faculty of Nursing and Midwifery) were selected randomly from two hundred students and were arranged in 9 groups of ten students. To analyze the data the method used to code and categories focus group data were adapted from approaches to qualitative data analysis. Results Four themes emerged from the focus group data. From the students' point of view," initial clinical anxiety", "theory-practice gap"," clinical supervision", professional role", were considered as important factors in clinical experience. Conclusion The result of this study showed that nursing students were not satisfied with the clinical component of their education. They experienced anxiety as a result of feeling incompetent and lack of professional nursing skills and knowledge to take care of various patients in the clinical setting. PMID:16280087

  6. Caregiving in virgin mice (Mus musculus): effects of biparental care and exposure to a second litter during preweaning development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lyons, J P

    1993-06-01

    I examined the effects of early family unit conditions on later parenting behavior in laboratory mice (Mus musculus). I challenge previous studies that claim to show enhancing effects of biparental care on offspring parental responsiveness by raising mice with a male parent either present (MPP) or absent (MPA) during preweaning development. The results of those studies are confounded because MPP mice also have a second litter present (SLP) and MPA mice do not (SLA). Thus, the findings may have been due to the presence of second litter and not to the presence of the male parent. In this experiment I show that when offspring raised in different family units are tested as virgins with stimulus pups, more SLP mice are parental than SLA mice, and fewer SLP mice bite newborn pups than do SLA mice. Thus, results of previous studies are due to second litter exposure and not biparental care.

  7. Studying collaborative information seeking: Experiences with three methods

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hyldegård, Jette Seiden; Hertzum, Morten; Hansen, Preben

    2015-01-01

    Collaborative information seeking (CIS) has lately produced interesting empirical studies, describing CIS in real-life settings. While these studies explore how and why CIS manifests itself in different domains, discussions about how to study CIS have been scarce. The research area of CIS may......, however, benefit from a discussion of methodological issues. This chapter describes the application of three methods for collecting and analyzing data in three CIS studies. The three methods are Multidimensional Exploration, used in a CIS study of students’ in-formation behavior during a group assignment......; Task-structured Observation, used in a CIS study of patent engineers; and Condensed Observation, used in a CIS study of information-systems development. The three methods are presented in the context of the studies for which they were devised, and the experiences gained using the methods are discussed...

  8. Comparative studies of some African arboviruses in cell culture and in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Way, J H; Bowen, E T; Platt, G S

    1976-01-01

    Twenty African arboviruses, five alphaviruses, nine flaviviruses, three Bunyamwera Group viruses, two Bwamba Group viruses and one ungrouped virus were titrated in parallel in 11 cell systems in suckling mice and adult mice. The relative sensitivities of the in vitro and in vivo systems have been compared. The highest infectivities were obtained in suckling mice. Vero and LLC-MK2 cells produced plaques with the greatest number of viruses and Semliki Forest virus grew most readily. Ntaya virus and Dengue 1 virus were difficult to culture in vitro and Zika virus yielded better in cell culture than in adult or suckling mice. In vitro and in vivo neutralization tests were made on human sera in groups of 50. Each group of sera was tested against one of five viruses, representative of three of the arbovirus groups titrated. Good agreement was obtained between the two test systems with West Nile, O'nyong-nyong and Wesselsbron viruses but there were significant differences in results obtained with Germiston and Pongola viruses.

  9. Studies on the pathophysiological aspects of the metabolic syndrome in transgenic mice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hu, Lihui

    2009-01-01

    In this thesis we aimed to expand our knowledge on the pathophysiological aspects of the metabolic syndrome in transgenic mice. The metabolic syndrome involves multiple aspects and has a major impact on cardiovascular diseases. In the first part of thesis the role of PAI-1 in the development of

  10. STUDIES ON WILD HOUSE MICE .4. ON THE HEREDITY OF TESTOSTERONE AND READINESS TO ATTACK

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANOORTMERSSEN, GA; BENUS, RF; SLUYTER, F

    1992-01-01

    An attempt was made to determine the role of the Y chromosome in the development of aggression in wild house mice. The aggression-eliciting property of testosterone depends not only on circulating adult testosterone, but also on perinatal sensitization of the central nervous system to this steroid.

  11. Structural Design Feasibility Study for the Global Climate Experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewin,K.F.; Nagy, J.

    2008-12-01

    Neon, Inc. is proposing to establish a Global Change Experiment (GCE) Facility to increase our understanding of how ecological systems differ in their vulnerability to changes in climate and other relevant global change drivers, as well as provide the mechanistic basis for forecasting ecological change in the future. The experimental design was initially envisioned to consist of two complementary components; (A) a multi-factor experiment manipulating CO{sub 2}, temperature and water availability and (B) a water balance experiment. As the design analysis and cost estimates progressed, it became clear that (1) the technical difficulties of obtaining tight temperature control and maintaining elevated atmospheric carbon dioxide levels within an enclosure were greater than had been expected and (2) the envisioned study would not fit into the expected budget envelope if this was done in a partially or completely enclosed structure. After discussions between NEON management, the GCE science team, and Keith Lewin, NEON, Inc. requested Keith Lewin to expand the scope of this design study to include open-field exposure systems. In order to develop the GCE design to the point where it can be presented within a proposal for funding, a feasibility study of climate manipulation structures must be conducted to determine design approaches and rough cost estimates, and to identify advantages and disadvantages of these approaches including the associated experimental artifacts. NEON, Inc requested this design study in order to develop concepts for the climate manipulation structures to support the NEON Global Climate Experiment. This study summarizes the design concepts considered for constructing and operating the GCE Facility and their associated construction, maintenance and operations costs. Comparisons and comments about experimental artifacts, construction challenges and operational uncertainties are provided to assist in selecting the final facility design. The overall goal

  12. J/ψ production study at the LHCb experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Qian, W; Schune, M H

    The large hadron collider (LHC) at Conseil European Pour Recherches Nucleaires (CERN) in Geneva is the largest particle physics accelerator. Proton-proton collisions up to a center-of-mass energy of 14 TeV to be produced at the LHC will offer great opportunity to address most fundamental questions in physics. The LHCb experiment is one of the four main experiments at the LHC. Dedicated to b physics studies, the primary goal of the LHCb experiment is to explore possible New Physics beyond the Standard Model through the studies of rare decays of charm and beauty-flavoured hadrons and precision measurements of CP-violating observables. Even at its first running phase, the enormous number of J/ψ particles to be collected by the LHCb detector will allow us to realize some very interesting physics studies on charmonium productions. The measurement may shed new light on the long standing puzzle in understanding the mechanism of quarkonia production in hadron-hadron collisions. In this thesis, studies of J/ψ pro...

  13. $J/\\psi$ Production Study at the LHCb Experiment

    CERN Document Server

    Qian, W; Schune, M-H; Robbe, P

    2010-01-01

    The large hadron collider (LHC) at Conseil European Pour Recherches Nucleaires (CERN) in Geneva is the largest particle physics accelerator. Protonproton collisions up to a center-of-mass energy of 14 TeV to be produced at the LHC will offer great opportunity to address most fundamental questions in physics. The LHCb experiment is one of the four main experiments at the LHC. Dedicated to b physics studies, the primary goal of the LHCb experiment is to explore possible New Physics beyond the Standard Model through the studies of rare decays of charm and beauty-flavoured hadrons and precision measurements of CP-violating observables. Even at its first running phase, the enormous number of $J/\\psi$ particles to be collected by the LHCb detector will allow us to realize some very interesting physics studies on charmonium productions. The measurement may shed new light on the long standing puzzle in understanding the mechanism of quarkonia production in hadron-hadron collisions. In this thesis, studies of $J/\\psi$...

  14. Comparative Study of Injury Models for Studying Muscle Regeneration in Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David Hardy

    Full Text Available A longstanding goal in regenerative medicine is to reconstitute functional tissues or organs after injury or disease. Attention has focused on the identification and relative contribution of tissue specific stem cells to the regeneration process. Relatively little is known about how the physiological process is regulated by other tissue constituents. Numerous injury models are used to investigate tissue regeneration, however, these models are often poorly understood. Specifically, for skeletal muscle regeneration several models are reported in the literature, yet the relative impact on muscle physiology and the distinct cells types have not been extensively characterised.We have used transgenic Tg:Pax7nGFP and Flk1GFP/+ mouse models to respectively count the number of muscle stem (satellite cells (SC and number/shape of vessels by confocal microscopy. We performed histological and immunostainings to assess the differences in the key regeneration steps. Infiltration of immune cells, chemokines and cytokines production was assessed in vivo by Luminex®.We compared the 4 most commonly used injury models i.e. freeze injury (FI, barium chloride (BaCl2, notexin (NTX and cardiotoxin (CTX. The FI was the most damaging. In this model, up to 96% of the SCs are destroyed with their surrounding environment (basal lamina and vasculature leaving a "dead zone" devoid of viable cells. The regeneration process itself is fulfilled in all 4 models with virtually no fibrosis 28 days post-injury, except in the FI model. Inflammatory cells return to basal levels in the CTX, BaCl2 but still significantly high 1-month post-injury in the FI and NTX models. Interestingly the number of SC returned to normal only in the FI, 1-month post-injury, with SCs that are still cycling up to 3-months after the induction of the injury in the other models.Our studies show that the nature of the injury model should be chosen carefully depending on the experimental design and desired

  15. A comparative study on the carcinogenicity in mice induced by radiations of different quality

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yokoro, Kenjiro; Yamamoto, Osamu; Niwa, Ohtsura; Seyama, Toshio; Nitta, Yumiko; Kinomura, Aiko (Hiroshima Univ. (Japan). Research Inst. for Nuclear Medicine and Biology)

    1989-01-01

    Male (C57BL/6N x C3H/He)F{sub 1} mice aged 7-8 weeks were used as experimental animals. A whole-body irradiation of fission neutrons was given at a dose of 2.72 Gy in 61 mice (the neutron group). Similarly, Co-60 gamma irradiation was given in a single dose of 2.72 Gy in the other 60 mice (the gamma group). Tritiated water (HTO) of 2.8x10 Bq was intraperitoneally injected into the last group of 60 mice (the HTO group). Non-exposed 60 mice were used as controls. Cumulative incidence of tumors was 95.1% in the neutron group, 85.0% in the gamma group, 83.3% in the HTO group, and 58.3% in the control group. Tumors began to occur earlier in the neutron group than in the other groups (200 days vs 300 days after irradiation). The duration required for a cumulative tumor incidence of 50% was 480 days in the neutron group, 560 days in the HTO group, and 580 days in the gamma group. The incidence of leukemia was low in the three groups, as well as in the control group (4.9%-10%). Organ distribution of solid tumors tended to range widely in the neutron group, although it was similar in the three groups. Cancer of the ovary was the most predominant. The incidence of cancer of the liver, pituitary gland, and mammary gland was definitely higher in the neutron group than the other groups. The incidence of multiple cancer was highest in the neutron groups. The development of persistent pancytopenia was restricted to the neutron group. These results indicated that neutron had a greater effect on induction of delayed radiation damage than gamma radiation and HTO. (Namekawa, K).

  16. In vivo study of spherical gold nanoparticles: inflammatory effects and distribution in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Chen

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs of 21 nm have been previously well characterized in vitro for their capacity to target macrophages via active uptake. However, the short-term impact of such AuNPs on physiological systems, in particular resident macrophages located in fat tissue in vivo, is largely unknown. This project investigated the distribution, organ toxicity and changes in inflammatory cytokines within the adipose tissue after mice were exposed to AuNPs. METHODS: Male C57BL/6 mice were injected intraperitoneally (IP with a single dose of AuNPs (7.85 μg AuNPs/g. Body weight and energy intake were recorded daily. Tissues were collected at 1 h, 24 h and 72 h post-injection to test for organ toxicity. AuNP distribution was examined using electron microscopy. Proinflammatory cytokine expression and macrophage number within the abdominal fat pad were determined using real-time PCR. RESULTS: At 72 hours post AuNP injection, daily energy intake and body weight were found to be similar between Control and AuNP treated mice. However, fat mass was significantly smaller in AuNP-treated mice. Following IP injection, AuNPs rapidly accumulated within the abdominal fat tissue and some were seen in the liver. A reduction in TNFα and IL-6 mRNA levels in the fat were observed from 1 h to 72 h post AuNP injection, with no observable changes in macrophage number. There was no detectable toxicity to vital organs (liver and kidney. CONCLUSION: Our 21 nm spherical AuNPs caused no measurable organ or cell toxicity in mice, but were correlated with significant fat loss and inhibition of inflammatory effects. With the growing incidence of obesity and obesity-related diseases, our findings offer a new avenue for the potential development of gold nanoparticles as a therapeutic agent in the treatment of such disorders.

  17. Men, Sexuality and crisis pregnancy: A study of men's experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Hogan, Fergus

    2007-01-01

    This study of men’s lives, masculinities and (unplanned) fatherhood is a report of a research project commissioned by the Crisis Pregnancy Agency entitled “Men, Sexuality and Crisis Pregnancy: A study of Men’s Experience.” The report was launched on 18th June 2007 in the Gresham Hotel, Dublin. The report, a qualitative study by Professor Harry Ferguson and Fergus Hogan, is based on interviews with 45 men on their sexual histories, knowledge of sex and how they acquired it, contraception, sexu...

  18. Methodology Series Module 7: Ecologic Studies and Natural Experiments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Setia, Maninder Singh

    2017-01-01

    In this module, we have discussed study designs that have not been covered in the previous modules - ecologic studies and natural experiments. In an ecologic study, the unit of analysis is a group or aggregate rather than the individual. It may be the characteristics of districts, states, or countries. For example, per capita income across countries, income quintiles across districts, and proportion of college graduates in states. If the data already exist (such as global measures and prevalence of diseases, data sets such as the National Family Health Survey, census data), then ecologic studies are cheap and data are easy to collect. However, one needs to be aware of the "ecologic fallacy." The researcher should not interpret ecologic level results at the individual level. In "natural experiments," the researcher does not assign the exposure (as is the case in interventional studies) to the groups in the study. The exposure is assigned by a natural process. This may be due to existing policies or services (example, one city has laws against specific vehicles and the other city does not); changes in services or policies; or introduction of new laws (such helmet for bikers and seat-belts for cars). We would like to encourage researchers to explore the possibility of using these study designs to conduct studies.

  19. Nucleon structure studies with the COMPASS experiment at CERN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Platchkov Stephane

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The COMPASS experiment at CERN uses hadron and lepton beams for nucleon structure studies. Most of the data collected so far with a muon beam and either proton or deuteron polarised target were analysed in terms of longitudinally or transversely polarised parton distribution functions and transverse momentum-dependent distributions in the nucleon. A negative hadron beam is used to perform Drell-Yan measurements. The COMPASS large polarised target gives access to several momentum-dependent singlespin asymmetries and provides a stringent test of the fundamental QCD factorisation assumptions. With positive and negative muon beams COMPASS also studies Generalised Parton Distributions using exclusive deeply virtual Compton scattering and meson production experiments. An overview of the most recent COMPASS results is given. The expected physics outcome of the forthcoming measurements is discussed.

  20. Toxicological Assessment of β-(1à6-Glucan (Lasiodiplodan in Mice during a 28-Day Feeding Study by Gavage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína A. Túrmina

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Studies evaluating the toxicity caused by fungal exopolysaccharides of the β-(1®6-D-glucan type are rare. In this study, the toxicological effects of sub-chronic treatments with lasiodiplodan (β-(1®6-D-glucan from Lasiodiplodia theobromae MMPI were evaluated in mice through the assessment of biochemical, hematological, and histopathological alterations. Thirty-two mice (16 male, 16 female were used in this study divided in two groups; one group received lasiodiplodan (50 mg/kg body weight daily for 28 days via gavage, and another (control group received saline during the same period. Blood samples were collected via cardiac puncture for hematological and biochemical analyses. Liver, heart, kidney, and spleen were collected for histopathological analysis. Statistical analysis was performed through one-way analysis of variance and only p < 0.05 F-values were presented. Significant reduction in blood glucose in the male group (35%; p < 0.01, transaminases activity in both sexes (AST and ALT; ~35%; p < 0.05, and urea (20%; p < 0.01 in the female group was observed with the lasiodiplodan treatment. The results showed that sub-chronic treatments with lasiodiplodan did not generate hematological and histopathological alterations leading to signs of toxicity in healthy mice, independent of gender.

  1. Toxicological assessment of β-(1-->6)-glucan (lasiodiplodan) in mice during a 28-day feeding study by gavage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Túrmina, Janaína A; Carraro, Emerson; Alves da Cunha, Mário A; Dekker, Robert F H; Barbosa, Aneli M; Dos Santos, Fábio Seidel; Silva, Luiz A; Malfatti, Carlos R M

    2012-12-03

    Studies evaluating the toxicity caused by fungal exopolysaccharides of the β-(1-->6)-D-glucan type are rare. In this study, the toxicological effects of sub-chronic treatments with lasiodiplodan (β-(1-->6)-D-glucan from Lasiodiplodia theobromae MMPI) were evaluated in mice through the assessment of biochemical, hematological, and histopathological alterations. Thirty-two mice (16 male, 16 female) were used in this study divided in two groups; one group received lasiodiplodan (50 mg/kg body weight) daily for 28 days via gavage, and another (control group) received saline during the same period. Blood samples were collected via cardiac puncture for hematological and biochemical analyses. Liver, heart, kidney, and spleen were collected for histopathological analysis. Statistical analysis was performed through one-way analysis of variance and only p < 0.05 F-values were presented. Significant reduction in blood glucose in the male group (35%; p < 0.01), transaminases activity in both sexes (AST and ALT; ~35%; p < 0.05), and urea (20%; p < 0.01) in the female group was observed with the lasiodiplodan treatment. The results showed that sub-chronic treatments with lasiodiplodan did not generate hematological and histopathological alterations leading to signs of toxicity in healthy mice, independent of gender.

  2. Adrenal Gland Background Findings in CD-1 (Crl:CD-1(ICR)BR) Mice from 104-week Carcinogenicity Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petterino, Claudio; Naylor, Stuart; Mukaratirwa, Sydney; Bradley, Alys

    2015-08-01

    The authors performed a retrospective study to determine the incidences of spontaneous findings in the adrenal glands of control CD-1 mice. Data were collected from 2,163 mice from control dose groups in 104-week carcinogenicity studies carried out between 2000 and 2010. Adrenal gland nonproliferative lesions were more common in males than in females. In males, the most common nonproliferative lesions were cortical hypertrophy, cortical atrophy, pigment deposition/pigmentation, cysts, and extramedullary hematopoiesis. In females, the most common nonproliferative lesions were pigment deposition/pigmentation, extramedullary hematopoiesis, and cortical atrophy. Proliferative lesions were more common in females than in males. In both sexes, the most common proliferative lesions were subcapsular cell hyperplasia, focal cortical hyperplasia, and subcapsular cell tumor. Pheochromocytomas were uncommon in both sexes, with a slightly higher incidence in females, and the benign type was more frequent than the malignant type. Lymphoma was the most common metastatic tumor in both males and females, followed by histiocytic sarcoma and erythroid/myeloid leukemia. To the best knowledge of the authors, there are no recent reports on spontaneous pathological findings in the adrenal glands of CD-1 mice, and these results will facilitate the interpretation of background findings in carcinogenicity studies. © 2015 by The Author(s).

  3. Biodistribution Study of the Anaesthetic Sodium Phenobarbital Labelled with Technetium-99m in Swiss Mice Infected with Schistosoma mansoni Sambon, 1907

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Susana Balmant Emerique Simões

    1997-09-01

    Full Text Available Technetium-99m (99mTc is a radionuclide that has negligible enviromnental impact, is easily available, inexpensive and can be used as a radioactive tracer in biological experiences. In order to know the mode of action of sodium phenobarbital in moving adult Schistosoma mansoni worms from mesenteric veins to the liver, we labelled sodium phenobarbital (PBBT with 99mTc and a biodistribution study in infected and non-infected Swiss mice was performed. The PBBT was incubated with stannous chloride used as reducing agent and with 99mTc, as sodium pertechnetate. The radioactivity labelling (% was determined by paper ascending chromatography perfomed with acetone (solvent. The 99mTc-PBBT was administered by intraperitoneal route to Swiss mice infected eight weeks before. The animals were perfused after diferent periods of time (0,1,2,3,4 hr when blood, spleen, liver, portal vein, mesenteric veins, stomach, kidneys and adult worms were isolated. The radioactivity present in these samples was counted in a well counter and the percentage was determined. The radioactivity was mainly taken up by the blood, kidney, liver and spleen. No radioactivity was found on the adult worms. We concluded that the worm shift was due to an action on the host of the sodium phenobarbital

  4. Alternative treatments for menopausal symptoms. Qualitative study of women's experiences.

    OpenAIRE

    Seidl, M. M.; Stewart, D. E.

    1998-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To describe women's experiences with alternative treatments for symptoms attributed to menopause. DESIGN: Descriptive qualitative study. SETTING: Personal interviews and focus groups were conducted in private rooms at the Toronto Hospital; telephone interviews were conducted at mutually convenient times. PARTICIPANTS: Thirteen perimenopausal women with a mean age of 52.6 +/- 2.6 years who were experiencing symptoms attributed to menopause and were using alternative therapies partic...

  5. Life Experiences of Patients With Glaucoma: A Phenomenological Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iyigun, Emine; Tastan, Sevinc; Ayhan, Hatice; Coskun, Halise; Kose, Gulsah; Mumcuoglu, Tarkan

    2017-10-01

    Studies that describe the experiences of patients with glaucoma from different cultures may help health professionals gain a broader perspective on this issue. Currently, few qualitative studies describe how patients with glaucoma in Turkey cope with daily life. The aim of this study was to explore the experiences of patients with glaucoma. This descriptive phenomenological study used purposive sampling to enroll 20 patients with glaucoma. A qualitative, in-depth, face-to-face interview technique was used to collect data during January and February 2014. The data were analyzed using to the Van Kaam method. Seven themes were identified, including confirming the diagnosis by acute symptoms or unrelated symptoms, grateful to God for having a non-life-threatening disease, feeling happy after receiving more accurate information, coping with the disease by using eye drops and attending follow-up examinations regularly, managing daily life to avoid further damage to eyesight, emotional reactions related to going blind, and urging family members or friends to attend regular glaucoma checkups. Patients with glaucoma experience physiological and psychological problems throughout the course of their disease. Being informed and cultural practices such as "praising God" and "resignation" helped patients cope with the disease. Furthermore, because of the cultural characteristic of social collectivism, participants acted to protect the health of others by informing them about glaucoma. Understanding the experiences of patients with glaucoma is important for nursing practice. Nurses should be encouraged to take a greater role in the care of patients with glaucoma by becoming the primary source of glaucoma disease, treatment, and care-related information.

  6. Comfort experience in palliative care: a phenomenological study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coelho, Adriana; Parola, Vitor; Escobar-Bravo, Miguel; Apóstolo, João

    2016-08-02

    Palliative care aims to provide maximum comfort to the patient. However it is unknown what factors facilitate or hinder the experience of comfort, from the perspective of inpatients of palliative care units. This lack of knowledge hinders the development of comfort interventions adjusted to these patients. The aim of this research is to describe the comfort and discomfort experienced by inpatients at palliative care units. A phenomenological descriptive study was undertaken. Ten inpatients were recruited from a Spanish palliative care unit and seven from a Portuguese palliative care unit. Data were collected using individual interviews and analysed following the method of Giorgi. Four themes reflect the essence of the lived experience: The Palliative Care as a response to the patient's needs with advanced disease, attempt to naturalize advanced disease, confrontation with their own vulnerability, openness to the spiritual dimension. Informants revealed that they experience comfort through humanized care, differentiated environment, symptomatic control, hope and relationships. The discomfort emerges from the losses and powerlessness against their situation. Even if such findings may seem intuitive, documenting them is essential because it invites us to reflect on our convictions about what it means to be comfortable for these patients, and allows incorporating this information in the design of focused interventions to maximize the comfort experience.

  7. The utility of the new generation of humanized mice to study HIV-1 infection: transmission, prevention, pathogenesis, and treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rowan Mark R

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Substantial improvements have been made in recent years in the ability to engraft human cells and tissues into immunodeficient mice. The use of human hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs leads to multi-lineage human hematopoiesis accompanied by production of a variety of human immune cell types. Population of murine primary and secondary lymphoid organs with human cells occurs, and long-term engraftment has been achieved. Engrafted cells are capable of producing human innate and adaptive immune responses, making these models the most physiologically relevant humanized animal models to date. New models have been successfully infected by a variety of strains of Human Immunodeficiency Virus Type 1 (HIV-1, accompanied by virus replication in lymphoid and non-lymphoid organs, including the gut-associated lymphoid tissue, the male and female reproductive tracts, and the brain. Multiple forms of virus-induced pathogenesis are present, and human T cell and antibody responses to HIV-1 are detected. These humanized mice are susceptible to a high rate of rectal and vaginal transmission of HIV-1 across an intact epithelium, indicating the potential to study vaccines and microbicides. Antiviral drugs, siRNAs, and hematopoietic stem cell gene therapy strategies have all been shown to be effective at reducing viral load and preventing or reversing helper T cell loss in humanized mice, indicating that they will serve as an important preclinical model to study new therapeutic modalities. HIV-1 has also been shown to evolve in response to selective pressures in humanized mice, thus showing that the model will be useful to study and/or predict viral evolution in response to drug or immune pressures. The purpose of this review is to summarize the findings reported to date on all new humanized mouse models (those transplanted with human HSCs in regards to HIV-1 sexual transmission, pathogenesis, anti-HIV-1 immune responses, viral evolution, pre- and post

  8. Age-related hearing loss and the ahl locus in mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keithley, Elizabeth M.; Canto, Cecilia; Zheng, Qing Yin; Fischel-Ghodsian, Nathan; Johnson, Kenneth R.

    2010-01-01

    C57BL/6 (B6) mice experience hearing loss and cochlear degeneration beginning about mid-life, whereas CAST/Ei (CAST) mice retain normal hearing until old age. A locus contributing to the hearing loss of B6 mice, named age-related hearing loss (ahl), was mapped to Chromosome 10. A homozygous, congenic strain of mice (B6.CAST-+ahl), generated by crossing B6 (ahl/ahl) and CAST (+ahl/+ahl) mice has the same genomic material as the B6 mice except in the region of the ahl locus, which is derived from CAST. In this study, we have determined the extent of the CAST-derived region of Chromosome 10 in the congenic strain and have examined mice of all three strains for hearing loss and cochlear morphology between 9 and 25 months of age. Results for B6 mice were similar to those described previously. CAST mice showed no detectable hearing loss even at 24 months of age; however, they had a small amount of ganglion cell degeneration. B6.CAST-+ahl mice were protected from early onset hearing loss and basal turn degeneration, but older animals did show some hearing loss and ganglion cell degeneration. We conclude that loci in addition to ahl contribute to the differences in hearing loss between B6 and CAST mice. These results illustrate the complex inheritance of age-related hearing loss in mice and may have implications for the study of human presbycusis. PMID:14759567

  9. Age-related hearing loss and the ahl locus in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keithley, Elizabeth M; Canto, Cecilia; Zheng, Qing Yin; Fischel-Ghodsian, Nathan; Johnson, Kenneth R

    2004-02-01

    C57BL/6 (B6) mice experience hearing loss and cochlear degeneration beginning about mid-life, whereas CAST/Ei (CAST) mice retain normal hearing until old age. A locus contributing to the hearing loss of B6 mice, named age-related hearing loss (ahl), was mapped to Chromosome 10. A homozygous, congenic strain of mice (B6.CAST-+ahl ), generated by crossing B6 (ahl/ahl) and CAST (+ahl/+ahl) mice has the same genomic material as the B6 mice except in the region of the ahl locus, which is derived from CAST. In this study, we have determined the extent of the CAST-derived region of Chromosome 10 in the congenic strain and have examined mice of all three strains for hearing loss and cochlear morphology between 9 and 25 months of age. Results for B6 mice were similar to those described previously. CAST mice showed no detectable hearing loss even at 24 months of age; however, they had a small amount of ganglion cell degeneration. B6.CAST-+ahl mice were protected from early onset hearing loss and basal turn degeneration, but older animals did show some hearing loss and ganglion cell degeneration. We conclude that loci in addition to ahl contribute to the differences in hearing loss between B6 and CAST mice. These results illustrate the complex inheritance of age-related hearing loss in mice and may have implications for the study of human presbycusis.

  10. The effect of chronic stress in pregnant mothers on the responsiveness to morphine in mice: a behavioral sensitization study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    zahra Nazari

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Nazari Z1, Sahraei H2, Sadoughi M3 1. MSc in Animal Biology (physiology trend, Lorestan Education Organization, Khorramabad, Iran 2. Assistant Professor, Department of Physiology, Faculty of Medicine, Baghyatallah University of Mesical Sciences, Tehran, Iran 3. Assistant Professor, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, North Tehran Branch, Islamic Azad University, Tehran, Iran Abstract Background: The mechanisms which are plots for individuals willing to use Morphine are not yet recognized. Carried out researches indicated that tendency to narcotics is increased during stress or after it. In this research we studied the desire change of the second generation to morphine using induced restraint stress which is a kind of behavioral sensitization. Materials and methods: This research was a kind of experimental interferer. At first mice were crossed after insuring about their pregnancy, Sub stress was put on them using special instruments. Some of the embryos head was cut to be studied histologically. After maturing their embryos in order to clarify their left and right handedness to be studied using T-Maze and they were compared with the control group. In order to find the effectiveness of the administrated acute morphine, five groups of stressed and non-stressed were chosen Both groups were divided into five: a control (without being injected, saline, Morphine 1 mg/kg, morphine 10 mg/kg and morphine 50 mg/kg. They were studied. Movement measuring done after being injected by open filled. Mentioned groups in the previous experiment, In order to determine their previous induced sensitization, were reexamined 48 hours after being injected 1 mg/kg morphine. Results: Findings showed that the tissue thickness on the frontal cortex in stressed group was less than the control group (p<0.01 And also the number of stressed right handedness in males was less, but the number of left handedness in female ones was higher. Injection low dose morphine in

  11. Study on Dendrobium officinale O-Acetyl-glucomannan (Dendronan). 7. Improving Effects on Colonic Health of Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guan-ya; Nie, Shao-ping; Huang, Xiao-jun; Hu, Jie-lun; Cui, Steve W; Xie, Ming-yong; Phillips, Glyn O

    2016-03-30

    This research was aimed to study the effect of Dendrobium officinale polysaccharide (Dendronan) on colonic health. Mice were fed Dendronan at doses of 40, 80, and 160 mg/kg body weight for 0, 10, 20, and 30 days, respectively. Results showed that Dendronan, which has a special structure formed by mannose and glucose, rich in O-acetyl groups, exhibited improving effects on colonic and fecal parameters of Balb/c mice. After Dendronan feeding, the content of short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs), colon length and index, and fecal moisture were increased, whereas colonic pH was decreased and defecation time was shortened. All of these changes were significantly different between polysaccharide-treated groups and the control group (p < 0.05). These findings suggested that an adequate intake of Dendronan is beneficial to the process of fermentation and regulation of colonic microenvironment, thus playing a role in the maintenance of colonic health.

  12. Anatomy and nomenclature of murine lymph nodes: Descriptive study and nomenclatory standardization in BALB/cAnNCrl mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van den Broeck, Wim; Derore, Annie; Simoens, Paul

    2006-05-30

    Murine lymph nodes are intensively studied but often assigned incorrectly in scientific papers. In BALB/cAnNCrl mice, we characterized a total of 22 different lymph nodes. Peripheral nodes were situated in the head and neck region (mandibular, accessory mandibular, superficial parotid, cranial deep cervical nodes), and at the forelimb (proper axillary, accessory axillary nodes) and hindlimb (subiliac, sciatic, popliteal nodes). Intrathoracic lymph nodes included the cranial mediastinal, tracheobronchal and caudal mediastinal nodes. Abdominal lymph nodes were associated with the gastrointestinal tract (gastric, pancreaticoduodenal, jejunal, colic, caudal mesenteric nodes) or were located along the major intra-abdominal blood vessels (renal, lumbar aortic, lateral iliac, medial iliac and external iliac nodes). Comparative and nomenclative aspects of murine lymph nodes are discussed. The position of the lymph nodes of BALB/cAnNCrl mice is summarized and illustrated in an anatomical chart containing proposals for both an official nomenclature according to the Nomina Anatomica Veterinaria and English terms.

  13. Dominant lethal study in CD-1 mice following inhalation exposure to 1,3-butadiene: Final technical report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hackett, P.L.; Mast, T.J.; Brown, M.G.; Clark, M.L.; Evanoff, J.J.; Rowe, S.E.; McClanahan, B.J.; Buschbom, R.L.; Decker, J.R.; Rommereim, R.L.; Westerberg, R.B.

    1988-04-01

    The effects of whole-body inhalation exposures to 1,3-butadiene on the reproductive system was evaluated. The results of dominant lethality in CD-1 male mice that were exposed to 1,3-butadiene are described. Subsequent to exposure, males were mated with two unexposed females. Mating was continued for 8 weeks with replacement of two females each week. Gravid uteri were removed, and the total number, position and status of implantations were determined. The mice were weighed prior to exposure and at 0, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, and 8 weeks after exposure and at sacrifice. The animals were observed for mortality, morbidity and signs of toxicity throughout the study. 19 refs., 5 figs., 9 tabs.

  14. The Study of Analgesic Effects of Leonurus cardiaca L. in Mice by Formalin, Tail Flick and Hot Plate Tests.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaee-Asl, Masoume; Sabour, Mandana; Nikoui, Vahid; Ostadhadi, Sattar; Bakhtiarian, Azam

    2014-01-01

    Leonurus cardiaca, commonly known as motherwort, is a member of the Lamiaceae family. It has a number of interesting biological activities, for example, sedative and hypotensive, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and antimicrobial activities. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of alcoholic extract of aerial part of Leonurus cardiaca on nociceptive response using formalin, tail flick, and hot plate tests in mice. The acute treatment of mice with an ethanolic extract at doses of 500 and 250 mg/kg by intraperitoneal administration produced a significant antinociceptive in the first and second phases of formalin test, respectively. The hot plate and tail flick tests showed an increase in the antinociceptive effect at dose 500 mg/kg. These results suggest that Leonurus cardiaca possesses central and peripheral antinociceptive actions.

  15. Characterizing Clinical Genetic Counselors' Countertransference Experiences: an Exploratory Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reeder, Rebecca; Veach, Patricia McCarthy; MacFarlane, Ian M; LeRoy, Bonnie S

    2017-10-01

    Countertransference (CT) refers to conscious and unconscious emotions, fantasies, behaviors, perceptions, and psychological defenses genetic counselors experience in response to any aspect of genetic counseling situations (Weil 2010). Some authors theorize about the importance of recognizing and managing CT, but no studies solely aim to explore genetic counselors' experiences of the phenomenon. This study examined the extent to which clinical genetic counselors' perceive themselves as inclined to experience CT, gathered examples of CT encountered in clinical situations, and assessed their CT management strategies. An anonymous online survey, sent to NSGC members, yielded 127 usable responses. Participants completed Likert-type items rating their CT propensities; 57 of these individuals also provided examples of CT they experienced in their practice. Factor analysis of CT propensities tentatively suggested four factors: Control, Conflict Avoidance, Directiveness, and Self-Regulation, accounting for 38.5% of response variance. Thematic analysis of CT examples yielded five common triggers: general similarity to patient, medical/genetic similarity, angry patients, patient behaves differently from counselor expectations, and disclosing bad news; six common manifestations: being self-focused, projecting feelings onto the patient, intense emotional reaction to patient, being overly invested, disengagement, and physical reaction; five CT effects: disruption in rapport building, repaired empathy, over-identification, conversation does not reach fullest potential, and counselor is drained emotionally; and three management strategies: recognizing CT as it occurs, self-reflection, and consultation. Results suggest CT is a common experience, occurring in both "routine" and emotionally complex cases. Training programs, continuing education, and peer supervision might include discussion of CT, informed by examples from the present study, to increase genetic counselor awareness

  16. A two-year dietary carcinogenicity study of (2R,4R)-monatin salt in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brathwaite, Witty A; Crincoli, Christine M; Eapen, Alex K; Rihner, Marisa O; Nikiforov, Andrey I; Picut, Catherine A

    2016-05-01

    Groups of Crl:CD-1 (ICR) mice (60/group/sex) were fed 0 (2 control groups), 5000, 20,000, or 40,000 ppm of enzymatically sourced (2R,4R)-monatin salt ("R,R-monatin") in the diet for up to two years. There were no adverse effects on survival, incidence of palpable masses and tumors, feed consumption, hematology or serum chemistry parameters, organ weights, or ophthalmic, macroscopic, and microscopic examinations. The only notable effect was statistically significantly lower mean body weights and body weight gains in all treated groups, which generally occurred throughout the study and were most likely a result of caloric dilution of the test diets and not considered adverse. There were no test article-related changes in the incidence or occurrence of neoplastic diseases in mice on this study. The no-observed-effect-level (NOEL) for carcinogenicity of R,R-monatin fed to mice for 24 months was 40,000 ppm, the highest dietary concentration tested, which was equivalent to approximately 6502 and 7996 mg/kg bw/day in males and females, respectively. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Lasting Impact of Study Abroad Experiences: A Collaborative Autoethnography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jordana F. Garbati

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Researchers in the field of study abroad have focused on language, identity construction, and motivation, yet few studies have shown its lasting impact on participants. This article contains the reflections of two individuals who took part in studies abroad and remain engaged in multicultural education and in the instruction and research of second language acquisition. We review the literature in the area of study abroad, then discuss the suitability of using a collaborative autoethnography (CAE approach, defined as "the study of self collectively" (CHANG, WAMBURA NGUNJIRI & HERNANDEZ, 2013, p.11 for this project. We analyzed our data, which are in the form of reflective narratives and archived e-mails, through open coding, based on grounded theory methodology (see CORBIN & STRAUSS, 2015. Four major themes surfaced from our data analysis: language and culture; academics; identity; and lasting impact. Finally, we compare our experiences, identify some of the lasting effects of our time abroad, and consider both the practical and theoretical implications of the research. This research has been useful for us to understand CAE and the lasting effects of study abroad experiences on students who become language teachers. URN: http://nbn-resolving.de/urn:nbn:de:0114-fqs1602238

  18. LHCf experiment: forward physics at LHC for cosmic rays study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Del Prete M.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The LHCf experiment, optimized for the study of forward physics at LHC, completes its main physics program in this year 2015, with the proton-proton collisions at the energy of 13 TeV. LHCf gives important results on the study of neutral particles at extreme pseudo-rapidity, both for proton-proton and for proton-ion interactions. These results are an important reference for tuning the models of the hadronic interaction currently used for the simulation of the atmospheric showers induced by very high energy cosmic rays. The results of this analysis and the future perspective are presented in this paper.

  19. A qualitative study exploring genetic counsellors' experiences of counselling children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ulph, Fiona; Leong, James; Glazebrook, Cris; Townsend, Ellen

    2010-10-01

    The identification of healthy carriers by newborn screening programmes raises questions about how and when the carrier results will be conveyed to child. There is currently a lack of information concerning how best to convey carrier information to children. This is a serious gap in the literature and practice. This study examined genetic counsellors' experiences of counselling children to explore how to support and inform children about their carrier result. Practising members of the United Kingdom (UK) Association of Genetic Nurses and Counsellors took part in semi-structured telephone interviews. Respondents described the communication process and identified barriers and facilitators of communication. Age, illness experience and maturity were variously discussed as facilitators; all of which are integral to psychological theories of children's understanding of illness. Adaptive family communication, school tuition and educational materials were also seen as influencing counselling efficacy. Relevant materials that children could keep were also seen as important to enhance children's autonomy. Yet, such resources were rare, constituting a barrier to communication. Counsellors reported communication was further impeded by maladaptive family communication and resistance from children to engaging in counselling. By exploring the facilitators and barriers inherent in communicating genetic information to children, guidance can be offered to counsellors, researchers and parents. This study indicates that some factors (eg illness experiences) previously identified by psychological theories may act in complex ways within this setting. Importantly, the factors identified as being most influential when communicating with children about genetics are amenable to change through interventions, support and training.

  20. NTP report on the toxicology studies of dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (CAS No. 538-75-0) in F344/N rats, B6C3F 1 mice, and genetically modified (FVB Tg.AC hemizygous) mice and carcinogenicity study of dicyclohexylcarbodiimide in genetically modified [B6.129-Trp53 tm1Brd (N5) haploinsufficient] mice (dermal studies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2007-09-01

    Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide is used in industry as a stabilizing agent, coupling agent, and condensing agent. Its widespread use during protein synthesis in the recombinant DNA industry and in the synthesis of polypeptides in the chemical and pharmaceutical industries provides an increasing potential for low-level human exposure. Dicyclohexylcarbodiimide was nominated for study by The National Cancer Institute as a key representative of the carbodiimide chemical class because of its acute toxicity and the absence of data on potential health effects. Male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F 1 mice were administered dicyclohexylcarbodiimide (greater than 98% pure) dermally for 3 or 13 weeks. Female Tg.AC hemizygous and p53 haploinsufficient mice were administered dicyclohexylcarbodiimide dermally for 20 or 27 weeks, respectively. Genetic toxicology studies were conducted in Salmonella typhimurium, male F344/N rat bone marrow cells, and B6C3F 1 mouse peripheral blood erythrocytes. 3-WEEK STUDY IN F344/N RATS Groups of five male and five female rats were dermally administered 0.3 mL ethanol containing 0, 0.6, 1.8, 5.1, 15, or 45 mg dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, 5 days per week for 3 weeks. All males and females in the 15 and 45 mg groups, four 5.1 mg males, and all 5.1 mg females died before the end of the study. Of the surviving groups, final mean body weights were similar to those of the vehicle controls, although the one surviving 5.1 mg male rat lost weight during the study. Histopathologic examination of rats dosed with 5.1 mg dicyclohexylcarbodiimide or less revealed treatment-related lesions of the skin at the site of application including epidermal hyperplasia, epidermal necrosis, or chronic active inflammation in the dermis. 3-WEEK STUDY IN B6C3F 1 MICE Groups of five male and five female mice were dermally administered 0.1 mL of ethanol containing 0, 0.2, 0.6, 1.7, 5, or 15 mg dicyclohexylcarbodiimide, 5 days per week for 3 weeks. One 0.6 mg female mouse and all mice

  1. Of mice and men

    CERN Multimedia

    1973-01-01

    At the end of March , sixty mice were irradiated at the synchro-cyclotron in the course of an experimental programme studying radiation effects on mice and plants (Vicia faba bean roots) being carried out by the CERN Health Physics Group.

  2. Phenomenological study of ICU nurses' experiences caring for dying patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    King, Phyllis Ann; Thomas, Sandra P

    2013-11-01

    This existential phenomenological study explored caring for the dying based on the philosophical works of Merleau-Ponty. Fourteen critical care nurses were asked to describe lived experiences of caring for dying patients. An encompassing theme of Promises to Keep emerged, with five subthemes, including the following: (a) promise to be truthful: "Nurses are in the game of reality," (b) promise to provide comfort: "I'll make him comfortable," (c) promise to be an advocate: "Just one more day," (d) "Promise that couldn't be kept," and (e) "Promise to remain connected." The essence of intensive care nurses' lived experience of caring for dying patients is captured in the theme Promises to Keep. Nurses accept the reality of death and express strong commitment to making it as comfortable, peaceful, and dignified as possible, despite critical care unit environments that foster a "paradigm of curing" rather than a "paradigm of caring.".

  3. Study and Experiment on a Wheat Precision Seeding Robot

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lin Haibo

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The wheat precision seeding technology provided an advanced agricultural support for the high yield of wheat. But the lack of effective agricultural machine made this technique difficult to apply widely. In this paper a wheel mobile robot to achieve the wheat precision seeding technology was designed. The kinematic model of the robot was built and simulated. And experimental study was taken under different operating conditions. Because of multiple effort factors, a quadratic orthogonal rotation combination design method was applied in the experiments, identifying the main factors by analysis. Then the field test was carried out according to the main factors. The experiment results showed that the qualified rates of seeding exceed 93% in different sowing speed. That reached the agronomic requirements of wheat precision seeding.

  4. The learning experiences of Taiwanese nursing students studying in Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chiu-Wen; Singh, Charanjit; Bird, Beverly; Ives, Glenice

    2008-04-01

    Increasing numbers of international students from Asia are attracted to Australian higher education institutions. For many of these students, English is their second language (ESL). This article describes the experiences of 21 Taiwanese baccalaureate and graduate nursing students studying at Australian universities. Using a qualitative framework, semistructured interviews were conducted in the students'first language. The Chinese and English translations of the transcripts were analyzed using thematic content analysis. A picture emerges of Taiwanese nursing students who, despite obstacles, found a "joy of learning" in Australia. They developed strategies to overcome obstacles to their learning and advocated greater institutional and faculty support, including mentorship, for international students. The findings reinforce the unique difficulties ESL nursing students experience and highlight institutional and nursing faculties' responsibilities to develop a curriculum framework that addresses the language, pedagogical, academic, clinical, and sociocultural needs of this unique group of international students.

  5. Evaluation of analgesic, antipyretic activity and toxicity study of Bryonia laciniosa in mice and rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sivakumar, T; Perumal, P; Kumar, R Sambath; Vamsi, M L M; Gomathi, P; Mazumder, U K; Gupta, M

    2004-01-01

    Analgesic, antipyretic activity and toxicity study of the leaves of Bryonia laciniosa Linn. (Family: Cucurbitaceae) was evaluated in the standard animal models. The methanol extract of Bryonia laciniosa (MEBL) was evaluated by hot plate and acetic acid-induced writhing methods to assess analgesic activity. The antipyretic activity of the extract was also evaluated by normal body temperature and yeast-induced hyperpyrexia. The extract showed significant analgesic and antipyretic activity. The MEBL was further evaluated for toxicity at the doses of 125 and 250 mg/kg administered orally for 14 days in rats. At the end of experiments, the blood, liver function and kidney metabolism were observed. The hematological profile and different biochemical parameters such as SGOT, SGPT and ALP were estimated. The present study revealed that MEBL exhibited significant analgesic and antipyretic activity in the tested experimental animal models. The toxicity study indicates that the extract is not toxic at the tested doses.

  6. A study on the effect of brand experience on consumer purchase experiences: A case study of food industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arash Hosseinzadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Branding in food industry has been a major concern among food suppliers. During the past few years, there have been strong competitions among business developers to gain market share through increasing the value of their brand. In this paper, we present an empirical investigation to learn more about the relationship between brand experiences on consumer purchase experiences. The study selects a sample of 206 people who are regular customers of two well-known suppliers, Shahrvand and Hyperstar, in city of Tehran, Iran. Using structural equation modeling, the study examines six hypotheses and the results confirm that an increase on brand loyalty, brand attribute, pricing factors, product performance attributes, brand associate and brand position will increase purchasing intention, significantly.

  7. Of mice and men

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Troels Askhøj; Troelsen, Karin de Linde Lind; Larsen, Lars Allan

    2014-01-01

    Congenital heart disease (CHD) affects nearly 1 % of the population. It is a complex disease, which may be caused by multiple genetic and environmental factors. Studies in human genetics have led to the identification of more than 50 human genes, involved in isolated CHD or genetic syndromes, where...... CHD is part of the phenotype. Furthermore, mapping of genomic copy number variants and exome sequencing of CHD patients have led to the identification of a large number of candidate disease genes. Experiments in animal models, particularly in mice, have been used to verify human disease genes...... and to gain further insight into the molecular pathology behind CHD. The picture emerging from these studies suggest that genetic lesions associated with CHD affect a broad range of cellular signaling components, from ligands and receptors, across down-stream effector molecules to transcription factors and co...

  8. Implementation salvage experiences from the Melbourne diabetes prevention study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dunbar James

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Many public health interventions based on apparently sound evidence from randomised controlled trials encounter difficulties when being scaled up within health systems. Even under the best of circumstances, implementation is exceedingly difficult. In this paper we will describe the implementation salvage experiences from the Melbourne Diabetes Prevention Study, which is a randomised controlled trial of the effectiveness and cost-effectiveness nested in the state-wide Life! Taking Action on Diabetes program in Victoria, Australia. Discussion The Melbourne Diabetes Prevention Study sits within an evolving larger scale implementation project, the Life! program. Changes that occurred during the roll-out of that program had a direct impact on the process of conducting this trial. The issues and methods of recovery the study team encountered were conceptualised using an implementation salvage strategies framework. The specific issues the study team came across included continuity of the state funding for Life! program and structural changes to the Life! program which consisted of adjustments to eligibility criteria, referral processes, structure and content, as well as alternative program delivery for different population groups. Staff turnover, recruitment problems, setting and venue concerns, availability of potential participants and participant characteristics were also identified as evaluation roadblocks. Each issue and corresponding salvage strategy is presented. Summary The experiences of conducting such a novel trial as the preliminary Melbourne Diabetes Prevention Study have been invaluable. The lessons learnt and knowledge gained will inform the future execution of this trial in the coming years. We anticipate that these results will also be beneficial to other researchers conducting similar trials in the public health field. We recommend that researchers openly share their experiences, barriers and challenges when

  9. Testosterone and Dihydrotestosterone Differentially Improve Cognition in Aged Female Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benice, Ted S.; Raber, Jacob

    2009-01-01

    Compared with age-matched male mice, female mice experience a more severe age-related cognitive decline (ACD). Since androgens are less abundant in aged female mice compared with aged male mice, androgen supplementation may enhance cognition in aged female mice. To test this, we assessed behavioral performance on a variety of tasks in 22- to…

  10. Experimental therapeutic studies of Solanum aculeastrum Dunal. on Leishmania major infection in BALB/c mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laban, Linet T; Anjili, Christopher O; Mutiso, Joshua M; Ingonga, Johnstone; Kiige, Samuel G; Ngedzo, Mgala M; Gicheru, Michael M

    2015-01-01

    Solanum acueastrum Dunal. has been shown to have some chemotherapeutic value. Leaf and berry water and methanol compounds of S. acueastrum were evaluated for possible antileishmanial activity In vivo on BALB/c mice and in vitro against Leishmania major promastigotes, amastigotes and vero cells. Dry S. aculeastrum berry and leaf material were extracted in methanol and water. L. major parasites were exposed to different concentrations of S. aculeastrum fruit and leaf compounds and the IC50 on the promastigotes, percentage of infection rate of macrophages by amastigotes and the toxicological effect on vero cells were determined. BALB/c mice were infected subcutaneously with 1×10(6) promastigotes and kept for four weeks to allow for disease establishment. Infected mice were treated with fruit and leaf methanolic and water compounds, amphotericin B (AmB), and sterile phosphate buffered saline (PBS). Fruit methanol compound was most effective in inhibiting the growth of promastigotes with IC5078.62 μg/ml. Fruit water compound showed the best activity in inhibiting infection of macrophages by amastigotes. Fruit methanol compound was more toxic at Ld50=8.06 mg/ml to vero cells than amphotericin B. Analysis of variance computation indicated statistically significant difference in lesion sizes between experimental and control mice groups (P=0.0001). Splenic impression smears ANOVA indicated a highly significant difference in parasitic numbers between the experimental and the control groups (P=0.0001). The results demonstrate that compounds from S. aculeastrum have potential anti-leishmanial activities and the medicinal use of the plant poses considerable toxicity against dividing vero cells.

  11. DEVELOPMENT OF OVARIAN TUMORS EXPERIMENTALLY STUDIED IN MICE BY ^<60>Co-RAY IRRADIATION

    OpenAIRE

    Michiaki, YAKUSHIJI; Takashi, NISHIDA; Haruo, NISHIMURA; Tomihide, NISHIDA; Akitsu, TSUNAWAKI; Toshi, KATO; Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology Kurume University school of Medicihe, Kurume

    1981-01-01

    Female C_3H strain mice aged 5 to 6 weeks were exposed to a single does of 400 Rad irradiation to their lower abdbmens and the morphological changes of their ovaries were observed until 72 weeks after irradiation. The incidence of tumor development increased gradually from 34 weeks after irradiation till 72 weeks, when ovarian tumors were noted in more than 90% of the animals. Three types of ovarian tumors developed after a prolonged period, postirradiation : tubular adenoma, granulosa cell t...

  12. A less stressful alternative to oral gavage for pharmacological and toxicological studies in mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, Mary K., E-mail: mwalker@salud.unm.edu [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Boberg, Jason R.; Walsh, Mary T.; Wolf, Valerie; Trujillo, Alisha; Duke, Melissa Skelton [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM (United States); Palme, Rupert [Department of Biomedical Sciences/Biochemistry, University of Veterinary Medicine, Vienna (Austria); Felton, Linda A. [Department of Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of New Mexico Health Sciences Center, Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    2012-04-01

    Oral gavage dosing can induce stress and potentially confound experimental measurements, particularly when blood pressure and heart rate are endpoints of interest. Thus, we developed a pill formulation that mice would voluntarily consume and tested the hypothesis that pill dosing would be significantly less stressful than oral gavage. C57Bl/6 male mice were singly housed and on four consecutive days were exposed to an individual walking into the room (week 1, control), a pill being placed into the cage (week 2), and a dose of water via oral gavage (week 3). Blood pressure and heart rate were recorded by radiotelemetry continuously for 5 h after treatment, and feces collected 6–10 h after treatment for analysis of corticosterone metabolites. Both pill and gavage dosing significantly increased mean arterial pressure (MAP) during the first hour, compared to control. However, the increase in MAP was significantly greater after gavage and remained elevated up to 5 h, while MAP returned to normal within 2 h after a pill. Neither pill nor gavage dosing significantly increased heart rate during the first hour, compared to control; however, pill dosing significantly reduced heart rate while gavage significantly increased heart rate 2–5 h post dosing. MAP and heart rate did not differ 24 h after dosing. Lastly, only gavage dosing significantly increased fecal corticosterone metabolites, indicating a systemic stress response via activation of the hypothalamic–pituitary–adrenal axis. These data demonstrated that this pill dosing method of mice is significantly less stressful than oral gavage. -- Highlights: ► Developed a novel oral dosing method using a pill that mice will readily consume. ► Assessed stress by blood pressure, heart rate, and fecal corticosterone metabolites. ► Demonstrated that pill dosing is significantly less stressful than oral gavage.

  13. Muscle regeneration in dystrophin-deficient mdx mice studied by gene expression profiling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    van Ommen G-JB

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD, caused by mutations in the dystrophin gene, is lethal. In contrast, dystrophin-deficient mdx mice recover due to effective regeneration of affected muscle tissue. To characterize the molecular processes associated with regeneration, we compared gene expression levels in hindlimb muscle tissue of mdx and control mice at 9 timepoints, ranging from 1–20 weeks of age. Results Out of 7776 genes, 1735 were differentially expressed between mdx and control muscle at at least one timepoint (p mdx mouse. Based on functional characteristics such as membrane localization, signal transduction, and transcriptional activation, 166 differentially expressed genes with possible functions in regeneration were analyzed in more detail. The majority of these genes peak at the age of 8 weeks, where the regeneration activity is maximal. The following pathways are activated, as shown by upregulation of multiple members per signalling pathway: the Notch-Delta pathway that plays a role in the activation of satellite cells, and the Bmp15 and Neuregulin 3 signalling pathways that may regulate proliferation and differentiation of satellite cells. In DMD patients, only few of the identified regeneration-associated genes were found activated, indicating less efficient regeneration processes in humans. Conclusion Based on the observed expression profiles, we describe a model for muscle regeneration in mdx mice, which may provide new leads for development of DMD therapies based on the improvement of muscle regeneration efficacy.

  14. 2D.07: NON-INVASIVE CORONARY FLOW RESERVE MEASUREMENTS IN MICE: A STUDY FOR TIME COURSE ASSESSMENT OF ISOFLURANE-INDUCED VASODILATION.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lascio, N; Lenzarini, F; Stea, F; Kusmic, C; Faita, F

    2015-06-01

    Coronary flow reserve (CFR) is a predictor of coronary artery disease. Inhalation of high concentration of the anaesthetic isoflurane (ISO) represents a non-invasive method to induce coronary vasodilation in mice avoiding intravenous adenosine infusion. However, not consistent protocols, especially concerning the time courses of the anesthesia administration, are reported. Aim of this work was to study the correct time course of coronary artery vasodilation. Non-invasive 40 MHz Doppler ultrasound (VEVO2100, VisualSonics) was used to measure left coronary flow velocity at baseline (B, ISO1%) and at hyperemia (H, ISO2.5%). For six adult male mice (strain C57BL6, 6 months), isoflurane concentration was maintained at 1% for a 6-min period and then increased to 2.5% for the further 30 minutes. PW-Doppler images were acquired every two minutes and Velocity Time Integral (VTI) values were calculated for each time point providing VTI-time curves. Two mathematical models (sigmoid and exponential) were used to fit the data and the model providing the best fitting was used to calculate the mean time needed to reach the 90% of the plateau value (TT90). The obtained TT90 value was used to identify the duration of the high-isoflurane inhalation phase and the experiment was then repeated in ten mice (same strain and age) using the new time duration. CFR measurements (calculated as VTI(H)/VTI(B)) obtained in these conditions (CFRnew) were compared with those measured using a hyperemia duration as found in literature (approximately 4 minutes) (CFR4 min). The fitting with the sigmoid model provided a lower total Absolute-Sum-of-Squares value than the exponential model (211.6 mm vs 405.1 mm). The sigmoid model provided a TT90 measurements equal to 17.4 ± 6.9 minutes. Accordingly, the time point for the maximal flow was then fixed to 20.5 minutes (14 minutes of ISO2.5% after 6 minutes of ISO1%). CFR4 min values (2.10 ± 0.57) amounted to the 78.1% of CFRnew (2.8

  15. Electron Microscopic Radioautographic Study on Mitochondrial DNA Synthesis in Adrenal Cortical Cells of Developing and Aging Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuji Nagata

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to study the aging changes of intramitochondrial DNA synthesis of mouse adrenal cortical cells, eight groups of developing mice, each consisting of three individuals (total 24, from fetal day 19 to postnatal newborn at days 1, 3, 9, 14, to adult at months 1, 2, and 6, were injected with 3H-thymidine, sacrificed 1 h later, and the adrenal tissues were fixed and processed for electron microscopic (EM radioautography. On EM radioautograms obtained from each animal, the number of mitochondria and the mitochondrial labeling index labeled with 3H-thymidine showing DNA synthesis in each adrenal cortical cell, in three zones, were counted and the results in respective developing groups were compared. From the results, it was demonstrated that the numbers of mitochondria in the three zones, the zona glomerulosa, fasciculata, and reticularis, of mice at various ages increased from fetal day 19 to postnatal month 6 due to development and aging of animals, respectively, while the number of labeled mitochondria and the labeling index of intramitochondrial DNA syntheses incorporating 3H-thymidine increased from fetal day 19 to postnatal month 2, reaching the maxima, and decreased to month 6. It was shown that the activity of intramitochondrial DNA synthesis in the adrenal cortical cells in developing and aging mice changed due to aging.

  16. Comparative studies between mice molars and incisors are required to draw an overview of enamel structural complexity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    MICHEL eGOLDBERG

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available In the field of dentistry, the murine incisor has long been considered as an outstanding model to study amelogenesis. However, it clearly appears that enamel from wild type mouse incisors and molars presents several structural differences. In incisor, exclusively radial enamel is observed. In molars, enamel displays a high level of complexity since the inner part is lamellar whereas the outer enamel shows radial and tangential structures. Recently, the serotonin 2B receptor (5-HT2BR was shown to be involved in ameloblast function and enamel mineralization. The incisors from 5HT2BR knockout (KO mice exhibit mineralization defects mostly in the outer maturation zone and porous matrix network in the inner zone. In the molars, the mutation affects both secretory and maturation stages of amelogenesis since pronounced alterations concern overall enamel structures. Molars from 5HT2BR KO mice display reduction in enamel thickness, alterations of inner enamel architecture including defects in Hunter-Schreger Bands arrangements, and altered maturation of the outer radial enamel. Differences of enamel structure were also observed between incisor and molar from other KO mice depleted for genes encoding enamel extracellular matrix proteins.

  17. Repeated-Doses Toxicity Study of the Essential Oil of Hyptis martiusii Benth. (Lamiaceae) in Swiss Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Freire Rocha Caldas, Germana; Araújo, Alice Valença; Albuquerque, Giwellington Silva; Silva-Neto, Jacinto da Costa; Costa-Silva, João Henrique; de Menezes, Irwin Rose Alencar; Leite, Ana Cristina Lima; da Costa, José Galberto Martins; Wanderley, Almir Gonçalves

    2013-01-01

    Hyptis martiusii Benth. (Lamiaceae) is found in abundance in Northeastern Brazil where it is used in traditional medicine to treat gastric disorders. Since there are no studies reporting the toxicity and safety profile of this species, we investigated repeated-doses toxicity of the essential oil of Hyptis martiusii (EOHM). Swiss mice of both sexes were orally treated with EOHM (100 and 500 mg/kg) for 30 days, and biochemical, hematological, and morphological parameters were determined. No toxicity signs or deaths were recorded during the treatment with EOHM. The body weight gain was not affected, but there was an occasional variation in water and food consumption among mice of both sexes treated with both doses. The hematological and biochemical profiles did not show significant differences except for a decrease in the MCV and an increase in albumin, but these variations are within the limits described for the species. The microscopic analysis showed changes in liver, kidneys, lungs, and spleen; however, these changes do not have clinical relevance since they varied among the groups, including the control group. The results indicate that the treatment of repeated-doses with the essential oil of Hyptis martiusii showed low toxicity in mice.

  18. Repeated-Doses Toxicity Study of the Essential Oil of Hyptis martiusii Benth. (Lamiaceae in Swiss Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Germana Freire Rocha Caldas

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyptis martiusii Benth. (Lamiaceae is found in abundance in Northeastern Brazil where it is used in traditional medicine to treat gastric disorders. Since there are no studies reporting the toxicity and safety profile of this species, we investigated repeated-doses toxicity of the essential oil of Hyptis martiusii (EOHM. Swiss mice of both sexes were orally treated with EOHM (100 and 500 mg/kg for 30 days, and biochemical, hematological, and morphological parameters were determined. No toxicity signs or deaths were recorded during the treatment with EOHM. The body weight gain was not affected, but there was an occasional variation in water and food consumption among mice of both sexes treated with both doses. The hematological and biochemical profiles did not show significant differences except for a decrease in the MCV and an increase in albumin, but these variations are within the limits described for the species. The microscopic analysis showed changes in liver, kidneys, lungs, and spleen; however, these changes do not have clinical relevance since they varied among the groups, including the control group. The results indicate that the treatment of repeated-doses with the essential oil of Hyptis martiusii showed low toxicity in mice.

  19. Effects of sodium fluoride on hyperactivation and Ca2+ signaling pathway in sperm from mice: an in vivo study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zilong; Niu, Ruiyan; Su, Kai; Wang, Bin; Wang, Jinming; Zhang, Jianhai; Wang, Jundong

    2010-05-01

    Sperm hyperactivation is crucial for a successful fertilization; however, the influence of fluoride (F) to hyperactivation is still in its infancy. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of sodium fluoride (NaF) on sperm hyperactivation, Ca2+/CALM-CAMK2 signaling, and CatSper1 and CatSper2 mRNA expression in mice sperm. Adult male Kunming mice were administrated with 30, 70, and 150 mg NaF/l (corresponding to 2.84 +/- 0.29, 6.28 +/- 0.61, and 14.18 +/- 1.00 mg F/kg body weight per day) through drinking water for 49 days. The results showed that NaF reduced the sperm hyperactivated motility in a dose-dependent manner. Compared with the controls, intracellular Ca2+ concentration and CAMK2 protein were significantly decreased in mice treated with 70 and 150 mg NaF/l, while no effect on CALM was determined in all treatment groups. Furthermore, decreased sperm CatSper1 mRNA expression was also observed in response to middle and higher doses of NaF (70, 150 mg/l) with comparison to the control group, whereas no change in the mRNA expression of CatSper2 was detected in NaF administrated groups. Treatment with 30 mg NaF/l exhibited slight effects on the above indexes with no statistical difference. These findings indicated that exposure to 70 and 150 mg/l NaF for 49 days could result in low hyperactivation via alteration of Ca2+ signaling pathway involving CatSper1 in sperm from mice.

  20. Anti-Malaria Study of Nigella sativa L. Seed Water Extract in Mus musculus Mice Balb C Strain In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tunru Insan Sosiawan

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Nigella sativa L. has been reported to exhibit many pharmacological effects, including anti-parasitic properties. This study investigated the anti-malarial effects of a water extract of N. sativa seed in Mus muculus mice infected with the Plasmodium berghei NK65 parasite. The method used was to take a blood parasitaemia count, following the use of Giemsa dye, determining the level of nitric oxide in mice that were infected with P. berghei malaria, using the spectrophotometric method, and determining their survival rate after 20 days of being infected with P. berghei malaria. The results showed that the decrease in the number of parasitaemia and the level of nitric oxide in subjects treated with doses of N. sativa was significant (p < 0.05. Further results showed that P. berghei-infected mice that were given 100 µg/kg of body weight had a better chance of survival. The conclusion is that the provision of N. sativa may reduce the number of malaria parasites and reduce levels of NO. The decrease in the number of parasites may be caused by an immune mechanism, through the regulation of NO levels (lower levels of NO, due to the influence of the anti-oxidant effects of N. sativa. Survival rates of the mice did not show significant results with reduced levels of parasitaemia and NO. This is likely to be because the levels of NO in this group were below the threshold levels at which NO can function as an anti-parasitic. It is alleged that, while NO can function as an anti-parasitic at certain levels, at lower levels its function as an antiparasitic is not optimal. On the other hand, if the levels are too high, damage will result, because of the nature of free-radicals.

  1. Accelerating Vaccine Formulation Development Using Design of Experiment Stability Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahl, Patrick L; Mensch, Christopher; Hu, Binghua; Pixley, Heidi; Zhang, Lan; Dieter, Lance; Russell, Ryann; Smith, William J; Przysiecki, Craig; Kosinski, Mike; Blue, Jeffrey T

    2016-10-01

    Vaccine drug product thermal stability often depends on formulation input factors and how they interact. Scientific understanding and professional experience typically allows vaccine formulators to accurately predict the thermal stability output based on formulation input factors such as pH, ionic strength, and excipients. Thermal stability predictions, however, are not enough for regulators. Stability claims must be supported by experimental data. The Quality by Design approach of Design of Experiment (DoE) is well suited to describe formulation outputs such as thermal stability in terms of formulation input factors. A DoE approach particularly at elevated temperatures that induce accelerated degradation can provide empirical understanding of how vaccine formulation input factors and interactions affect vaccine stability output performance. This is possible even when clear scientific understanding of particular formulation stability mechanisms are lacking. A DoE approach was used in an accelerated 37(°)C stability study of an aluminum adjuvant Neisseria meningitidis serogroup B vaccine. Formulation stability differences were identified after only 15 days into the study. We believe this study demonstrates the power of combining DoE methodology with accelerated stress stability studies to accelerate and improve vaccine formulation development programs particularly during the preformulation stage. Copyright © 2016 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Case study on perspicacity of collaborative learning experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdullah, Fadzidah; Majid, Noor Hanita Abdul; Numen, Ibrahim; Kesuma Azmin, Aida; Abd. Rahim, Zaiton; Denan, Zuraini; Emin Sisman, Muhammet

    2017-12-01

    In the attempt to relate to the architectural practice, architectural education today has augmented the development of collaborative learning environment in the campus scenario. Presently, collaborative work among students from the same program and university is considered common. Hence, attempts of collaboration is extended into having learning and teaching collaboration by means of inter-universities. The School of Architecture, at the International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) has explored into having collaboration across the continent with Fatih Sultan Mehmet Waqf University (FSMWU), among faculty members and students of the two (2) universities This paper explicates the empirical study on students’ perspicacity of their collaborative learning experiences; in term of effectiveness, generative behaviour, and teamwork. Survey with three (3) open-ended questions are distributed to students to express their opinions on learning collaboration that they have had during the execution of the Joint Summer School Program (JSSP). Feedback on their perspicacity is obtained and organised into numerical and understandable data display, using qualitative data processing software. Albeit the relevancy of collaborative learning, students gave both positive and negative feedbacks on their experiences. Suggestions are given to enhance the quality of collaborative learning experience for future development

  3. Negative Impact of Female Sex on Outcomes from Repetitive Mild Traumatic Brain Injury in hTau Mice Is Age Dependent: A Chronic Effects of Neurotrauma Consortium Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Scott A. Ferguson

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available Traumatic brain injury (TBI is a serious public health concern which strikes someone every 15 s on average in the US. Even mild TBI, which comprise as many as 75% of all TBI cases, carries long term consequences. The effects of age and sex on long term outcome from TBI is not fully understood, but due to the increased risk for neurodegenerative diseases after TBI it is important to understand how these factors influence the outcome from TBI. This study examined the neurobehavioral and neuropathological effects of age and sex on the outcome 15 days following repetitive mild traumatic brain injury (r-mTBI in mice transgenic for human tau (hTau. These mice express the six human isoforms of tau but do not express endogenous murine tau and they develop tau pathology and memory impairment in an age-dependent manner. After 5 mild impacts, aged female mice showed motor impairments that were absent in aged male mice, as well as younger animals. Conversely, aged female sham mice outperformed all other groups of aged mice in a Barnes maze spatial memory test. Pathologically, increases in IBA-1 and GFAP staining typically seen in this model of r-mTBI showed the expected increases with both injury and age, but phosphorylated tau stained with CP13 in the hippocampus (reduced in female sham mice compared to males and PHF1 in the cortex (reduced in female TBI mice compared to male TBI mice showed the only histological signs of sex-dependent differences in these mice.

  4. [Orientation studies of ovulation release in mice to test gonadotropic preparations. 1. Dosage of PMSG and HCG].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bergfeld, J; Müller, M; Fliess, F R

    1981-01-01

    Reported in this paper are the authors' own experience and results concerning a method of testing ovulation in mice by which activities of gonadotrophic preparations can be determined. Prepuberal female mice received as pretreatment a subcutaneous injection of 0.5 or 1.0 IU of PMSG (pregnant mare serum gonadotrophin) per animal. When HCG (human chorionic gonadotrophin) ws subcutaneously injected, 48 hours later, ovulation was induced in all animals and could be microscopically counted between two glass slides under slight pressure, after another 18 hours had elapsed. The highest effective dose (ED100) in most of 40 comparisons was close to 1.0 IU of HCG. Dosages of 0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8, and 1.0 IU of HCG were found to be suitable for effective dosage determination. Differences in action between various batches of lyophilised HCG were elucidated by using two variables, a threshold reached when three of five animals in one and the same dosage group had ovulated, and ED100, when all had ovulated.

  5. Restraint stress induces and exacerbates intestinal inflammation in interleukin-10 deficient mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Seong-Joon; Kim, Ji Won; Kim, Byeong Gwan; Lee, Kook Lae; Kim, Joo Sung

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of restraint stress on chronic colitis in interleukin (IL)-10 deficient (IL-10-/-) mice. METHODS: The first experiment compared the effect of restraint stress on the development of intestinal inflammation in wild-type and IL-10-/- mice. Both wild-type and IL-10-/- mice were physically restrained in a well-ventilated, 50 cm3 conical polypropylene tube for 2 h per day for three consecutive days. The second experiment was performed to assess the effect of restraint stress on exacerbation of colitis induced by piroxicam in IL-10-/- mice. The IL-10-/- mice were exposed to restraint stress for 2 h per day for 3 consecutive days, and then treated with piroxicam for 4 d at a dose of 200 ppm administered in the rodent chow. RESULTS: In the first experiment, none of the wild-type mice with or without restraint stress showed clinical and histopathological abnormality in the gut. However, IL-10-/- mice exposed to restraint stress exhibited histologically significant intestinal inflammation as compared to those without restraint stress. In the second experiment, restraint stress significantly reduced body weight and increased the severity of intestinal inflammation assessed by histopathologic grading in IL-10-/- mice. Colonic IL12p40 mRNA expression was strongly increased in mice exposed to restraint stress. CONCLUSION: This novel animal model could be useful in future study of psychological stress in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:26229400

  6. Motivations, Expectations, and Experiences of Labiaplasty: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Gemma; Mattiske, Julie; Vale, Kirsten I

    2016-09-01

    The demand for labiaplasty has increased rapidly over recent years; however, very little is known about the experiences women have undergoing this surgery or the subsequent effects it has on their well-being. To explore women's reasons for undergoing labiaplasty, their expectations, and preoperative and postoperative experiences. One-on-one semi-structured interviews were conducted with 14 adult women who had undergone a labiaplasty procedure. The women were asked about their reasons for having labiaplasty, the processes of accessing and undergoing surgery, and how various aspects of their lives were influenced after having surgery. The interviews were audio recorded then transcribed verbatim. The interview transcripts were analyzed using thematic analysis owing to the exploratory nature of the study. Themes reflecting "media influence," "negative commentary," "physical vs appearance reasons," "satisfaction with surgery," and "sexual well-being" emerged from the analyses. Online media representations of labial appearance, and negative past experiences, primarily sexual in nature, contributed to women's concerns about their labial appearance. Issues of physical discomfort were also common and were sometimes emphasized to potentially legitimize women's requests for surgery. Most women were generally very satisfied with their surgical results, although some noted that their labia were not as small and/or symmetrical as they had expected. Most women reported significant improvements in their sexual well-being after surgery, however, some noted that their emotional discomfort around sexual intercourse had not improved. These new insights into why women seek labiaplasty, their experiences and outcomes may assist clinicians in enhancing their communication with prospective patients. 4 Therapeutic. © 2016 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  7. Datasets in Gene Expression Omnibus used in the study ORD-020969: Genomic effects of androstenedione and sex-specific liver cancer susceptibility in mice

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Datasets in Gene Expression Omnibus used in the study ORD-020969: Genomic effects of androstenedione and sex-specific liver cancer susceptibility in mice. This...

  8. Industry Experiences of Environmentally Conscious Design Integration: An Exploratory Study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    McAloone, Timothy Charles

    1998-01-01

    considerations into the design process.The findings in this thesis emerged from one in-depth study and a transatlantic industry survey, interviewing twenty four practitioners. A framework of factors affecting environmentally conscious design was derived from this research and a model of environmentally conscious......This research has explored environmentally conscious design in the electrical/electronics industry sector. In this new and rapidly evolving field, existing research has not yet sought to understand the causes of success and the problems experienced when companies have integrated environmental...... design integration developed which describes the industry’s experience of integrating environmental considerations into the design processes....

  9. Weak Interaction Studies by Precision Experiments in Nuclear Beta Decay

    Science.gov (United States)

    Severijns, Nathal

    The framework and formalism related to the study of symmetries and the structure of the weak interaction in nuclear -decay are presented and discussed. This is illustrated with a number of selected experiments in nuclear -decay addressing the unitarity of the Cabibbo-Kobayashi-Maskawa matrix, the search for right-handed (V+A), scalar and tensor components in the weak interaction and the search for non-Standard Model sources of time reversal violation. Finally, an outlook is given on important progress in this field that can be expected for the near future.

  10. Vaccination learning experiences of nursing students: a grounded theory study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ildarabadi, Eshagh; Karimi Moonaghi, Hossein; Heydari, Abbas; Taghipour, Ali; Abdollahimohammad, Abdolghani

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to explore the experiences of nursing students being trained to perform vaccinations. The grounded theory method was applied to gather information through semi-structured interviews. The participants included 14 undergraduate nursing students in their fifth and eighth semesters of study in a nursing school in Iran. The information was analyzed according to Strauss and Corbin's method of grounded theory. A core category of experiential learning was identified, and the following eight subcategories were extracted: students' enthusiasm, vaccination sensitivity, stress, proper educational environment, absence of prerequisites, students' responsibility for learning, providing services, and learning outcomes. The vaccination training of nursing students was found to be in an acceptable state. However, some barriers to effective learning were identified. As such, the results of this study may provide empirical support for attempts to reform vaccination education by removing these barriers.

  11. Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of ginseng (CAS No. 50647-08-0) in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice (gavage studies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-01

    CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL PROPERTIES: Ginseng is a perennial aromatic herb widely used in herbal remedies, dietary supplements, cosmetics, and as a food additive. Ginseng was nominated for study by the National Cancer Institute based on significant human exposure through the uses described above and the lack of information on its toxicity. Male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice were administered extracts of ginseng root by gavage for 2 weeks, 3 months, or 2 years. Genetic toxicology studies were conducted in Salmonella typhimurium, Escherichia coli, and mouse peripheral blood erythrocytes. 2-WEEK STUDY IN RATS: Groups of five male and five female rats were administered ginseng in 0.5% aqueous methylcellulose by gavage at doses of 0, 125, 250, 500, 1,000, or 2,000 mg/kg, 5 days per week for 16 days. All rats survived to the end of the study. Mean body weight gain of 2,000 mg/kg males was significantly greater than that of the vehicle controls. There were no chemical-related gross or microscopic findings attributed to the administration of ginseng. 2-WEEK STUDY IN MICE: Groups of five male and five female mice were administered ginseng in 0.5% aqueous methylcellulose by gavage at doses of 0, 125, 250, 500, 1,000, or 2,000 mg/kg, 5 days per week for 17 days. All mice survived to the end of the study. The final mean body weight of 1,000 mg/kg males was significantly less than that of the vehicle controls. There were no significant chemical-related gross or histopathologic changes in dosed mice. 3-MONTH STUDY IN RATS: Groups of 10 male and 10 female rats were administered ginseng in sterile water by gavage at doses of 0, 1,000, 2,000, 3,000, 4,000, or 5,000 mg/kg, 5 days per week for 14 weeks. All rats survived to the end of the study. Mean body weights of all dosed groups were similar to those of the vehicle control groups. No lesions that were observed by gross or histopathologic examination were attributed to the administration of ginseng. 3-MONTH STUDY IN MICE

  12. Work experiences of ethnic minority nurses: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keshet, Yael; Popper-Giveon, Ariela

    2016-01-01

    Recruitment and retention of a diverse ethnic workforce in healthcare settings contribute to the provision of culturally competent care in multicultural contexts. Nevertheless, the work experiences of ethnic minority nurses, which impact the attractiveness of the occupation, job burnout and turnover intentions, are not well understood. The present exploratory research seeks to examine the work experiences of ethnic minority Arab nurses in Israeli public hospitals. Israel is an interesting case study as the number of Arab nurses operating in the Israeli workforce has risen significantly over recent decades; many of them work in mixed Jewish-Arab environments, which are affected by the Israeli-Palestinian conflict. In-depth interviews with 13 Arab nurses working in Israeli public hospitals. The interviewed Arab nurses mentioned various benefits associated with the nursing profession, as well as various difficulties they encounter during their daily work, which are specific to them as ethnic minority nurses. They describe nursing as an occupation that offers numerous employment opportunities, job security, professional development and promotion. They believe that their work as a nurse contributes to the health of the Arab family and community and enhances culturally competent healthcare in Israeli hospitals. However, Arab nurses also feel they are stereotyped; they face disapproving looks, refusal to be treated by them, and incidences of hostility toward them. The dual experience of both integration and rejection shapes their coping strategies. The findings can inform a more systematic study that could potentially examine both nurses' and patients' conceptions of multicultural care. Action should be taken to ensure optimal working conditions for Arab healthcare professionals. Institutional policies and actions are needed to cope with their unique difficulties, such as the appointment of a functionary responsible for minimizing and coping with stereotypical and hostile

  13. Clinicians’ experiences of becoming a clinical manager: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spehar Ivan

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background There has been an increased interest in recruiting health professionals with a clinical background to management positions in health care. We know little about the factors that influence individuals’ decisions to engage in management. The aim of this study is to explore clinicians’ journeys towards management positions in hospitals, in order to identify potential drivers and barriers to management recruitment and development. Methods We did a qualitative study which included in-depth interviews with 30 clinicians in middle and first-line management positions in Norwegian hospitals. In addition, participant observation was conducted with 20 of the participants. The informants were recruited from medical and surgical departments, and most had professional backgrounds as medical doctors or nurses. Interviews were analyzed by systemic text condensation. Results We found that there were three phases in clinicians’ journey into management; the development of leadership awareness, taking on the manager role and the experience of entering management. Participants’ experiences suggest that there are different journeys into management, in which both external and internal pressure emerged as a recurrent theme. They had not anticipated a career in clinical management, and experienced that they had been persuaded to take the position. Being thrown into the position, without being sufficiently prepared for the task, was a common experience among participants. Being left to themselves, they had to learn management “on the fly”. Some were frustrated in their role due to increasing administrative workloads, without being able to delegate work effectively. Conclusions Path dependency and social pressure seems to influence clinicians’ decisions to enter into management positions. Hospital organizations should formalize pathways into management, in order to identify, attract, and retain the most qualified talents. Top managers

  14. Oncology nurses' experience of collaboration: A case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jane; Prentice, Dawn

    2015-10-01

    Changes in the health system have created new models of healthcare delivery such as nurse-led teams. This has resulted in the increased opportunity for enhanced collaboration among nurses. Oncology nurses have a long history of working together, yet little is known about their perceptions about collaboration in the practice setting. This paper aimed to explore and describe the experiences of collaboration among oncology nurses, and to understand the factors that influenced collaboration. Qualitative, case study design was used to study fourteen oncology nurses from one cancer center in Canada. Participants were registered nurses or nurse practitioners, employed full-time or permanent part-time in an oncology nurse role, and working on an in-patient or out-patient unit. Data were collected in 2013 using individual telephone interviews and document reviews. Thematic analysis revealed two themes: Art of dancing together, and the stumbling point. The first theme related to the facilitators of collaboration including having: regular face-to-face interaction, an existing and/or previous relationship, oncology nursing experience, and good interpersonal skills. The second theme related to the barriers to collaboration such as: role ambiguity, organizational leadership, and multi-generational differences. Collaboration is a complex process that does not occur spontaneously. To improve collaboration nursing leadership needs to support and promote opportunities for nurses to build the relationships required to effectively collaborate. It is equally important that individual nurses be willing to collaborate and possess the interpersonal skills required to build and maintain the collaborative relationship despite differences in age, generation, and clinical experience. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Responses of Study Abroad Students in Australia to Experience-Based Pedagogy in Sport Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Light, Richard; Georgakis, Steve

    2008-01-01

    This paper contributes to research on the scholarship of teaching in the physical education/sport studies fields by examining the responses of study abroad students from overseas studying in Australia to a unit of study in sport studies that placed the interpretation of experience as the centre of the learning process. It draws on research…

  16. Scenario approximation in a phenomenological study in Mexico: experience report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrero-Castañeda, Raúl Fernando; Menezes, Tânia Maria de Oliva; Vargas, Ma Guadalupe Ojeda

    2017-01-01

    To report our experience using scenario approximation in a phenomenological study of nursing in Mexico. Experience report on scenario approximation to coexist with elderly in order to select the participants of a phenomenological study. During a four-month period in 2016, visits were carried out two groups of elderly individuals where several activities were carried out. Coexistence with the elderly throughout accompaniment in the groups' activities together with joint dialogue allowed selection of those who corresponded to the characteristics of the study objective. Scenario approximation is necessary in phenomenological studies, not only for creating empathy among the participants but also for the researchers to immerse themselves in the phenomenon under study, as shown by the first approaches of the researcher. Relatar la experiencia del acercamiento al escenario de un estudio fenomenológico en enfermería en México. Relato de experiencia sobre el acercamiento al escenario de estudio para convivir con adultos mayores con la finalidad de seleccionar a los participantes de un estudio fenomenológico. Se llevaron a cabo visitas durante el año 2016, en un periodo de cuatro meses a dos grupos de adultos mayores en donde se realizaron diversas actividades. La convivencia con los adultos mayores a través del acompañamiento en las actividades que realizaban en los grupos y el diálogo conjunto permitió seleccionar a aquellos que respondían a las características del objeto de estudio. Es necesaria la aproximación al escenario de estudios fenomenológicos, no sólo con la finalidad de ganar empatía de los participantes sino para sumergirse en el fenómeno de estudio, mismo que se va mostrando desde los primeros acercamientos del investigador.

  17. A less stressful alternative to oral gavage for pharmacological and toxicological studies in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Mary K; Boberg, Jason R; Walsh, Mary T; Wolf, Valerie; Trujillo, Alisha; Duke, Melissa Skelton; Palme, Rupert; Felton, Linda A

    2012-04-01

    Oral gavage dosing can induce stress and potentially confound experimental measurements, particularly when blood pressure and heart rate are endpoints of interest. Thus, we developed a pill formulation that mice would voluntarily consume and tested the hypothesis that pill dosing would be significantly less stressful than oral gavage. C57Bl/6 male mice were singly housed and on four consecutive days were exposed to an individual walking into the room (week 1, control), a pill being placed into the cage (week 2), and a dose of water via oral gavage (week 3). Blood pressure and heart rate were recorded by radiotelemetry continuously for 5h after treatment, and feces collected 6-10h after treatment for analysis of corticosterone metabolites. Both pill and gavage dosing significantly increased mean arterial pressure (MAP) during the first hour, compared to control. However, the increase in MAP was significantly greater after gavage and remained elevated up to 5h, while MAP returned to normal within 2h after a pill. Neither pill nor gavage dosing significantly increased heart rate during the first hour, compared to control; however, pill dosing significantly reduced heart rate while gavage significantly increased heart rate 2-5h post dosing. MAP and heart rate did not differ 24h after dosing. Lastly, only gavage dosing significantly increased fecal corticosterone metabolites, indicating a systemic stress response via activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. These data demonstrated that this pill dosing method of mice is significantly less stressful than oral gavage. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Studies on implementation of pellet tracking in hadron physics experiments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pyszniak A.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available A system for optical tracking of frozen hydrogen microsphere targets (pellets has been designed. It is intended for the upcoming hadron physics experiment PANDA at FAIR, Darmstadt, Germany. With such a tracking system one can reconstruct the positions of the individual pellets at the time of a hadronic interaction in the offline event analysis. This gives information on the position of the primary interaction vertex with an accuracy of a few 100 µm, which is very useful e.g. for reconstruction of charged particle tracks and secondary vertices and for background suppression. A study has been done at the WASA detector setup (Forschungszentrum Jülich, Germany to check the possibility of classification of hadronic events as originating in pellets or in background. The study has been done based on the instantaneous rate a Long Range TDC which was used to determine if a pellet was present in the accelerator beam region. It was clearly shown that it is possible to distinguish the two event classes. Also, an experience was gained with operation of two synchronized systems operating in different time scales, as it will also be the case with the optical pellet tracking.

  19. Experiences of punishment by parents during childhood: A retrospective study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isaković Olivera

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The study described perceived differences in the choice of child rearing practices aimed at correcting children’s inappropriate behaviors as remembered by the participants at young adulthood. The sample consisted of 207 students of under-graduate studies of the University of Novi Sad. The most of the participants does not have children and they grew up in complete families. On the Dimensions of Discipline Inventory (A (DDI-A, Straus, Fauchier, 2007, the participants estimated the experience and methods of disciplining which were used by their parents during their childhood. The participants describe uniform discipline behaviors of their parents regarding the estimated discipline techniques. These behaviors are dominated by the punishing ones, and the differences between fathers and mothers are visible in a stronger tendency to describe fathers as the ones who use corporal punishment, abolish privileges and give restorative tasks. The described discipline techniques for both fathers and mothers remain stable and similar, regardless of the socio-demographic characteristics of the families as family completeness, work experience and level of education of the parents, as well as estimated economic status of the family.

  20. Gender, religion, and the experience of suffering: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Black, Helen K

    2013-12-01

    This article explores how gender and religious belief come together in an elderly woman's experience of suffering. It is based on qualitative research that explored experiences of suffering in a group of community-dwelling elders (80+) living in a North American city. We use the case study method to introduce themes that show suffering's uniqueness to the individual whose narrative we report, as well as similarity to themes that emerged in other participants' narratives. In this case, an elderly woman's gender and religious identities merge in her stories of suffering, which include the memory of a childhood disability and an incident of clergy abuse that occurred 70 years previously. A key finding in this paper is that key themes in her story of suffering, which are disablement and clergy abuse, resonate to the general themes of suffering found in our study, which are (1) threats to personal identity; (2) loss of a valued item, quality, or relationship; and (3) a lack of control over self or the circumstances of life.

  1. Studying user experience: issues and problems of mobile services:– Case ADAMOS: User experience (im)possible to catch?

    OpenAIRE

    Arhippainen, L. (Leena)

    2009-01-01

    Abstract User experience has become a popular term in research and industry. There has been a great attempt to study and design user experiences. This thesis gives a practical view to user experience studies and methods by reporting test settings and results of the ADAMOS case studies. The goal of the ADAMOS project was to investigate context- and action-sensitive services in terms of how users experience when the system can detect one’s location and actions, and then adjust according to t...

  2. [Study on tests of genetics experiments in universities].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jie, He; Hao, Zhang; Lili, Zhang

    2015-03-01

    Based on the present situation and the development of experiment tests in universities, we introduced a reform in tests of genetics experiments. According to the teaching goals and course contents of genetics experiment, the tests of genetics experiments contain four aspects on the performance of students: the adherence to the experimental procedures, the depth of participation in experiment, the quality of experiment report, and the mastery of experiment principles and skills, which account for 10 %, 20 %, 40 % and 30 % in the total scores, respectively. All four aspects were graded quantitatively. This evaluation system has been tested in our experiment teaching. The results suggest that it has an effect on the promotion of teaching in genetics experiments.

  3. Trans people's experiences with assisted reproduction services: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    James-Abra, S; Tarasoff, L A; Green, D; Epstein, R; Anderson, S; Marvel, S; Steele, L S; Ross, L E

    2015-06-01

    What are the experiences of trans persons (i.e. those whose gender identity does not match the gender assigned to them at birth) who sought or accessed assisted reproduction (AR) services in Ontario, Canada, between 2007 and 2010? The majority of trans persons report negative experiences with AR service providers. Apart from research examining desire to have children among trans people, most of the literature on this topic has debated the ethics of assisting trans persons to become parents. To-date, all of the published research concerning trans persons' experiences with AR services is solely from the perspective of service providers; no studies have examined the experiences of trans people themselves. Secondary qualitative research study of data from nine trans-identified people and their partners (total n = 11) collected as part of a community-based study of access to AR services for sexual and gender minority people between 2010 and 2012. Trans-identified volunteers (and their partners, when applicable) who had used or attempted to access AR services since 2007 from across Ontario, Canada, participated in a 60-90 minute, semi-structured qualitative interview. Qualitative analysis was performed using a descriptive phenomenological approach. Emerging themes were continually checked against the data as part of an iterative process. The data highlight barriers to accessing AR services for trans people. Participant recommendations for improving AR service provision to better meet the needs of this population are presented. These recommendations address the following areas: (i) AR service provider education and training; (ii) service provider and clinic practices and (iii) clinic environment. The majority of study participants were trans people who identified as men and who resided in major urban areas; those living in smaller communities may have different experiences that were not adequately captured in this analysis. While existing literature debates the ethics of

  4. Adolescents' experiences of being food-hypersensitive: a qualitative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wilde-Larsson Bodil

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Experiencing or being at risk of adverse reactions to certain food items is a common health issue, especially among children and adolescents. Research has shown that living with the risk of food reactions and always having to take measures to avoid certain food in one's diet has a negative impact on quality of life. The aim of this study was to illuminate adolescents' experiences of being food hypersensitive. Methods Three focus group interviews and six individual interviews were carried out with all together 17 adolescents, 14–18 years of age, who had exclusion diets at school due to food hypersensitivity. The interviews were taped and transcribed verbatim and a qualitative content analysis was carried out. Results Five categories with subcategories, and one pervading theme, emerged. The categories were: Perceiving oneself as being particular, Feeling constrained, Experiencing others' ignorance, Keeping control, and Feeling it's okay. A pervading theme was conceptualised as Striving to normalise the experience of being food-hypersensitive. The adolescents regarded themselves as competent and courageous, but also described how they avoided the extra attention it implied to ask for special food considerations taken into account. Their self-conceptions were probably essential for their management of and attitude toward the hypersensitivity condition. They felt deprived, and those at risk of severe food reactions experienced insecurity and fear. Feelings of being disregarded were expressed, as well as facing unreliability and a lack of understanding from others. The continual work of constant vigilance and decision-making was described as time-consuming and frustrating. However, the adolescents also experienced considerate and supportive surroundings and were at pains to tone down the negative experiences and consequences of being food-hypersensitive. Conclusion Food avoidance by itself, and not only the somatic food reactions

  5. Experiments Studying Desorbed Gas and Electron Clouds in Ion Accelerators

    CERN Document Server

    Molvik, Arthur; Barnard, John J; Bieniosek, Frank; Celata, C M; Cohen, Ronald; Covo, Michel K; Friedman, Alex; Lund, Steven M; Seidl, Peter; Vay, Jean-Luc; Vujic, J L; Waldron, William

    2005-01-01

    Electron clouds and gas pressure rise limit the performance of many major accelerator rings. We are studying these issues experimentally with ~1 MeV heavy-ion beams, coordinated with significant efforts in self-consistent simulation and theory.* The experiments use multiple diagnostics, within and between quadrupole magnets, to measure the sources and accumulation of electrons and gas. In support of these studies, we have measured gas desorption and electron emission coefficients for potassium ions impinging on stainless steel targets at angles near grazing incidence.** Our goal is to measure the electron particle balance for each source - ionization of gas, emission from beam tubes, and emission from an end wall - determine the electron effects on the ion beam and apply the increased understanding to mitigation.

  6. REPORT OF THE US LONG BASELINE NEUTRINO EXPERIMENT STUDY.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    BARGER,V.; FINLEY, D.; LAUGHTON, C.; PORDES, S.; MARCHIONNI, A.; RAMEIKA, R.; SAOULIDOU, N.; ZWASKA, R.; BISHAI, M.; DIWAN, M.; DIERCKXSENS, M.; KIRK, H.; KAHN, S.; SIMOS, N.; MARCIANO, W.; PARSA, Z.; VIREN, B.; ET AL.

    2007-01-01

    This report provides the results of an extensive and important study of the potential for a U.S. scientific program that will extend our knowledge of neutrino oscillations well beyond what can be anticipated from ongoing and planned experiments worldwide. The program examined here has the potential to provide the U.S. particle physics community with world leading experimental capability in this intensely interesting and active field of fundamental research. Furthermore, this capability is not likely to be challenged anywhere else in the world for at least two decades into the future. The present study was initially commissioned in April 2006 by top research officers of Brookhaven National Laboratory and Fermilab and, as the study evolved, it also provides responses to questions formulated and addressed to the study group by the Neutrino Scientific Advisory Committee (NuSAG) of the U.S. DOE and NSF. The participants in the study, its Charge and history, plus the study results and conclusions are provided in this report and its appendices. A summary of the conclusions is provided in the Executive Summary.

  7. Stroke experiences in weblogs: a feasibility study of sex differences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Sukjin; Gordon, Andrew S; Wienberg, Christopher; Sood, Sara O; Morley, Stephanie; Burke, Deborah M

    2014-03-19

    Research on cerebral stroke symptoms using hospital records has reported that women experience more nontraditional symptoms of stroke (eg, mental status change, pain) than men do. This is an important issue because nontraditional symptoms may delay the decision to get medical assistance and increase the difficulty of correct diagnosis. In the present study, we investigate sex differences in the stroke experience as described in stories on weblogs. The goal of this study was to investigate the feasibility of using the Internet as a source of data for basic research on stroke experiences. Stroke experiences described in blogs were identified by using StoryUpgrade, a program that searches blog posts using a fictional prototype story. In this study, the prototype story was a description of a stroke experience. Retrieved stories coded by the researchers as relevant were used to update the search query and retrieve more stories using relevance feedback. Stories were coded for first- or third-person narrator, traditional and nontraditional patient symptoms, type of stroke, patient sex and age, delay before seeking medical assistance, and delay at hospital and in treatment. There were 191 relevant stroke stories of which 174 stories reported symptoms (52.3% female and 47.7% male patients). There were no sex differences for each traditional or nontraditional stroke symptom by chi-square analysis (all Ps>.05). Type of narrator, however, affected report of traditional and nontraditional symptoms. Female first-person narrators (ie, the patient) were more likely to report mental status change (56.3%, 27/48) than male first-person narrators (36.4%, 16/44), a marginally significant effect by logistic regression (P=.056), whereas reports of third-person narrators did not differ for women (27.9%, 12/43) and men (28.2%, 11/39) patients. There were more reports of at least 1 nontraditional symptom in the 92 first-person reports (44.6%, 41/92) than in the 82 third-person reports (25

  8. Effects of embryo culture media do not persist after implantation: a histological study in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hemkemeyer, Sandra A; Schwarzer, Caroline; Boiani, Michele; Ehmcke, Jens; Le Gac, Séverine; Schlatt, Stefan; Nordhoff, Verena

    2014-02-01

    Is post-implantation embryonic development after blastocyst transfer affected by exposure to different assisted reproduction technology (ART) culture media? Fetal development and placental histology of ART embryos cultured in vitro in different ART media was not impaired compared with embryos grown in vivo. The application of different in vitro culture (IVC) media for human ART has an effect on birthweight of newborns. In the mouse model, differences in blastocyst formation were reported after culture in different ART media. Moreover, abnormalities in the liver and heart have been detected as a result of suboptimal IVC conditions. Fertilized oocytes from inbred and outbred breeding schemes were retrieved and either immediately transferred to foster mothers or incubated in control or human ART culture media up to the blastocyst stage prior to transfer. Placental and fetal anatomy and particularly bone development were evaluated. B6C3F1 female mice were used as oocyte donors after ovulation induction. C57Bl/6 and CD1 males were used for mating and CD1 females as foster mothers for embryo transfer. Fertilized oocytes were recovered from mated females and incubated in sequential human ART media (ISM1/ISM2 and HTF/Multiblast), in control media [KSOM(aa) and Whitten's medium] or grown in utero without IVC (zygote control). As in vivo, control B6C3F1 females were superovulated and left untreated. Fetuses and placentae were isolated by Caesarean section and analysed at 18.5 days post-coitum (dpc) for placenta composition and at 15.5 dpc for body weight, crown-rump length (CRL), fetal organ development, morphological development, total bone length and extent of bone ossification. No major differences in the number of implantation sites or in histological appearance of the placentae were detected. CRL of KSOM(aa) fetuses was higher compared with zygote control and Whitten's medium. Histological analysis of tissue sections revealed no gross morphological differences compared

  9. International study on nurses' views and experiences of compassion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papadopoulos, I; Zorba, A; Koulouglioti, C; Ali, S; Aagard, M; Akman, O; Alpers, L-M; Apostolara, P; Biles, J; Martín-García, Á; González-Gil, T; Kouta, C; Krepinska, R; Kumar, B N; Lesińska-Sawicka, M; Lopez, L; Malliarou, M; Nagórska, M; Nissim, S; Nortvedt, L; Oter-Quintana, C; Ozturk, C; Pangilinan, S B; Papp, K; Eldar Regev, O; Rubiano, F O; Tolentino Diaz, M Y; Tóthová, V; Vasiliou, M

    2016-09-01

    Compassion is considered the cornerstone of nursing practice. However, the recent failures in delivering high-quality compassionate nursing care in the UK's National Health Service have brought the topic of compassion to the attention of the public, service providers, policy makers and academics. The aim of this study was to explore the nurses' views and experiences of a number of compassion-related issues in nursing and describe similarities and differences at an international level as well as from the different nursing roles of the participating nurses. An exploratory, cross-sectional descriptive study, using the International Online Compassion Questionnaire. A total of 1323 nurses from 15 countries completed the questionnaire. The majority of participants (59.5%) defined compassion as "Deep awareness of the suffering of others and wish to alleviate it" but definitions of compassion varied by country. Of participants, 69.6% thought compassion was very important in nursing and more than half (59.6%) of them argued that compassion could be taught. However, only 26.8% reported that the correct amount and level of teaching is provided. The majority of the participants (82.6%) stated that their patients prefer knowledgeable nurses with good interpersonal skills. Only 4.3% noted that they are receiving compassion from their managers. A significant relationship was found between nurses' experiences of compassion and their views about teaching of compassion. Our study is unique in identifying the views and experiences of nurses from 15 different countries worldwide. The findings reveal that compassion is neither addressed adequately in nursing education nor supported in the practice environment by managers. Self-report bias was inherent to our survey study design. Furthermore, the individual cultural differences and similarities in the findings are difficult to extrapolate owing to the fact that our analysis was at country level, as well as at the level of the

  10. Anxiolytic-like effects and toxicological studies of Brickellia cavanillesii (Cass.) A. Gray in experimental mice models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ávila-Villarreal, Gabriela; González-Trujano, María Eva; Carballo-Villalobos, Azucena Ibeth; Aguilar-Guadarrama, Berenice; García-Jiménez, Sara; Giles-Rivas, Diana Elizabeth; Castillo-España, Patricia; Villalobos-Molina, Rafael; Estrada-Soto, Samuel

    2016-11-04

    Brickellia cavanillesii (Asteraceae) (Cass.) A. Gray is one of the popular plants consumed in Central America and Mexico for the treatment of several diseases such as hypertension, diabetes and anxiety, among others. To determine the anxiolytic-like effect of B. Cavanillesii and the safety of its use through toxicological studies. Anxiolytic-like effects of soluble-methanol extract of B. cavanillesii (MEBc) were evaluated in ambulatory activity (open-field test), hole-board test, cylinder of exploration, the elevated plus-maze and the potentiation of the sodium pentobarbital-induced hypnosis mice models. On the other hand, in vivo toxicological studies were conducted on acute and sub-acute mice models recommended by OECD. Active MEBc was subjected to phytochemical studies through conventional chromatographic techniques to isolate bioactive compounds. MEBc (100mg/Kg) showed significant anxiolytic-like effect on animal model used (p<0.05). The phytochemical analysis of MEBc allowed the isolation of two major compounds nicotiflorin and acacetin, among others. Both compounds were found to be partially responsible for the anxiolytic-like effects. Moreover, a median lethal dose (LD50) higher than 2000mg/Kg was determined in mice and sub-acute oral administration of MEBc (100mg/Kg) did not alter body weight, clinical chemistry parameters (ALT and AST) and it did not induce any toxic nor alteration in the liver, kidney and heart functions. In current investigation, we have shown that MEBc has a wide range of pharmacology-toxicology patterns. The results support further investigation of MEBc as a potential anxiolytic phytomedicinal agent. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Study of antinociceptive effect of isolated fractions from Petiveria alliacea L. (tipi) in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomes, Patrícia Bezerra; Oliveira, Maria Mirele da Silva; Nogueira, Carlos Renato Alves; Noronha, Emmanuelle Coelho; Carneiro, Lyvia Maria Vasconcelos; Bezerra, José Noberto Sousa; Neto, Manoel Andrade; Vasconcelos, Silvania Maria Mendes; Fonteles, Marta Maria França; Viana, Glauce Socorro Barros; de Sousa, Francisca Clea Florenço

    2005-01-01

    The acetate (FA), hexanic (FH), hydroalcoholic (FHA) and precipitated hydroalcoholic (FHAppt) fractions from the root of Petiveria alliacea L. were evaluated for antinociceptive effect using the abdominal constriction induced by acetic acid, hot-plate, formalin tests. The open field and rota rod tests were used to evaluate psychomotor function and myorelaxant activity. The fractions were administered intraperitoneally in mice at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg. Inhibitions of abdominal constrictions were observed with all doses of the fractions, as compared to control. FH and FHAppt, at both doses, reduced the nociception produced by formalin in the 1st (0-5 min) and 2nd (20-25 min) phases, however FHA (100, 200 mg/kg) and FA 200 mg/kg presented significant inhibition on the 1st and 2nd phases, respectively, of this test. A reduction of the locomotor activity was observed in the open field test with all the fractions. These fractions failed to affect the motor coordination in the rota rod test. Results showed that the different fractions of Petiveria alliacea L. have different antinociceptive potentials as demonstrated in the experimental models of nociception in mice, supporting folk medicine use of this plant.

  12. Transgender men's experiences of fertility preservation: a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armuand, G; Dhejne, C; Olofsson, J I; Rodriguez-Wallberg, K A

    2017-02-01

    How do transgender men experience fertility preservation (FP) by cryopreservation of oocytes? The procedures required prior to oocyte cryopreservation, such as hormonal ovarian stimulation and transvaginal ultrasound (TVS), have a negative impact on gender dysphoria as they are closely linked to the men's female assigned sex at birth, which is incompatible with their current status. Transgender persons often have high dissatisfaction with assigned sex-specific body features, such as the genital organs and androgen/oestrogen-responsive features. Thus, undergoing FP that requires genital-specific examinations, aimed at obtaining oocytes to cryopreserve, could be distressing. As no previous studies have investigated transgender men's experiences of FP involving cryopreservation of oocytes, little is known about their experience of the procedures. This is a prospective study among adult transgender men referred for FP between March 2014 and December 2015. Individual in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted shortly after FP treatment. The interviews lasted between 62 and 111 min (mean 81 min) and were digitally recorded and transcribed verbatim. Participants were recruited on their first visit to the assisted reproduction clinic for reproductive counseling. There were 15 men, scheduled for FP, who chose to participate in the study (age 19-35); none had given birth and eight had a partner. Data were analyzed by thematic content analysis. The analysis resulted in three main categories: the journey to FP, reactions to the FP proceedings and strategies for coping. The referral for FP was an important part of the assessment and diagnosis and sometimes lined with frustrating waits and doubts. The reaction to the FP proceedings revealed that the genital examinations and the physical changes associated with discontinuation of testosterone or hormonal stimulation treatment triggered gender incongruence and dysphoria. However, for some, the negative expectations were not

  13. Psychiatric Patients Experiences with Mechanical Restraints: An Interview Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Klas Lanthén

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. To examine psychiatric patients’ experience of mechanical restraints and to describe the care the patients received. Background. All around the world, threats and violence perpetrated by patients in psychiatric emergency inpatient units are quite common and are a prevalent factor concerning the application of mechanical restraints, although psychiatric patients’ experiences of mechanical restraints are still moderately unknown. Method. A qualitative design with an inductive approach were used, based on interviews with patients who once been in restraints. Results. This study resulted in an overbridging theme: Physical Presence, Instruction and Composed Behaviour Can Reduce Discontent and Trauma, including five categories. These findings implicated the following: information must be given in a calm and sensitive way, staff must be physically present during the whole procedure, and debriefing after the incident must be conducted. Conclusions. When mechanical restraints were unavoidable, the presence of committed staff during mechanical restraint was important, demonstrating the significance of training acute psychiatric nurses correctly so that their presence is meaningful. Nurses in acute psychiatric settings should be required to be genuinely committed, aware of their actions, and fully present in coercive situations where patients are vulnerable.

  14. Narrative study on the experience of paternity in education professionals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Salvador Vila Merino

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available With this article we investigate through a narrative inquiry into the links between parenting, and life experience, education and professional practice. The study involved 24 collaborators, whose status as parents and educators has allowed us to biographical approach to the links between the two facets of their lives. In the studywe have assumed a unique perspective and opinion of the experience of parenthood, read in conjunction withmale socialization processes, and embedded in professional development of each employee. The work resulted in each case the collection and analysis of data through personal accounts, with the approach we were looking for new ways to address parenting and its influence on educational craft itself. In this article, apart from general considerations derived from the analysis of the 24 stories, 4 cases recovered from their singularities to try to show each employee’s subjective sense and understanding of social and relational scenarios in which these subjectivities are going setting,  here by trying to expand personal conceptions, political and social justice is the education profession, placed in relation to male gender identity. Fromthe analysis of the stories related conclusions emerge formative potential of narrative, the implications of parenthood in personal and professional life and your relationships, look changes that have occurred from there and the importance of reflecting on these issues from alternative male models to the hegemonic.We finished the job pointing out possible future research and action in the light of the stories.

  15. Experiment study of the motion of the floating offshore turbine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chuang, Tzu-Ching; Hsu, Wen-Yang; Yang, Ray-Yeng; Chen, Yang-Yi

    2016-04-01

    Recently the wind industry moved to offshore areas. The floating wind turbine combined the platform and the mooring system. This research focuses on studying the motion of the floating offshore turbine with a mooring system. The platform, which was developed by the Ship and Ocean Industries R&D Center, had been test in a wave-wind flume in the Tainan Hydraulics Laboratory by using a 1:50 Froude scaling model. In the experiment, the floating offshore turbine was placed in a water flume and exposed to periodic waves at frequencies ranging from 0.22 rad/s - 0.875 rad/s, the wave amplitude is about 2.5 meter, and with the different pretension of the mooring lines. The experiment includes the measurement of damping coefficient from the free decay test and the dynamic response in a sea state. This research compares the motion of the floating offshore turbine with the different pretension of the mooring lines, and the model provides comprehensive data for the operational, design, and survival seas states, as well as the calibration and improvement of the existing design and performance of numerical models.

  16. Lived experience of Hispanic new graduate nurses - a qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, Esther G

    2014-05-01

    To seek understanding of lived experience from the voice of Hispanic new graduate nurses. Nurse educators and leaders have called for a more diverse nursing workforce while the body of the literature and knowledge about Hispanic registered nurses in the United States appears underdeveloped. A qualitative approach with a phenomenological methodology was used. A purposive sampling of Hispanic new graduate nurses (n = 7) completed a demographic questionnaire and semi-structured interviews. The study setting was within the Midwest and the south-west of the United States. There were seven general themes: (1) being an employee, (2) an orientation with or without preceptors, (3) a transition, (4) shadows of doubt, (5) being Hispanic, (6) being bilingual and being pulled, and (7) blessed. Hispanic new graduates would prefer Hispanic preceptors and anticipated that their first employment would be in a hospital setting. Hispanic new graduate nurses anticipate, desire and expect orientation programmes and preceptors in acute care and outpatient healthcare settings to aid in their transition from student to professional nurse. Hispanic new graduate nurses described an experience of transition typical of new graduate nurses in the United States, but with added dimensions such as cultural understandings and language proficiency with Spanish. Appropriate support and interventions for all new graduate nurses across multiple employment settings may retain a diverse nursing workforce appropriately positioned to serve vulnerable populations. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  17. Work Experiences of Latina Immigrants: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eggerth, Donald E; DeLaney, Sheli C; Flynn, Michael A; Jacobson, C Jeff

    2012-02-01

    Almost half of the Latino immigrants working in the United States are women. However, studies concerning the work experiences of Latinas are almost absent in the literature. This article reports the findings from a qualitative study using eight focus groups (n = 53) of Latina immigrant workers. The focus group transcripts were analyzed using the grounded theory approach in which themes emerge from iterative readings of the transcripts by a group of investigators. This study identified themes related to excessive workload, familiar work/unfamiliar hazards, cultural tensions, lack of health care, pregnancy, sexual harassment, and family obligations/expectations. The responses of the Latina workers in this study clearly indicated that they live within a complex web of stressors, both as workers and as women. The increased economic opportunities that come with immigration to the United States are accompanied by many opportunities for exploitation, especially if they are undocumented. It is hoped that the findings of this study will raise awareness regarding these issues and spur further work in this area.

  18. Novel molecular changes induced by Nrg1 hypomorphism and Nrg1-cannabinoid interaction in adolescence: a hippocampal proteomic study in mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarrah R Spencer

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available Neuregulin 1 (NRG1 is linked to an increased risk of developing schizophrenia and cannabis dependence. Mice that are hypomorphic for Nrg1 (Nrg1 HET mice display schizophrenia-relevant behavioural phenotypes and aberrant expression of serotonin and glutamate receptors. Nrg1 HET mice also display idiosyncratic responses to the main psychoactive constituent of cannabis, Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC. To gain traction on the molecular pathways disrupted by Nrg1 hypomorphism and Nrg1-cannabinoid interactions we conducted a proteomic study. Adolescent wildtype (WT and Nrg1 HET mice were exposed to repeated injections of vehicle or THC and their hippocampi were submitted to 2D gel proteomics. Comparison of WT and Nrg1 HET mice identified proteins linked to molecular changes in schizophrenia that have not been previously associated with Nrg1. These proteins are involved in vesicular release of neurotransmitters such as SNARE proteins; enzymes impacting serotonergic neurotransmission, and; proteins affecting growth factor expression. Nrg1 HET mice treated with THC expressed a distinct protein expression signature compared to WT mice. Replicating prior findings, THC caused proteomic changes in WT mice suggestive of greater oxidative stress and neurodegeneration. We have previously observed that THC selectively increased hippocampal NMDA receptor binding of adolescent Nrg1 HET mice. Here we observed outcomes consistent with heightened NMDA-mediated glutamatergic neurotransmission. This included differential expression of proteins involved in NMDA receptor trafficking to the synaptic membrane; lipid raft stabilization of synaptic NMDA receptors; and homeostatic responses to dampen excitotoxicity. These findings uncover for the first time novel proteins altered in response to Nrg1 hypomorphism and Nrg1-cannabinoid interactions that improves our molecular understanding of Nrg1 signaling and Nrg1-mediated genetic vulnerability to the neurobehavioural effects

  19. Fructose- and glucose-conditioned preferences in FVB mice: strain differences in post-oral sugar appetition

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zukerman, Steven; Ackroff, Karen

    2014-01-01

    Recent studies indicate that, unlike glucose, fructose has little or no post-oral preference conditioning actions in C57BL/6J (B6) mice. The present study determined whether this is also the case for FVB mice, which overconsume fructose relative to B6 mice. In experiment 1, FVB mice strongly preferred a noncaloric 0.1% sucralose + 0.1% saccharin (S+S) solution to 8% fructose in a 2-day choice test but switched their preference to fructose after separate experience with the two sweeteners. Other FVB mice displayed a stronger preference for 8% glucose over S+S. In a second experiment, ad libitum-fed FVB mice trained 24 h/day acquired a significant preference for a flavor (CS+) paired with intragastric (IG) self-infusions of 16% fructose over a different flavor (CS−) paired with IG water infusions. IG fructose infusions also conditioned flavor preferences in food-restricted FVB mice trained 1 h/day. IG infusions of 16% glucose conditioned stronger preferences in FVB mice trained 24- or 1 h/day. Thus, fructose has post-oral flavor conditioning effects in FVB mice, but these effects are less pronounced than those produced by glucose. Further studies of the differential post-oral conditioning effects of fructose and glucose in B6 and FVB mice should enhance our understanding of the physiological processes involved in sugar reward. PMID:25320345

  20. A study of histological changes in the Diaphragm of male albino mice administered with aqueous extract of chamomileflowers Chamomillarecutita

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SuraFouad A.Alsaffar

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The chamomile is one of the most important medicinal plants recommended for treatment of asthma and some respiratory system diseases. This research was designed to research the effects of aqueous extract of chamomillarecutita on histological structure of Diaphragm of albino mice. The study included 40 male albino mice Musmusculus, their age ranged from (5-7 weeks.The mices were divided randomly to 5 groups and oral administered with 1 ml every day for 10 days:- First Group G1: consider as control group and treated with normal saline,Second Group G2: was treated with aqueous extract of chamomile with concentration of 3 gm /100 ml D.W, Third Group G3: was treated with aqueous extract of chamomile with concentration of 5 gm /100 ml D.W.Fourth Group G4: was treated with aqueous extract of chamomile with concentration of 7 gm /100 ml D.W and the Fifth Group G5: was treated with aqueous extract of chamomile with concentration of 10 gm /100 ml D.W. Theresults of microscopic examination of diaphragm sections of groups G3,G4 and G5 showed degenerative effects on muscular tissue in way of breaking of myofibrils differences in their sizes and degeneration of most of nuclei of muscle fiber and their migration to inside the muscle fiber , it has been found that these treatments cause an alteration in myofibril in fibrotic myofibril. From this study we conclude that low concentration of aqueous extract of chamomile have low side effect on major respiratory muscles and could be used in beneficial treatment to contact diseases of respiratory system but without longer duration

  1. Comparative study of SEA experiences between EU and China

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gao, Jingjing; Kørnøv, Lone; Christensen, Per

    making, such as: How inclusive will the system be in relation to environmental, economic and social indicators? And how can the appropriate aggregation level for indicators be found? This paper makes a comparative study of the experiences of using indicators in SEA in two European countries and China......Strategic Environmental Assessment (SEA) can be a useful tool in the pursuit of achieving sustainable development. It is used to assess the environmental consequences of proposed policies, plans and programmes (PPP) and also ensures that environmental knowledge is integrated at an early stage...... into the decision-making process. The use of indicators in the SEA process can facilitate a more simple presentation of the complex impacts and relationships that arise from development. However, designing indicators for SEA raises questions concerning general public participation, expert consultation and decision...

  2. Jet Reconstruction at the PHENIX Experiment for Studying Proton Structure

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camras, Emily; Aidala, Christine; Phenix Collaboration

    2016-09-01

    Jets in hadronic collisions are useful probes to access hard-scattered parton kinematics without involving fragmentation functions to particular hadrons. Jet reconstruction using the anti-kt sequential recombination method has recently become an effective analysis tool in the PHENIX experiment at the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider at Brookhaven National Lab. Use of the method in the limited acceptance PHENIX detector was verified by good agreement between perturbative QCD predictions and jet yields for p + p collisions from 2008 data; the p + p jet yields were then compared with jet production in d + Au collisions. Jet measurements are also of interest in polarized p + p collisions to study spin-momentum correlations in the proton independent of fragmentation functions. We implement the jet reconstruction method for the 2015 detector setup applied to simulated p + p data for future use in real data analysis.

  3. Feasibility study of an active target for the MEG experiment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Papa, A., E-mail: angela.papa@psi.ch [Paul Scherrer Institut PSI, CH-5232 Villigen (Switzerland); Cavoto, G. [INFN Sezione di Roma, P.le Aldo Moro, 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Ripiccini, E. [INFN Sezione di Roma, P.le Aldo Moro, 2, 00185 Roma (Italy); Dipartimento di Fisica dell' Università degli studi di Roma, P.le Aldo Moro, 2, 00185 Roma (Italy)

    2014-03-01

    We consider the possibility to have an active target for the upgrade of the MEG experiment (MEG II). The active target should work as (1) a beam monitoring, to continuously measure the muon stopping rate and therefore provide a direct evaluation of the detector acceptance (or an absolute normalization of the stopped muon); and as (2) an auxiliary device for the spectrometer, to improve the determination of the muon decay vertex and consequently to achieve a better positron momentum and angular resolutions, detecting the positron from the muon decay. In this work we studied the feasibility of detecting minimum ionizing particle with a single layer of 250 μm fiber and the capability to discriminate between the signal induced by either a muon or a positron.

  4. The effect of sugar and artificial sweetener on molecular markers of metabolic syndrome: a mice study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Subali, D.,

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available The usage of aspartame, as one of the most widely used sweetener, has been approved in many types of food products. Moreover, many studies have proven that replacing sugar with aspartame would contribute favorable effects on several health parameters; such as, body weight, blood glucose level, and inflammatory status. In this experiment, we examined the effects of aspartame consumption on some biomarkers; which potentially acted as early signals for a personal metabolic status. This study was aimed to investigate the effect of aspartame on the expression of a number of molecular markers related with appetite regulation (fto, fat accumulation markers (fabp4 and alt2 and inflammation marker (tnf-α in Sprague Dawley rats. The population of Clostridium coccoides was also observed to give an insight about the effect of sweetener consumption on gut microbiota profiles. 15 healthy, male, eight-weeks old Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a standard diet and divided into 3 groups (n=5 for each: water only, sucrose (30% b/v, and aspartame (0.15% b/v. Body weight was measured weekly and blood glucose measurement was carried out on day 1 and 40. At the end of the experiment, all rats were euthanized and blood was collected from the vein. The liver, brain, and visceral adipose tissue were excised, weighed, and grinded with liquid nitrogen. Feces samples were collected on day 0 and 40. At the end of our experimental period; the body weight, liver weight, and blood glucose level of sucrose-treated rats were significantly higher (p <0.05 than aspartame and control group. Sucrose showed the lowest level of fto gene expression; yet, the fto gene expression in aspartame group was still lower than the control group. Expression of several genes considered as metabolic syndrome-related biomarkers were measured (fabp4, alt2, and tnf-α; and our data demonstrated that sucrose treatment gave the highest increase in expression level of those genes; while aspartame treatment

  5. Microvesicle Formulations and Contact Allergy - Experimental Studies in In-Vitro, Mice and Man

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, Jakob Torp

    not alter the sensitizing capacity in the Local Lymph Node Assay. We did not find a correlation between the percutaneous skin absorption/penetration pattern and the sensitising capacity. The clinical implications of these results are so far uncertain. However, the cosmetic industry should consider......Attempts to improve formulation of topical products are a continuing process i.e. to increase cosmetic performance, enhance effects and protect ingredients from degradation. The development of micro and nano-vesicular systems has lead to marketing of topical drugs and cosmetics using......, ethosomes and polycaprolactone affects the sensitizing properties using the OECD and FDA approved skin sensitisation test method in mice: the Local Lymph Node Assay. Ethanolic liposome (Ethosome) formulation of lipophilic allergens increased the sensitising capacity and polycaprolactone protected against...

  6. [Scanning electron microscopic study of films of the loose connective tissue of mice exposed to DMBA].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ol'shevskaia, L V

    1979-01-01

    Under examination by scanning electron microscopy were film samples of the subcutaneous connective tissue. The surface of the films from intact mice was even and smooth, fibroblasts have a spread pattern. Following the saline injection the film was even, collagen fibres, differing in the character of surface and the size of diameter, were readily seen. The collagen fibres formed a multilayer system with a definite orientation inside the layer. After DMBA injection the film surface would get uneven and tuberous, the fibroblast body rising over the film surface, thus the orientation of fibres and all strata was disturbed. There was a spacial rearrangement of all tissue components. It is suggested that carcinogenic agents affecting the relationship between tissue components could interfere the contact inhibition of cell division and result in the development of focal cell proliferates.

  7. Aphrodisiac activity of 50% ethanolic extracts of Myristica fragrans Houtt. (nutmeg and Syzygium aromaticum (L Merr. & Perry. (clove in male mice: a comparative study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Latif Abdul

    2003-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Spices are considered as sexual invigorators in the Unani System of Medicine. In order to explore the sexual function improving effect of Myristica fragrans Houtt. (nutmeg and Syzygium aromaticum (L Merr. & Perry. (clove an experimental study was conducted in normal male mice. Methods The extracts (50% ethanolic of nutmeg and clove were administered (500 mg/kg; p.o. to different groups of male Swiss mice. Mounting behaviour, mating performance, and general short term toxicity of the test drugs were determined and compared with the standard drug Penegra (Sildenafil citrate. Results The extracts of the nutmeg and clove were found to stimulate the mounting behaviour of male mice, and also to significantly increase their mating performance. The drugs were devoid of any conspicuous general short term toxicity. Conclusion The extracts (50% ethanolic of nutmeg and clove enhanced the sexual behaviour of male mice.

  8. Aphrodisiac activity of 50% ethanolic extracts of Myristica fragrans Houtt. (nutmeg) and Syzygium aromaticum (L) Merr. & Perry. (clove) in male mice: a comparative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tajuddin; Ahmad, Shamshad; Latif, Abdul; Qasmi, Iqbal Ahmad

    2003-10-20

    Spices are considered as sexual invigorators in the Unani System of Medicine. In order to explore the sexual function improving effect of Myristica fragrans Houtt. (nutmeg) and Syzygium aromaticum (L) Merr. & Perry. (clove) an experimental study was conducted in normal male mice. The extracts (50% ethanolic) of nutmeg and clove were administered (500 mg/kg; p.o.) to different groups of male Swiss mice. Mounting behaviour, mating performance, and general short term toxicity of the test drugs were determined and compared with the standard drug Penegra (Sildenafil citrate). The extracts of the nutmeg and clove were found to stimulate the mounting behaviour of male mice, and also to significantly increase their mating performance. The drugs were devoid of any conspicuous general short term toxicity. The extracts (50% ethanolic) of nutmeg and clove enhanced the sexual behaviour of male mice.

  9. Effect of maternal dietary cow’s milk on the immune response to beta-lactoglobulin in the offspring: A four generation study in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Susanne Brix; Christensen, Hanne Risager; Barkholt, Vibeke

    2005-01-01

    Evaluation of immune responses to food proteins in animal models requires that the animals are not already sensitized or orally tolerized against the proteins in question. Since maternal transfer of specific immune responses has been observed, breeding of animals on an antigen-free diet for several...... generations may be necessary to obtain immunologically naive animals. METHODS: To determine the most appropriate breeding conditions of mice to be used in immunological studies on food proteins, we examined immune responses towards beta-lactoglobulin (BLG) in mice bred on a milk-containing diet (F0......) and then for three generations (F1-F3) on a commercially available milk-free diet. The specific antibody and cell-proliferative response to BLG was compared in non-immunized and immunized BALB/c mice, and in mice orally tolerized to BLG prior to immunization. RESULTS: The immune response to BLG in the F1 generation...

  10. Client experiences of motivational interviewing: An interpersonal process recall study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Sarah A; Latchford, Gary; Tober, Gillian

    2016-03-01

    To explore clients' experience of the therapy process in motivational interviewing (MI) for alcohol abuse. A qualitative study using grounded theory. Interviews with nine clients were conducted using interpersonal process recall (IPR), a methodology which utilizes a video recording as a cue to aid memory recall. Clients watched a videotape of their MI session and were asked to identify and describe the important moments in the therapy session. The transcribed interviews were then analysed using grounded theory. A single session of MI is seen by the clients in this study as a complex interpersonal interaction between client and therapist, which impacts on the client's cognitive and affective intrapersonal processes. The themes which emerged partly confirm processes of MI previously hypothesized to be important, but also highlight the importance of factors common to all therapeutic approaches. The aspects of therapy which clients in this study felt were important are similar to those hypothesized to underlie the effectiveness of MI, including a non-confrontational approach, affirmation, and developing discrepancies between beliefs and behaviour. These were embedded in aspects common to all therapies, including the qualities of the therapist and the therapeutic relationship. Client's perspectives on therapeutic processes are an important area of research, and IPR is a particularly suitable method. © 2015 The British Psychological Society.

  11. Wind Tunnel Experiments to Study Chaparral Crown Fires.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cobian-Iñiguez, Jeanette; Aminfar, AmirHessam; Chong, Joey; Burke, Gloria; Zuniga, Albertina; Weise, David R; Princevac, Marko

    2017-11-14

    The present protocol presents a laboratory technique designed to study chaparral crown fire ignition and spread. Experiments were conducted in a low velocity fire wind tunnel where two distinct layers of fuel were constructed to represent surface and crown fuels in chaparral. Chamise, a common chaparral shrub, comprised the live crown layer. The dead fuel surface layer was constructed with excelsior (shredded wood). We developed a methodology to measure mass loss, temperature, and flame height for both fuel layers. Thermocouples placed in each layer estimated temperature. A video camera captured the visible flame. Post-processing of digital imagery yielded flame characteristics including height and flame tilt. A custom crown mass loss instrument developed in-house measured the evolution of the mass of the crown layer during the burn. Mass loss and temperature trends obtained using the technique matched theory and other empirical studies. In this study, we present detailed experimental procedures and information about the instrumentation used. The representative results for the fuel mass loss rate and temperature filed within the fuel bed are also included and discussed.

  12. In vivo study of cadmium-induced chromsomal changes in somatic and germinal tissue of C57BI/6J male mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Felten, T.L.

    1978-08-01

    The objectives of this study were to determine if cadmium would induce chromosomal aberration, to determine if simultaneous aberration events occurred in somatic and germinal tissue, and to determine an estimated minimum exposure time required for significant chromosomal change. Bone marrow chromosome aberrations, specifically breaks and deletions, were found to increase after acute cadmium exposure both at MTD and normal exposure levels. Subacute exposure also resulted in increased occurrences of breaks, deletions, and despiralization. With longer in vivo exposure to cadmium, bone marrow cells continued to show increased numbers of breaks, as well as a physiological effect, despiralization, and more severe break-related aberrations; rearrangements and pulverization. In spermatocytes of the same animals, gaps, breaks, rearrangements, stickiness, and autosomal univalents were the principle aberrations. Correlation of bone marrow and spermatocyte aberrations indicated that in treated mice significant relationships existed for gaps, breaks, rearrangements, and stickiness in the tissues. An estimate of the minimum exposure time to produce chromosomal damage, based on the acute exposure experiment, would be 6 hours for bone marrow. This was confirmed by the exposure duration experiment. Spermatocytes also had chromosomal damage within 24 hours.

  13. Effects of ingested turmeric oleoresin on glucose and lipid metabolisms in obese diabetic mice: a DNA microarray study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honda, Shinichi; Aoki, Fumiki; Tanaka, Hozumi; Kishida, Hideyuki; Nishiyama, Tozo; Okada, Shinji; Matsumoto, Ichiro; Abe, Keiko; Mae, Tatsumasa

    2006-11-29

    Turmeric, the rhizome of Curcuma longa L., has a wide range of effects on human health. Turmeric oleoresin, an extract of turmeric, is often used for flavoring and coloring. Curcuminoids and turmeric essential oil are both contained in turmeric oleoresin, and both of these fractions have hypoglycemic effects. In the present study, we comprehensively assessed the effect of turmeric oleoresin on hepatic gene expression in obese diabetic KK-Ay mice using DNA microarray analysis and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Female KK-Ay mice aged 6 weeks (n = 6/group) were fed a high-fat diet containing turmeric oleoresin, curcuminoids, and essential oil for 5 weeks. The same diet without any of these fractions was used as a control diet. Ingestion of turmeric oleoresin and essential oil inhibited the development of increased blood glucose and abdominal fat mass, while curcuminoids only inhibited the increase in blood glucose. DNA microarray analysis indicated that turmeric oleoresin ingestion up-regulated the expression of genes related to glycolysis, beta-oxidation, and cholesterol metabolism in the liver of KK-Ay mice, while expression of gluconeogenesis-related genes was down-regulated. Real-time PCR analysis was conducted to assess the contribution of the curcuminoids and essential oil in turmeric oleoresin to the changes in expression of representative genes selected by DNA microarray analysis. This analysis suggested that curcuminoids regulated turmeric oleoresin ingestion-induced expression of glycolysis-related genes and also that curcuminoids and turmeric essential oil acted synergistically to regulate the peroxisomal beta-oxidation-related gene expression induced by turmeric oleoresin ingestion. These changes in gene expression were considered to be the mechanism by which the turmeric oleoresin affected the control of both blood glucose levels and abdominal adipose tissue masses. All of these results suggest that the use of whole turmeric

  14. (1)H NMR-based metabolomics study of liver damage induced by ginkgolic acid (15:1) in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jiang, Lei; Si, Zhi-Hong; Li, Ming-Hui; Zhao, He; Fu, Yong-Hong; Xing, Yue-Xiao; Hong, Wei; Ruan, Ling-Yu; Li, Pu-Min; Wang, Jun-Song

    2017-03-20

    Ginkgolic acid (15:1) is a major toxic component in extracts obtained from Ginkgo biloba (EGb) that has allergic and genotoxic effects. This study is the first to explore the hepatotoxicity of ginkgolic acid (15:1) using a NMR (nuclear magnetic resonance)-based metabolomics approach in combination with biochemistry assays. Mice were orally administered two doses of ginkgolic acid (15:1), and mouse livers and serum were then collected for NMR recordings and biochemical assays. The levels of activity of alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and glutamic aspartate transaminase (AST) observed in the ginkgolic acid (15:1)-treated mice suggested that it had induced severe liver damage. An orthogonal signal correction partial least-squares discriminant analysis (OSC-PLSDA) performed to determine the metabolomic profile of mouse liver tissues indicated that many metabolic disturbances, especially oxidative stress and purine metabolism, were induced by ginkgolic acid (15:1). A correlation network analysis combined with information related to structural similarities further confirmed that purine metabolism was disturbed by ginkgolic acid (15:1). This mechanism might represent the link between the antitumour activity and the liver injury-inducing effect of ginkgolic acid (15:1). A SUS (Shared and Unique Structure) plot suggested that a two-dose treatment of ginkgolic acid (15:1) had generally the same effect on metabolic variations but that its effects were dose-dependent, revealing some of the common features of ginkgolic acid (15:1) dosing. This integrated metabolomics approach helped us to characterise ginkgolic acid (15:1)-induced liver damage in mice. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Pilot Study: Unique Response of Bone Tissue During an Investigation of Radio-Adaptive Effects in Mice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sibonga, J. D.; Iwaniec, U.; Wu, H.

    2011-01-01

    PURPOSE: We obtained bone tissue to evaluate the collateral effects of experiments designed to investigate molecular mechanisms of radio-adaptation in a mouse model. Radio-adaptation describes a process by which the prior exposure to low dose radiation can protect against the toxic effect of a subsequent high dose exposure. In the radio-adaptation experiments, C57Bl/6 mice were exposed to either a Sham or a priming Low Dose (5 cGy) of Cs-137 gamma rays before being exposed to either a Sham or High Dose (6 Gy) 24 hours later. ANALYSIS: Bone tissue were obtained from two experiments where mice were sacrificed at 3 days (n=3/group, 12 total) and at 14 days (n=6/group, 24 total) following high dose exposure. Tissues were analyzed to 1) evaluate a radio-adaptive response in bone tissue and 2) describe cellular and microstructural effects for two skeletal sites with different rates of bone turnover. One tibia and one lumbar vertebrae (LV2), collected at the 3-day time-point, were analyzed by bone histomorphometry and micro-CT to evaluate the cellular response and any evidence of microarchitectural impact. Likewise, tibia and LV2, collected at the 14-day time-point, were analyzed by micro-CT alone to evaluate resulting changes to bone structure and microarchitecture. The data were analyzed by 2-way ANOVA to evaluate the effects of the priming low dose radiation, of the high dose radiation, and of any interaction between the priming low and high doses of radiation. Bone histomorphometry was performed in the cancellous bone (aka trabecular bone) compartments of the proximal tibial metaphysis and of LV2. RESULTS: Cellular Response @ 3 Days The priming Low Dose radiation decreased osteoblast-covered bone perimeter in the proximal tibia and the total cell density in the bone marrow in the LV2. High Dose radiation, regardless of prior exposure to priming dose, dramatically reduced total cell density in bone marrow of both the long bone and vertebra. However, in the proximal

  16. Toxicology and carcinogenesis studies of propargyl alcohol (CAS No. 107-19-7) in F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice (inhalation studies).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    Propargyl alcohol is a commercially available acetylenic primary alcohol. It is also a by-product in the industrial synthesis of butynediol from acetylene and formaldehyde with copper acetylide as catalyst. Propargyl alcohol is used as a reactant/chemical intermediate, pharmaceutical intermediate, agricultural chemical intermediate, soil fumigant, corrosion inhibitor, solvent stabilizer, and polymer modifier. It has also been used to prevent the hydrogen embrittlement of steel. Propargyl alcohol was nominated by the National Cancer Institute for study because of the potential for human exposure in occupational settings through inhalation and dermal contact. Male and female F344/N rats and B6C3F1 mice were exposed to propargyl alcohol (greater than 99% pure) by inhalation for 2 weeks, 3 months, or 2 years. Genetic toxicology studies were conducted in Salmonella typhimurium and mouse peripheral blood erythrocytes. 2-WEEK STUDY IN RATS: Groups of five male and five female rats were exposed to propargyl alcohol vapor at concentrations of 0, 31.3, 62.5, 125, 250, or 500 ppm, 6 hours plus T(90 )(12 minutes) per day, 5 days per week for 16 days. All males exposed to 125 ppm or greater and all females exposed to 250 or 500 ppm died by the end of day 3 of the study, and one 125 ppm female died on day 5. Mean body weights were significantly decreased in 62.5 ppm males and 125 ppm females. Clinical findings in the 125 and 250 ppm groups included lethargy, ataxia, abnormal breathing, and nasal/eye discharge. Right kidney weights of 62.5 and 125 ppm females and liver weights of 125 ppm females were significantly greater than those of the chamber controls. All 250 and 500 ppm males and females had moderate to marked periportal necrosis, congestion, and erythrophagocytosis of the liver. 2-WEEK STUDY IN MICE: Groups of five male and five female mice were exposed to propargyl alcohol vapor at concentrations of 0, 31.3, 62.5, 125, 250, or 500 ppm, 6 hours plus T(90) (12 minutes) per

  17. Humanized thymidine kinase-NOG mice can be used to identify drugs that cause animal-specific hepatotoxicity: a case study with furosemide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dan; Michie, Sara A; Zheng, Ming; Takeda, Saori; Wu, Manhong; Peltz, Gary

    2015-07-01

    Interspecies differences have limited the predictive utility of toxicology studies performed using animal species. A drug that could be a safe and effective treatment in humans could cause toxicity in animals, preventing it from being used in humans. We investigated whether the use of thymidine kinase (TK)-NOG mice with humanized livers could prevent this unfortunate outcome (i.e., "rescue" a drug for use in humans). A high dose of furosemide is known to cause severe liver toxicity in mice, but it is a safe and effective treatment in humans. We demonstrate that administration of a high dose of furosemide (200 mg/kg i.p.) causes extensive hepatotoxicity in control mice but not in humanized TK-NOG mice. This interspecies difference results from a higher rate of production of the toxicity-causing metabolite by mouse liver. Comparison of their survival curves indicated that the humanized mice were more resistant than control mice to the hepatotoxicity caused by high doses of furosemide. In this test case, humanized TK-NOG mouse studies indicate that humans could be safely treated with a high dose of furosemide. Copyright © 2015 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.

  18. Humanized Thymidine Kinase–NOG Mice Can Be Used to Identify Drugs That Cause Animal-Specific Hepatotoxicity: A Case Study with Furosemide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Dan; Michie, Sara A.; Zheng, Ming; Takeda, Saori; Wu, Manhong

    2015-01-01

    Interspecies differences have limited the predictive utility of toxicology studies performed using animal species. A drug that could be a safe and effective treatment in humans could cause toxicity in animals, preventing it from being used in humans. We investigated whether the use of thymidine kinase (TK)–NOG mice with humanized livers could prevent this unfortunate outcome (i.e., “rescue” a drug for use in humans). A high dose of furosemide is known to cause severe liver toxicity in mice, but it is a safe and effective treatment in humans. We demonstrate that administration of a high dose of furosemide (200 mg/kg i.p.) causes extensive hepatotoxicity in control mice but not in humanized TK-NOG mice. This interspecies difference results from a higher rate of production of the toxicity-causing metabolite by mouse liver. Comparison of their survival curves indicated that the humanized mice were more resistant than control mice to the hepatotoxicity caused by high doses of furosemide. In this test case, humanized TK-NOG mouse studies indicate that humans could be safely treated with a high dose of furosemide. PMID:25962391

  19. Lesbian women's experiences with health care: A qualitative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bjorkman, Mari; Malterud, Kirsti

    2009-01-01

    Background Although the social situation for gay, lesbian, and bisexual people has improved over the last decades, lesbian women still face unique challenges when seeking healthcare services. Objectives To explore lesbian women's healthcare experiences specifically related to sexual orientation to achieve knowledge which can contribute to increased quality of healthcare for lesbian women. Methods Qualitative study based on written stories, with recruitment, information, and data sampling over the internet. Data consisted of 128 anonymously written answers to a web-based, open-ended questionnaire from a convenience sample of self-identified lesbian women. Data were analysed with systematic text condensation. Interpretation of findings was supported by theories of heteronormativity. Main outcome measures Patients’ histories of experiences where a lesbian orientation was significant, when seeing a doctor or another healthcare professional. Results Analysis presented three different aspects of healthcare professionals’ abilities, regarded as essential by our lesbian participants. First, the perspective of awareness was addressed – is the healthcare professional able to think of and facilitate the disclosure of a lesbian orientation? Second, histories pointed to the attitudes towards homosexuality – does the healthcare professional acknowledge and respect the lesbian orientation? Third, the impact of specific and adequate medical knowledge was emphasized – does the healthcare professional know enough about the specific health concerns of lesbian women? Conclusion To obtain quality care for lesbian women, the healthcare professional needs a persistent awareness that not all patients are heterosexual, an open attitude towards a lesbian orientation, and specific knowledge of lesbian health issues. The dimensions of awareness, attitude, and knowledge are interconnected, and a positive direction on all three dimensions appears to be a necessary prerequisite. PMID

  20. Pain Experience in Hemophilia Patients: A Hermeneutic Phenomenological Study

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    Masoume Rambod

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pain, as a crucial subsequence of joint hemorrhages in hemophilia patients, is chronic, debilitating, and distracting. This study aimed to describe and interpret pain experiences of hemophilia patients in their lives. Methods: This qualitative study with hermeneutic phenomenological approach was conducted on fourteen hemophilia patients who had been referred to a hemophiliacenter affiliated to Shiraz University of Medical Sciences, Shiraz, Iran. The study question was “what is the meaning of pain in hemophilia patients’ lives? The data were collected through semi-structured interviews and field notes through purposeful sampling. Then, thematic analysis with van Manen’s six-step methodological framework was used. MAX.QDA qualitative software package, 2010, was used to analyze the data. Results: The three main themes that emerged in this study were “alteration in physical health”, “engagement in psychological problems”, and “impairment in social relationships”. Alteration in physical health consisted of three subthemes, namely “impairment of physical function”, “change in body physics”, and “disturbance in sleep quality”. In addition, two subthemes including “nostalgia of pain in adults with hemophilia” and “psychological distress” emerged from engagement in psychological problems. Finally, “loss of social activity” and “change in relationships” were related to impairment in social relationships. Conclusion: The present study highlighted alteration in physical health, engagement in psychological problems, and impairment in social relationship as a result of pain in hemophilia patients. Thus, healthcare providers and family members have to pay special attention to these problems. Besides, providing complementary therapy interventions is suggested for reducing these issues.

  1. A comparative study of induction of pneumonia in mice with planktonic and biofilm cells of Klebsiella pneumoniae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharma, Sonica; Mohan, Harsh; Sharma, Saroj; Chhibber, Sanjay

    2011-05-01

    In the present study, the course of acute pneumonia in normal BALB/c mice infected by intranasal inoculation of planktonic and preformed biofilm cells (3 days old) of Klebsiella pneumoniae B5055 was studied and compared. With both cell forms the peak of infection was observed on the third post infection day, as assessed on the basis of lung bacterial load and corresponding pathology. There was an intense neutrophil infiltration in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Tissue damage was assessed on the basis of increased amounts of nitrite, malondialdehyde and lactate dehydrogenase in lung homogenates. The phagocytic potential of alveolar macrophages was lower in biofilm cell-induced infection than in that induced by planktonic cells. Biofilm cell induced infection generated significantly greater production of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β on the third and fifth days of infection, respectively. Production of interleukin-10 was, however, variable. There was no significant difference in the ability of planktonic and biofilm cell forms of K. pneumoniae to induce acute pneumonia in mice in terms of bacterial counts and histopathological changes. However, biofilm cell-induced infection showed delayed clearance as compared to infection induced with the planktonic form. © 2011 The Societies and Blackwell Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

  2. Daily Stressful Experiences Precede But Do Not Succeed Depressive Symptoms : Results from a Longitudinal Experience Sampling Study

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brose, Annette; Wichers, Marieke; Kuppens, Peter

    This study investigates the proposition that micro-level experiences in the realm of stress (e.g., daily stress exposure) are among the building blocks of maladjustment, in particular, depression. Data were collected with experience sampling methods and in the lab. A sample of 202 students who had

  3. Toxicology studies of a chemical mixture of 25 groundwater contaminants. III. Male reproduction study in B6C3F1 mice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chapin, R.E.; Phelps, J.L.; Schwetz, B.A.; Yang, R.S. (National Institute of Environmental Health Sciences, Research Triangle Park, NC (USA))

    1989-10-01

    A mixture of chemicals has been developed that models contaminated groundwater around hazardous waste sites. We investigated the effects of this mixture on spermatogenesis in B6C3F1 mice. The animals consumed three different concentrations of this mixture for 90 days, after which time they were euthanatized. Although there was a concentration-related decrease in the amount of fluid consumed at the higher two concentrations, there were no differences in body weight among the groups. Similarly, there was no effect of mixture consumption upon the histology of liver, kidney, testis, epididymis, or seminal vesicles or upon the absolute organ weights of these organs. Kidney weight relative to body weight was increased in the high dose group. Epididymal sperm number and testicular spermatid count were not affected by treatment. These studies show that, at exposure levels that decrease fluid intake and increase adjusted kidney weight, there were no effects of this mixture on gametogenesis in male mice.

  4. Developmental Neurotoxic Effects of Percutaneous Drug Delivery: Behavior and Neurochemical Studies in C57BL/6 Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huali Wu

    Full Text Available Dermatosis often as a chronic disease requires effective long-term treatment; a comprehensive evaluation of mental health of dermatology drug does not receive enough attention. An interaction between dermatology and psychiatry has been increasingly described. Substantial evidence has accumulated that psychological stress can be associated with pigmentation, endocrine and immune systems in skin to create the optimal responses against pathogens and other physicochemical stressors to maintain or restore internal homeostasis. Additionally, given the common ectodermal origin shared by the brain and skin, we are interested in assessing how disruption of skin systems (pigmentary, endocrine and immune systems may play a key role in brain functions. Thus, we selected three drugs (hydroquinone, isotretinoin, tacrolimus with percutaneous excessive delivery to respectively intervene in these systems and then evaluate the potential neurotoxic effects. Firstly, C57BL/6 mice were administrated a dermal dose of hydroquinone cream, isotretinoin gel or tacrolimus ointment (2%, 0.05%, 0.1%, respectively, 5 times of the clinical dose. Behavioral testing was performed and levels of proteins were measured in the hippocampus. It was found that mice treated with isotretinoin or tacrolimus, presented a lower activity in open-field test and obvious depressive-like behavior in tail suspension test. Besides, they damaged cytoarchitecture, reduced the level of 5-HT-5-HT1A/1B system and increased the expression of apoptosis-related proteins in the hippocampus. To enable sensitive monitoring the dose-response characteristics of the consecutive neurobehavioral disorders, mice received gradient concentrations of hydroquinone (2%, 4%, 6%. Subsequently, hydroquinone induced behavioral disorders and hippocampal dysfunction in a dose-dependent response. When doses were high as 6% which was 3 times higher than 2% dose, then 100% of mice exhibited depressive-like behavior. Certainly

  5. Developmental Neurotoxic Effects of Percutaneous Drug Delivery: Behavior and Neurochemical Studies in C57BL/6 Mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Huali; Feng, Junyi; Lv, Wenting; Huang, Qiaoling; Fu, Mengsi; Cai, Minxuan; He, Qiangqiang; Shang, Jing

    2016-01-01

    Dermatosis often as a chronic disease requires effective long-term treatment; a comprehensive evaluation of mental health of dermatology drug does not receive enough attention. An interaction between dermatology and psychiatry has been increasingly described. Substantial evidence has accumulated that psychological stress can be associated with pigmentation, endocrine and immune systems in skin to create the optimal responses against pathogens and other physicochemical stressors to maintain or restore internal homeostasis. Additionally, given the common ectodermal origin shared by the brain and skin, we are interested in assessing how disruption of skin systems (pigmentary, endocrine and immune systems) may play a key role in brain functions. Thus, we selected three drugs (hydroquinone, isotretinoin, tacrolimus) with percutaneous excessive delivery to respectively intervene in these systems and then evaluate the potential neurotoxic effects. Firstly, C57BL/6 mice were administrated a dermal dose of hydroquinone cream, isotretinoin gel or tacrolimus ointment (2%, 0.05%, 0.1%, respectively, 5 times of the clinical dose). Behavioral testing was performed and levels of proteins were measured in the hippocampus. It was found that mice treated with isotretinoin or tacrolimus, presented a lower activity in open-field test and obvious depressive-like behavior in tail suspension test. Besides, they damaged cytoarchitecture, reduced the level of 5-HT-5-HT1A/1B system and increased the expression of apoptosis-related proteins in the hippocampus. To enable sensitive monitoring the dose-response characteristics of the consecutive neurobehavioral disorders, mice received gradient concentrations of hydroquinone (2%, 4%, 6%). Subsequently, hydroquinone induced behavioral disorders and hippocampal dysfunction in a dose-dependent response. When doses were high as 6% which was 3 times higher than 2% dose, then 100% of mice exhibited depressive-like behavior. Certainly, 6% hydroquinone

  6. Single cocaine exposure does not alter striatal pre-synaptic dopamine function in mice: an [18 F]-FDOPA PET study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonsall, David R; Kokkinou, Michelle; Veronese, Mattia; Coello, Christopher; Wells, Lisa A; Howes, Oliver D

    2017-12-01

    Cocaine is a recreational drug of abuse that binds to the dopamine transporter, preventing reuptake of dopamine into pre-synaptic terminals. The increased presence of synaptic dopamine results in stimulation of both pre- and post-synaptic dopamine receptors, considered an important mechanism by which cocaine elicits its reinforcing properties. However, the effects of acute cocaine administration on pre-synaptic dopamine function remain unclear. Non-invasive imaging techniques such as positron emission tomography have revealed impaired pre-synaptic dopamine function in chronic cocaine users. Similar impairments have been seen in animal studies, with microdialysis experiments indicating decreased basal dopamine release. Here we use micro positron emission tomography imaging techniques in mice to measure dopamine synthesis capacity and determine the effect of acute cocaine administration of pre-synaptic dopamine function. We show that a dose of 20 mg/kg cocaine is sufficient to elicit hyperlocomotor activity, peaking 15-20 min post treatment (p dopamine synthesis capacity in the striatum was not significantly altered by acute cocaine treatment (KiCer: 0.0097 per min vs. 0.0112 per min in vehicle controls, p > 0.05). Furthermore, expression levels of two key enzymes related to dopamine synthesis, tyrosine hydroxylase and aromatic l-amino acid decarboxylase, within the striatum of scanned mice were not significantly affected by acute cocaine pre-treatment (p > 0.05). Our findings suggest that while the regulation of dopamine synthesis and release in the striatum have been shown to change with chronic cocaine use, leading to a reduced basal tone, these adaptations to pre-synaptic dopaminergic neurons are not initiated following a single exposure to the drug. © 2017 International Society for Neurochemistry.

  7. Studying the Foreign Experience of Evaluating Intellectual Potential of Organizations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pererva Petro G.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The use of intellectual capital (IC is considered in developed countries as a strategic management tool for achievement of the organizations' success in innovative activities. The article is aimed at studying the foreign experience of evaluating intellectual potential of organizations and identifying directions for its advancement and use at the domestic enterprises to improve their innovative activity. An approach to capital structure has been developed, in which the following three parts are allocated: human capital, structural capital, capital of interactions. The proposed general model for research of IC in terms of firm or region allows to evaluate not only the potential, but also several important lines of communication, namely: industrial-technological, market-customer, business environment and society, commercial operations (technology, value creation and the overall development strategy. In the proposed version of studying the IC potential, analytics are combined with management of both strategy and development tactics, based on use of resources of intellectual capital. The scheme of development management through the system of the activities of influence is recommended as well. The end result of the analytical project work provides the development package, which is issued as a supporting document of development strategy. Evaluation of the development level of intellectual capital in the context of individual enterprises and of regional complex in general has been recommended to include in the Regional innovation system (RIS as one of its functional tasks

  8. Influence analysis on crossover design experiment in bioequivalence studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yufen; Ke, Bo-Shiang

    2014-01-01

    Crossover designs are commonly used in bioequivalence studies. However, the results can be affected by some outlying observations, which may lead to the wrong decision on bioequivalence. Therefore, it is essential to investigate the influence of aberrant observations. Chow and Tse in 1990 discussed this issue by considering the methods based on the likelihood distance and estimates distance. Perturbation theory provides a useful tool for the sensitivity analysis on statistical models. Hence, in this paper, we develop the influence functions via the perturbation scheme proposed by Hampel as an alternative approach on the influence analysis for a crossover design experiment. Moreover, the comparisons between the proposed approach and the method proposed by Chow and Tse are investigated. Two real data examples are provided to illustrate the results of these approaches. Our proposed influence functions show excellent performance on the identification of outlier/influential observations and are suitable for use with small sample size crossover designs commonly used in bioequivalence studies. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  9. An Undergraduate Research Experience on Studying Variable Stars

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amaral, A.; Percy, J. R.

    2016-06-01

    We describe and evaluate a summer undergraduate research project and experience by one of us (AA), under the supervision of the other (JP). The aim of the project was to sample current approaches to analyzing variable star data, and topics related to the study of Mira variable stars and their astrophysical importance. This project was done through the Summer Undergraduate Research Program (SURP) in astronomy at the University of Toronto. SURP allowed undergraduate students to explore and learn about many topics within astronomy and astrophysics, from instrumentation to cosmology. SURP introduced students to key skills which are essential for students hoping to pursue graduate studies in any scientific field. Variable stars proved to be an excellent topic for a research project. For beginners to independent research, it introduces key concepts in research such as critical thinking and problem solving, while illuminating previously learned topics in stellar physics. The focus of this summer project was to compare observations with structural and evolutionary models, including modelling the random walk behavior exhibited in the (O-C) diagrams of most Mira stars. We found that the random walk could be modelled by using random fluctuations of the period. This explanation agreed well with observations.

  10. Dental Hygienists' Experiences with Motivational Interviewing: A Qualitative Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curry-Chiu, Margaret E; Catley, Delwyn; Voelker, Marsha A; Bray, Kimberly Krust

    2015-08-01

    The effectiveness of Motivational Interviewing (MI) to change health behaviors is well documented. Previous studies support use of MI to change oral health behaviors in the areas of early childhood caries and periodontal diseases, but research is limited due to the sparse number of oral health care providers with training in MI. The University of Missouri-Kansas City (UMKC) formally integrated MI training into its dental hygiene curriculum five years ago. Summative program evaluation of UMKC's MI training shows that it effectively equips graduates with MI skills. The aim of this qualitative study was to use semi-structured interviews with nine program alumni to provide insight into the experiences of MI-trained dental hygienists in clinical practice. All interviews were captured with a digital voice recorder, were transcribed, and were resubmitted to the interviewees for checking. Five themes emerged from the data analysis: salience, best practices, barriers, facilitators, and lessons learned. These dental hygienists strongly valued and embraced the spirit of MI. They reported feeling strongly that it should be part of all dental hygiene curricula, and they upheld MI as a best practice. The participants approved of their MI instruction as a whole but felt it was difficult and sometimes not viable in practice. They reported that MI training had improved their communication skills and increased treatment acceptance. Time, difficulty, and managing patient resistance were the most often cited barriers, while a supportive climate and creating a routine were the most often cited facilitators.

  11. Brazilian and Mexican experiences in the study of incipient domestication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lins Neto, Ernani Machado de Freitas; Peroni, Nivaldo; Casas, Alejandro; Parra, Fabiola; Aguirre, Xitlali; Guillén, Susana; Albuquerque, Ulysses Paulino

    2014-04-02

    diverse cultural and ecological contexts for a better understanding of evolution under incipient processes of domestication. Higher research effort is particularly required in Brazil, where studies on this topic are scarcer than in Mexico but where diversity of human cultures managing their also high plant resources diversity offer high potential for documenting the diversity of mechanisms of artificial selection and evolutionary trends. Comparisons and evaluations of incipient domestication in the regions studied as well as the Andean area would significantly contribute to understanding origins and diffusion of the experience of managing and domesticating plants.

  12. Tributyl phosphate impairs the urea cycle and alters liver pathology and metabolism in mice after short-term exposure based on a metabonomics study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Lili; Zhang, Wenpeng; Xie, Wenping; Chen, Huiming; Yu, Wenlian; Li, Haishan; Shen, Guolin

    2017-12-15

    As a newly emerging environmental contaminant, tributyl phosphate (TBP) is of increasing concern because of the environmental problems it can cause. Studies have suggested that TBP induces hepatocellular adenomas and has malignant potential for hepatocellular carcinoma. However, the mechanisms of its adverse effects are unclear. In this study, metabonomic techniques were used to identify differential endogenous metabolites, draw network metabolic pathways and conduct network analysis to elucidate the underlying mechanisms involved in TBP induced pathological changes of the liver. The metabonomics study showed that TBP altered endogenous metabolites in the plasma and liver. The number of categories of endogenous metabolites with a VIP >1 were 14 in plasma and 20 in liver. The results also showed that TBP impaired urea synthesis in the liver. In addition, results of both in vitro and in vivo experiments indicated that TBP activated nuclear receptor CAR and inhibited CYP3a11 and CYP2b10 activities in the liver of mice after short-term exposure. These effects may be the underlying causes leading to TBP induced hepatocellular adenomas. This study combined metabonomics and other technical methods to clarify the mechanism of TBP-induced liver tumorigenesis from a new perspective. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Spontaneous acute tumor lysis syndrome as a cause of early deaths in short-term carcinogenicity studies using p53 +/- mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vogel, P; Pletcher, J M; Liang, Y

    2010-07-01

    Acute tumor lysis syndrome (ATLS) is a potentially lethal condition precipitated by the massive release of intracellular components such as nucleic acids, potassium, and phosphorus, following a rapid and widespread lysis of tumor cells. Herein, the authors describe the high incidence and characteristic histopathologic lesions of acute ATLS in p53-deficient mice used in 2 short-term carcinogenicity studies. ATLS was a frequent cause of early death in p53 (+/-) mice in these studies and was consistently associated with the presence of disseminated lymphoma and leukemia. Although a heavy tumor burden and leukemia were present in all affected mice, the absence of ATLS in other mice with equally severe lymphoma and leukemia indicates that these tumor burdens are necessary but insufficient to cause ATLS in mice. The hallmark histopathologic findings of ATLS in mice are the disseminated microemboli composed of nuclear and cytoplasmic debris derived from lysed tumor cells. The mechanical obstruction of capillary beds by these microemboli appeared to be the proximate cause of the early deaths of mice in these studies. Microemboli may contribute to the pathogenesis of acute renal failure and other clinical signs associated with ATLS in other species. Recognition of ATLS in laboratory animals is critical in studies intended to evaluate the efficacy and/or toxicity of anticancer treatments, where early deaths due to ATLS might otherwise be attributed to test article toxicity. Further studies on the role of microemboli in the pathogenesis of ATLS may elucidate pathogenetic mechanisms and lead to improved approaches to clinical management and treatment of this potentially lethal condition.

  14. The lifetime feeding study in mice and rats--an examination of its validity as a bioassay for human carcinogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salsburg, D

    1983-01-01

    Currently used designs for carcinogenic bioassay (lifetime feeding studies in mice or rats using maximum tolerated doses of the test compound) are examined to see if they meet the requirements of a bioassay, using the results of 170 compounds reported on as of June, 1980, by the National Cancer Institute. It is concluded that the lifetime feeding study has never been subjected to proper validation as an assay for human carcinogens. When an attempt is made to validate it on the basis of these reported studies and those in the literature, it appears to lack acceptable specificity and sensitivity. It is suggested that a drastically different design is needed and that such redesigning of the assay will require proper validation.

  15. Studying the Effects of Early Experiences on Women's Career Achievement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lykes, M. Brinton; Stewart, Abigail J.

    Virtually all psychological theories assume that early life experiences have an impact on later life choices. However, increasing doubts have been expressed about the universality and permanence of the relationship between women's work and family lives. To explore how early family experiences and early adult decisions affect women's later career…

  16. A demonstration experiment for studying the properties of saturated vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebenev, Igor V.; Lebedeva, Olga V.; Polushkina, Svetlana V.

    2017-11-01

    The paper proposes an important demonstration experiment that can be used at secondary schools in physics. The described experiment helps students learn the main concepts of the topic ‘saturated vapor’, namely, evaporation, condensation, dynamic equilibrium, saturation vapor, partial pressure, and the dependence of saturated vapor pressure on temperature.

  17. Explorative study of phosphorus recovery from pig slurry : laboratory experiments

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schoumans, O.F.; Ehlert, P.A.I.; Nelemans, J.A.; Doorn-van Tintelen, van W.; Rulkens, W.H.; Oenema, O.

    2014-01-01

    Here, we report on laboratory experiments with the aim to explore cheap and innovative techniques. The main focus of the experiments was to lower the P-content in pig slurry with 25%. In that case, in principle all manure produced in the Netherlands can be applied on agricultural land in The

  18. Using school grounds for nature studies: An exploratory study of elementary teachers' experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Willis, Tamra Lee

    2001-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to gain understanding of the experiences of elementary teachers who used school grounds to do nature studies. Following an inductive, naturalistic approach, the goal was to explore the phenomenon using words of teachers as guides to understanding. Interviews were conducted with a purposeful sampling of ten quality public school teachers in grades K--5 who were well-known for their schoolyard nature programs. Interview questions were focused by a theoretical framework of environmental cognition. Data were gathered about how teachers came to use the outdoors to teach and how they experienced teaching nature studies on the school grounds. A conceptual model of Quality Teachers of Schoolyard Nature Studies was delineated. The model consisted of three components: teacher past and present experiences with nature, teacher beliefs relevant to using the school grounds for nature studies, and teacher action efficacy pertaining to schoolyard nature programs. The model suggested a relationship between teachers' personal experiences' with nature and their beliefs about sharing nature with children. In addition, the model connected teachers' beliefs about schoolyard nature to their action efficacy, i.e. action behavior reflected through motivation and commitment. The participants shared many common experiences and beliefs. Most had extensive childhood experiences in nature and memories of adults who shared nature with them. They did not consider themselves nature experts, but felt they knew the basics of natural science from their own experiences outdoors and from working with children. The teachers' beliefs about schoolyard nature studies developed from several dimensions of their lives: experiences with nature, experiences teaching, and experiences with students. They were motivated to share nature with students on the school grounds by their beliefs that students would come to appreciate and understand nature, just as they had during their own

  19. An experimental study of the effects of combined exposure to microwave and heat on gene expression and sperm parameters in mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Faezeh A Gohari

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives: Separate exposure to microwaves (MWs or heat had effects on expression levels of Bax and Bcl-2 and sperm parameters in studied group. Aims: The objectives of this research were to determine the effects of separate and combined exposure to 900-MHz MW (as representative of cell phone radiation and heat on gene expression and spermogram of male mice. Settings and Design: This experimental animal study was conducted in the school of public health. Materials and Methods: The study was done on 12 male mice randomly divided into four groups (21–23 g: control, test group 1 with separate exposure to 900-MHz MW, test group 2 with separate exposure to hot and sultry climate, and test group 3 with simultaneous whole body exposures to 900-MHz MW and hot and sultry climate. In all studied groups, gene expression and sperm parameters were measured. Results: Tissue samples in all test groups showed integrity of the seminiferous tubule followed by all types of germ line cells. Significant increases in the number of dead sperms in mice with separate exposure to heat were observed in comparison with the other studied groups (P < 0.05. The ratio of Bax expression was elevated to 0.015 ± 0.006 in mice after combined exposures to 900-MHz MW and heat. Conclusion: Separate and combined exposure to 900-MHz MW and heat may induce adverse effects on sperm parameters and gene expression of studied male mice.

  20. Dose-response and histopathological study, with special attention to the hypophysis, of the differential effects of domoic acid on rats and mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vieira, Andrés Crespo; Martínez, J Manuel Cifuentes; Pose, Roberto Bermúdez; Queijo, Álvaro Antelo; Posadas, Nuria Alemañ; López, Luis M Botana

    2015-05-01

    The effects of the neurotoxin domoic acid (DA) in the central nervous system of rodents (essentially rats and mice) after intraperitoneal administration have been profusely studied in the past. These observations have shown that the toxin induces similar symptoms and pathology in both species, but the lethality varies greatly. This article addresses the common and specific histopathological effects in rats and mice and the difference in sensitivity of these species to DA. Various sublethal and lethal doses were employed in mice (from 3 mg/kg to 8 mg/kg) to observe their neurotoxicity by using different histological techniques, and these results were compared with the pathological effects after the administration of LD50 in rats (2.5 mg/kg). Additionally we also detected the presence of this toxin in various tissues by means of immunohistochemistry. Our results showed that rats are more vulnerable than mice to the neurotoxic effects of DA after intraperitoneal inoculation: lethality was extremely high in rats and the toxin produced hippocampal damage in rats surviving the intoxication, while lesions were not observed in DA-inoculated mice. As for similarities between rats and mice, both displayed similar clinical signs and in both the toxin was detected in the hypophysis by immunohistochemistry, a brain region not reported to date as target of the toxin. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  1. The Study of Mechanisms of Protective Effect of Rg1 against Arthritis by Inhibiting Osteoclast Differentiation and Maturation in CIA Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanqing Gu

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ginsenoside Rg1 is a natural product extracted from Panax ginseng C.A. Although Rg1 protects tissue structure and functions by inhibiting local inflammatory reaction, the mechanism remains poorly understood. In vitro, Rg1 dose-dependently inhibited TRAP activity in receptor activator of nuclear factor-κB ligand- (RANKL- induced osteoclasts and decreased the number of osteoclasts and osteoclast resorption area. Rg1 also significantly inhibited the RANK signaling pathway, including suppressing the expression of Trap, cathepsin K, matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9, and calcitonin receptor (CTR. In vivo, Rg1 dramatically decreased arthritis scores in CIA mice and effectively controlled symptoms of inflammatory arthritis. Pathologic analysis demonstrated that Rg1 significantly attenuated pathological changes in CIA mice. Pronounced reduction in synovial hyperplasia and inflammatory cell invasion were observed in CIA mice after Rg1 therapy. Alcian blue staining results illustrated that mice treated with Rg1 had significantly reduced destruction in the articular cartilage. TRAP and cathepsin K staining results demonstrated a significant reduction of numbers of OCs in the articular cartilage in proximal interphalangeal joints and ankle joints in Rg1-treated mice. In summary, this study revealed that Rg1 reduced the inflammatory destruction of periarticular bone by inhibiting differentiation and maturation of osteoclasts in CIA mice.

  2. Involvement of Endocannabinoids in Alcohol "Binge" Drinking: Studies of Mice with Human Fatty Acid Amide Hydrolase Genetic Variation and After CB1 Receptor Antagonists.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Yan; Huang, Ted; Lee, Francis; Kreek, Mary Jeanne

    2016-03-01

    The endocannabinoid system has been found to play an important role in modulating alcohol intake. Inhibition or genetic deletion of fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH; a key catabolic enzyme for endocannabinoids) leads to increased alcohol consumption and preference in rodent models. A common human single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP; C385A, rs324420) in the FAAH gene is associated with decreased enzymatic activity of FAAH, resulting in increased anandamide levels in both humans and FAAH C385A knock-in mice. As this FAAH SNP has been reported to be associated with altered alcohol abuse, the present study used these genetic knock-in mice containing the human SNP C385A to determine the impact of variant FAAH gene on alcohol "binge" drinking in the drinking-in-the-dark (DID) model. We found that the FAAH(A/A) mice had greater alcohol intake and preference than the wild-type FAAH(C/C) mice, suggesting that increased endocannabinoid signaling in FAAH(A/A) mice led to increased alcohol "binge" consumption. The specificity on alcohol vulnerability was suggested by the lack of any FAAH genotype difference on sucrose or saccharin intake. Using the "binge" DID model, we confirmed that selective CB1 receptor antagonist AM251 reduced alcohol intake in the wild-type mice. These data suggest that there is direct and selective involvement of the human FAAH C385A SNP and CB1 receptors in alcohol "binge" drinking. Copyright © 2016 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  3. Gliogenesis and myelination in the optic nerve of trisomy 19 mice. A quantitative electron-microscopic study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorke, D E; Lauer, M

    1990-01-01

    Trisomy 19 (ts19) of the mouse permits detailed studies on the influence of an extra autosome upon the postnatal development of the central nervous system. To examine gliogenesis and myelinogenesis, the optic nerves of 19 ts19 pugs aged 1-15 days have been examined by light and electron microscopy and compared to those of litter-mate controls. Differentiation of astrocytes and oligodendrocytes, myelinogenesis as well as the opening of the eyes are each delayed by about 2 days. Myelin sheaths are normally structured in ts19. There is a decrease in the percentage of myelinated fibres. The cross-sectional area of the ts19 optic nerve is reduced. The fibre density, which decreases with age both in ts19 and control mice, is higher in ts19 mice. Both with ts19 and control animals, the distribution of fibre diameters of myelinated axons overlaps with that of promyelinated and unmyelinated fibres, but myelinated axons cannot be observed below a diameter of 0.3 micron, and unmyelinated axons are always smaller than 1 micron. The mean diameter of promyelinated axons is identical in ts19 and control animals. Myelination is therefore not severely disturbed in the ts19 optic nerve. As retinal differentiation in ts19 is delayed by 2 days as well, reports on an asynchronous development of neurons and myelin sheaths cannot be confirmed for the visual system.

  4. Soft Tissue Augmentation with Autologous Platelet Gel and β-TCP: A Histologic and Histometric Study in Mice

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Antonio Scarano

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Facial aging is a dynamic process involving both soft tissue and bony structures. Skin atrophy, with loss of tone, elasticity, and distribution of facial fat, coupled with gravity and muscle activity, leads to wrinkling and folds. Purpose. The aim of the study was to evaluate microporous tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP and autologous platelet gel (APG mix in mice for oral and maxillofacial soft tissue augmentation. The hypothesis was that β-TCP added with APG was able to increase the biostimulating effect on fibroblasts and quicken resorption. Materials and Methods. Ten female, 6–8-week-old black-haired mice were selected. β-TCP/APG gel was injected into one cheek; the other was used as control. The animals were sacrificed at 8 weeks and histologically evaluated. Results. The new fibroblast was intensively stained with acid fuchsin and presented in contact with β-TCP. At higher magnification, actively secreting fibroblasts were observed at the periphery of β-TCP with a well differentiated fibroblast cell line and blood vessels. Acid fuchsin stained cutaneous structures in pink: no epidermal/dermal alterations or pathological inflammatory infiltrates were detected. The margins of β-TCP granules were clear and not diffused near tissues. Conclusion. APG with β-TCP preserves skin morphology, without immune response, with an excellent tolerability and is a promising scaffold for cells and biomaterial for soft tissue augmentation.

  5. Regional myocardial function after myocardial infarction in mice: a follow-up study by strain rate imaging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thibault, Hélène; Gomez, Ludovic; Donal, Erwan; Augeul, Lionel; Scherrer-Crosbie, Marielle; Ovize, Michel; Derumeaux, Geneviève

    2009-02-01

    New therapeutic strategies aim to reduce the extent of myocardial infarction (MI) to decrease long-term left ventricular (LV) remodeling. These innovations are often developed on murine models of MI and have led to the need for a sensitive tool allowing follow-up. The aim of this study was to investigate by strain rate (SR) imaging early and long-term alteration in regional LV function occurring after MI in mice. Echocardiography was serially performed during a 4-month follow-up period in 3 groups of C57BL6 male mice: 7 normal, 5 sham operated, and 27 with left coronary artery ligation (the MI group). In addition to conventional measurements, SR was obtained from short-axis views in the anterior wall and posterior wall (PW). Triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining allowed the localization and measurement of the transmural extent of MI. A transmural MI was defined as an extension > 75% of the wall thickness. In the MI group, LV ejection fractions significantly decreased, while LV dimensions and PW thicknesses increased from baseline to 4 months. On day 3, SR could differentiate transmural from nontransmural (1 +/- 1 vs 10 +/- 1 s(-1); P transmural from nontransmural infarcted segments at day 3 (16 +/- 3% vs 21 +/- 3%; P = NS) or at month 4. In this murine model of MI, SR was able to predict the transmural extent of MI as early as 3 days after MI, then remained stable and still differentiated them at 4 months.

  6. Life without plastic: A family experiment and biomonitoring study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutter, Hans-Peter; Kundi, Michael; Hohenblum, Philipp; Scharf, Sigrid; Shelton, Janie F; Piegler, Kathrin; Wallner, Peter

    2016-10-01

    Exposure to bisphenol-A (BPA) and phthalates has been associated with negative health outcomes in animal and human studies, and human bio-monitoring studies demonstrate widespread exposure in the US and Europe. Out of concern for the environment and health, individuals may attempt to modify their environment, diet, and consumer choices to avoid such exposures, but these natural experiments are rarely if ever quantitatively evaluated. The aim of the study was to evaluate the difference in urinary concentrations of BPA and phthalate metabolites following an exposure reduction intervention among an Austrian family of five. Urine samples were taken shortly after the family had removed all plastic kitchenware, toys, and bathroom products, and started a concerted effort to eat less food packaged in plastic. Two-months later, urine samples were collected at a follow-up visit, and concentrations of BPA and phthalate metabolites were compared. Shortly after removal of plastic urinary concentrations of BPA were below limit of quantification in all samples. Phthalate concentrations were low, however, 10 of 14 investigated metabolites could be found above limit of quantification. After the two-month intervention, phthalate urinary concentrations had declined in some but not all family members. In the mother most phthalate metabolites increased. The low levels might be partly due to the environmentally conscious lifestyle of the family and partly due to the fact that body levels had dropped already because of the delay of four days between finishing removal and first measurement. Further two months avoidance of dietary exposure and exposure to environmental plastics reduced urinary concentrations for all but one metabolite in the oldest son only, but decreased somewhat in all family members except the mother. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Difficulties in Balint groups: a qualitative study of leaders' experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjeldmand, Dorte; Holmström, Inger

    2010-11-01

    Balint groups (BGs) are a means of enhancing competence in the physician-patient relationship and are also regarded as beneficial for GPs' mental health. However, voluntary BGs are still few, some members terminate their participation, and problems are reported in obligatory groups in residency programmes. This raises questions about possible negative aspects of BGs. To examine difficulties in BGs as experienced by BG leaders. Qualitative study using interviews. Eight BG leaders from five countries were interviewed. The interviews focused on the informants' experiences of difficulties in their groups and were analysed with a systematic text-condensation method. Three categories of difficulties emerged from the analysis: 1) the individual physician having needs, vulnerabilities, and defences; 2) the group (including the leader) having problems of hidden agendas, rivalries, and frames; and 3) the surrounding environment defining the conditions of the group. BGs were found to fit into modern theories of small groups as complex systems. They are submitted to group dynamics that are sometimes malicious, and are exposed to often tough environmental conditions. Professionally conducted BGs seem to be a gentle, efficient method to train physicians, but with limitations. Participation of a member demands psychological stability and an open mind. BGs need support from the leadership of healthcare organisations in order to exist.

  8. Doctors' experience with handheld computers in clinical practice: qualitative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McAlearney, Ann Scheck; Schweikhart, Sharon B; Medow, Mitchell A

    2004-05-15

    To examine doctors' perspectives about their experiences with handheld computers in clinical practice. Qualitative study of eight focus groups consisting of doctors with diverse training and practice patterns. Six practice settings across the United States and two additional focus group sessions held at a national meeting of general internists. 54 doctors who did or did not use handheld computers. Doctors who used handheld computers in clinical practice seemed generally satisfied with them and reported diverse patterns of use. Users perceived that the devices helped them increase productivity and improve patient care. Barriers to use concerned the device itself and personal and perceptual constraints, with perceptual factors such as comfort with technology, preference for paper, and the impression that the devices are not easy to use somewhat difficult to overcome. Participants suggested that organisations can help promote handheld computers by providing advice on purchase, usage, training, and user support. Participants expressed concern about reliability and security of the device but were particularly concerned about dependency on the device and over-reliance as a substitute for clinical thinking. Doctors expect handheld computers to become more useful, and most seem interested in leveraging (getting the most value from) their use. Key opportunities with handheld computers included their use as a stepping stone to build doctors' comfort with other information technology and ehealth initiatives and providing point of care support that helps improve patient care.

  9. Friendship Experiences and Anxiety Among Children: A Genetically Informed Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poirier, Catherine Serra; Brendgen, Mara; Girard, Alain; Vitaro, Frank; Dionne, Ginette; Boivin, Michel

    2016-01-01

    This study examined (a) whether, in line with a gene-environment correlation (rGE), a genetic disposition for anxiety puts children at risk of having anxious friends or having no reciprocal friends; (b) to what extent these friendship experiences are related to anxiety symptoms, when controlling for sex and genetic disposition for this trait; and (c) the additive and interactive predictive links of the reciprocal best friend's anxiety symptoms and of friendship quality with children's anxiety symptoms. Using a genetically informed design based on 521 monozygotic and ic twins (264 girls; 87% of European descent) assessed in Grade 4 (M age = 10.04 years, SD = .26), anxiety symptoms and perceived friendship quality were measured with self-report questionnaires. Results indicated that, in line with rGE, children with a strong genetic disposition for anxiety were more likely to have anxious friends than nonanxious friends. Moreover, controlling for their genetic risk for anxiety, children with anxious friends showed higher levels of anxiety symptoms than children with nonanxious friends but did not differ from those without reciprocal friends. Additional analyses suggested a possible contagion of anxiety symptoms between reciprocal best friends when perceived negative features of friendship were high. These results underline the importance of teaching strategies such as problem solving that enhance friendship quality to limit the potential social contagion of anxiety symptoms.

  10. Electrolysis Performance Improvement Concept Study (EPICS) Flight Experiment-Reflight

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schubert, F. H.

    1997-01-01

    The Electrolysis Performance Improvement Concept Study (EPICS) is a flight experiment to demonstrate and validate in a microgravity environment the Static Feed Electrolyzer (SFE) concept which was selected for the use aboard the International Space Station (ISS) for oxygen (O2) generation. It also is to investigate the impact of microgravity on electrochemical cell performance. Electrochemical cells are important to the space program because they provide an efficient means of generating O2 and hydrogen (H2) in space. Oxygen and H2 are essential not only for the survival of humans in space but also for the efficient and economical operation of various space systems. Electrochemical cells can reduce the mass, volume and logistical penalties associated with resupply and storage by generating and/or consuming these gases in space. An initial flight of the EPICS was conducted aboard STS-69 from September 7 to 8, 1995. A temperature sensor characteristics shift and a missing line of software code resulted in only partial success of this initial flight. Based on the review and recommendations of a National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) Johnson Space Center (JSC) review team a reflight activity was initiated to obtain the remaining desired results, not achieved during the initial flight.

  11. Prolonged exposure to low-dose microcystin induces nonalcoholic steatohepatitis in mice: a systems toxicology study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Jun; Li, Guangyu; Chen, Jun; Lin, Juan; Zeng, Cheng; Chen, Jing; Deng, Junliang; Xie, Ping

    2017-01-01

    Microcystin-LR (MCLR), a cyanotoxin widely present in freshwater, has been shown to have potent acute hepatotoxicity. However, the chronic toxicity of low-dose MCLR remains confusing by traditional measurements of toxicity. This has impeded understanding of the chronic liver damage of low-dose MCLR and corresponding safety risks of the human exposure guideline value. Here, iTRAQ-based proteomics and NMR-based metabonomics were used to decipher the molecular toxicological signatures of low doses of MCLR in mice exposed to this agent for 90 days. Low levels of MCLR, even under the reported no observed adverse effect level, significantly altered hepatic protein expression, especially of proteins associated with lipid metabolism, transport, immune and proteolysis. Coherently, MCLR induced marked perturbations in lipid metabolites in both liver and serum. Integrated analysis of proteomic, metabolic, histological and cytokine profiles revealed that MCLR significantly inhibited fatty acid β-oxidation and hepatic lipoprotein secretion and promoted hepatic inflammation, resulting in nonalcoholic steatohepatitis disease (NASH). These findings for the first time provide compelling evidence that chronic exposure to low-level MCLR can induce NASH. These results also indicate that current guidelines for MCs in drinking water may be inadequate and associated with risks to human health.

  12. Comparative study in mice of tetrazepam and other centrally active skeletal muscle relaxants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simiand, J; Keane, P E; Biziere, K; Soubrie, P

    1989-01-01

    Tetrazepam is a 1,4 benzodiazepine (BZD) clinically used in France and Germany as a muscle relaxant. The activity of tetrazepam was compared to that of diazepam, baclofen, mephenesin and chlormezanone in mice, in pharmacological models which are predictive of muscle relaxant and sedative properties. Tetrazepam was active in all the 6 tests of muscle relaxation (traction, chimney, inclined screen, grip force, horizontal grid and morphine-induced Straub tail). The overall muscle relaxant potency of tetrazepam was inferior to that of diazepam, but was clearly superior to that of chlormezanone and mephenesin. Baclofen was less active than tetrazepam in 3 tests (traction, horizontal grid, and grip strength), but more active in the other 3 tests. The administration of the benzodiazepine receptor antagonist Ro 15-1788 blocked the effects of tetrazepam and diazepam in 2 representative tests, morphine-induced Straub tail and the rotarod test, but did not modify the activities of the other centrally acting muscle relaxants in these same models. The selectivity ratio (ED50 rotarod or ED50 locomotor activity/ED50 in each muscle relaxant test) for tetrazepam was superior to that of diazepam and all the other muscle relaxant drugs examined. It is concluded that tetrazepam exerts its muscle relaxant activity by stimulating central BZD receptors, and presents the advantage of a wide dissociation between muscle relaxant and sedative potencies.

  13. Immunoproteasome overexpression underlies the pathogenesis of thyroid oncocytes and primary hypothyroidism: studies in humans and mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroaki J Kimura

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Oncocytes of the thyroid gland (Hürthle cells are found in tumors and autoimmune diseases. They have a unique appearance characterized by abundant granular eosinophilic cytoplasm and hyperchromatic nucleus. Their pathogenesis has remained, thus far, unknown.Using transgenic mice chronically expressing IFNgamma in thyroid gland, we showed changes in the thyroid follicular epithelium reminiscent of the human oncocyte. Transcriptome analysis comparing transgenic to wild type thyrocytes revealed increased levels of immunoproteasome subunits like LMP2 in transgenics, suggesting an important role of the immunoproteasome in oncocyte pathogenesis. Pharmacologic blockade of the proteasome, in fact, ameliorated the oncocytic phenotype. Genetic deletion of LMP2 subunit prevented the development of the oncocytic phenotype and primary hypothyroidism. LMP2 was also found expressed in oncocytes from patients with Hashimoto thyroiditis and Hürthle cell tumors.In summary, we report that oncocytes are the result of an increased immunoproteasome expression secondary to a chronic inflammatory milieu, and suggest LMP2 as a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of oncocytic lesions and autoimmune hypothyroidism.

  14. Geophysical techniques in the study of Hydrocarbon contamination: lab experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giampaolo, Valeria; Rizzo, Enzo; Straface, Salvatore; Votta, Mario; Lapenna, Vincenzo

    2010-05-01

    Remediation of sites contaminated by hydrocarbon, due to blow out, leakage from tank or pipe and oil spill, is an environmental problem because infiltrated oil can persist in the ground for a long time and the actual method are invasive and expansive . In the last years there was a growing interest in the use of geophysical methods for environmental monitoring (Greenhouse et al., 1993; Daily and Ramirez, 1995; Lendvay et al., 1998; Atekwana et al., 2000; Chambers et al., 2004; Song et al., 2005; French et al., 2009), and there have been several recent study that relate self-potential measurements to subsurface contaminants (Perry et al., 1996; Naudet et al., 2003; Naudet et al., 2004). Infact, this method is a valid tool for site characterization and monitoring because it is sensitive to contaminant chemistry and redox processes generated by bacteria during the biodegradation phase (Atekwana et al., 2004; Naudet and Revil, 2005). Therefore the goal of this investigation is to characterize underground contaminant distributions using minimally invasive geophysical methods (electrical resistivity tomography and self-potential), in combination with hydrochemical measurements, and to develop fundamental constitutive relations between soil physical and degradation activity parameters and geophysically measurable parameters, in order to improve site remediation efficiency. These tests have been realized at a PVC pool situated in the Hydrogeosite Laboratory of CNR-IMAA. The pool is completely filled with ~ 0.80 m3 of an homogeneous medium (quartz-rich sand with a medium-high hydraulic conductivity in the order of 10-5 m/s), to simulate the space and time dynamics of an artificial aquifer; besides it has been endowed of a sensors network at surface and in borehole, to measure self-potential and electrical resistivity. The experiments consist in geophysical measurements to monitor a simulated oil spill into sand-box following by water rain. The experiment was able to obtain

  15. Dating with Autism: An Interview Study with Young Adults with Autism Regarding their Romantic Experiences

    OpenAIRE

    Whitham, Siena Elizabeth

    2013-01-01

    Only a handful of studies have looked at the lived experiences of adults with autism (Muller, Schuler, & Yates, 2008). To date, no studies have looked at the romantic experiences of adults with autism. This study describes the relationship experiences of young adults with autism. Seven young adults with autism were interviewed about their romantic experiences. The participants were asked questions about their experiences from whom they dated, to how they met, to how they felt about their rela...

  16. 'Surfing the Silk Road': a study of users' experiences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Van Hout, Marie Claire; Bingham, Tim

    2013-11-01

    The online drug marketplace called 'Silk Road' has operated anonymously on the 'Deep Web' since 2011. It is accessible through computer encrypting software (Tor) and is supported by online transactions using peer to peer anonymous and untraceable crypto-currency (Bit Coins). The study aimed to describe user motives and realities of accessing, navigating and purchasing on the 'Silk Road' marketplace. Systematic online observations, monitoring of discussion threads on the site during four months of fieldwork and analysis of anonymous online interviews (n=20) with a convenience sample of adult 'Silk Road' users was conducted. The majority of participants were male, in professional employment or in tertiary education. Drug trajectories ranged from 18 months to 25 years, with favourite drugs including MDMA, 2C-B, mephedrone, nitrous oxide, ketamine, cannabis and cocaine. Few reported prior experience of online drug sourcing. Reasons for utilizing 'Silk Road' included curiosity, concerns for street drug quality and personal safety, variety of products, anonymous transactioning, and ease of product delivery. Vendor selection appeared to be based on trust, speed of transaction, stealth modes and quality of product. Forums on the site provided user advice, trip reports, product and transaction reviews. Some users reported solitary drug use for psychonautic and introspective purposes. A minority reported customs seizures, and in general a displacement away from traditional drug sourcing (street and closed markets) was described. Several reported intentions to commence vending on the site. The study provides an insight into 'Silk Road' purchasing motives and processes, the interplay between traditional and 'Silk Road' drug markets, the 'Silk Road' online community and its communication networks. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. A Morphological and Morphometric Study of Bite Marks Caused by Mice (Mus Musculus) on Different Baits for Forensic Purposes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toledo, Víctor A; Fonseca, Ga